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Edmund Janes James, Ckairman 

McKendree Hypes Cuamberlin, Vice-President 

Jessie Palmer Weber, Librarian 



James Alton James 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin 
Charles Carleton Page 
Charles Henry Rammelkahp 
Clarence Walworth Alvord 

fecial Editor of Publications 






-VOLUME 11. 








EotTBD WITH IimoDucrtoN and Notks 






CorvKIGHT, igog 

Tarn Iiiwois Statb Hiffrowcu. Lwrarv 



ConmiGMT, IgoQ 




In this, the second volume of the Virginia Scries, wi 
found most of the unprinted sources used in \vriting the ] 
duction of the first volume. Some very important docur 
that will be missed are to be printed in succeeding vo\ 
devoted to the career of George Rogers Clark, now 
prepared by Professor J. A. James of Northwestern Ui 
sity. These will be ready for the press by the end c 
year. This series when completed will contain pract 
all the extant sources for the history of Illinois durin 
period, with the exception of some Virginia material i 
accessible in the Calendar of Virginia Slate Papers 
some British sources already printed in the Collcctio 
the historical societies of Wisconsin and Michigan. 4 
a fairly complete picture of Illinois during the years 
to 1790 will be found in some ten volumes. 

The great majority of the documents printed here 
been hitherto inaccessible to students except in manui 
form. It has not been my purpose to Include in the vc 
material previously published in well-known collec 
unless there was some special purpose to be served. ' 
the documents illustrating the activities of Thomas Be 
have been given a place, because so many of the Fi 
letters, memorials, and records were concerned wit) 
career. Yet all the Bentley material is not included 
cause much of it had little bearing oa Illinois history 
most of the material has already been published ti 
Michigan HkUmcal Collections. In the first chapter 


vice, whenever I have made demands upon them. From 
Mr. Benjamin Suite of Ottawa, Canada, I received many 
valuable biographical notes; and to my colleagues Professor 
Raymond Weeks and Mr. Louis Imbert of the Romance 
Department I am also greatly indebted for assistance in the 
translation. The index has been prepared by Miss Mary 
G. Doherty. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
Urbama, Ilunois, 

September, 1909. 


List or Abbreviations ..... 


Chapter I. The PRELimE 

George Morgan and the American irndrn; complaials of BenlJcy 
and Murray against KochcliUve; Clark's spies in Kaskaskla; rtcnt- 
Icy*» arrc*t tiiid hU jitslification; Liculcnant Governor Hamillon's re- 
port ; the Court of finiiuir)- cxnrcralc» Kochcblave; Bentley** reUtions 
iK-ilh ibe Anicricaiis; an atuck expected. 

Cbapter II. The Rule of the Virginia Sousiebs in Illojok, 
Jcr.Y 4, 177S, TO May la, 1779 

Govemnr Hcniy appoints Winston captain; Ccrri writes to Clait; 
Fattier Gibaull, Dr. LiilTont, and llie MibmiMJon uf Vinvetines; S^ 
(tuin's accDunii Gabriel Ccrré; HArrod und Wiliianw bonuw money; 
Instructions w Clark: a proclamation concerning slavos; Bentley'a 
friend*! John Todd .ippcan: Father Oibault sells some land. 

Chapter til. The Beginnings op Civii. Government, May 

13 TO No\t:mber li, 1779 

Speeches by Clark and Todd; elections and appointmenta; presen- 
tation of grievances; exports prohibited; money diflicultics; John 
Dodgcescapcsfromcaplivity; leasiona of the Court ; lettersfruin Todd; 
disordrnin Katkftxkin^ Montgonirr}'cotleclK supplies; ihe peltry fund; 
prohlbiiion oC the liquor traific; refusal of more supplies; an estimate 
of Todd's adminbtmlion. 

Chapter IV. The Court and the Militahv, No\tmber 15, 

1779, to June 8, 1780 1 

Difficulties of ibc Diililary ; Bentley escapes from captivity ; bhabl- 
Unta petition and the Court aaserta Its dignity; letter from Governor 
Jefferson; the pclliy fund again; Montgomery thntatcns to use fon»; 
Girault complains of the Cottrt; an agent of France In the West; Jt^ui 
Dodge reports. 

Chapter V. The Summer of 1780, June to October 

Colonel dc la Dalme at Fort Pill; Bentley writes to the British and 
American ufficen; RochcbUre to Haldimacid; De la Balme address^ 
the Itlinois French; memoiialof griicvanre»; Winston writes of wrooga; 
departure uf Manigomcry; petition to tbe French ininblcr. 




CSAPTEB VI. Tiir, Triumvibate, Octobeh 1 8, 1780, TO 

March, 1781 ac 

Bentley writes to his enemies; John Rogers, mftkcs demands; 
the nugL<tritcs complain of further c^iactioru; Gcot^ Moi;gan 
write* li> Dudgc; Captkiii Rogcn IhreatrnK and Ihe mogisCnitcc show 
somcRpiril; Caplsin Iî«ot^ sends his sympathy; accounts of mbjiinn- 
agement; Winitun criticises the Court; Thomas Bentley refuses to 
take the oath of allegiance; he appeals to Virginin; Richnn] M'Cnrty 
b appoinicri commivcioncr to ViiginiA and makes his will; a m^ 
morial to the governor; Captain Janb writes of Dc lu Balme. 

Chapter VII. The Government or the Magistrates, 

Mabcs, i78i,to April, 1783 ...... 

William Shannon writes to Clark; Joseph La-huxien; rierre I..ang- 
lois demands eipljinations; Winston defends his rights uf appointment; 
he itcruses the Court nf tymnny; Jact^ueS Lasource defends the Court; 
a new election of mugis t ml es. 

Cbapter VIII. The Struggle ros: Ascendency Between 
Dodge, Winston, and the Coltrt, April to Novem- 
ber, 1782 . .... 

John Dodge arrests Richard Winston; the latter protests; Labusiere 
eiumincs witneisrs; the inhubllnntK mtike «ime suggestions; an election 
at Prairie du Rochet; .\raeri(ans at Bellefotiiaiue petition for a. Court; 
the election; international (iiplomacy on the hanks of the Mississippi: 
a new election at Kaakaakia; Witulon writes to the new ma^stratcs; 
Carbonncaux sells out; records of the sescEona of the Court. 

Chapter IX. The Coming op the Commissioners from Vik- 
DiNiA, November, 1782, TO March, 1783 .... 

The shyness of the wilne«cs; Winston and Carbonneaux prepare 
to go to Virginia; the rornmiuioiters send an announcement to Illinois; 
Winston confers bis commission of county-licutcnnnt on De Monbreun; 
letters concerning ihe services of ihc new couiuy- lieu tenant; the tnhabi- 
tanu send two tncmorials to the commissioncn; Dodge writes of his 
accounts; the rrprescntativea from Ulinols ait late; the death of 
RirbanI Winston. 

Chapter X. The ,\scendency op John Dodge, March, 1783, 
TO Accost 14, 1786 

r^nd-granls to Dodge; Rochchlaw again; Aymé Comte, judge; 
De Monbreun enumerate* hi* services; a fragment ol a eourt-tword; 
Dodge's faction pcliitoiia Congress; sodoes Carbonneaux; reports 
of Congressional committees; the county-ticutcnant uphold» the dig- 


nit^of the United Staus; an «ccounlof Ibegreat frcslwt; John Edgar 
wrilei lo Clark; lh« French faction petitions Congmu; Gabriel Cerré 

answcn (questions. 

Chapter XI. The Fhench Assert Themselves, August 14, 

1786, TO AUOUST, 1787 31 

De Monbrcun appoinu Barbau county-lieutcnanl; a resotuUon of 
Congress; Bouv«t acts as judge; /VIdcr and Edgar write to Clark; news 
from CongTMs; Madame Bentley; the n-vlval uf the Court; [^ruposcd 
duties of wcAtcm coram issioner; The French judges protest against 
Americnn judges; (he agieemcnt; census of the District of Kaakaskia. 

C11APTF.K XII. The Coking 07 Colonel Habuab as Told by 
A Small Fachon op the Fbenoi, August, 1787 

Father de lu Valinître writes of John Dodge; his account of Tardi- 
veau and Harmar; a picture of the tytanny of Dodge; Madame Dent- 
ley petitions Cungreis ; Lan^ois writes concerning Tardii-nu'ii mission. 

Chapter XIII. Barthelemi Tarci\*eau Appeals to the Con- 
TrNKNTAL Congress, August, 1787, to September 17, 178S . 
The coDliacU made ; tlic case of ihe Americans and French stated ; 
Flint and Parker petition for land; Tardlvcau defends himself: per- 
saasiveaigumenl.i; an unfamrablc report; thedelayof the new governor 
will be fatal ; George Morgan forma a land company ; a more favorable 
report; Tanlîvcau not satisiied; Congcesi faron Morgan'.t plun ttut 
makes concessions lo (he French and Americans; Morgan makes 
(uitber dcumnds; alterailons [n the bill of June 30; Turdiveau's last 
memoriaJ; some lost letters. 

Chapter X!V. The Climax of Anarchy, Aucdst, 1787, to 
March 5,1790 ^ 

Justice by arbitmion ; the letter? of Major Hamtramck; the emi- 
gration to the Spanish bank; the hostility of the Indians; a new court I 
at Vincenncs; the question of slavery in the Northwest; a [wtition for I 
help from Kaskaski;!; John l^clgJl^ dc«rrilxs conditions: John Rke 
Jones writer of t}ie aoarJiy. 

Chapter XV. rccxesiAsrifALLETTERs, 1780 to 1792 

Father Gibaulc writes (o Clark; the same denies that he assisted the 
Americans; Edgar and Toumier complain of Father St. Pierre; Father 
Gibault describes cfMiditions; Father de la Valinftrt and Ihe inhabi- 
tants of Cahokin; a description of the Cahokia Mia^'on; the inhabi- 
tants of Kaikaikkia complain of tlie vicar-general; the priests petition 
for appoiniment in, Canada; correspondence of (he bishops coneerning 
the West; Bidwp Canoll writes to Father GIbauIt. 

List op Documents ....... 



Portrait of Gabriel Cerré 
Facsimile o? Coicuission to Winston 
Facsiuile of Laffont's Letter 
Facsimile of French Names 
Facsimile of Ballot Sheet 
Portrait of John Rice Jones 
Facsimile of American Names 
Portrait of Father Gibadlt 









^m A. D. s. - 

Autograph Document ^giwd. ^^^^^| 

H A. L. S. =• 

Autograph Letter Signed. ^^^| 

H B. M. = 

British Museum. All the dtKumenls from B. M. ^^^| 


herein ))nnlcd, arc from the Haldimand Col- ^^H 



^M Can. Arch. B. = 

Canadian Archives, Haldimand CoUecUun. ^^^| 

H C. C. Pp. = 

Continental Congress Pa|>ers. ^^^| 

H C. MSS. = 

Cabokia Manuscript*), ^^^| 

^1 Draper MSS., 4SJ28 

s Draper Manuscript-s, Clarlc Papers, vol. 48, p. «6 ; ^^H 


3W3g = Harmar Papers, etc. ^^H 

H D. S. 

Document Signed. ^^H 



H K. MSS. = 

Kaskoskia Manuscripts. ^^^| 


Letter Signed ^^H 

H M. C, T. MSS. = 

Menard Collection, Tardiveau Manuscripts. ^^H 

H ' 

With Italics: editorial explanations within docu- ^^H 

mcnts or translations- ^^H 

H ' 

With Roman : words supplied by editor in docu- ^^H 


ments or translations. ^^H 

( )= 

In document, implied in document, or supplied ^^H 

punctuation. ^^H 

The manuscript collections of the above list arc described in Illinois ^^| 

Historkai CoiUdiûns 





The successive pictures presented in the following pages 
are those of a Frencli frontier community thrown into con- 
fusion by the extension to it of the forces of a civil conflict 
in which its citizens had relatively little interest. When 
the Revolutionar)' War developed into a world conflict, 
the villages of the Illinois country, neglected for the past 
two decades by their successive masters, were drawn into 
the maelstrom of war and politics; and the interests of their 
inliabitanls, whose chief occupation was the buying and sell- 
ing of furs, were disturbed by forces external to themselves; 
and the destiny of the land they occupied became the subject 
of serious diplomatic correspondence between four nations- 
After the close of the war, while the United States were 
adjusting themselves to the new conditions preparatory to 
taking possession of the western territory, there followed 
for this frontier community a most painful period. During 
these >Tars the Illinois villages were left \vithout provision 
for their government; and the local condition became 
almost unendurable on account of that hopeless anarchy of 
which these pages furnish so many proofs. 

In Volume I of this scries there were pre^nted the records 
of Cahokia, the most northern of the French villages of the 
American Bottom. The reader will find these records of 
Kaskaskia more dramatic in detail and denouement, for 
the village was the political center of the territory, and its 
proximity to Kentucky attracted to it the American pioneers 
who were seeking homes or were occupying land with which 


to speculate. The mingling of two such peoples, alien to 
each other in language, political experience, and religion, 
within the small community created a dramatic situation 
that rtisulted in the stirring events whose story is here 
chrooicled. That story was the subject of the Introductior 
to the first volume of this series, to which the reader is 
referred for an interpretation of the documents.' 

There are certain problems presented by the printed 
documents, however, that deserve a more detailed treat- 
ment than the form of the introduction to the series per- 
mitted. These are so unconnected with each other in 
chanu:ter and time that any attempt to write a consecutive 
narrative would be foreordained to failure. It will, there- 
fore, be excusable if this introduction is thrown into a form 
better suited to its limitations, and there is presented a 
series of separate problem studies. This arrangement 
will permit a diversity in manner of treatment in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the subject-matter of each. 

I. Thomas Brntley and the Occupation of tiik 
Illinois CouNmv in 1778 

The historian pursuing that elusiw idea called truth 
is happy when, after collecting all available material, the 
testimony of the sources supplement each other so com- 
pletely that he can declare: "Thus must this event have 
happened, and not otherwise." Unfortunately in the deter- 
mination of some most elemental truths of the historical 
science this result is not to be attained, and the historian 
is compelled to content himself with approximately true 
explanations. Often even this is not attainable; and the 

I Stc tu. ttid. CtBttU^m. I. 



residue of his research yields a plausible hypothesis, or 
perhaps only a speculative conception. It is to be feared 
that the present subject under investigation can be regarded 
only as a matter for speculation. The very nature of the 
eWdence adduced is such that no assertion of proved fact 
can be made ; yet the examination of the sources is not wholly 
idle, since it may lead to further search, by which a truth 
may be ascertained; or, if such is not tlie result, still it may 
assist some future student in interpreting allied facts by 
pointing out the possibility of distant connections. 

The more one studies the history of the Illinois 
country previous to and during the Revolutionary War, 
the more important appear the commercial activities of the 
resourceful Thomas Bentley. Almost nothing is known of 
his early career. He went from London, probably soon 
after the French and Indian W;ir, to West Florida, where 
he established a store at Manchac. From here he traded 
in furs up the Mississippi. The date when he transferred 
his headquarters to Kaskaskia is unknown; but since his 
name does not ap[)ear in the early British records, that 
event was probably not earlier than the seventies. From his 
first appearance in Kaskaskia, he seems to have managed 
a successful and profitable business. In 1777, when he 
married Marguerite BauvaiSj he established his position 
in the commum"ly on a firm basis by allying himself with 
one of the richest and most important French families in 
the lUinois country. 

Bentley was primarily a merchant, seeking first of all 
his own interests, which would no doubt have prospered 
had not the war between the colonies and Great Britain 
offered him a favorable opportunity for scheming, in which 
his mind seems to have taken peculiar delight. In this 



he was actuated solely by motives of self-interest, and he 
attempted to play off one party against the other for liis own 
profit. His letters printed in this volume and elsewhere 
prove his adeptncss in double dealing and the unreliableness 
of his own statements. A man of his character would take 
good care to cover all traces of his duplicity, particularly 
when he was so carefully watched by the suspicious British 
agent, Rocheblave, so that it is not surprising that the evi- 
dence of his relation to Clark's expedition against the Illinois 
country is difficult to find to-day. Although proofs which 
may have once existed are no longer cvtant, there arc indi- 
cations of some interference on his part at this important 
crisis in the affairs of Illinois. These do not furnish an 
absolute proof, but are of such a character that they are 
worth bringing together in the hope that some document may 
later turn up which will either establish or disprove the fact. 

The external circumstances of which there can be no 
doubt are these. One of the chief needs of the revolting 
colonies was gunpowder, which they had hitherto imported 
from England. With the closing of this source of supply, 
it became necessary to purchase it elsewhere; and this need 
gave occasion for one of the boldest undertakings in western 
annals. On July 19, 1776, Captain George Gibson of the 
Virginia line and Lieutenant William Linn set out from 
Fort Pitt for the purpose of negotiatmg a in New 
Orleans. There arose in that city some difficulties with the 
Spanish commandant on account of the neutrality laws, 
difficulties which were happily overcome; and the gun- 
powder was purchased through the aid of Oliver Pollock, 
the agent of Virginia. 

With forty-three men in several barges Lieutenant Linn 
departed from New Orleans, September 22, to return with 



a cargo of 9,000 pounds of powder. On account of the 
lateness of the season, the party wintered at the .'Vrkansas 
Post. In the spring the Americans started again north- 
ward and reached the mouth of the Ohio on March 3, 1777, 
and passed up that river to their destination in safety.' 

The problem to be investigated in connection with this 
expedition is comprised in these questions: Did Thomas 
Bcntley's boat meet the Americans; and, if it did, was a 
message concerning the defenceless condition of Kaskaslcia 
sent to Kentucky or elsewhere by Bentley; did Bentley 
invite the Americans to occupy Illinois; and was this mes- 
sage conveyed to George Rogers Clark ? With the exception 
of the first» no one of the questions can be definitely an- 
swered . 

The fact that Bentley's boat actually met the Americans 
near the mouth of the Ohio appears to be sufTiciently proi'ed 
by the testimony given before the Court of Enquiry estab- 
lished by Rocheblavc.* If it is thought that the principal 
witness was influencc<I by Rocheblave to swear falsely, other 
testimony that is unimpeachable exists. Captain Gil>son 
had returned from New Orleans by the sea and gave notice 
of the expected arrival of Lieutenant Linn. On January 
28, 1777, Colonel Dorsey Pentecost instructed Captain 
William Ilarrod to go down the Ohio to the assistance of 
Linn. In his letter he wrote: "If you should not fall in 
with Captain Linn (who superintends and Conducts the 
said Cargo) before you arrive at the mouth of the Ohio, I 
think it will be necessar)' that you pass U]> the Mississippi 
to the Kaskaskias Village, where you will make inquiry & 

■ For the bbtntj of ihis ctpecntion, OMUull ThwaitM uid KoUtwiX. Hrvflmiim m Ute Vfprr Okia, 
pp. ivD, saQ. 

>Scc /<Wf, iMttmoDr of Uoloi, p. j4- UcnCJirv hinndf Mknowlcdital tlul Kli boAt met Lino fa 
(he linr, ^if. p. ly 



probably meet with Captain Linn with his Cargo.'" This 
would prove that some kind of aid or communication was 
expected from Kaskaskia. Another piece of evidence points 
to Bentley and his friends. In a memorial to the Virginia 
Legislature in r^Si, Bentley's faithful follower and hench- 
man, Daniel Murray, asserted that his brother William, 
a well-known supporter of the American cause, sent him a 
letter from New Orleans by George Gibson. This must 
have been in 1776 or 1777, for William Murray only left 
Kaskaskia for New Orleans in the former year,' The 
probable time when the letter wiis brought was in 1777; 
and it must have been carried by Linn's boat to the Ohio 
and conveyed by Bentley's boat to Kaskaskia. 

Although Bentley's boat met Linn at the mouth of the 
Ohio, did it convey information about the defenceless con- 
dition of Illinois and an invitation to occupy the country? 
This second part of the problem offers greater difficulties, 
because the evidence is more inferential in character. First 
of all comes the testimony of Bentley himself. On June 
18, 1783, a ])etition from him was presented to the Virginia 
House of Delegates,' "setting forth that he was an inhabi- 
tant of Kaskaskia, and by early endeavors to support the 
American cause, sustained great injury in his property and 
personal lil)crty from the British, that he is now greatly 
indebted for contracts actually made for the good of the 
service, and praying relief." If the statement is worthy 
of credence at all, Bentley suffered for his services to the 
American cause at the hands of the British. This aid could 
have been given only in the spring of 1777, when his boat 
met Linn at the mouth of the Ohio, for shortly afterwards 

■ Htwrnila and Krtluu, Kevalulien «m Ikt Vft» Okit, twj. 
*Y».StiU»FafBt,\\., fi7s, 
*Set Jmtmcl unikr date. 



he was arrested and taken to Canada and endured the suffer- 
ing for which he asked reparation. In a memorial to 
the British authorities Bentley swears that the Americans 
forcibly seized some corn from his boat; but even if there 
was a real sale, it was hardly of sufficient merit to be called 
"endeavors to support the American cause," so that it is 
probable that the abo\*e allusion is to other services.' 

The Virginia officers, who accompanied Clark to Illinois, 
evidently regarded themselves under some obligation to 
Bentley; for, as soon as they had captured Vîncennes in the 
spring of 1779, Captain Bowman and Clark's secretary', 
Jean Girault, wrote to the British authorities concerning 
his release.' Such an act would be indeed strange, if 
Bentley was simply an English merchant without interest 
in the American struggle, as he claimed. For such a man 
the Virginians would have had little regard; but their act 
is easily explained, if he had been the means of conreying 
the information to them that noadc their undertaking suc- 
cessful. Possibly the guarded statement of Captain Rogers 
in 1781 concerning the services of Bentky to the state may 
be also taken as evidence from a similar source.' 

The last witness to be summonefl Ls Philippe de Roche- 
blavc, British agent in Illinois. In 1780 he asserted that 
one man had been responsible for the fall of the Illi- 
nois country, and tliat one was Thomas Bentley.* This is 
certainly prejudiced testimony, but his statement rewals 
his firm conviction that Bentley hati played the traitor to 
the British cause and had been instrumental in bringing the 
Virginians to Illinois. 

■ S«( rncmorUl piinied >^. p. ■*. 
>Sccf«il, pp. 7i, 14. 
*Fmi, p. II r. 



The third part of (he problem is the most difficult to 
solve and the result most doubtful. Did Bentley's message 
concerning the condition in the Illinois country reach 
Gcorçc Rogers Clark? 

First of all it is to be noticed that Clark never hinted at 
such a communication in any of his accounts or jjersonal 
letters concerning the event;' but, instead, he always laid 
great stress on the ignorance of everybody concerning his 
plans. After viewing the evidence in preparation for my 
carHer study of the period, Icamc to the conclusion that Clark 
remained totally ignorant of a party in Kaskaskia friendly 
to the American cause, at least up to the day before the 
attack.' A closer study of the documents, while editing 
them, has somewhat shaken this opinion. Clark's own 
silence may have been, at first, the payment of a debt of 
gratitude to Bentley, who would have suffered severely at 
the hands of the British, — for he was at the time a prisoner 
in Quebec — had Clark acknowledged any communication 
between them, and had this information become known 
in Canada. Afk-r Bentley escapetl and returned to 
Illinois, he attempted to continue Ms double dealing and 
to keep on good terms ■with both the British and the Ameri- 
cans; and he continued to play this game up to the day of 
his death, so that he was never in a position to demand that 
Clark should acknowledge his debt, if debt there was. 

Since Clark's silence cannot be accepted as indubitable 
proof of the non-existence of such communication, we may 
seek elsewhere. If it is true that Bcntley's boat met that 
under the command of William Linn and some message 
was sent by Bentley, the fact that Clark was on intimate 

) Baidn ihp lurnlivn pcintrd In V^ltU.Cmqiuit a} thtCotmiry IVtrtinpfili/l Ad SkKrOhin, 
•w Ann*. Uul. Kn-itVf, rili., Mt. 

■ IB. Hill C^iBtttiMi. ii . pp. indt.. ilU. 



terms with both Linn and Gibson is an important fact. 
Any înfoDiuition concerning Kaskaskia obtained by the 
men of Linn's boat would have been passed on to Clark; 
in fact, the latter must have made inquiries from them, for 
he was thinking how best to ser^-e the West at this very 

The information, imparted by Bentley's men was given, 
if at aJl, in the last of February or the iirst of March. The 
date is important, for on May 25, two spies, S. More and 
B. Linn, sent by Clark, were in Kaskaskia.' Is this sig- 
nificant? Is it not possible that the occasion for send- 
ing the spies had been a message from Bentley? Of 
course the proximity of the dates may ï;e a mere coinci- 
dence, but the circumstance is made more striking from the 
fact that Chirk selected a brother of Wilh'am f^inn as his 
agent to go to Kaskaskia. The case in favor of Bentley's 
correspondence with Clark is also strengthened by the for- 
mer's knowledge that spies were to be sent . Bentley departed 
from Kaskaskia in May to go to Mackinac' Shortly 
after leaving he wrote to his friend, Daniel Murray, to 
inquire about some hunters who were expected to appear 
in the village. Our information is derived from Murray's 
answer. He wrote: "As to the hunters you lATite of there 
is three of them, one of which was here before, his name 
Bcnf Lynn, but they bring no news that I can here [sk] of 
worth your hearing."" 

This last bit of evidence is perhaps the most conclusis'c 
of all that has been discovered. Murray's statement shows 
that Bentley had written concerning the expected coming 
of some hunters whom he had not seen. The manner in 

■ Sm Moraj^ IMHT Ici Rnillvf, fail, p i. 

« SaUor's mMDurUl, Mit*. aiH. CdteOhn». sla., 347. 

> Printed ^m(. p 8. 



wliich Murray mentioned tlie number makes it seem like 
a correction of a statement by Bentley concerning the same. 
One wonders if there had been an inquiry about two. 

In the above discussion we have considered only the 
possibility of a communication being sent by Bentley through 
William Linn. But this was by no means the only oppor- 
tunity. According to the testimony given in the Court of 
Enquiry, one of Bcntlcy's boats was on the Ohio for some 
time in 1776, and even was sent up the river above the falls 
to the Kentucky River.' If this occurred, the opportunities 
of sending a communication to the Kentuckians, even to 
Clark himself, must have been numerous. 

To the above considerations must be added the events 
that occurred at the time of the seizure of the village of 
Kaskaskia, which point to some conmiunication between 
Clark and the party of American sympathizers within the 
village. The most important of these is the case with which 
Clark found boats on the eastern side of the river.' Bentley, 
however, could not have been responsible for this, since he 
was at that time a prisoner in the hands of the British author- 
ities on account of his act in sending a boat to the assistance 
of the Americans. In this connection it is also interesting 
to note that Clark must have expected to find sympathizers 
in Kaskaskia, for he came provided with commissions for 
them signed by Governor Patrick Henry.* 

We have already seen that Clark^s officers sought to 
bring about Bentley's release, .\fter the latter's return to 
Illinois, Clark continued to grant him his support, in spite 
of the many accusations of dishonesty against him. Bent- 
ley's best friend was Clark's relative, Captain John Rogers ; 

> Sw t«il, pp. Sl-lS. 

■ Fultr dbcuncd in JU. ItUi. CtUatint, a., p. lUI. 

* Sw fi^ p. 4r. 






and when Bentley went to Virginia to collect some money 
due him, Clark gave him a strong indorsement and recom- 
mended him for more important employment/ 

Such is the evidence. As thus set forth the case appears 
strong in spite of the circumstantial character of the evi- 
dence, but tlierein lies its weakness. There is not an event, 
used as proof, which cannot be explained without reference 
to Clark's act in occupying the Illinois villages. Thus 
Bentley may have sent his boats to the Ohio simply because 
he saw a good opportunity to make a profit ; and his knowl- 
edge of the presenœ of Clark's spies may have been derived 
from some innocent source; and his inquiry concerning 
them may have been prompted by idle curiosity. There- 
fore the case is not proved. On the strength of the evi- 
dence one may be inclined to declare that the conception 
of the occupation of the Northwest originated in the fertile 
brain of Thomas Bentley; but a careful consideration of 
the facts shows that the result of this investigation is a 
subject for speculation, but not the establishment of a fact 
by unassailable proof. 

II. Father Pierre Oibault anb the Submission 
OF Post Vixcenxes, 1778' 

After George Rogers Clark had obtained possession of 
Kaskaskia and the other French settlements on the Mis- 
sissippi, in July, 1778, he realized that his position was 
precarious as long as the British held the posts on the Wabash 
River, the channel of • communciation bet^veen Canada, 
Detroit, and the Ohio. His company of soldiers was too 

1 Sec Vm. SHI* Fapvi. Q.. i$j. 

<T>iii MDilir U rv^rifilfil whh a f*« ^inga tma the niilar*« iatnduniea U Ibe docuBkcotl D- 
lutlrstioc ihc MititM prUMrd in the Amtr, lliil Jtttriiv. ilr., No j, p $44 tl wif. 


small to risk a boIH advance upon Vinccnnes, and he was 
obliged to consider means of securing the i-illage by persua- 
sion. The story of the mission of Father Gibault to Vin- 
ccnnes is well known; and Clark's own narratives arc 
counted among the few classics of the literature of western 
liistory.' The documents concerning this event in this 
volume, which have been hitherto almost unknown, sup- 
plement those famous narratives. Since all the testimony 
on this subject is not easily reconciled, it will be worth 
while to study somewhat carefully the history of the sub- 
mission of Vincenncs in July, 1778. 

Ever since Judge John Law wrote in his Colonial History 
ofVincmnes that to Father Gibault "next to Clark and Vigo 
the United States are [more] indebted for the accession of 
the states comprised in what was the original Northwest 
Territor)' than to any other man," the honor of securing 
the submission of Vincennes has been unanimously assigned 
to the parish priest, while liis associate and the part he took 
in the enterprise have been almost forgotten; and no attempt 
has ever been made to estimate the value of his services.' 

Like the historians, the British officers in the West 
believed, from the first, that the chief instrument in the win- 
ning of Vincennes for the Virginians was Father Gibault. 
Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton of Detroit wrote, on August 
8, 1778: "I have no doubt that by this time they [the Vir- 
ginians] are at Vincenncs, as, when the Express came away, 
one Gibault a French priest, had his horse ready logo 
thither from Cahokia [Kaskaskia] to receive the submission 
of the inhabitants in the name of the Rebels."* On the 

■H» letlcr to Gcrofc Maarm. Km>cn)bcT i«, i)79.a>Ml I>m ilemait nl ■ lairr dt(« >rr pHsIod ID 
Ibc tppcndix IQ Etxitsh, W. VL, C:m9HU> »i Um Cemntry Komnrta <•) ikt Kivrr OÀh, v«]. i. 

' WltMor, rjkf tfoMuinf IfMwNMl, p. t30,li MtliAcd aith ■ tutnneni [hai \ht HibtuJalciani 
oblalnnl bjr both Pathti GJbuill ■od lARMt. 

■ Canadian ArchîvM. B, vsJ. ii*. p. 115. Var (iirthtf IcattmoDY of (hi Sriiish officen wr J. P. 
Duoo,iiirn)fHiKiw>iui>/iierI(.HJjf.5K.,i9oj,p.*Ti Ji*.C>uA.0iil.ffr«anA«f,v., 51, tUI^ iW. 



Other hand the first report of Clark to Governor Patrick 
Henry, n-hich has unfortimatcly not been preserved, evidently 
gave credit for the outcome to Father Gibault and Dr. 
Laffont, for Henry in a letter to Clark, dated December 15, 
1778, wrote: "I beg you wnll present my compliments to 
Mr Gibault and Doctor Lafong [sk] & thank them for me 
for their good services to the State." ' 

But this is hearsay testimony. We turn to the state- 
ments of those who participated in the act, George Rogers 
Clark, Father Pierre Gibault, and Jean Baptiste LaSFcmt. 

The first is a trustworthy witness concerning the con- 
ception of the plan and the preparations for putting it into 
e^œcution ; but his knowledge of the occurrences in Vincennes 
was derived from others and more particularly from the 
two agents.' One weakness in this witness should be 
noted: he understood no French and was obliged to trust 
to his interpreter, Jean Girault.' The two accounts left 
us by Clark differ somewhat in details. According to the 
earlier, the letter to Mason, the conception of the plan was 
his own. Realizing the weakness of his portion, as long 
as \1ncennes was in the possession of the enemy, and the 
impossibility of securing the place by force, he had recourse 
to stratagem and pretended to make preparations for an 
attack, in the hope that the French of Kaskaskia, anxious 
for their friends and relativ-cs, would offer to win the village 
by persuasion. In this he was successful, and several 
Kaskaskians came forward as advocates for Vincennes. 
Among these vras Father Gibault, who told Clark that sol- 
diers were unnecessary for the enterprise and that he would 

■ PràkUd téM, p. 64- 

> in h» M^tÊJr. Out «rata that he vet a ipr *iCb tbc i 
■ My h«n bMa cealRMd br « AM wtoa». vhMc vaOammi 
^ Cn^Ml </ a* C4m^ IV«f<t— jl «/ a* Cwr Olma. I . ^. 

*0b Gtruk, «nuh /«. Hut. CUbtfim, fi^ p. *e, ■- «. 

, » lb A» repcrt of thr 



himself RO on the mission; but that, as his duties were 
Hpiritual, some one must be appointed to take charge of the 
afTmr, The parish priest assured Clark, however, "that 
Ik- would (ÇÎVC them [the people of Vinccnnes] such hints 
in the spiritvial way that would be conducive to the business.** 
Dr. LofTont was ai>ix>inted the leader of this expedition and 
received the instructions.' 

In the other nnrraliw, the Afemoir, more prominence is 
given to the parish priest. In the first place Clark does 
not iiHHume the credit for the conception of the plan. The 
priest wa» ralle<l into conference relative to taking Vin- 
cenru'Hnhd said that he did not think it worth while to send 
N niililiiry r.\|)i*dilion, since he was certain tliat, when the 
Inltaliitjinl-t wei\' ac()uainted with what had occurred in 
IllinoU and with the American cause, they wouM submit. 
Gthiiult then ofTered to ^o himself for this purpose. As 
In the nlhcr rtawint, the prient demanded an associate; but, 
uiini^llnn lo ihiit tmrratiw, Iw named him, and promised 
thai he IdniHcIf would pri\'ately direct the whole. Written 
InHlrurtloUH wriv gixrn by Clark to Latfont, and verbal 
InMrurtlonH U* the prient.» 

H\\\tv the lettvr to Mason is more authoritatiw than the 
Memoir, (lie credit of orijçinftting the plan may safely be 
AIvIk^umI to Clnrlc. To his two narratives should be added 
thi' It'Ntlniotty of the instructions, a copy of which Clark 
did not (KUMCM when Ih' wTote his Memoir.* These were 
uildreHwd to l4Afront, and Itc was iiustructed to "act in 
concert" with I'ulher (îilmult, "who, I hope, will prepare 
llw Inhubllant* to agree to your demands." 

'ttulMk CVf*' * , t, «If, Il h Mht MtMl Ibil Iha lwv»cll«H «OT uddrrBrd to UAonL 
Awm. Mm Hmm^ tlv. Na, i, pt Mf Thwa ImitiiciIum «iU U t«iBl*4 in lU voluiua ol Uufc 


*/W '1hr»liuli<«ithM«ar«|<rlntr<1hi^i 

Htu. Jtnwv. tUt; Ko- 1. P- 14» 



The testimony of Father Gibault dates from the year 
1786, but it can be shown that tlœ evidence harks back, 
to an earlier date. In a letter of that year, addressed to the 
bishop of Quebec,' he denied having been responsible for 
the submission of the people of Vincennes. Tn fact he 
declared that he had not gone for the purpose of influencing 
the people, but only to attend to his parochial duties. In 
a letter of 1783' he mentioned his intention of writing in a 
short time an account of the occurrences of the past few 
years, and in another of 1788* he mentioned the fact of 
having written such a letter. Unfortunately this letter has 
not been preserved; but it is c\'ident from the context of 
the existing letters that he wrote of his own acts and made 
statements similar to those in the letter of 1786, so that it 
may be taken for granted that in 1783 he was denying his 
participation in the submission of Vincennes. 

There is evidence of an earlier date. Clark's statement 
is that the priest offered to go to Vincennes, and went as 
an cmissar)' of Virginia.' That he acted as secretar)* of 
the embassy is evident from the fact that he kept some kind 
of a journal which was handed to Clark on his return.' 
In spite of the success of the e.xpedition Father Gibault 
was unwilling to be counted an actor in it, for having learned 
of the village gossip about his influence in Vincennes, he 
persuaded Dr. Laffont to ■write, a few days after their return, 
a letter to Clark, in which LafFont assumed all responsibility." 
In less than a month after he started for Vincennes, there- 
fore, he was saying that he liad done nothing more than 

>SM><ltf. p. S4t. 
*SM^lt, p. 5J0, 

* CUrl'i kilcr ol iiulruclicM*. Amtr. Bill. Retitw, ItV-, No. a. ii, S4»- 

f Ljiffont'i texut, fU. p 50. 

*/ïkI . iioKni»r(»onorihebuiilwrltiMO( lUilettn'wilhMbcTiptcinMMof l^ffaDt"* liui4iiTi[' 

loil fuTB no dcnibl ubout its a.ulhailldt)r. 


counsel "peace and union and to hinder bloodshed." One 
act of Father Gibault's contradicts this testimony. When 
it was expected that Kaskaskia would be retaken by the 
Britisli in the early winter of 1778, Clark reported that the 
priest was in great fear of falling into the hands of Hamilton. 
If this is a fact, Father Gibault must have been conscious of 
having committed an act which the Britisb officer would 
regard as treasonable.* 

Our information concerning LafTont is very meager. 
He was a native of the West Indies, whence he moved to 
Florida and later to Kaskaskia. He was living in the lat- 
ter place in August, 1770, at which date his signature was 
written on a power of attorney. He was still in the %'illage 
in 1782, but he had moved by 17S7 to Vinccnncs, for his 
name and tliosc of liis sons are found in tlie census of the 
village for that year.' His whole testimony is contained in 
his letter to Clark on August 7, 177S.* From this we learn 
that Father Gibault accompanied him, acted as secretary, 
and made a report to Clark. He did not, however, interfere 
in the temporal affairs of the embassy, except to counsel 
peace. Laffont claimed for himself the sole responsibility 
of the undertaking. The oath administered to the people 
of Vincennes offers some further evidence.* This illiterate 
French could never have been WTitten by the priest, whereas 
it may have been the work of Laffont, although his letter 
shows a greater familiarity with the written language. 

In the analysis of the above sources, it must Ik rcmem- 

1 Englbh, Ctmçmil. i, 41*. 

iE«ihiil(a USS; rapvi •} tktCmÊmri»»! CwurfM, vol. 4S. P- t»j: fwf, p. 309: Dnp« 
MSS., iSJ 70. 'I'hii lad i> ■ MMr to Dc. Unpn, dalnl 184I, from ihe mculor of ihp aUlc 
ol Ut. Lflllonl^i MB. Ilie Jettef Male* that L&floot moved id Sic Cencvicv^ where he died abaui 
Aufint, 1779, at Ihr >fr of fottr. Prom thr rrcord* o4 KaikulU, ihb dalBis proved Id he wrong. 
Tbctdceuiref the Jcu Itic. UiSoaicd the Vliuenrincmmu liRrcOfihaied br tlM (ellowltu factk. 
lie b (anr.«gh( )T>n old and ha* two Mtu with ihe sine tumn u iboae flt«n in the lettK to Dr. 
Unpcr. Inwpeci th«l tbedtieot hia death at Sic. C<n*vien ahould be i;m. 

* p*a. p. f». 

* Print*!! In v1 «Mr. Bin. Rivitm. xJ*.. X«. 3. P. SS9. 


berecl that two documents are of cjuestionable value, the 
Memoir of Clark, and the letter of Father Gibault to the 
bishop of Quebec. The fiist was written several years after 
the submission of Vînccnncs, at a time when Clark's mind 
had already become clouded by his intemperate habits. 
He confessed also that he could not find the instructions to 
Laflfont; and from his statements it Is probable that he did 
not have LafFont's letter to him.* Father Gibault's emphatic 
denial of participation in the submission of Vincennes may 
be dismissed, because it was made to the Canadian bishop 
whose prejudices he wished to remove. If he was to re- 
enter the service of the Church in Canada, he was obliged 
to deny the grave charj^c oE treachery which had been made 
against him by British officers. 

There remain Clark's letter to Mason, written a year 
and a half after the event, his letter of instructions, and 
Laflonl's letter, the last two being contemporary documents. 
These are not contradictory and from ihem a consistent 
story can be drawn. The plan originated in Clark's mind; 
Father Gibault offered to go but refused to take the respon- 
sibility; Jean Baptiste Laffont was appoîntcfl the lo-ader, 
managed affairs openly in Vincennes, and claimed the honor 
of the success; Father Gibault evidently preached peace 
and union to the citizens, prol>ably used his personal influ- 
ence to promote the enterprise, and on his return made a 
written report to Clark, but denied that he was responsible 
for the submission of Vincennes. 

The action of Father Gibault, taken in connection with 
other information concerning him, throws some light on 

■Titre nuui rauin •oot- ileiibi u [owlinhiv iti« lAiin- iru«T«r dritracd toCIuk. Father 
CSbmllimir haTctimMiBliDd loluTcil bi ki> juEoi-Mioiifiir (uiuieujw. 1 hxic coaidnn] thapt» 
ribditrelilwkeuabeiii|wriiicnmiiM,wb(«bM)i|]if|inB4aiidlAainuw«T«iB Viaeciina, bui bava 
Jiiiiiiwiil IhB pipfsalllôiii, for II would not hair mitcid t'albcr dhaull'i purpoae id havi the iownal, 
«hkft be twpl, moiliaBM. He ttauni (be bUiop thai lie «cot alRiply la nU6U Ua prUnlr <hiUM 
ai Wacetmea. Tba fint Mmtmoc ol Iba Idler aoald have diaprinnl ilih. 



his character. The impression made on the mind of Clark 
by the personality of the priest was that of timidity. Al- 
though Clark's description of the fear into which the people 
of Kaskaskia were thrown by the appearance of his band 
on the night of July 4 and 5, 1778, may be discounted,' still 
it is interesting tliat in that picture of terror the central 
figure was Father Gibault.' Clark also assures us that when 
he was expecting an attack on Kaskaskia during the winter 
of 1778, "The priest of all men [was] the most afraid 
of Mr. Hamilton. He was in the greatest consternation, 
but determined to act agreeable to my instruction."' On 
account of this timidity, Clark found an excuse to send him 
for security to the Spanish bank. Gibauh's action in the 
mission to Vinccnncs bears out these impressions. He 
was ready to use his influence with the people, but preferred 
to tlirow the responsibility on another, so that, if the issue 
should be different from what was anticipated, he would 
still be able to use the argument to tlic British authorities, 
which we find that he actually put forward in 1786. 

III. Ecclesiastical Affairs 
Possibly students of Illinois history will find the last 
chapter of the volume, where are collected the ecclesiastical 
documents, the most interesting. Some of these letters 
have never been previously published, many have been 
printed in translation, and some few very recently in the 
original. The story is not yet complete, for there will be 
noted in these printed letters references to many others of 
which no trace can be found ; and probably in the course 

■ Sm tniraduclioa to m. Hill. CalUtHmt, U. 
'Eniiliih, Cintqmttt «} the Norikoftl, i., 479. 



of time some of these will \x brought to light. Up to the 
present, however, historians have not had the opportunity 
of examining so many <locuments illustrating the subject as 
are collected in this volume. This is true ctch of Mr. 
Shea, who made use of the Archiépiscopal /archives in 
Quebec in preparing his Life of Archbishop Carroll, and 
whose account, as drawn from the letters of Father Gibault 
and the other priests of the West, has been the only infor- 
mation heretofore available concerning the contents of the 
western documents in that depository. 

In 1778 the diocese of Quebec included the Illinois 
country. In this remote corner labored Father Gibault, 
who had served the French on the banks of the Mississippi 
since 1768. In the following year he had been promoted 
to the dignity of vicar general for the Illinois region, which 
included at this time Vincennes, as well as the villages on 
the banks of the "Father of Waters." For the early period 
of his missionary ser\-ice he had the assistance of the aged 
Father Mcurin; but at that time the territory under the two 
priests was somewhat extended by the necessity of attending 
to the spiritual needs of the settlements on the western bank, 
belonging to Spain, which were without other spiritual guid- 
ance. When Father Bernard was appointed at St. Louis, 
he retume<l this favor of the Eastern Illinois priests by assist- 
ing occasionally at Cahokia. This had become the more 
necessary, for Father Gibault was then the only priest in 
British Illinois. After that territory was occupied by the 
troops of Virginia, Father Gibault seems to have preferred 
to make his headquarters at Ste. Genevieve, whence he 
crossed over to Kaskaskia, when he was needed.' The 
story of his missionary labors has been frequently told, 

'P»M, pp.s».S4): îloatk. Hillary «f MlimwH, p.. g»: Sitm. lift ^ Arck6iiÀépC*mU, us 


best of all by Mr. Shea, who used extensively some of the 
material printed here, so that it is umieccssary to sketch 
again the career of this pioneer priest. The activities of 
the other priests of the Illinois country are not, however, 
so well known; and their story may give to the documents 
an added interest. 

Until 1785 the ecclesiastical situation in the West re- 
mained unchanged; nominally the territory was within the 
diocese of Quebec, and Father Gibault, although he had 
lost the confidence of his superiors, looked to the Canadian 
bishop for guidance. Events had occurred in Europe and 
the East, however, that were to alter the whole destiny of 
these pioneer communities. The Treaty of Paris had been 
signed, and the West had become the territory of a new 
state. This meant a readjustment of the Catholic Church in 
America to accommodate itself to the new conditions. On 
June 9, 1784, there was issued at Rome by the prefect of the 
Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide a decree organiz- 
ing the Catholic Church in the United Stales as a distinct 
body and appointing the Reverend John Carroll prefect 
apastolic* Through an oversight no action was taken to 
change the former limits of the diocese of Quebec, so that the 
ecclesiastical relations of the West were not legally altered, 
in spite of the manifest intention of the authorities at Rome 
to exteml the jurisdiction of the new prefect apostolic to the 
limits of the United States. Thus was laid the foundations 
of a conflict of jurisdictions which might have been of 
serious consequences, had not both the officials involved 
proved hemselvcs judicious, patient, and considerate. As 
soon as the priests, sent from Quebec and Baltimore, re- 
ported that the same territory was being served by both dio- 

» ShM, Lil* *l ArtkUili^f Cnmit, »»j. 



ccscs, there was an exchange of courteous letters between the 
bishop and the prefect apostolic. The whole subject was re- 
ferred to Rome; and the necessary correction, in accordance 
with the purpose of the act creating the ecclesiastical juris- 
diction in the United States, was made without diffi- 
culty. ' 

Before this adjustment was accomplished, there had 
been sent, both from Canada ami the United States, priests 
to take charge of the spiritual wants of the Northwest. 
In the sumnier of 1784 Father Payet went from Detroit to 
Vincenncs, where he remained till September. Later the 
same priest was sent on a tour of inspection to Kaskaskia 
and Cahokîa.' Father Gibault, who in 1785 had left the 
Spanish territory in spite of advantageous offers and hai! 
taken up his residence at Vincenncs, continued to look upon 
himself as the vicar general of the bishop of Quebec for this 
region, and it was some time before he learned of the changes 
in the ecclesiastical situation; and, when this was forced 
on his attention by the arrival of priests from the East, he 
was unwilling to submit to the new jurisdicrion.' 

The new prefect apostolic seeras to have been equally 
ignorant of the true situation in the Illinois region,* but he 
realized the necessity of providing for the spiritual needs of 
his distant fellow Catholics. He therefore was glad, upon 
the recommendation of the French minister, to give a wan- 
dering Carmelite father, Paul de St. Pierre, who was willing 
to go to the West, such authority as he could, cwn Ix-fore 
he received the official announcement of his appointment as 

> CddniII the cvKspoDdenot, printed ptM, 581 tf uf . 
«Shea, Ulc a} AniMtUf CornU, 471. i;j 

•On Febnury ir, i^Ss. be wrote to Cudliul AnloiMUl, Prefrcl of ibe Pmpaiand*, n> («Jlrrin: 
''The Jutbdiciioa of ihe Bbhop of Quebec fonncrij' ratendcd us •om* \ai\ of ilui rvRian: but I do 
do dot \.aam «rbcthor he wishm to tvatyat a,aj auIhoHty there oam, llul all IbcK uuts «le «utiiKt lo 
the Uailcd Sut«." Shea, U/c o) ArthhUkop Carrail, i jS. 



head of the Church in the United States.' This fact estab- 
lishes approximjitely the date when this first priest to repre- 
sent in the West tlie new regime started on his long journey, 
for news of his own appointment reached Father Carroll on 
August 20, 1784, and he received the official notice on 
November 26." 

There has been preserved very little material for the 
life of Father de St. Pierre, and his passage through the 
West and his sojourn at Kaskaskia and Cahokia can only 
be traced by chance mention in the letters of the time and in 
a few documents which I;ear directly on his c^ireer. From 
a letter of Mr. Carroll to the Congregation rfc Propaganda 
Fide ' wc learn that he was a German monk of the Car- 
melite order lately from France; and that at the time he 
went West he did not {wssess sufTicient testimonials to prove 
that he had the permission of his superior to remain in 
America. From other sources we learn that he was thirty- 
four years of age in 1785 and that he had served as 
chaplain in the French army in America/ In one of the 
documents printed here, it is stated tliat his real name was 
Heiligenstein, which may have been the case, for names 
were frequently changed at the time of taking rcli^ous 

Father de St. Pierre first made his way to Kentucky 
and arrived at Louisville in February. 1785, whence he sent 
a letter to Mr. Carroll. His delay among the Kentucky 
pioneers could not have been long, for a document proves 
that he was in Kaskaskia in July, and that he had been there 
long enough to j)articii)ate in the local quarrels." The 

<Srp BUhap Carrrdl't iuinn«ni, Stiea, U)* tf) Arthln'iitof Cawnll, ii»;itiAai»o fivt.p. S9>. 
>Shea, lÀft bI Auk^ihi/f Varrcli, 1,17, ixi, 

*Ptbniaf} j;, itKj, pfinliMl in liamlaliou by Shot in hi* Lilt »! AnUiMkat CarroU, ifH, 
• fnl, p. s JJ. S4Ti Sh«a, UJ* 0/ ^nJiMih>^ ComO, sj«, n. j. 



document in question does not shed much light on the 
priest's religious iulivities in the village, cxœpt in so fior 
as it shows his willingness to interfere where he thought 
a wrong had been committed. It is more than likely that 
Father de St. Pierre sided with the French faction against 
John Dodge, who dominated Kaskaskia at the time; but 
there is no direct evidence for this. 

The turbulent condition of this village did not attract 
the priest; and the bctter-gowmcd inhabitants of Cahokia, 
who had been trying to draw Father Gibault from Vin- 
cennes, were able to hold out inducements that determined 
Father de St. Pierre to make his residence in the more 
northern village. Here he watched over the spiritual needs 
of his small flock till 1789; and from all that can be learned 
of his ministry, he won the affections and confidence of his 
people. There is some evidence of a religious awaken- 
ing among the Cahokians, brought about by his min- 
istry, for they began to collect the scattered proj^rty 
of the mission, and in June, 1787, they reported that 
they had built a house for their priest and were erect- 
ing a new church at a cost of fifteen to sixteen thousand 
livres J 

The prefect apostolic had made no attempt to organize 
the western part of his territory, when he |x.'rraitted Father 
de St. Pierre to go to the villages on the Mississippi; but 
this problem needed attention, and Mr. Carroll selected for 
this purpose a priest who seemed well qualified by education 
and training to undertake such a task; and yet Father 
Pierre Huet dc la \''aUnièrc had experienced such a stormy 
career up to the time of his western mission that the prefect 
apostolic might well have hesitated before sending him. 

tSht^UJ**tAnlMtktfC*'r»B,4j4l Pul,p. s^ Thta clutch li MUl iUodinc. 



He was bom at Varade, France, on January lo, 1732.' 
After studying at the College oE Nantes he entered the Grand 
Seminary of that city, November 22, 1752, whence he passed 
to Paris to continue his studies at the Seminary of Saint 
Sulpice. He was a man of great cnerj^y and earnestness 
in his profession, and preferred the missionary field to the 
quiet life of a parish priest in France. He, therefore, sailed 
for Canada, reaching Montreal on September 9, 1754, Here 
he was ordained priest by Bishop Pontbriand and began 
his activities in Quebec and its environs. 

Between May 22, 1759, and October g, 1779, he served 
five different parishes, which, in the light of his later career, 
may prove an energy that was restless rather than per- 
severing. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War he 
was ser^'ing the parish of L'Assomption; and here it was 
that he committed the act which resulted in a series of dis- 
asters for himself and no doubt fixed in the minds of many an 
unfavorable opinion of his character. When the American 
colonists invaded Canada, most of the priests under the lead- 
ership of the bishop remained faithful to the king and used 
their influence to hold their parishioners in obedience. Father 
de la Valinièrc always asserted that he also acted the part 
of a good subject; but the evidence that he was friendly to 
the American cause was sufficient to convince his bishop 
and General Carleton, the governor of Canada, of his guilt. 
His own explanation of his act is that he went to Sorel, at 
the peril of his life, to free from the hands of the invaders 
two fellow priests. If this is trut% his act was one of mercy, 
not of treachery. Unfortunately for his reputation in 
Canada, he used his infiucncc with a friend and follower of 

^The hcuin Uic Mrlylife of Fsilirr d«U Villattr*ki*1i«tnl vn ihafouKM piiblish«d b|> M«r- 
tin I. ] CrlillD JD the Amtr. Calm il"i AitMrabcj, New Ser . ti^ No. j. Mi. GrlAn hm oillccKd 
tMd piiDiMi nuicli BiurU oa tlw IKc ol lh« priMt, nbk^ «uptimeau ilw vulou* Icitcn In ihto 


Thomas Walker, one of the merchants roost suspected of 
intrigue by the British authorities, to accomplish this end. 
From that time the priest was himself held in the greatest 
suspicion. In a letter to Bishop Briand, Vicar General 
Montgolfier writes: " Newrtheless I have had the honor 
of unburdening my heart to General Carleton regarding the 
last named [Valinière] whom I reckon among the most 
guilty and the least converted. His excellency gave mc 
liberty to deal with him as I niay judge fit. The dearth of 
priests forces me to employ him, though reluctantly. Should 
Your Lordship judge proper to withdraw him, and if means 
could be found of providing for the essential needs of that 
large parish, I would see therein no difficulty. But in that 
case, I would desire that subject to be removed from the 
country. He is thoroughly self willed, and, although of 
good morals, he would infallibly cause us some other 

Father de la Valinière gave sufficient evidence during 
his career of the quarrelsomeness and self- willfulness with 
which he was accused. There are records from several of 
his parishes to prove that he need]es.sly aroused the spirit 
of opposition among his parishioners, and that he was ever 
ready to enter into disputes with his superiors. He quarreled 
with the parish of St. Jean Poit-Joly and in consequence 
threatened to sue the bishop and Seminary of Montreal 
for the reparation of his honor, property, and health. At 
St. Anne de la Pocalière new difficulties assailed him.' His 
career at the Illinois is shown by the letters published in 
this volume to have been a stormy one." Later at Split 
Rock in New York his troubles with his parishioners resulted 

■ Amir. CmI. Hta. JtàMtnktt, inf. di. 

* Ama. Coll HitL ttutrtiMi. nf. til. 


in the burning of the church and priest's house.* In the 
case of a man of this character, who raises up enemies on all 
sides, it is particularly difficult to draw a just portrait. 
Since his opponents have written so much about him, it 
is only fair to quote the words which he himself puts in 
the mouth of Bishop Briand: "He [de la Valinière] is the 
priest of my diocese who knows best how to gain general 
affection. In every place, his zeal and wisdom have won 
for him the esteem of all. He possesses the gift of enrich- 
ing the church-treasury; he preaches well, and he deserves 
no reproach. His talent is almost unique; he distributes 
abundant alms and yet he is ever ready to give.*" 

Very possibly his faults of character, more than any act 
of his, caused the authorities, both ecclesiastical and civil, 
to continue the prosecution against him; at any rate, it was 
decided that the presence of the restless priest was a source 
of danger that should be removed from the province. Gov- 
ernor Haldimand, whose opinion of the priest was that he 
was, "fiery, factious and turbulent, no ways deficient in 
point of wit and parts," compelled hira to embark for Eng- 
land in October, 1779.' Even in England Valinière's troubles 
were not ended. He was kept a prisoner on board ship for 
a year, where his presence was very embarrassing to the 
ministry, since there was not sufficient proof of treason to 
detain or punish hira.* Finally he was permitted to depart 
for France. The vessel in which he sailed was wrecked 
and all his property lost, and he was forced to travel on foot 
to Paris, where he was received, but not enthusiastically, 
by his brother Sulpicians. In Paris he applied for service 

» Âm$t. Caih. Hvl. Knnnlw, imp. f*. 

'Qiuud br Mr. Cirlllbn in Amer. Caik, llùl. Kéa-nàe*. n/. tiL 

> Amtr. Cafb. tliri Snaanlm, np, ell. 

' Sm JackxHi'» iMtcT in Amir. CM*. Bin. JtnwHAu, uif, tit. 


in the French army in America. Whether he received an 
appointment or not, the sources do not tell; but later we 
find him in Martinique and in San Domingo. After his 
rccoTCry from an attack of )'eIJow ferer in the latter place, 
he sailed for Ncwburj-port in Massachusetts where he arrived 
in the spring of 1785, and trawled thence by foot to Montreal. 

His second sojourn in Canada was a short one, but not 
without its storms. His appearance at Quebec caused 
consternation, and the bishop wrote on July 25, 1785, to M. 
Gravé, Vicar General: "What shall we do, my dear Vicar 
General, with this poor man? How well he bears out the 
portrait given by M. Montgolfier in his letter to His Honor 
the Lieutenant Governor; restless, turbulent, etc.? 

"He asks me for a certificate of good standing and 
behanour so as to go wherever the Lord calls him- Can I 
pvc him one as long as he will hold a conduct so much 
opposed to my orders? Î have forbidden him, as you are 
aware, to say Mass pubUcly until he has made arrangements 
with the government, and he has nevertheless officiated 
without having complied, for I don't see by all his rerbiage 
how he can prore that His Honor, M. Hamilton, allows him 
to remain in this pro\Tncc. Cod grant that for the honor of 
the clergy it be not decided to allow him to stay." ' 

The autliorities found difficulties, however, in removing 
him again from Canada. The Seminary of Quebec offered 
him a pension of six hundred Ihres payable in Paris in re- 
turn for his rights in lliat institution. The deed was drawn 
up, but at'the last moment Valinière refused to sign.' Later 
he sought unsuccessfully to institute a suit against the 
Seminary, but the lawyers refused to plead without the 

■ AmiT. CMt. HiM. JhwarrAci, ■>#.<«. 

I Sa Mf Orlfti «rlMi la hi» ulfcfa. taol ta ■ titu* prfau4 ffH, p. jjt. VaUnOrr weru ifatbt 
ia Raounird hM n(b<i in the ScmtaHy. 



permission of the priests. Disgusted with his reception, 
Father de la Valinière in August, 1785, left Canada for 
the United States. Upon his departure the bisliop of 
Quebec gave him a letter to the new prefect apostolic» 
who received the priest kindly, for recruits to the new 
diocese were greatly needed. 

During several months Father dc la Valini&rc remained 
very uncertain as to his final destination. He ser^-ed in 
Philadelphia occasionally; but his more permanent place 
of residence was New York, where he ministered to the 
French and French-Canadians. He threw himself with his 
usual enthusiasm into the organization of the new ecclesi- 
astical territory. His busy brain was already teeming with 
plans for the future development of the Church in America; 
seminaries were to be built, parishes establishetl in every 
city. He planned to raise money to buy an abandoned Prot- 
estant church in the city of New York for a permanent 
home for his parishioners." When this latter plan failed, 
he turned his attention to the southern states and decided 
to start a mission in Charleston, but the tales of the un- 
healthy conditions prevailing in the city deterred him.* 
Finally Mr. Carroll offered him the appointment of \icar 
general to Illinois, which was accepted; and he started 
from Philadelphia in April, 1786, on his journey westward.' 

Such was the man who now came to reorganize the 
Catholic Church in the Northwest. The existing conditions 
in the country were sure to arouse to fighting heat the 
fiery blood that coursed through his veins; for, when he 
arrived in Kaskaskia, the village was cowering before that 
boldest and ablest of the American pioneers, John Dodge. 

> Sb«. LiU *l AtUaikef Cmmtt, »%a, tSa- 
*Amtr. Cik. Hut. XnM«-Uf, mi>. ci. 



The French people had long lost all hope of an amelioration 
of their condition, and with the loss of hope had gone their 
spirit of manliness. With a few congenial companions 
Dodge was holding in submission the French people and 
the few officials who still continued to serve the stricken 
village. In the other nllages the political conditions were 
somewhat better, particularly at Cahokia, but the eccles- 
iastical situation was such as to bring inevitably trouble 
upon the bot-hcaded vicar general. At Vincennes was 
Father Gibault who styled himself vicar general of the 
bishop of Queljec and whose long residence in the region 
bad giren him an understanding of his parishioners, among 
whom he could always collect a party to oppose an innova- 
tion. At Cahokia was Father de St. Pierre, a man who had 
already won the love and esteem of his flock, but who was 
not anxious to acknowledge the power of a superior and 
was only too prepared to take up the gauntlet for any in- 
fringement of his rights. The situation both political and 
ecclesiastical retjuired the employment of the greatest 
tact and patience, in both of which qualities the new 
vicar general had shown himself conspicuously lack- 

He did not wait long before rushing into a conflict. 
Valinifcrc must have reached Illinois early in the summer 
of 1786 and almost immediately lent ear to rumors con- 
cerning his co-workers. He was always prone to believe 
the worst, so that enemies — and Father dc St. Pierre 
had made several in Kaskaskia — had little difficulty in 
convincing him that the Cahokia priest had never taken 
vows. He quickly took up the charge; an investigation 
was held by himself, Father Bernard of St Louis, and others, 
with the result that the vicar general was obliged to acknowl- 



edge his own mistake.' Shortly after the close of this 
first dispute with the neighboring priest, Father dc la Vali- 
nière rtgretted his act of exoneration; and he again made 
a bitter attack on St. Pierre in a letter to the people of 
Cahokia.' The charges were concerning matters of church 
custom and discipline, about which the two priests dis- 
agreed; but between the lines one reads of the o\'^rweening 
pride, arrogance, and self<onceit of the vicar general, 
which caused him to see in the independence of an inferior 
an insult to his dignity. The people of Cahokia stood 
steadfast on the side of their champion and returned, on 
April 22, 1787, a spirited answer, wherein they asserted: 
"Such a discourse savours of irony &: diffamatory libel, 
[and] together mth the trouble and disunion you have 
spread in the villages of this shore since you are here are 
suflficient to determine us to declare to you that we will 
never receive or consider you as Grand Vicar of the Illi- 
nois." ' So incensed were the people with this attack, that 
they tumetl for protection to the bishop of Quebec, whose 
superiority they acknowledged, and to whom they sent a 
copy of their answer. Thus this dispute ended in the 
severance of all connection in ecclesiastical matters between 
Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 

Exactly what was the relation existing between Father 
Gibault and the new vicar general is not re\'ealed by the 
letters, but it is easy to believe that the former would not 
surrender his position as superior, which he had held for 
years, without a struggle; and there exists some evidence 
that the two men were not on friendly terms. Father de 
St Pierre after his conflict with the vicar general sup^rarted 

• PriMed f». p. I4S. Ym S«. PivTP ^mA mm nvAiwà Wl po««n, t*^ p. jga. 

* TW iMIcf b fcinilMl poM, (k f4« 
» *>*. [I 5H- 



the cause of Father Gibault. In a letter to Barthelend 
Taidiveau, the Illinois agent to Congress, he urged the 
appointment of Father Gibault as vicar general, for be 
writes, "he has always exercised [it] with honor & satis 
faction to his brethren, our neighbors, & all the Christians." * 
Only once did Father de la Valinière mention Father 
Gibault in his correspondence, but that once is sufficient 
to show his opiniwi. A year after his arrival at Kaskaskia. 
he was already displeased with his position, and wrote on 
May 26, 1787, to the bishop of Quebec, begging to be per- 
mitted to return to Canada. Concerning the conditions 
in Illinois be wrote: "A Carmelite without letters of priest- 
hood has come here and is arousing the people to insurrec- 
tion, and M. Gibault continues alwa>'s the conduct which 
is known to you." ' Father de la Valinière was not the only 
priest who longed for an opportum'ty to leare the Illinois 
œuntry to reside in Canada. In all the letters of Father 
Gibault to the bkhop of Quebec, he begged the latter to recall 
him. Even Father de St. Pierre grew wean* of the harsh life 
of the frontier and wrote a letter to a fellow priest in which he 
requested to be permitted to serve in the diocese of Quebec' 
The difficulties that Father de la Valinière created for 
himself in eoJesiastical affairs were nothing to the storm 
he aroused by his interference in politics. As was pointed 
out in the introduction to the Cafwkia Râcords* his 
nature was such as to fit him to give such an impetus to 
French opix>sition to the tyranny of John Dodge as 
"to make their uprising successful; and it is probable that 
his influence was one of the principal factors that led to 

ilMi Hit hmr rtMixlM iliÉt VilwBïi >>il i^ili f mFewmIiIi iipiMi iiiimiBÉii.liiiii 



the political changes in Kaskaskia in 1786 and 1787, by 
which the faction of Doclge was overthrown and the French 
party placed in the ascendency. The assistance that the 
priest rendered at this time must have won for him a cer- 
tain amount of lemjwrary popularity and have made the 
people ready, for a time, to tolerate his hasty temper and 
arbitrary rulings in church matters; but, when he con- 
tinued what they regarded as his ecclesiastical tjranny, and 
also attempted to prolong factional discord in politics, 
after the visit, in the summer of 1787, of the United States 
troops under Colonel Harmar, whose conciliatory action 
tended to harmonize the factions; and particularly when he 
opposed the proposal of Barthclcmi Tardiveau to seek from 
the Continental Congress some reparation to the French 
for their sufferings by a grant of land, all the hot passions 
of the people, which had been somcwliat restrained bylhcir 
respect for the priestly ofTice, broke out ; and in the defence 
of their agent in Congress, they drew up that long list of 
grievances against Father dc la \*alinière, which is printed 
in this volume.' They accused him of demanding money 
for licenses for the marriage of slaves, such as had never 
before been chîtrged, and with preaching publicly against 
M. Janis for refusing to submit thereto; they claimed that 
he insulted his parishioners from the pulpit and called 
them Tories, rebels, and traitors; they said that he had 
encouraged the reWval of "superannuated lawsuits;" that 
he was the leader of an unreconciled faction; that he had 
denied the sacraments to people simply because he hated 
them. The list of accusations is a long one, and should 
be read; but it should be remembered tliat it was made 
for the purpose of discrediting the statements made by the 



priest to Congress, wherein be opposed the grant of land 
to the French. To make their point the accusers hare 
evidently included erery act of the priest that could in any 
way be shown to be tyrannical and arrogant. 

Are these accusations true ? That is difficult to deter- 
mine, but our judgment should be tempered with a knowl- 
edge of the situation in the Illinois villages. Kaskaskia 
had been without regular religious guidance for several 
j-ears; and no doubt the conditions prevailing there 
might have been described in the words, probably 
extravagant, which Father Gibault used concerning Vin- 
ccnnes: "You know neither these re^ons nor the 
manner and nces of those who inhabit tlu^m. In 
Canada all is d\iUzcd, here all is barbarous. You are 
in the midst of justice, here injustice dominates. There 
is no distinction from the greatest to the least except that of 
force; of the tongue pernicious, calumniatory, and slander- 
ous; of crying very loud and ^ving forth all sorts of insults 
and oaths. Evei>'body is in poverty which engenders theft 
and rapine. Wantonness and drunkenness pass here as 
elegances and amusements quite in style. Breaking of 
limbs, murder by means of a dagger, sabre, or sword (for 
he who wills carries one), are common, and pbtols and 
guns are but to)-s in these regions. And who has one to 
fear but the strongest? No commandant, no troops, no 
prison, no hangman, always, as in small places, a crowd of 
relatix'es or allies who sustain each other; in a word absolute 
impunity for these and ill luck for the stranger. I could 
name a great number of persons assassinated in all the vil- 
lages of this region, French, English, and Spanish without 
any consequence whatsoever; but I shall satisfy mjracif in 
naming two recently murdered : M. Guyon, the younger, who 



Studied at Montreal, killed his father-in-law with a gun at 
Kaskaskia; and, yesterday evening, one named Bellerose 
killed another man here with a knife. In a month I fear 
I may be able to count ten of these murders. In spiritual 
matters everything is the same or even worse. The most 
solemn feasts and Sundays are days given up to dances and 
drunkenness and consequently to quarrels and battles. 
With dissension in the homes, fathers and mothers in dîs- 
conî with their children, girls subome<i an<l mvLshed in the 
woods, a thousand other disorders which you are able to 
infer from these." ^ 

This picture is probably overdrawn, but in the eyes of 
a religious enthusiast such a.s Father de la Valinière, it 
would have exactly described his view of Kaskaskia. His 
position as priest demanded that he reform his parish, and 
had he been asked to defend himself against the accusations 
of his parishioners, his answer might well have been again 
in the words of Father Glbault: "Can the people who do 
such things endure a priest, who spares nothing in order 
to set the faults of these sinners Ixforc their vcrj' eyes, and 
openly rebukes them with vigor in private and public, with- 
out avenging them^lvcs, at least by their tongues, for the 
restraint to which he reduces them and for the shame to 
which they are exposed, for often they believe themselves 
well hidden. On account of this they slander the priest 
in every way, treating him as they will without fearing 
anything." ' 

The difficulties of determining the truth of the accusa- 
tions against Father de la Valinière arc vcrj' great, for they 
were made by men eager to discredit his testimony and 

■ Fed. p. 144. 



îiritated by his attempts at a reform of spiritual coDditions. 
Still after all allowances arc made for these circumstances, 
the memory of the succession of similar outbreaks in his 
former and later parishes makes us believe that he was 
peculiarly unfitted to minister to a pioneer commum'ty. 
Here as elsewhere his career lea^'es in the mind a picture of 
a man who was hot-headed, erratic, arbitrary-, and tactless. 
His moralit}', his learning, and his generosity to the poor 
were not sufficient to counterbalance these faults. His inter- 
ference in political affairs had made impossible his further 
usefulness in Illinois, for only a handful of Frenchmen 
still dei-otedly followed his lead. He must ha\^ realized 
his failure, and with a heavy heart left the village in 1787, or 
the early part of 1788, to return to the East by way of New 
Orleans. The remaining years of his life do not interest 
us here. After serving for a time in New York State, he 
returned to Canada, for which he had a warm affection, 
and there be died in 1806.' 

At the time of the departure of the vicar-general, he left 
in his district the two priests with whom he had quarreled. 
Father Gîbault at Vincenncs, and Father de St. Pierre 
at Cahokia. Neither of these were to remain long on the 
American side. This was the period of the Spanish ascen- 
dency in the West, when the government of Spain was mak- 

every effort to spread her influence up and ilovm the 
àippi. To this end she intrigued with Kentucky 
leaders, and was generous in her offering of land grants 
to all immigrants. Particularly did she tempt the French 
settlers in Illinois by offering and actually giving them gener- 
ous plantations in the Spanish territory. In order to make 
the attractions greater, Catholic priests were needed; and 



two ends would be served by securing those on the American 
side: Spain would supply her own needs and would leave 
the French settlements in the United States without spiritual 
guidance. Father de St. Pierre was the first to accept the 
offers and in 1789 took charge of the parish of Stc Genevieve, 
which he served till 1797.^ Father Gibault succeeded St. 
Pierre at Cahokia and for two years resisted the pressure 
of the Spanish authorities to secure his services. He was 
finally persuaded, in 1792, to follow many of his parishioners 
of Illinois îïcross the river, where he became priest of New 
Madrid.' A third priest, Father Ledru, sent by Mr. Car- 
roll to Illinois in 1789, scarcely stopped at all on the eastern 
shore, but passed to St. I^ouis the same year.* Thus ended 
in failure the first attempt to organise the Catholic Church 
in the Northwest under the United States. The history 
of success belongs to a later period. 


* Tlau'Cl:, JlUlaty vj UUuurt.ti., loi; Duim. "Failur Ciltauli, llw Pairioi PrIeMcf th* North- 
«(«," in TnunaiUoin of the til. SfaSt Jliil. Sixirh, Igaj, p. u. 
*fo»(, p. siy 




From what passed between M^ Keimady * & myself I was ia hopes you 
would have sent a parcel of Horses and Breed* Mares (particularly the 
latter of the Spanish Breed) by Land to Pittsburgh or Philad". I have 
never since then heard from you. The Conveyance between New 
Orleans & Philad' is now blocked up by the misunderstanding between 
the Colonies & Brittain. We are contending for our Liberties & have 
hitherto succeeded beyond our Hopes, for Quebec is the only Port now 
occupied, by the British Forces in America. 

I have now to request that you will purchase & send to me at Pitts- 
bltfgh so as to arrive there next October or November, fifteen, twenty or 
Thirty of the best Mares & Geldings or Horses you can purchase & in 
April or May following as many more, always preferring breed' Mares 
or Fillies of the Spanish Breed & none to exceed 8 or 9 years old, for all 
which I will either allow you the Cost & Charges or what they shall be 
valued at on their arrival at Pittsburgh by two Persons to be mutually 
chosen by us or our Attomies, as you shall advise me by Silver Heels 

I have some time since undertaken the disposal of the Lands in Indi- 
ana or the Retribution Grant, for the Proprietors ;* of whom your R. W. 
is one, &: considerably interested. I suppose his Share will be near 
;i^ooo sterl". They have appointed me Secretary & Receiver General 

* f&trlck Kenaedji prabab^y went to KA»1utU« u aa agmi of Btroi^Oi WhartgD ft iSatzm u 

aiity n* i;AA, noil v>ii mlrrrd liilu [srlnotlilii *ilb Kithard WiiuUin In iTjt Krannlif rrudr un 
npêdiiion u-p ih« lllinoiirivrr in « tuch of eai>ptt minot. The jciinuJ, which ht krp'i wnipriniei] hy 
rilthat Iiiiiar, In hit ra^ifrapiiiiaX ntatriplio» el lln Weiltnt Terrilary »} NdrlW Amrtmi, jJ rA , 1>in- 

cLc.p. HI. Krnntity wui rriJrtillr'iiicnf llie indcT* «rhu «jrmiBthurJ «rftli the Antrffrnn caukCmd 
pnhbabl)>u»r4 liLsinâumn iraotiiiihi? Frmch, fci on account afpvrMcuLidilficutliBwiifa h»pattii«, 

Vltim Cv/xsK Rogtn Clark 9.pi>Àr«d, Kraatily w>i immMlUtriT ut t1b«]andapp>iDinl <a lli« Mmmb- 
s»r)i Jfiarltiirnt. i" B<jwrTinii*ir JiiUfiu! '* in P.niilnli. W, M . Cettqtuii o/ JAf inrilary Sjirlkvrit of 

) Al ÛK oii<hT«ii]( of (hr Indian War iHiciirn ni the CoiMpJnqr o( Pootiac. nuny Uadcn, wh-ii ha<l 
niriiKl inM i1ir Wng olih ilirii KiKiiiaulin thr f»ll vfFuri DuqiHUi«,fliUrfmlMiw«luwM. Tbcyini- 
innliiilrl)' prliliDnn] (>nirr.J (idxcuid lalct the Briliih (iortnuncnt Set teimtnirxemMit. Init n»! «uc- 
cttdioa, tiirnnlii>i3icIn>llinislreBiwtioai$l( Wllliim JobiiaoD ti»(]«xtTiLCt<da jjramiKafrfU'iliuii'Ki. 
A< Ihc rrntr of Van Suriwii.iaijW,d,Er>nta(lBn<l, amithol liieOhti,1yiAK between lliel.itilcKrif 
sirlu «od the Munonrttirii. wi« nudg tu ucnr of ihc ttaier* hy tbf 5b Naiioiii, Tb^r indm ihcn 
nUilil i«hrri IhcIndLaru Co, anii tail Majiji Trent tin J S-lhiilcI \l'lviiti-n (o Rnjcliiiid lL>|imallirlr ditnu. 
(a tT^';, Ihere mspubllthnj la LonJoii a pamplilri cniillnl " Vinr o< thr Tilk (o IttduiU, A Tnctol 
Counlty iin the Kirrr < )hki " Tli» niii irjirtiiltil iti l'1iil.-ir|e-1p]ii,i in 1-76 Altrr Ix-int iMiribod lo 
iCTCTit pctwms, (511 the tr^tifncmy iif Ilu Sininiirt. Sarnuïl Wharton U now accepted u the AutW: but 
aaotber fras.-is»ti>il(il willi him, Kilir.inl HonCTolt irriiiiig i.> Ucnî.itnm l-'ianlilinoo Auiu»! 7, t77J, 
dkint th»l be u4 WharwonTOlcil. CdVmAj/ W f'anWi» J'afen \a Amer. I'hll. Socieiy, I., ijj. 

OnOctoha 1, 1776, the (.rofiriedir» -if ['nii» «r-nt s mrnioiiij mi Ihc »ubtei-| n( ihrir daim 
tOthcCcncral Aawmblr»! Vlnrini«.bui ihtit demanda were relcOed in 1771- 'lli* propiifWrm 
llm bnMi|)U thrlc daim» brfrirr Ci.iifrr*» wlirir rlitr yrtrtt landinnnl. \ iirw CDinpnny InA [he 
qucstioolâinitOtlxSuprTmeCourtof the United Sutei; but VlriinU hnvlnii (c«<irr>l ih? rlf^rnth 
■ mfwirn^t to lbs Cotutilni inn. byohïcb ïndivMuals rrf oat ttair wm prohibited from lirlnningmiEt 
MklMt aaMlMr atiK, the Mbjcct mi doKd. OMi Co.ifSS. In ihe l'a. Illêi. Soc.; Vitm oi llu 
TOâtt f«dAiM {Pblladdphfai. i-nS>: Va Suit Papna; Wiiwor, tfiiftMnf Vnmaf, 96; /««• 
mial Ikt HmtÊ »} Muaiu tl Va., Joue. iTTd. 


of the Land Office, bul the Troubles prevents my proceeding further at 
present especially as I am much engaged as Superintendant for Indian 
Affiurs. But I think it may t>c well worth your R. W.s making a Trip 
this Way with Sih-cr ÎTeels; by him I will expect at least three or four 
of the handsomest breed' Marcs you can purchase & send to me. 
Tomorrow I shall Set out on my Return to Pittsb" where I shall gen- 
erally reside 5: hope to hear vcjy particularly from you if not see you 
with Silver Heels. 

I am with Regard Your most Ob* Scrv* 

Geo: MoRCAK.' 

Whatever Remittances you can make in the Bill Way will be very 
acceptable. What could a few thousand w* of Pouder & Lead be 
purchased for at the Illinois? Do acquaint mc with the prices of Dry 
' Goods in general & encourage your Friends to send an Adventurer to 
Pittsburgh this Fall or next Spring of Stroud w^*" sells there for £21.10, 
p. pices. 

' Oeoiee Mornu, aoo qÎ Evan. w»a bora in Pfelkdeliihi* in iT4i.«u«lucal«d ftl rrincclon Col- 
lcCP,*iuJ }i)innl,iiiler (nidgutinn. ihr trading Ann uf Ib/nlun md Uf IuiIiiq The ihrre ouinm wrrc 
taaa Ouown tnU bnuidil diliiculiia Ijv Ihtlr lomtt U Iha time of lb« outmafc Of Uw CcMWpintcy nf 
Ponibc. The firm deuiminnl ii> viiMmw (tom riie bmtnen of tnuHiwuiMoamjtliejr^lKiuld rM-nvn 
front Uieir l«aui, 4lld ipnul Itrir cnettia ha Uad tpccoUtlon. la t}H tb«r look mmimm to b(injt 
thiir a)]J«i iboul bj mding ibHt jaaag pirnuT lo die HlbnU ciiuattj, what they «iKcwd lo n»[t 
Uffc laoAu hr Mpplyinc IKt ronl ttnoitt «ilK iMoviaiiinA, (tadincwitli Un Frtncb, tna tniimt fun; 
■ncslRbinii inaumetlrne ùuj lortned > omptiny wlUi (tovmuit FraolLl in and ^ mil Lm JohoMnlo 
«ukIlmc bud in ibe lUiaoii. Bnjaniin Franklin cofuenwd touoociilt himself vith ibtiknd ano' 

^mnr anil tMom* Im rqireM«iut<ve la Ensloiul, wbare hU fHendslilii «Uh I.iir[| Slii-IIiuniv gnvr Ihb 
Pliilulelpliiï aHocialiiA mi adranUM ova oAct canpelilnn. The failure ol Ihia t^xn utd (he j«r- 
tldiNiiaa ol Samnrl WlwrMn In tti» Wt,l polr Company wiraiuad bb panovt. At Ihv trwty d Fori 
Slaiiwli Ibe arm «ere anboac thaie1ndenrciinbunolb;IbelAdlaiMby«graal of land WMlti iif Ihe 
OUo. ThBpv«tU«iotlMladknaCum^ny wlihwhMGcotivMorinnwsiwdONlyaMortainlfoT 
lanjryean. Moruaipent mtnl jttn in Illifioii fmni ijM nnwarda, le*vlii( therein 1770 iv raity 

^ Ibc noil mf , Th« tnd* wu nM to Ruccwajoj uhad beta onlkipatni b* Ibe nulnen line Mor ■ 

^^U bcanw iurdved in dbpuie* with Uie arUtrarj linitnunl-Cdood WULlna, Uw commaivUiii. ^nd 
WU Ihteiwii inio ptbun. 

ll «M> during the year* he «i^mt in Illiniii» dut he i^tiitnl lh>( kiia'"lni4r <il lltR Indinm ihct he 
wed iBKr in lb< intenal ol lb« rrvollitiK fotonln. Al IbeoulbitskodheRernluliFinuY Warbp thoK 
tbcMtIc ul liJA Cdunlrymcn and ViU drclot hr Cuncraa, April lo. itT^i acrni Tii Imtian alfair» in (he 

F-abUladefnmneiii. Jn thiipmElian hcuMbblriawUilpwIAlKlBdunt incounwrmd iht Rritkb 
wlumcc aiDonj Iheiulîonv I^lcr Mornnwnatn lbecoininifaMr7deinrtmtnlur the Bimy and %%iait 
with Wwhtngton llui urine «bit«r at Valler Forge; 

After Ihc RrvriluLiiiniity War be turned tiUtrea <rc(twaida(>i>>,and, aller an uniuccevdiLJ eCnet lo 
ntdl U unonent oitti Ihc Coatfnenttl CoDjcrna for londhlhe lllinob «iiuntrv, hniinrri|r<l what 
aettppOêS w*» » brfeirsni tciim ihc S|iint>!i itDvinunrnt ±ni founded tiew NLiil/id. AlihuMgh Ihe 
HRlaXMBt m* CXIcntil'èly advimi»fd tnd mxnj hiil ^nuaital l» Juin II. the w:hnne vu litnusht 19 
lMH|lllbT tberrtatal d! (•uvrmo Mir^: ii> i:->iiliiiii iheerani, Thu rduul iru Inr^rly dat (■> the in- 

, triCUM el liencral WUkiruoa. Ailer ihii l^ilurr Cul»ii'l Miirtia wiilnl un hin l.irni ol Muricuiu in 
V PransylT-jnii, whtte he diirl in ■Sn> r»»1iiiiel Murtcm w,ti thtimiclio"' hiiHfe fond û( urticul- 

,' Bmb Even «hm a youni man he inirwIuCTd mure mudrm mi-ihmlit Binanji lb» Jr«ich o( Illinoli tod 

l^lurlbuied Im (mil tree* and Tegrtablr »nl in ilinn Ai ÏIiitahiiai he had a modd larm which *■■ 

■fcnirtd br many viiteon. CÛter.C. E..8rAiiJk A/n«Mni /lM«('jJiaiinU1n*orE^{M.ioo3:Houdi, 

_,, Jttaoty »] lifUtmri, II., 109 H iif- tlardinf, liilU Mt#pin, '■I.Hh; uf ColnncI Oeme Mot(iii." 

I h WtiliiittPit Oiitntr, May 11,1004: ^unrMi p/ (*/ C^Xri/wIiJ C-w/'m Icomull lodci): GeiK« 

[ iSiir^n'ufjIlrrKimir! in C-iiTittliflSbnTy. ntltburs. and Ci>iiv "'."i Illlnni*' Hlil Ulifir)-: MSS. 

[ fcoiaa) nillrcinl riiim ilnctn^inti In pMmdoovf edlWr; MSS. in Pa.. Uiat. Sodclï: MïS. m Ulvl- 

itioa of Pulilk Recordi, Pa. Slalc library. 



Match Coats jgjo & £35. 

Linnens such as used to sell at a/6 Jk 3/- are now 6/- & 9/-. 
Powder fb Lead in greal demand. 
[Addressed:] A Mess™ 

Mess" Winston &; Keiinady Neg*" aux Illinois. 
[Endanrd/] N" ti. 

Daniel Mukrav to Governor Carlrton, March 31, 1777. 

[K. MSS., Court Record, f. lOJ. — Atlc»led copy.] 

Illinois SsK 

To his Excel' General Carlton Uovemour of the province of Canada 
&ca Sics. Residing at Quebec' 

The Petiiicin of Daniel Murray ' Agent for the Contractors Patrick 
Kennedy, and Thomas Bentley' of Ka&ka&kias Merchants Uumbly 
She wet h 

Thai Sinue Capt Hugh Lord's departure * from this Country & M' 
Dc Rwhclikve' being vested with the liovcrn™* wc your Humble Peti- 
tioners, and his Majesty's most Faithful Subjects find to our bitter 
Grief our Lilicrtics Trampled upLtn and Justice in all cases Refused us, 
and when wc presume to argue on Such injustice, the Said De Rochc- 
blavr ruts the maier Short by Informing us that Such ts the Laws in 
Frame which he orders us to follow, Saying he knows no other; that 
we being the only English merch" or Inhabitants Residing in this place 

' Tlih petilUn w» puliMibn] (>x I uclgr BwlEnith in the /IJ. //ul.CsitfnïKMi.i .ivt.ud uiIm (o 
Mitk. Uitl. CMutioHi, xii., jji. Thccupi» xr^tx ukca Irim Ihccopr in lb« llAldimin'd Colleciliin 
la Um On«^»lr»i» Archivn A compciKuMi wilh iliir .ibovr cnpyihtnn nmny ili!1rrmrr>. vimru! ■rhidi 
knoodeilbtduEto th«niuukoi>l tbc iTrDciiicTibewl» nude tbii truucript \a the Court Kccûrd, 
batothcnirr of sudi schancm ihil Ihecondiiiicia maM be ital Uttiilo. "lime nninc a ilsned to 
dKCOMin>dcccruiad>an|C«tatliepclillon hdorcïcndtcijlilIoiMcciv- 
CTTlarM Cuuda. Wrnu.rrqpid. thnrlorr. the copy hncpriated aion uidrr Jrafl ii{ tEv peliticHi. la 
sc^leodhemAar laulu due lathe FtencbtcrttM. AfcVomiMlMU haT« boen luprit jcd from Uw lUdl- 
lusd oopy. 

' Dsnid MuTTBV vat brollifT of (h« beHcr knowo Wiltkro Uumiy. who «mc l-o the lllirvi» Coua- 
liyin 1 767»» tlir j(riil "f llir Pliiliiilrl[ihiii finnitt PnnhaaodCo. tiater the kluirayn formni s, pirl- 
ncnhip will) Louii \ Ivul of KdiLisUi and M IttrM w«r« bueroud in (be purchase ol Uod jrom the 
Indioiu by llir llliimiii aiirl llic Wnluuh l^n'i Cnw.fminin, llinld Mtirmy wit in ku>Li.ikLi iC Ihr 
llntt Clirt o«i3pi*d tbe villaiR and kivv tluit olTitwdwi'li'] hriij, Hcranaineil in ICiul^iïii during 
the following frar> and wa» thtil in tt cgiiarrrl ntrr nmnrr alT«irAr Amrr. SUii^ F^ipm, Pttidu l^indi 
(conaull ittdex under Illinibkivl WmbubLsniJ Co); George Morgta, trUrr ilw^, copy in 111. Suic 
Hiu. Libnr>, XuiJbiiM USS^ fna.p.tH. 

* Cowuli Ind<i <A til nul CKl^rÙmu, I), uu) of ihtit «iiliimt. 

* Capuifl Huf t) l«rd woi Itic lut Urflitb oAcct coinn)Aa<Slnc la_ Ulloot*. Mc wiu appointed 
June II. 1J7I, and withdrew «ilh Mt Itaopi in Ma). 177^ ll naa durinx hi) cnnimand that Fori dc 
ChutKi KM atandbncd at Ihc corniiund of Ucncnd Gtge. C:iptBlii l^ord Ki\e trt±i utMxciion tu 
the pRficb lahahLLaniii. KjiknttU USS : Ama.a^»' I. Faftti. in PtiUic Rrtord lyf^ia, W. 
tifii UAion. K- U., Kfidntlau Pa^t't, in Chinco EOtt. Society* <:<ilUtttetii. l<r, 

*Roch()ilaTcnulbea£Cn)k(l in chiiceof Dritnh înlerolt In Itiinakby ConUin Liird, when the 
bttct ielt the COWID7. Sor/A /fiii.C<'''KJi«i,^ll. (mtiuill Indn): iiitam,'?..G., FkHif RmMMw* 
axai the JEoefctUaw raptfi. in Chio>(o Hist. SoCJiMy's Cffi;Rjin<i, it 


VK take the liberty In Represent lo you our unhappy Situation and to Uy 
our Grievances before you hoping from you a Speedy and Imediatc 
Redress, for without Such it will not be possible for an Englishman to 
Remain in this Country as the said De Rocheblavc is daily imposing 
upon us by denying us the Justice which by law and Equity we have a 
right to Demand at his hands both for the Security of our Property as 
as well as our Persons, neither of which we look upon to [be] safe under 
our Government as Englishmen and English L^ws are to our very great 
Mortification dispised by the public in General and apears lo be so by 
him the said Rocheblave in Particular. That with Such Inhabitants as 
we happen to have any Controversy respecting ace''' or demands [, un- 
avoidable in business, he acts in the first place as Counsel] for such 
against us, and afterward as Judge. He one day decides an affair in our 
favour and immediately after Issues out a Sentence for the opposite party 

— that contrary to our wise Constitution and to the great Detriment of 
the Merchants here he acts in the Capacity of a trader buying and 
Selling goods both by wholesale & Retail & has been known to make 
Proposals fur the purchasing of a Ca[^n to a very Considerable amo^ 
which he would have Effected bad his Credit tjcen efjuivalent thereto — 
public adveniscm' with Rcsjjcct to Property he onicrs in most arbitrary 
manrr to be lorn down which he ha» Ikco known to do twice in one day. 
He forbid the trading of liquor t» the Sa%-agrs under the Severe Penalty 
of two Hundred dollars ' and those very Savages Not withstanding such 
orders being constantly Drunk when in the Village upon an enquiry 
matle<l him Even to his fare of Ijcing the Very person that Intoxi- 
cated them with Rum or Taffia which they Said he sold unto them for 
Beaver and Otters &c &c. Such is his partiality in favour of the French 
that upon the approach of savages coming to war last Spring he .sent nut 
a party of men under French coutors to know the design of their coming, 
that Such partiality is not to be wondered al when we consider the said 
Rocheblave on this country's lidng taken jKisscssion of by the English 
abandoned his property here and j)refered the Spanish Govemm* loours 

— taking the oaths of Allegiance thereto — That Tis not withmilthe 
Cognizance of any [icr»on in this Country so far as we can Learn that he 
the said Rochebla^-e has ever been qualified by taking the Oalhs of AUc- 
^ance or Supremacy previous to the holding of such an Office. That 

■folhwrf4rfhffc'' dmutnlMti 


abstracted from all manner of Prejudice whalsovvtir wt; do Dot took upon 
tlie said Kochebkve, from bis Behaviour al all times und his Piirtiality 
against us on all Occatioos to be by any means as EtigLishman's Friend 
having endeavored to throw Asjjcrtions on the Charrecter of some of us 
without the Least Foundation and merely intended tu Veil his own Ini- 
quitous Practices openly countenancing Known Villains in opposition 
against us & even Encouraging Savages to Rob our Boats whose Sole 
motive was that of Trading amongst them in ibeir winter Hunting 

We humbly hope that your Excellency will be Kind Enough to Com- 
passionate our Situation and Grant us Such Redress and that in the most 
Speedy manner possible as British Subjects have a right to Expect at 
the hands of an English Govemour, and your Petitioners as in Duty 
bound wiU Ever Fray, dated at Kaâkaskîas the 31st March 1777. 

Et Plus Bas Est Ecri Je Soussigné declare reconnoitre que le présente 
requête m'a été présentée Et lue pour que J'eusse a la signer Ce que jai 
toujours refusé constamment n'ayant trouvé rien de juste En foy de 
quoy j'ai signé pour valoir ou Besoin sera aux Kaskaskia le 11"* 7^" 
1777. signé Patt Kennedy * 

Daniel Murray to Thomas Bentley, May 25, 1777. 

[B. M.. »i84s. i. 4.— A. L. S.*] 

Dear Sta, 

Youra I received this day from M" Bentley. I am no way deceived 
in my Opinion of M'^Carty's Integrity. You were hardly past the Bar- 
rier, (after my Return from the Fort from Dinner) when my good Friend 
Kennedy accompanied by Drouart came with a Message from Viviat 
desiring I should come and assist him and other Arbitrators assembled 
without my knowledge or Approbation to settle the Books, which I 
refus'd as he had hitherto Acted without Consulting me. On the mor- 
row I received a paper by our famous Notary ' which I refus'd and threw 

I Timnalxlon ^ And Mow I* vHliai, I, ihc iinArm^gtird, ilttlare ihil the pTHmt jictlllon wm pr^ 
MnUd4lid tttid to mc in unlet itml I shauld lixn, J (hinii Ihit I luvc cuiutantly rffjuil Iq do, lûnir I 
Htrt found Qothioii jimi thirplii. In filih ul nihlcli 1 luxe i!^a1 h> valliiiir ih* alnvE wtincviT 
■Wt «lull be acoJ. Al Eukukk. Seplimbu 1 1, i;;;. 

tSigil")) Patuicx ^ËVflxrC. 

'Tbn hu bt€o prinlod ia UiJi. HiM, C»tlttH«Ht. m^ 417, frotn a mm in CaniAin ArdiivB. 

■ FraoÇohi CarlKninnui iMnnaclllWUniitiry in ItlllN^ h the BrilbtipcriDil Aricr lilt (icupi- 

ui>ra oi tbtcoaauy by Clock «m thecMMblnhinaiiof thecounat ^'i^u*"' br lofaa I'odd, Qvrlioa- 
OBUi tm docicd dcrk. He bdd tbb ajipuialmtnt udIQ tbccuurlwMdiiMJiwI. ui ihclâllol i7R>, by 


after him, on his being gone I perused it, and found it was a demand of 
some Books I have in my possession without which the arbit" could do 
nothing, tho' they were two days, almost, closely Tmploy'd, so was 
forced to Adjourn it till ray Brothers arrival.' Next day Viviat^ Pro- 
tC9lcd ag' my proceedings but our Not" from his Rcccpt" the day before 
was afraid to bring me the Copy of the Protest, but srnt it by a child 
scald liltc a Letter, t have heard nothing since nor have I spoke with 
our Command' since the day of your Departure. This day, Charle- 
villes' Balteau arrived but Louis is Dead at Orleans — As to News I 
hear of none yet, they have been too busy unloading today, nor have I 
as yet got any Letters, they have Bro' very little Mcrchd* being obliged 
to Ballast the Batteau with Bags fill'd with Earth. Your Mullatrcss is 
come up her passage, being f. ;io paid by your Cousin Toj>ham. There 
is two Packets from London Inclos'd in a few lines from Miller, wherein 
he 5a)'s that he wrote to Morgan and Mather an Acco^ of the Articles 
you want and that he would have sent your Negro at this time but that 
the Balteaus were all full but thai he will send him by Winston which is 
Ihe chief part of his Letter, he does not so much as acknowledge the 
Receipt of the Peltry you sent him. Pray God that Winston has not 
plaid the Rog;ue. As to your Ijcing Complain'd of already to Gen' 
Carlcton, you need not Dread that, for since your Departure Roche- 
blave drew out a mmplafnl ag*' you and waned all the principal 
Inhabitants here to sign it, whicli they Ab:>oIuiely Refused to do 

Rtcbvd ^Ifmitan. firlhrn ncnrnipanlrij Wliulnn In Vïrxlnl* tnpmml (hrcawaf th« Wlnaton pnrty 
(otii«iU.IoiQTemn)aii. LiialwpetiiiDaMi IhfCuntiamnI Congnw. (Sm fwM, p.]fa.} He reap. 

boV Bfn af St. Clair machad KlAufcU. hravrer. C*tt>anDC»ux wt» utotn Mting u <UA ami iioury 
■ml d«B«H«) to ibe ttnt mnaatm ib* anhivn. Ljin he uoii (» Ihc Siunûh trrdtory, vli-rre 
Ui nasM anMU* u on huubituu of St Cliula. JO. Uùl.Ci)Onitm$,U. (caasMiilnilexi-.lloutk. 
Lciaii,J7Jil.«/Jfûwarj, 87,11, iB. 

> W1DkmUiim*wuloTMqiviiiiiei0slor pTAnks &Coniittnyai FortPiM. Be lini ii&[>cin>il 
ia niinobic 1767 lu lap rrpmcnUllw ol (nil fidnknil later mined inlu lannimliip with Loub VlrUi 
cf KulaAb. flc«ct(4uictnt}ortlieiniiMMLAndO>r[i[iAoy'ntklchbi)u|tiiia iitjImdi tbelndbiu 
[«ro taigt Incti as lind an the tMinob and Ohio Ritm Thi» purcFusr wiiii triimpllf diiallown) by 
tht Itrtiiib RiTcmmeiii: but ifler theoulbralE d the Rcvolattoian' War imd the occupaibn of the 
NDnbnst, Mum; pmfnlnl la Ihr ^'ickuiu Aiarmbljr i tnnnarùl in brivilf iif hiimHf and uaocUtf* 
and iMtt to the L'jmtincnt;il Cmuarw. Il bu brcn linpoHiblc to lollow Murray'! urcv. but be c\i- 
dmll; iclil>d in KmiTicI:}-. aad hi* on Ihc irakr ihal wn> raiwrl in iroB ifaiiul the Kpntucky Rnolu- 
llnn». Katkijilia M.'^S.; Cet-egr Morsan, l^llrr JIiu>t; fa. Suit Fafm. i., ji*: Amtt. SUIe 
FaffTi, PaMii LmJi (cotuull Indn uodor III. & Wiboih I.iikI Co); fll. Bin. CaUtaûn), 9, 
(COmull Index). 

* Louli VtvUl wu ■ pramlneTit Ftandi Toads' dtuing the Qriibh pvfad. Re <ns appointed a 
airmhtt oi throtutt ttttxed by Liwunaiii-Oriduf WDkiai in ijtS aodlciited b th« opcatition la |)ui 
conm-inilaril. Forhii rnnntciloa villi Uumyond ibeWaliaabljuuIC^aMnrvrlauaiwitr. Hkaup- 
purl wuriirn In Ihc RiilbXi lnl«rtsU acttiM Ihc AiMrtc»l OtHnt. Um dealli i>ccuiT«d hi Ike l«JI ul 
IÏ7Ï, KailiaiJrU SfSS. 

*Biofrapbicit (totinsoT all uMM apjMrlag h (ha««Biui ol 1787 'EU b« fouqd in the tool-cioM 
to that docuinonl. Scr piril, p. 41 4. a. >. 


particularly the Charlcvîlles Bienvenue Laffont Plassy Janîst' &c. 
No Doubt l)ut your Friends Viviaï Ccrrc and La Chance might have 
done it but they arc too few to Countenance it when so many Refus'd 
to do it,' so that I fancy it will not I>c scnl, however upon a change 
of Government I wint fail in Kxpcwe his Villainous Intention, as to 
the Hunters you write of there is three of them, one of which was here 
before, his name Benj" Lynn but ihey bring no news that I can here of 
worth your hearing*. I shall write you again if I have an Opportunity 
and as to my Assist^ at home in your Abs^* you may fully Depend 
upon it for I have not one Drop of Irish Blood in my Veins a promise 
with me is sacred. M''* Bentley is well, desires her Love and Duty 
to you and prays Earnestly for your speedy and Safe Return, in 
which prayer Sincerely Joins 

Vour assured Friend & H"" Scrv« 
Dan Murray. 

Kaskasklas, 35th May, 1777. 

N. B. I forgot to inform you that there is a great Mortality at 
Orleans by the small-pox. Don Piemass only lost 3 Children and 15 

To M"" Thomas Bentley on his Journey to Canada Recomcnded 
to the care of M' Isaac Levy * at Caho. 

Thomas Bcntlev to Daniel Mi;srav, August i, (777. 
[B. M.. 31845, f. 6. — Copy.»] 

M1SSILAMACKINAC, the I Aug 1777, 
Deak Sik, 

I hope tills will find you on your Rcturu from Post Vincent & doubt 
not but you will \vive explained the nature of our Complaints against 

1 An ihor mm jainol Clitk nnil ^ve him oirdkiJ luppori, wbm he appauri). For biogrxpUcall 
iLûlicca ot Uioii, oxiiiilt Index. 

* Chirga wrrc, hovmci, nude Hgaln^l BralLi7 and lie was irrntccL See pnt, p. tB. 
*TheM wfTç theipleswnt hj Ciriyrtr Rogm Clark, Oark inloninu» tlul he ««I iwoioen, S, 

Mine iin<l H. IJras Mllikv'i ilntciiii^iil timl llirrr wrrc thicc HTma I<i îmgilr Uul &tat\cy luH luit 
eirxciod Ihit ntimbCT, uid «his- may jti'licitc tomf fjrrriou» comoiuiticiiioa be<i»*«n BeQilBy and 
CUrk. Sw Inlrmliietloa. Thr ihini [W«lil)r Juinnl Cl»rk'» »pic» bir inTitniiiM» o« at hit 
own »«wd. Clwk » iltrnftr. io Enalwh, W. H,. CotçMSI el iJm TrmU^ Ntvth^ml vl Mm 
ÂwwOhio, i., 467: é1«i Inlrr iii Aiiur H til. Rtv,, mi.. 40 1; III. Hiit. Collf<liaai, ti . mit. 

• For ib«liitl« thai liltnowQ «r Iraac hrvy oi CihukLi, tut IK. Hit' C'^k<tùm>, ii (coDiult 

•Thit hiu been i>re<ri(wily priatral U Hi. Hid, O^Utiimt,]^ jM', and b A/fcA, Hia CtiUtHau. 
WiX-, \t^. In t»ih ciari the capr «as nudr tmnt aviiy la t!an*>lian Atclilvn- The vaiUnM arc of 
tad* unponua. ThEdi>cumcai ii rapriatol tme for (Iw convcalton oj comrMrôea wiib tbc 
CMOtd of \ive Court qF tJnqulry, pa^, p. tl>. 



M' Rochcblave to Gov' Abbot' aa you proposed. Liltlc did I think 
it would become so very necessary being utterly ignorant of the mischief 
this man was hatching ag;iinst me. Yuu will plainly perceive that he 
has done this in order to get the start of me thinking by such means to 
throw discredit upon my report. You see what Villainy the mind of 
man is capable of, but what indeed may wc not expect of a man like 
him after having taken the Oaths of Allegiance to the three Kiogdoms 
of France Spain & Great Britain ; such a man would not in my opinion 
hesitate on Che arrival of the Americans to enlist hiniself under their 
Banner & even to be one of the first that would do so. 

You must know that I am now a prisoner, Rocheblave having accused 
me of such torrespundencc with the Americans as occasion'd Major dc 
Peyslcr who commands this place to put me in Custody on my arrival 
here, which he informs me he docs by orders from Gov*" Hamilton at 

I am therefore in Consc<]uencc thereof confind to the Fort nor am I 
yet acquainted with the particulars of my accusation. Bomcr' I be- 
lieve Is my accuser in Conjunction with Rocheblave & you will know 
how they both stand affected towards mt, that nothing will be want- 
ing on their parts to compleat my Ruin. However I rely entirely on my 
Innocence to exlricate me frum this Dilemma as God Almighty who 
knows my inmost ttioughts and actions knows likewise I do not deserve 
such trcatm*. 

I beg the favor that on receipt of this you will write a Letter to the 
Governor at Post Vincent desiring he will forward the same to the Gov- 
ernor at Detroit wherein you will please to mention everything you caa 
recollect which has passed betwx-cn us on the North American subject & 
particularly with respect to the barges which went down the Ohio last 
Autumn as you can evidence fur me that on the arrival of such news at 
Raskxskia^ finding that M'' RocheUave did not immediately send off an 
express to give information thereof I mentioned to you that it would be 
nec-essary for us to send one in case he did not, soon after which he dis- 
patched one hintself. You must recollect also I often repeated to you 
how happy wc were to be out of the way & in a Country where wc could 
act a neutral part. Von well know my mind on the subject & how much 

' AppnùuncI mrnil» |inilMlaiMHr''V«ii'j«- al Vinicnna, wlicrc he mnainnt nnir » ihort Unt 
iiaiaa ITI7' thtnn, ). P.. JwdMHd. ti, 

I Uuis Oùtatt ha4 bMa for a Une iwUry at Vlnccuici. Unr b« aituted UomU 1» Barf^ 
KDdumduUtdcdL. Sm/mI, p.ja. 



I abborred the thoughts of interfering on cillicr side ever blaming the 
obstinancy Si, vioieace committed oq both sides as also how much I 
wishd for the arrivai of Kings troops often expresûng my suqirise that 
such were not sent to prevent the Americans sending gunpowder &c. up 
the Mississippi and that you must recollect to have heard me often repeat 
that I had rather see a Hundred Rings Troops arrive than two Thousand 
N. Americans. 

You know the Injustice done me by Rcchcblave on many ocasions 
which you Trill please to explain at largt: as also the Cause of our intended 
Complaints to General Carlton against him Si the Petition on the sub- 
ject which we should have sent had not Kennedy after promising refused 
to sign it.' You were present when he decided the affair of Bomer's note 
to Bazitlc La Chappclle in my favor & you were also present when a 
few days after he sent M"" La Chance with a Parly of men to seize for the 
payment notwithstanding I appealed from his Judgement to the Gover- 
nor who was soon ex[>cctcd at Post Vincent and offerd security. You 
likewise know that he refused to obhgc M"" Viviat to give an account of 
his Transactions with Borner that I might know the value rcccivd of 
Bomer's note giNXi. to M"" Viviat in my name for fourteen hundred & 
odd Livres payable in Beaver at five Livres a pound which he sciz'd for 
the payment. You know perfectly well that he set aside my Mortgage 
upon Bomers house which was duly recorded in the Secretary's books & 
sold the House for the Payment of Jandruu's Mortgage upon llie same 
which was not registerd until several months after mine, as also that be 
ordered to be torn down two Advertisements which I put up Co the public 
in one day protesting against the sale. Omit not to mention Bomer's 
villainy to me and how much be wascountenanc'd ever afterwards by 
Rochcblavc &s also how he countenanc'd Gîrault' in his Behaviour per- 
mitting him lo stay at Kaskaskias several days after I applied to him to 
oblige him to return to his Duty. 

I am not conscious that any part of my Conduct will admit of an 
ambiguous Interpretation & must imagine lis the Corn which was taken 
from Mathews (hat he wants to make a handle of. Some Hints have 
been given me that he woud even insinuate I have supplied Gun* 
powder fic. to the Americans. 

My Invoice will shew the Quantity of Gunpowder & Guns which I 

^ Pm (KU [Yfunl. *et mb, p. 6. 
Iran niruiilt had ifccrily «nlvnl frvoi Roflvid md Kew York. Ilin^iniphinl tkrteh Ui IJI. 


'. LWIaAnai, ii., lO, a, i. 



brouf^ht up with me. Hamilton cao prove that I sold forty Guns to 
Motard in March last & that I left a considerable Quant* on my coming 
away a» also what Gunpowder I left behind me & the remainder being 
to the best of my Recollection little more than three Hundred weight 
wilt shew whether it was too much to be expended for my winters trade 
amongst the Savages as well as at Kaskaskias & at Kahckias wliere in 
fact 1 sold the most. I beg you will enclose at the same time a Copy of 
my kllcr left with you wherein I instructed you to clear up the matter 
about the Com immediately upon the arrival of Captain Johnson * by 
Mathews & MuckVmurray's * affidavits. I do not know if you were 
privy to M' Rochchlavcs offering mc three Hundred weight of Gun- 
powder for Sale last Autumn, if you have knowlegc thereof 'twill be 
right to mention it in your letter. I cannot call to mind whether it was 
before or after he sold snme Gunpowder to M' Bclctrc. 

Hamilton can prove that I left orders in case of the arrival of the 
Americans to hide my goods in Trunks which will shew I had not the 
least intention to sup[K>rl them — un the contrary Mathews and Ham- 
illnn can prove that notwithstanding these Americans sent me orders by 
the former to give no more Gunpowder to the Delaware Indians, I have 
sold them Powder constantly since in opposition to their orders. 

Please to enclose Hamilton & Mathews Affidavits in your Letter as 
also Mucklcmurrays shoud he be there & when you have finished your 
Letter you will do wcU to make Oath that the Contents of such a dale 
is a just and true relation of facts. This you will be kind enough to ac- 
company with your Letter & of alt such Affidavits please to take 
Duplicates or even Triplicates for fear of accidents. 

I am extremely sorry to give you this trouble but am so well convinced 
of your good will to serve injurd Innocence that the nature of my case 
will sufficiently appologizc to you for the same. 

.\lt I wish is that I may be at liberty to return immediately to Kas- 
kaskias that I may avail myself of such evidences as may be necessary 
to clear up my Character which you well know I can do without the 
least Difficulty. Shoud Governor Johnson be arrivd you can ea.sily 
convince him how falsely I am accused when Rocheblavc's malice will 
appear in a most conspicuous light to every impartial mind. I know 

> Mjiitlmr Johiuuntn* apprylnird tkruMiuicii-fsvrniar ol tlie lllinob Country at abnui ihk 
timeliui he ii*v« madr hù apiiouMncc, allhuu^h tt u cvidcai fnim Ibc ibove thil he wu njucinl. 
Can. Ânkhti, H. vul. 40, I> w^- 

■ [>rot»blr ^Villlain Mumy. 



my poor Wife ' will be much adticted at my Situation & you may readily 
imagine how rauch I suScr from such a thought. 

I beg you will endeavour all in your power to encourage her to keep 
up her spirits that my affairs may not suffer from any other Cause than 
that which my absence alone can occasion; no person knows better than 
herself how innocent I am of everything that can be laid to my charge; 
but what is not Villainy capable of & more especially placed in a Man 
like Rocheblave who does not want for understanding sufHcienl to put a 
gloss upon actions of bis own however black & to render criminal such 
as are most innocently intended in others however I tru[st) in God that 
he will release me from the hands of my Enemies & that be will doubly 
load them with that Infamy which they woud so unjus[tly] heap upon 
roe, such being the reward due to their actions. 

1 am, dear Sir, 

Your very obliged h'^" Serv*.' 
[Addressed:] M' Dan' Murray at Kaskaskias. 
[End^>rsed:] N' 7. T. B. 

Defense of Tbouas Bentley, August i, 1777. 

[B. M.. »ta45,f. 10.— A. O.S.»! 
Whereas I Thomas Bentley of the Village of Kaskaskias in the lUi* 
nois Country Merchant sland accused of having sent Corn or utlier Pro- 
visions to assist the American Boat * in coming up from New Orleans 
last Spring loaded as was said with Gunpowder 5:c, or of entertaining a 
Criminal Correspondence with the Americans or some of their Party or 
Parties intercssd in their present unhappy disputes & whereas eighteen 
Bags of Corn were taken by force by one William Linn " who said he was 
Captain of such Boat from James Mathews one of my Clerks who wa.s 
trading the same with the Delaware Indians at or near the mouth of the 
Ohio which alone can have given rise to such a Report. 

' BcDlJqr tnuried Matcimile BauvaJ», In ijj;. Sbc brlwiEid Id one at the «talchlMt And mot\ 
impixual fkmilia wl KuluuUa. Kaikuiia USS.. Court KnojJ. 

* Tlia« Û DO *l|UtUTE. 

■Thb liu brtfl prialrd In Ihc ifich. HiH, CttUtHem, lii., 318, tniin topj in CxnuUut Ar- 

*T1ib Ktcn Vt Uw boAI ia ch&rM of CapCain (icnrBe nibaon sod linilMiu» Wlllbm Uciti, who 
Ml P«t Hit, In July. 177^. ^a purclme gun[)iiinl« at Nrw Orleam. Id Ihl» ihry wcrr luccnsful. 
iPCr otbcf iDrsnnUian on Eicndcy'a connrclian wilh thù tiprAVc'usa, Mc t^il. p. 34, auiI Intralut- 
itÔlL In TIlwaltB and Kelloig, Rn-otulion on Oit L'pptr Okie, iiQ, Ii ■ (ciod iixounl of 

>Scc jzcvioui note 



I do in coQsequertcc Ihcrcof declare thai the foUowing Circumstances 
relative thereto are the real truth, Viz*: 

That such Com was never intended by me to be sold traded or 
deliverd to any American Boat loaded with Ammunition whatsoever 
but to the Delaware Indians only having un the contrary given directions 
to avoid the American Boat un her coming up by running my Boat up 
some River until they had passd. That I had followed this trade of 
sending down Provisions ever sincv the Beginning of ta&C Summer & 
that these Eighteen Bags of Com were a part of the Third or Fourth 
Cargo of Provisions (I cannot justly recollect whieh) that I had already 
sent down for the Delaware trade & such of the while People as come 
to the Illinois & 6I themselves out for hunting in that Neighborhood 
most of whom were in my debt & that the loss «f this com was a great 
detriment to me as it oblig'd my Clerk to come to Kaskaskioa for a fresh 
supply cf that article & leave his Indian debts behind him no part of 
which I had reccivil on my coming away the middle of May — last. 

That lis a common trade both from Kaska&kias & Post Vincent to 
send down Corn Flour &c. to the Savages wintering in that Neighbor- 
hood & that there was une or two Boats from Post \'inccQt as my Clerk 
informd me trading with the Delawares in like manner at tlie same 
place where he was & that when the said James Mathews came to Kas- 
kaskias & informd me of llieir having taken this Com I was very angry 
with him for having sufferd ibem to lake it at the same time blaming 
him for not having got out of their way when be informd me that he 
Was obligd to give it not being strong enough to resist them & that they 
passd thcmi^clvcs upon him for a Party of Hunters until such time as they 
had him in their Power. 

That 1 only brought Six Hundred weight of Gunpowder with me 
last Summer from New Orleans wiih Two Hundred &: odd Guns. 
That I left behind & brought with me upon this Voyage very near one 
half of my Gunjiowder & the other half was sold to Indians at my dif- 
ferent Stores at Kaskaskias, Post Vincent & Kahobias. That a great 
jiart of my Guns remain still unsold at Kaskaskias & that the greatest 
part of what I did sell was to Spanish Subjects at Paincour k 

Thai I arrived from New Orleans the 19*** July, 1776 since which I 
bad not made any Purchase of either Guns or Gunpowder, M'' de Rocbe- 

' S(> Louil "i4 Sue, n«oerle*c 



btavc himself having offcrd me three Huodrtd- weight of Gunpowder 
for Sale at a Dollar p. Pound which T refused the buying of. That &t 
the time of the News arriving ihat two Barges were gone down to bring 
up Amunition I proposed to M' Daniel Murray Agent for the Contract- 
ur& that wc shoud send off an Kxpress to give Information thereof thai 
a stop might be put thereto. That I have not received any Letter from 
any person whatsoever on the Continent of America to the Northward 
of Pensacola during the last two years to my ECnowlcdgc or held any 
kind of Correspondence or had any dealings whatsoever either directly 
or indirectly with any of His Majcstys Enemies or their adherents Know- 
ing ihem to be so : 

That M' dc Rochcblavc having spread the report of my having sent 
this Com on purpose for the Americans before my coming away I left 
a Letter with the l>eforc- mentioned M' Murray requesting that he woud 
on the arrival of M'' Johnson (who tis said is appninlcd Governor of the 
Illinois Countr}') have the depositions of Mathews & others taken in 
order to clear me from the Infamy of such a Report. 

Now I do most sincerc:!y & solemnly Iwliew that these aspersions 
thrown upon my Character arc nothing but the effects of M'^ dc Rochc- 
blave's malirc m order to prevent Gen' Carlton or any other Governor 
or Commanding Officer to whom I might apply for redress from paying 
a due attention to my complaints against him for the varioiw acts of 
injustice which he has done me since my arrival last from New Orleans 
some of which I will here enumerate with such Circumstances as arc 
necessary to shew the part which M' de Rochebtavc acted &: partic- 
ularly so far as relates to myself. 

\ short time after my arrival from New Orleans he made many dif- 
ferent proposals to mc for the purchasing of part of my Cargo & at length 
of the whole which woud have amounted to a very considerable sum. 
I wawd the matter for a variety nf reasons. Finding I woud not dispose 
of my Cargo to him he emplny'd others (n try to make the Purchase from 
me iS; he was as they informed mc to be connected with them under the 
Rose. Hç issued out a sentence to make me pay fifty Dollars on an_ 
accusation laid against William Hamilton one of my Clerks for having 
given a Bottle of T.iquor In an Indian at a certain time mentioned & that 
a person of the name of Mucklemurray was said to be present. Hamil- 
ton swnrc positively that it was false & Mucklemurray likewise as also 
that if he had done so it was in opposition to my orders — nevertheless 



he «oud still ])crsi3( ttut 1 shuud pay. NutwithsUnding his repcatnJ 
Jcrs against giving Liquor to the Savages they were continually drunk 
ben in the Village which uccasiond me to enquire who it was that soM 
the Liquor to tbcm when the Savages themselves informd mc it was M' 
(Ic Rochcbiavc whu traded it to them in the night for Beaver & Otter 
skins & forbid their coming lo him in the day time telling them that so 
lung as they said nothing alK)UL the matter he wtmd constantly supply 
tbem. This Story t>cing rumourd abroad he coUd the Indians to account 
alxiut it (two of them) when the une accused him of it to bis face 5: the 
other said that he said so out of a Joke for which he put them both 
in Irons and l^ing enraged still the more against mc on that account 
llircatDcd tu make mc pay llie Fine double. One Bomcr who had acted 
as Clerk & Attorney for me in my absence at New Orleans gave a note 
of hand in my name to M'' V'iviat a Merchant in the place for fourteen 
Hundred & odd Livres payable in Beaver at five Livres the Pound. 
On my anival from New Orleans Bom'^r at my request put up an adver- 
tisement to the Public signifying that all such to whom he had gi%-cn 
such Notes Bons 5:c, of any kind to present the same imediaiely. 
M' Viviat never presented the Note until a long time afterwards, I 
believe near three Months 8: long after Borner was dismiss'd my 
Scr\'icc. I told him I woud pay it if he woud pro^'c the value receivd 
& give me a particular account of all his transactions with Die 
said Bomcr in my absence. M** Viviat positively refused to tell 
mc on what account the Note was given as also to render mc 
any account of his Transactions with Burner as my Clerk. I 
petitioned Nf de Rocheblave at two or three different times to 
oblige M"* \1viat to render me such an Account setting forth 
that I had reason to suspect the Note was unjustly gi%'cn by Borner & 
unjustly rcteivd on the part of Viviat, yet be took no Notice of my Peti- 
tion but scizd the Beaver for the payment. This same Bomcr gave a 
Note of hand likewise on my name Jt at a Umc I was uiwn the spot lo 
Bazillc La Chappclle for Eighteen Hundred 5: odd Pounds of Flour. 
In vain 1 represented to him that no man had a right to give a Note of 
hand in my name when I was present myself. Yet notwithstanding 
that he woud nut oblige Bomer to pay it who was then in the place but 
sc'izd my Flnur for tlie amount when but a very few days before in the 
presence of M' Murray lie acquitted me from the note, appilogizing for 
his having given me so much trouble about it. I protested & appealed 



(rum lK)th his sentences & even offccd security all which he paid no 
rcgu.r(l tu. 

I had a Mortgage upun a House t» a much greaLi:r amount than the 
Value «f such Huuse which Mortgage I had recorded in the Office ac- 
cnrding tu CuUmel Wilkins's pulihc orders — it apjK^ared some lime 
aflcrtt'ards that one Jandron had likewise a Mortgage & of a prior date 
but hjul never liccn ivgistcril. He set my Mortgage aside & «rderd 
the House lo Iw sold for Ihe Payment of Jandron's Murtgage. I 
protested against the sale by a public advcrlisirment upon the Church 
diHir whiiii waj) torn down by his urders twice Uie same day. 

I had a considerable account against the said M'' de Kocheblave & 
aitcr waiting long for the Payment he produced me an account wherein 
he charg'd nie amongst other articles so much fur Passports & having 
acted as a J uslice of Peace in marrying me he made me pay Fifty Livres 
lor having [K.*r(ormcd tlie Ceremony. 

I do hereby declare that the foregoing relation is in every respect 
just & true to the best of my Knowledge & lx;licf in making oath thereon 
on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God wim know[ing] the Hearts St 
minds of men knou.'s at the same time I am innocent of what is laid to 
my Charge. MissiUmacinac the i" Aug' 1777. 

T. Bentley. 

Juré devant moi J. S' Campan n" ce 5 Aoust 1777 

Swom before me Philip Uejean Justice of the Peace for the Dis- 
trict of Detroit this is'** day of August 1777. P. Dkjean. 

J. P. 
[Endorsed:] N' 5. T. B 

Report or L' Gov* Hamilton- ' August 15, ij77- 

fB. M.. 3184s, (■ &■— Copy.^I 
M'' Thomas Baitly [sU] of Kaskaskias in the Hinois Country, having 
been accused to mc by Momicur dc Rocheblavc Commandant of that 

> Htnry Hamiliwi y** vj Irhti dwwnt.anuwd Ihn/my in tjjj.Anilwa^niiTinilMlunnlllciitni^nt 
in iTfB- Hcvrvtd in Ibe French and liKtian War. In itm be sia «iiniiiilnl limLpiuinl-Huvciiii* ui 

Iiuliana ajMiiut the AmcrJcuu. Allcv CJorL liud wun \'in(riin« Hamillan rtluok i( in llic 
full p[ .if'f; tjul ihr rtllagc wii rtaplurrd by Clark ihr iml Vrbiu.-iiT. Humsllim wrs unt 
to Virimui, «here lie xuflcrcd t^ry hanli Irraliiimt m rclaluliun lui liioiUc Crrit!iii<^nt uI ,\m« 
Oipth» by tb> Britbh. He nu nctuniM in 1780. Ho Ihot vlilinl Knelaod and rFiumnl to 
CuMd* M Ihulenaiil-cnvcmor, i;8i-<8;. i^Irr he «na tnvcmiir of Hcrmitilii and ul UiunLoica. 
H« died »t lite litter plice id tTgC. Adipwd [rum Wii. BUi. CaUtdipni, xvlii., ytt, n. 97. 

* TIiU hu t>rcn printci) in Ihc Vk-A. nia, CMeUiaiu, iJX-, ji;, fiem copjr in Canodiui Ai- 



Country, of having stipporteo the cause and uMemt of ibe iriidst bf Kt- 
ting their cause in the most fai-onble Ugfai, iiMffaSjia^ their Stivngth, 
Ksources and connections I hare iboughl prapo- lo order the sud 
Thomas Baitly to be seized at Mihilunakiojc, and his gooifa aid fMpen 
scot down to this place. 

Major Depcjrster * at mjr leqoisiliaD bu anil down the said Thomas 
Baitley a piùoncr to this place, and has aiw trmmnitlej some of faia 
papers, which with oilier papers dcli\-crcd into my hand» by M' Bdtfey 
on his arrival arc seat down sealed to Edw^ W» Gray Esq* I>epaiy 
Shcrriff at Montreal. He was taken into CusUidy the twenty ùnt day 
of July, 77. 

All which I certify, as also that I do nul know of any fonner déposi- 
tions or declarations on Oath made and taken at the Ilinois oc dsewhcn 
against the said Thomas Baitley, but that the letter which was writieo 
to mc by M' de Rocbeblave and which among other paiticulars men- 
dons M'^ Baitlcy's having sent pitn-isions to ihe Kebds in the Mouth uf 
the Ohio, was the principal cause uf the Arrest and detentioQ of the said 
M' Thomas Baitlcj-.' 

Given under my hand at Detroit August the 15^ 1777. 
Signed UcNKV Uamilton, 
L' Gov' & Superinien* 

Entered in the Recorder's Office at Detroit, the 15 August 1777. 
folio 38. 

L* Gov' Hamilton's Dec" concerning M' Bentley. 15th Aug* 1777. 

■ Captkia Akm SctaTkr dc Pcnur wm ■ uth« tt New VaA and o«pln ol l>cut &fc>ite rf 

lra4K>ilBdb£a|bBd,aiidm«ndib«wiiiri(iiTsi- H« rtmibrf ta e«|lMrf 

t14 >» WW MU to uLc Ihe ooMMt n i l <J liUcàinK, «hm 

a ae md* erf Msfor. Aficr lb« opiwe d Huallisa, D« 

rawfiMd da 17^4. ATls «cnloaa «hoH ikna ■( NUé»». 


