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Full text of "Kaskaskia under the French regime"

>77.392 
1348 



Kaskaskia 
Under the 
French Regime 




By 

Natalia Maree Belting 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS 
URBANA : 1948 






ILLINOIS STUDIES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 
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ILLINOIS STUDIES IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 

Volume XXIX, Number 3 

PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA 
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE GRADUATE COLLEGE 



BOARD OF EDITORS 



Clarence A. Berdahl 

D. Philip Locklin 
Raymond P. Stearns 



UNIVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 

800—5-48—32393 =: press:: 



Kaskaskia 
Under the 
French Regime 



By 

Natalia Maree Belting 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS 
URBANA : 1948 



Copyright, 1948, by the University of Illinois Press. 
All rights reserved. Permission for reproduction 
in any form may be obtained from the Publisher, 




MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



-^ 










CONTENTS 

-oT I. Introduction 7 

II. Kaskaskia Beginnings 10 

III. The Village of Kaskaskia 23 

IV. Life in the Village 41 

V. Making a Living 52 

VI. Social Life and Customs 68 

Appendix : 

Extracts from the Parish Registers 79 

Notes on the Census of 1752 86 

Bibliography 121 

Index to Names 127 



Chapter I 
INTRODUCTION 

The story of the French in the IlHnois country in the eighteenth century 
is an important and romantic chapter in the history of the United States. 
But so far, it hasn't been told. Alvord outlined the plot in his Illinois 
Country, and various volumes of the collections of the Illinois State 
Historical Library have documented certain special phases of it. This 
present study deals almost entirely with the social history of the six 
Illinois villages with particular attention being paid to the largest 
settlement. 

The records for such a history are comparatively few and widely 
scattered. In the Archives .Rationales at Paris, in the archives of Quebec, 
in the Cabildo archives of New Orleans, and in the Randolph County 
courthouse at Chester, Illinois, lie the documents which are the chief 
sources. But scattered throughout the country are other collections of a 
few pieces that one must consult before he can draw an accurate picture 
of the period. Probably the most valuable of these are the Vaudreuil 
manuscripts included in the Loudoun papers, owned by the Huntington 
Library. 

Fortunately, photostats of most of the relevant documents from the 
French archives are in the Illinois Historical Survey of the LTniversity 
of Illinois; the records of the Superior Council are being calendared by 
the Louisiana Historical Society in each issue of its quarterly; many of 
the notarial files in Quebec have been calendared by Monsieur Roy, 
archivist of the province. 

The chief material for the present study, however, is contained in the 
volumes of the Kaskaskia Manuscripts now in the office of the circuit 
clerk at Chester. Altogether the}^ number 3002 documents, dating from 
about 1 719 to 1780 and beyond. Some of the later ones have been pub- 
lished in the Illinois Historical Collections, but those antedating 1763 
have never been printed. Carefully repaired and provided with large 
and substantial portfolios by the LTniversity of Illinois, they are in ex- 
cellent condition, and though stained by water and time, few of them are 
illegible. They are arranged in volumes marked Private Papers, Public 
Papers, and Commercial Papers; however, since the sheets are loose and 
the pages unnumbered, there is considerable danger of mixing or actual 
loss. Some of the documents are already out of place, for in more than 
one case, records of the same transaction are scattered in three or four 
volumes. 

The author spent a week in the fall of 1939 microfilming those docu- 
ments bearing dates up to 1763 although on account of the shortness of 



8 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

time, she was unable to copy all of the pertinent records in the folios of 
Commercial Papers after volume six. Many of these same documents 
have since been photographed by the Xational Park Service. 

Kaskaskia itself, along with the villages of Fort de Chartres and St. 
Philippe, no longer exists. The last French commandant, Xeyon de 
Villiers, left the Illinois country in June, 1764 with most of his troops 
and quite a few of the habitants, without awaiting the arrival of the 
British soldiers who were to take over the Illinois country under the 
treaty of peace. Louis St. Ange Bellerive was called from his post at 
Vincennes and left in command of the almost empty fort until October 
10, 1765, when it was surrendered to Captain Thomas Stirling and his 
detachment of a hundred men of the Black Watch regiment. St. Ange 
left the British territory and with most of the wealthier habitants took 
up his home in the infant city of St. Louis, founded on the Spanish side 
of the Mississippi the previous year by Pierre Laclede. 

The years of the British occupation and the early days of the Amer- 
ican possession that followed were periods of anarchy. The lack of any 
authorized civil government left the inhabitants without any legal means 
of settling disputes and placed them at the mercy of men interested mainly 
in lining their own pockets. 

In 1818 Kaskaskia became the first capital of the state of Illinois, 
but in the next year the seat of the government was moved eastward to 
Vandalia. Gradually the population of Kaskaskia diminished until it 
became only a quiet, lazy country village half -slumbering on the river 
banks. Year after year floods menaced it, cutting the Kaskaskia channel 
wider and deeper and inundating streets and cellars, while above the 
town the bottleneck of land separating the Mississippi from the Kas- 
kaskia became narrower and narrower. Foreseeing the future, most of 
the few remaining families fled to higher ground on the Illinois side or 
took up new homes in Missouri. In 1881 the peninsula became an island; 
the town, not entirely destroyed, each spring lost a few more buildings 
as they toppled into the ever-widening Mississippi. The village site today 
is entirely gone; the tiny island is but a remnant of the old common fields 
south of Kaskaskia. 

Little remains even of memories of old France in the American 
bottom. Kaskaskia is gone; present-day Kaskaskia keeps alive only the 
name. Fort de Chartres is now a state park, and the stone fort of 1752 
is in the process of reconstruction. Renault's concession of St. Philippe 
was long ago wiped out by the river. But in Prairie du Rocher in recent 
years some of the old customs have been revived by descendants of the 
early Creoles, and the cry of "La gui annee" is heard again on Xew 
Year's Eve. In Cahokia, the state has rebuilt the old courthouse which 
was originally the home of the engineer. Francois Saucier, and which is 



INTRODUCTION 9 

now perhaps the only example of French architecture remaining in Illi- 
nois. Ste. Genevieve, moved from its original site on the low river banks 
to the hills above, still resembles the old French community founded by 
Kaskaskia habitants near the middle of the eighteenth century, though 
there is not a house standing which has not been remodeled by a suc- 
cession of Spanish, German, and American owners. In Old Mines, 
farther to the west, the lead mines are worked with primitive French 
methods, and men still tell the folk tales that were brought from 
France nearly two hundred years ago. With these few exceptions, river 
waters, British and American conquest, and the stream of German im- 
migration into southern Illinois and Missouri have obliterated the French 
culture of old Kaskaskia. 



Chapter II 

KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS 

Mission, 1703-1718 

It was the year 1703. Anne was the new queen of England, Louis XIV 
the old king of France. Europe's soldiers had taken up arms again in the 
War of the Spanish Succession. A month's journey across the vast 
Atlantic, two colonial empires were growing side by side on the North 
American continent. The English trader and his French counterpart, the 
coiireur du bois, pushing westward from the Alleghenies and southward 
from the St. Lawrence, each scheming for the control of the Indian fur 
trade, were laying the groundwork for the coming wilderness struggle 
for colonial supremac}^ 

New York had passed seventy-seven years; the city of Philadelphia 
only a score. Quebec lacked but five years of ending its first century. 
Biloxi, far to the southwest, had been founded by the young French 
explorer, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, only four years before. The 
first days of New Orleans were years in the future. 

So it was in Europe and the New World when on a spring day the 
Jesuit Father Marest, missionary to the Kaskaskia Indians, wrote at the 
top of his register "1703 Apr. 25, Ad ripam Metchigamiam dictam 
venimus."^ It was really the Kaskaskia River, a narrow stream that 
flowed lazily south through broad Illinois prairies and emptied into the 
i\Iississippi a few miles below the new Indian village. The Illinois tribe 
from which it took its name had originally lived much farther north. 
Settled with the Frenchman's other allies, the Wea, Miami. Shawnee, and 
Piankashaw, near La Salle's Fort St. Louis on the Illinois River, they 
had left in the late fall of 1700 with their missionary for new camp- 
grounds on the Des Peres River on the western side of the Mississippi 
opposite the Cahokia mission.^ It was this spot that they deserted in the 
early winter of 1703 with the intention of moving twenty- five leagues 
south, about a day's journey from the tannery that had been established 
on the Ohio River.^ W^ith the Kaskaskias were a number of French 
traders who had married into the tribe, and who, making their new 
homes on the river bank, became the founders of the French village of 
Kaskaskia. 



' "We are come to the river called the Michigamea." Registrc de la Paroisse de I'ltn- 
maculec Conception dcs Cascaskias. 

' For a discussion of the evidence which has established as true the tradition of a settle- 
ment of the Kaskaskia Indians on the Des Peres River, see Palm, The Jesuit Missions of the 
Illinois Country, 36-37. 

' Charles Juchereau de St. Denys, granted a concession of two leagues on both sides of the 
Ohio and six leagues in depth, set up a tannery in 1702 near the present site of Cairo, Illinois. 
The enterprise was given up two years later when an epidemic befell the post and killed the 
leader. 

10 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS II 

The bottom land between the two rivers was one of the most fertile 
strips in the whole of the Mississippi Valley. The French spoke of it as 
a "land of Treasures,"* and "an earthly Paradise."^ It was certainly a 
botanist's paradise. In luxuriant forests that bordered the great river 
grew half a dozen varieties of oak which, with the walnut, white mulberry, 
cypress, red and white cedar, and cottonwood supplied the lumber for 
the carpenter. Besides the walnut there were groves of hickory, chestnut, 
and pecan; this last became the favorite of the French pioneer. The fruit 
trees — apple, pear, plum, peach, and cherry — were not so plentiful, and 
their fruit was small and sour, but they furnished the makings for pre- 
serves and liquors. The persimmon, nicknamed "paw-paw," bore a red 
and yellow fruit; from the Indians the habitant learned to use it as an 
astringent, as a cure for dysentery, and to make a bread from its pulp 
to carry on long trips. In the underbrush were dense berry thickets, and 
twisted through tree and bush were enormous grape vines whose purple 
fruit was almost inaccessible in the tops of the highest trees. 

Grey limestone bluffs rising a hundred feet or more above the lowland 
bordered the east bank of the Kaskaskia; they wound away from the 
river north of the settlement to form a high ridge stretching as far north 
as Cahokia, the only other French village in the region. Between the 
forest and cliffs was a waving meadow dotted with tree- fringed lakes and 
ponds and crossed by dozens of slender streams. 

In the early spring tiny primroses, pussytoes, and blue and white 
anemones were the first to peep forth on the prairie, while in the wood- 
land blossomed the snowy wake-robin, the pink rue anemone, and the 
fragrant-belled trailing arbutus. Warmer days brought clusters of lav- 
ender birdsfoot violets; sun-gold buttercups crowded meadow and hill, 
while marsh marigolds brightened the bogs with their gay hue. The forest 
was carpeted with fragile lady's-slippers and nodding spring beauties, 
with masses of blue phlox and vivid patches of scarlet and yellow 
columbines. 

The pattern of the summer prairies was woven with the rose-purple 
vetch that clambered over low shrubs and bushes, the showy golden 
partridge pea, and the wild indigo in clumps of dark blue and cream. 
Bands of pink and white clovers and rose-colored clusters of wild ber- 
gamot were embroidered on snowy sheets of prairie daisies. Fiery red 
lilies and golden coreopsis were scattered here and there like brilliant 
splotches of paint. Late in the summer came the harbingers of autumn, 
the stately sunflowers and towering goldenrod, mingled with the blue 
and rose asters and the blue sage, which rivaled the sunflowers in height. 

^Memoir on Louisiana, Archives Nationales, Colonies, (hereafter abbreviated ANC) C13A 
14:237'. 

' Du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiana, II, 297. 



12 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Hidden away in the grasses were fringed gentians, blue lobelias and 
pink gerardias. 

In field and forest, game was abundant. Ducks covered the ponds and 
streams in the fall. Egrets nested along the banks and brightly plumaged 
turkeys ranged the countryside. Flocks of smoky-blue passenger pigeons 
darkened the skies, eclipsing the sun in their flights. Branches where 
they roosted at night broke under their weight, and French hunters 
robbed the nests for fat squabs. ]\Iagnificent grey wolves and great herds 
of bufifalo roamed the prairies, and deer, bears, foxes, and racoons 
abounded. Beaver was so plentiful that the skins were used for money. 

Here in the midst of almost tropical luxuriance, the mission of the 
Kaskaskia was established in 1703. A few French traders and their wives 
settled down with the Jesuits, and then for fifteen years little news con- 
cerning the Illinois bottom filtered out to find its way into official cor- 
respondence. A report three years later stated that all the Canadians who 
were in the woods had withdrawn except for a few Frenchmen who had 
married at the Illinois,'^ and the following year there was some talk of 
setting up a post there in order to furnish buffalo hides to Mobile. '^ The 
fur trade was the chief concern of the habitants. The traders made 
trouble for the priests by inciting Indian forays in order to obtain slaves 
, to sell to the English; in 1708, at the missionaries' request, Bienville, 
governor of Louisiana, sent Sieur d'Eraque with six men to Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia to restore order.^ Once again, in 171 1, Father Marest asked 
for aid against the coureurs du hois who, he reported, were debauching 
the Indian women and preventing them from being converted. Twelve 
men under a sergeant were sent from the south, and from the pen of one 
of them, Penicaut, comes the first glimpse of life in the village. 

There was a "very large church" at Kaskaskia, built by the habitants, 
with three chapels, a baptismal font, a steeple, and a bell. Early in the 
morning Indian catechumens assembled at the church for prayers and 
instruction. After the mass of the faithful, the missionary began his 
rounds among the sick, a physician as well as a priest. In the afternoon 
he held a catechism class; in the evening, savages and French attended 
vespers.® 

Habitant and Indian worked their fields together. Maize and wheat, 
garden vegetables, and excellent French melons were raised. Tradition 
has it that wheat was not introduced into the region until 1718, when 
Zebedee, a Fleming from Breda and a donne of the Jesuits, made the 
first plow and sowed a bushel of the grain, reaping ninety bushels at the 
end of July.^° But in the spring of 17 10, five settlers on land between 
the Mississippi and Lake Ponchartrain in lower Louisiana each planted an 

^Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 28. ''Ibid., II, 59. 

s Palm, Jesuit Missions, 43. » Margry, Dicouvertes ct Etahlissemcnts, V, 491- 

'" Bibliotheque Nationale Manuscripts fran^ais Nord Amerique, 2552:161. 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS I3 

"arpent^^ of wheat which came from the Illinois. "^^ Flour made from 
Illinois wheat was sent to Isle Dauphine in March, 1714.^^ When Peni- 
caut visited Kaskaskia, he saw three mills, a windmill built on the banks 
of the Little River (the Kaskaskia) and owned by the Jesuits, and two 
horse mills belonging to the Indians." Domestic cattle were brought to 
the region about 1712. 

An epidemic in the summer of 1714 ravaged the countryside, striking 
down from two to three hundred persons, four or five dying every day. 
Among the victims was the priest, Father Gabriel Alarest, who died 
September 15, after an eight days' ''illness. His requiem was sung by the 
French; the Indians covered his body with gifts of furs.^^ Father Marest, 
a native of Laval, France, had entered the Jesuit order at nineteen years 
of age; shortly after his arrival in Canada in 1694, he had been appointed 
chaplain of an expedition to Hudson Bay. He had been captured by the 
English, taken to England, and allowed to go to France, whence he 
returned to Canada. In 1698 he had been appointed to the Illinois mission, 
had worked among the Kaskaskia while they lived at Peoria, and had 
accompanied them on their southern migration. 

Another who died in the epidemic of that year was Jacques I'Argilier 
dit Le Castor, Born in France in 1634, he had come to Canada before 
1664 in which year he became a lay brother in the Society of Jesus. He 
had been with Marquette during the winter that the latter spent at 
Chicago, and in 1690 he had taken the vows of a temporal coadjutor 
with permission to wear secular dress. He died at Kaskaskia on 
November 4.^® 

But in spite of disease, the French population at Kaskaskia continued 
to increase. There were said to be more than 700 persons in the Illinois 
country in 1722.^^ A census by M. Diron d'Artaguiette, inspector-general 
of the colony, made in June, 1723, found 64 habitants at Kaskaskia, 41 
white laborers, 37 married women, and 54 children. At the new village 
of Fort de Chartres sixteen miles north there were 39 habitants, 42 
white laborers, 28 married women, and 17 children. At Cahokia, the last 
settlement of the bottom land, there were 7 habitants, i white laborer, 
I married woman, and 3 children. ^^ In 1721 at Kaskaskia there were 
80 houses^^ and 4 mills. 

One of the first settlers was JMichael Accault, or Aco, as it came to be 
spelled. A typical coureur du hois, and adept at Indian languages, he came 
down to Illinois with La Salle in 1679. Rouensa, chief of the Kaskaskia, 
offered his daughter, Marie, to Aco for a wife. Aco accepted, but 

" An arpent equals about 12 rods in length. A Canadian arpent is about .85 of an acre. 

'- Mississipfi Provincial Archives, I, 147. 

'' Palm, "The First Illinois Wheat," Mid-America, XIII, 72-73. 

'■• Margry, Decouvertes et Etahlissemcnts, V, 491. '= Palm. Jesuit Missions, 45. 

"Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, LXVI, 340. " ANC C13A 6:362^. 

'8ANC C13A 8:226-226^ 

"Archives du Service Hydrographic (hereafter abbreviated ASH), 115-10, no. 29. 



14 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

seventeen-year-old Marie had other plans. Father Jacques Gravier, in his 

journal of the mission dated February 15, 1694, told her story: 

Many struggles were needed before she could be induced to consent to the mar- 
riage, for she had resolved never to marry, in order that she might belong 
wholly to Jesus Christ. She answered her father and mother, when they brought 
her to me in company with the Frenchman whom they wished to have for a son- 
in-law, that she did not wish to marry; that she had already given all her heart to 
God, and did not wish to share it. Such were her very words, which had never 
yet been heard in this barbarism. 

Rouensa stormed at her defiance. Marie was driven naked from the 

cabin and threatened with greater punishment. Finally she went to the 

priest: 

"... I have an idea — I know not whether it is a good one. I think that, if I 
consent to the marriage, he [Rouensa] will hsten to you in earnest, and will induce 
all to do so. I wish to please God, and for that reason I intend to be always as 1 
am in order to please Jesus Christ alone. But I thought of consenting against my 
inclination to the marriage, through love for him. Is that right?" These are all 
her own words and I merely translate her Illinois into French. 

So the couple were married by Father Gravier at Pimitoui and 

The first conquest she made for God was to win her husband, who was famous 
in this Illinois country for all his debaucheries. He is now quite changed, and he 
has admitted to me that he no longer recognizes himself, and can attribute his 
conversion solely to his wife's prayers and exhortations, and to the example that 
she gives him. . . . To make him expiate his past offenses, God permitted that he 
should displease some persons who have stirred up ugly transactions of his, and 
have made him odious to every one. His wife is all his consolation, through what 
she says to him. "What matters it, if all the world be against us?" she says. "If 
we love God, and he loves us, it is an advantage to us to atone during our lives 
for the evil that we have done on earth, so that God may have mercy on us after 
we die."~ 

Their son, Pierre, was born while the mission was still at Pimitoui, 
in March, 1695.-^ Michael, the second son, was baptized February 2.2, 
1702,-^ apparently at the mission on the Des Peres River. One of the 
boys, probably Pierre, was sent to Canada by the Jesuits to be educated. 
Michael, while still a youth, returned to live in the wilderness with his 
mother's tribe; in her will, made just before her death on June 25, 1725, 
Marie disinherited him unless he should come back to live again among 
the French. ^^ 

Not long after Michael Aco and Marie Rouensa settled on the banks 
of the Kaskaskia River, Aco died. His widow married Michael Philippe, 
later captain of the militia and one of the principal citizens of the town, 
but then only another trader. Their first-born, Jacques, baptized in 1704,-* 
and their other five children married into several families, so that in later 
days not a few of the habitants traced their lineage to the daughter of the 
chief of the Kaskaskia. Marie continued throughout her life to help the 

-" Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, LXIV, 193-215. -^ Registre de la Paroisse. 

"Ibid. "Kaskaskia Manuscripts, Public Records, II, June 13, 1725. 

-' Registte de la Paroisse. 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS 1 5 

Jesuits in their work, and when she died she was buried beneath her pew 
in the parish church, the only woman in Kaskaskia's history to be so 
honored. 

Jacques Bourdon, who was baptized at Boucherville, in Canada, Feb- 
ruary 1 8, 1680,-^ and who was living in Kaskaskia as early as July 26, 
1704,-*^ was another of the pioneer Frenchmen with an Indian wife.-' He 
was the father of eight children, six of whom were girls and minors at 
his death June 2j, 1723.^^ He was captain, perhaps the first, of the town 
militia, and he acted as royal notary. ^^ He was buried under his bench in 
the parish church, '^^ an evidence of his importance, but D'Artaguiette. 
who was in Kaskaskia in 1722, didn't have a very high opinion of Bour- 
don's ability. In his journal, D'Artaguiette set down how Bourdon had 
led a detachment of 40 French and 400 Illinois to Pimitoui, and how the 
soldiers had returned in a few days in a pitiable condition from hunger 
and bad leadership. "Bourdon," he wrote, ". . . is not fit for this sort of 
emplo3'ment and is more skillful at goading oxen in the ploughing than 
in leading a troop of warriors. "^^ 

Louis Delaunais,^- Jean Colon Laviolette,^^ Bizaillon,^* Pierre Chabot,^' 
Nicolas Migneret^*^ and Pierre Boisjoly Fa fart''" are all names which ap- 

^' Tanguay, Dictionnairc Genialogique dcs Families Canadicniics, II, 416. -'^ Ibid. 

-' In fact, he apparently had at least two, but there is considerable confusion regarding them. 
In his will of June 23, 1723, he names Marguerite "8ass..8e8c" as his wife. (The figure "8" was 
used by the French priests to indicate a sound in the Indian language, sometimes translated as 
"ou.") Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. However, in a document dated July 11, 1723> Pierre 
Baillargeon, son of Marie, Bourdon's wife, by her first marriage, renounces all rights in the suc- 
cession of the estate of his stepfather, Jacques Bourdon. Ibid. To further complicate matters, 
the parish register in an entry dated April 17, 1701, records the baptism of Pierre, son of An- 
toine Baillarjon and Domitillia CheSpingSa. 

-^ Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. ^' Ibid. ^ Registre de la Paroisse. 

5* Mereness, Travels in the American Colonies, 28. 

3= Baptized in Canada in 1650. Tanguay, III, 297. His wife was Marie Catherine RSecanga. 
July 25, 1692, their son, recently born, was baptized Jean Jacques; his godfather was Jean 
Laviolette. Another son, Charles, born May 28, 1698, was baptized the next day. Registre de la 
Paroisse. 

^ His wife was Catherine ExipakinSca. Michael, their son, recently born, was baptized 
October 4, 1692. Jacques, born May 12, 1697, was baptized the following day by Father Bine- 
teau, and Henri, one month old, was baptized by M. de Montigny November 27, 1698, with 
Tonti as godfather. Ibid. 

^* Marie Therese was the wife of Bizaillon. Marie, their daughter, was born and baptized 
September 22, 1699; Antoine Baillargeon was her godfather. Pierre was baptized by Father 
Gravier April 13, 1703. His sponsors were Pierre Champagne and Elizabeth. Ibid. 

^ Symphorosa Mer8tap8c8c was his wife, and the mother of Pierre, born November 15, 
1709, and baptized the next day. Etienne Campo and Catherine Forestier were his godparents. 
Ibid. Chabot's second wift was Dorothee Mercier. He died August 7, 1721, at Kaskaskia at the 
age of sixty years and was buried in the parish cemetery. Pierre Chabot, the husband of Renee 
Mercier, and father of Pierre, born February 15, 1721, and baptized the next day, with Pierre 
d'Artaguiette and Perrine Pivet his godparents, was probably the son of Pierre I. Ibid. In 1739 
Pierre Chabot was a journeyman of Illinois. La. Hist. Quart., VII, 361. 

^ Also spelled "Milleret." His wife was Suzanne Kerami, evidently also an Indian. Mari- 
anne, aged one year and six months, was baptized January 26, 1713. Pierre, four days old, was 
baptized October 18, 1713. Registre de la Paroisse. Marianne was the wife of Jean Baptiste 
Texier dit Lavigne, guardian of her brother, Pierre, at the time of the death of Suzanne Kerami 
October 28, 1747. Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V. 

" The brother, probably, of Joseph Fafart dit La Fresnaye, engaged by La Forest to go to 
Fort St. Louis, May 5, 1690. Pease and Werner, French Foundations, 195. His daughter, 
Marianne, baptized in 1711, married first Nicolas Cadrin, January 11, 1724, and on May 4, 1728, 
Jean Frangois Becquet. Cadrin died November 10, 1727. Registre de la Paroisse. 



l6 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

pear in the parish registers of the first twenty years of the village's ex- 
istence. Most of them had Indian wives or children by Indian women who 
were baptized in the time of the Mission of the Immaculate Conception. 

Establishment of the Government 

Until 1718 the Illinois country was considered to be a part of Canada — 
when it was considered at all. Six years previously Antoine Crozat, 
wealthy French merchant, persuaded by Lamothe Cadillac that the lower 
Mississippi Valley abounded in riches, had applied for and received from 
the king a monopoly of all trade in Louisiana except that in beavers. The 
charter was to last fifteen years; but in 1717, tired of a bargain which had 
brought him only great expense without any commensurate returns, he 
agreed to give up his trading privileges to the newly formed Company of 
the West. 

The new charter, valid for twenty-five years, beginning January i, 
1 71 8, gave to John Law and his associates a complete monopoly of all the 
trade, including that in beavers. It allowed the Company to import mer- 
chandise into the colony free of duty and lowered the rates on all goods 
exported by them to France. Ownership of all the mines to be discovered 
was vested in the Company; the appointment of all colonial officials, the 
erection and maintenance of forts and posts, and the right to regulate 
commerce and Indian relations were part of the terms of the grant. The 
company was obligated to recognize the coutume de Paris as the law 
of Louisiana, and to send to the countr}^ 6,000 white habitants and 3,000 
negroes. 

The Illinois had not been included in Crozat's grant, but in this new 
one, by an ordinance drawn September 27, 1717, it was formally annexed 
to Louisiana.^* Regulations for governing the colony, submitted by the 
Company for the king's approval September 5, 1721, provided for the 
division of the country into military districts — New Orleans, New Biloxi, 
Mobile, Alibamous, Natchez, Yazou, Natchitoches, and Illinois. The land 
of the Illinois lay between the Wabash River on the east and the Missis- 
sippi on the west, extending north as far as the mouth of the Missouri, 
and south to the Ohio.^^ 

Orders dated Paris, August 11 and 26, 1718, provided for the civil 
government of the new province of Illinois. A council, composed of the 
commandant, the chief clerk, the keeper of the storehouse or garde 
magazin, and underclerk, the engineer, the captain of the troops garrison- 
ing the post, the lieutenant, and two second lieutenants, was to be the 
principal administrative and judicial body. Any instructions of the Com- 
pany concerning work on the Missouri lead mines which were to be opened 
were to be executed by the deliberations of a smaller group made up of 

»»ANC 839:457- "ANC 843:28. 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS I7 

the commandant, the chief clerk, the clerk in charge of the mines, and the 
engineer. In the case of a tie vote the commandant's voice was to count 
for two. The advice of each member of the council in all matters was to 
be kept word for word in a special register, and a separate record kept 
of the expenses of the mines.*" 

By a later edict on May 12, 1722, it was decreed that the provincial 
council established at the principal settlement of the Illinois was to exer- 
cise justice in all criminal and civil cases, with the right of appeal to the 
Superior Council at New Orleans. Its jurisdiction was to extend from the 
posts on the Wabash to those on the Arkansas.*^ 

When the retrocession of Louisiana to the Crown occurred in 1731 and 
the Company of the West, by then called the Company of the Indies, was 
replaced by royal ministers, the framework of the government continued 
much the same. But the judicial duties of the provincial council, which had 
apparently functioned only irregularly after 1726, were given over in 
1734 to a new official, the ecrivain principal, who acted as delegate of the 
ordonnateur of Louisiana and judged all disputes between the habitants. 

The first convoy ascending the Mississippi to the Illinois country in the 
summer of 1718 carried the new officials of the province. Pierre Duque, 
Sieur de Boisbriant, a Canadian forty-seven years old, who had come to 
Louisiana in 1700 with his cousin, Iberville, went to succeed Des Liettes 
who had been in command of the country since 1704.*^ Marc Antoine de 
La Loere Des Ursins, a director of the Company, who was to be chief 
clerk, and Nicolas Michael Chassin, the garde magazin, accompanied him, 
along with the Sieur Simon, an underclerk, Sieur Mean, the engineer 
machiniste for the mines, Captain Diron, Lieutenant d'Artaguiette, Sec- 
ond Lieutenants du Merbion and Pigniol, the Sieur Ferrarois, and a 
company of a hundred soldiers.*^ 

These new officials, by the command of the Company, were to have 
one chief concern — to get for their employers the largest possible profits 
from the mines and the fur trade; at the same time, by promoting agri- 
culture, they were to establish the region as the granary of Louisiana, 
thus reducing the expense of maintaining that colony. The commandant 
was charged with keeping peace between the Indians and the French in 
order to promote the fur trade; he was to encourage Indian attacks 
on tribes too friendly with the English; he was to keep the habitants and 
traders in line. Each year he was to make a visit to all the settlements 
within his district, and take a census, noting ages and sexes, French and 

«ANC B42bis:230-232. " ANC 843:103. 