Uc nu pull;. 

b Eudud, and «mnd A» wmr in ITSI- ' H« rtinitaad ta eàgk»wt 
Ma. la lïjfhawWMUtaULclheoaanuMicrf Macàtaw. «■»• 
■iKt iBin' ynrt «cnicc bb ■«• nratnoud <a I 

PcyWT ma tiKuftrml u Dctrol. where hcitnUMa UU I7a4. Mla «cntoaa (hoH Uina ■( JUaf 
bc retumol lu EnRlawl In ir»s h* rc^nl Inn MtlMMrviMaad MtiM alDwnMia, Scodaad. 
•Batubw ol rbyracB. ht mar bt ttuOkd ta hk IftirfflwifaiffhaMht»». tSi j) «liirli narttw aww rwl 
on» ihjniNa m «MWm Ansicu, jfUin. Adapiad firan Irb. S^. CoBtcU'mi. nUL, jm. 

*Fnm i)w loRvriiu kiien aod manoriab il apoon UM Baubr, io Ùav. AMly alMr Ihe 
rctuni<dliiiboaibDcntBcUliio,de«na)earMkUlIncUMC- ltOChiUa<«laMMdlM«l7MHiiWMt 
toMcun itic lipucomof Um l&bBUtaiibt»aa*ccaM(lm aaa>*rBaBl)c«. bm aiftoari «mccm. 
H« tbcrctae, viMe ba lUnilian (oncarnlBC nMlIvr** ad. aad m tbe Mfwitti nf IhU iHtv, Km- 
Uton OTdcroJ tbc arren. l'he iroLindi far BodMUavt/* watddoaa an Imuiht uul ta Uw Cmut «I 

l'!lii|Mjii UD lolluminB paft. 



CoCRT OF Enquuy, September ii, 1777. 

[K. MSS-, Court Record, f. loo tt ir^. — Allnlcd copy.J 

Philippe de Kastd chevallier de RiKhcblavc juge et commandant 
aux Illinois. 

A MessiL-urs de Girardut ICcuycr ancien uflicier Dinfacterie ancien 
Magistrat I-in la ctiur Etablie par Munsicur le Colonel Wilkins, Barbeau 
ant'ien Magistrat En la dilLc Cuurl Capitaine de Milice a la prairie du 
Kuclier, charlcs Cadran capitaine de Milice a iit. i'hilippe, Janis, plasy, 


Philippe de Kastcl, Chevalier de Kocbblave, Judge and Command- 
ant at Ihc Illinois. 

Tu MM. de Girardot,' Esq., former officer of infantry, former magis- 
trate in the court established by Colonel Wilkins,' Barbau * former mag- 
istrate in the same CQurt, captain of militia at Prairie du Rocher, 
Charles Cadrcn, captain of militia at St. Philippe, Janis,*,' and 

I rioic Sicur dc (iiiBidoi or GimrdcBU (atha lumc unknown but poubtr t'Joiril) iru n Frrodt 
labnlry officer. Hit (other wu J«ii Il<«. Glnriniti. <:n<^o( OwoâanKn' to iIk Ullnuls district by 

UicCampaoy ol ihc Wr«. lUa moUirrwuTbcrru. djujchlo of Jacqun Nrvru. Ailir thr dcjth of 
hbUthtrhUiaotbwRun'icd, AnI LoubUulUnf.tnd.iecMKl. I'WreRnuilIirpcnili^iir ddaUiumu. 
I^nrcdEGinudolliTcditSt. rhUiniriiidrusniimiaanlbluljitanicf ilbc''Animc>nliotinni.*' Ill» 
«rilc^ns Madame Lohd, widow of ADdroCb(-raHcr,inrrf«iiu*'j]iii«< Illln(>lt HthddKV'cralufficfB: 
huiicc rj ihc peace In tht couct tnoniint hf Unitnunl-Calaod waliiiti: ncohahlT coniRiuiduii of 
St. l'hilipiie under Claxk uw) in County of UlinuM; Inflict In court ol Ihc dutrla «4 KufcuU», He 
din) ln-forc or during >7S>. Cape Gliotdtau rii prohahlT curncd after oae of this fotnBf. XittluMa 
USS: Parith Rtttfdt al Su. AiuM; tîouck. L. Mt». a] Uiuamri. il., 168. a. j. 

* Lieulrruni.CalotiFl WUkbi* «u apuin o( Ihc 5Jth inltntwy in 175;, He W3> comimuicUnl bi 
Niacin ut oulbttuJt ol tlic Compinfr ol Pontile, uuf was repulK^ hr inc .ladiAiu la attonpitjiE to 
rdirrr Drimit. 1» ijâihc l.vimnir nui-or in l)ic <^tli. mil igi thr tir>t fiarwiki nudclirutciutil-culaiid 
Id the imh iltonj Irub) ilafionnl «t t'tilladcl|ihU. In iiWt tic vu kbI u comnuadiDt to IIIIdoi*, 
«herchcatrirM Ortobn 4ih. llrrehr cnici|cil in land iprvulniioiu with the Brmol Bajnton, Whiu- 
ton It iiartta. Ul* fovernmcai ol llllooii wu vcrr ■rblmcy ud he beatM vyrj uipopiilu with 
Ihc FVcnd), «ad in tbr okI triili ttic Englbh. ChAiija of gnTl wm undc nfûnHliliiLiibdilie wu 
racalMlB it;i: but ihc UUurc oi biituretsur. AUjcr toute IbmUwa, to reacb Ulinolt dur^thc 

fall, nudf illInp■:^il)leto^:Ii^^'rhim iinlil llirrarly 1^1 n|[ nl fij3,-nhea hrwntt dmrti [he Miiaimpld 
to IteMOcift. He witiidrcn Irt>in tlie urmj in 177^. Aj'iurJihi M.V.V.,- Lcttoii frum Mimvh m 
DepL of Arthivn. Ilurislnirg. l'a., ami in hn Inter IhioIe. ][|. Hut Libtarj^ If'ii. fftit CeSltcHimi, 
ni»., «96, n. iS: CancrX. £.. ErjiUh Klgiiu in lUtitaii, Jtutla Wltuor Mte, igoSi Pulcmui, Fr.. 
Cvmjfincy e/ Pcmiiat (oxiiult Inda).' 

* Itan Biptine fhtrlMU** life m Irentrd tii length in the [ctTodudiaa l« III. Hùl. CiMraitmt, ii. 
(cnnnut indn). TIk: indn <■( Ihb pctaeol wJuiDe will iiwlicitc iImt ducutiirnt) uimn «Sidi tbctkrtcli 
Ol UâtUu In Vol. ii. b baocd. 

* N'iciiUa laaU woia tulire of Fnii>ec. HeiDkrTia] at i>Lukjukia, in I7«[. it dcuihln «[ Marl* 
B. Ttaumur iH T^unurcc. He occujilnl an imporunl ^Bliinn m tlic cuimminliy, \x\-n(i ciji^iin nl 
tnUitk under tlteDritûli, Id which po&ilion lie WMrfafipfnl^lliy'-Uck, and Uta br Todd, ilit inllu- 
OKe wu Ihfmrn un tba tide of tbc Amrrirani cvm tieiiirc th<- iKnicatlua nJ iho villu^ liv thnn, and 
«Iter tlMt event be pre Ibiint &ikncial auûUncE. Itismn. Jun Uintiite, accumpaniod Oatk on the 
ViiKintan ounpobn ttod «otuJiKIni hinmlf wiih ^mi lirnvrrv. Nicolai JnnU wni dKteil Justice, 
wlim llir UrM cixirt wu ilMUg\ir*t(d liy Jiihn Tudd. lie iiM «till living in Knilusiia in 17A7, iceurd- 
Idr Id the Cituu.1 of dHU year. (See t-tt, p. 4i.| ) Urmhm i>[ ilir hmily xniliiil bii!r In Sle. 
Unwvietr Mo KtiAatkU USS.: Dra^t USS. li J iHi; lliiucli. l..,U<il. t-l tliuauri.i. su.a. 

43-, iU. Sin. CMfKtfm, U. (couuli lodei). 

'JaaepbDnRtu)rI>l[faiS)r(AlMDQjitaMey, I'Lujr.riacit) ntarriL-d Catherine, da tithler of Jean Ble. 
Bcnloe Bwnri*, mfii Ft'oich onluy In Ullniila. They had lnur chlldrm. two cd wiiuin wae lumn) 
Louii and Je>n Baptjite. lie iias captain ol militia under the tititiili iiiid w.i» rr^iiiir.Ànlrd li> the Vir- 
glniuM. Wbm CDult wtrr ruatilklidd lit llUniiU l>v Jnhn Tciid, "ne vu. Heitrd to ikj.i i>r the diitrlct 

of KmIUjIlU. JoKidi Duijair boome an ordetu idXama of Cdlund dc la Bolmr. coDtrlliUtcd money 

iPTEMBER II. 1777 


et Brazeaux capitaine de Milice aux Koskastias les deux Capitaine de 
milice des Kaokias n'ayant pu vaincre les obstacles a leur arrivée sçavoir 
faisons ; 

Que quecjues Particuliers ayant foulé aux pieds les devoirs que leur 
imposoient leur qualité de sujets Et de cytoyens En sont venus au point 
d'user faire des armaments pour porter de secours en munitions de 
guerre, ormes Et marchandises aux Colonies, d'Envoyer des vivres a 
leurs voitures qui împortoient des poudres dans les dîttcs Colonies, d'En- 
tretenir une Correspondance de Lettres avec des Particuliers d'ycelles, 
quils ont refuse de faire voir tomme LEscigcoïcnt leur devoir: pour 
couvrir leurs demarches folles Et Extravagantes, ils ont cherché a 
Ebranler La fidulilé du peuple El ne pouvant le séduire, ils ont a force 
de déprimer la Justice de la Cause du Roy, dExaltcr la puissance des 
Colons et de leurs prétendus protecteurs, répandu L'allarme Et le 
découragement, ils ont osé donner de Espérances fausses Et insidieuses 


Brazcaux.' captains of militia at Kaskaskia, (the two captains of 
militia of Cahokia, absent, havinji! been unable to overcome the 
obstacles to their arrival) we make known: 

That some individuals have trampled under foot the duties which 
their quality of subjects and citizens imirases on them and ha^'e reached 
the point of daring lo fit out equipments for the puqjosc of carrying aid 
such as munitions of war, arms, and merchandise to the colonies, of send- 
ing supplies to their boats which are imporlinx powder into the said colo- 
nics, of conducting with individuals of the same a correspondence which 
they have refused to have examined as their duty required. In order to 
cover their mad and extravagant actions, they have sought to shake the 
fidelity of the people ; and failing lo seduce the citizens, they have forci- 
bly vitified the justice of the cause of the king and exalted the power of 
the colonies and of their pretended protectors. They have spread wide 
alarm and <Uscouragcment. They have dared to give to some persona 

It» hU npediileni t^oM UetrolT. ud Ion ht* lite ta ite tuuhrtiUni. Ill, Hia. CtUtOSmi, il. {C^n. 
«jl lii4n); f"*! P* 'Ml >4A> Ilouck, L-, Hitl. a/ UittevH. I.. }o>i. 

> JoMpIi Bruwiii amr M Kukukia (ram Qtmilk ii the H>*t vl ihv Frmcb ranime. HI* vlfo 
ni Truitoitr l)eirr Hr lull lltrrc chililrtn, l.mii*, jMrph,UHl !■ 11111(11 lie '111» Ink! iiiairint J run 
Blr {:>iailevillc. At ihc lime of Clnrk'* nrpMnot* JWf[iB Brunaui tnscap'aiaof mUilu. In lU. 
Ilia. Collaiirnt. it . 1) I'i . I iu>lltni ihil liewM OiM reapnulnlnl U» Jiùhii 'IimM. Ilir piuluhlp n». 
HkIoT Ibli wu Ihil be )ud bcrti killnl hi the Inditni. Uiiibiirial otcurrnl lutic 4, Tr;^. II^khi, 
l/wii. Wm, in ijBi, rtixlf) nnr I'lc )u>lkn of the Tjiurl nj Kaikmkii '('lit fomil) moTHi (n Si. 
Loulibi eiSt. Nognriy Uoif Su>i*; KarMiMa USS.^ Uomtjt C'cMnifJ/; Uoucfc, L-, Hut. 4 
Uitamri.n.,iy. 10 Iti'l ColUHiani.ti . pp lvi,.cxwi. 




a quelques ixrnsonncs d'une amelioration de fortune si les relnrlles ar- 
rivoicnt, lachtf dintroduire Méthodiquement \e d*?sordre Et Lanarcliie se 
rcfuscn[t) au payement des deplcs les plus legitimes Et osé Enfin mecon- 
noitrc[?] toute justice et toute authorite Dans I.'JCspoîrc d'Envelopper 
leurs noirs attentats de nuages Epais El d'obscurcir la Vérité ils ont 
adressé a SON EXCELLENCE Messirc le chevallier Carleton govcr- 
neur Et Capitaine General de cette province Le libelle le plus diffama- 
toire, dans lequel ils m'accusent d'avoir refusé toute justice aux origi- 
naires anglois, tandis qu'il Ksi de notoriété publique que jai renvoyé la 
Connoissancc de leurs affaires a une assemblée damïcables Composi- 
teurs choisis par les Parties elles mêmes, où a défaut nommés d'office, 
ils disent que J'ai détruit le lendemain ce que J'ai fais La veille Et je n'ai 
cepKrndant changé aucune oppinions des Justiciers susdit ap]>ellé3 icy 
arbitres mis en usage avant moy par Monsieur le Capitaine hugues Lord 
a la Satisfaction commune Et cela leur même dans un temps oil ils 
n'osoicnt donner cariere a leur mauvais desseins, ils se plaignent que J 'ai 
Etablie une deffence Pénale de deux cens piastres contre ceux qui trait- 
tcroicnt de L E&udcvie aux sauvages, tandis que Je me permclâ cette 

false and insidious hopes of an amelioration of fortune, if the rebels 
arrive, and have attempted methodically to introduce disorder and 
anarchy by refusing the payment of most legitimate debts. They have 
finally dared to deny all justice and all authority in the hope of envelop- 
ing their black criminal attempts in thick clouds and for the purpose of 
obscuring the truth they have addressed to His Excellency the Cheva- 
lier Carleton, governor and captain general of this province, the most 
defamatory libel, in which they accuse me of having refused all justice 
to the original English, when it is notorious that I have referred the cog- 
nizance of their affairs to an assembly of friendly compounders chosen 
by the parties themselves, or in default thereof officially nominated. 
They say that I have annulled the next day what I have done the day 
before. And yet I have not altered an opinion of the above justices, 
called here arbiters, the use of whom was begun by Captain Hugh Lord 
to the satisfaction of all, and that even to the satisfaction of the English 
at a time when they did not dare to give rein to their evil designs. 
They complain that I have prohibited, under jtcnalty of two hundred 
piasUfs, trade in eaudn-ie with the savages, while I allow myself to con- 




memc trailtc jjour avoir Ic Caslor Kt les luulrcs. il Est connu de lout le 
monde que cette Con»-ention Part des liabitants Kux-mCmcs, que Daniel 
Murmy l 'un des mes accusateurs la signée de son bon gré la jugeant juste 
Et nécessaire Et quelle auroit sorti un Effet salutaire sans sa cupidité et 
ccUe de thomas Bentley L'autre de mes accusateurs qui ont été les pre- 
iTiicn a braver les incon^'cnients sans nombre qui pouvoîeat résulter 
tant pour Eux que pour leurs concytt>yt:ns de son infraction, 

ils osent dans la tcmeriKÎ de leurs assertions m'accuser de partialité 
davoir Envoyé chercher L'arraec les sakias, renards Et autres cachés a 
un quart de Lieu dîci au nombre de sin cens pour attaquer nuitamcnt 
une trentaine d'illinoîs retranchés dans le centre de ce lieu qui Eut couru 
risque d '(tre détruit si Je n'avois pas eu le Coup, le pavillon blanc quiU 
disent que jai Employé pour cet Effet, Etant le pavillon françois leur 
soit de matière propre a jettcr des doutes sur la fidélité de celui qui ne 
cesse dcclaircr leurs trahisons, quand j'auroîs fourni dans une occasion 
si prcsanie drap où nappe je ne voirois pas matière a grand crime, cepen- 

duct this trade for beaver and otter skins. Everybody knows that this 
agreement oripnated with the inhabitants themselves and that Daniel 
Murray, one of my accusers, signed it of bis own free will, judging it 
just and necessary;' and that the agreement would have resulted licnc- 
Ucially had it not been for bis cupidity and that of 'riiumas Bentley, 
the other of my accusers, both of whom have been the drst to brave 
the numberless iuconveniencies which might result both for them- 
selves and their fellow citizens by its infraction. 

In the Icmcrily of their assertions, they dare to accuse me of partial- 
ity in having sent for the army of Sauks, Foxes, and other Indians to the 
number of six hundred hidden within a quarter of a leaj^ue from here for 
the purpose of attacking by night some thirty lUinois Indians intrenched 
in the centre of this place, who would have run the risque of being des- 
troyed, if I had not had the first play. The white llag which they say I 
have employed for this purpose, being ihc French flag, is to ihem a 
proper matter to throw doubts on the fidelity of him who does not stop 
declaring their treasons. When, I would haw furnished at so critical an 
occasion a sheet or table cloth, I should not view the matter as a great 

' Shnrllv aU*T RoclirhUi'r uvA. chirgn irf live TUSniiU, he called tnifilin thr ciùiai* lo dhcuM (1i« 
dWic'iliin.ii tlirir liliulidn. iindtodtttniiiiicciii«iiiniictin(rtmln« thelrjidcwiih the IndluT» It wm 
drci'W tïnl Ihimiflrr nn irn'li-r tliwil'l gWc ihr Indini» [nlnilcii,tln|( llqurii All tlir Pintth (nidiws 
»ip^ th'a ugrrcniml, and one Amtricui, Djinirl Mumy. Kojiiuàta USS., Ceitri Ruetd. 



dant je D*ai EmiininU: un. de chcs La Dame Ccné qui Est angloJs Et qui 
doil être prcscnltî Kn faveur île qui tonirc qui K(uîl ma ])anialil^, J "ai 
fait des presents a tuus, nulle linstiiili! n'a élc cnniinisc scruit ce poÎQl 
ce qui fâche ces M". 

ils m'ont accusé d'avoir Encouragé les Sauvages dans leurs Brigand- 
ages, tandis que d 'un autre coté on m'a accusé de trop defermeté sur cet 
article, les discours que je leur ai tenu a cette wcasion ont toujours été 

Comme ils se sont portés par la copie de leur requête Ecrite de la main 
des deux et cy jointe partie contre muy, jai cru ne pas devoir prendre des 
informations Par moy même mais vous commettre comme je le fais Par 
ces présentes pour aprhs serment L 'Egalement prclté composer une 
court d'EnquClc Et y prendre sur vulrc honneur Et conscience, scms 
la présidence de M'^ de (ilrardul El L'Etriture de tel Greffier que vous 
prvndrés recevoir !e scrment'des témoins qui sont cy a]ir^, les faire 
assigner recevoir Et rédiger [)ar £cnt leurs dc]K)sit]ons le tout tant a 

[Translation.] , 

crime. I have only borrowed an Englisli llag at the house of Madame 
Ccrré who should Ije present to testify in favor of whom ami against 
whom was my partiality. I made presents to all the Indians; oo 
hostility was committed. Can liiis be the point which offends these 

They have accused me of having encouraged the savages in their 
brigandage, whilst on another side I am accused of too great firmness 
under this heading. The discourses which I have made to the Indians 
on these occasions ba^'c always Ijctq published. 

Since, by the copy of their petition, written by the hands of both and 
herewith joined,' they have appeared in court against me, I have believed 
that I ought not to take information by myself, but to commit the case 
to you, as I do by these presents, so that after oath has been legally made, 
you may compose a court of enquiry and act therein according to your 
honor and conscience, under the presidency of M. de Girardot and the 
secretaryship of such clerk, as you shall choose for the [jurjjosc of receiv- 
ing the oaths of the witnesses who are here prcsent,. of making them sign 
their testimony, of receiving and reducing to writing all their depositions. 

> Printed mUt, p. 4. 


^arge qu'a d'ccharge Et dans Le mvillcur ordre Et le plus L'Egale- 
mcnt que îe pais |>eiit le permetlre. 

fort Gage le lo Septembre 1777. 
signé Ruc'ULBUvvi; scellé et délivré 
ici Est UD cachet. 

Au revers de la feuille Est Ecrit de qui suit. 

Noms des Perïonncs et fait sur lcs<|ucls je prie La Cour d'Enquête 
de les imerrcger sous serment. M"^ Kennedy pour a^-oir a reconnoitre 
copie de la requâte où il Est dénommé, avoiicr si les motifs en sont justes 
Et lui demander sa deciar.T.tion au Bas de la dite requête, lui demander 
s'il a cormoissance des mauvais trailtcments que j'ai faits aux colons 
anglots refugiés icy. si au contraires il n'a pas été témoin des avantages 
que je leur ay fais Et voulu faire. 

M^ Charlevillc sur les pmpos que thomas Benticj' lui a tenu a table. 

M' DroUart pour declarer les Espcrcnccs d'une meilleure fortune 
que lui a donné Daniel Murray a L'arrivée des rebelles auprès desquels 
il doit être son son [fit] ^jrotecteur, Patrick Kennedy present, 

whether for or against me, in the best order and the most legal lliat the 
country permits. 

Fort Gage. Scptcmljcr 10, 1777. 
signed RocHEBMVE, sealed and delivered. 
Here is a seal. 

On the rc^Trsc of the page is written what follows: 

Names of jx-rsons and the facts concerning which I pray the court 
of enquiry to interrogate them under oath : M. Kennedy, in order that 
he recognize the copy of the petition wherein he is named, and avow 
il the motives are jusl, and to demand of him his declaration below the 
said petition ; to ask him if he has knowledge of the bad treatment which 
I have given the English colonists who have taken refuge here ; if, on the 
contrary, he has not been witness of favors which I have made them and 
wished to make. 

M. Charlcville, on the conversation which Thomas Bentley had with 
him at table. 

M. Drouart, that he declare the hopes of a better fortune, which 
Daniel Murray has given him, after the arrival of the rebels, with whom 
Daniel Murray would be his protector. This was saJd when Patrick 
Kennedy w&s present. 


La Dame Cerré pour Tcprcsentcr le pavilion quelle a Prctté a ma 
dcmajtdc pour aller chercher les Saltias Et renards affirmer par scrmenï 
L'cgat si c'est le m(me ou non, la Cour voudra Bien constater s'il Est 
anglots oil françob. 

La demoiselle ]asondra3re pour declarer la Connoissance de la traite 
d'Eaudevie au sauvages. 

La Dame de Lisle pour dire ce quelle sçaît d'un présent que les kïka- 
pousont voulu me /aire i>our leur donner un Ecrit portant permission de 
traitter disoient ils chez Langloi» En me Montrant la maison de Bentley. 

Le a*" tourengeau lui demender pour où Etoit destiné L'armement 
pour Lequel Bentley La\-oit Engagé quels Etoîent Les Effets Et charge. 

Le sieur Bolon pour sçavoîr de lui qui a fourni des vivres aux voitures 
angloises rebelles qui portoient des poudres, si la voiture de Bentley n'a 
pas resté plusieurs jours sur la pointe de la Belle riviere où il ny avoit 
pas de sauvages, si elle n'a pas fait des signeaux, pour quoy aprfcs avoir 
rejoint les sauvages dans la Belle riviere elle En Est sortie pour descendre 
un peu plus B.-is dans le niis$is»lppi ou n'Etoicnl point le» dellawars 
dont il est iaterprette ay autres et de quelle nation Etoit La charge. 


Madame Cerré, to produce the (lag which she bas loaned at my 
request in order to send for the Sauks and Foxes and to affirm by legal 
oath if it is the same or not. The court will carefully establish whether 
it is English or French. Mademoiselle Lasoudraye, to declare her 
knowledge of the trade in eauàevie with the savages. 

Madame tie Lisle, to say what she knows of a present which the 
Rickapoos have wished to make to me in order lo give them a writing 
containing permission to trade, as they said, with the English, pointing 
out to me the house of Bentley. 

M. Touranjeau, to demand of him whither the equipment was des- 
tined for which Bentley had engaged him and what was the cargo. 

M. Bolen, to know who furnished supplies to the En^ish rebel boats, 
which were carrying powder, and if Bentley's boat did not remain several 
days on the point of the Ohio where there were no savages; and if it did 
not make signals, and why, after having rejoined the savages in the Ohio, 
the boat si-t out to descend a Hitic lower the Mississippi, where there 
were no Dclawares, for whom M. Bolan is interpreter, nor other Indians; 
and what was the character of the cargo. 


Le s'' Carbonneaux pour sçavoîr de lui a quelle heure Bentley Et 
Murray vouloient lui faire prolester au mandat tiré sur moy du jwst Sc 
Vincennes pour fourniture faites au sauvages ledit moadat ne tn'ayant 
poiDt Encore été présenté. 

si j'ai vexé le public, si je me suis Engraissé de rapines M'* de Enquê- 
tes liù doient Et a Eux mêmes de profiter d« L'occasion, ils n'en trouver- 
ont pas de plus favorable pour faire Entendre leurs plaintes, fort Gage 
le onze 7*^ 1777. 


L'an mil Sept cent soixante dix sept Et le onzième jour du mois de 
Septembre avant midy a la requisition de Monsieur phiUppe fraoçois de 
Rastel chevalier de Rocheblavc Ecuycr juge et commandant pour sa 
Majesté Britaniquc au pais des illinois. Nous juré assemblée pour 
former une cour d 'Enquête pour oiiir les depositions Et témoignages 
des s" josepli chauvin charlevillc palrick Kennedy Et françyîs Droiîart 
resident au village des Kaskaskias El ont PardcvanI nous prêté serment 
quils diroient verilé sur les questions quîls leur seront faites concernant 

[Translation. '[ 

M. Carboiineaux, în order to know from him at what hour Bentley 
and Murray wished lo have him protest a draft drawn on me from Post 
Vincennes fur supplies made lo the savajjes, when the said draft had 
not yet been presented. 

The gentlemen of the court of enquiry owe it lo (he court and lo them- 
selves individually lo profit by the occasion to learn if I have vexed the 
public and have fattened on rapine. They will not find a more favorable 
time to make their complaints heard. Fort Gage, September 7,1777. 

(Signed) Rcx:HEflL.\VE. 

The year, 1777, the eleventh day of the month of September, before 
noon, at the requisition of M. Philippe Kranç(>Î3 de Rastel, Chevalier de 
Roclicblavc, Esquire, Judge and Commandant for hisBritlannic Majesty 
in the counlrj' of Illinois: We, jurors assembled to form a court of 
enquiry lo hear the depositions and testimonies of MM. Joseph Chauvin 
dit Charlcvillc, Patrick Kennedy and François Droùart, who arc resi* 
dents of llic village of Kaskaskia and have, Iwfore us, taken oath that 
ibey would anawcr truthfully the question» which slialt be put to them 


tes plaintes Grieves qui ont £t6 portées a Monsieur le Gouverneur Gen- 
eral du Canada El de ses dependences 

a L'instant avons inlcrrogé le 8' patrick Kennedy s'il avoit con- 
Doissance et reconnu copie d'une requête Présentée contre Monaeur 
de RochebSavc a repondu que o(ii. Interrogé sil a Connoissance des 
mauvais traitlemcnts que mondit sr de Rocheblave avoit fait aux anglois 
réfugiés, a répondu que non, Et quil a seulement connoissance qu'il 
leurs a fait beaucoup de Bien Et des avantages qu'il a voulu faire El 
qu'il a fait plusieurs fois En îoy de quoy a signé En notre presence El 
nous Greffier le jour Et an que dessus. 
signé Plasi, signé janis, signé Patt Kennedy 

signé Lachanse, signé Barbau, signé Brazeaux, 

signé chartes cadron signé Le ch girardot, signé Pertbius Greffier, 
a la page suivante l'^t Ecri. 

et le jour Et an que de l'autre Pari Est comparu mr Joseph chauvin 
de charleville ancien Capitaine de milice El après lui avoir fait faire 

oonceming the complaints of grievances which have been carried lo ihe 
governor general of Canada and its dependencies. 

Now we have interrogated M. Patrick Kennedy if he had knowledge 
of and recognized the copy of a petition presented against M. de Roche- 
blave. He has answered, " Yes." Interrogated if he has knowledge of 
bad ireatmcnl which M. de Rocheblave had given the English who have 
taken refuge here. He has answered " No, " and thai he has only knowl- 
edge of much good that he has done to them and of advantages which 
he has wished to give and which he has given several times. On faith of 
which he has signed in our presence and we the clerk have also signed 
the day and year as above. 
(Signed) Plasy, (signed) Janis, (signed) Patl. Kennedy, 

(signed) Lachanse, (signed) Barbau, (signcrl) Brazeaux, 

(signed) Charles Cadron,' (signed) Chevalier de Girardol, 
(signed) Pcrthius, clerk.' 
On the following page is written : 

And Ihe day and year as of Ihc other part there appeared M. Joseph 
Chauvin dii Charleville, former captain of militia, and after having made 

1 On June iS. T747.ChiiilcsCuin)n, *D)inflmrit the lime in IlinllUtr iil FiirldeCWttniHicncd 
« taaUiCt uf nuuriuc wlih OcDcrlcvr HenM. HU [iifacr wu Pirrrr C^droii of ihc tasnh ot Si. An< 
lolne in Caiiiidi, Kaitaikia USS.. Uarriaf* CrttlrMlt. 

■ I bar* bMD unable M fiii'l inrtbioB aboul ihr tlrtk. 




Bcrmcnt de dire vérité sur les inlcrrogalions a lui fail faire lui 
avons dcmandi? s'il avoil Entendu de Mauvais propos par le s'' Bentley 
Contre WC de Rochcblavc a la table de M' Charlcvillc. a repondu <|uc 
ledit BcntJcy lui a prc!wnt<! a deux où trois fuis un piece d'Kcriturc ne 
sçavoir seulement sl'cIIc Etoit Ecrite En françoEs n'y anglais n'ayant 
voulu l'avoir ni la signer ce qui n'auroit occauonné de lui dire de Bc 
taire, de botrc Et de manger qu'il Etoit (wur cela. 

En outre Je declare pour la présente que M'' de Roctieblavc n'a 
Jamais fait tord aux angloîs réfugié autant qu'il Est a ma Cannoissancc. 

En outre Je declare que le temps qu'il Etoit sur L'autre rive comme 
sui celle cy il n'a En Counoissance que mondit sieur de Rocbcblave n'a 
Jamais fait commerce d'Eaudevie avec Les sauvages Et après Lecture 
a lui faite a déclaré qu'il n'avoit rien a augmenter n'y a diminuer et a 
signé le jour Et an que de L'autre Part. 

\AU sigried.) 

a la Page suivante Est Ecrit. 

Et te dit jour Et ao que des autres parts avons ioterrogé Le a*^ (nniçois 

him take oath to answer truthfully the interrogations put to him, we have 
a^ed him if he had heard evil conversation from M. Bentley against 
M. de RocheblaMr at ihc table of M. Charlevillc. He has answered 
that the said Bentley ha.s presented lobim two or three times a piece of 
writing; that he did not know even if it was written in French or English, 
since he had not wished to take it or to sign it, which had occasioned 
them to tell him to keep quiet, to drink, and to eat, that he was in favor 
of that. 

" Furthermore I declare now that M, de Rothcbiave has never done 
wrong to the English refugees as far as il is a mailer of my knowledge. 

" Furthermore, I declare thai during the time that he was on the other 
bank as well as on this, 1 (Charleville) have knowledge (hat M. de 
Rocheblave has ne^-cr traded in caudei-ie with ihc savages." And after 
readingbistestimony tohim, hehasdedared that be had nothing Co aug- 
ment or to diminish therein and he has signed the day and year as of 
the other pari. 

[All signed.] 

On the following page is written: 

And the said day and year as of the other parts we have interrogated 



DroUart, si te s'' Daniel Murray lui auroit fait Espcrer des avantages si 
les Bastonnois [sic] arrivoîent dans ce pais a repondu que oui En presence 
de s"* Kennedy declare En outre que depuis le temps qu'il Est En ce pats 
El que M' de Rocheblave Exerce La charge de Commandant i! n'a connu 
En lui que de Lintegrité Et porté de Zelc En tout tempa a soulager les 
anglois réfugia les ayant comblés de Bien fait a sa Conooissancc, inter- 
roge s'il avoit connoissance que raondil s'' de Rocheblave ay fail com- 
merce d 'Kaudevie avec les Sauvages a repondu que non, tntcrrogtS s'il 
avmt Connoissance que M' de Rocheblave Eu Envoyé un pavillon 
françois au de\'anl des sautagcs sakias et renards, a repondu que deux 
jours avant L'arrivée des dits Sauvages aux Kaskaskias il auroit 6i( 
present a une sortie de divers habitans pour aller au devant d'Eux Et 
que M"" de Rocheblave avoit donnié un pavillon anglois Et comme les 
dits habitants trouvoient surchargé par le poids du dît pavillon, ils 
auroicnt Laissé ce même pavillon chez le s"" lachan.ïc sans la Connois- 
sance de M' de Rocheblave Et aurnient pri une serviette quîls auroicnt 
mis au bout d'une perche pour passer plus facilement dans les Bois Et 
après lecture faite. . , . 

M. François DroQart, if M. Daniel Murray had made him hope for ad- 
vantages if the Bostonians arrived in this country. He has answered, 
"Yes. In the presence of M. Kennedy." He declares furthermore 
that during the time he has been in this country and M. dc Rocheblave 
has excrdsed the office of commandant, he has only known in him înleg- 
rily and zca3ou.<i de&ire at all limes to relieve the English refugees, whom 
he has overwhelmed with good deeds to his knowledge. Asked if he had 
knowledge jf M. dc Rocheblave has traded in eaudtvie with the savages 
he has answered, " No." Asked if he had knowledge that M. de Roche- 
blave had sent a French flag to meet the Sauks and Foxes, he an.swcred 
that two days before the arrival of ihe said savages at Kaskaskta he had 
been present at a sortie of s«'eral inhabitants to go to meet thera and 
that M. de Rocheblave has given them an English flag; and as the said 
inhabitants were burdened by the weight of the said flag, they had left 
this same flag at the house of M. Lachansc without the knowledge of M. 
de Rocheblave and had taken a towel which they had put on the end of 
a pole in order to pass more easily in the woods ; and after reading was 
made. . . . 



1.4// signed.] 
[Testimony of Dame Cerré] 
.... Et lui demandé quel Pavillon clic avoit pretë a M' de 
Rochcblavc pour aller rudevant des Sakiiis et renards qui «noient 
assiéger les îUinois 3 quoy cUc a repondu .... quelle avolt prêté 
un pavillon angloîs Et dans L'instant a\'ons Envoyé chercher le pavillon 
qui a *^té reconnu par L'assemblée Pour être lu mêmt que laditte Dame 
Cerré avoit Prêté Et que c'est le véritable pavillon angluis .... 

\AU signed.] 
[Testimony 0} Dame vewje de Lisle.} 
.... Interrogé w [elle] Etoît présente Lorsque Les Kikipoux 
apportèrent xm present a Mon Dit situr de Kocheblavc, pounjui] leur 
accordai la permission de traïtlcr de Leaudevie chez Laiigloïs En mon- 
trant la maison de Bcndey, a quoy elle a rejiondu quelle Etait présente 
Lorsque les dits Sauvages demandèrent cette i>crmtssioD Et quelle a vUe 
une Rrlle robbe de Castor que M'' de Kucbeblave refusât Et ne leurs 
donnât point de pcrnûssiou .... 

\AU signed.] 
{Testimûny 0} Madame CerrC.^] 
. . And we have asked her what flag she had loaned M. de 
Rocheblavc to go to meet the Sauks and Fcxes who came to besiege the 
Illinois; to which she answered . . . that she had loaned on English 
flag; and now we have sent for the flag, which has been recognized by 
the assembly as the same that the said Madame Cerré hod loaned and 

that it is the true English Sag 

[AH signed.] 
{Testimony of Madame de £.wfe.] 
.... we have asked if she was present when the KickajKKXs 
brought a present to !M. de Rochcblavc, in order that he should grant 
them the permission to trade in eandei'ie with the English, pointing to 
Bentley's house; to which she has answered that she was present when 
the said sa^'ages demanded this permission and that she had seen a beau- 
tiftU robe of beaver skins, which M. de Rocheblavc refused to accept, 
and that he would not grant them permission 

iTvatoidrcpMlt^aod laiaveap*cclhcrctti<cb«caomltled thrltval (omiulical thcbrciniimR 
■ml Old of Àe UMbnaOf . Tluse at* (be mnie lu lltne lucd ïn tKe cue <>{ the |ir(x«J!n|| ■Uphui». 



\AU signai.] 
{Tcitimony oj Tourangeau!] 
.... intcrrogt^ si Monsieur Bentley avoit voulu Langagcr pour 
aller dans le Mis-sissipi En has a rc|KJn<lu qu' Effcctiremcnl le S' Bentley 
avuit voulu L Kngugcr lui Kt son ncgrc pour aller En Bas misslssipi Et 
que faute de L'arrengcmcnl qu'ils n*ont pas pu prendre Ensemble pour 
Ic prix de SCS Gages leur Marchi! na pas Eu Lieu Et que M"" Bentley lui 
dit de ne se Point iuquictter ilc ce quil p«>uvoît faire de sa cargaizon qu'il 
Luy Etoit indifferent qu'il la vi-ntlil a Sauragc françuîs où anglois, c! de 
suivre seulement Le Sieur Borner qui Etoit condueture de la voiture 

\AU signed.] 

{Testimony oj Damoiselk f^soudraye.] 

.... interrogi5 si elle avoit cunnuïssancc que Monsieur de 

Rochcblavc Eu traitté de L Eaudcvic aux Sauvages a rcponilu qu'elle 

Etoit un Jour chez M'' de Rocliebiave Lorsquil Entra un Sauvage avec 

deux Castors, qu'il les jelta au pîeils tie sa Datiiu Et lui demanda de 


[Alt signed.] 
[Testimony of Touranjeau.] 
. . . . wc have asked if M. Bentley had wished tncngage him to 
go ilown the Mississipi. He has answered that in fad M. Benlley had 
wisheil to engage him and his negro to go down the Mississippi; and 
that their bargain was not concluded, because ihcy failed to get together 
on llie price of his w^gcs; and that M. Bentley said to him that he was 
not to disturb himself about what he (Bentley) might do with his cargo, 
that he was indifferent whether he sold it to savages, French, or Eng- 
lish, and instructed him (Touranjeau) only (o follow M. Borner who was 

in charge of the boats 

[AH signed.] 

{Testimony of Mademoiselle Lasoudraye.^ ] 

.... we have asked her if she had knowledge that M. de Roche- 

bla^'e had traded Cn eaudeine with Ihe savages. She lias answered that 

she was one day at M. de Rochcbla^x-'s when there cntercil a savage 

with two beaver skins, thai be threw ihem at the feet of Madame de 

t fn^Myad-mghifror PlarcdrMunl'jrciiadelBSou'lnrc.l^mKrcipuiriof rnllllin.and'rolnflte 
ti«nj[|qb. AnolhcT iuugbw nurtied Jean D^ie. B«unh. JTaiittfitM USS., UafriattCanémni, 


L'Kaudcvtc a quoy elle lui dît de remporter son Castor quelle traittoil 
poinl d'Eûudevrc. le mOmc sauvage leurs faïsoit Entendre que celoîl 
les anglois qu'il L'avoit Envoyé et qu'il auroit de L'Eaudevie œpendant 
on le fit sorter avec «m Castor, M"" de Rocheblavc n'y Etant point Cesl 
a sa dame a qui îl faisait La pnipositîon te Sauvage En suite lui En vou- 
loit faire (ircscnt se que Laditte Dame refusa constamment Et aprte 

[/1// signed.] 
[Sepicmlitr 12, 1777. Testimony oj "Sylveste engagé du sieur BettUcy.^'] 
.... interrogé et où le s** Bentley destini:tit une voiture qu'il 
faisoît partir Environ le aS™' aousl 1 776 a répondu qu'il lui avoit dit que 
c'ctoit pour La Vir^nîc, interrogé de quoy la voiture Etoit chargé a 
reixmdu quelle Etoit chargée de de [sir] poudrcdans des cruches, taffia 
sucre, Cafté, couverte, fusils Et d'autres Merchandises emballées Et 
après .... 

[Ali signed.] 
[Testimony o) Pitard.] 
. . . interrogé du modf pourquoy M' Bentley l'avoit fait par- 


Rocheblave and asked her for some eauàeine, upon which she told him 
to take back his beaver skins, that she did not trade in eaudevie. The 
same savage made them understand that it was the English who had 
sent him and that he would have eaudevie. They made him leave, how- 
ever, with his beavers. Since M. de Rorheblav'c was not there, it was 
his wife to whom the savage made the proposition, which the said lady 
cooalantiy refused; and after. .... 

[All signed.] 
[Sef/iember 12, 1777. Testimony of Sylvester "engugi " of M. Bentley.] 
.... we have asked him whither M. Bentley destined a boat 
which he sent out the aSth of August, 1776. He has answered that M. 
Bentley had told him thai it was for Virginia. Asked with what the 
boat was loaded. He has answered that it was leaded with powder in 
jars, tafia made uf sugar, coffee, dolh, guns, and other merchandise 
packed up; and after. . . . 

[All signed.] 
[Testimony of Picard.] 
.... we have asked concerning the reason that M. Bentley had 



tir pour aller après le sieur Borner soq commis, a repuodu qu'il avoit une 
suspicion sur le Compte du S'' Borner, interrogé jusqu'où il dcvoîi aller 
après lui, a répondu qu'il dcvuît aller a la riviere du sud distante de vingt 
Lieu au dessus de Wouabache, interrogé de quelle nature de Marchan- 
dise le s' Borner Ktoit chargé a repondu qu'il tenoît de M' Borner qu'il 
a rencontré a la rivie-rc chaouanon ou Environ qu'il avoit dans sa voiture 
un millier de poudre, des couvertes draps, fusils Sic Et plomb En Barre 
Et que le s' Borner lui a dit qu'il Eloit chargé Pour la somme de trente 
milles livres Kt apr&j .... 

\AU signed.) 
{Testimony of Antoine Peliier dit anlcyn.] 
.... interrogé si M' Bentley Taumil Employé pour aller après 
le s' Borner son commis, et du motif pi)ur[]uoy il le faisait partir, a répon- 
du que ledit Bendey luî uvoit dit quit craignoit que Borner ne fut pillé 
Par un parti Rikapous qui devoit [lasscr où il Kloit et (lu'il avoit 
ordre de poursuivre jusqu'à la riviere du sud a vingt lieu audcssus de 

made him sel out to go after M. Borner, his clerk. He has answered 
that he (Bentley) had a suspicion about M. Bomer's account. Asked 
where he was to go after him. He has answered that he was to go to 
the river of the south, distant twenty leagues above the Wabash. 
Astrd what was the nature of the merchandise with which M. Borner 
was charged. He has ansMixrcd that he understood from M. Bomer, 
whom be met on the river Chaouanon jCumbcrland] or thereabouts, that 
he had in his l>oat a thousand [>ounds of powder, bed-clothes, guns, 
etc., and lead in bars and that M. BonKr has told him that he had a 
load to the value of thirty thousand /ir/v;; and after. . . . 

\AU signed.) 
[i'estimony of Antoine FelUtier dit Antaytj.] 
. . . . wc have asked if M. Bentley had employed him to go after 
M. Bomer, his clerk, and what was the reason that he (Bentley) made 
him set out. He has answered that the said Bentley laid him that he 
feared that Bomer would be pillaged by a party of Kickapoos who 
would pass where he was and that he (the witness) had orders to follow 
as far as the river of the south twenty leagues above the Wabash. 
Asked where he had met the said Bomer. He has aoswenxl about a 
league above the river Chaouanon. Asked where the said Bomer ha<l 



ouabachc, interrogé où it avoit rencontré ledit Borner, a repondu 
Environ une lieu auUessus la riviere chaouenon, interrogé où ledit 
Borner lui avcnt dit qu'il dcvoit aller, a répondu que ledit Borner lui 
avoït dit c}u'il contoil aller jusqu'à une riviere dont on ne scatt pas le 
nom qui Est audcssus de la chuttc oil il y a*^»!! de» anglois Etablis. 
Interrogé de quoy ta voiture Eloit chargé, a repondu qu'il a'avoit pas 
pu voir ce qu'il y avoil dans la voiture mais qu'elle Etoit Bien chargé 
et que le sieur Borner lui avoit dît qu'il y avoit pour trente milles livres 
d'effets et particulièrement un millier de Poudre Et après .... 

[AU signed.] 
\Tettimony oj Daniel Coicl.\ 
.... interrogé si Lannée dernière il EtoitKugagé au sieur Bent- 
ley [jour aller avec !e 9' Borner a répondu que le s^ Bentley lui avoît 
toujours dit enseignant son marche qu'il Kloit pour le détruit après qu'ils 
ont été parti le dit Bomer leurs a dit qu'ils etoieot destiné Pour alter a une 
riviere audessus de la chute où it y avoit des anglois Etablis ladîttc riWcrc 
nommé Kn anglois Kinlac [si<\. Interrogé de quoy Etoit chargé la voiture 
a repondu quelle Etait ctiargéc de poudre, Baies, ptumb, Rum taf!ia vin 


told him that iic was to go. He has answered that the said Bomer had 
told him that he counted on going up to a river the name of which one 
docs not Lnow, which is above the falls where there were English 
established. Asked with what the t>oat was loaded. Ue has answered 
that he had not been able to sec what there w.-is in the boat, but that it 
was well loaded and that M. Borner had said to him that he had 
thirty thousand Uvrts worth of goods and particularly a thousand 
pounds of powder ; and after .... 

[Ail signeà.] 
[Ttstimony of Danid CotW.) 
.... A^ed if last year he was engaged by M. Bentley lo go with 
M. Bomer. He has answered that M. Bentley had always told him in 
instructing him concerning the bargain that the expedition was for De- 
troit. After they had set out the said Borner told them that they were 
destined to go to a river above the Falls where there were English estab- 
lished. The said ri%'cr is named in English Kentucky. Asked with 
what the boat was loaded, ttc has answered that it was loaded with 
powder, shot, lead, rum called talia, wine, salt, guns, cofFee, and other 


sel, fusils, caffi* et autres marchandises Et interrog*; tcrtit Daniel coicl 
Lequel pais il F.toit, a répondu qu'il Etoil irlandois, Et a été tatcrprctté 
par le s"" Patrick Kennedy Et âpres .... 

\An sigtKd.] 

{Second teslinu)Hy oj Patrick Kgniudy.] 
.... intcrrogd comment il s'ctoit rcncontriî chez le sr Daniel 
Murray avec le s' Droual Lorsqu'il dit a ce dernier que si les 
Bastonnois arrivcrenl il pourroit se voir de L'avantage, ii repondu 
qu'il avoîl Entendu dire par ledit Murray a Drouart Partant, que a les 
Bastonnois arrivoicnt quîl ne pouvoit pas manqué d'être Employé 
comme Etant le plus Eitpert dans les affaires Et qu'il semptoyeroit 
pour lui pour le mettre En place El après .... 

{AU sigHrd.] 
{Tesiittutny oj HippolUé Beien.] 
.... ÎMerrogé s'il n'auroit pas Connoissaoce d'une Berge appar- 
tenante a Mr Bentley qui desccndoit le Mississijipi comme lui Bolen 
Etant En hyvcmcment avec les Sauvages dans la Belle riviere a repondu 
qu'il avoit Vu tme Berge chargée de farine, Mahis, Rum, Liqueurs, 


merchandise. .\nd we have asked the .laîd Daniel Coiel from what 
country he wa,i. He has answered that he was Irish. And his testimony 
has been interpreted by M. Patrick Kennedy ; and after .... 

[AH signed.] 
[Second testimony of Patrirk Kennedy.] 
.... we have asked under whal circumstances he had met M. 
Drouart at Daniel Murray's, when he (Murray) said to the former that, 
if the Bosionians arrived, he would see advantage therein for him. 
He has answered ihat he had heard the said Murray say to DroUart in 
conversation that, if the BosConians arrived, he could not fail to be em- 
ployed, since he was the most expert in affairs, and that he (Murray) 
would exert himself in his favor to put him in place; and after. . . 

(.4// signed.] 
{TesHincny of Hifpoltte Balen.] 
.... We have asked if he did not have knowledge of a barge be- 
longing to M. Bentley which descended (he Mississippi while he, Bolen, 
was wintering with the savages on the Ohio River. He has answered 
that he had seen a barge loaded with Bour, com rum, liquor, powder, lead 




poudre, plumb en Bart, Bales qui ont reste Knvimn huit jours sur 
b pointe de la Belle rivieru l'A quiU tiroieot charjMc jour trois ou (juartrc 
coup de Baëte soir Et matin cciiendant ils Etoicnt Kloi^tf des Sauvages 
de trois oxi quatre lieux, qu'un des commis du dit Bentley qui Etoit avec 
les Sauvages, le C-ommîs oummé Gicny ât partir deux autres anglois pour 
8ca.voir ce que c'etoii que ce coup de Baëte les quels angloîs ont amené 
laditte Berge où Etoient les Sauvages vmiabckakis qui a trailtc quelque 
sac de farine Et Mahïs et autres Liqueurs, de plus ap^^3 quelques jours 
de traittc ils ont Parti pour revenir au Mississipi se Camper sur In pointe 
de la Belle riviere du Cot45 du sud disant qu'ils vouloicnt attendre des 
anglois qui vcnoicnt des nadch<î qui avoicnt des aiîaires avec M' Bentley 
Et apr^ avoir rcst<5 sept a huit jours audit Endrm't ont chargé une 
pirogue de vivres munitiorw Et ont partis pour descendre le MiMÎssipi 
Fjivironl quartre licus Ils ont campé L Espace de trois jours avec la Berge 
des Bastonnois qui montoit de la nouvelle orleam, les ont recentré avec 
leurs charge quHs ont pri dans la voiture dudît Bentley ce qu'il y avmt 

in bars, and shot, which had remained aijoul eight days un the peint of the 
Ohio and that they, each day, fired three or four shots {de Baete) evening 
and morning; yet they were distant from the savages three or four 
leagues. He further leslificd that one of [he clerks of the said Bentley 
who was with the savages, the clerk nami-d Jimmy, sent two other Eng- 
lishmen to know what the shois {de Baete) were. These Englishmen 
brought back the said barge to when; Ihe Vouahekaki ' savages were, who 
traded some sacks of flour and corn and other liquors. Furthermore, 
after some days trading thry set out to return to the Mississippi to camp 
on the point of the Ohio on (he souih side, saying (hat they wished to 
wait for some Englishmen who were coming from Natchez and had some 
business with M. Benlley; and after having wailed seven to eight days 
at the said place, they have loiuled a pirogue with supplies and munitions 
and have set out to descend the Mississippi. About four Icaguesdown 
ihcy have camped for the space of threcdays with the bargcof the Boston- 
ians which was ascending from New Orleans. They have met them 
with their cargo and the ivitness said that they have taken what was in 
the boat of the said Bentley, according to the report which was made to 

> Should bcOiuboukl. mcuiinit emi lud^mmriinR land, 1 he uunt WM ciMXi by Alsooqaln 
Indimu In coiiiuir iHbn livini ■<> ilic r-.nisinl, ii^.i itn.rr gari iculiiTly lo llw AbaikI la Maim; «lit <» 

Ûte Udamrct. Infonnailon obUbml from Mr. f. W tlMtgc, «I the Hunmi «f Eibeotog^ 


dedans suivant le rapport que lui En ont (ait Ic Commis dudit Bcnticy 
k mu*mc Gimy Et après .... 

[Testimony oj Pierre.] 
.... inlcrrogd s'il ne s'Etoit pas Engagé au sieur Bentley pour 
faire un voyage a quoy a repondu qu'effectivement il s'Etoit Engagé 
audit Bentley pour Partir sous la diitHrlïon du s"" Borner disant que 
c'etoit Pour le Poste vincennes, mais Etant En route ledit Borner 
leurs dil qu'ils dévoient aller dans la Belle n'viere a un village anglois 
Etabli au depas de la chuttc dans une rivière, interrogé de quoy Etoit 
chargé la voiture qu'il menoit a repondu ïju'ils Etoïent chargé autant 
qu'il & pu voir de vin Eaudcvïc, thé, jus d'orange, poudre. Baies fusils 
Et autres Marchandises Scches de plusieurs Espèces Et après .... 

[Alt signed] 

[Teslioiûny oj Carbonneaux, notary puhlù:.\ 

.... interrogé si le sieur Bentley n'auroii point été chez lui pour 

ui faire (aire quclqu'ouvrages relatif a son metier, a quoy a repondu 

qu'Effectivement un jour au Environ le commencement avril dernier 

him concerning it by the clerk of the said Bentley, the same Jimmy ; and 
after. . . . 

\An signed.] 
[Testimony oj Pierr*.] 
.... We have asked if he had not engaged himself to M. Bentley 
to make a voyage, to which he has answered that in fact he had engaged 
himself to the said Bentley to set out under the direction of M. Borner, 
who said the expedition was for the Post Vincennes; but when they were 
«I route the said Bomer told them that they were to go on the Ohio (o an 
English ^^llage established above [?] the falls in a river. Asked with 
what the boat, that he conducted, was loaded, he answered that il 
was loaded as much as he could see with wine, eaudet-ie, tea, orange 
juice, powder, gun «hot, and other dry merchandise of several kinds; 
and after. . . . 

[AU signed.] 
[Testimony of Carbonneaux, notary puMtt:.] 
.... We have asked if M. Bentley had not been at his house to 
have him perform some work relative to his profession, to which he has 



I le s' Bentley auroit été chez lui lui demander d'aller sommer M*" de 
Rochcblave de luy un mandat de la somme de deux milles El ([uciqucs 
cens livres a quoy le declarant lui auroit repondu qu'il n'Etoît liuissîcr 
pour retire ses payements Et qu'il pouvoit y aller luy même licdit Bentley 
luy répliqua que c'Etoit la Coutume En unglcterre a quoy ledit 
declarant lui répliqua que si il Etoit Muni d'ordre pour faire summa- 
tion Et contraindre Mondit sieur de rochcblave au payement qu'il 
B Etoit prcst de les mettre En Execution a Linstant, Bentley sorti» vers le 
" soleil conchant Etant rentré chez ledit declarant lui ayant mis En main 
le mandat dont il Est question mondit sieur de Rochcblave antrat par 
hazard chez ledit declarant qui lui dit jai un mandat que Monsr 
Bentley m'a remis icy dont vous devés le payement Mondit sr de 
Rochcblave repondit donné le moy que je L'accepte Et le payeray 
K demain le declarant lui répliqua que le sr Bentley lui avoit dit qu'il ne 
I vouloit pas qu'il L'acceptât Et qu'il Envouloît le payement toute suite, 
ledit Bentley vint trouver le declarant chez le sr plasy Environ les neuf 

f heures du soir lui disant veoés En votre maison, je veux vous parler Et 
answered that in fact one day about the commencement of last April M. 
Bentley had Ixrcn at his house to ask him to command M. dc Ruchiîblavc 
to pay him a draft for the sum of two tho\isand and some hiindird 
livres, to which the deponent had answered that he was not a huîssUr 
to collect his pajTTcnts and that he could go there himself. The said 
Bcnlley replied that it was the custom in England, to which the said 
dcpom-nt repliai thai, if he was armed with an onler to make a summons 
^ and to constrain M. dc Rochcblave to pay, he was ready 10 put îl in 
B execution. Then Btmtlcy went out and about sunset returned to the 
house of the deponent, and put in his hand the draft in question. 
By chance M. di; Rot-hchlavc entered into the house of the tIr[K)nen[, 
and the latter s;itd lo him, "I have a draft, for which you owe pay- 
ment, that M^ Benilcy has delivered to me." M. dc Rochehlave 
answered, " Give it to mc that I may accept it and I will pay it to- 
morrow." The dejKinent replied lo him that M. Bentley hiul s:iid 
to him that he did not wish him to accept it hut he wanted the 
payment of it immediately. The said Bcnlley sought the dcfKment 
about nine o'clock in the evening at M. Plasy's and said to him, 
"Come to your house. I wish to speak lo you," And when he had 


Etant rendu chcx Iv declarant il hii dit faite moy uq protest contre M' de 
Rochcblavc pour n'avoir pas voulu payer mon mandat a cjuoy le dit 
declarant lui répondit pourquoy voults vous protester contre une per- 
sonne qui a voulu accepter ce jourdhuy votre mandat pour le payer 
demain Est ce L'heure de faire des protests vous ne voules donc Pas 
le faire dît celui cy, vous n'estes doDC pas le notaire du public, vous 
êtes le notaire de Monsieur do Rochcblave seul, tout a L'heure je 
vais revenir un moment apriîs il antra chez le dit declarant declarant 
|îif] accompagné du s' Daniel Murray devant lequel il vomit les paroles 
les plus indecent (|ui ol>lîgca ledit declarant daller chercher les s' plasy 
Et pierre filin craignant d ' ICn venir au mains avec ledit S** Bentley qui 
vouloit absolument faire faire le protest audit declarant par faute dac- 
ceptation Kt de payement dans le moment, et ledit Bentley voyant que 
ledit declarant avoit du secours apri-s Beaucoup de Paroles injurieuse 
tant d'une part que de L'autre s'csl retiré awc ledit Daniel Murray lui 
disant qu'il scavoit ou porter ses plaintes Et après .... 

[AU sigrud] 


returned, to the home of the de[K>neiit, Bentley said 1o him, "Draw 
me up a protest against M. de Rocbeblave for not having been willing 
to pay my draft," to which the said deponent answered, "WTiy do 
you wish to protest against a person who has been willing to accept 
ttMlay your draft and to pay it lo-morrow. Is this the time to 
make protests ? " " You do not wish lo do it," said Bentley, " You are 
not then the notary of Ihe public; you are the notary of M. de Ruuhe- 
blave only. Presently I will return." A moment later he re-entered 
the house of the said deponent and was accompanied by M. Daniel 
Murray, in whose presence he vomited forth the most indecent words, 
which obliged (he said deponent lo seek M. Plasy and Pierre Blin, since 
he feared to come lo blows with M. Bcnllry, who wished absolutely to 
force the deponent to draw up the protest in default of instantaneous 
acceptance and payment; and the said Bentley, when he saw that the 
said deponent had assistance, after many injurious words on the part u£ 
both retired wilh the said Daniel Murray saying he knew where lo carry 
his complaints; and after .... 

\ A II signed.] 



Et le même jour que de L'autre Part le s** Lachanse officer de milice 
Et JUT^ de la Cour d'Enquête nous a dcdan! que le printetnps dernier 
s'etoît trouvé chez M' de Rwcheblavc dana le Gouvernement a un conseil 
sauvage Illinois [quij arrive irhivcrncmcnt En presence du sr Bentley qui 
avoît taxé M' de Rochchiavc d'avoir fait piller sa voiture dans laquelle il 
y avoît de l.'Kaudcvic, M'' de Roiihchiavc demandât en sa presence aux 
dits Sam'ages ^luurquoy ilii avutcat pill^ de L'Eaudevîe dans la dittc 
Berge et sic'Etoîlluiqui leurs avoil dunin: telle permission, un des chefs 
de ta nation S'cloit levé El dit qu'il n'avoit jamais été fait mention de M' 
de Rochclilavc dans tx-ttc affaire, un autre sauvage nommd Patoka chef 
des Kaokias s'est levd parlant a M' <lc Rochclilavc, mon Pcre ce sont nos 
jeunes gens qui ne voudroicnt jamais voir d'Kaudcvic quand ils sont En 
hy\*ememcnt par ce quils Boivent timtcs leur pcitcrie, Et que leurs 
femmes lOt leurs Enfants vont tout nud a quny M' de Rocheblave leurs 
repondit qu'ils ne dévoient Piller ny anglois ny français et qu'ils ne 
dévoient faire tord a jwrsoone. 

[Ali signed.] 


And Ihc saine day as of the other part M. Lachanse,. oHicer of militia 
and juror uf the court of enquiry ' has declared Cu us tliat last spring he 
was at M. de Rocheblave's at a council fur ihe governmeni [?] with the 
Illinois Indians who had arrived from winter quarters and thai there was 
present M. Bentley who had accused M. de Rixiheblave of having caused 
the pillage of his (Bentley's) boat, in which there was enudevte. M. 
Rochchlavc, in the presence of Bentley, demanded of the savages why 
they had sloten eaudevie from the said barge, and if it was he who had 
gÎTCn them such |iermission. One of Ihe chiefs of the nation arose and 
said that there had never been mention of M. de Rorheblavc in this 
affair. Another savage, named Paloka, chief of the Cahokias, arose 
and 3|)okr lo M. de Rocheblavc; "My father, it was our young men, 
who never wish lo see caudevie when ihcy are in winter quarters, because 
ihcy drink up all ihcir peltries and then ihdr women and children go all 
naked," to whiih M. de Rin^heblave answered that they ought not to 
fob cither the English or the French and that ihey ought to do wrong 

lo no person. 

\AU signfd.] 

I Hb naiTW doa Bol appnr In Hochrblinc'* Inunictlona ■■ ■ mnatHii)/ llwvawrt: bul he 
ilgBDcl rrfululr. For blo(. notke. ice t*"- PP- 1°' u- *■ *'*. «' J- 


Etlc<lit Jomr Et an que de L'auucpart nous Junîdc b Cour d'En- 
quête, CcrtJlions a. qui il appartieadra que Mtinsicur de KochcL>lavc corn- 
mandant Et juge sur la partie anglotsc des Illinois, n'a jamais fait d'in- 
justice a Personne tant anglois que françois Et que toutes les Procedures, 
il les a renvoyé pardevant des arbitres comme faisoit cydevant Monsieur 
Lord commandant avant lui Et Lorsqu'il a été obligé d'En nommer 
d'office il a choisi autant qu'il a été En son pouvoir de prendre moltid 
anglois Et moitié françois, qu'il a traitté avec humanité tous les angtuis 
réfugiés 'En ce Poste Et leurs a. donné tous secours qu'il a pu n'avons 
aucune connoissance qu'il ait fait la traitte d'Eaudevie avec les Sauv- 
ages, que quant il a tenu conseil avec les Sauvages il a toujours fait avertir 
Messiera les françois Et anglois cecy trouver qu'il n*a jamais parlé aux 
Sauvages qu'au nom du Roy d'engleterre Et qu'il ne s'est jamais servi 
que du pavillon anglois dans le temps qu'il Etoit nécessaire, qu'il a 
toujours reprimé les Sauvages Lorsqu'ils manquoient Et les a maintenu 
dans le Bon ordre Et que nous sommes contents de son Govemement 
Et de sa justice Et avons signé le jour Et an que L'autre Part. 

[AU signed.] 


And the said day and year as of the other part we the jurors of (he 
court of cnquir)' certify to whom it shall concern that M. de Rochcblavc, 
Commandant and Judge in the English part of (he Illinois, has never 
done any injustice to anyone cither English or French, and that he has 
sent all suits before arbiters as did ht-n-loforL- M. Lord before him, and 
when he has been obliged to name arbiters he has tliosen as far as it has 
been in bis power half English and half French ; (hat he has treated with 
humanity all the English who have takeu refuge in this pu^L and has given 
them all the assistance that he could. We have no knowledge Ihal he 
has traded in eaudevU with the savages. We know that when he has 
held councils with the savages, he has always uotitied Ihe French and 
English here; that he has never spoken lothe savagescxccpt inlhc name 
of the king of England ; and that, when it was necessary, he has never 
used any but the English flag; that he has always restrained the savages 
when Ibcy required it, and has kept Ihera in good order; and that we are 
content with his government and his justice; and wc have signed (he 
day and year of the other part. 

[Aii signed.] 



Petition of Thomas Bentley, October 6, 1777. 

[B. M.. ai84s,ï. IÏ.— A. U.S.'] 
His Excellency, Sir Guy Carlcton, Knight of the Balh, Capt^ 
General and Governor in Chief of the Province of Quebec, General 
& Commander in Cbief of His Majestys Forces in the said Province & 
the Frontiers thereof, S:c. &c. &c. 

The Petition of Thomas Bentley Humbly Shewelh 
That your Petitioner left the Illinois Country the 34*'' of May 
last with M' de Rocheblav'e's passport to go to Arissilimadnac where he 
arrivd after a very tedious Si dangerous Passage on the 31" of July, 
when immediately on his landing his effects were seized by Major dc 
Peyster & himself imprisoned. That on demanding the cause he was 
answered it was by orders from Lieutenant Governor Hamilton & that 
he must go to Detroit where his accusers were. That he obtaind Per- 
mission from Major de Peyster (upon finding security to be answerable 
for the amount to the Crown) to sell his Furs &c That so restricted 
he lost on the article of Beaver only upwards of one Hundred & Fifty 
Pounds Sterling having been offcrd so much raoa- by another Person 
who coud not gi^-e the security required. That on his arrival at Detroit 
he demanded to know from M*^ Hamilton the Cause of his ImprisOD- 
mcnt who informed him it was in consequence of a letter from M' de 
Rochcblavc but that there was not to bis knowledge any deposition 
to support his charge. That on his cxi^stulating with M' Hamtllon 
on the impropriety of such conduct, he inform'd the Petitioner that 
"He was abovx the Law acknowledging that what be was doing was 
illegal that no doubt he made himself liable to a prosecution but thai 
it would not be in his Power to make any retaliation as he had nothing 
to lose & moreover that Government must support bJm in whatever be 
did." That the Petitioner bcg'd Permission to return from thence 
to the Illinois offering security for his appearance if he did not clear the 
matter up; but all in vain. That his principal reason for undertaking 
so irksome & perilous a Voyage was in Order to secure a Remittance 
to his friends Mess*^ Walker Dawson & C", and others in London (o 
whom be is indebted & who are Gentlemen of known credit & well 
eslablishcd Reputation. That the Detention of his Person it Property 
is equally injurious lo them as lo hiraaelf thereby unhappily depriving 

>TUk luu been priated io Hie Mitk. Bià. CMtOiaiu, At, p. jjt, Araa • gdw la '"lawillin 



him of Ihc means of satîsf3âng his creditors. That he hag been very 
iU-trealtd by M*^ de Rochcblai-c at the Iliinois by his oppressive & 
Tyrannical measures the said Rochcblavc having seized his effects to 
a consiflerahle amount refusing seoirity for standing a fair Trial. Thai 
secure in his Innocence he left the Illinois unprovided for any defence 
& without scttlinj; his affairs in such a manner as to admit of his absence 
from that Country where his affairs arc considerable & arc now in a 
state of abandon & will be the more so the longer he isdctaind having 
icfl no person behind him capable of transacting his Buîâness. That he 
has a recent example of the fatality of his absence from that Country 
since its being abandoned by Government as during an abscnre last 
Year to West Florida of not quite four months he was wrong'd of about 
Eight Thousand Dollars. That he was never in any of the Colonies 
now in Rebellion, nor is he lu his knowledge acquainted with a single 
person amongst them. 

That confident of his Innocence & not conscious of having trans- 
gressed the Laws of his Country cither in Word or Deed hopes Your 
Excellency will be pleased to call such an immediate enquiry into the 
matter that in justice to himself Family & Friends his Innocfincc may 
be as conspicuous as has been his accusation. That shou'd you not 
deem such an enquiry necessary he is ready of himself & by his friends 
to give such security as may be required not only for his future conduct 
but also for his appearance whenever Your Excellency shall think proper 
to have a farther Eclaircissement. 

That your Petitioner in full reliance on that Justice Impartiality 
& IIunMnity which have ever so justly distinguished Your character 
humbly flatters himself Your Excellency will be most graciously pleased 
to companionate his Distresses & permit his immediate Return to his 
wife and family & Your Petitioner as in Duly bound will ever pray. 

Montreal the 6'*» October 1777. T. Bentley. 


Petition of M' Bentley sent Prisoner on suspicion of being dis- 
affected to Govcmment from Michiliraachinac, ô**" October 1777. 

A REGISTRATION, N0VP:M1tKR 8, 1777 43 

A REursTRAnoN, November 8, 1777. 
[K. MSS., Court Kccnrrl, f- 117.] 

L'an mil Sept crnt soixante cl <lix cl le Dixlcmc jour du mois de 
Novembre avant Mîdy Est aimparu au Greffe de la Ville des Kas- 
kaskia le sieur Richard Hanstm le Qutl Nous a requis de lui Knrcgisïrc 
Le pointé de le rvqu'ïlc cl le [lermis de saisir {)mvisutrcmcnt qui suit ce 
que avons fait. 

Soit ccmmunîqiié a M" Richard Winston et Patrick Kennedy 
faisant pour M"" Morgan Pour fournir débats à Bon leur setible Lundi 
dix du present, fort Gage Ij; 8"« 9"*" 1777. 

signé RocHEnLAVR 

au revert Est Ecri 

Au Jourd'huy dix novembre mi! sept cent soixante et dix sept huis 
heure du matin sont comparu En vertu de notre ordonnance d'avant 
hier M** Richard Hanson, Patrick Kennedy et Richard Winston ces 
deux derniers ont déclarés n*clre plus agcnlsde M"" George Mais acqueri 
eurs de son bien quîls disent avoir acquis et Payé surquoy nous avon- 
accordé audit sieur Richard Hanson sui.^ie Provisoire sur tous les Ellcis 


On the morning of ihi; loth of Novcmlwr 1777, therp appeared at 
the clerk's office in the town of Kaskaskîa Mr. Richani Hanson' who 
required us to register for him the drx-kct of a petition and the per- 
mission lo seize provisionally that which follows, which we ha>-e done. 

Let it be communicated to MM. Richani Winston and Patrick 
Kennetïy acting for M. Morgan, so that ih**y may furnish pleadings if 
they see fit, on Monday, Ihe loih inst. 

Fort Gage, the 8th of Novcml>er 1777. 

(signed) Rochbblavb. 

On the back is written: 

To-day, November loth, 1777, at eight o'clock in the morning, 
appeared, in wrtue of our decree of day before yesterday, MM, Richard 
Hanson, Patrick Kennedy and Richard Winston. These last two 
have declared that they are no longer the agents of M. (jeorge [Morgan], 
but the purchasers of his goods which they daim to have purchased 
and paid for: wherefore «e have accorded to the aforesaid M. Richard 

I Very liule ha* bwn lound obout him. Hr arar to ihe Illinoi* oouBtry u ■ dvk lor Btrnion, 
Wharton & Ugrsu. Omtill Indci ol lU. Hia. CtUtUimi, il. 



qu'il trouvera appartenir au Sieur George Morgan autant qu'il Provcra 
n'avoir rien reçu Par M' debcmier suivant La Clause de la lettre de 
M' George Morgan Kn vertu de laquelle Est accordée La diltc saisie, 
La dittc Lettre reconnue ftrc de son Ecriture Par M" Patrid: Kennedy 
et Richard Winston fort Gage Lan et Jour que dessus. 

Hanson iironsionary seizure o{ ail the effects which he may find belong- 
ing to M. George Morgan, provided he shall prove that he has receiii-ed 
nothing through M. Dclwmierc,' according to the clause of M. George 
Morgan's letter, in virtue tif which is accorded the said seizure, said 
letter recognized as being In his [Morgan'sJ writing by MM. Patrick 
Kennedy and Richani Winston. 

Fort Gage. The same year and day as above. 

RiCHAUD McCarty to John Askjn, June 7, 1778. 
(B.M.. ai;s;,f.7.-Copy.] 

Copy of & Letter from M' Richard McCarty' at S' Urseuts at Ihc 
Illinois the 7''' June 177S, To M' John AsWin' at Michilimackinac. 

I beg you'll be so good as inform Major He Pcyster that Mackinac 
the maiv I deli^Trcd him a Speech from last year,died Iwforc my arrival 
here, but that Pondiac Son to the Great Pondlac is gone to Detroit 
with some other IndLans that came here this Spring, they seem well 
pleased with his Invitation & would have gone to Michilîmakinac had 
the other been living, they seem well inclined to the English on all 
Accounts, Young Pondiac hopes for a Medal, they arc so much my pro- 
tection as an English man that Indians daily Steal Horses from the 
Village & none from me, Iho' mine arc loose in the open field, the Con- 
voy is arri»'c<I, that is two Roats, one with a new Governor for Ihc 
Spanish Side, the other under his Cover for the Americans with Liquors, 
& 150 Bails broad Cloth, blue, white Sc red, they are to be lodged at 
St. Louis opposite my place; untill they come for it. 

I'llienarneiiiipnini oujuiiiiull)- altJichKl liinulitrul ducumenliia tbe Kai^kia ItSS, durûigi 
ibr Biitlsli p«riiid, bui I hiin b«m atilv lu <li>ccxrrr doUiIrs d*« cunctmùgc kiin. 

'Riclutd M'Carîv wdiaTncrcham.rrJdenllylraniCftnuIi. In llifiTill&<eoICAl)otii&. K<-iilaT«d 
Wl Imiiurcuil UU1 In tn? cuimliy a'trr U» ncciimlian by Ihe Vlroinlaiu. Src lU. tllil. CotUfSioni, il. 
(coiMlt Endog. Severo] rricrcma In him iril! tic finuicl in llur Index In thU mJumc 

* John AiUa wu a jromlnFtit lta(l« nt IVtn^i. IIf ojut rat «unn altn tlic fVmch md 
Indu War, aw a «ommÎMiinr >I Mackinuc until 17^. irh<^ l)t «nt dia(nl»«d frnni the irmke. 
Muiyof hl> (BperaMv in the cull«ilnn a{ C M. Burion. ii4 nrrnjit, and In clw Canudrnn AnUvM. 

Smctal fdcnncsa lo hk calvprbn wiJl I» luuiul ia iha 111. Hia. CalUeliaiu, il. (eoaauli Indci). 


Was there a few Troops here to encourage ihc Good, put heart in 
the weak and inlimedate the bad, this Country might lie ])n:scn-ed & 
Uic communkallon cut off, but as it has been, they have with about 
forly men going down the Ohio to Manchac last fall taken atniut 5cx> 
packs from Knglisb Subjects, 680 Negroes, much Dollars from the 
lower inhabitants, & a Brig of 14 Guns at Manchack with 40 men on 
board, & that taken by 14 men belonging to Willing the American 
Commander, he intimidated the People going before S{>anish Boats 
& making the Inhabitants believe the Boats coming after were all 
Armed & of his Party, it is said that Morgan was to be here with 600 
men last winter, but very likely he has something else to do. There is 
no news of any disturbance in Europe this way, God send us soon 
the much to be wished for news, of an union with England A: her Cnl- 
unies, pray send us what news you can your way, the Spaniards 
it seems are in a bad condition for having seized the English \'cssel at 
Orleans last year, & do encourage the English to come all in their 
power, having no Indian go^xl» at all. 

I am D^ Sir Vour most Obcd^ very humble Scrv* 

(Signed) Richard McCartv. 


M.N- 4- 1778. 

Copy of a letter from M"" McCarty at S* Ursula In the IlUaois giving 
an ace* of the proceedings of the Rebels in those parts, dated 7*'' June, 
enclosed in Maj. De peysters letter of 15'^ Aug. 

Major De Pevster lo Go\'ernor Haldimamd, August 15, i;78. 
[B.M.. «7Sî,f.47.— A.L.S.] 

MlCIIIUMAKINAC, 15 Aug* I778. 


The inclosed letter from M' McCarty, a Trader from this post 
to the Illinois and one from S^ Joseph's will give Your Excellcnry some 
insight into what ts doing or likely to be done in that Quarter. Mc- 
Carty's Account is Confirmed by several people just arrived from the 
nienoig. I am also inform'd that reports are spread in all the Illenois 
Villages that the French are soon to take possession of that Country. 
As there arc no troops to prevent the Virginians from going there. 


ihcy have tt in their power to spread reports and ptiîson the minds 
(he Indians s» as at leasl to make it very dangerous to traders .... * 
I have the Hoiiour to lie with ihc Oreatcst rcs[>ect. 
Your Exœllcnc)'s Musi 

Hum^ & Obed» Serv» 

A* S. De Pfyster. 
[Eiuiorsed:] Michilimakinac 1778. Major Dcpeyslcr. 15'*» Aupist, 
rec" St h Sept' 

From Major De Veystcr Commanding at Michilimakinac enclosing 
two Letters, one from M' Macarty at S^ Ursules in the Illinois giving 
an Ace'' of the Rebels proceedings in that Post, dated the 7'*" June. 
The other from Louis Chevalier of S* Joseph of 26 July. 
Dated 15"' Aug» 1778. Rec. 8 Sept. 

1 Tht Knuiodcr ot Xhe letla rtiutt ui LaufiChnntitr. 


.iKi- 1. 

K'.^i .V.lWl ,M0T2WV/ QMAH'JIH UT 

i;v IT , :•■■ ;■,.,. ' \- , ■ ■■■ 
. ■■. : .> .; ...: i' ;, 
■' ■■■ . i - ; 'i' ■ 




GovEBNOB IIenhy Atpoivts WnfSTOs Captais— Cerhé Writes to 
Cu^KK — Father Gœaclt, Dr. LArrojfr, axd the Submission of 


Williams Borrow Money— Ikstructions to Clark — A Procla- 
mation C0NCER.VINC Slaves — BentleVs Feienps — John Topd 
Appears — Father Gibaclt Sells Land. 

Patsick Heksv's CoKiassioN to Richard Winston, July, 1778. 

[K. MSS.— Printed form, signcd.'] 

The Commonwealth of Virginia. 

Richard Winston Esq, Greeting: 

[MS. lorn] you, that from the special Trust and Confidence which 
is reposed in your Palriotisin, Fidelity, [coulrage, and good Cuaducl, 
you are, by these Presents, constituted and appointed C<ip^" of Militia 
in the Toien' of Kaskaskias 6' ils Dependaftccs. You are therefore 
carefully and dilllgently lo dis<:harge the Duty of G^jfr'" Commandant 
of the Militia, by doing and \M3. /(»rrt]ming all Manner of Things 
thereunto belonging; and you are to pay a ready Obedience to all 
0[rdcrs and] Instructions which from Time to Time you may receive 
from the Gcvernour, or executive l-l/.S". hrn\ for the Time being, or any 
of your superior Officers, agreeable to the Rules and Reg[ulation3 MS. 
torn] [Co]nvention or General Assembly. All Officers and Soldiers 
under your Command are hereby sCric[tly MS. torn] and required to be 
obedient to your Orders, and to aid you in the Execution of this Com- 
mission, [MS. lorn] to the Intent and Purpyrl thereof, 

\MS. torn] Patrick Henry, Esquire, Govemour or Chief Magistrate 
of the Commonwealth aforesaid, at ( Williams )burg, this [no datt\ Day 
of July Year of the Commonwealth, Annoq. Dom, 177*. 

P Henrv. 

> The woMs iirinted In iulk*. not in bndim, ore writtra. 

■The ((iutrd iTixdmf tlic [om "Cjuniy u( " oTc crtiœd OUI. Thbdocumeil baiMlhcr Inilica- 
Ilea ol maiinuninlian ti«**wi Claifc uul iW Amnicnn tndmnvvkiiKialtwfiiniwr'icipcdiiicMilc 
llllnub.liir It [midcnt lro[nUÛ9llulCCtal]iCiiiiir|ir>itiilal With hunk tomiiHinal Xty (•rjTrriMr Ifrnrj. 

bccaiuo be npKMd toaod paraootuifficUoilv trviKnithy M iibec la rwpoiuibk potltigw. 



Gabriki. Cerré to Georce R. Clark, July ïi, 1778 

[Draper MSS., 48J34-'— A. L. S-] 


Jal ifté extrêmement mortifi*? de np m£trc pas trouvd en mon dom> 
idle lors de votre arrivée aux Caskaskias. 

Jaurais eu L'honneur de vous donner des preuves de mon Enlicrc 
Soumission a. mes Supérieurs mais mon Etat étant détrc marchand et 
par consequent obligi* de voyager dans les dîffcrcns postes de ces pays 
pour faire Subsister ma famille, ma mauvaise Etoile ou pour mieux dire 
Ihabitudc annuelle ou je Suis de commencer mes voyages dans ce temps 
ont causé mon malhrur et Suivant le bruit public mes Ennemis Jaloux 
des peines que je me donne me procurer une heureuse médiocrité on! 
profité de mon absence pour me noircir et me metre mal dans Icsprit 
des personnes dont jenai pas I/honiicurdcilre connu bien persuadé que 
ma conduite passée et celle a venir vous étant connue une fois vous me 
rendrez le justice qui est due a tout bon Sujet soumis Je crains que 
dans le premier instant les faux raportsdc mes Ennemis ne portent quel 

[ Tmnslalion.] 

I was extremely chagrined thai I was not at home at the time o£ your 
arrival at Kaskaskia. 

I would have had the honor of giving you proofs of my entire sub- 
mission to my superiors: but since my profession is that of a merchant 
and I am, consequently, obliged to travel to the different posta of this 
country to make a living for my family, my unlucky star, or lo speak 
more correctly the annual habit I have of commencing my journeys at 
this lime, caused my misfortune. According to public rumor my 
enemies, jealous of the efforts I make to obtain a comfortable mediocrity, 
have profited by my absence to blacken mc and destroy me in the opin- 
ion of persons to whom I have not the honor of being known.' I am 
well persuaded that, when my past and future conduct are once known 
to you, you wiil render n^c the justice that is due to every good and sub- 
missive subject. 1 fear that in the first moment the false reports of ray 
enemies may cause injury to my fortune, the only object of their hatred. 

'Tlila tapy ft nu-le Irurn the copy «liiod by F. J. T^rn«. la the A^f- HiM. Rmrw, viii,. 
iCompon Clnrk** ocroimt in £aclb>>, ranfMM v/ ikt Nwikmi, i, 484. 



quatcinte a ma fortune Seul objet de leur haine, dalllcurs ayant entre 
les mains les affaires de dcffunl M"" Viviat colloquies avec plusieurs per- 
sonnes des Caskaskias et qui demandent ma ])rcscncc. José \'ous Suplier 
\fonsieur de Vouloir bien maccordcr un Suave conduit i>our me trans- 
porter en mon domicile afin qucn vertu dicelui je puisse me laver des 
accusations que ion vous a fait contre moy et vaquer aux affaires qui 
mappcllcnt au dit lieu. Cest la grace qucspcrc de vous le Sujet le plus 
Soumis qui a L'honneur dfttrc a\'cc le plus pnifond respect Monsieur 
Votre trcs humble et trcs obéissant Serviteur 


A S' Gencvicre le n" Juillet 1778 

[Endorsed:] Letters Inclosed in one Cuver To Col" Clark July iï«1» 

Besides I have in my hands the affairs of the deceased M. Viviat to 
arrange with several persons of Kaskaskia, who require- my presence, 
t venture to solicit you, sir, to have the goodness to grant me a passport 
to return home, so that I may clear myself of the accusations thai have 
been made against mc and attend to (he afTairs that call me there. 
This is the favor that the most submissive subject desires from you; 
and lie has the honor of bcinj; with the most profound respcii, sir, 
your very humble and very obedient servant. 

Ste Genevieve. July 11, 1778. 
M. George Clark. 

Richard Winston to trk officek of the ouakp. No date. 

[Draper MSS.. 0}a&.— A. L. SJ 


I am to acquaint you that there is Something Incomprehensible a 
Carrying on in Town this night tis Suspected that Cerré is this Night 

■ Thl« un^itd communion ioa tnuti have bno ia>t tharily o/tn the oocupjiliin of Kiukaid[A by 
Qirk. AI that Uim Gftbrid C*ni «u la Si. Lcub, and It wtt mom d*v« Mot* CUrlt vu a1iI« to 
•Btnn him tubmEiklain Mid aupparl- The otAy ptrind when Cmfa trnmcr in the lowa would >ia*e 
bMn ■ touKC «f duiiMr Idl b«l«tra tha tjin«iif tbcMCupalionknd hh tubminfan, ItLimould nuke 
th«il>IKDlllieaciicii}jiiui JulTjr, ilffe. CUtt'* ttimnii in F.nalliJi. W. 11 . CimentU vf Ike Nj^liatÈl, 
a*. For the lilr of I'.nhricrCen^ taaaull Ihr Indn lA III. Itiil C'-Otiiù-ni. ii , aw) "Jnn Clnlirid 
Cmf.a Sketch,' l>]rWnliet B. nnugloi, in 7><i>iwiii»ni ■>! ihc 111. Sim* Hiii. Sue . 190J. 


In Town {.Vf. S. imperfrrt] of M"" L'Chancf ' lliis I gî\T you from mere 
hearsay and the Mancouvrcs I See Slighly Carried on by People in the 

I am Sir Vours and the States Truelj- Failhfull friend and Hum'* 
Ser»-* Rica: Wixston. 

[Addrased:] To (he Officer of the Guard, Fort Clark. 

Jeak Bte. Lafpont to Grorge R. Ciabk, August 7, 1778. 
[Archives oî Archiépiscopal Palace, Quebec.— A. L. S.] 
A Monsieur le colonel George Roger Clark, pn?senl. 

Je ne puis Monsieur qu'approuver ce que Monsieur Gibeaut a dît 
lian* le contenu du journal s'il a obmit quelque vérité historiques qui 
auroicnt été dignes d'Être racomplésce qu'il a dit et [îjV] la vérité peure, 
tout cequ'il m'a prié d'ajouter et qu'il vousdira a vous mCmeet m'a prié 
d'être présent, qu'il a Oublié et que dans tous les afferre civilles tant 
avec les françois qu'avec les Sauvages, îl ne s'est mêlé de rien n'en ayant 
point d'ordre et cela étant contre son cararlèrc et que J'en ay eu sculSe 
direction luy m£mc s'en étant tenu envers les uns et ks autres a la seullc 

To Colonel George Roger Clark, present.' 

I cannot but approve that which M. Gibaull said in the contents of 
his journal. [Even] if he did omit some historical truths which might 
have been worthy of narration, that which he said is the pure trulh. 
All that he has begged me to add and which he will tell to you, and has 
asked mc to be present (and which he forgot) is that in all the civil 
affairs, not only with the French but with the savages, he meddled with 
nothing, because he was not ordered to do so and it was opposed to his 

■ NioùLu C&illol ifil l^chaue w&a proliably nol in the riltaie of EatJuskLi ui lh« timr of Uic occu- 
nlun tiy CUik; (or ho had beta taken prluMtcr by ihc boti uiidn Cujiuin Willing, uhii jKntnlRl 
CUrï. laduMC, lUeCnrf, btïOBMdIa tbc paltjr MppotiiDR ihc Kniuh atut, (Maioa, E. (>.. 
"RodicUtn pftp»r*,"ln C^Utoukt.SodnfyCalittjiimi.iy.ioK). I luvchmi unihlr lo coUra 
Inlvmatioa -coactmiiiii l^«ftilM tmimii to this period, at btcamc an iininrual f*clot in Ku- 
kasluu fotiLka, wu didad ludf* b 177» and lit*. Durinf Uw period of «taittiy folluwini Ui« 
atnllllonol Iheoiurl \if WuMùa, Lactùinte ittacAM hinudf lo the panr of John Qôdxc He «nil 
bii numtrsut Mm motôl to iHe SjnoWb (Ida of iKn MlHil>«!npt)>*iinmihr vMn 1787 and 1700, tad 
■rtllnitt N^^Bf»itl>on anilSte. Oenevinrc, ^Jil, [I. 414: III, JJiit. Call<iluim, iL (Coowll Iniin): 
Houdu L.. HiH. n/ Itiinuri. i. ]60. 

* For • dl«cuâùn bi thb l«tbr anda biaeapUttl aaiiM of L.iflDnt. sn- rmrodncUcin. This Inirr. 
wiih<)lh«n[rinicdliithb volume. luwrilMOacdiMnBDol 1iicIu<1rI line, luivrbMnpublUlml lir iliv 
ediu» in tb* Amv. Hill. Ktv., April, 1909. Tkt litter ia (nialed ia facsimile no Uie uppmitc çatfi. 

■ '■■" -^^ ■ ■■-•■■'■■ •■■ ■•■■■•■ i ■'>.. 



"vocation; ami Ihit I alonc had ihe direclîon of the affair, he himself 
having toofincd himsilf towards holh French and Indians solely lo 
exhortation tendante à la paix et a l'union et a empêcher l'effusion du 
sang ainsi Monsieur jKJur le temporal dont je suis charge rnticrcmenl 
i'espere en avoir loulc la satisfaction possible, m'étant comport<! en tout 
avec une intégrité inviolable, mon zelle et ma sincérité me persuade que 
vous auré la bonté Monsieur d'accepter les voeux que j'ay Thonneur de 
faire pour votre personne et de me croire avec un rcspcclucux alache- 

Monsieur, Voire Irfe» humble et Irbs obciscnt serviteur 
Kaskaâkias le 7e août 1778. LAifpONT 

exbortatioD lending towards peace and union and to the prevention 
of bloodshed; and so, sir, for the temporal affaira with which I am 
wholly entrusted, I hope to have all (he satisfaction possibk-, for I acted 
in all things with an irreproachable intcgrily. My zeal and my sincer- 
ity persuade me that you will have, sir, the kindness to accept the good 
wishes which I have the honor to make lo you, and to believe me, with 
a most respectful regard. 

Your very bumble and very obedient sen'ant, 
Kaskaskia, August 7th. 1778. XjifFONT. 


Deposition or Louts Sequin concerning captdre of Vincekmcs. 

[Probate Court Rtcord, April 34, iS^a-Dec. 30, 1843, page 58, Cbcstcf, 111.] 
Personally apfK'ared in open Court I^uis Seguin aged seventy four 
years a rcs[)i:ctable diizen of Kaskaskia, anil known to the Court as a 
man of truth and veracity, who being duly sworn deposes and says that 
he was born and raised at Kaskaskia, Illinois, and has always lived 
(here. That he was residing there at the time that place was captured 
by Colonel George Rodgers Clarke willi Ihc Virginian forces in 1778, 
and was then about ninteen years of age. That he together with (he 
inhabitants generally, joined and supimrtetl the American Cause. That 
a few months after [he capture, he was employed by Col. Clarke to- 
getber with another Creole by the name of Jojong, as a spy to go to 
Vincennes for the purixisc of giving information in the citizens of Vîn- 
cenncs, who were friendly, of the slate of things at Kaskaskia, and to 



advÎ5c them to be quiet and Iranquil.' That the army would be there 
accompanied by the citizens of Kaskaskia. He look a letter from Col. 
Clarke to Captain Helm as he believes, in this semce this deponent lost 
a horse of the vaJue of fifty dollars. He remained at Post Vincenncs 
until Col. Clarke came there with his army, and was present when that 
place was captured, and took an active ]>art with the American forces 
in the &ght. He was nine days going to Post Vinceones with Jogong. 
After Post Vinccnnes was taken, the deponent was one of thirty men 
d^alched by Col. Clarke up the Wabash River to overtake some 
British boats loaded w-ith merchandise for the Indians, and with powder 
and clothing for the British soldiers.' They succeeded in taking the 
boats and returned to Post Vinccnnes and remained there a month or 
more, and returned to Kaskaskia. He further deposes and says that 
the whole time he was in the service of Col. Clarke at Kaskaskia, at 
Vincemies and in taking the boats, was about two months. He further 
deposes and says that about a year thereafter he as one of sijrty men 
under the command of a Major Langto or some such name, of the 
militia, in axi expedition from Post Viocennes to Fort Clark or Fori 
JcETerson as some call it, at the Iron Banks on the Mississippi River, 
the expedition went in a boat and he was employed about eighteen days 
in going, and returning.' He further deposes and says that he has 
never received one cent for the above services, nor any compensation 
whatever therefor, neither from the State of Virginia, or any of her 
officers, nor from the United States. 

> If tba tnlormMian ol ihts depmltioa ^dalcd i8m)I> correct, ind there Hona ta txotily very little 
itMon CO dbiniii It, ihr puper addiiotaiMhLajioouikDDiiilRlgr a<f ■hecaplllr«oi\1acBm)aioFel>nI<- 
^', i??Q. tc nunc 'A ilic icootuu by Cluk or Bownuii It rhf rn my mrnilnn ii[ i mrimi tif nul h iit 
iti the riniplc ul VmccniKs to «nni ibea of the approoidiicig «ablance. In hb "Lttta lo Uuen" 
lEadish. ^E'K4■l<^''•'/ tA< Nvrtkaiul,i.,^3b) Qtrkwriia thtili«NniaObixMinealo\1&cCBiittloûke 

■ jjrlKuner (inm whuia hr miifht nlrLiin lalcrmBtlcBI, but dtBl tbey found it lirpncticiMp on Mcniunt til 
high iTiitct. Nil doubt vKL4 wiU Ibi (IiKtJlllonM VblCl) Swiin Wcnl. tiul his fïnicailuuncc tif iu iau- 
fMMnuidiirrrcnl trum QurWV Sr^uln'i MnKtneat «MIIM «tfalgbllcinunl raniiich, uml lii- ki> infling 

tlÛMory cf oneoIUiciiiimcuat DvwUirfbiftllfr, toiiiipoaeflireitut bt rrnianlK^ist coneciW On 

llMathvhând, CtwkluuimanlmnaCtuitrvcmilacluioald^Md, lif^Idr* tIiU. It wnulil hnvr imixiirrd 
«UDeirfiat l&E dnnulic Mlliaa of ni» wtmcivc, ii the French peojiJc wo-r ujiniinK him 

■Gl ttiii nprdittdn. Clark wrilm: "Knairiiii (hat Governor Hamilton had imt ■ pKrlyol mrn 
up the Ouutwch !■> Dmt (or vore» tbJtl he hail kit Ihfrv. wtkl>'li inu>t It oii thric trlum, I . . . 
liupatchHl Cdpuin Hdm irilh ■ iMtly in. unifij bcuii. «ho nirpciird and nude priiioiFriotrartr,'" 
— CUrk'i Mtcr l» MMua, EagUlK, Ctnuiitrt ej Ih-r .\cftJia^l, !.. 4M. 

' In 17B0 Fvst JrHenan wâs-haictcd liy Inilia-iix. and rdlFl pknioxwie tcqi Imm ill the French 
vitkiB. Xh« paiiy Eroia Vincaum wm aa4tt ihu cumnMad of Captaii> V. T. Dolttm. 


M. MoNroRTON to Gabriel Cerké, Sept. aad, 1778. 
[B. M. ai78t, L 107.— Copy.] 
A. M' Ccrre aux Ilinois au Detroit le aa Scplcmt>rc, 1778. 


A%ant de partir de Mchiiimakinac je ne suis fait l'honneur de *-ou» 
ccrire; incertain 51 ma lettre vous est parvenue je vcus reitre par celle 
id la part que j'ai prise a vos disgraces quelque prévenu que je soi» de 
votre Constance je ressens tix-ement et je partage toute la [leinc des mau- 
vais traitements qu' avec Monsieur de Rocheblave vous avez Eprouvé» 
de la part de ceux qui traînent en Ennemis les [«rsonnes que l'honneur 
et la Religion tiennent soummis et fidelles a leur prince. 

Je suis français, Ce qu'en cette qualité, seuEcmenl je dois a Monsieur 
de Rocheblave; ce que d'ailleurs son Rang et son mérité m'impriment 
de respect et de veneration ; Et ma Reconnoissance aux marques de La 
Bîcnvcuillance dans les frequantes occasions que j'ai eu de le \'oir ches 
vous: m'intéressent egallement a son sort et je ne puis asscs dcplorcr 
le fatal instant ou sans secours il a Clé surpris et traité, a ce qu'on rap- 

[ TranslatUm.] 

Detroit, Sept, aa, 1778. 
To M. Cerré, in the Illinois. 

Before departing from Michillimackinac I hod the honour to write to 
you. L'ncerlain as to whether my letter reached you I repeat in this 
letter ihe part I took in your misfortunes. However biased I may be in 
regard to your constancy, I feel keenly and share all the pain of the bod 
treatment which, with M. de Rocheblave, you experienced at the hands 
of those who treat as enemies the persons whom honor and religion retain 
in submission and faithfulness to their prince. 

I am French ; what I owe lo M. de Rocheblave in this quality alone 
interests me in his fate ; but, beside that, his rank and his merit impress 
me with respect and veneration, asdocsalsomy recognition of the marks 
of bis goodwill to me during the frequent occasions that I saw him at 
your house. For these reasons equally I am interested about his fate 
and I cannot deplore enough the fatal moment when without any succor 
he was surprised and treated, according to rcpurls, in a manner that 


porte, d'une façon qui devroit moins intimider qu' iudiquer Ceux que le 
Capitaine Lord avuit Confitîs a ses soins. 

Le Capitaine Lord Pou voit il choisir un successeur qui fut plus digne 
de cette affection que son amour pour la justice, son idle pour le bien 
peublic, «t son disintcresscmcnt lui avoint a juste titre mcrilée de la part 
des habitants des Ilinois; dont le sort scroit véritablement a plaindre si 
ta Providanoe ne leur envoyoit un prorapt secours pour les aider a secouer 
un joug que sous l'apparence d'une chimérique indépendance on veut 
leur imposer quels avantages pourroint ils tirer de cette independence. 

La Conduite des américains dans leur invasion des Arcan&as, et 
autres postes sans deilance, leur Contrcvcntions au Droit des gens dont 
Monsieur de Rocheblavc, qui le motif seul de se rendre utîUe a un 
peuple qu' une longue fa-quantalion lui avoit rendu cher, a malheu- 
reusement ressenll les vtïels; promettent files aux habitans des llinots 
des avantages plus reels que ceux que leur procure le gouveninient 

Ils n'en ont pas joui, j'en conviens sous le Commanderaanl du 
Colonel Willkins mais les preuves qu'Us ont données de leur attadiemeut 


ought to make indignant rather thon intimidate those whom Captain 
Lord bud confided to his care. 

Could Captain Lord have chosen a successor who was more worthy 
of that affection which his love for justice, his zeal for the public good, 
and his disinterestedness had gained for him on the part of the inhabi- 
tants of the Illinois, whose loi wuuld indeed be worthy of pity, if Provi- 
dence does not send them a prompt assistance to help tbem sbakc off the 
yoke, which, under the appearance of a chimerical independence, some 
wish to put on them. What advantages could they draw from this inde- 

The conduct of the Americans in their invasion of Arkansas and 
other posts without any deEcntx-, (heir violation of the law of nations — 
of which M. de Rocheblavc has unfortunately felt the effects, his only 
motive being to render himself useful to a people who were dear to him 
through a long association — do these things promise to the inhabitants 
oE Illinois advantages more real than those which the British government 
procures for them? 

They did not enjoy them, I agree, under the command uf Colonel 



pour Ic Captaine Lurd le Regret qu'ils on témoigné a s(»i Dcpait 
semblent avoir détruit tes fausses idées que son prédécesseur aurait pu 
faire tiaïtrc dans leurs e^prils, et si comme moi ils eussent eu tant d'oc- 
casions de connoitre IVsprit et ie caractère de la nation anglaise, comme 
moi ils seroint pleinement convaincus que le changement dont ils sont 
menacés ne peut que leurs être funeste dans la suitte. 

Vous le saves Monsieur les Evencmenis et les circonstances OEt 
donné lieu a des préjugés qui quoique fondés sur une incertitude asscs 
embarassante, ne laisâcnl pas que de partager tes esprits et les opinions 
dans une conjoncture si fâcheuse. 

La France dit on a fait un traité de commerce avec les américains, 
la guerre par consequani doit être déclarée on peut donc se flatter de 
Revoir le canada soumis a ses Loix. 

La profonde et obscure ignorance ou l'on est dans un pais si cldgné 
du Continant ne permet gueres de s'arrêter aux différentes nouvelles que 
les différantes intérêts rcpcndent dans k peubHc, je ne puis ni ne veux 
pénétrer les secrets du Cabinet, il m' appartiendroit encore moins d'ex- 
aminer les raisons de (wtitique de ta france. 

Wîlkins; but the pnx>fs, whicti tliey gave ul tlieir fondness for Captain 
Lord, the regret, wlUcti tbey sliowc-d at his departure, seem to have des- 
troyeiJ the false ideas which his predecessor might have caused to spring 
in tticir minds; and if they had had as many occasions to know the spirit 
and character of the Kuglish nation, as I have had, they would have been 
fully convinced that the change with which they arc threatened cannot be 
otherwise than detrimental to them in its consequence. 

You know it, sir; events and circumstances have given occasion for 
precedents which, although founded on an incertitude quite embarrass- 
ing, do nut fail to divide the minds and opinions in a conjuncture so 

France, they say, has made a commercial treaty with the Americans; 
war must be declared consequently; one can therefore expect to sec 
Canada again subject to French laws. 

The profound and obscure, ignorance, in which one liws in a country 
so far frum the continent, hardly permits one to dwell upon various 
reptjrts which dilTercnt interests scatter among the public. I am not 
able nor do I wiiih to penetrate the secrets of the cabinet; it concerns me 
even less to examine the reasons for the policy of France, 


Je suppose que pour ]'intere»t de son Commerce elle ait jugé a 
propos de faire un 1 rait^ avec les américains, a-clle prcteode les engager 
a cornmetre des hostilîUs en Canada si en declarant la guerre elle a 
intenlion de s'en rendre la maîtresse et que le succès reponde a son 
entreprise est il de son interest que les américains y établissent un em- 
pire dominant. 

Pourquoi dune, hclasi trop prodigues de leur propre sang sont ils 
venus rependre celui de tant d'innocents que la bonne foi, l'honneur, 
le serment, la Religion et l'autorité de leur prince obligent de s'opposer 
a leur incursion. S'ils ont cru avoir quelque raison de se soustraire a 
l'obéissance du souverain, Le Canadien naturclkment soumis et de 
bonne foi pouvoît il immagincr quelque pretcxlc pour les approuver et 
suivre leur exemple sans se rendre cou])aUe et de purjure et de la plus 
noire ingratitude. 

Le gouvernement Britannique a-il rien négligé de ce qui pouvoit 
contribuer au Bonheur de ce peuple ses sages precautîonis dans les choix 
de ceux a qu'il confié son autorité pour le gouverner, sa prévoyance a 
établir la justice dont l'administraiioa fut toujours donnée a des juges 


I suppose that in the interest of her commerce she has seen fit to make 
a treaty with Che Americans. Has she pretended 1o engage them to 
commit hostilities in Canada? If by declaring war she has the inten- 
tion of becoming mistress of it, and if her success corres[>onJs to her 
enterprise, is it her interest that the Americaus should establish there a 
dominant empire? 

Why, then, alas! Coo extravagant with their own blood, have they, if 
they thought they had some reasoti to withdraw from the obedience of 
Iheir sovereign, come to shed the blood of so many Innocent persons who 
arc obliged, by their good-faith, honor, oath, religion, and the authority 
of their prince, to oppose their (Americans') incursion ? Could Canadi- 
ans, naturally submissive and of good faith, imagine any pretext to 
sanction them in following their example without rendering themselves 
culpable both of perjury' and of the blackest ii)]jralitude? 

Has the British government neglected anything which might con- 
tribute to the welfare of its people? Its wise precautions in tlie choice 
of those to whom it gives authority tu govern, its care in establishing 
justice whose administration is always given to judges as upright as 


egallement intcgrcs qu' cdain^s ses encouragements jxiur l'agraiidissc- 
ment du cummerce qui en si j>eu ile terns eioiL devenu si tlurissani n' 
ctomt'ils pas un sur garant aux Canatlicnsde leur félicité. 

Les Américains ne }Hiuv<)int-i(s pas jtiuir des mêmes ])rcmgativi's qui 
eussent elles élt' suivies des taxes selon eux onéreuses leur laissoit en- 
trevoir des avantages préférables a ceux qu'ils csjiercnt d'une indé- 
pendance qu'ils |ire%'oyoinl bien ne ]>ouv(>ir acheter que par l'efusltm du 
Sang et dunl la }H)sterile la plus reoilie leur féru des justes reproches. 

Cet idole a qui ils ont sacrifie tant d'innuccnlcs vidimes n'a apj)rescnt 
qnc trop d'adorateurs dans cette partie de l'amerique au nombre des 
quels on a cumptiî le père Floquet. ïi il est coupable de quelque tra- 
hison il a (:t(! sans diHJte d'autant plus dangereux que sa Correspondance 
a été Iroj» long tcms cachée en le cas ceux qui ont quelque Connoissancc 
de l'institut de la Compagnie de Jésus doivent savoir ladlETerenœ qu'il 
y a entre un franc jesuiltc et un jusuitle franc et la conduite de Monsieur 
Carlelon a ce sujet est une preuve bien aulantique de l'idée que je \'cux 
donner de la douceur du gouvernement; Son Excellence n'ayant fait 

Ihcy are judicious, its encouragement for the development of commerce 
which in so short a time has become so flourishing, ore not these a sure 
guarantee to the Canadians of their felicity? 

Were not the Americans able to enjoy the same advantages, which, 
had they been followed by taxes in their opinion burdensome, stiti 
allowed them to foresee advantages preferable to those which they expect 
from an independence, when they see very well that they wUl not be able 
to buy this except by the shedding of blood for which posterity, even the 
most remote, will make just reproaches to them ? 

This idol, to which they have sacrihced so many innocent victims, 
has at present only loo many adorers in that part of America, amongs^t 
whom Father Floquel' has t»ecncountctl. If he is guilty of some treason, 
he has been, without doubt, the more dangerous as his correspondence 
in the case was too long hidden. Those who have some knowledge of 
the Onlcr of the Company of Jesus must know the difference there is 
between an out and out Jesuit and an honi-st Jesuit ; and the conduct of 
M. Caxletoii in this matter is a very authentic proof of the idea I wish 
to convey concerning the gentleness of the government, His Excellency 

I Sbmbn of the Jnciii oidn, li«icis bI Mmtnal. 


d'autre demarche dans une conjoncture si delicate que de le Rccom- 
piandcr aux soins de Monseigneur Lei-cque. 

Le aele avec lequel sa grandeur avec son Respectable Cierge se soin! 
portes a encourager les lidcllcs rafTcrmir les chancelions et rappelles les 
Egaras ne laissant rien plus h. craindre a son Excellance de la part du 
père Floquet auroint du sans doute détruire dans tout le peublîc les 
malheureux préjugés qu'il avoit cémentés dans l'esprit d'un peuple 
creduUe et ignorant et dont un bonne partie aura été preser\-ée par 
l'exemple éclatant de la noblesse et des gens de bien en Canada que 
l'honneur seul a armés pour la defiance de leur prince. 

Je ne pretends pas Monsieur meriger ici en fin politique ni donner a 
personne des leçons de ce qu'un ftdelle sujet doit a son prince je ne suis 
ni dans un état ni dans aucun emploi qui m'y Engage. Ceux de vos 
amisde ma cunnoissance et a qui vous pourries faire part de la part que 
je prends a vos disgraces et de ma sensibité [sic] aui fâcheuses con- 
jonctures qui nous affligent egallcment n'ont pas besoin d'encourage- 
ment pour suivre votre Kxcmple s'il se presentoît quelque occasion de 
vous rétablir dans vos droits dont ils ne se vcrroînt non plus que vous 


having taken no other steps in such a delicate conjuncture than to 
recommend him to the care of Monseigneur the Bishop. 

The zeal with which his lordship and his honorable dergy have 
worked to encourage the faithful, lo strengthen the weak and lo call 
back the erring, leaving nothing more for His Excellency to fear on the 
part of Father Floquet, ought to have destroyed, without doubt, in all the 
public the wretched prejudices which he (Father Floquct) had implanted 
in the minds of a credulous and ignorant people, a great many of whom 
may have Ijccn preserved by the brilliant example of the nol>iiity and the 
well-to-do in Canada who were armed by honor alone in the defence 
of the prince. 

I do not pretend, sir, to set myself up for a politician nor !o give les- 
sons to anyone as to what a faithful subject owes to his prince. I am not 
in a, position to do so nor in any employment which would engage mc to 
do so. Those of your friends, with whum I am acquaintcil and to whom 
you may relate the part I take in your misfortxmcs and my regret for the 
vexatious conjunctures which InmhlL- us equally, need no encouragement 
lo follow your example, if some occaaon were to present itself to re- 


déchus si sous tes hospices Monsieur dc Rochcblave vous eussics Ic 
moindre secours. 

Je vous prie Monteur d&ns la rqjonse dont j'espcrc vous m'hon- 
orercs m'apprendre son sort et le Heu ou îl est détenu impalîant de 
rcnvuir de ses nouvelles et des vôtres j'ai l'honneur d'etre 1res sincère- 
ment Monsieur 

Voire Ires humble et obe' serviteur 

[Endorsed:] Copy letter from M'' Monforton at Detroit to Mr. Ceres at 
Kaskaquias dated 32"*^ Scpf enclosed in Lieut. Gov' Hamilton's 
Letter of the 4^'' Ocl"^. Received 2g"' 

Marked Detroit N" 18. 

establish you in your rights, from which they would have seen them- 
selves no more than you fallen, if under the leadership of M. de Rochc- 
blavc, yuu had had the least hclj>. 

I beg you, sir, thai in the answer, with which 1 expect you wilt honor 
rne, you will inform me of his (Rm heblave's} fate and of the place where 
he is held. Impatient to have news from him and from you, I have the 
honor to be very sincerely, sir, 

Your veiy humble and oljedienl 8er\'ant, 


PROMISROKY Note op J. Haïrod and J. Whjjaur, Norembcr 9, 


[K. MSS., CiMin Retord, f. u?-] 

I> 'an mil sept rent sniix.intc ct dix huit et le vingt quatrième Jour du 

mois de novembre au Greffe de la ville des Kaskaskîas au pais des 

Illinois Kst comparu U: s' françnîs ferrant comnrisde M"" Charles Gratiot 

lequel nous a requis de luy Enregistrer l'obligation qui suit ce que nous 

avons fait- 

Iq the year 1778, on the 34lh day of the month of November, there 
appeared at the clerk's office of the town of KaskasLJa in the Illinois 
country M. François Ferrant, clerk of M. Charles Gratiot, who has 
required us lo register for him the following promissory note which we 
have done.' 

< The doctunaiti murliH H ibotir. K, M$$,,C(jun Rocard, u* all copied frnma vdumrotitm!- 
hTrn>jn]i>.«ni>>nawk>rhùihr>«iird<>MlwwHii]aunheC(MH«sUUi*hcdWC«laiid Wilkin* in 1760. 
Many of |hcrK>^ds rainwl hv i*>r clrrk *rr imrixlucnl br thalarmiili praiâdlnc ilikdocurriMI. In 
Dtilrr lo »vc npur iliU rorinul* hu licm lunillcd in the emte U Uie othit docununU, and tlie dale ol 
cauT, wbcB tWtii, oowd in ihe hiwtiag. 


Know all Men by these Presents that wc James Harrod & John 
Williams- both Captains in the service of the United States of Amen'ca 
are held & finnly bound unto Charles Graliul of the Village Cashou( 
|Cahokia] merchant in the sum of Two Thousand Eight hundred & 
Eighty Spanish milled Dollars to Iw paid to the said Charles Gratiot or 
his certain Ex"*, administrators or assigns, for which payment to be 
well and trucly made wc Bind & oblige ourselves & «ich of us by him- 
self his Heirs Ececutcrs & administrators firmly by ihcsc Pn-sents 
Sealed with our Seals dated the ninth of Novcmlicr in ihc third year of 
ihi! Imlept'iKlcncc & in the year of our Lord 1778. 

The condiiitm of this obligation is such that if ihe alwvc bounden 
James Hamxl & John Williams iheir heirs Executors & ailministra- 
tors, do Si. shall well Ifi truly pay or cause to be paid unto the aliove 
named Charles (îraliot his hcira admiiiii^trators or Assigns, the full sum 
of Fourteen hundred & forty Spanish Dollars on the first Day uf March 
next ensuing the date of the above written obligation without fraud or 
further delay ; then this obligation 10 be void otherwise to remain in full 
force & virtue. 

Signed Jaues Harrod, Jno Wiluams 

Signed Sealed & Delivered in the presence of us, 

Signed Test. Ancus Cameros Richard Winston 

Instrdctions to Gkorge Rogers Clark irou the Governor 
Patrick Henry, December 15, 1778.' 
(Dr. MSS., 60 J 1. — Copy from Virginia Sute Archives.] 

You are to retain the command of the troops now at the several posts 
in the county of Illinois and on the Wabash, which fall within the limits 
of the county now erected and called Illinois county, which troops 
marched out with and have been embodied by you. You arc also to 
lake the command of five other companies rai.sed under the act of Assem- 
bly which I send herewith, and which, If com|»lcled as I hope Ihcy will 
speedily [be, will) have orders to join you without loss of lime, and are 
likewise to he under your command, with your wliolc force you are to 
protect the inhabitants of the county, and as occasion may serve, to annoy 
the enemy. It is thought the Indian nations may be overawed and 
inclined to peace with us by the adoption of proper measures with you. 

' TliiMC instmctiani «rrrr rodinMl in Itir uicCMdlni Irita. 


Or îf thai cannot be effected ihat such of them as send out parties toward 
our frontiers on this side nf Ohio may be chastised by detachments from 
your quarter. For this purpose it will behoove you to watch their mo- 
tions, and to consider ihat one great advantage expected from your situ- 
ation, is to prevent the Indians from warring on this side of Ohio. In 
order more effectually to prevent this, you are to establish such posts in 
different parts of the county as you judge best for your troops to occupy. 
I consider your further success as depending upon the good will and 
friendship of the Frenchmen and Indians who inhabit your part of the 
Commonwealth: with ihetr concurrence great things may be accom- 
plished; but their animosity will spoil the fair prospect which your past 
successes have opened. You will therefore spare no pains to conciliate 
the affections of the French and Indians. Let them sec and feel the 
advantage of being fellow citizens and freemen. Guard most care- 
fully against ever)" infringement of their property, particularly with 
respect to land, as our enemies have alarmed them as to that. Strict 
and even severe discipline with your soldiers may be essential to pre- 
ser%'e from injury those whom they were sent to protect and conciliate. 
This is a great and capital matter and I confide thiit you will never lose 
Mght of it or suffer your troops to injure any person without feeling the 
punishment due (he offence. The honor and interest of the stale are 
deeply concerned in this, and the attachment of the French and Indians 
depends ujx^n a due obscn'ance of it. 

John Todd,' Esq. Iieing appointed County Lieutenant according to 
law during pleasure, with ample power confined chiefly to the civil 
department, will have directions (o act In concert with you whenever it 
can be done. On your part you will omit no opportunity to give him the 
necessary co-ojjeraiJon of the troops when the case necessarily requires 
it. Much will dqxrnd upon the mutual assistance you will occasionally 
afford each other in your respective departments, and I trust that a sin- 
cere cordiality will exist between you — the contrary will pnwc highly 
detrimental. Some mea.surcs will Iw fallen uimn fur carrying on a trade 
lo supply goods for the inhabitants of your county. You will afford the 
agents such aid or proteaion from time to time as affairs require and 
your circumstances will permit. 

1 send you herewith some copies of the act of govertimeni and Bill 

■jAhnTodd'tOMMCiiM Willi Hie Cuunlï or tUinoii h gmo to dMait ia tlw iDUoductioa to M. 
BiiL CeBMiémt, U. 



of Rtghls together with the Frciicti Alliance: These will sen'e to shew 
our new friends (he ground upon which (hey ;»rc to stand, and the support 
to be expect[ed] from their counlrymen of France. Equal liberty and 
happiness are the objects, to a participation of which we invite them. 

Upon a fair presumption that the people about Detroit have similar 
inclinations with those at Illinois and Wabash, I think it possible that 
they may be brought to cxpell their British masters and become fellow- 
citizens of a hcc stale. I recommend I his to y<mr serious consideration, 
and to consult with some confidential persons un the subject. Perhaps 
Mr. Gibaull the Priest (to whom this rounti^- owes many thanks for his 
zeal ami services) may ]>njmolc this alTair. But I refer it to you to select 
ihc pnijxT persons to advise with and to aid as ocrasion offers. But you 
are to push at any favorable occurances vvhiih fnriunc may present to 
you. For our jieace and safety are not secure while the enemy are su 
near as Detroit. 

I wish you to testify to all the subjects uf Spain upon every occasion, 
ihc high regard and sincere friendship of this cummunwcalth towards 
Ihem, and I hope it will soon be manifest that mutual advantages wiU 
den^'C fn>m the neighborhood of the Virginians and the subjects of his 
Catholic Majesty. I must observe to you that your .situation is critical, 
far detached from the body of your country, placed amongst French, 
.Spaniards and Indians, strangers to our people, anxiously watching 
your actions and behavior and .ready to receive impressions favorable or 
not so, of our commonwealth and its Government, which impressions 
will be hard to remove, and will produce lasting goixl or ill effects to your 
country. These considerations will make you cautious and circumspect. 
I feci the delicacy and difficulty of your situation, but I doubt not your 
virtue will accomplish the arduous work with honor to yourself and ad- 
vantage lo the slate. The advice and assistance of discreet good men 
will be highly neixssory. For at the distance of your country, I cannot 
be consulted. General discretionary powers will therefore be given you 
to act for the best in all cases where these instructions arc silent and the 
law have made no provision. 

I desire your particular attention to Mrs. Rocheblave and her chil- 
dren, and that you suffer Ihem to wont for nothing. Let Mr. Roche- 
blavc's property, which was taken, be restored lo his lady so far as it can 
be done. You have the sum of .sixty pounds sent for her use, in case 
you can't &nd her husband's ciïects to restore. 



Prudence requia-s thai provisions Ixr laid \n lo subsist the troops 
you have, and (hose to be expected l<i arrive with you. Col. Bowman 
has conlratled lo deti\'cr 35000 lb bear bacon at Kentucky, but bread 
must be had at IlUnois. You will provide it if jxissiblc before the 
arrival of the troops or the necessity to buy it become» generally known, 
as perhaps advantage may be taken by raising the price. Lay up also 
a good stock of powder and lead. There is a cargo of goods at a Spanish 
post near you belonging either lo the Continent or this State. Rather 
than lei your trtxjps Ix' naked you are lo take a supply fur Ihcm out of 
these goods. But this is not to be done but in case of absolute necessity. 
Let an exact account Iw kept of what is used and let me receive it. In 
your negotiations or treaties willi the Indians you will be assisted by 
Mr Todd. Let the treaties be confined lo the subject of amity and 
peace with our people, and not to touch the subject of lands. You may 
accept of any services they offer for expelling the English from Detroit 
or elsewhere. In case you 6nd presents to the savages necessary, make 
tliem sparingly as possible, letting them know our store of goods is 
small at present, but by means of our trade witit the French and 
cither nations we expect plenty of goods before it is long. 

Col, "Montgomery will convey to you looooj^ for payment of the 
troops and for other matters requiring money; in ihc distribution of it 
you will be careful to keep exact accounts from time to lime, and take 
sccunly where it is proper. I am &c 

1 send you a Col°* Comi-tsion fi some Blanks. 

yrs as above P. Henry. 

[Addresjfd:\ To Col" Geo. R. Clark 

Governor Patkjck IIknrv to Col. George Rogers Clark, Deœm- 

ber 15, 1778. 
[Draper MSS., 48 J 49.— A. L. S.] 

Sot: W^BVRCH.DeC 15"', 1778. 

Myers your Express has been kept here a long lime. I laid your 
letters before the Assembly who are well pleased with your conduct & 
have thanked you. The Messenger waited for the passing the Ad I 
send herewith. 

I ihank you also for your Services lo the Comonwealth, & hope 
you'll stil have Success. M' Todd is appointed lo the County Lieu- 



tenanry, A Com mandant as described in the Act is a ctWl Officer, éb 
considering he is lo hold his office during pleasure, it has been judged 
incompatible with any military Office. You would have had it, had 
there been found any propriety in annexing it to military Comand. 
W. Todd being a man of merit, I hare no Doubt he will tie acceptable 
to you & all your Cor^ïs. Let me hear from you often as pos»ble. 

1 beg you will present my Compliments to M'' Gibault & Docf 
Lafong & (hank them for me for their good Sen-ices to the State. 

I send you a Copy of the French Alliance & some other Papers, by 
seeing which the people will be pleased, & attached to our Cause. 

I refer you to the Instructions I send herewith, & wishing you 
Safety & Success am 

Sir ¥■■ mo. hble Servant 

P. Henry. 

P. S. The president of Congress has this momwit a-isured mc that 
the English apply'd to Spain to mediate a peace with France. The 
King of Spain highly resented the Terms offered by Ihe English & 
put her whole Forces in Motion last Sep' when every Day 'twas expected 
Hostilitys a^* the English would bo comentX'd. The Count D'Estaing 
the French admiral has lately invited the French in Canada lo take up 
Anns &i join Ihe Americans, & has In his Masters Name promised to 
support them. 

Let this l>c known everywhere in your Quarter. 

pRocLAUAnoN BY GEORGE R. Clark, Deceml>er a^, 1778. 

[K. MSS., Court Rrcurd, E. 153. — Recorded Dc<:cnit»er 16, 177S.) 
George Rogers Clark Ecuyer Colonel Commandant la partie or'en- 
talc des Illinois ct ses dependences &c. 


Sur les plaintes qui nous ont été addressees par les differens babitans 

George Rogers Clark Esquîrai, commanding the eastern part of 
lUincîs and ils dependences, etc 

On Account of the Complainls, which have been addressed lo us by 

> Pot tlie Iraublei wiih the sb.>cs. connilt HL Hi'il. CaUatwmi, U. ij tl icf. 

RMBER »4, i?78 6$ 

(Ic cctle rive, par leurs rcquttcs qui nous a été presentee Ic vingl deux 
du Current, icndantc a cc qu'il nous plut remédier aux désordres, abus 
Cl Brigandages qui durent depuis Long-temps, causée par le trop grande 
liberté dont jouisse les Eclavcs rouges cl noirs, quj les Empeclient de 
Vanquerf?] aux differcns ou\Tagcs aux quels leurs maîtres les Em- 
ploycnt qui causent la perte totale de rcttc colonie, nous En conscqucnrc 
des susdittcs plaint»! et pour maintenir te bon ordre dans toute 
L Etendue de ce pais il nous a Plut ordonner et ordonnons oe qui suit 

I. Deffendons et faisons très Expresse inhibition a toute Personnes 
de quelque qualitt? quelles puissent ôtre de wndre ou faire donner ou 
traitter aucune Liqueurs eny^Tanl sous quelque prétexte que se soit et 
En quelque petite où grande quantité que se puisse être, aux Eselai-cs 
rouges et noîrs sous peine de vingt Piastres Demande pour la premier 
fois et du double s'il redde dont le Dénonciateur en reccvera la moitié. 

a. Deffendons a toutes personnes de cette rive de pretter où LoUir 
Gratuitement a aucun Esclaves rouges oïl noirs leurs maison où Bâti- 
ments même leurs cuurs pour y danser après le soleil couché où la nuit 

several inhabitants of this bank through their petitions, prcsf^ted tous 
the twenty-second of the current month, in which they Ix-g us to remedy 
the disorders, abuses, and brigandage of so long duration, that has been 
caused by the tiw great Hlwrly enjoyed by (he red and black slaves, a 
lîlxîrty that prevents them from accomplishing the different pieces of 
work in which their masters employ them, and is thus causing the 
total loss of this colony: in consequence of the aforesaid cumplainis 
ami in order to maintain gf>od ortler in the whole extent of this country, 
It has pleased us tn onlatn anil wu do onlain what follow-s: to wtt, 

I. We forbid and |m)hjbit very expressly all jierstins of whatsoever 
quality they may be froni selling to, causing to be given to, or trading 
with the red and black slaves any inioxicatitig liquors under any pretext 
whatsoever and in any <|uaiuily, lÎHle or bjg, under penally of twenty 
piastres fine for the first offense and of double, if it is repealed; of 
which fine the accuser shall receive half. 

3. We forbid all [>ersons living on this bank to lend or rent gratuit- 
ously to any red or black slaves their house, buildings, and courts, after 
tuinsel or fur the night, for the purpose of dancing, feasting, or holding 


l>our y festincr où y faire tics assemblées tioclumes sous peine de Quar- 
ante Piastres demande Pour la premiere fuis et du double s'ii récidive 
dont le denuncîateur En reccvera la moitié, cependant n'Entendons 
pas Empêcher Que les dits Esclaves rouges où noirs prennent leur re- 
creation 1^5 dimanches oil fêtes a danser moyennant que se soit te jour 
seulement et que les dits Esclaves soyent Pourvu d'un Parmi |w] signé 
de leur mailre jiour cet Effet pour lors toutes Personnes pourront leurs 
Louer où pretter leur maison Pour y danser dans le jours sans aucune 

3. Deffendons pour prévenir les vols et laretns des Esclaves rouges 
où Noirs a tous Esclaves de sortir de la maison où cours de leurs mailre 
apr^ la retraitie Battue a moins quits ne soyent pourvu d'un parmi 
tâgaé de leur dit maître qui ne leur sera accordé que dans 3c Cas de 
ncœsstté qui ne pourra leur scr\'ir que pour une fois, ceux qui En sorti- 
ront sans &trc muni dudit parmi» apprît la reiraille Battue seront 
fustigé au dépens de leur mailre En place publique de trente neuf coups 
de fouet, Pareillement celui qui ira d'un village ÎL l'autre sans ^trc muni 
d'un parmis de son mailre subira le même châtiment et s'il récidive il 
sera doublement Puni cl toujours au depends de son maître. 

nocturnal asscmhtîeg therein, under penally of forty piastres fine for the 
first ofTence and of double, if it is rcpcatcti; of which fine the accuser 
shall receive half. We do not intend, however, to prevent the said 
red or black sta%'es from talcing their recreation in dancing on Sundaj-s 
and feast days; provided it is during Che day time, and the said slaves 
are furnished with a permit signed by their masters to the effect that all 
persons can rent or lend them iheir houses for the purpose of dancing 
without restraint during the day. 

3. In order to prevent thefts and robberies by red and black staves, 
we forbid them to go out of the house or court of their masters after 
tattoo is beaten unless they are provided with a permit signed by their 
said master, and this shall be granted them only in of necessity 
and can be used only once. Those who shall go out after tattoo is 
beaten, without being furnished with ihe said permit, shall in a public 
place be given thirty-nine strokes of the whip at the expense of their 
masters. Likewise he who shall go from one village to anolher without 
being furnished with a permit from his master shall .suiter the same 


4. Enlia deffendons a toutes personnes d'achepter où Echanger avec 
les dits Esclaves rouges où noirs aucunes denrées cochons ou bois ni 
autre que se puisse être sans que les dits Esclaves ue soycnt munis d'un 
parmis de leurs maitre pour vendre où Echanger les dîltes dcnrtîes et 
ce sous peines d'une amende arbitraire par les contreveneurs a notre 
présente pioclamation. 

5. Enjoignons a tous capitaines officiers de milices et autres Partic- 
uliers de tenir la main a L'Execution de la présente Proclamation cl a 
tous Blancs d'arrêter les Esclax'es rouges où noirs qu'ils remontreront 
dans les rues de chaque village de cette rive après la retraitte Battue 
où huit heurs, Partillement les Esclaves qui se trouveront dans des 
cabanaes d'autres Esclaves que celles de son maitre après la ratraitte 
battue où huit heures du soir seront aussi arrêté et fustigé de trente 
neuï coups de fouet En place publique el au depends de son maitre et 
celui qui arrêtera un ou Pluseurs Esclaves aprb la retraitte Battue où 
huit heures du soir soit dans la rue où dans une cabanne qui ne sera pas 
la demeure de l'Esclave, recevcra que [sic] Piastre sur le charge du 

chastisement; and if it is repeated, he shall \k punished with twice the 
numlwr of strokes, always at the expense of his master. 

4. Finally we forbid all persons to buy from, or exchange with, the 
said red or black slaves any goixls, cu'mmodities, pigs, wood, or other 
things whatsoever, unless the said slaves are fiomished with a permit 
from Ihcir masters to sell or exchange the said commodities; and this 
under penalty of an arbitrary tine payable by the transgressors of this 
our present pr<AJamation. 

5. We enjoin all captains, officers of the militia, and other individuals 
to enforce the execution of (lie present proclamation, and all while men 
to arrest the red or black slaves whom they shall meet in the streets of 
each village of this bank after talloo is beaten or eight o'clock in the 
evening; and likovviac the slaves who shall be found after the beating 
of tattoo or eight o'clock in the evening in the cabins of other slaves 
than those of their master shall be also arrested and, in a public place, 
beaten with thirly-ninc strokes of the whip at the cxjicnse of ihcir 
masters; and he who shall arrest one or several slaves, after the beating 
of tattoo or eight o'clock in (he evening, cither in the street or in a cabin 
which is not the dwelling place of the slave, shall receive [ï«e?] piastre) 



maître au quel apparticcdra L'esclave qui aura 6ié arrêté par chaque 

6. Sera notre présente procliunation afTtrhOc a ta porte de chaque 
Eglise des village de celle rive pour que personnes n'en puisse ignorer. 

Donnu! au fort Clark sous le sceau de nos armes et le seing de notre 
secretaire le 24"* X*^ 1778. 

Par Monseigneur signé G R CuuiK 

Signé Jean Girault Cahbonneaux, Greffier 

for each slave who shall be arrested, al the charge of the master to whom 
the slave shall belong. 

6. Our present proclamaiion shall be posted on the door of each 
church of the villages of this bank so that no person can be ignorant 
t hereof - 

Gi\Tn al Fort Clark under the seal of our coat of arms and the âg- 
nalurc of our secretary, December 34, 1778, 

by Monseigneur (signed) G. R. Clabk. 

(Signed) Jean Gihault. Cakhomnbaux, Clak. 

Petition or widow of antuine Cottinault, February 18, 1779. 
[K. MSS.— A. D.S.J 
A Messieurs Les Capitaines et oSicers de Milices Commandants 
La ville des XasKaslvias au Pais des Illinois Par ordre de Monsieur 
George Rogers Clark Kcuycr Colonel Commandant Les forces des 
Etats unis de L'Amérique &c &c &c 

Kaymund Labrirre agissant et faisant au nom de Dame Veuve 


To the Captains and Officers of the Militia," commanding the village 
of Kaskaskia in the country of the Illinois by order of M. George Rogers 
Clark, Colonel Commanding the forces of the United States of America 
etc. etc. etc. 
Gentleuen : 

Raymond Labrierc, representing and acting in the name of the 

'This pctttioo i>iiil«tminB,bro»<e it oflcn towr proof, not (luuluuvc, l)ul Clu-k dlil nol 
tnctiln i7}8,*caun»i Kjakuku, Uroilar lo Itutt ki Calukâ. Sn 10. Hi». OUMimi, U., pp. 
zin., aad 4. 



actoùie Cotinault sa Belle mere, habitante dcmcura4itc a la Prairiv 
Durocher a L'boaneur dc vous expuser disaot Que le sicur Lionnais 
fabant fonction de scribe chez le sieur Barbeau Capitaioe de Milice Et 
Commandant L«dit Lieu dc la Prairie du Rixhcr &c, Est venu lix>u*'ér 
Le malin que mon Beaupcre Etnit sur les planches, La ditte veuve chez 
elle, lui disant qu'il Etoit nécessaire que b ditte vem'e présenta requétca 
Mr. Le Colonel [MS. tern] dark Ecuyer Commandant &c \MS. lorn] 
lui faire sçavoir le mort de son feu mary Et Pour faire Elire un tuteur a 
ses Enfanâ mineurs a quoi La ditte Dame lui répondît ingenuement 
Qu'elle n'Enlendnit rien aux affaires, mais Qu'elle ne vouloit pas faire 
faire de requête Pour celte Effet et qu'il importoit peu à Monsieur Le 
Colonel dêtre instruit de la mort de son dit mary Cela n'a pas Empêché 
que le dit sieur Lionnais En a faite une, et ne pouvant la dilte veuve 
Pénétrer les raisons qui ont Engagé ledit sieur Lionnais a faire une 
chose dont elle ne l'avoit pas prié et En son nom il ne peut y avoir que 
des motifs D'interests qu'il y ait Engagé soit pour lui où Pour quelques 
autres. Le Lendemain au matin Ledit S' Lionnaîs Entra chez la 
[MS. torn] Portant la requête qu'il \^fS. t^n] présenta pour la signer ce 

widow of Antoine Cottinaull, his mother-in-law, a resident citizen of 
Prairie du Rocher, has the honor to inform you that M. Lionnals anting 
in the capacity of scribe at the house of M. Barbau, cajitain of militia 
and commanding the said place of Prairie du Rocher etc., came, the 
morning that my father-in-law had passed away, to seek the aforesaid 
widow in her own house, and said lo her that it was necessary that she 
shuuld present a petition to Colonel [George Rogers] Clark Ksquirc 
Commandant etc., to inform him of the death of her late husband, and 
tu have a guardian chosen for the minor children, to which the said lady 
replied to him frankly that she understood notliing about business, 
that she did not wish to have made a petition to that effect, and (hat it 
little concerned the colonel to be informed of the death of her said hus- 
t>and. That did not prevent the said M. Lionnais from making a 
petition; and the aforesaid widow, not being able to understand the 
reasons that iinjielled the afore-menlioned Lionnais to do something 
that she had not asked him to do and in her name, [thought tliat] there 
could only be interested motives that enlisted him .in it, whether it be 
for himself or for others. On the morning of the following day, the 


qu'clk [MS. lam] faire, cela n'a pas Empêché que cette mfimc requMe, 
sans Ctre signée de ta diite veuve, n'ait été présentée Eu son nom a 
Mr. Le Colonel Qui y mil son apointé, par lequel il permeUoil à laditle 
veuve de faire Klire un subrogé tuteur a ses mineurs et de faire pro- 
céder a Linvcnlairc, Croyant dans le moment qu'il £n Etoit requis Par 
la ditte veuve ne pensant pas que l'on surprenoit sa justice, Equité et 
m£mc sa religion que l'on agissoit que pour des vuësd'interests. Le dît 
suppliant vous fait remarquer messieurs que le dit sieur Barbeau En 
sa qualité de Juge de la prairie du Rocher [P]cut forcer la ditte [AfS. 
lûrn] Elire un tuteur a ses Enfans \MS. /w»j Dîtte \'euvc ne peut saine- 
ment procéder a aucun arrangement d'ici a un Longtem^ Premicretnent 
La Crainte et la timidité ou Est La Colonie En général par rapporte 
aux sauvages qui pourroit arriver dans Quelque Endroit de cette même 
Colonie qui y rasscsoit les Bêles a Cornes qui Est la raison Pourquoy 
le suppliant ne «xut pas ramasser celles qui appartiennent a sa ditte 


aforesaid Lîounais entered [the bouse of the said widowf, carrying 
the petition which he had made and presented it to her for her signature, 
to which she [^v-ould not consent]. That did not pnn-ent this same 
petition, without the signature of the aforesaid widow, from being 
presented in Ikt name to Colonel Clark, who put thereon bis approval '■ 
by which he pcrmilled the aforesaid widow to have a surrogate guardian 
chosen for her minor children and to proceed with the inventory, be- 
cause he believed at ihc moment (hat the petition was made by the 
aforesaid widow, and he rlEc! not think that anyone was abusing his 
justice, equity, and even his religion, or prosecuting the affair only for 
his own interest. The herein aforementioned suppliant brings to your 
attention, gentlemen, that the aforementioned Barbau, in capacity of 
judge of the Prairie du Rocher, can force ihe said [widow to have] 
elected a guardian for her minor children [and that] the said widow 
can not safely go forward wîîh any arrangement fur some time to come : 
Firstly, ihc dread and fear of the colony in general on account of the 
savages who may come into any part of this some colony and kill the 
cattle, is the reason that Ihe suppliant does not wish to assemble the 
cattle that belong to his aforementioned moiher-in-law. 

'The jduAM oitaau lliat Itc atlcrod Ibc iicUUua to Ibe dutkelonilKinitUedactiDalwbclMkcii. 



Secondement Le dît sîcur Coltinault Beau Pcre du dit suppliant 
ayant Créé beaucoup [if S. larn] il n'a pas Laissé d'argent /ait [MS. torn] 
lea acquitter [ ?] et ne pouvant le faire Qu En vendent quelcju 'Effet comme 
boissons et autres choses semblables 

troîsièmcnt une Quantiid de Cuire qui sont dans le teras sils Eloîent 
remués qui De^-iendroient En pure perte pour les Créanciers et pour les 
mineurs s'ils venoient a être derange C'est pour ce Considères Messieurs 
qu'ils vous l'iaisent ordonner et permettre audit suppliant De faire 
travailler a la tanerie de feu son Beaupere pour pouvoir satisfaire ses 
Deptes, lui accorder un lemt)s suffisamment Long Et que la Colonie 
soye tranquille Pour que sa dilte Belle Mere puisse prendre [les] arrange- 
mens avec ses heriteurs et que [MS. torn] sera nomm<ï pour tuteur a ses 
{mineurs] qu'elle mfme La direction des Biens et Corps lui appartenants 
de Droits de Défendre audit Sr. Barbau de ne La troubler En aucune 
façon dans la paisible possession de ses Biens Jusqu'à ce que Mr. le 
Colonel soit de retour de sa Compagne se re3crv|ant| le suppliant de lui 
faire Connoitrc ses Droits, de lui |}cxmcLtn: En outre de rasmasscr Lt9 

[ Translation.] 

Secomlly, the aforesaid Coltinault, faiher-in-law of the said suppliant, 
contracted many [debts for wbich he] hiis left no money; and it is 
imiK^itsible to jiay them except by selling some goods such as beverages 
and other similar things. 

Thinlly, there is a quantity of hides which are in such a condition 
[rhalj if they should be mo\"ed and disturbed they would Iwcome a com- 
plete loss to the creditors and the minor heirs. For these considera- 
tions, gentlemen, [the suppliant pelitionsj that it may please you to order 
and permit him lo start up the tannery of hts late father-in-law, in 
order to .satisfy his debts, and (o allow him a suf&ciendy lonç time ; and 
|he bopesl that the colony may be quiet so that the aforementioned 
mother-in-law may be able lo make a settlement with the heirs; and [he 
petitions] that the aforesaid widow be named as the guardian of her 
children, that she likewise be given the direction of the goods and 
chattels, belonging to her by right; [and that you) prohibit the said 
Barbau from troubling her, in any way, in the peaceable possession of 
her goods; until such a time as M. the Colonel may return from bis 
campaign, the suppliant reserving for himself the right to make known 
to him his claims; also that you permit him to assemble the debts of his 



deptcs de feu son Bcaupere pour payer la où il Est du Ce faisant le 
supplient ne cessera de faire les voeux les plus ardens pour votre santé 
cl prospérité lequel a Déclaré ne scavoir agné a fail sa marque ordinaire 
KasKasKias le iS™" lévrier 1779. 

Raimunu X L [MS. tifm] 

Nous Capitaines el officiers de Milices Commandants La ville des 
KasKasKias et ses dépendances au pais des Illinois En wrtu des 
pouvoirs qui nous a été donné par Monsieur George Rogers Clark 
Ecuyer Colonel &c Vus par nous dits soussigni^s 1. Exposé En la 
présente requête cy dessus et des autres Parts nous permettons a la 
veuve de feu antoïnc Cottinault de Jouir et faire travailler ses Biens de 
quelque nature qu'ils puissent être sans que qui que [ce] soit puisse La 
troubler dans sa paisible possession Jusqu'à Larrivéc de Monsieur le 
Colonel où de quciqu'autres commandant la sçituation de la Colonie 
Présente ne penncttant pas qu'elle fasse inventaire actuellement, vu 


late father-in-law in order to pay there where ît is duc. This being 
done, the suppliant will never cease to make the most ardent prayers 
for your health and prosperity. The same has declared that he docs 
not know how to sign and has made bis customary mark. 

Kaskaskia Febuary iS, 1779. 

Ravuund X Labkilke 


We, the captains and ofRcers of militia, commanding the village of 
Kaskaskia and its dependencies in the country of the Illinois, by virtue 
of the powers that have been given us by M. George Rogers Clark, Colo- 
nel, etc. : we, the undersigned, having examined the representation of the 
present petition, written above and on the other page, permit the widow 
of the late Antoine Cottinault to enjoy, and make use of, her goods 
whatsoever they may be without the interference of anyone, whoewr he 
may be, in the possession thereof until the arrival of the colonel or of any 
other persons in charge of the present colony. We do not permit her 
to make an inventory at present, inasmuch as some debts, active and 


I d^es actives ct passives de sa cotnmunaut^^ ne [.1/5. lùrn] Sont 


KasKasKîos le i8«"" février 1778 [si^ 

[Otu name torn out] 


CHARLES DE Leijsij: Chaubonnkaitx 

faisant [tour Mr. Plasy Greffier 

[MS. lorn] Expedition 
(Lï)\'r6c a Mr. Labrierc 
[Endorsed:] Requête du s' Lahricre contre le sieur Barbau du lâ*"* 

passive, of ibe community formed with her late husband are not yet 

Kaskaskia Fcbuary 18, 1779 


Rich. WmsTow. 
C^ARL£s Davis 

Charles dr Lisle Carbonneaux 

acting for M. Plasv Clerk. 

Engrossed copy delivxred to M. Labriere 
[Endorsed:] Petition of M. Labriere agaiosl M. Barbau 

Joseph Bowman to Richard Lernoult,' March ao, 1779. 

[B. M., 3ij8a. f. I9S- — Copy.] 

Fort P. Henry S* Vincent, March 3o*\ 1779. 

In justice to my Couotryman M' Tho* Bentley ' who has been de- 
tain'd in Canada almost two years as prisoner (to the ruin of his bua- 
ness and destruction of hisfamilly) I hope you will therefore consider the 
leuity shewn to the Prisoners that fell into the hands of Colonel George 
Rogcra Clark at this Post' who upon application obtained permission 

■ Richard Bjurinip* Lemoult wit toinnuDiUnl oT troi>ui it Dirtioit. Afia TUmilion'» oplurr, 
I^noull vai in duric until «Krvnl by Dt Pc3nl<r. Wii. ftiiS. C^Uttlieni, ivliii. j^;, a, «i. 

•ForBmlJfy'»iinpri'»"iiritnt. *f a«J«, (I i». The intwo.! wl CI.»rk'»olliccn in h^ntlcy. rfrajrd 
k Ihit ud ill» «uctevdhiB letter, iiipport tne ltic«rv. idranotd in cbe iatroductioci, thai there tud been 
|M>1cHU CDmnuauatioit bctwccD Lim aod Cluk. 

■ Quk dkmbinl on pBfde ■!! i)m «oUlfn odA most of ibr aCBctn, capcurtd Rt VbccniM>. la Mi 

teller to Mitoa. hcvrlln: "Sirpini thcnrcnallr ol «drlnc clil ol nuriy cri tbe priHOen. n-iit bcimi «Mr 
Ijiojnt dtem, nMdoulitinK but mv ewkI inutmmi to the voIinMen and itthaUlUUi Dl DeUolt would 
pnKnoM D>y ^MnM* ihm. I <IiM'h,ii|inl ilir cmini |nr( of itmn thai had not Iwcn »ilb Indûn ymt' 
tiB, onltiefr uiiint ruttiDl nnimliiy.'* Encliih. Cm^unt rf Uu NfiHvttt. !.. 444. 



from tlic Ctilunel lo return lo their famillys at Detroit, and that you will 
alsti apply lo (tic C'ummaiid'' in Chcife in Canada lo obtain the permis- 
sion of the said Tho* Bentley, in order that he may once more retitm to 
his famllly which suiïcr much by his absence. 
I am, Sir, 
¥* must humble Servant 

Jo* BowuAN, Major in Coll. Dark's Battalion. 
[Addressed:] on public Service. 

Cap*. B. B. Lcmoutt E&q^ Command'' at Detroit. 


Jean Girault lo Richard Leenoult, March ar, 1779. 

pi. M., 31783, f. ig6. — Copy.] 

FoET P. Henry, Su Vincent, 21" Marcli,t779. 

Gratitude obligCR me to addrcs-s you these lines to represent lo you the 
case of une of my benefactors Thomas Bentley Esq** who has been de- 
tained either in Canada, or on the way, these two years almost and (hat 
on mere suspicion — hoping that tn consideration of Colonel Clark's 
humane treatment to those he took here who we found in Arms against 
us, noiwithstand' which the Colonel sent them to their respective 
homes lo join their famillys without detaining them one moment — you 
will if in your power procure (he said Tho* Bentley Esq' liberty to return 
to his Familly. It is impossible to express the losses he has sustoln'd by 
this absence, having no one lo look to his inlcrtst. I shall not be tedious 
as you are a sufficient. Judge of his suUerings. I rest assured that your 
generosity and humanity will not allow you to look over this, but in com- 
pensation to Coll. Clark's kind treatment (u so many of your People you 
will certainly obtiin M' Beiilky's liberty as soon as you possibly can and 
send him to his distressed Fatnilly and confused affairs by absence. This 
will ever be acknowledged as a most particular favor granted (o 

Your very obed* & Hum* Serv'. 

John Girault, Lieu' In C. Claries Batalion. 
[Addressed:] on public Service. 

Capf* Lcmoult Comm'dt Detroit. 



John Todd' to Ceosge Rogers Clark, March 24, 1779. 
IDrapcr MSS., 49 J 33 — A. L. S.] 

Harrodsbuso, 27^ March, 1779. 
Dear Colonel, 

Mr. Bowman the Express sent herewith will înrorm you of nur Situa- 
tion at Kentucky whom you know well enough to confide in. 1 arrived 
here the aand Ins*. I left Col. Montgomery' at Fort Chiswcll very 
unwell three weeks ago in Expectation of setting off to the assîsUinec of 
Illinois within 2 or 3 Weeks. His Rout is to be, as proposed ; of which 
you are acquainted. Wc are Informed by one Searsy, who was with 
Hamilton on taking Post Vincent, all the Particulars uf its loss, of 
which I expect you also have haf\ Information. If (he Remainder of 
your Corps shall arrive in time I hope M** Hamilton will have cause to 
repent this step of his. 

You have frequently expressed a Desire that the Falls should be gar- 
risoned. I am using my Intcr<;5l [or th.!! purimsc in procuring Corn from 
Boonsborough & hope you'll conlrivc to spare some uf your C'annon 
which Capt W. Harrod ' will atiitrive up. The State has apiwintcd an 
Indian-Trade Agent who will I hope be able tu furnish the Indians 
Goods on low Terms &. yet, not in such Quantities, as to injure the 
Trade of Individuals. 

I expect to delay some Weeks in this part of the Country untill Col. 
Montgomery shall have time to be on the Ohio. The Assembly has 
passed do Laws of the first Moment. No Land Ofiice opened nor 
shortly to be opened I think. The Révisai of the Laws not prepared. 

The News is That Gen' Campbell is in Possession of that part of 
Georgia which lies Southwest of Savanah & Gen' Lincoln on the N. 
East side with a considérable array whose lines & Intercepting Posts 
extend about 70 Miles up the River. The lîncmy are about 50QO strong. 
Gen' Washington with an army which Time has made disciplined & 
great care has fed well & cloathed was in Winter Quarters at Bond 
Brook in the Jerseys watching a disabled Enemy in New York. That 

■ Jolut TaddKuamKiinlMt on Demnbcr k, it)9>')'UU!D«ol of lh«ne«lf lutmal Counlr of Hli. 
oca. S— Iti. Ilia. CaîtHlùtni. ii., iip. IIIL. it. itf. 

* Per Jatu Mousonicrv't c*net In Jlllnda, eoniull Iwlcx o( lu. tltil. C^iUaatam. il., uti feit. 

•WnikralbmidimaPMUMTltuWn. Hciawxrviot oadn- Gmeril Forbnb tijSuidundcf 
Lord Duomorcln 11)4 In iTTSiBcrocniitRl > campkny lot the lllinnl* ripHliico and jobnl Claik 
u the Fr1I« (^ (be Ohio, Up brcntihi * cfini[oqy in itto <o pirtidpaU in Cofmd John ll«fwnui>'t 
rirnrrliiinn Aipiiint the Ohio Inilûn*. llcdlBl oa lAoi. Ailapttd truni Thvuiia^nd Kdlofit. Mn^ 
•W*"! \¥or, M- Q If. 



13 new ConuDissioners have arrived from Britain with new proposals of 
Peace (which was not Sufficiently confirmed). Cot. Bowman ' ivili 
probably write to you. He offers bis assistance towards the Relid 
of our new County whenever necessity shall require. 

The Express is to reluni as soon as possible & will 1 expect meet me 
with your Letters &c. 

ajlh March. Since writing the above I doubt much if it ts in your 
power to furnish amunilioo with the Desired Pieces if you cannot 1 
would not put you to any present Inconvenience but to give your ScDti- 
ments on the Head. 

1 expect you'll be too full of other Business to give me much Assist- 
ance in procuring many Articles towards Housekeeping which I shall 
want. But if Opportunity offers I sb'' be glad you'd purchase for me & 
1 would pay you again upon Sight. Inclosed is a letter [from] Capt 
Worthington upon the same Subject. 

The Emissions of Continental Currency of the aoth of April 1777 & 
nth April 177S are ordered to be paid into the Continental Loan Offices 
by the first of June next or they shall Sink in the Owners Hands — 1 
expect a Longer time will be allowed to the Itinois Inhabitants on ac- 
count of their Distance S:lc. though as yet they haw no such provision.' 
I hope you'll guard against Counterfeits, with which if common fame Is 
true you have been or will be tried. 

If M' Trigg' is with you please to present him with my Respects. 
He has Credentials from below for purchasing Goods at Orleans which 
Maj* Knox has at S* Asaph. 

I wish you Success in your Department & hope you'll interfere in the 
Business allotted tu mc to the Advantage & Happiness of Ilinoïs dur- 
ing my absence. I am my D*" Col. your friend & bumble Ser^'ant 

Jm** Todd y. 

John Bradley to TnoHAS Bentley, May 5, 1779. 

[B. M.. 3i»45, f. ao.— A, L. S,] 

Dear Bentley, 

I doubt not but I have at length got hold of a thread which will Imme- 

dially lead in your enlargment. 

■ Colonel John Bowtran. 
*S«/D. fIiirCfllaJiotn,a.,p.lisl 

IStPpbm "Tiigg vu fl aomincnl nuiii ■>( flncsltleCouillv.and wiud(Jr«)ilclO llnlnU 
17I4. I'hfralla und Kwott< Omm^rt'i ll'jr. 44. d. 79, Fen bii connrcLion with Oir): in m Luii< 
■1, KC pan, p. jn. 



M' Livius, the Chief Justirc uf Canada, will [cave England for (hence 
soon after this and by whum you will rvccivc Ictiers of inlroduction ; he 
is perfectly aenuiunlitl with every stagtMif villainy y<iu have met with and 
has represented ihcm in pr»>(jcr colours to the Board i)f Trade. On his 
arrival al Quebec I U^gy(»u will make immediate application to him and 
you will receive instructions to jirucccd for your release which when ob- 
tained he wilt assist in drawing tip a memorial to Ix: presented to the 
Board of Trade for redress from yuur Persecutors and which you will 
address, with a letter, lo Orey Kllioit Ks<|', Plantation Office, who will 
conduct the business for you and assist your cause with proper force. 

When you write M"" Kllidl !« cautious of your Expressions as your 
letter and memorial will Ijc presented to Lonl George.* 

I will be more i>articular by M** Livius, interim I nmiùn very sin- 

Dear Bentley 

Your assured friend 

JouN Bhadlev. 

5"» May, 1779. 

P. S. Your sister writes & therefore I reed not say anything 
respecting your friends- 
Efidorstd:] M' Thomas Bentley. 

Salk op I-and bv Fatker On3Ain,T, Tifay 7, 1779. 

[K. MSS., Court Rewrd. t. ija.] 
Je soussigné Prêtre missionnaire Vicaire General de monseigneur 
L'Evêque de Québec au.\ pais des Illinois et [^f.'i. illegible] procureur 
fiscal de M^ des missions Etrangères de la S" famille des Kahr>ltias 
Certifie Avoir Concédé et concede une terre de dix aqwns de front a 
Commencer La premiere Borne à un demi arpent plus haut que les 

I, tbe undersigned priest, vicar general of Monseigneur the Bishop 
of Quebec, in ihe country of the Illinois, and [word illegible] Procureur 
fiscal of the Foreign Missions of the Holy Family of Cahokia, certify 
that I have ceded and do cede a plot of land of ten arpenit frontage, 
beginning at the first limit half an arpent alwve the source uf the spring 

■ Lonl Grtntf G«nnaln. Sccrtfior of Suta lot the Colcnln. 


source de la fonlaint* qui sont du Rocher nommé ordinairrraent le 
moulin de Mr. L'abbé et En descendant Jusqu'à La Coulee des Saules 
en desix-ndant vers le Mississippi le reste restant en commun, et en 
remontant depuis le bord Des grandes Cfltcs Jusqu'à vingt et un arpent 
en profoundcux Pour de la dittc terre Expliquée cy de&sus En Jouir 
En toute Propriété cl a perpétuité le Sieur Stephen Trigg ses hoirs et 
ayant Cause sans trouble ny prejudice a Condition cependant que ledit 
Sieur Stephen Trigg ses hoirs ayant cauac payeront les droits communs 
a tous les autres citoyens tant curiaux que civils, ainsi que les droits 
scigneurieux tels qu'ils pourroîent être Etablis cy après par la 
republique Donné la présente pour litre de Concession signé de notre 
main aux Kahokias ce Vingt et un avril L'an de Grace de Jésus crist 
mil sept cent soixante et dix neuf. 

signé P. GiBAULT P'" Mi»f= v" gl 

Je CerliEic avoir transporté a Monsieur Stephen Trigg une maison 
scituée au Pieds des Cotes des Kaos et la terre qui En depends suivant 
la pretention que je puis avoir qui m'a été actordé verbalement Par 
Monsieur le Capitaine Lord cy devant Commandant Pour le Roy pour 

which issues from the rock, commonly called the mill of M. L'Abbé, 
and descending to the row of willows towards the Mississippi, the re- 
mainder lying in the commons and extending back from the line of the 
great blufls to twenty-one arpents in depth, to enjoy in full and perpetual 
propriety the said land above described, to M. Stephen Tri^, his heirs 
and assigns without trouble or prejudice, on condition, however, that 
the said M. Stephen Trigg, his heirs and assigns, shall pay the dues, 
both ecclesiastical and civil, common to all the other citizens, as well as 
the seigniorial dues which may be eslabUshcd hereafter by the republic. 
The present is given as a title of concession. Signed by our hand at 
Cahokia this twenty-first of April, in the year of grace of Jesus Christ, 


(Signed) P. r.ïDAtiLT, Mis.sionary Priest, Vicar General. 

I certify to have transferred a house, situated at the foot of the blufls 
of Cahokia,, and ihc land which belongs thereto, in accordance with the 
pretention I may have, which land was verbally ceded to mc by Captain 
Lord, formally commandant for the king, to M. Stephen Trigg for 



Enjouir ses hoirs et ayant cause comme si ce fut moymftme. Je donne 

te present pour valoir En tout lieu et En tous les Cas où Besoin sera. 

fait aux Kaslcaskias le 7"^ May 1779 

Signd Cerrk 

I do assign to George Rogers Clark F^. all my right & Title to the 
Lands & appurlenancea as above conveyed lo me for valuable Consider- 
ation to have & to hold lo the said George Rogers Clark his heirs & 
assigns for Lvcr to his & their sole use fz Behoof. Given under my 
liand JScscalal Kaskaskia the filhday of May 177g the third year of the 

Sealed and delivered before ua 
^K Mgné JNO Todd Jk. 

r ^ 

Cajcbo.vneavx Greffier 

signiS J. GliiAULT Lt. 
wgné McH Perrault Ll 


himself, hts heirs and assigns to enjoy as if he were I. I give the present 
to make the title valid everywhere and in every case, where there shall 
be need. Done at Kaskaskia, May 7, 1779 

(Signed) Cekré. 

1 do assign to George Rogers Clark Esq. all my right and title to 
the lands as above conveyed to me for valuable considerations to have 
and lo hold to the said George Rogers Clark,' his heirs and assigns 
forever to his and their sole use & behoof. Given under my hand and 
seal at Kaslcaskia, the 6th day of May, 1779, in the third year of (he 
Common wt-aJlh. 

Sealed and delivered l>cforc us 

(signed) John Todd J». 
(signed) J. GiRAULT Lt. 
(signed) Miguel Pbreault, Lt. 
Cabbonneaux, Clerk. 

* PW Iba Ulff hfaaory ol thb ctmioo, me IB. Bin. CtUtOims, 11^ sSi 


NOVEMBER 13, i779 

Speechi» by Clask and Todd — Elections axd Appointmiwts — 
pkesehtatton op gluevanccs — exports prohibited — mon^y dlf- 
ncuLixES — JoBN Dodge Escapes prom Capuvcty — Sessions op 


EsnHATE OP Todd's Administration. 

Speech op George R. Clark to toe iNHAunAXTS or Kaskasku, 

May 13, 1779. 

[Draper MSS.. 49 J43.— L. S.] 

Dis votre premiere déclaration cl aiiachcment aux causes des 

amcn'quatns, Jusqu'à ta Glorieuse Prise du Poste saint vinceat, 

J'avois doulé de Voire Sincurité, maïs dans L-e momenl critique J'ai 

Kprouvé votre fidélité, J'ai élé si louch«î du Zèle avec lequel vous vous 

y êtes montré, que mon Désir est a jtr&cnl de vous rendre heureuse, et 

de vous E*rouver t'aiïectiun sintcre que J'ai |xiur !e bien Et Tavencc- 

ment de cette Colonie En j^eneral et d'un chacun en particulier les 


From the time of your first declaration and attachment to Ihc cause 
of the Americans until the glorious capture of the Post Vinccnncs, I 
doubted your sincerity; but at that crilEcal moment, I received proofs 
of your fidelity. I was so touched by the zeal which you there dis- 
played, lEial my desire at present is (o make you happy, and to prove 
to you what sincere affection ! have for the welfare and advancement 
of this colony in general and of each one of you in particular. The 

' 'I'hii wIiIkh, Bill] thrfnlliinirLg, wuevidetiUir read At bo BMfmlilt til tbr inbaliiunlioi Katkatkii 
to thci ib« juds» of Uic Cuun. Sc« JU. UUt. CeV*aim%, 11.. p. Iviii., «I ttq. 




Jeunes gens de ce pais sont revenus du Poste Saint Vincent couvert de 
L'auriers. J'espère qu'Us continueront toujours Quoyqu'îl y en ait. 
quelques uns quî n'ont Point Eu de part a cette Glorieuse action, Je 
n*En ai pas moins d'estime pour Eux sous L'Espérance qu'ils Pren- 
deronl leurs rcvenclie si L'occasion s*En Presenloit, qui pendant mon 
absence ont avec La dcmicre Kxaclitudc fait leur devoir En la Garde 
de ce fort. Et Je Vous promets qu'aussilùl Qu'il Sera En mon pouvoir 
que vous Jotiiray de la Liberté dont les ameriquains jouissent Eux 
m£mes et que leurs sang coulent dans leurs veines Pour leur Salut et la 
deffence de leurs Patrie ci que vous Messieurs vous pouvés reclamer les 
mêmes privileges, Je voua ai dcja dis et Je vous Le répète Encore que 
le Gouvernement vous protege tt va vous Envoyer un regiment de 
troupes réglées pour votre surctÉ et deffence, et il vous a appointé un 
lieutenant Gouverneur Civile Pour régler et terminer vos affaires. 
dans peu vous Connoitrcrés le ^st£me ameriquain que vous trouvères 
peut être dans le princi^x; Etranger Et dans la Suite vous y trouwrés 
tant de douceur Et de tranquillité que vous benirés le Jour que vous 
avés ambrasse La Cause des ameriquains. vous Devin Cire persuadé 


young people of this country have returned from Post Vinrenncs 
covered with laurels. I ho|ic they will always continue so. Although 
there were some who did not take any part in that glorious act, still I 
have no less esteem for them in the hope that they will take their revenge 
if occasion presents itself; for during my absence, they have done their 
duty by guarding the fort with the greatest care. I promise you that 
as soon as it shall be in my power, you shall enjoy the same liberty that 
ac Americans are enjoying. Their blood flows in thctr veins for their 
fety and the defence of their country; and you, gendcmen, can claim 
the same pri^-ilcges. I have already told you and I again repeat ît that 
the government protects you. It is going to send to you a regiment of 
regular troops for your safety and defence, and it has appointed for you 
a civil lieutenant-governor in order to regulate and judge your affairs. 
In a short time you will know the American system which you will lind, 
perhaps, in the beginning a little strange; but in the course of time 
you will fmd so much peace and tranquillity in it, that you will bless the 
day that you espoused the cause of the Americans. You must feel 



que l'on ne desire rien autre chose que de vmis rendre heureux et de 
vous procurer tous les secours [«ossiltlc 

Voicy Monsieur le Colonel Toodd, mon grand ami, que Je vous 
prescntc icy pour vous Gouverner et c'est la Seule personne Dans 
L'Etat que J*ai dcsîré avoir tlans cette Colonie pour remplir ce poste 
Je suis Plus que jwrsuaJe de sa Capadtd par ma Connoîssance et 
La diligence qu'il apportcre a vous rendre Justice et En mcme temps 

Vous £tc3 icy ossemlili! Messieurs pour une affaire de la dernière 
importance qui consiste a aixnnlcr les pcrstmnes les plus Capables et 
les PlusiIUiminA:.siH)ur Jujjer vos diffcrcns dont J'y suis intéressé pour 
votre bien futur aussi bien que ]K>ur le present. 

Je vous prie de Cunsiikrer L'imporlanec de ce choix et de le faire 
sans partialili! de prendre Des personnes les plus dignes de ces charges 
et J'Es^K're que dans peu vous Scrds convaincu que vous êtes des mem* 
brcs les plus Libres de L'univers. Je vais Encore une fois m'addresscr 
aux Jeunes gens qui ont servi suus muy dans Lu glc)ri(?use Kx[>c<lilion du 
poste et leurs assure Quils ne seront pas oublié dans toutes les Prov- 

assured that nothing else is desired than tu make you happy and to get 
for you all the help jH)ssibIe. 

I present to you Colonel Todd, my giKxl friend, as your governor. 
He is the only person in the slate whom I dcsircil to 611 this post in this 
colony. I am fully persuaded from my knowledge of his ability and 
diligence that he will succeed in rendering to you justice and in making 
you contented. 

You are assembled here, gentlemen, for a matter of the greatest 
importance, which consists in appointing the mogi capable and the most 
learned persons (o judge your disputes; in this I am interested not only 
for your present welfare but also for your future. 

I beg you to consider the importance of this selection, to conduct 
it without any pariiatity and to elect persons the most worthy of these 
offices; and I hope that in a short time you will be convinced that 
you are the freest muii in llie uiuverse. I am going to address myself 
again to the young people who served under me in the glorious expedi- 
tion against the Post and to assure them that Ihey will not he forgotten 
for their good deeds and the good ser\'ice Ihey have rendereil in the 



inccs de nos Colonies pour les Bienfaits Et bon services qu'ils oal 
rendus. Je n'ai pas oublié d'Un rendre un ûdel Compte aux Etats L>e 
leur Sincere attachement depuis le Juur de mun arrivée dans ce pais 
Jusqua ce Jour. C'est avec une grande sincérité que Je desire 
L'avancement et La prospérité des habitans des Illinois En general. 

Je vous prie de Me Croire avec le plus sincere attachement 

Votre très humble et très obéissant serviteur 

Fort Clarlt le 12 May 1779 O R. Clakk 


provinces of our colonies. 1 did not fail to give to the states a faithful 
account of their sincere attachment f mm the day of my arrival till this 
day. It is with the greatest sincerity that I desire the advancement 
and the prosperity of the inhabitants of Illinois in general. 

I beg you to believe mc, with the sincereat attachment, gentlemen. 
Your very humble and very obedient servant, 

G- R. Clark. 
Fort Clark, May la, 1779. 

Spkech of John Todd, May i», 1779. 
[C. R-, tn Chicjigo Hiat. Society.— Copy.] 


Je suis Envoyé De la part Du Govemement de Virginia pour Ex- 
ercer la Charge De Magistrat En Chef de celte Contée; La rcscptîon 
que jay Eu de vous messieurs mérite mes Rcraersimcntcs je suis fîaté 
et Le Seré toujour lors que mon pouvoir p^jura Servir a vostre Bien 
Estre, Je vous assure que KJen ne menquera de Ma part pour pan'cnir 
a Ces fins. 

Gentle UEN: 

I am sent by the government of Virginia to act as magistrate in 
chief for this country. The reception I have received at your hands, 
gentlemen, merits my thanks, and I trust, as I always shall, that my 
power may be of service to your welfare. I assure you that nothing 
witi be tacking on my part Co accomplish this end. 


La Republique Des Virgincns ont Eu <I« motifs aasi noble pour 
venir non ]iar Amnur de vous Conr^uïr, Mais Vous învnlcr a jrartisiper 
avec Eux, La Benediction d'un Independence franc, et EgaJIc et pour 
Estre Gouverné et Jugfi par des Officers qui serons mis En pouvoir p»r 
Le peuple. 

La grande Distance ou Vous Este Messieurs, de la Capîtalle ne vous 
permit pas de Vous assembler, Je dis, presenter dans lassemblé qui 
Gou\-cme l'Etat, Mais si par la suittc du temps, Il am'voit, pour vo4tre 
Bien ou pour Vostrc perte que vous prcfaircrie Vos representations, Jay 
dens mes Instructions de vous assurer que Cela ne vous Sera pas Reffuzé. 

Le motif qui nous Engage a vous faire assembler Messieurs, E&l 
pour Choisir parmis vous, Six des plus notables et des plus judicieux, 
pour Estre Jug^ En fait de la cour des Caskaskias Coojuinctcment avec 
deux autres de ta prairie du Rocher et St Philipc. 

Tûultes personne qui a droit de Voix peut Donner de Vive Voix ou 
par Ecrit son Opinion pour Elire Celui quil Voudera metre En place. 


The Republic of Virginia has had wry noble motives în coming here. 
It was not for the love of conquest, but to invite you to enjoy, with her 
citizens, the blessing of an independence, free and equal, and to be 
judged and governed by officers who will be placed in power by the 

The great distance at which you and yourselves from the capital, 
gentlemen, does not permit you to assemble j'ourselves, I say, to be 
present in the a^embly which governs the state; but, if in the course 
of time it happens, either for your gain or for your loss, that you should 
prefer to be represented there, I have been instructed to assure you that 
this will not be refused to you. 

The motive which brings us together, gentlemen, is to choose 
amongst you six of the most worthy and most judicious men to act as 
judges of the Court of Kaskaskia, conjointly with two others from 
Prairie du Rocher and St. Philippe.' 

All persons who have a right to vote can give their vote for the 
election of the person they wish to have in these offices, cither verbally 
or in writing. 

■ TU* a thp mokniiix ol Ihe Frmch. but, «Incr («o -wrrt HfCiMl fiom Pnlrft du Rocher uul one 
fmn St. Philippe, «e must MppOM tlul «u «mr ww commilloJ )>y lif tntMlsiiv o< tlw EndUi; «up- 
UjfptflpirwlbrTuJd.ocfaoaiiiaaccuntcNatcniiniinulcbf I'aldhimidl. For tbe dtcUoa »l 
■ htf, m ^i<. p. Ss- 

AN ELECTION, MAY 19, 1779 


Je ne puU Conclure Messieurs Sens Rcmcrsicr Publir[uement M' Le 
Colonelle Clark pour ses politesses Je Congratul Sinaciremcot luy, Ses 
Braves Officiers et Soldati, et prie dieu de La Bonté Divine De liqr 
Continuer le succès de Ses armes. 
[Endorsed:] Address to the Citizens of Kaskaskia. 

I cannot conclude, gentlemen, without publicly thanking Colonel 
Clark for his kindness. I congratulate him, his valiant oflScers, and 

soldiers, and pray to God of all divine goodness to continue granting 
him success in his militar>- undcrlakings. 

EtECTiON AT Prairie du Rochek, May 19, 1779. 
[K. MSS.— A. D. S.1 
Nous soussignés habittants au village de la. prairie durocher étant 
tous assemblés en la salle daudiancc de mr barbau capitaine de millice 
et commandant en ce village a l'effet de nommer deux magistrats pour 
ce dit district, après avoir mûrement examinés nous avons tous un- 
animement nommé pour premier juge la personne de monsieur jcan 
baptiste barbau Capitaine de millice et commandant en ce district et 
pour segond juge la personne de monsieur anioine duchaufour de 
louviers lieutenant de millice en ce dit dàtrict les connoissants très 
capables de remplir la dite charges et avons tous signes a lu prairie du 
rocher ce 19 may 1779. 

We the undersigned inhabitants of the village of Prairie du Rocher, 
being all assembled in the audience uliamijcr of M. Barbau, captain of 
the militia and commandant of this village, for the purpose of nominating 
two magistrates for this said district, after having carefully examined, 
have all unanimously named for lirsl judge the person of M. Jean Bap- 
tiste Barbau, captain of the militta and commandant of this district, and 
for the setond judge the person of M. Antoine Duchaufour de Luuvieres, 
lieutenant of the militia in this said dislrict, knowing them to be very 
capable to Oil the said positions and we have all signed at Prairie du 
Rocher, this nineteenth of May, 1779. 



JosKPH ^^sQvt 


















Joseph Tangué. 

o! Joseph Cochon. 


of Lours Vasseur. DeCochy. 

(if Nicholas Turjon. Giovani Baptista 


of FÏL\Nçois TiBAULT. of Françuis Coifus. 

hflrk Mark 

of Lqqls Buart. of Joseph Blay. 

of Louis PaLESTE. 


Bar bac, Jr. 
Aymé Comte. 

îRTiFicATE OF ELECTION BY JoHN ToHn, May ai, 1779. 
[K. MSS.. Court Record, f. [69.1 
The Commonwealth of Virginia. 
To Gabrfcl Ctrré Joseph Duplasy, Jacques La .source, nicohft 1 
Janis, Jean Baptiste Barbeau, nicolas Lachanse, Charles cbarleville, 
antoînc duchaufour de Louvrieres Pierre Le chevalier Ciirandot Es- 

Frora the great Confidence reposed in your Judgment & Integrity 
by llic good people of Kaskaskias and its Dcpcndcaccs and agreeably 
to an act of the General assembly of Virginia you arc hereby constituted 
& appointed Justices of the peace for the District of Kaskaskias and 
Juflges of the Court of the said Oistrict in cases both civil & crinuiuU. 
any fi>ur or more of you arc authwrizcd to constitute a Court before 
whom shall be cognisable all actions and coses uf which the Courts of 



the Counties of this commonwealth Respectively have Cognizanire your 
Judgment must have the Concurrence of at leiwt a majority 3n<l he 
entered with the proceedings previous and subsequent and fairly 
recorded in Books [irovided for that purpose. Witness John Todd 
li^quire county Lieutenant or commandant in Chief of the County of 
Illinois the 21st day of May in the third year of the commonwealth 
annof]ue Domini, 177g signed Jn Todd Je. 

Cakbonneaux Greffier. 

Certificate or Appointmknt or SajiiRtrr by John Todd, May 31, 


[K. MSS.. Coun KcrartI, f. i7o.~Kecoivled, Ma/ a6, 1778.] 
The Commonwealth of Virginia lo Richard Winston Esquire 
You are hereby constituted & appointed sheriff of the district of 
Kaftka^kias. It is required of you that you enter into Bond u-ilh sufTi- 
cienl Securit)' in the penalt>- «f one thousand pounds Virginia currency 
for the due & faithful performance of your Office in manner i- form 
as is required from tlie Sheriffs of Counties or Districts within this 
commonwealth and moreover take an oath in open Court to demean 
yourself well & truly in ynur said office. 

Given under my hand & seal al KosicaskJas the list day of May in 
the third year of the Commonwealth annoque Domini 1779. 

signed Jk Tonn Jr, 

Carbonneaux Greffier. 

Bond of Kichahd Winston, May 21, 1779. 
[K.. MSS.. Coun Retord, f. 171. 1 
Know all men by these presents that we, Rich'' Winston George 
Rogers Clark, Richard McCartj' nf the county of Illinois are held & 
severally bound unto his Kxccllcncy the Governor of Virginia his heirs 
Si successors in the full & jiat sum nf one thousand pounds current 
mone}- of Virginia to be paid to the said Gouvernour of Virginia his 
hairs and success<ir3 To which payment each [?] & truly' to be made 
we do bifid ourselves our heirs executors adminis(ratr>rs jnintly & 
severally sealed with our seals & dated this aist day of May one thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy-nine. 

1 The d«k h» e*iikmlvoiniilcl a. li»e. 



The Condition of the above obligation is such tliat if the said Rich'' 
Wimton Sheriff of the district of K^sltiiskias shall at all times faithfully' 
account for all monies, Tobacco, Skins, furrs, and all articles whatsoever 
which shall come into his hands by process from the Court of the Dis- 
trict of Kaskaskias from any Court of a district of Illinois or from any 
County Court of this state or from the general Court &c if the said 
R.ich<> Winston shall speedily & as fully execute all process to him 
Directed by order of the said Court of Kaskaskias or by the justices of 
the peace for the Preservation thereof & shall faithfully demean him- 
self in the office of sheriff for the said district Then the above obligation 
lo be void otherwise in force- 
signed RicHD. Winston. 
signed G. R. Clark. 
Taken in Court signed Ricu. McCabty. 

signé devant moy sgné Carbonneaux Greffier. 

Magistrates to John Toi>d, May at, 1779. 

[K. MSS.— A. D. S.] 

[AJ Monsieur Jh todd Escuyer Colonel et [prc]micr Magistr»ct de 
la Conlfîc des Illinois [el] ses dcpcndcnnces Sec &c &c 

C'est avec un Grand regret et k Cœur nan-e [ïrV] que les sousignés 
habitans de la ville des Kaskaskias au pais des Illinois Paroisse [de] 
L'Imniacitlée Conception, ont L'honneur de vo\i& Kxposer disants 
[qujils out vus avec Douleurs a diverses reprises Les soldats de la troupe 
du fort Clark aller dans la Commune de ce lieu chercher Les animeaux 
des dits soussignés, sans avoir Egard n'y à la Marque n'y a celuy à qui 


To M. John Todd, Colonel and Kîrst Magistrate of the County of 
Illinois and its Dependencies etc. elc, etc. 

It is with profound regret and with sorrowing heart that the under- 
signed inhabitants of the village of Kaskaskia in the country uf Illinois, 
parish of the Immaculate Conception, have the honour to make known to 
you the following: They have seen with sorrow the soldiers of the com- 
pany of Fort Clark going at different times to the commons of this place 
to get the animals of the said undersigned, without paying any atlcntioD 
either to the mark or to him to whom they might belong. They penned 


MAGISTRATES TO TODD, M.^Y ai, 1779 89 

ilsrouvtticnt appartenir, les ont Renferma dans le dit fiirt et tué sans 
En dtJiincr avis à pcrsimne Chose [?] qui Just^u'a ce temps ne s"Etuit 
Jamais vue dans ce pals [Et] qui est centre toutes Luîx et Particulière- 
ment ciintrc les Coutumes et uzages d'un juiis libre et indépendant 
comme est celui cy et que L'un hulls L'annonce L'être, La ou un chacun 
Doit (trc maître de faire de son bien ce qui lui plaira En Joiiir comme 
bon lui avisera, ont tut: Boeuf de charuc, [vac]he à Lait et autres qui 
apjiartenoicnt a des (îens et Personne [qui] ne jiouvoient s'en passer, 
faisant pour les uns le besoin de L'agriculture de sa terre, Pour les autres 
la subistenre et nuurriturc de sa famille, nous nous sommes Jamais 
refusé a fournir des animaux Pour le Ijcsoin de la Oarristin autant qu'il 
a été En notre pouv<iir et sommes Encore Prêts a le faire d'autant que 
nos forces Poumins nous le permettre, si l'on souffre que l'on nous tue 
les Boeufs de iharuc comment pourrons nous Cultiver nos terres et 
fournir [les] Besoins de la Garnison et celui de nos familles, si de 
|pa]reils abus continuent qui tendent a la ruine générale De la Colonie 
que deviendront Les Colons. 

Les Dits soussignés vous exposent qu'ik Etotent Convenus UQam- 

these in the said fort and killed them, without giving notice of this to 
any one, a tiling, which U]i to this time had never been seen in this coun- 
try, and which is contrary u> :dl taws and is especially contrary to the 
customs and usages of a country free and independent as h this one. 
They announce to us that this is a free counlrj*, where each one shouki 
be master to do with his properly, as pleases him, and to enjoy it, as he 
may sec fit, yet they have killed plow-oxen, milch cows aïid other 
animals, which tielonged to persons and people who could not (•€! along 
without them, being for some, needful for the cultivation of the land, 
and to others, for the subsistance and nourishment of their families. We 
have never refused to furnish animals for the need of the garrison as far 
as it has been in our power, and we are still ready to do so as far as our 
strength may permit us to do ft If they ])crmit our plow-oxen to be 
killed, how shall we be able to cultivate our lands and furnish the needs 
of the garrison and that of our families? If similar abuses continue, 
which tend to the general ruin of the colony, what will become of the 
colonists ? 

'I'lie undersigned make known to ]rou that they had unanimously 



ment d'abolir La traittc des Lîqucrs fortes et Eni^Tanlcs avec les nations 
Sauvages comme il rtoit Pradiqué st^us le] Commandement des 
francois dans ces Colonies, qui [AÏS. torn] tout temps regardée Comme 
la Peste et La Perle Génét[MS. iorn] Colonie qui a Causée tous les mal- 
heurs et les desastres [MS. tcm] ont été commis par ces mCmes nations, 
témoins L'atta[J/5. lorH\ Par les checachias a la Maiàoti de Monsieur 
Rumljl/i". torn] le Commandement de Monsieur le Capiiiane Lord 
[US. torn] dernière Malheureux aflaire Commise par les Lou|ps| En- 
viron six semaines où deux mois n'a-t-elle pas été oi:[MS, torn] Par la 
Boisson qui nous ont mis cette nation Contre nous Qui Jusqu'à ce Jour 
nous avoit deffendu et protegi Contre les autres nations nos Ennemis et 
Bien d'autres traits [MS. lorn] Les dits soussignés vous Exposcroicnl 
dont le detail [MS. torn] trop Long-lemg [sic] le tout Causd par la 
Iraitte de L'Ka|udevie]. 

Les dits Soussignés Vous remontrent aussy que [MS. torn] même 

agreed to abolish the trade in strong and intoxicating liquors with ibc 
Indians, as was the practice under the regime of the French in these 
colonies, who alwÉ-iys regarded this trade as a pest, threatening the de- 
struction of the colony, and causing all the harm and disaster which 
were committed by these same nations. An example of this was the 
attack by the Chickasaws on the house of M. Rum[3eyl ' during the 
command of Captain Lord * \MS. torn], and another the last unhappy 
affair committed by the Loups about six weeks or iwo months ago; 
was this latter attack not brought about by the drunkenness which made 
this nation hostile to us, but which, up to that day, had defended us 
and protected us against the other nations, enemies of ours? And 
many other outbreaks |by the Indians] the undersigned might relate, 
the details of which would take too long to narrate; but the cause of 
them all has been the trade ia eauâfvie. 

The undersigned iababitaots point out to you also that [at the] 

■ JarnBKunBFi'cacnFii- tllin'.iKwiihCii'UiLiiS^iilmBm i7Af,hiJI «oaulcft tbeKTikc&nil«iia|*d 
uadtrli. iur Biiynl'jn, VVIurUin,aiii.1 Mlwimh I»lri )i<- lud > quand tritb (înatc Macgin md •nth- 
dr«)v from th> ■sake ui tlui arm. Hr nay tivF lUtin} a buiine» lor Unudt, 'I1ic atiuck rdtTTc] 
lo pcDurtcd ■□ MdV. 1771. The aJiMiirbancr l.-taan b; ilic dliortlnlj ooodiict ol r Chicliu.uw ImJiun 
la lb* More, whidi ou loILownl by itn tttacL made by ih« whnle band ■! tfaU iLma in ihi t-ill&ai ■ They 
•rere beam oD by ibc uldioi. Cua. Arthkti. B., vol, ill, p. 7j, 

'Cap<sifl Hufh Ixirtt wii In lbi> atiy uinracf of ipjlchinchar^ar ihetllinoiiccuntrrb; Ma- 
jor tuic IlamilliM, hib miKTiut nniJ pmlirmaDt. Al ihiil licHthv Sritiali aimiiliir h.vJ ilrlErmiu-a] to 
ahtDitaaDif policy o!nttlrtuliitnKUri«0nlMiubthr Wed. TtMrdoRFon t'r<i mil londrChar- 
trm were batn almiidanFd ; and all bul « lew iniapi, Idl >l KMàxIck, mm «ltti<lriwD (itmi Jllinoi*. 
CtpUla Lord tmuintd at hU pou IWIU Ibfi ifM'tBii of mi. Sec tnle, p. 4, u. 4. 



temps qu'ils Etoicnt Cornxnus Enlr'cux dc suivre Exactement qu'ils 
n*avoicnt Jamais fait L'Edit des Rofia dcj france de ijîo appelle Com- 
munément Code noire Con[tre] les achapts ou ventes avec les nègres 
Esclaves sans PcrmfAf S. torn] verbale où par Ecrit dc leurs maitrcs dont 
a present on [\fS. torn] aucune difËcuU<! de leurs vendre Boissons Kn 
[MS. torn] Marchandises et autre pareillement d'achapts [MS. torn] 
Espèces de Denrées sans Enprewnîr leurs dits maîtres [MS. lorn] les 
Engage aux voles, Larcicns et Brigandages qui E[st) L'intention et 
Esprit du dit Edit qui a été cy devant sui[iU5. torn] avec ta demîerc 
Exactitude et celui qui y Contre\'erI.l/5. torn] Etoit puni suivant 
L'Exigence du Cas. 

Les dits soussignés vous remontrent que dans [MS. lam] que les 
Sauvages ont fait de leurs terres a Monsieur W(illiam| Murray et com- 
pagnie qu'ils sEn sont réservé une certain Portion pour eux, les Francois 
leurs frères et toutes autres nations qui pourroient venir dans ce Con- 
tinent pour En jouir. 

Conditioncllement, de concert avec eux qu'il n'Kn serait ac[^5. 

same lime ihey covenanted amongst themselves ' to follow exactly the 
edict of the [kings ofl France, of ihe year 1720, commonly called the 
Black Code, a thing they had not done. This Code prohibited pur- 
chasing from, or selling lo, negro slaves without a verbal or written 
order from their masters; for at prescnl one has no difficulty in selling 
to them drink in [exchange for?] merchandise, other kinds of products, 
or provisions without warning thi-îr said masters thereof, [a thing which] 
encourages them to engage in theft, larceny, and brigandage, the pre- 
vention of which was the intention and spirit of the said edict, which was 
formerly followed with the utmost cxactitijde; and he who broke it was 
punished according to the circumstances nf the case. 

The said undersigned inhabitants point out to you that [in the sale] 
which the Indians made of their lands to M. \Villiam Murray and Com- 
pany, ' they reserved a certain portion t)f it for themselves, the French, 
their brothers, and all other nations which might come to this continent 
to enjoy the same, on condition, according to agreement, that no more 

* Refer» la the «(rMrnoil nud« in 1776, in iintf, p. ti, n. 1. 
>Scc/I].tfiif. CoJlKrMnr, il., lu, liL.aDil'HM.p, 7, n. 1. 


tern] Dons ce même Coatînent qui Est depuis La riviere s marie Ju[s] 
qu*a paissa, que ce que celui* a qui la possession En scrolt \MS. torn] 
PouTToit Cultiver pour eux et leurs successeurs, nous [-1/^. torn] Certain 
aventurier qui serigent En seigneur ayant [MS. /orn\ qui sont incultes 
qui vendent [ ?] aux uns et autres a [MS. tarn] Considerables et qui En 
font Commerce qui VimpechcT[MS. torn] L'augumentation du pais C'est 
pour ce Con^der^ [MS. lorn] ^-ous plaire. 

1. ordonner et dcffendre à lavenir et dès ce [MS. turn] a toutes Per- 
sonnes de Quelque qualité [MS. torn] Quelques prétexte que se puisse 
Être d'attrappcr ou faire attrappcr dans la commune de ce lieu ou ailleurs 
aucun animal de quelques Espèces qu'il puisse Être Encore bien [MS, 
lorn] moins de les tuer, Los dits Soussignés ne s'Elant Jamais refusé a 
£o fournir autant qu'il a été En leur pouvoir Pour le Besoin delà 
Gami&on et que de tels abus soycnt réprimez 

2. De ne pas permettre a quique ce soit que sous un Gouvernement 
aussy Juste qu'Equitable la Iraitte d'Eaudcvic avec les Sauvages dé- 
clarée, prouvée et reconnue au1hentique[menl] La Peste et la perte Géc* 

land should be acquired in the territory extending from the river A 
Marie as fur as Paissa, than he wbu had possession of It could cultivate 
for himself and bis successors. We call your attention to certain adven- 
turers who are establishing themselves as seigniors having taken [pos- 
session cf lands) which are uncuUivaled and which they are selling to 
each other at considerable [pricesi, and are making thereof a commerce. 
This prevents the growth of the country. In consideraton of this, may 
it please you : 

ist. To order and to forbid, from this day on and in the future, all 
persons of whatever quality they may be and with whatever pretext 
they may have, to lake, or to cause to be taken, in the commons of this 
village or elsewhere, any animal of whatever kind it may be, and much 
less to kill said animals; since the said undersigned inhabitants bave 
never refused to furnish meat, as far as it was in their power, for the 
need of the garrison. [May it please you to order] that such abuses be 

and. Not to permit anyone whomsoever, under a government so 
just ai]d equitable, to trade iu eaudevie with the Indians, since it is de- 
clared, proved, and recognised by authority to be the pest and general 



érale de tout ce CoiitiDent se fasse et Que celui qui donnera ou Echangera 
des fioissonâ Enyvnuiies avec les dits Sauvages soit chassi! et Banîs 
honteusement [MS. torn] lu Colonie Comme personne declari5e En- 
nemie de la [pa]ix et du repos Public 

j. Fareitlcmcnt celui qui donnera ou Echangera des Boissons Ed- 
yvrantes vendra Marchandises ou acheptera des denrées Des Esclaves 
nègres où Sauvages sans une Permission verbale où par Ecrit des maîtres 
des dits Esclaves soycnt condamné [MS. torn] amande Pécuniaire con- 
formément a Droit des \MS. torn] de 1730. 

4. Enfin qu'un chacun JoUissc Paisiblement des Droits a Eux 
accordés par les Sauvi^'S Et qu'il ne suit accordé a ceux qui demand- 
eront des possessions que ce qulls Eu ]H>urront Cultiv[er] Ce faisant Les 
dits Sousignés ne cesseront de faire les Voeux Les plus ardents pour 
votre augmentation et œluy [A/5, torn] L'Etat et ferbs droit Dessus ont 
signés les autres ont fait leur marque ordinaire. 

Kaskaskia le 34™* May 1779 Cekré 

Jean baitiste sauvais janis 

Lacbanse ant. [MS. torn] 


destruction of all this land, if it is done. (May it please you to otdain] 
that be who shall give, or exchange, intoxicating drinks with the Indians 
be expelled and shamefully banished from the colony as a person de- 
clared to be an enemy lo peace and to public repose. 

3rd. Likewise that he who shall give or exchange intoxicating 
drinks, ftho shall sell merchandise, or shall purchase provisions from 
black and Indian slaves, without a verbal or written permission from the 
masters of the said slaves, be condemned lo a pecuniary fine according 
to the law of the Code of 1720. 

4th. That all enjoy peaceably the rights accorded to them by the 
Indians, and that no possessions be given to those who shall ask for 
them except that which they will be able to cultivate.* This done the 
under&i]jj3icd will not cease to make the most ardent vows for your wel- 
fare and that «f the state ; and you shall do justice. Some have signed 
others have made their customary marks. 

Kaskaskia, May 34, 1791 Cerré 

Jean Baptjstf. Baijvais Janis 

Lachanse Ant [MS. torn] 

■SwTodd'i ptodinialhici(<3dcutaBirt.SociMr^Ci<B«rfiMi. It. joij. wbcrcinhcfailiidiUail 
to be taken up except la ibe loBC Btrmr iir^ wimaisr it> fhr Frmf ti h«t<liiiK<- 



Charles Chakuville 



J""" Lasoukck. 

Charles Chableville Flasy 

Barutel Jacques LaSouscs. 

Appointment of Henry CROumER as Deputy Attorney hy JeAp 

GiRAiJLT, June 8, 1779- 
[K. MSS-, Court RccQTd, f. iSï-I 

Know oil men Iiy these presents that John Girault of the lown of 
Kaskaskia in the arowsaicl County Ijy «rluc of a Commission lo mc 
granted ihe fifth day of June Près' by John Ttxld Esq County Lieut 
or Commandant of the aflfors^ County Empowering to act as attorney 
on Behalf of this Commonwealth have made ordained conslilutcd and 
appointed and by these Presents do make Conslitutc and ajjpoint henry 
Croucher Esq of said County to l>e my true atîomcy and for me and 
ID my name and on behalf of said Commonwealth, to sue all odenders 
and defc-nct uU suits against said Commonwealth receive all fines and 
£merccment which may be hereby (?) Law Lc' [sic] accounting for the 
same and amount thereof When thereunto required and in fine to 
do all Lawfull acts and things whatever conseming the Premises as fully 
in Kvery Respect as I might or could do, If I were personally Present 
hereby ratifying and confirming all and whatsoever my said attorney 
shall in my name Lawfully do or cause lo be done in and about the 
Premises by virtue of these Presents be being first qualiûed as the law 

In Witness (o here [sir] I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
seal ihc Twenty Eighth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and seventy nine and in the third year of the Common- 

Signed John Girault. 
atty gen 'I 

'Tbi dcrh hua crMcntlT both mUr«»d wid otnltlvd «pmnhiiiii 

^IVk h Ihr aolr nfcmuc lo îleùty Oroiiihcr ■* itstc'a allomo' OijH hu ht*a noticed- 

A PETITION, JUNE la, 177g 


pEimoN TO THE Court of Kaskaskia, June la, 1779. 
IK-MSS. — A,D. S-l 
A Lhonnnrable Cour Du Distric Des Caskakias 


Les nom(=e3 Peaul Dcsrochcrs, Labont<?, louis Boi«!or^, Joseph 
L&ramc on Lhonncur dc rcprcwntcr deVin Vostre tribunal Ij: tort 
qu'auroist Mr. provcau Condurteur ti'une Voiture appartenant a Mr 
Bingteley De leur faire perdre lueurs gage qu'ils ont Si légitimement 
gaigné a la sueure de Leurs fron Vous Este Supplié Dobsen'er Messieurs 
que loutte Les raisons que !c Sr. provcau vous aligua hier Se rcduizcnl 
a une seullc qui Est qiiil Enlcnt faire payer aux D** Engagés une 
certaine Camitè de marchandize qui auroist Eté Voilé dcns un portage ou 
rapide par des Scauvagcs, cl dit de plus Encaure pour Sa deffcnse q'un 
dc ses mesmc Engagé Se serois offert pour gader Tx Bagage pcndenl 
que T^s autres Seroicnt apsent 

Voisi Messieurs La réponse a laquelle Vous Este Supplié dc prcster 
touitc Votre attention. 

l>es ScauYiges que he Sr. provcau auroist Embarqué Sur La voiture 

Tg the Honorable Court cE the District of Kafikaskia. 
Gentlemen : 

The gentlemen, named Paul Desrochers, Labonté, Louis Boisdoré, 
and Joseph Larame have the honour to exhibit before your tribunal 
the wrong which M. Prowau, conductor of a boat belonging to M. 
Bentley, did them in making them lose their wages which they so justly 
earned by the sweat of their brows. You ore besought to observe, gen- 
tlemen, that all the arguments that M. Proveau produced to j'ou yes- 
terday, reduce themselves to a single one, which is, that He intends to 
make the said engagés pay for a certain quantity of merchandise which 
was stolen by the Indians at the portage or rapids; and he says, more- 
over, in an argument for his defence, that one of his own men offered 
himself to guanl the baggage, while the others were absent. 

Here is, gentlemen, the answer to which you are besought to give 
your careful attention. 

The Indians whom M. Proveau took on the boat, were very useless 
baggage for there was no need of a guide, since there was a very «pert 


Etoicnl des meubles très Innuliles puis quil navoîst pas Besoin de guide 
En aycnt un Ires Exjwr dons la personne du Sr. Dt-srociier 3" que Ce 
dit guide Connoissoit quil luy faloïst tout ses homme pour Monter sa 
Voilure pour ncstrc pas En risque de pcrir quaurois dit mr. proveau luy 
mcsme sï Ce guide En Laùsd un homme a ganlcr Le Bagage et que par 
Ce dcffeau La Voiture fue pcrric et Mr. provcau Sur la gresvc avec sa 
marchandizc Expcauzi a la fureur des Scauvagcs Nauroist il pas dit a 
Ce mcsme guide quil ne savoît pas son metier, que ne luy dcmcndcroist 
il pas aujourdhuy. 3* Les Scauvagcs que le «r. jirovcau a jugé apropos 
d'Embarquer sur La voiture, ont Enibarquii Contre La Volonté de tout 
Les Engagé et parliculierrcment du guide et il Est prouvé que Ce Soos 
Ce mesme Scauvagcs qui ont fait Le Voile. 

Persomie Nignorc Messicur q'un Bourgota peut Embarquer Sur Sa 
Voiture tout ce qui Luy plais, mais Si après des avertissement salutaire 
Expeauzé a Ce mesme Bourgois et que malgré tout il Veut Courir a sa 
riiinne Se ftuii quil ne [>erdera Jamais rieu et quil faira payer se» Engagé 
U ne portiist rien de juste den» Ce procède 

Ce Considéré Messieurs il Vous plaize ordonner au Sr. provcau, quit 

one in the person of M. Desrocher. 2nd. Thai this said guide knew 
that all his men were needed to lake the boat up, so as not to run the 
risk of perishing. What wnuld M. Proveau have said himself, if this 
j^ide had left a man to keep the baggage and, because of this, the boat 
had been loslj and M. Proveau had been U-ft on the bank with his mer- 
chandise, exposwl to the fury of the Indians? Would he not have said 
to that same guide that he did not know his business? What would he 
not demand of him to-day? 3rd. Those Indians, whom M. Proveau 
saw fit to take on (he boat, embarked contrary to the wishes of the 
engagés and especially against that of the guide; and it is proved that 
it was these same Indians who committed the robbery. 

No one can deny, gentlemen, that an owner is free to load his boat 
with what be pleases, but if, after wholesome warnings made to this 
same o-H-Dcr and, in spite of all, he wishes to run to his ruin trusting that 
he will never lose anything, and if he is going to make his workmen pay 
for it, there seems to be nothing just in such a proceedings. 

Having considered this, gentlemen, may it please you to order M. 
Proveau to pay ihess men their wages, which they earned with so much 



ay a payer Leurs gage quil ont gaigné Avec tout de peine et QutI Soit 
Condamné a tout I>s fratx de La procedure et faire droit 

Peaui- Desrocheh Louis Boisdoré 


Aux Cas Le 12° juin 1779 


labour, and may be be condemned to ail tbe costs of the case; and 

justice will be done. 

Paul Deskochek, Lotns Boistx>KÉ, 

Antoine LABONTé, Jh. Laraue. 

Kaskaskia, June la, 1779. 

Wassant from John Todd to Richard Winston, June 14, 1779. 

[K.MSS.— A. D. S.] 
Ilinois to wit, 
To Rich^ Winston Esq; Sheriff of Kaskaskia &c' 

You arc hereby authorized & required between the Hours of nine 
& Eleven In the morning of the Sixteenth of this Instant to cause to be 
executed Manuel a Slave in your Custody by being hung by tbe neck 
untill be be dead. & this shall be your Warrant. 

Given under my hand & seal the 14th day of June 1779 

John Todd (seal). 

John Todd to Gcdrge R. Clark, June 23, 1779. 

[I>rapei MSS,, 49/57. — A. U S.] 

S* ViNCKKNKS 32nd June 1779 
My D"- Col. 

By Capt. Helm youll learn with what a high hand the Dclawares 
have been conducting themseU'es lately — we may see from what trifling 
Causes Issues of the first Consequence flow. The Originals in this 
misfortune have a considerable share in the Blame. I wish it was leas 
the case with us in all Indian Wars. We arc now I believe loo late for 
everything but ojam war with them. I wish to lie at Kaskaskia a little 

' 'l1tUwkrnnMupcncç)«dUMWVTAnllwbuniln<,CQpi(dlsJabfirodd>K«cardl)ooï,rirlcUdliy 
K. O. MuiMi in Chnaoo Hiu, Sotîrty'» CaihrWi—t, Jr,, J04. Par IhcmonJof tbeUiaJ of hUDurt.w* 

;u. uiM. CfOtoittu, li.iiii lit. 



while. I have written to Capt. Winstun & sent an Appointment to 
Capt. Francois' upon (he plan wc were speaking uf, which, if you are 
Dot yet started, I wisti yini Lo lurward with your Assistani^ 

I hope we have nothing to fear from the northcm/ Indians & expel- 
ling the Dclawarra may prohably lie lictter for us — ■ A secret Kiiemy 
is always besl at a Distance. I conajle myself like a good American 
in supptJsing that cvcr)-[thiTig] is working for the best & thai with the 
Virtues uf Wisdom, Bravery & Resignation wc shcdl at last earn, & 
merit Independence — Iwforc we deserve it, providence will nut gtve it. 
I am Dr Sir with respect 

Your Obed» Hble Serv* 

Jn" Todd jr. 
[Addressed:] Puhlick Service 

To G. R. Clark Esq. 
Commander Jtr. 

Protest Concermno Notes of Exchange by Joseph Perrault, 

June 24, 1779- 

[K. MSS. — A. D. S.Ï 

L'an mil sept Cent Soixante et dix neuf et le Vingt Quatrième Jour 

du mois de Juin avant Midy Dana la trcisicmc année De la rcPublic 

de Wrginie h. la requisition du sieur Joseph françois Perrault négocient 

demeurant au Poste Saint Louis sur la Rive Espagnol des Illinois De 

present En la ville de Ka.ciKasKias Logé chez le Sieur Richard Winston 

ou il a Elu son Domicil J'ai françois Carboaneau.v Greffier du district 

de KasKasK.ias En la Comté des Illinois y resident soussigné En la 

In the year one thousand seven hundred and sevenly-nine, on 
the morning of the twenty-fourth of June in the third year of (he Repub- 
lic of Virginia, at the requisition of M. Joseph François Perrault, a mer- 
chant living at Post St. Louis on the Spanish shore of the Illinois, and 
at present in the village of Kaskaskia, stopping at the home of M. 
Richard Winston where he has chosen his domicile, I François Car- 

< CapUin Fiancob Chutnille ol the g— »■— n. Comiony. Fat biograpbiral nolice, 
(k 41s. n. ». 



ausditte viUe Paroisse de L'immaculée Conception rnc suis Exprès trans- 
porté au forte Clark accompagné de Deux Icmoins et ]»rc5cnce du 
rcquisjteur où Etant et parlant a Mr. George Rogers Clark Colonel 
Commandant les forces De L£tat de Virginie En ladiltc Confite lui ai 
montré et présenté Deux lettres de changes faisant Ensemble La quantité 
de Deux Mille Deux cent soixante et dix sept Piastres deux Rcaux par 
lui tiré sur Mr. oIi\ier Pollock a ta nouvelle Orleans, avec un protest fait 
par Mailre Garic Ecrivain Public a la ditte nouvelle oricans Le le [sic] 
Vingt troisième Jour du mois De JanWer dernier et ai ledit Greffier sous- 
signé par ces présentes sommé et interpellé ledit sieur George Rogers 
Clark &c Parlant comme de dessus de lui donner et payer présentement 
La somme De Deiu milles Deux cent Soixante et dix sept Piastres Deux 
Reaux Contenue En tes diltes deux Leilres De change aux offres de lui 
remettre ycelles En faisant le payement Bien et Duëmeiit qu'il lancées 
Lequel a offert de de [jiVj Livrer et Payer La ditte somme De Deux milles 
deux cent soixante dix sept Piastres En cartes courraiïte ainsy que les 
fiais et interest ce que ledit sieur pcrrault na Pas voulu accepter Les dits 


honnraux, clerk of the District of Kaskaskia in the County of Illinois 
and living in the alwvc mentioned village, in the parish of the Immac- 
ulate ContTptJfin, went purposely to Fort Clark accompanied by two 
witnesses and in the presence of the petitioner, where being and speaking 
with M. George Rogers Gark, colonel commanding the forces of the 
State of Virginia in the said county, I showed and presented to him two 
letters of exchange together amounting to two thousand two hundred 
and 5cvcnty-3cvrn piastres and two reaux, drawn by him on M. Oliver 
Pollock in New Orleans, together with a. protest made by M. Garic, 
public 3cri\-encr of the said city of New Orleans, dated the twenty-third 
of last Januarj-; and I, the undersigned clerk, by these presents, sum- 
moncïl and called on the said M. George Rogers Clark etc., (speaking 
these very words) to give him (Perrault) and to pay at once the sum of 
iwn thousand two hundred and seventy-seven pinsires and two reaux, 
as called for by the two letters of exchange, offering to return to him 
these which he had issued, if he should make the payment well ami duly. 
He offered to deliver and pay the said sum of two thousand two 
hundred and seventy-seven piastres as well as the cost and inlerest in 



deux lettres De change Elaut En piastres Munnoye C'est quojr moy Ic 
susdit Grcl&cr soussigné Proteste Contre Mondil sr. G- R. Clark 
Lc change de L'argunl au nom ilu dit sieur ijcrrault aux Perils, risques 
fortunes (icjwns Dommages et Interests de qui il appartiendra et protesté 
de tout tx que dessus En presence des Sîeurs Jacques Lasouroc et 
villiers tcmetins a ce ruquis qui ont signé avec le sr. Perrault et nous 
GrcfTiLT soussigné les dits Jour et an susdit Lecture faite approuvé les 
quatre rcnvuys de nous paraphé 

temwns presents J. F* Pebrauli 

J''" Lasoorce 

Vii.iJ'^BS. In testimoniiim Veritatis 

payé Emdt 15 Carbunneaux Greffier 

L'an mil sept Cent soixante et Dix neuf et le Vingt quatrième Jour 
du mois de Juin après après [5ti:] midy a la re([uiâition du sr Joseph Per- 
rault négocient au Poste St. I^uis j'ai OrefCer soussigné ai signifié et 

[ Tramb2iùm.\ 
current paper money, which the said M. Perrault was not willing to 
accept, since the said two letters of exchange were drawn (or coined 
piastres. It is for this reason that I, (he above named clerk and under- 
signed, protest in the name of ihe said M. Perrault, against the said M. 
O- R. Clark for the exchange of the money [and the letters of exchange 
shall remain) at the peril, risks, fortune, expense, damages, and interest 
of him to whom it shall belong. And the above protest against all this 
was made in presence of MM. Jacques Lasource and Vlliiers, witnesses 
summoned for this purpose, who have signed together with M. Perrault 
and with mc the undersigned clerk, on the day and year above named. 
Four insertions approved with a paraph by us. 

Witnesses present J. F. PERExaLT. 

Jacques Lasourcb 

ViLLiEKS. In testimonium veritatis, 

Paid 15 iivres Carbonneaux, Clerk. 

On the aftemooQ of Ihe twenty-fourth day of June, 177g, at the 
requisition of M. Joseph Perrault, a merchant at Post St. Louis, I, the 
undersigned clerk, informed and notlSed M. George Rogers Clark of 


notifié au Mr. George Rogers Clark le protest cy dessus cl dee autres 
parts parlant a sa Personne Ledit Jour et an sus dit. 

Premier Expedition a Mr. pcrraull, Payé Emdt 5 
[Endorsed:] Protest de Lettres de changes Par M'' Joseph Perrault 
contre G. R. Clark du 34™" Juin 

( Translation.] 
the protest, abcn'e and on the other paigc, speaking to him on the above 
»aid day and year. Carbonkeaux. 

B1r«t copy to M. Perrault, 

Paid for nxording 5 livres 
[Endorsed:] Protest of Letters of Exchange by M. Joseph Perrault 
against G. R. Clark, of June 24. 

Fboclamatiom PaomBiTiNQ Exports, by Gabriel Cerré, 

June 28, 1779. 

[K. MSS., Court Record, f. 191, — Recorded August ri, 17J9.] 

Je Soussigné Juge de la Cours des Kaskaskias Certi&e qu'il a été 

défendu de sortir aucune Espèce de Provision, de ce Pays sans ordres 

el PermisKon du Commandant, dont Je Donne le present pour servir 

a qu'il appartiendra. 

aux Kaskaskias ce 28*"^" Juin 1779 

Enregistré le ii"»»* Boust 1779 signé CCRSl 

CutBOKNEAUX Greffier. 


I.the undersigned Judge of the Court of Kaakaskia, certify thai it 
has been prohibited to export provisions from this country without 
orders and permission by the commandant, concerning which prohibi- 
tion I give the present to serve him, to whom it shall belong.^ 

At Kaska.'Otia, June 28, 17J9 (Signed) Ckbre. 

Recorded August 11, 1779. CARnoxiffiAtix, Clerk. 

* For ft limlUr prodinulica, im«d .\u<ii« «t, tT79> l>T J«bo I'odd, k« Cbicwi UbL Sodetj^ 
C mll nli tiu, iv., joC 



GABKifiL CSRRt 10 Georc.e R. Clask, July la, 1779. 
praper MSS.. 49Js»- — A. L. S.J 


Jc scitv que la prcscnte vous trouve En parfaite Santé. Et voua 
Soitc toute Prospérité Dans vos Entreprise. Vous savée Lorsque 
vous mavéc employé a fair Les achais de dcfcranle provision pour 
Les Etats, jc lé (ait avec louis Le aele posible Je ni Epar^ier ni mes 
peines ni ma bourse Car toute Les fourniture que Jai Prise Sur La 
partie De misère Je les ai payée En peltri sur lequele Je doit Encore 
Milles ou Douze Cent Livres De paux De Clicvreille. Dans le Rej^e- 
mcnt De mes Compte a^-ec Monsieur Shannone Je lui est Dcmendé Des 
marchandise Pour Comme il me lavuit prumis répondre â mes Engage- 
ment, Jugé De ma surprise Lorsque quîl me Dit quil niîtois pas a Son 
pouvoir De men donner Daucune Espèces, U ma donné Des Ictres De 
change Pour au nombre de Douze Cent Traiite buite piastre Le DU 
Crédite Des lelrc De change Comme vous le Savez mcn|jeche De Re- 
pondre a mes Engagement Je ne Recoure qu'a vous Dans Se moment. 
Jcspere que vous vousDré Bien me fair Donné Des manhandls [mur La 
Cuncurance De te que Je Doit qui ywurd Equivallé quatre cent piastres 


I hope that this letter will find you in perfect health, and I wish you 
all success in your enterprise.' Vou know ilial when you cmi)lo>'ed mc 
to buy different supplies for the States, I did so with all the real possible. 
I spared neither pains nor my purse. I paid for all the supplies I took 
from Ste. Genevieve with peltries, on which I still owe a thousand or 
twelve hundred livras in deer skins. In settling accounts with Mr. 
Shannon,' I asked him for some merchandise, since he had promised 
to be responsible for my engagements. You may judge of my surprise, 
when he told me thai it was not in his power to furnish mc with any kind 
<rf merchandise. He gave mc letters of exchange to the amount o£ 
twelve hundred and thirty-eight piasfres. The discredit of the letters 
of exchange, as you know, prevents me from settling my liabilities; I 
depend only on you at this moment. I trust that you will be kind 
enough to see that merchandise is delivered to me to the amount that 

■WUIiim Shuuioa wm corniniHarv and quarunawter of th* lUinâit UimliiM. 



je ne rien Exigé De me paines pour Le services Des Etats insy il Servit 
Bien dure pour moy de d'eBoursé Milles Livres De paujt de Chevrulle, 
Jespere que vous aurée Egare a ma demende, Comme Egalement a 
legare De ma forge que Javois Louée a M'' Winston pour Les Etats. 
Les ouvriers ont enporlé tous les outillfs qui etois Dedans don vous 
trouveré La note Cy join pour Le temps qu'il ûu été DeDans il ma élê 
paye 73 livre par Monsieur SLiaunone. Cent piastre oe sufiroit Pas 
pour Remelre Les outils qui manquent et le fere qui a été employé Dont 
Je né pas eue un Sous, on ma dît quil y avoit Du fere au poste au états 
Et Des uulils de forgeront vous pourîer men faire remetre vous pouvez 
vous enfurme De Sela a Monsieur Kenedy il nier aucune nouvelle qui 
mérite votre atoiuiun Sinon que le Bruit Coure Ion Jour qun Gran 
iio(m|bre de Sauvage Duïvcnt nous altaijuer. 

Je vous pris De me Croire avec Consideration Monsieur 
Votre très humble Et 1res obéissant Serviteur 

Des Kaskaskias Le 13"^ Juillet 1779 Cerré 

I owe, which equals some four hundred piastres.* I did not require any- 
thing for my trouble in the service of the state, so it would be very hard 
ftir rae todisburse a thousand livres in deerskins, t hope you will have 
consideration for my requesi, as well as some consideration for my forge 
which I rented to M. Winston for the use of the states. The work- 
men took away all the tools that were there, a list of which you will tlnd 
joined to this letter. For the time that they had posses-sion of it I 
n.'cei\-ed 73 livres from M. Shannon. A hundred piastres would not be 
enough to replace the tools that are missing and the iron that was used, 
for which I did not receive a cent. I ha\x been told that there is some 
iron as well as blacksmith's tools at the post of the states. You might 
be able to have some of them turned over to me. You can inform your- 
self on this subject through M. Kennedy who will keep bacJt nothing 
which may be worthy of your attention, unless it be that rumor has it 
that one of these days a large number of Indians will attack us. I beg 
you to believe me with consideration, sir, 

Your very humble and obedient ser\-ant, 
Kaskaskia, July 12, 1771;. Cerré. 



Etals Des oulits qui manque Daoa ma Eorge Scavoir 

I Gro Marteaux 4 Demù Ronde 

I Dilopetie 1 Cuillierapot 

4 ^ Lime Carré Lanaux Des T«iai]le 

t Ronde La Chaîne du Souder 

[Addressed:] Monsieur Muo&ieur Le Colonel Clark aujc Pusie Vin- 



List of the looU that are mi&^ug in my black -smith shop: Namely: 

I large hammer. 4 half-round files. 

I small hammer. i cooking-Iadtc. 

4 square files. The ring for the longs, 

I round die. The chain for the bellows. 

[Addressed:] To Col. Clark, al Post Vinoennes. 

John Dodge ' to Philip Boyle, July 13, 1779. 

[B. M., 3178Ï4 f- »4»- —Copy.] 

PiTTSBUBC, July ij**" 1779. 
Dkar Sib, 

It is with pleasure that I inform you that I ha^'e made my escape 
from Quebec; I have Ihe honour of wearing a Captain's Commission, 
and the managing Indiim affairs. Vuu may dc|x?tid U{ion seeing mc 
there this fall with a good Army. Fisher and Graverai' arc here and 
desire to be rcmembreti lo their Brothers and bid ihcm to be of good 
cheer. There has been a battle at Carolina, the F.nglish are cnlircly 
defeated, seven hundred lay dead on the ground, the rest prisoners with 
all their Cannon and Baggage. I inclose 10 yovi the proc-ecding of a 
Counriî. I am going lo Williamsburg in a few days to prosecute 
Hamilton ' and that Rascal Di'jean * Lamotlc," likewise Homioay 

■ John Dodge |d»yn! xn imiudaiil (url in Iltiiuiii iluiind Ihe inululionaiy voir* And UxratfCB. 
Kr luJ jiuIbMnappuimtd. b t77<),cainniisiiona' far lodiAn nâain in Uliooo». A full acconni of hiaa , 
will liE full lid En J It. Hut. C'ailiiiiL-ni, )j , InniiMJuininit Oniiiccnlng hi* capplunaut Imiitliinncnaii h* 
Willie: ,-ln oiSirtamiHt Xarrjint a} ikt crvtl Jnj b^rtarimi Tnaineat ani acltemt Suiterâtâiel Mr. 
Jfhn DmIii dv*ini hit rnplivily oj launy mBulJit umuM/ ifei Uriliih at Drlroil, pIc, 3iJ «I. Uuvvn^ 
Mum., 17B0, Alia lAiUikhed; Aliooa'a HiiH/mlnaiict', vi. 

*^i8<r Mhl GnvrrxE of Dctrntl- 

* Ucatnul-Ccmnioc Himil'on, tsplurvd u Vlocrnnn. 

• Philip nefniQ «M iud» ia DcUvIt durinit (he HrilUh paiod. N« fullonred Kscnillon lo Vln- 
CBaH^ wu lakni ]«Ban«r, UhI HVtl tn Wltl i^nubijig I'h'jniat Dmlle)' itulM [lui il w» ihruugb 
bblamicncc Dtjmi wMtdbunJ ua pAroltsiul triumci] to Vïacmaa uid [Jdrull. 

^Guilluiinir t J Mollir m* ■ trjiilrv at I>ctroll In 1767. On liar .iiiM-mk 'if iW Rrvi.i|iitiun h« 
WMin Nrw Enfjjnd. I^trr he icluracd lo Ottrohand beounc a Uriii^li "luflivn." ][f^ wjit c*^ 
bis of (Rïliii'i. "'^m he ««nmiantnl Hamlllan cm hfi Vlocetinn. ni^iuun, wbrri* hr watoiciMintf. 
Hr w», liLc Hnmiltun, kepA in dote confiacitiatl until li» tKhaiuic in i;llt. .^dii|iUd {rom WÛ. 
âtll CflJnfMr. iviii, J41. 



Hay.' They will all be hanged without redemption, and the Lord have 
mercy on their Souls. My Compliments to all the good whigs of 
Detroit — money, plenty, fine times for the sons of Liberty. I am just 
now drinking your healths with a good G]a<» of Madeira. God bless 
you all, we will soon relieve you from those Tyrants. 
I am, Sir, Y'' humble Servant 

J"" DOCE. 

To M' Philip Boyle merchant at S^ Duskt by M' John Montour. 

Wrote on the outside. 

The Rey^ D. Zcibergcr is aliow'd to open this letter and read it to 
the Indians. 

receive Sepf 28'''^ 1779, by some Hurons. B. B. L. 

lEttdorsed:] Detroit. Ent^ 

Copy of Jn" Doges Letter Sep^ 6*^ with a printed Ace* of G. Ham- 
ilton's treatment at Williamsburg. 1779 A. 

Entered in Book marked B. N" 3, Page 1. 

Also And* Robinson's letter to Doge wrote on the back of said 
printed acc^ of Gov'' Hamilton. 

for the C. in Cheife thro Col' Bolton. Copy. 

CEKTiriCATE FROM Georce Rocers Clark, July 14, 1779. 

[K. MSS., Court Rectird, f. 18;. — Recorded August 1 1, (779.] 
I Certifie that the necessity of the 5er\-ice, obliged the inhabitants 
of Caskakia & Cahos lo fumiah all the flour they were Capable to 
furni&h for the use of the troops under My Command, by which Mr 
Charles Charlevillc could not furnish what he was obliged lo furnish 
Mr Devillicrs at the arcan-sas 

Given under my hand at fort Patrick Henry 14, July 1779 

signed G K CuutK 
enregistra le 11™ aousi 1779 

■ Jrhti Hay ifu bom in Ckcaln. PmnaytvanU. tn4 enlinird in itir (,Mh .\inrrfaaB Begtmeat in 
i?5S. In ijri> lir wualUuwiwitai hnmli. Thi-rrhr vrml rlurlna PnTi i ijic'i cootpinQr. IbitM 
he iTAi iKJidr Inflàn cowimiwry- In 1714 be w.tiM'IfliiHl b> Grni.T,J II,ilT>jiiunil In «ull am] report on 
ihf riiiOJifuns in IllilMh In 1-7^ hr btami ilrjiiHv Inilun i;-.irr .nul ir ijor r>( ihs D«lfoii militia, 
lie, ilm, wiLi Ukcn iviuncT «I \iricrnna. !«it In Viiiiinù ami r n,;.-! ui .;fl 1. In irH:i hr jMtnnie 
llrultMot-iuTfniOT iM tMsnil niui dinl in '-^t- KU vnn, Jul m ll.i; , I ir 1 l>i>ca(at a protniuCILl CitMCO 
oi CohiAiA, lUinoU. Thwailot, tad tLrIlû)tc>«vubtfiim on Ikt Ufptr Okie, ijo, a. 17. 



Jonx Todd to George R. Ciask, July a8, 1779. 

[Draper MSS.. 49)63.— A. L. S.] 

K&ska&kia, 38 July, 1779. 
D' Col-, 

After 6 Days Joumeyiag we arrived here having for the Sake of Se- 
curity left the Road. The Bearer is not going express for 1 have not 
Business of consequence enough for one. 

The Harvest is just brought in without any Molestation from the 
Enemy. Col. Rogers set off )TstenIay to St. Louis for the small remains 
of Goods which he says belongs to our State — a Secret before unknown 
to me. I expect him about 10 Days Hence. 

If you do not proceed upon the Expcd'^ I think you w^ be more 
serviceable here than at S' Vinccnties 1 am D'' Col. with esteem 

Your Obed' & hblc Scrv^ 

Jn* Todd jr. 
Aug' 13^'' Having been disapirainted in sending this & other 
letter» I send them now. Col. Rogers will set off in a few days for Ft 
Pitt. I wish to see you to know the plans proper for our deportment 
the Winter ensuing, J. Todu jr 

[Addressed:] G. R. Ciark Esq; S^ Vtncennes 

John Todd to Judgrs of the Couht, July 30, 1779. 

[K. MSS..— A. L. wkiiscftl] 

To Gabriel Cerre &c. Esquires, Judges o! the Court for the District 
of Kaskaskia ' 

You are hereby authorized &. required to hold &. institute a Court 
on Saturday the 31SI of July at the usual Place uf Holding Courts within 
your district any adjournment to the Contrary notwithstanding 

Provided that no Suitor or party be compelled to answer any process 
upon said Day unless pro|)erly summoned by the Clerk & Sheriff. 

Given under my hand & seal at Kaskaskia the 30^'' July 1779. 

[Endorsed:] Requis de M' Tod a Nf Janis Pour rassembler la Cour. 
1779, No. 44. 


Request of Mr. Todd to Mr. Janis to reassemble the Court. 1779. 
No. 44. 

[ >mliin o( Ih» court. Il wu tniucribod bv 'focld Id 
MMom. to Cliie&r) Ul*l> S«clciy'» cdkaiMi, 

■ Th» b nrldCDlly n arnmiDl to IhU ■ «nccU «ad 
ht(ltMior<l-Doak.vbJchlku bvta putillslwirby E. C. 



CouKT Record or Kaskasua, August a, i779-Augu&t i, 1781. 

[K- MSS.— A. D. R.j 
A une Cours Icnue par Extraordinaire tenue par ordre de Mr Jean 
todd premier Magistral du district des KasKasKias £st Comparu 
nicolas lachansc lequel apr^5 a^oîr pretté les serment de fidélité et 
d'oflâcc Entré En charge de Magistrat ce Jourdhuy a™* aoust 1779 et 
asigné Ddplasi LaChanse 

a une court tenue au district des KasKasKias le Mercredy premier 
Jour du mois d'aoust mil sept Cent qualrevingl et un est Comparu En 
la dille court Messieurs anto'nc beauvais et Jean baptiste chauvin 
charleville Les quels ont été nommé par le public assemblée le Vingt 
neuf de Juillet dernier Pour Magistrats et Juge a paix de ce dit District 
les quels apr&s avoir prelté le serment de âdelilé Et dof&ce sur les saint 
Evangeliste du Dieu tout puissant ont pris seance a la court Et ont signé 
les dits Jour et an susdits. .\ntoxne Bauvais 


At a special session of the Court ' held by the order of M. John Todd, 
first magistrate of the District of Ka.<Uiaskia, there appeared Nicholas 
Lachanse, who afler having taken the oath of allegiance and of office 
entered on the duty of magi^rale, this second day of August, r779, 
and signed, Ddplasv. LAtmANSE.' 

Al a session held in the District of Kaskaskia on Tuesday the first 
day i>r Angus! 1781, i here ap[>erjed I>efore the said court MM. Anloine 
Bauvais and Jean Baptiste ('liauvin dît C'liarlevillc, who were named 
by the public assembly, on the twenty-ninth of July,' magistrates and jua- 
lices of the peace of this said Dislriii. and who after having taken the 
oath of allegianfe and of office upon the Holy Evangelists of Almighty 
God took their place in the said court and signed the same day and )Tar 
as above. Antoikf. Brauvais 


■ The neari 'at ibe w îon« of thf Cduti of KoikaiJtb hu probabljr otm dotrovod. ol InM It ha* 
aiftr bmi fnus'd. I'hr »hort reeonl ii «vidmtir h pate tram ibe onclnal reci)rd.«oek. For other 
tttmj ramrdi. loniult iIip InAa of thii volumo. At thr end d( John Twid'i Rcoord-Book, pruHfd 
Chiaio Hi'i. !i'>citt;'t Ci>tiMitn$, iv^ jo», ar* trcords, cvldoDtly cir(|lDa), ol ■ IcwMHtoMoT iba 

Court rrvlird \a i^H;. 

*lActuiuc Iu4 bocn rlrcud in ibe prttioai Mar- See «itff, p. fto. 

* Par acciunl nf llil> rlrClinn »rc 111. Hilt, CaJlfrfunu, [i., p. iiii., and faff. «AS, a. t. 




You shall swear that you will well & truly execute the Office of 
Ciark hi iIil- ('tiurt for the DJsIrirt iif Kas. in the Diuniy of Illinois 
arcorvling li> the Iwsl of my Knowledge & Ability So help me God. 

Jc francois Carbonneaux fais serment que Je ferrais e! F.xecutcroit 
rians l'office de (Greffier de la Cour pour le District des Cascakia dans 
la Comté de IHnois suivant mes mîllîcii Connoissance cl Suivant Mon 
savoir faire ainsy Dieu me soit m'aider 


Oyc9 Oyes, Ojrez This Court is adjourned till the 26th day of the 
month. God save the Commonwealth 


You shall swear that you will well and truly execute the office of 
clerk tu the Court of Ihe District i*f Kaskaskia in the County of Illinois 
according to the best of your knowledge -and ahilily, so help you Gorl. 

1, François CarUonneaux, swear that I shall do and execute the 
uflicc of derk of the Court of the District of Koskaskia in the County of 
Illinois to the best of my knowledge and ability, so help me God. 

CARBONNEAtrx, Clerk. 

Oycs, oycs, oyezl this court is adjourned till the a6th. day of the 
mnnth. God save the Commonwealth. 

Ar£nt De Peyster to Thomas Bentlev, August 9, 1779. 

[U. M. 91845, f* •4-— A. L. S.] 

MiCHILIMACINAC, 9*^ Aug* I779. 


I rrcdvcd your letter of the 14"" July ycsterelay. I am sorry It Is 
not in my iwiwer(«'ith propriety) lo comply with your request in writing 
10 the General giving him my opinion, and transmitting His lixcellency 
copies of my letters to L"^ Gov* Hamilton, umnked. 

M'' Hamilton assured mc that he sent copies of my Letters to General 
Carleton. For my part I must acknowledge I never cou'd Icam any- 
thing to your disadvantage. I arrested you in consequence of repeated 
Letters from M*" Hamilton who I assured at the time I sent you to 
Detroit that if Bcaumcr was your acaiscr, he bore a very bad Character 
and was much in debt to you. 

I remember your telling me that you had not the necessar>- papers 



with }'ou or you wou'd soon prove your Innocence to M' HamiltcMi 
which I most sincerely wish had been in your power. 
I am, Sir, 

Your most olwd* h^'" serv' 

A'. S. Dk Peysteb. 
M' Tho» Bektley. 

{Addressed:] M' Tho» Bentley Merch» Montreal. 
[Endorsed:] Letter £rom Major dc Peyster lo M"" Bentley, ç*"" Aug* 


JoBN Todd to Wiluau Flbmznc,* August tS, 1779. 

[DraLper, MSS.. 23J103. — A. L. S.] 

Kaseaseia, i8th Aug* 1779 
Deax Col., 

This letter is my third to you since I left you. If I knew what you 
expected in the military way from this Quarter I could tcU whether no 
news vf^ \x thought good or bad news. If your Hopes are not raised 
higher than mine you arc pleased that we have no news, Wc were 
induced tocxpcct an Expedition against D'£troit in Expectation of men 
by Col. Montgomery, & e\-en afler he failed, Wc had hopes from the 
Kentuckians: but I believe the campain is now over & dividing the 
Regiment properly will be the next Business. When I left Col Clark 
He seemed desirous to ealablish a Garrison upon the Ohio either oppo- 
site the Falls on this Side or at Fort Missiac near the Mouth of the 
Cherokee Riwr — But he has not force. Are you pray, Sir, or not 
raiùng an army fur the Mississippi ? If Government is not active in it 
already, This back Country will Iw lost. The Procectlings of the 
British Troops below alarm u» with Reason. They will so secure 
themselves in a short time that I fear we shall not be able to displace 
them. If the possession of the Ohio Waters arc of any service to 
the united States it is lime to enter the List & dispute the Domination 
of the Mississippi — The sooner the better. 

■ Witliam Flrniingwataf Enjlbti antniry. Hi* «du ntlon «i« bolb cUMiatl tad •dcntl&c. Bm 
gndkutnj (ram Ihe riuilial itriiuunail <il the Univcnliy uj Fdinlmriih, and entend the army ■> a nir^ 
Boa Het>rv«d in Wasbi«i(ion'i reniinm* duHni Uk Kmic)> ^mil Imltm War. and wu lain apuiii 
U) CuliKiri SlcpbEn"* re«imc»i. Hcmanird AniieChrbtuii in iitM niiil •cIiIm «a ■ larm io Au^uaU 
CouDty, \1niiiia, and rtmoTtd to i;«e to MmcoOMry C^uctf . lit mrllcitnlAl in itvf Duninnrc't 
Wai.and wuwDundcdai thrtiaiij»«if Potiu ncûanl- )|pwuinincTfnr>t In ihr I^onl<«'l)(4m■pdu^ 
IncthcRcTdilliiifwrr War.wudalctmator.anrlMTrelnnthctiriTj'tnuncil in 1781. Twice be ktvoI 
a> ooounlHlonrt in iwtiln (uni) li^ln and public acccnwu tv( foii. p, tij) Rrtnia man ht* M tha 
nbfnnccnnrmiiiin of Viiifiiiia fur ittr (nlrr^I uxailiuliai)- Rf dinirriiin the renilis of Itir wmisda 
RC^vMlat Pulni Mmunl, un Atvuit (4. tm- A<hpt«d Itom ThwaitM Aixd EaHagi, Dimmer^t 



Col Rogers is here on his way to Fort Pitt with some Goods the 
property of the State much damaged. I have been urging him lo 
leave the Bateaux to his Officers S: go strait dovm by Land to W^'burg. 
The present form of Government here seems as yet productive of no 
great Inconvettiencics & may remain till the May session only continu- 
ing the Act ( & apropos) raising my sallary so that 1 may be able to keep 
two Horses. If by serving the pubtick I shall be obliged to sell my 
small possessions at Kentucky to support myself. My Country ought 
to blush for the Victory vdll be mine. I can live poor & proud here- 
after in private Live, notwithstanding. 

I wish you'd tell me how M'' Machieval advises to keep up the 
Indian Interest with out Goods, either to give or Sell. The fear 
of Col. Clark & his 500 men has hltheno terrified them Bui (Quere) 
will not ihey shortly find out ihat he has not joo? I ought to have 
Blankets & Siroudings for ihem before Winter if possible. Mr. Lind- 
say's commission, if he succeeds, will not purchase half enough for the 
Indian nations bordering upon us. I wish some Gentleman of Busi- 
ness would undertake the Matter with further powers' 

Pray give me .some account of Affairs in your part of the World If 
you do not I must ride & see m}'seir I begin to think I cannot be pre- 
pared to render to my Masters a satisfactory account of the Country 
before the next Spring — when, or sooner, 1 hope to see you 

I prefer Kentucky much to this Country either for the ambitious 
man the rclJreil farmer, or the young merchant. 

Will Government continue to neglect strengthening the Falls of 
Ohio? If they will not do something I believe I shall, supposing that 
through a multiplicity of Business they leave it to me. 

Remember me to Col Christian & family Mr I^ockhart & his the 
Mays &c Wth Respects lo Mrs Fleming &c I am D' Col with 

Your most Obed Hbl Scrv* 

Jn" Todd jr 

PS. Mr Madison sent me an army commission 1 w^ rather he bad 
kept it, as it is of no use to me. 
{Addreised:] To Col. Will. Fleming Sraalor for the District of 

Botetourt &c 


John Todd to tiie Magistrates or the Coubt at Kaskaskia, 

August a3, 1779. 
[K. MSS— A. L.S.J 

Mr J Chulcvillc Guaitlian of some Minors Suitors in the Court of 
Kaskaâkia prays upon thçîr account that iheir Tryal be deferred a few 
days lo be better prepared as also to have a full Court. 

Uis demand has the appearance of Justice & I recommend the Case 
of the Minors to the Court who ought be always Iheir Guardiajis. 

The other party may at any time have a Special Court for this Tryai 

when bolb parties shall t>e prepared by full Court 

To the Court lo consider upon & do Justice 


renvoyé a Mercredy Prochain et les Parties sont a^intics 

Cërré. Carbonneaux, Greffier 
[Endorsed:] Onlrc de M' todd Pour rassembler La Cour pour terminer 
Les affairs d'Entre les M" Charicville et [cllier du 23'"'^ Anusl 1779. 

Postponed to Wednesday nesl and the parties have been notified. 

Cerré. Carbonneaux, Clerk. 
[Endorsed:] Order of Mr. Todd lo reassemble the Court to it-rminate 
the case between MM. Charle^HlIe and Tcllier. August 23, 1779 

Jean Gïraoi-t to the MActSTRAXES op the Coitrt at Kaskaskia, 

August a4, 1779. 

[K. MSS.— A. L. S.i 
A La Cour Respectable du District des KaskasJcias 

C'est a^-cc une Mortification bien ParticiUierc, que Je voit execcr 
dans ce village JoumeUem^ des Choses bien nuisible au Repos Public 

To the Honorable Court of the District of Kaslcaskia. 


It is with a very peculiar mortification that I sec taking place daily 
in this ^nllagc thing» so harmful to public quiet. My surprise is indeed 



ma surprise est grande que mi^ssicurs 1rs Map'strais pcnnetlcnt que des 
maisons qui nt; Cause que du D:ingvr a tous [es habttanls et est une 
nuisacc [iiVJ publique, suhaitc [.Ttc] dans le Coeur dun Village 

Je vous prcns Messieurs tous a Témoins des Choses qui sonts Jour- 
nellement Commise chez le nommd Jarret, qui ne ce Contente point de 
Trafflqucr de-S Lïquers cni\Tantcs a toutes sortes de Personnes, sans 
reserve et sans permission mais qui permet aussjr que les Personnes qui 
sont Ivre Chez luy tire et décharge frequcmcnt des Coups des fusils 
dont les Balles passent travers des Cours et même des maisons de plu- 
sieurs des habitants qui sont situé auprès de cette Malheureux Maison, 
d'où ils ont déjà tué et Blessé des annimaux et il est a Craiadte, sy cela 
Continue que des Personnes j Passeront voila Pourquoy Messieurs je 
pence qu'il est de mon devcnr de vous le Représenter et a. vous iuy 
mettre arret Gikault 

Vu La requdc cy dessus et des autres parts La cours deSands au 
nommées Guy Gtranl de vendre a lavcnir de ce Jour Des boissons 
Enyvrantes sans une permission Expresse du Gouvernement sous 

great to see that the magistrales aflow to exist in the TCry heart of the 
village houses which are a source of danger to the iiihahitanls and which 
constitute a public nuisance. 

I call all you gentlemen to witness the things which lake place 
daily at the house of one named Gerard, who is not salisfieil with selling 
intoxicating liquors lo all sorts of persons, without restraint and without 
permission; but who also permits the jM^rsons who are drunk at his 
house, lo show and discharge guns frequently, the bullets from which 
pass through the yards and even the homes of several of ihe inhabitants 
who live near to this fatal house; and animals have aln^^ady been 
killed and wounded, and it is to be feared that if this continues that 
persons will fare in like manner. This is the reason, gentlemen, why 
I think it is tny duty to inform you of this and your duty to put a stop 

(O it. GlRAULT. 

In view of the petition abow and on the other side, the Court forbids 
the named Guy Gerard to sell, from this day forth, any intoxicating 
drinks without an express permission from the government uader 


Peines s'it y Contrevient d'être Chasse de ce village et sil est prou\-d 
que les personnes qui ont bu chez le dît de Gerard ont caus<5 quelque 
dommages nous l'en rendrons responsable Donné En la Cours du dis- 
trict des KasKasKias Laudîence y tenant Par Extraordinaire Dans 
la Quatrième année de la republique de Virginie Le 25 aoust 1779 
soit signifié audit Gerard 

Cerré Cakbonneaux, Greffier 

1" exption 

signifient: a Gerard 
[Entlorsed:] Requête du Procureur de L'Etat contre les traiteurs D Eau- 


penally thai, If he disobey, he aball be expelled fmm the Wllagc; and, 
if il is pru\'ed that the persuns who have drunk at the home of the said 
Gerard have caused any damage, we shall hold him resfHmsiblc for it. 
Given in the Court of Ihe District of Kasltaskia, in t^iecial session, in 
the fourth year of the Republic of Virginia, August 35, 1779. I>ct the 
said Gerard be notiûed. 

Cekré Carboneaux. Clerk. 
First copy served lo Gerard. 
[Endorsed:] Complaint of state's attorney against traders In eaudevte. 

John Montgouery to the Inbabitants, August ao, 1779. 
[K. MSS.— L. S.] 

Aux Messieurs Habitants des Kaskaskias 

Jusqu* a present la manière de pronnirer des Farrines &ca pour la 
subsistance des Troupes, ayant été bien Embarasscntc tant pour nos 
Commissaires que vous mCme, crainte qu'il n'en arrive quelques desa- 
gréement Je scray Charmé d'y porter remède, 

To Ihe Inhabitants of Kaskaskia. 


The manner of procuring flour etc, fur the maintenance of the 
troops having been very embarassiog as much for our commissaries 
as for yourselves, up to the present time, and fearing that some mîs- 
understaading may arise, I shall be charmed to find a remedy. 



La Troupe que Ic Gouwrncmenl de Virginitf a envoyé icjr, pour la 
Surcli' cl [irolerriim du Pays, ne Pcul de Passer de cetle article, mai* 
II* entcTwlcnt tn \cs .-lyani bien Satifaire les Personnes qui les Fournirons, 
voita pourquoi Je recommande a Chaque Citoyens, de se porter a 
Fournir Librement et avec bonne Volunté sa part de denrée, s'est a dire 
sa Portion selon son Pom-oîr & Capacité. 

La Providence vous ayant accordé une bonne Récolte, sans douttc 
pour vous facilliicr, a Supplier aux demande de vos Protecteurs, pour 
agir en Ixin Citoyen votre Subsistance doit premièrement être mis apart 
ensuite Celle de la Garnison, et s'il en reste s'est alors que L'on doit 
L'appliquer au Commerce, maïs ses deux Premiers Besoins doivent 
toujours être les Premiers qui sont fournis. 

car vous dcvés penser que sy la Rareté se trouve Trop grande, ce 
Printemp it nous faudra partager la Soufrance Pour y Porter remède 
Je me Propose de Nommer et appointer un des Messieurs Citoyens 
pour Contracteur qui Poura remplir cette charge avec beaucoup Plus 
de Satisfaction qu'un Etrager [sic], comme il ConncMtra tous les Mess' 
du Pais et leurs Capacité. 


The troops, that the govcmmcot of Virginia sent here for the surety 
and protection of the country, are not able to do without this article, but 
they intend, upon receiving Ihe&e provisions, to give good satisfaction 
la those persons who will furnish them. It is for this reason that I 
recommend tu each citizen to make an effort to furnish freely and with 
good will bis share of provisions, that is to say his portion according to 
his power and means. 

Providence has granted you a good crop, doubtless to make it 
caster for you to supply liie requirements of your protectors. In order 
to act as good citizens, your susti-nance should be laid aside first of all, 
iheti thi» for the garrison, and if there is any left it is ([»cn that one may 
use it in commerce; but these two main needs must alwaj's be the first 
lo be furnished. 

You must remember that if want is too great we will have to divide 
our suffering this spring. To remedy this I propose naming and ap- 
pointing one of your fellow-citizens as collector who will be able to fill 
that position with much more satisfaction than a stranger, since he will 
know all the gentlemen of the country and their respective means. 


La, Plaiute de L'Invalidité des Argents J'espère iic durera pas long 
temps, mais en attendant Je tiuis Certain que lou» btm Patnollcs ce 
porteruns a facillitcr la Garnisons, voyant que depuis tant d'annâïs, 
lousleursCompatriuttesfonLla^ercet se Battent puur ce mCmc argent. 
et pour remédier a la difioilti! qu'a causé les argents (.'onlrefaît, des 
Lettres d'Echange Seront donnée piiur toutes Esjicce;» de fournitures. 

Jespere Me&sieuni ((ue \'o\i^ Agirés dans cette Circumstaiice en Bon 
Citoyen, porté pour L'intere-jt de la Juste de L'ameri^ue. 

Je suis Avec Kesiwct et Kstime 
Messieurs Votre Très Hble Serv* 
John Montgomery 

aux Ka.skaskia ce 

ao™ Auusl 1779. 
[En<lorsril:\ Demander; du Colonel Montgomery aux habitants des 
Kaskaskias du 30*"' May [sic] 1779 


As to tbe coDiplaial of the worthlessness of tbe money, 1 hope that 
will not last long, but while wailing I am sure that all good patriots 
will endeavour to ease the garrison, seeing tbat for so many years all 
their fellow-countrymen are waging war and lighting for that same 
money. And to remedy the difficulties that the counterfeit money 
has caused, letters of exchange will be given for all sorts of goods. 

I hojw, gentlemen, that you will act in this matter as good citizens, 
animated in behalf of the just cause of America. I am with respecl 
and esteem, gentlemen, 

Your very humble servant, 

John Montgomery. 

Kaskaskia, August 30, 1779. 
\Endorsed:\ Demands of Colonel Montgomery upon the itibabitauts 
of Kaskaskia on May' [Augustj ao, 1779. 

'Siorr II Eh nut iikHy rhul tuth » mUliikr in llir ilute «nniM lie mmlr <1 tlv llms the iloaiinrai 
wuTEMÏTcd, Ihb cndonctnmt wu tvobably imctra loii| alicrwanl*, aail thr dirfc « -whotrcr fjc4 
ibc fapm inUrrjil tbe dale. Scvo-^l dmilu uurt uJ inaUkcs tii rndmcmcul lu*r been aulliod. 



List op Contributors, made by Patrick Kennedy, 

Assistant Commissabv, August 31, 177g. 

[Draper MSS„ 46J1J.— A. D. S.] 

List of Diflferent Inhabitants that Cuasentcd lu furnish the Troops 

Belonging to the State of Virginia, agreeabk to u I'alculatioa made by 

the Magistrats ji** Aug*' 1779 

Names of the Persons &ca who Paid; Flower; L. 

Sieur Jautst 600a 

Ditto Pla&y 4000 loooo 

Ditto Charle Charle^■iUe 6000 

Ditto Vila] Beauvaix Paid 5000 

Ditto Antoine Beauvaix d" 5000 

Ditto Touranjour d" aooo 

Ditto Joseph Brazeau d** 3000 

Ditto Madame delisle d" oaoo 

Ditto I'aguc Lasourse d" '100 

Ditto Baptist Lasourse d" '200 

Ditto Allixt Beauvaix, d'* '100 

d" Raane d" '100 

d" Chalc damn* d* '500 

d" Bapi'' CharleviUe aooo 

d" Proveau '200 100 

d" Lemieux 'loo 100 

d" Jermin d" *ioo 

d" Rcneaux *SOo 100 

d*" Bazille Lachapelle '300 300 

d° Fertin d" '400 

d" Quiquîte d" 'loo 

d" Toulouse *ioo 100 

d" Bienvenue Son 1000 1000 

d" Charlo Lachapelle d» 500 

d*' S' Jem Beauvaix d* 7000 

d" Lonvall d* 200 

d' Madame Brazcauc d' *ioo 

d" Bienvenue Father .' 6000 

d° Cerré d" 4000 

Total Pds Flower *.. . . .55300 1600 


Dcli\'<' in Store 54600 * 

' Tbt rtU o( Uic docneMiU b > tici of coodi in Modu 



ft. 1779 


Phociamation Conceeking Liquor Trafhc, September 6, 1779. 
[K. MSS., Court KcconI, f. 191.-^ recorded ijeptember 7, 1779,] 
Vil par la Cour du dislnct des Kaskaskîas En la Counts Dca Illi- 
nois L'audience y lenant le vingt cinquième jour du mois d 'aou3î dernier 
les representations qu'a fait Monsieur Jean Tocd gouverneur civil et 
premier ma^strat de cetLe ditie countée a la susdilte cours tendante a 
reprimer linfame et Illicite Iraittedes Liquers Enyvraiilcs qui se fait coD- 
timiellcmcm avec les nations Sauvages, regardée de tout temps dans 
celte Colonie Comme sa Perte et destruction totale et générale En con- 
sequence La Cour de ce district fait 1res Expresse deffcnce et Inhibition 
a toutes personne de ce district de quelque qualité et condition qu'elles 
[luisscnt être de vendre ou faire vendre traîtier donner ou Echanger 
aux Sauvages nègres ou Esclave rouges aucunes liqueurs ou boissons 
Enyvranies sous quelque Prétexte que ce soit et En quelque petite 
quantité que ce puisse £Irc a moins que les dits Esclaves ne soycnt 
[(oricurs d'un Billet de leur maître sous peine par les contrc^'cnans a la 
Présente Proclamation pour la premiere fois dêtre Enprisonné pendant 
huit Joms et de payer une amande de Vingt cinq Li\TC3 de peaux de 

The Court of the District of Kaskaskia in the County of Hlinoîs, 
in session uu the twenty-fifth U August last, has considered (be repre- 
aenlatiuus lu the aforesaid Court which have been made by M. John 
Todd, civil goveraor and first magistrate of this county, concerning 
the suppression of the infamous and unlawful trade in intoxicating 
liquors continually carried on with the savages, which lias been always 
regarded iu this colony as threatening it with loss and total and puerai 
destruction.' Consequently the Court of this district makes express 
prohibition and inhibition to all persons of whatsoever quality and 
condition, living in tliis diiitricl, to sell to, or cause to be sold to, to trade 
in, to give to, or exchange with, the savages and negro and red slaws, 
any intoxicating liquors or drinks under any pretext whatsoever ami 
in howsoever small quantities, unlc&s the said slaves are bearers of a 
note from their master, under penahy, for the ûrst ofTeuce of the trans- 
gressors of the present procJamation, of imprisonment during eight 
days and of payment of a fine of twenty-five Ihres in deerskins, which 

'ForjMBi3Arpr(K±innliinil»ueiHnColonrfCI»fli,«»m'i<. r ft», mdhy the C<mn erf CnhokU, 
/iL But. CoUkImm, U., S7S. «07. 


che\Tcuil qui seront mises En mains du premier Magistrat de ce district 
pour ilre Employer a aumoner les Pauvres de ce village et dûtre chassé 
de ce village honteusement comme parturbateur du repos Public ei 
nuisible u ses concitoyens s'il y rcddive. 

Deffends Pareillement la ditte cours par la présente Proclamation 
a toutes personnes de ce District d'achapter ou Echanger des E&daves 
aiuges ou noîrs aucunes denr^s comme mabis tabac Cochons EËves 
patates ou toutes autres chose que ce puissent être sans que les dits 
Esclaves ne soyent porteurs D'un Billet de leurs maîtres signé, portant 
permission De \-endre les dittes deurées et ce sous les mêmes peines 
que dit cy dessus, 

La ditte cour Enjoint a toutes personnes de ce Distrîa de tenir La 
main a la présente proctamolion et celles qui aumnt connolssance de 
quelques contrevention contre icelle de les declarer a faute par elles de 
ne le pas faire de subir les mêmes peines cl amande que dit cy 

Sera la présente proclamation lutt Publiée affichée et Enregistrée 
au Greffe de ce district a seule an que personne n'En puissent prétendre 

fine shall be paid into the hands of the first magistrate of this district 
to be employed as alms for the poor of this village; and (hoac found 
guilty, if the offence is repealed, shall be driven in disgrace from this 
villafje as disturbers of the public peace and barmful to their fellow- 

The said Court likewise forbids, by Che present proclamation, all 
persons of Ibis district lo buy from, or exchange with, the R-d or black 
slaves any commodities, such as com, tobacco, pigs, beans, potatoes, 
or anything else whatsoever, unless the said slaves are bearers of a note 
signed by their masters, granting permission to sell the said commodities, 
and this under the same penalties stated above. 

The said Court enjoins all persons of this district to enforce the 
present proclamation and those, who shall have knowledge of any 
transgression against h, to declare it; and decrees that, in case this is 
not done by them, ihey shall undergo the same punishment and fioe, 
stated above. 

The pres»ii proclamation shall be read, published, posted, and 
rc^sicrcd at the clerk's office of ibis district so that no person can 



cause d'ignorance Donné En la Cour dudit district des Kasicaskias 
Dans la Quatrième année de republique de Virginie L'audience y 
tenant le 6"" 7'"* i779- 

Signé Cekhé signé CxuBONNEAtix Greffier 
Enregistré le 7""* 7*^*' 1779 
Carbonneadx Greffier. 


plead cause of ignorance. Given in Ihc Court of the said District of 
Kaskaskia in the fourth year of the Republic of Virginia, in the session 
sitting September 6, 1779. 

(Signed) CeurÈ. (Signed) Cakbonnea(JX, Clerk. 
Recorded, September 7, 1779. 
Carbonneadx, Clerk. 

John Dddgf, lo Lebron, Sept. 15^ i779' 
[B. M. aia44, f. tia.— Copy.] 

Fort Duquesne, Sept' is*** 1779. 
Mon Cbere Aaus, 

Cette avec pleasure Que Je vous fait Savoir appris Je Ette envoyé 
& Quebec prisoner Je trouve moyen De me échapper De Les Enemis 
Je sui arrivé Ici De embas aujourhui ous Je aves La plaisir De Voye 
Le Governor & Dejean & Lcmole & Le Grand M' Hay Enfin je sui 
& mas Dan Le Cashoua & Resteres La Jusque a La Tems Qui le pais 
a fait. Le Spain a fait Guère Contre Les Englois, Auci Le France Qui 


Fort Duque^ne, Sept. 15, 1779.' 
My Dear Friend: 

It is with pleasure that I inform you that after I was sent to Quebec 
as a prisoner 1 found a means of escaping from the enemy. I arrived 
today from Ihc Soulh [ ?] where I hail the plciisuru uf seeing the Gover- 
nor, Dcjcan, Txmotc and the great Mr. Hay, confined in irons aitd in 
a dungcun,' and Ihcy will remain there until peace is made. Spain has 
dccla^rcd war against ihe Knglisli, also France which Îa going to join the 

■ A Raniluiloii U prioud in UUk. litu. CeUrtlivin, six, 40$. 

'TW vriiniul riipT mutt lie vrry laully, low Ihc French luu n» ine>uiliiit- liodtv wiaK Ibt 
■tint ialontutiuB in bnilHb ihm 4»j% l»tti. Srt Mccad Mm bvlow 


Ion Joindre Les Americans, Je vous Envoyé I^a prodamatioa De 
le Roi De France fait a Boston. 

Je Vous pris pour Donne Le lettre Qui j'cnvoyc Ici pour monsieur 
Grcvcrdt Si Fisbar fair Que vous Donne Les letter vous même Ashter 
Tous Le Viver Que Vous pouris Je Spere Vous De vous Vicre Le Vere 
Qui Vien Donne mon Compliments a mon Chcre mere & Tous le Jollie 
fis Qui son au Detroit. Je suis appris Boir vous santé avec aun Bon 
Voir de Vin. Je aves Le Honor De Ette Vous Très Humble Serviteur. 


Truc Copy. 
^Addressed:] A Moksiecr Lebkok. 

{Endvrsed:] Copy of a L«Her £rom John Dodge lo Mon' La Bron 
Dated Fort Pitt Sep^ ij»*» 1779. 

Americans. I send you the proclamation which the King of France 
made in Boston. 

I heg you to give the letters I am sending to M. Graverai and Visgcr. 
Sec that you give them the letters yourself. Buy all the provisions 
possible. I hope to see you this coming winter. Give my regards to 
my dear mother and 10 all the pretty girls in Detroit. Yours, after 
drinking to your health a good glass of wine. I have the honor lo be, 

Vour very humble servant, 

John Dodce. 
[Addressed:] To M. Lebron. True Cc^. 

JOBK Dddcb to Pere PoTHiEEf Sept. 15, 1779. 

[B. M., 81844, i. 1 13. — Copy.] 

Fort Duquesne, Sep*" 15, 1779. 
Mon Chese Pere, 

Cesi avec pleasure que je vous fait savoir appri je ctic envoyé fit 

Quebec prisonicr je troivc moyen de me échapper des Enemy, a Le 


Fort Dîtooesne, Sept. 15, 1779. 
My Dear Father: 

It is with pleasure that I inform you that, after I was sent to Quebec 

as a priâoucr, I found a means of escaping from the enemy. At the 



mem Tcm Jc Savoir Le Savage Ettc oblige pour porcndcr he Castete 
Contre Les Amt-rican, Je fait mon Divoir, pour Dire Le Même au Le 
Commandant Jc supplia pour Les Aulrc pour Quoi les aves Consente 
De Le Donne Encore aun (oi pour fare La pais pour apies Lux pique 
les fem*» & hn Enfans. Jc me fait Le Honour De envoyé Vou La 
parole de Sa magcstre De France fail avec Le Savage an Phîladelpbia 
& Encore aun proclamation De le Counte De Estaing per oïde De Le 
Roi De France. 

Je \'ou5 Envoyé Aun Letter pour Monsieur Le Crose Que Je vous 
prie vous Le Donner vous même Jc spere de vous voir Le Vcre qui 
vien. Excuses mun maivis Ecriture & mal Francois. 

Jes aves Le Honour de Elle Votre Très Humble Serviteur 

Jean Dodce. 
[Addressed:] A Le Bonne Pcre Potie. True Copy, 

{Kndarsed:] C«[>y of a Icitcr from John Dixige to Père Pothier. • 

Dated Fort Pitt, Sep' i$^^ 1779. 

same time I know that the Savage is obliged (o take the tomahawk 
against the Americans. I do my duty in telling the same to ihc com- 
mandant; 1 entreat for (he others. Why did ihcy consent to make 
peace and later to butcher the women and children? I have the honor 
to send to you the talk which His Majesty the King of France held with 
the savages in Philadelphia, and also a proclamation of the Count 
d'Estaing by order of the King of France. 

I am sending a letter for M. Le Crose which I beg you to deliver 
yourself. I hope to see you next winter. Excuse my bad writing and 
my bad French, I ha\*e the honor to be, 

Your very humble servant, 
John Dodge. 
[Addreised:] To Good Father Pothicr.' True copy. 

■ Palhn Pterrr Fotbio wa»a Bdilnm Jesuit, wlio tcnrdtbc Huron minlivi of DrlrolKKandirldi. 
Omtrla) tna iim lo irRi- tTii. Hiii. CvUnHani rvlil., >jA, n. i>. The meaalns of (he above 
Idtccsia vcTT dcnibllul. fvc. u Dodcc binudi lar*, no Frmcb la "biul." 