" According to Mrs. Surrey's Calendar, the commandants at Illinois during the French 
period were: 

J682 Tonti 1724 Du Tisne 1740 Benoist de Ste. Claire 

1683 De Baugy 1725 Des Liettes 1742 De Bertet 

1700 De La Forest 1729 Du Tisne 1749 Benoist de Ste. Claire 

1702 Tonti 1730 Groston de St. Ange 1750 Macarty 

1704 Des Liettes 1732 Pierre d'Artaguiette 1760 Neyon de Villiers 

1 7 18 Boisbriant 173 7 Alphonse la Buissonniere 1764 De Bellerive de St. Ange 

" ANC B42bis:23o-232. 



l8 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

whites, slaves, Indians and negroes, the amount of land cleared, its value, 
and the occupation of each habitant. He was to investigate the number of 
men capable of bearing arms in each village, determine the quantity of 
powder and lead on hand, see that companies of militia were formed, and 
arrange for some signal system from settlement to settlement by fires, 
bells, or cannon in order that the militia could march in an emergency/* 

The garde magazhi was in charge of the merchandise sent to Illinois 
for provisioning the troops and supplying the habitants. He bought furs 
and farm products from the settlers, paying them by notes drawn on the 
goods of the storehouse, and was, therefore, in charge of a considerable 
business. The first storehouse was within the fort which Boisbriant soon 
built sixteen miles up the river from Kaskaskia; when the population 
increased, a store was also kept at Kaskaskia, and another was maintained 
by Renault on his concession at St. Philippe. 

From their arrival at Kaskaskia until Boisbriant had erected the first 
fort, which he named Fort de Chartres, the officers and troops were 
lodged with the habitants of the village. After the completion of the fort 
in 1721,"*^ the center of government moved there and the village of the 
Prairie of Fort de Chartres grew up. 

Six years later Mississippi flood waters had entirely destroyed the 
fort" which had been only a small one made of posts, in the shape of a 
square, and with two bastions. The Company of the Indies, b}^ that time 
extremely tired of all the expense of the Illinois post which up to then 
had brought in no appreciable profits, ordered the abandonment of the 
fort. Charles Henri des Liettes, then in command, was ordered to re- 
move to Kaskaskia, there to take up his lodgings and fortify himself at his 
own expense from the increase in salary granted him. Only six soldiers 
were to remain in the country with him besides the two officers, the 
Sieurs de St. Ange, father and son.'*' 

The governor of Louisiana, Perier, thought such orders unwise, how- 
ever, on account of the continuous war being waged with the Fox Indians, 
and the fort was not abandoned.** The offer of the habitants to transfer 
the fort out on the prairie and to furnish all the stone needed in return 
for two negroes each was refused by the short-sighted directors of the 
Company. *° What was left of the old fort was rebuilt and two bastions 
added. But by 1732 the logs were all rotten and it was already falling into 
ruin.^° Floods each year cut the banks in closer and closer to the founda- 

«ANC 343:29. «ASH iis-io, no. 29. "« ANC C13A 11:89''. 

"Ibid. *»Ibid., 89-92. «ANC C13A 11:48^ 

°* ANC C13B 1:8. The fort, which in the inventory taken June i, 1732, was described as 
falling to pieces, was 160 feet square with four bastions in which there were five cannons. On 
each of two scaffolds was hung a bell. Inside the palisade was the house of the commandant and 
garde magazin, a frame building 50' by 30'. Another building of the same size housed the gar- 
rison and the armorer's forge; there was a third house of posts in the ground, 30' by 20'. In 
one of the bastions was the prison, in one the hen house, and in another, a stable. Outside 
the palisade was the chapel, a structure of posts in the ground, 30' by 20', with thatched roof, 
steeple, and bell. 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS IQ 

tions. By 1747 the garrison, unable properly to defend the countryside 
from Indian attacks, was forced to evacuate the fort and move to Kas- 
kaskia. A stone fort farther inland was begun by the commandant, 
Macarty, in 1753 and finished in 1756 at the cost of five million livres. 

Nicolas Michael Chassin, who came to Illinois as garde magazin with 
Boisbriant, received a grant of 17 arpents fronting the Mississippi south 
of Fort de Chartres on June 25, 1722.^^ Very likely he built a house near 
the commandant's in the village of the fort; at any rate, his situation 
improved quickly enough that he soon was looking for a wife. In a letter 
to Father Bobe, a priest of Paris, on July i, 1722, he wrote: 

You see, Sir, that the only thing that I now lack in order to make a strong 
establishment in Louisiana is a certain article of furniture that one often repents 
having got and which I shall do without like the others until as I have already had 
the honor of informing you the Company sends us girls who have at least some 
appearance of virtue. If by chance there should be some girl with whom you are 
acquainted who would be willing to make this long journey for love of me, I 
should be very much obliged to her and I should certainly do my best to give her 
evidence of my gratitude for it. I think that if my sister had come she would have 
looked after me as much as I had looked after her, but I am beginning to fear 
that my hopes may have gone up in smoke." 

But in that same year he married Agnes Philippe, daughter of Michael 
Philippe and Marie Rouensa, and was the father of Charlotte and 
Madeleine, who married Jean Baptiste Mallet in 1741. In November, 1725, 
he was recalled by the Company for "bad conduct. "^^ He arrived in New 
Orleans early in June, 1729, and set to work on his accounts, which the 
governor predicted would take a long time since he had failed to keep any 
ledgers.^* There seems to be no record of his return to Illinois, but he 
died before July 6, 1737, for on that date his widow entered into a mar- 
riage contract with the surgeon, Rene Roy.^^ 

Chassin's successor was Joseph Buchet, who in 1733 was receiving a 
salary of 600 livres a year.^*' By 1752 he had become chief clerk with a 
salary of 1,000 livres.^' In 1759, then ecrivain principal and judge, he 
begged the governor to allow him to retire on account of his great age 
and infirmities.^* His successors were Jean Chevalier, who died in 1759.°^ 
and Antoine Simon d'Auneville, who was serving in 1762.*^° 

De la Loere des Ursins, the principal clerk, heartily sick of his job 
in the remote post by 1724, sent word back with Boisbriant, who had been 

^^ American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite 182. 

^^Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 270. '^^ ANC 643:555. 

^* Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 623. " Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, II. 

"'ANC C13A 17:11V. "ANC C13A 36:341-348^ 

°* ANC C13A 41:315. In 1734 Buchet was granted a tract of land, supposedly on the lower 
end of Prairie du Rocher common, by St. Therese Langlois, relative of Boisbriant. Buchet 
married Marie Frangoise la Brise, widow of Jean Baptiste Potier; she died by 1740; his 
daughter, Therese, died October 26, 1743, at Fort de Chartres, aged five and a half years. 
Alexandre, his son, was baptized there October 22, 1744. A son, Joseph, aged 7 or 8 years, 
died October 28, 1748. On January 7, 1748, already ecrivain principal, he married Marie 
Louise Michael, daughter of Jacques Michael, after the publication of but one ban. Registre de 
la Paroisse. "'ANC C13A 41:315'''. 

^ Ibid., and Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, III. 



20 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

called to New Orleans to act as temporary governor in place of Bienville, 
that he v^ished permission to return to France. The Superior Council 
allowed him to come down from Illinois but sent him as clerk to the 
Natchez post, where he was killed in the massacre of Fort Rosalie, 
November 28, 1729. His younger brother, De la Loere Flaucourt, ap- 
pointed as judge of Illinois, left New Orleans in the July convoy of 1734- 
The governor in a letter on September 24, 1741, remarked that De la 
Loere Flaucourt, still at Illinois, had already suffered three attacks of 
apoplexy.*'^ On December 10, 1746, he died suddenly at Fort de Chartres 
without having had time to take the last sacrament. He was buried under 
his bench in the parish church of Ste. Anne.^^ 

The notary, one of the most important of the local officials, was ap- 
pointed by the provincial council, the commandant, or the judge. His 
salary came from his fees, which amounted usually to one or two francs. 
Without his signature affixed to the bills of sale, the marriage contracts, 
the leases, the inventories, and the agreements of partnership, the docu- 
ments were invalid. As clerk of the court he had to keep four separate 
registers, as clerk of registration, two, and as clerk of the marine, seven. 

Jean Baptiste Bertlor dit Barrois, who was living in Kaskaskia at least 
as early as July 14, 1732, when his son, Louis, was baptized, °^ was acting 
as notary on April 2, 1737.'''* How long before then he had been notary 
is not known. He died in March, 1757.^^ Of all the notaries, he was the 
most prominent, evidently the best educated and certainly the best trained 
in the notarial art. He drew his instruments carefully with due attention 
to all the legal forms and in an excellent script. Leonard Billeron, a habit- 
ant who was notary at Kaskaskia in the 1730's — at the same time as 
Barrois — also wrote quite legibly, but his spelling was entirely by ear. 
Mere was to him maire; pere was peire; sept was cept. But at that 
Billeron's records are far easier to read than those of Jerome, the notary 
at Fort de Chartres from 1733 to 1737 and perhaps for longer.^^ Jerome 
was no penman, and his cramped writing is many times indecipherable. 
Jean Baptiste Place, a habitant, Jacques Bourdon, the captain of the 
militia, Chassin, and Andre Perillaud, a clerk, were all notaries in the 
1720's.®" Frequently the Jesuits acted in that capacity when no royal 
notary was at hand. 

A minor official, also appointed by the council or the judge, was the 
huisser, who served subpoenas, brought persons into court at the judge's 
request, and with the notary announced sales at the church door. The 
interpreter, usually a trader, was appointed by the commandant and paid 
by the king. 

" ANC C13A 26:157. "Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript. 

"' Registre de la Paroisse. ** Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II. 

85 Alvord, The Illinois Country, 196. ""Kaskaskia Mss., passim. ^ Ibid. 



KASKASKIA BEGINNINGS 21 

At the same time that the Company was estabhshing the post at the 
Illinois, the Jesuits at Kaskaskia concluded that the village had outgrown 
the mission stage. Father Boullanger began a new register June i8, 1719, 
of the "baptisms conferred in the church of the mission and the parish 
of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady."''^ The following year 
Father de Beaubois,^^ the new priest, styled himself cure of the parish 
and opened a register of "baptisms conferred in the Parish Church of the 
Conception of Our Lady of the Kaskaskia. ""° 

Parish and village were identical communities. The members of the 
one were the citizens of the other. Ownership of the commons was vested 
in the parish of the Immacvilate Conception, and in 1727 a petition was 
presented to Commandant des Liettes for confirmation of the grant made 
by Boisbriant in 1719. Churchwardens, or marguilliers, were elected an- 
nually to keep the church buildings in repair, purchase whatever equip- 
ment was needed, regulate burials, and accept legacies. They were re- 
sponsible to the parishioners to whom they made reports; and they did not 
always get along with the cure; they quarrelled with Father Tartarin 
over the repairs of the presbytery, and finally the Superior Council at 
New Orleans had to settle the matter by ordering the churchwardens and 
habitants to pay for the main repairs, the priest for the minor ones.'^ 

Annual elections for a syndic were held in Kaskaskia, as was the cus- 
tom in the northern provinces of France where his duty was to represent 
the village in all lawsuits against it. But in the Illinois country he seems 
to have taken on somewhat the character of a magistrate. Joseph 
Aubuchon, who succeeded Antoine Bienvenu on April 13, 1739, was 
elected syndic of the village, in charge of the fence around the commons.^^ 
.Most of the business of local government was conducted in the as- 
semblies held after mass in front of the church or in the house of one of 
the leading citizens, often that of the militia captain. All men above four- 
teen years of age were supposed to attend, and it appears that possibly 
widows also had the right of voting. When religious matters were to be 
decided, the cure presided, the syndic being in charge when questions of 
a civic nature were considered. Minutes were kept by the judge or clerk; 
voting was by acclamation. The assembly decided on the time for plant- 
ing and harvesting, discussed the building and marking of roads, the 
upkeep of the fence around the commons, and the erection and repair of 
church buildings. Sometimes, too, they drew up petitions to be presented 
to the commandant or judge protesting an order or demanding the issu- 
ance of one on some certain matter. 



^ Rcgistre de la Paroisse. 

^ Father de Beaubots later lived in New Orleans where he contended with the Capuchins 
for religious control of the city, and lost. "' Registre de la Paroisse. 

'^ Records of the Superior Council, La. Hist. Quart., V, 77-78. 
" Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I. 



22 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

In November, 1729, the habitants laid before Du Tisne, then in com- 
mand, the necessity of repairing the commons fence, since animals had 
gotten through into the fields and damaged the grain. He was asked to 
order each farmer whose land touched the commons to have his section of 
the fence in good shape by the end of the next March. '^ 

The road to the Saline was a frequent cause of discussion and alterca- 
tion. The salt springs where the habitants procured their supplies were on 
the western side of the Mississippi, and the road to the river ferry led 
southwest from Kaskaskia across the cultivated fields. Originally the road 
had been marked, but carters began straying from it as they drove back 
and forth, doing much harm to the crops on either side. As the assembly 
was apparently indifferent to suggestions for re-marking the road, Louis 
Turpin. captain of the militia, Sieur la Source,'* Sieur Legras,'-' and 
Dame Marie Madeleine Quesnel, wife of Antoine Carrier,'*' petitioned 
the commandant on :\Iay 11, 1737, to do something at once." An ordon- 
nance was issued, but the lead miners and others who lived on the far side 
of the river paid little heed to it. Turpin. whose fields were standing most 
of the damage, suggested to his neighbor, Colet. that each of them give 
a part of their land along the line joining their property for a road. Colet 
refused. Turpin went to the commandant and demanded that Colet be 
forced to relinquish half an arpent. The order was given January 4, 1742, 
and seems to have ended the matter. 

"Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, II. 

" Probably Jean Baptiste Thaumur de la Source, son of Dominique la Source; he was 
baptized in Montreal in 1696, died February 26, i777- Tanguay, VII. 288. His wife, whom he 
married March 5, 1726, was Marie Frangoise Rivard. widow of Joseph Lamy. His children were 
Antoine, who married Marianne Roy, May 5. 1/60; Dominique, married to Elisabeth Aubuchon 
July I, 1755; Marie Louise, born in 1737, married to Nicolas Janis April 27, 1751, and died m 
1775; Jean Baptiste, born in 1747, married to Catherine Beauvais November 30, 1758, and died in 
1767. Registre de la Paroisse. 

"Daniel Legras or one of his brothers, Charles or Jean. They were the sons of Jean 
Baptiste Legras and Genevieve Malette of Montreal. Daniel married Susanne Kerami, widow 
of Antoine Beausseron dit Leonard, June 7, 1728. He died in January. 1748. 

"Antoine Carrier and Marie Madeleine Quesnel were parents of a son born in 1721, and 
of twin daughters born and baptized November 20, 1723. at Kaskaskia. Marie Madeleine, one of 
the twins, died the following December 17. Her sister, Celeste Therese. married Louis Bore. 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Public Records, I. 



Chapter III 
THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 

Kaskaskia began as a settlement of traders, priests, and Indians. When 
the mission was first estabhshed on the banks of the Kaskaskia River, 
there were no French officials about to lay out regular streets and square 
blocks, to reserve a grassy Place d' Amies before the church, to see that 
the houses were built in line with each other. New Orleans, Mobile, 
Natchez, all were surveyed, the streets laid wide and straight, the location 
of church, fort, powder magazine, hospital, and government house de- 
termined before a structure went up. Kaskaskia was built according to 
no such plan. The village, like Topsy, "jes growed." Fifty years later 
when the ministry wanted to build a fort there, Commandant Macarty re- 
ported that it would be impossible without taking land from someone or 
other, the town was so ill laid out.^ 

The first houses were built three or four hundred feet back from the 
river's edge along a strip of beach, which at the northern limits of the 
town became a thick belt of timber skirting the river for many miles. Be- 
tween the village and the fields to the south was a dry gulch, the Coulee, 
which ran eastward as far as the street of the church, and near the east 
end of the Coulee, a smaller stream bed twisted northeastward to the 
river. Half a mile above Kaskaskia the river turned abruptly to the west, 
and only a narrow neck of land separated the tributary from the 
Mississippi. Here at this point each year at flood time the great river cut 
its channel farther and farther eastward until in the spring of 1881 it at 
last broke through the short distance that remained, and leaving its old 
bed, swept down over the ancient French village. 

From the gently sloping beach the village stretched back two-thirds of 
a mile, a narrow triangle with two of its streets nearly meeting on the 
western tip and actually coming together outside of town at the Cahokia 
gate on the road to Fort de Chartres. The longer of these, which cut 
through the center of town, was La Grande Rue, perhaps the Chartres 
Street of the American period. La Rue de I'Eglise ran parallel to the river 
past the presbytery on the east, the commandant's house and the church 
on the west. La Rue de St. Louis was possibly one of the shorter east and 
west streets, though it might have been the long street on the north. 

Opposite Kaskaskia, on the far bank of the river, a ravine divided the 
limestone clifi^s. On the summit of the higher, northern bluffs, the govern- 
ment in 1738 commenced the construction of a new fort to replace the 
ruined one at Fort de Chartres.^ But when in the next year the officials 
realized that the expenses would amount to at least three times the sum of 

' Huntington Manuscripts, Loudoun (hereafter referred to as HMLO), 328, January 20, 1752. 
* ANC C13A 24:193^. 

23 



24 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 




s • - 

< .-s- 

tn .':• 

< J? 

O en 

< rt 

Oh - 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKLV 25 

money appropriated, all work was halted.^ Sometime, perhaps after 1747 
when Fort de Chartres was abandoned and the troops were lodged at 
Kaskaskia in a building owned by Louis Turpin, a fort of timbers was 
erected on the blutl overlooking the town. Apparently never completed, 
it burned to the ground in October, 1766.* 

The church, as one might expect, was nearly in the center of town. 
The first building erected by the Jesuits at the beginning of the mission 
was probably made of mulberry or walnut posts set in the ground, its 
roof of thatch. In 171 1, Penicaut described the church as a large one 
with three chapels, a belfry, and a bell.^ In 1723, D'Artaguiette wrote that 
the church there was "certainly the finest in the colony."*' This may have 
been the building Penicaut saw or a third one which, according to tradi- 
tion, was built in 1714; very likely it is the one concerning which the 
governor of Louisiana wrote in 1728: 

Father Boullanger, cure at the Kaskaskia, writes that the habitants, having 
built their church at their own expense, do not owe any honorary dues to the Com- 
pany according to the agreement made with Messieurs De Boisbriant and Des 
Ursins and their pledge that if the Company would lay claim to them, they should 
reimburse them for what it has cost them. We inclose a copy of the items that have 
been addressed to M. de La Chaise upon this matter. These habitants wish to know 
the intention of the Company before doing anything further on their church.' 

At the time when work on the fort at Kaskaskia was stopped in 1739, 
the French of the village were thinking about erecting another church, 
or may have already begun work upon one. At any rate. Father Tartarin 
and the margullUcrs requested that they be allowed to use the stone 
collected for the fort in their new parish church. Bienville and Salmon, 
transmitting the petition to the ministry, remarked that permission might 
as well be given, for unless the stone was carefully watched, the habitants 
would take it anpvay. Four months later, the minister replied that since 

3 ANC C13A 25: i2^-i3>'. 

^ Pittman, Mississippi Settlements, 85. In a letter of Pittman to Gage, February 24, 1766 
(Gage papers, \V. L. Clements Library), Pittman describes the fort as it was before it was destroyed. 

"The Fort stands on the opposite side of the River on the summit of a Rock, to the top 
of which one ascends with a gradual slope, which is about 300 yards from the Top to the 
Bottom. The Fort is an oblongular Quadrangle of which the e.xterior Polygon measures 290 by 
251 feet. The side facing the Village stands parrallel to the Course of the River, NW and SE, 
the other sides which are the longest run NE by E. The Fort is commanded even by musquetry 
from rising grounds both to the NW and NE. The ditch, is 25 feet wide and about 4 feet deep, 
the top of the parapet is 8 feet 6 Inches from the bottom of the Ditch and 4 feet and i inch wide, 
the Rampart is 4 feet 8 inches in hight and 14 ...(?).. in breadth. There is one embrasure 
in the faces and flanks of each bastion, there are two opposite gates which open to the NW and 
SE, in the Center of the Curtin. The one to the NW has a drawbridge before it, which remains 
drawn up. The only buildings within the Fort are one Barrach containing three rooms, and a 
Kitchen built within the Gorge of the SW Bastion. Neither these or the Fort have ever been 
finished. Cascasquias is 6 Leagues by land and 10 by water SE from Fort Cavendish [Fort de 
Chartres]. 

Report of the State and Condition of the Fort at Cascasquias 
Nothing remaining of the Barracks and Kitchen but the Frame, Roof and shingle covering. No 
platforms to mount the Guns on the SE Bastion fallen down — most of the Planks and some 
timbers of the Parapet rotten, Locks and keys wanting to the Gates — the Ditch, Parapet, and 
Ramparts entirely overgrown with Bushes." 

^ Margry, Decouvertes et Etablissements, V, 491. 

* Mereness, Travels, 28. ' ANC C13A 11:49. 



26 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 




CJ Q. 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 2^ 

the materials that have been collected at the Illinoise would be lost in one way or 
the other the king approves that you allow them to be used in building the church 
that the habitants wish to erect; but His Majesty does not intend to make a gift to 
this parish ; and he wishes that AI. Salmon make them pay in cash the most 
advantageous price he can get.* 

This last church was completed in 1753, a frame structure probably 
of walnut or oak, 104 by 44 feet, and paid fpr by the contributions of the 
parishioners and the surplice and mass-fees of three successive Jesuit 
cures, Fathers Tartarin, Watrin and Aubert.^ Macarty reported in 1752 
that it was "a pretty one for the place."" More than half a century later, 
Flagg, in The Far West thus pictured the church that was new in 1753. 
but venerable in 1836. 

It is a huge old pile, extremely awkward and ungainly with its projecting 
eves [sic], its walls of hewn timbers perpendicularly planted, and the interstices 
stuffed with mortar, with its quaint old-fashioned spire, and its dark storm-beaten 
casements. The interior of the edifice is somewhat imposing, notwithstanding the 
sombre hue of its walls; these are rudely plastered with lime, and decorated with 
a few dingy paintings. The floor is of loose, rough boards, and the ceiling arched 
with oaken panels. The altar and the lamp suspended above are very antique, I was 
informed by the officiating priest, having been used in the former church. The 
lamp is a singular specimen of superstition illustrated by the arts. But the struc- 
ture of the roof is the most remarkable feature of this venerable edifice. This I 
discovered in a visit to the belfrey of the tower, accomplished at no little expendi- 
ture of sinew and muscle for stairs are an appliance quite unknown to this 
primitive building. There are frames of 2 distinct roofs, of massive workmanship, 
neatly crossing each other at every angle, and so ingeniously and accurately 
arranged by the architect, that it is mathematically impossible that any portion of 
the structure shall sink until time with a single blow shall level the entire 
edifice. . . . The belfrey reminded me of one of those ancient monuments of the 
Druids called Rocking-Stones; for though it tottered to and from beneath my 
weight and always swings with the bell when it is struck, perhaps the united force 
of a hundred men could hardly hurl it from its seat. The bell is consecrated by the 
crucifix cast in its surface, and bears the inscription "Pour Lcglise des Illinois. 
Normand A. Parachelle, 1^41."" 

Of this old church there remain today the bell, that was cast in 
France; the altar stone of white marble, 11 by 7^4 inches, badly stained 
but with the date 1681 scratched upon it; two reliquaries 3 by i^^ feet, 
roughly hand-carved in the seventeenth century by some donne or lay 
brother; the carved altar; six wooden candlesticks; two small wooden 
statues of St. Joseph and the Virgin; and a large painting of the 
Immaculate Conception. 

Around the church lay the parish cemetery. East, across the grassy 
yard, was the house which lodged the commandant during the period of 
the abandonment of Fort de Chartres, and across the Rue de I'Eglise was 
the property of the Jesuit fathers. Adjoining their land on the south, and 
bounded by two gullies, a knoll rose above the lower land of the village. 

8 ANC 670:472-473. ^Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, LXX, 233. 

" HMLO 376, September 2, 1752- "Flagg, The Far West, II, 172-173- 



28 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 







fe 






^ 5 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKLA. 29 

On this site, about 1753, Macarty was instructed to build a fort.^^ The 
gullies would serve as moats, and the hilltop, though it could be com- 
manded by cannon, could not be by musket. The commandant reported 
that the two cannon he had carried to the heights had fired balls as far 
as the fence around the commons, more than a thousand feet from the 
village.^^ On May 20, 1753, Claude Caron,^* of Kaskaskia, in the presence 
of Saucier,^^ the engineer sent to build a new fort, sold to Buchet, the 
ecrivain principal, for the crown 

land for the site of a fort which is to be constructed, on which land there are a 
small house and an outbuilding in which the lime (or limestone) may be stored, 
the said land containing 192 feet in width and 284 in depth touching on the north 
to the creek of the R. P. Jesuits in front to the Kaskaskia river in the rear 
bordered by the Common, on the south by Sr. Buyat who possesses the same 
quantity of land as that above which will likewise be purchased from the said 
Buyat." 

The next year when the French ministry ordered all work at Kaskaskia 
halted. Governor Kerlerec replied that it was impossible.^" The palisade 

" HMLO 376, September 2, 1752- ^^ Ibid. 

"The son of Claude Caron and Jeanne Boyer of Montreal, he was baptized July 12, 1714. 
at Montreal. His wife was Charlotte la Chenais, daughter of Philippe la Chenais and Marguerite 
Texier, whom he married February 29, 1743. Their children included Elisabeth, baptized March 6, 
1760; Marie Joseph, baptized April 19, 1761; and Jean Baptiste. baptized December 27, 1763. 

" Frangois Saucier, architect of the stone fort of Fort de Chartres. That it was Frangois is 
definitely established by a letter of F. Saucier, engineer sent to Illinois, to Vaudreuil, January 20, 
1752. HMLO, 329. This credit has long been given to Jean Baptiste Saucier, and chiefly on the 
authority of Dr. John F. Snyder, who in the 1919 Transactions of the Illinois State Historical 
Society published a long article on "Captain John Baptiste Saucier at Fort Chartres in the 
Illinois, 1751-1763." Labeled as history, and supposedly based on documents destroyed in a fire a 
century ago, the romantic tale of young Jean Baptiste is a pure figment of imagination, full of 
errors at every turn. According to Dr. Snyder, who says he is a descendent of Jean, the youth 
was born in France and fell in love with his foster sister, Adel Lepage. He was sent to Illinois 
where he fell in love with Eulalie, Commandant Macarty's daughter, but she died tragically of 
some lung disease; then Jean Baptiste, returning to New Orleans, learned that Adel, coming to 
Louisiana, had contracted the plague on board ship and died. But she was not dead, and some- 
time later, on the night before the Illinois convoy was due to set out in Jean Baptiste's charge, he 
discovered her working as a poor seamstress in the mansion of her cousins, the Delormes, in New 
Orleans. They were married the next morning at the Ursuline chapel and spent their honeymoon 
on the Illinois-bound batteau! 

Actually there were three Saucier brothers in Illinois: Henri, Jean Baptiste, and Frangois, 
sons of Jean Baptiste Saucier and Gabrielle Savary of Mobile. La. Hist. Quaii., VIII, 484. Their 
mother married a second time to Pierre Vivareinne, who had died by 1736. She died by 1738, 
leaving two sons in Illinois, one aged twenty-nine, the other twenty-seven — probably Henri and 
Jean Baptiste — and two minor sons, probably Jean Baptiste and Frangois Vivareinne. 

Henri Saucier was the husband of Barbe la Croix, daughter of Frangois la Croix and 
Barbe Montmeunier of St. Philippe. On February 6, 1733, he bought three arpents of land from 
his father-in-law. (Document quoted from Kaskaskia Mss. in ///. Hist. Soc, Trans., XX, 261.) 

Jean Baptiste Saucier married Marie Rose Girardy in April, 1740. La. Hist. Qtiart., X, 
274. He died in Illinois in 1747 leaving two minor children, and his widow married Louis Vernay. 

The wife of Frangois Saucier was Marie Jeanne Fontaille; in July, 1761, after the death of 
Frangois, she married Antoine de Selle Duclos, cadet I'aiguillette, son of Monsieur Alexandre 
Duclos and Elizabeth Michelle. The parish register of Ste. Anne which gives the above infor- 
mation, includes also an entry for February 19, 1752, when Frangois Saucier, "engineer," was 
godfather to Marie Frangoise, daughter of his half-brother, Jean Baptiste Vivareinne and Marie 
Anne St. Pierre. A son of Frangois Saucier, also called Frangois, was born about 1740, was in 
command of Fort Massac when it surrendered to the English in 1765, and was the father of 
twenty-two children. Houck, History of Missouri, II, 89. 

" It has long been held that the fort George Rogers Clark captured was the Jesuit's house. 
It is just possible that it may have been a fort built on this knoll, for it was on the lot next to 
the Jesuits*. 

" " ANC C13A 36:88-91; 38:17-19- 



30 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

fort mentioned in 1753 as being at Kaskaskia may have been on this 
site.^« 

Clustered together near the church, in a manner of the feudal towns 
of old France, were the houses of the habitants. But the architecture of 
the French colonist was peculiarly his own.^® While the English pioneer 
laid logs one on top of the other to make the familiar log-cabin, the 
Frenchman stood his on end and called it a maison de poteaux en tcrre, 
a house of posts in the ground. Logs set on a foundation made a maison 
di poteaux siir sole. When scantlings replaced the logs, the house was of 
colomhage sur soler^ And if he lived in a region where stone was plenti- 
ful, as it was in the Illinois country, he often built his home of pierre 
sur pierre. 

The house of poteaux en terre, w^hich was probably the universal 
style of the first Kaskaskia houses, was built of walnut, oak, or mulberry 
logs, sometimes hewn flat on two or four sides, the interstices filled with 
houzillage, a mixture of clay and grass, or pierrotage of rubble stone and 
clay. But the logs in time rotted off in the ground, so that today in Ste. 
Genevieve, Missouri, where the French from Kaskaskia first settled, 
traditionally, about 1735, there remain only three houses of this type — 
the Amoureaux, Beauvais and Ribault houses; they are built of cedar. 

The second type of construction, a house of sills, obviated the danger 
from rotting logs by setting them on foundations of native limestone 
quarried from the river bluffs. The timbers used were heavy ones, some- 
times as much as ten inches square, and set less than a foot apart. 

A house of colomhage is first mentioned in the Kaskaskia ]Manu- 
scripts in a document dated sometime after February 20, 1744.^^ when 
one of this kind at Kaskaskia was sold by Jean Baptiste Barbeau to Sieur 
Desruisseaux, who shortly afterw^ards resold it to Mathieu Pien.-' From 
that date almost all of the houses described are of this type. 

A contract made in November, 1740, between Jean Pare^^ and Se- 
bastien Francois dit Canarie'* for the erection of a house for the latter, 
probably at Prairie du Rocher, calls for a house of charpcnte sur solle 
of white oak.25 Possibly charpente and colomhage were synonymous. 