John Dodge to Philip Boyle, Sept. i8, 1779. 
[B. M.. 91844. f. 114. — Copy.I 

PiTSBUKG, Sept*" iS^** 1779. 
Deak Sir, 

After being sent to Quebec Prisoner, I found mcatis to moke my 
escape from Ihcncc last >pVinlcr. I just arrived from Williamsburg 
where I hod the pleasure of seeing M' Hamilton, Dejean, Lamolte, 
in IroQ3 in the Dungeon, and there they arc to remain untill the War 
is ended ; they were put there for the usage ihcy gave me at Detroit. 

Our Army has met with great succès this Year as well as last, our 
officers and Soldiers are in great Spîrrits. 

Spain has declared War against Ivngland, and join'd their Fleets to 
the french. Count Distanguc has taken several of the most valuable 
Islands that the English had in their Possession. 

I enclose to you a Proclamation from the French Admiral & Em- 
bassador, Minrd Fistier & Elbert Gravorat ' is here and in good spirrits, 
we expect to sec you this winter. 

I would rccomend to the Commandant of Detroit to be carefull how 
he uses the friends of the United States as he may hap[K;n to be called 
to an Account as well as Hamilton. 

I am with great respect Your most Obedient and wry humble 
servant John Douce. 

[Addressed:] To Philip Boyle merch* at S* Du^lu. 
[Endorsed:] J. Dodge to Philip Boyle at S* Duski, Sept' 18''' 1779. 

John Williams* to Georgs R. Clark, September 35, 1779. 

{Draper MSS.. 40J7J — A. L. S-J 
KASKAi>KE,\s FoRr Clabk Ilinois Countev Scpf the as'*" 1779 
Dear Colo"', 

I have not hail an opportunity before «f Inquiring after you which 
I now with Pleasure Imbracc I Can Inform you of M' kay who Started 
from Mishelemackanoy with 600 troops in onlcr to Conduct the rebels 
as he Calk'd us U-fnrc there l>et1ers in Kannaday (Canada] he had a 
pare of hand Cufs for Every officer he left in the Country he Received 

■ Alhtn Gnvrni [or r.Ti««nd1 «m â diivn of Drtmd, irlio totnwl ilu BrtlUtldt^ pnbeUT 
atxnit Ibii timr, nntr Dodjiiciprclnl hlmlolH' in IXruit thrn <!■)>• hcEocc irrlliBfAbleUet- lAutt, 
p, 1*0) la ij»! hd Irfi tbt Amnirauui'l rctiirord 10 Detroit. Jttek. Bi*. CM t Oi tiH, «U, too. 

* For John Wltlbm*. tec tit. Hhl. CaOaibmt. 11.. «1. □. 1. 


a CêrtDty thit you had maixhd for ddroit Changed bis rooi from St 
Joseph to detroil. 

pn>v-iskons is very hard to be got wiiliout Peltry Colo"' Mcgomcry 
has Contracted for a quanty of flower but nothing to answer the puriK»sc 
of an Expedition several perogues has been lost from this place there 
Came in an indian yesterday told me he saw where they ware killed I 
am afraid our Strenth will not permit us to Carr)' on aney Communicft- 
tion with the opost' by water. 

I Received a line from Cap' M^cartey yesterday he is well he 
writes to me that he has lost most part of his french Soldiers and the 
Inhabitants is So Saucey they threaten to drive him and his soldiers 
away, tels him hes no buisiness there nobody Sent for them they are 
^-ery discontented the Sivil Law has Ruined them. I must Conclud 
with my due Respect to ycu and Remain as before 


Pray favor me with a line if oppertunity permits 
[Addretsed:] For Colo" G R Clark at the FaU& of ohio 

Extract from the Coubt Record, Sept. 28 1779 
[K. MSS.— A, f). S,] 
Extrait des registres des audiences Du District des KasKasKias En 
la Comtée Des Illinois 

Entre le Sieur Jean Datchunil Di*m**»rant au Poste de sainte Gen- 
evieve Porteur (le deux Billets a cmire fiiisans Ensemble La somme de 
deux milles huit cent quairevingi trois Livres Protestés a la Bourse de 
Bordeaux Consentis tous deux le troisième Jour du mois d'octobre Mil 
sept cent cinquante cinq ordre de Monsieur dacosta Par feu le sieur 


Extract of the reconls of ihe sessions «f the District of Raskaskia 
in the County of Tllinoia. 

Between M. Jean Dalchurui, living at Post Ste. Genevieve, holder 
of two sight drafts, amciunling logether to ihe sum of two thousand 
eight hundred and cighly-ihree Hires, refused at the exchange of Bor- 
deaux, both of which were accepted, October 3, 1755, to the onler of 
M. Dacosta by the late M. Louis Viviat.' The said plainiilî biTgs the 


■lV«iaiatlauiiV!«Ul*rMrc«â4mdU llxK Jf.S.«.,/t«r»4 JWk. p. ifi^.onOtluba )t>.ij7i. 



Louis viviat Dont le Dit Demandeur supplie la Cours de Condamner 
le siriir Gabriel Cerrt! Procureur cl F-\eruU;ur tcstamenlaire des 
Dcmîcrcs volont^ïsdudîl feu Sittur Louis viviat a payer le Montant des 
dits Billets ainsy que I^s interests a six pour rent, Comparant et def- 

Parties ouies L* Cours a Condamnée ci Condamne ledit Sieur 
Gabriel Cerré Kn la qualité qu'il agit a payer audit Sieur Datchurut 
sans delay te montant Dca dila BiElels frais et interests a six pour cent 
du Jour du protest a la Bourse de Bordeaux a m^mc les fonds dudtt 
Sieur feu vîvial ainsy que les frais de la présente Procedure Mandons 
fi:c faite et donné par nous Magistrats En La Cotir du district des Kas- 
RasKias L'audieuc-e y tenant dans la Quatrième ann6; de la republique 
De Virginie le Vingt huitième Jour du mois de septembre L'an Mil sept 
cent soixaiiti; H dix neuf signé Duplasv 

Emd^ 25" farine Carbonkeaijx Gretfier 

\Endt>rsed:] Sentence contre M' Cerré Procureur du S' viviat au Pro6t 
du S*" Jean Datchurut. 

( Transiation.] 

court to condemn M. Gabriel Ccm!, attorney and CKCcutur of the last 
will anil testament of the said tate M. Louis Viviat,' to pay the amount 
of the said notes as well as the interest at six [jlt cent. Both parties have 

The parties hcani, the Court condemned aniî condemns the swd M. 
Gabriel Cerré in the position he fills to pay to the said M. Dutchurut, 
without delay, the amount of the said notes, principal and interest at six 
percent from the day of the protest at the exchange at Bordeaux, from 
the funds of the late M. Vinat, as well as the cost for the present pro- 
cess. Let it be ordered etc. Done and given by us magistrates in 
the Court of District of Kaskaskia, the Court being in session, in the 
fourth year of the Republic of Virginia, September aS. 1779 

[Signed] Dupusv. 

Embodiment' 25 pounds of farine. Carbo.n'neaux, Clerk. 

[Efuiorsed:] Judgment against M. Cerré attorney of M. Viviat îa favor 
of M; Jean Dutchurvit. 

>!.«. in the Moonlt; bill Cll* «aol may tx nuolumeo). 


Jobs Moinr^uEBV to Geosge R. Clabk, September 29, i-jyq. 

IDrmper MSS., 4gj74- — A. L. S.] 


1 Cant not Icll what to do in Regard of Clothing (or the Soldiers 
as the Goods you Wrote lo Me about is Gon But I Expect Sir that you 
will Slo}>e Ihcm and 1 would Be Glad that if it is in your power To 
Send a Rclefc to Me for the Soldiers if it is ooley As Much as will Make 
them A litlc Jump Jacote ' and a pear of overalls apeas I think they 
Mite Scuffle threw But in Regard of lining there are Bad of But if I had 
Som Strouding I Could Exchang it for lining on the other Side as The 
have all Rcdey offered it to Me I have Discharged all the famileys and 
The are about to Sellle up the Creek about thirtey Miles.' 

Sir Agreeable to your orders I have pursued in Regard of James 
Buckhanan ho on his Examination he saith that his Money that was 
pead or put into his hand to furnish provision Run out and that he was 
Compelled to Borrow a Sum of Mooney after paying away what he bad 
of his own for which he Sent by Capt Quirk to purchas a quantity of 
Beacon in wasbentun County But on Capt Quirks paying for the Beacon 
it was observed to Be Bad. Capt Quirk delivered up the Money To the 
Cort the cort Give it to Colo Arthur Campble to Send to the odiies* at 
Which lime Said Cort Sent a copy of their proseeding to me. I amc- 
diately Rote to M*" Buckhanan Conseming the Sum of Monney Seposed 
to be Bad by The Cort to Com down and Cleare him Self of the Charge 
lade a C^leanst him at which time he Recvd two Thousand five hundred 
pounds More Sent to him By the hand of Mr Malison from Gos'emment. 
he then Came and demanded of Colo Campbel the sum of Money in 
order as he told Me 10 Return To the Man he Got it from as he then 
Was Called on By Me lo March for this place and if he did not Return 
the Same Monney that he Must Return olhere Money in the place — 
A Cording lo his Bargin and by That Means lose ihe hole Sum of Mon- 
ney as it was out of his power to Stand a trie! being then Called into The 
Sarvice of his Cuntrey for Which Colo Campbel punckley Refusd 
Seposed lo Be By the Reaon that The were at verence before and The 
dispute Rased to Such a hite That the Came lo Strokes and I Sepoze 
Colo Campbel to be the informer But for fere it Mite Be two true I 

■Tlibirlilnnentwatat BdldaaUiiMMlie firM wlUenwiiCaf Em^iah ipttkfai nia ol «ar IMTOM- 
neucT b tke Nonbwol. lU. Uiit. C'tt"**'''*, il-, (ccomuIi Indca uodn Bdlefonialno). 
■ Audiioi'k. 



Oimpclled him To Give Scficant Security for his aperenc Be fore aney 
Cort of Juslis if Called. Therefore I ihink if oppertunily would Admit 
it would Good for you to Rile to John Montgomery high Sherif for 
Montgomery County to no the Ccrlcnty as his letter May Be dépende 
on and if he is found Guiltey I dont wish him to go onpunishe^ Nor Can 
I think of puting up with So hcnious a rrime. I would have Sent him 
aOreable to order of Govern But if I did his fiimiley Must Suffer nor 
have I a Gard to Sparc. Noing So Much of the nature of The Case as 
I have Role you It Geii-e Me Sotn Charity to Beleve it Mite Be onley 

I have not had a man to desert from this place Since My arivel here 
But have Becne under the nccdsatisety of havein som of them whipt 
for their Conduct a munies horn Mr Joins Be Comt one of ihe Sufferors 
ho I think has Quite Reformed him But Capt M Cartcy has had a good 
Meney deserted over to pancore By which you will See By his letter no 
More But Remain your Sinccr frcnd and Humble sarvant 

John Montcomeey 

N B I Rote the inhabelents a verey Sharp letter and another to 
Colo Todd But have Reed no letter in answer yet Refering them if did 
if did [iic] perzist to Peregreen Picke volum the first. Sir Since I Rote 
to you Conseming M'' BuckUanan I thot of another method To ûnd 
him out noing where he laid out larg somes of Money Sayre 3500 
Doller, From Charlovcclc 3500 Dollers, Charloveele 700 Dollcrs, Murrey 
300 hun Dollers But after Examing them 1 Could not find one Bad 
Bill amunkst the hole Exccp one 7 doller Bill Capt Shannon Reed of 
him 1500 Dolkrs if he is not left Ihe falls I think it Would Be Good to 
£xamen tiiat Som ol Money Sir I am your humble servi 

To Colo 0. R. Clark John Mcjntgomery 

{Endorsed, apparently by the recipitiU:] Col Montgomery Sep* 29*^ 1779 

John Montcoueby to Geoboe R. Clark, October 2, 177g. 
[Draper MSS.. «J?*.— A. L. S.] 

Fort Clark, October s*** 1779. 
Dear Colo, 

Since I Receved your letters I have Made a second Trial in Regard 
of laying up a Sufficant Quanty of proWsion But it seems to no effect 
as the aGain Répète to Me that them Seh-es and Negroes is ncaked and 



Without I can Suply (hem with Goods or peltry it will be out of tbvir 
|»w-cr to Supply Me in More then What the Already have promised Mc 
which will not Be o\Tr half anuf to Supply An arcmcy But Sir as you 
inform me that you ha^-e The disposing of the Good» that Colo Rogers 
tuck up to the Falls if you thot proper to Send a Quantity of them Back 
to Mc for that purpose or a Quantity of dear Skins with what peltrey 
I have Got from Colo Todd I ihink it then Would Be in My power to 
furnish a Quantity SufBcant for the Supply of a thousant Men Six 
Months, if you dont think proper to send them Send Me pertuclcr 
orders in Rejpird of leaking it by force and your orders shall be puntkley 
olxrf Sir if you Sh think nf 5>ending them the soon nor the Belter as I 
have F^hucd a proclamation pmhabilen them to transport aney pro- 
vision of ancy Space what Fver till Such times I have answer from you 
not leting them know that There 19 ancy Expectation of ancything of 
that kind I have no nus to inform you of Rut 

am Sir with Respect to you 


To Colo G R Clark 
\Addrtssed:\ To G R Clark 

John Todd to George R. CtAitK, during 1779. 

(Draper MSS., a^]$6.~ \. L. S.j 


Inclosed are several Depositions which indicate a Conduct rather 
unfriendly in some Geiiilemeii of the other Side — You being so well 
acquainted with Mr Cartabona a Remonstrance from you will I make 
no doubt be well recieved by him. If the Boat & Crew are delivered 
up [or trial (as from the Testimony I think they ought) the SpanisFi 
Honour wiii remain unsullied. The Crew were nearly all in your 
Corps JSi on the way to join they therefore Come properly witliin your 

1 am Sir 

Your Hbic Serv» 

Jn" Todd j« 
[Addressed:] G R. Clark Esq. Commander &c &c &c 


John Todd lo George R. Clahk, Ociobcr $, 1 779. 
[Draper MSS., 49J77-— A. L. S.] 

KASKASCtA, 3^ Oct., 1779. 

My Dear Col., 

1 lately took a trip to Kohos where I was seized by a fever which 

reduced Me to the lowest Condition imiginaMe. I rcturn'd last 
Night lo this place l>ut find myself so week that it is impossible to take 
full advantage of the present Express by writing to W'""burg. 

I lately mode a purchase (iho' U|>on Terms which do not please me) 
of zi,ooo lb Peltry wilh which I shail always have it in my power to 
purchase provision here, 1 lliink it best at present that the Troops be 
Supplied ulherwise. I w'' be glad of your Advice herein. 

Your B^ is Well — Madame Leyba is dead — Madam'** Tcrese 
still a Maid &c. &c. &c. 

II I could get an Opp* of sending you something good to Toast your 
SwectHL-art in I would — [lerhajis I may Shortly — by M"" Bowman. 

CompI" to Capl. George My Brother Bob & all your OfTictTS. 

I am D' Col. wilh regard Your mo Obed' & Hble Serv* 

Jn" Todd jr 
[Addressed:] Geo. R. Clark Esq; Col. of y* Illnois Reg*&c. Falls of 

Pr. Express 

John Montgoueky to George R. Clark, October 5, 1779. 
(Draper MSS., 49)78. — A. L-, signature cut out.J 

Fort Clark, Ociber 5*^ 1779. 
Dear Colo, 

I Must Beg liberty to trouble you With a ffcw lines. Colo todd 
yesterday arived from Cahoc and lo My Create Surprise Refuses to lei 
Me have ancy of the pchrcy ' he allreadcy promised me. I Requested 
of him his Reason for Bchcving In Such a mannor after Sending word 
to The people that the Should have pcltrcy for Everything the furnished 
Exclusive of the Contract the allreadcy Maid with me leting him no at 
the Same time your order» to Me in Regard of provision and the 
Quantity of Men Expected out this fall, his answer was that the Were 

' For(unb« etrtapoadmcr «DtiaffoiDg ihi» peltry, cooniit Moioo, E. G-, " John Todd Papen." 
In Cbicuo Hl«i. Sodciy'i C«I<M*mu, Iv^ ]]«, m». ukI y*- SUU Paftn, [., 380. 



obliged to Maintain the Imps at the Credit of the States and that he 
had Another use for the peltrey but perhaps if he Saw an cxpodition 
Going oD in the Spring that he then would advance them. 

I tbea toid him that know was the time to Do it for if We Trusted tiU 
the Spring it Would perhaps be two leat as By that time it Cold Not Be 
had. he tb^-n toid Me that he Would Call a counsel of the inhabi- 
tants and Compel them to furnish But when the Met the punkley 
denied him. he then told Them if the did not Comply he would Give 
them up to the Miletcry and Quit Them, the answered him the were 
well aGread to that & So parted. Know Sir with what face Can 1 
protend to Seas on those people provîsio Wbi-n the know that we have 
Got the peltrey and will not Give it to Them and our Money ts of no 
acount to Them and our Bills Comes Back protested. The have 
Create Rcson to think that We onlcy intend to BafHc them but Sir you 
May depend that I will do Ewry Thing in My power and am dctrmed 
to have the provision as I have dumanrlcd Every Bushel of Every 
Space the have To Spare pray Sir Send Mc answer as Soon as pnsiblc 
as X have Got My hands full of Busncss and am Sir with due Rcsjwct 

Humble Sarvant 

[JuHN Montgomery.] 
[Addressed:] To Colo C. R. Clark at the Falls. 

NcmcK Given by John Todd, Oct. 4, 1779. 

IK. MSS. — A. D. S., by Coûding. Set] 

Toutes Personnes qui Prcttcndcnl propriété a L'emplacement sîtné 
vers le millieu de ce Village tenant du coté d'Ouest a Monsieur Pierc 
Langlois, et de L'Est a Moos'" Picre Piccard sont requis de m'en faire 



AU persons who may claim to own property in the plot of ground 
situated about the middle of the village, adjacent on the north to M. 
Pierre Langlois, and on the east to M. Pierre Picard, are notified 10 set 


Parroitre leurs droil dans la Cour de Trois Jours, sans quoy U sers 
Condamué pour L'us:^^ de la Communauté. 

Donné sous ma main aux KasK'" ce 4"!" Oclobre 1779 
Par Oidre de M. Le Col. Todd 

S. S. Gooding. 

[Transhli^n .] 
forth ihcir claims în the court «Hthin three days; otherwise it will be 
condemned for the usage of the cf>mmunity. 

Given under my hand at K&ska^ia, this fourth day of October 1779. 

By order of M. Colonel Todd. 
S. S. Gooding. 

WiujAu Shannon to 

-.August 3, 179a. 

[Draper MSS. ■jôjso- — Conlctnporary copy.] 



I learn by Mr. Clark that a bill for 3836Î Dollars dated June 5*'' 
1779 Drawn by me (while acting as Comms' and QMasler in the Illi- 
nois) in favour oE Capt Linitol,' on Col G. Rogers Clark Is fallen into 
your hand.i. That Bill was given by me for Peltries purchased from 
Mon" Liiitot & Co at pancore in (he Spanish Dominions, and at the 
time I drew it, I had Col, Clarks orders to draw on him for any supplj*3 
purchased for the use of the troops stationed in the Illinoig country, as 
will apjiear, reference being had to my orderly book, now in posMîssion 
of the guvenior and council. The paper money being of no account 
these peltries were bought up, to establish a fund to Purchase provisions 
for the Troops, that were to be left to garrison the Illinois. For an 
expcdilion was then proposed by Col. Clark against Detroit. Indeed 
part of the troops, with the provissions & Military stores were then 
actually on (heir march (o St vincens on the Waba.<ih, where they were 
to meet those expected from Kentucky, and to wait untîll the ballance 
from the Illinoi.'i would come up. However (his expedition fell 
(hrough and there being sundry bills draivn to a considerable amount 
on Government, on account of the Expedition, and paper money no 
longer being current in that country; in that Col: Clark recommended 

■ par hiociaphioil cuiike ol G«affrey Liociot, Me IB. Hut. CMImMmu, IL, 101. d. 1. 



unLi) the month of October or November ïuUowiag; PoJQtîng out the 
dtHerent depreciatioas oï those bills at Raskaskia, Cahukiu^i and St 
Vmceiiii ill the riiflcrenl months ' — now before be could liave dune 
Justice to the holders of these bills in forming his scaJe, he ought to 
have been jjosscssed of the spirit divination, for from July untill No- 
vember, he was placed in a Situation so remote from the Illinois, that 
he could not possibly have the most distant Idea of what would be Jus- 
tice to these people. The truth is (and I conceive I am as well acquainted 
with the affairs of tliut country la the year ij-}^ as Col. T(Hid »r any 
other person) that the inhabitants would have sold their Beef, Qour, 
Pork &c to the Spaniards for as jjreat a price as they were promiseil by 
us. The consequence of their funnshing us, obliged itiL-m to send 
supplies to their Troops from Natchez country and New Orleans. 
To come to an end pleas to examine the acts of assembly r<)r the year 
1790 where you will find an act passed for paying William Shannon and 
others a sura of money in which government stands bound for the pay- 
ment of all bills drawn by mc and placed to the credit of the slate in my 
settlement now sir by examining my books in possession of the coundl 
you will sec that the Slate has credit for the bill in youT hands and that 
the ncrount for which it is given is settled with the state. I am yours 
most obd't Servt, 

(Signed) WiLUAM Shannon 

Col Clark 

Aug 3"! 1792 



8, 1780. 

DiFrrcm-TiES or the Militakv — Bkvtt^y Escapes fkou Captivitï — 
Inhabitants Prtitiom and the Coukt Asskbts Its Dicjnitv — Letter 


GouBr — Am Acesi or France in the West — John Dodge REK)ins. 

John Montcomehy to George R. Clawc, November 15, 1779. 

[Draper MSS„ 4ç}S$. — A. L. S.J 

Deae Cou}, 

Kaskasku Fort Clark, Nov 15'" 1779 

I no nuse to impart to you but What Colo Todd ' will inform you but 
Sir I once More Beg levé to Remind you of the desires'' Situation our 
Soldiers in for want of Clothing So that It Renders (hem in a maner 
ustess and are deserting dealey and all by (he Reson that the Cannol 
Ci( aney thing to Cover their Skins, there fore Should you have filo|)ed 
That Cloth that Colo Rogers Carried away I hope you will Send Me a 
Supply to Remove those Grevena-s. if you Cannot I Would be glad la 
Receve your advice how 1 Shall proseed in The Matter as times is very 
deficult hcTC as ihe look on our Alonney and bills to be of no More a 
Count then So Much Blank paper, no More But Remains your Verrey 
humble Sarvant to Command. 


\Addressed:] To Coro G R Clark Commander in Chcaf of the Wcstron 
deparlmcnl. Falls of Ohiho. 

VTbtt Ictlcr mil tmbciUi' cscrin) l'y Todd, Kho »a* on thf pnini a( l«avia(f Dlinoii u M£ 
liiw. Twid hwl >^iimlnl in aliruittiait Ibc l-'tciitli 'iv in-nliiin iiixNi tbfir hinuchlnfl inure pn>- 
<riua(B «llhoul bnin sroirily thaa befora; Inn by >o dofns hir hiil vnH plntMd dia mililarv uAcm, 
«rbo coodnutd (i> Hx-inl I o>U t* rc>pOM{l)le IM Ihc li«tt>r<: nltiltiilc ul Ihe lolMbiUnlB. lU. BUk 
CMtahut, Ij-, p. UiU. 





November 15, 1779 
[K. MSS.— A. n. S-I 

Ëxtiaît des Registres des Audiences du District des KasKusKias 
En la Comtée des Illinois. 

a une Cours tenue audit district le lundy Quinzième Jour du mois 
de Novembre mil sept cent Soixante et dix neuf furent presents Gabriel 
Ccrré, Joseph Duplasy, Jacques LaSource nicolos Janis et aîcolas 
Lachansc tous Magistrats dudit District. 

Entre Charles Gogoy démeurani En a; lieu demandeur aux fins 
de LExploit De ce Jour tendant a ce que le de/fendeur cy après nommé 
Eut a lui payer La quanliti! de mille Livres de farine a lui du par son 
Billet En dalte du Deux Janvier mil sept ct-nt soixitme El seize d'une 
part et Gerard LangloJs Chaqicntier defFendeur de l'autre part Le 
Billet reconnu pour du Par ledit DefTendeur et L'Expiait sur date. 
oiii Les Parties en leur demandes et dcffcnces et tout Consîdertis La 
Cours dudit district a Condamné et Condamne le dcffcndcur de payer 
au demandeur dans le delay De dix Jours daltc dt's Présentes La quan- 
tité De mille LiiTCs de farine cL la dilte Cours la taxée a tous frais de 


Extract o{ the record of the sessions of the District uf Kaskaskia 
in the County of Illinois. 

In a Court held in the said district on Monday, the fifteenth of 
November, 1779, the following were present: Gabriel Cerré, Joseph 
Duplasy, Jacques LaSource, Nicolas Janis, and Nicolas Lachanse, all 
magistrates of the said district. 

Between Charles Gogoy, living In this place, plaintiff at the close 
of the writ dated this day, to the effect that the defendant hereafter 
named should pay him one thousand pounds of dour due him by a note 
dated January 2, 1776, on the one hand; and Gerard Langlois, car- 
penter, deffendant, on the other hand. The note has been recognized 
as due by the deffendant and the writ past due. Having heard the 
parties in their petitions and defences, and having considered all, the 
Court of the said district has condemned and condemns the deffendant 
to pay to the plaintiff within ten days from the present dale, tlie quanlî- 
Ly of one thousand pounds of flour, und the said Court charged him 


la présente Prcx-etlure Mandons &c fait el donné Ea la Cour Du DiV 
trict des KasKasKias l'audience y tenant le luntly dans la quatrième 
ann^ De la Republique de Virginie le quinzième Jour du mois de 
Novembre mil sept cent Soixante et Dix neuf, signé Ccrré 



with all costs for ihe present process, let it be ordered, etc Done and 

given in Ibe Court of Hie District of Kaskaskia, the Court being in 

session on Monday, in the fourth year of the Republic of Virginia, 

November, 15, 1779. 

(Signed) Cerré. CAiLBo>rN£Ar'x, Cl«k. 

TnouAS Bentley to Governor Haldiuand* Nov% 1779. 
[B. M. J1845, (. ja — A. US.] 


The many applications I have made to Your Excellency as well as 
Your Predecessor with proposals to you both to give security in what- 
ever manner you woutl require it in case you woud permiJ mc to return 
10 my family and your repeated refusals to accede to my request left 
mc no altemaiivc what to <lo and will acquit me tn the Eyes of the 
WurJd 8: I should even hope io your own Breast for absconding from 
the Province. Tics of the dearest nature call loudly for my presence 
& oblige me if there is a possibility of doing it to join my family let 
the event be what it will. 

I beg leave to assure Your Excellency that I do not go with any 
hostile intention against Government but that on (lie contrary I never 
will bear arms ag* it but will serve as far as lies in my power the friends 
of Great Britain in Distress wheresoever I meet ihem & endeavor as far 
as can lay in my power to abate inslead of increasing the horrors of 
war as I saim to l>c the means of rvtallialiun upon the Innocent, at the 
same time all who have been the Cause of my misfortunes I am deter- 
mined to pursue to the very utmost in unler to obtain satisfaction. 

I beg you will think as favorably as possible of my leaving this wfhirh 
nothing but the most absolute necessity cou'd have corapell'd mc to, 

' ritdaitl.naldinian't.(t'iYCtnor(it ihtr* nm«otQueb«froin 1778101:84 Mit cMrttlort al 
kllfn Bud diJCixnaiu. uiii Kim duiïnK ihi mm)- ^eiri i>t aclln lite In Amr<it.i, ii'r in 1)k Uritlili 
MiuEum mod \arm an* ol lh« moal valiuMc coUkIiou at lourCM oo Aniaicui (olimt*! atul iinilu- 
Hooary Uuorr. J'o* 1)1* Die wc KioRiiDnl, W., Uitti»y «f Conuta, v^mtt Mf . 


for it was not possible for me to remain here any longer tvilhout being 
supported which notwithstanding my repealed a|)plicalians you refuaed. 
I have been long a burthen to my friends who arc but ^Try few in this 
Counlrj* where I am in a manner a stranger & lis not lo be wonderd at 
that I shou'd find myself every day slill more and more neglected 
bereft as I am of making them the least recompence whatever. 

I am unhappy that I shou'd be drove to this extremity; but neces- 
sity has no Law & lel the Consequence be what it will it is a Justice 
I owe to myself and all my Connections. 

I have the Honor to be Your Excellency's most obedient & very 
h^'i" Servant T. Bentley 

Montreal ] 

Novem^ \ '"' 

To His Kxcellcacy Frederick Haldimand Evy Governor of the 
Province of Quebec, Genera! Commander in Chief of Hts Majesty's 
Forces in Canada at Quebec. 
[Endivsed:] 1779. From M' Bentley, Nov""., Rec*'. ao**". 

Protest op Ivhabitan-ts to M'akisthates, December 8, 1779. 
fM. C, T. MSS.'— AuMied Copy.] 
\ Mes.<tieurs Les Magistrals du District des Kaskaskias. 

C'est a. voua En qui Nous avons mis noire Confience Et que nous 

To the Magistrates of the District of Kaskaskia. 

It is in you that we have placed our confidence and it U you whom 

t itrmtfi CMltliam. Tw Jimta Mmtuuritli. TW* ■!* ilntrnwd In tU. JTitf. C<dlt1io»i, ii„ 
dlL Slaee «11 Uicw MS.S., cUlnj l.tdntc .\(>nh, i ;Hr. were lo lie kdi lo VirtloU. tbtr <nr* prwpcrty 
alieued, w MIowt: 

" A coi» conf ormLiw to Ute wlaiu^ which i« «lepotlKd •! the dcrk*» .>(ricr in (he Diatiid of Kafka*- 
kia la tb« t^ntr of llluio». and driiv«nd by ui, (he nndmiffiiiN) dirk, thli Ghh dajp of Mar^ one 
IbouMDd. Kvcn Dundred aM eichlT-one. CarbooiiaiM, 

"I. Richard Uliutiin, Elujiiicr. Orpuly IJeuIcaaat. Ovil Otn-cmor, anil CammaiKkuil of the 
CouniyoFlhe*c. «<c-, Cmilytoall tavhoraîtmarccmcfnilhjil M. Pr»n;of> Carbonamu 
whaluutruiunbcalncopi'nl th<'pnilicin,abavranilon(lir'0[hrT ^i^l^.i^cl<Iko[lllC DJsKJclof KukukU. 
and Ihal faltb tbould brpl^tcnl m thcdocumeDisnrhichhe tiicntiii tlui oilicc. In wiint» whvtni(w« 
hale ■isnoJ in oui Budiiiicr cfaamhn at Easkaikia. Ibeatvmin of March, one tliuiuiml snm hundrnl 
and dibiy-«D«. Richard WiniloB, 

I>cpat} tiaiUtiaiii Ooircmor." 

Th( original li In FMnch, o[ «rhlch the abore to a lltcnJ tnuUtlon. The dntat oF copiinc th« 
nrioiu documeaia nry oolr a tew dar*- Sanwol WlnitDn'*cotkficalcaaT«dBl«d lulaiEas Ua<r j. 




avons Elus pour Gouverner ce pais soutenu des loix que vous nous 
avffs fail annoaçer dans votre Greffe, Ii^t>il bientôt temps Que vous 
metiiîs ordre aux brigandages Kt a la tyrannie que le militaire Exerce 
sur nous tous les Jours? ne deveroil-il jjas Être content De voir que 
nous nous privons du pure nécessaire Pour sufTir à leur subsistance Et 
que toutes les fournitures que Nous avons faites a L'Etat n'a pu Servir 
n'y a L'Entretient de nos familles, n'y de nos Esclaves, de qui Nous 
ne jxiuvons tirer aucun service dans une saison aussy dure? Pouvons- 
nous d'un oeil tranquille voir assomcr [su] Devant nos yeux voir assom- 
mer tous les Jours Les animaux les plus ni'scc&saiR^s a l'agriculture Et 
aux autres traveaux. 

Vous avf*s un moyen sur Mcaaeurs Pour arrêter de pareils diîsor- 
dres mais nous ne Pouvons nous addresser qu'a \'ou3? pour nous faire 
voir quelque lueur de cette Liberté qui nous a été tant de fois annoncée, 
où vous êtes de Concert avec ceux qui nous tyranissent En nous otant 
Les moyens de ^-îvre Et a Eux aussy; nous ne Croyons pas qu'il Soit 
nécessaire de vous rapporter dans celte présente le Sujet de nos Plaintes 
puisque tous les GriefTes se sunt passif De%'ant vos yeux. 

we elected to govern this country supported by llie laws which you caused 
to be announced to us in your office. Is it not high time that you were 
putting a stop to ihe brigandage and tj-ranny that we arc enduring at 
the hands of the military from day to day? Ought not the military to 
be satisfied in seeing that we are depriving ourselves of the very neces- 
sities of life in order to contribute to their maintenance and (hat all 
the supplies that we have made for the slate have contributed nothing 
either to the maintenance of our families or to that of our sla%-C3, from 
whom we can get but very little service in such a hand season? 
Can wc see, withoulbeingmovcd, the animals, which are most necessary 
for agriculture and other labors, killed every day before our very eyes ? 
You haw a sure means, gentlemen, to stop such disorders; but we 
can come only to you in order that you may show us a glimpse of that 
liberty which has been so many times promised to us; or are you In 
agreement with those who arc oppressing us by taking from us as well 
as from themselves the means of existence? Wc do not think that it 
is necessary to enumerate in this letter the subjects of our complaint 
since all these evils have been committted before your very eyes. 


En outre ^-ous devés vous appcrcevotr Mess** Que la disette de 
vivre commence a se mettre dan» le pais Et qu'a peine pouvons nous 
sLiflir a ta subsistance de ceux qui véritablement méritent La ration par 
leur service sans être obligé de nourir Et chauffer des membres Inutiles 
a L'Etal, vous dcvés demander un Elal Exact des Rationnaires Et 
lorsque la troupe aura besoin «'addresser a vous Messieurs pour 
leurs faire Délivrer ce qui sera Juste. 

De plus Taiies attention Messiuers qu'il n'y a Dans ce nllage que 
dix maisons peuletre qui Peuvent faire remises Et que l'on crois Encore 
plus Riches qu'elles ne sont. 

Nous vous portons plaintes Meswcurs Contre un homme qui est 
commis Sans doute Pour demander du Bois de chauffage que nous ne 
Connoissons que sous le nom de Gendron, celt homme commande En 
Mailre et parle aux habitans comme a des lisclaves. 

Nous somme ni^s libre Messieurs et nous voulons Jouir de la liberté 
de veritable citoyens il devcroîl se conformer a ses supérieurs 

Vous devés aussy observer Messieurs que ce villages a suppoHé 
tout le fardeau et la dépense depuis L'arrivée de Messieurs Les amcr- 


Besides, you must be aware, gentlemen, Ihal scarcity of food is 
beginning to be felt all over (he country and that we can barely fumi&b 
a subsistence lo those who truly deserve rations on account of Iheir 
services, without being obliged to nourish and keep warm men usele&s 
to the state. You should a»k for an exact account of those to receive 
rations; and, when the troops shall have need of something, they should 
address themselves lo you, gentlemen, so that you may cause to be 
delivered to them that which will Ix: jusl. 

Furthermore, remember, gcnttcmen, that there are in this village 
perhaps nn more than ten houses that arc able to maltc contributions 
and these arc thought to be richer tha.n they really are. 

Wc are making complaint, gentlemen, against a man who was 
commissioned, no doubt, to ask for fire-wood, a man we know only 
under the niame of Gcndron; this man gives commands as a master 
and speaks to the inhabitants a.<i lo slaves. 

Wc are frcc-bom, gentlemen, and we wish lo enjoy the liberty of 
of true citizens. He ought to submit lo his superiors. 

Vou should also note, gentlemen, that this village bos borne all the 



iquaina Et que lea autres ne se sont Scnita de rien où très peu Noua 
Ksperons que vous voudras ks faire contribuer comme nous a la sub- 
sistance àe U troupe puis qu'ils sont plus En Etal que nous suivant 
leuri uoDibrc. 

nous avons L'honneur d'être avec respect 
Messieurs, Vosircs humbles Et très obéissant serviteurs 
KasKasKia le 8 X^" 1779. 

signé sur la minutes Brazeaux, a. Morin, Godin, Jean Baptiste Beau* 
vais, antoine Bcauvais, Lonval, Bienvenus fils, P. Demisscaux, Pré- 
vost, fr. corcet, une croix pour marque de Joan laruS, une ditto pour 
marque de pierre Dumont, une Ditto pour marque de Baxilc, une 
ditto i>our Marque de forlin Joseph, une ditto pour marque De Jacques 
devegnais, une ditto pour marque de racine, une ditto pour marque 
de Germain, une ditto pour marque de Gagnf, une ditto pour marque 
de la chapelle, une ditto pour marque d'antoine Renaud, Biaise Baru- 
telle, une croix Pour marque de Paul Rcaunic, une ditto pour marque 
de Jean baptîstc taumur, une ditto Pour marque de charlcs de Lisle Et 
une ditto Pour marque de Joseph Crcly. 

weight and expense since the arrival of the Americans, and that the other 
villages have fell the burden very little or aul at all. We hoj>c ibat you 
will see iit to mali.e them contribute, us wc do, to the muiutenance of the 
troops since they are in tx;tter condition tu do so in proportion to their 
numbers.' We have the honour to be with respect, geatlctnen, 

Your very humble and very obedient servants, 
Kaskïskia, December 8, i7;g. 

Signed on the minutes, Brazeaux, A. Morin, Godin, Jean Baptiste 
Bauvais, Antoine Bauvais, Lonval, Bienvenu, Jr., P. Dcsruisscaux, 
J*revosl, Fr. Corset, a cross for the mark r>f Jean Larue, ditto for the 
mark of Pierre Dumonl, ditto for the mark of Bazile, ditto for the mark 
of Joseph Kortin, ditto for the mark of Jacques Uevigiiais, ditto for 
the mark of Racine, ditto for the mark of Germain, ditto for the mark of 
Gagné, ditto for the mark of La ChaiJclle, ditto for the mark of An- 
toine Keneaux, Blaise Barulel, a cross for the mark of Paul Keaumc, 
ditto for the mark of Jean Baptiste Taumer, ditto for the mark of 
Charlcs Delisle. and ditto for the mark of Joseph Creilley. 

■ TI1Ù hial ^ta akcn end Colonfd John MunirxnRir nu<l« tp^'iatha tu CaliokU. tU. UiA 
CalkcMnu li., j}. 



The Macistjiates to John Montgomerv, December B, 1779. 

[M. C, T. MSS.— Atlotcd Copy.) 

A Jran M* Gomcry Kcuycr Lieutenant Colonel du Regiment des 
Illinois commandant au fort Clark 

La Representation des magistrats du district des KasKasKîas. 

Sur les representation qui nous ont Eté faitte par Le [icuplc de ce 
district des griefs dont nous sommes témoins occulaires nous nous 
Croyons tndisijcnsablcmcrit ol)tigd de Les Soutenir dans leur droit 
Suivant La Loy et declaration de droit de la virginîe. 

Nous vous prions MONSIKUR de vouloir Considérer que depuis 
que les troupes de lestai Sont arrivés en ce pays ec village Seul a foumy 
Leur Subsistance pour laquelle ce quils en on! retiri; na jias proeuré a 
leur donner le moindre Sccour i)oiir IcntrutiVnl de leurs families, ce 
n'est point un Esprit de Jidousîe qui nous coniluît Monsieur, Lorsque 
nous vous parions des autns villages, mais nous ne Croyons pas Juste 
que ce district Siiportc Seul tiiutc Le fardeau puisque nous somme» 
Certaine quits sont tous aussi en Estât que nous à proportion de leurs 

Nous Espérons Monsieur que vous voudnfs entrf!r en Consideration 


To John Montgomery, Esquire, Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment 
of Illinois, Commandant at Fort Clark. 

The remonstrance of the magistrates of the district of Kaskaskia. 

On account of the memorial, madrlousby ihc people of the district, 
of the wrongs, of which we ourselves arc eye-witnesses, we consider 
ourselves indispensably obliged to support ihem in their right according 
to the law and "Declaration of Rights" of Virginia, 

Wc beg you, sir, to rcmcmljcr that, from the lime the (roops of 
the state arrived in this country, this village alone has furnished tbetn 
their subsistance, and that the pay, which they have received for it, has 
in no way given succor fnr the support of their families It is not a 
spirit of jealousy which animates us, sir, when we speak of the other 
villagi's, but we do not ihink it just thsit thisdislrict alone should bear 
alt [he burden, since wc are certain that they arc all in as good a condi- 
tion as we urc in proportion to tbcir numbers. 

We hope, sir, that you will consider the wrongs that the troops are 



des torts que la truu[K! fait k ce village en tuant indifïerament un boeuf 
de CharUe &c a celuy qui nu [xnit sen passer, cummunt ce mtme hab- 
itant pourra-lil faire ses irauvaux et fournir a la tryLi|>c les bois et autres 
Choses necsàsairc nous vwus Croyons lro[i Juste Monsieur pour penser 
que vous ayé donné de pareille ordres ce qui fait que nous vous prions 
doidonnér a ce que La troupe ne Cummittenl docesnavanl pareils 

Vous ne trouvères pas Etrange Monsieur de vous observer que 
quantité de personnes non Sriilemenl Blancs mais encore Esclaves, 
tirent des Rations qui ne leurs Sotil pas diics ce qui absorbe Lhabîtant, 
nous avons toujours pensé que Vos troupe Ëtoîent Sur le même pied 
des troupes réglées, c'est a dire qu'un feu peut Suffire au moins pour 
neuf hommes, mais non pas Comme a présent où deux personnes font 
la dépense en bois de neuf ou dix, tandis que d'habitant se retranche et 
se Gcsnc a n'avoir que deux feux celuy qui en avoît quatre pour pouvoir 
sulBrc au besoin de la troupe. 

Puisque nâtrc devoir Exige que nous VcîUons h Ja Conservation 
publique, et en même (cms à la bonne armonlc qui suit Régner parmi 

doing to this vn'llagc liy killing indisrriniiiiately plow-<jxen etc. belonging 
to individuals who cannot do wilhout ihcm. How will these same citi- 
zens be able to do their work and furnish to the troops wood and other 
things necessary ? Wc consider you too Just, sir, to think that you could 
have given such orders; wherefore we beg you to order the troops not 
to commit such outrages henceforth. 

Vou will not consider it out of îhc way, sir, if we call to your attention 
that a number of people, not only whites but also slaves, are drawing 
rations to which they are not entitled ; a thing which exhausts the settlers. 
We have always thought that your troops were on the same footing as 
the regular troops, that is to say that one fire could suffice for at least 
nine men, but not as at the present time when two persons use as much 
wood as nine or ten, while the inhabitant retrenches and incomodes 
himself by ha^^ng only two fires, when he used \o have four, in order 
that he may supply the wonts of the troop. 

Since our duty requires that we should watch over the public welfare 
and al the same time over the good harmony which must reign amongst 
oil, we ask, sir, that henceforth the troops be given no power to take 

■ 43 


tous Dous Demandons Monsieur que Dorcstiavant La troupe n'aille 
poinl d'autorité prendre Chifs rhabilant ncn que cc puisse Estre sans 
un urUrc de nous Suivant Lartide i ^ de la declaration de droit de las- 
semblée de Virginie Laquelle assemblée nous a autorizé pour maiateair le 
peuple du pays, dans toute leur droits et Libertés, Comme il est dit qu'en 
tout Cas le militaire doit Kstre sous la plus exacte Subordination et Gouv- 
erné du pouvoir CivUle à laquelle declaration, Jusqu'aujourd'dhuy le 
militaire n'a fait aucune attention. 

Nous Espérons Monsieur i^ue vous voudra faire aitention aux 
Justes n.'pre8ciilalLuns que nous avons l'honneur de vous faire Sans que 
nous ayons le desagremeni d'estre obligé de nous poun-oir a Son Ex- 
cellence le Gouverneur et a L'honorable assemblée de Virginie 

Ce Sont Les Sentiments avec Lesquelles nous avons L'honneur 
destre avec ResjK-cl 
Monsieur Vostres humbles el très obéissants serviteurs 

signez DrpLEssY J. LaSoukce 
LaChance Jaxis 
Plus bas Rien. Winston Comm*"* 

fort Clark le 8 x^" 1779 

I Transtatiûn,] 

from the home of the inhabitants any thing whatsoever without an order 
from us, according to Article 13 of the Declaration of Rights of the 
Assembly of Virginia, which Assembly authorized us to maintain the 
rights and Iilx:rty of the people of the country. Therein it is said that 
in all cases the military must be under the most exact subordination lo 
and governed by the civil power, lo which declaration up to the present 
time the military has paid no attention. 

We trust, sir. that you will give careful consideration to the just re- 
monstrances which we have the honor to make to you without it being 
our painful duty to be obliged to appeal to his Excellency the Governor 
and to the Honourable Assembly of Virginia. 

These are the opinions with which we have the honor to be witb 
respect, m. Your humble and very obedient servants, 

(Signed) Dctplasv. J. LASOtnnrx. 

Lachanse Jakis. 
(Lower) Rich. Winston, CommandatiE. 
Fort Dark December 8, 1779. 



GovEUioa JcrrEBsON to [}obx Todo?), Jaouaiy 38, 1780. 
[Dnpcr MSS., 50J5 — Ccpy] 

W»sBciic Jan' 28** 1780 


By Col° Legraâ I have wrictcD to Col*> Qatke fully as to the military 
aSairs in tbe Western department. Amoog «ber tbingi; I have ad- 
\-jged faini to withdraw to tbe Eastern &ide of the Ohio alt tbt* funxs ttOt 
absolutely necessary to sustain the Spirits of tbe Iitbal»iaats of tbe 
Illinois, and loi tbeir real defence. 

This necessity has been inferred by the impossibilily ut our support- 
ing an armed furie where our paper money is not nirmii. Wc have 
no hard money among us, and are not aiUe to establish in Europe funds 
suÛident to doatbe and arm our soldiers. This puis it out of our power 
Lo pay hand money Debts with bills, and renders it necessary to press 
you to purchase nothing bej'ond the Ohio which can be done without, 
or which may be got from the Eastern side where paper money will pay 
for it. 

The establishment of a post at tbe mouth of Ohio which will take 
place this summer will be a convenience to the Trade of the Ulioois 
and near enough to furnish them and Should any tribe of Indians commit 
hostilities against them, Col** Clarke will of course take on him the war, 
and endeavour lo chastise them. We are in hopes you arc endeavouring 
lo introduce our Laws and form of Govcmnieni among the people of 
Illinois as far as their temper & disposition will admit. I am satisfied 
of the diSiculiies attending this and the address necessary. We wish 
fur their own good to give them full participation of the benefits of our 
free and mitd Oovernmenl. It is also essentially necessary that all who 
are parts of y* same body politic should be governed by the same laws: 
and the time to Introduce this ideniity of laws with least inconvenience 
lo ihcmselves, is while they are few. Nothing else can so perfectly 
incoriK)rate tlicm into the general American body. 

I fmd that y* Justices of tbe peace appointed among tbcm expect lo 
be paid, this not being the practice under our laws, there is no pro- 
WsJon for it. Would it not be expedient to restrain these appointments 
to a very small number, and for these (if it be necessary) to require small 
contributions ehhcr from the litigants ur Ihe people at large, as you &nd 
would be most agreeable. In time 1 suppose even this might be discon- 


(inuLtl. The Clerks & Sheriffs perhaps maybe paid as with us, only 
convertingTohaccnfcfsinto ihcîr worth in pcllrj*. as to the rules olde- 
dsioTi & modes o( proceeding Ï suppose ours can be only gradually in- 
Iroduccd.' Il would be well to get their Militia disciplined by calling 
ihcm regularly together arroiding to our usage, however all this can 
only be recommendod to your Discretion. 

Governor Jefferson to George K. Clark, January 29, 1780 
[Draper MSS., 39JS-17, copy in haticiwnting of Mann Butter.] 

Whs.burg Jan 39''' 1780 


VouT letters o£ October 36''' & 38^^ and Novr 6*** came safely to 
hand, and lastly thai of August 34*'^, I am glad the proposition of estab- 
lishing a post at, or near the mouth of ohJo' is likely to answer as well 
in practice as to us who judge on theory only, it seemed likely to do. 
I have therefore written to Mess'^ Walker and Smith, as you will see 
by the Enclosed coppy of my letter to them, to lake observations of the 
Latitudes thereabouts, that we may proceed on the surest grounds, you 
will pleas to furnish Assistants guards and all necessaries. I expect 
the description of the cliffs &c. will be so minute, as that when you sec 
them, you will know them in the Plat, and of course know their Latitude. 
The choice of your ground for your fort, must be left to your-sclf. It 
should be as near the mouth of Ohio as can be found fit for Fortification 
and within our own lines, some attention will be Proper also to the 
circumjacent grounds at [as?] it will Probably become a Town of im- 
portance. The nature of the defensive works and their extent, you will 
accommodate to your force. I would recommend great attention to 
the wood of your stockades, that it be of the most lasting kind. From 
the best information I have had, I take fur granted that our line will 
pass below the Mouth of Ohio, Our purchases of the Cherokecs 
hitherto have not extended southward or westward «f the Tennessee; 
of course the little tract of country between the Mississippi, Ohio, Ten- 
nessee & the Carolina line (in which your fori will be) is still to be pur- 
chased from them before you can begin your work ; to effect this, I hav« 
written to Major Martin, our Cherokee agent, of which letter I enclose 

>At tint ihira wnu to haw b«tn Mme attempt ic introduc» En^isJ) modci of pnxrdiiTv. 
but gndttatl/ th* Pirncti mudn ptcvillfd- 
"Fort Jeflmoo. 



you a copy. If tbe oew fort should fall within this territory, and it cati 
be purchased, wc may grant lands to settlers who will fix round about 
the fort, Provided (he .assembly should approve of it, as from ils rt'asim- 
ableness I think they will. The manner in which the lota of land are 
laid off about the French villages, I have thought very wise and worthy 
(if imitation. Perhaps besides guarding your promises of lands tu 
settlers with the condition above mentioned, It would be well to add 
also, the mode of laying ihem off. 

I send you recruiting insiructiona for having your Battalion filled 
up with men to be enlisted for the war, as Ï wish to a\*oid any on any 
other terms. Your instructions for recruiting which was communicated 
to us by some of your Officers in ihc fall, wc took in, and gave them such 
as are now sent you, Instead of bounty money I send you three hundred 
Land warrants for five hundred and sixty acres of land each, which at 
forty pounds Ihc hundred, Iwing the Treasury price amounts to the 
bounty allowed by law : — these we think mere likely to induce men 
to inlist than the money itself. I also send you twenty four Blank 
Commissions which will be necessary to othcer eight companies, Ihc 
present plan of the Continental Army having that number in a Baltal- 
lion, and a Captain Lieutenant and £uâign only to each company. The 
officers of your ËuUaUion when Commissioned will stand on a footing 
with the oiHcers of the other state-Bat talUous. The stale of the Public 
finariL-cs uhtiged the !ale Assembly 10 reduce very much their military es- 
tablishment from what they had proposed at their session in May^lhcy 
discontinued raising both the La.stcrn tiatiallioii*^ and one of the Wes- 
tern, so thill there will be one Ballallion only to send to you, to which is 
to be annexed Major Slaughters hundred men, who have already marched 
as I Expect fur the falls of Ohio. I wish that one BatiaJlion may be 
raised in time m join you in the spring. Very few returns having bteii 
made to mc, I ran not say what number is raised, probably not more 
than half. However, whatsoever numlier may be raised by that time 
shall march as soon as ihe season will admit. By them we will send 
such stores as to us occur to be netsssary, such as powder, Lead, âînls, 
hoes, axes, saws, f^ml^l^ts, nails, hammers, augers, drawing knives, 
Trows and cam|) kuitlcs. If llu're be any other ariiclcs tjccessary I 
must get you lo write to me on the subject, also 10 settle the Ih-sI route 
of sending those articles hereafter. There being no guards to be had, 
but militia for conveying them from the frontiers, and no dépendance 



on tx^ccttng miliiia, can not you point out to us some place on the fron- 
tiers, whrre they may safely tie lodged from lime to lime, and from 
wlicrc you can send for them with a jtropcr escort ? I would wish you 
also to inform mc to what [x>st I shall order the Battallion which U lo 
join you. Wc received letters from M"" Pollock, in the fall informing o! 
our debts at New Orleans, and his distresses. Wc had juat taken 
measures by shipping Tobacco to France to procure necessaries for 
our Army.— having nn other means of rcleaving M"" Pollock, wc were 
obliged to give him drafts on Franrc, which look the whole of thai fund, 
and has distressed us exceedingly. The demands of Cot" Legras, and 
Capl" Lintot ' coming on us now, and it being impossible to rais hard 
money to discharge them, wc arc utterly at a loss what to do with ihem, 
indeed we shall not be able lo determin them absolutely as to the sum 
wc shall pay Ihcm, till we know from you what proportion of the Dollars 
for which they ha»c drafts were expended at the dcpricatcd prices, or in 
other words till wc know from you what sum in bard money would 
reimburse their advances for which your drafts on us were made which 
we should be glad j'ou would inform us of by the &rst opportunity, and 
send a duplicate by some second conveyance. The difficulty ol answer- 
ing demunds of hard money renders it necessary for us to Contract no 
debt», where our paper is not current. It throws upon us the tedious 
and perplexing operation of in\'csting i>apcr money in Tobaco; finding 
transportation for the Tobaco to France; repeating this as often as the 
ilangers uf captures render necessary to ensure the safe arrival of some 
part, and negotiating Bills, besides the expensive train of Agents to do 
all this, and the delay il occasions to the orditer. wc must therefore 
recommend to you to purchase nothing beyond the Ohio, which you can 
do without, or which may be obtain»! from the East side, where our 
paper is current. 1 am exccetlingly glad you arc making such timely 
prnvlsiuns for your nejit years subsistence. A commissary for the 
western Department was appointed in the fall with orders to purchase 
prmnsions on the frontiers for one Battallion, his instructions shall be 
enlarged, and a notification sent him lo comply wilb requisitions, besides 
this, wc leave to your self to Commission M' Shannon to act as com- 
misary of Purchases Issues, Stores, Quarter Master, or whal ever else 
you may find him useful in. I suppose you will employ him principally 
about the posts while the one acting on the frontiers will be providing 

t EvbJcnlly Mtil la VIrfinU ■■ tf»lÈ ol die tlllnoi* atikan. 





thereabouts. We shall use all our endeavinirs to Tumish your men with 
necessary Cluttiiiig but long experience renders it proixrr tn warn you 
thai ibe supplys will [bcj precarious, yuu cannot therefore Ik too atten- 
tive to the Providing them in your own quarter as far as Skins will 
enable you Lu do it — in short, I must onifidc in you to take such care 
uf the men under you as an Kconoinical house holder would of his ovm 
family, — doing K\-cry thing within hiraseU as far xs he can, and calling 
for as few supplies as |H>asible. The Less you dc|jend fnr supplies from 
this quarter the less will you [be| dLsap|>oinled by ihasc impediments 
which distances and a precarious foreign commerce throws m the way, 
fur these reasons it will be eligible lo withdraw as many of your men as 
you ran from the west side of the Ohio, leaving only as many men as will 
be necessary for keeping the fllinois sfrltlements in spirits, but we musl 
accomodate oyr measures f<»r doing this, to our means. Perhaps this 
Idea may render doubtful the expediency of employing your men in 
building a fort at Kaskaskia — such fort might perhaps be necessary 
fur the settlers to wnthdraw into in lime of danger but might it not aliwi 
render a surprise the more dangerous by giving the enemy a means of 
holding a settlement which ilherwise they could only distress by a sudden 
viat and be obliged to abandon. ^ Of this you must be ultimately the 
judge. We appro%-e vcrj- much of a mtld conduct towards the inhabi- 
tants of the French Villages. It would be well to be introducing our 
l^v/i lo their knowiedgt-- and to impress them strongly with the advan- 
tages of a free government — the training of their militia, and getting 
into subordination the proper officer» should be particularly attended 
to. We wish them to consider us as brothers, and to participate with 
us the Ixmcfits of our rights and laws. We would have you cidtïvatc 
Peace and conlial friendship with the several Tribes of Indians, (the 
Sbawanoes Excepted) Endeavour that those who are in friendship with 
us live in peace also with one another, against those whom arc our 
Enemies let loose the friendly Tribes. The Kickapoos should be en- 
couraged against the hostile Tribes of Chickasawg and Choctaw», and 
the others against the Shawanocs. With the latter be cautious of the 
tcanns of Peace you admit, an c\'acuation of their Country, and 
removal utterly out of interference with us would be the most satisfac- 
tor)'. Ammunition should be furnished gratis to those Wiirriors who 
go actually on expeditions u^ainsl the hostile Tribes, as lo the English 
not withstanding their base Example, we wish not lo Expose them to 



Ihc inhumaniticrs oî ii savage enemy. Let this reproach remain un tbcm ; 
hut for our schfs wc would not liavc out iiatiunul character tanii&bed 
wilh such a Practice — If indeed they slrikc the Indians, these will 
have a natural right lu (luniiJi the aggrcssiuns and we, none to hinder 
them. It will then lie no act of ours — but to invite them to a Parti- 
d[)ation of the War, is what we would avoid by all jxisslble Means. If 
the i>iglish would admit them to trade, and by thai means gri those 
wants supplied which wc cannot supply, I should think it right Pnividcd 
they require from them no tearms of departing from ihcir neuturalily. if 
lhcy[d<)] not ])ennil this, I think the Indians might be urged lo hnak ofT 
all rnresiMindenre with them to forbid their Kmissarics from romcîng 
among them and lo send ihrm Id you if lliey disregarded I he prohibition : 
It would lie well to communicate honestly to them our present want nf 
those articles nwr^sjiry for ihcm and our inability lo ^e]t them, to 
cnrmirage Ihcm lo struggle with the difficulties, as wc do lill Peace, 
when ihey may be confidently assured we will spare nothing lo put our 
Trade on a comfortable and just footing, in the mean time wc must 
endeavor to furnish Ihem with ammunitinn lo provide slcins, to cloth 
themscUx^s. With a disposition to do them every fricndty office, and lo 
gain Ihcir Love, we would yet wish to avoid their visits; Kxrcpt ihosr 
who come with Cap Lintot Wc have found them very hard to pleas, 
crpensivc and troublesome, and they arc. more over exposed lo danger 
in passing western counties. It will be well therefore (Especially during 
the War) lo waive their vi&its in as inoffensive a way as possible. 

In a letter lo you of the i""- instant I supposed you would cither the 
ensuing guiumer engage cither in the shawanoes war, or against Deiroit, 
leaving the choice of these, and all other objects lo your self. I must 
also refer to you whether it will be best lo build the Fort at the mouth 
of Ohio before you begin your campaign or after you shall [have] ended 
it. jjerhaps indeed the delays of obtaining leave from the Cherokces 
or of making a purchase from them may oblige you lo postpone it tUI 
ihe fall. 

I have received I-cttcrs from Captains Shelby and Worthington, the 
former acquainting me he had received your instructions to rais a troop 
of horse: — the latter, that he had raised one. from the dale of your 
letter to Shelby, I knew you could not have \hxr appriztxl that the 
Assembly hatl authorised us to rais a Troop for you, and that we had 
fpven a commission to Rogers by whom you sent us informatinn of the 


Caplurc of St Vinccnes. Rogers accordingly raised his men, got all 
accoutrfmcnls, and marched Co join you in the fall. As lo Capt. Wor- 
thington who says he has raised his mtn you must slate to m the neces- 
sity for your hanng two troops, so wc may lay it Ijcfore the Assembly, 
who alone have power of giving sanction to ihc measure. The distress 
of the public Treasury will be a great obstacle, so that it will be well for 
yoii to take measures for rcscar\-ing to your self the benefit of Capt. 
Worthington's men in some other capacity, if they should be disap- 
proved of as horsemen. I am Sir, 

Vour very humble servi., 

(Signed) Thomas Jeffebson. 
His Excellency 

Brig. Gen' George Rogers Clark, Commanding wester» wing \J. S. 

Jons MoNTCOMERV to GEORr.R R. ClJiHR, Fcbrtiary i, 7780. 
[Draper MSS., sojg.— A. L. S.| 

FoHT Clakk, Fcbniajy i»"*, 1780. 

Dfj^R Colo, 

Sir I Would be Glad to inform you of ■wim peniClucrs Which I left 
om in the other letter in Regard of the peltrcy Fund ' \Miich Colo Todd 
left in the Hands of Capt Winstone and My Self Which he Had lent lo 
Som traiding Jentlemen all F.xcept Whul he had propagated to his own 
Use and Som trifles for the Irtipcs and Fortey fore packs Which it is out 
of My power lo Git out of their hand.-ï as the Say the Have accounts 
aganst the States ncarley Sufficanl to Ballance their acounts Si Before 
ihcdepertureof Colo Todd Capt Winstone went uptopancorctoRcccvc 
the Ballante of the pcllrey Whch he Receved the above fortey fore 
packs Som time after I Maid a contract for prcvition lo the amount of 
fortey packs ho I Gcvc an order to Recc*-c from M' [>creK: * he winston 
left it with But upon .seing the order he Wrote Me Back a letter that he 
never Rccc%-ed But twcntcy odd packs I then Found that Capt Winstone 
Must have put the Ballance lo his own use I then Gevc the Inhabcnts 
orders on Capt winston Which he Receved and Excepted to the am 
Amount of the parts he had put to his own use Which he is abliged to 
pay which Gcvc Me Som Satisfaction for the Rogery desined 10 the 

■ Uldid PRnuli. 


States T then Called him To an arounl fnr his proswlings his Excuse Was 
Colo Tnd<l owed him So Much and Was Much disturbttl at his disa- 
pftintmcnl in his intended njiv-crcy Colo Todd ihoi proper to Mal(C him 
Commandant of The [US. UiegiNe] dcpcrlmcn to the Create aslonish* 
ment of the hole inhabclanls By which Means from Whence alone no 
honest hope Could arise he is Cargod hy Scribcling Sicophant with 
plunging a nation into dtsparc While he pointed out the abuses of Free- 
dom and their faital Effects he would he Blackned hy Every Honest 
Whisperer as the F.nemy of Freedom its Self pray Sir Carrey on Som 
Expodition if possible llul I May have the Honour to Be Called away 
By you from amunks as people bo have So poorc faith in the Credit oE 
the Slate Which Reson Makes Me onhapy Biding left wilhoul a fund 
SufGcant to Satisfy their Craving and Mi&lrustful Desires Bui Sir asunt 
your Self the honor Due to the Core Shall be Strickley adherd To & I 
will wait vritU Conlcnled as My Station will admit milill 1 have the 
Honnour of Reccving your answer Which I hope will be Shorlley old 
M"" Charlo V'eeic' has lost a negro which he Expects is Vn»n ici the 
falls jt if he is he Begs you May lake him and Sell him to the Best 
advanlag for him I am Sir your Humble San-ant 

Jn* Montc^meey. 
To Colo Clark. 

[Addressed:] Colo Genrgi! Rogers Clark, Commander in Cheaf of the 
Westron department. 

JuHN Mont(;omkry Co Ricuahu Winston, March 5, i7Sa 
[M. C, T. P.— Aitesittl copy.] 


I am under the disagreeable Necesity to inform you of the Dis- 
trescierl Silitnlîon our Tnxips is tn, and Kc<]ucsl of you (as Commandant 
of the Civil dcpanment) Ui C!all your Millitia OfTicers logcihrr and 
Majcstrats Requesting of them to fumigh a Quantity of Prorisions 
Sufficient to Scr\*c untill 1 have my meat Brought in, as ihcy well Know 
that it has been out of my Power as yet. But the men is now Started 
for il. Allso Remind them, of the Bad Consequence of Selling their 
provisions Elsewhere, as it may be a means of Their family's Suffering 
— as the Troops ihcy shall furnish — and before that I Suffer ss much 
more; I beg you would inform them to put their Guns in good order, 




as I don't want to take them at any disadvantage — as if they do'nt 
furnish, I Shall lixjk on Ihcm as Traitor» to the Cause of america, aod 
Treat them Acomlin^y. 

March 5lh 1780 

(Signed) Jn" Montgomery ' 

To Cop* Rich*" Winston Command*' a true Coppy 

John Dodcr to Georce R. Ciaick. March 10, 1780.* 

[Draper MSS^ S0J17.— A. L. S.] 

St Vincest March lo»*" 1780 
Dear Col". 

Vuurs I Received by Capt. BaJry as also By M' Linsy who Mi»- 
fortunatcly Lost his Cannaugh Si. all his Bagage Likewise my Brother 
& were oM^ed to take the wttals. I return you my Sincear thanks 
for approving of my Sencurring the Conduct of the Commander of thii 
Post & am am [ait] Very baf^nr that you have thought Proper to have 
him relieved as I knew the Bad Ccosequcnces that would have attended. 
Maj' BoseroDs Comp"" fi: returns you Sincear thanks for your Con- 
sidering him when be was in Grrale Constomalion what to do for a 
Small Supply at Present he hl^ewiw aasures you that he will Do Every- 
thing in his Power for the PuUick Good. But as I Informed you 
Before By the other Express M'' Cardin's that Colo montgomery had 
dùqxMed of an the Peltry — But as I am Hon^ with the authority of 
transacting the agents Dep' I Shall do Everythiog in my Power with 
Justice & Hon' for the Pubiick Good. I Sent your Seal by Jonathan 
Conger. M' Rulanci is abougbt your work. M' Winston writes me 
that Everything is in grate Coofuwin at Ulenois I am Determined to 
leave this to ntorow for thai Post and then I Shall Be abk to gi\-e you 
A Protickekr acooool td tbe Transactions there 

Maj' BosroD Be|^ your Excuse fur not wrighting to yoa himself 
Ibis Packet came lo hand Broke in tbe Same manner you receive U. 
I have the Hon' to Be your Very Humb. Servant John Dodge 

\Aééftised:\ Geof. Hojp CUrk Estf Col" Coounand W. Dept. P» 
Exprew Falls Obin 

U iWÊtm j JfTi Mn m mm *n whw wtk mm K«rl» dii3«S Mmvi Mifc ef *< 
I» a at* c»fcrtfa-.. a .Tr^ iTMnSif *» u^ t«m- MMSi^i^S *■■■ b^ ii ^ 



Jean Gibaiii.t to the Court, Mardi it, 1780. 

LK. MSS.— A. L. S.] 
A Messieurs les membres Ires Respectables de la Cour des Kaskaskia, 

C'est avec peine que J'ay \ti le peu de Respect avec le quel plusieurs 
personnes se sont Comptirti^s en Cour, et qu'en bien des Occasion L'on 
a mis son autorité en deficnce. 

Ayant Conadertf combien il est nécessaire pour le bien Public que 
L'autorité de la Cour Soit Maintenue. 

Jcn ay représenté L'urgente necessit»? a Monsieur Le Colonel Mont- 
gomery luy faisante voir La grande Nécessité de son Aide pour bien 
Administrer la Justice au Sujets de L'Etat, Il luy plu acxorder a Mc*- 
ùeurs Les Officiers Civil, L'usage de sa Prison & mainforte en cas de 

Voua scrca donc Messieurs en ctal de vous faire Respecter ici que 
vfis Charges L'exigent, puisqu'il est vray que tous bons sujets doivent 
respecter L'Etat sous I-e quel Us vivent. Ils doivent aussy respecter 
Ceux qui le Représente — et tous Ceux qui vous menquent de respect 
pèchent contre L'Etat et doivent être Punis tel que le Cas L'Exige. 


To the Members of the Court at Kaskaskia. 
Gestlemfn : 

It is with grief thai 1 have seen the little respect with which several 
person.-* have acted in court, and that on several occasions the authority 
of the Court has been defied. 

Having considered how necrssary it ts for (he public good that the 
authority nf the Court be m;iinlainetl, I have presented this urgent 
nctx'ssily to Colonel Montgomery, showing him the greut need of his 
assistance in order to administer justice worthily to the subjects of the 
state. He has seen fit to grant to the civil authorities the use of his 
prison and assistance in case of necessity. 

You will thcrt^Fore be, gentlemen, in a position to make yourselves 
respected in the manner that your position demands, since it is true 
that all good subjects siiould rcsfx^cl the slate in which they live. They 
must also respect those persons who represent the stale — and all those 
who are disrespectful to you sin .igainst the state and should be punished 



J'ay T.'honneiir d'Etre avec tous les Respect Possible ^fcssKu^s 
votre Trcs Huni'*'''& dévoué Serviteur 

GiRAULT P' potm L'Etat 
II"*" Mars 1780. 

as the case may require. I have the honour to be witb all the respect 
possible, gentlemen, 

Your very humble and devoted servant, 
CiRAULT, State's Attorney 
March 11, 178a 

Jean Girault to the Coi;kt, no dale. 
(K. MSS.— A. L. S-l 


H est venu à ma Connoissance qu'il y à plusieurs personnes ÎCf 
qui sont venu de Virginie et de plusieurs Autres parts de L'amerique, 
qui nont point prêté de Serment de fidellïlé a L'Etat, et dont vous avés 
permis de S'Etablir sans même Scavoîr qui ils Sont, vous devés Cepen- 
dant ScavoEr que Personne ne doit arriver îcy sans rendre Compte de 
qui ils sont, en Consequence Messieurs Je vous enjoint au nom de 
L'Etat d'Examiner tous les Etrangers de que] nation ils puissent être 
qui sont Icy et de faire prêter le Serment Prescrit par les Loix a Ceux 
qui ne \-ous produerons pas un Certificat. 

en ne le faisant pas vous vous Ommetés votre devoir et vous man- 

[ TranslatùmJ\ 
Gentlemen : 

It has come to my knowledge that there are here several persons 
who have come from Virginia and many other parts of America, who 
have not talien an oalh of allegiance to the state, and whom you have 
allovred to settle without even knowing who they were. You must, 
nevertheless, know that no one is to come here without giving an account 
as to who he is- Therefore, gentlemen, I charge you in the name of 
the state to examine all these strangers, at present here, of whatever 
naiion thpy may be, and to see that the oath is taken, as prestTÎbed by 
law, by all those who shall not produce a certfScate. 

In not doing so you arc neglecting your duty and you fail in the 



qui5s aux engagements de votre Serment, et vous estes Responsable a 
L'Etat de Conduite de toutes Personne que vous perraellc5 de S'Etablir 
îcy sans les sureties que la loix Exige d'Eux. Le Scnncnl que J'ay 
]>rrté en Tvccvant ma Charge m'oblige a en faire mon Ra[>ort a mes 
Supérieurs. Je vous prie de L'Eviter ear vous scavds que voire situa- 
tion est bien Critique et que vous Avés bien des Ennemis, dans 
plusieurs Octalion vous rendes des arrets Sans OUÏr les Parties qui est 
Expressément défendu par les Loix. J*ay L'honneur detre avec 
Respect Mess' Votre Tres Hble Ser' 

J GntAULT Ptoc de L'état. 
[Addressed:] A Messieurs Le [xtc] Magistrats des Kaskaskias. 


engagements oF your oath ; and ynii arc re^mnsible for the conduct of 
all persons whom you allow in settle here without the guaranty which 
the law requires of them. The oath I took upon entering into my 
duties obliges me to make a report of this neglect to my sui>eriors. I 
beg you to avoid this, tor you know that your situation is very critical 
and that you have many enemies. In many cases you pronounce 
jud)îment without having heard the parties, an act which is strictly 
Turbiddcn by law. I have the honour to be, gentlemen, with rfs|jcct, 

Your very humble servant, 

J. GiRAL-LT, Stale's Attorney. 
[Addrased:] To the Ma|}is(rates of Kaskaâkia. 

^LMlIK nF, RorirRBLAVK to [Governor HAi-nruANn?] 
March a;"* 17S0. 
[B. M.. Jt757.f.ji4.— .\. L. S.) 

Comme Je crois que vous n'avez pas oublîifs que mon EfHiux a Eté 
prie prisonnier par les rebelles Et ameniî à Williamsbourg, Etant au 
service de sa majesté britanique, Je me Recommande à vous pour 



As I believe that you have nul forgotten that my husband, while 
in the service of the state, was taken prisoner by the retiets ami carried to 
Williamsburg, I pray for his exchange which I hope wilt take ptace 


"snnt Echange f]uc j'tsficrc que se sera le plutôt que vous pourrez j'ais 
appris que M' hcnry hamilton Etoil bien mal au cachaux, El à la chaîne, 
on me me {sU] 0ate que M' Rocheblavc à la ville pour Prison, Je 
ne sçait si Je doit Ix croire Jalan aussi de votre humanité que vous ne 
me ferez procurer du DAlommagtfmmant qui puisse me mettre & même 
de faire subsister ma famille, El celle de M^ lord que j'ai avec nuM*, 
il sans fiiut infinnimcnt que je nayc mes commoditt-s je nais pas mCne 
le nécessaire tout mon bien a été pyèr on ma laisser que Its dêtes. J'ai 
i'honcur dilrc avec consideration 


Votre très humbles 9Cr\'antc 

Marie Micqel de RocnKBLAVE. 

aux Kaslcasikîas le 27 mars tySo 

Je vous cnvoj-e une lettre que mon Epoux vou3 Ecrit je n'ai pas pu 
trouver doccaâion pour vous la faire parvenir. 

as soon as possible. I have been informed that Mr. Henry Hamilton 
was viTy sick in prison and in chains. They tell me that M. Rochc- 
blave has the town for a prison. I do not knuw whether I ought to 
believe it. I hope also that through your kindness you will see that I 
obtain indemnification which will put mu in a position to procure a 
liring for my family and thai of M. Lord, whom I have with me.' It 
is nobody's fault thai I do not have the conveniences of life, but I do 
not get even necessities. All my possessions were plundered ; they 
left me only debts.' I have the honour to be with consideration. 
Gentlemen, Your very humble servant, 

Makië Michel db Rocueblave. 

Kaskaskia, March 27, 1780. 

I am sending you a letter which my hushami writes m you. I did 
not have the opportunity to have it sent lo you Ijcfore. 

> When CaptslB Lwil irithdrew Iron lUinob. fat Mx his lamllT in Ui* car* ol RocliabkVF 
* Sec titt<, p. bi, fur ocdcn by the lovrraiK o\ VutiaU tbal [«ovakxi >houl<l t>« coadc Inr Mudunc 



Edward Murray to 

-.April 19, 1780 

[Uruper MSS., 46Jsi.— A. L. S J 

"Ù' Snt, 

I lake the Liberty of acquaint* j"ou that I Arriv*' here in safety 
but very ill treated by Cap^. Dodge who upon my arrival here Refused 
to pay m<^ a single Dollar and upon my prosecut* him More Ihc Civil 
Court he Screen'' himself upon his being an ollirer and having nolhing 
but hisD — d Carcass and that Ihey could not Scire. I therefore beg you 
will Remit me ihe Amount of your Draught (but not ihrough the hands 
of the famous Dodge) for I have been forced to borrow Money (mm a 
Friend here to Supply my Wants which make mc more uneasy for him 
than for my own (li«iiK>intment, therefore I Ixrg you will lose no tinw 
as also to thank the Inimitable Dodge for the honour he has done to 
your draught, your Draught I will leave in the hands of M' Murray i£ 
I should leave this place and to him youi please Remit the \ïoncy 
whether I am here or not. Please Remember my most Respectful! 
Comp^** to Col° Clack and all Enquiring Friends 

I have the honour to be with Respect D' Sir your most obd* Hble 
Serv' Ebw' Murray 

Kaskaskias 19*^^ April 17S0 

Proclamation by MoNTooireuv, Winston, and St. Gcruaik, 

May 6'*' 1780. 

[B. M., 1178», f. 33J. — Copy.J 

A tous ceux qui ces présentes lettres Verront Salut Scavoir que Jean 
de S* Jermain gentilhomme de la ville de Paris pnfscnleraeni Com- 
milionné pour interpréter les nations Chaquilas Chîcachas & de la 
partie du Ouest. Le quel pour abroger la route et pour tranquiliscr 
l'esprit remnant des Sauvages qui sans cesse sont tonnentés par les 

To alt those to whom these prcâcnts shall come, greeting: Be it 
known that Jean de Si. Germain/ gentleman of the city of Paris, at 
present commissioned as interpreter In the nations Choctaw, Chickasaw 
and Ihe western territory, in onk-r l« make the way short and lo quiet 
the turbulent spirit of the savages, who are conslanlly tormented by 

1 For wlul b kamn nf the mMkn of St. Ikmiain, m f«it, p. 1 19, uid lU. Hut. C^ktlitHa, 
il., lusts.. D. J. 



sujets du Roi d'angleterre pour leur faire prendre Ic3 armes. Lequel 
dit J. de S' Jermain a>'ant passé par celte viUe des Cascachias dans 
laquelle par azard il se seroit trouvé quelque considérés de la nation 
poux Kt saulteusc aux quels il auroil parlé dit publiquement Et par 
devant nous soussignée ce qui suit ]M)ur être rapporté a leur Nation et 
leur Voisins. .Sa\*oir. 

Que le Roi de France lait a sçavoir a tous les hommes rouges que le 
Francois L*espQgnol et L'amcnquain a prissent ne font qu'un, qu'il les 
invite tous a rester tranquîis a faine vivre leur femme et leurs enfants, 
F.t ne se point mêler dans une gudre qui [murroit leur être funeste par 
la. suite; de supporter leur misère a'VTc patience comme nous faisons 
nousmêmes, mais qu'ils me sont pas éloignés de leur Bonheur, 
qu'il n'y avoît que six mois qu'il était parti d'curopc ou il a eu 
l'honneur de voir le Roi, qu'ils peuvent dire avec assurance a leur 
frères et leur voisins que six mois ne seront point écoulés sans qu'ils 
aycnt tous les secours qui leur seront nécessaires tant de la part des 
francois, espagnol, que de cette des amériquains, qu'ils peuvent ajouter 

the subjects of the king of England to make them take up their arms: 
Be it known that the said Jean de St. Germain, having passed through 
this village of Kaskaskia, in which by chance there were a considerable 
number of the nation Potawalomi and Sauteurs, lo whom he has spoken 
publicly and before us, the undersigned, that which follows, in order 
Chat it may be taken to Iheir nation and lo their neighbors. Be it 
known : 

That the king of France declares to all the redraea that the Frencb- 
men, the Spiinianis, and the .\inerii.-ans at present are only one; that 
be invites all of tliem lo remain at peace and support their wives and 
their cbifdren and not to mix in a war which may be baneful to them 
hereafter; to endure their poverty wilh patience as we endure it uur- 
selvx-s; but he says that they are not far from their good fortune; that 
only six months before, he bad left Europe, where he has had the bouur 
Eg sec the King; and that they (the Indians) can say with assurance 
to their brothers and to their neighbors tbat six mouths shall not pass 
before they shall have all the succor which they need, not only from the 
French, butalsofromtheSpanish and (he Americans; that they can trust 
these words as welt as their brothers, the French and the Americans, tbc 



foi a CCS paroles comme leur frerea les trancoJs et om^riquaios dont les 
priodpaux otit siguc le présent pour servir partout ou besoin sera. 

Sigllé. J" MOSTCOMKRI L' Colo 

Rich"! Winston, Commd* Civile 
Jean (le S^ Jermain 
Donné au Cascachias, Le 6^ May, 1780. 
Copie conforme a L'original, L. Diuvallier 

N<* 3. a french Proclamation at the Caskachias, the 6"' May 1780. 


chief of whom have signed the present in order ihal it may serve wherever 
it may be needed. 

Signed: John Montgomery, Lieut. -Colonel. 
Rich. Winston, Civil Commandant. 
Jean de St. Germain. 
Gircn at KasWaskia, May 6, 1 780 
Copy conforms to the original. L. Chevalier. 

John Todd to George R. Ciark, June 4. 1780. 

prajjerMSS.. S0J41.— .\. L. S.) 

Ricau<^ 4th June 1780 
D' CoL. 

1 have much small neves i(x> much for a letter but shall not 
therefore give you none. The Enemy have closely invested Charles 
Town & reports generally disbelieved sny they arc in possession. 
4cx» Men are raised in N. Carolina & 2000 are nearly ready from this 
State lo march to South Carolina under Comra'' of B Gen' Edw^ 
Stephens. .\ Camp of 5,000 is to be formed upon the Southern Bor- 
ders of our State owr S: alwve. The Northern Stales have fairly 
wrought out their Indepcndanc and are out of Danger. The Heavy 
Business now lies upon the Souihcm. You will have no aids from this 
Quarter except Col. Crorkctts Reg'' this year. Preparations are 
already commenced for a grand Indian F.xpedt" next jxar — I expect 
under your command. M' Henry. M"" R. H. Lee, Mason & many our 

DODOt TO TOOD, JUNE 8, 1780 


fraatast men are now in the House. This is an Opp' rather doubtful 
«hen a belier uQurs you'U hear mure frum 

yuur Mo. ob* Ser* 
Jn* Todd jr. 

CoL Geo. R. Clark, Kentucky. 
To the Care of M' Evan. Baker 

JoRS DooGB to John Todd, June 8, 17^0 
[Diaper MSS., 39J56. — Copy in an uoluiown hand.} 

Camp Jefpersox, Mouth Ohio, June 8*^ 1780 
Dear Col" 

Thi3 is [he forth which I hai-e wrote you & I have not Had the 
Hon'* of receiving an answer fn>m either uf them tlierefore I expect 
you have nut reixived lliem. I rcceiW une by Mr. Clark Likewise the 
goods ill his care Bui four Pieces of the Blew Cloath much damaged 
By what 1 can larn, it got wet coming over the falls which was not known 
until it arrived here. 1 ha\x received the goods from M' Lin%y and 
bear enclose you a coppy of the original Invoice Likewise a Cu[ij)y ul 
what I have received for you to Peruse at your Leisure. After ] 
arrived at Ka-skaskia I went to M' (îraiioie & he (old me that he could 
not nor would not furnish anything on the Credit of the Siatc for his 
BL'Jng Disapiioirited not receiving the Contents of those Bills, on Or> 
luans had Put him un<!cr the necessity of Borrowing fumis to Pay his 
Dtltts. But If I «oukl engage to Pay in Sep'"' he would supply mc 
with anything that he hail. Knowing the amediatc necessity for I..cad, 
Powder, Horses & other articles & Receiving; in my inatninîons from 
you that those artick's would be. Ix'tti-r in return ftir the gmvl alotted 
in the Indian Dcp' I made a contract with him & others 10 the amount 
of Seventy Packs Biil was oliHgc<l t« pjiy very extrai^agant Prices — 
20 Livers in Peltry fnr Powder rs for Lead which articles could not 
be wa(ori£tmi/ MS, tttrn] Col" Clark onlcnsl Major Kozroe' to draw 
on mc fur jiayment fnr supplies for the Troops at S* Vincent when 
Suflcring lor Prcrvisions — Liknvise a horse fumishcti Mr Lindsay 
350 Livres in Peltry — you arc a Judge whether I had a Right to enter 
into Such Engagements or not. ihcrcfon' I hojic th;it yon will take some 

■ UBjorBoMcroBr 


Method to have Ihcm Paid as my Hon'' & Crcdil is at stake, it was 
Col" Clarks orders to mc 1o repair to this Past with all my Stores Before 
be knew that I bad received tbcm & keep Ihem for the use of the 
Troops & as you are absent I am obliged to Obey his orders, & hear 
1 am obliged to stay until further orders, he has appointed Cap* 
George to Issue orders to me to Issue the Goods — Some gets their full 
Colo Si some wont have any — I Cannot refuse his orders — he is Com- 
edant at this Post. Col" Clark is gone on an Expedition to the Indian 
Towns. I should write you more perttckelers only I know you cant 
help of them from Mr. Linsey. Pray excuse me for not sending those 
articles you ordered me as it was not in my Power to procure Ihem. 
ia my opinion M'' Winston is a dam^ Rascal & no friend to the coun- 
try he would not supply me with anything without four times the Price 
that another ask^ if I was to write you all the Protickelers of his & 
others transactions it would lake a quire of Paper. Mr Linsey loock 
out what articles he Fleas'' or thought Proper for you Before he gave 
me the goods, and as he thought there was not a full Proportion for 
e\'cry gentleman who had a right to draw Clothing — in order to set 
an example to others he Did not take Col" Clark or your full Cota. 
But the Example wan not followed, it would give me Infinite Sattis- 
faction to hear from you. if it should happen that any person went 
to Orleans to Purchase goods for the use of the State, I .should be glad 
to go as I shall not have much to Do hear this fall. But I shant En.si5l 
without you think Proper. 

f am Sir you most obedient & very H' S^ 

k M 



AXi) American OrncERS — Rocucblave to Haldimand — De la 
Balue Addresses Tin: Illinois French — Memorial op Griev- 
ances — Winston Wrjtes op Wrovgs — DaPAsrusE or Mokt- 
GOUERÏ — Petition to the Krench Minister. 

Capt. a. Fowler to Nicholas Janis 

[M. C, T. MSS. — AtleMnl Copy.] 

Fort duquesne le 25. Juin 1780 
Cher Mons'', 

Une Lettre de raoî vous surprendra pcut-Eire mais Je ne suis plus 
officier Britanique Je préfère mes privileges et <~eux de mes confrcr*^ 
que de Ser%'ir un prince aveugle et obstiné, qui faiblement cl de Ouajtcc 
de Coeur fait une Guerre & Ses propres Sujets et Conscqucnmant 
Contre sa propre Gloire ausaî bien que ses intérêts. Jesi»crc que mes 
amis des Illinois ne mont iwînt Entièrement oublié; Le tcms Le ma. 
point fait oublier Lestîme, que Japortoîs au bon peuple de ce pays, et 
c'est avec plaî&ir que Je profBle de cette occasion pour Ecrire à M' 
Jants en particulier 

Je suis content dentendre dire que mes amis des Illinois ont en 
général opposé I>s usurpations et ont aidé et assisté a faire parvenir a 


Fort Doquesne, June 35, 1780. 
Dë;ar sut: 

A letter from me will perhaps surprise you, but I am no longer a 
Britbh officer. I prefer my privileges and those of my fellows rather 
than serve a prints blind and obstinate, tvho feebly and wanlwnly w;iges 
war against bis <jwn subjecls and consequently against bis own glury 
and interests. I trust that my friends in Illinois have not altogether 
forgotten me. Time has not cauiied me lo forget the esleem I had for 
the good people ol that country, and it is with pleasure that I Cake 
advantage of this occasion tu write to \l. Jaiiis in particular. 

I am glad to bear it said that aiy friends in Illinois have, in general, 
opposed the usurpations, and that Ihey have aided and assisted in brîng- 




la maturité Lindependaoce de lamcrique, des laconven lances |)euvent 
avoir arrivé a plusieurs, mais ils ne sont que passagère, La postérité 
ajra Le proffit et leur avantage Sera rendu avec avantage à nos maux. 

Le porteur de cette Est Colonel de la Balme Gentilhomme francois, 
de grand mérite il a toujours Esté un solide et uniforme amis aux In- 
térêts de Lamerique; comme tel Je vous prie de le Recevoir Sur ma 
Recommendation à votre amitié et attention Je suis persuadé que vous 
irouwrés quil Le aicriie. 

Madame Fowlcr Est bien et se joint a moy dctrc affeciioncmcnt au 
Souvenir de Madame Janîs cl toute sa bonne famille et suis avec Egard 
Cher M' Votre très humble et tris obt. Serviteur A faulér 

cy devant olBcier dans le Regt. royal Irlandois Command^ des Kas 
en 1771 et [772. 

Mr Janis KasKasKïas Illinois 

Je vous prie de faire mes Ci>mplimenl3 au docteur Gibkins et tous 
nos amis; Jcaj^rc que Je naî point Laissé dcnncmis aux lUinois. 

A. Fadlek 

ing lo maliirily tbe independence of America. Misfortunes may have 
happened to many, but they are only transitory; posterity will rca[> 
the benefits, and their advantages will more than pay (or our misfor- 

The bearer of this letter is Colonel de la Balme, a French j;entlcman 
(]f great merit.' He has always been a Crm aud sleudfanl friend tu the 
interests of America; as such I beg you to receive him, upon my rec- 
omendation, in your friendship and attention. I am jicrsuadcd that 
you will find that he is worthy of it. 

Madame Fowler is well and joins me in wishing lo be remcmlicnxl 
to Madame Janis and yourgoixl family. I am with res[K-{i, my dear sir, 
Your very humble and very obedient servant, 

A. Fowler * 

Formerly officer in the Royal Irish Regiment, Commandant of Kas- 
fcaskia in 1771 and 1772. 

M. Janis Kaskaskia, Illinois. 

I beg you to remember me lo Doctor Gibkins' and to all our friends; 
I hope that I left no enemies in Illinois. A. Fowixs. 

ITbFre Ua tangAcoDUui of Colond dcia Balmc la III, Itiit. C'rilrtwm. il.. p. Iiixix. 

* I htn (onnd oilliing of irnponaim caDcaming bin eurpt whit is conUiiwd in ihh klMr. 

» Sec lit. nia CeJhttiinu. ii,. 4. n. j. 




enfants du Koy de France leurs bienfactcur. Apres avoir tenu Conseil, 
les Indiens député sont venu m'assurer de leur constante affection et de 
leurs entière obéissance aux voloni»? de leur Perc, et ils etoîcnt prêt a 
suivre les Guerîcrs français |)our lever la Hache et frapjier mortellement 
les Ennemis de leur généreux Protecteur, nmis ont ils ajouté si notre 
Père est allié des Ameriquains pourquoi ceux ci nous laissent ils manquer 
de tout ; faut il donc mourir avec nos femmes et enfants en rejctlant les 
oiTres qui nous font les Anglais; nous ne les aimons point, nous sommes 
prêt a frapper mais nos urgent besoins nous forceront a la an de prêter 
Preille a leurs propa-ûtions; si on s'obstine a nous refuser plus long- 
temps ici des secours desquels nous ne saunons maintenaiit nous passer; 
les Bfitcs fauves qui doivent nous alimenter et nous procurer par 
l'échange de leurs Peaux des vêlements aux quels on nous a abitué sont 
beaucoup plus farouche qu'elle ne l'eioient avant que nous fissions 
usage des armes a feu, il nous faut donc de la poudre, des Armes, des 
Hardca lorsqu'on nous fournit seulement des Liqueurs brûlantes qui 
tuent nos jeunes Gcnis, nn nous a fail mltle prrjmesscs a Philadelphie 
l'année dernière, actuellement en oc s'en souvii-n plus, d'une part nous 

[ Tramtiition,] 

tbeir U'nefactor. After holding council, thi: delegated Indians came to 
assure me of their constant aSectïon and of their entire obedience to 
the wishes i»f their father; ajid they were ready to follow the Trench 
warriors and take up the tomahawk to strike to death the enemies of 
Iheir generous protector; but they added; "If our father Is allied to 
the Americans, why do these allow us to be in want of cvcr^lhing ; must 
»% die together with our wives and children while rejecting the offers 
which the English make to us; we do not like them; we are ready to 
strike, but our urgent needs will linally force us to lend an attentive ear 
to their proposition, if you remain obstinate in still refusing the help 
which is absolutely necessary to us now. The wild animals which ought 
to nourish us and procure for us, by the exchange of their skins, clothing 
to which we have been accustomed, are much more wild than they were 
before wc made use of fire-arms. We are in need, therefore, of powder, 
of weapons, of traps, instead of the burning liquors which kill our young 
people, for that is all that is furnished to us. Last year they made us a 
thousand promises at Philadelphia, now these arc not even thought of. 
On the one hand we are forgotten, abandoned; on the other hand we 



sommes oublié, abandonna, d'un autre solidl^ et quelque fois mcfuof. 
par les Angliu», dans cette Occurance que puuruns nous, que devons 
DDUS faire? Vous de%-ez rester en paix et tranquile leurs ave dit, 
amoÎDS que vous ne vouliez cnc'jurir la disgrace de votre Perc, ran 
exposer a sa vengeance, a celle des E^agnols, et des états unis ses alliés 
et vous voir abandonner les Anglais qui sont oxnacé de toute Paît, 
même dans leur propre Pays, jay ajouté les raisons qui m'ont paru les 
plus propre a les convaincre, ensuite ils se sont retiré à leuxs Camp en me 
disant qu'ils eloient prêt a marcher contre les Ennemis de leurs Perc «t 
de ses alliés des qu'on les requerroit. Nous avons diverse fois versé 
a boire 3 ses Messieurs qui bien fardé et t»en emplu mâché avalent sec et 
jiartrop iraoderement les liqueurs les plus fortes, je desiie que leurs 
promesses soient bien obsen'ée, mais j'avous que je n'y ai pas graïKle 
confiance parcequ'on se ruine en protnesse. En égard de la conduite 
des Habitants de ces frontières icy car excepté te Commandant du Fort 
Pit tous ont des procèdes révoltant envers les Indiens, pendant qu'on 
Iraitoit de Paix au Fort un parti de huit hommes va chez les N'alions 
pour masacré quelques Indiens, d'autres vont voler quatre djevaux 

are solicited and al limes threatene«I by the Knglish ; in such a sttuadoa 
what can we do, what ought we lu do?" I lold them: " YfHi must 
remain at pcai!e and be quiet, unless you wish to incur the dUpleasure of 
your father, ex{K)se yourselt-cs to his vengeance and to that of the Span- 
iarrls and the United Stairs, his allies, and see yoanetves abandoned by 
the Knglish who are threatened on all parts, even In their own country/' 
I adderl the reasons which seemed to me the most fit to convinoe ihem. 
Then they withdrew to their camp telling me thai they were ready to 
march against the enemies of iheïr father and U hi» allies, the moment 
they were asked. We poure*! out drink several time» fortbc«e gentlemen. 
who, well painted and feathered, gulp down quite lo excea» the strtmgMt 
liquurs. I desire that the promise lu them be well kept, but I amfentbat 
1 have no great confidence, fnroneruinsoneself by promises, considering 
the conduct of the inhabitants of these frontiers; for aside from the 
commandant of Fort Pitt, all have a revolting behaviour lowanis the 
Indians. ^Miilc the question of peace was being Ireoled at the furl, « 
band nf eight men went tii the nations in order lo massacre a few Indians', 
others went tu steal four horses near their camp. From all ihets d[»> 


prtfs (Ic leur» Camps, De tout» ce* fri|5onncries ct dc ces perfidies il 
doit rcsiullcr un grand fond dc haine qui engendre nécessairement la 
Guerre dont pluisictirs familles sont victimes; voila le résultat des dés- 
ordres et des inconsequent-cs qui semblent caractériser dans beaucoup 
d'occasion Messieurs les colon» anglais. 

Nous partons moi quatrième français pour naviguer sur l'Ohio bien 
anrwî et nous rendre aux Illinois accompagna d 'une Princesse Cha»X)ua- 
naise un pvu surajiné, Quand a Mods'* Uvidefroî de Linlot il part pour 
se rendre a la même destination par terre il visiterai les N'ations des- 
quelles il parle Ir^ bien les dilTerenls Langages afin de les affermir 
pour la Cause des Etats unis a )a quelle les français prene unauineraent 
un vif Intérêt. Cet officer est vraiment digne des plus grands Eloges, 
son Zelle ix cet égard la porte a dynniT aux Indiens ses Chevaux, ses 
KITcls et souvent ses Habits pour allimanler kurs altacliement aux 
Français, on cn>in>i[ en rvOechissant sur sa Gencrosittî que la France le 
comble de bienfaits |H:ndiuil qu'elle ignore ta Noblesse de ctrs ]iroccdcs 
a cet cgaid. C'est un témoignage que je ne lui refuse avec tous ceux 
qui le connoÎHe el que je desire bien sincen'nient lui 6lrc de quelques 


honesties and pcrndics there result a great fund i if hatred wliicli 
of necessity engenders war, nf which many families arc victims. These 
arc the disorders and the inconsistencies which seem lo characterize, 
in a numlwr nf occasions, the Knglish colonists. 

Three Frenchmen and I arc abiMit to start well armcil lo navigate 
the Ohio and reach the Illinois, Iwing acnimpanicd by a Shanmee 
princess somewhat old. As for M. Godefroy de Linctol, he starts over- 
land lo reach the same dcstinalinn; he will Wsit the nations whose dif- 
ferent languages he speaks vcr>' well, in order lo attach them to the cause 
of the United States, in which the French unanimously have a deep 
interest. This officer is indeed worthy of the greatest praise. His zeal 
in this cause has ted him to give lo the Indiana his horses, his goods, 
and often his clothing, in order lo maintain their attachment for the 
French. One would believe, in reflecting on his generosity, that France 
is weighing him down with bounties, when actually it ignores the nobil- 
ity of these actions altogether. It is a testimonial that 1 do not refuse 
him, as well as all those who know him, and I sincerely hof»e lot* of some 
advantage to him. i hope that the French, scattered throughout t>oth 



avantage. Jespere que les Français dispersé sous les deux tJctnisphere 
en tireront un reel de rinlenîgcnce qui règne entre eux et les Indien*, 
en sorte qu'étant bien unis ils pourroient loin de recevoir faire la loi a 
quiconque parceque j'apprent tous ceux qui sont indépendant, ou qui 
doivent inccssament le devenir sont prci a se tendre une main (ratcr- 
rcUc, Presage de leurs futur bonheur. Le temps lèvera la voile qui 
ravis les objets aux Curieux attentifs Observateurs, des Catastrophes 
et des Revolutions. 

£n quelques Endroit que je porte mes pas je me ferai un plaisir jeci 
de faire part a votre Excellcnec, de ce que je penserai mériter son atlcn- 
lion et de l'assurer de la respectueuse coniiideration avec laquelle je uc 
saiseraî d'être. 

de votre Excellence te très humble obéissant ser< 

Signed. CotONF-L La Balue. 

Le Nonuné Pierre Tibau andcn soldai français qui a scni 18 ans 
dans le Rcg* de Provence d'Infaniric demand d'être reclame par votre 
Excellence comme déserteur français, et d'aler scr^-ir sous les Drai>eaux 
du Roi, cest un beau et vijjoureux soldat, il est Corporal dans la Com- 

hemib'plieres, will get a glim|>âe of ihc understanding whicb exists be- 
tween them and the Indians, so that being well united they will be able, 
rather than to receive the law, Lo make it to everyone ; for I and that all 
Ibe Indians, who are independent, ur who are lo become independent 
before long, are ready to lend a fraternal hand, an omen of their future 
happiness. Time will lift the veil which hides the objects from the 
curious and attentive observers of catastrophes and revolutions. 

In whatever place I may happen to go I shall consider it a real 
pleasure to inform your Excellency of whatever 1 may consider worthy 
of your attention, and to assure you of the reajjcctful esteem, with which 
I shall never cease to be, your Excellency's very humble and obedient 

(Signed) Colonel La Bauik. 

Ttie man named Pierre Tibau, former French soldier who served 
for eighteen years in ihc infantry of ihe n;gimcni of Prownce, and asks 
to be reclaimed by your Excellency as a French deserter, and to go to 
serve under the banners of the king, is a fine and vigourous soldier. He 
is corporal in the company of Captain Greek of Col. Proter's regiment 


pagnic du Oipilaiiie Greek du Reg* du Col' Proter Aniircrie. Cette 
Compagne vient d'etre détachée au Fort Pit. Oserois je prier voire 
Excellence de vouloir bien avoir la Bonté de faire passer en France 
l'inclut s'il lui plait. 

A truc Copy. (Signed:) .V S. De Peystf.r. 
\EHiiorsed:\ The laie Colonel La Balm to the Chevallier de La Luzerne, 
June 1780. 


of artillcr)'. This cumpany has retx'rilîy l)cen detached lo Fort PîH. 
May I dare to ask your Excellency lo Iw kind enough to pass the enclosed 
lo Frace, if it jiicases y<»u. 

A true copy. (Signed) A. S. dk Peysteji 

Thomas Bentlev to A. S. be Peïsteb, July 28»'' 1780. 

(B. M.. 11845. r. +0. — A. L. S.I 

I hope you will be pleased to excuse my troubling you from this 
Quarter as I canaot omît this opportunity of informing you of my safe 
return to this Country. Finding that all my Efforts to procure a Pass 
were iueSectual I was reduced to the disagreeable necessity of trusting 
to the woods for my escape which I cfiectcd though at a season very 
unfavorable to my design. I left Canada with a full intention to rewnge 
myself on Gov*^ Hamilton but I was no sooner at liberty than I forgot 
my animoaty with regard lo him looking upon him only as a scamdary 
('ause influenc'd by the evil Machinalion.s of Rofheblave in conjunrlion 
with a Cerré who were inspired with no other motives than iliiisc of 
envy and most inveterate Malice to defame my Character and bring my 
AITairs lo lîesiruLlion which I am sorry to say ihey have fully efîecUMÏ 
insomuch that it will bedifTicult for me to rcLOver myself from the diflfi- 
cultics which the unhappy effects of ihcir Malice have subjected me lo. 

I wailed on Gov' Ilamilton in the Jail nt Williamsburgh & made 
him a lender of my services. He thank'd mc s.^y^^g he did not crpcct 
any alteration in his circumstances but the fate of arms mfghl give 
him, be expatiated much on Ihc manner of losing Post Vinccnncssajing 
he was bctray'd in Ihc basest manner by the Frrnch people of the Place. 
M"" Dcjean being de^rous of coming here I applied in his favor to the 
Governor & Council of Virginia, my suffering» give me some claim lo 



their ittlentioa & I was the means of procuring his permissioa to come 
to this Country. Colo. Montgomery who commands in Colonel Clark's 
absence has given him permission to send for M*^ Dejeon. 

Notwithstanding that I am out of the reach of persecution I still 
wish lo assure you thai Rocheblave's accusation of me was false and that 
I was made a Prey to Malice of the deepest Hue; this I beg you will 
acquaint General Haldimand of who I hope from his former knowledge 
of mc at Pensacola is still my friend and that he wilt impute my abrupt 
departure from Canada to no other Cause than my great anricty to 
join my affairs at the Illinois which I had rea.'Mn to think were going 
wrong on account of my long absence & which I unhappily found to 
be the case nor is there any remedy left me but patience. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, Your very obed* h^'= ser*-' 
Post Vinccnncs, aS July 1780. T. BK>rrLnv. 

Ar* Schuyler De Peystcr Esq"" 

\Erui0r3cd:] from M"" Bentley to Major de Pcystcr, dated Port Via- 
ccnnes the 28»'» July 1780. 

Thouas Bcntlëv to George R. Clark, July 30, 1780. 

praper MSS., 50J51. — A. L. S.J 

Post Vinceknts the .îo'*" July 1780 
DtiAR Sir. 

I cannot omit this opportunity of writing You to inform You that 
nothing very material bas happened since You left us. The Savages 
are constantly way laying the Boats S: lurking about, take a Scalp now 
St then. There is a French Colonel lately arrivd here from Fort Pitt 
his name is De La BaJme. He has already had the address to ingratiate 
himself with the French people of this Place as also with the Savages to 
whom he has advancd things prejudicial lo the Int* of the State. The 
People here being on the Point of going on an Expedition lo the MiamU 
L chusing this man to command them M' Dalton has with great pro- 
priety put a Stop to his going as he certainly is a dangerous Man & 
much might be dreaded from his Discourses with the Savages was he 
]}ermilted to go among them for everything he advances tends to advance 
the French Interest & depreciate the American. The People here are 
easily misled ; buoy'd up with the âaltering hopes of being again subject 



to the King iif France he coud easily prevail on them to drive every 
American out of the Place & this appears to me to be his Plan,' 

I hope You will succeed on Your Shauney Expédition as it 15 said 
You are going there. When You were at Kaskasltias You were plca^ 
to promise me a Hundred Weight of Gunpowder of the Two Hundred 
owing me hy the State. I wish You woud be kind enough to write 
Capl. George to deliver it me. If you let me have the 2 C it woud be 
doing me a very material sennce at this lime as I want it for the Savages 
wIk) cannot hunt far want of Ammunition & as I have a Hundred & 
Thirty Packs of PcUry to pay at the Illinois I do not know how it will 
be possible for mclodoît without your returning me the Powder. I beg 
therefore You will take It into serious Consideration — Think only that all 
I ask is my own & how hard it is that I shou'd so suSer for the want of it as 
it may be the occasion of all my Effects being torn to pieces. I hope I 
need not say more to induce You to write Capt. George on this Subject. 

Should You go to the Governor's &c before Your return here & 
that they should think proper to establish a Place of Business in these 
Countries & determine at the same time to support it property I will 
undertake the Execution thereof Or if they will leave the Plan to mc 
let them procure an assortment of Indian Goods such as woud have 
formerly have amounted to four Thousand Pounds Sterling with an extra 
Qnty of Gunpowder on acco of the war & I shall not fear of not only keep- 
ing the Savages quiet on all these Coihunications but also make a(U*an. 
tagious returns for the Goods the assortment to be supplied annually. 

Assure Yourself that 1 am with much regard Sc truth D' Sir 

Your very obed* hbic Scrv* 

T Bkntley 

M' DaltOD has suffered this man to go with the Savages &c above 
I have taken a great deal of pains to represent to him the ill consequences 
attending it but to no purpose. 1 gave Mi*. Dalton convincing Proofs 
that this man on his arrival here councild the Savages in the presence of 
all the people here to go & advertise the Shawnicsof Your preparations 
to go to war against them with many other Circumstauces ol equal bad 

Every well wisher is surprised at Daltons behaviour & It woud be 
well for You to send a Parly under the Command of an CJJBcer you can 
depend upon if you wish to keep this Country & its Savages in layta. 
Colo. Clakk 

■ Conia.-* Hi. IliA C tUê tH m u . U . p. wc 



TuouAs Bentley lo Guveknuk HALOiiiANn, August tz*'' 17S0. 
in. M-, 3«R4S. f- -14-— A. ï- s.] 

Ol'yah the 19^^ August 1780. 

I have come 160 Lc^i^cs from ihe Illincis thro' a Coutilry every- 
where cx|K)suj to Indian War Parties puc])C)5cIy lo debarass mc from 
that Veil of Calumny whirh was lhn>wii upon my Chararler t>y Rm:he- 
blavc, Ccrrtîc & others who hutl no other views than those of envy & 
malice of the deepest Dye to stigmatize my Charatler & t>last my Fame 
lo the end that I might be removed from a Country where (he flourish- 
ing Stale of my alTairs Si ihe Preference which wime of the Savage 
Nations shewVl me rendered me an Eye sore to them in trade & conse- 
(jucntly an objert {if (losaiblc) l<j be removed at all events. I Knew 
their Plot before I left Illinois, but conscious of my Innocence I went 
undismay'd resting my .safely on that alone. I was unhappily mis- 
taken. You know the rest. My affairs have been totally ruind by my 
absence & all my property in a manner has gone to rack. Still, Sir, 
I am happy to ha\'e this opportun' to assure you that I am no Knemy 
to my Country; on the contrary I haw & ever .shall entertain a warm 
and sincere attachment thereto & its Interests so long as God shall 
bless me with Life. 'TIS true that vexation at the treatment I met with 
whilst I was in Canada (Ix-'ing informed all the time of the destruction 
to tny propc^y at home) enraged me to say many things foreign to my 
thoughts & which would no doubt be construed to my disadvantage. 
The pro|K>sal5 I had the Honor to make you when last I had the pleas- 
ure of seeing you, repealed to you likewise by my friend, M' Tarqucs, 
you were pleased ro reject imagiring them offered as Inducements for 
my Liberty. These I now beg leave to reiterate to you, thrice happy 
on the occasion to convince you that I am not the wretch I was repre- 
sented to you to be. Was it not that my presence was required to 
endeavor if possible to repair my broken affairs & the small encour- 
agement 1 had to hope for from my usage in Canada I should already 
have gone back to Detriol. My conjugal Tics (which with my Property 
composed all that was dear to mc in these countries) bi'ing defiled and 
broken indissolubly by my absenix* there remains but little to engage 
my stay in the Country nothing in corajwlition with joining my Country 
if I con be of use & doing Justice to my connections. If therefore I 




call he of any service lo yiHi & that I can be assured of your favor to 

asahl me tu rct?slablisli my broken fortunes you have only lu acquaint 
me thro' the channel of Major De Feyaler & I will endeavor if possible 
to quit my affairs which arc still considerable being widely dispersed 
& shall from this time contract them for the piir|K)se, 

I cannot conclude this without informing ycni that if you wish (o 
{lossess the Illinois & Post Vincennes you may easily accomplish it. 
The inhabitants discontented with the Americans will not resist regular 
troops. Savages they ever will, fearing their cruellies. Three Hun- 
dred Sol" to come down the Illinois River would easily possess them- 
selves of the whole Illinois Country Spaniards & others. This certainly 
would be an object worthy the attention of Great Britain as it woud 
add the Missoury trade which is of itself consequential as well as the 
Savage interest dependent thereon, who being very numerous might 
be renderd of great account 5: woud of course be a very valuable 
acquisition. A Hundred regulars woud easily possess themselves of 
Post Vincennes. Lieut^ Gov' Abbot being much eateemd in this 
Country woud be received with open arms. From these Countries 
an Expedition woud easily be carried nn to the lower parts of the 
Mississippi»! & with the assistance of i ,000 Men annex New Orleans to 
the Empire, It may not be unnecessary to inform you that the Illinois 
Setllemnts coud victual a garrison of 300 men throughout the year. 
I have the Honor to be with alt due respect, 

Sir, Vour very obedient & most h**'» Servant 

T. Benti-ky. 

His Exc*" Fred" Haldimand Esq. 
[Endorsed:] From M"" Bentley to I. Gen. Haldimand 
Dated Ouyah la^" Aug' 1780. 

Thomas Bf^ti-fy to A. S. nr. Peyster, August la*^ 1780. 

[B.M.. 31845. '■ 43.— A. L-S.] 

OuYAH the IS**" August, 1780. 

I hcg leave to refer you to what I have already wrote you on the 
subject of M^ Dcjcan. I beg the favour of you after perusing the 
enclosed lo addres-s & forward it to General Haldimand. As I wish 
to remit to Canada as well as to draw off fmrii this Country [ propose 


:XMiding Ijoats tip this river for Detroit as well as Ihe Illinois River fur 
Macinac next Spring. I coud wish for Ihat purpose if it does nut 
dash willi the Semite that (he Savages might be requested not to molest 
any Boat going up those Rivers for the purpose t>f carrj-ing Remittance 
which I hope & doubt not but you will think reasonable. If the Gen- 
eral or yourself shoud do me the honor to write mc wish you woud 
adress me in a fictitious name for fear of accidents & send it by a per- 
son of contidence to be deliverd only to myself. It is reported here that 
Canada is attacked by a French Fleet. If it is likely to faJL (which I 
hope will never be the case) fjeg of you to destroy these letters. I have 
the Mortification to inform you that Rocheblave's malice has ruind 
me (irretrievably I fear) although my misfortunes originated wilh you 
yet I do nut blame you. If yuu will be pleased to put me in a way u[ 
recovering myself at Detroit which you now have in your power lo do, 
I will repair to you on your sending me proper Guides, but it must be 
in the Mercantile Line as I coud not pay my dcbls & recover my lost 
Fortune by any other means. I ha%'e the Honor to he with real respect. 

Sir, Your very ob» h^'' Serv* 

T. Bentlkv. 

I shall winter at Kaskaskias. I beg this may not be talked of in 
case of any Deserters from you that might inform of me. 

\iajor FJe Pcyster. 
[Addressed:] Ar* Schuyler Dc Pcyster Ksq' Command' Detroit. 
[Endorsed:] From M"" Bentley to Major De Pcyster Dated Ouyath 
13»'' Aug' 1780. 

PaiuppE DE RocHEBTAVE to GOVERNOR Haloihand, Scpteml>:r 9, 


[B.M.. ii;«a,f.397--A. I,.S.J 


j'ay rhouneur d'informer votre excellence qu* après deux ans et 
demi de captivité j'ay eu le bonheur de m'ecbaper de parmi les rebelles 



I have the honor to inform your KxccUency that, after two years 
and a half of capli\-ity, I had the goorl fortune to escape from amongst 



et suis arrivé icy avec m' Scheleling lieutenant des volontaires du De- 
troit au uomenLrmrnt de juillet dernier, Je comjiloîs avoir l'honneur 
de vous voir et d'ofrir mes scniecs mais le marchand qui avoit promis 
d'armer un bâtiment de viol pieces de cannons ayant juge a propos 
de n'envoyer qu'un petit a\'ec six pieces de trois li^Tes, J'ay craint 
avec raison d'augmenter le nombre des malheureux qui ont été pris 
cette année en voulaot aller en Canada et sur ce qu'on dit générale- 
ment icy qu'il doit y avoir une expedition pour la virginnie je vais 
demander d'y alters! comme je i'esperc elle est heureuse, je dcmanderay 
la permission de lever quelques troupes ou volontaires pour cssaîer de 
chasser les rebelles de cette partie de ^'otre gouvernement située ]c long 
du misisipi, ounbachc cl obio. 

Depuis quatre jours on a reçu icy par la voie des rebelles la nou\'elle 
de l'entière destruction de leur armée aux ordres de m' gates que le 
lord Courwallis a attaque cl diîfail sur les froiitica-s du sud et nord 
Caroline, les papiers rebelles font monter leur perte a prés de mille 
hommes, des particuliers arrivés de philiulelpViie disent que l'entière 

the rebels, î arrived here about the first of July wrih ^^. SchiiTelin 
lieutenant of the volunteers of Dtlroil. I had hojiLiI to have the honor 
of aeeingyou and otTcring you my services, but since the merchant, who 
had promisi-d lo arm a vessel with eight pieces of cannon, has seen fit to 
send me nothing more than a small Iwal with six pieces of three pounds, 
I was afraid, and with reason, to increase the number of unfortunate 
men who have hern captun,-d this year while trying to go into Canada. 
Judging from what they say gi^nerally around here, there is to be an 
expedition to Virginia. I am going to ask permission to go there. 
If, as I hope, it is succissfiil. I shall ask permission to levy some 
troops or volunteers in order lo try lr> drive the rebels from that part 
of your government situated along the Mississippi, Wabash, and 

Four days ago we heard here, from the mouth of the rebels, the 
news of the complete destruction of their army under the command of 
M. Gates, who was attacked and defeated by Lord Cornwallis on the 
frontiers of South and North Carolina. The rebel papers estimate 
the number of their loss at almost one thousand men. Some individuals 
just arrived from Philadelphia say that the entire destruction of their 


destruction de leur armëe a ^lé la suite de cet ev-enrmcnt heureux que 
le peu qui a échapi! a la poursuite la plus chaude s'est retlnï en virgîn- 
nle après avoir abbandoné aux vinqeurs leurs armes, cannons, magazins 
et bagages et qu'il n'y a plus aucune troupe rebelle en nord Caroline, 
ainsi voila daiu la campagne la plus heureuse de toute celte malheur- 
euse guerre deux provinces conquises avec grande espoir d'y ajouter 
la vîrginnic avant et <lans le cours de l'hiver, l'arm^îe de wasginton [ïiV] 
est camp<?e a environ quarante milles d'icy il a détaché ces jours derniers 
dixhuit cent hommes pour le sud et it a été abbandonné par la milice 
de pensih*anie qui sur le bruit de l'ochu dans la caroHnc s'est retiré 
tt &6té chcs elle, la desertion est grande chcs eux leur papier tant vid 
que neuf est tombé dans le plus vil mépris les français sont a rhode 
island quelques uns ont joint wajîginton et ont fait avec les rebelles 
une aparition, sur l'autre rive de la riviere du nord et se sont retirés 
âpres avoir pilUé amis et cnemis. Il est bon que votre excellence sache 
que tout l'hiver dernier le chevalier de la I^uzcme se disant ambassa- 
deur de france aupres du congrès a eu une relation suivie en canada 

[ TransiiUiaH.] 
army was the outcome of this happy event, that the small portion which 
escaped the warmest of pursuits withdrew into Virginia after having 
abandoned to the conquerors iheir weapons, cannons, magazines and 
baggage, and that there is not a single company of rebels in North Car- 
olina. Thus we see, in the most fortunate campaign of all this wretched 
war, two provinces conquered, with great hopes of joining to it Virginia 
before or in the course of the winter. The army «f Wa.ihinglon is camp- 
ing at about forty miles from here. He has detached during these last 
few A&.ys eighteen hundred men Eoscndin the south; and he was aban- 
doned by the militia of Pciinsylvania, which, upon the report of the 
defeat in Carolina, wilhrtrcw and went home. Disert ion is great amongst 
them. Their paper money, both eld and new, has fallen into 1 he grcalo-si 
contempt. Of the French, who are in Rhode Island, some joined Wash- 
ington and appeared with the rebels on the left bank of the North 
River, and withdrew after having plundered friends and enemies. 
It is well that your Excellency tihould know that during the whole eA 
last winter Chevalier tie la Luxeme, claiming to be ambassador of 
France at Congress, had a continuous correspondence in Canada with 
the new and old subject.s. This correspondence was kept up by means 


avix dc nuuwiiux uu anttenis subjctt., cc-tle relation a été |)ratïquée 
par I'intcrvL'ntion des sauvages ou autres, j'en ay eu accidentel lemetit 
connoisancc danl chcs le consul dc France parent de l'ambassadeur 
qui ne croyant ]ms que j'entendis l'anglois le disoit a ses amis, je me 
trouvay a\'ec luy a l'occusiun contenue dans l'artidc suivant. 

Il me fut pnipnsi^ dans le cours dc l'automne dernière de retourner 
aux Illinois pour gouvumt-T le pays au nom du congn!s avec tes tiltrcs de 
gouverneur surintandant des indiens et roloncl on me rt^tituoit tout 
oc qui m'avoit lîtiî pris moycnitnt que par un serment dc fidelili! je devins 
un sujet du congrus, on douloit dautani moy disait on que j'arcx'plc 
ces ofrcs, qu'étant né françoÎH il eloil suqjrcnant que j'eus travaillé 
contre les amcriqains; le gouverneur et le conseil de Virginie sur mon 
relus résolurent de m'^logner a jamais de ramcrîquc; îls dirent au 
marquis de vaudreuil comendant le fendant dc 74 qui a passe ]'y\'er 
en Virginie, que j'etois un mauvais sujet venu d'europe qui abusois de 
Tascendant que j'avois sçu prendre sur les habltanls et les sauvages 


aï the Indians or others. I accidcntly found it out while I was with the 
French consul, a relative of the ambassador. The consul believing 
that I did not understand English was recounting it to his friends. 
I happened to be with him on the occasion described la the following 

It was profKsed to me, In the course of last fall, to return to the 
Illinois in order to govern the country in the name of Congrcns, with ihc 
titles of Governor, Superintendent of the Indians, and Colonel. They 
promised to restore all that had been taken from me; provided I 
would become, by taking the oath of fidelity, a subject of Congress. 
They expected, they said to mc, that I would accept these olTers; for, 
being a Frenchman by birth, it was surprising that I should have worked 
against Ihc Americans. The governor and the council of Virginia, 
u[K)n my refusal, resolved to get me out of America forcx-er. They 
said to the Marquis de Vaudreuil, commanding the ship of 74 guns [?] 
which passed the winter in Virginia, that 1 was a bad subject just come 
from Europe, who abused the power that I had managed to gain over 
the inhabitants and savages of the Mlssts<)ippi in order to cause them to 
revolt against the Americans; and furthermore they asked him lu trans- 
port me lo France or to the West Indies. 


ilu misisipi pour les soulever rontrc lea américains et luy demandèrent 
lie me transporter en Trance uu claiis le ouesl imlies. 

I-e marquts m'envciya un ofiricr tic ma amnoiganre qui avec le 
lieutctiant tie la comid ou j'etois stir panilc m'amenercnl a luy sans me 
le proposer ct sans exiger de parole pour retourner; m' de vaudreQil 
me dit (|u'il falloîl passer ou en France ou dans les îalcs surr fc que je 
luy dis que le roy de francs nous ayant abandonne a la paix dernière, 
nous étions devenus sujets angloîs ct qu'il ne pouvoît exercer aucune 
jurisiliclion sur moy qui de plus avoîs ma femme et mes enfants aux 
Illinois, il me dît qu'il ne pouvait m'amencr malgré moy, qu'on l'avoit 
trompé en luy faisant entendre que je venois d'arîver en Amérique, le 
conseil voyant qu'il n'avoît pas reuss! m'envoya une parole a signer ce 
que j'evitay en faignant d'etre très malade et m'échapay. J'ay vu 
l'hiver dernier a Williamsbourg le nome lînclot canadien ancienement 
enseigne au service de France, auquel la lelre du comte dîslain aux 
canadiens a tourne les cen'elles ct k fait quitcr son pays pour débaucher 
les indiens sous le nom des françois il a amené trois savages avec luy 
qui ont eu des conferences avec m' de vaudrcUil, le consul de France 

The Marquis sent to me an officer, an acquaintance of mine, who 
together with the lieutenant of the county where I waa on parole, look 
me to him (the Marquis) without proposing it to me and without de- 
manding a parole to return. M. de Vaudreuil told me that I must go 
either to France or to the Islands. Whereupon I told him, that, the 
king of France having abandoned us when peace was made the la&t 
time, we had become English subjects, and that he could exercise no 
jurisdiction over me, and that, moreover, I had my wife and children 
in Illinois. He said to me that he could not take me my will, 
that they had deceived him in making him believe that I had just arrived 
in America. The council, seeing that it had not succeeded, sent me 
a parole to sign which I avoided by pretending that I was very sick ; 
and then I escaped. I saw last winter at Williamsburg the man named 
Linclot, a Canadian, formerly an ensign in the Franch scr\'ice, whose 
head has been turned by the letter of Count d'Eslaing to the Canadians, 
which caused him to leave his country in order to entice away the 
Indians in the name of the French. He brought with him three Indians 
who had conferences with M. de Vaudreuil, consul of France, and the 



et le soi>disant gouverneur de virgiiintc, avec tout cela ils m'ont {>romis 
dans la. nuit a.\imt leur depart d'etre attaubé au gouvernement de S. M. 
B.; Le sieur linctot croît luymcmv revenu mais 1c a>nsul luy a de 
nouvau toumd la icic avec une promesse de brevet de capitaine, il a 
reçu un brevet de major et intendant des sauvages de la part du conseil 
de Virginie avec l'espoir d'etre paye en arjent qu'ils n'ont pas. 

Le ^ gt germain a débarqué l'hyver dernier a charles town \'enant 
de fronce a^-ec une comisîon pour attirer les sauvages dans les interests 
de celte couronne, je [e croîs aussi canadien et l'ay empêche de trouver 
du credit en virgînoie en employant sous mains des royalistes, heureuse- 
ment les movens employes sont les moins propres pour rcusir, les sujets 
cmploj-és étant incapables mais ils doivent nous convaincre, monsieur, 
de la neccîisiié d'elf^cr de votre gouvernement une relation étrangère 
qui pûuroit luy deixnir plus funeste, nccesité que je n'ay cessé deux 
ans avant ma prise de représenter innutilemcni. 

Le s' bcntclcy est aussi passé a williamsbourg pour gagner les 
Illinois d'où je l'avois envoyé en canada pour ses pratiques et relations 

80*caUed governor of Virginia. In spite of alt this Ihcy (the Indians) 
promised me, the night before Iht-ir dcpartun-, to be faithful to the 
government of His British Majesty. M. Linctot himself thought of 
changing, but the consul again turned his head with a promise of a 
captain's commission. He received a commission of major and în- 
trmlant of the Indians from the council of Virginia M'ilh the hope of 
being ]iaid with money, they do not have. 

M. .St. Germain landed last winter at Charleston. He came from 
France with a commission to draw the Indians into the interests of thai 
crown. I Itrlieve that tie is also a Canadian, and I prevented him fnim 
finding any crolit in Virginia by emplojing, secretly, some of the royal- 
ists. Fortunately the means used by M. St. Germain arc the least 
likely lo succeed, since the persons employed arc incapable; but ihcy 
should convince you, sir, of the necessity of climin.iting from your 
government a correspondence with aliens which may become more 
dftrimenlal to it ; a necessity which I did not cease lo represent, though 
uselessly, two years before ray capture. 

Mr. Bentley also passed through Williamsburg on his way to IlLiDois, 
from where I had sent him into Canada on account of his intrigues and 


avec les rebelles, c'esl sa Lubalc et cctic ties espagnols qui les onl condiiil 
sur le mistsippi et qui en intimidant les les onl empcché de 
prendre les armes ce ilont ils sont bien fâchés aujounlhuy. Si voire 
excellence daigne se faire représenter mes letrcs a son predeceseur, elle 
verra avec quel zelc j'ay travaille, combien de fois j'ay demandé d'etre 
remplacé par une personne plus accréditée ches le général, que j'ay 
innutilement demandé permisMon de lever vint hommes avec lesquels 
j'eus intimidé les agents rebelles et empêché les habitants bien inlentionés 
de consentir a une neutralité dont ils se repentent trop tard ; elle %'erra 
avec surprise que j'ay donné connoisance des manœvures des françois 
quinze mois avant qu'ils e'clatent et que j'ay démasqué et aprédé a sa 
juste valeur la frauduleuse neutralité de l'espagne, mais ce qui aura lieu 
de la suri>rcndre, c'est que quoyque les choses se fussent passé presque 
sous mes yeux, il a fallu rcvcneraent pour détromper. 

M'' hamilton lieutenant gouverneur du détroit continu d'etre rigour- 
eusement retenu et gardé dans un donjcon, il a été l'année dernière trois 
mois aux fers confondu avec des scélérats, on a envoyé il y a un mois et 

relations with the rebels. Il is his cabal and that of the Spaniards that 
led the Americans to the Mississippi and, by intimidation, prevented 
the inhabitants from taking anns, a thing for which they are very sorry 
now. If your Excellency deigns to look over the letters I sent to your 
predecessor, jïîu will see with what zeal I worked, h(iw many times I 
asked to be replaced by a person better accredited to the general ; that 
I asked, without succcs.s, permission to raise twenty men with whom 
I might have intimidated the agents of the rclïels and prevented the 
well-meaning inhabitants from consenting to a neutrality of which (hey 
repent too late. Your Excellency will see with surprise that 1 gave 
warning of the operations of the French fifteen months before they came 
to light; and that I unmasked and judged at its true value the fraud- 
ulent neutrality of Spain; but that which will give you occasion for 
surprise is that, although the things look place almost under my 
very eyes, siill (he event was necessary in order to undeceive those in 

Mr. UamilloQ, lieutenant governor of Detroit, is still rigourouflly 
detained and locked in a dungeon. Last j-ear he was in irons for three 
months, in the company of rogues. Amonthandahalf ago an American 



demi un ailoncl&ur sa parule et demiindé qu'il put venir icy sur la 
sicne, mais je ne croîs pas qu'on luy accorde. 

Je prcnda la liberté de me recomander aux bontfe de voire excellence 
et de luy rapcller que j'ay été totallement pillîé de lout par les rebelles 
ainsi que la famille du major hugues lord du iS*^ régiment, ma famille 
et la sienne qu'il avoït laissé a mes soins ont été privées du dernier mor- 
ceau de pain par une bande de brigants, j'espère que les rebelles don- 
cront quelque chose a leur situation et qu'ils demanderont la paix, 
mais en cela ils consulteront plus leur situation présente q'un scincerc 
repentir, si ce que je n'ose croire le gouwmemcnt abbandonoil mal- 
heureusement ceux qui luy sont attachés, il scroit a son tour abbandonné 
de loul te monde dans une autre occurence que le fanatisme des pro- 
vinces du nord fairra bîentost eclare. 

J'ay l'honneur d'etre avec la plus respectueuse consideration de 
votre excellence. 

Monsieur, Le trfes humble et Lr^ obéissant serviteur 

ROCUEBLAVË, com* aux iUinois. 

new yorc le 9. 7**^ 1780. 

colonel on parole was seul and the Virginia gm-crnmcnt was asked 
that he (Mr. Hamilton) might come here on his parole; but I do not 
believe that it will be granted to him, 

I take the liberty lu recommend myself to the favors of your Kx- 
cellency and to remind you that I have been totally plundered by the 
rebels of all I hod as was also the family of Major Hugh Lord of the 
i8th regiment. My family and his, which he had left in my care, were 
deprived of the last piece of bread by a band of brigands. I hope that 
the rebels will give some heed to their situation and that they will ask 
for peace; but in that they will consult rather their present situation 
than a sincere repentenre. If the government should unfortunately 
abandon those who arc atlarhed to it — a thing I hanJIy think probable 
— the government, in turn, would Ik; aI>iindon«3 liy evcr)-body in an- 
other occurrence which the fanaticism of the northern provinces will 
cause ere long to break forth. 

I have the honor lo be, with the most respectful consideration, 
j'our Excellency's very humble and very obedient ser^-ant, 

Ri)CHt:BLAVE:, Commandant at Illinois. 

New York, Sept. 9, 1780. 


[Endorsed:] N. Yorck. &o. 

de Rochcbla^'c. 

du 9. Sept. 

par M"" Schiffeling. 

\Addressed:] On His Majesty's Semce. Frederick Haldimand esq' 
Lieutenant General riovemor and Commander in Chief of the Province 
of Quebec, Vice-admiral of the same ftt &c. &c. Quebec. 

per L* ScairrELm. 


[Endorsed:\ N, York. 80 

of RochebUve. 

of Sept. 9th. 

by Mr. Schiffelin. 

Address or Colonel de la Bauie, Sept. 17, 17S0. 

[B. M., 11844, t- 384-— Copy(?)) 

Addrcssc aux Français Etablis sur les rives du Mississipi par 
Monsit-ur Moltin De la Balme Colonel françaw et pensionnaire du 
Roy du France. 
Messieurs et cher Compatriotes, 

Quand Je ne serais pas sujcls et officiers français quand le Roy de 
France mon digne maître ne me ticndrott pas compte de mes dcamarches 
en votre faveur, chose que je suis loin de panser, quand vous ne 
m'auriez pas, demandas mon advis concernant L'état déplorable ou 
TOUS êtes réduits, L'acucil gracieux que vous me faites, La reconnois- 

Address to the French settled on the banks of tbe Mississippi, by 
M, Mottin De la Balme, French colonel and pensioner of tbe King of 



Fvcn were I not a subject and oflicer of France, even tiiou^ tbe 
King of France, my worthy master, should nut be grateful to me foff the 
steps I am taking in your favor, a tiling 1 am far from thinking; even 
if you had not asked me for my advice concerning the deplorable con- 
dition to which you are reduced, still the courteous honor which you do 



puisque vous épousez la cause du Roy de Franrc et de ses alliez, troupca 
qui loin de vous preserver des fureurs d un Ennemis cruel, vous rend Ic3 
viclîmcs d'une guerre <|ue des indiens; eonstamcnt amis des Français, 
ne vous ussent jamais fait sans elles. 

La Justice qui caractérise les actions du Roy de France, votre ancien 
cl généreux monarque, vous offre une protection assurées et irevocable, 
reclamés ses bontéea avec confiance, J'ose vous assurer que non seule- 
ment, ce maK''*"''^^ potantat ne soufrira pas que des alliez pour 
lesquels il /ait de 1res grands sacrifices, vous oppriments en aucune 
manière, Mais qu'il ^-ous secourrai de tout son pouvoir ainsy que vos 
parents du Detroit et du canada instruit de votre fâcheuse situation 
l'honorable Congrès n'en fera pas moins, vous devez en cire persuadés. 
Les V'irginiens ne sont pas le seul fléau que vous accable, messieurs; 
De leurs cotés les Barbares Anglais qui donnent abbondament des Etofes 
des munitions de guerre et qui répandent avec profusion les Liqueurs 
Brûlantes (dieu ïutelaire des indiens) pour vous faire égorger par eux 
les uns après lus autres, ne vous permet pas denvi&ager avec indlSerencc 
l'ctat critique ou vous êtes réduit. 

Frani-c and of his allies; troops, which far from preserving yuu from 
the fury of a cruel enemy, make you the victims of a war with the In- 
dians, ever the friends of the French, which they never would have nude, 
bad it not been frir the troops. 

The justice which characterizes the King of France, your former 
and generous monarch, offers to you a protection, sure; and irrevocable. 
Implore his favors with ronfulenrc, fnr I ran assure you that not only 
that magnanimous potentate will not suffer his allies, for whom he 
is making very great sacrifices, to oppn-ss you in any manner, but also 
he will succor you, as far as he is able, anrl also your kinsmen in Detroit 
and in Canada, when once informed of your wretched situation, the 
honourable Congress will do no less, you ran be sure of that. 

The Virginians arc not the only scourge which afflicts you, gentle- 
men. On their side the Fjiglish barb.irians are giving abundantly of 
goods, of munitions of war, and arr sj-aticring with profusion burning 
liquors (the guardian God of the Indians) in order to have your throats, 
one after the other, cut; this does not permit you to look with indiffer- 
ence at the critical condition to which you are reduced. 


Cependant avec un peu de Résolution, mesneurs. vous pourriez 
preadre un parti qui vous mettcroJt a couvert des dangers que vous 
courrés sans cela voyons commant. 

A la guerre il est gencrak-mcnt reconnu que les troupes qui agissent 
ofiencivcment, ont un très graiid avantage sur celles qui sont sur la 
deffcnsivc, parceque îndépcndamcnt des surprises, les premieres atta- 
quent dans l'instiint le plus favorable, et dans les endroits ou on leurs 
oppose le moin de Resistance. 

Vous êtes dans le Cas des seconds, messieurs, vos Ennemis peuvent 
venir en Renauds vqus arceler quand il leur plaira, et vous miner peu 
a peu, jusqu'à ce que vous sucorabiez sous ses Efforts rendivez. 

Pourquoi, si cela depend de vous, ne feriez vous pas une Guerre 
ofiencive, avant que vous n'en soj-cs pas en état? 

Pourquoi ne metrtez vous pas a couver de l'ennemis vos femmes 
vos enfants, votre personne, vos biens, et vos animaux ? 

Trouveroient-ont beaucoup d'habitant parmi vous qui fussent assez 
irésonnables pour se refuser aux mediocre sacrifices ({u'exîgerait un tel 
projet? Y auroil-il beaucoup de jeunes français, qui ne voulussent pas 


However, with a little resolution, gentlemen, you would be able to 
accomplish that which would put you under cover from the dan^rs 
wbich you rixn without it : let us see how. 

In war it is generally recognized that troops which are on the offen- 
sive have a great advantage over those on the defensive, because, aside 
from surprises, the former attack at the most favorable moment and 
in the place where they find the least resistance. 

You are in the position of the latter, gentlemen. Your enemies 
can come prowling around and harass you whenever it shall please them, 
and weaken you little by little, until you succumb under their renews 

Why, if this depends on you, should you not make an offensive war 
before it is loo late for you to do so? 

Why should you not put under cover from the enemy your wives, 
your children, your mvn selves, your possessions, and your cattle? 

Could one find many inhabitants among you who would be .so un- 
reasonable as to refuse to suffer the. small sacrifices which such a project 
would require? Would there be many young Frenchmen who would 



dtffandre courageusement leurs pères et meres, leurs frères el soeur? 
Non, je ne puis je ne saurais le penser, Les Premiers verrnicnt bientôt 
qu'ils ne pourroieni achcptcr la Paix et la tranquilité trop cher; Les 
Seconds scntiroient que' la honte est mille fois plus insuportable que la 
Peine et l'es dangers qu'ils pourroicnt courir ne seroïcnts grands. 

Afin qu'on exagère rien, je vais sucssintement entrer dans quelques 
détails concernant celte exp<!dîtion future tant pour l'ordre de la marche, 
W nombres des troupes, que pour les Provisions. 

Pour agir avec prudancc et succ*;^ il faudroit se rendre au ouyaâ le 
Dixième Jour doctobre afin d'aller surprendre ou Bloquer les Anglais 
au Détruit dans l'ordre espliqués si après 400 cents français munis 
chacun de cent cartouche et des vivres pour 40 jours 800 cenU Indiens 
choisis ausqueU ou distribueroît a chacun douze cartouches en sorte 
qu'il en reslcroil encore autant pour distribuer a un pareil nombre en 
cas qu'il en fut besoin, une lanle pour mettre les armes et les munitions 
a cuuwrt en tems de pluycs, huit chaudières et huit chevaux pour 
porter k>£ ustcnciles, et quelques provisions aux indiens. 

I TramlatioH.] 

not Ijc willing to defend courageously Iheir fathers and inoihcrs, their 
bri.>thers and sisters? No, 1 cannot, I could not ]KJssibly think so. 
Tlie first will see soon that tiiey will not be able to buy [leacc and tran- 
Huillity UM> dearly; ilie second will feci tliai shame Is a llmusaml times 
more unbearable than suffering; and the dangers which they may run 
will not l>e great. 

In order that nothing lie exaggerated, I will briefly enter into some 
details concerning this future expedition, not only about the order of 
man-h, the numtxrr of troops, but also alwut jirovisions. 

In onkr to act with prudence and .succew it would he necessary to 
reach the Outaianon.s on the tenth day of Orlolier, so as |o surjirisc or lo 
block the English at Detroit in the order explained herewith: four 
hundred Frenchmen supplied with one hundred rounds of ammunition 
iipiece and suppHci for forty days, eight hundred chosen Indiana to 
whom there w<nild he distributed twelve rounds of ammunition apiece so 
lliat there would remain still as many rounds lo l»c dislributed lo an 
equal number in case of need; a tent in order lo put the arms and muni- 
tions under cover in lime of rain ; eight large kettles and eight horses to 
carry the utensils and some provisions for the Indians. 



De plus les habitants du Poste de Mnccnnc qui portcroîcnt du mais 
et du talwc au rendez vous aux ouyas pour donner aux Nations afid(*€5 
aux français îiuinicnt besoin en retour de cent livres de Plomb, car ils 
(l'ont que la Poudre. 

Maintenant, comme on scrois plus assurés des Indiens si on pou- 
vois leurs faire quelques Prcsants qu' on ne I^et maigre les promesses 
qu'ils mont fait de me suivre partout j 'ïrois en guerre, il seroit essentiel 
ou tout au moins utile de composer imc somme d'cn\'iron ïrois mille 
livre qu'on emploirois a achcptcr des marchandises qui arrivent de la 
Nouvelle Orléans sur le Bateau qui avoît etc de S' Louis et qui 
doit arriver a sa destination inccssiunenl. 

Je ne scay si je m'abuses, messieurs, mais j'ay l'honneur de vous 
avouer que je serois clnmgcment surpris a en juger par les dispositions 
de la plus grande parties des français que j'ay eu le plaisir de voir et 
d'entendre, cy on se rcfusoîs dans une semblable rirconstancc a une ex- 
pedition qui peut sauver la vie et les biens de beaucoup d'habitants qui 
peut concourir a l'expultion d'une troupe qui vous moleste; qui vous 
fernit beaucoup d'honneur, qui dcUvTcroit d'une afreuse et insuporlablc 


Moreover the inhabitants of Post Vincennes who are to take com 
and tobacco tn the plate of meeting at the (Juialanons in order to give it 
to the nations allied to the French, would need in exchange one hundred 
pounds of lead, for they have nothing hut powder. 

Now as vre should be more confident of the Indians than we are 
now, [?] in spite of the promises they have made to follow rae wher- 
ever I should go in war, if we could make them more presents, it might 
be essential or at least wise 10 make a collection of some three thousand 
UtTes which would be used in buying some merchandise w]iich is about 
to arrive from New Orleans on a boat that has been sent from St. Louis 
and is to arrive at its destination shortly. 

I do not tnow whether I am mistaken, gentlemen, but I have the 
honour to avow to you that I would Ik; vcrj- much suqjrised, judging 
from the inclination of the greater part of the French whom I have had 
the pleasure to sec and to hear, if you refused, in .such a circumstance 
as this, to make an expedition which can save the lives and possessions 
of many inhabitants; which ran contribute to the expulsions uf troops 
which annoy you; which would do you great honour; and which 



captivité des amis, des iiareols et des frères; qui dcsuLstrueroît voljre 
commerce; qui vous attacheroit tous les indiens singulièrement disposé 
pour vous et que vous avez le plus grand interests de mûnagcr; qui 
vous procua-ruit lie:iucoup de marchandises dont vous £te enti^n-mcat 
depour\'u, marchandises repartie dans différents Posies qu'on enlu%"crott 
aiscmcnl aux Anglais; qui \'uus vaudroît la conttancc et un appuit de 
l'honorable Congrès, qui tt>nvaJncroil enfin le Roy de France <lu vîf 
intérêt que vous prenez a une |>uur laquelle il a déjà fait des 
grand KKTÏiia-s, et qui vous procuieroit de sa part en peu du tems tous 
les secours imaginables. 

Voila ce que mon attachement a vous, messieurs, ma dictes, si mon 
«lie et le bon exemple que je me propose de donner dans cette Expé- 
dition en Cas qu'elle ait lieu \'ous agrées^ je suis prêt a Emplo}'er mes 
facultés corporelles Intclcctuelle, Je suis prêt a répandre mon sang en 
votre faveur, vous n'avez qu'un mot a dire pour cela, dans cet Espoir 
j'ay rhonneur de vous presenter mes tendres afTections comme une gage 
de l'inviolable parole que je vous donne îcy de cceur et Dame. 

would deliver, from an atrocious and unbearable captivity, friends, 
relatives, and brothers; which would free your commerce; which 
would draw to you all the Indians, particularly well disposed towards 
)'ou and in whose management you are gready întcrcsitd; which 
would furnish you with much merchandise, uf which you are in want, 
merchandise scattered throughout the diffcn-nt posts, which cme would 
take away from the Knglish with ease; an cxijedition, which would 
gain for you the confidence and supjjort of the honourable Congress; 
which, in short, would convince the King of France of the keen interest 
(hat you take in a cause for which he has already made great sacririccs, 
and which would procure in a short time for you all the succor ima^n- 
able from his bounty. 

Here is, gentlemen, what ray love for you bas dictated to me. If 
my zeal and the good example which I propose to give in this expedition, 
if it takes place, please you, then I am ready to employ ray bodily and 
intellectual faculties; I am ready to shed my blood in your behalf. 
You have hut to say a word for that. It is in this hope that I have the 
honor to present to you my tender affections as a pledge of the sacred 
word which I give you here from my heart and soul. 



A S» Louis Ic t?"* 7*« 1780. 
[Endorsed:] Address^ aux Francois etabU sur les Rives du Missisîppî 
par Mens' Motlîn de la Balme, Colonel Francois ei Pensionaire du Roi 
de Fronce, &c. a S' Louis le 17"'= Scpl" 1780. 

Reçu a Quebec le 4"" de Dec^ 1780 


At St. Louk, Sept. 17, 1780. 
[Endorsed:] Addrcs-scrf to the French settled on the hanks of the Mis- 
sûsippi, by M. Mottin dc la BaJmc, French Colonel and pensioner of 
the King of France, etc. 

At St. I^uis, Sept. 17, 1780. 

Received at Quebec the fourth of December, 1780. 

Inhabitants or Kaska^kia to Dc la Bauuc September 29, 1780 
[M. C. T. MSS.— Auwiwl Copy.J 

Addresse des habitants des KasfGisKias 

A Monsieur Motlin de la Balme Colonel français, et Pensionnaire 
du Koy de fiance, ancien Inspecteur General de La Cavalery des Etal» 
unis De La Merique 5:c. &;c. Ikc 


Témoins du Zcl qui Vous anime En faveur des Infortunés français 
qui habitent Ses Centrées, joint aux peu d'éxpericnœ que nous avons, 
nous engage d. Réclamer Votre prulecûon, nous Vous prions Listament 

Address of the inhabitanis uf Ka^kaskia,' 

To M. Mottin dc la Balmc, French Colonel, and Pensioner of the 
King of France, former In.<tpector General of the Cavalry of the United 
States of America, etc, etc,. 

.\s witnesses of (he zeal which animatr.s you In favor of the unfnr- 
tunale French who inhabit these regions, joined to the lilUc exjicricncc 
we have, we arc induced to ask for your protection. Wc urgently be- 

> Al the linw I «u «Tilinj! the Inlroduclian to lit. flin. Collations. l\ . ihw addrcu la Dc Ia B«lme 
i>u mâpluxl Kin«s my lupm, lOtlHl on p. xciv„u. i, I MainJ Ihal luj addrMi f com KaAukliiluul 
bem (n>âTciL Uolunutuid*, il ttimiial tgcnrc [» Iv ■* vdualilc ai 1 had hupcd, and ■>■ reaxdut 
•«•at* il MM Ui be coDiDHtil to <hc memoiial oS t>i« CabnkUjia E''i"'<*<l 'i> II)» ibove voliune U., p. sjs. 
Of tlut lit Ihe faifle of VbtEnnn, a cupy uJ afiich ii in the Unu^d C'litaicn, T. USS. 


de Vouloir prettec une oreille attentive au ces jusles Kcprcseûtations, 
d'un peuple qui Gemy depuis Longtemps Sous La tirannyc; L'orsqu'il 
devToicot cstre Libres. 

Depuis L'arrivées des Virginiens aux iltlnois et Les promesses qu'ils 
nous ont faits de jouir paisséblcnient Des droits attachés aux Ktats unis 
de La Merîquc Promesses que nous \'oyons aujourd'huy n'eslre autres 
choses que des fictions, desquels jusqua Ce jour nous avons Eté Duties ; 
Nous avons Eté Constament malheureux. 

Nous aurons L'honneur de Vous prévenir et De Vous assurer Mon- 
sieur que nos Cœurs et nos Sentiments Sont français, et que nous ne 
dégénérons jamais de Cette qualité Estimable a nos Yeux; Ce|>endant 
Les Virginiens qui Se Sont Inlroduil chez nous aux aux [sk] nom de La 
&ance Et des Etats unis alliez de cette Puissance nont cherchez que 
notre perte Soit dans La Guerre qu'ils nous ont alliées de La part des 
Indiens amis des français mf me Soit En levant de Vive forces nos sub- 
sistances, aux prejudices de nos familles qui En manquent. Soit En&n 
par d'injustes Exactions dont Le Detail Seroit trop long, Et mi^rae Dé- 
placée a Vous faire En cette lùrrit; Kn Effets Monsieur n'est ce pas 

scech you to lend an attentive car to these just supplication of a people 
who have been gnwning for a long time under tyranny, when they ought 
to he free. 

We have been constantly wretched, ever since the arrival at Illinois 
of the Virginians with the promises they made us that wc should ]>cacc- 
ably enjoy the rights belonging to the United Slates of America, — • 
promises which, wo now sec, were nothing more than fii:tion, by which 
wc have been to this very day duped. 

Wc have the honor to inform you and to assure you, .sir, that our 
hearts and our sentiments arc French, and that we shall never degenerate 
in respect to this quality so estimable in our eyes. Nevertheless, Ihe 
Virginians, who introduced themselves into our country in the name of 
France and the United States, allied to the former puwcr, liavc sought 
nothing but our destruction, either in war, which they instigated on the 
part of the Indians — the friends of the French — or in stealing by main 
force our sustenance, lo the detriment of our families who lack, because 
ol it, or fmally by unjust exactions, the detail of which would be (oo 
long to make you and even out of place in this writing. In truth, sir, is 


violer Lm traitds sacrés qu'ils ont fait avec Le Roy Oc france, Notre 
ancien monarque, que de molester contre touts Droits d'ancien Sujets, 
toujours prêts a Se joindre a Ces Drapeaux, et a Ceux de Ses allies que 
de ruiner sans resource des Colons, aui moment ou ils Connvcnroicnt 
a Sortir de La mtserre Insuparablc Des Nouveaux Etahlisements, En 
détruisant Les habitations tuant a Coup de mousquet Les animaux 
domestiques Dont ils ne SauroienT Se passer, El en introduisant une 
Monoj-e Sans Valeur qu'ils Refusent eux même Et qui Réduit Ix 
Numeraire absolument a Rien Eh Sorte qu'if nous Est phtsiqucmcnt 
Impossible de nous procurer des Secours quelconques, En saisisant Kn 
cnLcvant, a force ouverte, Les Marchandises des malheureux habitants ; 
En Soutenants des familles Etrangerres qui ne \^vent journellement que 
de Rapine Et en nous Menussant de nous fusUlicrs En Cas de resistance 
Envers des ordres dictées par L'injustice, et la Ra]>acité De Ceux (|ui 
Oacnt Les donner. 

Voila Jucscsatement,' Jsuccessivement] Monsieur Le tableau des 
meaux qu'endurent d'infortunit'ea habitants qui Se jettent dans Vos 
bras avec une cnticrrc Coafiancc que Redame La justire de Leurs 

it not violating the sacrwl trealiea which they have made with the king 
of France, our former monarch, lu molest, against all rights, former sub- 
jects who are nlwa}-!) ready to join under his Hag and that of his allies? 
Is it not a violation to ruin irretrievably some of these colonists at the very 
moment when they are lieginning to come out of the unliiïarable poverty 
of new settlements, by destroying Ifie homes, Icilling with their muskets 
the domestic animals which the tnh:ibitanls can ill afford to lose, and hy 
introducing a valueless money whii h they themselves refuse and which 
reduces the currency to absolutely nothing, so that it is physically 
impossible for us to get any kind of help whatever, and furthermore by 
seizing, by stealing by o|M-n force, the menrhandLsc of the unfortunate 
inhabitants, by maintaining alien families who live daily otdy by means 
of robbery, an<l by threatening to shout us, in case we make nisistance 
lo orders dictated by the injustice and the greed of tliosc who dare to 
give them. 

Here is in order, sir, the picture of the oppressions endured by 
the unfortunate seltlcrs, who throw themselves into your arms with the 

• word "JMWM0U '* wu wriiwn fini anl ihao a» aiinniii wa* nudr \t clmntr i\. 



anciens Souverains, et Celle de L'hnnnorabtc Congrès; imploré ea 
notre faveur Monsieur, que Ix zellc pur infattquabic et Sans borne 
qui Semble Vous animer. Envers Les Maliieureux français de Ces Con- 
trés désolé Vous porte a nous tirer de L'oppiessïou Sous Laquelle nous 
Gémissons. Vous Connoîsscz notre infortune, et La Justice de notre 
Causse, agisez En notre nom. Ce que Vous ferais est d'avanoe approuv<5 
de Nos Concitoyens, Nous Vous Revêtons De tous Les droits neCessaire 
En concequance; Eoân Nous Vous Reconnaissons unanimement Pour 
notre protecteur Et Notre Suprême Chef, En attendant Le Succès que 
nous avons Lieu D'espérer de vos demarches. 

Nous avons L'Honneur D'c&tre avec une Respectueusse affection 
et un Inviolable attachement 

Monsieur \'os très humbles et très affectionés Serviteurs Délibéré 
aux KasKasKias Le 29""* 7'*^ 1780. 

I Transîiiiion.] 

entire confidence called for by the justice of their former sovereign and 
that of the honorable Congress. Implore in our name, sir, and may 
that genuine, untiring, and boundless zeal, which seems to animate you 
for the unfortunate French of these desolate regions, cause you to suc- 
ceed in drawing us out of this oppression under which we groan. You 
know our misfortune and the justice of our cause. .\ct in our name, 
and whatever you do is approved in advance by our fellow-citizens; 
we invest you with all the rights necessary thereto. In short wc recog- 
nize you unanimously as our protector and our supreme chief. While 
waiting for the success which we have reason to hope from your 
efforts, we have ihc honor to be, with a respectful esteem and an un- 
changeable atlachmeot, sir, 

Your very liumblc and very devoted servants 
Resolved, at Kasiuiskia, Sept. 39tb. [7S0. 


Stateucnt op Goous Purmishe» Db la Balheî, October 2, 1780 

[M. C. T. MSS.— D.S.] 
Etat De fourniture quoa luy Los habitants des KasKasKia pour 
L'expédition De Monsieur Le Colonelle de la fialme SCavoire 

Mes'* peheric paux de cberreuU 

Joseph Rrtsrt un chevalle >5o" 

AM iieme i De poudre a 15.. ...<i 1 45 " 

un pot taflui au sauvage. 30^ 

JcAii Bat. SI* Jcmme Bsuvar 

un ChcvalCc LuiScrvsosdc Montum. >.•> joo" 

htulivr»de poudre .,..i..i ^.4 .. . no" 

100 II farine de farine [ne] En batfié . 35 t' 

Un voîa);e De Cbarelce au Kâokia pour Mener Le» EfTec de l'expcdûion 

Dbtanase Des Kj& de vînte deux Lieux 60^1 

Un Bary Cerctee de ferre foumy aux outUaia NaSion yndienc du oiu- 

btche ao" 

Mr. Nicolas La Chanw 

100" De balle a 35 laS" 

4» de poudre donee a son fils E^t a Jaîson [?]a tj" 60 <■ 

Statement of the goods furnished by the inhabitants of Koskaskia 
for the expedition of Colonel de la Baline. To wit 

[Reckoned la] furs, decrakln^ 
livres sals. 

MM. JoMph Kama, a hane, ■ 950 

Toiheaame J of powder aL 15 45 

A jujl of tafia to an Indiitn,- ..(.......... ao 

Jean Baptiste Si Gemme Baunûs 

A bone «erving him a.i mount ...i^... 300 

Ei^l pounda of powder ISO 

100 poundx of flour fur biicuît 35 

A wagon-trip to Caboku (o lake the goods of ihe expedition, a distance of 

33 les)(ucs frotti RaskusWia - 60 

A barrel hooped with iron, furnished to the Ouiaianons, an Itidian nation 

of the Wahash jo 

M. Klcotas Locbansc 

too pounds of shot at 25 - IS5 

Pour pAundA of powder (^ven to bis son and to Jaaon at 15 lines 60 


S b'^audevie auontoine a lo" 50" 

une Chaudierre Couverte au ontaya 30 " 

40 De besquy 17 H los 


Stûie De Lautre part En pelterie 

paux de Chevreuil 

1133" loS. 
Mis. NiColas janiase 

6" Est I de poudre a 15 100' 

140 11 farine En bbqui 47 "loS. 

147 "loS. 

joaepht Du plasy 

Un Chcvalle Sellée Est brida 250 » 

10 " De poudre aïs" 150 " 

60" de bisqui 20" 

Expedition totalle 1700 H pelterie 

Je Certifie que Le present Compte a de l'autre Est veritable d on j'ay 
Plaine Connoissance Duplasi 

KasKasKias le 2'"« 8**"= 1780 


Five holtlcs of brandy to Antoine at 10 livres jo 

A kettle with cover to Antaya 30 

Forty pounds of biscuit 17 10 

383 10 
Brought over from the other side in furs, deerskins 1133 10 

M. Nicolas Janis 

6| pounds of powder at 15 100 

140 pounds of flour for biscuit 47 10 

147 10 
M. Joseph Duplasy 

Ahorse, saddle, and bridle 350 

Ten pounds of powder at 15 livres 150 

60 pounds of biscuit 30 

Total for the expedition 1 700 livres in peltries. 

I certify that this account and that on the other page is true, of which 
I have full knowledge. Duplasy. 

Kaskaskia, October 3, 1780. 


>BER 17, I7to 


Richard Winston |o John Todd, October 17, 1780' 
IDni|icr MSS.. S0J69. — A. L. S.] 
Sir, Cascakia i^'"" Oct' 1780 

Yours by M'" Lindsay was the last I have the Honor of Receiving 
since which n» favourahlc opportunity has offered wherewith you could 
expect to hear frnm mc until Mr. William Ciclaspic's departure by whom 
I wrote yau as fully as I could concerning ihis Country and in Particular 
all that regarded your Department ; all which I must think you have 
forst'cn before you went off, the disagreeablcncss of which every thinking 
man would avoid and of which I now send you duplicate together with 
some additions since that time. The State of the Illinois is far from be- 
ing in so easy a way as might have been expected from the Declaration 
of the Gen' Assembly had their Officers a little Oeconomy, concerning 
which the Magistrates did remonstrate, which remonstrance was treated 
as insolence and Impertinence, for lianng dared to remonstrate against 
tlicir ruinous pr<Keeding3. I wish all may be looked into in the hopes 
of which all is tin Record. As b* the Peltries you left with Col^ Mont- 
gomcric & mc ilicy [were] taken out iif my hands and I am left Ix;- 
hiiidhand for fifteiTn Packs.' how I will or may be indemnified I know 
nut Col" Montgonu^rie says that his Kstatc is sufficient to pay a great 
dea] more. I wish it may Ir* so. I was by force obliged lo give up 
as I could not contend with Bayonctts for a thing that is not. my own. 

I refer you to M' Lindsay concerning the gootLs purchased by him 
at New Orleans, ihcy are now in the possession of him and the Plus- 
trious Cap. D<Klge. I wish Oovernm* may get a siitisfactory Ace •^ of 
them, yet I doubt it. this part of the World is tixi far fnjm Government 
local] people lo acco» before it is too late, there is great strides taken 
for to make Money at any rale. As to our Civil department it is in but 
an indifferent way ever [sincej the Military have refused us their 
Prison for which we off|ered to] Pay very handsomely and since whi<'h 
they stretch greatly [to bring] the Country under the Military Rod, and 
throw off the Civil authority so fond they are to be nieddling with what 
h not within their Power, there is strange things carried on in this 
place. Col. Monlgoracric is gone from here with Brookes & family 
Thank God. Ca[»" Bra-sheares is married loBrookes's daughter Con- 
sequently has Quit the Scr\-icc and gone with the rest. Col^ Mont- 

< TUi k prlnlol la Va. Slatt Pafnt, I, jSo aiuS Cbliasu Hi». Soi \r\y Ctiittiant, {v, jjg, 

I Yat MantBoaiery'i luimmt caacxnilat Ihcw pdttte», m< m«, p. ■ i8, im. 



gnmcric on the day before his departure did endeavour to settle the 
Pcltrie fund with in which he failed, and Ix-sides the Draughts by him 
drawn on mc and liy me Aca:ptcd, to the am* of fifteen parks he has 
fallen iUiorl eleven Parks, and what the rest has been expended in is to 
he looted into by higher (lowcrs. there is no accf receipts only for so 
many packs without saj-ing for why or for what. Such is the proceeding 
of Col. Montgomcric, who left this ig'** Inst, and carried with him 
large quantities of Provisions, Boats deeply loaden besides five Black 
slaves for all which the Puhlick fund has suffered. Since the arrival of 
this Cap" Bentley there has been nothing but dLicord & disunion in the 
place, he has left no stone unturned to extinguish Ihc Laws of the 
State and to revive the Heathen Law l>eing well accustomed to Bribes 
& entertainments. Gowmment Ought to regulate the Trade as there 
is many abuses committed under Military- sanctions. There passed 
this way a Frenchman called himself Col' de la Balme, he says in the 
American Service. I look upon bim to be a Mai Content much dis- 
gusted with the Virginian ytt I must say he done st>mc good, he Pacified 
the Indians, he was received by the Inhabitants as the Hebrews would 
receive the Messiah, was conducted from the Post here by a large detach- 
ment nf the Inhabitants as wx'U as différent Trilx-s of Indians he went 
from here against Detroit. L>e well assured that the Indians were on his 
side, got at this place & the Kahos about fifty Volunteers, are to Ren- 
dezvous at Ouia. Cap" Duplaisie iwm here went along with him to 
go I'hiladelphia, there to lay before the French Embassador all the 
Grievionces labours under by the Virginians which is to he strongly 
backed by M. de la Balme. 'tis the general opinion that he will take 
Baubin tlie great Partizan at Miamls and from thence to Fort Pitt. 
this is all that I can say only that he passed about one Month here with- 
out seeing Colo. Montgomerie nor did Mnntgomerie see him. It being 
so long a time since we had any news from you we concluded therefrom 
that Government has given us up to do for ourselves the best we can 
until such time as it pleases some other state or Power, to take us under 
their protection, a few lines from you woul[d] give some of us great 
satisfarlion j-et the gencrallily of the People are of the opinion ihat thb 
Country will l>c given up to FranLc be that as it will a few lines from 
you [will] add much to the happiness of 

Dear Sir Vr. M* Kb"" Rich-i Winston. 




24, 1780. 
pnper MSS., 5oJ;i. — A, L. S.] 

Kaskaskias 34*^*' Octo. 1780 
Dear Sœ, 

As the Gentlemen to whom the Letters Sent herewith may not be at 
Louisville I therefore make bold to Trouble you, and pray's you forward 
them to Their address, as Soon as posuble as the Bearer gwfî no farther 
than your Post, Lett me request [^5. %mper}cc(\ Kindly and to T^tt 
him have any Little thing he might Stand in need of for his rctuni on 
ace* of the Commonwealth. 

For new's we haw none, Colo' Montgoraerj- is gone home by way 
of Orleans, all the Troops are gone to Fort Jefferson EtcepI Cap- 
tain Rogers's Troop of Light Dragoons that are at Fort Clujlt waiting 
for further Ord'* having nothing more to add Concludes with Best 
wishes for You and all the good people of Louisville and am 
D"- Sir Your Very Hum'" & Obed» Serv* 

Rich*" Winston 

Capl" Brashcars is Maricd to Brokes's Daughter and the whole tribe 
arc giinc with Montfjoinrry. 
[Addressedil The Commanding officer att Louisville. Falls ol Ohio 

John Montgomery to Gxorcr Wbbb, April 23, 178» 
[Va. State Lib. — A, I* S.] 

Richmond, April 33, 178a 

Agrecai>lc to your Request I have over tooket my reccts and find 
onlay two Recepts for Bills of Eichauge drawn on Mr. Olliver pnlick ' 
the one in favour of Mr. Lefang the first to the amount of three thousand 
five hundred dollars and there Ajwars to be yet two other Bills drawn 
on the treasury of Virginia for This the one in favour of Mr. perault 
in behalf of Oliver jrolick for which I Refer you to Capt John Dodges 
Bookes where you will see the amount of the Articles & the Use the 
were applied to the amount of Betwixt Eight and nine thous.ind Dollars 
at which time the tnipes must Either Avacuatcd the Cuntrcy and rtin 

1 Olivrr P(illi<li «at iicnil for Virnniii in N«w Orbsii'. Mnuy nl Ihc billi conlraclMl by Clw% 
utd hu cAccn mat fêià by dmllj on PnlUcfc- lli. Uiil. CoUtdimu, ii., pp. ilii,. Izxv. 



the Risk of Starving on their gunney if I had not a maid that purchas, 
The other in favour ol Mr. Molvost to the amount of upward of three 
thousand Dollars the Exct Sum I Cant Certify By the Reason I had the 
Misfortune to Loose the Acount By Being oversit in the Masedpï. tbe 
Reason of my giving the Bill in favour of Molvost I was ordered to go 
in an expedition to Opee ' one hundred and forty Leagues By orders 
from General Clark where I was obliged to purchase Botes & pro- 
vision for three hundred and fifty men fc could not Git them on Eny 
other tarms,' you may think hard of the Bill Bciag so high But nolwith- 
slandtng the Sum tk were Constrained toeate our Horses on our Return 
after fasting five days. 

Which 1 did Chcrfuley in behalf of my Cuntrey Had I made a forton 
in the lime people moui hid Reason to Suspected me But to the Con- 
trcary I havp spent one or at least my all But am in hopes to Be Eable 
to Live a piwr and priwt Life after wards, it is now almost fore years 
That r have not Receive one shilling from Govcrracnt Not Withstanding 
I advanced Every Shilling I had & strancd my Credit till it Became 
Shred Bear Rather than draw Bills on the State Still in hopes of som 
fund Being sent to scport the trapes But at Last wa.s Compcld to it. I 
now ow two hundred pounds in the Illinois Ul)ich they have my obli- 
gation for for the seport of the irups that was Left under my Command, 
there will apear a Large number of Bills drawn, \Vhich Mentions so 
much money advanced mc for the Rccrui Jng Sarvis the Bounty for one 
hundred men at Seven hundred and dftcy dollors Each Agréable to an 
act of .'Vsembley far which I hope will Be Honoured as the Men are 
now for during the War and Bills drawn for provisions I have .sent you 
an abstract By Major CritUngton This I Certify to be a trcw State of 
the mater .'\nd if aneything Else a pears it must Be a counterfit and I 
have the honour sir to Be your humble sarvt 

John Montoouerv. 
[Addressed:] Honb. George Webb 

* Eipcdiiian to Kock Riva in i}So. tU. tiid. C rUt t Uom i , iL. b«nU. 



Inhabitants of Kaskasku to Lu7xrne, do date. 

[M. C, T. MSS. — Altaled Copj-.] 
A Son Excellenre Monseigneur Le Chevalier de la Luzcnw am- 
basadeur pour Sa Majesté très Crethienne [sk] auprès des Etat unis &c. 


La sensibilité que nous a témoignié, Monsieur Le Colonel La Balmc 
a son Pasage dans cette colonie de la triste ï>ituation ou nous nous 
trouvons Sous Le Gouvernement des Virginiens nous décida à Luy 
adresser tin Ecrit ou nous Luy Expliquions En Bref Les meaux dont 
nous nous trouvions accablés, sur La promesse qu'il nous tit de 
s'intenlsser pour nous auprès du Congrès Général par Le MûUstcrc de 
votre Excellence, afin d'obtenir Le Redressement des Griefs que nous 
Luy avons Expliqué. 

Notre pais Environn<k! de Barbares Et en partie nos Ennemis, par 
Les Rc^"oIutions de la Guère, Et animés par La Profusion des Presents 
qu'on tcur Li\*rc toutes jours ont mis un obstacle fatal au Projet de 
Moniùcur La Balme party dicy avec un Certain nombre de français 
pour une Expédition quil projetait pour Le Detroit, plusicur de Ce 

To his Excellency, IVtonseigncur Chevalier de la Luzerne, Anv 
bassador for his most Christian Majesty to the United States, etc. 


The sympathy for us, which Colonel dc la Balmc manifested, while 
pas^ng through this colony, on account of the sad situation in which 
we find ourselves under the government of the Virginians, induced us to 
address to him a piece of writing in which we explained briefly the evils 
with which wc wfre oppressed. We did this because of the promise 
which he made us to represent our interests to the General Congress 
through the ministry of your Exccllenc)' in order to obtain justice for 
the wrongs wc explained to him. 

Our country is surrounded by Indians sumc of whom are uur enemies 
by the changes of the war. Animated by tlie prolusion of presents 
which arc given to tlicm nvery day these have placed a fatal obstacle 
to the plaos of M. de la Balme, who went away from here with a number 
of Frenchmen on an expedititm which he plarmcd again-st L'etroit. 
Several members ol this party have ;uât returned and report that, after 



party viennent d'arïver icy qui raportent qu'après Sitrc Emparé du 
fort des miamis quils ont éié ataqu^s par cette natioQ en se rcsterant, 
que plusieurs ont été tui5s mais quils ignorent si Monsieur Le Colond 
En Est du Nombre, ou s'il y a cté fait primnier. 

Cet Evénement fâcheux nous fcsoit Entrevoir rjuc notre Ecrit aura 
été Intercepté, Kt que par conscquuns votre Excellence ignorera La 
triste situation d'ancien Sujet d'un prince q\ie nous chcrisons, nous 
prenons la litwrttf de vims adresser une C(>ptc de I^crit dont Loriginal 
a clé Remis a Monsieur Lalialmc signes de tous les Citoyens; 

L'aliance entre Le Roi de franrc notre premier maître, Et Txs Etats 
de Lamerique nos souverains aujourd'huy, nou« Engngncnt, Monseig- 
neur de suplicr votre Exrelltncx' de vouloir voua intéresser auprès du 
congres General pour Le Redressement ries Oriefs que nous Expliquons 
par notre Ecrit. 

Notre Génie Est Si peu de Chose quil ne noas est Pas Possible de 
nous Exprimer dans des termes assca ellequan pour vous faire con- 
noitre La Sincérité de nos Coeurs, nous Sommes Eloignes de la Pro- 

having taken possession of the fort of the Miamis, they were attacked 
by thai nation and in retreating many were killed ; but that they do not 
know whether the colonel was one of the killed or whether he was 

This unfortunate event causes us to believe that our letter may have 
been intercepted, and that consequently your Excellency is ignorant of 
the sad situation of the furmer subjects of a prince whom we love. We 
therefore take the liberty to send to you a copy of the writing, the 
original of which signed by all tlie inhabitants was given to M. de la 

The alliance between our former master, the king of France, and 
the states of America, our present sovereigns, induce us, Monseigneur, 
to beg of yoiu" Excellency to be kind enough to intercede for us in the 
General Congress for the reparation of the wn>ngs, which we explain 
in our writing. 

Our talent is so limited that tt is impossible for us to express our- 
selves in terms eloquent enough to cause you to know the sincerity of 
our hearts. We are separated from the protection which belongs to us, 

I He ms kUlFil uJ hU pipcn capttirrd, Tboe woe imtl In (liiiRinfa lUdimuiij ul rjiuuli, 
nnù Id tin» vvrr dtiuiiird in Uir Briilili Miutrum- 



tection qui vous appartiens, gouvernés Par des Gens qui nont pas 
Jusquaiijourd'huy propos»! a La Société une forme de Gouvernement 
ny administration de la Justice Civîî seul apui de T,«3ristancc du Citoyen 
abandonné donc a nous même, Monseigneur sous la confiance de Cette 
même aliance qui nous Lie par un Esprit Patriotique, il ne nous Laisse 
d'autre apui que la Protection de votre Excellence que nous réclamons 
comme anciens Sujets d'un Prince dont voits môme ete sujet. 
Nous avons L'honneur dctrc avec Le plus Profond Respect 
Monseigneur de Notre Ejccellencc Les trcs humbles obéissant Et 
soumis Serviteurs 
A Son Excellence 

MoNSEiGNEirs Le Chevalieb De La Luxeske 

and arc governed by people who have not thus far proposed to the com- 
munity a form of government or administration of civil justice, the only 
support for the existence of the citizen. Thus abandoned to ourselves, 
Monseigneur, and in the confidence of that same alliance which binds 
us by a patriotic spirit, there is left to iw no other support than your 
Excellency's protection, which we ask as former subjects of a priace 
of whom you are a subject yourself. 

We have the honor to be with profound respect. Monseigneur, your 
Excellency's very humble, obedient, and submissive servants. 

To bis Excellency 




Beîstley Writes to his Enemtrs — John Rot.eks Makes Demani>s — 
Thk Magistrates Complain ok Furthfh Exactions — George 
MoRCAN Writes to Dodge — Captaix Rookks Thrkatexs an» tue 
Magistrates Show Soue Spirit — Captacn George Sevds ms 
Si-MPATHY — Accounts of Mismanagement — Winston Criticises the 
Court — Thomas Bentley Refuses to Take Oath or Alixgianck 
— He Appeals ro Virginia — Ricoaho M'Cariy is Appointed Com- 
MissiovKR TO Virginia aîîd Makes ms Wn.L— A Memorial to the 
Governor — CAPTAfN Jams Writes of De la Balmb. 

Thouas Bentley 10 ois Kneuies, Sepivmbcr 5, 17S0 

[M. C, T. MSS.— Allcslcd Copy.] 

Mcs»curs les habitans Particulièrement Ceux qui ne sont pas mes 
amis, mais qui clierchcnt a me faire tord. 

A mon retour Chémoy hier après midy, J'ay apris qu'il y avoit une 
Bandit, où dclachcmcnt Des habïtans a ma maison, Ce cy, rt-nouvcllc 
En moy loutles les lujures que J'ay reçu Du terap de roclicMavc, La 
trainc formé Coaû'e moy par ce quoqin [sic] Et Ea plus Grande partie de 
Vous ses Complisses, les atestations faites (rendent que j'etoia En Can- 
adas pour me ruiner Et soutenir Rocheblave, Cojiie de laquelles j'ai 
entre mes main témoins Contre vous vos sentiment D'honneur, t^n- 


Mesaeurs the inhabitants, particularly those who are not my friends, 
but who seek to do me harm. 

Upon my return home yesterday aficmoon, J learned that there 
had been a band or detachment of the inhabitants there. This revives 
in me the memory of all the injuries that I suffered in Ihe lime nf Roche- 
blave. The drag-net prepared against me by that rogue and most of 
you, his confederates, the attestations made while I was in Canada in 
order to ruin me and support Rocfacblave, a copy of which 1 have in 
my hands, bear witness against you of your sentimems uf honor, gener- 



érosilé ou amitic, Et que presque tout les habitant He C'est Endroit ce 
sont jiiicnt h Rochcblavc Pour me détruire El mcstne se sont rejouît de 
ma. Destruction. 

Vos satisfactions k mon malheur ne pouvoit ^strc plus Evidante que 
dans vos Caresses, et soufrancjcs] La soctt?l(; D'unnc Grasc [Garce], 
tnfammc, Et abandonne qui à vécu publiquement En violation de 
toutte Loix humaines et Divine, Je sçay que la plus Grande partie de 
vous sont mortiffié En me vovent me diîbatrc pour surmonter les diffi- 
culté dont vous mesme Conjouinctemcnt avec le Quoquin Rochcblavc, 
Cerré et autres mont chargé, Je suis persuades qu'il n'y En à pas dix 
parmy Vous dans Ce Village qu'il ne souaitcrois me voir Ecrazé sous 
le fardeau de Mes malheures, Je sçay que C'est un Crime pour un 
Maudy Anglais D'etitreprendre de rester parmy vous Les Irlandais 
vous convîcncQt mieux, Ils sont Egales a vous En perfidie, Et pour 
mentir» flalcr, et Boire Du taffias auteni qu'auq'un de vous. Je ne 
désire Pas vos visites Chëmoy de telle façon les regardant pour Le plus 
grand Insulte Et vous falrié bien de vouâ désister, personne qui me veut 

osity, and friendship, and that almoâl ail the inhabttanls of this place 
joined themselves to Rocheblave to destroy me, and that they rejoiced 
at my downfall. 

Your satisfaction in my misfortune could not be more evident than 
in the kindnesses shown to, and in suffering ihe society of, a wench 
infamous and abandoned who lived publicly in violation of all laws 
human aud divine.' 1 know that most of you are mortified to see me 
struggling to overcome the difficulties which you yourselves, conjointly 
with that rascal Rocheblave, Cerré, and others, have brought upon me. 
I am persuaded that there are not ten amongst you in this \'illage who 
would not like to see me trushed under the load of my misfortunes. 
1 know that It is a crime for a damned Englishman lo aiiempi to stay 
among you; Irishmen suit you belter; they arc equal to you in per- 
fidy; OS for lying, fialtering, and drinking latia ihcy tan do it as well as 
any of you.' I do not desire your viàts to my home in this fashion, 
for I con^iider them as the greatest insult; and you would do well to 

> ProlaUy > irfrrniCC tu lih wifr. lec fnl, p «jt, 

fdUMd 10 live viiii liis wtic alter hb rttvm lu Ulinon. 

TImtc b pltttty ol evidcacc (lui BcnitRf 

' Rdncncr I» Riclnnl MTartr.wllhirluint ItCDllry had a laKwltal ibbllmc. Scic»B<c,pL3t6; 
lU. Uin. CtlUiiwm, lu, cl. 



du bien ne vien Chfcmoy De tcEIe façon; ma maison En loutcmps Est 
ouverte pt.»ur mes amy si j'en ay je les connoit, et Suis toujour pan^à 
leurs donner toutle satïsfactioa, quon peut Exiger d'un homme d'hon- 
neur et d'intégrité. Quelque Vagabons Infâmes à Eu L'sudace de 
Demander A visiter mes livres Rien que L'ignorance sans Pareille, 
Jouint au plus parfait Impertinence Irlandais pouvois penser à Cela, 
un homme du mouindre honneur auroîs le méprisé pareille idée. 

Je suis informé que la Caujte pour laqualîc Vous *tvs Venue est 
raporC au ta£as Donné au Nègres à Ce sujet Je vous satisfait sur l'hon- 
neur D'un homme dintegrilé; Ce ncst point de moy qu'ils En ont Eu ny 
de personne de ma part, ayenl slrictcmcnt deffcndue pareille Commerce. 

Je Conclus En disvnt que si Chaqun de vous agissoit En Caractaire 
Donestc homme autant que J'ai toujour fait, vous ne Cherchcrie pas ma 
destruction Comme vous avés déjà fait, les Effets mellan<:oliquv Des 
quel Je me resent Encaure, El vous nskuric pas Cherché à me détruire 
Comme il nie paroit que Vous Este Encaure passionâ a faire, Je suis 
M" voire &c &c &c 

signe Thomas Dingtelav 

desist. No one who is well disposed towards me comes to my house in 
such a manner. My hou&e is at all times open to my friends. If I have 
any, 1 know them and I am always prepared to give (hem all the satis- 
faction that can be asked of a man of honor and integrity. Some in- 
famous rascal had the auiJacity to ask to Inspect my books. Nothing 
but unparalleled ignorant*, joined to the most perfeci Iriiih imjiertinence, 
could think of such a thing; aman of the least honor would have scorned 
such an idea. 

I am informed that the cause fur which you came was in regard to the 
tafia given to the negroes. On this subject I can satisfy you on the 
honor of a man of integrity, that it was not from me that they had it 
nor from any iicrson in my employ, «nee I have strictly forbidden such 
a commerce. 

I conclude hy sap'ng that, if each one of you acted the character 
of an honest man as well as I have done, you would imt seek my down- 
fall, as j-ou have already done, the melancholy results of which I still 
resent ; and you would not ha\*e sought to destroy me as it seems to me 
that you are still most eager to do, I am, genllcmcn, your etc. etc. etc. 

(Signed) Thomas Bentlev 




Je suis Informé que lachansc Et Brazeatix son à acumuler tout \es 
mahis pour Mr. Ccrré, Pourquoy naurois je pas la même liberté, tendis 
que peutestre Je donne de meilleur Marchandise Kl à meilleur marché, 
la raizon Est que M"" Cerré à qui Je prouvera un jour avenir qu'il est 
un homme sans sentiment, Est un français, Et Moy un maudy anglais. 

aurois je rcsue dans ma maison une ville Garce ])rostitué. Et sans 
principe, le Compurlcmi-nt De la quelle mferitc le mcpris de touttcs 
personne qui possède le mouaindru sentiment D'honneur Je suis Con- 
vaincu que Jauruis Kn vos apiirohatiun Et Congratulations à Ce Sujet, 
mais iMîrmcté moy Mes-iâcurs que je vous dize, que Je ne Cherche point 
Vos applaudissement voyent que Je ne puis le gagner sans avillîr ma 
réputation Ed ver le reste du munde Les yeux du monde sont Sur moy 
El Je Vous .ipi)ni[ideruy de sçavoar que les vrais Englais possedott Des 
sentiments Inconnue a la genneratlittî du monde. 

Je nentent [Kiint la pr&ï«nle pour mes amis ain» il n'y prcnderons 
point de mal, pour mets Ennemis ils pourons faire Comme ils voudrons 
Je nay pasEncaure unis avec Eux, J'espairé D'avoir Justice Contre Eux. 


Sept. 5, 1780, 

I am informed that Lachansc and Brazcaux are gathering alt the 
corn fur M. Ccrré. Why should I not have the same lil)crty, inasmuch 
as it may be that I pvc better merchandise and cheaper? The reason 
18 that M. Cerré, concerning whom I shall prove, at some future time, 
thai he is a man without feeling, h a Frenchman, and I a damned 

Could I have received in my house an old prositute wench without 
principle, whose actions deserve the scorn of all persons who possess 
the least sentiment of honor, I am convinced that I would have both 
your approbation and your congratulation» on this subject; but allow 
me to tell you, gentlemen, that I am not seeking your applause, seeing 
that I cannot gain it without soiling my reputation in the sight of others. 
The eyes of (he world are on me and I shall leach you to know that 
true Englishmen poasess sentiments unknown to the greater part of 
the world. 

I do not intend this letter for my friends; so they will not take offence. 
As for my enemies, they can take it a.s they will ; I have not yet finished 
with them; I hope lo have justice against them. 


CAPTADf John Rogers ' to the MACtsTaAXES or the Codbt at 
Kaskaskia, November lo, 1780. 

IM. C, T. MSS.— Altcslcd Copy.] 

Aux mapstrats des KasKasKîas en Cour aascmbWs 
Messieurs Jai appris que vous avez beaucoup d envie de Savoir 
pour quelle Raison Je reste en cet endroit Je voiis diray donc que cest 
en Consequence des ordres de mes Supérieurs et que je Suis Dctcrtnioé 
a y resté jusqu'à ce que Je Recois des ordres au Contraire et vous 
dcvcriés Eslrc Sensible que des troupes ne voudront pas Jeûner dans 
un pais d'abondance, en Consequence Je vous demande Comme 
magistrat Civil tenant votre autorité de Lestât que Jai L'honneur de 
Servir Comme officier immédiatement de trouver quelque moyen pour 
subsistir Les troupes en garnison, soit en leur donnant des billets de 
logement ou autrement de la manière quil vous sera la plus Conven- 
able, soyez assuré quil vous Scni plus facillc de nourir trente homme que 
trots cent que vous serez pcut-Ktre obliKc de faire en Consequence des 
mesures ((ue vous pourrés Kstre pcrsuadiîs de prendre par des mauvais 
Conseilles dont Je suis Certain vous ne manques pas, assurés vous que 

To the Magistrales of Kaskaskîa, in Court .assembled 
Gentlemen : 

I hn-e learned that you are very desirous tn know for what reason 
1 am staying in this place. I will inform you, then, that it is in conse- 
quence of the orders of my superiors and that [ am resolved to remain 
here, until I receive orders to the contrary. You ought to be aware 
[hat troops will not be willing to fast in a country of abundance, and 
[hereforc I ask you, as civil magistrates holding your authority from 
the stale which I have the honor to .serve as officer, to find immediately 
some means for maintaining the troops in garrison, either by giving 
them tickets for lodging or otherwise in the manner that may bu most 
convenient lo you. Rest assured that it will be easier to nourish thirly 
men than three hundred which you will be, perhaps, obliged to do in 
coiise<iucntL' of the measures which you may be persuaded to take 
through tlic bad counselors, in whom I am certain you are not lacking. 
Be assured that I shall not allow Ihem to pass unnoticed as tbcy itiink. 

' ColonH Miniif{nnirrT' Irft Kaiikukla^ Octuber iS, anrl Ci)>uitn ttiigm «•«« t4»cnl tn Ctm- 
masiL Oo tbt* cbaiita contult lU, Bid. C«lh4titiu, il., iip. scv. d m(. 


Jc Bc Iciir permettray pas d'cchaper mon attention Comme ils Le 
Croyent Je vous demande Encore subsistance des troupes en garni- 
son Si vous refusas vous pourras vous en repentir I/orwpiil sera Imp 
tard c'est La dernière requête de cette espèce que Jc vous ferai Jc ne 
vous demande pas des provisions Sans les payer quand il y aura des 
foods que peut Etre tot. fort Clark le 10 çbre i;8i [1780^] 

Je Suis Messieurs 
traduit par Girault Vos trfe humbles serviteur 

John Rogebs Cap"* Cumman 

I ask again for maintenance for the troops in garrison. If you refuse, 
you may repent when it will be too late. This is the last request of this 
kind that I shiiil n:iakc to you, I do not ask for pmvisions without 
paying for them, when there shall Iw funds, which may bc soon. 
I am genllcmen, 

Your very humble servant, 
John Rogkks, Captain Commanding. 
Fort Clark, No%-cmbcr 10, 1780. 
Translated by Oirault. 

The Magistrates to Captain Rckiebs, November iS, 1780 

[M. C, T. MSS.— AltMted Copy.] 

KasKasKias le iS*"" novembre 17S0 
Mr Rocers Comrad. 

Nous avons Eu L'honneur de recevoir une Lettre de vous, Sur le 
contenu de laquelle nous avons consulte tous les habitans nos concito- 


Kaskaskia, November t8, 1780 
M. Rogers, Commandant. 


We had the honour to receive a letter from ynii, on the contents of 

which we consulted all the inhabitants, our fellow-citizens, who have 

■ B^ a Iaj«u mmili tlir tlrtTe 1i» wrium ihr ytnr lwçoi>I«4 tbv Iflltf iaM«td«4 tbemr ol 
llw orûnnal. THs U pn>i«<l l>y ihciUif ofUicaiiauikin, «McnbMftreh f. itSi. The lotcnan 
Id IU, Hill. CoUniiimi, II, p. cU, ilr-iirn Irmn ikit vmnglir •bHdtOpy, «tiould lie ccrrKtJnl. 


yens Qui nous ont répondu ([uc leur attachcmcni a la Cause amcriquaine 
leur avuit fait sacrifier tous leurs Biens au scrvite de L'EUit, Qu'ils 
ont fait Evidemment depuis pr^ <Ic trois ann<!c.s, ({ui a Icllcmcnt réduit 
le Pais qu'il est hnrs d'Ktat de fournir a Lirs hahiUms La Subsistence 
nécessaire pour luy mimes, vous n'igni»nîs pas qu'aprts avoir tout pria 
ce que nous étions En Etat de fournir sans nous ruiner L'on a tué (sans 
notre sçu et contraire au loix de nuire <iimvememrnt) nos animaux de 
charuSs qui nous u mis inrapuliles de faire les Semences nécessaire Pour 
vivrcSf vous voyës donc qu'il est tout a fait Impossible que nous puissions 
vous fiiirc des fournitures de vivres malgré notre Bonne Intention. 

Nous sommes très sensibles aux menaces que vous nous faites 
puisque nous sommes assurés de ne pas les mériter qu'elle preuve plus 
convainquante de notre zé\e et de notre patriotisme, pourrés vous 
Exiger que celle que nous avons donn(î, n'avons nous pas reçu le premier 
porteur du pavillon amcriquain les bras ouverts avec la faveur de Bons 
Citoyens? n'avons nous pas prouvé notre sincérité assés En four- 
nissant tous les Besoins de la troupe depuis son arrivée icy En les 
accompagnant dans toutes les sorties qu'ils ont fait. 

answered us that their attachment to the American cause had made 
them sacrifice all their possessions to ihc service of the state, which, it is 
evident, they have done for almost three years; and this has so reduced 
the country that il caniiol furnish even the necessary subsistence to 
llie inhabilanls themselves. You arc not ignorant of the fact tliat, 
after having taken fn>m us all that wc were in a condition to furnish 
without ruining ourselves, our beasts of burden were killed without our 
consent and against all the laws of our government and that this ren- 
dered us incapable of sowing the crops nece^ssary for existance. Vou see 
then that it is altogether impossible that we should be able to furnish 
sujiplies, in sjiite of our good intentions. 

We are very sensitivt on account of the threats you make to us, 
since we are sure that wc do not deserve them. What proof more con- 
vincing of our aeal and patriotism could you require than (hose which 
we have given you ? Did we not receive the lirst standard-bearer of the 
American flag with u\tca arms and the hospitality of good citizens? 
Have we not sufficiently praved our sincerity by foumishing all the 
needs of the troops since their arrival here, and by accompanying them 
in all the campaigns they have made? 


Consider^ donc notre situation Kt vofH comme il est Impossible 
quf nous vous donninns la suKsistancc puisque nous ne l'ax-ons pas 
pour nous mime, daillcurs vous dcvtfs sçavoir que L'intention du 
Gouvernement n'est pas de nous ruiner Et Que le Colonel Clark nous 
a mis a choix de Garder où de ne pas garder des troupes icy, vous 
En sca\'és L'inutilitd. puis que nous sommes plus En Etat de nous 
protéger Contre nos Ennemis que de nous priver du peu que nous avons 
pour faire subsister nos familles Qui est loin de ce qui suffit. Enfin 
après toutes ces Considerations les habitans En General ont L'honneur 
de vous Exposer qu'il ne peuvent vous faire aucune provision vu leur 
pauvreté que vous ne dev(!s ignorer. 

Nous avons L'honneur d'être avec bien de la Consideration Mon- 
sieur Vos très humb'* Et très obéissants serviteurs 

ûgtkf jACijtTEs LaSoi'rck, sign*? Janis, signé Charles Chari-evilh;, 
signé Jean baptiste Bauvais, signé LaChanse, signé Godin. 


Consider then our situation and sec how impossible it is for us to 
^ve you the subsistance, since we do not have it ourselves. You must 
know, moreover, that the intention of the government is not to ruin, us, 
and that Colonel Clark gave u» the choice of keeping or not keeping 
troops here. You know the usclessnes» of this, since we are more able 
to protect ourselves against our enemies than to deprive ourselves of 
the Utile which we have to maintain our families, and (hat is far from 
sufficient. In short, after all these considerations, the inhabitants in 
general have the honour lo declare to j-ou that they are unable, on ac- 
count of their poverty of which you surely are not ignorant, to make any 
provision for you. 

Wc bave the honor to be, with very great consideration, 

your very humble and very obedient servants, 

(Signed) Jacques La&ourcr, (signed) Janis, C!>>?ticd} Charles 
CiiARLfiviLuc, (signed) Jkah Baphste Bacvais, (signed) Lacuanse, 
(signed) GupiN. 

Oeo8i;r Murcan to John Doi>ck, Dcccmljer i, 1780. 
[Drnper MSS-, 50J76.— A. L. S.| 

Princeton, December i'^ i;8o. 
Dear Sir, 

Yesterday t Tceeiv'd your favor dated the 13th of June which is the 



first that has come to my Hands although you have been so good as to 
send mc several. 

It gîvea me great Pleasure to hear you are so agreeably jirovidcd 
for, & that you are pleased with the Country. Whenever you havi; 
Leisure 8: Opportunity 1 shall ix much obliged by your writing to me. 
The Spot you are on & indeed the whole Country &. the ancient Inhab- 
itants are well kooun to me & I have a great regard for a Number of 
them. & those who enquire after me be pleased to make my Compli- 
ments to — particularly to M*" Janese, his good Lady, M*^'" Felicaté 
Magnion & toutes les Enfans. Mons DAichrut, Mess" CharleviUe, 
Bcauvais, Picard, Murain &c &c Sic. I intend to see them, so soon 
as the Affairs of the Illinois can be placed on proper Footing. All the 
Country, West of Allegany Mountain will probably be put under Direc- 
tion of the United States, & Virginia limited to the Waters which fall 
into the Atlantic from the West & North West. In this Case several 
New Stales will be cstabUshed, indépendant tho' United with our present 
Confcdcraiy of Thirteen. 

A Pamphlet is nnw in the Press on this Subject ' One of which I 
intend to send you. I will also send to you several of our latest News 
Papers. My Family Join in Compliments td you with 

Your Friend & bum Servant 

John Dodge Ksq*. Gbo: Murg.\n 

Do let mc kni>w how your SetlicmL-nls go on — Where you build 
Forts & What Number of Troops & Inhabitants you have at Ecntuckc 
&c &c 

To Captain John Dcxlge, .'\gcnt for the State of Vir^nia, Fort 
Jefferson. Mouth of Ohio. 

To the Care of Col' Broadhead Command" at Fort Pitt. 

I This tden to Tluimi Pdne^ "l>ut>1ic Good: Brioi u Enmluttaa law ibe Oalra cf Vit- 
dab. to liiF Vaanl Vlaim TorltaiT, aod ol the iU(ht of the UailnJ Suln lo the Saute: lo «tildi 
u Adilcd Pnyaul* lor Larlng off a .Vcw Suic. lo be Applkd u a Vwni fo> C^rn'lu oB ibe War. or 
Rcflenniim the Njitioasl t^rbt." Tliii pitnrlilci irjs priuird at Philadd^U and. bean the ilala, 
Utcnnbtr jo, i;t{«. Mlhal It wis feotMbtf "in the |;TrM"on December I, the <ltUoltliel«llcr. A\ 
ihc lime riiinc iru durnnl vtih rcuiviiiir a bribe b bnd fram the Indiana D>,, ot rhkh Ocorge 
Mown WM Hcntuy aoci mcf^l pr-jmoicr. I'hb chirrr b dbpic«<l by hit bfa|ri|ilicr, Ccnway 
ilJlt af PolmÊ,L,jo. tts, a ttj) l>iit I( iht ilHAf tdrnti rial ion u ntfrm, ibe ktlcr (roici lunie 
r«Uti6at)«mnnlMaadMarcan. WIumt, IVonrani JjvwnnU, i36. 

Capt. Rockrs to the MACisruArES of Kasicaskia Januaiy 10, 1781 

[M. C, T, MSS.— Allnled Copy.] 


Jc SUÎ3 Surpris (le trouver que vous rtfusies a Monsieur Bentley 
de luy accorder le privilege ilc la Justice dans votre Cour; Et que vous 
ayes la Presomptitm tic dire, que mon certificat de ce qu'il a Prfte Le 
Serment de fidL'Iitiî a l'Kui, pardevant moy Comme officiers com- 
mandant [Mur le dit n'est D'aucun KtTct, Ei ne luy donné p^s les 
privilèges d'un sujet, 

Il me semble que Mons' Bentley a le même droit a la Justice que 
%ous même Kt vuus Pouvés Être ussurn! que je puis donner des raison 
Et des preuves a des Juges Impartial de sa cmiduile qui le fcrnn par- 
ruilrc peut être un meilleure amy de t'Ktat ([ue vous même Comme votre 
Ciiur parrtiii Par icy Ktre d'injuslire Et non de justice, Et vous osé 
refuser mes certificats, dans les cas de fidellité, je prend Sur moy de 
mctic votre Court a côté Et repondre de La Consequence, Vous navés 
qu'a considéré Et rendre justice ou je feray Comme il est menlioniî cy 
dessus Votre Ser. J. Kogess Commandant. 

je demande une reponce Immediate 


I am suqjrised to find that you refuse to grant M, Bentley the privi- 
lege of justice in your Court; and that you have the presumption to say 
that my certificate to the effect that he g;ive oath of fidelity to the stale 
before mc as commanding officer for the said state is ni no value; and 
that you do not give him the pri^nlcge of a subject. 

It seems to me that M. Bentley has the same right lo justice as 
you yourselves haw, and you may rest assured that I am able to furnish 
proofs and reasons to impartial judges concerning his conduct, which 
will make him appear perhaps a better friend to the state than you 
yourselves; for your Court seems in this to be one of injustice and not 
of justice. If you dare to refuse my certificates, in cases of the oath of 
fidelity, I take it upon myself to set aside your Court and to answer for 
the consequences. Vou have only to consider and render justice or I 
will do as it is mentioned above. Vour ser\-ani 

J. RooBRS,' Commandant. 

I ask for an immediate answer. 

■ For the 1>I«ivy of ihli F|ii(odr and tts cooMqumciB, rbimiIi IB ttiit. C«tlitti»mi, ii-, kt.; and 
lim talloâinx iJucuaMiili in Uib vcjIuric. 



Vraye Copie Traduite Par sign(! Gtrault 
[Endorsed:] Une L'être adressa a la Cour par M. Roger Sois Disant 

Le 10"*' Janvier 1781 


True copy translated by (signed) Oerault. 
[Endorsed:] A letter addressed to the Court Ny M. Rogen soi-disant 
commaadanl. January 10, 1781. 

Th£ Magistrates op Kaskaskia to Captain John Rogers, 
January 10, i;Si. 
[K. MSS.— Alti=s(fd Copy.] 

A M' Jen Rogers, Comd', 


Nous avons reçu votre Lettre d'aujourd'huy Par laquelle vous nous 
donné syji votre seing La marque la plus ample de votre Capacité Uans 
la charge que vous vous jugerés &C. 

Nous ne doutons point de L'Envie que vous avéa de vous Eriger 
En maître absolu maïs nous avons des actes du Pouvoir Législatif De 
L'Etat de Virginie pour nous Gouverner Et a laqu'elle nous croyons 
Pire ohiigt! de nous conformer, comme vous êtes vous mf-mcs Quand 
nous requérions votre assistance. 

Quand a L'Injustit^ dont vous nous lasi' il viendra [H!ut (trc un 


To M. John Rogers, Commandant. 

We have received your letter of today in wliich you give us, over 
your signature, the must ample mark of your capacity in the duty which 
you will judge yourself etc. 

We have no doubts as to the desire, which you have, of establishing 
yourself as absolute master, but we have acts fn)in the legislative power 
of the State of Virginia to gowm us and to which we believe we are 
obliged to conform, as you are yourself, when we may require your help. 

As for the injustice with which you charge us, there may come, per- 


temps plus heureux où nous prouverons nntrc bfiDnc foy qui e^C toujours 
le Seul mobile qui Conduit k*s honnêtes gens. 

nous avons L'honneur d'être 
Monsieur vos humbles serviteurs signé Jacques Lasourcc, signé La- 
chanse, signé Jean baplislc Beauvais, signé Godin Mgné Janis, «igné 
Charles Charicville. Kaskaikiasle lo""' Janvier 1781, 

haps, a more fortunate lime when wc shall prove nur ^jood faith, 
which is ever the only incentive iJiat guides honest jjcoplc. 
We have the honour to Iw, 

Sir, your very humble servants, 
(Signed) Jacques Lasourœ, (signed) Larhansc, (signed) Jean Bap- 
tiste Bauvais, (signed) Godin, (signed) Janis, (signed) Charles Cliarlc- 


KasliaskJa, January lo^ 1731. 

Captais George to thf. Inhabitants ot Illinols, January 11, 1781. 
[M. C, T. MSS.— AilMtfd Copy.] 

Du fort Jefferson Cc 11'"^ Jan. 1781 
a messiuers les habitants Des Illinois Kn General, Et particulièrement 
a Ceux des KaskasKîas. 

Mes Chers amis Et Compatriotes 

Ccst avec le plus prafond regret que jay appris que Vous Estes Voilé 
Et Pillé par Ceux que vous appelles nos gens, Soyez bien assurés que 
j'en Ressens Beaucoup de jieine, Et que J*employeray tous mes efforts 
Pour Remédier a toutes Vos Plaintes, Et tous Vos griefs. Monsieur 
Kenedy a toujours Eté duemem autorisé pour gerrer toutes nos affaires 

From Fort Jepfebson, Jan. nth 1781. 

To the Inhabitants of Illinois in general, and especially to those of 
My Dear Fbienos anu Fellow-citizens: 

It is with the most profound regret that I have learned that you are 
roM>ed and pillaged by those whom you caJI our people. Rest well 
assure<l that I feel great grief fxrcause of it, and that I shall use all my 
efforts to remedy the causes of all your complaints and grievances. M. 
Kennedy has always been duly authorized to manage all our public 


Publiques dans Votre Pais. U a actuellement mes Instructions pour 
faire lachapt des Vi^Tcs pour notre giirnisoii Je Vous prie de le créditer, 
Car J'ai toutes ma Confiance En sa Bonnes Conduite, F)t ses abillîtés 
particulièrement parce qu'il a été longtems un de vos concitoyens, 
Jaurois toujours Egard a Vos Plaînlcs, Et tant qu'il sera à Mon pouvoir 
Jy mctlray ordre mais Comme le colonel Clark sera avec nous de Bon 
Printcms Je suis persuade qu'il vous donnera une ample Satisfaction, 
de tduies (c9 Injures que l'on Vous a Réellement faites. 

fiez Vous d'un anticr, Kt g(!nércux payement, pour toutes les Pro- 
insinns que Mr. Kennedy aura achcttcs Chez Vous, F.t soy€s assurés 
de la Bienveillance du gauvcmcmrnt Envers Vous. 

Permettes moy l'honneur de me suscrirc Mes Chers amy. Et Com- 

Votre irfes humbles Et trts olit. Scrvitt'ur Et sincere amy 

Signé RoBKRT Georce Cait. commandant 

Vrayc Copie traduite dt; langluis par Signé Gibault aux Kas. 31'"" 
Jan. 1781 


affairs in your country. He has at present my instructions for the 
purchase of supplies for our garrison. I beg you to give him credit, for 
I have full confidence in his gfvod conduct and his ability, especially 
because he has been for a long time one of your fellow-citizens. I 
shall always give attention to your complaints, and so far as it shall be 
in my power, I shall settle them; but since Colonel Clark will be with 
us early in the spring, I am persuaded thai he will give you ample sat- 
isfaction for all the injuries that you have really received. 

Depend on a full and generous payment for all the provisions that 
M. Ketmedy shall have bought from you, and be assured of the good 
wishes of the government towards you. Allow rac the honor to sub- 
scribe myself, my dear friends and fellow citizens, 

Vour very bumble and very obedient servant and sincere friend, 

(Signed) Robert Georck.' 

Capt. Commandant. 

True copy translated fmm the English by, 

(Signed) Gtfcvui-T. 
At Kaskaskia, Jan. 21, 17S1. 

■Thii Itttcr mi ilso Mai to CahoItU, «hcrell win recorded oa thereooMn! ilwdfrk. S«» til. 
Sill. Cvlkitiom, ii.,tjj. Via liiographiâl notice of CipuUn Ucotbc. comuIi tftuf., n. i. Hi* Irltrr 
la CUtk, d>i«d Ociobcr 14 (I'.i. Sutlf Féffri, i.. jSi) crovn Ihtt Capuiti Ceunt« had bi* tupiciam 
of Jcrhn Doilge *nd Tbonuu Deoilci in (he jnrltnu UO, 


Geobge Slaughteb to Thouas Jefferson, January 14, 1781 

[Draper MSS., sijta.— A. I„ S.J 

Louisville, Jan'" h**", 1781 

I h&vc the Honour to inclose to your Excellency letters from two 
GcnllL-nien at Auposte and copys of several oihcrs from Kaslca^kias 
directed to Col° Clark uid Col^ Todd. I have taken the Depositions 
of three jwrsons which coroborates with tlic contents of these letters & 
have cndused them also, for the consideration uf your Board. 

The contents of the letters from the two French Gentlemen being 
a request for ammunition & understanding they ap[)rehendcd an attack'd 
upon that post, 1 gave orders for Cap" George to semi to Kaskaskias 
one hundred weight of powder & four hundred w* of Lead^ with dirtc- 
tions for Cap" Rogers to lend what aid he can in gelling atniss the 
country to auposte & shall endeavour to send a small Supply 10 that 
place immediately from here, this I have thought it Necessary to do as 
consider it of ^-ery great importance to this place the keeping the Auposte 
in our favour. 

With respect to Cap. Dodge the complaints against him are so 
general & I have so good autliority for his having misap])Iied ihc PuljHck 
goods, and apprehending that he- may po.s!>Jbly be collecting a cargoc of 
Peltry for the New Orleans market that I have given Cafi" George 
Orders to make cnquir)- into his Conduct & if any thing of ihis sort 
appears, to Seize upon his person & what goods he may be Possessed of 
& secure them 'till further Orders. 

The letters now inclosed with those sent some time ago will so fully 
inform you of the state of .\iïairs in the Illinois that I shall not enlarge 
on tbc disagreeable Subject.' 

I must beg leave to Mention the mismanagement of the person 
appointed to Superintend the making Salt whh the Country's Kettles. 
Somewhere about 50 or 60 bushels is all that has been reC^ from the 
persons who has wurk'd them, when private adventurers has been 
making near lo times the Quantity with Reltles not boiling more than 
one fourth as much Water, owing principally to the iodoleoce of the 
man who is appointed to carry on the businiss. 

If Sir Your Board should think proper to appoint Col<> Floyd or 

■ TMt Utto- aXkd tarA a rvpljr (rant Garic ht March. Se» Va. Sut* ^ftrt^ !.. S9T> 

Rois historical 

myself to take the directions of the Kettles I am persuaded a SufEdency 
would be made fcH* the Troops in this department. I am with much 

Your Kxrcllencys Most ob* & very Hbic Scrv* 

George Slaoghteb. 
The two Letters from the French Gent, of ihc Aupustc was by a 
Mistake inclosed to Col" Clark who will no doubt lay them tx^ore you. 
I cannot Omit Mentioning two [sk] you three Bills which I drew late 
in October last in fav"" of Juhn Wiltianis Provini:e one for aaoj Dollars 
one other for 286 Dollars & another for £2120 which I hope will be 

Y" as before 

G. S. 
[Addressed:] To His Excellency Thomas Jefferson Esq' at Richmond 

Petition op Richard M'Carty to thr Maristrates of the Covki 
AT Kaskasria. January 17, 17S1 
(K. MSS — A. D. S.] 

a I'Respectablc Court dc CasKaslCia &c &c 
Rich'' MCarly Capitaine d'un Compagnie Inf* de Troup Régler aux 
Service de L'Etat de Virginie 

a l'honneur de vous presenter que ayant en Mars de l'anne 1779 
Lever un Compagnie pour aervire durant la Guère entre l'amerique et 
l'angieterre Par ordre de Colo* Ctark et de être habilier et payer par 
ledit Etat et que le manque de marchandises îl nait point Reçue aucune 
argent de la dît Etat pour Subsister le dit Compagnie ou les habilier. 
Diais pour k Bien dudit Service votre Supliant a fournis de son ax^nt 


To tfie Honorable Court of Ka-ikaskia, etc. 
Richard M'Carty, Captain of an infantrj- company of regular troops in 
the service of the State of Virginia : 

Has the honor to represent to you that in March of the year 1779 
be enlisted by order of Colonel Clark, a company of soldiers to serve 
during the war between America and England, and that these were to 
be clothed and paid by the said state; but that, on account of the lack 
of merchandise, be has not received any money for the support or 
clothing of the said company from the said state ; that your suppliant has 

M'CARTY'S l'EirnON, JANUARY i?. 1781 ai? 

propre pour Crmlcnlcr autant qu'il pouvoît au dit Soldats et que la 
printemps passée votre Sut>t>Iiant ou cet F,tc drmicr ait ohienù ordre 
de recevoir ce que luy rcvtnoil a sa Compagnie, sur l'argent des dits 
Etat que m'ait Livré une partie avec peine malgré la misère el nudillc 
des dit pauvTC Soldat, et N'ayant point de Chemise fait î) m'ait donné 
Son Billet de me le remettre au Cas. ce quil rcfuae de faire qu'est l'occa- 
sion que pluâieur de mes soldats sont deserter et d'autre que sf>nt sans 
Chemise a Ces Cause le Cour ordonnera a le Sieur Dodge AgL-nt de 
remplir son Billet que je peut Livrinc a mes pauvrc soldats ce qu'il ont 
Légitimement (îagnier Au Cas 17 Jan*' 1781 


Vu la requête cy dessus La Cours ordonne qu'elle soit signiiie a 
jiartie pour y rejKpndre donné Ed la Cour du district des KasKasKias 
Laudience y tenant le Mercredy 34 me Jamner 1781 

Jacques Lasource 
\En<tarsed:] Requête du S' MCarty contre le S' Doges. Le ao Janvier 
1781. No. 56 

[ Tr<inslafjon.] 

furnished, for the good of the service, his own money, as far as he could, 
to the said soldiers; and that, last spring or summer, your suppliant 
did receive an order, for what was due his company, on the money of 
the said state, a part of which was delivered to me, after many dif&cut' 
ties [made by the commissary John Dodge] in spite of the misery and 
nakedness of the said poor soldiers; and that, since [the said OodgeJ 
did not have any ready-made shirts, be gave me his note to remit them 
to me at Ka^askla; and [your petitioner rcprcscntsj that this he has 
refused to do, which is the occasion that many of my soldiers have 
dcsertctl and others are without shirts. For these reasons \your suppliant 
petitions] that the Court shall command M. Dodge to fultill his note so 
that I can deliver to my pour soldiers what they have legitimately earned. 
At Kaskaskiu, January 17, 1781. M'Caktv.* 

In view of the above petition the Court decrees that a summons 1»p 
issued to the party t<i answer lheret{i. CHven in the Court of the Dis- 
trict of Kaslcaskia, in the sirssîon of Wednesday, January 11, 1781. 

Jacques Lasodbcr. 
\Rndorsed:] Petition of M. M'Carty against M. Dodge, January 20, 1781. 

> Oa Kkhatd M'Canr amult tmUK of JU. Bit/. CtiUttmu, II. 


RicBARD Winston to the Coitrt or Kaskaskia, January 17, 1781 

[M. C, T. MSS.— AitCTied Copy] 

a la Respectable cour du district des Kaskaskîas &c Sic Sic 

J'ai 616 surpris qu'a la dernière Cour un des Magistrats a âté assign** 
par le grcficr, et Je ai Crue que vous avés arrdté Ce Cour mais Je voi 
le contraire puis que Je vien d'en recevoir une moi m6me, Cecy ne veut 
point dire que les Magistrats Kt Commandant siiient Kxampi de par- 
oitrc en justîre. mais D'une autre manière. En Ladrcssant Res|)ec- 
tueuscment par Kcrir a la cour qui sans doutte Prendra connoissance de 
leurs affaire El Leur rendra Justice qui )ioura Leur appartenir. 

Pemnîté Massieure que je vous observe qu'il est De votre devoir Et 
Pour Le bien public que Les Jours Daudieace les Magistrats ne sabsenle 
Point ce qui cause souvent de la prolongiation des procès aiosy Je vous 
prie Messieurs de prendre des arrangement convenable entre vous afin 
que Personne naît lieu de ce Plaindre. 

Si je pouTOÎs sortir Jaurais élé raoî même il la Cour pour repondre 
au Plainte du Sieur Bentley II est de mon devoir Messieur que Je vous 
observe que Le Sieur Bentley na aucun Droit dattendre ny despérer la 


To the Honorable Court o( the District of Kaskaskia, ttc. etc. 

I was surprised that, at the last court, one of the magistrates wa» 
summonedby thcclerk.for I believed that you had stopped that course; 
but I see the coairzry, since I have just received a summons my.<ielf. This 
docs not mean that the magistrates and commandant arc exempt from 
appearing before justice, but only in another way, namely by a respect- 
ful address in writing to the Court, which will take cognizance of their 
a.ffair and will render them the justice that may belong to them. 

Allow mc to remark, gentlemen, that it is your duty, and for the pub- 
lic welfare, that on the day of audience the magistrates should not be 
absent, for this often causes a prolongation of lawsuits. Therefore, 
gentlemen, I beg yuu to come to some agreement among yourselves so 
that there may be no reason for any one to complain. 

Had I been able to go out, I should have been mj'Self at court to 
answer to the complaint of JL Bentley. It is my duty, gentlemen, to 



ProtecUon de la I^oix sans qui fasse le même Serment de fidélittf aux 
Etata que nous avons faites nous même Et Par devant un juge & paix, 
comme il Dit par un arest De Lassemblé giînérate de cette <!tat au quelle 
vous est obligé de y conformer, ce îcy n'est pas pour etudcr de compter 
avec les au contraire Car qu'il fassar'î [?] qu'il ne fasse Point Je lui 
paiera toute ce que Je suis dans Le cas de Lui devoir. Jai Ihonneur 
d'être avec Profond respect voire très beuml* et obéissent Serviteur 

signd Rico. Winston. 
KasKasKias 17 Janvier 17S1 

State to you that M. Bcndcy has no right to expect, or to hope for, the 
protection of the law without taking the oath of allegiance to the states, 
which we ourselves have taken, and that he must do this before a justice 
of the peace, as is stated in a decree of the General Assembly of this 

state to which you are obliged to conform. This is not so as to 

* for on the con- 
trary, whether he does it or does it Dot, 1 shall pay him all that I may owe 
him. I have the honor lo be, with profound respect. 

Your very humble and obedient servant, 

Rica. Winston. 
Kaskaskia, January 17, 1781. 

Thomas jErFEHsoN to George R. Clark, January ao. 1781. 
[UrapcrMSS-, sij>7.— 1'- S-] 

Id Council January 30. 1781. 

Having cause to entertain doubts from several Letters transmitted to 
me whether mr Jn" Dodge who was appointed to conduct a commerce 
with the Indians on behalf of tliis state has not been guilty of a gross 
misapplication or mismanagement of what lias been conâded lo him and 
the distance between him and us rendering it impracticable to call the 
examination before ourselves, you are hereby authorized and desired 
either by yourself or such jicrsuns as you shall ujipoint to enquire into any 
part of his conduct which you may tiavc reason lo suppose unjusliljablc 
and if it be found so, to n,'mo%'c him from his office and take such meas- 
ures as may be most effectual fur bringing him to account and indemnt- 

' F.tiJftitlr ihochcrlL lu* (aDnl o cap? 'otne «turdt, Igi llw putJtg* a» I) tdndi i* uniraiuUiaUo 



fying ihc public against such malversations, should he be removed we 
think it unnecessary to appoint another in his stead. 

I am Sir. 

Your most ob* humble scrvaDt, 
Thé: Jeffekson. 
Colo G R Clarke 
[Addressed:] Colo George Rogers Clark 

Thouas Bentley to tbe Magistrates op the Court at 
Kaskaskia, January 31, 1781. 
[M. C-, T. MSS-— Attotcd Copy.} 

A Mes^eurs Les magistrats de la respectable Cour des KasKaskias 
Sec &c &c 

Thomas Bentley tiegt. en la ville des KasKasKias déclare que le tren- 
tième du mois de décembre dernier Je me serois présenté a vôtre Cour ou 
Jauroîs demandé le payement de diverses sommes qui me Sont due dont 
Le Refus m'en a éld fait par lad^ Cuur disant ([uil ne voulaient pas me 
rendre aucune Justice au moins ([uc Je nayc prêté serment, mais Comme 
Je leur ay demandé avoir le Serment i! mont fait voir ccluy dofQce Ecrit 
en françois ce que Je nai voulu accepter «juc dautant que Je reEteroîs 
sujet, leur ayant déclanï et ce la presence de Mr. Jean Dodge agent de 
lestât pour le dtîpartement Sauvage et Daniel Murray qui sont prêts a 


To the Magistrates of the Honorable Court of Kaska^ia, etc. etc. 

I, Thomas Bentley, a merchant m the village of Kaskaskia, declare 
that, on the thirtieth of last December, 1 presented myself in your Court 
where I demanded ihe payment of certain sums which are due me. This 
was refused mc by the said Court, who afTirmed that they were unwilling 
to render mc any justice unless I had taken the oath. When I asked 
them 10 show me the oath, they showed me the oath of office, wrilton in 
French, which I did not wish to accept, inasmuch as I would still remain 
a subject. This I declared to them in the presence of M. John Dodge, 
agent of the state for Indian affairs» and Daniel Murray, both of whoca 



faire serment pour la confirmation de la Chose et dans le moment ce qui 
ma obligé de Sortir et trouver le Capitaine Rogers commandant de la 
troupe a qui Jai pr<<té le Serment ordinaire et dons le moment porté son 
Ccrtifficat àla Cour et après l'a^-oir présenté il mont dit que la Cour pro- 
chaine il me Rcndroicnt Justice, ce que mont refusé malgré de métré 
présenté Je demande que la Cour maccordc par ces présentes touttes 
plaintes que Je leurs ai déjà porté pour mes Créances principallcmcnt 
Mrs. Richard M'Carty et michcl Perrault aux fins de me Compter Les 
Sommes qui me Sont dues c'est a dire Michel Perrault de quatorze Cent 
vingt Sept livres dix sols en pelleterie, trois cent trente livres arg' Réel et 
Cent soixante dix piastres selon Ses Cinq Billets et Compte présente avec 
Ccluy cy ainsy que Lobligation du Mr. M'Carty montante selon Le 
Compte livré avec a la Somme de neuf mille six cent Soixante treize 
livres treize sols en pelleterie et a déffaut de payement et d'une sentence 
rendue Jabandonne de ce jour les dites Lettres entre Les mains de la 
Cour protestant par ces présentes contre lad** Cour comme de droit en 
RappcUant au gouvernement delà Virginie, sur tous frais dépens dom- 

[TranslaiiûH .] 

are ready to swear to the truth of this thing and to the lime. This 
obliged mc to go out and find Captain Rogers, commandant of the troops, 
to whom I gave the ordinary oath; and at that same time I took his 
certificate to the Court and, after having presented it, they told mc that, 
at the following meeting of the Court, they would render mc justice. 
This they refused mc, in spite of the fact that T presented my.sclf there. 
I Iwg that the Court grant mc hy these presents all the complaints that 
I have formerly brought iieforc them in connection with the debts owing 
lo mc, especially in the case of Richard M'Carty and Michel Perrault, so 
that they may pay me the sums thai arc due me: that is to say, Mîrhel 
Perrault, llic sum of fourteen hundred and twcnCy-scvcn livres and ten 
nous in peltries, three hundred and thirty livre.v in ready and one 
hundrL'd and seventy piastres atTonJing to his five notes and account pre- 
sented herewith; likewiiic the obligation of M. M'Carty, amounting, 
according to the account delivered hercwiih, to the sum of nine thousand 
sis hundred and «-vcaty-three Hires and thirteen sous in pellries. And 
in default of payment and of a sentence rendered, I abandon fnim this 
day the said notes into the hands of the Court, justly protesting by these 
presents against the said Court, and appealing to the gr>vemment of Vir- 



majiscsct Interest qui pourra Courir a lavenir &c &c. &c. fait aux Kas- 
KasKtas I,c trente et un de Janvier 1781 signe sur Loripnal demeure 
deposit au greffe du district des KasKasKias signé T Bentley, Baxutel, 
J" Dodge témoins John Rogers Command*. 

Comme I^ rcqtif-lc et protest cy dessus et de lautrc part a Este pres- 
ent a Mr. Carbonncaux greffier de la Coiir cl No""* publique qui apr^s 
lavoir rccû et gard<? quelque tcms a Rcfuaî d'en prendre Connoissance et 
Sana autorité me la renvoyé et Comme des pareils proccdcs de la part de 
M" Les magistrats jjcuvent me faire beaucoup du tort mayanl refusé la 
Hlwrté de poursuivre mes dettes en Justice et dans leurs Cours ce qui me 
met dans le Cas de mcxposcr à (out pcriirc, Je Suis en Consequence 
obligé de délivrer et remettre tous les billets et Comptes a lad^ Cour leur 
abandonnant touttes mes demandes et pretentions [lour h-urs Comptes et 
risques la Liste desquelles Je livre avu, montant a la Somme de Vingt et 
tm mille trois cent Cinquante deux piastres sept E!;ealins Et demy en 
arg' sonnant, et Cinq mille neuf cent trente huit livres de farine, c'est 
pourquoi Je soletimeUcmeat proteste par ces présente» Cuntrc tou» et 

[Translaiioti .\ 
g^nia for al] charges, expenses, damages, and interest, which may accrue 
in the future etc. etc. etc. Done at Kaskaskia, January 31, 1781. 
Signed on the original, which is deposited at the clerk's ofTjtc in the 
Di.slrict of Kaskaskia. (Signed] T. Bentley, Barutel, John Dodge, 
witnesses; John Rogers, Commandant. 

Since the petition and protest, written above and un the other page, 
viss presented to M. Carbonncaux, clerk of the Court and notary public, 
who, alter be had received it and kept il for some time, refused to lake 
any notice thereof and without :uiy authority sent it back to me, and, 
since such a proceeding on the part of the mapslratcs, namely dcnjing 
me the liberty to sue for my debts judicially in their Court, can do mc 
much harm by placing mc in a pitsition to lose all, I am therefore obliged 
to deliver and remit all notes and accounts to the said Court, abandoning 
to them all my demands and pretentions at their account and risk, a list 
of which I deliver to you, amounting to the sum of twcniyone thousand 
three hundred and fifty-two piastres, sevcQ estalms and a half in ready 
cash and five thousand nine hundred and thirty-eight pounds of flour. 



chacun de sustlit magistrats et Contre loutte autre Persoiuie quelconque 
qui aide ou as&îsLi; dans lad^ Cour, en ap[>ellant par ces présentes à Son 
Excellence Mr. le Gouverneur et Son honorable Conseil et membre de 
lassembléc de lestât de Virginie pour tous les frais dommages et interests 
quelconques Souffert ou soutiras en Consequence des injustice procédés 
des Susdits magistrats au KasIuisKias le 13 février 17S1. Signé Sur la 
minuettc de|ioséc au greffe du dictrict des KasJwasKias, T Bentley 
Jno. Rogers Jn. Dodge témoins 

It is for this reason that I solemnly protest by these presents against 
each and all the above mentioned magistrates and against all other per- 
sons who in any way aid or arc present in the said Court, ap[)ealing by 
these presents to bis Excellency the Governor, the honorable Council, and 
members of the Assembly of the State of Virginia for all the expense, 
damages, and interest whatever, incurred or lo he incurred, in conse- 
quence of the unjust proceedings of the aforesaid magistrates. At Kas- 
Icaskia the 13th of February*, 1781. Signed on the original, deposited at 
the Clerk's office of the District of Kaskaskia, T. Bentley. John 
Rogers, John Dodge, witnesses. 

The Oath of Thomas Bentley, February 13, 1781 

[M. C, T. MSS — AtlL-stcd Copy] 

Extrait des Registn-s des audiances du District des K^isKasRias En 
la comté des Illinois dé{>cndaoces de la R(;pubtiquc de la virginîc à une 
Cours tenue au district des KasKasKias le mardy treizième Jour du 
mois de février deux heures après midy mil sept Cent qualrevingt Et un 
furent présens Jacques lasource, Nicolas caillot Lachatisc, Charles 
chauvin charlevîlle Michel godïn, Jean baptîstc Bcauvais tous Ecuycrs 
Juges et Magistrats du dit district 

Extract of the records of the sessions of the Court of the District of 
Kaskaskia, in the County of the Illinois, dependency of the Republic of 
Virginia. .\l a court held in the District of Kaskaskia, on Tuesday, 
Feb. 13, at two o'clock in the afternoon, of the year 1781, there were 
present Jacques Lasource, Nicolas Caillot dit Lachansc, Charles Chau- 
vin dit Cbarlcville, Michel Godin, Jc;in Baptiste Sauvais, all of them 
esquires, judges, and magistrates of the said district. 


La Cours du district des KasKasKJas assemblée ce Jourd'huy trei- 
s'ihnc Jour du mois de k-vricr mil sept cent quatrcvingt cl un deux heures 
de relevé, a Examiné Murcmeot un Ecri Intitulé protest Contre la cours 
du dit District En datte du trente et unième Jour du mots de Janvier 
demiei' Signé tliomas Bentley dans lequel VA:n Le dit Sieur thomas 
benllcy déclare Et dit que la sus ditte Cours a Exigé de lui le serment 
(PulTice qui est erronieux, La susdilte Cours n'ayant Exigé du dit Sieur 
Bcatley que le Serment de fidélité, Et de coucitoyens pardevant le 
Lieutenant De comtée où un des Magistrats du dit district confgrm- 
mente a Lacté dassemblée de la Virginie En conséquence de quoi la sus 
diUe cours requert et o0re de rechef au dît Sieur Bentley de se présenter 
Et de prettcr le dit serment de fidélité Par devant la susdite cours où 
quelqu'un des dits Magistrats, où de présenter a la susditte cours où 
à quelqu'un Des dits Magistrats le serment qu'il dit avoir pcette et signé 
pardevant Monsieur le Capitaine John Roger pour y être Enregistré 
[lour lurs il sera reconnu véritablement et authentiquement Cytoyendc 
la dittc république de la Virginie Et Justice lui sera rendue co cette 
qualité, En conséquence la susditte Cours n'a voulu prendre aucune 

The Court of the District of Kaskaskia, assembled at two o'clock 
in the afternoon of February ij, 1781, has examined very carefully a 
writing entitled protest against the Court of the said district, dated ihe 
31st. of January last, and signed by Thomas Bentley, in which writing 
the said M. Thomas Bentley declares and says that the aforesaid Court 
demanded of him the oath of office, which sta-temeniU erroneous; for Ihe 
aforesaid Court has demanded 0/ M. Bentley nothing more than the 
oath of allegiance and of fellow-citizenship, to be made iK-fore the 
lieutenant of the county or one of the magislratt-s of the said district 
according to the act of the Assembly of Virginia. In consequence of 
which the aforesaid Court calls upon, and again offers to, the said 
M. Bentley to present himself and to lake the said oath uf allegiance 
before the said Court or before one of the said magistrates, or to 
present to the aforesaid Court, or to some one nf the said magis- 
trates, the oath which he ctntms to have taken and signed l>cCore 
Captain John Rogers, so that it may Iw registered; and then he 
shall be recognized truly and authentically a citizen of the Republic of 
Virginia, and juslice will be rendered him in that quality. In consc- 


coimoissiLncc de ses comtes ny Billets Et lui renvoyé par l'huissier la 
liasse de papiers quil aposé Sur Sur \sic\ la table de la cours, Gardant 
I't^cril (lu'il a signé pour preserver les avances Erronîcux qui sont dedans 
dcnni! En la Cours du district des KasKasKïas l'audiance y tenant le 
Mardy trésiemc Jour du mois de février mi] sept Cent quatrevingt et 
tm Signé Jacques i-^soukck 




quence oF his refusal the aforesaid Court has nut been willing to take any 
cognizance of his accounts or notes, and sends back to him by the bailiff 
the bundle of papers which he placed on the table of the Court, keeping, 
however, the writing which he signed so as to preserve the erroneous 
charges which arc contained therein. Given in the Court of the District 
of Kaakaskia, the Court being in Session, Tuesday, February 13, 1781, 

(Signed) Jacquks Lasoubce 

Carbonneai;x, Clerk. 


Thomas Benti-ev to the Magistrates op the CotntT at Kaskaskia, 
February 18, 1781 
[M. C. T. MSS — Adcslcd Copy.] 

Les Magistras du dislrit des KasKa-sKias et tous ceux à qui il 
appartient Sont avertis par ces présentes que Je parts pour le Gouverne- 
ment, afin d'obtenir Justice contre eux, leur ayant déjà signifié un pro- 
test en date du i^-j du courant avec les Billet et obligations qui me sont 
dues, montant a la somme de vingt un mille trois cent Cinquante deux 
piastres sept Escalins Et demie Largcnt sonnant, que Je lur [jîe] ai 



The magistrates of the District of Kaskaskia and all those whom 
it may concern are ivarned by these presents, that I am starting for tlic 
government in order to obtain justice against them, after having ad- 
dressed them a protest, dated the thirteenth of this month, and deposit- 
ing with them the bills and obligations which are due me, amounting 
to the sum of twenty-one thousand three hundred and fifty-two pîastrtSt 


livré pour leur compte eï risque en présence de plusieurs témoins Ea 
consequence, J'en appelé publiquement au Gouverneur et conseil de 
la Virginie; et proteste de rechef contre tous les dits Magistras jmur 
tous les frais domages et depeoces souffertes ou a souSrire pour avoir 
abandooné mes affaires, et Intérêts et pour le voyage pénible qu'ils 
m'obligent faire faute de M'avoir rendu Justice KasKasKias le 18 de 
février 1781 signé t. Bentley 

seven and a half escaiins, in cash, which I have left at their account and 
risk, in the presence of several mtnessea. In consequence of this I 
publicly appeal to the Go^-emor and Council of the State of Virginia, 
and protest again against all the said magistrates for all the costs, 
damages, and expenses, suffered or to be suffered, on account of aban- 
doning my affairs and interests in order to undertake the difficult voyage 
which they compel me to make, because they will not render me justice. 
Kaskaskia, February 18, 1781. (Signed) T. Bentley. 

CERTmcATE OP Dawtel Mcrray CoNCBRNiNii Bentley, February 

23, 1781. 

[M. C, T. MSS.— Altesled Copy.] 

Jc ccrti5c que jctois present quand ta Cours du Distrîquc des Kas- 
kaskias dans les Illinois ay demandé F.t Exigé de thomas Bentley de ce 
tUt Village de Kaskaskias Luy ayant Paru devant Eux En qualité de 
plaignant De prêter I/C sermant de fidélité Comme Prescrit Par La-ssem- 
blée fiénéral, lequel le dit Bentley a Refusé Et que la dittc Cour n'a pas 
demande aucun autre Serment que Celuy de fidélité, quoy quil dit dans 
un Ecrit qu'il appelle Prolest que la Cours Luy a demandé Le serment 

I certify that I was present when the Court of the District of Kas- 
kukia in the Illinois asked and required of Thomas Bentley of this 
said village of Kaskaskia, who appeared before the Court as plaintiff, 
to take tiic oath of altegiance as prescribed by the General AssemUy. 
The aforesaid Bentley refused to do this, and the said Court asked 
for no other oath than that of allegiance, although he says in a writing 
which he calls a protest, that the Court demanded of him the oath of 



Doffice. Chose OntratHctoire En L'uy m&me Et comme j'ay Eolcndu 
dire qu'on s'est scrvy de mon nom En quaUt*5 de thcmoint, a la vérité 
du d* Protest cy cela iist je déclare par ses Présentes que C'est féaux 
donné aujt Kaskaskias Le 33 fc^Ticr 1781 a loriginal. 


Je certifie avoir traduit mot a mot de langlols En français Le cer- 
ti&cat cy dessus Selon ma coonotsstuice Kaskaskias Le 8'^' mars 1781. 

Signé Rich. Winston 

office, a thing contradictory in itself. And since I have heard that my 
name has been used in the capacity of witness to the truth of the said 
protest, (if that be true) I declare by this present writing that such a 
statement is false. Given at Kaskaskia, February »3, 1781. 

On ihe orignal. (Signed) Dan Murrav. 
I certify that I have translated from English into French the above 
certificate word for word, to the best of my ability. 

Kaskaskia, March 8, i78r. (Signed) Rich. Winston. 

Certiticate op Richard Winston Concerning Bentley, 

March g, 1781 
[M. C. T. MSS.— AHcsted Copy.l 
Je soussigné substitué de Jean todet, Etuyer Lieutenant de La 
Conté des Illinois Certifié que Jetais present, a la cour du District des 
Kaskaskias, quand le Sieur Bentley ses présenté Plaignant, et que la 
ditte Cour sur ses plaintes a Exigé de luy le le [jù] serment de fidélité 
comme il est prescrit dans lassemblée général a qu'il a refusé. 

ces pourquoi la cour ne lui & pas accordé & ses demandes ta pro- 


I, the undersigned, deputy of John Todd E-squirc, Lieutenant 
of the County of the Illinois, certify that I was present at the Court of 
the District of Kaskaskia, when M. Bentley presented himself as plain- 
tiff, and that the said Court required, on account of his suit, that he 
should take the oath of fidelity as is prescribed by the General Assembly, 
which he refused to do. 

It is for that reason that the Court did not grant him on liis petition 



lection des Estât ne voulant point se Conformer aux lolx qui <lonnc au 
vray Citoyen soulics represaille Pour leurs Iniéréis Kaakaskùis le g"" 
mars 1 781 sigiu! Rien: Winston. 

the protection of the state, since he was unwilling to confonn to the laws, 
which give to the true dlizcn equitable means of recovery for their 
intercuts. (Signed) Rich. Winston. 

Kasicaskia, March 9, 1781. 

AfFOAViT OF Israel Dooce, March 17, 1781 
[Va. St&tc Libtaiy.— A. D. S.] 

BOBOtV.H OP Clarkeville, Ss. 

Personally appeared before me aforesaid Israel Dodge and made 
oath on the holy Rvaogelists of .Mmighty God that being sent by John 
Dodge Agent of the State last summer to Kaskaskias in order to dis- 
charge sundry Debts which had been contracted by him for the state, 
and particularly an ace: which had been already presented by the 
County Lieutenant f^ichard Winston that from various actions of the 
said Winston, being suspicious of his intention to injure and impose 
upon the State at all opportmiities in order to bring his actions to a 
proof this deponant Pretended to have lost the Accounpt \si(] already 
delivered and demanded a new one, when the said Winston jjreaentcd 
another to which this dc^mnent pretending to make some diflculty the 
said Winston affirmed to him these words, that upon his Credit, and 
upon the word of a Gentleman it was an Exact and true Co[)y of ihe 
Account already delivered and that he was ready to make oath of the 
.Same That notwithstanding this declaration, this deponant upon com- 
paring ihc two accounts found a difference of thirty two hard Dollars 
in Prejudice to the first Ace* whereby it plainly appeared that the said 
Richard Winston County Lieutenant of Kaskaskias in the Illinois 
County was desirous of imposing upon him and injuring the County of 
Thirty two hard Dollars and farther this Deponant saith not 

Sworn this r?**" March 1781 before mc Joseph Hunter. 



John Todd to nre Phesidknt op Concress, April 15, 1781 

IC. C. Pp. Ind. Aflairs, 56, p. 97.— A. U S.] 

Lexington Fayette County Virginia 

Honorable Sir, 

By accounts from the Proceedings of the last Winter Session of the 
General Assembly of Virginia just arrived I am informed that they 
have given up lo the United States for certain Uses their Claim to that 
Tract of Tcrritor)' betii^-een the 36! and 40th Degrees of N. Lat— 
Northwest of the Ohio called Ilinois County. In the Year 1778 (he 
President and Masters of the Cfdlege of William and Mary were pleased 
to confer upon me the Office of Surveyor of that County which Com- 
mission I have ever since held. My Design in this letter is to prof[f]cr 
my services in Capacity of Surveyor in the late ceded Territory to your 
Honor. I shall be ever ready to comply with your Requisitions in 
giving further previous Surety for the faithful discharge of my Oflfioc 
and in executing the Consequential Orders. My Situation so conve- 
nient to that Country, my Acquaintance with the place and people and 
my former Commission unforfeited by any Miafeazance I beg leave 
to urge as several picas on behalf of my Request. WTiencvcr required 
I shall take a pleasure in waiting upon your Honor and Congre-ss 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest Respect your most obedient 
and humble Servant Jko Todd J*. 

The honble the President of Congress isth April 1781 
[Endorsed:] Letters John Todd Junr. June la 1781 Ordered to be 
on the tabte-Laid 
[Addressed:] To the Honorable The President of Congress 

Oatb ov Allegiance to tïïje Repdbuc of VatcixiA, April 19, 1781 

[K. MSS.— Attested Copy.] 
Je fais serment de Renoncer et Refuser toute fidélité & George trois 
Roy de la Grande Brettagnc, ses hoirs et Successeurs, et que je Scray 
fidclJe et Portcray vray Itdcllit^ a la Republique de la Virginie comme une 

I make oath to renounce and to refuse all allegiance to George IIL 
King of Greal Britian, his heirs and successors, and that I will be faith- 
ful and will bear true allegiance to the Republic of Virginia, as a slate 



Etat Libre el Indcjxmdanl, Et jamais Jc ne leray, Ny ne ïeray faire 
aucune chose qui puisse (-tre rrejuditiablc du Injurieux S. la Liberté 
et Indépendance du dit état Comme déclaré Par le Congres, et aussy 
que Jc Découvriray et fcray Sravoir, a quelque Juge de paÏA du dit 
Etat, toutes Traistins nu con s]ii rati uns qui Sont venue ou Pourons 
venir a ma cunnuissance, formé contre le Dit Kta uu quelque autre des 
Étals unis de laménque 

free and indept-ndent. and that I will never do, nor cause to be done, 
anything which might 1m: Helrimental or injurious to the lilierty and 
independence of the said state as declared by Congress; and also that 
I will disclose and cause to be known to some judge of ihc peace of the 
said stale all treasons or conspiracies, planned against the said slate or 
some other state i>f the United Slates of America, that have come or 
may come to my knowledge.* 


Wiu. OP RicHAKii M'Cauty, April 35, 1781. 

[Collcrtion of P. B. Caatgnin, Quebec.^ Copy.] 

Extrait des livres des enregistrements du Greffe de la Comté des 
Illinois, au District des Kaskaskias, dépendances des Etats-Unis de 

I, Rirhiird McCarthyj of Cahos in the IlltofHs, Gciitlemenj being 
obliged for many reasons to make a voige from I his to I he seat of Govern- 
ment of Ihe common wealth of Virginia» said voige being long and 
dangerous, on account of (he différent Indian N^afions al war with the 
United-Stales of America, prudence dittaics lo me In make, constitute 
and appoint persona at this place to take care of my proiwrty and con- 
cerns in this place, that my wife and children in Canada may enjoy 
the same in case the Almighty shall please to di-spose of my life other- 
wise, for which purpose I have and also do by these presents write and 
ngned with my hand constitute and appoint Me.<wrs Richard Winston 
and Charles CharleviUe, Esquires of the town of Caskakco, in the 

■ ^M [ha 1U1 copied bjr the dcrlt M die time he mu prc|iatiQx iMter ptptn lu lie nenl to Vlr- 
gbb, we ■nay a(>triii ittt ■< a c>(>/ iif llwiBlh wliEch thr Court «wrlnlnt iradend BenlI^V- Il h 
■ Frtndt tniiAkilaa <A the nutomtry otih us«d in Mrgiaio. 

> The orlsliiwl will and ihcraiird of li ni Kukjukta hnrebccn lost. The cop)'. Ifoni vhkh Ihii 
bulua.mi nude tor Ihe family, Junea, ]]»«• Mf . P. B. CMcmla nllcd inreitBKuaioiiAi^ 
made Ihe lop; for mc. 

M'C^RTY'S WILL. APRIL 35, j;8j 


Illmois, my good and faiihfuU [henda, tbcy will as soon as information 
comes to them of my death or any other Ibiag hap[>emng me, put this my 
writing in force and inform my wife and children in Canada Thereof, 
who are after what I lawfully owe being paid my only heirs which is the 
only intent and meaning of this writing. 

Tbey will fi.nd my commission Registered in the Register's ofGce 
at Cahos, likewise my claims lu a tract of land above Ibe town of Cahos,' 
they will observe that my commission as a captain in the service of the 
state of Virginia as a regular, by which my wife and family may reap 
some benefit in process of time, several notes, &c, the original I take 
with me arc rep'stcrcd in the ofEce of Kaskaskîas my book and papers 
remain here in a chest, copies of notes, viz: with the States during my 
command at Cohus I have with mc as well as the pay roll of (ny com- 
pany up to the 31st d'eccmFx^r 17&0, copies of which are in my books. 
as yet I have received nothing for my pay or that of my company or the 
raising uf them but have taken it with my own projjcrly. 

Some disputes may arise concerning an Indian girl named Lisette 
formerly my property my friends will observe that she is free and has 
been several years past, and her freedom is registered in Ihu office at 
Cahokia when under the British Government Monsieur Kocheblat'c 
Commanding officer my intention is tlial she receives so and keep all 
she has of my effects in hand whatsoever — all other of my effects, 
Debts, Bills, Bonds, UUigations, Notes &c, be to and for the use of 
my wife Ursule Benoist McCarly. and my son Richard McCarty- 
Benoist McCarty and Ursula McCarty, my daughter, now in Canada 
Montreal — in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand at Ca&kas- 
Kia this 35th day of April une thousand seven hundred and eighty one 
& in Ifae tifth year of our Independence. 

Signed: Richard McCarty 
[Addressed:] To Messrs Richard Winston & Charles Charleville Esq., 

or either of them them to execute. 

Signed: Richard McCarty. 

Enregistn* au greffe de la comt^ des Illinois au district des Kas- 
kaskîas, pages 134, 135, 136 et 137 folio 63, par nous notaire et greffier 

Recorded at the clerk's office of the County of inc Illinois in the 
District of Kaskaskia, pagcâ 134. 135, 136, and 137, folio 63, by us, 
1 Prinleil Id lU. tlia. CtUeitimu, U., 46s. nt. 



du dit district Kaskoskias, le qualrième jour du tntHS de juillet mil-sept- 
ccnt-quatre. vingt -un. ^ ,> «. 

Nous soussigné, Notaire et Greffier, ea la comtée des Illinois au 
District des Kaskaskias, y résident soussigné, paroisse de l'Immaculée 
Conception de Notre-Dame, certîâons que la copie cy-dessus et des 
autres parts est conforme à son original qui dous a été présenté par feu 
Sieur Richard Winstoti exécuteur teslamentatre de feu Monsieur 
Richard McCarty pour l'enregistrer à l'iostant à lui remis et délivrée 
par nous dît sous^'gné ce jourd'hui aux Kaskaskias le vingt -neuvième 
jour du mois de juin mil-'*pt-ccnl-quatre-vingt-neuf. 

Cahbonneaux, Greffier. 

Nous Jean-Baptiste Barbau, député Lieutenant de la comtée des 
Illinois, capitaine et commandant à la prairie du Rocher &c certifions 
à tous qu'il appartiendra que Maître François Carbonneaux qui a signé 
la cupic des autres parts, est notaire et Greffier en cette comtée, et que 
foy est ajoutée aux actes par lui délivrés. En foy de quoy nous avons 
signés CCS présentes à I» praine du Rocher, ce vingt ncu\-îiïme jour du 
mois de juin mil-sei>l-ccnl-quatrc-vingt-ncuf. 


notary and clcrk of the said District of Kaskaskia, the fourth day of 
the month of July, 1781. 

CAnnoNSEAirx, Clerk. 
We the undersigned, notary and clerk, in the County of the lUim^s, 
in the District of Kaskaskia, residing there, in the parish of the Im- 
maculate Conception of Our I-ady, certify that the copy, abow and on 
the other side, conforms to the original which has been presented to 
us by the late Richard Winston, executor of (he late M. Kichaid M'Carty, 
to be rt'cordtd and immediately returned to him; and ihc said copy 
has Ixcn delivered by u» this day at Kaskaskia, the twcnly-ninth day 

of June, 178g. 

Carbonneaux, Clerk. 

We, Jean Baptiste Barbau, Deputy Lieutenant of the County of 

Ihc Illinois, Captain and Commandant at Prairie du Rocher etc., 

certify to whom it may concern (hat Master Kraiiyois Carbonneaux, 

who has signed the copy on the other side, is notary ami clerk in this 

county and that faith should be given to the instruments delivered by 

him. In faith of which we have signed these presents al Prairie du 

Rocher, this twenty-ninth day of the month of June, 1 78g. 




Pétition to the Goveknok of Vihgdjia ruois toe Inhabitants or 

Kaskaskia, May 4, 1781 
IM. C. T, MSS.— A. D. S.] 

A Son Excellence Mr. Le Gouverneur de Virginie &c., &c., Jbc. 

Supplient très humblement l^s habitants des KasKasKïas Illinois 
et ont Lhonneur de Vous représenter très respectueusement quils 
auroient reçu Mr. Le Colonel Clark et ceux qui L accompagnoient avec 
tout Le zcfle possible en arrivant dans ce pays, espdrant Jouir Comme 
nos Compatriotes d'une Vraye Liberté comme il nous La assuré 

hes Suppliantes, ont fourni toutte Les provisions nécessaires aux 
troupes a un prix assez modique, qui leurs ont éiê payées avec une 
moonoye de Cartes et Lettres de change quîl nous a dit valoir des 
piastres Ëspagnolles avec lequel argent nont pu avuir leurs Besoins ny 
en faire aucun employ et usage par Cunseijucnt noiis est resté entre les 
mains de nulle Vallcur quant à Cela nous navuns aucune plaintes contre 
Led' Sieur Clark; qui nous a laissé Sous le commandement des Mr. 
M^Gomery duquel nous allons f;iirc Le detail du Sun administration. 

a esté fuurny soixante Milliers de farine au moins a Compliîr depuis 

[Translalion .\ 

To his Excellency, the Governor «if Virginia, etc., etc. 

The inhabitants of Kaskasl<ia in Illinois very humbly pray, and have 
the honor to make known to you that they n-ccivcd Colonel Clark and 
those, who accompanied him, with all the zeal possible, when the latter 
arrived in this country, because ihcy hoped to enjoy, aa do our fellow- 
citizens, a true lil>erty as had l»ccn prnmiwd to them. 

The suppliants have fiimi-shcd all the necessary provisions for the 
troops at a price sufficicntlv mcKlcrate, which provisions were paid for 
in a paper-mom-y and letters of cxchanRC which Colonel Clark told us 
were equal in value to Spanish piastres; and with this money [those who 
received it] were not able to pn)cure what ihcy needed or to make any 
use of it. Consequently it rcmaineij on our hands, since it was nf no 
value. In regard to this we have nn complaint to make against the 
said M. Clark, who left us under the comman<i of M. Montgomcr>*, of 
whose administration, wc shall give a detailed account. 

He w:is furnished with sixty thousand pounds of f!nur at least, 
counting from the autumn of the year 1779 until the nionth of May, 



Lautoiine mil sept cent Soixante dix neuf, Jusques au mois de may mil 
Sept cent quatre vingt, qui Estoit tout ce quî pouvoït Estre ûté cela 
Estoît plus que Suffisant pour la Subsistance de trenie huit hommes de 
troupe y compris Les officiers, puis quîl en h traitté pour Son propre 
compte sur la Rîve EspagnoUe; non content de Cela, à. donné des 
ordres àSa troupe daller de maison en maison armée, pour prendre de 
force ce quits trouveraient de farine. 

s. fait tuer il Coups de mousquet dans Les Rues h la porte des granges 
et mdme dans les Cours quantité de nos annimaux domestiques, touttes 
fois et quantcs le Caprice luy dirtoit, malgré Les foumitures de Viande à 
luy faitlcs, alors les Suppliants hiy ont représenté quîl les ruinoit totalle- 
menl et que ce ncstolt plus Jmiir de La Liberté qui leur Esloit promise 
par L'honorable Colonel Clark chargé disoit-ît des Estais unis de La- 
meriquc; Sa reponsc fûl, que sîl y a%'oit quclqu'uncs de mécontents, 
quils pouvoicnt Se preparer à tenir leurs armes en F^tat et que luy et Sa 
troupe Estoicnt touts prêtes apparamment quil Vouloit faire main Casse 
sur nous ce que nous avons souffert Patiammcnl. 

M' Le ColoDcIM'Gomcryâ fait une Infinité dinsultes aux habitants 

['1 ransiation.] 
1780, which was all that could be collected. It was more than enough 
(or the maintenance of thirt)*-eight troopers, including the officers, since 
be traded therewith on his own account on the Spanish shore. Not 
satisfivd with this he ordered his troops to go, under arms, from house 
to house in order to seize by force what flour they could find. 

He has caused to be shot, in the streets, before the barn-doors, and 
even in the very yards, a numlier of our domestic animals, at all times 
and whenever caprice dictated, in spite of ibc supplies of meat that had 
bccQ given him. When the suppliants showed him that he was totally 
ruining Lhem and that this was no longer the enjoyment of •thai liberty 
that hai) been pmmised to them by the honorable Colonel Clark, who 
was commissioned, as he said, by the United States of America, his 
answer was that, if there were any who were disatisQed, they could 
prepare themselves to keep their weajions in condition, and that be 
and hi.s triKip wi;rc all n.*;uly.' Apiiarcntly he was willing to slaughter 
us all, and this is the kind of trcuLmcnt we have suHered patiently. 

Colonel Monigumcry has continuously insulted the inhabitants of 

'For ihUihmi.iMtiiM, p. i5i>< 



dc ce pays qui après avoir imploré sa Clémence Lcsà reçus Brusquement 
alon ils ont demandé à la Cour civillc de Sommer ce Commandant de 
donner un Estât de la troupe qui Comjwsoil Sa Garnison tc qui! à 
Refusé malgré nos Justes et soumises representations il nous a traitté 
dimpertinents; il navoit garde de Se Soustraire a la demande du peuple, 
puisquil nouri<)Soit aux dépens du publique, quantité de familles y com- 
pris enfants et Esclaves qui navuicnt aucun rapport avi-c la garnison. 

ah qui! Est douloureux à un peuple aussy bien soumis et porté dis- 
dination a S unir avec Lamcriquc; de Se VoJr frustris auâsy injuste- 
ment ; par des personnes qui Hstoient a tous Egards obligés de prendre 
Leurs Intérêts ; pour recompense, il leur est resté Seulement des papiers 
dont on ne peut faire aucun usage, tandis que ceux qui Estoieut en place 
sils avoient voulu accomplir leur promesse auroient fait honneur avec 
des marchandises cela auruit Epargné quantité de fraix aux habitants 
pour leur procurer Lu rentrée des fonds de ce papier, et nauroîent point 
Couru de risques dans un Circuit de Chemin aussy dangereux par 
Rapport aux Barbares d'autant mieux que Lestât de Virginie ne Seroit 
plus reliquataire enirers eux 

[ Translaiùm.] 

this country, who, after having iniplorcd his clemency, received such 
insults impatiently. Then they demanded that the civil court summon 
the commandant to give an account of Ihc condition of the troops that 
composed his garrison. This he refused to do in spite of nur just and 
humble representations. He treated us as impertinent. He was careful 
not to submit to the demand of the people, since he was feeding, at (he 
public expense, a number of families, including children and staves, 
who had no connection whatever with Ihc garrison.^ 

Ah! how grievous it is for a people, so submissive and anxioiu lo 
unite with America, to sec themselves frustrated so unjustly by persons 
who were bound by every tie to protect their interests. As a recompense, 
there remained in their hands only some papers, with which they can 
do nothing, while those who were in authority, if Ihcy had wished to 
fulfill their promi.scs, should have honored these with merchandise. 
This would have spared great cx|Krnsc to the inhabitants in procuring 
for them the payment of the principal of thi.< paper-money; and they 
would not have had to run risks over roads so dangerous because of the 
Indian.s; and .still l>cttcr the State of Virginia would no longer be their 

' The papcn refcnccl lu tie prtnlcd tuit, p|>, 13A. 140. 



après tous ces faits Rciterés Le dit sieur M'Gomcry s'est relinî et 
nous a laissé Sous le Commandement de M'' Rogers, qui nous a réduit 
dans la i>lu5 triste scituation Ce Second h DarcrUcmetil fait tu<^r tous nos 
annimaux comme avoit cy devant fait Le dit Sr. M'Gomery 

A f:iit prendre le bois de Chauffage dans les Cours des habitants a 
force darmes, où l'un tU-s enfants d'un magistra à Voulu luy représenter 
jKilimcnt i[uîls ne dévoient pas prendre d'autorité; alors ce com- 
mandant de Concert avec Mr. Dodgc Ltmt fait cmpriwinndr et menacé 
Le |>erL' de pareille tium'tiun. 

Knfin voufant Jouer <lc Son reste à Vendu et brûlé en partie tous les 
pieux, ruiné tous les b&ttraents d'un fort ajipartcnant à des Citoyens de 
cet endroit, aprts louttes ces molestations, à Pxrit à la Cour civille, 
Etablie j)ar Mr. Le Colonel tood, conformément aux Loix de L'hon- 
orable assemblés de Virginie, une Lettre diffamatoire disant quit Cas- 
.scroit toulte la magistrature et foulcroit aux pieds, siU ne vouloient pas 
rendre Justice a Mr. Bentley qui à refusé le Serment de fidélité ain^ 
quil Est prescrit par L'acte de lad"" assemblée. 


After all these acts, which we have mentioned, the said M. Mont- 
gomerj- went away and left us under the command of M. Rogers, who 
reduced us to the saddest condition. This second commandant has 
also caused all oiu" animals to be killed as had been done before by the 
said M. Montgomer)'. 

He has caused the firewood to be forcibly seized in the very yards 
of the inhabilanls. When one of the children of a magUtrate saw fit 
to inform him politely that he had no right to take it, this command- 
ant, acting with M. Dodge, had this child put in prison, and they 
threatened the father with a similar punishment. 

In short, wishing to play to the limit, he sold and partially burned all 
the pickets and lore down all the slruclure of a fort belonging to some 
citizens of this place. After all these impositiims he wrote to the civil 
court, established by Colonel Todd according to the laws of the hon- 
orable Assembly of Virginia, a defamatory letter, saying that he would 
abolish the magistracy and crusli it under his feet, if the magistrates did 
not wish to render justice to M. Bentley, who had refused to take the 
oath of allegiance as is prescribed by the act of the laid Assembly.' 

' Sf« Biilif. pp. ia&. Jli. 



Il convient d'eclercîr Son Excellence des promesses qui ont Eté 
faittes aujt suppliants par Le Sieur dodge propose? h. Leffet pour payer 
les fournitures faîtles aux trouâtes de Lestât, en marchandises à bonne 
composilkm, bien loins d'y satisfaire puis qu'il a servy dinstrument pour 
autorizer les plus grandes Vexations. 