The first stone house in the Illinois country w^as built by Philippe 
Renault on his concession above Fort de Chartres about 1722 or 1723.-® 



"ANC C13C 1:107. 

'»For most of the information about the varying types of French colonial architecture in 
Illinois, I am indebted to Charles Peterson, senior architect, National Park Service, St. Louis. 

=»I am responsible for this classification. Mr. Peterson believes that a house of colomhage 
was the same as a house of potcau.r. " Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VI. 

^' A soldier of the garrison at Kaskaskia. 

"Died October 4, 1744, at Fort de Chartres, aged fifty years. He always printed his name 
thus: "IPARE." 

"His name was sometimes written Francois Sebastien; he was Swiss. 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV. 

-'Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 407. 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 3I 

Most of the houses at Kaskaskia by that time had stone chimneys, but 
there is no record of any stone house among the eighty or so that stood 
in the village in 1721. In the decade of the thirties there are contracts for 
the construction of many and bills of sale for several. In 1766, according 
to Pittman, there were forty-three, about half of all the houses in 
Kaskaskia.-" 

A distinguishing characteristic of the French architecture of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, one not common in the homes of Canada from which 
most of the Illinois habitants came, was the galerie, or wide porch, across 
the two long sides of the house, often across three sides, and many times 
running entirely around the house. Several doors, each from a different 
room, opened onto this porch. 

The floor plan of all the houses was similar. The homes of most of 
the habitants had one, two, or three rooms placed end to end, each with 
its own outside door. Partitions across the end of one of the rooms pro- 
vided small bed-chambers called cabinets. The kitchen, center of family 
life in the homes of the bourgeois, was a part of the house; in the last 
years of the French regime, in a few houses of the wealthy, it was 
detached from the main building as it is in the Pierre Menard home at 
Chester, Illinois. But even the poor had a summer oven out-of-doors, 
protected by a rude shelter of branches, where baking was done during 
the hot weather. Only the better houses possessed cellars, or caveaux. 

Outside and inside, the habitant's home was plastered, if he could 
afford it; it was always whitewashed. The steep-hipped roof was made 
of straw in the early days, later of bark or shingles, and pierced by the 
great stone chimney and dormer windows. Casement windows, fitted 
with glass, and heavy doors that were sometimes panelled, were protected 
by contrevents, solid wood shutters. The average house appears to have 
had about four windows, perhaps one or two dormers, and three or 
four doors. 

Other buildings on the land near the house were the stable, negro 
quarters, the henhouse and the pigpen, mostly built of posts in the ground. 
The Jesuits also had a dovecote, a tall circular tower of stone. The barn 
as a rule stood on the habitant's concession in the common fields, though 
sometimes it was on his land in the village. The three or four horse mills 
at Kaskaskia were also built near their owners' houses. Around each lot, 
with its several buildings and its vegetable garden and small fruit or- 
chard, was a high palisade, usually of mulberry logs. The French settler 
of the Mississippi Valley lived in his fort. 

One of the first contracts for the construction of a house which is to 
be found among the Kaskaskia Manuscripts is that made May 13, 1723, 
between Boisbriant and Philippe Bienvenu, a carpenter of Kaskaskia, 

" Pittman, Mississippi Settlements, 85. 



32 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



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S 

u 



fc 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 33 

for the commandant's house at Fort de Chartres. Evidently to be of 
poteaux sur sole, the house was to have eight casement windows, each 
with a dormer and shutters, the wood between the glass panes to be 
turned. The two outside doors were to swing "like those of the parish 
church of Kaskaskia."^^ Boisbriant agreed to furnish the wood, nails, and 
a man "Pour faire sa chaudiere Lequel Sera Noury aux depences de La 
Compagnie," and pay Bienvenu 2,000 livres, half in merchandise of the 
magazine upon the arrival of the convoy, the other half in letters of 
exchange. ^^ 

The original house on the concession granted to Lieutenant Melique^" 
by Boisbriant a mile or so north of Kaskaskia was built in the summer 
of 1723 by Frangois la Plume. It was of posts in the ground, thirty by 
twenty-two feet, floored, and with three doors and a galerie.^^ On April 
II, 1725, Melique hired Michael Vien to build him a house of walnut or 
mulberry posts, twenty-five by eighteen feet, with one door and a thatched 
roof.^- The next October he made a contract with Mathurin Charant of 
Fort de Chartres for the erection of two frame houses the same size as 
his second one, and of walnut and white oak. Each was to have two 
chimneys, two doors, and three windows. The carpenter was to be paid 
2,000 livres in merchandise from the storehouse.^^ 

Jacques Bourdon, the captain of the Kaskaskia militia, of whom 
mention has been made before, died in June, 1723,^* one of the wealthi- 
est men in the village, but his house was little better than those of his 
neighbors, though perhaps it was larger to take care of his eight children. 
It was of poteaux sur sole, forty feet in length, the spaces between the 
logs filled with a mixture of clay and grass. The roof was thatched; the 
stone chimne}^ was double. Near the house there were two slave cabins 
"falling into ruin."^^ 

Most of the houses in Kaskaskia were about the same size. Pierre 
Aco received from the estate of his mother, Marie Rouensa, a house 
thirty-eight or thirty-nine feet long and nineteen feet wide, evidently 
partitioned at one end for bedrooms. The land with the house and other 
buildings en it he sold in September, 1725, to Michael Vien^® for 2,500 
livres.^^ The house of Antoine Beausseron^^ who died in Kaskaskia in 
the spring of 1726, was of posts in the ground, forty-six feet long and 

-* Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. ^^ Ibid. 

^° Pierre Melique, lieutenant of the company of D'Artaguiette, was the son of Pierre 
Melique, of Mondidier; he was fifty years old in 1725. Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I. He was 
killed by Indians late in 1726 or early in 1727, along with seven other French, as they were on 
their way to the Missouri post. ANC C13A 10:225. 

"Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. ^^ Ibid. ^^ Ibid. 

** Registre de la Paroisse. ^ Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. 

^^ His wife was Marie Fran?oise le Vert. La. Hist. Quart., X, 582. In 1736 he was a 
resident of New Orleans. " Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. 

^ Antoine Beausseron dit Leonard was the second husband of Susanne Kerami. His son, 
Antoine, was baptized August 7, 1717; Augustin was baptized August 28, 1719- Registre de la 
Paroisse. A Jean Baptise Ride dit Beausseron was living in Kaskaskia on May 4, i74'i. 



34 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 






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THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 35 

twenty feet wide. There was a floor, but the roof was only half ceiled. ^^ 
In the estate left by Louis Texier'*" there was a house thirty-five by 
nineteen feet, a stable of mulberry posts thirty-six by twenty-two feet, 
and a barn also of mulberry wood of almost the same dimensions.*^ 

The house which Alexandre Duclos sold to AI. Cesar de Blanc at Fort 
de Chartres December i8, 1757, was thirty-nine feet long, of posts in the 
ground, with a thatched roof, one partition, three doors, and three 
windows furnished with shutters. Near the house was a stable of posts 
twenty-two feet square with a thatched roof; there was also a chicken- 
bouse without any roof, ten feet on each side.*^ 

A house built by Francois Dielle for Joseph Brazeau,*^ merchant, in 
Kaskaskia in 1739 was of posts without foundations, twenty-five by 
twenty feet, with four windows and two doors. Brazeau furnished the 
wood and paid Diel 400 livres in flour or silver.** At the same time, Jean 
Baptiste Aubuchon contracted to build a house for Etienne Gaudreau of 
the same description for 300 livres plus food for Aubuchon and his 
helpers, and provided he supplied the harness necessary to haul the wood. 
The carpenter furnished the rafters for the roof.*^ On December 28, 
1739, Gaudreau hired Dielle to build another house of posts, of the same 
dimensions, with one door and two windows on each "grande face," one 
door in one gable end, and a lean-to "sur trois potause." Dielle was to 
begin the next week and work steadily, weather permitting, and be paid 
300 livres.*® It might seem that Gaudreau, the blacksmith, was going into 
the real estate business that year. 

Andre Chevalier, the garde magaz'm who died in 1759, had a fine 
house of posts in the ground in Nouvelle Chartres, opposite the main 
gate of the new fort. It consisted of a chamhre, salles, "many bedrooms" 
and a cellar. The roof was shingled; there were three stone chimneys, 
and the kitchen with its own stone chimney was separate from the house 
and made of poteanx sur sole; there was a small garden in the courtyard. 
Antoine Simon d'Auneville, Chevalier's successor as keeper of the store- 
house, purchased it from his heirs in April, 1759, for 10,475 livres,*^ far 
and away the largest amount paid for any house in the Illinois country 
of which there is a record. 



'^ Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. 

^0 His wife was Catherine, an Indian, who after his death married Jean Baptiste Lalande. 
Their children — Symphorosa, baptized in 1717, Paul, baptized in 1719 and killed in 1740, and 
Marie Rose, who married Pierre St. Ange, and on Nov. 20, 1741, Nicolas Boyer. Louis was a 
churchwarden, and was killed at Natchez June 3, 1721- A requiem mass for him was held at 
Kaskaskia the following September 18. Registrc dc la Paroisse. 

■'I Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. ■*= Ibid. 

"Joseph Brazeau, born about 1702, was the husband of Francoise Dizier, whom he married 
about 1739. He died Tune 4, 1774. Tanguay, II. 457. He was the father of Joseph, who married 
Marie Bienvenu dit Delisle; Louis, born in 174S. died in 1828; and Marie Frangoise, born I7S7. 
died 1826, who married Jean Baptiste Chauvin Charleville. 

•"Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers III, February 6, 1739- *^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. 

■" Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, III. 



36 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Among the first stone houses in Kaskaskia was that built for Pierre 
Pilet dit Lasonde by Charles Gossiaux,''* mason of Prairie du Rocher and 
Eustache Moreau, a mason of Kaskaskia. The contract, drawn March 2, 
1739, which describes the house, almost defies translation, the French is 
so bad. Here is a paragraph: 

de pierre de pareille Longueur huitem Et un pied par haut Et mesme Largeur 
portes et fenestre de Briquere une Chemine d ancre [ ?] un pignoin et deux dans 
Lautre Reduits en un turure [ ?] Les foyers Les mur renduit et»en dedans et 
Blanchir et Crepis [ ?] en dechart. . . . ■" 

Lasonde agreed to furnish all the material and pay the builders 700 livres, 
half in card-money, half in flour,^° 

Frangois Diel, the carpenter, on January 3, 1739, signed a contract to 
erect a stone house in Kaskaskia, twenty by eighteen feet, the frame to 
be made of oak or walnut.'"'^ On April 25 Marguerite Doza, wife of the 
merchant Jean Baptiste Guillon, ratified the sale made by her husband 
the previous autumn to Jacques Grignon of a stone house "completely 
furnished with everything necessary and ornamental. "^^ The following 
January, Nicolas Devegnois^^ was hired to build a stone house at a cost 
of 2,000 livres for Jean Baptiste Richard.^* Finished by June 16, 1742, 
it was thirty-two by twenty-two feet, the same height "as that of 
Grignon's," with shutters covering the four windows and both of the 
doors panelled. The hearth was stone; the palisade about the lot was 
made of mulberry posts. Ironwork and locks came from the forge of 
Louis Normand dit Labriere,^^ master toolmaker of the parish.^^ In 
October, 1740, Richard bought a house of posts from Lalande for the 
price of one negress named Marie and 600 livres in card-money and 
flour. This house was shingled, with a galerie on two sides and a stone 
chimney.^^ 

The first two-story house to be mentioned in the Manuscripts was a 
stone one which stood on land outside the village and figured in trade 
between Pierre Derousse dit St. Pierre and Pierre Louviere d'Amours.^* 
Together with the two arpents of land on which it was located and a 
horse mill of poteaiix sur sole nearby the house was exchanged by St. 
Pierre for a house of posts in the ground situated in Kaskaskia, a large 
wardrobe, and 200 livres.^^ St. Pierre used the village house for a tavern. 

^* Son of Philippe, of the diocese of Cambray. Married Jeanne Bienvenu, daughter of 
Philippe and Frangoise Alary, of the diocese of Cannes, September 13, 1723- They were the 
parents of at least one child, Jeanne, who died December 21, 1746. After the death of his wife 
sometime before September 12, 1729, Charles married Marie Rose Gonneau, widow of Pierre 
Marechal. Among their children were Marie and Jacques. Charles Gossiaux died February 8, 
1751, aged about 52 years. 

« Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, III. ^ Ibid. "Ibid. ^^ Ibid. y^. 

^^ Nicolas Thuiller Devegnois, second husband of Dorothee Mercier. See Appendix, p. 91. 

" See Appendix, p. 95. ""^ See Appendix, p. 98. 

°* Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV. " Ibid. 

** See Appendi.x, p. 97. "» Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VI, April 10, 1-43- 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 37 

Undoubtedly the largest in town was the three-story stone house built 
by Louis Turpin which Francois Valle''° bought for 1700 livres from 
Turpin's estate at an auction held January 30, 1763.'^^ Probably erected 
sometime in the decade of the forties, it stood on the corner of two 
streets "which lead to the parish church." That it was one of the chief 
structures of the village can be seen from the fact that in several doc- 
uments mention is made of "the street that leads to Louis Turpin's 
house." With its stone chimneys, its gallery on the second floor across 
two sides, and its shingled roof, it must have resembled the later home 
of Pierre Menard on the east bank of the Kaskaskia River. 

The presbytery at Kaskaskia, which may have been the building that 
years later served as the territorial capitol of Illinois, was constructed in 
1 73 1. On February i. La Source, churchwarden in charge "de la fabrique" 
and certain delegated parishioners contracted with Charles Rogue dit 
Desvertus ( ?) for a "batiment sur sole" thirty by twenty-two feet with 
a shed eight feet wide at one gable end, a double chimney of posts in the 
ground, and a porch 4^ feet wide on three sides of the building. A par- 
tition of planks was to divide the presbytery into two rooms; there were 
to be six doors and seven windows with two dormers; the window 
frames and the shutters were to be 5 by 2^4 feet, and both the presby- 
tery and the lean-to were to be shingled. The habitants agreed to cart the 
necessary w'ood and pay Rogue 2,000 livres in three installments — one- 
third in hams at 10 sols a pound at the beginning of the work; one-third 
in bacon when the work was half done, and the remainder, when the 
building was completed, in grain at 4 francs a minot or in flour at 15 
francs a minot."- Rogue in his turn engaged Jean Baptiste Potier, master 
joiner, to put in the ceiling and make the windows and doors in return 
for 2,000 pounds of flour and four hams."^ 

Thus was built the French village of Kaskaskia. The number of its 
houses seems not to have changed much in the fifty-odd years of its 
existence as a parish, if reports of visitors in 1721 and 1766 can be relied 
upon. Sieur I'Allemand, who was in Illinois in the earlier year, counted 
eighty houses in the town."* Pittman's map of 1766 shows eighty-one."^ 
But L'Allemand may have included more than dwelling houses, for his 
number appears large for a village of only 37 families — there were 37 
women given in the census of 1723, presumably all married — and 68 
unmarried men. On the other hand, Pittman probably meant to indicate 
only in a general w^ay the houses of Kaskaskia. 

*" See Appendix, p. 86. " Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, III. 

*^ Ibid., Commercial Papers, II. ^^ Ibid. 

"ASH 115-10, no. 29. ^•'^ Pittman, Mississif^pi Settlements, map of Kaskaskia. 



38 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



The French settlement grew slowly and the increase must have come 
largely from births, for immigration to the Illinois after the twenties 
was small. D'Artaguiette's census for 1723 was given in Chapter I. 
Nine years later another census counted 159 men, 39 women and 190 
children. Be that as it may, this second enumeration gives the following 
statistics for Kaskaskia: 

Legitimate children 87 

Bastard children 14 

Arpents cultivated 126 

Land in value 2,054 

Negroes, pihe d'lnde^ 38 

Negresses 23 

Negro children 41 

Indian slaves 30 men; 38 women 

Oxen 256 

Cows 237 

Pigs 894 

Horses 108 

Mills II 

Houses 52 

Barns 28 

For purposes of comparison, here are the data®' on the other settlements 

of southern Illinois: Concession of 

Renault 
Fort de North of Fort Cahokia 
Chartres de Chartres Mission 

Men 

Women 

Legitimate children 66 

Bastard children 6 

Orphans or bastards 

Arpents cultivated 140 

Land in value 827 

Negroes, piece d'Inde 13 

Negresses 6 

Negro children 18 

Male Indian slaves 19 

Female Indian slaves 20 

Oxen 116 

Cows 122 

Pigs 376 

Horses 59 

Mills 5 

Houses 41 

Barns 19 

Stables 



17 



250 

471 

14 

3 

5 

I 

I 

28 

42 

163 

25 



39 
3 
I 



3 

7 

30 

10 

2 
I 



General 
Recapitula- 
tion 

159 
39 



20 
266 

3-391 
68 

33 
64 

57 
62 

407 

431 
1.463 

202 
18 

104 

55 
6 



<^ "Pikce d'Inde" was the standard value of a complete negro — that is, a negro seventeen 
years old, or over, without bodily defects, or a negress, without bodily defects, of fifteen to thirty 
years, or three children of eight to ten years in age. 

"ANC 01:464. It is easy to see by the census for Renault's concession that he did not 
bring 500 negroes to Illinois in 17 19, and that he did not receive 25 negroes from the Company 
annually. 



THE VILLAGE OF KASKASKIA 39 

Brontin's map of the region, dated 1734, gives the population of 
Kaskaskia as 200 and of Cahokia as 139. 

A general census of Louisana in 1746 gives the Illinois population as 
300 habitants and 600 negroes. *^^ The next detailed census was taken on 
Macarty's orders in 1752.®^ It can easily be proved incomplete, yet it is 
still the fullest census we have of the region. The population totals are 

as follows: Fort de St. Port du Ste. 

Kaskaskia Chartres Philippe Rocher Cahokia Genevieve 

Men 58 26 15 10 18 7 

Women 5° 24 12 9 13 4 

Widows 8 7 2 2 I 

Bo3's of military age 36 27 9 6 3 i 

Boys over 12 years 64 20 6 6 16 

Marriageable girls 11 10 8 i 6 

Girls over 12 years 46 36 12 5 17 4 

Volunteers 77 35 6 14 15 2 

Negroes 102 34 20 18 11 3 

Negresses 67 25 7 8 6 

Negro boys 45 16 10 8 4 .. 

Negro girls 32 13 8 6 3 

Male savages 31 13 ^ i 4 1 1 

Female savages 44 23 4 4 12 

Oxen 320 172 96 87 84 18 

Cows 331 131 63 80 90 19 

Bull calves 147 80 51 54 53 23 

Heifers 145 78 32 37 45 12 

Horses 346 72 35 29 13 24 

Mares 75 30 27 19 25 4 

Pigs 841 198 184 174 100 185 

Guns 155 loi 27 37 29 14 

Powder 61 97 13 9 67 3 

Lead and balls 1,771 276 159 30 68 7 

Arpents of land 131 62 74 74 33 33 

Arpents in value 2,232 1,800 874 1,205 350 350 

Not counted were the three hundred soldiers in garrison at Fort de 
Chartres, Cahokia and Kaskaskia. 

A memoir of the same year on the French forts in Louisiana gives 
the total number of habitants of the five villages on the eastern banks of 
the Mississippi as 6,000 with 5,000 negroes, 600 soldiers in garrison, 12 
cannon at Fort de Chartres, 100 houses in Prairie du Rocher and 260 
houses altogether in the country.'° 

An unsigned memoir of 1763 states that there were 180 to 200 habi- 
tants at Kaskaskia and 90 at Nouvelle Chartres.'^ In 1767 Gage found at 
Kaskaskia:"^ 

«»ANC C13A 30:251V. «3HMLO 426, 1-7. 

'" Pargellis, Military Affairs in North America, 1748-1765, 13. 

'^ ANC C13A 42:296. 

" Alvord and Carter, The New Regime, 469. 



40 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Inhabitants, men, women, children 600 

Negro men 142 

Negro women 81 

Negro boys 80 

Oxen 295 

Cows 342 

Horses 216 

Bushels of Indian corn 25,500 

Bushels of wheat 13,008 

Mills 8 

Hoggs 912 

Fort de Chartres and St. Philippe were deserted except for three families 
at each place. Prairie du Rocher still had 25 families, and Cahokia, 60. 
Ste. Genevieve, in Spanish territory now, had grown to 70 families by 
the migration of the French from the British side of the river."^ 

'^ Alvord and Carter, The New Regime, 469. 



Chapter I\^ 
LIFE IN THE VILLAGE 

Half a century or more separated life in the Illinois country from life 
in the villages of old France. In a sense, it was half a century ahead, 
with the Revolution already in the past. The traders who founded Kas- 
kaskia had been born in Canada; they were pioneers, the sons of pioneers, 
independent and self-sufficient. And if the government that ruled them 
seemed autocratic in comparison with the government of their English 
neighbors, that autocracy was more apparent than real. In the wilderne^, 
they acknowledged no lord; in the village they made their own law. 
When they disobeyed the commandant, w^hich was frequently, threats of 
imprisonment hardly worried them, escape was so simple a matter. They 
were scarcely more concerned that the priests might deny them the 
sacraments. 

But everyday life was much the same as it had been in seventeenth 
century France when there had been little hint of the drastic economic 
and social changes that were to come. The habitant was content to live 
as his fathers had lived, to hunt and trap as they had in the north country, 
to cultivate the fertile bottom land with a primitive plow, to work the 
lead mines with shovel and pick, and at the end of the day, to gossip on 
the porch, to dance, or to have a mug of rum at the tavern. 

Class distinctions, like the government's despotism, were mostly 
theoretical, and any line drawn was between the military officers, some 
of whom were of noble birth, and the habitants. Few persons came to 
Kaskaskia already well-to-do; a considerable number, prospering from 
the fur trade and the raising of wheat, acquired moderate wealth. Kas- 
kaskia became a community of merchants and traders who supplied lower 
Louisiana with flour, meat, and bear oil, which could be had in abundance 
in Illinois, and who brought back from New Orleans luxuries as well 
as necessities. 

Their houses varied little in style of architecture, and until the latter 
days of the French regime the home of the wealthiest merchant looked 
much like the home of the poorest voyageiir. Inside there was hardly a 
greater difference, and what there was came more from the quantity of 
the furnishings than from their quality. 

The kitchen, center of family life as it had been in Europe for 
centuries, was generally the only room that was heated unless the 
chimney was a double one in the middle of the house. On the hearth 
under the huge mantle of the fireplace stood the iron firedogs with their 
curved heads, the indispensable pothook, and the spit. Arranged nearby 
were the iron grill, the frying pans and pipkins, the copper and iron 
boilers and cauldrons. 

41 



42 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

On the mantel, to use when the fire was low and there was need for 
more light, stood crude iron lamps like the Betsey lamps of the American 
pioneers, lamps whose shape had changed little since Roman times. There 
were copper and wood candlesticks for holding the long tallow candles, 
and sometimes a pair of snuffers. On special occasions the habitant 
burned slender tapers made from the fine wax of the candleberry myrtle 
of Louisiana. There were also iron lanterns with pointed caps standing 
on the mantelpiece for use outside at night. And on pegs above the mantel 
rested the habitant's best guns; the powder horn, sometimes banded with 
silver, hung close by. 

In the middle of the room stood the long, rectangular table made of 
walnut or oak from the Illinois forests. Ranged along the wall near the 
hearth were the chairs, most of them straight-backed and without arms, 
but usually there was one with arms for the head of the family. The 
small children sat on benches or heavy chests that were dragged across 
the floor to the table at mealtime. There were all fashions of chests, 
some elaborately carved, some w'ith feet and some without, some bound 
with metal and some not, some with locks, and some with none. Three to 
six feet long, they held the habitant's valuables: his fine clothes, his 
trade goods, his money, his marriage contract, the title to his land, his 
notes, and his account books. 

** Proudly displayed on a high sideboard or bufifet stood the housewife's 
pewter and crockery. The earthenware plates with boldly colored flowers 
and cocks and human figures painted stiffly upon a brilliant enamel gave 
a gay aspect to the room. Glass tableware was rare; yet some habitants 
owned crystal, and silver, and even golden goblets. An honored guest in 
an Illinois home might sometimes be served with silver cups and bowls. 
Spoons were occasionally of silver, more often of pewter, while forks 
were usually of steel or iron. Table knives were not common, but the 
habitant's hunting knife served very well. %. 

The most cherished piece of furniture in the house was the bed. 
Frequently it was the only dowry of the Illinois bride, and the marriage 
contract carefully assured its ownership to the survivor of the union. 
Six feet or more square, the bed was furnished wdth a straw mattress 
and a thick feather bed, and curtained with hangings of green or red 
serge or, very rarely, of fine painted stuffs. When there were sheets, 
they were of linen or cotton, and before she retired at night, the habi- 
tant's wife might run a large w^ooden roller over them in order to make 
the bed perfectly smooth. Buft'alo hides and coarse wool blankets served 
for covers; counterpanes were of calico, and sometimes of finer, flowered 
materials. The children of the household slept on cots, or three or four in 
a large bed; no doubt many slept on the floor, for only occasionally is 
more than one bed listed in an inventorv. 



LIFE IN THE VILLAGE 43 

A chest or so in the bedrooms, and an armoire, or wardrobe, com- 
pleted the furnishings of the house. The wardrobe was a good-sized affair, 
often eight or ten feet wide and with as many as thirty-six shelves. It, 
like much of the other furniture, was of walnut or sometimes of poplar 
and cherry. It had two long, hinged doors and was used for storing 
clothing and other household goods. 

Mirrors were rather scarce in Illinois homes, though most families 
possessed small mirrors "a la toilette"; in a few homes one would tind 
larger, framed mirrors. 

Some individuals, mainly officers and priests, owned watches or pocket 
sundials, but the ordinary habitant relied on the sun and the church bell 
to tell him the time of day. 

So much for the all-over picture of the habitant's home. For the 
details, intimate and sometimes amusing, one has to study the inventories. 
That for the estate of the deceased Jacques Bourdon,^ made July 1-5, 
1723, by De la Loere des Ursins in the presence of Father Beaubois and 
Monsieur Girardeau- is a good example: 

I walnut wardrobe 

8 walnut chairs and i armchair 

I dresser with a buf?et upon it 

I cot {couchette') 
14 plates and 2 pewter dishes 
17 glass bottles 

I copper candlestick and i pair of snuffers 

I pepper mill {nioulin a poivre) 

I pewter saltcellar 

1 old salting tub 

2 frying pans 
I grill 

I pair of andirons 

I iron shovel 

I old hunting horn 

1 spit 

2 poor lanterns 

3 trunks full of clothes and other merchandise 
I small box full of paper 

I pair of tailor's shears 
I bullet mold 
I pewter (or tin) syringe 
I iron ladle 
14 guns and i musket 

1 Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. . , , , j 

= Jean Baptiste Girardeau. His wife was Celeste Therese Nepveu, with whom he made a 
marriage contract November 9, 1722. She was the daughter of Jacques Nepveu and Michel e 
Chauvin; her mother, her brother, Jean Michael, twenty years old, and her sisters, Elisabeth, 
thirteen, and Susanne, were all killed by Indians in 1722 as they were on their way down the 
Ohio to Illinois to make their home. Her father and a nine-year-old brother were taken Pnsoner. 
Only she and her sister, Marie Catherine, who evidently were not of the party, remained of the 
family She had children by Girardeau; after his death, she married Louis du Tisne, son ot 
Charles Claude du Tisne, Illinois commandant. They had three children; one, Louis, was 
baptized April 29, 1733. Her third husband was Pierre Rene Harpain, Sieur de la Gautrais, 
lieutenant. Their marriage contract was dated June 5, i74i. They later moved to New Orleans. 
Registre de la Paroisse; Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, \. 



44 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

2 miserable scythes 
4 hatchets 

2 adzes 

3 plates and 2 spoons of Spanish silver 

2 razor boxes with 2 razors in each and 2 hones 
20O gun flints 

9 dozen and 8 knives a Cliien dc Come, lo Flemish knives, 
2 woodcutter's knives 
40 pounds of lead balls 
20 pewter spoons 
I comb 
16 large diaper linen napkins and 4 large tablecloths of the same 

4 old napkins 

I box of grained leather decorated with silver nails with 3 pairs of 

spectacles, and another box also with 3 pairs of spectacles 
I letter case 
I dice box and 3 dice 

1 old four-legged table of black poplar 

2 silver cups 

2 cupboards of black walnut with 36 shelves, some 8 feet long 

and some 10 feet 
I pair of pocket pistols 

1 old coarse blanket' 

3 cauldrons of red copper weighing 18 pounds 

2 yellow copper cauldrons weighing 3^ pounds 
I cauldron weighing 14^ pounds 

1 cauldron weighing 12 pounds 

2 iron cooking pans 

4 Spanish vases full of oil 

2 Natchez earthenware jugs full of oil 

2 red copper cauldrons w'ith lids, weighing 24^ pounds, full of bear oil 

2 old copper cauldrons 

2 old covered cauldrons 
I old salting tub 

1 ladle 

3 chests 

2 barrels of powder weighing 100 pounds each 

This next list comprises extracts from the list of the goods belonging 
to Charles Danis* which were sold at an auction on September 21, 1724, 
after his death. A few prices are given. ^ 

1 pie dish 66 francs 

2 ladles 22 francs 

4 spoons and 4 pewter forks 7 francs 

8 steel forks 15 francs 

2 small measures, i funnel 

1 crockery plate 

2 basins 

2 chairs, i armchair 
25 pots of oil 

^ Literally "dog's hair blanket." 

* Charles Danis had three wives; his last was the Indian, Dorothee, who became Louis 
Turpin's second wife. Danis died on July 17, 1724, at the age of forty-one. His children were 
Marie Anne, baptized October 4, 17 18, who married Philippe Chauvin and died before June, 
1747; Charles Pierre, baptized January 30, 1720; and Michael, who married Marie Barbe Pilet 
on June 29, 1745. ' Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I. 