Mr. Le Colonel de la Bkme Venant du Congrès muni d'une Com- 
mission dinspecCeur gt^néral de loutte La Cavallerie dans Lamerique 
avec une I<etlre de recommandation adressée aux suppliants, par Mr. 
faulcr, qui Estoit cy devant notre Commandant, à present, officier dans 
le service ameriquain au fort Pile, Laditte Lettre en datte du 25 Juin 
1780; a Levé des volontaires pour aller au détroit combatre Lennemy 
et a trouvé apropos avec Laprobatinn de Mr. M'Gomery tie prendre 
Le Pavillon françois pour se mettre à Labry des Insultes des Indiens 
mal Intentionnés, tnuttes les dépensés faîttcs pour cette Kxpedition, 
ont Eté aux frais des habitants et non a ceux de Lestai; Le Malheur 
& Voulu quil ait î'Aé défait après un coup (ilorieux, notre confianu; 
Estoit en luy puis quil Kstoit chargé de nos afîaircs. 


It is fitlmg to enlighten your Excellency concerning the promises 
which were made to the suppliants by M. Dodge, who proposed to pay 
for the supplies, furnished the troops of the slate, in on 
good terms; but he has been very far from giving satisfaction in this, 
since he served as an instrument to authorize the greatest vexatioas. 

Colonel de la Balme, who came from Congress, provided with a 
commission of inspector general of all the cavalry in America, and with 
a letter of recommendation, dated June 25, lyâo, addressed to the sup* 
pliants by M. Fowler, who was formerly our commandant and, at 
present, an officer in the American service at Fort Pitt, has muMcn;d 
some volunteers in order to go to Detn>it to fight the enemy. He found 
it of advantage, with the approbation of M. Montgomery, to take the 
French flag so as to be protected against the attacks of hostile Indians. 
All the expenses of this expedition were at the cost of the inhabitants 
and not at the cost of the sUtc. Fortune decreed that he should be 
defeated after a glorious achievement. Our confidence was in him, 
since be was tntru.'ilcd with our affairs.^ 

I Tlie ppns an priniod la ckkp. *. 


M'* Rogers et dodge nous ont attribué un Crime en ce que Les 
Suppliants avoient Chargé a M** d'un Ecrit adressé au ministre de fraoce 
à filadelfie dans Lequel ils le prieni de Sinieresscr pour eux au Congrès 
comme il est àprorimïté et prendre même Leurs Interests pour mettre 
fin aux torts qui leurs Etoïent fait par la troupe de Virginie 

tous ces mauvais traittements Sont La Cause que de nos meilleurs 
habitajils Se Sont Retirer Sous le gouvernement Espagnol, Et d'autre 
qui attendent Votre Justice, préférant Les Loix despagnc ; a la tïranyc 
et despotisme quils ont Souffert de la part de Vos Gens. 

A ces Causes et autres à Supplier de droit Les Suppliants Recourent 
Jl Vôtre Excellence à ce Qu'il Luy Plaise Examiner Leur Estai déplor- 
able et Comme ils sont réduit par des gens quils regardent Comme leurs 
Compatriotes, ainsy quil leur avoit Eté assuré dont ils se Sont trouvés 
déchus par quantité de Calamîtees Jusques au di*part de Mr. Rogers 
Commandant; En Consequence ils Espèrent que pareille mnnopollc 
ne Régnera plus chez eux a lavenir leur rcndrés Justice du passé et ils 


MM. Rogers and Dodge accused the suppliants of committing a 
crime, because they entrusted to M. [de la Baimc] a writing addressed 
to the minister of France at Philadelphia, in which they prayed him to 
act for their interests in Congrcts, as he was near, and to attempt to 
put a stop to the wrongs which were being practiced against them by 
the troops of Virginia.' 

All these acts of tyranny are the causes that our best inhabitants 
have withdrawn to the Spanish government, and others, who were ex- 
pecting your justice, prefer Spanish I;iws to the tyranny and despotism 
which they have suffered at the hand of your people.' 

On account of these causes and others, the suppliants have, in accord- 
ance with justice, come to your Excellency to petition that it may please 
you to examine their deplorable condition and how they arc reduced 
by those persons whom they regarded as their fcUow-citirens, as they 
had been assured, and by whom they found themselves oppressed by 
all sorts of calamities up to the time of the departure of M. Rogers, 
commandant. Consequently, they hope that a similar m<mo|X)ly of 
powers will no longer reign, in the future, amongst them, and that you 

> Srr mu*. p. 1S9. 

*ThIieiMlua bmnn uMrifai i7i»| wmi trail) r sccdeniKd «fKT Tjflf, and eaodnnnl till Ike 
eodollbeotaiutr, Di. /Tù(. CoUMJoau, il., coonh liKW(uiu]n"cniiir>llaD-" 



ne Cesseront de prier Pour La Cunacrvation des précieux Jours de Votre 



Daniel Blouin 
antuink buyat 
NicoLA La chanse 
jeak baptiste sauvais 
pierre prexo 
Mariane conante 

Marque de jean LaRce 

Antoine janis 
PK. Ckakleville 
Bte Laciunse 
lolis buyat 
antoine sauvais 
c danis 
Louis Lonval 
aimé Buyat 
fkancois janis 
antoine peltier 
Marque de 

Michel pelthie 

fr corset 



Louis Beazaux 
Jean Cuoisser 
Vitale B au vais 


Bte Coaklevillx 





will render tliem justice for the past; and ihcy will not cease !o pray 
for the preservation of the precious days of your Excellency. 

Charlevîlle Sr. 
Daniel BloIÎin 
iVNToiNE Buyat 
Nicolas Lâchasse 
Jean Baptiste Bauvais 
Pierre Pheno. 
Mariane Conante. 
Charles Charlevîlle 
Jean Baptiste Janis 
Wmow Delisle 
Pelletier Jr. 
Antoine Jank 
Fr- Charlevîlle 
Baptlite Lachanse 
Loms BnYAT 
Mark of Jean La RrK 


Antoine Sauvais 
C. Danis 
Louis Lonval 
avhé buyat 
François Janïs 
Antoink Pelletier 
Fr. Corset 
Louis Brazeadx. 


Vital Bauvais 





Mark of Henry Relbieb 







JEAN Bte Laper[.e 












Fbansoi T^AKODO 


Btr tomure 


Jaque Labriere 


ptERiu; Damon 




Guar. Deld-le 






Nicola Canada 


Bte Deulle 




JEAN Bte jandkon 







Enregistnf au greffe du district des Kaskosluas en ta comtée des 
Illinois dépendance a la province de la Virginie paroisse de l'iiumaculife 
Conception de notre [dame] Dune page 125, 126, 137, Et 128 f" 59 par 
nous notaire publique et greffier dudit district Kaskaakias ce quatrième 
may mil sept cent quatre vingt et va 

Carbonneaux Greffier 


AuiABLE Gagné ' 
Jacol'es Devignais 

Joseph Muyne ' 

Joseph Fortin ' 

Baptiste Thalmue ' 

PœBBE Damon ' 

Char. Delisle ' 

Joseph Tibaut ' 

BApnsTE Deusle ' 

Jean Baptiste ' 

Geniiron ' 
Padi. Reaitve 

" Jean Baptiste 

Laper LE 
" Louis Delisle 
" Jacques Cbenibr 
" pRANyoïs Lancdad 
" Jacques Labbiebe 
" Joseph Doza 
" Augustin Lousin 
" Nicolas Canada 
" Picard 

" Antoine Japos Jr. 
" Antoinb Lachansb 

Recorded at the clerk's office of the Dùitrict of Kask&skia. in (be 

County of the IlliooU, dependency of the province of Virginia, pariah 

ifhe Immaculate CoikceptioD of Our Lady, on pages 115, 126, 137. 

i'' 138, folio 59, by us, notary public and cJerk of the said District of 

^skia, this fourth of May, 1781. 

Cakbonnraux. Clerk. 

r 1 iS'ir msTOftc AI 

CttJkB '■ 

Bn. bKUUz 

tA . - . , 

Cooovpiioo ' 

Paoi. Rcacms 

RfconM iif Ilk tkfiS <A 
Couniy of '^ 

•rf fill- Intiii.ii al_.. 

■ ■ J' 

" '• l*iCAap 

" •• AvioiM» Jaiiw It 

3 5 

.-' ' I ? '>; K' ; _ , J 





«1 ■ X 


Contract or Richard M'Cakty and Pierre Prévost with the 
Imhabitants of Kaseaskia, May 5, 1781 

[K. MSS.— A. D.S.I 

Pardcvanl Lc Notaire Public au pais des Illinois y resident îious- 
signé En la paroisse de L'immaculée Conception De Notre Dame des 
KasKasKias Et les témoins cy apr&s nommées Et aussy soussignés 
furent Presens En personnes les soussignés habitans de la ditte paroisse 
des KasKasKias d'une part. Et Messîetirs Richard MaCarty Et 
Pierre Prévost d'autre part. 

Lesquels ont fail Enir'eux les accords Et conventions qui suivent, 
c'est a sçavoir que chacun des dits soussigné stipulant chacun En leur 
particulier s'oblige Et promette payer aux dits Sieurs Richard Ma- 
Carty Et Pierre Prévost par chaque t»?te d'habîlanl Et de ncgre Letout 
d'âge leur Cote part de la somme De Deux Cent Piastres En bon 
argent Sana fitrc responsable Les uns jwur les autres de la part qui lui 
Echcra pour completlcr La ditte somme de deux cent Piastres En Bon 
argent, pour porter Les Justes Plaintes Des dits soussignés habitatis 


Before the undersigned Notary Public of the country of the Illinois, 
therein residing, in the parish of the Immaculate Conception of Our 
Lady of Kaskaskia, and the witnesses hereafter named and also under- 
signed, there appeared In person the undersigned inhabitants of the 
said parish of Kaskasfcia on the one hand and MM. Richard M'Carty 
and Pierre Prcvosl ' on the other. 

Which parties have made the agreement and convention which 
follow: to wit, that each of the undersigned, each one stipulating for 
himself, promises and binds himself to pay to (ho said MM. Richard 
M'Carty and Pierre Prcvost his share of the sum of two hundred 
piastres in good money apporliimei! among all the inhabitants and 
slaves of age, without Iicing responsible, one for another, fur the part 
that may be lacking to complete the said sum of two hundretl piastres 
in good money, in order that they niay cany the just complaints of the 

' For» noun of iiiotuf}' ghea mPrcvoti f.j- ihein!uUuuitsof Cxbalb.m IJS.Ifift.CBliaihni, 
ii-, 4T0' M Oirly anrr rrudiMJ Virilnia, for liï KU Lillid 1i^ d bond 4l Inflbum, whitt on )ik Way 
IbllbM. (WifA. MiJi. C'iiUfitimi , i,U,.fc4iJ,) There li no rvidamc.Atto.llul frfyoit rvti went to 
V»i[inijt. All we know a ihc [ujim iFut trcrc circiully [ojilMl al llih time. In onJO' Ihkl tbt 
ninaminl tnishi |im«il llimi in ilui fivemur, rJinv iniii the ptrnnilcm o( Tudivaiu («vr ^m1, 
11.445. >- il.andpatanlinliiiiriiita tht lûlulioi Pirrtc Mriuril. SU. MÛT. CitltMlMU, u., p.dit. 


Pardcvaot Sun I^ccUcDce Monsieur Le Gouverneur de L'Etat de la 
virgiaic où devant le Congréâ £a cas de bi*soîii, uù dcv^int tous autres 
qui auroicnt autoriti! D'En (irendrc ComioissAncc, Butvimt les pi(5ccs 
par Eux rrmis par les dits Soussîgnt?s liabitaiis, jMirtans tous les tords 
a Eux faits Par Messieurs Jean Monlgomcr}-, Thomas BcntU'y, Jcao 
Rogers Et Jean dodgc, tous frais qu'Us feront dans leur route Et par 
tout ailleurs seront debourcés par les dits Sieurs, Richard MuCarty Et 
Pierre Prcvost sans rembourcement de la part de qui que ce soit. 

Les dits Soussignés habitons Promettent Payer la dilte Somme cy 
dessus ditte de Deux Cent Piastres En bon argent aux dits Sieur Richard 
MaCorty et Pierre Prevot a leur retour En ce village Soit En farine où 
peau de chevreuil rase le tout sur le pîed d'argent de leur arrivée dans 
ce Dit village des KiisKasKias a Evaluer El qui ne leur sera Compté 
qu'aux charges clauses et conditions qu'ils rapporteront aux dits sous- 
signés la réponse des pièces Par les dits soussignés remises qui fera 
preuve Qu'ils se sont acquittés de leur mission Suivant le reçu qu'ils 
En ont délivré aux dits Soussignés habitans ce Jourd'huy Datte des 

imdersigned inhabitants before hts Excellency the Governor of the 
State of Virginia, or before Congress in case of need, or before any 
other body which may have authority to take cognizance thereof, in 
accordance with the documents dcli\*ered to them by the aforesaid 
and undersigned inhabitants, which documents relate the wrongs 
done to the inhabitants by MM. John Montgomery, Thomas Bentley, 
John Rogers, and John Dodge. All expenses that may be incurred 
by them (M'Cany and Prévost) in their journey and otherwise shall 
be paid by the said MM. Richard M'Carty and Pierre Prévost without 
any reimbursement on the part of any one whomsoever. 

The aforesaid and undersigned inhabitants promise to pay the said 
sum of two hundred pùtslra in good money to the said MM. Richard 
M'Carty and Pierre Prcvost on their return to this village, cither in 
flour or in shaved deerskins, to l>c \'ahiatcd at the rale of money at the 
time of their arrival in this said village of Kaskaskia; and this account- 
ing will be made to them only on condition that they bring back to the 
said undersigned the answer !o the documents remitted by the under- 
signed, which will be a proof that they have discharged their mission 
in accordance with the agreement which they have made with the under- 


présentes fait et pa^si En L'Ktutlc dudil notaire soussigné le cinquicme 
Jour du mois de May aprfcs Midy L'an mil sept cent quatre vingt et 
un En presence de Messieurs thimutli<J De munbrun Et Michel Per- 
rault témoins a ce requis qui ont signés Avec le dît notaire soussigné 
Et Les parties dont Les un ont fait leur marque ordinaire Lecture faîte 
témoins Presens de la signature de Messrs McCart)* Sr Prévost 
M'^'^ Perrault Richard McCabty 


Les Sou^'giiee Abîtan 
Chahleville Louis Brazeau 

Janis a Mokin 


Charles charle ville picard 

Jean Choisseul Veuve delisle 

Daniel Bwuin Vitale Sauvais 

prend F Cfiahlkville 

ANTome Baitvais aime Buyat 

signed inhabitants on this day, the date of the present. Done and 
accepted in the ufTice of the undersigned notary, the filth day of May, 
in the afternoon, and the year one thousand seven hundred and eight- 
one, in the presence of Timothé de Monbreun and Michel Perrault, 
witnesses to this end summoned, who signed with (he said notary 
undersigned, and the parties, some of whom made their customary 
mark. A reading was made. Witnesses present at the signing of MM. 
M'Carly and I*revosl. 

McH. Perrault Richard M'Cabtv 

ToioTHÉ DE Monbreun, witness. Prévost 
, The undersigned inhabitants: 


j.vnis a. morin 

Lachanse Antoine Bitvat 

Charles Charleville Picard 

Jean Choisseul Widow Delisle 

Daniel Blocin Vital Bauvals 

Preno F. Charleville 

/Vntoine Bauvais Aymé Bcyat 



AUABLE GAGNÉ, sa marquc ^^^| 


JOSEPH uiGNO, sa marquc ^^H 

^^1 JAQVU MOAANSY &a marque 

Rich. Winston ^^H 

^^m JEAN Bte La p£RU£, sa 

HANKY Relhiek, sa marquc ^^H 

^^M marque 

JO. Pace ^^H 

^^^^ FRANSOl Lanudo, 53 marque 

GODDf ^^H 

^^^^B JO&t:pa MAKOY, sa marque 

JOSEPH FORTiN, sa marquc ^^^| 

^^^^H B**^ DLUijLt:, S3, marque 

Pierre duviet, sa marque ^^H 

^^^^H Louis Deuulk, sa marque 

Nicx>LAs Canada, sa marque ^^H 

^^^^1 BiE. Touim, sa marque 

JOSEFB Dz La PARC, sa ^^H 


marque ^^^| 


Michelle peltie, sa marquc ^^H 

^^^^H LONVAi, 

Jean La [sic], sa marque ^^H 

^^^^H Louis Lonval 

Stanisles Levasseuk ^^^I 


Ca&bonncaux GrciîieT ^^H 

^^^H \Ttansi<Uio».] ^^| 


Amablb Gagné, his mark ^^H 

^^^^H Jean Baptiste Bauvais 

Joseph Miono, his mark. ^^H 

^^^^H Jaqueb Morancv, his 

Rich. Winston. ^^H 


Henry Relhieb, his mark. ^^H 

^^^^B Jean Bte. Lapekle, his 

Jo ^^M 

^ mark. 


^^M François Lakgdau, his mark. 

Joseph Foktin, bis mark. ^^H 

^^M Joseph Marov, his mark. 

Pierke Oitviet, his mark. ^^H 

^^M Bte. Delisle, his mark. 

Nicolas Canada, his mark. ^^H 

^^M LODIS Delislf:, his mark. 

Joseph De La Parc, his ^^H 

^^P Bapt. Thaumitk, hi.s mark. 


W Antoine Pelletier 

Michelle Pelletier, bis ^| 

1 Antoine Pelltier, Jr. 

mark. ^M 


j£ANLA[ïic],hismark[Rue?J H 

1 Louis Lonval 

Stanislas Levasseur. ^M 

1 Baft. Cuabi.£VILI.k 

Carsonnuaux, Clerk. H 



KicnARO Winston and Jacques Lasource to M. La Jeunesse, 

May 5, 1781 

IM. C, T. USS.— Attested Copy.] 


Il VOUS plaira aussitôt la présente reçue de rcmetirc a. Mcssicur 
MaCarty Et Prevot nos de[iutés [jour representor nos Cîricfs à son 
Kxcellentc Monsieur le Gouverneur de la Virginie toutes ks Pieces que 
nous vous avons remises Et si vous tes avfs prescnt(!$ k son Excellence 
vous leur remetlcrés la réponse que vous lia avds reçue a seule Gn que 
CCS Messieurs Puisse prendre connoi&sancc de ce qu'ils auront a 
faire comme Etans chargé de nos jwuvoirs 

Nous avons L'honneur d'être très Parfaitement Monsieur Vos très 
humbles Et très obéissant serv" 

Rich. Wlnston 


KasKasKîasIe 5"^" May 1781. 
[Addressed:] M. La Jeunesse h. Virginia 



As soon as you sliall have received ibis letter, you will kindly remit 
to MM. M'Carly and Prévost, our deputies who are to present our 
causes of complaint to his EsccUetocy the Oovemor of Virginia, all the 
documents which we have sent to you. If you bave already presented 
Lbem to his Excellency, you will remit to them the answer that you may 
have received, so that these ^nllemen may know what (hey have to do, 
since they are intrusted with our power of attorney. We have the 
honor to be very respectfully, sir, 

Your very humble and very obedient servants. 
Rich. Winston. 
Jacques Lasodrce. 
Kasfcaskia, May 5, 1781. 
{Addressed:] M. La Jeunesse.' at Virginia. 

■ At <liHcn-n1 lima Ihr rrench of lllmola Mnt uKcnti U> VSrcinU lo refttatu thetr grinsiKM 
4D<1 lo ooUkI cIm money dw lu llitoi. Lu. JnincMc wu, probably, nicli oa afcnl. 


Nicolas Jams to Capt. Fowleb, May 5, 1781 

[M. C, T. MSS.— A. L.S.J 

J'ai lecQ Votre Lettre ties gracieuse dons laquelle Vous marquas 
que cela nous Surprendroit peut-Etre au Contrain:: cda ne fait quaug- 
meater nôtre ofiection et attachement, Permettes que J'aye L'honneur 
de Nous faire mes Sincères remercimenls de laltaclie que Vous nous 
marqués avoir pour nOtre pays, Tous Les citoyens de cet t-nctruit vous 
ont bien regretté depuis vôtre depart et me Chargent Chacun en parti- 
culiier de voua assurer de leurs respecte. 

\'ous avés Recommandé M*" de la Balmc qui mcriloii à tiius Egards 
(|uc Ion ut de latlention pour luy, nous lavons reçu et favorizé ilu mieux 
qu'il nous a Eté possible, il a kvé icy une Certaine quantité de Jeunes 
gens Volontaire disant quil alloit prendre Le Detroit en Voulant S'en 
revenir a été attaqué aux miamis par les Sauvages il aété lue et Duplassy 

Permettes que ma femme et ma patittc famille Se Joingncnt à moy 

pour vous remercier et Mad" faulér très respectueusement de lattcntion 

quelle Veut bien avoir pour nous et de nous Croire que Je Seray avec 




I received your wry kind letter in which you note that perhaps it 
would surjirise us. On the contrary it only augments our aHcctiun and 
attachment. Allow me to express my sincere thanks to yuu for the 
attachment which yuu testify to have for our country. All the inhabi- 
tants uf til is place have missed you very much since your departure, and 
each one begs me to assure you uf his respect. 

You recommended M. de la Balme as one, in every respect, worthy 
of our alci-nlion. We received him and favored him as best wc could. 
He gathered quite a number of young Volunteers, saying that lie was 
going to capture Detroit. While attempting to come back he was 
attacked at Miami by the Indians, and he was killed, as was also Du- 

Permit that my wife and my small family join me in thanking you 
and Madame Fowler, very rcs|MXtfuIly, for the regard which you are 
kind enough to have fiff us. Believe us, sir, with rcsjwct, 

JANIS TO FOWLER, MAY 5, 1781 347 

Monsieur Votre très humble et très ob' serviteur 

5 may 1781. Janis 

Je nai pas manqué de macquitter de la mission dont vous mavés 

Chargé envers le docteur Gibkins il se porte bien 

\Addressed-\ Monsieur Fauler, Ëcuyer Command* 
Au Fort Duquêne 

Your very humble and very obedient servant, 
May 5, 1781. Janis 

I did not fail to comply with the mission to Doctor Gibkins, with 
which you entrusted me. He is very well. 
[Addressed:] M. Fowler, Esquire, Commandant 

Fort Duquesne. 



APRIL. i;83 

William Skaxncw Writes to Claek — Joseph LABOxtaiE — Piekkb 
Langlois Demands E5cpianation*s — Winston Defends ms Right or 
AppoiîmiENT — He Accuses the Cowrt or Tyranny — Jaques La- 
SOUKCE Defends the Court — A New Election or Magistoates. 

WcLLUu Shannon to George R. Clare, May 21, 1781 

[Draper MSS., siJsa.— A. U S.] 

SuLLiVANS Station 21*^ of May 1781 

Your express by Cap* Sullivan, to fort Jefferson, I forw-ardcd as 
soon as it tame to hand, the relum of which you have enclosed, I Icam 
by letters from that post, that they are in a starving Condition. & am 
sorry to inform you, that it is allmost out of my power, at present to 
relive them. Majr. Slaughter heving used the provisions purchaised 
for that post, and injured our Credit, so much in this place that I find 
it allmost impossible to purchase anything without money, about three 
weeks ago, I sent a bout to Post S' Vincent «ith three hundred Gallons 
€»f whiskey, to purchas the skins you wrote for, 5: expect the return of 
them by the time you are here. Yesterday I sent Cap*^ Moore with 
two other Gent'"" to the Countys of Lincoln, & Fayette, with instruc- 
tions to purchase what Beef Cattle, Dry & jjickelcd Beef, Butter, 
Cheese, com &c. they possibly could, on the Credit of the State, 
AsurtDg them that the money woud shortly be paid. I shoud have 
went myself but Detained in hopes of purchasing One or ivni hundred 
bushels of Corn, for the relife of fort Jefferson, whlcli I intentl imedetly 
to send With about eight or ten thousand weight of Beef which Slaugh- 
ter has not yet got into his hands. Cap* Jnhn Rogers,' of the Light 
Dragoons, arrived here about six or seven weeks ago, from the fllinois 
with his whole Company, in good helth, there were with him Messers 

* Alter uTlvlag 41 ttw FaIU, Rof«n wtou a l«l«r to Conraor JcHctmb m vbkb he ddcsded 
tài coodiKt. Contuli Va. Slaii Faftn, 11-, -jb. 




Dodge. Dcjcao. & Bcndey on Ihcir way lo Government, with several 
Indians, uf which Bitltlst the Rusk;is.kai:i Chile was One.' 

I can procure any quantity of salt you may want for ynur present 
expItUtioD, it I)cing the only article that can Iw pun^hasctl here on the 
Credit ni tile Slate. I most sincerely wish thai you woud inform Govern- 
ment, that in case they woud furnish me with money, I Could purchase 
provisions in this Department, at allmost half llie sum, I can for Credit, 
Instance cum &i salt, IT Cash, eurn can Ih: liad at forty Dollars Pr. 
Bushel, & for Credit eighty or une hundreit, fT Cash salt, can be had 
at five or six hundred Dollars I*r. Bushel, &i fur Credit eight hundred 
or one thousand, and the sume case with every S|>ede.'> of pnivision.s, 
since you left this place. I think if you were lu inform Government of 
this that they woud remedy it, as the State is run Double ex(Knce, in 
not having money to purchase with, — As Col" Floyd write you I 
shall refer you to his letters for neuws, Capt. Sullivan will write you the 
Difficulties he labours under with regard to being furnished with the 
necessary gaunds & foltaug&' for the men he has Iniployed to build 
the state boats. I am Sir 

With due respect Your most Obed* Humb" .Serv* 
Wu-L : Shannon 
Commiss. of Gen^ I. D. 

P. S. please present my best Compliments to Capt Benj" Harri- 
son & inform him that 1 should be ha])py in his showing himself once 
more in the mess. W. S. 

N. B Mr. Vait who is Iitiployed to convey the present eitprcsa is 
referred to you for |)ay W. S. 

[Addressed:] To the Honli' Brigadier Gen' Clarke Pittsburgh or Else- 
where at Pr express 

(On publick service) 

* Bmtlcy wrnl to Vtr|b]Im uul pctctûnrd ihs AMEntUjr hr parmoit of ntaupj owinx him. 
Consult I'd. Stale fafrri. h.., r^S; Jtnir. tj Houir «t Pfi'tatet, under oat», Jua« iS. ««t 11H3. 
'Iht atma *rc (daiiily «riius, but ihe uult hdt* noi Iwcii IdcaUlwd. 


As the men, who were lately accused of having stolen some horses 
not onljr from the state but also from individuals, have just arrived, it is 
of the greatest importance that a special scz^ion be held today, tbc state 
being the plaintiff, in order to make all inquiry and to know the nature 
of the cause. It b for this reason that I beg you to communicate the 
contents of this letter to Messieurs the Magistrates, and that, as quickly 
as possible. 1 have the honor to be always, ûr, 

Vour very humble and very obedient servant, 

RjcBAJto Winston. 

Kaskaskia, May 23, 1781. 
[Adéressed:] Monsieur Jani<i,' Magistrate at Kaskaskta. 

* tank WW pCDti*)>l« al (bl> tbnc prakknt of dtc Court, bul m pp. iit, 145.154. OoatODant 
Bl Ihelntol the itmvi-hacA, Il i( mon dJfflcuIl mfollv* UwHTynnd ol aw KuImIeU Co«R tbut 
ilul uf iIm Court ul Cihok.!», wtiiac ranrd* Mit almal oooiplinc. See 111. Bia. CtUteliemi, U. 



Petttion of Henry Sumi, May 31, 178t. 

[K. MSS.— A. L. S] 

a la Cour Respectable du District dcH Kaskasklas aux Illinois 

J'ay l'honneur de vous pnïscntcr ma cleffcnce sur I*acli[on] que 
M' le Major Williams a pnxjuit Contre moy a la Dcmîere cour, con- 
semant un cheval par luy recUinnî en faveur de i'ctat de Virginie, qui 
a été trouvé en Possession de nicolas smîlc le major Williams et Ken- 
nedy ont tenu cette affaire cy Sccrctlc fiuc Je ne l'ay aprîs quenviron 
une demy heure avant qu'ils Tayc pris, j'ay été allarmé en premier 
lieu n'ayant potnl signiï la vente que J'en avois à ni smîthe comme il 
n'avoit pas achevé de Me payer, mais uprbs avoir Considéré j'ay pence 
que M"" Gion etoit Celui qui devoii me rembourser ayant acheté I^ 
Cheval de Lui M'ns [?] Guion m'ayjint apris quil n'avoit pas pris le 
Cheval Par Des voyes régulières il n'a pi>inl voulu me le payer avant 
quil ne Soit L'égallenient prou^-é quelque lems ap^^s un jeune homme 
qui demeur chez moy étant a chercher Des cl)e\'caux m'apris qu'il 
avuit attrapé celui-là parmi les Miens, Je le prist donc en possession 


Tn ihe Honorable Court of the District of Kaskaskia in the Il- 

I have ihc honor to present lo you my defence in the suit which 
Major Williams has brought, in the last Court, ayainsi mc ronrcming 
a horse which was found in the jHissession of Nicholas Smith and which 
the plainiifï reclaims for the Slate of Virginia. Major Williams and 
Kennedy have kept this affair so secret that 1 learnecl of it only about 
half an hour Iwrfore Ihey took the horse. I was alarmed in the first 
place, because I had not signed the sale of it that I had made to Nicholas 
Smith, because he had not yet paid me; but after I considered it, I 
thought that M. Guion was the one who ought to reimburse mc, since 
I Iwught the horse from him. M. Guion informed me that he had not 
taken the horse in a regular way and therefore he did not wish mc to 
pay him until the title to him was legally proved. Some lime thereafter 
a young man, who lives at my house informed me that in looking for 
some liursrs lie had caught this one among mine. I, then, tixik pos- 


pour le Garder Jusqu'à ce qu'il Soit pri>uv€ être aux étal par des voyes 
Kcgulii:rt: clc Justice, j>ar ce que m' Kennedy a refusé de Prouver c|ue 
les Kcat Hen avoit reyeu aucun proût Le Colonel tnontgomcry qui 
('omniiinilciit icy on labsencc du Col. Clark avoit droit de vendre 
changer et trattqucr les cheveau.T et autres Effets de l'etat Sans que les 
personnes qui les achctoient en fussent responsable, puisque L'clat 
luy en avoit donné le pouvoir, cest a luy seul a qui ils [tcuvent S'en 
|>n;ndn: El non pjs aux Parùculiers, car ce seroit une injustice dont 
l'état ne )iertncttroit nullement. Je suis Prêt 3. vous prouver mcïuiîeurs, 
que le Colonel Montgomery à vendu ou trafique ce même cheval a 
M' Presgers [sk] El Bersiiars {?] a M' Williams, et que M' Williams à 
offert une Somme au nomé Bond, il y eu un an l'hiver passé pour luy 
prendre, mais ne l'ayant j>eu trouve ils l'on crû morl ce qui il fait que 
te manlié entre Williams et Brcshers & nuinqué mais L'ayant trouvé 
a])rbs Brcshers la vendu à Sergt meriwethers, ccluicy la vendue a 
Crouchcr, Crouchcr à (luion, Et guion a moy, Je vous observe que ce 
cheval n'a point Etampe de L'Etat comme il paroit par mon marché 
Je vous prie de considérer Mcssieur Sy la vente qui en a Eté fait le 

session of it to keep it until the title to it was proved, by the regular 
course of justice, to belong to the state, lx;cause M. Kennedy refused to 
prove that the state had received no profit from it. Colonel Mont- 
gomery, who commanded here in the absence of Colonel Clark, had the 
right to sell, exchange, and traffic in the horses and other property of 
the state without making the people who bought them responsible 
therefor, since the state had given him the power so to do. It is he 
alone against whom they can make suit and not against the individuals, 
for that would be an injustice which the state would in no way permit. 
I am ready to pro\'e to you, gentlemen, that Colonel Montgomery sold 
or trafficked this same horse to M. Brashers[?] and Brashers to M. 
Williams, and that Mr. Williams offered it, a year ago last winter, to the 
named Bond for a price, but not long after they found it as they believed 
dead and this caused the failure uf the sale between Williams antl 
Brashers; after it reco^vred, Brashcrs sold it to Croucher, Cmucher to 
Guion, and Guion to me. I call your attention to the fact (hat the horse 
does not have the state brand, as appears by my bill of sale. ! pray 
you to consider, gcnllcmen, whether the sale which Culoncl Mont- 



Ccplonel Montgomery qui est venu de l'un a l'autre Jusqua Moy tic 
doit pas mautoriâé à Je garder à mois que M'' Williams où son procur- 
eur ne donne des preuves que le TCodeur na point reçeu de vaileur pour 
ce dit cheval alors Jaurois recours Sur celui qui nie la vendue, vous 
voyés messieurs ma bonne foy j'ay bien payé ce cheval qui a été légitime- 
ment vendu comment puis- je le perdre dans [jiV] Sans Injustice, Enfin 
Je suis et seray toujours prêt a me Conforme à vos ordre dans touttes 
ocasion et suis avec tout le respect et attachment d'un vray Citoyen 
Messieurs votre très humble et très ob. Serviteur, 

KasKasKias le ai*"" May 1781 

vu la requête cy dessus et des autres parts par la Court du Dis- 
trict des KasKasKias la Quelle dit qu'il n'est pas de sa Competence 
De prendre aucune connois&ance des affaires qui concernent L'Etat 
vu le protest du S*" Jean GerauU procureur au dit district pour Letat 
de la Virginie En datte du Vingt septième septembre Mil sept cent 
soixante et dix neuf En consequence la ditte Court renvoyé La Con- 
noissance de cette Cause par devant les auditeurs des Etats Généraux 

gomeiy has made and which has passed from one to another up to 
myself ought nU tn authorize me in keeping it, unless M. Williams or 
his attorney give proof that the seller has not recicved a valuable con- 
nderation for the said horse, in which case I should have recourse 
against him who sold it to me. You see, gendemen, my good faith. 
I have paid goods for this horse which has been legally sold. How can 
I lose it without Injustice? Finally I can and shall be always ready to 
conform to your orders on all occasions and I am with all the respect 
and attachment of a true citizen your very bumble and very obedient 
servant. Uiu4Bï Suira. 

Kaskaskia, May 31, 1781. 

The Court of the District of Kaskaskia having examined the peti- 
tion, above and on the other side, declares that it is not competent to 
take any cognizance of suits that concern the state in view of the protest 
of M. Jean Girault, attorney in the said district for the Slate of Virginia. 
dated September 27, 1779. Consequently the said Court sends the 



aux qu'ils ta cooiwÂssaiice seule En a{>partient Mandons &r fait Et 
donné Ea L'audience dudit district Le Jeudy trrnie et un ième Maj 
mil sept cent quatre vingts cl un. 

J\CQ\rES Lasookcs 
[Endorsed:] Requête du Sieur hem; Smith du 6°** Jtfajr 1781. 
No. 68. 

cognizance of this cause to the auditors of the Estates General to whom 
alone cognizance belongs. We order, etc., Done and given id the 
audience chamber of the said district, Thursday, May 31, 17S1. 

Jacques Lasoubce 
[Endars^f] Petition of M. Henry Smith. May 6, 1781, No. 68^ 


Joseph Labuxiere to Jacqijes La Socrce. Presideni of the Court 
at Kaakaskia, August 1, 1781 
(K.USS.— A. O.S.] 
A Monsieur Jacques la Source presideni de la cour du district des 


Lc S' Labuxicre Nommé |iar M*' Lc govemcur Civil [irocureur de 
LEtat de Virginie En la Lomt<! des ilinots par la transmission que M'' 
Girault luy a fait de cette Charge vous a présente Sa commission signé 
du d' s' Girault de M** Lc gomxmeur Civil, de vous Monsieur et de 
deux autres Magùlrat tendante a Icnrcgistrcmrnt En ce grcITc Lc 
greffier vient de lui dire quit faloit ([uil vous prcwnte une requrte pour 
que tenregistrcmcnt V.ù tieu Ccsl Kn cftnsequance Monsieur que je 

To M. Jacques Lasourre, President of the Court of the District of 


M. Labujricrc, named by the civil governor attorney for the Slate 
of Virginia in the County of Illinois by the transfer which M. Girault 
made to him of this office, has presented to you his commisMon signed 
by the said M. Girault, by the civil governor, by you, sir, and by two 
other magistrates, for the purpose of registering it in this office. The 
clerk hxs just told him it was necessary that he present to you a peti- 
tion that the registration may take place. It is in consequence of this 




TOUS suplie dordonner Icnregistrement Cejourdhuy ayant Besoin de 
ma comtoîssioi] pour Raison a mon ministère a St. I^uis le 1^ aoust 
1781. Labuxiese 

Vu la requite cy dessus et des autres Farts par nous Juges a paîz 
et president de la Court Du District fi:c. le Sieur Labuxiere aura la 
boaté de nous Exhiber la CommissioD de sod commettaat pour En 
faire La Confrontation au paravant de L'admettre a LEnregistrement 
Et pour provision demeurera La ditte commission au Greffe pour y 
faire Droit Jusqu'à ce que celle de son commettant nous soit Exhibé 
Donné En notre auditoire aux KasKasKias le premier aoust mil sept 
cent quatre vingt et un Jacques Lasoctrcb 

il ordonné au greffié de Remetre La Commission au Sr. LaBussiere 
San lan Registre, au Cas août 1781. Jacques Lasource 

[Endorsed:] 17S1 Requête du S**. Labuxîere tendante a LEnregistre- 
ment de sa commission de procureur générale du 30"" aoust. 

thaï I beg you to order a registration of it this day, as I have need of my 
commission on account i>f my duties at St. Louis. August i, 178J. 


The petition, alx)ve and on the other page, has been examined by us, 
justice of the peace and president of the Court of the District, etc. 
M. Labuxiere will have the kindness to show us the commission from 
his principal in order to make a confirmation thereof, before it is ad- 
mitted for registration and provisionally the said commission shall 
remain in the clerk's oIUcc to do justice to it, until that of his principal 
shall have been exhibited to us. Given in our office at Kaskaskia, I, 1781, Jacquks Lasoukce 

The clerk is ordered to remit the commission to M, Labuxicrre with- 
out registering it. Kaskaskia, August, 1781. Jacques Lasource 
[Kntiorsed:] 17S1, IVlitiun of M. Labuxiere for the registration of his 
commission uf attorney general, August 30, 

' For liiiifniNhiul anlice nf Jiwpii I«hiiiicre, coosull /U. Bui. CellirlimUt ii..ta). a. it. Han 
Mim noticn of blm will be tmiiHl hy «orunililiiB ihr Indm. HI* cmxminlaa u M*>r% ■Usmt ii 
frialcd IM.. tï 487, CcMuulliIto the Inilnt ol iliji viilume. 



16, 1781. 
[K.MSS.— A. D. S.] 
A la Respectable Courl du district de» Caskakias &c. Szc. 

Messie tTRS, 

Lc Soussigné avoit ignore jusqu'à ce present jour quil nc pouvoil 
y a\-oir qu'un Seul notaire Comme il a vu lui même Sous le Règne des 
français & autres, ne {>ensant point qu'on auroît En/cindre celte Cou- 
tume C'est pourquoy Sil est possible messieur de pouvoir lui octroyer 
cet place puur lequel il S'offre de passer a l'examins par qui conque 
voudroil l'interroger si toute lois cet charge Se peut accorder a ceux 
qui La demande n'eyant jamais vu cet Emploi vacant pour avoir eu 
lieu de ta p<mvi>ir exiger, non plus qua ce present jour quoyque ce pais 
ne faisoit Ensemble qu'un Seul district Et Beau Coupe plus Etandu 
Et peuplé qua ce jour, quelque fois Le Notaire de ce pais nomoit un 
derc dans un autre village pour le Représenté C'est La grace qu'espère 


To the H<mi>ra.ble Court of the District of Kaskaskia, etc 

The uiidersignL-d was ignorant up to the present day that there 
could be more than a single notary,' as he has himself seen under the 
regime of the French and others, and he flid not think that this custom 
had been broken. That is why he [letitions for the office, if it is 
possible, gentlemen, to grant him this place; and he offers to submit 
to an examination by anyone who may wish to ask him questions. 
If, moreover, tliis office can t>e granted (u those who demand it and, 
although he has never seen this situation vacant any more than at this 
present day so that he could have had an opportumily to dnmand it,— 
although [in former times] this whole country made only a single dis- 
trict much more extended and populated than at present, sometimes 
the notar)' of this country did name a clerk in another village to 

I UurJIir; "lluil thrtr couW I* onljt a un^« colanf." whjth doo col fit (he C(in<cil.and k nol 
la accord with facts, Tbot wu bul one nourj under (tie frenth. Thr two IriMn oJ Ltaglolà (the 
tCMnd, fl, P 'S** «e ""T difficull Uj inlnprtr. if not imponiblr Thr» arc cïldmtlir rdilnl (0 
(he WicT» |fiu.iiu( Selwew the Courl and Wlniton, p»laierj oa Iht (olkwina pjKt«. From Winklon't 
plaCtrd lf'">, p. 3^) *■> I'wm (hit Ihe Couri, on Ausi^l lâ, fmi braid ul ihi sppomciD«n( of ■ 
Mtood notary lijr lAlnMoo- 


Le Suppliant que vous lui accorderont sa demande El Voua i scre droit. 

1'. 1-ANCLOIS 

Au CEiskakias, le j6'* aoust 1781. 

Vu Par la Court du District dfs KasKasKias La requête cy dessus 
Et des autres part laqu'ellc déboute ht demandeur vu qu'il est nnmmé 
Par le puWic à la Ifagistralurc Mandons &c fait et dtinnc En L'au- 
dience le Jeudy scîïùcmc aoust mil sept cent quatre vingts Et un. 

{Endorstd:} Requête de M* Pierre Langlois du 18""' aoust 1781. 

I Transiaiion.] 
represent him — ît is the grace that the suppliant hojws and [he pra)-s] 
that you will grant him his pétition ; and you will do justice therein. 

P. Lanqlols. 
At Kaskaskia, Augu.';! t6, 1781. 

The [K'tition, above and on. the other side, has been examined by 
the Court, which has refused the plaintiS, since t1ie [lublic electa to the 
magistraLy. We order, etc. Done and given at tlie scs-sion, Ttiurs- 
day, August 16, 17S1. 

\Ettdorsed:] Petition of ^f. Pierre Langlois of August lâ, 1781. 

Richard Winston to Jacques Lasoltrcc, August 17, 1781 

[K. MSS.— A. US.] 

17™= Aousl 1781 

Je vien dc recevoir un plaint par le Sieur Labuxiere fils contre 
Monsieur Carbonncaux qui ne veut pas lui remetre la Commission que 
je lui a donner; lui authorisiî dc setablir un Notaire dans ce District 
&ca laquelle j'ai Par Politesse Envoyé par devant la Court pour lui 


I have just received a complaint from M. Labuxierc, junior, against 
M. Carbonneaux, who is unwilling to return to the former the commis- 
sion which I haw Riven him, by which he was authorized to establish 
a notariat in this district etc. I sent this commission out of politeness 


fair prctcr le Serment d'offirc je vous prie Monsieur Hc vouloir Bien 
Ordonner a Mr Carlwnncaux de lui remette In. dtc Commission car il 
n'a pas Etoit [-w] Présenta la au Dcjûn de le Dcpc««*. Je croî quil est 
permis a tous les hommes dcînc leur Dépositaire et quils Sont nullement 
Tenmi a Depose Chez Carbonncau ehosc a eux apartcnant, voîcy le 
deuxième marque que M'' Carbonneaux nous donne de Cobicn [«*:) 
il est Jaloux de la Capacity Supérieur de Monsieur Labuxicre 
J'ai L'honneur dctre avec Consideration 

Monsier Votre Très Humbl & Obes. Serviteur 

Rien. WivsTOM 
[Addrtssed:] A Monsieur Jacque Lasourcc, Près. 

to the Court so that the Court might have him take the oath of oCGcc. I 
pray you, sir, to consent lo order M. Carbonneaux to return the said 
commission to M. Labuxiere, for it \vas not presented with the design of 
being deposited. I believe that it is [wrmillcd every man to choose their 
depositary and Ihal they arc not bound to deposit their belongings 
nitb Carbonneaux. This is the second mark that M. Carbunneaux has 
given us of how jealous he is of the superior capacity of M. Labuxiere. 
I have the honor to be mth consid;ration, 
Sir, your very humble and obedient servant, 

Rich. V/isstos, 
[Addressed:] To M. Jacques Lasource, President. 

Pierre Lanclois to Richard Wihston, August 17, 1781. 
[K. MSS.— FirM part A. D. S., second part D. S.] 
A Monsieur Richard Winston Lte Gouverneur de la Comtee des 
Illinois &ca. &C3 &.ca. 

Pierre Langlois a Ibonneur de vous expose queyant Represent^ a la 


To M. Richard Winston, Lieutenant -Governor of the County of the 
Illinois etc. 

Pierre Langlois has the honor to make known to you, that be has 



Cour de le di&irii:, que Le numbrc de magiira Kcuit Ovmplct Comme 
£toit lorsque M** Le CoUonel told [sic] a ir^tabJi La Court, Kt (\nc Lc 
nombre Etoit suûssanl de six pour menteiiir La justice, N'cyant auc'uns 
plasce vacquante, pour pouvoir aubligér auc'une [wrsonnc a Kntnrr au 
charge, et lorsquil aura place vacante La pluralité des Suffrage du public 
an décidera. Cest pourquoy le Suppliant vous Supplie Sy il est a votre 
pouvoir de faire plus que celui qui vous a Subsitué a son lieu & plasce 
vous En ordonnerai ce que de Raisons leva. 

£t vous Supplie monsieur de men bonnorer d'une Refionsc afin que 
je puisce prouver que je ne fui point de men Soumetre au lois qui nous 
gouverne et temoignié le zcl dont je Suis prêtre a Servir Lc public lorsque 
Sacera [sic] Celong la loix Et le Suppliant espérant que vous i fesce 

Au Kaakakia ce 17* aoust 1781. P" LangijOJS. 

Vue la Request in Lautrc part et ayent ducmcnc Examind le contenue 
Rcnvoyon le suplicnt pardcvcnt la Court a qui Ccullc [sic] je Donnerai 
de preve de mon [louvoir ainsi que de prevc que je nai Jamais Prétendue 

represented to the Court nf the District that the number of magistrates 
was complete as it was when Colonel Todd established the Court, and 
that the number of six was sufTicient to maintain ju5tice, and that there 
was no vacant place so that any person could be obliged to enter into 
office ; and also that, when there should be a vacant place, the plurality 
of public votes should decide thereon. This is the reason that the sup- 
pliant petitions you to ask, if it is in your power to do more than he 
who substituted you in his place and stead. You will ordL-r concerning 
it what reason demands. 

And I urge you, sir, to honor me with an answer concerning it so that 
I can prove that I do not flee from submission to the taws which govern 
us, and that I maygive witness of the zeal with which I am ready to serve 
the public when it shall be according to the law; and the suppliant hopes 
that you will do Justice therein. 

At Kaskaskia, .August 17, 1781. Pikhke Lanclois. 

Having seen the {wtition on the other side and having duly examined 
the contents, we send the suppliant before the Court, to whom alone I 
will give proof of my power as well as proof that I have never [>retcudcd 


de agîre contre le Code de loix. le present (Comme Etcnt a moi» 
addresse) Pouroit Servir a acumuler et augmenter le Greffe. 

au Kaslta^kios ji*^ Aoust 1781. Rjcu. Winston 

to act against the code o( laws. The present (as being addressed to nic) 
can serve for hoarding in and augintnting the record-office. 

Kaakaslûa, August 31, 1781. Richahd Winston. 


August 30, 17S1 
[K. MSS.— Attested Copy, | 

Nous Richard WÎDSIon Lieutenant de Comté faisant fonctions de 
Gouverneur Civil en toute la Cumlé des Ilînois et ses dépendances. 

L'Etat de vir^nie n'ayant Rico tant a coeur que de Faciliter tous Ses 
Sujets et Surtout les Hmigrans dans une Entière tilurt*!; d'acquérir et de 
posséder ce qui leur est le plus avantageu-x pour leur l'KtahlIssemenlaûn 
de devenir util a l'Etat El a la Société £n Se )}rocurant les ressource de la 
vie, cl que tous les colons jouissent d'une jiarfaitc; Et Eniit-rc liberté de 
Confiance dans leurs Convenliuns et k'S neccssain^.s au rcpiis et a la Iran- 
quilité des Citoyens Et Eni|)eclier de tout notre pouvoir Suivant Unlen- 
tion de l'Etal un cunimcnct-mcntde despotisme qui partjit couloir s'intro- 
duire dans cette Comié En gemani [wV] Ki captivant d'une authorilé 

ITranstalion .] 

We, Richanl Winston, (^ounly Lieutenant and acting Civil Governor 
in ail the C^mniy tjf the lllinuis and its Dependences. 

The State of Virginia holds nnthiiiy so dear as granting facility to all 
her subjects and c-S|n,H-i:i.lly the immigrants lo acquire and possess in full 
liberty whatever is the most advantageous for their establishment, so 
that they may become useful to the state and society by procuring the 
means of live Hhixid, [She desires also] that all the colonists enjoy, with 
a perfect and entire liberty, confidence in their contracts and tlie necessi- 
ties for the repose and iranquîUît;' of citizens. [We also wish] to prevent 
with all our power, according lo the intention nf the state, a beginning of 
despotism, which, as appears, it is desired to introduce into this country 
by constraining and holding captive, with an absolute authority and in 



absolue au mcpris des loix de l'état, les particuliers qui Sont dans le Cas 
de Contracter, les obligeant de metre leur Confiance En une Seule per- 
sonne a la quelle ils Sont forons davair recour par le deffaud d'un deux 
notaire a la nomination duquel le Sr Jacques laSource ci devant prési- 
dant de la Cour de ce district Sans Examiner les pretentions que tous les 
Citoyens ont a la liberté Et sans aucunes raisons S'est oposé En faisant 
Retenir dans Son greffe contre la confiance publique Et les droits de la 
Liberté, la commission de Notaire que nous avons ci devant donné au S"" 
Joseph antoinc Labuxiere fils qui la lui avoit prescnttfe En pleine Cour et 
assemblée de magistrats liiudiencc tenante le 16 de ce mois laquelle com- 
mission led' Jacques laSource présidant a refusé de faire rendre aud^ 
s' Labuxiere fils par wn greffier et son notaire telle requisition que nous 
lui en ayons fait vcrballement Et p^ir Ecrit, laquelle commission, Eman- 
ant de nous par le p<im'oir (luî nctus en a élé transmit par l'Etat de 
Virginie Et qut le S' Joseph antuine labuxicrc fils lui a\'oit présenté la cnur 
lenanle pour faire Sun Sermant dufllict* ayant ci devant prête celui de 
fidélité et ayant nous même par une pure dcfcn-'nce [Kiur la cour 
renvoyé a elle le Scnncnt dofice, que nous sommes en droit de Recevoir 

contempt of slate law, individuals who are about to enter into contract 
by obliging them to ])lacc their confidence in a single |>erson to whom they 
are com|>clIed to have recourse for lack of two notaries. Mr Jacques 
Lasource, heretofore president of the Court of this district, without 
examining the pretentions that all citizens have to liberty and without 
any reason, has opposed the nomination [of a second notary] by causing 
in be retained in his clerk's oQkc, against public trust and the rights of 
liberty, the notary's commisejon which we bare heretofore given to M. 
Joseph Antoine Labuxiere Jr., who had presented it to him in full court 
and assembly of magistrates during the session of the sixteenth of this 
month.' The said Jacques Lasource, pre:^dent, lias refused to ha\*e re- 
turned by his clerk and notary this commission to the said M. Labuxiere 
Jr., in spite of the a'quisition which we have made upon hira I;(iih ver- 
bally and by writing. This commission emanated from us by the po^s-cr 
which has been transmitted to us by the Slate of Virginia; and M. Joseph 
Amiiinc I^abuxiere Jr. had presented it to the Court, while in session, in 
order to take the oath of ofËce, having already taken that of fidelity. 



Comme une pareille drtcnlion de pieces est une dupliduf alrocc, qui 
Ole la confiance des ciioyciis En retenant Et Sequeslrant les papiers que 
Ion présente a la cour Sous la Bonne foy publique ainsi qml a Eté fait de 
h commission dud' S* Joseph antoine Labuxiere ce qui est une înova- 
tinn manifeste a la liberté et au règlement du conseil d'Etat de v-îrginie 
qui dcffcnd cxprcsseracnt a tous juges de Saroger un pouvoir Supreme et 
despotique En Sa par. les fondement de la Ubcrt<î publique, c'est pour 
empêcher les funestes effets qu'une pareille authorit*? qui derive d'un 
despotism inhumain pouroit Causer dans les familles En leur Ola [JUS. 
lorn] le choix de la liberté et de la Sûreté publique que nous avons pris le 
Sage parti de faire tous nos efforts pour Ecarter et anéantir tout ce qui 
est contraire a la liberté du peuple. En Nommant un segond Notaire 
public pour la facilité des citoyens, et cormoissant la conduite irréproch- 
able dud* sr. Joseph antoine Labuxiere fils Son zèle et affection pour se 
rendre util a l'Etat et au Service du public et Sa capacité nous lui avens 
permis et pcrmetons au Nom de l'état de virjçînie d'Etablir uo noian'a En 
cette ville des CasKaKias, pour en qualité de Notaire public en toute la 

[Hc did this] because we ourselves, out of simple deference to the Court, 
sent to it the oath of office, which we have a right to receive. 

Since such a detention of documents is an atrocious act of duplicity; 
for it robs the people of coofidcncc, when papers, wliich arc presented to 
the Court in good public faith as was the case with the commission of the 
said M. Joseph Antoine Labuxiere, are retained and sequestered, and 
since it is a manifest tanovation on liberty and the regulation of the 
council of state of Virginia which expressly forbids ail judges to arrogate 
to themselres a supreme and desi)oUc i>owcr, [and since such action 
undermines] the fotuidations of public liberty; it is tu prevent the sad 
consequences that such an authority, derived from an inhuman despot- 
ism, might catKC in families by (taking ?]fr<)m Ihem free choice and public 
surety, that we have chosen the wise part of using all our efforts to divert 
and bring to naught all that is contrary to the lilwrty of ihe people, by 
naming a second notary public for the facility of the citizens. And since 
wc know the irreproachable conduct of the said M. Joseph Antoine La- 
buxiere Jr., and [recognize] his zeal, his capacity, and his desire to render 
himself useful to the state and the public service, we have permitted and 
do permit him, in the name of the State of Virginia, to establish a notariat 




comté (les ïlinoîs passer et recevoir tous cotitracls, civil, actes invantaircs 
partages, vx-nles, volontaires Et généralement tout ce qui est de la Com- 
petance d'un Notaire Et dont il sera requis par les public afin que tout tes 
]}euple Joiiîssc d'une entière Et pure liberté de metre Sa confiance en 
tel notaia- public quil jugera a propos et quil Soit Entièrement libre Et 
dégagé de toute contrainte pour le Secret des familles Et de leur Tran- 
quilîté. En concequance nous authorisons de ce jour led"- S' Joseph 
antoine Labuxiere fils dexcrcer ladite Charge sans troubles nî empeclie- 
mens Et Sans quil Soit Besoin de plus ample reception, prions le public 
d'ajouter foy Et confiance En Ses artcs En se conformant aux anciens 
usages des notaires, déclarons avoir Reçu le Scrmant dolïice dud^^ S"" 
Labuxiere fils Et afin que le public ne lignore Et quil Soit libre de Choisir 
tel notaire qu'il voudra pour la Massation | ?] de ses actes nous avons 
fait publier et aficher la présente commission au Nom de l'état et îcellc 
Scellée Et signée de notre main aux Casltaskia le 30 aoust 17^1. 
Pour copie afichée et publiée Signé a loriginal Winston. 

in this village of Kaskaakia, so that, in the quality of public notary, he 
can. draw up and receive, throughout the whole County of the Illinois, all 
contracts, civil acts, inventories, divisions of estate, voluntary sales, and, 
in general, do evcrj-lhing that is within the power of a notary and for 
which he shall be required by the public, in order that all people may 
enjoy with an entire and pure Ultcrly, [the right] of placing their confi- 
dence in such public notary as they please, and that he l>e entirely free 
and clear from all constraints (for serving] the private affairs of families 
and (preserving] their tranquillity. Consequently we authorize the 
said M. Joseph Antoine Labuxiere Jr. to exercise from this day forth the 
said functions without let or hindrance and without the necessity of more 
ample installation; and we pray the public to place faith and confidence 
in his instruments, when he conforms to the ancient usages of notaries. 
We decUire that we have received the oath of office from the said M. 
Labuxiere Jr. and in order that the public may not be ignorant and may 
l>e free to (;h<K)sc such notary, as it shall wish, for the drafting of its in- 
struments, we have caused the present commission to Ije published and 
posted in the name of the state and have sealed and signed the same 
with our hand. At KaskaskJa, August 30, 1781. 

(Signed on the original) Winston. 
Copy to be poste<] and published. 



Cette present affiche ayant âx6 apporta au Greffe par les s" antoine 
Bauvais et Michel Godin lesquels ont dit lavoir trouvé par terre et que 
les chiens la dechiroit pour Manger le paie qui Etott au coins qu'une 
partie du peuple etoit present qui En ont demandé Lecture Laquelle leur 
a 6l6 fait par le GrefEer Soussigné dont les s' Jacques Lasource a requis 
que la présente Reste au Greffe Four sa justification jusqu'à ce qu'il y ait 
de la justice Etabli lequel a signé avec nous Greffier soussigné le premier 
jour septembre a huit heure du matin mil sept Cent quatre vingt et un 
témoins PFcseots 

pRjf Langlois Jaojuks Lasoukce 

Bakotel Caksonneaux Greffier 

[Endorsed:] affiché posée a la porte de LEglîse par le sr. Winsttm eu 
fareur du sr. Labuxiere tils du ^i'"*' aoust 1781 

[ Translafion.] 

This present placard has been brought to the clerk's office by MM. 
Antoine Bauvais and Michel Godin who said that they have found it on 
the ground and that the dogs were tearing it in order to eat the bread, 
which was in the comer;' and [they further said] ihat some people were 
present who demanded the reading of it, which was made by the under- 
signed clerk, from whom M. Jaques Lasource has required that the 
present placard remain at the office for his justiâcation, until there shall 
be justice concerning it; and he has signed with us the undersigned 
clerk, September 1, 1781, at eight A. M. 

Witnesses present 

PxERBE Langlois Jaqites Lasoubce 

Barutel Cahbonnealtc, Clerk 

[Endorsed:] Placard posted on the door of the church by M. Winston 
in favor of M. Labuiiere Jr., August 31, 1781. 

■ This la ibr mnninB at the Fnncb; but why bn«H knd the plu*nl •faoal'l be hrouiiht Into 
Hattan h am citw. The axatr may l>« ■ lotnvr of the church building imitad of a pan ot the 


September I, 1781. 
fK. MSS.— A. L. S.] 

A la Respectable Cour du District des tCusKasKlas &c &c &c 

Jacques LaSourcc ayant (^devant En sa qualitd ^e president de 
cette cour arreu! la requête du Sr. anloine labuxiere fils tendante a ce 
qu'il plut a laditte cour recevoir son serment pour Être ?'xamin(5 tant pour 
sa capacitd que pour son age suivant L'ordonnance de Laditte cour; 
ne pouvant Cire Commissioné sans avoir le suffrage publique Le sr. 
Richard Winston ayant Ecrit au soussîgni? de faire remettre audit S' 
Labuxiere fils sa requJ>te ce que I^dit siiussïgnt! n'a voulu faire pas 
Qu'a ce que Ledit s'' Winston lui ait appointe les puuvnirs Kn pleines 
cour Pour y être Examiné siis sont conformé a la loix de la Virginie qui 
dit que toutes charges publiques doit Hrc donné par les suffrages du 
peubles Et qu'ayant pxssé ce Jimrd'huy devant I-eglise de ce lieu y ayant 
appercu un affiche qui decaractcrissc le soussigné C'est pour ce Con- 
sidérés Messieurs Qu'il vous plaise «rtbnncr que l'affiche Qui es( a la 


To the Honorable Court of the District of Kaskaskia, etc. 


Jacques Lasourcc wbhes to infnrm you that, as president of this 
Court, he sometime ago stayed Ihc [x^tition of M. Anloine I.abuxiere 
Jr., in which he prayed thai the said Cuurt might sec fit to receive bis 
oath in order that he might be examined not only as to his capacity but 
also as to his age, in accordance with the ordinance nf the Court, since 
a commissinn canndt lie issued without holding a public election; and 
that M. Richard Winston wrote to the undersigned to have him return 
the petition to the said M. Labuxlerr Jr., which the undersigned refused 
to do unless the said M. Win.s[on should refer the commi-wion to a full 
court for examination as to whether it conformed to the taw of \'irgLiua, 
which says that all public offices must he given by the votes of the 
people; and [he wishes to inform you furilier] that he passed today 
before the church of this place and perceived thereon a public notice 
which defamed the undersigned. In considérai inn of this, gentlemen, 
may it please you t<» order that the public notice, which is on the dow 


parte de LEglisc soit apporta a ta cour et Irvi^, que le s' Winston sait 
Condamné a apporter ses poin-oirs a la ditte cour comme Knticîpant 
sur les droits du peuples et voulant y Introduire le dl'îpotî.tmc et voulant 
frustcr les anciennes coutume et aller contre le droits du peuples tel 
comme il lui a Ecri Et que le serment qu'il a reçu du sr. Labuxiere fils 
soit dcclarfî nul et n'ayc aucune validiti* Et que la surdïttc cour ayc a 
afficha que les actes que rccevcra le dît sr. Labuïîcrc fils ne seront 
d'aucune validité comme n'ayant pas l'agc requis chose contraire aux 
loix et de faire paroilrc Ledit S"" Labuxierc fils yiour lui dccJarcr que son 
serment aînsy que sa commission est illicite Et sa [sans ?] validité par- 
cequc le lieutenant de Comté n'a aucun serment a recevoir que celuy 
de cytoycn et fidélité et non celui d'o8îcc et hors de pouvoir de Donner 
aucun ordre et ferés bien aux KosKasKias le I" 7**" 1781. 


of the church, be brought to the Court and that there be delivered tt> 
M. Winston a decree that he is condemned to bring his commission to 
the said Court because he is encroaching on the rights of the people, 
wishes to introduce despotism into the country, to bring to naught the 
ancient customs, and to go against the rights of the people as is seen in 
ihc notice to the undersigned; and may it please you to decree that the 
oath which M. Winston received from M. Lahuxicrc Jr. be declared 
null and void, and that the said Court is to post a notice that the acts 
which the said M. Labuxierc Jr. shall receive shall not be valid, since 
he is not of the age ' required, (and to appoint him would be] contrary 
to law; and also may it plca-sc you to summon the said M. Labuxierc Jr. 
in order that you may declare to him that both his oath and his com- 
mission arc illegal and without validity, liccausc the lieutenant of the 
county ha.s no right to rccci\'c any oath except that of citizenship and 
allegiance, and cannot receive that of office, and he is powerless to give 
any order; and you shall do justice. Kaskaskia, September i 178a. 

jArgnp-.*! LASouacE. 

■ OriKioall/ irritleD " ctpidi' ni ace," hut chanxcd m> «a Is nwi m *lbmc. 



Richard Winston to Jacques LaÎîoubce, September 1, 1781. 

[K. MSS.— A. L. S-i 

pour y re[H)ndre a votre lettre du 19"^* du dcmiur par laquelle vous 
me dite que je ay pour agréable daportcr a la Court Prixliain les pouvoir 
dont je suis revêtu pour quil Soient Examind Si je puis alcr contre la 
Code de Loix. Je veux Bien vous Prévenir (^uc je ne depend point en 
cela de votre Jurisdiction et que sy je fait des fauts cest a l'etal qui 
m'ont nommé a qui je en doit rendre Compte et non a vous 

Quant a mes pouvoirs je veut Encore vous Donner Satisfaction, 
TOUS pouTCz vous Transporté Chez moi pour les Examiner ou quelque 
député de votre Cours. Etant Choses sacrés qui ne Sortirent Jamais 
de Chez moi que par L'ordre de ceux qui me tes ont Confié 

A lcg;ird du Sieur Labuxïcre fils je croi quil Ignore et quil doit Ignoré 
ce que vous lui demandé q'ayens Jamais Kntenilu parler ni Scu ce que 
vous Ordonne J'ai Lhonocur Délrc avec Consideration 

Monsieur Votre ^rviteur 
Mr Lasource Rich. Winston 

[Addressed:] Monsieur Jacque Lasource 



In aaswer to ywur letter of the nineteenth of last month, by which 
you tell me that 1 should consent to bring to the next Court the com- 
mission with which I am invested, in order that it may be examined to 
see if I can act contrary to the code of laws, I wish to inform you that 
I am not de[>endent in this on your jurisdiction and that, if I commit 
faults, I must render an account to the state which appointed mc and 
not to you. 

As to my powers, t am still willing to give you satisfaction. You, 
or some deputy of your Court, can come to my house to examine the 
papers, since they are sacred things which should not l>c taken from my 
house cxcq^t by the order of those who confided ihcm to me. 

- Id regard to M. Labuxierc, jr., I believe that he Es ignorant of and 
should Ixr ignorant of what you demand of him, since he has never 
heard «f or knou-n what you order. I have the honi^r to Ix with con- 
sideration Sir, your servant. 

M. Lasoorcf. Rich. Winston. 

[Addressed:] M. Jacques Lasource. 

Wakbaxt fOR ELKcnoM, September lo, 1781 

[K.MSS.— A. D. S.] 


La Cuur »U|iplii: dc vouloir donner vos ordres aux Cap"** de milice 

pour faire assembler les babilans de cette ville demain a L'îssuë de la 

messe {jour procéder a une nouvelle election des nouveaux magistrats 

pour remplacer ceux qui ont servi Kn cette qualiit; deux ans et |)lus ainsi 

que ceux qui ont donné leur demission et feres Bicu 

Ka-skaskias le 1781 Janis 

Par vertu dc la [iresente Requisition nous avons ordonne cl ordonnons 

aux Capitaines de milice En Consequance. Kaskaskias lo"'^;^" 1781 

Rien Winston 

[Etulorsed:] 1781 Requête de M"" Janis du 7"" j**" 1781 No 94 



The Court petitions you to gi\-e your orders to the captains of militia 
to cause the inhabitants of this village to assemble totoorrow at the 
dose of mass to proceed to a new election of new magistrates to replace 
those who have ser\'ed in this capacity two years' and more as well as 
those who bave given their resignation ; and you will do right. 


Kaskaskia, the \no month and liay] 1781. 

By virtue of llie present requisition we have ordered and do order 
the captains of militia as a consequence thcreof. Kaskaskia, September 
10, 1781. Rich. Winston. 

[Endorsed:] 1781, Petition of M. Janis of .September 7, 17S1, No. 94.' 

(The dcctiomln CukuUi ^wTf brid vvty irrrgiilarl]r iaiirador rearJr u in Caholda. Tfase 
had Imo an (Itction of tira mwauota in the [scviuui JliIv {ouït, p. 107) ln>[ no ccatral decùoo 
hati bfn lirid lince (ho S(»i on* in 1175 Tlw prapit «I Ptatric du Kvdicr h«Jd t&* «i^nioa IhM 
■be itaa ol office wiu Uitm yoan. Sa futf. p. i^t, 

« '111» wrllinK ol th» nuuiiiwripl i» »tty much liwlnl, ud ÙM data 'wJlwa by TVIniToo la mrtlcu- 
Ufiy dilElcult to nai'l. I rmd il. nt liist, Scgimubcr i;, hut chk it nM in «oxird «lih djic □( thr dec. 
liooof 17S1. Tbe year miftbi be i;9i.«tikh muldnia^ 111* ibu «f Ihb docuMRQI ttt^umin* that 
ol the dettim ol that ytnr. The dale (rf Ibr cndoncinait b hErl* dnr, hoircTiT, «nd the jtat u 
■InmtCFnainly i;«t, Bnldct In 17S1 lutawtanma Ivdnud lB4rt««t«iiointffttnniUitlbkd 
had udr olLcc " tvu ycus m marc." ThatSan tb« dale iû the le» h undaubiEiUr the cmro «d». 

^^^V AN ELECTION, SEFrii:Mfi£R to. 1781 afip 1 
^H ELEcnoN, Septeubek 10, 178t. H 

^H [K. MS5.— D. S.] ^^M 

^H Assemblée Puur La nominatioa ^^H 




























^^M BtE Chirlcirille 











^B llr. WinMtti...... 

- J 














Jton Blc DAu*>ii . . 




Lcminu . . 

ttrtrt . . . 





CcnlAUie-" ■ 



Cigpi Amittr. . - 










t. LiDgloii 






Cb- Clurloillc 

Gmdioa - ■ 


















J«cQua Uei-efnoi». 





SDWiBC Bminls. . . 


















^^ pula Cluiicilic... 






^^H UJchd Aolaya 


^^P MrVMMw 


^^^R ftUCOK B«yi<. . , , - 









^ ■ 







aujourd'buy Dixième Jour du mois de Scplcmbrc mil sept cent quatre 
vingts et un Le public assemblé a nommé pour Magistrats du District 
des Kiiskaskiïs le S'' Jean ba]>tiste charleville pour president de la 
Court dudit District des Dits KasKasKIas Kt les ïi'* anloinc Mtmn, 
Pierre Longluis vital Bcauvaïs et Pierre Pii:ard pour Magistrats qui 
ont pretté Le Serment de ûdelité Et dufliee En cetie (jualilé a la repub- 
lique de La virginîe les quels sont a Linstani comparu et ont signf 
lesdits Jour et an susdits. 

A Mown \'itale Balwais Jean baptiste oau\'ais picard 
[Endoned:] Leiesions de magistrats de lan 1781. No 3, 1781 Piece 

[ Translalùm.] 

Today the tenth day of the month of September, 1781, the public 
assembly has named as magistrales of the District of Kaskaskia, M. 
Jean Baptiste CharleviUe ' for prwidcnt of the Court of the said Dt»- 
trict of said Kaskaskia and M M. Anttiine Morin, Pierre Lan^ois, 
Vital Bauvais, and Pierre Picard for magistrates; and they have taken 
the oath of fidelity and of office in this quality to the Republic of Vir- 
ginia; and they now appear and have signed the above said day and year. 

A. MOHiN, Vital Bauvaîs, Jean Baptiste Bacivaïs, Picard. 

■ TbenmcneiinfûuJijrwrilteawa* Pfcm LuikIou hut I< wat rra«il and thtloICIurtcnillIrtutalt- 
Wled. Tba dtcUon ci J nu Bûkktc Cliarlerillc «nd Anlnine Bauns had ukoa pImf in (hr ptrvioua 
JulT.lor IhcnbAicoïraofChcutokîiulheaatli nf nfficr. lAnk.v. ta?.) Oa lEbdidioaalnMai»- 
tasw M iU. SM. CrtfMMw, U, p. CtiL 

^^^H AN ELECTION, FEBRUARY lo, 1763 371 1 

^ Election, February 10, 178». H 
^H [K. MSS.— A. L. 5.] H 
^^B Election du io«»<' Février 1782 Pour Leleclion du Magistrats H 


tjyiiii iDtiyH [}\ 


uï< Buym |^| 


^^^1 Mf Mùria. 





^^H J Btc Usuntie 



^^^H G trnilii - . . . 



/ _ 

^^^^ tvulomr 





^^ Conei 







tttrrt I.u|f oit .... . 


En vertu de Lelection du dix du present mois Le S*" Stanislas Levas- ^Ê 
seur a paru a la Cour ce joiirdhuy vingt cinq du present mois de fcv- ^^^| 
rîcr mil sept cent quatre vingt deux et a pretté le serment dufiicc Et ^^^| 
de fidélité et a Entriî En charge ce dit Jour et a signé ^M 

.Staniles Levasseuh ^^^I 

Antoine, j. P. ^^^| 

[Ktuiorsed\\ Nomination de M'' Stanislas Lcvasseur a la Magistrature. ^| 

99- H 

^^L [Tranalatian] ^M 
^^M In virtue of the election of the tenth of the present month M. Stan- H 
^^M isliis Lcvasseur has appeared at the Court this day, the twcnty-fifih of H 
^^1 the pn-srnt month vi February, 1783, and has taken the oath of office H 
^B and of fidelity, and has entered into ofBcc, this said day; and he bas H 
^^Ê signed. Stanislas Levasseur H 
^^^^^ Amtoixe Bauvajs, J, P. H 



John Dodge Akkests Richaxd Wcnsion — The Latter Protests — 
Labuxiere ExAinNEâ Witnesses — The Inhabitants Make Some 
Sdgcestions — An Election at Prairie dv Rocher — .\iiesican5 


Election at Kaskasioa — Winston Writes to the New Macibxrates 
— Carbonneaux Sells Out — Records or the Sessions of the Cohbt 

The Arrest of Richard Winston, April 39, 17^2' 

[C. C. Pji. XLVIIl.. 4.— Copy.] 

Orders uf Jobo Dodge for taking ]}risoncr tlic Chief Justice. 
I. Dodge's urder without commission.' 

Here follows i" the order delivered by joUn Dodge for tailing pris- 
oner the chief justice Lieuteaanl of County, 

1" Sir/ Whereas Ric". Winston is guilty of treason you aa- here- 
by orderd to take a party of men and Imng him before mo to give aa 
account of his conduct 

Signed J** Dodge Capt. Commandant 
To L^ Israel Dodge 

KasKasKizLs, Apr. 39, J7S3. 

at it's back in french 
Que le present ordre reste au greffe des minutes KasKaKias 39 av. 

French petition from the M Winston's wife.* 

2'". Afterward, ihe same <[ay among many papers concerning 
that fiLmuus affair i find the following petition [>f M)*. Winston's wife 
called M'arg^ Farqucson 

■ Tlac ïopla «nr tutu to the Contlooiul Canpcif as ndMurci ol the mrmMiiJ [cjahd 

'TbiiraavkiiwrkEciiaattirnLJEriiiL, prut»bl]'bvFillKrdelk VdliDitn. Sec lDlro:l«cttaa. 




A Moos Aot Bauvais {un] des juges a paix des KasKaKias &c. 
Monsir je Marguerite Farqueson vous remontre que son mary 
vient de ]ui être enlevé par Israel Dodge accompagné de plusieurs per- 
sonnes, en consequence elle vous prie de faire assembler ce jour, la Cour, 
pour qu'il lui plaise faire paroitre devant elle toutes ces personnes, pour 
savoir la raison et vous ferez droit. 

Signé ou marque de M*"* Fakquieson 
KasKaKias ce 29 Av. 1783. 

et plus bas que la présente soit signifiée a tous les magistrats pour 
se trouver a une heure après nûdy pour y tenir seance. Mandons &c. 

Signe .\nt Bauvais 

To Ant. Bauvais one of the justices of the peace of KasKaskia etc. 

I, Marguerite Farqueson, represent to you that my husband has 
just been arrested by Israel Dodge accompanied by several persons. 
Consequently she (Marguerite Farqueson) prays yuu to assemble the 
Court this day so that it may please the Court to summon before it all 
the persons in order that it may know the reason; and you will do 
justice. Signed or mark of Mdk. Fakqueson 

Kaskaskia this April 3g, 1783. 

And below [was written] that notice be ^ven to all the magistrates 
to be present at one o'clock P. M. to hold a session, we command, etc. 

Antoine Bauvais. 
[DocunierU cotUinued.] 
3^. {iric] DiMlgc' order.' 

3". Whereas M Richard Win-slun has bc-cn guilty of treasonable 
expressions Aguinst the State und ofTiccr who have the hon** of wearing 
Commission in the Service of iheir Country damn'^ them all and said 
they were all a set of thieves and Rolwrs and only come to the Coun- 
try for that purjMisc, The alwjve crime being proved Iwfnrc. i now de- 
liver him to you ijrisoncr and request of you lo Keep him in surety unlill 
he may be brought to justice KasKusKias ap. 29. 1782. 

Signed jh Dddgk 

Captain Agent Com**', 

ooutd he say something else on account of Montgtimcry Roger and 


< Wrlnn In the minlii. 
* Writtoi in ihr maific. 



And at the back. Que la présente Declaration soit séquestrée et 
quelle reste au grêSe KasKasEJas 29. Av. 1783. Sign^ 

Ant. Sauvais 
Eiucgigtré au greffe a la page 367. et 368. foïo 175. ce 8. janv. 1783. 

Sign P. Langlois greffier 
Je sertiffie que Les present ordonnances y dessus Est Conforme 
au minut au KasKasKias. pays des illinois Ce 3*' 7bre 1787. 

P* Langlois greffier 

Antl on the hark is written: that the present declaration !ic se- 
questered and remain at the clerk's office. Ka.skaskia, April 29, 178a. 

(Signed) Ant. Bauvals 
Recorded at the clerk's office «n page 267 and 36S, folio 175, this 
January 8, 1783. (Signed) P Lanclois, Clerk. 

I certify that the present ortlinanccs, written above, conform to the 
minutes. At Kaskaskia, country of the Illinois, this September 3, 1787. 

i'^" Lanclois, Clerk. 
[Dofuitunt continued.) 
M. Winston has been Kept so prisoner by the Dodge's orders not- 
withstanding the Civil court t6 days. Afterward he went to Virginia 
preparing himself to pursue that aÊFair to the Congress but he dyed there. 
{Endorsed:] Copies of certtain papers certified by P. Langlois. 

RicuASu Winston's Protest .^cainst his Arrest, April ag, 1783 

[John Todd's Record-Book Chicago ilfel. Soc.— A. D.'] 
Kaskaskia in the Illinois 39th april 1783. Eighty and touce. This 
day 10 oClock A :M I was Taken out of my house by Isreal Dodge ott 
an order Given by Jno. Dodge in despite of the Civil autlioroty Dis- 
regardled the Laws and on ther Malitious acusalion of Jhn Williams 
and micbel perault as may ap|%ar by their deposition I was Cooâned 
By Tyranick military force without making any Legal aplicatioa to the 
Civil Magistrates. 30th the attorney for the State La Uuxiere presented 
a ]>etition to the Court against Richard Winston State prisunner in their 
Custody the Contents of which he (llie atlomt-y for the State) ought to 
heave Communitattd to mc or my attorney if any I had. 

■ Thk tnui Bot «rlllm bT WhiMan. whine handifrititiji b very «cfl known 1o Ihi rIIkx. In Itt. 
if lit. Co^ecÉitmi, ii.,|i. (it.. I have «ufgr^lcd Wiiuloti'i «ilc u the wtiln. lliïs prulcil is prinltd in 
Chi. UJM. Sodcty^ C DiUdi^mi, W.. tut, but n itm eorrealMni In ihc mdicf u Dmtc livxn £av« bcco 
made atlci a canful mminaticn af (be ori(iaiiL 



JooN DoixiE tu M. Labuxiere, April 30, 1783 
[C. MSS. iu Chicago Hist. Sodely.— A. L. S,] 
A MoNSiEUB Labuxzeru Esq Trocureur De L'etat aux Kaskoskias 

Comme Richard Wimstoa est acusé d'avoir tenu des discours inju- 
rieux contre L'état en general, et tantatoire à la Sûreté Du gouvernement ; 
C'est pourquoy vous Comme Vous est Revêtu de L'honable charge de 
procureur de L'etat de La Virginie, Pour Le department du West. Je 
vous requier monsieur de prandre connoissance de son crime offrant 
D'en administrer L*s pn;u\-es Reclamant au nom de L'etat, et pour 
La Sûreté de ce département, votre assistance Dans cette affaire; Vous 
declarant que jay Premièrement fait arrette Le Sr. Winston Prisonnier, 
et detenu a La garde de L'huissié Barutel, jusqua plus ample informa- 
tion, et crainte de L'évasion du dit Winston. 

Jay L'honneur d'estre a^-ec Consideration Monsieur Votre très 
humble et obéissant Serviteur Jn. Dodce Capt. 

Aux Kaskaskias Le 30 Avril 1782 Agt. Com Military 

To M. Labuxikre, Esq. 
Attorney for the State, 
At Kaskaskia. 

As Richard Wnston is accused of having held conwrsations which 
were injurious to the slate in general, and menacing to the safety of tlic 
government, that is why I require you, sir, since you are invested with 
the honorable office of state's attorney of Virginia for the department 
of the West, to take cognizance of his crime ;^ and 1 offer to fiunish 
proofs thereof, and I claim your assistance in tliis affair in the name of 
the slate and for the safety of this department. [ f lu^ther declare to you 
tiial I have already had M. Winston arrested as a prisoner and held 
under guard by the huisiier, Barutel, for fear of his escape, until more 
ample information can be obtained. I have the honor to be, with con- 
sideration, Sir, your very humble and obedient servant, 

John Dodge. Capt. 
At Kaskaskia, April 30, 1783 Agt. Com. Military. 

■ I'lir lollowint brirf iio<c Innn the Urapa MSS., tajf^i ihould be Indurlnl hrtr: A kttit tram 
Cacc Joa. Doàn. dated Kirtirtti. Maica 0. tjBi, »[lcr lueaktna »! hi* LKcoiuais (iha Ittut bdâa 
■'ildnwd totlif Board U Com*) Mf* thai"! »aicrM)td>bf(innTdiluihr [Mi. Winum. Coramano- 
ant) l^ a plan lo have Eoilhih eolou» hdmd here, ft tmulti down by the SimbukU (t make il a 
Spaotib atKlciiiaiit; but 1 uutoiund (hat (he SpaaUi Comnandaai dopbcd hk mtToRd rropmlilmi." 



The Syndic's Dipficolties, April 30, 1782 

(K. MSS.— A. U. S.J 
a la respectable Cour Du Distric Des KasRasRia Si Jt Sic 

Le supliant a L'honneur de vous expose qufl auroit été Elu( siodique 
par La roix du peuple a la pone de L'église Le sept du present mois et 
quil auroit Crié et fait toua ce quïl auroit put pour fair faire Les clotures 
et vo}'ant quil navancë a rien par La negligence et mauvaise volonté 
Daucun qui ont Des Doturcs, C«st pourquoy Le suplian reclame votre 
justice que tous ceux qui noront Pas fait Leurs Cloture Bonne et solide 
qui seront reçu par plusieurs habîtans de ce vilage mardy Le sept du 
mois De may qui soit mie a La mande Le supliant vous suplic que votre 
ordonnance ce soit affiché a celle En que personne En pretcnde Cause 
dignorance, Ccst La grace qui] espère et il ne Cessera De faire des voeux 
pour votre Consen-ation KasKasKia 30 avrille ijSa 


Veu la requête cy dessus et des autres Parts par le Cours du District 
des Kaskasliias La requête cy dessus et des autres Part par la Cours 

To the Honorable Court of the District of Kaskasltia etc. 

The suppliant has the honor to show you that he was elected syndic 
by the votes of the peO[jle, at the" door of the church, the seventh of the 
present month, and that he has issued announcemeatâ and has done 
everytiitng he could to have the fences made; and because he sees thai he 
has accomplished nothing on account of the negligence and ill-will of all 
who have fences, that is the reason that the suppliant claims your justice 
against all those who shall not have made their fences g<x>d and solid, 
such as will be accepted on Tuesday, May 7, by several tnhahitanls of 
this village who should be placed under orders for tliat puqiosc. I'bc 
suppliant prays that your decree be attached to IhLs so that no jierson 
may plead cause of ignorance. This is ibc grace whicli lie huttes for, 
and be will not cease to make vows for your preservation. ICa.«Jcaskia, 
April 30, 17S3. 

The Court of the District of Kaskaskia has examined the petition, 
above and on the other side, and decrees that each of the inhabitants of 



[sic] 1^ qu'fllc ordonne que tous les babiians de a: village aye a faire 
dycy a Mardy prochain scpticmc tic May chacun Itur part dc Cloture 
Bonne et rece\'ablc, jour auquel la visite Le fera et ccUes qui ne Seront 
point faites les pmprictaircs Payeront la mcmc ce Mandons &c fait et 
d«inn*î par la Cour du dit Distriii Laudience y tenant le Mardy trentième 
avril Mi] sept cent quatre vingt dcuz Et leur cloture sera fail a leur 


this village must make his part of the fence, good and acceptable, be- 
twccn now and Tuesday, May 7, the day on which the inspection shall 
be made ; and those fences which shall not lie made, the owners thereof 
shall pay for the same. This wc order etc. Made and done by the 
Court of the said district in the session of Tuesday, April 30, tyèi ; and 
their fence shall be made at their expense. 

A. MoRiN, J. p. 

Examination op Witnesses by Labuxiere, May i, 178a 

[C. MSS. in lidlcvillc, — A. I». S.] 

Mny Joseph Labuxiere procureur de I'Ktal de Virginie en la Conte 
des iliniiis ne pouvant parvenir a faire instruire le procès dud' Richard 
Vinston par les magistrats du district des Caskaskias, suivant ladnun- 
dation a moy faite par M"" Jean dodge capitaine dinfanterie, par le 
defTaud dargent ou je me trouve ainsi que M"" dodgc Et que les dits 
magistrats ont ordonna de consigner davance par leur Sentence au bas. 
dc ma requête du trente daxTil dernier, ne pouvant me dispendcrden 
donner avis au Conseil general, Et a Monsieur le general Clark, jay crû 

^, Joscjih T^abuxicrc, State's Attorney of Virginia in the County of 

Illinois, having tieen unable to succeed in having the charges against 
the said Richard Winsltm examined by the magistrates of the District 
of Ku-^iaskia, in accoitlanrc with the accusation made to me by M. 
John Dodge, captain of infantry, on account of the lack of money on the 
y)ari of M. Dodge and myself and liecausc the said magistrates decreed 
by their judgment, written Iwlow my jwlition of the thirtieth of last 
April, that payment should lie maiie in advance, and because I cannot 
dispense with giving an account of the affair to the General Council 



qua la denumde de mond' jn dodge Et qu'il F.toit de mon dc^'oir afin 
pour donner un plus grand Eclaircissement de laffaire Au conseil General 
Et a M' Le general Clark de recevoir h deposition des temoiits contre 
led* S* Winston Et de la leur faire parvenir a la diligence de M' dodgc 
pour En ordonner ce quils jugeront Convenable, En consequence jay 
fait paroitre devant moy le M' Michel Perault capitaine au service dud* 
Etat un des témoins produit par Ledit s' d<Hlge lequel après serment par 
luy fait sur les Saints évangiles de dire ^'erité Et quil ma dit netre parant 
ny aiic dud' s"" Winston acus«î. luy ayant fait lecture de la denunciation 
a muy faite par mond' s** dodgc, je luy ay demandé sil avait Connaissance 
des fails y Enoncez. Lequel a repondu que ouy. Lavons requis de 
nous faire un fidel rapurt de ce quil savait dud* s*" Winston concernant 
ladite denunciation El quil ait a nous En faite une relatiun Et deposition 
Exacte. A repondu, qucn sa qualité de Capitaine dinfantcric il Etoit 
oblige de prendre linlercst de LEtat En consequence sachant quil y 
avoit des eS^cts En perdition apartenant aud^ Etat, le déposant a Ecrit 

and lo General Oark, I have lielîeved thaï, at the demand of M. John 
Dodge and in order to give a more complete explanation to the General 
Council and to <îcneral Clark, it was my duty to ^ecei^'e the dépositions 
of the witnesses against tlie said M. Winston at the suit of M. Dodge and 
to have these reach the hands oE the Council so that they might order 
whatever they thought lit. (Consequently I cau.sed lo a[)pear before 
me yi. Michel Perraull, a captain in (he service nf ihc said state, one 
of the witnesses produced by the said M. Dodge.' The witness, after 
having taken oalh upon the Holy Kvangelists to lell the truth, stated 
lo me thai he was neither a relative nor an associate of the said M. Win- 
ston, defendant. After I had read lo him the accusation made to me 
by the said M. Dodge, I have asked him if he had any knowledge of 
the fact set forth therein. He answered, "yes." I ihcn required him 
to make a true report of what he knew about the said Winston, as far 
as it concerned the said accusation, insisting that he should make an 
eiact statement and deposition. He answered that in his position as 
captain of the infantry he was obliged lo lake care of the interest of the 
state Consequently, since he knew that there was property bclong- 

■ i\inon|t ib« papfn o( ibc Va. Suie Litinry it oaf contalnCnt ihc tntJni'Oiir of iWcM Fonull 
and Jolin Willinn», nuilp lidorc Jfibn Dodge. The u%uai'imy b «uicdy the ume at givm In lUt 


un billet au s' Winston pour luy en remettre queli^u'on quil avoit Kn 
sa pocËSsion Ce quiS a fait En {lartiv, Et le dL'|}Osa[it, sEUDt trouvé iLms 
l'idigi'ncc a Eté obligé de dU[HJscr par une vente de quelques articles, 
ce a qu4)y lu s'' Winston luy a dit quil saj>erccvuit quil suivit les traces 
de SCS âuiHïriuurs qui Etoicnt une Bande de Voleurs Kn general interogé 
sil a quelque Chose a dire de plus }iuur l'Eclaircissement de cette affaire, 
a reiMindu n'avoir plu rien a dire. Lecture a luy faite de sa deposition, 
a dit quelle contient vcritiî quelle est fidèle Kl sincere Kt quil aûirmc 
wus le Serment quil a fait Et quil y persiste, Ht a Signé avec Nous, 
le deux May mit sept Cent quatre vingt deux. 

LADi;xiE.R£ procureur de LKtat X^** PF.RBAtn.T 

Cap"* of the llînois Batallion 

Jay fait aussi comparoilre pardevant moy M'' jcan Wiliams ancien 
capitaine dinfunterie cy devant au service de LEtat segond témoin pro- 
duit par M*" dodge, lequel après serment par luy fait Sur les Saints 


ing to the said state that was going (o ruin, the witness wrote a note to 
M. Winston asking him lo send to him (Perrault) some of the things 
in his (Winston's) possession. This the said Winston did in pari. 
And the witness, having found himself In want, was forced to sell some 
of these articles. Thereupon M. Winston said to liim that he per- 
ceived that he (Perrault) was following in the footsteps of his superiors, 
who were generally a band of thieves. Upon being asked whether he 
had anything else to say in elucidation of this alTair, the witness an- 
swered that he bad nothing more to say. The reading of bis deposition 
having been made to him, he staled that it contained the truth, that it 
is faithful and true, and that he aairms it under the oath which he 
has taken, and that he persists therein. And he signed with us this 
second of May one thousand seven hundred and eight-two. 

Lauuxicke, State's .\ttomcy MlCB£l. Peruault, 

Capt. of the Illinois Battalion. 

I also, caused to appear befon- me M. John Williams, formerly 
captain of infantry in the service of the state, the second witness pro- 
duced by M. Dudge. The witness, after having taken oath upon the 
Holy Evangelists to IcU the truth, has statul to us that he was neither 



Evangiles de dire la vcrilé Et quil nom a dit Ncirc parant ni alic du<l* 
Wioston luy avons demnndf sil a connoissancc de lanonciation a nous 
faite par led^ s' dodge de laquelle je iuy ay fait le lecture a dit que ouy 
quil En avoît Coimoissance. L'avons requis sans contrainte De nous 
en faire une Relation sincere, depose, quil sest trouvé En la compagnie 
de M"" Winston El que den plusieurs occasion il luy entendu sacrer tous 
les officiers du département des ilinois a lexceptioa du general Clark 
disant quils etoient une bande de voleurs Et pîleurs Et quils quils [iù;] 
netoient venus dans ce pays que pour cet effet Et Exprès interogé sil sesl 
aperçu que le sr Winston avoit Bû dans Ses propos, a repondu que non 
interogé sil a quelque Chose a dire de plus, a repondu navoit plus Rien 
a dire. Lecture a luy faite de Sa declaration a dit quelle Conlien veriu! 
Et quil y persiste sous le serment quil a fait et a Signé avec moy aux 
Caskasitias des ilinois le deux May mil sept Cent Quatre vingt deui. 
Labuxiebe procureur de LEtat John Willums 

Avons fait avenir Henry Schemius ancien cap"* de milice En Vir- 
ginie de present habitant aux Caskaskias troisième témoins produit 

a relative nor an associate of the s^d Winston. We asked him whether 
he knew about the accusation made to us by the said M. Dodge, which 
accusation I read to him. The witness said that he knew of this accu- 
sation. I then asked him to make, without any constraint, a careful 
statement. He testified that he was in the company of M. Winston, 
when on several occasions he heard him curse all (he oflicers of the de- 
partment of the Illinois with the exception of General Clark, saying 
that tliey were all a band of thieves and robbers and that they had come 
to this countrj' only for that purpose expressly. The witness was 
asked whether he had noticed that M. Winston showed signs of intoxi- 
cation in his speech. He answered, " No." Upon being a*Jied whether 
he had anj-thing more to say, the witness answered that he had not. 
riis testimony was then read to him and he said thai it contained the 
troth and that he persisted therein under the oath which he has taken. 
He then signed with us. At Kaskaskia of the Illinois the second of 
May, 1782. 
Labuxiere, State's Attorney John W^iluasis. 

I also had appear Tlcnrj- Smith, formerly captain of infantry in 
Virginia and at present an inhabilant f>f K;iskaskia, the lliird witness 



par le s' dodge, lequel après serment par tuy fait dc dire la verit<î Et quit 
nous a dit aetre parant serviteur ni alié dud' s'' Winston, luy ay demandé 
SU avoit Connoissaoce des faits insérez dans la dénonciation de M' 
dodge de laquelle nous luy avims fait Lecture. F.t qui! ait a nous 
faire une Kelation Exacte Ivt sincere de ce qui a Sa Connoissance ce quîl 
a fait par linterpretation du M*" Michel pcrault qui luy sest de truchement 
a deffaud présentement de trouver dautrc interprète, ce que le d' s' 
perault a promis de faire après serment par luy fait de me raporter 
fidèlement la deposition dud' s' Schcmitz. depose que sEtant trouvé 
plusieurs fois En conversation avec le s' Winston il luy a Entendu dire 
sans que la boisson y ait Eu aucune part que les officiers qui Etoient 
venus dans le pays ny Etoient venus que pour piller les habitants En 
Consequence, quils Etoient une Bande dc Gueux, pilk-urs Et voleurs 
Et quiil Etoit dans Le Cas <lc le prouver par tous les Citoyens du pays, 
interogé sil a quelqu'autrc Chose a déposer contre s' Winston a répondu 
que non. Lecture a luy faite de sa deposition a dit quelle contient 


produced by M. Dodge. The witness after having taken oaih to tell 
the truth, stated thai he was neither a relative, a servant, or an asso- 
ciate of the aforesaid M. Winston. I askod him if he had any knowl- 
edge of the facta contained in the accusation of M. Dodge, which i read 
to him, and I required thai he should make to us an exact and Inie 
statement of what he knew. This he did through the interpretation 
of M. Michel Perrault, who acted as his spokesman in default of being 
able to find another infcrprcter at the time. This M. Perrault promised 
to do after taking an oath to repeat faithfully the testimony of the said 
M. Smith. The witness testified ihat he was several times in conver- 
sation with M. Winston and heard him say, liquor plaj-ing absolutely 
no part therein, that the officers, who had come into the country, had 
come for no other reason than to pillage the inhabitants afterwards, 
and that the officers were a band of beggars, robbers, and thin-es, and 
that he was in a position to prove it by all the c!tizen.s of the country. 
Ha\nng been asked whether he had anything else to testify against the 
said Winston, he answered, "No." His testimony ha\'ing been read 
to bim, he declared that It contained the truth and that he maintained 


vérité et quil y persiste s«uis le serment qui] a fait Et a Signé avec moy 
Kt kd< b** Perault )e deux may mil sept Ceot quatre vingt deux 
M'^ Perrault Hknry Surru 

Servant d'intcrprette au Sr Smith Labuxieke 

Procureur de LEtat 

Comme je nignore pas quil est hors de ma ministère de recevoir des 
depositions de temoin-i Et que je ne doit donner que mes Conclusions 
dans le procès, cependant jay Crû ne [>ouvoir me dispenser de le faire 
dans cette occasion p^ donner lintelligcncc de cette afairc au Conseil 
gênerai, Et faire servir la dite depositions suivant que le conscfl le 
jugera Convenable, Labitxierr 


ît under the oath which he had taken. And he signed wJlb me and the 
said M. Perrauh, the second of May, 178». 

Henky Swrm. 
MicuKL Perxault, acting as interpreter for M. Smith. 

LABtJXi£B£, State's Attorney. 

Although T am not ignorant of the fact that it is out of my province 
to take the tcalimony of witnesses and that I should give only the con- 
clusions in the trial, ncvcrlhclc!», I did not think tliat I could dispense 
therewith on this occasion, in order to give intelligence ut tliis affair 
to the General Council, and to have the said depositions serve as the 
Sûocil shall judge fit. Labuxiebe. 

John Dodce to Josepb Labotciehe, May 4, 178a 

[C. MSS- in BdIr*iJlr.— Copy by Labudcre] 


Vu que la Cour na voulu prendre connoissance de l'affaire de M^" 
Winston C'est [jourquoi M' Voyant La Viamence qu'il règne, iostigué 
par les proïKK du dit Winston, attantoir pour La Surçté du gouveme- 


Since the Court has not been willing to take cognizance of the affair 
dI M. Winston, and on account of the turmoil that reigns instigated 
by the designs of the said Winston, a man who strikes at the safety 


meat; C'est pourquoi monsieur je pense qu'il SeroiC apropos de faire 
arretter Les biens et Le Corps dud' Wioston. En Consequence par 
Le dû de ma charge, ainsi que par le Sennent que jay pretté a Letat 
je ne puis m'empecbcr que de poursuivre Cet Homme, ettant très dan- 
gereux, et Capable De Favoricer [?] une entré favorable a nos Enne- 
mies Commun ainâ Mons' je me tressers [?J a votre oppînion étant 
penuadez que vous navez rien De plus a Coeur que L'interest de votre 
patrie et Le dû de votre charge. Jay Lhoneur d'estre monsieur 
Votre ires humble et obéissant Serviteur 
J W Dodge Capt 
Aux Kaskaskias Le 4 May 178a Agent Stale Vir^ 

Veu la representation cy dessus et de lautre par je soussigné pro- 
cureur de l'Etat de Virginie, je ncrapechc ni ne nio|>o3c |K>int pour la 
Siircté de ce department a ce que M' jcan dodgc captaîoe dinfantcrie 
et les officiers militaire actuellement aux Caskaskias, ne se saississent 
de la [wrsonnc du s"" Richard Winston Et ne sassurent de Sa jjcrsoone 
pour prévenir Les suites funestes quïl pouroit trouver tant contre le 

of the govemment, it is for these reasons, sir, that I think it would be 
fitting to arrest the said Winston and attach his property. Therefore, 
in virtue of my office as well as by the oath that I have given to the 
state, I cannot desist from prosecuting that man, since he is very dan- 
gerous and capable of assisting a favorable entrance to our common 
emrmies. So I defer to your opinion, being persuaded that you have 
nothing nearer to your heart than the interest of your country and the 
duty of your office. I have the honor to be, sir. 

Your very humble and obedient servant, 
J. W. Dodge, Capt., 
Kaskaskia, May 4, i;8a. Agent for tbc State of Virginia. 

In view of the representation, above and on the oihcr page, I, the 
undersigned, attorney for the Stale of Virginia, do not prcrent M. 
Dodge, Captain of the Infantry, and the military* officers now at Kaa- 
kasltia, from seizing the body of M. Richard Winston and from assur- 
ing themselves of his {>erson so as to prevent any detrimental conse- 
luences that he miglit bring on the government as well as on the persons 


gouvernement que contre la personne des officiers Et la tranquilité du 
IKuplc, En En donnant a%ns au Conseil dEtai de vïrginic El a M" Le 
general Clark Et tod, declarant que je nentend En aucunne façon me 
rendre garand ni responsable Envers lEtat ni ledit Winston des Evéne- 
ments Et prciudicc qui en pouroît résulter, ou repetition que Ion pouvoit 
faire, fait aux Caskaskias le quatre may mil sept cent quatre-vingt 
deux je declare Encor que vous ayez vous Mr dodge a prendre garde 
a ce que Biens dud* Vinslon ne dépérissent pas, autrement je vous ca 
rend Responsable fait aux Caskasktas les d^ jour Et an 

Labuxiebe, procureur de l'Etat 

of the officers and the tmnquillity of the people ; nor do I, for the safety 
of my department, make opposition. In giving notice to the Counsel 
of State and to General Clark and Colonel Todd I declare to them that 
1 du not in any way intend to render myself responsible to the state or 
10 the saiil Winston for the results and damages that may result from 
It, ur fur any suit for damages that may be brought. Done at Kas- 
kaskia the fourth of May, 17S3. I further stale, that you, M. Dodge, 
should lake care that the pro^fcrty of the aforesaid Winston \k not 
destroyed, otherwise I hold you responsible therefor. Done at Kaa* 
kaskia this .same day and yeur. Labdxiere, State's Attorney. 

Inhabitants or Kaskasku lo tht; Magistiates, May 35, 1783 

[K. MSS.— A. n. S.] 

A Messieurs Les Magistrats de La Respectable Cour du Distric 
des KasKasKias 
Messie UR, 

Les Soussignés habitants de celte comté de La Ville des KasKasKias 
onts L'honneur de vous Exposer comme Sujets Des Etats Unis de 


To the Magistrates of the Honorable Court of the District of Kas- 

We, the undersigned inhabitants of this crtunty and of tlie village 
of Kaskaskia. have the honor to jietition you, .as subjects of the United 

i:NH.\BrrANTS to magistrates, may 25, 1782 285 

Lameriquc qu'il vous Plaise que Les Suppliants voua fassent Une 
Juste Representation Pour maintenir Le bon ordre Et Soutenir La 
Respectable Cour Et Les droits des Citoyens de cette contre. 

[Art^''^ i"^ [MS. torn] Les Etrangers Etablis Et arivant dans 
oc Pays aycnt a Prêter Le serment Pardcvant vous, tous au nom des 
EtaB Unis s 'ils nont aucun titres de L'avoir fait, de prêter Le scrman 
Delégançc aux Etats Unis de La ^^crique. 

artcte jftie Un, autre scrman par Lequel ils seront tenu de prêter 
La main, et Donner main forte touttcfois qu'ils en Seront Requis pour 
maintenir la loy Civillc et le Droit des Gens. 

^me Ceux qui ne prcttcront point Le Scrman Requis aycnt a sortir 
de L'endroit Sans delay comme il vous est enjoint par la lettre de Mon- 
sieur Le General Clarke qui Est au Greffe. 

^mo Qijç La cour sera Soutenue par tout ceux quî Prcttcront Le 
scrman et qui L'ont pretté comme dit cy devant et pour Le Bien Public. 

Stales of America, that you consent to allow the suppliants to make to 
you a just memorial concerning the maintenance of good order, sup- 
porting the honorable Court, and the rights of the citizens of this county. 

[1st Article. They represent to you that] the strangers, settled or 
jiist arrinng in this country, ought to take in your presence the oath of 
allegiance to the United States of America in the name of the United 
States, unless they have certificates to show that they have already taken 
the oath of allegiance to the United States of America. 

2nd Article. That they should also take another oath by which 
they will be obliged to lend assistance and help, whenever it may be 
required of them, in order to maintain livil law and the rights of the 

3d .article. That those who do not take the required oath should 
be compelled by you to leave these regions at once, as you are com- 
manded to do by the letter from General Clark which is in the clerk's 

4th Article. That the C'ourt .shall l>c maintained by all those 
who shall take the oath and who have given it, as mentioned aliow, for 
the public welfare. 

* Thia ttlen to ■ kiivr wriitrn by Ckrk 1* DwcrmbfT, irAi, whtcfa b nir» unonjt fht A'jikafMi 
\ltSS. Il will be iwblklieH in Iht xiliinMS ilnolid In Cluk'* !>(■» Ccnull IlL Hitl C<Jif 
«J, U.. p. til. 



ai*'* 5"" Que Personne n'enlrera dans L'audience avec aucun 
arme Saxis votre ix-rmi&siun Expresse n'y qu'il ne soît aucunncs 
insultes et ocux qui y contre vicndron seront Puai Et condamner Par 
La Cour. 

6°*' Que Personne N'aycnt authurité de mettre en Prison qui que 
ce 8i>it Sans une ordre Kmant! de La Cour vu d'un MagistraL 

ym« Que yQujj ordonnerez qu'il Soit lait une I*rison civil Sans 
Delay, qu un chaqu'un y coo[)erera comme uiille au maintient de la 
cour et a La tranquitité des citoyens. 

gme Qu^^ tous officiers des Etais qui viendrons dans cette conltA; 
Sans Passeport ou serman ne soyent Jusqu'à ce quîls ayent donnif preuve 
de leur fidclité et Bonne Mucurs. 

çmc Qu^ tout haliitants qui viendront pour sYtalilir dans ce Pays 
contrée des Illinois [MS. lorn] Passeport des ElaM unis, Ne soient point 
Reçue N'ohtilant I^ Passeport ils donneront témoignage de leurs Bonne 
Vie et Mwurs. 

10'"' Que touttc Personne Etablis dans cette contrée ou qui sy 


Sth Article. That no person shall enter the rourt-room with any 
weapon whatever without your express permission, and that no insult 
be offered the Court; that those violating this shall be punished and 
condemned by the Court. 

6th Article. That no one, whoever he may Ixr, shall have authority 
to imprison anyone without an order issuing from the Court or Irom a 

yth Article. That you order a jail to be built al once, and that 
each one shall co-operate in its construction as a thing useful for the 
maintenance of the Court and to the tranquillity of the citixens. 

8th Article. That all ofScers of the United States who shall come 
to this country without a passport or oath be not regarded as such un- 
til they have given proof of their fidelity and good morals. 

9th Article. That all persons who may come to establish tbem- 
selves in this country, the County of Illinois, bringing a passport Crom 
the United States, should not be received, in spile of the passport, 
unlil they give proof of their good life and morals. 

totb .article. That all persons settled in this country or who shall 


£t3bIironts suivront la Loix française que nous avons eu Pouvoir de 

ii™« Que toulte Pieces de Proccrfure Et autre Seront faittes ea 

1 3"" Qu'il Plaise à la cour qu'il soit fait une assemblé Public Pour 
touts les Etrangers, citoyens, établis, Et autres y soient admis lorsquib 
auront Prêté le serman Requis comme il Est dit, quils seront averti Par 
une afiiche qu'il plaira a la cour de faire Publier, Pour s'tatuer Les 
fraix de Justice «jui absorbent Le Public, dont Les soussignés Reclame 
de suivre Le tarif de feu M"* Barois cy devant Notaire, Et qui £st au 

j\jcU |jtn« Que louttes Personne Nommé Pour Les interests 
Public soient appuyés Par U Cour comme sindic Et autres. 

14"" Que la traite d'Eaudcvie aux Sauvages Soit Exetu, que les 
contrevenants Soient Puny Par une amande qu'il Plaira a La Cour de 
taxer, Et En cas de Rccedive Pour la troisième fois Soient cbasé de 
Lendroit comme Pcrtubateur Public. 

1 Translalhn.] 

settle herein, shall follow the French law which we have had permission 
to follow. 

nth .\rticle. That all court proceedings and other legal business 
be conducted in the Fa-ncb language. 

I3th Article. That it may jjleasc the Court tbat a public assembly 
be called to which all straagcrs, dtizcns, settlers, and others be admitted, 
after they shall have taken the required oath, as has been mentioned, 
and that they shall l>e notiucd by a public notice, which it will please 
the Court to have published, whereby there shall be established by statute 
the costs of justice, which arc consuming the public. We, the under- 
signed, beg that you follow the tariff of tlie late M. Barroîs, former 
notary, which tariff is at the office of the clerk.' 

13th Article. That all [jcrsons named to care for public interests be 
supported by the Court in their duties, such as syndics and others. 

J4th .\rticlc. That the sale of eaxulevu to the Indians be pro- 
hibited ; that offenders be punished by a fine, which the Court may see 
f]t to establish ; and in case of repetition for the third time that they be 
driven from the place as disturbers of the public welfare. 

' Kotïl Trciich noUry In the dbCrict of Illlnoh, 1717 to i;<7- An Mcount ol bim nuy be \autdl 
ia, Ahrortl, " Ul. ia the ig4li Cnaturr," Buttti» of tbe 111. Suu Ilm. UXtntj, L, No. 1 . . p. i>. 


15™» Que tous Voleurs Soient arrêtas Pour son crime Et Punî 
Suivant La Loy. 

16™' Que Le Bon ordre devant L'Eglise Soit maintenu Par un 
sentinel, qui Sera ordonné Par Les Capitaines de Milice qui donnerons 
la Consine Pour maintenir Le Respect Pendant Le Service DiWn, que 
les contrevenant Soient emprisonné Et condamné a une amande Par 
La cour 

17""" [i\fS. torn] dcffcndu a qui que ce soit de vendre aucune Boî- 
son Enivrante aux E&davcs n'y achcpter d eux sans une Permission 
£xpresc de leur Maître; ainsi que de dépendre les assemblés Noc- 
turnes que tienne Les dits Esclaves Suu [sU] peine d'une amende a 
Ceux qui les souffrirons chez Eux, Et ime Amande apliquéc a qui con- 
que leur vendera de la Boison et cy Ils Recidivrnt quils soient chasé de 
ce Pays. 

i8«« Quil Plaise a La cour d'examiner touttes les Articles y men- 
tionée aux 6ns de maintenir la Paix, L'union, Et la tranquîliu5 aux Cito- 
yens que La présente soït Lue Et affichée devant L'Eglise Pour en don- 
ner Connaissance a tout Le Public afin qu'il n'en prétende aucune 


iSth Article. That all thieves be arrested for iheir crime and 
punished according to law. 

i6th ."Vrticle. That good order in fnmt of the church be kept by 
a sentinel, who shall be appointed by the captains of the militia. The 
latter shall give orders that respect be observed during divine service, 
and those violating the same be imprisoned and condemned by the Court 
to pay a fine. 

i7lh Article. That it be forbidden fnr any one, whomsoever, to 
sell any kind of intoxicating drinks to the slaves, or to buy anything 
from them without the express permis-sinn of their masters; and that 
the said slaves be forbidden to hold assemblies at night under penalty of 
a fine against those who permit these assemblies at their home, and a 
fine against any one who shall sell them drink; and, if they repeat the 
offence, thai they be expelled from the cnuntry. 

i8th Article. That it may please the Court to ex-iminc all these 
articles mentioned here, in order to maintain peace, union, and tran- 
quillity for the citizens; that the pre.sent be read and posted before the 
church, in order to acquaint all the public ihorewiLb, so that no one may 


^^^^ cause dignorence Et que les soussigné 

s Espèrent que La Rcs{)cctab]e ^^H 

cour voudra Bien donner Louttc La force a ses J u^lcs KcpR-scnULtions ^^| 

comme un Bien Public Et fera Droîlc. 


Aux RasKosKias Le 35 May 17S3 





marque ^^H 





'1 Lacbamss 

marque ^^H 



Fr corset 

JEAN + Larue ^^M 

Lovïs Bra[.W5. torn] 

marque ^^H 



1 Ja.vis 


Gerard langlois 

marque ^^^| 

Antoine Peltfe 


1 K CHARLE^lt.t,r 


CHtB Cearlevili* 

marque ^^| 

[ TransItUiott.] ^^H 

pretend to be ignorant thercuf. The undersigned hope that the Hon- ^^H 

orable Court will sec fit lo enforce, in full, thc»c ju3t représentât lotis as ^^H 

an act for the public g(K>d ; and it shall do justice. ^^| 

Ka.ska5kia, May 35, 1782. 



Jean Bapt. + Lapehchf.. ^^M 



René SotnaANDK. 

his ^H 

Pierre Lanclok. 

Antoine -t- Pelletier. ^^| 





Fr. Cor-skt. 

Jean 4- Larue. ^^| 

Lulls Bra[zeau]. 

mark ^^| 




Antuink 4- Reneaux. ^^H 

Okrarr Langiaks. 

mark H 

Antoine Pelletier. 

his H 

F Ciiarleville. 

Henkv + Reuiier. H 



mark 1 


^^1 P Richard 






^^M maxque 



jean BT + JAIflDROM 





^^^^K marque 



Rich. Winston 




^^m PIER + DtnCON 

^^M marque 

^^m Veu La requête cy dessus La Cour ordonne aux Capitaine et com- 

^H mandant de la milice De donner leurs ordres que tous les Cytoyens 

^^H françois et américains soit 

assemble rhcz Le Lieutenant de Cr>mti!e 

^^M Dimanche prochain a lissuc 

[dc] la messe pour délibérer sur la Bâtisse 



^^ P. RtCTIARD. 

his 1 


Baptiste + Delisle. H 

^H Batioi-e + THAUUtn 

mark ^Ê 

^^F marie 


Michel + Danis. 

Jean Bapt- + Jandron. H 


mark ^Ê 

Crarle + Deusle. 

Batiste Janis. H 


Antoine Bityat. H 


Richard Wikston. H 

Joseph + Migne. 






Pierre + Dduoht. 




In view of the above petition the Court orders the captains and com- ^M 

raancLint of the militia to give orders that all the French and American H 

citizens be assembled at the home of tlic lieutenant of the county next ^ 

Stinilay at the close of mass 

in order to consider the erection of a jail, H 



d'une prison dont un chacun ne manqueront point de sy trouver, El 
Ensuite la Cour repondcra aux autres demandes (.(/.S', torn] présente 
requête Mandons Sec fait [MS. torn] la dittc cour Laudience y tenant 
[MS. lûm] mcmc jour du mois de juin mil sept cent quatrevingts deux 


Enregistrés au Greffe du District de KasKasKJiu En la Comté des 
Illinois Pages 206: 207: 208: pages 250 folio 131 Par nous notaire Et 
greffier en Dit District KasKasKias le vingt neuvième jour du mois 
d'aoust mil sept cent quatrevingts deux Caraonneaux 

\Enti4)rsed:] Requête des habitante des Kaskaskia» 

at which meeting none should be absent. Then the Court will answer 
the other requests (of this] present petition. Let it be ordered, etc. 
Done (in] the said Court, while in sciision, [this] same day of the month 
of June, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. 

Antoine Baovais, Justice of the Peace. 
Recorded at the clerk's office in the District of K-oskaskia in the 
County of tltinois, pages 206, 207, 208, page 250, folio 131, by us, 
notary and clerk of the District of Kaskaskia, the twenty-ninth of the 
month of August, 1782. Cardonkeacx, 

[Endorsgd:] Petition of the Inhabitants of Kaskaskia. 

Election 0? Macisirates at Prairie du Rocher, June 18, 178a 
[K. MSS.— A. D. s.] 
Aujourdhuy Seizième jour du Mois de juin mil Sept cent quatrevingt 
deux. Nous habitans de la prairie du Rocher Nous Sommes assemblés 
par ordre de M. Barbeau capitaine de MîHce Et commandant au d' lieu. 
En Sa maison a l'Eiffet de Nommer deux magistrats pour le district des 

I Translation.] 

To-day the sixteenth of June, 1782, we, the inhabitant» of Prairie 
du Rocher, assembled at the order of M. Barbau, captain of the militia 
and commandant at the .said place, at his house, in order to name two 
tnagistrates for the District of Kaskaskia in the place and stead of M. 



KdfiKajiKias au lieu £t place de Mund. Sr Barbeau et de Mr. Louviere 
qui ont E-tercée Icsd. charges pendant le tems fixé par le code du gau- 
vcrncmeot Et après avoir mûrement reâechi Et Examiné nous avons 
Nommé Et Nommons pour exercer les dîtes Charges de Bifagistrats la 
[lerswnnc du S'' aîmé Compte Et la personne de jean B*" jacquemain 
liabitutis de ce dît village n'en Connaissant pas dautres plus capable 
dexcrccr les dites charges Sur quoy nous capn' de Milice Et commandant 
cy devant Nomnié avons reçu led. sr. aîmé Le Compte El jean B'* 
jacquemain En la dite qualiti! de Magistras les quels ont volontairement 
accepté Icsd. Charges Et promis faire !e Sermant dofficc devant la Cour 
du district des KasKasKîas fait a Li prairie du Rocher les jour Et an Et 
avons signé El fait nos marques ord"" 

Makqub ne Joseph terrien At Louviere. 


Aymé Comtb 

Barbau fils 


JiovANi Baptîsta Jacomiwi 


■' JEAN 

Camouns [ ?| 
Marque de François ti- 

Marque de L0015 ia No- 

VitE I?l 

Barbau and M. Louviere who- have executed the said duties during 
the time fiwd by the government code; and, after having carefully 
considered and examined, wc have named and name for the said 
crf&ee of magistrates the person of M. Aymé Comte and the person of 
M. OiovanJ Baptist» Jacomini/ inhabitants of this village, since we do 
not know any others more capable (o perform the said duties. Where- 
fore, we, captain of militia and commandant above named, have 
received the said M, Aymé Comte and Giovani Baptista Jacomini in 
the said quality of magislTatcs, and they have willingly accepted the 
said office and have promised to take the oath of office before the Court 
of tlie District of Kaskaskia. Done at Prairie du Rocher, the same day 
and year as above. Signed and our marks made. 

Mark of Joseph Terkieb. 

" " Jean Baptiste 

Camouns { ?| 
Mark of Francois Tibault. 
Mark of Louis La No\ile. [? 

A. Louviere. 
Aymé Comte. 
Barbau, Jr. 

GrovANi Baptista Jacomini. 
De Cocm-, 
Alihaach th« FrcDdt snle bb HUM JicqucnilB. he iln^ lisud u gt^ntlntbetruiliiioii. 



Antoine BAtrv'Ais lo Joseph Labuxierk, Jimc 30, 1782 

IC. MSS. in Chicago — A. D. S.J 

Au Monsieur Labujticre Procureur de L Etat a la Prairie durocher 

Vous aures pour agréable davoir la Bonté d'en voyer par Kcri Le 
noms des témoins que vous voulés faire paroître Luiidy prochain a la 
Cours pour y itre interrogé Et vous aussi La Complaisance D 'Envoj-cr 
a la Cours par Ecri Et de vous signé Les Interrogations que vous jugéres 
apropos Que la Cours fasse aux dils témoins conccmans Laflain- de M" 
Richard Winston Et John Dodge jespcre que vous fercs Intention a ce 
que jai L'honneur de vous Ecrire, La Cours voulant que celle affaire ae 
decide »*eu que le Sr. Winston voudroit partir. 

Jai I^honneur d'Être avec Consideration ^Monsieur Votre trcs humble 
et très obéissant serviteur 

Pr« ClDANl?] 

Kaskaskias le jo'' Juin 1782 


To M. Labuxiirrc, 

Attorney for the State, 

Al Prairie du Rocher. 


Will you be so kind as to <iend me in writing the names of the «ntness- 
es whom you wish lo have appear in court, next Monday, in order that 
they may be Interviewed? Havc also the kindness to send in writing, 
signed by you, the questions concerning the afTairof MM. Richard Win- 
ston and John Dodge which you may think fit that the Court should 
address lo the said I hope that you will pay attention to what 
1 have the honor to write to you, since the Court wishes that this affair 
he decided, inasmuch as M. Winston wishes lo depart. 

I have the honor to be, with consideration, 

Sir, your very bumble and very obedient servant, 


KaskaiUcia, June 30, 1783 



Petition or Auerican Skttlefs or Bp-LLRro^rrAiME to the Coumj 
or THE Di^TKicr or Kaskaskia cuk Some Foku or Civii, 
GovERNUEnt, July 9, 1 782 
pC MSS.— A. D. S.] 
A la Respectable cours du Uîstrid des KasKasKias 
Les Soussign6i onl L'honneur de vous remontrer qu'ils «ont rcnus 
dans ce pais cy depuis quellcsqucs années dans le dcsser de s'y KtabUr, 
dans ce pais, et voyant qu'ils ne peuvent point s'Etablir dans aucun vil- 
liige n'ayant point de foitds, nous avons pris le Parti de nous Etablir a la 
bellefontaine, nous ne desirous point Messieurs de faire un Etablisse- 
ment Indépendant n'y [MS. UicgUde] ne pouroit aucunement nuisible 
a nos voisins les anciens cytoyens de ce paûs, contraire nous désirons 
Nous Gouverner suivant les loix qui Gouvernent ce pais Et C«>mme nous 
n'avons point le Bonheur de pouvoir nous Expliquer ny d 'Entendre La 
langue françoîse qui est celle qui Domine C'est pourquoy messieurs 
nous vous supplions ainsy que Mr. Richard Winston député Lieutenant 
de Comtée de vos a\is Ensamble de vouloir nommer ou de former quel- 
que regulation Par le Quel nous pouvrons maintenir le Bon ordre chcs 
nous. Ou de nommer quelqu'un Pennis nous ou de nous En Laisser 
nommer un et qu'il sera comnûssioné Comme de Coutume dans ce pais 

To the Honorable Court ot the Dislrict of Kaskaskîa. 
The undersigned have the honor to shmv you that lliey came into 
this country a few years ago with the desire of settling in this country 
and, since they were unable to settle in any village, not having any funds, 
they decided to settle at Beltefontalne. We do not desire, gentlemen, 
to form an independent settlement [nor one] that would be in anywise 
detrimental to our neighbors, the first citizens of this countr)-. On the 
contrary, we desire to govern ourselves according to the laws which 
govern this country, and, as we have not the good fortune to be able to 
explain ourselves in, or to understand, the French language which is the 
one in use, it Is for this reason that we, gentlemen, pray you as well 
as M. Richard Winston, deputy lieutenant of the county, with your 
joint advice to consent to name or to form some kind of regulation by 
which we may be able to maintain good order among us, either by nam- 
ing some one amongst us or by allowing us to name one, who shall be 


par lequel moyen nous iwiu\Tons vivre En union avec les autres villages et 
que la paix et la tranquille et le Bon ordre sera parmis nous même c'est 
notre sincere desire avec lequel nous avons Lhonneur dêtre avec un 
profonds respects 

Vos très humbles & Et très ob- 
eïssans semteurs 
signé James Moore 

James Gakitsun 
Samuel henlev 
Lato.v White 
Aaron Pooh 
James Gray 


James Bvrom 

[MS. iUesibl^] — 










Vu ta requête cy dessus et de l'autre par la cours de ce dit District La 
qu'elle ordonne que Tous les cy dessus nommas ayant a se presenter 
En personne devant laditte cours ou un juge de i)aîx qui le choiscront 
parmis Kux le scplîcmc jour du mois d'aousl, pnx:httin pour y prctter le 
serment de fidélité aux Etals et un autre serment de soutenir celte cours 


commissioned as is customary with the other ullages. And that peace. 
tranquillity, and good order shall be among us is the sincere desire with 
which wc have the honor to be, with profound respect,' 

Gentlemen, your M;r)' humlilfi and very obedient serrants 
jAitES BvBON. (Signed) Jamks Moore. 

1-1^5. tllegibie] — te. James Garitson. 

" Flenery. Samuel Henley. 

** Flenery. Laton White. 

** Flenery. Aakon Poor. 

** Flekeky. Jaues Gray. 

In consideration of the petition, above and on the other side, the 
Court of the afortsaid district «irders that all the above named persons are 
to present themselves in jicrson liefore the said Court, or by a ju3licc of 
the peace whom they shall chase amongst themselves, on the seventh 
day of the month of next .August, in order to take the oath of fidelity to 

> Cotttult ta. Sill. CatUttimt, il., |i. oniL 



Mandons &c laît el doimé En U ditle cours L'audUnce y tenant Ic 
Mardy neuvième JuUlit 1783 


Ihc states and another oath to sustain this Court: we decree, etc. Done 
Mid given in the said Court, white in session, Tuesday, July 9, 1783. 


Election at Bellepontaine, August 5, 178» 

[K. MSS.- A. D. SO 

Bellcfontain August the 5lh 17S3 
An Kllcaion was held for a Magistrate and the Voals stands as 

For Mr. Nicholas Smith, ten Voats 
For Mr. James Garretson, five Voats 
Jakes Mooee 
To the Worshipful! Court at Kaskaskia» 


Kaskasicia, August 4, [782 
[K-MSS.— A. D. S.] 
A L'illustre rour des Kaskaskias 

Les troubles survenus dernièrement sur Le Mississippi Par un 
nombre de rebelles et de Brigands qui conimetent les hostilinb les plus 
aÉfreuscs sur les suj<5t3 de sa Majesté catholique de cette colonie et qui 
sous le nom d'ameriquains vont se réfugier à nos Postes Pour ensuite 

To the Illustrious Court of Kaskaskia. 


The trcrtibles, which have taken place recently on the Mississippi, 
occasioned by a number of rebels and outlaws who arc committing tbe 
most atrocious acts ol hostility against the subjects of his Catholic 
Majesty belonging lo this colony, some of whom, under the name o{ 
Americans, come to lake refuge in our posts in order to give warning 



donner avis à ces mêmes malfacteurs de nos manoeuvres afin qu'infor- 
ma ils Puissent avec surété travailler à Nous Nuire se mêlant souvent 
eux mêmes avec ces bandes obligent le gouvernement general de cette 
Province de Prendre les mesures les plus sages Pour mettre un à ces 
pirateries et de donner des ordres Précis aux commandants des Postes 
subalternes Pour qu'ils anelent toutes personnes qui Passeront Par 
Leurs dits Postes sans un Passeport signé des commandants Espagnols 
en concequence je vous Prénens, Messieurs, Que toux ceux qui descend- 
ront de Votre Partie orientalle des Illinois à la Nouvelle Orléans ou à 
d'autres D'autres [sic] lieux de cette dittcs Province sans mon Passeport 
seront arrêtés Par les commandants des Forts des deux rives du Missis- 
sipi ce qui pourroit Nuire beaucoup à Votre commerce et Pour qu'il 
ny ait aucune alternative Je vous expédierai à Votre gré les Passeports 
que Vous me demaaderés Pour Le bas de la Susditte Province. 
J'ai l'honneur d'être avec consideration 

Votre très humble & UH 
Messieurs obéissant Serviteur 

S' Louis des Illinois FaAKn> Cruzat 

le 4* août 1783. 

concerning our movements to those same malefaalors, so that, being 
informed, they may be able with safely to work for our deslrudion. 
Anil since these men often unite with these bands, the i«ntrul govern- 
ment of this province h obligett to take the safest measures to put an 
end 10 these arts of piracy and lo give definile orders to the commandants 
of the subordinate jKista to arrest all [«rsciaH who shall pass by their 
said posts without a passport signed by the Spanish commandants. 
Therefore, I give you warning, gentlemen, that all those who shall go 
down from your eastern part of lllinoistoNewOrkans, or to other places 
of this said province, without my i>as3port will Iw arrested by the com- 
mandants of the forts of lioth shores of the Afiasissippi. Since this 
anion, for which there is no alternative, may harm considerably your 
commerce, I will draw up for you, at your pleasure, the passports for 
the lower part of the above mentioned pnunnce, which you may demand. 
I have the honor to Iw with consideration, 

Gentlemen, your very humble and obedient servant, 

Franco Cruzat.' 