LIFE IX THE VILLAGE 45 

In an inventory^ of September, 1725: 

1 bed with i feather bed and 2 buffalo robes 

2 pairs of bed curtains containing altogether 10 ells 
I pair of bed curtains of brown stuff, 10 ells 

4 tablecloths of coarsely woven material 

5 napkins, 4 of them of Rouen linen and i of diaper linen 

3 iron cauldrons, i of five or six pots, i of one pot, and the other 

of one pot without a cover 
I red copper cauldron 
I large iron frying pan 

1 spit 

2 kitchen andirons, of iron 

I candlestick with its snuffer 

I iron shovel 

I black walnut table 

4 wooden baskets 

1 iron lamp 

2 iron spoons 

1 glass bottle 

2 pairs of scissors 

An inventory^ made November 3, 1745, included among other items: 

15^ dozen diaper napkins 

I dozen diaper tablecloths 

I dozen dinner covers of silver 

I large silver ladle and i child's silver spoon 

1 crockery salad dish 

2 silver snuff boxes 

I square table to seat twelve persons 

1 cotton blanket, I wool blanket 

2 mirrors, one large, the other small 

6 crystal goblets 
I silver bowl 

1 crockery pot 

Marie Catherine Baron,^ when she died in July, 1748, owned :^ 

14 napkins 
4 linen tablecloths, one of diaper linen, and two of Beaufort linen 

3 window curtains of brown linen 

2 chests and i valise well bound and closed with a lock 

2 caskets closed with locks and covered with red copper 

3 calico window curtains 

I bed furnished with a straw mattress, a pillow, a bolster, a calico 

counterpane, a feather bed, a green wool blanket 
I cot 

I large framed mirror 
I hunting knife, I silver pistol 
I small cupboard with 6 wine bottles 

1 old chest closed w^ith a lock 

2 silver goblets 
2 crystal goblets 
I bullet mold 

I armchair 

I square table with drawers 



^ Ibid., Public Papers, II. '' Ibid., Private Papers, IV. 

* See Appendix, p. :oo. ' Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V, 



46 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

20 plates, I large dish, i small dish, i pot 

14 iron forks, . . (?) . . dozen iron forks ant! dinner knives 

6 crockery plates 

I small copper cauldron 

I old pie dish, i small cauldron 

1 medium-sized frying pan, i grill, i fork to draw food from the pot 

2 medium-sized pans 

2 pails hooped with iron 
I small cauldron 
I pothook with iron chain 
I old wardrobe 

6 plates and i dish, 6 spoons, i small bowl, i covered bowl weighing 
about II pounds, 6 forks 

1 frying pan 

2 medium-sized pans and i small pan 
I silver goblet 

1 small pan of yellow copper, i pail 

8 napkins, i tablecloth of Beaufort linen 

2 caskets covered with red copper 
I small framed mirror 

I cauldron holding about 40 pots 

Frangois Bastien,^° a habitant of Prairie du Rocher, left these house- 
hold goods, according to the inventory^^ made June 10, 1763: 

3 buffalo robes, 3 pillows, I cot 

I bed, I robe, i coarse wool blanket, I pillow 

I feather bed covered with ticking 

I of the same 

I old chest 

I old salting tub furnished with 2 iron hoops, i two-minot measure, 

I half-minot measure, I small barrel with 4 iron hoops 
1 buffet with its dishes 

I buffet with its dishes, and with two shelves closed by four hinged doors 
I small wine cupboard with 12 small bottles 
I pair of small scales 

1 large iron cooking pan 
30 pots of oil 

2 medium-sized cooking pans of iron 
2 more of the same, i large iron pan 
2 guns 

28 pounds of tobacco 
I frying pan, i ladle, i iron fork, I tin funnel 

1 crockery pot, i crockery bowl, 6 plates of the same, 3 earthenware 

dishes, i chamber pot 
12 pewter plates, i large pewter dish, 2 small basins, i bowl, 
5 pewter spoons, 6 pewter forks 

2 copper candlesticks 

I small cauldron of yellow copper, i of red copper, I grill 

The day in Kaskaskia, as in Canada, began at sunup, with breakfast 
between seven and eight o'clock. Dinner at noon was the principal meal 
of the day; then there were fresh meats — boiled, roasted, fricasseed, or 
stewed — soup with bread swimming in it, fruit preserves, tiny round 
cheeses and sweetened milk. Meat pies were great favorites; on Fridays 

'"See Appendix, p. 114. ''Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V. 



LIFE IN THE VILLAGE 47 

and Saturdays and other fast days, fish or milk dishes took the place of 
the meat. Stew was served in a large bowl, a la gamclle, and set in the 
center of the table where everyone dipped in with spoon and fork and 
sturdy slice of bread. Vegetables of all kinds were raised in the kitchen 
garden and served on the habitant's table — cabbages, peas, beans, carrots, 
turnips and parsnips. Cucumbers were sliced and eaten with salt, served 
raw in cream, or cooked in milk. Radishes were creamed; onions were 
sliced raw on bread and eaten at all meals. Pumpkins were roasted in the 
fireplace and served with sugar, or boiled and their pulp made into pies 
or crusty yellow bread. 

Bread-making was one of the household's biggest tasks, for although 
there were bakers in town their main business came from supplying 
biscuit to the troops and the voyageiirs, and most of Kaskaskia's bread 
was homemade. While the huge stone oven heated, the cook kneaded the 
dough that had been mixed the night before and shaped it into long oval 
loaves. When the fire had burned to coals and the oven floor mopped with 
cold water, the bread was laid in on long wooden paddles and the two 
doors tightly closed. Small loaves baked in about two hours; larger ones 
took as long as four. 

Butter was made by beating sour cream witli a fork; churns were 
unknown in the Illinois country. Sugar the French made from maple 
syrup, and they made salt by evaporating water from the salt springs 
southwest of the village on the far bank of the Mississippi. 

Washday in Kaskaskia was the same as it had been for thousands of 
years in riverside villages the world over. Clothes were dipped in the 
shallow water of the stream, scrubbed on the beach, and pounded with 
short-handled paddles. The soap, naturally, was homemade; whatever 
fine perfumed French soap the habitant might have was a luxury and not 
to be wasted on the laundry. Some women and widows took in washings. 
At Fort de Chartres at one time Renee Drouin^^ ^^s engaged for a year 
by the commandant to launder the linen and bandages of the sick in the 
fort hospital. Her wages were to be 140 livres in merchandise at the 
price of New Orleans.^^ 

There was one task that the women of the Illinois country did not 
share with their pioneer sisters in the English colonies. Weaving was 
prohibited by the government," and all cloth had to be purchased either 
from the king's storehouse or from the merchants who brought it up the 
river from the sea. For that reason the dress of those who could afford 
it was frequently much finer than one would expect in a wilderness 
trading post. 

1= In 1740 she was the wife of one La Feme. In i759 she was the widow of Charles Hervy, 
a sergeant of the troops. See Appendix, p. 102. 

"Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, V, November 27, 1740. 

"In no inventory is a spinning wheel or a loom listed. The translation of an item m the 
Jesuit inventory, as given by Alvord, to read "weaving room" is incorrect. 



48 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

The distinguishing garment of the habitant was the capot, a knee- 
length hooded jacket belted at the waist with a sash. A shirt of cotton or 
wool, knee-length breeches, long wool stockings, and soft-soled leather 
shoes completed his everyday costume. In the summer he wrapped a 
handkerchief, turban-like about his head, and in the woods he wore a 
fringed leather shirt and a brightly colored, tasseled cap. 

The dress of his wife and daughters was simple enough: a sleeveless 
bodice over a short-sleeved waist, ankle-length skirt and Indian mocca- 
sins, but it was as gay as it was simple — bodices of red and blue stuffs, 
waists of flowered muslin, skirts of scarlet drugget and printed calico, 
and stiff white caps for church.| This is the picture historians have given 
us of the French-Canadian dress. Doubtless it is correct in regard to 
everyday costume, but the inventories among the Kaskaskia Manuscripts 
tell another story. And when one studies these lists it is well to remember 
just what a remote community Kaskaskia was, how its streets were 
unpaved and in wet weather as muddy as only rich bottom-land soil can 
be, and how, for more than half of its existence, most of its citizens 
lived in log houses. 

Once again the inventory^^ of Jacques Bourdon furnishes good ex- 
amples. Among his belongings, Des Ursins found: 

I new piece of limbourg, containing 16 ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 18 ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 17 ells, moth-eaten 

I piece of blue limbourg, 17^ ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 10 and Ys ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 8 ells 

I piece of red limbourg, l6j4 ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 10 ells 

I piece of red limbourg, 3 ells 

I piece of blue limbourg, 18 ells 

I piece of blue limbourg, 15 ells 

I piece of white Crezeau of 3 ells, 10 pieces of limbourg containing 
altogether 139 ells 
25 ells of brown linen 

gY ells of Xely (?) 
16 ells of etoffe a negre 

6^ ells of the same 

IN AN OLD CHEST 

I old dress coat of taffeta with buttons of silver wire and a jacket of silk 
I old waistcoat of limbourg 
I old capot of calmande 

I old waistcoat of legging material, with sleeves 
ID shirts 
I pair of breeches of basin" 
I pair of stockings 
I old pair of linen breeches 
I night cap 
I hat of Dauphine 



'^ Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. 
'* Woolen cloth woven on a cotton woof. 



LIFE IN THE VILLAGE 49 

IN ANOTHER CHEST 

I old capot of red camelot" 
I old belt of damask 
I old calico jacket 
10 old shirts 
I old pair of wool stockings 
I old muslin neckerchief 
I old cloak of camelot 

In the goods of the officer, Sieur Franchomme/^ according to the 

inventory^^ made March 15, 1725, there were: 

I old linen habit 

4 old pairs of breeches 

1 wool bonnet 

several braids of sewing cotton 
6 old pairs of stockings 

2 old pairs of breeches 

2 old jackets, i pair of breeches 

Marie Frangoise Rivard, widow of Joseph Lamy,-° in 1725 paid St. 
Ange 800 livres in peltries for a complete outfit of a rose-colored taffeta 
dress, pair of silk stockings, anklets, slippers and mitts.^^ 

An inventory^^ of the next year included items such as these: 

17 ells of calico at 12 francs the ell 

42 and Ys ells of calamande at the same price 

4 and Ys ells of striped cotton cloth at 16 francs 
30 cotton handkerchiefs, 10 francs each 

I pair of woman's shoes, embroidered with silver, 18 livres 

After the disastrous Chickasaw campaign of 1736 in which so many 
Illinois soldiers and habitants died, there were quite a few sales of the 
belongings of those who had been killed. Most of them were made at 
Fort de Chartres on June 23, 1737. This is an extract from the sale" of 
the goods of Antoine Tonti, officer of the troops: 
I hat of half beaver, embroidered with silver 
I regulation outfit 

I dress coat and jacket of coffee-colored material 66 livres 

I old dress coat and jacket of grey cloth 28 livres 

I old dress coat and breeches of camelot 23 livres 

1 pair of silk stockings with clocking 

2 ells of batiste^* 20 livres 

^' Cheap woolen goods. , ^, ■ ^ ^i. -c 

"Killed in a detachment sent out under Des Liettes from Fort de Chartres against the Jrox 

Indians. ANC C13A 11:113- 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. . , o 1 » » 

=<'Son of Isaac Lamy and Marie Madeleine de Cheuraineville, baptized at Sorel August 2:, 
1685. He was the father of Joseph, born August 26, 1723, at Kaskaskia and married in Montreal, 
February 7, 1746, to Frangoise Jodoin. Another child was Frangoise who married Charles Jannot 
de La Chapelle February 12, 1743. The elder Joseph was a churchwarden of Kaskaskia. He was 
killed "two steps" from the village, March 15, 172S, with La Vigne. Both men were buried under 
their respective benches in the parish church. 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. 

"Ibid., Public Papers, II. 

23 Ibid.. Public Papers, I. 

-'* Fine white linen, closely woven. 



50 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Sold the same day-^ from the estate of Lieutenant Desgly were: 

I hat of half beaver 42 livres 

13 small cotton pocket handkerchiefs 

5 pairs of stockings 62 livres 

5 shirts 60 livres 

1 pair of silk stockings, 2 ells of linen 46 livres 10 s. 

7 or 8 muslin collars, several pairs of slippers, i linen vest. ... 26 livres 10 s. 

6 ells of cotton cloth 62 livres 

4 ells of striped cloth of Couty 80 livres 

Pierre Messager, merchant and lead miner, frequently was commis- 
sioned by one or another habitant to buy clothing in New Orleans. 
Just before the convoy set out for lower Louisiana in May, 1740, he 
signed an agreement with Pierre Bouvier to bring back in the fall one 
complete outfit of camelot sur soye — a dress coat, waistcoat, two pair 
of breeches, one fine hat of half beaver, four shirts of the finest batiste, 
one pair of silk stockings in a color suitable to wear with the outfit. And 
in case Messager was unable to get camelot sur soye, Bouvier would be 
satisfied with camelot du drap.^^ 

Alphonse de la Buissonniere, commandant at Illinois from 1737 
until his sudden death in December, 1740, was described as a poor man 
by the governor of Louisiana. Those who inventoried his possessions-' 
on December 12, 1740, found: 

25 shirts 

2 pieces of Brittany linen 
4 trimmed shirts 

1 piece of silk 

2 pairs of embroidered woman's shoes 

7 shirts 

I piece of toile royale 

3 pieces of muslin 

85 new, trimmed men's shirts 

1 piece of silver cloth 

8 ells of molleton^ 
6 ells of white serge 

8 ells of striped silk 

2 pieces of diaper linen 

I great coat of bouracan" with gold lace and buttons 

I pair of breeches of scarlet cloth 

I dress coat and i waist coat both trimmed with wide gold ribbon 

I dress coat of English drugget and i pair of brown breeches 

I dress coat of rose-colored silk trimmed with wide gold ribbon 

1 multi-colored belt 

2 pairs of white silk stockings 

12 pairs of men's stockings, 6 silk, 6 cotton 

2 hats embroidered with gold; one has a white feather, the other 
a black feather 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I. ^' Ibid., Commercial Papers, IV. 

-' Ibid., Private Papers, III. -* Woolen cloth made at Molton, England. 

2' A coarse woolen cloth. 



LIFE IX THE VILLAGE 5^ 

3 hats embroidered with gold 
I redingote with its hood 
I dress coat of mazamet'" 
30 mushn shirts, trimmed 
9 pieces of wide ribbon of divers colors 
9 pieces of calico 

Again from the inventory^^ of the estate of Aladame Baron, cited 
previously: 

I capot, jacket and breeches 60 livres 

1 capot of Cadiz and i black jacket 40 Hvres 

2 jackets of cholet (?), i capot of limbourg 25 livres 

I capot of Cadiz adorned with silver lace, i waistcoat of red 

camelot adorned with silver lace and with silver buttons. . 60 livres 

I purse and i hat of half beaver 20 livres 

1 wool belt, I pair of gloves 4 livres 

3 pairs of breeches, one of cotton, one of basin, one of cadiz. . . . 15 livres 

4 chemises 40 hvres 

2 chemises of Beaufort linen 20 livres 

I dressing gown, i taffeta petticoat, i cotton dress, i calico 

dress 220 livres 

1 pair of silver buckles 

Silver buckles, silver buttons, silver and gold lace — these are men- 
tioned in nearly every inventory. Perhaps before we stop, we ought to 
look at one more,^- this time dated 1747: 

3 cotton skirts, 3 calico aprons 90 hvres 

2 aprons, one of double calamande, the other of double satin . . 35 livres 
9 chemises 200 livres 

12 of the same 150 livres 

8 skirts and 5 child's aprons 50 livres 

9 aprons and 6 skirts, i child's corset 100 livres 

2 gauze'' infant's caps 

1 white cotton dress, i rose-colored quilted skirt of calico, 

2 rose-colored calico skirts 100 livres 

3 calico dresses and 3 calico skirts 100 livres 

2 aprons, I corset 3° hvres 

28 skirts for children of all sizes 150 livres 

I pair of woman's silk stockings 

I cap of black gauze 

It inay be an exaggeration to say with the early historians of Illinois 
that Kaskaskia was the "Versailles of the West"; but it is also an exag- 
geration to paint the settlement as a rough frontier village. No community 
could be that if its women wore satin and taffeta gowns and embroidered 
slippers with silver buckles, its men red silk breeches, fine linen shirts and 
silk stockings, or if its children were laced in corsets. One does wonder, 
however, what La Buissonniere did with so many shirts, shirts obviously 
much better than trade shirts. 

s" Name of a town in France, department of Tarn, in which there were woolen cloth factories. 
Mazamet was a cloth similar to molleton. 

31 Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V. 

3= Ibid. 

33 Soft and transparent linen or silk cloth. 



"^^'itoa 



Chapter V 

MAKING A LIVING 

The Illinois habitant was a farmer and a fur trader. Sometimes he 
was also a carpenter, a smith, or a tailor, but even then he was first of 
all a tiller of the soil. And when the crops were in and there was no work 
for his tools or his needle, he left farming to his wife and hired himself 
out to one of the village merchants to carry trade goods to the Indians. 
A fur trader he wanted to be for the wealth he might gain, a farmer he 
had to be in order that the Illinois country could become the granary of 
Louisiana. 

In the common fields of Kaskaskia south and west of the settlement, 
each habitant owned, or rented from a fellow farmer, a ribbon of land 
extending from the banks of the Mississippi to the pasture fence. Some 
held grants in the prairie east of the Kaskaskia River which ran back as 
far as the hills edging the River Ste. Marie. Most of these strips seem 
not to have been wider than one or two arpents in front, but on account 
of the meandering of the Mississippi and the Kaskaskia, where one farm 
of two arpents front contained only 90 acres, another next to it, of the 
same width, might include 150 or more. Mississippi floods annually 
lessened the acreage of the original grants, especially at Fort de Chartres 
and St. Philippe. There, by 1760, the French who had been given land in 
1722 or as late as 1734 had lost half or more of it to the new river 
channel.^ 

No fences but only a double furrow divided one field from another. 
Barns, though sometimes built on the habitant's land inside the town 
limits, were usually erected either on the commons or on this cultivated 
land. They were of a good size, larger than many of the houses, but of 
similar construction — posts in the ground, thatched roofs and a single 
story in height. Urban Gervais' barn at Prairie du Rocher was 80 by 35 
by 14 feet.- A few had stone barns. There were other smaller structures, 
some of them windmills, some of them tenant houses, dotting the fields. 
Jean Baptiste Crely, a cooper, in June, 1748, hired Pierre la Bonte, 
master mason, to build a house on Crely's land east of the Kaskaskia. 
It was to be of stone, 19 feet square, 22 feet high, with two lean-to's, one 
at each gable end, and a wooden porch on all four sides. ^ 

Farm tools were extremely primitive. The same kind of a wooden 
plow that first turned the sod at Kaskaskia in 1710 was being used by the 
habitant's descendants a century later. And supercilious Americans were 

> These French grants, insofar as they could be determined by government surveyors in 
1800, are shown in maps in vol. 2 of American State Papers, Public Lands. 

'Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, III. ^ Ibid., Commercial Papers. VII. 



52 



MAKING A LIVING 



53 




Agricultural and Building Implements 
I, Cart. 2, Large cart. 3, Plow. 4, Wooden cylinder. 5, Clod breaker. 6, Tumbril, 
7' Handbarrow. 8, Wheelbarrow. 9, Spade. 10, Pick-axe. 11, Hoe. 12, Mattock. 
13, Pike. 14, Harrow. 15, Scythe. 16, Hand anvil. 17, Sickle. 18, Rake. 19, Flad. 
20', Fan. 21, Winnowing basket. 22, Hand sieve. 23, Foot sieve. 24, Saw. 25, Iron 
fork. 26, Wooden hook. 27, Wooden fork. 28, Simple ladder. 29, Double ladder. 
30, Wooden shovel. 31, Hammer. 32, Mallet. 33, Pincers. 34. Center bit. 35, Auger. 
36, Gimlet. 37, Pruning hook. 38, Axe. 39, Hatchet. 40, Thistle hook. 41, Instru- 
ment for cutting branches. 42, Pincers. 43, Shears. 44, Cutting implement. 45, Simi- 
lar tools. (From La Nouvelle Maison Rustique). 



54 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

much amused to see the oxen yoked by their horns. The harrow was a 
triangular affair of wood, its two long sides each about six feet in length, 
while the third was about four feet; its teeth, also of wood, were around 
five inches long. Harvesting was accomplished with scythe and sickle; 
threshing was done with a wooden flail. 

The habitant never fertilized his fields, tilled them carelessly, fre- 
quently lost entire crops by flood or drouth, and still produced enough 
grain year after year to send large quantities down the river to the 
settlements of lower Louisiana. In seasons when hurricanes destroyed 
crops in the south, Illinois flour had to feed the whole colony. 

Wheat and maize were the principal grains raised. Wheat grew easily 
on the fertile bottom land, but the yield was far below that for Indian 
corn. Writing in 1752. Father Vivier, the priest of the village, reported 
that while as a rule wheat yielded only fivefold to eightfold, maize 'yields 
a thousandfold." The fogs, sudden heats, and indifferent cultivation which 
the Jesuit blamed for the poor wheat crops, apparently had no harmful 
effects on the maize, and the country produced three times as much food 
as it could use.* 

Some idea of the amount of wheat cultivated each year in the Illinois 
country can be gained from contracts made by Illinois merchants with the 
government to supply flour to the storehouses of the colony, and from the 
reports on the annual convoys which came down to New Orleans each 
spring. 

In 1731, with flour selling at 25 livres a quintal, more than a hundred 
thousandweight came down from Illinois.^ In 1736 contracts with Kas- 
kaskia merchants set the price of flour at 21 livres a hundredweight. On 
January 5. Francois la Croix agreed to furnish 2.715 pounds to the 
storehouse at Xatchez in June.^ On May 25 he contracted to deliver to the 
post of the Arkansas 6.000 pounds." June i of the same year, Joseph 
Dulude promised to furnish 7,924 pounds of flour to Natchez^ and 
Thomas Chauvin bound himself to deliver 5,905 pounds there.^ 

But crops that year, promising so well, were attacked "by a sort of a 
ground bug that had eaten them and wasted them in such a way" that 
the harvest was poor. The corn crop was totally ruined.^" So when the 
convoy reached New Orleans early in June, 1737, it brought only 40 
thousandweight of flour, not a fourth of the usual amount. Six thousand- 
weight had been left at Arkansas, twenty-seven at Natchez. ^^ 

Letters from Illinois in the summer of 1737 reported abundant crops 
with about a hundred thousand pounds of flour available.^^ How much of 
this came down by the first convoy the next spring is not recorded, but 

♦Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, LXIX, 219. ' ANC B,';7:8i7''-SiS; C13A 13:46-54. 

* Records of the Superior Council, La. Hist. Quart., VIII, i47- '' Ihid., 290. 

^ Ibid., 293. 'Ibid., V. 381. ^'> Mississip{>i Provincial Archives, I, 329. 

" ANC C13A 22:194. ^^ Ibid., 23:52. 



MAKING A LIVING 



55 




Tools axd Utensils 
I, Spade. 2, Shovel. 3, Rake. 4, Scrapers. 5, Trowel. 6, Pruning knife. 7, Planting 
tools. 8, Watering pots. 9, Turf beetle. 10, Flowerbasket. 11, Garden sieve. 12, Saw. 
13, Garden trowel. 14, Glass pots. 15, Beater. 16, Straw mat. 17, Mallet. 18, Wheel- 
barrow. 19, Handbarrow. 20, Instrument for destroying caterpillar-infested 
branches. 21, Garden shears. 22, Ladders. 23, Pick-axes. 24, Small picks. 25, Prun- 
ing hook. 26, Bell glass. 'ZT, Bell glass of straw. 28, Iron fork. 29, Trowel. 
30, Screen. (From La Noui'elle Maison Rnstique) . 



56 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

the second one arriving May 29, 1738, at New Orleans brought from 
fifty to sixty thousandvveight.^^ 

The harvest of 1738 was poor;^'* however, by the end of the year 
1739, 12,000 pounds of flour had been sent from Illinois to provision the 
troops engaged against the Chickasaw.^^ Six hundredweight of Illinois 
flour was received in lower Louisiana in 1740.^^ An abundant harvest in 
1741^" was followed by a very poor one the next year, when continual 
rains prevented the French from gathering more than enough for their 
own use.^^ 

The year 1745 had another lean crop,^^ with a much better one the 
succeeding year,-" and an even greater one in 1747.^^ Convoys carried 
down to the Gulf, in the spring of 1748, 800,000 pounds of flour.-- But 
disaster overtook the Illinois grain fields again in 1748, and the harvest 
that summer was "tres mauvaise."-^ The crops were poor in 1750; in 
1752 no rain fell for three months, the marshes dried up, and the Kas- 
kaskia river would scarcely float the smallest pirogue. As a result the 
larger part of the corn was lost, which, in Macarty's words, was "a great 
misfortune to the country for pork." Rust had attacked the wheat, and 
the kernels were smaller than usual, but nevertheless, the barns were full 
and stacks had to be made of it, for the whole crop could not be put 
under cover. ^^ That same year Macarty reported that the fields on the 
Illinois side were worn out, and most of the habitants were taking up 
land around Ste. Genevieve. He suggested that more land could be as- 
signed in the commons without crowding the cattle, but that the French 
had opposed such a move while Bertet was commandant. ^^ 

Cattle, supposedly introduced by the Jesuits about 1712, were kept by 
the habitant to draw his plow and his two-wheeled carts and to supply 
him with meat and milk. They were undoubtedly the most useful animals 
he owned, and poor indeed was the Frenchman of Illinois who did not 
possess at least one cow. In 1721, according to L'Allemand whose visit 
to Kaskaskia has been previously mentioned, there were a hundred betes 
a cornes.-^ In 1752 the census-taker listed 757 oxen, 714 cows, 408 bull 
calves, and 349 heifers in the whole of the country. At Kaskaskia there 
were 320 oxen, 331 cows, 147 bull calves, and 145 heifers.^^ 

That these numbers must only have been estimates and probably far 
under the actual figures, a letter by Father Vivier testifies: 
The working animals graze on a vast common around the village ; others, in much 
larger numbers, which are intended for breeding, are shut up throughout the year 
on a peninsula over ten leagues in extent, formed by the Mississippi and the river 

^^Mississippi Provincial Archives, I, 367. " ANC C13A 24:3-7. 128. '^ Ibid. 

'"Ibid., 25:22. "Ibid., B74:623. "76id., 078:452; C13A 28:34- 

"Surrey, Commerce of Louisiana, 292. -" ANC C13A 30:71. 

^^ Ibid., B87:is-is''. ^^^ Du Pratz, Histoire, I, 331- '' ANC C13A 33:11s''- 

=* HMLO 399, October 7, 1752; ibid., 376, September 2, 1752. ^ Ibid. 

=«ASH iis-io. 110. 29. "HMLO 426. 



MAKING A LIVING 57 

of the Tamaroas. These animals, which are seldom approached, have become almost 
wild, and artifice must be employed in order to catch them. If a habitant needs a 
pair of oxen, he goes to the peninsula. When he sees a bull large enough to be 
trained, he throws a handful of salt to him, and stretches out a long rope with a 
noose at the end; then he lies down. The animal which is eager for salt, draws 
near ; as soon as its foot is in the noose, the man on the watch pulls the rope, and 
the bull is captured. The same is done for horses, calves and colts; this is all that 
it costs to get a pair of oxen or of horses. IMoreover these animals are not subject 
to any diseases ; they live a long time, and, as a rule, die only of old age."* 

It ma}^ have been from this half -wild herd that the Kaskaskia merchants 
obtained the "jj yoke of oxen and the 80 horses that they sold to the king 
in 1739 for the new fort on the St. Francois River.-" 

Most of the habitants seem also to have owned horses. By the same 
census of 1752, of the 519 horses counted for the Illinois country, 346 
belonged to the villagers of Kaskaskia.^° When the horses they furnished 
Macarty for a detachment of soldiers returned so worn out that they were 
useless to their owners, Sieur Bove (Bore ?) and his friends, Charleville 
and Delisle, protested to Governor Vaudreuil. The soldiers, they declared, 
had been sent to hunt Indians, not game.^^ 

Pigs were pigs in the Illinois country; they were the most numerous 
of all the animals. The 1752 census accounted for 1,582 of them, 814 of 
these being owned at Kaskaskia.^^ gut how many there really were no 
one probably ever knew, for they ran loose in the woods, and though 
they were branded with their owners' marks, they had to be hunted almost 
as wild beasts. A description by a later settler in the neighborhood, a 
German naturalist, gives an interesting picture of the habits of these 
hogs — a companion piece to Father Vivier's story of the oxen. 
The deciduous oaks of the forest which lay between the prairies proper usually 
shed their leaves within a very short time, so as to litter the woods eight toten 
inches deep with the dry leaves. A herd would choose its headquarters in a given 
spot, from which any strange hogs were vigorously and noisily repelled. Then 
toward evening would come the members of the herd, in a slow walk, each 
carrying a mouthful of leaves which was deposited on the outside of a gradually 
widening circle until a leaf bed some twenty inches high and twelve to twenty 
feet across would be formed. Then at dusk some ancient member of the herd 
would take the initiative of lying down in the center of the bed, often dislodging 
with noisy disapproval some impudent little pig which had taken its place pre- 
maturely. Then the rest would successively and gravely come marching in to lie 
down, but rarely in peace, as the choice places became the object of contention, 
with much violent grunting and squealing especially when some late-comers would 
undertake to walk over the previous occupants, sometimes calmly lying down on 
top and by their struggles gradually managing to sink down into a warm place, 
regardless of protests. The smaller pigs, however, would often be allowed to form 
a second, top layer over their mothers. In the early morning after a cold windy 
night, additional leaves would have drifted over the hog pile so that not a single 
animal was visible.'* 

^Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, LXIX, 220-221. 

29 Mississippi Provincial Archives, I, 428. 

30 HMLO 426. " HMLO 414, December 9, 1752. ^'^ Ibid., 426. 

'3 Hilgaard, "Botanical Features of Illinois Prairies." Typescript in the Illinois Historical 
Survey, University of Illinois. 