St. Louis of Illinois, Auguitt 4, 178a. 

^ (Vual vu the 5p>nith cmnnuiulBni ol St Laub. Coaiull Ihe lain d lloack, Bia. •/ Ubt 




K.ASKASK1A, August 24 178a 

[K. MSS.— A. I^ S.] 

A Messieurs de L'ilustre Court des Kaskaskias 

L« S' Auguste Chouteau Citoyen de ce Poste S* Louis va a votre 
ville Cummc cliargd de Procuralton du S' Cliarles Graliot i>our soliciter 
le payement par devant vous d'une Somme D'environs onze mille 
Livres qui Sont ducs par M' Carbonau au d* S' gratiot en Consequence 
j'espcrc Messieurs qu'en vertu de L'alliance (|ui retgnc entre les étals 
unis de L'amcrique Septentrion a Ile et la Cour d'Eiqmgne que vous 
voudrcs bien rendre au d* S' Chouteau la mtmc juitîfc que je distribue 
avec légalité au Sujeis amcriquains qui Se pn^scntent a mon tribunal 
avec juste Cause et Comme celle qui fait agir le d' S"" Chouteau est je 
croîs Suffiaameni Constatiï et liîgitimc je Suis pérsuadtî qu'il trouvera 
en vos lumières tout la justice qu'il peut éspcrer de L'iîquitiî de Ses 

je dtfsire Messieurs que les occasions de vous lemoigncr les d<;sirs 
que j'ai de vous Convaincre de mon dévouement Se présentent autant 

To the Gentlemen of the Illustrious Court of Kaslcaskia. 

M. Auguste Clioutcau, a citizen of this post of St. Louis, goes to your 
village, intrusted with power of attorney by M. Charles Graliot, to solicit 
before you the payment of a sum of some eleven thousand livra which 
M. Carbonoeaux owes to the said M. Gratiot. Therefore, I hope, 
gentlemen, that in virtue of the alliance which reigns between the United 
States of North America and the court of Spain, you will be kijid enough 
to render to the said M. Chouteau the same justice which I legally 
administer lo American subjects who present themselves wiih a just 
cause befnrc my tribunal, and inasmuch as the cause which brings M. 
Chouteau is, t Iwlicve, sufficiently established and legal, I am jKrsuaiied 
that he will find Wforc you all the justice which he can expect from the 
equity of his demands. 

I desirCf gcnllcmen, that the occasions of proving my dc-sîrc to 
convince you of my zeal may present themselves as many limes as 

NOTICE OF SALE, AUGUST 34, 1782 999 

de fois que je .snits de vmia prouver que j'ai 1,'honneur d'être av«r 
une parfaite Con&idcrdlîon 

Messieurs, Votre trts humble cl très obei&sani Serviteur 

Franco Cruzat 

a. S* Louis des Illinois ce 24 aoust 1783. 

{Translation. \ 

I am ready te prove lo you itut I have ihc honor to lie, with a perfect 

considérai ii>ii, };ciiik*men, 

Vaur very humble and very obedient servant, 

Fran«> Crdzat. 
At Si. Louis of Illinois, August 24, 1789. 

NoïicE OF Sale or Proprrty or David Kicks, August 34, 178s 

[K. MSS .— A. U. S.] 
En vertu d'une ordonnance Emené 6eri facias de la Cours de ce 
Dit Dislrii:t En duttc du quinzième Mars dernier Et a la requisition 
du Sr. Joscpli LaLfUxiere Pour lors Procureur de LEtat il sera procédé 
demain a Lis&ue de la pHere de cette paroisse a la vente des effets 
a[>partenants a David Hicks confisqué pour cause de Vagabondage où 
toutes personnes seront reçu a Enclierir El payant de prix de leur 
Enchère En piastres Bon Espagnols suif a Wngt sols farine Irent livres 
tout comptant avant de placer les Effets au Greffe de ce Dît District. 
KasKasKias le 34 aoust 1783 CARBCNNF.Ain( 


In virtue of the issuance of an order fi^ri facias^ from the Court of 
this said District, dated the fifteenth of last March, and at the rc<juisi- 
tion of M. Joseph Labuxiere, the present slate's attorney, to-morrow 
after the dose of mass in this parish, there aball take place a sale of the 
properly lielonging to Da%nd Hicks, which was confiscated for the cause 
of vagraniy, at which time all persons will be allowed to bid who pay 
the price of their bid in good Spanish piastres, reckoning tallow at twenty 
sols and flour at thirty liîres, all in cash payments before the delivery of 
the projjeriy at the clerk's office of this district. 

Kaskaskia, August 34, 1783. Cakbonneaitx, 


lTtiitmd,y IwlbedoKtdtluiIirinrcuiloDcif iht^ Anrnictuwhii}! bemiia veor bWm-,inacoDani 
ill nUcb tua been «rrillm by Mû» ll>y AUIiuoa In thv 7>>mMiuw«i of ihr III, Su» Hlil. Sacitlr> 
■OMlip- 118. Thv ilfioimeal tun] byMli«A[liii«aD In wriilaq the aconuai ït vrry liMvgaiul lull olrn»i 
rikioM: and no inlfvnutian, not IQ be found in Ihr arlick iriTli ks niim*rûus quoiniiani, fan 6c 
fl(U«il from th« dflcunest ludl. For tbcw r«uon* k iun bcca cawidtred bat to oroji (i (nm ihii 
«il tg faa. 



Francisco Crvzat to the Magistbatxs or tbe CoiniT at Kasxaskia, 

Septemlier i, 178a 
[K. MSS.- A. L. S.] 
Messieurs d'illustre Cour des Kaskaskîas. MESSiEuits, 

Le S' Auguste Chouteau Xcgoriant de ce Poste S* Ix>uîs m'» pr&cnté 
la rcqufic que je vous envois ci jointe, à (in que vous ayez la complaiscncc 
de lui faire la justice q [MS. lam] éspérc de vôtre Equité; et je suis 
persuadé que tant dan,s cette occasion, comme en toute autre vous 
voudrez bien cnncourrir avec moi à ta Conscr^'arlon de L'union, et 
bonne Correspondence qui reigne entre nos deux parlies, et dont nos 
Métropoles nous fournissent un puissant example que nous devons 
imiter en rendant rcciproqucmcnt dans nos Tcibunaux une aussi 
équitable justice ixix Sujets de Sa Magesté trH Catholique, qu'a ceux 
des Etats Unis de L'amerique Septrionale, par ce moyen nous éviterons 
de fâcheuses Conséquences à L'une, cl à L'autre partie, qui est je croîs 
le principal de nos devoirs, et Sur Ic4|uc1 table la félicité du pais, que 
de ma part je désire voire croitre, et non troublée, pour me Conformer 
aux ordres que [MS. torn] reçu du Gouvernement général de ceitc prov- 
ince de la Louisianne J'ai L'honneur, etc. 

A S» Louis des ilinois ce 1 Sept" 1782. Franco Cruzat 

Ta (be Gentlemen of tbe Illustrious Court of Kaskaskîa. Gentlemen: 

M. Auguste Chouteau, a merchant at the post of St. Louis, pre- 
sented tu mc the petition which I am sending you, herein enclosed, in 
order that yuu may be kind enough to do him the juiitice (which be] 
expects from your sense of justice ; and I am persuaded that in this occa- 
sion, as in all others, you will co-operate with me in the preser^-atJoa of 
the union and. the good relations which exist between the two sides and 
of which OUT mother countries fumlsli us a striking example, which 
we must imitate by rendering In our tribunaU on Ixith sides a justice 
as equitable to the subjects of His Majesty Very Calholic as to the sub- 
jects of the United Stales of North America. By this means wc shall 
avoid unpleasant consequences to Inilh lianks; and this is, I believe, 
our chief duty and on this depends the felicity of the country, which 
I desire to see growing and not troubled, so as to conform with the ortlers 
which [I have] received from the general government of this proviace 
of Louisiana. I have the honor, etc. 

At St. Louis of Illinois September i, 1783. Franco Cruzat. 




Election', September 15, 17S2 
pC MSS.— D. S.] 
1789 7^" •■ 15 NoMinasioD par Les abitan des Ma^stra pour La 
Omr Des g««g««gâ SCavoir * 





















B- \lUDC H«TW- - ' 























S««. ............. 



















SqmnnlR [7] 





Lou; bisaa 








■TnuuUitlon: September 15, 17B*. NwnbuUloa, b7 tbe InhaUUnti, of the mifiiUatci for the 
Court ol Kaskaakbi. To wit: 

■ Namei of the Inh&bituiti. 

* Jean file. St. Gonme BaunUa. 

*FmicoU Conet wm elected «ccordinf (o the cntilicale at the cod of the document. HU 
Dune doei not appear oD the ballot ihcct, but Colo Mcnw to have received luffidcnt voiea to br 
elected. Probably thi* itaud» for Colood and b « tlUc flmt to Coiwl. 


[CctUinued on th« reverse.} 
Suite de lautre par ' 

Lontal Cb«rlr Bic bJrk 

U botCM Clurk*ilk Jwlw Uaiîoli 

Sult«lrSl.}aminrDMKaM. / / / 

Sdi* de Mr Colo / 

Sullr de nuroy / 

SkIip de ricUr / 

Suilr de Cboruff. / 

Siih* (ht Bu Jub* / 

LmrtWDt / 

■WM / 

Lnr biaw Sali* ......... 

F.n Vertu de I,'(?lectinn du quinzième du Present mois mil sept 
Cent quatre;*ingt deux Le Public: asscmbi*: a rmmmd Pour Magistrats 
de la Cour du district des KjisKwsKias Les sieurs aimé Lecomte pour 
President de La Comt<5, du Dît District Kt I^s Sieurs vital Bcauvals 
Jean Bap** Bcauvais, (ranç-ni-s Charlcvillc, francois Corset Louis Bra- 
zeaux Et aotoine Morin Pour magistral qui ont Prêté Le Serment 
d'ofice, Et de fidélité Et [sic] -ettc qualité a La Republique de la virgioic 
Les quels Sont a L'instant comparu El ont signé Les d" Jours Et an 
sus dit Vitale Bauvais jean Baptiste SAt^vAis 


\F.ndorsed:\ Election faite des magistrat de la Cour des District des 
K&sKasKias le i;»"» i^ 1782 

[Translatîcn .\ 

In virtue of the election of ilic fifteenth of the present month, 178», 
the public a!«cmbly has named for magi.<itrates of the court of the Dis- 
trict of Kaskaskia M. Aymé Comte for president of the court of the 
said district and MM. Vital Bauvais, Jean Baptiste Bauvais, François 
Charleville, François Corset, Louis BraiMiauj, and Antoine Morin for 
magistrates, who have taken the oaih of office and of fidelity in this 
quality to the Republic of Virgioia; and they have now appeared and 
have signed the above said day aud year. 

Vital Bauvais. Jkan Baptiste Bauvak. 

Fr. CuAHLEvaLE. Aymé Comte. 

[Endùrsed:] Eleclioa made of Magistrates of the Court of the District 

of Kaskaskia, ^plember 15, i;Sj 

■ TruuUtlon : BrauK<it farnard itun the olher iid« of Ihe fkPV. 

Bcre [hr ballot iticci b nvFruil and itie rumn a( tlie cuwiiuia aie h the vnllal oiliiina uid 
Uk nunc* ol tlx votm al tht lop of Iht imfc. 


Casbonneadx to Tin: Magistrates of the Couxt at Kaskaskia, 
September 1$, 1782. 

[K. MSS.— A. D. S.] 

Mes affaires Particulières me Donnent Beaucoup d'occupations 
Qui m'obligent de vous prévenir que par la. présente Je remets a la 
Cour La charge de Greffier Dont J'avots été pourvu par [MS. HiegiMe] 
En consequence ces mêmes affaires m'occupent tellement qu'elles ne 
Peuvent me les laisser un moment vastes, C'est Pourquoy Messieurs 
Je vous préviens que la Cours aye a se pourvoir D'une autre Place pour 
y tenir sceance Ce qui me mortifie Beaucoup de ne pouvoir obliger Le 
Public comme J'ai cy devant fais. 

J'ai L'honneur d'être avec respect Mcwieurs Vutre très humble 
Et tn-s obéissant serviteur 

KasKasKias 16 7^''' 17S3 

Enregistre au (ïn:ffc de la Conte des Illim)Ls Pages 19, folio 45 Par 
nous notaire Publie et (ïrefficr de la (^unti^e des Iltinoîs KasKasKias 
le seizième y'^'mil sept cent Quatrevingt deux. 


Greffier de la Cùnlé. 

Gentlemen : 

My private affairs keep me so busy that they oblige me to notify 
you by this letter that I resign to the Court the office of clerk to which 
office I was appointed by b'ou]. Because these same affairs keep me so 
busy that they do not leave mc a spare moment, therefore, gentlemen, 
I notify you that the Court should jirovide for itself some other place 
for holding its sessions. I regret very much not to be able to serve the 
people as heretofore. 

I have the honour to !>e with rfs|>ecl, 

Gentlemen, your very humble and very obedient servant, 

Kaskaskia, Septemlwr 16, i;82. 

Registered in the ck'rk's offîrc of the County nf Illinois, page 19, 
folio 45 by us notary public and clerk of the County of Illinou;. 


Clerk of the County. 


RicHAiU) Winston to the Magistrates oï the Count at Kaskaskia, 

September ij, 178a 

tin. C T. MSS.— A. D. S.] 

C'est avec Joye que J'ay ru L'issu de L'assemblée que vous avez 
fait puur Klire I^s nouveaux Magistrats; ma. j'oye a été encore plua 
grande en Voyant que nos concitoyens ont choisi des braw gens digne 
de confience de tout Le monde et que leurs Sentiments Sera de Soutenir 
la Police ainsi que de rendre La Justice impartialle Et Le bon ordre a 
touttes Personnes qui pamitrons dans votre tribunal ; que les Plaignant, 
ou defandant, Soit de L'autre Rive ou de Cette cy. Car il Est de notre 
devoir de maintenir la bonne Intelligence Entre nous, nos amis, et 
alliés, Messieurs les Espagnol. 

Vu que votre assemblée est assiî Empte pour réfléchir, et consider, 
touttes les circonstances qui concerne L'administration de La Justice, 
C'est pourquoy Je vous prie, Messicur de Nommer un liuïssïer, ou plus 
cy vous le Jugé Convenable, pour porter vos assignations, aîn^ que de 
faire mettre a Execution toutte I>es Sentences de La Cour; Jusqu'à 
present mms avons Expérience que Les officiers de Milice ainsy que 
les fusîlliers ont ct^ toujours Prest a Soutenir Les Magistrats; 

Gentlemen : 

It is with joy that I haw seen the result of the assembly which you 
held to elect the new magistrates. My joy was even greater on seeing 
that our feUow-citizens have chosen honest men worthy of tlie confi- 
dence of everybody and that their sentiment will be in favor of sustain- 
ing the police as well as to render impartial justice and good order to 
all persons who shall appear in your tribunal, whether the plaintiffs 
or defendants be of the other bank or of this ; for it is our duty to keep 
OD good, terms with our friends and allies, the Spaniards. 

Seeing that your assembly is large enough to reflect upon and con- 
sider alt the circumstances which concern the administration of justice, 
I beg of you, gentlemen, to name a huissier, or more iS you deem it 
necessary, to serve your summons as well as to put into execution all 
the sentences of the Court. Up to the present we have found that the 
military officers as well as the fusiliers have always been ready to sustain 
the magistrates. 


Jc souhaite que Lc Zcl avec I>c quel Vous vous <?tent Comporté 
jusqu'à present ]>our La Cause Commune continuera, et que l'union, 
et la bfinne harmonie, rcignera parmi nous, Ce Sont les Désirs ardcns 
de celuy qui a L'honneur d'i-lrc avec une Estime Sincere. 

Messieurs *-otre très humble Kl très obcissani Scritcur 

Rich. Winston 

KasKasKJas Le 17"" 7^"* 178a. 
[Addressed:] A Messieurs les Magistrats de la Respectable Cour de 

District des Kaskaskiaa. 
[Endorsed:] Lettre de Monsieur Winston £crittc a Messieurs Les 
magistrats de la cour des fCaskaskias. 


l hope that the zeal with which you have comported yourselves, till 
now, for the cummon cause will continue, and that union and good 
harmony will reign among us; these arc the earnest desires of him 
who has the honor to be, with a sincere esteem, 

Gentlemen, )'our very humble and very obedient servant, 

KicHAKD Winston. 

Kaskaskia, September 17, 1782. 
[Addressed:] To the Magistrates of the Honcrable Court of the 

District of Kaskaskia. 
[Endorsed:] Letter of M. Winston written to the Magistrates of the 

Court uf Kaskaskia. 

RiCHASD Winston Issues a Suuhons to rat Junazs, 
September 17, 1782. 
{M C. T. MSS.— A.D. S.J 
A Messieurs Jean Baptist Beauvais, Louis Brozeau Francois Charle- 
viile et Corset 


Ayent Eté Choisi Par le Peuple pour leurs Juge et Magistrate il 


To Messieurs Jean Baptiste Bauvais, Louûs Brazeaux» François 
Charleville and Corset. 
Genti^men : 

Since you have been chosen by the people for their judges and magis- 


vous est ainry Enjoynt de vous y Trouver ce matia a U Cour Pour 
Prêter !c Serment Prescrit et prendre Siege 

Ricao Winston* 
Mardy 17"* yt»» ,^3^ 

tratcs, you are herewith summoned to appear in Court this monitng to 
lake the prescribed oath and to enter into your office.' 

RicuASD Winston. 
Tuesday, September 17, 17H3. 

François Cakbonnkaox Sells thr Notariat, Sepieml>er iS, 1782 

[K. MSS.— Court Reconl, f . a *] 

Quil soit notoire a tout qu'il appartiendra scavois que nous fran$ois 
Carbonncaux notaire public et greffier En toute La Contée des Illinois 
au District des KasKasKia y resident souaaigné poroise de l'immaculée 
Conception de notre dame déclarons et Confesson Par ces présentes 
avoir Vwrê wndu ceddé el transporté notre Elude Et greffe avec tous les 
autres offices De notaire cy joints El loua les pouvoirs dont nous sommes 
rwctus hs droits attachés au notariat pour l'espace d'une année plus ou 
moinsdattedesdittes présentes sans en excepter aucuns que Le droit De 
travailler d'ycy a notre prochain depart de ce lieu comme cy devant a M. 

Let it be known to all whom it may concern that we, François Car- 
bonneaux, notary public and clerk in all the County of Illinois in the 
District of Kaskaskia, there residing in the parish of the Immaculate 
Conception of Our Lady, declare and confess by these presents that we 
have deliverefl, sold, ceded, and transferred our practice and files with 
all the other functions of notar)* therewith joined, all the powers with 
which we are invested, and the rights attached to the notarial, for ihe 
space of one year, more or less, dating fr<ïm these presents, without 
withholding any of them except the right to practice as herebcforc 
between now and the lime of our departure, to M. Pierre Laaglois, 

Ut will br ttulicnl bv ihrrlrcikinibKi lti*t bMiilet tbcMfour, -Votaiac Mnrio «nd Vlul Bao- 

nb Wff« ai» cl(x:lc<I. Prrhapi Winston lbuu|t'>> ti"! wn* no) rlijiriilr >4!\tr thrj luH trrvrd U 
Judn* prevknitli. J'hr CiMirl mU nr> atloiiinn la InM ambntan liy Viiiulan, aad IxMh acted m 
jutona. S«c/Kif. p-109: tXtofa.Biti. ColUdiemt.W ,c«vj. 

■ T«wanb llv nul iil (liii cnurl tctfird the numlien of Ibt Mît» bcsùi ii«iio ni im«, mm* a ocw 
dark. Ptrrrc Lautui*. camv Into oflic*. 



Pierre Langlois a \c present arcqrtant pour luy se* hoirs Et ayans Caus- 
es Les dits notariat greffe et autres papiers y jainls pour prix et sommes 
de Deux milles ]i\Tes que ledit Sr. I-anglois a compte a [Line missing] 
payment dun restant de billet dont il En est Content et .satisfait dont 
ledit vendeur quitte Ijxiît Sr. achepteur lui l--t tout autre qui! appartien- 
dra dont quittance &c Et par claux Expresse Entre Lcsdils vendeur et 
achepteur, s'il arrivoit que l^ed^ Carborvncaux viendcroît a ramhourrcr 
audit achepteur Ladittc somme de deux milles livres. Ledit achepteur 
sobligc lui remettre avant où aprtîs l'année Expire En quelque temps 
qu'il pourra luy remettre T^i diltc somme tous papiers greffe charjçc oflïrc 
qu'il reçoit le present jour avec tous c<^ux qu'il pourra faire pendant sa 
joissance En qualité soit de notaire ou de greffier Car aitL<>y a Eté con- 
venus Et at-rordé Entre les parties El pour L'Execution des présentes 
&:c promeltajit &c obligeant &c fait et passé En Etude du dit notaire 
soussigné l'an de grace Sept cent quatrevingt deux Et le dix huitième 
jour du mois de Septembre après midy et avons signés après Lecture 

[ TransUUicn.] 
who accepts for hia heirs and assigns the said notariat, office, and other 
papers joined thereto, for the price and sum of two thousand livres, which 
the said M. Langlois has accounted [line missing] payment re- 
maining of the note with which he is content and satîslîed and for which 
the seller gives the purchaser and any other whom it may concern a 
quittance, etc. And by an express clause matic between the said seller 
and purchaser it is understood that, if the said Carbonneaux should 
reimburse the said purchaser the said sum of two thousand Ihres, the 
said purchaser binds himself to return to the said seller, at any time 
before or after the expiration of the year, all the papers, files, functions 
and office, which he received the present day, together with all those 
papers which he may have drawn up during his enjoyment of the office 
either of notary or of clerk ; for so ft has been covenanted and agreed 
between the parlies. And for Ihc execution of the presents, etc., prom- 
ising, etc., binding, etc. Done and passed in the study of the said notary 
undersigned, the j-ear of grace 1782, and the eighteenth day of the month 
of September, in the afternoon; and we have signed after the reading 
thereof was made. 


Témoins Js pAot signé Casbos'xeaux 

P. Richard. signé p'* Langlois 

Enregistré le septième de X**" 1783. 


Witnesses, Jos. Page (Signed) Carbovneaitx 

P. Richard. (Signed) Pieiike Langlois. 

Recorded December 7, 1782.^ 

Pages fbou the Coubt Record dp Kaskaskia, June 20-Novembcr 

26, 17S3 

(K. MSS.— A. D. S.] 
. . . Jacquemin En la dilte cours les quels aprbs avoir pretté sur 
les Evangelistcs Du grand Dieu tout puissant le Serment de &deUté et 
d'office ont prit séance a la cours Enqualitéde Jugesa paix et Magistrats 
du District des KusRasKias et ont signé les dits Jour et an susdit après 
avoir présenté a la Dittc Cours leur Election et nomination 

Aymé Comte 
Jiov'ANi Baptista Jacouini 


La Cours a été renvoyé a Vetidredy Vingt huitième Jour du mois 

[ Translation.] 

. . . Jacomini in the said court, who after having taten the oath 
of allegiance and uf olfiee upon the Evangelists of the Almighty God, 
took their plates in the Court in the quality of Justices of the peace and 
magistrates of the District of Kaskaskia; and they bave signed on the 
aforesaid day and year, after having presented to the said Court the 
certificaJe of their election, and their Domination. 

AyuÉ Comte 

Jiovani BApn.sTE Jacomini 
Antoine Bautais, Justice of the Peace. 
The Court adjourned to Friday, June a8. 

■ Thcrr Mlcuo in ihc coon recoril a tojnr oi Ihe ctllinn ol Pient IaiicIou In Richard Wiiutoo, 
eoiniT-Unjicauit. to be toamtisioatd u Boun> ud dnk; a&d • copy of the commteba litiMd by 
RJduiil WiaXou, both (lilnJ llnmnbcr 7. itSi. 


Juin KasKasK-ias !e vingtième Jour du mois de Juin mil sept cent quatre 
vingt deux. 


a une Coure teniic au District des KastCasKias Kn la Comtée des 
minois le Vcndrcdy vingt huitième Jour du mois de Juin mi! sept cent 
quatrevingt deux furent prcscns antoine Beauvais anloîne Morin Vitale 
Beauvais et Stanislas Icvasscur tous Kcuyers et Magistrats du dit District. 

La Cours a 6\é renvo)-<î a Lundy hutteme Jour du mois juitiiet 
prochain KasKasKias le vingt huiteme juin mil sept cent Quatre vingt 

ANTOtNE Beauvais J. P. 

a une Cours tenue le lundy huitième Jour du mois de Juillict au Dis- 
trict des KasKasKias mil sept cent quatre vingts deux furent prcscns 
antoine beauvais vital Beauvais Pierre Picard et Stanislas Levasseur tous 
Magistrats du district Des KasKasKias. 

Lan mil sept cent quatrcvingts deux et 1^ huitième Jour du mois de 
JuiJlcl au Environ huit heures du matin sont comparu F.n la Cours du- 
dit District Des KasKasKias Laudience y tenant ce dit Jour M^* Jean 
baptiste Laffonl Et Pierre Lan^ois les quels ont été assïgntf a yconi- 


Raskaskia, June 30, 178a. 

Antoine Bau\'Ais, J. P. 

In a session of the Court held in the District of Ka&kask.ia in the 
County of the Illinois, on Friday, June 2S, 1782, there were present: 
Antoine Bauvais, Antoine Morin, Vita] Bauvais, and Stanislas Levas- 
seur, all of them esquires and magistrates of the said district. 

The Court adjourned to Monday, July 8, next. 

Kaska<^ia, June 36, 1783. 

Antoine Bactvais, J. P. 

At a session of the Court held on Monday, July 8, in the District of 
Kaskastcia there were present: Antoine Bauvais, Vitale Bauvais, Pierre 
Picard, and Stanislas Levasaeur, all magistrates of the District of Kas- 

In the year 1783, OD the 8th of July atiout eight o'clock En the mom* 
ing there appeared En Court of the said District of Kaskaskia, the Court 
being in session on that day, MM. Jean Baptiste Laffont and Pierre 
Langlois, wbo were summoned lo appear on (hat day, at the requisition 



paroilre ce dit Jour a la requisition du sr. oicolas lachanse Le quel leur 
a représenté La vente d'une habitation passé par Maître feu Joseph 
vîaux Leméranoe notaire public le Deuxième jour du mois de Mars tnil 
sept cent Soixante quatorze pareillement La vente de plusieurs Exclaves 
meubles linges et utensîUes de \word UUgîbJc] Vrlvé Par La Dame veuve 
Crely En faveur dudit Sr. Lachanae Les quel a fait Exposer de^-ant les 

dits susnommés Les quels après serment par eux fait ' 

La Cour a été Renvoyé a Deux heures après midy Wngt deux du 
present mois du Novembre mii sept cent quatrevingt deux. 

AvTst CoaTE 
La cour continue a deux heure âpre* midy Wngt deux du present 
La Cour a été Renvoyé a mardy Prochain vingt sixième Jour du mois 
de Novembre a noeuf [sic] heure du matin mil sept cent quatrevingt 

Aymé Comte 

A une Cour tenu au district des KasfCasKiascn comtée des Illinois 
Le vingt Sixïcmc Jour du mois de novembre a Noeuf heure du Matin 
furent Present aymé Comte President, Joan Dapt. Jacqucmîn, vilaJ 
Beauvuis, J. Bupte Beauvais Ht fraiiçoîs Corset, antotne Murin tous 
Ecuyer Et Magistrats du Dl. District. 

of M. Nicolas Lachanse, who exhibited to them the sale of a dn-eUtng 
drawn up by Ibc late Master Joseph Viau.x Lespcraiice, notary public, 
March 2, 1774, and liken-isc the sale of several slaves, furniture, clothing, 
and utensils of [US. Ulegiblc] private, and sold by the widow Crcillcy in 
favor of the said M. Lathansc, who caused this to be shown before the 
aforenamed, who in turn, after having taken oath ' 

The Court adjourned lo two o'clock in the afternoon of Novenbcr 2a, 
1783. Ayué COMtl^. 

The Court continues at two o'clock uf ihe afternoon of the present. 

Court adjourned to Tuesday next, November 26, 1783, at nine in the 
morning. Avmê Comte. 

At a Court held in the District of Kaskaskia in the County of the 
Ilb'nois, at nine o'clw~k <if ihe twenty-sixth day of Novrmhcr, there were 
present Aymé Comte, president, Giovani Baplisla Jacomini, Vital Bau- 
vais, J. Baptiste Bauvais, François Corset, and Antoine Morin, all of 

' Tbts« tutn ol tha RconI ire torn asd u« not CMiMtuih«. 


La Cour coatîaue a dexuc heure aprcs midy vingt Six du Present 

Aymé Comte 
A une COUT tenu au district des KasKasKias a deux heure de Relevée 
ce jourd'buy vingt sixième Jour du mois de Novembre 

them esquires and magistrates of the said district. The Court continues 
at two o'clock in the aitcrnoon of twenty-sixth of the present. 

Aym£ Comte. 
At a session held in the District of Kaskaskia at two o'clock in the 
afternoon of November 36.' 

The Magistrates of the Cotntr at Kaskaskia to 
FsANasco Chuzat, October 5, 1782 

[K. MSS.— A.L.3 
^fR D" Csuzat 

Nous avons Reçu L'honneur de Vôtre Lettre en datte du 30. 7 bre 
dernier, ainsy que les Requclc des sîcurs Ccrré et D'atchurtit, après 
avoir mûrement Examiné Les pieces que Le Sieur Ccrré nous a Exibé, 
nous avons ordonné au S*" Page de Paroitre a la Cour Prochaine 35"» 
du present ne pouvant plutôt pour Repondre au Demandes du Sieur 
Ccrré, tant qu'a la saisie du Nègre Nous laissons cette affaire a Vôtre 
disposition connaissant que voua avez plus détendue sur la Loix Pour 
Savoir si les demandes du Sîeur D'atchurut Bat Gusie ainsy que celle 
du sieur Cerré; 

M. Cruzat, 

We received your letter dated the 30th of last September, together 
with the petition of MM. Ccrré and Datchurui. After having care- 
fully examined the papers presented by M. Cerré, we ordered M. Page 
to appear in the next court, the 25th of this month, not being able 
to answer sooner the demands of M. Cerré. As for the seizure of the 
negro, we leave that affair to be disposed of by you, since we know that 
you have more comprehension of the law, so that you can know whether 
the demands of M. Datchurut as well as those of M. Cerré, are just. 

1 TI1U b tba U«i mmIoo of (Iw Coun tuMO 1787. Ai ibb time or moo aller Uib KIclurd U'iiutwi 
■beUibal (he Court arf Ihe Dkukt ol KmIu^im. Pa p» licubn, cctmlt lU. Ilia. CoUttiiam, iL, 


Nous avons L'honneur d'être avec toutte la consideration Possible 
Monteur Votre humble & très obéissant Serviteur Kaskaskïas le 

We have the honor to be with all the consideration possible, 
Sir, your very humble and very obedient servants, 
Kaskaskia, October 5, 1782. 


NOVEMBER, 1783, TO MARCH. 1783 

The Sotoess or the Witnesses — Winston and Caxboxneaux Pkepase 
TO Go TO ViRcrsiA ~ The ComnssioxEiis Sewd an Avnooncement to 
iLUNOis — Winston Conters his ComussioN op CountvLieutenant 
ON De Moxbrel-n — LrtnîBS Conctrning the Skrvices of the 
New CouNTY-ljEirrENANr — Tuk Inhabitants Send Two Meuouau 
TO the Comnssio^TERs — Dodge W'jutkj or his Accounts — The 
REPHraENTATivEs FROM Ilunois Are Late— The Deathot Richakd 

William Fleminc to the Governor or Vikcinia, Nuvembcr, 1781 
[Draper MSS., ^ôj;^.— A. I„ S.) 

L:xcoLN County Nov» 178a 

I acckuowledgf tlic receipt of Your ExccUencys favour of Ocl?" 
lô**" which I laid before the board, when near se^x-nty miles on the 
Journy.' I received a letter from W G Smith dcclioing his appoini- 
meat as a ComoUss'' which put it out of my power to supply the vacancy, 
and remains unfilled, as I shall always avuid incurring unnecessary 
expense I made no use of Your excellence's order on the Commanding 
Officer of Washington county for an escort, some favourable circum- 
stances made us %-cnturc through tlie Wilderness in rather too small 
a party, we got into this country in 23 days but have done little busiocss 
since we came, occasioned by the strength of the Counties being drawn 
out against the Shawnise towns. Gen' Clark returned some days past. 
I am apprehensive the business will be considerably retarded, by the 
death of several Gentlemen who ntiuld have thrown light on many 
transactions, by Uie death of others who were concerned, and by the 
dispersion of jsonic of the principals. Col" Montgomery who was gone 

> fof [nfurniatfoa mnccnuog ilic cumniiMiin appomtcd br ihi lomiuic of ^Irfinli to lavsii- 
(Blc the upcnac «oonunt ûl tit* wnurn ■Jcinkitintnt.iM /ft. tfUl. (.'«UkIwim. ii.. p. ail. The ou- 
naini» Inim ">'\ oiha éotunrata cuDirrDins ihe inTaiiEninn •rQI be jvfaird In til* totumn oj 
G«iart« Rd«cn Ctuk's Papm bdof prtruM Etc the CVI/«Muiu tiy Prolnur | A Jama 




to Georgia when we came through Washington is wrote to requiring 
hi» attendance. Cap' George went with ihc Chickasaw Indians and 
is not expected MoK Christmas, Cap' Elliot who I believe was never 
in the K'mce of this State is [Krhaps in Philadelphia. Dodge who is 
in the Illinois is summoned. The backwardness of those whose con- 
duct is to be scrutiniwd will add lo the delay, from what light we have 
got, there has been the greatest abuses committed in several depart- 
ments which we hope to dcvelopc. M' Rowland!J who moved 
in part of his Estcal this fall with design to lieromc an inhabitant is 
unprepared to settle his accounts, having left his books in Botetourt, 
expecting to have them adjusted by (he board of war, is candid enough 
to give US room to suspect the greatest dissipation of stores &c : intrusted 
to him, he is required to lay his Accounts before us as soon as possible, 
it may not be amiss if we had transmitted lo us a duplicate of the Stores 
sent for the supply of the troops on this quarter, a considerable quantity 
of linen &c; I recollect was sent up by Cap' Kvans if I remember his 
name, perhaps some by M'' Madison. The printed advertisements 
not coming to hand before the end of Sepf makes it necessary to send 
some by express to the IlUnoisc they are addressed to the Court at Kas- 
kaskias & Col" I.>e Grass at S' Vincent a copy of which is enclosed, 
the latter part of which was wrote in consequence of a paragraph in 
Your Excellcncys favour of Qct*^ 16''' last. It is rumoured Le Grass 
is soon to be at the Falls of Ohio with some Pcankcshaw Indians, 
neither M' Pollock, M*" Barber, nor M'' Shannon are in the Country 
at this time, so that it is impossible to Judge when we shall be able to 
finish. I shall be under a great dltSculty in supplying M'' Smiths place 
properly should any of the Gentlemen from indisposition be unable to 
go through the business especially as M"" Marshall is obliged sometimes 
to attend the duties of his Office, two Acts of Assembly passed last 
May, that relate to the Militia the Commissioners have not seen. If 
they are necessary, or should anything pass in the present Session, 
which they ought to know, they hope Your Excellency will order copies 
to be sent them. Wc design in lie at the Falls y° 15^** of Jan' which 
will be as soon as tlic Messenger can return from Ka^askias & in the 
meantime, if possible gel in the business uf Lincoln & Fayette counties, 
As Opportunities will be li-jw frequent or none at all for some months, 
I have crowded all that ot-curs lo me at pre-wnt, which may give Your 
Excellency an idea of our situation w'lh regard to the business wc came 



here to settle & hints for any further instructions you may be pleased 
to favour us with, when we return I expect wc may have papers of con- 
sequence which may not be safe to trust without a guard. I wish Your 
KxccUcneys orders for one to the Commanding Officer of Lincoln 
County which I shall only make use of in case of necessity. I did not 
mention that Lindsey has no book of his transactions only loose scraps 
of paper which we have been able to get in our possession and both 
Harrison & him being killed their affairs are in the greatest confusion, 
[>articular notice shall he paid to Your Excellencies last favour, I have 
the Honor to be with great respect 

Your Eicellencys most Ob' Serv 

A Copy WoLM Flemmc ' 

[AtUfcised:] His Excellency The Governor. 

a. Coppy — 

Commission as Agents to RtCHARD Winston and François 

Carbonneaux, December 3, 1781 

[C. C. Pp XXX.. 4.W— A. L. S-l 

Nous Les soufsign^s habitans du district des Kai^KasKias En Ia 
comtéc des illînois, disputons Les Sieurs Richard Wnstons Et françois 
Carbonnaux pour faire En noire nom toutes les Demandes Et rcprc- 
st^ntations quils jugeront nécessaires pour le bien Etre de la dittc 
Comt^c, nous leurs recommandons particulièrement D'exposer à nos 
.Souverains seigneurs, soit du Congrus general des Etats unU De l'amer- 
iquc ou De la pro^nce de la Virginie, à quit]iic se Etre d'où Le 
gouvcmemenl de cette Coralée dépends de protester Et Demander 

Wc, the undersigned inhabilanU: of the District of Ka-skaskia in the 
County of Illinois, appoint MM. Richard Winston and François Car- 
l>onneaux to make in our name all demands and representation.-^ that 
they may deem necc.<aiary for the welfare of the said county. Wc 
recommend to them in particular, to present [our grievances] to our 
.sowrcign .seigniors, either of the General Congress of the (Jniled Slates 
of .America or the Province of Virginia, or from whomever il may be thai 
the government of this county depends; to protest and to demand the 

■ Thbcnpr b in llic laaJimlinK of WilliuD Flcmuvg himaril. 


l'assisUmc^ du guuvemcraent [wur quil nous accorde leurs protections 
pour maintenir Et soutenir La cours qui reste sans Execution De ses 
ordonnances, pour réprimer Et arrêter Les crimes énormes qui se com- 
mettent dons ce pays qui ne peut se soutenir sans ce secours, pareille- 
ment de ndmer un lieutenant ou un gouverneur tel qu'il plaira a nos 
seigneurs de nous l'cnroyer, ainsy qu'une personne qui Entende bien 
notre Langage pour présider a notre Cours. Et que toute notre Comlée 
ne fasse qu'un seul District Et que dans chaque village it n'y ait qu'un 
seul juge à paix qui déridera telle sommes qui se présentera devant lui, 
pourveu qu'elle soit OmçuS en billiet ou obligation; nous experons 
que nos dits seigneurs, lors qu'ils îipprendront par nos di^put^ Les 
maux Et Souffranres que La p:irtialil(î El lignorancc de ceux qui nous 
gouvernent nous font souffrir par le pea d'experiance quils Mit de 
ladministratîon de la justice qui! y a En cette Colonie par faute d*y 
avoir des gens Capables Kt cxpcrimanKls dans J^s loJx françoises qui 
sont Les Coutumes de cette ComuSc; El dy soutcnirc l'honneur du 
gouvernement plus que persuada que nosseigneurs voudront bien avoir 
quellcsques Commû^cratioas pour Les diu soussignés les quels ne 


asbta&ce of the government, so that they may grant us their protectiOD 
to sustain and maintain the court, whose decrees arc not executed; to 
suppress ami stay the awful crimes which arc Ijeing committed in this 
country which cannot sustain itself without this help; likewise to name 
a lieutenant or a governor whichever it may please our seigniors to send 
to us, as well as sfjme person who underalands our language well to 
preside in our court ; and to petition that all our county be made only 
one district, and that in each village there be only one justice of the 
peace, who shall decide cases involving such sums that may be brought 
before him, provided they be expressed in notes or bonds. When our 
seigniors shall learn through our deputies of the evils and sufferings 
which we haw undergone on account of the prejudice and ignorance 
of those who govcrnusaswcUasby that lock of experience in the admin- 
istration of jusiite which is found in this colony, because of the lack of 
capable men experienced in the French laws of this couuiy, we trust 
[that they will lake compassion on us] and maintain here the honor of 
the government. Wc are more than persuaded that our seigniors will 



Cesseront de faire Les veux les plus ardens pour Icurj Conservations. 

KasKasKias le j" X*^ 1782. 
Gtn-i> Garard sa marque 
JOSEPH Dupris S3 marque 
Raimokd Labrieui sa marque 
NICOLAS Canada sa marque 
Nicholas Sin-TH 
Enbi Richard sa X 
Bloôin fils 
BrENv-ENUs rrs 

Hexry Smith 
John Boyd 
John Cleark 
Fhedk s Gtnos 
P. Richard 
Pr Lawolois 
Gerard Langloîs 
John Wh-mams 


{EuJûrsed:] No. 18 Memol. Inhabitants of KasKasKias 9 Decr. 178a. 

I Tranilatiptt.] 
have some commiseration for the undersigned, who will not cease mak- 
ing the most fervent vows for their preservation. 
Kaskaskia, December 3, 178a.' 

Gcvo Gerard, his hark. 

Joseph Dupuis, ms mark. 
Rayuond Labriere, bis uark. 
Nicolas Canada, his hark. 
Nicholas Sirvrn. 
Henri Richard, ms ua&k. 
Bloudt, Junior., Junior. 

Henry Smith. 
John Bovn. 
John Clare. 
Fred S. Gciom. 
P. Richard. 
Pierre Lanclois. 
Gerard Lanqlois. 
John Williams. 

Jas. Willey. 

Proclamation op Viroinia Commissioners, Dec 4, 1783 

[K. MSS.— Cop/.] 

Lincoln Conty 1783 
Lc pouvoir nous ayant Eté donné Et instructions par Son Eicclcncc 
Le gouverneur Et Conseil, pour Examiner Les Comptes de tous Les 

Lincoln County, 1783. 
Power and instnictlons liave been pven us by his Excellency, the 
Gov-cmor, and the Council, to examine the arrounls of all civil and miU- 

> This ItM o( ticntn repnacnu llie ttcliwi ■hicb haJ ninpotml tbr coualr lieulCMnt. RicUrH 
Wlnaton, Then arc dnrn Fmchinen and iZi Amala». Of tltCM>, iVMfi ot Ihe Frmchrm aorj 
fourodhc Ants-iuniHtDHlihipMiTicnallhaUnioDat JohûDodaeal 17(14. (Src AsiJ, 11. ji^.) Po 
* Ibt ol ihf- {''rmch lictKi», ■«« t»a, p. 344. A UMotji of tho* bctlna» oMf be kmad in III. Hit'. 
CtllMliimi, ti , pi. aiii., a. >. 



officiers civil et tnilitoires, ainsi que Les Comptes que Ceux qtd 
ODt Eu trcn^action Sur Les Eaux de ouest. Comme L'occasion est 
requis de Sommer Les (emuinagv. nous Fcsons Savoir au public et a 
loutles personnes que octie affaire Concerne que nous nous rassemblons a 
La Chute dans La belle rivière, Dans La Cotit<?-dc J<îflcrson Le i j Jour 
de Jenvier prochain, pour faire nos devoirs Comme nos Commission le 
porte. Nous mandons a touttes jicrsonncs qui ont des Comptes ou 
Iftre dexangc Contre les Etats, Sans Etre arrangé, ainsy que Ceux a qui 
il est due par quelque Credit, de venir avec leur Comptes lettre d'échange 
ou Sertîlicat pour Etre ajusld, aucune Dcbics de quelque nature que œ 
Soit, poura Etre pay^ a Richmond, Excpté i'" quels nayent Eté Exam^- 
iné, et Liquid(?. Et Scrtifid par nous. 

WiLUAU Flcuinc 
Donné Sous nos mains Samuel Mcoowkll 

Le 4^ dercmbrc de Lanné 1782. Caleb Wauacr 

taiy officers as well as the accounts of (hose who have had transactions 
on the western waters. As it is required that wc summon witnesses, we 
make it known to the public and to all persons whom this affair may con- 
cern that we will hold a meeting at the Falls of the Ohio River, in the 
County of Jefferson, on the fifteenth of next January, in order to do our 
duly as our commission requires, We command all persons who have 
accounts or letters of exchange against the states, which have not been 
settled, OS well as those to whom something is due through credit, to 
come with their accuuiils, letters of exchange^ or cerliucates so that Ihcy 
may be adjusted. No debt, of whatever nature it be, will be paid at 
Richmond except that it be first examined, determined, and certified 
by us. 

Given under our hands, this fourth of December, 1782. 

William Fleiono. 

Given under my hand, Samdel McDowkll. 

December 4, 1783. Caleb Wallace. 



The VraciNu Commissioners to the Cocrt at Kaskasua, 

December 4, 1782 

(K. MSS.— Copy.] 

The Honorable Court at Raska&lcias 

Lincoln County Decf 4»*" 178a 

The State of Virginia fully Sensible of the Inronvcnicnce every Indi- 
vidual must suffer who lie out of Money or Goods advanced for the Sup- 
port of their Troops while in your Country, occasioned by the great Dis* 
lance from the Kaskaskias to the Scat of Government, and of course, the 
great delay in getting (hase Acrounls settled, have ordered a Board of 
Commissioners to attend at some convenient place in the Western Coun- 
try to receive adjust & Liquidate all Accounts, against the Common- 
wealth of Virginia; in order that (hey may be finally settled, when 
presented at Richmond. We take the Liberty by Your means, Gentle- 
men, to make the Intentions of Virginia known inclosing You some Ad- 
vertisements desiring you will be pleased to send one of them to Kohos, 
and as in the course of Trade many of our Bills may be in (he hands of 
the subjects of Spain, also to transmit an Advenisement to S* Louis 
that the Spanish Gentlemen concerned may have information. We have 
sent by this Messenger to S^ Vincents, And we shall be happy if we can 
be of service to the Inhabitants of the Illinois by staling Matters of Fact, 
and representing any grievances to which they have been subjected under 
the Government of Virginia. Wth respect, we are Gentlemen,' 

Your most Hum' Servants. 
A copy by order of the Board WlLLL\ir Fleming 

JoHK M'dowf.u. Sec' Saml M'dowell 

Caleb Wallace 

■ From a nuvfii) mnlutiM ofjhv for^Kuiiu «kmiirvratt. It U avEilmi ikal IVbuion &nd Cm* 
(■oitiiritiii luul ik-trdciinn) lo (o to Vlrifinia ifim« Hrcls IjcNvc ik« am dI ihf appaioinicrkl of (he 
w«(i-rii commlniCDprt mdiM ICaiikuht^ Th»t arwt fxalniiif fjfM camr In ihe ilwvr ïttxcïï, 
nliiili mar Out Itavc Imn ildlnrcd uDlU late JD Jaoiury. ^oc fêti, j«8. 



CouMiasiOK nr CouNn-LiEOTENANX BY Richard Winston lo 
TmoTHÉ DE MoKDHEiTN, January tS, 1783 
[Va. State Library. — Atlesied Copy.] 
A Monsieur Monsieur de Monbreun oQidcr au Service de L Etat 

aux RaskaJttas. 


Comme je suis au moment d'etre Sur mon depart pour Le gouvemc- 
mcnl et que je Suis chargé dcCommisionctd«?puté lieutenant de Comté 
des ninois Je presume qu'il m'est Indispensable de Substîtur dautres en 
ma place pour L'inicret public a fin d éviter quelque molestations qui 
pouroicnt arriver pendant mon absence Je Seroit mortîffié que Le peufJe 
vint a Souffrire sil ny auroit Personne pour exercer cette charge en Coo- 
cequcnce je ne crois pas pouvoirc mieux m'adreser qua vous. Monsieur 
pour faire exécuter cet employ Latachment et le zèle que vous avez 
témoigné dans plusieur occasions pour T^ Service de létal nous donne des 
preuves Suffisantes de votre Capacité Intègre. 

it ne vous est pas difficile dcxcrcer Olte fonction ainu Monsieur Je 
vous prie d'avoire jKiur agréable d'accepter celte prcsctite Commission 
pour votre athnrîtc [sit] étant chose nécessaire pour le Bien public et au 

[Translation — Attested.] 

To M. de Monbreun,* Officer in the service of the Slate at Kaskaskia. 

At The moment wf my being alfout to Depart for The Seat of Govern- 
ment when 1 consider myself as charged with The Commission of Depu- 
ty Lieutenant to the County of lUinuis I think it an indispensable Duty 
to substitute some Person cr Persons to act in my stead and place for 
the public Good in Order lo prevent any molestations That may happen 
during my Absence. As it would mortify me, thai the People should 
SuiTtT because there was no Person authorized to fill that Place, now I 
am pursuaded I cannot apply l<i any Person with more Propriety for 
preforming the Duties of my OfTicc thaii to You, Sir, as The Attachment 
and 7,cssi to the public gocxl you have shewn on several Occasions furnish 
us with suiTuienl Proofs of ytnir Abilities & Integrity. 

It will not be a difficult Matter for you to fill this Office, I ihercfiHv 

request You, Sir, to accept of These Frcsetlts which aulhori/A* you to it, 

■ The lull uirt » Jicqura 'rinoihf Ii«uchfr, Sicur <le ïilonbRiin. for biocaphlcil nocicc, sec 
to. Ititl. OÀitttiotu, il., pp. xû.. audi. 



Soutient De la Cause Commune des ctals Vnh de Lamcriquc. Dans 
toute occasion qui pouroit Le presenter pour les Inlcrcst du peuple qui 
requerrcra votre protection ainsi qui pour Soutcnirc la Cause des Etats, 
voua agicrc de le procureur de letat, les officies de milice et les habilans le 
plus anciens |)Our délibérer ensemble Sur le parti le plus convcnaMc a 
prendre Concernant tes affaire qui pouroicnl Le presenter. 

Pour vos guides Je ne peut mieux vous donner que le code des loix el 
articles de droit que Son Excelance Le gouverneur a Envoyiî ici cl qui 
doit être au greffe de la cour que vous Consulicres de lems en ttms, les 
quels vous milcgcrcs autant que posible aux ancien usages et coutumes 
de ce pays; Joint a voire Jurisprudence vous ne pour pour'er [su] pas 
tomber enfaute. 

Je ne pourois trop vous recommander le meilleur inteligence posiblc 
Entre vous et nos voisins amis Messieurs tes espagnols et autant qu'il 
Sera en votre pouvoîre de vous joindre avec le Commendant de lautre 
Rive pcrer la IranquiliUÎ de ce pays cl la cause commune. 

[Tramlaiion — Attested] 
as il is requisite for The Publit good ami Cnnductve to the Support of 
the Common Cause of The United States of America. 

On every Occasion that shall oJTer to claim Your Protection in behalf 
of The People as well to support The Interest of the Slates You will ad 
in Concert with The State Allorney, with The Militia Officers and The 
oldest Settlers in The Countr)* and Consider jointly with Them on The 
most proper measures, which Circumstances may require in every par- 
ticular Case. 

For your Direction in The Performance <jf The Duties ot The Office 
trusted to You I cannnt dîrw:l you to a better Guide Than The Collecihrt 
of Laws and AH'kUs of Juris prudente uhkh His Excelictuy TheCcnvr- 
nor has sent hiilitr, and which ought to be kept in The Office of The 
Ocrk of The Court, These You may consult sometimes combining them 
as much as possible with The old Customs & '-'sages nf This Country, 
adding tn this Your Knowledge of Jurisprudence You cannot fall into 

I cannin recommend to You loo much the Cultivating of a friendly 
Intercourse with Our Neighl>orîng Friends The Spanish Nation and 
Communiiaiing on every Opportunity with The Commander on The 
othrr Side of The River for Maintaining The Tranquility of This Coun- 
try and the Common Cause. 



Nayani plus Rien a vous marquer (|ui soit a ma Connuissance Je 
m'en raporte a votre pnidcncc et «ciwriance jinur les ras. 

En vous Souha-ilaiit plus de réussite de tranquilitc que je nay en ja.y 
l'honneur d'etre avec toute l<i Consideration posîblc. 


Votre très humble et très obeiseat Serviteur 
Signe Rich Winston 

Deputy Licute de Conte 
Aux Caskaskias le i8' janvier 1783. cnregcstrc au greffe du district 
des Caskaskias a lu page 393, 294, 395 folio 189 
Au Caskakias — fevre 1783 

Signe P** Langlois 

[Translaiion — Altested.] 

As no other Particular at present occurs to my Reflection I rely on 
Your Judgement & Experience as to unforeseen Cases. I wish you a 
better success and less difficulties than 1 ha%x' met with 
I am wilh much esteem 

Sir Your luimltk* & most uljcdient Servant 
(SignedJ Richard Winston 
Deputy Lieutenant of Ihe County. 
Kaskaskias the 8th Jan^ 1783 

Recorded in The Clerk's Office of the district uf Kaskaskias page 
393, 794 & 395 folio i8g 

Kaskaskias The 24, Feb. 1783' 

Signed J" langijOis 


October 17, 1780. 
[Draper MSS., sojjo.— A. D. S.J 

ForJ Clark Octri?* 1780 
To ALL iroME rr May Consarn 

This May Certefy Ihat L^ Mumbron haith Believed him Self as a 
Frcnd t» the of America in Kvey Resiwct ajid that he haith Been 
Reaïley at all Times on F,aney immergeniey lo du I-'vey thing in his Pow- 

■ The MP)' U allntrd nn April ii, i;gi, by Jmn Bit. Htflxiit, judst aiulpmiflfnt af IhcdiMrict 
of Pniric du Rochrr. The tniulBilan wu made, NovnnlKf ij, 1791, by Prin S. Hu funocau, 
aoiarr public, etc., ai PlailAdelpliia. 



er for the defence of his CunJrey & at all lime? UTien Ever Called on By 
his Superior or Commanding officer turned out. When the Savages Came 
in order to Destroy the Cuntrcy Last Spring he turned out With the 
formost to Repulce them. When 1 was ordered to Go on the Expodilion 
up the Wabash he aliso Went with the Greatest Chearfuliness and when 
The Savages altacted Fori Geffcraon when I Could Git But twelve Men 
lo Go with Me he a Gain Ventered his life to the Releefe of thai post. I 
Think When al! These proofes are Considered that he oute to he aplaused 
by Evcy Good Man and Rewarded AcordJng to his Merrite. Geven 

under My hand 

Jno Montcoukrv 

Lt Col Commandant 
Fort Clark [October] iS"' 1780 
General orders as I am about to Start from This place to-day I there 
fore think it Expédiant to Levé Capl Rogers at this place With his Com- 
paney to take the Command and possession of fort Clark he is allso or- 
dered to asist the Agent With a Gard al all times if there is aney Call for 
one & to Compel! Every person To Compley With their Contracts Matd 
With the Agent. Given under My hand 


L* Colol Commandant. 

JOBN WlLUAUS to TIUOXBÉ DE MoNBBEUN, February 15, 1781. 
[Draper MSS., sijj4,— A. L. S.J 


Je a receue l'honneur du votre, de aujourd'huy, je Suis bien Morti- 
fiere de N'être point Capable de vous donner Congé ne de vous payer. 
N'esloient point en pouvoire de la faire pour moy même Jusque Nouvelle 
ordre de Colo* Clark pour l'assemble des officer il est nullement Neœs- 
saire Votre Conduit a été tourjours cy bien et Satisfactoire a tous Noua 



I received your letter of to-day and find myself mortified in not 
being able to grant you leave iif absence or to p;iy you, for I have tio 
authority to do so until there comes a new order from Colonel Clark. 
As for the assembly of the ofTicers, that is in no wisie necessary. Your 
conduct has always been so good and satisfactory to all our olficcrs, 


Officer, que vous navois auaine besoin de cclla; ce que je peut faire je 
faim avec PbJsire et devant partîrc je prendra Quelque Airangemeni 
pour vous et votre famille aussitôt que je aura Quelque Nouvelle de 
Colo' Clark vous Sera informer 

Je Suis Mon»' en vous priant de agrccrc mes Respect a Madame 
Votre très bum' et très Obes* Serviturc 

Jno WauAMs 

Au Cas IS fcl>' 1781 

To Lieu' Monbrun de Boucher 
[Addressed:] To Lieut* Monbrun de Boucher Près* 


that you have no need of that. I shall du all I can willi pleasure and 
before my dc^jorturc I will make some arrangements for you and your 
fajuily. As soon as I liavc news from Colonel Clark, I shall inform you. 
I am, sir, begging you lo present my respects to m ada m e, 
Your very humble and very obedient servant, 

John Woliams. 
Ai Kaskaskia, February 15, 1781. 
Tu Lieutenant Boucher de Monbreun. 

TnioTHÊ DE Monbreun to Geobge R. Clark, March 5, 1783. 

[Draper MSS.. 51J3S.— A. L. S.] 

Mon Générai. 

J'ai Eu L'honneur de M'addresser a Monsieur Le Major John 
Williams votre représentant pour lui demander suit ma retrait oî) qu'il 
m'accordât, En ma qualité De Gentilhomme £t d'offîder au service De 
la Republique de la Virginie que J'aî L'honneur de ser\ir, ma paye de 
Lieutenant, En bon argent où Marchandises pour pouvoir faire Sub- 



I had the honour to address myself to Major John Williams, your 
representative, asking him that either he grant my discharge or give me, 
in my quality of gentieman and olBct-r in the service of Uie Republic of 
\lrginia, which I have the honor to serve, my pay as a lieutenant, in 
good money or merchandise, so that I might be able to maintain my 



sinter ma famille Lequel ne ma pu accorder que des Provisions pour 
ma Subsistance comme vous le verras par Sa Réponse cy Jointe Que J'ai 
L'honneur de vous Envoyer cy Inclus, En conséquente Mun général 
Je me flatte que lorsque vous auréa vu le Certificat de Monsieur le 
Colonel Montgomery et La Réponse que M" Le Major Williams de 
Mes Services El leurs Incompetence Malgré La bonne volonté Que ces 
Messieurs avoient de vouloir récompenser mes Et le Z4te que 
J'ai Encore présentement désirant vous Suivre dans L'Expédition que 
vous all^s faire, Si toutes fois il vous plait m'accorder La Subsistance de 
Ma famille pourque Je puisse m'abseiiter Et ne jias Laisser ma famille 
a la Mercy de mes ?nus qui E^t une chose honteuse a un veritable 
Gentilhomme tel que Je Suis. J'espère Mon (vénérai que m'ap|)uyaiil 
Sur le zôle avec lequel Je desire Servir La patrie trouver En voi:s toutes 
les ressources qu" me Seront nécessaires pour Marcher avec Confiance 
Sous vos drapeaux o L'abri des quels un veritable Militaire ne Desire 
rien autre chose. 

Jai L'honneur d'6trc avec un profond respect Mon General 
Votre très humble et très obéissant Serviteur 

ThDIO de MaNBREim Lt» 
family. Majur Williams was able to grant me nothing but provisions 
for my subsistence as you will sec by the answer ht-rcwiih enclosed, 
which I have the honor to send to you. Therefore, my general, I 
trust that you will He able to help mc, after you will have seen the cer- 
tificate of Colonel Montgomery and the answer of Major Williams 
concerning my services and their incapacity to recompense mc for my 
services in spite of the good desires these gentlemen had to do so; and 
when you will have seen the zealous wish I still have to follow you 
on the expedition which you arc gf>ing to make, if you arc willing, how- 
ever, to grant mc the maintenance for my family so that I can absent 
mj-sclf without leaving my f.-unily to the mercy of my friends, which is 
a thing of shame to a man of noble birth such as I am. I hope, my 
general, that, in depending on the zeal with which I desire to serve my 
country, I shall find in you all the resources which may Iw necessary 
for mc, so that I can march with confidence under your banners, under 
whose shelter a true soldier wishes for nothing else, 

I have the honor to be with a profound respect, my general. 
Your wry humble and very obedient servant, 

TuoTBi DE MOKBREiTN, Lieutenant. 


Kaskaskias le s"^' Mars 1782 
\Addressed:] Monsieur Monsieur George Rogers Clark Ecuyer, 
Marccbal de camps Cummandaiit la partii: oricatal de la Virginie 
au fort Pi te. 


Kaskaskia, March 5, 17S2. 
[AtiJre^^ed:] M. George Rogers Clark, Esquîre, Field Marshal, 
commanding the Eastern [su] part of Virginia, at Fori Pitt. 

TiMOTHÉ WE MoNBKEUN lu George R. Clark, no date. 

(DnipCTMSS., sija6 — A. L.S.] 

Honneur de lb General 
Mon general, 

Je me fait l'honneur de vous Ecrire Se motte. Je Soite qui La 
présente vous trouve En parfaite Sente. Mon general j'cût l'honneur 
de vous Ecrire par Monsieur Bautelea (?] Si vous savez reusu mallestre 
vous devez as [itiord iUegibU] reusu Les Sarli&cade Mon devoir par mes 
Supérieures qui y sont Ea joint as mallestre. Mon general jay Eut 
L'honneur de madrcs*é a Monsieur Le major jan Williams pour lui de- 
mander Mesapoinlemenl et ma Raslion. comme il me Lavait accordé 
pour mes appointemcnt il na \KUi me lascordé disant que las Devait 
parailtre as vous, pour que jcn («ut Etre payé a legard de La rastions 
qui mavait promie, il na peut me ta faire donnée disant quil ny âvoit 
poipl de font je lui ay demandé Mon Congé puis quil ne jjouvoit Rîea 
Me donner Etant poursuit par des dettes que je dcvoïts payeté \7\ 

My Genrral: 

I am honoring myself in tt-riting you a few words. I trust that this 
letter will find you in perfect health. My general, I had the honor to 
write to you through M. Bautelcs [i*]. If you received my Iclter you 
must [also have] received the certlûcates of my service givcE by my su- 
periors, which were joined to my letter. My general, I had the honor to 
address myself to Major John Williams in order to ask him for my 
salary and rations, such as be bad allowed me in the past. This time 
he was not able to grant me my pay, but said that the bill had to be 
referred to you. As for my being paid the rations which he had prom- 
ised, he is not able to do so, saying that there are none m reserve. I 
then asked for my discharge, since he was able to give me nothing and 
I was pursued by debts which I had to pay and w&s obliged to sell in 




oblige de vandre pour faire yonneure as mes deltes. Monsieur il ma 
Rcpond quil ne pouvoit point me donne de congé qui ny avoit que vous 
seul qui pouvoit faire cela quoy que cetoit que ma parolle Domi& qiie 
je ccrvirais en qualités de Lieutenant Sous Les ordre du colonel Clark. 
Et moy m^mc Rcgardan mas parrole Comme un [word Sl^rgible] aux 
prais de vous mon general j'aviai, Ktte Bien mortifid de moy mime 
das voire ut Lidcz de faire aux qucn natgajcmen. Mon general jay 
espérez jusque ce jour je me flatte, que vous aurez tout Egard pour 
moi, pour me faire livres d'apajws [word îlUgihle] ma rastions. Jusque 
moy de février le ai de Lane mille et sen catre vin d'un mon conte vous 
ccra présenté par le major Williams, jcspere mon general que m'ap* 
puyant Suer Le zcllc avec La quelle je desire Service La patrie trouvara 
en voiis toiitc Les Resource qui me seront Nécessaire pour ALarchcr 
avec confiance sou V03 drapau telle qu un veritable millitcre qui ne 
Desire Rien autre chose jay l'honneur Deltre avec un profond Raispact 
Mon general! 

Votre ires Sommble Et très obeisant Serviteur 

Thikote dk Monbreun Le'" 

order to meet said obligations. He answered me, sir, that he was not 
able Vi grant me a discharge, that you were (he ooly one who could do 
that, even though it was only by promise that I was serving as lieu- 
tenant under the order of Colont-t Clark, And I myself consider my 
word as an [oatb] to you, my general. I was quite mortified at not being 
able to procure anything. My general, I have wailed until this day. 
I trust that you will ba^-e all due consideration for me in this matter, 
in order to have delivered my pay and rations up lo February 21, 1781. 
My bill will be presented to you by Major Williams. I hope, my 
general, that in dfjjcndîng on the zeal with which I desire to serve the 
country, I shall find in you all the resources that may be necessary for 
me so that I may march with confidence under your banners as a true 
soldier who desires nothing more. I have the honor to be with a pro> 
found respect, my general, 

Vour very humble and very obedient servant, 


> In (lir rrpcitl of Ihr W«*tmi coRiinn«lunrt> wait mil l>ir \'irKi<ibi Ja i;8>, ■! jp, 4|i, â found II» 
Mlo«tii< «May: "Alto linil. Monbrun I'jy rulr Ircim ibf tiili ul ^t^jr 17^ till ibt nth of May 
itSi, at i6| Dollvi p. Moinlh Aini.'iini tua I I'Jlin 'tin- Kuiril I'hilI iIui l,icul, Monlwuii VM with- 
ontB oominiidihefmier pBTiol tbc lim? ipcciiiol in thit I'ly lUik. but apiirovc Uw Cliiim from ite 
RKMtntnmilatkxu anomianTiiig it. nhicli aic ctioArmod by itic Rcpiirl oT Ocal CUiL." 



Rkbako Winston Aknoonces Appointuent of De MoxBREtrN. 

Januar}-3i, 1783- 
[R. MSS., Court RecoH. t. 5.] 


En Consequance de laffiche qui nous a été Envoyée par Messieurs 
Les Commissionaires qu'il a plû a Son Excclance Le Gouverneur 
d'Envoyer dans notre voisinage a la chuie de Loyo, pour nous donner 
L'avantage Et aisance de régler nos comptes Et tirer les sommes que 
l'état sera dans le Cas de nous devoir. C'est pourquoy le soussgné 
ayant des comptes a rendre audit Etat Et voulant profiler d'une occasion 
si favorable; part incessament Ce qui l'oblige d'avertir le public par 
ces présentes que tous ceux qui ont des Comptes a Sa charge De telle 
nature qu'ils puissent eue de venire régler avec lui sous huit jours datte 
des présentes faute De quoy il declare quil fera Son voyage Et proteste 
Contre toutes poursuites que Ion pourvoit Exercer Contre lui et Contre 
tout ce qui lui a partint pendant ^m absence. 

Et comme La charge quil a L'honneur d'occuper F.n qualité de 
Commandant de cette Comté ne peut pas rester vacante il declare au 



In consequence of the placard which has l>ecn sent to us by the 
commissioners, whom it has pleased his Excellency the Governor to 
send into our neighborhood, at the falls of the Ohio, to gi\*e us an easy 
opportunity to settle our accounts and withdraw the sums of money 
lliat the state owes us, it is for this reason that the imdcr-ugncd, because 
be has accounts to render to the said state and wishes to profit by an 
occasion so favorable, is setting out immediately. This obliges him to 
inform the public by these presents that all those who have accounts 
against him of whatever character can bring them to a settlement with 
bim within a week dating from these presents. In default of such 
settlement, he declares that he will make his journey and protest against 
all suits that are brought, during his absence, against him and all that 
belongs to him. 

And since the ofl&ce of commandant of this county, which he has the 
boikor to occupy, cannot remain vacant, he declares to the public that 


public quil nomme pur oes preacnlea La personne de M"" ihimytéc de 
MoDbnin Bcuyer, oilîcier dans Le Scr\ice de L'état pour nous rem- 
placer jusqu'à ce quil En soil ordonné [>ar Le Gouvernement lui con- 
noissant tous, les talans et Capacité requis pour Ladite chargo En- 
joignons a tous les fidcls Sujets de l'etat De le reconnoitre pour leur 
Commandant Et de lui obcîcr En tout Ce qui] leur Commandera pour 
le Service de l'etat Et La tranquillté publique aux Caskakias le ai 
Janvier 1783 signé RtcH. Winston 

Enregistré au greffe La vingt unième janvier mil Sept cent quatre 
vingt trob. En la page 254, 353. folio 5 Pre Langlois Greffier 

he names by these presents the person of M. Timothé de Monbreun, 
Esquire, officer in the service of the state, knowing him to possess all the 
talent and the capacity required for this office, to take his place until 
such time as orders shall be sent by the government. We enjoin all the 
faithful subjects uf the state to recognize him as their commandant and 
to obey him in all tfiat he shall comraand them to do for the service of 
the state and the public tranquillity. At Kaskaskia, January 21, 1783. 

(Signed) Ricbard Winston. 
Recorded at the clerk's office January n, 1783, on pages 254, 255, 
lolio 5. Pierre Langlois, Clerk. 


OÏ THE State of Virginia, March 1, 1783. 
[M. C, T. MSS.— A. D.] 
Aux honorables Commissionaires Des Etats de la Vir^nie, actuelle- 
ment A la chute. 

Les tiabilans des iUînoîs, Se Seroit flattés que La Reception gen- 
ereuse par Eux faîtte a Monsieur Le General Clark, et, a son dctache- 


To the Honorable Commissioners of the State of Virginia, now at the 

Gestlzmek : 

The inhabitants of Iltimiis had baaed (heir hopes upon the generous 
reception, which they gave lo General Clark and his detachment upon 



m«ot Lors He son orrïvée \sic\ dans Ce pals; Le SacriCcc qu'ils i 
fait, de Leurs Revenus lunt, des terres que tout autres Provision de 
Bouche de Guerre, et marchandises Avec un zctc, qui Lui a EWdcnorat 
Prouvé ainsy qu'a tous I^s ofTiders qui Laccompagnoit, Combien Les 
dits habiians etoîl Satisfait de L'a Digne aUiance qu'unit Les Efals 
de Lamerique; A>*ec Leur ancien souverain, et le desire ardent qu'ils 
avoit de s'accosiér, aux Principes d'une Liberté, dont jusqu'à present 
ils n'en Connoysscnt pas La douceur, malgré que parmi eux il Sen 
trou^'e avoir Essayé a (aire pénétrer jusqu'au tribunal souverain, par 
Le Ministère de quelque Particulier, I^tat deplorable, ou Les hahitans 
se trouvent par l'horrible administration, des Chefs et des troupes |)cn- 
dant Leur séjour aux illinois; et ^n que vous Soyez véritablement 
Convaincu, ils vous prient Messieurs de Recevoir de bonne part Le 
tableau des Griefs, qu'ils ont L'honneur de vous adresser; en Ke]>on3e 
de L'avis qu'il vous a plû Leur donner, oddre&sé à la Cour de notre 
district; Voicy Les faits, 

I-e General Clark arriva aux ilUnoîs En Mil sept Cents Soixente et 
dix huits, avec Son dctachemeni nous Le Reçûmes a Bras ouvert» 


Iheîr arrivai în this country, and the sacrifices, which they hai*e made 
of their revenues, both of their lands and of other prm-isions of war and 
merchandise, with a zeal which evidently proved to General Clark and 
to the officers who accompanied him how satisfied were the inhabitants 
with the worthy alliance which unites the states of America with their 
former sovereign, and the ardent desire which they had lo attune them- 
selves to the principles of liljerty, of which, up to the present time, they 
do not know the mildness, in spite of the fact thai there are some amongst 
them who have tried through the agcncj* of individuals to bring before 
the sovereign tribunal the deplorable condition in which the inhabitants 
are on account of the horrible administration of the leaders and the troops 
during their stay in Illinois. And in the hope that you may really be 
convinced [the aforesaid inhabitants) pray you, gentlemen, to accept 
in good part the account of their grievance», which they have the honor 
to address to you in response to the notice which it has pleased you to 
q)vc them, and which was addressi-d to the Court of our district. Here 
arc the facts; 

General Clark arrived in Illinois in 1778 with his detachment. We 

flattés d'uQC ample Protection que nous desirions depuis longtcms, 
Ce Détachement manquoil de tout, et nous avançons avec vérité qu'il 
ctoit tout nud, mais Les manières honnêtes de Monsieur Le General 
Clark et de ses officiers, sur Ce qu'il nous assura avoir des ordres de 
lirerc sur Monsieur PoUoq agent Des Etals de La Virginie a la N'^' 
Orleans il na pas eu de peine de Se procurer tout Ce qu'il a eu Besoin, 
pour un Numéraire, En Cartes Courantes qu'il a Répandue En quantité 
tant Sur notre Rive que Sur Celle D Espagne, Sur le pied de la Piastre 
Sonnanl d Espagne, dont tous nos Effets Lui ont été fourni au même 
Prix et Conditions, nous nous (laitons que Lui seul suffira ]>uur nous 
Justifier de ce que nuus vous avançons. 

Il paroit Messieurs que vous désirés d'avoir Des Etats ou Comptes 
de fourniture de Notre Part, chose impossible, a chaque Remise ou 
Vente Les Commandants ou Commissaires nous payaient avec Celle 
monayc ou des Reconnoissances el Lors que nous I<es Represenlions 
iU Le» Substiloît en Lettres d'Echage Sur Monsieur Polocq ou Sur 
La Virginie, et Les ctals Et Comptes Kestoit au Pouvoir du Comman- 

received him with open arms, confident of an ample protection which 
we had desired for a long time. The detachment was in need of every- 
thing and wc assert Ihal they were almost naked; but on account of the 
honorable bearing of General Clark and his officers, and because he 
assured us that be had orders to draw on M. Pollock., an agent of the 
Slate of Virginia at New Orleans, he had no dîfîiculty in procuring 
all he needed in exchange for a currency in the form of paper money' 
which be circulated in great quantities both on our shore and the 
Spanish at the rale of the hard piaUre of Spain ; and alt our goods were 
furnished them at that same price and on that condition. We trust 
that his testimony will be sufficient to justify the cUtîms that we are 
making you. 

It seems, gentlemen, that you desire lo have statements or accounts 
of the supplies furnished by us, a thing which Is impossbile; for at every 
delivery or sale the commanders or commissaries used to pay us with 
that money or with rec«pts and when wc prescnlcd the latter they would 
exchange them fur letters of exchange on M. Pollock or the Stale of 
Vir^nia and the statements and accounts would remain in the hands of 

t " Gndnraial*." 



dant; des peuples au£sy Elwgncs du tribunal Sfjuverun et pzeveflOs 
de La Douceur d'uti Gou^'erneoient ju&te osperoit depuis Loogtems 
Pouvoit'il S'immagiimer qu'il Seroit possible qu'il peut eaunaoer de 
sa part une monoye iaunagiD^uie, pouvoit il Simmaginer non plus, 
qu'un of&cier Commandé Par Ses ordres D'eul Leur Laisser ignorer, 
que Cette monnoye souSroit un discredit, nous L'avons néammoins 
Reçue pour une Valeur intrinsèque, mats aussy cette Confiance aveugle 
nous a Réduit dans La dernière des Misère obligés de diminuer de La 
moitié nos semmences faute d'avoir Les moyens de vous procurer une 
livre de fer pour Racommoder nos cbemiesn'ayant pour toute Resource 
qu'n Numeraire du Provenu tant de nos terres que de Marchandises 
converti La Plus Grande Partie en Lettres de changes que Les uns ont 
(ait passée par La voye de La N"* Orleans, et Les autres par terre Et 
enfin Les autres, toujours flattées de Lcquité Du Gouvernement, Les 
gardent eu Leur Pouvoir Persuadé qu'étant bien informé de la Venté 
de CCS faits il Sera trop juste pour RcpcNidrv et Garantir La Conduite 
des chefs qui nous ont Commandés; Sans Exiger que nous et nos 

[Translation.] ■ 

the commanders. Could a people who were so far distant from the 
bOverei(^ tribunal and had been told of the kindness of a just guvem- 
ment, so long desired, iminpnc (hat it would issue an imaginary money? 
Could tliey imagine, moreover, that aa oQlcer, acting according to its 
orders, would allow them to remain ignorant that this currency was dis- 
credited ? We have received it, nevertheless, at its face value ; but, also, 
this blind confidence has reduced us to the grealecit poverty and has 
obliged us to diminish our crops by half, since we did not have the means 
to procure a single pound of iron with which to repair our plows, for our 
only resource was a paper money ' given in return fi>r the products of our 
land and for our merchandise, which had been converted for tlie most 
part into tetters of exchange. Some of us sent these by way of New 
Orleans and others by land, white others, still confiding in the justice of 
the government, arc keeping them in their possession, feeling sure that 
once the government is well informed of the truth of all these facts, it 
will be loo just to take the responsibility of shielding the conduct of the 
leaders who have commanded us, and to require thai we and our neigh- 
bors on the Spanish shore should be the only victims of our excessive 

I Or: ">n cuumcralicni o( lti« pradncU" nc 


Compatriotes sis Sur La rive d'espagoe Soyons Les Seuls Victimes de 
noire Grande Confiance. 

Monsieur ]-e General Clark nous quitta quelque tems après La 
Conquette du Poste vinçcnncs entre Les mains de Monsieur hamilton, 
ou nôtre jeunesse L'accompagna avec Le même xcle, qui nous a porté 
toujours, a fournir aujt troupes Leurs Subsistance il fut substituer Par 
Le Colonel Montgomery, d'ont L'administration tiraniquc qu'il a 
Pratiqué parmy nous, mérite Messieurs L'attention La plus Particu- 
lière de votre Part ; mais avant d'entrer dans un detail aussy Effrayant, 
nous Croyons devoir vous Informer, Messieurs que Monsieur Le 
Colonel Tode Venu icy quelque tems avent Le depart de du [sk] Gen- 
eral Clark pour y établir une Cour de judicature et quelques regie dans 
Les finances n'a cru devoir nous informer du discredit du numeraire 
Rependû En quantité par my [sk\ nous qu'a près L'acquisition Sur 
La Rive despagne d'une quantité de pelleteries qu'il Paya en Lettres 
déchange Sur La Virginie; Epoque fatale de notre ruine puis qu'il 
annonça peut de tems Aprfcs qu'il y avoit quantité de faux argent, qu'il 
Recconnut, et Cota, a chaque particuliers, qui jusqu'à Lors guidés 
de La meilheure foy du mond avoir Reçue sur Le pied de La valeur 

General Clark left us some time after the capture of Post Vincennes 
from the bands of M. Hamilton, whither our young people accompanied 
him with tlie same zeal that has always induced us to furnish to the troops 
their subsistence. His place was taken by Colonel Montgomery, whose 
tyrannical administration as he practiced it amongst us deserves, gentle- 
men, the most careful attention on your part. But before entering into 
such a frightful detail, we think it is our duty to inform you, gentlemen, 
that Colonel Todd, who came here, some time belorc the departure of 
General Clark, in order to establish a court of judicature and a little 
order in the finances, did not believe it his duty to inform us of the depre- 
dation of the paper money which had been circulated amongst us in such 
great quantities, until after the purchase, on the Spanish shore, of a quan- 
tity of peltries for which he paid in letters of exchange on Virginia. It 
was the fatal epoch of our ruin, for he announced, a short time (hereafter, 
that there was a quantity of counterfeit money which he identified and 
valued for each indi^ndual who, guided by the best intentions in the 
world, bad received It up to that time at the same rate as tbe ordinary 



ordinaire De La piastres sonnante, en fournissant Lea objets, virrea Sec 
pour tel argent et au mtoie prix que Le Gouvememenl despagne Les 
payoit; Pour Comble de malheur Monsieur Polocq, h fait introduire 
dans Ces Circonstances quantité de Boissons fortef, et quelque Mar- 
chandises i>ar diOcrcntes Creatures, avec ordres de vendre aux amér- 
icains, en Lettre de change Sur luy, ou Sur La Virginie soient aux troupes 
ou a Ceux qui voudroit Le payer en Cette monnoye Le discredit Connu, 
joint a La nesesité urgente de quelque pauvre babitant il n'a pas eu 
de peines d'accumulere des Sommes au deLa de L'imagination, Par 
Le prix Exorbitant qu'il a fait placer Ses eSets aux troupes et au pauvres 
C^-toyens dont L'tnposâibilité de pouvoir faire Subsister Leur familles 
Les à obligés à faire des Sacriâces duii argent qui Leur Coutoît 
Si cber et gagné aussi Legilemement ; 

Monaeur Iode ivtat. Sont depart ctablll Par la voye du peuple et 
par une assemblée Légale une Cour de judicature; et Committoona 
de son propre mou%-emcnt Monsieur Richard Winston De la charge de 


value of the hard piastre, when furnishing different things, supplies, etc., 
for the said money, and at the same price that the govcrnmctii of Spun 
was paying them. To cap the climax of their misfortune, under these 
conditions, M. Pulluck sent by certain of his tools a quaniit}' of strong 
drink and some merchandise with orders to sell, for letters of exchange 
onhimsclf or Virginia, to the Americans, either the troopa or those who 
were wnlUng to pay in this money, after its discredit was known.' On 
account of the urgent necessity of some poor inhabitants, he had no 
great diSiculty in gathering sums past all power of imagination, by 
charging the exorbitant jmccs, which he placed on the goods sold to the 
troops and the poor citizens, who were obliged, on account of the impossi- 
bility of supporting their families otherwise, to sacrifice a money which 
cost tbem so much and had been so legitimately earned. 

M. Todd, before his departure, established by the votes of the peo- 
ple in a legal assembly a court of law.* He also gave, on his own initia- 
tive, a commission of lieutenant-governor of this district to M. Richard 

f lUi nttn to wMie gcMcb brousTti (rant N«w Oriwn* hj linditv, (fac dbpoa) of «Uch 
ebandmi John Uodio. Cunmift M'Caity'» letln io t'oclil. UcioVin' 14, ifSo, and Wi»> 


mu nni In ttie I _ 

■lon'i ta Todd, OcutMr 14. Chi. wtx. Sockiy'i CoUccimi. tv.. ,U7. an- 

I Sob amit. p. 8e rf itq. 


LkBtcnarit Gouverneur de Ce district, Mais Comme Ces Règlements 
Regardent particulieiement Ladît Cour, Nous Kcviendron a L'adnÛD- 
istraiion Du Colonel MoDgomery. 

Cet oHicier prit Le commandement de Ce Pais et de La Garnison 
que y Resta, La Bonne Reputation qu'il avoît acquise par Sa douceur 
el Par Sa Conduite irreprocbabte ne nous Laissa aucun doute, que Sous 
Son Commandement, nous ne serions pas moins heureux que Sous Ce 
Lui du Colonel Clark, Mais qu'elles scroit Les Expressions dont nous 
devrions nous Servir, pour vous établir un tableau de sa conduite envers 
nous, Les affrlcains usant de Leur pouvoir despotique Rougeioît des 
Ëxçes qu'il a pratiqué parmis nous. 

Nous Noua plaignîmes de La grande Consomation de vivres qu'il 
faisoit pour Si peut Pc troupes, après noua être appcrçû que quantité 
de personnes, et Esclaves non altachécsau services vivoit ànasdepcns; 
et Se procuroit pat cette voyc Leur Bois de Chouffage; et autres pro- 
vision; Pendant que nos familles Gemîssoîl, el Se SacriGoit avec nous 
a fin que Les officiers, et La troupe pussent trouver Leur subsistance 
du provenu de nos travaux il parroissoit sensible a nos justes Raisons, 

Winston. But as these arrangements concern in particular the said 
court, wc sliall return to the administration oî Colonel Montgomery. 

This officer took the command of this country and of the jjarrison 
that remained, here. The good reputation, which he had acquired by 
his kindness and irreproachable conduct, gave us the assurance that 
under his command wc should not be leas happy than under the com- 
mand of General Clark. But what expressions can we use in order to 
give you a picture of his conduct towards us? Africans, making use of 
their despotic power, would blush at the excesses that he practiced 
amongst us. 

After wc had perceived thai many persons and slaves not at all con- 
nected with the sen-ice were living at our expense and were procuring 
for themselves in this way ihetr firewood and other provisions, while our 
own families were moaning and making sacrifices .so thai the officers and 
the troops could find their subsàâlcnce oui of the proceeds of our labor, 
we complained to him of the great consumption of .-iupplies that be was 
making for so few troops.* He seemed sensible of our just reasoning 

* Sm «ofe, p. t^a. 


et nous assurait que ses ordres étant de tirer Sur La Virginie que nous 
serions Eiactemcnt payes. Comme nous devions L'être pour Les Lettres 
de change tirées Sur Monsieur Pofocq par le General Clark Cet agent, 
nous à payé avec de très Bonnes Raisons mais jusqu'à Present nous 
sommes a Rcce**oir un Sol; 

Le discrdit [sU] Connu, ni Ce défaut de payement ne nous Empêcha 
pas néanmoins, de fournir Exactement La subsistance au troupes, et 
en Genre, aux prix ordinaire, et Courant dans Ce païs Sur Le pied de 
La Piastres Sonnante, mais Soit qu'il ail Crû que nos Rcprcscntalicms 
prcçcdenics attaquoit sonaulhorilé; ou qu'il ait imprudemment écouté 
Les Conseils que Luy a donné Ce même Lieutenent Gouverneur Richard 
Winston ; que nous étions accoutumes detre menés a Coup De Bayon- 
nete ; et qu'il pouvoit prendre Che nous tout Ce qu'il voudroit d'author- 
ité il a osé sans Craindre de dégradée son eUt et Lbonneur de La nation ; 
De faire tuer nos Bcslicaux dans nos plaines, nos Boeufs de Cbarrûe, 
vaches a Lait, et pcrçcaux dans nos propres Clos, sans que nos plaintes 
nous ait procuré d'autre satisfaction de La part De Ces Suidais furieux 
que des menaces Les plus Barbares de Leurs Carabines; nous avons 

and assured us that, since he had orders to draw on the State of Virginia, 
we should be exactly paid as we ought to be for the letters of excbange 
drawn on M. Pollock by General Clark. This agent paid us with very 
good reasons, but up to Ibe present day we bave not received a single 

Although (he discredit of the money and the default in pajTnenfs were 
known, still this did not prevent us front furnishing subsistence to the 
troops, in kind and at the current prices in this country at the rate of the 
hard piastre; but whether he thought that our former remonstrances 
were an attack upon his authority or he had imprudently listened to tbe 
counsels that were pven to him by that same Lieutenant-Governor 
Richard Winston, who told him, that we were accustomed lo be driven 
at the point of the bayonet, and that he could take by authority from our 
homes anything he might wish, he dared without fearing to degrade his 
position and the honor of the nation, to cause to be killed in our commons 
our animals, our oxen, and our milch cows, and in our very yards our 
swine; and our complaints have procured for us no other satisfaction on 
tbe part of these ferocious soldiers than the most barbarous threats with 


Easuyé toutes Ces horreur avec une patiançc dont il ny a eu janub 
d'«emi>lc ; Toujours Constants dans la fidélité que nous avons promiae 
aux Etats unis, cl persuadas qu'un tems plus heureux et La Connoiasançe 
que prendroit Le tribunal souvcrin, de notre Malheureuse situation, 
nous vengeroit avec faveur et Equité, de tous Ces Excès de liranic; 

La devastation que nous avons Essuyé, ayant nus Lepouvantc 
Parmis plusieurs Cytoyens hors detat daEUeurs de Culti^-é Les terres 
par la perte de Leurs Boeufs de tire, et de Leurs vaches, par La rruauté 
des ordres de Ce Commandant, nombre d'eux ont pris Le parti dabban- 
donner Ce distrit Pour ly chercher dnns dautres pa!s un asile ou ils 
trouvent La protection qui est dUe aux peuples Civilizes, Nous avons 
Garde de Croire Messieurs que cette Conduite Si contraire à L'humanité 
à L'a droiture, et au principes d'un Sage Gouvernement, puisse Emma- 
ncrdu tribunal Supreme; Nous ne Lavons point mérité^ au moins que 
ce ne Soit pour avoir accuîlly Le troupes de La Virginie en vray Compa- 
triotes 1x3 avoir nouris et entretenus, amcme nos productions, de trois 
a quatre années, pour un Numeraire, que nous avons Re^û avec La 
Confiance dUc t un Gouvernement Equitable; 

thcîr guns. We have borne all these horrors with a patience unpar- 
allelcd, for we wcrec»'cr faithful to the fidelity which we promised to the 
United States, and were confident of the coming of a more happy time 
when the sovereign tribunal would have knowledge of our wretched situ- 
ation and would avenge us with favor and justice, for all these excesses of 

Because the devastation we have sulTered has brought terror into 
the hearts of many dtizens who were already unable to cultivate the fields 
on account of the loss of their oxen and their cows by the cruel orders of 
the commander, a number of these dtizens determined to leave this dis* 
IricI to seek in some other country an abotle where they would find the 
protection which is due to civilized people. We have not been willing 
to believe, gentlemen, that this conduct, so contrary to humanity and to 
justice and to the principles of a wise goveraraent, could spring from the 
supreme tribunal. We have not merited it, unless it be (or having 
received the troops of Virginia as (eUow-citizens, for having nourished 
and maintained them with the products of three or four years, sold 
for a currency which we have received with the confidence due to a 
just go\-emment. 


SU y à de La dessipaiion dans Ladmmisiratton de Ces oflictera 
Commandant, Ce que nous ignorons, Kn. Sommes nous La Cause, ci 
pouvons nous rqwndrc de La Confiance que Le Gouvernement à 
établi Sur euï ; Ccst à Lui a reprimer Les abus, et nous dedomeger 
des torts qu'ils nous ont fait Contre L'institution de Ce m£me Gouverne- 

Apres avoir cprouvd notre patîancc, et Certainement Connu en nous 
les scntimcns de wis Citoyens et enfin Pris Vis [\fS. tofM]ssance de 
notre Ruine total Monsieur Le Colonel Mongomery nous abandonna a 
notre Malheureux Sort, il fut Substituer par Le Captatne Rogers, nog 
Pleurs Commencèrent a Cesser a Ce Changement, Pcrsuadiî que le 
dernier étant alliée de Monsieur Le General Ctork nous traiteroit avec 
Les Kgaxds, et Les Devoirs qui Sont dû a des fidels Sujets; mais Ce 
Jeune officier Sans doute infatuiî du Commandement qui lui avoit été 
Confié, et Profilant des Plâyes incurable, d'ont nous étions accablés, 
Crût dacquerer Dca L'auriers, en mettant Les Comble à nos Malheurs; 
Notre pays Rcsscmbloit a une Ville Prise dassaul, et Livriî au Pillage, 
Le Soldat armé, Soit dans ta Plaine ou dans tius habitations tuaient nos 


II there has been any waste in tbc administration of these command- 
ing officers, a thing ol which wc arc ignorant, are we the cause of it ? And 
arc we to be held accountable for the confidence ihal the government 
has placed in them? It is Ihe government's duty to suppress these 
abuses and to compensate us for all the wrungs contrary to the law of 
this same government that these commanders have made us suffer. 

After he bad proved our patience and certainly recognized in us the 
feeling of zealous cili/xns and in short had had visible [demonstration! uf 
our total ruin, Colonel Montgomery abandoned us to our viretctied fate. 
His place was taken by Captain Rogers. Our sorrows commenced to 
cease at this change, for we were persuaded that, since the laCier was a 
relative of General Clark, he would treat us with some regard and a sense 
of the duty that is due to failiifui subjects. 

But this young officer, no doubt infatuated by the command that had 
been confided to him, and talting advantage of the incurable wounds 
with which we were suffering, thought to acquire some laurels by increas- 
ing our misfortunes to the extreme. Our country seemed like & city 
taken by assault and delivered over to pillage. Armed soldiers, either In 


animaux; Il a cû encore La témérité d'cnvoy<î par plusieurs fois de 
Platon* d'hommes armrfs, avec Dcr chartes a La Porte de nos habita- 
lions pour nous F.nlcvcr de force Le Bois de chaufage qui etoît dcstind 
Pour notre propre usage. 

C'est avec douleur Messieurs que nous nous voyons nccessitds a 
vous faire un Diîtail du tableau frappante que nous prenons La Libertd 
de vous adresser nous ne doutons point, que vous aurez de la peine, a 
vous persuader, qu'il Soit possible qu'il ne soit amplifier, mais nous vous 
prions de Croire que c'est daprfcs La venté Notre génie peu élevé nous 
Empêche même de luy donner Les Couleurs Les Couleurs [sic] Les Plus 
Sensibles, et qui sûrement %-os Coeurs en scroient plus attendris; Ce 
même défaut de Génie ou La Sécurité dans Laquelle nous avons vhai 
depuis que nous Sommes Sujet des Etats unis ne nous a pas permis a 
aucun de nous de tenir un journal de tout Les Griefs dont nous avons 
à nous plaindre, néantmoins quelques Pieces Justificatives et relative 
à Nos Justes Plaintes que [MS. Ulegibie] être [/\ vous [i(S. iUegihle] 
du véritable fond avec une Lettre de Capitaine George Ce digne officier 
informé de nus Malheurs en vitus demandant des Secours noua a tem- 

our commons or in our homes, were killing our animals. He even had the 
audacity lo send, on several occasions, delachmcnid, of armed men with 
written orders to our very doors to take away by main force our firewood 
which was di'Slined for our own use. 

It is with wirrow, gentlemen, that we see ourselves obliged to detail 
to you a striking sketch such as we are taking the liberty to send to 
you. We do not doubt but that il will be difficult for you to belie\-e that 
vl can lie posMble and that we have not exaggerated it ; but we beg you to 
believe that it is drawn according to the truth. Our talent, little traimd, 
prevents us from even giving to it the must visible colors, which would 
surely have more touched your hearts. This same lack of talent, or the 
feeling of security in which we have lived since wc have been subjects of 
the United States, has not permitted any one of us to keep an account of 
all the wrongs of which we have to complain. Nevertheless a few pieces 
justifying and relating to our just complaints [.1/5, iUegible] of the true 
outlay, together with a letter from Captain George. When this worthy 
officer was informed of vur misforluncs, at a time he was asking for our 
help, he expressed to us his feeling; others beside him can render to us 


oigne Sa Sensibilité, d'autre que Lui peuvent nous Rendre La Justice 
que nous Méritons, et vous. Messieurs, Commissi onné par nos iUustrea 
souverains pour pénétrer Jusqu'à La source de Nos Meaux; Nous 
vous Supplions d'intercéder pour Nous Leurs Protection 

Pour Le Redressement des Griefs d'ont nous nous Plaignons, Leur 
faire entendre au Pied du tribunal nos Gcmissementcs; et la »tuatioas 
déplorables, ou Les trou|)cs de Virginie nous ont Rcduit. 

Nous avons L'honneur dctrc avec Le plus profond Respect Vos 
très humbles, obéissants Et fîdelcs serviteurs 

Aux Kadtaskias Illinois Le i*"" Mars 1783 


the justice which we de9er\'e; and weprayyou, gentlemen, commissioned 
by our illustrious sovereigns to penetrate loihe very sources of our wrongs, 
to intercede for their protection of us, for the reparalion of the wrongs 
of which we are complaining, to cause them to hear our moans eveit at 
the fool of the tribunal and know the deplorable situation into which 
the troops from Virpnia have reduced us. 

We have the honor to be with the greatest respect, 
Your 1,-ery humble, obedient and failhlul servants 
Kaskaskia, Illinois, March i, 17S3. 


uissiONEJts OF Virginia, about March, 17S3. 
[M. C. T. MSS.— Copy, not altered.] 
Representations des principaux babitans des ylHnois, aux honnorables 
Commissionnaires pour Les Etats de Virginie &c- 

Lcs Supliants ont L'honneur de vous Représenter très humblement 
que depuis Le Commencement de La juste et nécessaire Guère entre La 
Grand Bretagne, et Les Etats unies. Nous avons un dctacbemcnt [sk] Bien 


Memorial of the Princi[>al Inhabitanis of lUînois to the Honorable 

Commissioners of Virginia. 

The suppliants have the honor very humbly to show you that, since 

the beginning of the just and necessary war between Great Britain and 

the United Slates, we have had a very warm attachraeni for the liberty 


Chaud pour ta Liberté de La Merïque Comme nous avons étrf Gouverné 
Parla Constitutions des angljiis, ce qui nous à £mp«chér de deClarer nos 
rentables sentiments Jusqiuu moment que vous a>-ez Envoyé vos troupes. 
Pour nous SouLBger'dë notre Esclavage; Comme vos troups Ktaitnt 
dénué de toOTnecessaire que Ce Soit Ce qui nous a donné occasion Four 
ConvincTe, notre Bonne intention pour Le Soulagement des d' troups Ea 
Leur foumi&ant tout les Besoins que leur Nc&ccsité demandoit, metanl 
La plus Grande ConËance dans Largent de papier Lette dechange qui 
nous ont donné, Me*'' Les Commandant de Cette partie nous ayant 
assuré plusieurs fois que Ce même argent qu'il ont introduit valaient 
piastres Gourdes ou or, nous L'avons Reçue de même nous avons Envoyé 
Ces même Lettres déchange au personnes Sur Les quelles elles Etaient 
tiré qui ont Refusé a payé Et accepté La plus Grande partie Cejxrndant 
nous avons toujours mis notre plus grande Confiance au Gouvernement, 
nous avons fournie touts Le» Secours au troupes par la force de nos 
traveaux que nous avons Gagnée |)our La subsistance de nos pauvres 
fammiîles malgré Cecy pluàeursdc vos Soldats ont été Sur noire domaine 
Hier nos animaux de travaux vaches Cochons&c auquel il nous est impos- 
sible de vous procurer un Compte juste de La perte qu'il nous ont fait 

( Translaliotts.] 

of America. Since wc were governed by English law, this prevented 
us from declaring our veritable sentiments until the lime when you sent 
your troops to free us from our bondage. Since your troops were des- 
titute of all necessities, there was gi*'cn us an opportunity to show how 
well disposed wc were for thctr welfare by furnishing to the said troop» 
all that they needed- Wc placed the greatest confidence in the paper 
money and letters of exchange which they gave to us, since the comman- 
dant of this region assured us several times thai this same money which 
they introduced was worth as much as the piastre gourde or gold. Wc 
accepted it. Likewise we sent these same letters of exchange to the 
persons on whom they had been drawn, who refused to pay and to accept 
the greater part. Nevcrlhclesî, we have always had the grcïîlest con- 
fidence in the government. Wc have furnished all succor to the troops 
by giving the fruit of our labors which we won for the subsistence of 
our ptxir families. In spite of all this several of your soldiers have 
entered upon our property, and killed our domestic animals, leasts of 
burden, cows, pigs, etc., concerning which it is impossible for us to 



Essuyer d'oni nous en Rescntons EnCor"* "*^'e wjounUtoi tous Les e 
I..a preuve Convaiiniuante de Ces même £2™'^^|iif h Lnleur oe vient 9 
mcQi qucdc L'itLstigatiimdesfausere|H«i ^ ^^Muticn du député Lieule 
de Compta notre ('om mandant, qui a persuàcûTuV.-' fins Lespnt de 
mongoramery Comnianitaiit Militaire que nous étions im7*"<upl« Et 
gir a La Liberté, que uuus citons une Baude de brutes £0 un a^.)t aa 
Conporé a des Bettes de Charge et que nous devions £tre mené a Co 
(le Bare de fere et Cmjp de Bayoonette; Ne coonoissant point d'ai 
Loix; doDt nous vous Envoyons Les Serments des offiders a quiJ 
Lieutenant de ComptéLa assurédans Le mfime tems et après avoir wt 
toutle Ces imprecations Contre nous; El Jouant Son Rôle de tartufi 
a eu Encore Le fron assé audacieux de nous persuader que Le mîliti 
qui etoit venu prendre possesion de nos pays netaicnt qu'ne Bande 
brigans pilleurs et volleur qui venaient Exprès pour cela, Ce sont 
Propres termes qui cesl seny pour nous animer Contre Le ïlUïta 
dont il est Le principale auteur de tant désastres qui se sont Cou 
Cete mCme personc Continue a nous Commander qui a anûié Caa 

[TransliJlion.] ^ 

render jrou on exact statement uf the loss they huve caused us» EW 
effect of which we feel even to this day. The conclusive prooh of tl: 
same deeds and their origin [?] spring only from the instigation and 
false rcprcsentatiun ul ihc lieutenant of the county, our command] 
who has caused M. Mtmtgumery, military a>mmandant, to bcli 
that we were a people unarquairtlcd with liberty and a band of brui 
In a word he aim]>arcd us to l>easts of burden, slating that we ou^ 
be go\'cmed by blows with on Iron bar and at the poim of the bayoi 
since we knew no («her law. For all these stiitcmenls we are send 
you theoathuf ihcofTiccrsto whom the said lieutenant of the county I 
them.' At the same time and after he had vomited all these impit 
tions against us, he played his role of Tartufe and had the impudc 
to try to make usl)eliev-e that themiliiary which had come to lake poa: 
«on of OUT country was n<ithing more than a hand of rufTians and thie 
who came for that express purpose.' These are the very terms t 
he emplo)^^^ to instigate us against the soldiers and, therefore, Eu 
theprindpal author of the many disasters which have IxrfaUen us. 1 
same person continues to command us, he who annuled, broke, i 

> Thru lapm h<vc nut ^rm fuun'l. hiil may be la Ihr Viriiok Sisle tJliralf. 


Revocqué, La bonne Loix que vous nous avé donné pour la Sûreté du 
Pays; pour Lcmpecher de venir En Jusllce; il na Pas Ku de peine de 
gagner Le Sieur Carbonneaux Grcflicr du pa>'Si nous vous assurons que 
Les trailemcnts que nous avons Reçu nous onl plongé Jusqu'à present 
dans La misire Calamité malheurs nécessité El extrémité ; nous vous pri- 
ons de prendre toute Considerations attantions et Reflexion pour nous 
de toute Les Choses Sus diltc Cy devant; Nous vous observons aussy, 
Cy vos officier que vous avez Envoyé icy pour nous Gouverner avaient 
abusé de La Confiance que vous avé mis en eux Cela ne doit point être 
nous qui doivent soufrire de leur Conduite. 

Nous avons toujours La plus haute oppinion que Le noble principale 
qui Gouverne nos étals dont nous E&perons que le Gouvernement ne 
|>oura nous obliger a Changer Cette oppioion, a aller prendre La pro- 
tections de Lespagne Comme Baucoupe Dhabîtaos ont déjà faite par 
Raport aux Mauvais traitement que nous avons Reçu. 

Nous avons Lbonneur de vous obser\'er quêtant Environne de Len- 
oemy qui nous menace tous les Jours Cequi nous empêche d'abandonné 

revoked the good law, which you gave us for the safety of the country, 
in order to keep himself from being brought to justice.' He has bad 
no trouble in winning over M. Carhonneaux, clerk of the country. 
We assure you that the treatment which we have received has plunged 
us, up to the present^ into poverty, calamity, misfortune, necessity, and 
destitution. We pray you to take all consideration, and give attention 
and reflection to ail the things wc have mentioned above. Wc obserrc 
further that, if your otEcers whom you sent here to govern us have abused 
the confidence which you platwl in them, we should not be the ones to 
suffer on account of their conduct. 

Wc have always had the highest opinion o( the noble principle which 
go^x'ms our state, and we ho[ic that the government will not cause us 
to change in this opinion by forcing us to seek the protection of Spain, 
as 30 many inhabitants have already done because nl the bad treatment 
which wc have received. 

Wc have the honor to observe to you that, because wc are sur- 
rounded by the enemy which threatens us e\-ery day. which prevents 
us from leaving our families to come to you, wc arc intrusting Mr. 

■ This iteumni it Uie uklB proof Ikit Uw ibdUca el Ibe dvU torn fmthtaat Richard Wlo> 
■IMi. Secslu f»u, p. jii, D- 1. 


^H nos famille pour nous Rend 

re aupres dc vous; nous chargons M' WH- ^^H 

^H Uame en qui nous avons notre Confi&nce de vous Remettre nos Juste H 

^H Representation du quel nous espérons que vous Rendrai notre Sort plus | 

^H bcureux 


^^Ë Nous avons Lbomieur detre avec Le plus profoiKl Respec Messîeur 1 

^H Vos 1res humMe et ires obeisants et Adèle Serviteurs M 


jAifxs ^m 

^H Joseph Micnaux 

J Bt Bauvac ^^M 

^H Gekard Lanclois 

Lachance ^^H 

^H +A>fTOIN'Ë Cll£Nl£K 


^H +£nKXE Page 

Vitale Sauvais ^^H 

^H Dvnjicy tsls 

Louis Bract^au ^^H 

^^1 faisant pour Sa mere 

JEAN Choiser ^^H 

^H +AViotNE Gagné 

+Btk delile ^^H 


Nicola Lachance ^^H 

~ Page 

BT jANis ^^m 

-f Cbarle deLile 

René Souuande ^^H 

•f Louis DeLile ^^H 

[Tran^ation.] 1 

Williams, in whom we place our confidence,' to deliver to you our just | 

representation, on account 

oi which we hope you will render our lot 1 

more fortunate. 


We have the honor to be, 

with ihc most profound respect, gentlemen, 1 

Your very humble and %'ery obedient and faithful servants,' ^ 

Antoine Pelletier. 

Janis. ■ 

Joseph Mignaux. 

Jean Bapt Badvael ^^^^H 

Gerakd Lanolois. 

Lacbanse. ^^^^I 


PlCASD. ^^^H 

+ETrEKNE Pace. 

Vital Baia'ais. ^^H 

Ddpiasy, Jr., acting 

for his LouLS Brazeaux. ^^H 


Jean Cboisser. V 

+ Antoine Gagné. 

+B. Delisle. ^^Ê 

+Pu:kr£ Dumont. 

Bte. JA.S'15. ^^H 


Nicolas Lachanse. ^^M 


René Souuande. ^^H 


I Ut. WOlianu ilcncd tbc cotaiaiMlixi lo Winttoo. Sm fit, p. jt j. ^M 

*Tliit vUcBi alUck on Winicim wu mncle hy oa\j ■ («■ of ifat Fmdi. but Mimi of I^om wrr« H 

«monf Iht mont pfomiMnl, luchu the mmlMnaf llM lUunii tamUy, f^card. LM^Iuikc*, Bfuwu, ■ 


L ^ L 




John Dodge to GeoRce R. Clark, March 3, 1783 

[DniperMSS., sajyfi.— A I.. S.] 

Kasa 3 March 1783. 


the Curcomstances of t>ly family Puts it out of my Power to wate 
on the Commisoncr to make a tinal Settlement with the Stale, ihare 
is Several Articles la my Books Charge against you not Recep*^ for, 
when you L«ft fort Jefferson you told mc to give your Negroes what 
I thought thcay Stwxl in need of and you would Settle it with me on 
your Return which orders I Complid with. Likewise some Chiney 
Plates Delivered you my Self Bo* of Gratiote also a Dcmijon of Taffea 
Sent you By Cap* Brashars when he went to fort Jefferson in C* w' 
Gratiole, and one and half Dozen Plates two Salt Sellers Delivered 
Pat' Kanedy for you Major Williams will Show you his Recept as Also 
a Large Walnut Chest w^ Drars one Iron Coffe Mtwler DcHverd L* 
Rich** Clark By his Keep' all Purchased for you as Directed by your 
Letters to Me at Difercnt tinws. Six Quires of Paper Sent you from 
Post Vincent when very Scarce which Since My Arival hear Last was 
Obliged to Pay Six Livres in Peltry P' Quire. 

of Course Expect if the Com"'' Dispute the Account that you will 
Recept 8; Settle with them, as well as what M"" Ben'' Paid Conuej-e 
and Virgue [Vigo] on M' Lcbu's Account. Likewise Sunday Suplys 
for the troops which he advanced on the Strenlh of your Letter and orders 
to Me at Diferent limes Directing me to Let nothing Be wanting in me 
as much was in my Power as Ag* The Inhabitauts are Making a 
Representation to the Commisioner Representing their treatment Sc 
Greavences During the lime of the Mililarys Stay hear. But Iheay 
are Convinced that all the Ruff Steps lakcn with them, was owing to 
the fais Representations of that Noted Villen Winston Icling Mon- 
gomcry that thcay ware Slr-ingcrs lo Liberty and Must Be Ruled By 
a Rod of Iron or the Bayonet and if he wanted any thing he must send 
his Guards and take it By force tellng the InhabitanLi at the Same time 
that the Mila"' was a Band of thcives and Rubers and only Come to 
the Conlry for that Purpose. News from Detroit that the King has 
Cald all his force from .\mcrica Jo Defend his Crown if so a Very 
Political Step. Ware I in his Place I would have Done it Before I 
had Lost near loo-tooo men Conârmed that General Irwin has Intirely 



Routed the Savages about the Lakes qi sculp». Xcws from Spain 
that jiberyalter is Cenainljr taken after tbe Surrender of (he Eujjlisb bad 
a Powder Plut ûrst thai after theay Marcbt out Blew up and kild tjooo 
ficncb and Spanjrards fur v-hkfa tbeajr Put four thousand IngUsh 
Prisoners lo tbe Swotxl- tbe Barer can gi^T you all tbe Rest ot tbe news. 
I am D' General )-our Very Hum' Ser* 

Jn* Dodge. 
[Addressed:] Geo. R. Clark Escf. B.General and Command^, of 

Illinois Reg'. Falls Ohio 

By Maj*. Williams. 


March 30, 1783. 
[Draper MSS.. saJ8o.— A. V. S.J 

Fort Nelson ^o**" March 1783 
May It Please Yocs Exceixance. 

wc hcare flalercd ourselves with the Hopc« of heading the honour 
of Seeing you at this Post but to our Gr?ate morti^catioD we came loo 
late notwithStandiog that v,x have made all Possible Ijcpedition Since 
we beard of the Commissiooers ^tting to Settle the aco** we heave 
wrote to them by this Opertunity Prajing Them to Detain a few days 
for us — w-e Embrace the Same Opertunity and makes Bold to Trouble 
you, and Beggs The favour of you to Intercede for us with tbe CommJs- 
aoners That they may Detain a few days longer than they Intended. 
wc Start from this this day but our horses are so weake and much 
fateagued Together with tbe great fall of rain which will rais the waters 
all put together will oblige us to make but Little way, we therefore pray 
your Interest in our favour which will be Greatly Obliging us, who hea\x 
the Honour of Being with Great Respect. 

Your Excellanrcs Most Humble & Obedient Servants 
Fh Bossekon' RitTi: Winston 

Fr trottier J. M. P. Legras Lieut. Colo 

John Williams 
[Addressiut:] To His Excellanre Brigadier Gennerall Clark Com- 
manding the western DeparimcDt Lincoln 

I BoMcnia ind Letfu wtn bom Maecnna, ëui Tratticr from Caholiu. Tbt nuUritl illu»- 

tntUig lite «rciik of Uie comcBÛoa W ramibt lb* MOMinu tn (W Wnr wliitti it ia l» found la (he 
V*.SiatcIilinn',«IUb«liKiinMmlied in iht roliunciofCîeatKeRotenCl'U'k Papers, noa in preiwn- 
UoL ncnUtW'* J<iunwi.''l>icn<rillbpiniblnh(4,slMad)**Ri>iHit (d him ihs> mm (min4 uc cqd>- 
iniwlnmii urbonraui'* lettirttrmv It Iminil in «a «bbKrikUd (orm in ■ \rUtt iiaso W*[kçr DkBid 

li<rillbpiniblnh(4,slMad)**Ri>iHit (d him ihs> mm (min4 i 

ai» I ' ". ._ 

M ihe ComnlMtown. (>'«■ Sliitt ripfri.iSf 4.1») Sm «Im. /mitmI <■/ Du ttpmne} DtUftn, 

June iS, >7, tS. Drc i<>. ii.snd May ii. 1784. fix ihepriilliiuxil Ihc Iltiouu aitcab Fur cumpaMkEiai 
and tbe 4CU ol .VucmÛr- 



The Death of Kichard Winston, abuut 1784 

[Draper MSS., 4J3S-3* — Copy] 

Dear Sib, 

Your favor I have received and in reply to yoiir enquiry I have to 
observe, that I came to Kentucky in the year 1777, and settled at Har- 
rodsburgh; Mr. Joseph Lindsay then lived there and acted as cotn- 
missaxy for supplying the people, and guards, at that place, and I know 
he Kept out two hunters for procuring supplies — Viz. Wm. Stewart 
and David Glenn, and that he did supply the Station; in spring 1778, 
Mr Lindsay (still acting as Commissary) went himself with a party 
of men from Harrodsburgh down to Russell Creek where Glenn and 
Stewart had spent the fall & winter and had a hunting Camp — We 
had along 31 or 33 horses, we found the Camp and there was a vast 
quantity of meal. Glenn & Stewart were out and did not return 
while wc staid there, but had lefi a man at camp. There was one house 
uE about 18 feet square & of a reasonable hvght, filled with Meat, we 
loaded all the horses out of the huts, principally, what wc took out of 
ihc house could hardly he missed, and relumed to Harrodsburgh. in 
the Summer of 78 General Clark reached the Falls (Lindsay still acting 
as Commissary) and Clark sent across the Country from some where 
about Limestone to Harrodsburgh with orders to Col" Bowman, who 
Commanded at that Fort, to send on to Louisville all the Men who 
could get horses, and such as could not get horses to rendezvous at 
Drcnnin's Lick by a given day, where a man would meet the troops 
Bi pilot them to the place where Clark wanted Ihera to go. I was of 
the party that went to Dreouon's Lick ; Mr Lindsay supplied the 
troops with provi^ons. At Drennon's Lick Simon Kenton met us and 
conducted us to the Falls, where we joined Clark and went on with 
him lo Kaskaskias — al that place I staid from July '78 till Sept' 1779, 
when I returned to Kentucky and found Mr Lindsay still acting as 
Commissary for the supplys of the posts. In June, 1780, 1 went into 
Virginia & did not return till 1781; on my return Mr Lindsay was 
still acting as Commissary. In 1783 I was ordered to act as a guard 
(o the Magazine at Harrodsburgh and the troops were supplyed by 
Mr Lindsay. In the Summer of that year I went into Virginia and did 
not return till 1784 but before I relumed, the Indians had killed Mr 



Lindsajr. When I Icfi the country in 1783 Gen' Clark was jirepairing 
an cx[Jcdilion, but Ihc Indians broke into ihe Country & prevented 
it during that Summer, but it look place in the fall. 

While the troops lay on the Mississippi, Mr Lindsay did not supply 
tis; A Mr Vinrent, or ^^*in3tnn, I do not know whirh, was our Com- 
missary — he was a wealthy Man when he went there, & after a while 
Ihe paper money fell to nothing & Vinrent or Winston, supplycd us 
on his own credit. In 1784 I met Winston, if that was his name, in 
Richmond, who told Me he was niin'd by the debts he încurcd in 
supplying the troops, Sc that he then was, & had been 18 months wait- 
ing on the Government of Virginia endeavouring to gel some remuner- 
ation far his expcndalurcs, but had all logcthcr failed- In 1786 I was 
again at Kaskaskas and called on the Widow Vincent, he having died 
at Richmond; I found her reduced from affluence to extreme poverty, 
the consequence she said of ihc debts her husband had incurcd for the 
State of Virginia, and for which he had never got any thing; hut had 
died while soliciting for some payment. 

This is all I lecutlecL in relation to the services of Mr Lindsay. 
Yr. mo. obdl W™ Beckley» 

P. S. I recollect, since writing the above, that while the troops 
lay on the Mississippi Mr Lindsay came tu us on his way to New Or- 
leans cm business of the State of Virginia & took with him two men 
to row. Soon after two boat loads of Goods came up from Orleans, 
brought, OS I understood, by Lindsay for the supply of the troops. I 
also recollect, that in 1783 when I was on my way to Virginia Gen* 
Logan received orders from Gen' Clark not to jwrmit any man to 
leave the Countr)' ; but our party was too strong to be atop'd, therefore 
he requested us to give our names that he might inform Clark, which 
we did. W"» Blckley 

A true copy of the original in possession of W"* Lindsay Pogue, 
Esq., of Greenup County Ky. made by me Jno. B. Boyd' 

I Mirgliul aau bi^ John B. Bofd: "Patho' al Jiihn BK^Ipy, vho ai oar limp wu oiBiBid In 
«riiiiac tbnit/ea/Anfsn, I loun Irom tjii><. Wri. Hrcilrr.ii l>rolticr;il Jtihii I)..<li4l Ji>hn UM^tmc 
tecunâ bb btoUm'* BialtfUli, «bed he(McCluuA)<nB writina Ut tkcuhnof Wsinn .\ili«iluTe.'* 

*At (he headiftt ol Ah \tittt a written^ "la the lundwriting o[ A, K. Mmlitll of ité»aa Co. 
Boi^." Thk probaUr amat ttut Huinl (>>[ii«l itiaa a cap; muir by MmhaU. 


AUGUST 14. 17W 

Land-grants to Dodge — Rochebla^'e Again — Anci COirrs, Judge 

— De Monbreun Enumerates his Services — A Fvagut.kt of a 
Court-Record — Dodge's Faction PEnTioNS Congricss — So Doss 
Carbonneaux — Rr-POHTS or Cokgbessionai. Coiodttees — the 


— AN Account or the Gileat Freshet — Joh-n Edgar Writes to 
Clark — The Fsojch P'action PcrmoNS Congress — Gabriel Ceer£ 
Answers Questions. 

Some Land-grakts to John Dodge and Otbebs, 1782-1784 

[m. c. t. mss.— a. d.i 
A Memorandum of Papers Iielonging lo Bartholomew Tardiveau 
as purchaser from John Dodj^e & claiming under him, as follows; 
N** 1. A Grant made by the Court of KosKasKia to John Dodge 
June (he S^ 1783, of a lot iu the village, bounded toward Kas- 
KasFCia River by lot of .\lexis BeauvaJs, on the [nlher] side by 
the widow of James Lasour(.-c, extending in front from Mr 
Beotley's lo the first gut, & in depth to the second gut. 

A Grant made by the Court of KasKasKia, Sept. 17*** 
1783, to John Dodge, of a tract of land of si-t Arpents front &. 
forty Arpenta in dcplli from the tedge of rocks on [tbe] East side 
of the Kiver KasKasKia ; Si bounded, on one side [by] the heirs 
of Raphael Bcauvais, & on the other by Mr Btouin; also of 
ten Arpents more in depth, & of the [\fS. torn] breadth ; which 
last, says says [ik\ the Comcssion, shali not be ]MS. torn]. 

A Grant lo Archibald Macnabb, Sept' 17''' 1781, of [MS- 
lom\ land of five Arpents in front & forty in depth, immedi- 
MS. torn] on back of Henry Smith's plantation 

A Grant to John Dodge, May 23"* 1783, of a piece of {MS, 
torn] from the ledge of rocks, or the Western boundary of his 







t»ItntArv. (i»rH| 10 tbo River Ka-tlCasKù, & indoded 
ihe Mm tit Rn|k|i/.S*. bin] Bnuviiis & m' Oanid 

N" $. A Cirant tu jpan BnpilMc OiUd or Voilkc, ScpC* 
uf ft Inut tif land at ihrcc Ar|imis in butt, hvB Kfae 
KuKmKIr 10 ihc \cdge of Rodu; and (rm 
AtpontK in ilrpili with ihr Mn>r binuMi ot Un* . 
tog In lanit (ormrrly grintnl lu !lP lie 

N^ 6. A Grant to Mew' Clark & Wikctf, ScfT 17* x^fl^ «t 
ot ftls Ariwntx In (nial cttcadipg boa Ae 
In the IjxIkp of Roduv A inm Ommk Ioc^ 
«Hih the same bmuhh of six aifxao. 
ot Dantrl Murray. 

K*7 a C.nni 10 Hrary Bramcy» Sc^ iV* <}^ ^ ** 

iluw Aipcnts in boau cxmidiii( Ip^ ifeK Wlà^r l^fl 
to (be I^cdp (rf Rodto» itùmmattihms >if iiifcdB 
the same tnadlh «I thice AipaMs; feaaA4 ^ m^ 1 
LardncrOaA ft WflKiC. «• At «*Er W ik B^^^ 

AvpCMtl w INHit 

«f rocks, & AiBc* «f kffCf 
ft a 
X»». A 


SOME hASD GRANTS, tjii-fjiA 


N* la. A Grant to Roonrod Rcckncr, Sept' 25*'' 1781;, of ihrcc Ar- 
pents in front, extending from the Riwr KasKasKia lo the 
Ledge of rocks, & thence of forty Arpents in depth with the 
same breadth of three Arpents, bounded on one side by François 
Charlcville, & on the other by the Domaine. 

N" 13. a Grant to Daniel Murray, Sept' ig'** 1783, of three Arpents 
in front, extending from the River KasKasKia to the Ledge 
of rocks, & from thence of forty Arpents in depth with the same 
breadth of three Arpents; bounded on one side by Oilet or 
Voilette, & on the other by the Domaine. 

N** 14. A Grant to John Choisser & André fagot, Sept* as*** 1783, 
of three Arpents to each, extending from the River KasKasKia 
to ihe ledge of ri^Kks, 5: from thence of forty Arpents în depth 
[with] the same breadth of three Arpents each, bounded as 
follows [MS. tarn] the three Arpents in front granted lo John 
Choisser Eiounded on the South by the Rivifcrc à Moutia, & on 
the North by ihe Domaine, and the three Arpents granted lo 
André fagot [bounded] on the North by the Rivi&re à Moutia, 
& on the South by the Domaine. 

N' 15. A Grant to John Dodge, June 25''' 1784, of a tract (of) land 
at the back of his grant of Sepf 17"^ 1782 N° 2, extending forty 
four Ar|)enls in depth, & of Six aq^nls in front between the 
heirs of Raphael Beauvais & M''Daniel [MS. lorn]. 

N" :6. A Grant to Minard .\sturgus, Sepf ty*** 1784, of b trail of 
land extending from the River KasKasKia lo the ledge of rocks, 
Si from thence of forty Arpents in depth, bounded on one side 
by Clark & Wikoff, & on the other by John Dodge. 

N"!;. A Grant to John Marshal, DeC i^*** 1784, of five arpenls 
front, extending fmm the Mi^-ùssippi lo the ledge of rocks & 
from Ihcnce of forty two Arpents more in depth, adjoining land 
of M' Bonds on one side; & on the other, bounded, it seems, 
by Wa[ji/5. iorn\ land.' 

■The (ranti of Ike jan itSj «eul i^FU "inTc [iwde bjr TiatoUi^ ik Moabftun. The vtrlmit 
tnjtd trgitirr lxx>k> in à» BUffiioi'* «fliir ki Sprinsiîrld them ib^t > brie aumbrr cI snacs wen 
■nadr bj him. 



Fhiuppe de Rocberi-ave lo Governor Haloimakd, 

November 3, 1783 

[B. M., afjSy t. 3SI.— A. L. S.] 


Votre excellence m'ayant fait l 'honneur de me diire qu'elle ne pouvoit 
concourir en rien de ce qui avoit rapcit aux diferentcs demandes qu'on 
pourroit former en vertu de l'acte de parlement qui oe luy est point par- 
venu oficielement, je me garderay bien de la fatiguer par de nouvelles 
instances a ce sujbt. 

Malheureusement pour moy je suis forcé de les (établir t<»ut de suite 
parce qu'il faut que j'aille chercher a chiteagou M*^' de rocheblavc et le 
reste de la famille, que je termine toutes mes aflaires dans les pays d'cn- 
haut a^•ant que la possession en soit donnée aux américains, qu'il pour- 
roit se faire que les declarations fussent exigées en mon abscencc et qu'a 
mon arrivée, je ne trouva plus votre excellence icy qui ^-raisamblablc- 
mcnt sera bii'ii aise après tant de {>cincs et de travaux sera bien aise de 
goûter un |icu de re]»» en cunipe dan le que] cas je me irouverats icy 
sans apj^uy, j'ose solliciter de votre bienfaisance de m'tionorcr d'un mot 


Your excellency having done me the honor to tell mc that you would 
be unable to apl^e lo nnything that had to do with the different claims 
which may be brought forth in virtue of the act of Parliament, which had 
not reached you offidally,' 1 shall take care not to tire you by new 
cntrealies on this subject. 

Unfortunately for me I am forced to eslabliâh my claims at once, f(V 
I have to go to Chicago for Madame de Rocheblaw and the rest of my 
family and to settle all my affairs in the upper country, before the pos- 
session is pvcn to the Americans ; and it may be necessary that the decla- 
rations of claims under the act lie made in my absence, and that, on my 
return, f may not find your Excellency here ; for undoubtedly your Excel- 
lency will be very glad, after so many hardships and labors, to enjoy a 
little rest in Europe, in which case I should find myself here without any 
support. Therefore, I venture to ask of your bount)- to honor me with a 

' Act ct PuiUmEDt sninlins hilf pay lu CRiun Anwricia (irovlncU «irp». ThU ;a>iod ibc 
Hou*e JulMiT, ITil- Airltannyary liiiUfy, »Mil.. loso, einif. _ 



de rtfponcc qui fut au moins un lemognage de mon zélé pour le bien du 
service ce scroil une obligation de plus que vous auroil ccluy qui a l 'hon- 
neur d'etre avec la plus respectueuse reconoisanrc de votre excellence. 
Monsieur, Le très humble et très obéissant serviteur 


la maladie de mes enfants ne me permet pas de metre ma Ictre au 
net. quebcc le 3 novembre 1783. 

short answer which may be at least a witness of my zeal for (he welfare 
of the service. This would be still another obligation due you from him 
who has the honor to be, with the most respectful gratitude, your Excel- 
lency's Very humble and very obedient servant, 

Philippe Rochebuive. 
The sickness of my children does not permit me to make a fair copy 
of my Icttor. 

Quebec, November 3, 1783. 