58 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

They lived on acorns and berries, and according to Professor Hilgaard, 
when they wanted hazehiuts or blackberries not ripe enough to drop off 
when shaken, and too high to be reached by standing on their hind feet, 
one hog would rear up and bend down the branches until its companion 
had eaten his fill. Then the first hog held the branches down while the 
second ate \^* 

A few habitants owned neither land nor animals, but there were 
always ways to remedy that condition. There were farms owned by 
widows and minor heirs that could be rented for several years; and farms 
whose owners were off hunting or down at New Orleans that could be 
worked on shares for a season. Sometimes only barns or animals were 
rented. A half or a third of a mill was often leased, and for that matter, 
other buildings as well. As for example: Pierre Pilet dit La Sonde and 
his wife, Marie Madeleine Boisron, on November 7, 1724, leased for five 
years from Louis Turpin property in Kaskaskia consisting of half a barn, 
half a house, half a mill, two cows, two oxen trained to work, two bulls, 
a horse, a cart, an old plow, two sc}i:hes, three sickles and three arpents 
of land. The rent was eighty minots of wheat a year.^^ 

fitienne Guivremont^® on August 18, 1725, rented from Jacques 
Lalande^' land situated on the Point, north of Kaskaskia, land in the 
prairie of the Kaskaskia Indians, a house in the village, and a barn forty 
feet long. In the barn were four oxen, two cows, four middle-sized pigs, 
sixty minots of wheat, a new cart with iron-shod wheels, another cart, 
two scythes and six sickles. The rental was fifty minots of corn and fifty 
minots of wheat yearly; at the end of the third year the sixty minots of 
wheat in the barn was to be repaid. ^^ 

Rent was usually paid in grain, as in these two cases; sometimes it 
was paid in money. Antoine Dorval rented fifteen arpents of farm land 
from Pierre Blot at four francs an arpent.^^ As guardian of Joseph 
riisperance, on February 24, 1738. Pierre de Monbrun^° leased an arpent 
and a half of farm land fronting the Mississippi at Kaskaskia, a negro 
family of five, an ox, cow, some pigs, a cart, a plow, etc., for three years 
at 453 livres a year.^^ 

Partnerships were common. An agreement of the usual type was one 
made September 19. 1740, between Louis Lefevre du Chouquet of Kas- 
kaskia and Pierre Limbe, a laborer, ordinarily living at Montreal. Limbe 
was to work with Du Chouquet in cultivating his land for two years, the 

*• Hilgraard, "Botanical Features of Illinois Prairies." Typescript in the Illinois Historical 
Survey, University of Illinois. ^' Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. 

" Son of Jean Guivremont and Marie Madeleine Charpentier of Champlain, and widower 
of Marie Olivier. He made a marriage contract April ii, 1736, with Marie Louise Cardinal, 
widow of Nicolas Millet and daughter of the late Jacques Cardinal and Louise. Kaskaskia Mss., 
Private Papers, II. "See -Appendix, p. 112. 

''Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I. 

^ Ibid., Commercial Papers, III. February 26, 1739. '"'See .\ppendix, p. 93. 

*' Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VII, February 24, 1748. 



1. MAKING A LIVING 59 

latter furnishing the tools, a negro, and Limbe's laundry. At the end of 
the term, two-thirds of the profits were to belong to Du Chouquet, the 
other third to Limbe/^ Provisions of the partnership between Etienne 
Lalande and Laurent Perrico dit Olivier, entered into December 19, 1748, 
stipulated that Olivier was to farm the land given Lalande by Joseph 
Courtois for two years, the profits to be divided into thirds, one-third 
going to Lalande, one-third to Olivier, and the last third being itself 
divided into thirds, of which Lalande would take two-thirds and Olivier 
the remaining third. •*^ 

A considerable amount of the farm work was done by negro slaves; 
there was but one drawback here, the lack of enough slaves. The French 
were forever begging the government to send more negroes and were 
always refused. Philippe Renault was promised by the Company of the 
Indies that they would send him 25 negroes annually to work the mmes; 
it appears that even these were not sent, but according to a report 
written in Paris in 1724, the Superior Council of Louisiana did send 50 
negroes in that summer upon his promise to return to the Company 
15,000 pounds of lead the following May.** 

Negroes were valuable property anywhere in Louisiana durmg the 
French regime; they were particularly so in Illinois. Antoine Beausseron, 
dying in the spring of 1726, left one negro, one negress and their two 
children, one about four or five years old, the other eight or nine months, 
the family together worth 4,000 livres. A second family appraised at the 
same value consisted of a man and his wife who was dangerously ill, and 
two children aged three or four years and one-and-a-half years.*^ Antouie 
Bienvenu bought a negro piece d'Inde in 1733 for eleven thousand- 
weight of flour, a pirogue large enough to carry the flour, a covering for 
the pirogue and 25 hams.*^ La Chenais,"' the baker of Kaskaskia, rented 
a negro for a year for 250 pounds of flour.*^ A slave family with two 
children which he had bought from the Company of the Indies, Jean 
Baptiste Saucier sold in 1737 to Joseph Deruisseaux for 2,000 livres in 
flour or beavers.*^ Chocolat, a slave belonging to the merchant, Jean 
Baptiste Richard, brought a price of 1,500 livres from Pierre Hulin, one- 
third paid in flour, one-third in hams, and one-third in card-money.^" A 
boy ten years old was sold by Jean Baptiste la Source to Antoine 

" Ibid., Commercial Papers, IV. 

*^ Ibid., Commercial Papers. VII. u- t n 

«Banet's Report to the Company of the Indies, December 20, 1724- i-a. H'st. W'art., 
XII, 121. •'5 Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. *« Ibid., Commercial Papers, II. 

"Philippe la Chenais, baptized 1609; married at Montreal November 24, 1721, to MarRuente 
Texier They were parents of Philippe, born and died, 1721; Charlotte Frangoise, baptized 1-ebruary 
II, 172s, married February 29, 1743. at Kaskaskia to Claude Caron; Louise, born atid died, 1727; 
Francois, born and died, 1728; Jean Baptiste, baptized June 24, i733, at Detroit ; Catherine, born 
and died in Detroit, 1734; and Marie Anne, born and died in Detroit, 1735- Tanguay, \, 66; 
Registre de la Paroisse. •** Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II. 

*^Ibid., Commercial Papers, III. ^^ Ibid., Commercial Papers, IV. 



6o KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Peltier^^ for 600 livres and a small Indian slave.^^ Jean Baptiste St. 
Gemme Beauvais, who became the richest man in the Illinois country, in 
1 741 paid 5,000 livres to Jean Baptiste Becquet for a negro family of 
four; he paid 2,000 livres in January, 1742, in goods from the storehouse, 
3,000 livres in merchandise the next April, and two minots of salt.^^ On 
Alay II, 1750, he bought another negro for 1,600 livres from Rene de 
Couagne, Montreal merchant then at Kaskaskia.^* In most of the inven- 
tories one or two negroes are mentioned, sometimes only children, so it 
seems fair to surmise that most Illinois households owned one slave. 
None of them possessed a great many. 

That negroes were comparatively well treated goes without saying, 
without any more evidence than that of the high prices paid for them. 
Their masters were bound by the Code Noir published for Louisiana in 
1724, which they appear to have interpreted liberally. Theft was pun- 
ishable by flogging and branding and occasionally by death, but white 
thieves, in Illinois at least, received similar sentences. As far as the 
records go, only one negro was ever executed in the country. On August 
29, 1725, Pierre Perico was convicted of having scaled the walls of Fort 
de Chartres eight times, of breaking into the magazine, and of stealing 
a large quantity of merchandise which he hid in a hollow Cottonwood, 
and was accordingly condemned to be hanged. ^^ When in 1748 the 
negress, Marie Jeanne, slave of Damoiselle Marie Vincennes, dismembered 
her newborn child and buried the pieces in Joseph Brazeau's garden, the 
judge sent the woman down to New Orleans to let the Superior Council 
decide her punishment. ^^ 

If a slave struck any white person in the face hard enough to cause 
a bruise or to bring blood, the Code provided the death penalty. But the 
provincial council, sitting at Fort de Chartres on December 22, 1730, 
did not condemn Jean, slave belonging to the Texier estate, to death for 
wounding Sieur Bastien. Bastien demanded that Jean be hanged for his 
"insolence." Jean replied that Bastien had commenced the quarrel, and 
what was more, had received his injuries when he fell against the door. 
The negro was sentenced to apologize publicly, on his knees, and to be 
whipped three different days.^' When one of their slaves had his arm 
broken by a villager, the Jesuits demanded compensation. Louis Meti- 
vier,^^ guardian of the Becquet minors, acted likewise when Sieur du 
Couadie, step-father of the children, mistreated one of their slaves to such 
an extent that he ran away and died of his injuries. ^^ 

A few habitants were skilled artisans and had other tasks besides 
farming. Concerning their work there remains today scarcely any record 

■'•'See Appendix, p. o;. " Kaskaskia ^Iss., Commercial Papers, IV. 

•'■^ Ibid., Commercial Papers, V. " Ihid., Commercial Papers, VIII. 

'-'^ Ibid., Public Papers, I. '« Ibid., Private Papers, I. 

5' Ibid., Public Papers, I. " See Appendix, p. io6. 

" Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, I, March 3, 1741. 



MAKING A LIVING 6l 

except their names. Jean Baptiste Marquis,*^° a blacksmith hving in 
Kaskaskia, on September 14, 1740, entered into a partnership \vith 
Joseph Chauvin Charleville,^^ a merchant, for three years. Chauvin was 
to feed and lodge the smith and provide the fuel for his forge; at the 
end of the period, Marquis was to deduct 300 livres from the profits, 
and divide the remainder equally with Chauvin.*^- Etienne Gaudreau, 
master tool-maker, on February 20, 1739, agreed to furnish Louis Turpin 
"all and everything" from his forge of which Turpin would have the need 
in his house and in the cultivation of his land — spades, hoes, hatchets, 
plows, etc. — in return for no livres payable at the end of the year in 
card-m-oney or flour.''^ Guns for the troops at Fort de Chartres were 
made at the forge of Jean Becquet, who was hired by De La Loere on 
]\larch 30, 1737.^* Louis Normand dit La Briere, another Kaskaskia smith, 
agreed on January 25, 1737, to supply Dominique Ouesnel, master gun- 
smith, 30 hoes in return for the loan of an anvil for a year.^^ And 
Philippe la Chenais, the baker, furnished the biscuit for two voyageurs 
on their trip to New Orleans; they provided the flour. '^'^ 

As for the other craftsmen we shall have to be content merely to 
know that they followed their trades in the Illinois. This is a fairly 
complete list of the men whose names appear scattered throughout the 
Kaskaskia records. The dates are those of the documents in which the 
names are found. 
Philippe Bienvenu," carpenter. 1724. 
Pierre Danis,^ mason. 1724. 

Antoine Pelle dit La Plume, sawyer, Fort de Chartres. 1725. 
lean Baptiste le Compte, master smith, Fort de Chartres. 1725- 
jean Baptiste Becquet,'' locksmith, Fort de Chartres. On October 17, 1725, he sold 

his smithy to Etienne Louce, another locksmith, for 700 hvres, and apparently 

moved to Kaskaskia. 1725. 
Mathurin Charant, carpenter, Fort de Chartres. September 30, 1727. 
Nicolas Imbert, locksmith, Fort de Chartres. August 9, 1729. 
Rene Crude," shingler, Kaskaskia. 1730. 
^letivier, carpenter of Illinois. August 23, 1731. 
Jean Baptiste Portier (Potier)," master joiner, Kaskaskia. October i, 1731. 

^ See Appendix, p. 89. 

61 "Ecuyer, Juge de Paix, habitant" of Kaskaskia. Abstracts of Kaskaskia Marriage Con- 
tracts. 34. See Appendix, p. 87. «= Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV. 

<^Ibid., Commercial Papers, III. ^ Ibid., Commercial Papers, VI. 

65 Ibid., Commercial Papers, VI. 68 Jhid., Commercial Papers, VII. 

6' Founder of the Illinois family of that name. See footnote loi. p. ^3. .\ widower, he married 
Marie Foret (?) June 6, 1724- 

68 Married Simone Marie Martin, widow of Claude Illeret, January 4, 1724- 

"' See Appendix, p. 106. _ _ 

'"Native of Louplande, diocese of Mans; on April 11, 1725, at the age of thirty-nine, he 
married Anne Marie Deble, native of the village of Alber (?) in Germany. Registre^j^laP^issc. ^ Ir^ tjc 

"Husband of Fran<;oise la Brise. He was dead by April 27. 1735. and his'wafiHvmTirned -^'^^- /* "* ' 

Joseph Buchet, Iwl diLJ hi-iAulf b»- -t;:40. Jean Baptiste Potier and Frangoise were parents of J««^ O"^ f\f 
-Marie Frangoise, baptized November 10, 1717, and married Jean Frangois Dielle (Guelle) ; lyJ^fK^t^ii 
Jacques, baptized February 2, 1721, died September 5. 1723; Jeanne, baptized January, 1726, ^ \_ -j. 

married in October, 1740, to Jacques Millet; Jean Baptiste, baptized March 3, 171S; Mane — , 7 - m) 
Catherine, baptized June iS, 1719, married Joseph Moreau; Toussaint, baptized November 22, / 

1723, married Catherine Delessart in 1745 (she died December 7 and he December 10, 1746); 
Louis, married Renee (?), daughter of Gregoire Kiercereau, February 1,^1752. Joseph Potier, who 
died December 5, 1746, aged twenty-one, may have been another son. .'set t-' '7"^ •r^ ^^^»-"^. 



62 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Jean Baptiste Alarquis,'' master smith, Prairie du Rocher. June 7, 1733. 

Jean Chauvin," master tool-maker, Kaskaskia. 1733. 

Dominique Quesnel,'* gunsmith, Kaskaskia. January 25, 1737. 

Charles Pepin, master mason, Kaskaskia. May, 1737. 

Mercier," blacksmith, Cahokia. June 23, 1737. 

Antoine Roland, master wig-maker. December 8, 1737. 

Joseph Bissonet (?), smith, aged twenty years, Kaskaskia. 1739. 

Louis Bore," master joiner, Kaskaskia. 1739. 

Jerome Javoinc (?), carpenter, aged forty years. 1739. 

Joseph Mercier," locksmith. Fort de Chartres. 1739. 

Etiennc Gaudreau, master tool-maker, Kaskaskia. 1739. 

Eustache Moreau," master mason, Kaskaskia. March 2, 1739. 

Jean Baptiste Aubuchon," master carpenter, Kaskaskia. March 10, 1739. 

Jean Franqois Dielle,'"' carpenter, Kaskaskia. December 28, 1739. 

Charles Huet dit Dulude," gunsmith, Kaskaskia. 1740. 

Louis Normand dit La Briere," smith, Kaskaskia. 1740. 

Jacques Marinau, smith, ordinarily living at Beauport. Bought land of Gaudreau 

in Kaskaskia and entered partnership with him. October 25, 1740. 
Gregoire Kiercereau dit Gregoire," miller, Fort de Chartres. January 25, 1741. 
Jean Baptiste Gouin dit Champagne,*'* blacksmith. Fort de Chartres. January 25, 

1741. 
Nicolas Marechal," master turner. Fort de Chartres. December 15, 1741. 
Jean Baptiste la . . . dit Beaupre, shingler, tavern-keeper, Kaskaskia. December 

15. 1741- 
Jean Baptiste la Riviere,*'^ tailor. 1742. 
Frangois Corset dit Coco," carpenter. 1743. 
Jean Barbeau,^ master joiner, Kaskaskia. April 18, 1743. 
Raphael Beauvais,*^ carpenter, Kaskaskia. December 7, 1745. 
Bernard Bouillon dit La Joy,"" master mason, Kaskaskia. June 23, 1746. 
Jean Baptiste Amiot, blacksmith, Fort de Chartres. July 2, 1746. 
Jean Baptiste Deguire,^' tailor, Kaskaskia. October 9, 1747. 
Frangois Lalumandiere dit La Fleur,"" tailor, Kaskaskia. February 24, 1748. 
Louis Marcheteau dit Desnoyers,°^ master turner, Fort de Chartres. April 4, 1748. 

'- See Appendix, p. 89. 

" Son of Jacques Chauvin and Marie Cochons, he made a marriage contract with Agnes la 
Croix, daughter of Frangois la Croix and Barbe Montmeunier, September 29, 1737. He had 
two brothers, Jacques and Thomas. 

"Son of Olivier Quesnel, master armorer, and Catherine Prudhomme; baptized at Mon- 
treal, June 18, 1695. He was godfather to a boy born in Kaskaskia in 1721 to Antoine Carriere 
and Marie Madeleine Quesnel, his sister. A brother, Raimond, also lived in Illinois. Tanguay, I, 
505; Rcgistre de la Paroisse. '^ See Appendix, p. 116. "^ See Appendix, p. 95. 

" See Appendix, p. 87. There may have been two Joseph Merciers, for one document 
speaks of a locksmith, another of a wig-maker. 

" Louis Eustache Moreau, one of the nine children of Louis Moreau and Catherine 
Bonhomme, baptized at Quebec December 30, 1707. His brother, Joseph Valentin, baptized at 
Quebec July 2, 1709, married Marie Catherine, daughter of Jean Baptiste Potier and Fran?oise 
la Brise. His sister, Loui?e Frangoise, baptized March 18, 1702, married Jean Baptiste lioucher 
(possibly the Illinois Boucher), November 20, 1719. Tanguay, I, 441-442; Kaskaskia Mss. 

"" See Appendix, p. 94. ^ See Appendix, p. 91. 

*' See Appendix, p. 96. *- See Appendix, p. 97. 

^ Born in Brittany and married there to Gillet h. Bonte. They were parents of Paul, Marie 
Madeleine, Genevieve, and Rene Gregoire. The son, Rene, married Madeleine Robillard, widow 
of Antoine Rivierre, in 1748 at Fort de Chartres. Dame Gillet a Bonte married Joachim Gerard 
January 23, 1748. Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. 

*' See Appendix, p. iio. *' See Appendix, p. iiS. 

** Son of Marie Anne Urbain who later married Antoine dit Derosiers. La Riviere died 
before June 16, 1742. La. Hist. Quart., XI, 301. 

*' See Appendix, p. 88. ^ See Appendix, p. 115. *' See Appendix, p. 91. 

'^ See "Veuve Lajoy," Appendix, p. 117. 

"•^ See "Larose," Appendix, p. iig. October 9, 1747, Jean Baptiste Deguire. tailor, admitted 
owing Monsieur Buchet, procuror of the king, 1,000 livres for "harboring" Deguire's two 
natural children by the slave of Monsieur Buchet. Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VII. 

^- See Appendix, p. 92. ■" See Appendix, p. 100. 



MAKING A LIVING 63 

Pierre Mare . . . dit La Bonte, mason, Kaskaskia. Tune 9, 1748. 

Hubert Beaubin,** tailor, Kaskaskia. May 18, 1751. 

Nantais,"^ carpenter and soldier, Kaskaskia. According to Macarty, the only good 

carpenter in the village, and he "is sick and a drunkard." 1752. 
Francois Dayon (?), tailor, Kaskaskia. 1753. 
Gabriel Dodier,'* smith and interpreter, Nouvelle Chartres. 1756. 
Antoine Cheneau dit Sanschagrin," roofer, Nouvelle Chartres. May 25, 1757. 
Joseph la Bolle, master barber surgeon, Kaskaskia. March 29, 1758. 
Benoit Allain dit Tourangeau, smith, Kaskaskia. December 6, 1758. 
La Croix,^ blacksmith, Nouvelle Chartres. 1759. 
Jean Manuel,**^ master mason, Nouvelle Chartres. 1759., 
Jean Baptiste Goilee dit Belisle, smith, Kaskaskia. June 25, 1759. 
Perthius,^"" baker. Fort de Chartres. December 31, 1759. 
Charles Bienvenu dit Delisle,'"* roofer, Kaskaskia. 1760. 

Frangois Hennet dit Sanschagrin,'"" roofer, Nouvelle Chartres. April 20, 1760. 
Nicolas Caillot dit La Chance,'"' carpenter, Kaskaskia. June 7, 1760. 
Conrad Seeloff dit Caulet,"^ king's baker. Fort de Chartres. 1763. 

Part of the population of Kaskaskia was composed of transients — 
the voyageurs who made the village their headquarters between trips to 
the Gulf and Canada or trading excursions into Indian country. Many 
were men born in Illinois; some were Canadians, a few were natives of 
lower Louisiana. Occasionally they were farmers and artisans. 

Annually, in the spring of the year, these voyageurs, carrying the 
flour and meat of Illinois merchants, joined the convoy that was sent 
down the river to New Orleans with the troops from the fort that were 
being relieved. In the late summer, bringing back merchandise for the 
French and Indians, they ascended to Kaskaskia in the king's convoy 
protected by the new company of soldiers. Too often, however, they 
took their own dangerous way alone up and down the Mississippi, run- 

*» May 18, 1 75 1, bought house and land in Kaskaskia for 400 livres from Nicolas Janis. 
Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VIII. 

95 HMLO 327. ^ See Appendix, p. 98. 

"See Appendix, p. 96. ** See Appendix, p. 109. 

^ Madeleine Manuel, daughter of Jean Manuel and Jeanne la Perriere, married Conrad 
Seeloff dit Caulet, May 3, 1763. Registre de la Paroisse. 

100 The Perthius family was a numerous one in Illinois, but which member was the baker, 
I don't know. Head of the clan was Pierre Perthius, baptized at Pointe Aux Trembles, Mon- 
treal, April 16, 1686, and married about 1713 to Catherine Mallet. There were eleven children: 
Joseph, baptized, 1717, at Montreal; Catherine, baptized in 17 18, died, 1763; Madeleine, 
baptized at Detroit, January 20, 17.^0, married Joseph Roy;^ Angelique, baptized at Detroit, 17-1, 
married first to Louis Chauvin of Illinois, and second to Etienne Gouvereau of Illinois; Pierre, 
baptized at Detroit, 1723; Marguerite, baptized at Detroit, June 15, 1725, married first Jacques 
Baston, and second, Joseph Courtois, at Kaskaskia, August 20, 1742; Louise, baptized at Detroit, 
March 15, 1727, married Fran(,-ois Lalumandiere Seji^tember 17, 174-; Claire, baptized, 17-8; 
Jeanne, baptized at Detroit, April 17, 1730, married Etienne Lalande, one of the twin sons of 
Jacques Lalande and Marie Tetio, June i, 1744; Francois, baptized at Detroit, January i, 1732; 
Alexis, baptized at Detroit, November 16, 1734- Pierre Perthius was a merchant of Kaskaskia ni 
1743; Frangois was a merchant of Nouvelle Chartres in 1760. 

"• Son of Frangois Bienvenu dit Delisle and Marianne le Moine, of Detroit, where he 
was born. Husband of Elisabeth Lalande, whom he married June 2, 1760. In 1757, Kerlerec 
asked the ministry for a sword for Sieur Delisle, "habitant notable," who contributed much to 
the success of the expedition to Fort Duquesne. ANC C13A 40:24-26. 

Tanguay confuses the two Bienvenu families of Illinois, listing the children of Philippe, 
who came from France, as the children of Frangois Bienvenu of Detroit. 

^o^ See Appendix, p. 105. "' Churchwarden at Kaskaskia in 1762. 

"^ See note 99. 



64 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

ning risks from attacks by the Chickasaw and other hostile Indians, and 
bringing down the maledictions of the government on their heads for 
putting French officials to the necessity of securing their release when 
they were captured, or avenging their deaths when they were killed. 

They were hardy, adventurous men; none other would have dared 
trust their lives in the long, narrow pirogues fashioned from cypress or 
cedar logs forty feet long and no more than three or four feet wide. 
The bigger pirogues carried thirty men; their freight capacity varied 
from one to fifty tons. 

Batteaux were the craft used by the government and the richer 
merchants to carry merchandise. Larger than the pirogues, and built of 
several pieces of timber, they were flat-bottomed and pointed of bow and 
stern. One end was covered with hoops of cloth for protecting the stores. 
They carried sails, and when the wind was unfavorable, they were oared 
or poled. After 1750 "cordelling," or towing, came into common use for 
the heaviest ones.^°^ Their sizes varied considerably. In 1737 the govern- 
ment let a contract for the construction of fifty batteaux each to be 40 
by 9 by 4 feet, of twelve tons burden, to cost 3,440 livres apiece, and to 
be finished by March, 1738.^°° Dcmi-galcrcs, or decked batteaux, were 
also employed in the Illinois traffic. Two, of twenty-five tons each with 
space for sixty- four men, plied between upper and lower Louisiana by 
1725.^°^ Whether the galcres of fifty or more tons were ever used in the 
annual convoys is not recorded. For ferries across the Illinois rivers, 
pirogues were sawed in half lengthwise and broad planks inserted in the 
middle in order that horses and cattle could be transported in greater 
safety. 

The best time to leave Kaskaskia for New Orleans was about Feb- 
ruary I, when the water was high and the current flowing at the rate of 
five miles an hour; then, too, the land on both sides was flooded, and the 
Indians were hunting. For the downstream journey it took only twelve to 
twenty days. Returning in the autumn convoy was a different story. 
Against the current the best crews made only six or seven leagues, 
rowing from dawn to dusk. Indian attacks were frequent and more than 
one convoy was caught by the ice and forced to winter en route. Three 
to four months were usually counted on for the trip. 

The annual convoys were under the command of a French officer, 
who was allowed to carry a certain amount of freight free as a kind 
of a bonus. There were frequent reports that he abused this privilege, 
carrying so much of his own that there was little room for any else. 
Often, too, when the goods were checked upon their arrival at Illinois, 
many were found missing, presumably from the captain's pilfering. 

'"'Surrey, Commerce of Louisiana, 73. '"" ANC C13A 20:176-179. 

^o^bid.. 8:455-455'. 



MAKING A LIVING 65 

Voyageurs were allowed to accompany the king's batteaux for protection; 
in fact, they were ordered to do so, but they were always straying away 
because they could make better time or because they wanted to hunt on 
shore or because of half a dozen other reasons, and then were attacked 
by the Indians - — so, at least, it seemed to the governor. 

At all times of the year there were single pirogues of voyageurs and 
traders going to and from the sea, but the main river traffic was carried on 
by these convoys. At Kaskaskia sales were often made with provision 
for payment "when the next convoy arrives." There seem to have been 
two sent each year from New Orleans, one in the autumn, and another 
in the spring, but evidently only one annually from Illinois. Anywhere 
from a hundred to two hundred men, soldiers and traders, made up these 
fleets from the south; probably a like number sailed in the downstream 
convoy. 

In the last years of the French regime in the Valley, fewer and fewer 
boats sailed the Mississippi, and by 1763 Illinois had been left to shift for 
itself in the matter of provisions and supplies. The record of the trade 
between Canada and Illinois, which was never as great as that between 
Illinois and New Orleans, is written in the notarial files of Quebec and 
■Montreal in the lists of the engagements of voyageurs to carry the mer- 
chants' goods to the wilderness posts. From the Kaskaskia Manuscripts 
one would hardly guess that there was any trade at all. 

The Illinois merchants had their own engages whom they sent out to 
the neighboring tribes. Terms of all the engagements were similar; he 
who was hired agreed to serve "faithfully and loyally," to do "whatever 
his master commanded," and in return received a stipulated sum in money, 
peltries or merchandise, his food, and sometimes clothing. A few of these 
contracts wall serve as examples. 

On September 22,, 1737, Michael le Cour engaged Louis la Vallee, 
a voyageiir, to go with him to Missouri, from there to Mackinac, and 
return from there to Cahokia. La Vallee was to be paid 300 livres in 
beavers or other furs, one pair of leggings, one pair of trousers, two 
deerskins to make shoes, and be allowed to carry a pound of glass beads 
and a pound of vermilion in his canoe to trade to his own profit. ^°® 

In the spring of 1739 Jean Baptiste Potier, having eighty horses to 
deliver to the fort being built on the St. Francois River, and Raphael 
Beauvais, having seventy-seven yoke of oxen to take to the same place, 
engaged at least sixteen men to help. Most of them were to be paid 400 
livres in card-money upon their return to Kaskaskia, but Louis Bore, 
whom Potier hired on May 12, was to receive 1,000 livres and to be free 
after the fort had been reached unless Potier was ill; in that case. Bore 

^"^ Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, III. 



66 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

agreed to help Potier return home/'^'' Jean Baptiste Deguire, the tailor, 
was one of those employed,^" along with Joseph, minor son of Michael 
Philippe, captain of the militia. ^^^ In the floods of the Mississippi eight 
yoke of oxen and thirty horses were lost; after the arrival of the expedi- 
tion on the fifteenth of July, half of the remaining beasts perished on 
"account of the bad weather. ""- 

Guillaume Potier"^ with the consent of Pierre Aubuchon, his guard- 
ian, was engaged by Francois Gervais of Kaskaskia on May 7, 1740, to 
go to New Orleans and back for 200 livres, four pots of brandy, and 
some tobacco.^" That fall Jacques Duverge, surgeon at Kaskaskia, and 
Pierre Doza, a hunter, entered a partnership to go hunting on the Ohio 
River, taking Doza's small son, Joseph, Duverge's brother-in-law, and 
Jean Baptiste Neuport. The physician was to furnish three minots of 
salt for the meat, a hundred pounds of powder and whatever else was 
necessary. When the hunting was over, he was to take the meat to New 
Orleans; Doza was to supply a man to accompany him."^ Duverge hired 
Neuport for 300 livres in silver, payable on their arrival at New Orleans 
and fifty pots of brandy upon their return to Kaskaskia. ^^*' 

The fourteen-year-old son of Jean and Marie Barbe Henrion"' of 
Fort de Chartres was engaged by Pierre Messager, trader and miner, 
for a term of three years, commencing in the spring of 1741. The parents 
were to be paid 300 livres, mostly in flour.^^^ 

As to the amount of the fur trade actually carried on by men of the 

Illinois country, there is little mention in local records. Sometimes in 

inventories furs are listed in the estate of the deceased, as for instance 

in Bourdon's oft-quoted inventory,^^^ where we find these items: 

4,443 pounds of beavers, including 133/2 pounds of cast-offs 
84 deerskins 
12 deerskins 
12 doeskins 
6 buffalo hides 
10 otter skins 
54 pounds of tallow 

A monopoly on the fur trade of the Missouri and Wabash rivers for 
a space of five years was granted by the Company of the Indies in 1728 
to two Canadians, Marain and Outlas. All their pelts had to be sold 

>»' Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, III. "" Ibid. "' Ibid. 

''- Mississippi Provincial Archives, I, 428. 

"'Son of Guillaume Potier and Marie, an Indian, both of whom had died by 1-41- (Marie 
had married Raimond Quesnel after Potier's death/) Potier and Marie were parents of: Marie 
Marguerite, born May 30, 1719; Guillaume, born March 7, 1721, died by 1748; Marguerite, 
born and died January 15, 1724; Charles, still a minor in 1748. Registre de la Paroisse ; Kas- 
kaskia Mss.. Private Papers, V. 

1" Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV. ^" Ibid. "« Ibid. 