Madame Alary to A\'Mé Comte, January 16, 1784 
[K. MSS.— A. D. S.] 
a Monsieur aimé Compte 4rtw«*w*»nè G i^wl» g* ffmt'rmrm m» tie I» 
C wwi trft l iti» titimww &c &C &c juge :i la ville en district des KasKasKias 

Supli très humblement Madame v* alary Disant quel a Sur L'autre 
Bord de La Riviere Des Kas, une sucrery quelle possède depuis la mort 
de sa défunte mere que La demicre Possedoit depuy Longtems. El que 

( Transiaiien.} 
To M. Aymé Comte, C iwrt fcw m f»iMNi»—<ii<i#w»wM»P'oM h » ^î ' wMi ty * f 
4hB l l liww o , etc., etc., etc., Judge in village of District of JCaskaskJa.^ 

Madame .\lary, a widow, begs very humbly to inform you that she has 
on the other bank uf the Kaskaskia River a sugar plantation, which has 
been in her possession since the death of her late mother, who in turn 

I The miniie xnd conrciion al illtle nr4r made In llii: ume handvritfni u (Jut oF the jtidpneat 
of th« oourl- rhc urnc b lni« ol liic lUIc «l tbc eaA. Iht docurncnl K«nu to indtcil* a lempararr 
mrnlhnm ol tbt powrr of Tiitioihf dc Monbrmn, but ihcrr ia no other rnHfrnt* ft» luch an ïwnU 
Althoofb ttw ilgiurure ol Armf Comic K<mt to t<c icniilne >&d ti» document »howi no tuinidoui 
OMlIu^ jrct il b tnaatblv tlul II ii ■ forgnj lo pron lidc to the knd la qucuiuD brliire iho U, S. had 
comniuiloam, before whom It wu LctukU; produoed. 


Moti&ieur thJmoié de Monbrun cy devant commandant auroit cimcedé 
La dîtle aucicry à I^ demande Du s^ Pierre Picard ce que La aupliante 
ayant s(U, Elle auroit Eté En La maison du dit sieur Picard acompagné 
De M' J** Lonval Et Jerome Dany, Pour Luy (aire defense dy travaillé 
Le sr. Picard n'a Eu aucune Egard à cette avertisement. il La trans- 
porté à Monsieur antoine marin quy a fait Défense a La SupUante dy 
travaillé vu quelle navoit Point de titre de propriété, Et que La Ditte 
sucrery Luy apartient, il est vTay que La dîtle supliante n'en à Point par 
Ecrit, mais La possession quelle En  Dcpuy sy longtcms raut un 
Ecrit La Supliante sofre a fournir des certifica[t5] Des anciens de ce 
pals comme quoy que La Sucrer}' Luy apartient depuy ce lungtems. 

Ce Considéré Monsieur il vous Plaise dordonné audit sr. murin de ny 
Point travaillé, a seule fin que La Supliante y puisse faire ces travaux, et 
de condamner Le dit s'' morin a tous depend domage et interest Et La 
Supliante ne cessera De faire des voeux Pour vôtre conservation vàtn 
très humble obeisantc Servante Douiru. BAiU.A*joN.+ 

aux KasKasKias Le ta janvier 1784 

owned it for many years. Madame .\Iary further licgs to inform you 
that M. Timuthé de Mtmbreuii, furmer commandant, granted the afurc- 
smd sugar plantation lu M. Pierre Picard on his petition, and that, ffben 
the suppliant learned uf this, 8hc went to ihe house of the said M. Picard 
accompanied by MM. J. Lonval and Jerome Danis, in order to forbid 
him to work nn. it. M. Picard paid no attention to this warning. He 
sold it to M. Antoine Mfirin, who in turn forbade the suppliant to work 
on the plantation in.'Lsmuch as she did not have the titles to the projwrty 
and the said sugar plantation lielonj^d to him. It is true that the said 
suppliant has no titles in writing, hut the possession of it for such a long 
time is well worth a «TiUen deed. The suppliant is ready to furnish cer- 
tificates from the old settlers of this country as a proof that the sugar 
plantation has belonged to her for a long time. 

Having considered these things, sir, may it please you to order the 
said M. Morin not to work there, so that the suppliant may be able to 
work on it; and may you see fit to condemn the said M. Morin to the 
costs, damages, and interest, and the suppliant will never cease to pray 
for your welfare. Your very humble and very obedient servant, 
Kaskaskifl, January 16, 1784- DoMlTïI. BAltLASJOH. 


VQ La rcqucttc c^ dessus et dautrcs part nous Déclarante n'avoir 
point de Cuncustion; à nous prescDlt^ Cummu L'inuiiûon De LRtats a 
tant que tous jjersuones cherche acquérir son lionhcur ; La ConccssiuD ac- 
cordé au Sr. Picard par Le lieutenant de Comté au nom De Lflat Sortira 
son plain Kt Entier Effets manduns &c au KosKasKias Le 16 janvier 

AvuÉ Coûte [liile tUegiblê] 
{Endorsed:] 1 7S4 rcqucttc prvscntc par mad. Alary contre Ant. marin 
i6™* janvier * 


In view of the petition, alwvc and on the other page, wherein tt is 
slated that there i^ no concession, and since it iii the desire of the slate 
ihat all men seek to procure their own happiness, the grant, given lo M. 
Picard by the lieutenant of the county in the name of the state, shall have 
its full effect. 

Ordered, etc., at Kaskaskia, January 16, 1784. AvuÊ CouTE. 

\EndoTScd:'\ 1784. Petition presented by Madame Alary against Aol. 
Miirin, January 16. 

Memorial or Tutothé de Mokbreun, November 11. 1794. 

[Vft. Stale Lihrarj- — Copy ] 
To the Honorable the Speaker and Gentlemen of the House o( 
Delegates ot Virginia 

The Memorial of Timothy de Monbreun Respectfully sheweth 
That your memorialist was a Lieutenant in Colonel Clark's or the 
Illinois Regiment raised by this State during the late war; that after 
the disbanding of that Regiment, to wit, on the i8tb of January 1783, 
he was appointed Commandant of KasKaskias and the neighbourhood 
in which post be continued until the i4lh day of August 1786 as by the 
paper herewith marked A will fully appear.' The defenceless situation of 
that Country at that time, aurrounded by several inimical and hostile 
tribes of Indians, and distracted by a number of disaffected inhabitants, 
rendered the office a critical and difficult undertaking. Without troops 
to oppose the hostile designs of the savages, without any coercive means 
to keep under subjection a country where a number of restless spirits 
were e:tciting commotions and troubles, the greater circumspection and 

1 Hit cimiiniMioa, oatr, p. jio. 



managemenl became necessary, and the Commandant was induced to 
temporize with all parties m order to prcsen'c tranquility, peace and 
harmony in the Counlry and to provide against invasions and inroads 
of the Savages: Thus àtuated his drat endeavours were to conciliate 
the minds of the Indians to at least a neutrality as to the Country under 
his immediate command» and at the same time to prepare ihcm by 
gentle means to become peaceable towards all the American States. 
In order t» attain this desirable object, he was compelled to send con- 
fidi-'nlial Agents ti> the several iHIks, who succeeded in their negotiations 
bcyraid his most sanguine expectations. The Chcrokecs and several 
other nations sent some of iheir chief Warriors to KasKasKias, and a 
partial treaty was there afîecicd with ihem in behalf oi the Illinois 

These operations were attended with considerable cxpcncc to your 
Memorialist, who, as there was no provision made by law to defray 
those contingent charges, was absolutely compelled lo entertain and 
supply with provisions all the Indians, of the several tribes who came 
to KasRasRtes; besides, pnlicy required, that small presents should be 
made to Ihcm, in order to preserve their friendship. 

Your Memorialist, therefore, chcarfully and mosi willingly advanced 
as far as his circumstances permitted, relying with the most unlimited 
confidence on the equity and generosity of the State of Virgiinia for 
reimbursing him these his very neces-sary expenditures. Copies of his 
accounts of supplies furnished and of his travelling expcnccs from 
KasKasKias to Cahokias, and lo St Genevieve are herewith marked 
B C The proWaon supplies he acknowledges were not all his own 
property, part were the property of the public, part the property of 
militia officers, and part supplies by himself. Had your Memorialist 
then thought it necessary he would have endeavored lo keep an exact 
account of his real expenditures, but being a native of Canada, little 
acquainted with the prevailing language in the United States and less 
with the regular mode ol doing business of this nature, he neglected 
so to do. 

To those measures of your Memorialist, he humbly conceives, 
ought, in great part, to be ascribed the tranquility enjoyed by that 
Country during his command, as he was incessantly employed in quiet- 
ing animosities between the French Natives and American Settlers, 

1 Sm ppu, p. jM, jjl 



treating the Indians with benevolence aiul preserving ihe dignity of the 
State whenevKT liie SpanisI] ollicers Trom the other side of the Missis- 
sippi interfered or were guilty of encroachments, which sometimes did 
happen, as by the letter herewith marked D', will fully appear, and 
in consequence of which the two Uerserters were rctcaacd and the dignity 
of ihe Commonweaith presen'ed. 

Besides the various expences of provisions to the Indians, presents 
to ll^em, and the payment of emisaries and expresses, your Memo- 
rialist begs leave to represent that the attention he was obliged It) pay 
to the duties of the station he bad the honor to fiU, did not permit him 
to consult and attend to his own private concerns, to the great detri- 
ment and injury of himself and family, as must evidently appear by the 
facts before recited. 

Ue also begs leave to represent that during his command as afore- 
said an offer was made to him by the Spanish Governor of St. Louis, 
Cruzat, of a similar command to that which he held, on the Spanish 
side of the river, with the pay of a Captain of the Spanish service an- 
nexed, which offer he rejected, preferring the honor of serving the state 
of Virginia. 

Your Memorialist, therefore, addresses himself to the honor, justice 
and generosity of the Honorable the Legislature of the said State for 
a Compensation for his expences, and for his personal services and 
exertions during his aforesaid command, and your Memorialist shall 
ever pray &c. 

RichmMid Nov*" ii*** 1794. 

ExpENSR Account of Tmarmf. de Mowbrecx, 1783-1786 

[Va. Siale Libraiy.— Copy.] 


Acco* of provisions furnished the Indians at Kaskaskias by Timothy 
Dc Monbreun in Ihe Years 1783. 4. 5. 6. 

Account of EJcpeniics made and provisions furnished to the Indians 
for Account of the United States in (he Years 1783, 1784, 1785 and 1786. 

I Sw pan. p, 374. 

■ Tbwe two opcoM ■oooau, mvked B. ud C, with the oonuiMlos i muA br Kldttrd Win- 
>ua Is De Moabnun, were «sdoaaJ «tlh llia ■bow nmnarial. Sn ante, p^ jjj. 


1783 Don. Sbill» pcnae 

4j4 lb beef t 10 Do)) p cwt 43 3 6 

141 lb pork « » Doll pcwrt 38 1 8 

9 minofs Indian com s 4/ 4 4 " 

7 Gallons Toffia n 4 Doll »& " " 


300 lb beef & to D. p cwt 30 7 

180 lb pork a ao D 3& " " 

15 minots Indian Meala4/ •• 7 4 3 

33 Gallons Talïia a 4 Doll 99 " 


600 lb beef a 10 Doll 60 

no lb pork a 30 Doll at 

II MinoU Indian Meal a 4/ .,,, j 4 

6 GalloDfi TaRiiL AI 4 Dolt , u 


350 lb beef a 10 D 35 

181 lb pork a 3o D .......j.. ^ C**^! 

14 MInot» Indian Meal 7 

i9Ga]bnsTa(r>aa4 Titili 48 

Error» Excepted Dollars 49; [n'c] 1 


Account of Expense!) for Account of this Siale, in difTerpnl Jnumies 
from Kaskaakfaia to Kaficktas, and from St Louis uf [and ?] Kaskaskios 
!o St Genevieve, in the Years 1783, 1784, 1785 and 7766. 

Two Joumiea from Kaskaskias to K&hokias 

Dollais 8Lb of a D. 

Carriage hire at 10 D»lla» 40 

Three Journies on hnt>e hack aioD... 30 

Thrice Cnnsingihc Missmippi a 4/8tb9. . .. t 4 

Nine day» board a 6/8 d Day 6 6 

Joumics fn>cn Eoekaskias to Si Geneviève 

Dollar» Sth of a D._ 
Twice on horecbarka 1 D .. . .. a 

CruKsiuft the rivei four time» a 4/8tha a 

Three days board a 6/8tbs t » 

1784 Two Joumles from Ka»kaakiu lo Kahokia» in a 
cama{^ 40 " 

Two J° OQ hoTwbsck a 10 D ae " 

Twice Cfoasing from Cahoes to St Loui» z " 

Six days board at 6/8lhs 4 4 

Joumles from Kaskaskia» to St Oeneriere 

Four Journie» on horseback aiD 4 

Cnitsing rivcT four times a 4/8 a 

Two days boon) t 

0%. tsUtit] " 



French Régime, June 3, 1784.' 

[K. MSS.— D. s.] 

Registre des audience du district de la ville Des KasKiisKias Comté 

Des illinois tenu cejourdfauy, troi^eme jour De juin mil sept cent quatre 

vingt Et quatre, par nous thimotbé Demonbnm Lieutenant député de 

La ditte Comté et magistrat du district &c. 


Avoir oUi Les party De La part du Sir WiRok Et Clark plaîntiffe 
Et de La pard du Sr. Daniel murray Défendeur Les partie Comparante 
En personne oUî Leur débat; hc dit dcffendcur Daniel murray; a 
reconnu pardevant Nous magistrat Le Compte présente par Mcssî 
Wiffok et Clark La somme de cent trots livre Cinq sols, que ledit Sr 
murray reconnois devoir Le Compte En dat du neuf ocbre 1783 &C. 
Nous Condamnons Ledit Sieur Daniel murray de payer sous huit 

Record of the sessions of the Court of the District of the Town of 
Kaskaskia, County of the Illinois, held this day, June ■;, 1784, by us 
TimoEhé de MoDbreun, County Lieutenant of the said County and 
Ma;giatrate of the District, etc. 


We have heard the parties; on the part of MM. Wikoff and Clark. 
plaintiffs, and on the part of M. Daniel Murray, defendant, the parties 
appearing in person. We have heard their arguments- The said 
defendant, Daniel Murray, has acknowledged before us, the magis- 
trate, the account, presented by MM. Wikoff and Clark,, amounting 
to the sum of one hundred and three /»fr«j and ûvcsoJs, and M. Murray 
acknowledges that he owes the account dated October 9, 1783, etc. 
We condemn the said M. Daniel Murray 10 pay, within a week from 
the date of ihc present, the said account, which be has acknowledged.' 

■ Tbix ntnfd of a («ioa held br Dr MoDbrt^inhwrlitmioQ^ pacaatsffcnrd bookorihr Pr«iïh 
r^imr, •arHlmchnl Lw-liirm n Irw rcfutrio ol widm' iwlhs la ÉOTcnlonn nude by Che drrk of Ikrc 

Vifguiii paiod. 

■ 1'lic »p|K«eaH of Joha DodM nudu wmm aplul out dt ihb aw. Acoordlnit to lima, aJnng^ 

Dcnuiom* ihiidrirt MbÎMiiCMdr.andilifuaiUKIediOAfctfdbleniiuincr. Ihitoidnllrillitdealli 
oilïmaid Uumr. Stt put. p. 41^- 





jours daite des present Ledit Compt qui) a reConu Mandons 8ic au 
KuKasKias Le 3* juin 1784. Et ai^ [m] quc les frais 
Copie Livré 15 



oui Les party de La part du Sieur John Dodge plaintiffe et de la 
part du &r. ant. Bienvenus ùh Défendeur. ^M 

oui Leurs débatte Le Billiet du dedendeur présenté reconnu pa^B 
Ledit Sieur ant. Bienvenus ûls devoir Et aJnsy Ledit Ste. Dodge luy 
accordant Délais jusquau traize du present mois. FA nous Lujr Con- 
damnon assalisfaire son billiei au terme arcordé Mandons &c. Fx, 
ainsy que les frais &c au KasKasKias Le iroiaieme juin Mil sept 
quatrevingt Et quatre 


We 90 order, etc. At Kaskaskia, June 3, 1784. And lo pay the 

Copy delivered, 15 livres. 

Heard the parties; on the part of M. John Dodge, plaintiff and 
the part of M. Anl. Bienvenu, Junior, defendant. 

Heard Iheir arguments. The note of the defendant which w 
prcscntL*d has been acknowledged as due by the said M. Ant. Bien- 
venu, Junior; and since the said M. Dodge grants him a delay till lh< 
thirteenth of the present month, we condemn him to satisfy his now 
at the lime accorded. So we order, etc. And he is to pay the cosi 
likewise, etc. At Kaskaskia, June 3, 1784. 


[C. C. Pp., m., Kaskukliut imd Ky., XXX., 46.Î.— L. S.] 

Kaskaskce June i6eh. 1784J 

Accompanying this under cover is a memorial from a few of th« 
principle Inhabilants of the Village of Kaskaskic, which accident 
enabled them to present, and I have the honr. lo inclose, and whicl 


permit me to assure assure [sU] your excellency contains a Candid 
rcpreaentatjon of Eucts, and Hope CongrutS will give the prayer thereof 
a hearing in due time, and grant such relief as Congress shall Judge 
Just and Reasonable. 

By a Gentleman who came here mcarly on a visit to this Country a 
few days ago, I am informed that Virginia has relinquished all claim 
to the Country Nnrthiveit o( the River Ohio unto the United States, 
which gives mc great pleasure, and permit me to Congratulate your 
Excellency on the event. 

Some years ago I was appointed County Lieutenant by the state 
of Virginia for the Illcnoisc County in which Office to this day, but my- 
self, and the Civil Department here have been much Imberascd, and 
found great difficulty in keeping Dcoplin and subordenation, Owing 
to the Sufferings of the People, and the Clamours of Designing pen, 
amongst the Ignorant part of them, which your Excellency knows are 
too often able to give trouble to the better sort, and those in Authority. 
However we have heretofore been so fortunate as to be able to Counter 
Ad their Mischecvous 'Designs, and to keep up some flimsy kind of 
Government, but permit me to assure your Excellcnry that I am firmly 
of Opinion (being well acquainted with the Geneous of those people) 
that if something is not soon done to strengthen our hands we shall not 
be able to support authonty. On the Contrary was Government 
firmly Established, and proper Iticourage given we soutd soon become 
Respectable, and I cannot help thinking with the Memori[a{Iists, that 
many of the people on the Spani<Ji side would come to us. and those 
return who left us since the Commcnc[e)ment of the war, as they went 
away on Account of Irregularities Commited here. 

The People of the other villages and Elecwhere [sU] in this Country 
could not join the present Memorilists, as the Gentleman who carries 
this could not wait until they could be Convened. 

I hope your Kxcclk-ncy will please to Excuse the I.ilH.-rty T have 
taken in this adress, but my Perticuliar situation T ci9nre|i]vu makes H 
my duty to make this Represcnttlion. 

I bare the hour, to be with the highest Esteem Your Excellency 
Most Obdt. Very Hmb Servi 

His Excellency his' Thimoté DEMONBBEtJNT mark 

Thomas MtfUin Esquire 

Preaideni of Congress 

' "Hli mttk." added In tu&dwritlni o[ «iidiirïfmfai, U «rldMIly a (aie 



P S. The Pco[)lc have Prevailed on Colo. Pentecost,' on whom 
they greatly rely to Promise to deliver their Memorial into your Excel- 
lency» own hands, and to whom they vrould beg leave to refer your £jc- 
cellency for any infonnation respecting this Country 

[Endorsement:] No 19. Letter June i6. 1784 from Kaskaskies 
[Addressed:\ His Excellency Thomas Mifflin Esquire President of 
Congress fowd by Colo: Penlccosl 

Memorial to Congress bv the Faction of John Dodge, 

June 33, 1784. 

[C. C. Pp., XXX.. 435 - A. D. S.] 

L'honnnrable preiudent Des Etats unis Dans Le Congrées ascni* 
bWc &t; &c 8ic 

Mémoire Des principaux Des habitants Du village Des KasKasRîas 
pour eux m(mc El différante autres habitant des villages de Comté 
doB illenois. 

Nous prenont La liljerlé de vous présenté notre mémoires dupuîs 
Le Commanrement de la juste Et ndtfeairc dcmiorc Guerre avec La 
brétjignc, Etant toujours àlîichiîc En nous pour La Causses De Lamer- 
ique, Mats nous avons toujours été Gouverné par Le militaire Et Loix 
de la Grande Bretagne, à Nôtres moniffic^itîons Cela Nous à Enpcché 


Te the Honorable President of the United States, in CoDgreas 
assembled, etc., etc. 

Memorial of the chief inhabitants of the village of Kaskaskia, fot 
themselves and other inhabitants of the villages of the County of Illinois, 

We take the liberty of presenting to you this memorial. From the 
time of the commencement of the just and necessar)' late war with Great 
Britain, we were always attached to the cause of America, but we were 
always ruled by the army and law of Great Britain; and this, to uur 
mortification, hindered us from taking ]>art with our fellow-citizens wbo 


l<M-Ky PaUcost wu a. Vltgiaiaa, «Iw Mtilcd ia WaitooTtLui'l Coiiniy, Pi., la trt». n« 
iii| (iti)[liU'iitc fcil PauuylruiU. hut W the twundniy dïtnuiF with Virjinu lidnl «ith we latUr. 
Jb tirj tie norcd in WuhiafLon Counly. He uotetcd Ckrk In raiiiLnii troops lor Ibf UliBoii npcdi- 
tiqm. Mbi iiri^mcr in IJUoiila al thli linif «■> t9up li> liii dni/c 10 luiL ther thr lind.ccdrd bf Fithn 
GJtaull. vhich tm Itad boujtit. (Stc atU. a. ij, uuS JU. Ilisi.CaLeiiitniJ.'a., p. jSi J Tbe>tMv« 
BOI* lu* btm uUptcd frocn Tbirticfsuid iienogg,[hmiÊaTt'i War, 101, 



de prendre part avec nr>9 Compatriotte quits oiits Eté maltraite Et ausi 
pour dire notre sentiment Depuis nous avons Eté soulagé par Les 
trou[ies qu'ils-ont Eté Envoyé par La virgin!«, que nous avons Reçus 
à bras ouvers Et Nous avons avancé tous Ce qui Etoit Neaesaire pour 
Leurs subssîstaacc Et Nous avons joind nos armes avec Eux. 

Noire Mémoire prend La liberté de vous obacr\'er que Ces même 
troupes qui sont venus Etoit tous nûs Et denUécs de tous, (par La 
longue marche autresvers des pays qui n'estoil pas àbituée) Larivé de 
Ces troupes Nous a donné Coeur, a déclaré Notre atacfaemcnt pour La 
juste causses pour La quelle Us Eioit Engagé En fournissant toutes Les 
Décesaires pour faire La situation agréable Et aissé, Et actuellement 
avon<i Marché dans ixs Expedition volontairement, Et pour ï-cs four- 
niture que nous avons fail Nous avons Reçus de L'argent Continantallc 
Et Lêtres D'échange sur I-e public, sure pied d'argent sonnante Et après 
La déprésiasion de Cette argent Le d'ommage du peuple Et La plus 
Grande partyc Ne sont point EnCorrc payé, se tors que nous avons 
point mérité ni pence que Cela auré arivéz à taretté Notre Commerce 
qui Nous Causes une grande pauvrette dans Nos familcs, Mais Nous 
avons toujours un grand désire pour rendre service pour le bien du 

were ill-treated, and also from expressing our opinions. Since that time, 
however, we have been relieved by the troops who were sent from Vir- 
ginia and whom we received with open arms and furnished with all 
that was necessary for their support ; and wc joined our arms to theirs. 
In our memorial wc take the liberty to call to your attention that theae 
same troops^ who came, were naked and in want of all things on account 
of the long march across regions which were not inhabited. The arrival 
of these troops gave us courage to declare our attachment for the just 
cause, in which they were engaged, by furnishing all the things necessary 
for making their position agreeable and comfortable ; and wc actually 
marched, of our own accord, in their expeditions. For the supplies we 
furnished we received continental money and letters of exchange on the 
public on the basb of specie, and that after the depreciation of this money. 
The loss to the people and the greater part of these letters of exchange 
are not yet paid. This evil which we did not deserve or expect has 
hindered our commerce and has brought a great poverty upon our 
families. Still we have a great dcûre to render service for the public 



public Nous avons vtdontairement donné part de la production de nos 
dun: travaux, imx même tema Notre familles, à Eté Réduit a une situ- 
ation deplorable, Nous avons toujours fourni, plus que nous pouvions 
(aire. Nos fourniture, Ce trouvant pas sufissanles pour La subsastancc 
des troupes, Nos vache Et Boeuf des travaux ont Eti* tué dans notre 
Commune Ei dans nos Coures oni pris par forces de notre familles qui 
Etoît dans La tristesse pour L'armé &c. Et quand nous avons fait 
notre presentation au Commandant En demandant de faire notre 
tristesse ou notre misère plus douce. — Nous avons reçus pour reponcc 
que Les troupes vive Et vous en scré payé, Nous avons Experience 
des premiers Et non pas La dernier Et il non pas un juste arangemcnt 
de nos Comptes. 

Et âpres Les troupes ont Continué avec Nous quaires ans — Et differ- 
ent Expeditions ont Eté fait Contre Les ostillilc des different tribus des 
sauvages sur Lesquelles Nous avons toujours Marchée Et toutes Les 
poste des Englais ont Eté Réduit, El après Celas Les troupes se sont 
Retiré de nous Nous souposson parœquc Nous Etions point Capable 
de donner La subssislancc plus Lorgtcms parccquc Noua Etions Réduit 
à La dernier Extrémité des miscre Nous-mCmc. Après tous Celas il 

l Translation.] 

welfare. We voluntarily gave part of the product of our labors, al the 
very time that our families were reduced to a deplorable condition. 
We have always fumisbed raore than we were able to. Since our sup- 
plies wen: not sufficient for the maintenance of the trix)p.s, our cows and 
plow-ojtcn have been killed in our ver>' coranions and in our yards, and 
taken by force from our families which were in great distress because of 
the army, etc. And when wc made a reraoastrance to the commandant 
asking that our sad condition and our po^-erty be alleviated, we a-ccived 
for an answer that the trooi>8 had to live and that we woiJd be paid. We 
have ex|}crienced the first but not the last part, and it is not an equitable 
settlement of uur accounts. 

Then the trtx)])s remained with us for four years, making several 
expeditions against the different Iriljcs of ho.stilc Indians, on which wc 
have always marched, and all the [wst-S of the English were captured. 
.■\fter this the troops were withdrawn from us, because, as we suppose, wc 
were not able to give them their subsistence any longer, since we ourselves 
were reduced to the last extremity of poverty. After all this they left 


nous onl Laisse à la furi Et Barhari des nations, Ccpendent peut de 
nous ont Eté tu^ que Nos animaux détruite si peut que Les (joupes 
avez Laiaée 

Notre mémoire prend La liberté de vous présente ausi que sure 
tous par La faute du Commandant, Le payement qui est aretté Le mai 
Employ de L'argenl ascmtile avec Les sirconstance de notre partic- 
uUier situation, Boucoup des peuple du pays dans Leurs oppullances 
ont descndu, dans La dcmierc indilgcncc, Pour Cela Nous vous avons 
tous doaniî un juste détaille de la vérité permette nous de vous àsurer 
de votre Excelencc Et votre honnorable Corps, que tous ce que nous 
soiton a present Est de nous nvaitre Le phis prottement que vous trou- 
verez a propos dans I^ même Etat avec nos Compatriotte pour faire 
une NouveUc Etat Donné Nous Le même droit de puissance liberté El 
independence avec Les autres Etats, que Nous Croyons que celas 
Conlribura a Notre honneurs Et nous maissons un Etat Respectable Et 
Contribura a la vantage des Etats unis. 

Permette Nous d'observer que nous somme d'opion [sic] si Le Congre 
trouve à propau de nous faire Ce bonneurre dun Nouvaux Etat ici Et 

us to the fury and barbarity of the nations, and some of us were killed, 
and our animals were destroyed =- the few the troops had left. 

Wc take the liberty also of showing you in this memorial that above 
all through the fault of the commandant, the delayed payments, the 
misuse of money, together with the circumstances of our special situation, 
many persons of wealth have descended to the depths of poverty; con- 
cerning all this we have given you a just account of the truth. Permit 
us to assure your Excellency and your honorable body, that all we now 
pray for is that you place us as soon as you may see fit in the same condi- 
tion as that of our fellow-citizcns so that we may form a new state; and 
that you will give us the same right of power, liberty, and independence 
with ttie other states, for we think (hatthis will contribute to our welfare, 
and enable us to make a respectable state which will be of advantage to 
the United States.' 

Permit us to say that wc are of the opinion that, if Congress sees 
fit to grant us the blessing of a new slate here and to encourage the 


Hui dame may hare bc«n Inspired br ■ ca ra po a dim ma'matiii foi BUiononr b KAiWcly 



EnCourager Le peuple pour venire Etablirc Parmîs nous La «'enUge 
Et Richese des terres El du Commerce fera notre oppulan« Ed peu de 

Nous prenon La liberté d'observer ausi, qui] est ausi nécésairc 
pour Le Congnî danvoyé pannis nous qu'clleque personne pour Xous 
aidcrc a faire une CoDstitution Et mette nous dans un Etat pour faire fl 
toute sorte darangcmcnt Nous sommes pas un jjetit Corps de peuple, 
mais Comme nous avons Elé toujours Gouverné par Le militaire, Nous 
avons jamais Eu dexpcrîence dune machine d'une republic pour La 
malisc des gens mal întcntionné, nous avons boucoup de dilîiailté [Kmr 
faire obcire aux ordre quiJ Nous ont Eté donn<? El Comme nous sommes 
prot-he dun autres Royome qui Est Couvenuî par Le militaire peu csire 
ce bien mats nous prions Le Congrues particulièrement de Considéré 
si Ces [las nésstfsaîre dansvoytf un peut de troupe ici pour assista a 
Eiablire un Gouverncmcrt Civile jiisqua que Le pays viendra^ & Ces 
fort Ce la donnera de T«i térrur aux nations, El fera voire à nos voysin 
que nous Commcnson a dcvcnîrc Respectable, Nous sommes à-suré que 
si nous avions un Gouvernement bien Etabli Et policé cela Lathîrtré 
La plus grand parties des peuples de Lautres Rive de nos voisin. 

people to come and settle amoag us, the advantageous situation, 
the richness of the soil, and commerce will biing us abundance in a 
ihotl time. 

We further take the liberty to state that it is also necessary for Con- 
gress to send to us somebody to help us in drawing up a constitution antl 
put us in a condition to make all kinds of settlements. We are not a small 
body of people, but, as we have always lieen governed by the military, ^ 
we have never had experience with the machinery of a republic. On fl 
account of the malignity of some evil-minded persons, we have had 
much trouble in maintaining obedience to the laws which were given 
to us; and as we are near to another kingdom which is governed by 
the military, perhaps it is as well [?] that wc pray Congress to consider 
in particular if it is not necessary to send a few trxxipa here to assist i 
in establishing a civil gnvemmcnt, until the country shall have become fl 
sufficiently strong. That will inspire fear in the nations and will make 
our neighbors see that wc are becoming rcs|>ectabl(:. We feci sure 
that, if we had a well-estahlished government and jioticc, this would 
attract the majority of the people from our neighbor's shore. 




Nous nous reposim sur La juste Et sincérité de votre honorable 
Corp Nous VOU3 demandons pemiislion de vous livrées nos très respec 
mémoire, a votre scricusse Consideration, En demandans tous Ce que 
vous trouverez a propos dans La presentation, Celas Rendra, justice à 
tous Et Ces Lcsoît de tous Les honnêtes genae. 

Notre mémoire El de prier toujours pour Le honneur de La Com- 
munauté En general. Au KasKasKïas Le 32*= juin 1784./. 

JosEPHE Blay Sa marque Clemet Datrav 

habitant de la pr&ri de 


Henry Smtth 
JAM Baptiste St onoe Sa 


JOSEPH Dopcis sa marque 
John Marshall 


ki[col]as Canada Sa marque 



We entrust ourselves to the justice and sincerity of your honorable 
body. We beg permis^on to submit cur very bumble memorial for 
your serious consideration, praying for all that which you shall deem ût 
in this presentation. That will do justice tu all, and this is the earnest 
wish of all honest men. 

Our memorial is to pray always for the welfare of the community in 

Kaskasltia, June 32, 1784.* 

Joseph Blay, his mark, an in- 
habitant of Prairie dc Vachc 
[du Rocher]. 

François Desrouisseaux, his 

Henry Smith. 

Jean Bapt. St. Onge. his 

Clement Druky. 
Joseph Dupuis, his mark. 
John ALvkshall. 
Jacques Devignais^ his 

Nicolas Canada, his mark. 
Jacqdes Chenieb, his mark. 
Antoine Buyat. 

■ If thlllfal bdudH (be lumaof thA MHirt bclloa oi Juhn Uudgv, oM wondcnhin» he nuinlaiatd 
Ui >Kend*flcy. Whh cbcncepilcn of ihduiDa'of Ijchxtue, Plmw IjhhIuIi, AimoIiw Morio, and 
Anlolne Duunii, Ihcro ut no nnmci of Ibt pmmmctit cilûeiu. There jrc io nil nincicm Fioich 
■tuna, one U thai ol u wonuQ. nine unlf guhwi] their nana. St. Onui 1* la'itjuU)' IrTiin Vlncnuir», 
ajtd tite qmh» c< Onpuia, LiÀoudc. Richa/J, fjkhiicre, uid Dunoon Jo not npiiur on ihecouiu ol 
KaalutlclB iomftti. p. 4M); '"" ^'"" 'ha^ ull balgac is lb* dan of «Jla*n ■m! Iiupuit ■) (cut b 
known lâiùveBted In the vtllan, ihLi may luw no dnificuuc. On DcmIhi-'i luiuai. tet lU. Hi'il. 
CUbnÎM*, U-, p- oub. In «Ivlnit .in «.ccouiit of tbii petlUoa in (he foiroiJuaioD to vol, li.. 1 
nbtookUienHnoal Blay and Richard for RnglUtmnil ihrârtorc cinJilnl I'>uil|r «Ith nnly •cvmwcn 
FHnd) Miomn. 




Jno DotXÎE 

Bienvenus fils ^^H 


\Vm Wikopp 


■ . 

La Chansk 



Jas. Willey 

Louis Lasocde sa marque ^^H 


J AS. Moore 

Nicholas Suyth ^^H 


P«B Lanclois 



Thos. Hugh's 

P Richard ^^H 


Gabhl Peterson 

Gerard Lakclois ^^H 


Tobias Bbashtiar 

Rauon Labricr sa marque ^^| 


S had RACK Bond 



John Wiluaais 

marque ^^^| 

D S Licks 


En Registre au greffe a 


P»ge 3- 4. 5- 6, El 7. folio 4. au Kas- V 

KasKîas Le 22' juin 1784./ 

P«^ L.\NCLOIS 1 

Greffier de Comté 1 

[Endorsed:] No. 13 Memorial 

— Inhabitants of Ibe KasKasKies and 1 

lUnois Villages — 


[Tramhiion.] ^^H 

John Dodge. 

Bienvenu, JtmioR. ^^M 

\Vm. Wikoff. 

Antodie Bauvais. ^^^^Ê 


Makie Messaye, widow. ^^^^H 

Jas. Willey. 

Louis Lasoude, his mark. V 

Jas. Moore. 

Nicholas Smyth. ^^H 

Pierre Langlqis. 

A. MOHIN. ^^H 

Thus. Hughes. 

p. Richard. V 

Gabrl. Peterson. 

Gerard Langlois. V 

Tobias Bhashej\r. 

Ra^-uund Labriere, bis mark. 1 

Shadrack Bono. 

Jean Baptiste Dauours, his 1 

John Wit.liahs. 

mark. fl 

D. S. Licks. 


Registered at the clerk's office on pages 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of folio 4. | 

At Kaskaskia, the aid uf June, 

1784. PiEttKE Langlois, 


Clerk of the County. 

MfuoMAL or François Cakbonneaux to Congress, 

December 8, 1784. 

[C. C. Pp., 11!., Kasluwkia, anrf Ky.. m., 453.— D. S.J 

To the Hatible, The United Stales of America in Congress assembled. 

The Memorial of Francois Carbooneaux of the Illinois Country, 

Agent for the liibabilatits thereof humbly sbewetb 

That the said Inhabitants to the Number of four hundred Families, 
exclusive of a like Number at Post Vincent, labour under the greatest 
Inconveniences for want of Onler and good Govcmmi'nl. That many 
ill diajMised Persons have taken Refuge in their Country — That 
Papulation is daily encreasing — That their Proiwrty is invaded 
and arrested from them by the Hands of daring Intruders and that 
Violences are frequently committed in various Ways, against [heir Per- 
sons, and against the Persons and Properties of the Natives. Your 
Memorialist doth therefore, in behalf of the Inhabitants aforesaid, hum- 
bly pray, that Congress will Jm-" pleased to take their distressed Case into 
Consideration, and either immediately establish some Form of Goveni- 
raent among them, and appoint Officers to execute the same, or that 
they will nominate Commissioners to repair to the Illinois, to inquire 
into their Situation, and to consult with the Inhabitants thereon; and 
to do and execute such Matters and Things as they shall find necessary, 
until some regular Government can be established. 

Your Memorial[i]st conceives that it is in the Power of Congress by 
such a Measure, not only to restore Tranquilit-y among the Inhabitants 
of an extensiix and fertile Country, but to give I'eace to those of the 
Frontiers of Mrginia, and to establish, a valuable Commerce, not only 
with the Natives, but with new Spain, which is now wholly carried on 
by British Subjects from Canada. 
Trenton Deer. 8th 1784 

Carbonneai;x ' 
[Endorsed:] No. 16 Memorial Francis Carbonneaux 

Agent for the Inhahiiauts of the Illinois — 

' \lirT Wlmlnn >n<i Cnrboanraui bad iailed loaliUiD nnv Uiiabinian frani VitKÎnia, CitrlMa- 
Bitvjx itipmiMl Ici ihf CaoilnrniHl ('oiu rna. ThU bwty look Inlu totuàlCTutivii hb mciDorial, and 
onl/ t«lcr Rcdvccl lliol ul tbc jnuly ui Jobo Oodgc. Sœ loUomiait dooimcaU. 



CoNCKESSiONAL CoîoimTK ON Carbokneaux 's Meuosial, 

Febniaiy 15, 1785. 

[C. C. pp.. III., KukASkin, and Ky., xxx., ^31. — A. D. S.) 

The Commitlcc consisting of [blank] to whom was referred a Memo- 
rial from Francis Carbeneaux and the papers accompanying it beg 
leave to submit the following Report. That as satisfactory documents 
have been produced by the said Carbeneaujc to shew that he has been 
deputed by the Inhabitants of the Kaskaskie and lUenois settlements to 
represent to Congress the great inconvenience to which they are subject 
from ihc want of order and good government. 

And as it is expedient that the most early Steps should be taken to 
relieve the said Inhabilanis from the difBculties which have arisen from 
the unsettled state of their Affairs, until mure eiTectual arrangements can 
be made for extending lo them a more regular establishment of security 
and good order, Resolved That one or more Commissioners be appointed 
to repair to the Kaskaskie and Illcnois Settlements; 

That he he charged to use his best endeavours to suppress tboK dis- 
orders and irregularities of which the said Inhabitants complain. And 
that in the exercise of his Authority and the administration of justice h« 
pursue the mode which he may judge the best calculated to quiet the 
Minds of those peop[l]e and secure their attachment to the fcederal gov- 
ernment. Thai he be required to adjust and settle all Accounts of the 
said Inhabitants against the United States, taking care to have proper 
documents produced in support of their respective claims; — and that, 
he be invested with all the powers and Authorities of the other Commis* 
sioneni for setlleing the accis o) the several stale;!, against the United 
States under the resolution of Congress of 22. febry 1783. And the 
more effectually to preserve peace and good order, Resolved that Men 
oiut of those to be raised for guarrisoning our Western frontiers be sta- 
tioned in the said district. 

Resolved that he be allowed [blank] dollars as a compensation for 
bis trouble and expenccs. 
[Endorsed:] No. 1. Report 

Mr Hardy 

Mr Pinckney 

Mr Benson 

Mr Williamsim 

Mr Howell 


On Memorial Mr Carhoneaux respcctg. settlers on tUtcois De- 
livered Feby. 15. 1785 Entd. Rtiid. 
F^ ai Referred to Mr R R Livingston 

Mr McHenry 

Mr Howell 

Mr Read 

Mr Monroe 
Passed Congress.* 

Report or CoMunrEE of CoNCitESS on Powers op Couuissiokërs 
TO BE Appointed, March 14, 1785. 

[C. C. Pp.. m.. Kaskaskia and Ky., xxx., 483.— A. D. S] 
The Com: to whom wçrc rcfd. the petition of the Inhabilanla of 
the Kaskaskies and it3 vicinity and the papers relative thereto 

That the Comrs. to be appointed by Congress agréable to their rewlu- 
tion of the — — of Feby last, be invested wiih full power to Examine 
into the titles and possessions of those inhabitants of the country whose 
rights were designed to be saved by the treaty entered into with them 
by GenL Clarke. To judge of them upon the best evidence which he 
can collect, and to be governed therein by the laws and customs which 
have heretofore prevailed among them. Always inclining to support 
anticnt possessions against recent claims. 

That he cause to be surveyed cwry tract of land so claimed or pos- 
sessed, a record of which survey shall be kept in the office of the clerk 
or register to be appointed for that purpose, which shall be satis/aclory 
evidence of title, unless an appeal is lodged within four months from 
the time of making such record; in which such appeal shall be 
tried by Courts to be instituted on the future organization of the govern- 
ment of that countr)*. 

That he adjust interferring claims among the settlers, subsequent 
to the date of the aforesaid capitulation, in such mode as he conceives 
most equitable; that he assign Lands as well to those as to others 
who shall migrate thither; provided that no Lands be assigned to any 
other than to settlers, and not more than [filank] acres to each family ; 
and that the persons occupying such Lands, agree to pay therefor such 

> Written un tiaridi, AlllKM(h thk raolatka fut, it w>i out rncuisd. See fott, p. g)f, 
•bo n* p. 41s; /MffMb oj Cmgrru. tr^ *n. *n- 



consideration as Congress may direct, when the federal land office 
shall be opened in siith state — That he mark out con%"cnîcnt districts, 
and summon tbe inhabitants of each to elect three or more ma^trates, 
who shall be invested with power and authority to hear and determine 
all civil Controversies not relative to the property in lands, agreeably 
to the laws, usages and customs that prevail m such districts. That 
the Commisnoner with not less than three of the said magistrates, the 
whole Ixiog summoned and having a right to attend, be a court of 
criminal jurisdiction ; provided that the punishment to be adjudged 
by the said Cpurt, shall in no case extend to the toss of life, limb or 
member, except where such punishment might legally have \Mxn 
inflicted by the laws that heretofore prcvaild in the late Colony and 
now State of Virginia; and provided also, that at least three fourths 
of the mapstratcs and the said Commissioner concur in the sentence. 

That the Commissioners with the advice and consent of tbe above 
magistrates, appoint excculi%x oflkers in the respective districts to 
carry their decrees into execution. 

That he explain to the Jnhaliilants of the said district, in such 
resolutions and pnKx-iiiings ol the Unitwi States in Congress, as respect 
tht same, and ctitk-avour to form their habit for the reception of a free 
rcpuljliian government. 

That he pn.'scrvc peace with the Indian nations, not permitting any 
settlement upon iheir Lands, untill a previous purchase has been made 
from them with all due solemnity. 

That he arrange, offia-r, and command the militia of the district, 
taking such posts as may lie necessary for their protection and security. 
That he make early and accurate returns to Congress, of the nature, 
advantages and disadvantages of the Country, the number of its inhab- 
itants, iheir military force, Iheir customs and ihcir disfKisi lions with 
respect to the United Slates — their wealth, agriculture and Com- 
merce — That he extend his inquiries lo the settlements in his vicinity 
on the western side of the Missisipi,— and make returns to Congress 
of the result thereof, rcLitive to all the objects above mentioned. 

That prerious to his entering upon Office, he take and subscribe an 
oath of fidelity to the United States and for tbe true and faithful dis- 
charge of the above powcm, before the commanding Officer at fort Pitt, 
who is empowered to administer the same, and directed to transmit a 
copy thereof to the Secretary of Congress. 


That he continue in office thre« years unless sooner discharged by 

That a Secretary who shall act as register of the said district be 
appointed by Congress to attend the said Commissioner and discharge 
the duties above assigned to the register. That he continue in Office 
three years unless sooner recalled by Congress. 

That the yearly Salary of the said Commissioner be [Wdmt] dollars 
including his ejcjienccs — 

That the yearly Salary of the Secretary including his cxpences be 
[blank] dollars 

That the Secretary in the war office furnish the said Commissioner 
with 35 Men out of those already inlisted and thai the Comr. endeavour 
to engage ihem to rcenlist for the term of two years — 
[Endor:ied:] No. a. 

Report of Mr R R Livingston 
Mr McHenry 
Mr Howell 
Mr Read 
Mr Monroe 

On powers of Com. in be sent to Kaskaskics.' 

Entd. read 14 March 1785 Thursday March assigned for Cong 

Francisco Crumt to Timothé de Monbreun, September 8, 1785. 

[Va. Sliilc Library.— Copy.^ 

L'ialèret que je prends il {avantage général de tout le pays des 
lilinois, me fait [Mi>. iUegibU] toutes les précau&sions possibles, pour 
éviter autant qu'il dépendra de moi, qu'a l'avenir nos Coramerçens 
voyageurs ne reçoivent aucune insulte, ou contrecoup malheureux par 



The interest 1 have in the general welfare of all the country of the 
Illinois, causes me [to take] all possible precautions to avoid, as far as 
il de|>ends on me, that in the future, our traveling merchants receive in- 
sults or unlucky atiacks from the rebels and pirates who infest the MissJs- 

■Thh itpon ilM Dol mull in KndioH a oiinniiawacr. 

■ Tkâ oopi ma induttcd ia Dt Mnubwui'* mcmorikl, MW, p. i jf. 


les rtbcts, et Pirates qui infectent le mississippi comme cela est arrivé 
ci devant, faute de dessendrc, ou de monter en convoy, en consequence 
j'cspere que vous voudrez bien faire publier &ur votre Partie L'avis ci 
Joint que je donne au Public, a iin que les sujets amerîquaincs de vo|^| 
rive, puissent profiter pour déssendre avec Surete ce fleuve, de la mttaP 
avantage d'être Scoltés, dont jouissent ceux de mon gouvemment 

j'ai l'honneur d'être avec toute consideration monsieur 

Votre trts bumble et très obeiss* serv. 

Framto Crdzat 

a St. Louis des Illinois et S Septembre 17S5 

A monsieur de mnnbreun 

rippi as has happened heretofore, because tbey did not go down or 
up with a convoy. Therefore 1 hope you will consent lo publish on your 
aide of the river the enclosed notice which I am making public, in order 
that the American subjects of your bank may take advantage of the 
opportunity to go down the river under protection and escort in the 
same manner as those under my government. 
I have the honor to l>e with all consideration, 

Sir, your very humble and very obedient servant, 

Franco Cbuzat. 
At St. I-ouis of the Illinois, September S, 1785. 
To M. de Monbreun. 


October u, 1785. J 

[Va- Stale Library. — Attested Tninalaiion.'] " 

Letter or Timothy de Monbreun to the Govebnob of New Oh- 

LEANS, Oct. II, 1785. 
To Hb Excellency the Governor of New Orleans, 

The good Understanding and Harmony that prevailed till now be- 
twixt both Sides of the River of Illinois ha%'ing t)ccn interrupted by Mr 
Cruzat The Commander of St Louis it is a Duty incumbent on me as 

Bw Oh- 

■ EndoMd In McntoiUI ct Dt Monbram. «Mr, p. jii. Ttir HwiatatkM wu toa^ bj SH i i hia 
dn Pooeau, oourr puUk in Phitadripltia,NaKnibcr ij, ini*. 



Governor for ihc United Sutcs my Masters to present you my just 
Representations on Account of both Those Dcscrtors of The garrison 
of The above named Gentleman who repaired to This Side of The 
River belonging to The United Stales as The aforesaid Commander, 
in contempt of the I^ws as well as The Harmony subsisting between 
both governments had both The said Dcscrtors seized on The Terrilor}' 
of The United States, where They ought to have been in perfect Security 
as in an inviolable Asylum. I must observe what Mr Cntzat ought 
not to have been ignorant of, That cwry Sovereign Thinks it his Duty 
to grant his Protection to all Dcsertors even to many other Subjects 
who bave deserved Punishment in Their own Country, it being an 
Attribute of Their Power & Sovereignty, which They are extremely 
jealous of, and he neglects nay I Dare Say insults The mutual Harmony 
who attempts to violate that Protection which They grant in Their 
Dominions to Those who come There to seek an .\sylum. Pursuadcd 
that you arc better acquainted Than myself with The Consequences of 
such Procedures I thought it incumbent upon me to lay my just com- 
plaints before you, claiming at The same time Those same Dcscrtors, 
That I may not incur any Reprehension from The United States my 
Masters and That The good Understanding may be continued which 
has subsisted between both sides of The River till the present Period. 
I have the honor to be with Respect etc Sir 

Tmothê de Moktbreun 
at Caskasia The la Octbre 1785 

JOBH Doooz to WnxiAM Clabk, October 18, 1785. 

[Dmpci MSS.. iMt3&-i»7.— jV. L. S.] 

Kaskaskias 18 October 1765 
Deab Sie, 

This makes Several Letters wTOlc you without the Pleasure of any of 
Yours wluL-h mode me think that You had left the Contry But By Chance 
heard that You wasSiiUon the Land of the Liveing all though have noth- 
ing Protickcler to trouble You with. I Dare Say that You have heard 
of the Create fresh all the Hole Contry Drowned No. of Houses Carried 
into the Missispia and to Complcal the misery of the Inhabitants has 
Ben a Create Drouth So that what was not Kihl with water — is with fire 
None But My Self who has Setled on the opcsite Side of the River & have 


OIK of the finest Scats in the Contry and morr «-heat than the Hulc Beside. 
I bear that you have M' Geroults affairs in your Hands and as I have 
Considerable Demands against htm as well as Pcrault would take it as 
a Protjckcler favour if Vou would Let Me Know whcathcr it will Be 
Possible for mc to Recover any thing from them in that Quarter Pray 
Let me Know. 

if thare is anything that I can Serve you in have only to Command me 
Pray ]>t me Know if M' Carney is in that Quarter or wharc the Littile 
Heron is. I am yours to Serve John* Dodge. 

[A(Urfss€d:] M'W™ Clark' 

By M' Biggs Falls Ohio 

Jobs Edgab to Georce R. Clabk, November ;, 17S5. 
[C. C Pp.. lodUn ASxire, Wl, 387.] 

No. I. 

Deak Oekekal, 

I have wrote you maney ktters ancc in the Tllonies Country but never 
have had the pleasure of one from You as Nothing «ould give me more 
pleasure then a few lines from your on hand as Should Expect the News 
of the Callines as you hare Ijeen so latc[c]ly there, there is Now News in 
our Country only the Commandant of St Louis is afcard of .\u Attack 
from the Roilests at Michomuknea as he has given orders for all Cbe 
people in that place to be in Redness when called on with their Armes, 
the Indians is Very tniblesom on the Rivers and declares an Open Wore 
with the Americans, which I am Sure Is nothing I..esont IPtcosant] by the 
Advies of our Nebours the french in this place and the people from 
Micholmicknia which Openly Says the wii\ Aposs All the Americans 
that comes in to this Country for my post it is impossoble to live here if 
we have nut raglucr Justice very Soon the arc worse then the Indians 
and ought to be ruled by a rod of Iron, 

Mrs Edgar Semis her Kind Complements to General Clark and 
rests Sir your Sinc(e]re friend 

Kaska-skics 7th. No»t. 85. Jno Edgar' 

George Rogers Clark Esqr. 

1 i^a oouklA, Bot the tvothcr. cd Gcorit R. 0*rk. Oe «u a member of thf UIîdcu rtpmian «ad 

renMincd JD mniUuyirrvIcr ualll 17A4. Hr llirnlMomv, cmunLMlmtrr tor tUeDWamt fini, tt<iHMIj 
at t\u bMrd, uid iirintiiMl raritym uniil iiis death in iT*t. Thirutcs. R. G.. L}itaiti'V* Liii if 
UamiÊjtrift CalitUim 1 «j Jm Slal» Biilvrual Sivifly of Wimmtm, 1 5 . 

' jQlnE4|trc>au toKAïkïikbia i;Bjat]dltDmilui|{mebtGV)>ipraailnmiltiallundat<lcla0. 
ffli ifmpBllilM won, na the «haJc t» kivr ixm for ilit Frioch in «■■(•«[ the urvcrr ^udKinmi abovr. 

Sm fta, p. «M- For a life vt Ed»r, nc TrM»atni4 of 111. Hbt. 

Hy, looTt p. 64. 



The aforegoing letter was received at the Miami and ordered to be 

forwarcd by Sir Yr. mo. Obcdt. Senrt. 


\E/uiorted:] From Mr. Kdgar ut Kaskaskies to General Clark 

Pu b III- 
mentioning the state of afiairs in the di.<itrict of Kaskaskies etca 
No. r. enclosed in the report of the commissr». of 19. June t786 
[Addressed:] George Rogers Gark Esquire 

Falls Ohio. 

Francisco Criizat to John Baptiste Crbilley and Josfph Dupuis, 

Fc!)ruary 18, 1786. 
[K. HSS.— A. L. S.] 

St. Louis le 18 Février 1786 
MM Jn Bapte Crcly ct Joseph Dupuis aux Kaskaskiaa 

Quelque bonne Envie que j'aie d'entretenir une bonne harmonie 
entre Votre rive et cette-cy et de rendre toute la Justice possible a ceux 
qui réclament ; Je ne puix néanmoins annultcr, comme Vous le d<!sires, 
la Vente que M' N** Lachanse a fait a M. Paient ou Bolduc d'un Nègre 
que Vous dîttes Vous appartenir tant parceque Le dit Sieur Lachanjic 
m'a présente des pieces qui l'autorisent a cela que parcequ'il a Sur 
Votre Partie des biens Suffisants pour y repondre cl que Vous avés lou- 


St. Louis. FebruaT)* 18, 1 786. 
MM. Jean Baptiste Creilleyand Joseph Dupuis, at KaskaskJa. 
Gentlemen : 

However great the wish I may ba%'e to maintain harmony between 
your bank and this one and to render all justice possible to those whf» ask 
for it ; still I am not able to annul, as you desire, the sole which M. N*^ 
Lachanse made to M. Parent or Bolduc of a negro whom you say belongs 
to you, not only Wcause the said M. Lachanse has shown me documents 
which authorize him in this but alst^ because he has in yuur section suffi- 
cient possessions to answer thereto, and because you have always means 
of redress against him. When your court of jiistice is re-established you 



jours Votre recours Sur lui ; une fois Votre justiw rétabli Vous pourrés 
redamer conformément aux Pretentions que Vous pouvés avoir, 
Je SuU tr<5â ['itrfaitcracDt 

Messieurs Votre très humble et obt. Servit"" 

FftANCO Croiat 
Eorigistré au greffe au folio 12 en kaskasklas ce 2" may 1788. 

P Lanclois greffier de Comté 
délivré Cvpw a Mr. Edgar le 3* may 1788. 

P Laxglois greffier de Comté 
[WrUttn on back:] 

Le Sieur Lacbance Est ahve le 19 Et 3 a fait remetre Latire[ ?j du Le 
y Dupuis par M' Janis Le 33 fe^Tié ; Le S' janis La remis a M' Lang- 
lois disant que M* Lanche [ïiV] luy avez donné pour La remettre a Lang- 
lois, et la fair tenirc a M*" dupuîs. 1786 
\Addressed:\ A Messieurs J" B** Crely et J** Dupui» 

will be able tu make your tJaim according to the pretention you may 


1 am, very respectfully, gentlemen, 

Your very humble and very obedient servant, 
P'ranco Cruzat. 
Registered at the Clerk's Office at Kaakaskia, folio 12. 
May 2, 1788. 

P. Langlois, Clerk of the County. 
Delivered copy to M. Edgar the third of May, 178S. 

P. Lakglois, Clerk of the County. 
{Written on back:} 

M. Lachaose arrived the nineteenth and caused to be delivered the 
letter from M. Dupuis, by M. Janis, the 22d of February. M. Janis gave 
it to M. Langlois, saying that M. La.chan5e had given it to him to give 
to Langlois, and to have it held for M. Dupuis. 
[Addressed-^ To M. Jean Bte. Creilley and Joseph Dupuis. 


AuocsTE CHO0TEAO to M. Badcv, March 12, 1786. 
[K. MSS.— A. L. S.] 

St Louis 13 Mars 1786 
A M' Bougie aux Caskaquias 
Monsieur Et Ami, 

n'ayant pu recevoir au poste aucune pelleterie, et d<*3iraTit descendre 
tout de Suiile je ne Vouderais pas aitcndrc les paqucis du missouri. 
C'est pourquoi Si Vous, et Eeâ Parens des miaeurs plassie Vcullent me 
donner a intérêt les paquets qui Sont entre Vos mains a rendre en nature 
dans L'endruiL ou ils Sont je m'oblige de payer Dix Pour Cent par An 
en même Espèce, il m'est pas possible que je m'oblige a donner des 
piastres Car il pourrais Se faire qu'il n'y en aurai pas de Si tôt dans la 

il n'y aurait rien d'Extraordinaire V13 Tétate actuel de Largent que 
Vous Pussiez dans le Cas de les vendre en ville que de 20 a aô Sols En 
piastre gourde. Vous avez vu Vous m(!me L'année dernière Ce dont il 
est Cas. et Si il en est de m£me cette aimée ici je tiens que outre Les 
Risques de Lomonté et de la descente que cela Sera une perle reel pour 
ces mineurs, ne Croyais pas que cela Sois L'envis que j'ai de ces paquets 


St. Louis, March 13, 1786. 
To M. Baugy. at Kaskaskia. 
S» AND Fkien»; 

Since I bave nol been able to collect any peltries at the Post and am 
desirous to go down at once, I do not want to wait for the bundles from 
Missouri. Therefore, if you and the rclatix-cs of the minors Ptasy wish 
to give me at interest the bundles which arc in your hands, to be dcHv- 
ered as ihey are and în ihc place they arc, I agree to pay Icn [«r cent 
annually (n the same species. It is not possible for mc to agree to ])ay 
piastres, for it may happen that there will not be any as soon as that in 
the colony. 

It would be nothing extraordinary, considering the present state of 
money, for you to [obtain], in case you sold them in town, only from 20 
to 16 sols in a piastre gourde. You have yourself seen, last year, what 
the case was; and if It is the same this year, I maintain that aside from 
the risks of going up and down, that vrill Ik a real loss for the minora. 
Do not believe that it is my desire to have (he bundles which makes me 


qui mc tc fais dire ceci Vousenpouvrz juger Comme moi les choses Vous 
Aknt aussi Connus. 

par la premiere occassion faites ra<H je Vous prie réponse du oui, 
«u de non. 

SI its acceptent je mc melterais en route dans le momant môme, Si 
ils ne le vculleni pas, j'atlenderais un Cayeux du village des Uissouris 
qui ne doit t^rdé a paraitFC. 

arrcngez toujours Vos affaires, et tachez de m'cngager 4 Bons hom- 
mes encore. Mes Respects a Madame Voire Epouse a qui je Souhaite 
une Bonne Santé ainsi qu*a toute Votre jwtite famille. 

j'ai L'honneur d'Etre avec Consideration 

Monsieur Votre très humble et très obéissant Serviteur 

Aug Chouteao 
[Addressed:] A Monsieur Bogie hab* aux Caskasltias 

I Tramlaiion.] 
say this. Vou can judge affairs as well as I, since they are also known 
to you.' 

I pray you will answer by the first opportunity, yes or no. 
If they accept, t should set out immedialcly. If they are unwilling, 
I should await a boat from the village of the Missouris, which should 
come soon. 

Settle your affairs and tr)' lo engage for me four more good men. 
My rcspecis to your wife, for whom I wish good health as well as for 
all your liillc family. 

I hare the bonor lo be, with consideration, sir, 

Your very humble and obedient servant. 

Aug. Chouteau. 
Addressed:] To M. Baugy, inhabitant at Kaskaskia. 

I Tkc rnraninit rA Ihc wbok pingraph [i vtrir lUtSnih lo itiakr ooi. TW« b tridan. howetvr. 
ChoulMU maiiiiaia< UiU ut UBDnd Itn [wr ccnl Dald tn pdlrtsi U Ka4>Al« will tw ■ htUcr bar- 
gikla fn the hdn tbut lo tiA (be daogon ol Ihc journ*; to Sew OrleuM ana the diance of Mlttaw 


Meuoeial o; the French Faction to Congkess, June 2, 1786. 

tC. C. pp., Ill-, KasUskia, and Ky., «11, nj.— Attcstpd Copy.] 
Je sertiûe le présente Extrait est Conforme a L'enregistrement remie 
& M"" Joseph Parker, que nous Espèrent qu'U Vous remettera aux Kas- 
KasKias le 29. May. 1786. 
Enregistré folio, 4. 

P"^ Langloi!; 

Notaire et Greffier 
KasKasKias Comttf des illinois 
ce deuxième jour du mois de juin. L'an de grace Mil aept cent quatre- 
vingt si». 

Nous Les soussignées prî Le Congrues de prendre atention du pays 
des illinois a Etablire Le Gouvemcmenl immcdiatlcment pour La pro- 
tection et defence des habitants de leurs propetd nous Consideronts La 
fertilité de la Contrée, d'une gnrnde avantage d^riv^ pour 1.^; Commerce 
grand emigration pour Lavantagc de la Contrée. Noas panson que ce 
nest pas une petit objet pour Le Congrès. Cest pourquoy nous prions 
pour un sistemc de gouvernement nous pmtegcr et apuier nos personnes 
£c soutenir nôtres Droiture pas toutafait pour Les sauvages — plutôt 

I certify that the present extract agrees with that which was registered 
and sent to M. Joseph Parker,' which we hope he will send to you. 
At Kaskaskia, May 29, 1786. 
Registered in folio 4. 


Notary and clerk. 

Kaskaskia, County of the Illinois, this second day of June, of the 
year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six. 

We, the undersigned, pray Congress to take notice ol the country of 
the Illinois and to establish immediately the goTCmment for the protec- 
tion and defence of the inhabitants and their property; for we believe 
[that] the fertility of the land and the great advantage to be derived 
by commerce [wilt attract] a great immigration to the advantage of the 
country. We think that this is not a small object for It is 
for this rea.son that we pray for a .system of government to protect us, to 
strengthen our hands, and to maintain our rights, not only against the 

> Sec fitit, p. ara. 



pour Michilimidina, et iuk Compagnies de sujet de la grand Bretagne 
qui ce aons Kini>arer du Commerce des bons sujet des Etats, dont Us-oDts 
Etablie une traite au Kah/tktas un vi]laj{e prés de noua qui causes un tors 
grand et prejiidire, au bons Sujets des Etats — Et 0s ont détruit 
Letablissement de loi que Los habitant avoît fait Eotreux. Nous 
aoufTront une grande perde pour Le recouvrement de nos juste depts 

Cest pourquoy nous prions le Congrès encore une foy de point nous 
enbandoné plus Ixingtcms, de nous anvoyé et nous octroyé Les lois sans 
délais ; (Et Ixs sujet de la grande Bretagne rH>us menace de nous pcendrc 
sous Leurs Loix.) ^ ausy quelque gens soutenant T^s Sujet de la gnode 
Bretagne, oc sont Eriger En Commandant jusquau point de prendre des 
sujet des Etats, Et Les transporte smc La rive Espagnol, et Les onts 
fait Enprisonné, au Mépris de Letablissement du gouvernement des 
Etats, qui sont Les Sieurs nicolas lacbanse et john dodge, qui ce sont 
Eriger En Commandant. 


Notaire Et greffiere 

[ Transtatùm.] 
Indians but rather against Michillîmakinac and a company of the sub- 
jects of Gruat Britain who are getting posses&ion of the commerce from 
the good subjects of the states. They have established al Caitokia, a 
village near us, a IracUng post which causes great barm and detriment to 
the guod subjects of the stales.' They have destroyed tlie establishment 
of the law which the inhabitants had made among ihemâclvcs.* We suffer 
a great loss in the recovery of our just debts. 

We, therefore, again pray Congress not to abandon us any longer; 
but to send and grant us laws without delay, for the subjects of Great 
Britain threaten to take us under thtir laws, Likewiiie a few persons 
upholding the subjects of Great Britain have installed themselves as 
commanders to such a point as to take subjects of the states and trans- 
[wrt them to the Spanish shore and have them imprisoned, to the disgrace 
of the establishmen [ of the government of the slates. The men who hare 
assumed command are MM. Nicolas Lachanse and John Dodge. 

Pierre Langlois, 

Notary and clerfc. 

■ Stcactioe of ibe Cowl of GtbokU oocnninc \b». 111. Hiit. CaOttiimt. il. jtï. 
, *Thh protMbly rHrrt lo iht airrtm-mt anumg th» inlMbilsoti not to indc Is Ibiuor wtih Uie 





[EndûTsed:] No. 10. Petidon in frencb Inhabitants of Kaskaskies 
Read Augt ?3d 1786 
Rcfenwi to Mr ifonroe 

Mr Johnson 

^C^ King 

Mr Pinckney 

Mr Smith 
Translation enclosed 

Gasjuel Ceb&é's Testiuonv Conc£bkino Iuonois, Given Before 
CoKcBESS, July, 1786.* 

[C. C. Pp , III., KasluLikia à Ky., xlviij., 49. — Translation.] 

Mr. Cerr^ will answer the following inquiries: 

I. Were the ^leople of the Illinois heretofore governed by the laws 
of Canada, or by usages and customs of their own, or partly by une and 
partly by the other? 

3. By what tribunals or judges was criminal or civil justice hercto> 
fore administered in that district i* 

3. By what laws or usages and by what judges Is criminal and civil 
justice dispensed at this time f 

4. In what uiodu and in what quantities were grants of land hereto- 
fore made to îndi%'idual settlers? 

5. To what extent is the whole district appropriated by grants ? 

6. To what extent is the tract or tracts granted to the settlers in com- 
mon for religious or other uses? 

7. What is the computed number of inhabitants in the whole Illinois 
district, and what proportion of them w«re slaves? 

\Endivsed:] Queries put to Mr. Cerré witli his answers relative to the 
setdcrs in the Illinois. 
Answers — 
10 Query 

1st. The people of the Illinois were governed before the Conquest 
of Canada by the same laws as the people of Canada which were of the 
same nature with those of old France, adapted t<j the particular circum- 
stances of the country — They had local cu.stoms which were equally 
binding as the laws — After the conquest the British Commandants 

>TUidac<im«niwiiputJiili«Iby Hem. Wilier B. IVouojuia Mûaourl Hat.Soôety'tCoatriéau, 
Afril. igo], and rcprlaied Ik Trattuaimi ol lU. Saic Htot. SodciT. 140), p. i;<i. 


wot Ot9 Jnâffs who ' g i) « m > Ml by the same Uws ind customs as the 
pea|4e fiwd under bdore the cooqtjest o( Cuuda — All public Imu- : 
mcàoma and nconb beîaig itconkd !b Fmkch bjr Nooiies public — 
Onltn îmatd m Eagibh «cne taadued into French for the ittfbrmatioa 
of the oMmtrT. — Oiniftftl caies weir referred to EngUitd. 

3d. In drfl caan Befcicv the cooqueal of Canada there was aa ' 
AUanty (kmni (Proci a e ar du Roi) who gawe senlenoe in all caaes] 
that utre bnxigbc bcioR faitn bj hb own personal de[c^oa in trilling | 
matSeta but b c&ars of impottaDce tt ms customary for each party to ' 
name two u-biir^un the Attorney Geo), a &fth and he ratihcd their sen- 
tence — An appeal might be made to New Orleans wbcre there was a 
superior Judicature — calkd (cou&setl supérieur), all criaiiDal cases were 
rcfenrd to and decided by thb couaaeil 8u(>ericur at N. Orleans. — Dur- 
ing the British fforemment — The Commandants administered Justice 
as in the first Article.* 

3d. In 1779 — UTwo Col. Todd went into ihat country ihc {leople ' 
chose six magistrates to gorem ihem according to the old French laws 
and customs which Manîstraiea were emp-iwered by Cot Todd to Juc^ 
in criminal cases. A/ter the troops were withdrawn the power of the' 
Magistrates was annihiluted and everything fell into Anarchy and confu- 
sion — ihe State of affairs at this time. 

4tli Before the conquest of Canada the French Commandants had 
llic power to make grants and did grant to every person who petitioned 
as much land as the petitiuner chose to ask foe on condition of cultivating 
part of the same within a year — The English followed the same mode.' 
If the land was not cultivated as above it returned to the Kini^ demesnes. 

5. This question is very difficult and not in Mr. Cemî power to 
answer — hut great quantities have been granted. 

6 A Large quantity of land was reserved in the neighl>ourhood of 

■ Tho Inlliiwlnx wonb mm iiHlcn out; "ruled tt Ihey ircimdnt accoHing to Ù>e BriiUi Uwf 
ud CoaMituiHiiibuCin tMt wfictPtn'MtNUanr. CriinitiA] ojca wen Klartd la Encbad.'' 

* Ctrt4 aliowi a «urpriilnii Icacnuuc ol tho tdmlnblraliuo of ihc law In lUiiioii durias Ihc Ftendi 
ud Bflibh ptfM>, aaiSâemt thit kehut Itnd In Kukukfaiilace i;<f. Frosi Dccmlb«r, ij«a.ia 
tunf.iiTo.iliavwastbencborjudniwbaMlnilniMonlBn^luhLaw. llienalof the disc tbaBdrnW, 
UiratJaa of fiullM wu dlHmuw^ bul durtai the la«t yttn d Ihe Biitlah ptfwd the "-— Tlf*ni>4 
reltrrni dhpulM to ■rbiTraian (Otrttr, C. E., lltuiaù uné^ Um flniùl JCegimr, Jnlin WÎbmv ■ 
Prit^iWfcMoatebepubllihfd). Hk inromuth» coocaniu ibe French poniid li MM OMncaa 
EHWj wnof. Tien wu Id the dUvict rd III InoH a refutar dvOandcHnUiMrfudgeai in crn Praid 
aiHtlct. AiM^mlaMbeimuleioiheMipcrlorcMuidlal NewOriMU. Tb* eyncn of «rblDMkn 
w*a fraqoendT uaed u In mr* Frmeh coun of ihe nerlod. Thr dutls o{ (he "ailonuT ■enenl" 
wwt nicta aa (he litlc of Ihe ntàte impllca. Alnird, "III. In tlic EicUctnth Ctaturr." Bml m t m «C the 
Ul Slaietllai.Ubran.l.^'o ■ 

■ Dm lllt»illr Unitcnani Colnncl folin wnkiai wis Ihe chief oScader. Hb «uc wwi were 

Okivlul liiubc) the Écrm* of the IVKlanuliun ul I7(>J. 



the towns for commons, a very small proportion for religious men anti 
none for othor purposes. 

7. There may be in the Towns on the Mississippi about 300 White 
Inhabitants including American Settlers who may amount to 50.' 
There are moreover about 250 Slaves, so that according to Mr Ccmî 
the population of that part of the Illinois amounts to 550. or 600 souls but 
he docs not appear to be well acquainted with these numbers. 

The foregoing are Mr. Ccrrés answers to the Questions ftrom the Com- 
mittee of Congress referred for translation to 

John Pintard. 

A. MoHtM to TIMOTHÉ DE MoNBREUN, JuIy 15, 1 786. 
[K. MSS..— A. D.S.J 

A Monsieur Thimutd dcmonbrua Ecuyer Lieutenant Gouverneur 
Et commandant aux KasKasKîas, Partie Illinois &c &c &:c 

Le Soussigné a L'honneur de Vous Expoaer qu'ayant fait des avances 
a Monsieur Le Major LcBrun de Bclcour, Par le Compte qu'il a L'hon- 
neur de vous Exîber, Et tomme il a laissé des Effets entre I>es Mains du 
sieur Pierre Langlois Notaire Public de la Conté il vous Suplîc dordonncr 
que Le d' Compte Luy Soit acquîté par La succession de feu Monsieur 


July 15, 1780. 

To M. Ttmothédc Monhreun, Esquire, Lieulenant-Govemor and 
Commandant at Kaskaskta, Illinois Region, etc., etc. 

The undersigned has the honor to make known to you that he made 
advances to Major LeBrun dU Bclcour,' acrording to the account which 
he has the honor to present to you ; and as he (I^Brun) left some goods 
in the hands of M. Pierre Langlots, notary public of the county, he, the 
undersigned, begs you to order that the aforesaid account be paid to 
him by the heirs of the late M. LcBrun dît Bclcour. The suppliant 

ISwcEnui primed ^il, pp.4H,,6n. 

*L(<wiiiiwiiIb*DncMC*iirr la CoruROM, wnl (nr iIid paifil» «I CklioUa «imI Kukukb In I}ft4. 
HeNukatcdoabbwayon. 5a I U. flisl.CuUMt-u.H^caiMi aa>l|M>,p. tif. 


LcBnin dc Bclcour I^ supliact offre dasennenler son d*^ Compte Par- 
devant Vous, Monsieur, Et feray Droit. A MoRix 

KasKasKiasLc 15 Guillet 1786. 

Vu la nrquettc Cy desus y'I Ets ordonne aux representan du sieur 
LcBrun de BcUcCour Dc prandre deus artbitre El L« dis sieur Enloinc 
morin, en choiscsirc Dcu pour Dessidcr Et donner Le Droit asquillas- 
parGuindra [i.e. à qu'il appartiendra] Corne Le sieur Le Brun Ets defun 
Sais tanquoy'que nous surdonon La dcfssïsion De cette demande sy 
par Cas quille soit iicwserc dua surarcBuîlre les Dis sarBuitre le cboiss- 
iront. Donne aux Caskaskia le 15 juîlet 178G.' 

THmorÉ Deuokbrëun L. CD. [?] 

offers to swear to his said account before you, sir; and you will do 
justice. A. MouN, 

K^kaskia, July 13, 17A6. 

In view nf the above [>etition, it is ordered that the representatives 
of M. LeBrun dU Bclcour take two arbiters and the said M.. Antoine 
Morin shall choose two in order to decide and to give justice to whom 
it may belong. Because M. I>cBrun is deceased is the reason that wc 
order the decision on this claim. If there is need of a fifth arbiter 
the aforesaid arbiters vritt choose him. 

Given at Kaskaskia, July 15, 1786. 

Thuioté De Monbeeun, L. C. D. 

PRCx:és Verbal, August z, 1786. 
[K. MSS.— A. D. S.J 
L'an mil Sept Cent quatrevingi et sÎK. Et le deuxième jour du mois 
D'aoust aux Environs des six heures Du matin a La requidisions du sr. 

[Tran flat ion.] 
In the yearone thousand seven hundred and cighty-six, on the second 
day of the month of August, about six o'clock in the morning, at the 

■ Tlic French r>( Ihb dcon- it ihc muat lllltmic viul «>* Ihc mnnC diScuIr la d^ijiber of *a/ lo 
ibnjluiDf, Tb««tfiiiirani6M(uibtuimcine9Bal tbc tmucripi. 



jcac baptist rnootuvreuille Voison du dit sieur Jacque fetix theodorc 
CartuD, Lequelle more requis De me tramporte à U Maison dudit siur 
Jacque felJx teodore Carton, que le dît siur Loub Gcrvais cbamberlang 
ore averty qu'il oré atendu tiré dans La [MS. tarn] . . demeure 
Jacques felix teodore Caxtun sourdemande un Coude fusît, ou pistolet, 
Les quelles dencjmé aurait ouver une fenêtre du Cotte Du sus pour y 
voir ce que c'ettoit Le dit Sieur montuvreuille Et ledit Germain [Ger- 
vais] oté ouvrer La fenêtre du nor tous deux auré Vu Ledit Siur Carton 
tombe En bas dons sa maison une boucanne De poudre a feu qui rem- 
plisse La chambre £t Le dit Carton mort Le Coup d'un pistolet deux 
pistole a CoUé de luy un chaque Cotte, Dont il ny a un décharge. Et 
Lautre non charge Et Le Coup de pistol dans le sain Goche, son Capau 
Servant d'abis perse dudit et brullé, ledit Jacque felix teodore Carton 
Etant mort sure Le planché a Cotté de son lit. Et Le dît Sieur montu- 
reUille deClaré que Catnerine son esclave négresse Etolt au Coing de la 
maison Et auroit dit mon maître a tit^ dstns la maison. Et Ledit ger- 
main dcClaré que Ladite ncgrc&sc ctoit au Bout de la maison el a 

requisition of M. Jean Baptiste MonturcutUc, a neighbor of the said 
H. Jacques Felix Theodore Carton, 1 was required to betake myself 
to the house of the said Jacques Felix Theodore Carton, for M. Louis 
Gervaiâ Chamberlin bad informed the said MontureuîlJe that he bad 
heard a shot in the house where Jacques Felix Theodore Carton lived, 
a mufSed shot as of a gun or a pistol. These two men, MM. Montu- 
reuitle and Gervais,' had opened a window on the south side to see 
what bad happened; and they opened the window on the north and both 
of them saw the said M. Carton fallen on the floor of his house and the 
room filled with powder smoke. The said Carton was dead from a 
pistol-shot, two pistols were beside him, one on each side, one of which 
was not discharged and the other was not loaded. The pistol shot was 
in W\s left breast and his capot serving as a shield was pierced and burned. 
And the said Jacques Felix Theodore Carton was dead on the âoor by 
the side of his bed. The said M. Montureuille declared that Catherine, 
the negro slave of Carton, was at the comer of the house and had said: 
"My master has fired in the house." And the said Gervais declared 
that the negrcis was at the end of the house calling him and saying 

Tbe d«rk hu evidcnilr «dtun Gcrawln (or Gcrvsii Mvtnl ibwa. 



riant disant \\fS. font] tirf daas La nuisoa Les fenetic etoit ferme 
Les porte de la mùsun ferme, une porte d'uoe a[>entY ou\-ertc, trouvant 
Sure La table un petit Buia de tb< et un put dan quoi lui aves du 
suoc Et I^s dits Siurs deClarant declaie que Ia nc^Rae suroît EU 
■vcrtÏR Mooakur pierre huit de Laraiinierc Curf de la parobse de 
Limmioilée Co&ceptioo de notre dame de la ville des KasKasKJas 
paya des iUinois, LequcUe siur de Lavaliniere curé aoré axner Etrou^t: 
Le dit Siur Carton qui soupire Lequel curé Locé Ex Exort^ a la mort, 
Et En presence des Siurs nicolas janis Capitaine de milbe, Et mathorfai 
Bouvet Et rené soumande Et antoinc murin, et John Edgar El Biaise 
Barutel Lesquelles ont sîgnies avec Le dit notaire soussigoé a la reserve 
des âeurs jean ba|>tis moatureUille et louis Gerrais qui ont dit ne le 
savtnre de ce Enquis Lecture fait, 
teimùns present 


jASiB At (uorin] j B** + MoNXLTixtnuj; 

Bouvet marque 


that her mnsirr had fireil in ihe house. 7*hc windows were dosed and 
the doors of the house uvre rinsed. A door of a p.tntr)'[ f] was open aod 
ibey found on the tabic a little pot of tea and a pot in which there was 
some sugar. And the dcjKinents declare that the negress had been to 
inforro M. Pierre Huct de la Valinîfere, the priest of the parish of the 
Immaculate Conception of our Lady of the village of Kaskaskia, 
country of the Illinois, and that M. dc la Valiniere arrived and found 
the said M. Carton still breathing and that the priest exhorted him at 
his death. And in the presence of MM. Nicolas Janis, captain of the 
militia, Mathurin Bouwt, René Soumande, Antoine Morin, John Edgar^ 
and Blaise Banitct, they have signed with the undersigned notary, with' 
the exception of MM. Jean Baptise 3hfontureuille and Louis Gcrvats, 
who said that ihcy did not know how. The minutes of this investif 
tion were read. 

Witness present. 


Janls. Akt. (MorinJ J. Baptiste + MoNXUREtmxE. 

BouvsT. mark 


J Edgab sa 

Babutel Louis + gebvais 

&ENÉ souMANDE marque 

pu Langlois 
Copie livré a Mr Beauvais 
[Endorsed:'] 17S6. Procès verbal du Corp de j'acque felîx theodore 
Carton, ce a™* aoust. 
Copie livré 

J. Edgas. His 

Bardtel. LODIS + Gervais. 

Rene Soumande. mark 

PiESKE Langlois, 
Copy delivered to M. Bauvais. 
[Endorsed:] Procis verbal of the death of Jacques Felix Theodore 
Carton, this August second. 
Copy delivered. 


cB vertD De laa de UMea i hfc g ttiak de U Vîifiiûe TXnoe a Mr^ 
tode ctut au gnSe chez Mr I in|^i. Rttis poor tous ceux qui otu 
besoin pixn- quoy que J4i Coaaitaâaa de LieutBasBk depMe et COaunan- 
dau dc U Coaié des iUiaais Mooaiear jcaa Bte. Baeti«n a oxm lieu etj 
phce cl Sonant tous pomwraeqieimaique tub sent en txaikquikte Ot 
district au Kaskaskia, Ce 14"* aoost 1786.' 


Lieutenant de Coûte 
[TmuiaHom.] fl 

Bjr virtue of an act of the Geœral Assembly of Virginia delivered to " 
Mr. Tudd, which Ls at the house of M. Langlois and which is directed 
to all whom it may coocem, I have conunissioned as Deputy Lieu- 
tenant and Commandant of the County of Iltinois M. Jean Baptiste 
Barbau in my place and stead, to act with all the powers given me; 
and I hope that peace will be preserved in the district. 
Kaskaskia, August 14, 1786. 

(Signed) TraOTHÉ de Monbrel'n, 

County Lieutenant.! 
'Till III! Til I II II II I mill lull II 1 1 Kill II II 1 1 till I III 1 III r j mill niwiiiiiMliiii 

■Udi Kkbard WijutuQ (an lo [>c Moabmin. See «Kb, p. j3i, a. i 



Resolution of Congress, August 23, 1786. 

[C- C. P|i-, 111., ICiukaiikiii, itnd Ky., xxx., 491.] 

The Committee to whom was rcfcrr'd a pc-titiun from the inhabitimts 
of Koâkaskias for the or^nization of a gov't, over the suid district, 
submit the following report in part — 

Ordered that the Secy, of Cungress iaform the i 11 habitants cif the 
said district that Congress have under th{:ir considération the plan 
of a tcm{iorary govt, for said discrirt and that its adoption will lie no 
longer protracted than the importance of tlie subject and a due regard 
to their interest may require.' 

Report of Mr Mosboe No. 5. 

Mr Johnson 
Mr King 


Mb Smith 
On petition of Raskaskias delivered 33 Aug 1786 Agreed to 

Petition to Mathurin BotJVET by Joseph Baucy as Guardian 
TO THK Minor Children Duplassy, August 35, 1786. 
(K. MSS.— A, n. .sj 
A Monsieur mathurin Bouvet Juge Civile Et Criminal De la rille 
Des KiisKasKias pays des Illinois &c fi:c &c 


Joseph Bougi tuteur des mineurs Duplasy a l'honneur de vous 
Exposée quau Défaut de justice Etably En cette ville des KasKasKias 

To M. Mathurin Bouvet, Civil and Criminal Judge of itie Village 
of Kaska-skia,^ County of the Illinois, etc. etc. etc. 

Joseph Baugy, guardian of the minors Duplasy, has the honor 
to inform you that, in default of an established court of justice in this 

>ThùrMolui)(intanriiitcdia/#wnHJiii/C(Himjf, It.. WS. ]| wu tbc reauli «( the BniDriaJ 
of thoFitnchfiaiuu, HtiickwubftMilM toCaEvnatby Jiaqihl^ka. Socaur, p. j|t. 

■ Tht* ttttHat U [be priodpil nwen (or tho bMsnloa of tbb doatiMM. Roam ww tTiOtnilj 
■n appcjiitnuni oi iht puty «hkh («Knl Dc Moabreun from llie ottcc at oxialf UniHcunL Among 
the pMiticni of ih« retr the Ant «d*aMd M above li <Um<1 Julr 18. ■ 78». «iid tbeku il dated Octobtf 
17, \jU. See /U. jtf. CUhctMU. U., otnii. 



qu'i! auroit fait faire plusieurs actes D'asscmbUîes des parens «t amis 
Drsdits mineurs, pour tlclibcnî Ixurs hicns sur rc quil oré peu donner 
Leurs S'avis. Comme un tuteur doit faire tourhan biens des Min- 
eurs afin De ce mettre à Eviter toutes Contestations de la part des 
mineurs \,\fS. tom] la loi dicte qu'un tuteur ne peut estre repris lors 
quil Sui Lavis des parons F-t amis des mineurs, Et ayant fait statué Le 
pris des pelteris par une assemblée Corne ayant Eté refusé par Les juge 
daministré Ix;urs charge dît sans ayant remis tueurs charge ; Ccst pour- 
quoy que Le suppliant vous suppli Monsieur de wiuloir omologué Les 
actes des parens Et amis, afin dcvîter a lavcnîr toute Contestations 
Comme exersant ponctuel [AfS. torn] charge de tuteur, tant jx>ur L'in- 
tcrcst des dits mineurs que pour prouver Lexattitude de mon administra- 
tion, à suivre Ce quîl ma Eté ordonné par Les dits avis des dits parens 
et amis, ce ses que espère celui qui i l'honneur D'estre Et vous fettf 
Droit, osisté du subroge tuteur 

[ Transla$ioH.\ 

village of Kaskaskîa, he has had made scvltoI certificates |of the deter- 
minations] of assemblies of the relatives and friends of the said minors 
[summoned] to deliberate concerning the possessions of the minors upon 
which he would be able to give them his advice, as a guardian ought 
to do when it concerns the possessions of minors, st.> as to he in a position 
lo avoid all sorts of litigations on the part of the minors, [for] the law 
says th:it a guardian cannot lie held a'.sponsihlc when he follows the 
advice of the parents and the friends of the minors. And the said 
guardian has had the price of the peltries determined by an assembly, 
as the judges refused to administer their said office without having 
resigned ihcir powers. It is fo^r this reason that the suppliant begs 
of you, sir, to consent lo confirm the acts of the relatives and friends, 
5(5 as to avoid in the future all litigations, since he has exercised punc- 
tually the duty of guardian; (and I beg you to do this] liolh for the 
interest of the minors and to prove the exactness of my administration 
in following what was ordered by the said relatives and friends. That 
is what is hoped by him who has the honor to he; and you shall do 
jtistice. Assisted by the surrogate guardian. V 

■ The iDcaaloc of the Prraeli la vtry doubiiul in « aumber of |ll^ot>. 



JOSEPH + Botrci tuteur 
Aux KasKasKîas Le 25' aoust 1786 Lonval 
Vu LEXposé En îcelle il me sera Communiqué Les procfis verbaux 
d'avis des parens Kl amis des Mineurs duplacis afm d'y Entt^rrincr 
Le nouv [MS. torn] Kaison Est aux KasKusKias Ce 35 aoust 1 7SÔ 

M BonvET 
[Endfffsed:] 17S6. Kequette de M. Joseph Baugt luieur Des mineurs 
Dupluy ce 35 aoust 


Jos>:ru + Baocy, Guardian. 
Kaskaskia, August 25, 1786. Los>'AL. 

Iq view u( tliis exposition, an officiai report will be presented to 
me concerning the advice of the relatives and friend of the minors 
Duplaay so as to confirm llie new [MS. torn] if there is cause. Kas- 
kaskia, August 35, 1736. 


J. C. C. 
[Endprsed:] 1786. Petition of M. Joseph Baugy, guardian oE the 
minors Duplasy, this August 35. 

Joseph Dupuis to Mathurin Bouvet, 17 October, 1786. 

(K. MSK— A. D. S.] 

A Monsieur mathurin Bou\'et Juge Civile Et Criminal de la ville 
des KasKasKias. Sec. &c. 

Joseph Dupuis, à I'humicur dc vous exposée qui! tlst dans le sent- 


To M. itathurin Bouvet, Judge of the Civil and Criminal Court 
of the Village of Kaskaskia, elc, etc. 

Joseph niM*i.w Im« tk* k , you that he has the inten- 



ûncnl de sorty de celte \it)c, Kn6n de pouroir gagnivr sa vie dans un 
autre Lieu, Et quîl aurott Ktâ numéc tuteur Des mineurs de feu M. 
gabriel hobuchon, Cest pourquojf quil vous Suplie trvs humhlctnrnt luy 
permetre de Convoque une assemblée lic parerui F.t amis des dits mineurs, 
pour La nomination D'un tuteur, à st^n Lieu Et afin de luy rendre 
Compt de sa gestion de tuteur a6n de re retirer sans que nul personne 
puis hiy imputer de neglîgance El Comme Les bien des dits mineurs 
reste En celte ville Et Le dit supliant nelant pas En môme d'y veillier 
Etant sorty de la ditte ville Cest La ^nse espère Ci-luy qui a rhonoeur 
d'estrc Et que vous En ordonnera Et Vous y fertf droit, 
au KasKasKias le i;-^ &'^ 1786. Sa 

Joseph + ûupuis 

Viennent L«s parens Et a dcfaut des amis dc-s dits tuteurs au nombre 
Compctant jcudy dixncuvicme jour du pri:âtDt Mois aux Eins de sub- 
stituer un tuteur au Lieu Et place du Supliant Mandons aux KasKasKias 
Ce 17 8>»* 1786. 

M Bouvet. J. C C. 

tion of leaving The village in order to earn his living In some other place, 
and that inasmuch as he was named guardian of the minors of the late 
M. Gabriel Aubuchon, for this reason, he prays you very humbly to 
permit hmi to convoke an assembly of (he relatives and friends of the 
minors in order to proceed to the nomination of a guardian in his place 
and stead, in order to render an account of his administration as guar- 
dian so that he may go away and no one be able to charge him with 
negligence. And inasmuch as the possessions of the said minors remain 
in this village, and the said petitioner will not be in a position to look 
after the said possessions after he has left the said village, he hopes 
lor this favor, and that you will so order and do justice. 
Kaskaskia, October 17, T786. his 

Joseph + Dupcis. 

Let the relatives, and in default thereof, some of the friends of theJ 
said guardians aiwemble on the nineteenth of this month in order to 
substitute a guardian in the place of the petitioner. We so decree. 
At Kaskaskia, this seventeenth of October, r786. 

M. Bou\T.T, J. C. C. 



James Alueb to Georgb R. Clark, October 22, 1786. 

lDr«per MSS.. 53JS4.— A. U S.] 

Kaskoskia CM' zad 1786 
May it Please Youe Excellkncv, 

To Accept u few Lines frum me, iis the only way, 1 have to Con- 
gratulate yuu, un yuur Arrival to the Post of S* VIncenL Shewing my 
Very heartfelt Joy. nf ytjur Aproarli lo tliis Pust, And also of the Public 
Spirit of Madam Edgar, who gave Scnlimcnl, wishing you and your 
Arms Sucess to your wishes. I Leam that the Milittia has Returned 
to the Falls for want nf Provision which I am Sorry for, Especially 
when there is Plenty of fluur here in this Place, it would be much Pleasure 
to me to hear from you Ami if I can be of Any use in Purchasing or 
Assisting to purchase, with Safety to {blank in MS.] it ivilS aflord me 
the Greatest Pleasure to be at your Command.' 

I Am Your Most Obed' & Very Hum» Scn-ant 

James Aldeb 
[Addressed:] To His Excellancy Brigadier General Clark. 

P» M' M'Coy. Post S' Vincent. 

John Edcab to Geobge: R. Clakk, October 3j, 17S6.' 

[Draper MSS., saJsS-— A. L. S.] 


I Rec^ yours by Express of the Eigbtecnlh Instant and Observe 
the Contents of your Letter and am very happy to ûnd that you put 
Confidence in me. There is Nothing that 1 wuuid not do to Serve 
General Clark, 5; my Country. 

And you may Depend on me that I will Execute your Order or any 
Other Orders, ynu may think proper to enfairc [sic] on mc, to the last 
tittle that is in my power, the Inhaiiilaiits of these Villages is very 
much Disaffected lo the United States, owing much to the Michla- 
matknac Company, which hoUls a large Trading House at CahoUia for 
the stiply of the Savages. If any thing toum u]> in the lUenois of 

) Chit wu cnakinB ■□ ncprcKlIitt apliiM the ladiftltt at itiii lime The cotMequ en M ol diis am} 
ihc lollowiox l-rticr wu that a company wu «ni Irani Vtoonuin lo obuin (upytit*. For aa accwiu 

a! ibe cnull; mc poii, p. 4j6. 

>Tbta Inw I* (vbtKl In Wù. Biit,C»lUtiiiMi. iriCi, 439. 



ComequeDce I sbuU Immediately give yuu laicUcgancc by Express. 
I am sir 

Your Most OI>wi' and Humble Serv» 

John Epuak 
KiiskuMki& 33*^ Oct'^ 1786 

N. B. Tliis Country is tutaly lost if we have not Government 
established here Suun &{: &c 

1 was ublidg^ to give S^ Ange [a] horse as the one he brought 
give out. J. E. 

[Addressed:] George K. (^iark Esq*" Post Vincent. 

Jean Bte. Basbau to Pierre Langlois, January, 17S7. 

[K. MSS.— A. L.S.] 
a la preri du [MS. lorn] 

[jjanvier 1787 
Mon CHER Langlois, 

fommc je ncs plAf.V. torn] riocalnn jc suis obliges dc tann[.l/.S*. lorn] 
un de mes niîgrc pour te rcmersicr dc la complcsancc que tus a hus dc 
tncscrirc me disans quils Etes ariws des papier du congres que Ion ma- 
t^ndes avec les abitant du vîlage, la sirconstanccs du tans E mon lodis- 
possîcion dune incommoditcr man pèche de me tranceporter oKaa 
comme mcssicur les abitan pou\'es nous atandrc pour an faire louvcrle 
comme cet une chosse asses bterescantc i>our les sistoien je les pria 
dan faire la lecture comme sis nou i etion je tvux pri\'cs dc voulouai 
avoirc la couplcssance de me marque les nouvelle par uu pctis mot de 


M Prairie du (Rocher] [JJanuarj-, 1787 
Mv DEAR Lanolols: 

As 1 do not ha^'e the opportunity [of going myself], I am obliged to 
send you one of my negroes in order to thank you for your kindness in 
writing to Icll mc that there had arrived some papers from Congress and 
that the inhabitants of the village are expecting me. The circumstances 
of the lime and my illiu^ss prevent me from going myself to Kaskaskîa. 
As the inhabitants may \k expecting us lo open the papers and as it ts 
a thing very interesting for the citizens, I ask them to have ihem read, as 
though I were there. I beg you to lie kind enough to tell mc the news 


A PLACARD, APRIL 3i, 1787 397 

lestre ce que jatan avec baucoup de plesire jespere que tus voudras 
bien avoire celte complesance 

ceUuî qui £s avec Estime ton serviteur 


in a short tcLtcr wliich I shall expect with much pleasure.* I uust you 
will have lluit kindness. 

He who is with esteem your servant, 


Placard Concekning Marguerite Bektlev, April 31, 1787. 

[K- M.SS.— A, n. S] 
Advertise UENT 

Kaskaskias 21" April 1787. 

Whereas Margret Beauvais alias Mrs Bentley' has by her infamous 
Conduct and Whoredom dissipated & squandcr'd away great part of 
the Kstate nf M'' Thiimas Bentley disscascd & has forntcd & tost all 
Right Title Claim & Pretention to any part of saJd Estate except One 
dollar according to his express Will. — The said Estate is mortgaged for 
the full & Just Sum of Thirty Thousand Livres with Interest which 
Obligation is in my Possessiun. — I do hereby forwam all & every Per- 
son or Persons whomsoewr from harbouring concealing or detaining oa 
any Pretence whatsoever a Certain Mallattoe Woman named Genvievtf 
with four Children also a Negro Man named Pcreault as well as any other 
part of said Estate on pain of suffering the Rigour of the Law except 
Daniel M'^Elduff Esq' who I have authorized my attorney. 

I inform Madame Bcntleys Scribbler or Cleric who takes it on him- 
self to dictate translate Sec her infamous Lies & Untruths that tic had 
Iwtter mind his own Business & have a little more Respect to the Cloth 
which some o^-ersighted Clergy may have given hira. Although this 

1 The ptprn (ram CooRtoB cnoloiiicd the ■moaDocan'Cnt Ihit a ««minieai woa\d hr ptuvMrI 
u mxm M pe«lbl«. Sk mU, y. 391. awl rvd P- 4*7- CoMuli tlw tlL Uin, C^Utflimi, ii., 11. ciuiL 

1 '['hire b ■ TtTf UtfC Bimher ol psMn eonctraloK tlie dfapute bcfwtco Manurrilr Bmilcy aod 
Dodge in line X. itSS.; bul ii h» burfK- trrwatd wonh whlli fntuiat Ibem all, alUwuih Uic om 
appou* to birc ImcI ila effect on the [nlitieal (ituatioa. HtduM Bcntlry btloaati lo the Baunk 
UmUj, «Ucb prahably mctuunu lur inudi of iht oppadtiaa o( IliBt (amSy to Dtidac Sbs uuried 
BcBllar alurlty before tie mit «-111 ■ uiviDCT to Canaib. At thai time hr appeanlrom hklettan to 
have btrti load of hn «jfi?. U'hm be rFiumrd to niimb be t«(iu«d to IIt« irflh hs tad mute lb* 
mate charin apiiul N>n- that D-'lic rliil later. Ob Benllejr'i dntb Dodfc beoune cncvtut «f the 
cNale awl kept the idle out of Ihc propoly. Hadkine BenUey could get no aatiiCaclian (n ntinab 
heatuae d Ibe lack uf a nnirt Mtrr Dridwi went Eci Ibo SpanUi bank, ihe hraugbl «nil More tbt 
———'"*■■' at Si. Louit, aad lesms to hate eoaviwed Uib at het riihCa. Tfac ca*e »u brmishl 
bcTor* the Court ol ICuka>kaKlH>,aDd.a>maTbaMailromKLi(crdixurR(aiC^(l,p.4]l)lluwkKÎÏ> 
ermpctliloncdCoacnailotiuttlce. Tbe^pcndonMreml ihciequtt. 



is not Recorded in the Town Journal, the Coppy is to be found when 
J ustitc takes place Jons Dodge 

Executor Administrator of the 
Estate aforesaid 

Jban Btë. Barbad to thf. ItmABiTAKTs AT Kaskaskia, May 2, fJ&T- 
[K. MSS.— A. L. S.] 


Je viens de recevoir une letrc de vous en datte du 30 du Mois dernier 
et hf!iche pue je vab faire mettre a la porte de Ic>;Usc je suis d'autant plus 
charmé de vos bonnes intentions p^aur Ictahlîsscment dune autborilé 
civille qui Mettra un frein a beauCoup de gens qui sont ennemis de la 

U y a longtemps Messieurs que jay pensé a vous Communiquer la 
Même chose puis qu'enfin l'accord et la bon inlrlligcnce me paroit réelle 
ches vous je vous donne mon aprobation et my transporteray autant 
quîl me sera possible. jay l'honneur detre avec sincérité Messieurs 

votre très humble et très obeisant st-rviicur 


prairie durocher ce may a*"" 1 787 
[Addreîsfd:] A MoNSitUR Pierre Lanclois Notaire public au district 
des Ka5kasli.ia5 Pour ctix; Communique a Messieurs les habittants des 

Gentlemen : 

I have just received a letter from you, dated the thirtieth of last month 
and the notice which I am to have posted on the di«>r of the church. I 
am much pleased n-ith your good intentions to establish a civil authority 
which wiU put a check upon a number of people who are enemies to 

I have thought for a long time to communicate this very thing to you, 
since at last accord and harmony seem real in your midst. I give you my 
approbation and shall come lo Kaakaskia as soon as possible. 

I have the honor to be with sincerily^ gentlemen, 

Youc very humble and very obedient servant, 


Prairie Du Rocher, this May a, 1787. 
{Addressed:] To M. Pierre Lanclois, Notary Public in the District 
of Kaskaskia, to be communicated to the Inhabitants of Kaskaskia. 



Repoht of Committee of Congbess, May 7, 1787, 

[C. C. Pp-. 1"-, KaskaskU, and Ky., xxx-, 493.] 

The Committee consisringof Mr. Madison, Mr. Clark, and Mr. Daoe 
lo whom was referred sundry papers relative to the settlements of post 
St Vincents and the Illonois — report.' 

That in the settlements of Post St. Vincents the Kaskaskias and Uli- 
noia there arc a large number of Inhabitants, principally descendants of 
the antient French Settlers who have for seventy or eighty years past liecn 
governed by French laws usages and Customs. Vour committee find ihe 
Inhabitants of those places disposed to submit to Government and good 
order, and solicitous to receive their laws and protection from the united 
States — that for want of criminal laws and magistrates among them lo 
administer their existing laws and customs they are subjected lo very 
great inconveniences, and many mere land Jobbers are induced to intrude 
on their lands and disturbc their possessions — wherefore the Committee 
are clearly of opinion that Congress ought without delay to pro\nde for 
the admtnstration of Govcromcn* and (or forming some additional laws 
in those settlements — and therefore they submit the following resolves: 

Resolved (hat a Commissioner be appointed by Congress, whose 
commission shall continue in force three years unless sooner revoked, for 
the settlements of Post St. Vincents, Kaskaskias and Illinois, whose duty 
it shall be to divide the said settlements into proper districts containing 
not more than eight nor less than four hundred inhabitants each, and aa 
soon as may be to summon the Inhabitants of each to meet and elect as 
near as may be for each two hundred Inhabitants one magistrate. 

Resolved that the magistrates of each district or the major part of 
them shall have full power and authority to hear and determine all Con- 
troversies not relating to property io lands, according to the laws, usages, 
and customs that prevail in such district 

Resolved that the said commissioner and the major part of the said 
magistrates of the district, (the whole being sununooed to attend the 
Court) shall have full power and authority to examine into the titles and 
possessions of the Inhabitants thereof or persons claiming lands therein, 

i;St. prinlnl mU*, p. J7i. Noadko 

' Tlu* repiort il ùmilir in iharaclcr (o diet of March 14, i;Bt. 

VU teka on li iiid ilir wbok tuhjrct wm kvfoiKn in the dWuMli 

Kacthwcn OrdiiuntF o[ i;8;. 

tbe feUowInf: " m* «mmiti . 

ftfkd Mr. Smilll lo ivhom wui rrfnrcd ihc rrporC ai 3 caminlltec, tD1ic:hlng ihv Um| 
of thewtau» terrtlory, rcfiincduQ otilinaacclor thcjioycnuacatof tbcUirltorr 
iMrtbwcnaf the riva OIûd, whkb n* md a fim time." 

iw) ol Uie brauier 'qunciao Of Uh 
[n ihr Jmimai c1 Cimfttii under July ir, IÏ87 (vd. ilL. ttl ooonm 
i'ht «mmitifc. conUti<np □( Mr, C*rTUMoe, Mr. Uao*. Hi. R. U. Im, Mr. 

Ill - ■ 



to give judgment concerning them and to award execution accortUng to 
the laws and customs prevailing in such district — and also to exercise 
crinunal Jurisdiction and to take cognizance of aJl crimes and offences 
committed within the district and on complaint ot information to con- 
sider the same and the evidence and award such sentence and punishment 
as are by the laws of Virginia annexed to like crimes and offences and it 
shall immediately l»c made known in said districts what punishments are 
annexed by the criminal laws of Virginia to the several species of Crimes 
and (jffences 

Resolved that the said Conunissiuner and Uvo thirds of the said 
magistrales of all the districts duly assembled shall have full jwwcr by 
the cooscnt of the commisioacr and a major part of the magistrates 
present to make laws and to alter tlie laws of the said districts for the 
better guvernment thereof reporting the same tu Congress which shall 
be in full force unless disapproved of by Congress and the said Commis- 
sioner in all Courts or assemblies, in which he shall be a member, shall 

Re-solved that the said Commissioner with the advice and Consent 
of the major part nf the said Magistrates of the district shall appoint 
executive officers therein respectively to carr)' their decrees into execu- 
tion — and also a register in each district and the said magistrates 
executive officers and registers shall continue in office four years unless 
sooner removed therefrom by Congress or those who appointed them 

Resolved that the register of the District shall keep in some con- 
venient place in it a registry in which there shall be recorded by him all 
deeds and Instruments conveying lands or any estate therein and also 
all executions extended on lands — it shall alsobcthedulyof thcreps- 
ler of the district to act as Clerk to and carefully record and preserve 
the proceedings of the Judidal Courts held therein 

Rcsciilved that no propjcrty in lands after the first day of September 
next shall be transferred but by bargain and agreement fairly and opiealy 
made by the parties before some NJagistralc of the District in which the 
lands may be by deed in writing duly executed and acknowledged in bis 
preseiur attested by him and tivo other witnesses and regi&tred within 
twelve months after the execution thereof — or by executions duly 
extended and registred within six months from the time of extending the 



Resolved that ihc Commissioner be and he is hereby ïmpowercd lo 
organize, regulate and cummand the militia of the said Districts aod to 
tslabliah suitable posts of defence against the savages — it shall be his 
duty to pnrsen'e peace with the Indian nations and to pennJt no sclde- 
mcnts on their lands or Intrusions on lands of the United States in that 
part of the Country — it shall be his duty and the duty of the magistrates 
to prevent by all proper means unfair and fraudulent purchases of the 
lands of the said Inhabitants — it shall be his duty also to explain to 
them the laws of the United States and to inform Congress from time to 
time of the situation and Interesting concerns of those districts — it shall 
be his duty constantly to reside among the said Inhabitants and to pro- 
mote Justice harmony and industry among them 

Resolved that the said Commissioner and all officers appointed in 
said districts previous to their entering on the duties of their respective 
offices shall take an oath for the faithful discharge (hereof and an oath 
of fidelity to the United States the said Commissioner before [blank] and 
the other officers before ihc said Commissioner ccrtifirales of all which 
oaths shall be lodged in the office of the Sccrctar>' of Congress 

Resolved that the Salary of the said Commissioner be at the rate of 
[blank] Dollars per annum and the register shall have reasonable fees 
established as also the other magistrates and officers for their services by 
the said Commissioner and magistrates authorised to make laws. 

Resolved that the secretary at war furnish the said Commissioner 
with [blank] men of the troops of the United States for the protection of 
said Inhabitants and prL-servalîon of order among them and for the pre- 
vention of intrutions \sic] on public lands 
[Endorsed:] RcjKtrt No. 4. 
Mr Madison 
Mr Clark 
Mr Dane — 

Papers relating to Post St Vincents Illinois etc. — 
Entd. read May 7th. 1787 

assigned for Tuesday 8th. May. 

See — Papers — with file of Northern and Western — Indians etc. — 


CouiossioN, Given by Babbau, to the: Justices or the. Fi:ac£, 

May 18, 1787. 

IK. MSS.— A. D.S.] 

The CommoQn'eaJch nf Virginia lo Henry Smith Thumas Hughes, 
Michael Duff antony Saint gême Bcauvais frands Corset John 
Baptiste saint gfime Beauvais Esquires. 

From the great Confidence in your Judgment & Intégrité by ihe 
good people uf KasKasKias and its Dependencies and agreeably to an 
act of the General assembly nf Virginia you [are] hereby constituted 
& appointed Justices of the peace for the District of KasKasKias and 
judges of the Court of the said District in cases both civil and criminal, 
any four or more of you are authorized to constitute a Court before whom 
shall [MS. torn] all actions and cases of which the Court \AfS. torn] 
des of this Commonwealth, Respectively [\fS. lorn] your Judgments 
must \iave the Concu|K5. torn] least a majoritiî and be entered with 
[^fS. lorn] previous Sz subsequent, and fairly recorded in Books pro- 
vided for that pxirpose Witness John Bajjliste Barbau Deputy County 
Lieutenant or Commandant in Chief of the County of Illinois the iRih. 
day of May in the ten year of the Commonwealth anno que Domini 
1787 Barbait lie* de conte 

to Commandant Mono at Ste: Genevieve, June 30, 1787. 

[K. MSS.— A. U] 
lêtre écrit au Moro, Comdt. a Ste. Cienevieve Juin 30™* 1787 

Je prend la liberté de vous informer que la Négresse que j'avoit 
réclamée comme m'ayant été emmetiée par Mr Dodge, est revenue 
chez moi, en consequence comme elle m'appartient legitement je la 

J'ai l'honneur d'Etre 

Letter Written to Moro, Commandant al Stc. Genevieve, June 30, 1787. 
I take the liberty to inform you that the ncgrcss, who 1 have claimed 
was taken from me by M. Dodge, has come back to mc. Consequently, 
as she legally belongs to me, I keep her. 

I have the honor to be 

A PROTEST, JULY 5, 1787 


[Oft lA« batk is wrUtat] 

[On the back is imM«n] 

A Monsieur 
Monsieur De la VALiKiEtE 
Prctrc 5c Curé aux Kiiskaskia 


To Monsieur M. de la Valmière, 

Priest and Curalc, at Kaskaskia. 

Protest op M. Bol'vet against Hcnbv Suite, July 5, 1787. 
fK. MSS.— A. D. S.J 
L'an Mil Sept Cent quatrevingt sept, !e cinquième jour du mois 
De Juitltct Est Comparu pardevant Le notaire public de la ville des 
KasKasKîas Et greffier du dit lieu, soussigné, Et En presence des 
témoins Cy après nommes aussy soussigné Le Sieur mathurin Bouvet 
Encien maire du dit KasKasKias Et Capitaine Commandant au vHagc 
de St. philipe Le quel nous a déclaré quil auroit Eté arétté par Corps 
le trantieme jour du mois de juin dernier par Monsieur Busk [?] En 
presfnce de Raphael Droua habitant du dît Village St. philii» par un 
Waran ou pris de corps décernée par le Sieur smith En sa qualité Soit 
disant president de la Cour des dits KasKasKîas que le dit Sieur Bouvet 
sans avoir Conoisancc de l'établissement de cette Cour se ccroit Engagé 
a paroitre au jours âxé pour répondre aux demandes de francois St. 


On the fifth of July, 17S7, there appeared before the undersigned 

notary public of the ^lage of Kaskaskia and clerk of the same place, 

and in the presence of witnesses, hereafter named, who signed also, 

the undersigned, M. Mathurin Bouvet, former mayor of the said Kas- 

Lkaskia and captain commandant at the village of St. Philippe, who 
declared to us that he had been arrcstc<l, on June 30 last, by M. Busk 
[?] in the presence of Rapliael Druiiat, inhabitant of the said village 
of St. Philippe, on a warrant or eapias issued by M. Smith in his ofhce 
of ioi disant president of the Court of said Kaskaskia; and further- 
more that the said M. Bouvct without knowledge of the establishment 
of that Court agreed to appeux there on the day ai>pointed in order to 
answer the demands of François St. Marie Montigny, his clerk. M. 


marie mutigtny. \iU] Commis du dît Sieur Bouwt ï^<^ucl a quitté son 
dornitile El ucgligé toutes affaires queIcani|Ucs pour se 0>nlom»er audit 
Waran Et s'est rendu audit lieu dirs KasKiisKijis Ht n'ayaut trouvé ni 
Chambre ni ("our ni president d'Etablis; il |>rotcstc Contre ledit Sr. 
«niilli Comme uyant deccriu- tnalapro^Kis une prise de coqis Contre 
luy Requierant Le dit Sieur smith de luy faire Kaison D'une guinfe 
par heure du moment qu'il est party du vilage St. Phili]»: jusqu'à son 
retour frais de voyage j^eosion, dommages et interest; protestant En 
outre Contre toutles demarches inConsideréc que le dit Sr. Mondgnic 
pui faire Contre luy. ayant party du fort ]iîlre ou te dit Sr. Bouvet 
L'avoit Envoyé Et ayant Eté au détroit sans aurunc ordre du Sr. 
Bouvet ni raison valables pour ses interests Et ne luy ayant rendu aucuns 
Compte de la gestion de ses affaires pourquoy Le dit Sieur Bouvet pro- 
teste Contre (out Engagement que le Sieur montignie a pu faire ou 
pouroit faire par La suite En son nom Kt se pourvoit par ce présentes, 
En dédommagement de tous frais dommages Kt interest En Cas d'in- 
solvabilité de la part du Sr. prose du jour de larivéc du Sr. Montignie 
au fort pitre jusqua son retour au KasKosKias pouvant prouver par 

[TransliitîoH .\ 
Bouvet left his home and neglected all his affairs in order to comply 
with the said warrant, and presented himself at the said place of Kas- 
kaslcia ; and, since he has not found either chamber or court or even a 
president established there, he protests against the said M. Smith for 
having issued wrongly a warrant against him, and he dcmamU that the 
said M. Smith should recompense him at the rate of a guinea per hour 
from the lime he left the village of St. Philip|>e until his return including 
his cjcpenscs on the trip, board, damages, and interest. He protests 
furthermore, against all the unreasonable proceedings which the said 
M. Montigny may make against him, because the said Montîgny de- 
parted from Fort Pitt, whither the said M. Bouvel had sent him, and 
has gone to Detroit without any order from M. Bouvct or any good 
purpose that might further the interests of the latter, and he has given 
no account of the conduct of his affairs. For these reasons M. Bouvel 
protests against all contracts thai M. Montigny may or might have made 
in his name. And by these presents he provides for indemnification 
in all costs, damages, and interest in case of insolvency on the part of 
M. Prose, from the day uf the arrival uf M. Montigny at Fort Pitt until 

A PROTEST, JULY 7, 1787 


la Icltrc du dît prosps qu'il a reçu des Effets Et Emmené un cheval au 
dctroit qu'il a gardé dont TA du tout Le dît Sr. Bouwt a rcquî acte qui 
luy a TAé octroyé pour luy Servir Et ^-aloîr ce qut* de raison Les jours 
Et an que dcssas En presence des Sieur rené soumande Et francois 
Drouarl témoins a ce requi qui ont signé avec Le dît Sîcur Bouvet et 
Ix dit notaire soussigné Lecture fait at-ant mldy. aprouvcr deux rature 
a la premier page 


témoins present 





bis return to Kaskaskia, sînce he is able to prove by the letter of the said 
Prose ' lliat the former received some goods and took a horse to Detroit, 
which he kept. For all this statement the said M. Bouvet has demanded 
an instrument which was granted that it may be of use and validity to 
him, of which this act will testify. The same day and year as above, in 
the presence of MM. René Soumande and François Droiiart, witnesses, 
for this purpose invited, who have agned with the said M. Bouvct 
and the said notary, undersigned. Reading made. Time before noon. 
Two erasures on ihe first page approved. 


Witnesses present, 
René Soumande. 

DboUarx. Phekke Lamclois, 


Protest op Antoine Baovais, St. Gemme Bauvab, and 
François Corset, July 7, 1787. 
[K. MSS.— A. D. S.] 
A L'asaemble [MS. torn] eque [?]. Nous soussignés Magistrats 
du district des KasRasKias. 

To the Public \7] Assembly. We the undersigned magistrates of the 
District of Kaskaskia 

■It h InpUBlU* to nako out the uraf. 



AvDtis mûrement Examine Comme ils vous pluts Messieurs de nous 

honorer de la charge De ma^lral, C'est pourquoy nous vous Ex]Kisons. 

I* L«s dits Sieurs St. Gcmc Bauvaîs et Corset Vous Eitp>ose lors 
qu'ils ctoit Magistrats En 8ï quils ont Eté Déchu par un protest 
mise a la porte de L'Eglise Ccst pourquoy ils vous priroît de vouloir 
En Elire dautrc a leurs lieu Et place, si toute foy que quelque 
personne ait a leurs reproché Sur leurs Conduit Voulant Cependant 
Rstre utile a la sodctté. 

3* il vous a plut Mcssicur d'i metre des Cïtoîen ameriquain auquel 
il natende pas ta langue française, Et que nous ne pouflf^. torn] 
Comuniquer nos pensées [MS. torn] Contestations qui nous sont 

3* Nous vous Exposons pour i tenir Cour sans un intrcprctc qui 
puisse Expliquer les Contestations Et ainsy que la loi, a Nous 
accordé par L'assemblée general de la Virginie Et i traduire toutes 
plainte et la loi afin que nous puïsion terminer nous n'anConnoissons 


Have carefully examined, gentlemen, the announcement that you 
have been pleased to honor us with the otEce of magistrates, and it is for 
that reason that we make known to you the following: 

ist The said St. Geme, Bauvais, and Corset ' show you that, when 
they were magistrates in '83, they were deprived of their office by a pro- 
test posted on the door of the church,' and it is for this reason that they 
]>raye(l yuu to consent to the election of others in their place and stead. 
If some jicrson, nevertheless, should reproach them for their conduct, 
yet they arc willing to be useful to society.' 

2d. It has pleased you, gentlemen, to place in office American 
citizens who do not understand the French language, and with whom wc 
cannot communicate our thoughts [concerning the] litigations that arc 
brought before us. 

3d- Wc show you [that it will be impossible] to hold court without 
an interpreter who will be able to explain the contentions, as well as the 
law granted us by the General Assembly of Virginia, and thai wc do not 
know anyone capable of translating to the Court all complaints as well as 

■ The pauBuc pnttuhtT nftn to Il.r«c mn,. J. Si. Gnrnnc B«UTait wnt itiKnillr aded Si. 
CcmiiM. iJdiiTUiih Anioior fînu'raûi had ihr uric rumc. 

• Ttic notlw pdilrd irohahlr h; WioMon Ed Novonba, nSi. Stt amU, p. m. 

* Mfaulng o! cht Frmdi U iui< tiru. 


A PROTEST, JULY 7, 1787 



pas personne capable, Si vous pouvez nous £d procurer un, et que 
vous vouliez vous En raporlcr a liatrcprete vous En putsserd un 

Quil Soit Etabli une chambre de justice pour I chieger [sieger?]. 

Si vous ne Consente pas a mcRtcnir la Cour telle quel est Etablis 
Im\ accorde que toutes fois que queltjuc Gouvcrncmcnl Sera trouve 
inCapable de produire Ces Effets la pluralité [MS. iûm] dans la 
Socicllé a un indujbltablc] inalienable et inviolable droit de 1c 
refbimer altérer ou abolir de 1:l manier que Ion jugera plus apropos 
et la plus avantageuse au bien public voyë L'article 3. 

Pour obvier au frais de justice sî vous juge a propos qui ny est 
que un huissier pour exerser Les ordres émané de la Cour. Et En 
Cas que vous y Consente Et que quelque personne qui ce trouveront 
dans la prohibition des ordres vous donnera main forte a l'huissier 
Et Ceux qui ccroct Command*? ceront pay^ par ct-Iuy qui ce trouvera 
Dans la prohibition Et Nous avons l'honneur Destre 

[ Translation.] 

the law so that we may come to a decision. fWe further show] that, tf 
yuu ate able to procure an inteqjrclcr for us and are willing to put your 
reliance on the interpreter, you should pass an act to that effect. 

4th. That there be estabUshed a chamber of justice for holding 

5th. If you do not consent to maintain the Court as it was estab- 
lished, the law grants that, whenever government shall be found to I» 
incapable of producing good order, the plurality of votes in society 
has an indubitable, inalienable, and tn\iolabIe right to reform, alter, or 
abolish it in whatever manner it shall be judged to be most fitting and for 
the greatest advantage to the public welfare. Sec article 3. 

6tb. In order to decrease the expense of administering justice, if 
you judge it fitting, there need be only one huissio" to execute the orders 
issuing from the Court: provided you consent to this that, when per- 
sons are found in the act of opposing the orders, you will lend assistance, 
and that those who shall be commanded to asast shall be paid by the 
person who makes the opposition. 

Wc have the honor to be, gentlemeo, 


Messieurs Votre humble obeis* Serviteur 

Antoinx BAtrvAis 


J. S. G. Baovais 
le 7* juillet 1787 

your very humble and obcdicat servants, 

Antoine Bauvais. 


J. S. G. Badvaib. 
July 7, 1787. 

Fraguent op Agreeuent AiioNG THE CmzENS OF Kaskaskia, July 8, 


[K-MSS.— A.D.SO 

[\fS. tarn] kg reprc[senta] 

lion des Magistrats. 

Avons mûrement Considérer L'impossibiliter d'avoir des intrcpreter 
El ainsy l'impossibilité des Magistrat français et amcriquain, de Com- 
muniquer leurs pensée sur le sujet Ft Contestations qu'ils peuvent Leurs 
Estre présenté a la Cour de justice Et pour obvier aux frais. 

C'est pourquoy nous sommes tous unanimement d'avis qu'il n'est que 
des Magistrat françois Comme Etoit etably la cour lors quelle Etoit 
établi par feu M. U>d. Lt. de Comté, El Ceux qui ont £û les voy h l'eléc- 


[MS. torn] ; the repre- 

[sentajtions oE the magistrates. 

We have carefully considered the impossibility of having interpreters 
and also the impossifiility t)f Frencit and American m;if;istrate3 communi- 
cating their thoughts on the subjects and litigations that may be present- 
ed to them in the court of justice and also how to avoid the expense. 

Il is for this reason that we are all unanimously of the opinion that 
there should be only French magistrates just as the Court was estab- 
lished when it was erected by the late M. Todd, County Lieutenant; 
and thai of those who have received the votes in the election which M. 



tion qua. fait M. Barbaux Lt, dc Comte, Les personnes français seront 
Magistrat avec Les trois français qui ont dcja prfiUÎ Serment, tent pour la 
presentation que Ion nous a fait touchant un protest. 

Et [MS. lorn] n'ayant rien à leurs rep [JUS. torn] jusqua 

present que natcndans pfas] lu langue française pour Estre membre de 
la Cour établis k suivre La loi a Nous accoutumé accordif par L'acl de 
lasemblée general de la Virginie, et cela jusqua que le Congre auquel 
nous dépendons ayet Envoyé la resolutions du plan quil a pris pour Le- 
tabliasement d'un Gouvernement En le district Et pour un cheriff nous 
sommes d'opinion qu'il n'En ayet pas qu'un huissier auquel nous don- 
nerons toutes mains forte Lorsque le cas le requera, au KasKasKias ce 
8 juillet 1787 et dans la sîrconstances Ihuissicr donnera Caution. 
Loins BuvAT Janis Jno. EofiAR Lachanse 

Vital Bauvais [\fS. torn] Barutel 
M* ANTAYA Sa marque 
Jne chenter sa marque 
DAK LANIE0SE sa marque 

[jl/.Ç. torn] DEUSLE 

Arcet" Macnabb- 
JEKOUE DAN1S sa marque. 

Barbau, County Lieutenant, held, the Frenchmen shall be magistrates 
together with the three Frenchmen who have already taken the oath. 
As for the representation which has been made to us concerning a pro- 
test [MS. lorn] . , not haWng anjthing to their rep 

until the present, that not understanding the French language in order 
to be a member of the established court, to follow the law lo which we are 
accustomed which has been granted us by the General Assembly of 
Virginia, and that until Congrc-is, on which we depend, shall have sent 
the decision concerning the plan which it has determined upon for the 
establishment of a government in the district. And in regard to a sberifF 
we are of the opinion that there should be only one huissUr, to whom 
we shall all give assistance whenever it will become necessary. 
Kaskaskia, July 8, 17S7, and under the circumstances the huissier will 
give security.' 

Louis BiTYAT. Janis. Jno. Edgar. La Chanse. 

Vital Bauvais. [MS. torn] Barotel, [Mark of +] dk Lisle 
M^ Anta\a, his mark. 
Jne. Chi:nier, his mark. 
Dan. Lanieuse, his mark. 

Arch*' MacNabb. 
Amable Cacn£, his mark. 
Jehoue Danis, his mark. 


> TbencoriUot ilietMtbnaof thr C'wri thiM trr{rf){hanbmprIatnlti}E.C,M45oa,ia"jQba 
il'xKcco(d-U«ak," inCti Hiil. SacUty'tCaUKfiuiii. iv., jo«. 


Joseph Parkf.r to Psksideot St. Clais, October 2, 1787. 

[Draper MSS., 14S170-173. — Copy.] 

New York Octob* a<*, 1787. 

I left KaskaskJa the s**' June last,' and the people of the Illinois 
expected Government would have been established amongst them this 
last spring or summer. The inhabitants of Kaskaskia and other villa^s 
mtended to have another petition by me to Congress, but as it was not 
ready when I was about to leave that place, the people desired I would 
communicate their sentiments to the Congress respecting the price of 
lands in the Illinois.' The inhabitants fmd by an Ordinance of Coa- 
grc&s that lands in the Western country are rated at a dollar an acre» 
and the mode of disposing of those lands are very unfavorable to the 
settling of that country, because they are rated so high for them to pur- 
chase, and those who will hrst settle the country, and the place of sale of 
the lands too great a distance for them to attend — and that some allow- 
ance should be made to them who have risqucd their lives to settle In 
that countiy. If the price of the lands is not reduced, it is the determina- 
tion of the people to go on the other side of the Mississippi, or down to 
the Natchez, to settle ; and such is the encouragement to people who will 
sctUc in the Spanish Territory that a thousand acres of rich land is given 
to cvcr^" person — 1 have known six thousand acres given to one man — 
in order to encourage the culture of tobacco. The King of Spain allows 
ten silver dollars p'c* for tobacco, which is received at the King's Treas- 
ury at New Orleans. 

The inhabitants also complain of the traders from Michilimakinac 
and Detroit, that they should he suffered to remain in their villages, and 
engross all the fur trade and country belonging to the United States, to 
the great injury of .'\merican subjects. The Inhabitants arc of opinion 
that nothing but a government will check their practises of setting the 
savages upon them. 

' lor \\iv movrmcnli uf Jowjii Ptiïrv, cdihuIi 111. Hùi. ColJ«J*oiiJ, îi.. |M).(«i.,«< »? From 
hk *t«tcincDt ibuTc il mnijd wem he imuirml m KnakjukU from JcDturjr lui June «ud inuit tbnr. 

Ian have awbicd the ptnjie in driving oui loha