"'Marie Barbe, upon Henrion's death, probably in 1746, married Philippe Mounton, a 
soldier at Fort de Chartres; slie died about .\ugust 15, 1748. Among the Henrion children were 
Pierre, who was 14 in 1741; Frangois; Charles; Genevieve, who died August 31, 1748, the wife 
of St. Pierre; and Marie Anne, who married a soldier, Nicolas Beaugenoux. Kaskaskia Mss. 

"'Ibid., Commercial Papers, V. "» Ibid., Public Papers, II. 



MAKING A LIVING 67 

only to the Company and delivered only at New Orleans.^^° Prices were 

regulated as follows: 

Beavers, 34 sols a pound 

Fat winter beavers, 3 livres a pound 

Wildcat skins, 5 sols apiece 

Deerskins, 30 sols by weight 

Wolfskins, 50 sols each 

Large bearskins, 5 livres each 

Ordinary bearskins, 3 livres each 

But the Company a year and a half later gave up its control of the 
colony to the king so that this grant did not even run its full term. 

Dufresne and Mallet were partners in the fur trade; both were 
residents of Illinois, and one of the commercial papers in the Manu- 
scripts^" lists the peltries carried by Dufresne to Detroit during his 
association with Mallet. The total value of the furs amounted to 6,102 
livres 12 sols lo deniers; among them were: Livres 

95 salable wildcat skins and 115 wildcat skins at 25 50/5 I43-I5 

30 skins of the same 

1,651 wildcat skins, same price 2,063.15 

107 fox and Louisiana skunks at 40 sols 214. 

44 skunks at 50 sols no. 

268 wildcats at 25 sols 224.11. 8 

80 large bears at 4 livres 320. 

100 large bears at 3 livres 300. 

56 medium-sized bears at 3 livres 168. 

12 large cubs at 4 sols 24. 

7 packages of deerskins 843. 

394 pounds of beavers at 38 sols 748.12 

This appears to be the only document of its kind. We must guess that 

with almost every habitant doing a little trading on the side and with 

the many merchants who gave it their whole attention, the number of 

skins brought into Kaskaskia at the end of the winter hunts must have 

been considerable. Quite a number of Illinois French laid the foundations 

of their wealth with furs then, as they and their children did later in the 

American Fur Company at St. Louis. 

"" ANC C13A ii:iS4-iS5''. '=> Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II, 1733. 



Chapter VI 

SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS 

The Illinois habitant was a gay soul; he seemed shockingly carefree 
to later, self-righteous puritans from the American colonies. He danced 
on Sunday after mass, was passionately attached to faro and half a 
dozen other card games, and played billiards at all hours. He gossiped 
long over a friendly pipe and a congenial mug of brandy in the half-dusk 
of his porch or in the noisy tavern. And every conceivable occasion he 
celebrated with religious rituals and pagan ceremonies. 

The church with all its stately rites was called in to consecrate the 
newly built house, the plowed fields and the harvested grain. The proces- 
sion of the Blessed Sacrament through the streets was a signal for rejoic- 
ing, even if it was being carried to the banks of the swollen Mississippi, 
there to turn back the flood waters from the fields. Fete-days, to the 
number of twenty-seven,^ called for respite from labor, the donning of 
one's best clothing, and feasting without end. Besides these holydays of 
obligation, there were the name-days of the habitants' patron saints to 
observe. 

Christmas and New Year's was the gayest season of the year. Mid- 
night mass December 24 in the parish church ushered in the holiday for 
which preparations had been made since the beginning of Advent. The 
altar blazed with candles while fair-skinned French and dark-visaged 
savages knelt together. After mass, families gathered for Le Reveillon, 
an enormous Christmas breakfast, in the patriarchal home. Then followed 
more services at church, more feasting, and in the evening, balls in the 
wealthier homes. 

New Year's Eve was given over to revelry. The young men of the 
town, in grotesque costumes, and with sacks slung over their backs went 
from door to door. At each house when the head of the family had 
answered their knock, they marched in behind the fiddler singing La 
Guignolee. 

^ The holydays of obligation celebrated in New France during the eighteenth century were: 
the Feast of the Circumcision, January ii; Epiphany, January 12; Candlemas, February 2; 
Feast of St. ISIathias, February 24; Feast of St. Joseph, March 19; Feast of the Annunciation, 
I^Iarch 25; Feast of St. Michael, May 8; Feast of St. John Baptist, June 24; Feast of St. 
Bartholomew, August 24; Feast of St. Louis, August 26; Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
September 8; Feast of St. Matthew, September 24; Feast of Saints Simon and Jude, October 28; 
All Saints' Day, November i ; Feast of St. Andrew, November 30; Feast of St. Francis Xavier, 
December 3; Feast of the Immaculate Conception, December 8; Feast of St. Thomas, December 
21; Feast of St. Stephen, December 26; Feast of St. John Evangelist. December 28. And 
Christmas; Easter Sunday, Monday and Tuesday; Ascension Day; Whitsun, Monday and 
Tuesday; Corpus Christi; Titular Saint of Quebec; and Patronal Feast of the Parish of 
Kaskaskia. Mo. Hist. Soc. Pub., VI, no. 14- 



68 



SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS 69 

Bonsoir le maitre et la maitresse 

Et tout le monde du logis! 
Pour le premier jour de I'annee 
La Guignolee nous vous devez. 

Si vous n'avez rien a nous donner 
Dites-nous le ! 

Xous vous, demandons par grand 'chose 
Une echinee 

Une echinee n'est pas grand 'chose 
De quatre-vingt dix pieds le long; 

Encore nous demandons par grand 'chose, 
La fille ainee de la maison 

Nous lui ferons faire bonne chere 

Nous lui ferons chauffer les pieds 
Nous salvons la compagnie 

Et la prions nous excuser. 
Si Ton a fait quelque folic 

C'etoit pour nous des ennuyer 
Une autre fois nous prendons garde 

Quand sera temps d'y revenir 
Dansons la Guenille, dansons la Guenille, dansons 

la Guenille ! 
Chorus 
Bonsoir le maitre et la maitresse 

Et tout le monde du logis!' 

When they came to the part about keeping the young lady's feet warm, 
some "love-smitten swain would break in with a ditty about doves and 
cuckoos, nightingales and green bowers, closing with a protestation that 
he was dying for the soft eyes of his mistress."^ The love song finished, 
the sacks were held out for donations of lard, candles, maple syrup, eggs, 
meat, anything that could be used for the Twelfth Xight ball. Then 
everyone danced the ragdance, capering like imps and singing at the tops 
of their lungs until refreshments of croquinoles and cordials were served 
and the masqueraders went on to the next house. 

St. Nicolas visited the children that night, leaving them gifts from 
their godparents. At daybreak everyone attended mass, and after a boun- 
tiful breakfast, went calling on his neighbors. 

Carnival began on the eve of Epiphany when the girls of Kaskaskia 
invited the young men to a pancake frolic. Stacks of savory cakes were 
tossed in long-handled frying pans over the fire and eaten with generous 
servings of maple syrup. Then there were games — "Hide the ring, 
young shepherdess," "In my right hand I hold a rose tree," and "To 
whom shall we marry her?" Four kings were chosen by the maids; they 
in turn picked queens, and a few nights afterwards gave a ball called the 
Bal de Rois. Here the queens picked new consorts who in turn gave 

2 Forbes, S. A., "The Gui Annee in Illinois," a typescript in the Illinois Historical Survey. 
^ Mo. Hist. Soc. Pub., I, no. i, December, 1933. 



70 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

another ball. So it continued, until Ash Wednesday put an end to 
merrymaking. 

La Mi-Careme, or mid-Lent, was a "kind of half-way station on the 
penitential journey." Then there were more pancake parties with the 
delicious crepes stacked pyramid fashion on huge platters and covered 
with crushed maple sugar. 

Holy Week was celebrated with special masses and processions. 
Branches blessed on Palm Sunday were planted in the fields to bring 
good crops, and according to superstition, all garden vegetables planted 
on Good Friday were doubly fruitful. Midnight mass on Holy Saturday 
ended the Lenten fast and inaugurated the three days of Easter feasting. 

Corpus Christi. a movable feast, occurred late in May or early in 
June. Then there was a procession of the Blessed Sacrament through the 
streets with the troops or militia under arms lining the way. The fete- 
day of St. Jean Baptiste, patron saint of Canada and most popular patron 
in Illinois, marked midsummer, and was celebrated with ancient pagan 
customs. On the evening of June 24, the elders of the village hunted for 
sacred herbs to provide future remedies, and the children went from 
door to door begging for fagots to burn. At nightfall the wood was heaped 
in a great pile, and the oldest habitant or perhaps the cure, threw on a 
flaming brand. In the church there were special services the next day 
and another procession. Those men and boys who had been named for 
the saint, and there was one Jean Baptiste in practically every Kaskaskia 
family, kept their birthday anniversaries then as was the custom in 
Catholic countries. On August 26 the habitant observed the feast of 
Louis, sainted king of France, and brought out his best wine to drink 
the health of the present Louis. Macarty reported that on that day in 
1752 "we tasted three barrels."* The commandant no doubt ended the 
day by being gloriously drunk. Special holydays commemorated in Kas- 
kaskia were the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, guardian of the 
parish church, on September 8, and the feast of her Immaculate Con- 
ception on December 8. 

A custom peculiar to the French was the pain heni that marked part 
of the observation of feast days. Baked by some habitant's wife, it was 
a long crisp loaf made of fine wheat flour, and was brought in at the 
offertory of the mass with considerable pomp. After it had been blessed 
by the priest, it was broken into pieces and handed about to the congre- 
gation in baskets. What was left was taken home to absent members. 

There is no baptismal record for the year 1741 or for 1742; but if 
there were, there would undoubtedly be an entry for the christening of 
the bell that was sent to the Kaskaskia church. There is such an entry 



«HMLO 378, September 6, 1752- 



SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS 7I 

for the first bell of St. Louis years later. After vespers the bell was 
draped in silk and placed near the railing of the sanctuary where it was 
blessed and baptized by the priest while the godparents stood by. Usually 
the godmother was dressed in light silk, the same material as she had 
given for the bell. Afterwards dress and bell silk were given to the 
church for vestments. Sometimes the name of the bell was cut into its 
side, but this was not done for the one in the church of the Immaculate 
Conception at Kaskaskia. 

The daily services of the church in the village have been mentioned — 
low mass each weekday morning with vespers and meditations in the 
evening. On Sundays high mass was sung; on occasions when there was 
a harvest that had to be reaped on Sunday or be lost, or when floods 
threatened damage, vespers came immediately after mass so that the 
habitant might be free the rest of the day to work. At church he sat on 
his own bench which he rented by the year, and here his social ranking 
was more apparent than in any other phase of his life. The pews of 
greatest dignity and highest rental were at the front of the sanctuary, 
near the altar. Here sat the commandant and the other officers, when and 
if they attended. The town's leading citizens had benches close by, which 
they used during their lifetime and under which they were buried at 
their death. The other habitants paid lower fees for pews farther back 
and were interred in the parish cemetery. 

Births, deaths and marriages alike had their own especial traditions. 
When an infant was born, the church bell announced his arrival, and if 
the announcement was short, the godfather, who paid the beadle to ring 
the bell, was likely to find himself branded as a miser. The bell rang 
again, asking for prayers for the departed soul when a habitant died, 
tolling longer for a man than for a woman, for it was thought a man had 
more need of prayers. Wherever it was heard, heads bowed, repeating the 
Angcliis and De Profundis. Burials were held the same day that death 
occurred or sometimes the following day. The body was carried from 
house to church in a cross-led procession while the villagers lined the 
streets. Every effort was made to keep the coffin moving because of the 
fear that any house before which it stopped was marked for a death 
within the year. 

Death was a common enough happening everywhere in the eighteenth 
century; it was no stranger to the Illinois country where malarial fevers 
and typhoid claimed victims every year. Smallpox, brought by the French 
to the Indians, came close to wiping out more than one tribe. Tomahawks 
in the hands of hostile savages claimed their toll likwise. The Kaskaskia 
burial register is only fragmentary, but it sheds some light on the death 
rate. Here are the statistics for the years 1721 to 1727 as they were 
recorded by the priests: 



yi KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Dale Age Sex Date Age Sex 

lyzi Sept. 3 26 yrs. M 

Jan. 4 41 vrs. M Sept. 5 ^yi yrs. M 

June I 56 vrs. M Sept. 12 7 days M 

July 6 6 days M Dec. 21 25 yrs. M 

Aug. 3 21 yrs. F Dec. 30 8 days M 

Aug. 7 60 yrs. M 

Aug. 27 6 wks. M ^ ''"* 

Sept. 15 2 yrs. F Feb. 24 22 yrs. F 

Sept. 18 46 yrs. M Apr. 4 23 yrs. M 

Apr. 12 4 men killed 

iy22 Apr. 27 2 yrs. M 

Feb. 6 50 yrs. M July 1 7 4i yrs. M 

Sept. 25 9 mos. F 

Oct. 3 50 yrs. M "^^'-^ 

Oct. II 30 yrs. M Mar. 16 2 men killed 

Oct. 18 II mos. F June 25 41 yrs. F 

Oct. 18 2 yrs. F Aug. 10 25 yrs. M 

Oct. 29 50 yrs. M Sept. 17 2 yrs. M 

Nov. 4 3 mos. M Nov. 27 2 yrs. F 

Nov. 7 2 yrs. M Dec. 23 39 yrs. F 

Nov. 10 II mos. M 

I J 26 

1723 Jan. 18 37 days M 

Feb. 12 30 yrs. M Jan. 15 F 

Feb. 27 33 yrs. M Oct. 2 3 yrs. F 

Apr. 24 22 yrs. M 

Apr. 29 28 yrs. M ^7^7 

June 29 42 yrs. M Jan. 25 2 mos. F 

July 3 25-26 yrs. M Dec. 18 i mo. F 

Epidemics struck in the later summer and fall months of most of the 
years; deaths were more frequent from August to December. x\ccording 
to the registers of the parish church of Ste. Anne of Fort de Chartres. 
twenty- four persons died in the village in 1746, and of these, twenty died 
between August 10 and Christmas. December was the most fatal month. 
Month Age Sex Month Age Sex 

Dec. 5 20 yrs. M Dec. 20 56 yrs. F 

Dec. 7 F Dec. 21 F 

Dec. 7 F Dec. 22 40 yrs. F 

Dec. 10 29 yrs. M Dec. 24 11 yrs. F 

Dec. 10 21 yrs. M Dec. 25 18 yrs. F 

Dec. 10 M Dec. 25 50 yrs. M 

Dec. 1 1 30 yrs. F 

It was in this epidemic that the three Potier brothers, Jean Baptiste, 
Joseph, and Toussaint, all sons of Jean Baptiste Potier and Frant^oise 
la Brise, died. Toussaint's young wife, Catherine de Lessart, died two 
days before her husband on December 7. leaving an infant son. 

To care for illness among the troops and the habitants, the government 
maintained a surgeon at Fort de Chartres. and another at Kaskaskia, but 
from reports, they were not very skillful in their art. A midwife was also 



SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS J^) 

sometimes supported there by a salary from the crown. The first phy- 
sician to be appointed to Illinois was Prevost who received his brevet in 
1718; he apparently died in September, 1722, for on the twenty-third of 
that month a sale was had of the effects of the late surgeon-major of 
Illinois. (The name on the document is illegible.) His instruments were 
few: a small saw which was sold to Blot for 10 livres; four lancets, sold 
to Lalande, Potier, and Bourdon; two syringes "du Boeties et du Galon" 
which Lalande bought for 14 livres; a chemical balance for which 
Chassin paid 3 livres, and a treatise on surgery for which he paid 14 
livres; a two-volume work on medicine; a treatise on accouchements sold 
to Potier for 16 livres; and a book entitled the Surgeon of the Hospital 
for which Bourdon paid 10 livres. Aside from these, he owned a flute 
which Monsieur d'Artaguiette, who was then in Kaskaskia, purchased 
for 25 livres 10 sols, and the Tales of Boccaccio, which he bought for 
4 livres. ° 

For a time Illinois was without a surgeon; another, Pierre Giard, was 
appointed, but he died about October 17, 172/ f' A German, Frederick." 
was sent to take his place, but Perier wrote that he was not very good.^ 
His salary was 600 livres a year. Evidently he too died at Illinois, for in 
1736 it was reported that the surgeon there had died insolvent, leaving 
four young children. Two of them, the elder being twelve years old, were 
taken to the Ursuline orphanage at New Orleans; the other two remained 
in Illinois.^ In 1740 Rene Roy was serving as surgeon at Fort de Chartres 
at wages of 1,000 livres yearly.^" He died January 14, 1745, at the age of 
forty years, after having received Extreme Unction but not the Holy 
Viaticum "a cause dune toM- oppiniatre quil avoit," according to the parish 
register of Ste. Anne. 

Jacques Duverge, who went on the hunting trip with Pierre Doza in 
1740, has already been mentioned as physician at Kaskaskia; Francois 
Deguire dit Larose owed him in that year 300 livres for medicine. ^^ 
Pierre Ignace Bardet la Feme, living in France at that time, was ap- 
pointed surgeon-major of Illinois in 1737.^^ On April 27, 1745, after the 
publication of three bans, he married Marianne Barrois, born in Montreal, 
the daughter of the notary, Jean Baptiste Barrois, and Madeleine 
Cardinal. ^^ Their daughter, Anne la Feme, on July 6, 1763, married 
Andre August Conde, who was then surgeon at Xouvelle Chartres. 
Conde was a native of Aunis, France, and later went with St. Ange to 

'Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, II. '^ Ibid., Private Papers, VI. 

' His wife was Marie Catherine de Poutre. Ibid., Commerci.il Papers, I. 

^Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 582. ^ ANC C13A 21 : 268-J68'''. 

^^ Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV. Son of Jean Roy. Married Agnes Philippe. 
widow of Nicolas Chassin, in 1737. Father of Elizabeth, who married Joseph Hennet January 11, 
1752. In 1 74 1 married ^Madeleine Mercier, daughter of Jean Baptiste Mercier and Marie Baret. 

'^^ Ibid. ^^ ANC C13A 22:141^. ^^ Registre de la Paroisse. 



J4 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

St. Louis where he died in 1776.^* Louis Chanceher was a Kaskaskia 
physician at least between the years 1748 and 1759, and perhaps during 
a longer period. ^^ Michael Godeau arrived in the village from New 
Orleans in the autumn convoy of 1751^'^ and was still there on January 
10, 1756 when his daughter, Marie Josephe, married Eugene Pouvre 
dit Beausoleil.^' 

Marriage in the Illinois was a matter of concern both to the govern- 
ment and to the church. There were never enough eligible girls in the 
country; the Illinois ha1)itants and officers for the most part refused to 
marry the girls whom the Company of the Indies had picked from the 
Paris streets. Chassin, the garde magazin, in 1722, suggested thjit girls 
might easily be sent from Canada, but that "a libertine who came from 
there makes the officers fear other girls might be the same."^* As late as 
1752 Macarty was writing to Governor Vaudreuil that: 

The principle of it is to send fruitful stock, if you wish increase, for we have 
many men who cannot set up housekeeping for want of girls. The Creoles of this 
coim'try won't deign to look at a soldier. Their easy life gives them big ideas. If 
you could send some girls from the foundlings or the hospitals of France to give 
to the discharged soldiers, they might become fruitful vines, instructed in the 
principles of religion, who would accept their situation and would in the end make 
good inhabitants, if things were made easier for them the first two years. But I 
am much afraid they would be corrupted on their way through the lower colony." 

Few widows remained widows long. It was common for an inventory 
of the late husband's goods and a marriage contract between the widow 
and another habitant to be drawn up on the same day. Bans, of course, 
had to be published at high mass on three successive Sundays, which 
usually meant that the next marriage did not take place for at least two 
weeks. But sometimes one or two of the bans were dispensed with by the 
priest; marriages did take place occasionally immediately after the read- 
ing of the first ban. Even the Lenten prohibitions were frequently lifted 
to allow the ceremony. Apparently the only widow in Kaskaskia who did 
not remarry was Marie Claire Catois, whose husband, Leonard Billeron, 
royal notary, died in 1740. She was known as the Widow la Fatigue 
from Billeron's nickname; she raised four sons and a daughter — Leonard, 
Pierre, Joseph, Marianne and Jacques — kept lodgers, and made trips to 
New Orleans to look after her affairs there. 

French-Indian marriages were common in the early days of Kaskas- 
kia, but they were not at all to the liking either of the Company of the 
Indies or later to the royal ministers. On December 18. 1728, a decree of 
the Canadian Superior Council, made in view of a statement by Father 
Boulanger, cure of Kaskaskia, ordered that the property of Indian wives 

" Houck, L., The Spanish Regime in Missouri, I, s8n, izon. 

« Kaskaskia Mss.. Commercial Papers, VII. " Ibid., Commercial Papers, VIII. 

" Rcf/istre de la Paroisse. ^'Mississippi Provincial Archives, II, 274-275. 

'!• HMLO 412, December 7, 1752. 



SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS 75 

who died without issue should go to the Company. These women were 
not to have the disposal of any real property remaining after the death 
of their French husbands, but were to be paid an annual pension of one- 
third of the revenue of such property. The remaining two-thirds was to 
be divided among the heirs, or failing these, was to be administered by 
the curator for vacant estates. All French-Indian marriages were pro- 
hibited pending a decision of the king.^^ An edict forbidding all such 
marriages in the future without the consent of the governor, intendant, 
commissary, or commandant of the post of the Illinois, was issued 
October 8, 1735.^^ 

Father Tartarin of Kaskaskia protested; only by legitimate marriages 
could the whole problem of illegitimate half-breeds be overcome. Children 
of marriages sanctified by the church, by their French upbringing and 
inheritance from their fathers, he reported, were more French than 
Indian, and in twenty years only one child of such an alliance had re- 
turned to the wilderness. Possibly he was referring to Michael, son of 
Michael Aco and Marie Rouensa, whom his mother disinherited for 
giving up French ways and joining the savages in the forests. On the 
other hand, according to Tartarin, bastards were left without education 
or any hope of an inheritance; these were the ones who made trouble for 
the French. As for the young Frenchmen who were living with their 
Indian slaves, "to the scandal of the community," they should be forced 
to marry. 

But apparently the order was never revoked; there were few Indian 
wives in Kaskaskia in 1763, though a large part of the population had 
Indian blood in their veins. 

Army officers were beset with difficulties when they tried to marry. 
No matter their rank, they all had to get official permission from the 
government first. There was so much red tape that often the betrothal 
was broken before the consent finally arrived; sometimes merely a whim 
on the governor's part prohibited a union. 

La Buissonniere, who later became commandant at Illinois, fell in love 
with Marie Therese Trudeau, daughter of a pioneer colonist of Louisiana, 
and asked permission from Perier to marry her. But the governor refused. 
Both of them were as poor "as church mice." If they married, they would 
have a large family and then expect the government to support them. 

Soon afterwards, Perier returned to France. There he busied himself 
sending letters back to New Orleans falsely accusing La Buissonniere of 
already having a wife whom he had deserted. Bienville, Perier's successor, 
hoping to avert further scandal, assigned La Buissonniere to the post at 
Mobile. 

-"Canadian Archives, 1899, Supplement, 135. ^'^ Ibid., 1904, Appendix K, 209. 



76 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

From there, however, and with the connivance of Sieur Trudeau 
himself and one of his other daughters, La Buissonniere eloped with 
Marie Therese to Pensacola where they bribed a Spanish Franciscan 
father to marry them. Once the news got back to New Orleans, the 
Capuchins, who held the religious control of the city, forced Bienville to 
recall La Buissonniere, angrily demanding that he be imprisoned. The 
governor, however, ordered the young officer ofT to Fort de Chartres; in 
that the clergy acquiesced, but, they said, he must go alone. The "pre- 
tended wife" could not be permitted to accompany him. 

Bienville appeared to agree. Secretly, he took D'Artaguiette, in charge 
of the 1/33 convoy and new commandant of Illinois, aside and explained. 
]\Iarie Therese could go with her husband; but she must embark quietly 
without attracting any attention, and D'Artaguiette must see to it that the 
couple remained on different batteaux until the convoy was out of sight 
of the city. Seemingly this was to be the happy ending to their romantic 
adventure. But at Natchez, the bride fell ill with smallpox and had to 
return to her father's home while La Buissonniere went on to Illinois. 
Not until two years after Bienville had finally obtained confirmation of 
the marriage from the court, was Marie Therese able to join her husband 
at Fort de Chartres. ^- 

In every marriage, before the religious ceremony could take place, a 
marriage contract had to be made before the royal notary. By the contract 
a community was established consisting of all the movable property 
owned by each party on the day of the marriage; after the celebration of 
the marriage, no other valid contract could be made altering its terms in 
any respect. Either party could, however, dissolve the contract at will; 
tacit consent of both parties was all that was then needed to re-establish 
it. Administration of the joint property belonged to the husband who 
could dispose of any of it so long as he did so in good faith with no 
intention of defrauding his wife. Any property, movable or immovable, 
acquired after the marriage, became a part of the community, and was 
disposed of at the dissolution of the contract according to its terms. 

In most contracts, it was stipulated that the wife could at any time 
renounce the community and take back any property she had acquired 
either through inheritance or by gift together with her dowry and 
preciput. There was at least one such case in Kaskaskia. On February i. 
1/5 1, in the absence of her husband, Victoire Claude, wife of Louis 
Cabassier,^^ petitioned Buchet for permission to renounce the community 
between herself and her husband. Her patrimony having been absorbed 
by debts contracted by Cabassier before their marriage, she asked that a 
settlement be made bv which she would be reimbursed.^* 



-- ANC Bs9:6oo^'; C13A 15:150-155^'. Records of the Superior Council, La. Hist. Quart., 
Xlll, 485, 486, 488. "See Appendix, p. 93. "Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, IH. 



SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS JJ 

, An important part of the contract provided for the dower and the 
prcciput. The dower, which should not be confused with the bride's 
dowry which her father paid to the husband at the time of the marriage,^-^ 
was of two kinds, the douaire coutumier and the douaire prefix. The 
first, under the custom of Paris, was a usufruct on half of the movables 
owned by the husband at the time of the marriage; according to the terms 
of the contract, it was paid to the wudow either as a lump sum upon the 
husband's death, or in annual installments throughout her lifetime. Usu- 
ally the amount was reduced if she remarried. 

The more common type of dower in the Illinois country was the 
douaire prefix, a certain sum stipulated in the contract, and payable to the 
widow in addition to her rights in the division of the estate. 

The preciput, its amount definitely stated in the contract, went to the 
survivor of the community, whether husband or wife. Included with it 
was the right of that person to take out free of debt any property in 
personal use: wearing apparel, jewelry, arms, and so forth. 

Other provisions of the contract regulated the inheritance, especially 
if there were children of another marriage; in that connection also, there 
was an agreement concerning the support and education of any minor 
children by the wife's previous marriage. -"^ 

Such was the life of the French habitants of the Illinois country of 
the eighteenth century. Many of their descendents live today in the 
villages of southern Illinois, in St. Louis, in Ste. Genevieve, and in Wash- 
ington County, Missouri. Their names, however, are so changed as to be 
hardly re&ognizable. Duclos has become Decloe and Declue; Desgagne is 
Degonia; Grenier is Greenia; Page is Pashia; Trottier is Trokey, and 
Ricard is Recaw. 



=5 What seems to have been the largest dowry paid in the Illinois country was that which 
Etienne Philippe Dulongpre, brother of Michael Philippe, paid to Francois Margane, Sieur de 
Vincennes, founder of Vincennes on the Wabash, on the marriage of the officer to his daughter, 
Marie, whose mother was an Indian. Her dowry was: two arpents of land, i,ooo livres in pro- 
visions, two bulls and a cow, and a negress, piece d'Inde, named Marian. The douaire prefix 
was 2,000 livres; the preciput, 3,000 livres. Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, II, January 23, 1730. 

=" These marriage contracts. long and detailed, provide some of the best source material 
we have concerning the Kaskaskia habitants. They are actually more valuable than the fragmen- 
tary parish registers for tracing family relationships; in addition, they supply vital information 
regarding the social and economic standing of the persons involved. 



APPENDIX 

EXTRACTS FROM THE PARISH REGISTERS 

Baptisms, 1723-1724^ 

August 26, 1723. Joseph ^^larie, son of Joseph Lamy and Marie Franqoise Rivard. 
Baptized August 27. Godparents, Jean Baptiste Potier ; Marie Cathoues. 

September 3. Marie Franqoise, daughter of Philippe de La Renaudiere and Perrine 
Pivare. Baptized September 7 (?). Godparents, Girardot, officier; Frangoise 
La Vigne Rivart. j ^ vo 

September 4. Jean Baptiste, son of Nicolas ^uillier/ and Dorothee Mercier. Bap- 
tized September 5. Godparents, Jean Baptiste !Nfercier; Marie Claire Cathoues. 

September 9. Michel, son of Charles Dany and Dorothee Michi . . . , baptized 
October i (?). Godparents, Michel Philippe, lieutenant of the militia; Marie 
Claire Cathoues. 

October 8. ^larie Joseph, daughter of Pierre Glinel and }klarianne ManitiutieSe. 
Baptized October 19. Godparents, J. Ollivier, sergeant of the militia; Marie 
MaSinieSe. 

October 7 (?). Marc Antoine, son of J. Bte. Guillemot and Catherine 8abanakic8e. 
Baptized October 20. Godparents, Marc Antoine de La Loere Des Ursins, di- 
rector of the Company ; 2ilargueritte SanacamokSe. 

November 3. Jean, son of Pierre Durand and Francoise Rabut. Baptized the same 
day. Godparents, J. Brunet, ensign of the militia ; Francoise La Brise. Died. 

November 20. Marie Madeleine and Celeste Therese, twin daughters of Antoine 
Carrier and Marie Madeleine Quesnel. Baptized the same day. Godparents, 
Sieur Girardot and Marie Tetio ; Sieur Jacques Guillemot and Therese Neveu. 
^larie Madeleine died. 

November 22. Toussaint, son of J. Bte. Potier and Francoise La Brise. Baptized 
the same day. Godparents, Joseph Lamy and Therese Xeveu. 

December i. Pierre, son of J. Bte. Girardot, officer, and Therese Neveu. Baptized 
December 2. Godparents, Sieur Melique, lieutenant ; Frangoise La Brise. 

December 2. Anne, daughter of Charles Souhait and Anne Midan (?). Baptized 
December 3. Godparents, J. Bte. Potier and Alarie Tetio. 

December 23. Elizabeth, daughter of Charles De Launay and Elisabeth Brunet. 
Baptized the same day. Godparents, J. Brunet and Alarie Aladeleine Baret. 

December 25. Jean Baptiste, son of Jean Baptiste Mercier and ^larie rvladeleine 
Baret. Baptized the next day. Godparents, Joseph De Launay and Dorothee 
Mercier. 

January 15, 1724. Marguerite, daughter of Guilleaume Potier and Marie ApichuSr- 
ata (?). Baptized the same day. Godparents, Brunet, second lieutenant of the 
militia; Francoise La Brise. Died. 

February 4. Elisabeth, daughter of Louis Turpin and Marie Causon. Baptized 
February 25. Godparents, Jean Baptiste Potier and Elisabeth Brunet. 

March 4. Dorothee, daughter of Pierre Baillargeon and Domitille ChacateniSata ( ?). 

Godparents, Pierre Chabot and Dorothee Michip . . . 
April 19. Antoine, son of Pierre Pillet and ]\Iagdelaine Boiron. Baptized April 20. 

Godparents, Antoine Bausseron and Frangoise La Brise. 



lANC Gi, 412:5 ft. 



79 



8o kaskaskia under the french regime 

Marriages, i 723- 1724- 

June 6, 1723. Philippe Bienvenu, widower, master joiner, and Marie Foret (?), 

widow of Pierre Verrier. 
June 15. Pierre Channeton (?), native of the parish of Donfron (?), diocese of 

Pariguen (?), and Marguerite Clairjon, widow of Henry Metivier. 
September 13. Charles Gossiau, mason, son of Philippe, of the diocese of Cambray, 

and Jeanne Bienvenu, daughter of Philippe and Frantjoise Allari, parish of Pleines, 

diocese of Cannes. 
January 4, 1724. Pierre Dany, mason, and Simone Marie Martin, widow of Claude 

Illeray. 
January 11. Michel Francois Quadrin, son of Nicolas Quadrin and Fran^oise 

Delaunay, parish of the Holy Family, and Marianne Fafart, daughter of Pierre 

Fafart, captain of the militia, and Therese Axiga. 
January 11. Toussaint Loisel, son of Joseph and Jeanne Duchene, native of Pointe 

au Tremble, diocese of Montreal, and Cecile Brunet, daughter of J. Brunet, 

second lieutenant of the militia, and Elisabeth Deshayes. 
January 14. Mathurin Chapu. son of Michel and Angelique Landrevile (?), native 

of Vareenes in Canada, and Helene Dany. 
May 2. Antoine Sans Soucy, previously a slave, and Frangoise, of the nation of 

Chetimacka, slave of the Jesuits. 

Marriages, 1724-1729^ 

May 21, 1724. Christopher Pottie, native of the diocese of Bourges, and Agnes 

Anard, widow of Marc Clement, sergeant of the miners of the king. One ban. 
September 11. Louis Turpin, widower of Marie Coulon, and Dorothee MichipeSa, 

widow of Charles Danis. Three bans. 
September 28. Jacques Fouillard of the diocese of Quimper, aged thirty-one years, 

and Anne, a Natchez Indian. No bans. 
April II, 1725. Rene Crude, native of Louplande, diocese of ]\Ians, aged thirty-nine 

years, and Anne Marie Deble, native of the village of Alber in Germany. Two 

bans. 
March 3, 1726. Jean Baptiste Thaumur, son of Dominique Thaumur and Jeanne 

Prudhomme, and Marie Frangoise Rivart, widow of Joseph Lamy. Two bans. 
May 20. Jean Baptiste Texier, son of Jean Baptiste Texier and Elisabeth Des- 

moulins of Montreal, and Marianne Migneret, daughter of Pierre Migneret and 

Susanne Kerami. Two bans. 
June 3. Antoine Bienvenu and Frangoise Rabut. Two bans. 
August 5. Jacques H. . . . , Panis, and Therese, a free savage. Three bans. 
October 20. Francois Allard, son of Pierre Allard and Marie Lugre, native of the 

parish of Ste. Anne, and Alarie Lorrain, daughter of Joseph Lorrain and . . . 

of Illinois. 
February 12, 1727. Etienne Hebert, son of Ignace Hebert and Marguerite St. 

Michel, of the parish of Ste. Anne, and Elisabeth Philippe. 
February 19. Nicolas Blot, son of fitienne Blot and Marguerite Segnier (?), native 

of the parish of Chateau Riches, diocese of Quebec, and Therese Boisseau of 

this parish. One ban. 

= AN'C Gi, 412:5 ff. 

' Registre de la Paroisse. 



APPENDIX 8 1 

October 20. Joseph Sernin (or Lorrin,) native of Montreal, and Josephine Marie 
PhiHppe, daughter of Michel Philippe and !Marie Rouensa. Three bans. 

March 28, 1728. Two negroes. No bans. 

May 4. Francois Bequet, son of Jean Baptiste Bequet and Jeanne Claire Demonte, 
and Marie Fafart de Boisjoly, widow of Nicolas Cadrin. Two bans. 

May 5. Pierre Du Pre, son of Jean Baptiste Du Pre and Frangoise, native of 
Quebec, habitant of Fort de Chartres, and ^larie Chekaokia, widow of Francois 
Cecile Bontan. Three bans. 

June 7. Daniel Le Gras, son of Jean Baptiste Le Gras and Marianne Malette, native 
of Villemand parish, diocese of Montreal, and Susanne Kerami, widow of 
Leonard. Three bans. 

August I. Francois Dionet, son of Frangois Dionet and Madeleine Avarice of 
Pointe aux Trembles, and Denise, widow of Jean Fabert de Lau . . (?) . .re. 
One ban. ^''t l.c. J^^^^s%<2.. 

March 29, 1729. Joseph Aubuchon, son of Joseph Aubuchon and Elizabeth Cusson, 
native of the parish of St. Frangois, diocese of Montreal, and Marie Mean, 
Panis. 

Marriages, i 741 -1763* 

January 23, 1741. Joseph Le Cour of Montreal, and Marie Joseph Le Roy, widow 
of Jean Baptiste La Pierre. 

February 10 (?), 1741. Simon Gautier, native of the parish of the Holy Family, 
Quebec diocese, and Marie Louise Langlois, native of New Orleans, daughter 
of Augustin Langlois and Mark . . . Bodereau. 

November 20. Nicolas Boyer, son of Antoine Boyer and Louise de L' Amour, habi- 
tants of River St. Pierre, and Marie Rose Texier, widow of Pierre Groston 
St. Ange. 

May 29, 1742. Michael Bourdon, native of Amiens, diocese of Limoges, son of 
Pierre Bourdon and Marie Dufour . . . , and Elisabeth, an Indian, given her 
freedom by Sieur Blot. One ban. 

August 20. Joseph Courtois, native of La Pointe, son of Jean Courtois and Mar- 
guerite Argenea . . . , and Marguerite Perthius, widow of Jacques Basson (?). 
One ban. 

September 17. Frangois Lalumandiere, son of Frangois Lalumandiere and Marianne 
Moran, native of Montreal, and Louise Perthius, native of Detroit. Three bans. 

January 18, 1743. Charles Brazeau, son of Charles Brazeau of Alontreal and 
Frangoise Mallet, daughter of the late Pierre Alallet and Frangoise Rabut. 
Three bans. 

January 30. Paul Rheaume, native of La Chine, son of Simon Rheaume and Elisa- 
beth Bellehumeur (?), and Marie Louise Pillet, daughter of Pierre Pillet and 
Madeleine B. . . . One ban. 

February 5. Jacques Lacourse, native of Three Rivers, son of Pierre Lacourse and 
Magdeleine Bourbeau, and Jeanne Bienvenu, daughter of Antoine Bienvenu and 
Frangoise Rabut. 

February 12. Charles Jannot de la Chapelle, son of Pierre de la Chapelle and Pe- 
tronilla Texier, and Frangoise Lamy, daughter of Joseph Lamy and Frangoise 
Rivard. Three bans. 

February 29. Claude Caron, native of Montreal, son of Claude Caron and Jeanne 
Boyer (?), and Charlotte Lachenais, also born in Montreal, daughter of Philippe 
Lachenais and Marguerite Texier. Two bans. 

* Ibid. 



82 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

September 15. Antoine Cheneau dit Sanschagrin, master roofer, widower of Cecile 
Bortan (?), and Dorothee Ariga, widow of Pierre Hutin (Hulin). One ban. 

October 29. Joseph Marie Mercier, master wig-maker, native of Kaskaskia, son of 
the late Louis Mercier and the late Louise La Pointe, and Catherine Deganier, 
native of Montreal. One ban. 

June I, 1744. Etienne Lalande, born in Kaskaskia, son of Jacques Lalande, captain 
of the militia, and the late Marie Tetio, and Jeanne Perthius, born in Detroit, 
daughter of Pierre Perthius and Catherine Malet. Three bans. 

[une 6. Jean Baptiste Alari^, born in Montreal, son of the late Rene Alaric and the 
late Alarianne Boyer, and Marie Aubuchon, natural daughter of Pierre Au- 
buchon. 

November 4 (or 11). Pierre La Course, widower of Marie Louise Roy and Elisa- 
beth Bienvenu, daughter of Antoine Bienvenu and FranQoise Rabut. Three bans. 

January 19, 1745. Jean Baptiste Deganier, native of Alontreal, son of Jacques Dega- 
nier and Marguerite . . . , and Louise Hulin, born in New Orleans, daughter of 
the late Pierre Hulin and Dorothee Ariga. One ban. 

April 27. Pierre Ignace Bardet La Ferme, formerly surgeon-major, native of the 
parish of St. Hypolite de Beard, diocese of Hinse, son of the late Jean Pierre 
Bardet, first surgeon of the marine and Anne Banchaud; and Damoiselle Mari- 
anne Barrois, born in Montreal, daughter of Jean Baptiste Barrois, notary, and 
Dame Magdeleine Cardinal. Three bans. 

June 14. Joseph Liberville, native of La Chine, son of Joseph Liberville and Mari- 
anne Le Mai, and ]\Iarie Louise Langlois, widow of Simon Gautier. Three bans. 

June 29. Alichel Danis, native of Kaskaskia, son of the late Charles Danis and 
Dorothee 3^Iich . . . , and Barbe Pillet, native of Kaskaskia, daughter of Pierre 
Pillet and Magdeleine Boisron. Three bans. 

January 9, 1747. Jacques Godefroy, son of Jacques and Marie Chene, native of 
Detroit, and Frangoise Tuillier, daughter of Nicolas Tuillier dit Desvignet and 
Dorothee Mercier. Three bans. 

January 23. Jean Baptiste ^^lillot, son of the late Baptiste Millot and Alarianne, and 
Madeleine Pillet, daughter of Pierre Pillet dit La Sonde and Catherine Made- 
leine Boisron. 

June 14. Frangois Xavier Rollet, and Alarianne Fouillard, widow of Jean Baptiste 
Girard. One ban. 

July 13. Louis Normant dit La Bruiere and Agnes Hulin, daughter of the late 
Pierre Hulin and Dorothee Accica. Two bans. 

September 11. Pierre Dumont dit La Violette and Agnes Alarc (?) wadow of the 
late Augustin St. Ives. Two bans. 

September 25. Joseph Forel dit Chaponga, and Frangoise, widow of Antoine San- 
soucy, with the permission of the Chevalier de Bertet. Three bans. (See entry 
of May 2, 1724.) 

November 21. Joseph Choquette and Marie Rose de Guirre. Two bans. 

January 7, 1748. Joseph Buchet, ecrivain principal, commissaire, judge, widower 
of Marie Frangoise Potier, and Marie Louise Michel, daughter of Jacques 
Alichel. One ban. 

January 7. Francois Vallee, son of Charles Yallee and Genevieve Marcon, native of 
Beauport, and Marianne Billeron, daughter of the late Leonard Billeron, notary, 
and Marie Claire Catoise. 

May 14. Nicolas Boyer, widower of Alarie Rose Texier, and Dorothee Olivier, 
daughter of Jean Baptiste Olivier and Marthe Accica of Kaskaskia. Three bans. 



APPENDIX 83 

February 3, 1749. Jacques Lacourse, widower o£ Jeanne Bienvenu, and Charlotte 
Guillemot, daughter of Jean Baptiste Guillemot dit La Landc and Charlotte 
>\Iarchand. Three bans. 

January 13, 1750. Jean Baptiste Benoit de Ste. Claire, captain commandant at 
Illinois, and Marie Bienvenu, daughter of Antoine Bienvenu, major of the 
militia, and Frangoise Rabut. One ban. 

January 27. Louis Cabassier, son of Charles Cabassier and Marguerite Renand, 
native of Montreal, and Victoire Dome, daughter of the late Charles Dome 
and Catherine Bicheron. 

February 3. Jacques Seguin dit la Deroute, and Marie Rose Tuiller, daughter of 
the late Nicolas Tuiller dit Devignet and Dorothee Mercier. Two bans. 

March 19. Joseph La Mirande and Hypolite La Fresniere. Three bans. 

May 25. Frangois Dirouse, son of Pierre Dirouse dit La Verdure and Catherine 
Ditorni, and Marie Joseph Turpin, daughter of Louis Turpin, captain of the 
militia, and the late Dorothee. Three bans. 

January 12, 1751. Double wedding. Jean Baptiste Marquis and Marie Louise Fillet, 
widow of Alphonse Paul Rheaume. Etienne Gauvereau and Marie Louise 
Quesnel. 

January 12. Double wedding. Pierre Texier, son of Jean Baptiste Texier dit La 
Vigne and Marianne Migneret, and Marie Madeleine Turpin, daughter of the 
late Joseph Turpin and Hypolite Chauvin. Pierre Billeron, son of the late 
Leonard Billeron and Marie Claire Catoise, and Elizabeth Aubuchon, daughter 
of Pierre Aubuchon and Marie Brunet. 

February 2. Prisque Page, of the parish of St. Jean Baptiste Dejevireuils (?), and 
Marie Frangoise Michel, daughter of Jacques Michel dit Dufrene. Two bans. 

April 27. Nicolas Janis, son of the late Frangois Janis and Simone Brussant, and 
Marie Louise Taumur, daughter of Jean Baptiste Taumur dit La Source, ancien 
officier de niilice, and Marie Frangoise Rivart. Two bans. 

November 13, 1751. Rene le Moine Despins, son of Rene and Renee St. Pierre, and 
Marie Jeanne Ste. Jemme, daughter of Jean Baptiste Ste. Jemme and Marie 
Louise La Croix. Two bans. 

November 23. Antoine Capon dit Boisetout (?), and Catherine Corset, daughter 
of Frangois Corset dit Coco and Elizabeth Bienvenu. Three bans. 

March 21, 1752. Jean Baptiste Dornon, native of Quebec, and i\Iarianne La Fontaine, 
widow of Antoine Girard, officer of the militia. One ban. 

September 4. Alexis Picard, widower of Frangoise Riviere, and Alarie La Roche, 
daughter of the late Joseph La Roche and the late Alarie La Pointe. 

November 6. Louis de Lisle and Damoiselle Marie Therese de Vincennes. One ban. 

July 17. Antoine Laurent Bienvenu, officer of the militia, and Elisabeth Desvignets. 
One ban. 

January 22, 1754. Michel Place and Marie Louise Texier. 

May 14. Frangois Perron and Alarianne Fouillard, widow of Frangois Xavier 
Rollet. Three bans. 

February 3, 1755. Louis Longval and Marie Louise La Course. Three bans. 

February 4. Daniel Fagot de la Garceniere and Damoiselle Genevieve de Bonaccueil. 

Two bans. 
March 17. fitienne Gauvereau, widower of Marie Louise Quesnel, and Angelique 

Perthius, widow of Louis Chauvin. Two bans and dispensation for prohibited 

time. 



84 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

June 23. Joseph Dubord and Elisabeth Bienvenu, widow of Pierre La Course. Two 

bans. 
July I. Dominique La Source, son of Jean Baptiste La Source, ancien officier de 
milice, and Frangoise Rivard, and Elisabeth Aubuchon, daughter of Antoine 
Aubuchon and Elisabeth de Launay. Three bans. 
August 19. Joseph Dosa, son of Pierre Dosa and Marguerite Gignard, and Josephe 

Antaya, daughter of Joseph Antaya and Marie Bodin. Three bans. 
September 2. Jean Baptiste Crcly, son of Jean Baptiste Crely and N. Aiet, and 
Angelique Pillet, daughter of Pierre Pillet and Madeleine Boirond. Three bans. 
January 10, 1756. Eugene Pouvre dit Beausoleil, sergeant in the company of 
Varenne, and Marie Joseph Godeau, daughter of surgeon Michel Godeau. 
Three bans. 
January 20. Jean Baptiste Couturier and Catherine Petit. Three bans. 
February 3. Frangois Antoine Drouet, eciiyer, Sieur de Bajolet of Post Vincennes, 

and Frangoise Outlas. Three bans. 
June 20. Antoine Bcauvais and Frangoise Diel. Three bans. 
July 13. Antoine Gilbert dit Sanspeur and Dorothee Mcrcier, widow of Nicolas 

Desvignets. Three bans. 
August 24. Andre de Guiere, son of Andre de Guierre, captain of the militia at Ste. 
Genevieve, and Elisabeth Brunet, and J^Iarguerite Gouvereau, daughter of 
Etienne Gouvereau, and the late Marie Millet. Three bans. 
October 12. Jean Baptiste Maurice, widower of Alarguerite Cressman (or Crep- 
mann), of Nouvelle Chartres, and :\Iarie Jeanne Corset, daughter of Franqois 
Corset and Elizabeth Bienvenu. Three bans. 
November 8, 1757. Henri Carpentier, Nouvelle Chartres, and Alaric .\ubuchon, 
daughter of Pierre Aubuchon and Marie Brunet. Three bans. 
- November 22. Nicolas Caillot dit La Chanse and jMarianne Giard. Three bans. 
January 12, 1758. Leonard Billeron dit La Fatigue, and Catherine La Bruyere. 
January 24. Etienne Nicole, habitant of Kaskaskia, and Alarie Angelique Giard. 

Three bans. 
May 23. Joseph Liberville, widower of ^L1rie Louise Langlois, and Marie Made- 
leine Monique Boudrand, widow of Jean Baptiste Richard. Three bans. 
November 28. Joseph Labole, widower of ^Marguerite Saint Louis, and Jeanne Ken- 

narde, widow of Robert Cocherin. Three bans. 
November 30. Jean Baptiste La Source, son of Jean Baptiste, ancien officier de 
milice, and Marie Frangoise Rivard, and Catherine Beauvais, daughter of 
Raphael Beauvais and Catherine Alaric. Three bans. 
January 31, 1759. Louis Tirard dit St. Jean and Marie Josephe, daughter of Jean 

Baptiste de Guierre. 
February 6. Pierre Baron and Louise Marguerite Godeau. Three bans. 
February 13. Jean Baptiste Gilbert and Charlotte, daughter of Valentin Moreau. 

Two bans. 
February 14. Jean Baptiste Olivier and Dorothee Pillet. One ban. 
January 30, 1760. Antoine La Framboise, habitant of Vincennes, and Elisabeth 

Beauvais. One ban. 
February 18. Mon. Dussault de la Croix, officer of the troops, son of Dussault de 
la Croix, chevalier of the order of St. Louis, major of the town of Gap in 
Dauphine, and Dame Marie Frangoise Borel ; married Dame Alarie Therese 
Aufrere, widow of Antoine de Gruys, lieutenant of the troops of the marine, 
with Macarty's permission. One ban. 



APPENDIX 55 

May 5. Antoine La Source, son of Jean Baptiste La Source and Dame Marie 
Rivard, and Marianne Roy, daughter of the late Jacques Roy and Catherine 
Felix, habitants of Mobile. One ban, published in Fort de Chartres. 

May 13. Frangois Corset, son of Frangois Corset dit Coco and Elisabeth Bienvenu, 
and Frangoise Scionaux, daughter of Louis Scionaux and Frangoise Melique. 
Three bans. 

June 2. Charles Bienvenu, son of the late Frangois Bienvenu and Marianne Le 
Moine, native of Detroit, and Elisabeth Guilmon, daughter of Jean Baptiste 
Guilmon dit La Lande and Charlotte Alarchand. Two bans. 

June 17. Daniel Blouin, native of Segonzac in Saintonge (?), son of Jean Pierre 
Blouin and Marie Marguerite Baud, and Helene Charleville, daughter of Joseph 
Chauvin dit Charleville and Genevieve Rivard. One ban. 

January 7, 1761. Jacques Desvignets, son of the late Nicolas Desvignets and 
Dorothee Mercier, and ]Marie Anne Seguin, daughter of Joseph Seguin and 
Frangoise, savage, of Champlain. Three bans. 

January 18, 1762. Basile La Chapelle, son of Jean Janot La Chapelle and Marie Du 
Rivage, native of the parish of Pointe Aux Tremble, and Louise La Luman- 
diere, daughter of Frangois La Lumandiere and Louise Perthius. Three bans. 

April 28. Charles Brazeau, son of Charles Brazeau and Frangoise Alelot, habitant 
of Du Rocher, and Alarie Louise Alaric. Three bans. 

June 4. Raphael Beauvais, widow^er of Catherine Alaric, and Marie Frangoise, 

savage, widow of Joseph Seguin of Boucharville. Two bans. 
July 3. Antoine Maurin, son of Antoine Maurin and Marguerite Dagneau, native 

of St. Frangois, and Pelagie Antaya, daughter of Antoine Pelletier and Marie 

Anne Doza. Three bans. 
September 14. Paul Jusseaume dit St. Pierre, of Vincennes, son of Leonard Jus- 

seaume and Angelique La Porte of Montreal, and Therese Turpin, daughter of 

the late Louis Turpin and Dorothee. One ban. 

February g, 1763. Pierre Gueret dit Dumont, son of Pierre Gueret and Josephe 
Aube of St. Louis, diocese of Quebec, and Pelagie Millot, daughter of Jean 
Baptiste Millot and Magdeleine Pillet. Three bans. 

April II. Monsieur Philippe Frangois de Rastel, chevalier de Rocheblave, officer 
of the troops of this colony, native of Savournon, diocese of Gap in Dauphine, 
son of ]Monsieur Jean Joseph de Rastel, chevalier, Marquis de Rocheblave, 
Seigneur de Savournon and Dame Diane Elizabeth Dillon ; married Damoiselle 
Marie Alichel Dufresne, daughter of Sieur Jacques Michel Dufresne, habitant, 
officer of the militia of this parish, and Marie Frangoise Henry, with the per- 
mission of De Villiers, commandant. One ban. 

May 3. Conrad Seeloff dit Caulet, king's baker at Fort de Chartres, native of 
Dietz in diocese of Mayence, and Magdeleine Alanuel, daughter of Jean Manuel 
and Jeanne La Parriere, habitant of this parish. One ban. 

July 21. Claude Le Mieux, son of Frangois le Mieux and Angelique Goulet of St. 
Antoine, in the diocese of Quebec, and Alarguerite Desgagniers, daughter of 
Jean Baptiste Desgagniers and Marie Louise Hullin. Three bans. 

November 16. Joseph Crely, son of the late Jean Baptiste Crely and Frangoise 
Ayet, and Therese Godeau, daughter of Michel Godeau, surgeon and ]Marie 
Therese Huchet. 



NOTES ON THE CENSUS OF 1752^ 

Included in the Vaudreuil manuscripts among the Loudoun collection owned by 
the Huntington Library is a census of the Illinois country taken at the orders of 
the commandant, Macarty, in 1752. It isn't complete; there are records of many 
other persons not listed who were residents of Illinois in that year, but it is the 
most detailed document of its kind. The following notes have been made in an 
attempt to construct a rudimentary genealogy of the Illinois French families. 
Sources of information are cited in parenthesis in the text, rather than in footnotes; 
in general, each reference covers all the material intervening between it and the 
preceding reference. 

KASKASKIA 

Mre Dc MonCherveaii 

Jean Francois Tisseran dc Alontcharvaux, son of Francois and of Marie Louise 
de Vienne of St. Pierre, diocese of Langres. At Quebec, June 3, 1721, he married 
Marie Thercsc I'Archeveque, daughter of Jacques and of Marie Aladelcine Hayot, 
baptized at Ste. Foj^e March 22,, 1699. Tanguay lists four sons born to the couple: 

1. Jean Francois, baptized at Quebec May 13, 1724. 

2. Pierre, baptized at Quebec July 16, 1725. 

3. Charles, baptized at Quebec by Mgr. de St. Vallier September 3, 1727. 

4. Jean Louis Joseph, baptized at Quebec August 23, 1729. (Tanguay, i, 349; 

HI, 330). 

In 1737 he married Marie Agnes Chassin at Kaskaskia; without doubt she was 
one of the daughters of Agnes Philippe and Nicolas Michel Chassin. Although one 
document dated 1751 speaks of him as being a man with a large family, I have only 
the record of one birth to him and his second wife, that of a daughter, Alarie 
Agnes, born and baptized at Fort de Chartres, February 2, 1753. (Fort de Chartres 
Parish Register, 73). A son, an ensign in garrison at Fort de Chartres, was killed 
in 1758 in a duel with another ensign, Pierre de Verges, son of Chevalier Bernard 
de Verges, engineer-in-chief of Louisiana. 

The elder Montcharvaux was an ensign in 1732; lieutenant, October 15, 1736; 
and captain, December i, 1747. (ANC D2C4). In October, 1743, he was command- 
ing the post of the Arkansas. He was in charge of the Illinois convoy in 1749 and 
was accused of improper conduct in connection with his supervision of the trip. In 
1756 he was in command of a company of twenty-four men at Kaskaskia (ANC 
02051:24-28). 

Les R. />. Jesuites 

The Jesuit establishment at Kaskaskia. Father Philibert Watrin was in charge 
there from 1746 until 1764. 

Fre Valee 

Frangois Valle, son of Charles and Genevieve Crete, born and baptized at 
Beauport January 2, 1716. Married Marianne Billeron, daughter of Leonard 
Billeron dit La Fatigue, royal notary at Kaskaskia, and Marie Claire Catois, who 
was born in 1729 and died in 1781. He w'as the father of: 

1. Marie Louise, born about 1750, married Louis DuBreuil A'illars. 

2. Charles, married Pelagic Carpentier, died about 1852. 

3. Joseph, born 1756, killed by the Indians when he was 21 years of age. 

4. Francois, born 1758, died 1804. ^Married Marie Carpentier, daughter of Henri 
and Marie Aubuchon. 

5. Jean Baptiste, born September 25, 1760, baptized October 3; died August 3, 
1849. ^Married Jeanne Barbeau, daughter of Baptiste Barbcau and Marie Jeanne 
LeGras of Prairie du Rocher. {Mo. Hist. Soc. Pub., II:6o-6i; Registrc de la 
Paroisse). 

^ Recencement General dn Pays des Ilinoise de 175^. HMLO 426:1-7. 

86 



APPENDIX ^y 

Frangois Valle was a volontairc in Kaskaskia in 1746; on April 27, 1746, on 
the eve of his departure for the Wabash, he made a will leaving altogether the 
sum of 6,000 livres. (Kaskaskia AIss., Private Papers, IV). 

Joh. Mersie 

Joseph Mercier, master wig-maker, son of Louis and Louise la Pointe, bap- 
tized at Quebec October 10, 1713. He married first Suzanne Mailhot (i7og-Nov. 8, 
1739) at Alontreal, and was the father of: 

I. Joseph, baptized April 30, 1736 at Montreal. 

His second wife was Marie Catherine Deganier (or Desgagnes), a native of 
Alontreal, whom he married October 29, 1743, at Kaskaskia. They were the par- 
ents of: 

1. Marie Catherine, baptized February 28, died April 16, 1745, at Cahokia. 

2. Jacques, baptized January 14, 1760. 

3. Pierre Joseph, baptized October 15, 1761. (Tanguay, V, 606, I, 425; Registre 
de la Paroisse). 

Veuve Loui ChoiAn 

Probably Angelique Perthius, widow of Louis Chauvin, who, it appears, was the 
son of Jules Chauvin and Angelique Derounsay of Montreal and the brother of 
Philippe Chauvin dit Joyeuse. Widow Chauvin married fitienne Gouvereau, widower 
of ^larie Louise Quesnel, March 17, 1755. {Registre de la Paroisse). Her son, Louis 
Chauvin, married Alarianne Francoeur, a native of Arkansas, daughter of Joseph 
Francoeur, in February, 1770. {La. Hist. Quart., VI, 373). 

Pire Deninel 

Sr. CharLeznl 

Joseph Chauvin Charleville, rich merchant of Kaskaskia. The Chauvin families 
of Kaskaskia seem to be hopelessly mixed up, but it would seem that Joseph was the 
son of Jules (possibly the Gilles which appears in Tanguay) and Angelique Deroun- 
say (see entry for Veuve Loui Chovin, above). His wife was Genevieve Rivard. 
Doubtless they had more than two children but I have records of only: 

1. Helene, married June 17, 1760, to Daniel Blouin, son of Jean Pierre and 
Marie Marguerite Baud, a native of Xaintonge. A daughter, Helene, was born to this 
couple July 25, 1761. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

2. Jean Baptiste who married Frangoise Brazeau, daughter of Joseph and 
Frangoise Dizier. {Abstracts). 

Ni. Boye 

Nicolas Boyer, tenth of the nineteen children of Nicolas Antoine and Louise 
Payet dit St. Amour, baptized at Montreal, April 21, 1716. (Tanguay, II, 444). He 
married first Marie Rose Texier. daughter of Louis Texier and Catherine, an In- 
dian, widow of Pierre Groston St. Ange, on November 20, 1741. She died Decem- 
ber 12, 1747. His second wife was Dorothee Olivier, daughter of Jean Baptiste 
Olivier and iMarthe, an Indian. Their children included: 

1. Jacques, born December 9, 1759. 

2. Marie Louise, born February 14, 1763. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

Joh. Tester LaVigne 

The Texier family was a numerous one in Kaskaskia, and the relationships 
are not altogether clear. Quite possibly this Joseph was the son of Jean Baptiste 
Texier and Elisabeth Desmoulins, baptized at Montreal March 19, 171 1, and married 
in 1735 to Marie Cusson. (Tanguay, VII, 275). His brother, Jean Baptiste, bap- 
tized October 22, 1699, at Montreal, married Marianne Migneret at Kaskaskia 
Alay 20, 1726. {Registre de la Paroisse). Of course, it is equally possible that the 



88 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Joseph listed in the Census was a son of Jean Baptiste and Marianne, or even of 
the Joseph given above, by a previous and unrecorded marriage. 

/. Bt. Crely 

Jean Baptiste Crely, cooper of Kaskaskia. His wife was Marie Franqoisc Aiet. 
Their son, Jean Baptiste, married Angelique Piiet dit La Sonde, daughter of Pierre 
Filet and Catherine Madeleine Boisron, September 2, 1755. Their son, Joseph, 
married Theresa Godeau, daughter of Surgeon Michel Godeau and Therese 
Huchet, November 16, 1763. (Registre de la Paroisse). Joseph's second wife was 
Marie Louise Manjuis, daughter of Jean Baptiste and Marie Filet, whom he mar- 
ried in 1768. {Abstracts). 

Cliarle Braso 

Charles Brazeau, son of Charles Brazeau of Montreal. He married Franqoise 
Melot (variously spelled), daughter of Pierre Melot and Frangoise Rabut January 
18, 1743- There was a son, Charles, for whom guardians were elected January 23, 
1747. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V). He married Marie Louise Alarie, 
daughter of Frangois and Domitilla Baillargeon, April 28, 1762. {Registre de la 
Paroisse). 

fre. Godo 

Unless the census-taker meant Sr. Godo instead of Francois Godeau, I am 
unable to identify this individual. Sieur Godeau would have been Alichel Godeau, 
surgeon, who arrived at Kaskaskia with the autumn convoy in 1751 and was still 
there on January 10, 1756, when his daughter, Marie Joseph, married Eugene 
Pouvre dit Beausoleil, sergeant in the company of Varenne, at Kaskaskia. Another 
daughter, Therese, married Joseph Crely (see J. Bt. Crely, above) November 16, 
1763. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

fre. Corset dt. Coquo 

Francois Corset dit Coco, habitant. On May 2, 1737, three arpents en face at 
Prairie du Rocher, stretching from the hills to the Mississippi, were granted to him. 
{American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map of Prairie du Rocher). His wife 
was Elisabeth Bienvenu, possibly a daughter of Philippe and Frangoise Alarie. He 
was the father of: 

1. Frangois, who married Frangoise Scionnaux Desmoulins, daughter of Louis 
and of Frangoise Melique, May 13, 1740. 

2. Catherine, married Antoine Capon dit Boisetout November 23, 1751. 

3. Marie Jeanne, married Jean Baptiste Maurice dit Chatillon, wndower of 
Marguerite Cressman, October 12, 1756. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. Degaigne 

Jean Baptiste Desgagnes, son of Jacques and Marguerite Jousset, baptized at 
Montreal September 5, 1717. He married Louise Hulin, daughter of Pierre Hulin 
and Dorothee, an Indian, on January ig, 1745, after the publication of one ban. 
(Tanguay, HI, 37^; Registre de la Paroisse). 

St. Cerny 

Raimond Brosse dit St. Cerny, habitant of Kaskaskia (in Kaskaskia in 1726). 
On June 27, 1744, the eve of his departure for New Orleans, he made a will be- 
queathing 300 livres to the church, 300 livres to his god-daughter, Agnes Hulin, 
and all else to his good friend Jean Henrj' dit La Rose. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private 
Papers, IV). 

Veuve Lafatigue 

Marie Claire Catois, widow of Leonard Billeron dit Lafatigue, royal notary 
of Illinois from July 22, 1734, until his death in 1740, and one of the few widows 
of the Illinois who remained unmarried. Her children were: 



APPENDIX 89 

1. Leonard, who married Catherine la Brier January' 12, 1758. 

2. Pierre, who married EHzabeth Aubuchon January 12, 1751. 

3. Joseph. 

4. Alarianne, who married Frangois \'alle January 7, 1748 (see entry for 
Frangois Valle, above). 

5. Jacques. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

Pire Lafatigue 

Pierre Lafatigue, son of Leonard Billeron dit Lafatigue and Marie Claire 
Catois (see entry above). 

Veuve Rolette 

Probably Marianne Fouillard, who was the widow of Jean Baptiste Girard 
when she married Francois Xavier Rollet, June 14, 1747. On May 14, 1754, she 
married Frangois Perron. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

Charle Lachapel 

Charles de LaChapelle, son of Pierre de LaChapelle and Petronilla Texier, 
natives of Canada. He married Frangoise, daughter of Joseph Lamy and Frangoise 
Rivard, February 12, 1743, at Kaskaskia. {Registre de la Paroisse). Although 
Tanguay lists twelve children of Pierre LaChapelle and Petronilla he gives none by 
the name of Charles. 

Claude Caron 

Eighth child of Claude Caron and his second wife, Jeanne Boyer, baptized at 
^Montreal July 12, 1714. (Tanguay, H, 548). He married Charlotte Lachenais, 
daughter of Philippe Lachenais and Marguerite Texier, February 29, 1743. Their 
children included: 

1. Elisabeth, born March 6, 1760. 

2. Marie Joseph, born April 19, 1761. 

3. Jean Baptiste, born December 27, 1763. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. LaSource 

Jean Baptiste Thaumur de la Source, son of Dominique, surgeon, and Jeanne 
Prudhomme, baptized August 20, 1696, at Alontreal, died February 26, 1777, at 
Kaskaskia. (Tanguay, I, 564; VH, 288). He married Marie Frangoise Rivard, 
widow of Joseph Lamy, March 3, 1726. He was the father of: 

1. Jean Baptiste, who married Catherine, daughter of Raphael Beauvais and 
Catherine Alarie, November 30, 1758. 

2. Dominique, who married Elisabeth, daughter of Antoine Aubuchon and 
Elisabeth Delaunay, July i, 1755. 

3. Marie Louise, who married Nicolas, son of Frangois Janis and Simone 
Brussant, April 27, 1751. 

4. Antoine, who married Marianne, daughter of Jacques Roy of Mobile and 
Catherine Felix, May 5, 1760. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. Mar qui 

Jean Baptiste Marquis, blacksmith. On September 14, 1740, he entered into a 
partnership with Joseph Chauvin Charleville for three years, during which Charle- 
ville agreed to feed, house, and clothe the smith and to provide the fuel needed for 
his forge. At the end of the period, after Marquis took out 300 livres, the profits 
were to be divided half and half. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV). On 
January 12, 1751, Marquis married Marie Louise Pilet dit Lasonde, daughter of 
Pierre and Catherine Aladeleine Boisron and widow of Alphonse Paul Rheaume. 
Their daughter, !Marie Louise, married Joseph Crely in 1768. {Registre de la 
Paroisse). 



/ 

go KASKASKIA UNDEl{ THE FRENCH REGIME 




Veuve Denie Dt. Verono 

Probably Marthe Hubert, who was the wife of Jean Baptiste Denis Veronneau 
in 1748. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VII). He may have been the son 
of Denis Veronneau and Catherine Guerlin, baptized December 23, 1695, at Boucher- 
ville. (Tanguay, VII, 445). His daughter, Marie, married Antoine Aubuchon, son 
of Antoine and !6lisabcth Dclaunay in 1766. (Houck, Spanish Regime, I, 97n). 

fre. LaSource 

Frangois LaSource. Probably the brother of Jean Baptiste de la Source (see 
above). He was baptized at Montreal in 1699 ari<l married Marie Louise Langlois 
at Montreal in 1735. (Tanguay, VII, 288). 

frc. alarie 

Francois Alarie. Probably the son of Rene Alarie (spelled variously Alary, 
Allaric, Alarie, Allary, Allard, Olary) and of Alarie Roycr. Tanguay gives the last 
of Rene's fourteen children as Frangois Joseph, baptized at Alontreal May 5, 1708. 
(Tanguay I, 4; II, 24). On June 6, 1740, Frangois and Catherine, children of the 
late Rene Alary and Marie Royer, were living in Kaskaskia. Jean Baptiste, who, like 
Francois, was a voyagciir, was living at River St. Joseph at that time, but on June 
6. 1744, Jean married Marie Aubuchon, natural daughter of Pierre Aubuchon at 
Kaskaskia. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, III; Rcgistre dc la Paroisse). 

Frangois was the husband of Domitilla Baillargeon and father of: 

1. Marie Louise, married Charles Brazeau April 28, 1762. 

2. Jacques, born June 12, 1759. 

3. Hyacinthe, born October 7, 1760. (Regisfre de la Paroisse). 

Mineurs de Louis Turpin 

Louis Turpin, captain of the militia of Kaskaskia, one of the Illinois countr\-'s 
wealthiest merchants, was the son of Pierre Alexandre Turpin and his second wife, 
Marie Charlotte Beauvais. Louis himself, baptized Alay 15, 1694, at Montreal, had 
three wives. His first was Marie Coulon who died at Kaskaskia February 24, 1724, 
at the age of 22 years. By her he had two children: 

1. Louis, born September 17, 1720, died November 7, 1722. 

2. Elisabeth, born February 24, 1724, baptized the next day. (Rcgistre dc la 
Paroisse). 

His second wife whom he married September 11. 1724, was Dorothee Mechi- 
perouta, the widow of Charles Danis. She had already had three children by Danis ; 
she bore Louis Turpin at least seven children: 

1. A daughter who died October 2, 1726, at the age of 3. {Registrc de la 
Paroisse) . 

2. Agnes, baptized March 9, 1726, at Fort de Chartres. (///. Catholic Hist. Rei:, 
1,498). 

3. Alarie, born about 1731. Entered the Order of Ste. Ursula at the convent 
in New Orleans as a postulant, June 27, 1749, made her profession January 29, 
1752, and died November 21, 1761. She was the first nun born within the later limits 
of the United States according to Father Kenny. (Order of Ste. Ursula, Private 
Archives, IV). 

4. Alarie Josephe, baptized Februarj- 14, 1733, married Alay 25, 1750, to 
Frangois Derousse. {Rcgistre de la Paroisse). 

5. Louise Frangoise, born about 1737. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, Janu- 
ary II, 1747). 

6. Jeanne, born about 1739. (Ibid.). 

7. Therese, born about 1741. Alarried September 14, 1762, to Paul Jusseaume 
dit St. Pierre of Vincennes. (Rcgistre de la Paroisse). 

Louis Turpin's third wife was Helene Hebert, daughter of Ignace and of 
Helene Danis of Fort de Chartres, whom he married Alarch 20, 1751. She married 
Henri Carpentier December 29, 1752. 



APPENDIX 91 

Raph. Beauvay 

Raphael Beauvais, son of Raphael Beauvais and Elisabeth Turpin, baptized 
April 20, 1705, at Montreal. On February 5, 1737, he entered into a marriage con- 
tract with Alarie Catherine Alarie, daughter of the deceased Jacques Alarie and the 
deceased Marie Jeanne, Illinoise, widow of Philippe Outellas. He was the cousin 
and also the nephew of Louis Turpin (see above), because Elisabeth Turpin was 
the half-sister of Louis, and because Louis was the son of Marie Charlotte Beau- 
vais, the sister of the elder Raphael. (Tanguay, II, 178; Kaskaskia Mss., Private 
Papers, II). On June 4, 1762, Raphael married Marie Francoise, an Indian, the 
widow of Joseph Seguin of Bouchervillc. (Registre de la Paroisse). By his first 
wife, Raphael was the father of at least two children: 

1. Alexis who married Therese Danis in November, 1786. (Abstracts). 

2. Catherine, who married Jean Baptiste la Source, son of Jean Baptiste la 
Source and Frangoise Rivard, November 30, 1758. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

M. J. G. Dufrenne 

Jacques Alichel Dufresne, officer of the militia at Kaskaskia. His wife was 
Marie Franqoise Henry. Their children were: 

1. Marie Alichel, who married Philippe Francois, Chevalier de Rocheblave, 
April II, 1763. 

2. Marie Louise, who married Joseph Buchet, ccrizain principal, widower of 
Marie Frangoise Potier, January 7, 1748. 

3. Marie Frangoise who married Prisque Page, February 2, 1751. (Registre 
de la Paroisse). 

Je. Fr. Dielle 

Jean Frangois Dielle (variously spelled Guelle, Diel), master carpenter of 
Kaskaskia, who was in the village at least as early as June 3, 1739. (Kaskaskia AIss., 
Commercial Papers, III). His wafe was Alarie Frangoise Potier, the aunt of 
Therese St. Yves, minor daughter of Agnes Clement, wife of Augustin St. Yves. 
(Kaskaskia AIss., Private Papers, I, September 4, 1747). 

pierre Doza 

A hunter who was living in Kaskaskia in the fall of 1740. His wife was 
Marguerite Gignard. A son, Noel Joseph, married Josephe, daughter of Joseph 
Peltier dit Antaya and Marie Bodin, August 19, 1755. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. Bourbonoy 

Jean Baptiste Brunet dit Bourbonnois probably an old man by this time. His 
wife was Elisabeth Deshayes. Their children included: 

1. Cecile, born in 1710, baptized November 24, 1712, at Kaskaskia. Her first hus- 
band was Toussaint Loisel, whom she married January 11, 1724, and her second 
was Antoine Henaux. She died at Fort de Chartres December 23, 1743. 

2. Marie, baptized at Kaskaskia November 23, 1712, and married to Pierre 
Aubuchon, son of Joseph Aubuchon and Elisabeth Cusson. 

3. Elisabeth, married first to Charles Joseph Dclaunay, then to Andre De- 
guire dit La Rose, June, 1729. (Registre de la Paroisse; Kaskaskia Mss., Private 
Papers II, June 11, 1729). . /3 ^ \y Z.i J . 

pire flamand soldat 

Veuve Giard 

Probably Marianne Lafontaine, widow of Antoine Girard, officer of the militia. 
On March 21, 1752, she married Jean Baptiste Dornon, of Quebec, at Kaskaskia. 
(Registre de la Paroisse). On January 9, 1738, three arpents above Fort de 
Chartres were surveyed for Antoine Girard. (American State Papers, Public 



92 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

La)ids II, map after p. i86). In 1744 he was guardian of Damoiselle Marie Vin- 
cennes. minor daughter of Francois Margane de Vincennes. (Kaskaskia Mss. Private 
Papers, I). 

/. B. Milot 

Jean Baptiste Milot, voyageiir commer(ant of Kaskaskia. He was the son of 
Jean Baptiste Milot and Marianne, and married Madeleine Pilct, daughter of Pierre 
Pilet dit Lasonde and Catherine Madeleine Boisron, Januarj' 23, 1747, at Kaskas- 
kia. He was the father of: 

1. Francois, born June 19, 1759. 

2. Marie Thercse, born July 31, 1760. 

3. Felicite, born December 16, 1761. 

4. Pelagie, who married Pierre Gueret dit Dumont February 9, 1763. (Rcgistre 
de la Paroisse). 

fre. La Lumandierre 

Frangois Lalumandiere dit La Fleur, master tailor, son of Frangois, soldier 
of Marigny and Marie Anne Morand, baptized at Montreal November 25. 1715. 
(Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers VH ; Tanguay, V, 105). He married Louise 
Perthius, a native of Detroit, and the daughter of Pierre Perthius and Catherine 
Malet, September 17, 1742. (Registre de la Paroisse). He was the father of: 

1. Marianne, who married Jean Baptiste Pratte, June 30, 1766, at St. Louis. 
(///. Catholic Hist. Rev., V, I30n). 

2. Louise, who married Basile LaChapelle January 18, 1762. 

3. Joseph, bom December 7, 1759. 

4. Jean Baptiste, born June 16, 1762. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

Veuve de Veignoit 

Dorothee Mercier. Her first husband was Pierre Chabot, who died August 7, 
1721, aged 60 years. By him she was the mother of: 

I. Pierre, born Februarj' 15, 1721. 

Her second husband was Nicolas Thuillier dit Devegnais. He died late in 
1747 or in January, 1748. Their children were: 

1. Jean Baptiste, born September 5, 1723. 

2. Frangoise, married January 9, 1747, to Jacques Godefroy. 

3. Marie Rose, married February 3, 1750, to Jacques Seguin dit Laderoute. 

4. Jacques, married January 7, 1751, to Marianne Seguin. On July 13, 1756, 
she married Antoine Gilbert dit Sanspeur. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

Joh. Libervil dit Joson 

Joseph Liberville dit Joson (or Joyeuse), voyageiir negociant of Kaskaskia, 
native of La Chine, the son of Joseph Liberville and ^Marianne le Mai. He mar- 
ried Marie Louise, daughter of Augustin Langlois and Louise Beaudreau, and 
widow of Simon Gautier June 14, 1745. His second wife was Marie Madeleine 
Beaudron, widow of Jean Baptiste Richard, whom he married Alay 22,, 1758. {Registre 
de la Paroisse). 

J a G. Godefroy 

Jacques Gabriel Godefroy, son of Jacques Godefroy and Marie Chesne, native 
of Detroit. Tanguay (IV, 314) lists Jacques, the son of this couple, baptized at 
Detroit January 6, 1722, and married first to Frangoise Leveille and second, January 
2i, 1758, to Louise Clotilde Chapoton, at Detroit; this may be the same man, though 
it might seem that Tanguay confused two men of the same name. However that 
may be, this Jacques of the census married Frangoise Thuillier, daughter of Nicolas 
Thuillier dit Devegnais and Dorothee Mercier (see entry for Veuve de Veig- 
noit, above), in January, 1747. On April 6, 1753, as he was leaving to make his 



APPENDIX 93 

home in Detroit, he bought some land in Detroit from Jacques Laderoute of Kas- 
kaskia. (Registre de la Paroisse; Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VIII). 

Sr. Monbrun 

Pierre Boucher de Monbrun, Sieur de la Seaudrais, tenth of the thirteen 
children of Rene Jean Boucher de Monbrun and his first wife, Frangoise Claire 
Charest, baptized February 2, 1710, died late in 1775 or early in 1776. (Whitefort, 
A Genealogy and History, 5). He married Antoinette, daughter of fitienne Langlois 
and Marie Catherine Beaudreau, sometime before December 30, 1730. In 1776 there 
were three living children of this couple: ^^'i'j, '^'.-^^i _,--, ',j - - ' .'■.j^tX^-^K. \7^0 Ho^r l2 

1. Louis de Monbrun. )C Mlf 3, /?«»—. ^». '^oa-^ /S--/«-2- 

2. Placide. 

3. Marie Therese who married Jean Baptiste Beauvais, son of Jean Baptiste 
and of Louise Lacroix. 

Pierre was the brother of Jean Baptiste Monbrun, Sieur de St. Laurent, and 
of Francois Monbrun, Sieur de Bonaceuil, all of whom came to Illinois in 1727 and 
married Illinois women. (Whitefort, ibid.; and Kaskaskia Mss.). 

/. Joh. Courtois 

Jean Joseph Courtois, native of La Pointe and the son of Jean Courtois and 
of Marguerite. On August 4, 1734, he was engaged by Jean Baptiste Monbrun to 
go to the Illinois (Rapport de L'Archiviste 1929-1930, 315). He married Marguerite 
Perthius, widow of Jacques Baston, August 20, 1742. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

Louis Tiberge 

Louis Alexandre Tiberge, commergant of Kaskaskia. His wife was Frangoise 
Dubois, daughter of Louis Dubois, officer of the marine, and Frangoise, a ^Missouri 
Indian. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, V; La. Hist. Quart., XXI, 1013 ff.). 

Louis Cabassier 

Louis Marie Cabassier, son of Charles Cabassier and Marguerite Angelique 
Renault, baptized at Montreal July 17, 1710. (Tanguay, II, 513). He married Vic- 
toire Claude Dome, daughter of the late Charles Dome and Catherine Bicheron, 
January 27, 1750. (Registre de la Paroisse). On February i, 1751, she petitioned to 
be allowed to renounce the community with her husband because his debts were 
absorbing her patrimony, and the petition was granted. (Kaskaskia AIss., Public 
Papers, III). In 1766 he was notary at Ste. Genevieve. The couple were the par- 
ents of: 

1. Jean Baptiste, born December 22, 1759. 

2. Frangois Xavier, baptized February 6, 1762. 

3. Marie Catherine, born December 13, 1763. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. Chaponga 

Possibly related to Joseph Forel dit Chaponga who in Alarch, 1739, was a 
volontaire of Kaskaskia, and who married Francoise, widow of Antoine Sansoucy, 
September 25, 1747. (Kaskaskia Mss.; Registre de la Paroisse). 

Joh. Chenier 

There were a number of Cheniers in Kaskaskia. Claude Chenier was the 
husband of Marie Louise Brunet, daughter and heiress of Frangois Brunet. (Registre 
de la Paroisse). Joseph may have been related to him. 

/. G. La Course 

Jacques Gabriel la Course, native of Three Rivers, son of Pierre la Course 
and Marie Madeleine Bourbeau, baptized at Three Rivers, April 28, 1710. (Tan- 
guay, IV, 231). He married, February 5, 1743, Jeanne Bienvenu, daughter of An- 
toine Bienvenu and Frangoise Rabut. On February 3, 1749, he married Charlotte 



94 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Guillemot, daughter of Jean Baptiste Guillemot dit Lalande and Charlotte Alar- 
chand. At that time he lived at St. Joachim (Ste. Genevieve). Although he doubt- 
less had other children, the only one of whom I have a record is Marie Louise, 
baptized October 14, 1759. {Rcgistre de la Paroisse). 

On April 23, 1739, he bought a house, stable, cows, etc., in St. Joachim from 
Jean Baptiste DeGuire for 1,300 livres. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IX). 

Veuve La Course 

Probably Elisabeth Bienvenu, daughter of Antoine Bienvenu and Fran^oise 
Rabut, who married Pierre la Course, widower of Marie Louise Roy, on Novem- 
ber 4 (or possibly November ii), 1744. She married a second time on June 22,, 1755, 
to Joseph Dubord, and died sometime before January 11, 1762. (Registre de la 
Paroisse). By her second husband she was the mother of a daughter, filisabeth. 

/. B. Richard 

Jean Baptiste Richard, merchant, called Le Parisien to distinguish him from 
Daniel Richard, another Kaskaskia merchant. He killed Henri Caton in the village 
in a drunken brawl in 1738 and was tried for murder, but acquitted, apparently on 
the grounds that he had acted in self-defense. His wife was Marie Madeleine 
Monique Bcaudron. On May 23, 1758, she married Joseph Liberville (see entry 
for Liberville, above). (Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I; Registre de la Paroisse). 

Michel Domni et son frere 

A Jean Jacques Domene was godfather to a child born in St. Philippe October 
19, 1740. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 10). 

Pire Obiichon 

Pierre Aubuchon, son of Joseph Aubuchon and Elisabeth Cusson, and brother 
of Joseph, Antoine, Jean Baptiste, and Louis Aubuchon. He was the father of 
Marie, the illegitimate daughter of a Natchez Indian, who married Jean Baptiste 
Alarie, son of Rene Alarie and Marianne Royer, June 6, 1744 (see entry for Fran- 
gois Alarie, above). Pierre's wife was Alarie Brunet dit Bourbonnais, daughter of 
Jean Baptiste Brunet and ]£lisabeth Deshayes (see entry, above, for Jean Baptiste 
Bourbonnais). Their children included: 

1. Elisabeth, who married Pierre Billeron, son of the notary, January 12, 1751 
(see entry for him, above). 

2. Marie, who married Henri Carpentier, November 8, 1757. Their daughter, 
Marie, married Frangois Valle, son of Frangois \^alle and Marianne Billeron (see 
entry, above, for Frangois Valle). 

Antoinne Peltier dit Antaya 

The Peltier family came from Detroit. According to Tanguay {I, 471; 
VL 279), Antoine was the son of Alichcl Peltier and Frangoise Aleneux, baptized 
at L'lle Dupas in February, 1706, and died September 14, 1795, at Kaskaskia. His 
wife was Marianne Doza, w^hom Tanguay lists as Marie Dauza, Algonkine. It is 
more likely that she was the sister of Pierre Doza (see entry for him, above). 
They were the parents of: 

1. Alarie Agnes, baptized July 3, 1722, at Batiscan. 

2. Marie Madeleine, baptized December 14, 1724, at Batiscan. 

3. Marie Charlotte, baptized at Batiscan January 15, 1729. (Tanguay, ibid.). 

4. Pelagic, who married Antoine Alaurin, son of Antoine Alaurin and Mar- 
guerite Dagneau, July 3, 1762. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

Joseph Peltier, Antoine's brother, was the father of Josephe, who married 
Joseph Doza, son of Pierre Doza and Marguerite Gignard, August 19, 1755. (Ibid.) 



lUO AfCr 



APPENDIX 95 

Louis Beaure 

Louis Bore (the more common spelling), according to Grace King, historian 
of Louisiana, was the grandson and great-grandson of men who were First Coun- 
sellors to the French king. His father was Louis Bore, his mother Elisabeth de ^, '^■^^ ^''^ 
Beaupre. (Abstracts). Sometime in 1740 he married Celeste Therese Carriere,' , T^r^^^j,^*~^ 
daughter of Antoine Carriere and Marie Madeleine Quesnel, born November 20, 
1723. They were the parents of: 

1. Jean Baptiste Etienne, born in 1740. He was educated (again according 
to Aliss King, who cites no documents) in France in the household of the King 
as befitted a boy of noble birth, married Marguerite Marie des Trehans des Tours, 
daughter of the ex-treasurer of Louisiana. He returned to Louisiana in 1772, 
settled down on his plantation outside New Orleans, and there was the first to 
successfully refine cane sugar in 1795. 

2. Jeanne Marguerite. 

3. Marie Jeanette, who married Antoine Cesire, son of Joseph Cesire and Marie 
Jeanne Trotier of La Chine, at Cahokia September 3, 1753. 

Louis Bore was captain of the Kaskaskia militia in 1758 and apparently one 
of the leading habitants of the Illinois. He had a three-story stone house near 
the middle of the village which he built sometime in the 1740's. 

Antoinne Bienvenu 

The son of Philippe Bienvenu of Cannes, France, and Frangoise Alarie ; he 
married Frangoise Rabut, widow of Pierre Melet at Kaskaskia June 3, 1726. Their 
children included: 

1. Marie, married January 13, 1750, to Monsieur Benoist de Ste. Claire (see 
note on him below). Her second husband was Rene Harpain de la Gautrais, 
widower of Celeste Therese Nepveu. 

2. Jeanne, married February 5, 1743, to Jacques la Course, son of Pierre la 
Course and Madeleine Bourbeau (see note above). 

3. Elisabeth, married Pierre la Course in November, 1744. She married a 
second time to Joseph Dubord, June 22,, 1755; she had died by January 11, 1762, 
for on that date Dubord married Louise Carmouche. 

4. Antoine, born in 1731, died May il, 1805. His second wife was Louise 
Danis, born in 1753 and died in 1788. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

This family, descended from Philippe, master carpenter, who came to Illinois 
about 1719 from France, is confused by Tanguay with that of the family Bienvenu 
dit Delisle which came from Detroit in the late years of the French regime. In 
Illinois they were generally know'n by the name Delisle. 

Antoinne Gouveraiix 

J. B. Beavais 

Jean Baptiste Beauvais, wealthy merchant of Kaskaskia. He was the son of 
Raphael Beauvais and filisabeth Turpin, baptized May 11, 1698, one of their eleven 
children. His wife was Marie Louise LaCroix, born about 1704; they were mar- 
ried by 1733. Among their children were: 

1. Jean Baptiste, who married Therese Monbrun, daughter of Pierre Alonbrun 
(see above), January 29, 1770. 

2. Marie Jeanne, who married Rene Lemoine, Sieur Despins, son of Rene 
Alexandre Lemoine and Marie Renee Le Boulanger, November 13, 1751. {Registre 
de la Paroisse; Tanguay, V, 337). 

No doubt there were many other children, but so far I have been unable to 
distinguish between the children of Jean Baptiste and his brother Raphael, baptized 
April 20, 1705, who also settled in the Illinois country. 



96 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Cliarlc Dulude 

Gunsmith. He was the son of Joseph Huct dit Duhide and Marie Catherine 
Chiquot, baptized November 2, 1696, at Bouchcrville. (Tanguay, I, 312). His wife 
was Marie Ma8e8encc8oire, a Kaskaskia Indian, the widow of fitienne Philippe dit 
Dulongprc, with whom he made a marriage contract May 23, 1735. She died before 
January 22, 1740. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, H, HI). He was the guardian 
of the daughter of Monsieur Francois Vincennes, and a cousin of Nicolas Boyer. 
His brother, Jean, was also an Illinois habitant. (Ibid., V; La. Hist. Quart., V, 268). 

Pierre Dcgaignce 

Jaqite Ladcroiitc 

Jacques Scguin dit Ladcroute. He married Marie Rose Thuillier dit Devegnais, 
daughter of Nicolas Thuillier and Dorothee Alercier (see entry, above, for Veuve 
de Veignoit), February 3, 1750. There are records of two children born to the 
couple: 

1. Jean Baptiste, born April 23, 1760. 

2. Louis, born December 14, 1761. (Registre de la Paroisse). 
Doubtless there were others. 

Dufoiir dit Tourengo 

jMartias Dufour dit Tourangeau, habitant of Kaskaskia in 1740. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Commercial Papers, IV). 

Antoinc Vno (?) dit Sanchagrin 

Antoine Cheneau dit Sanschagrin, master slater. He was living in Prairie 
Melique near Fort de Chartres in 1748, and in 1757 at Nouvelle Chartres. (Kaskas- 
kia Mss., Commercial Papers, IX). His first wife was Cecile Bortan (?). On Sep- 
tember 15, 1743, he married Dorothee Ariga (evidently an Indian), the widow of 
Pierre Hulin. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

J. B. Baroy 

Jean Baptiste Barrois, the royal notary, son of Antoinc Jean Baptiste Barrois 
and Anne Leber, and the husband of Madeleine Cardinal (baptized in 1699). They 
were the parents of: 

1. Joseph, baptized at Detroit, 1722. 

2. Bonaventure, baptized at Detroit, 1724; a prisoner of the English in 1760. 

3. Louis, baptized July 14, 1732, at Kaskaskia. 

4. Marianne, baptized in Montreal, married April 27, 1745, to Pierre Bardet de 
la Feme, native of France, surgeon at Kaskaskia. He had died by 1760, at which 
time she was living in New Orleans. 

5. Jacques, married Suzanne Baron, October 12, 1747. 

6. Celeste Therese, married Frangois Le Fevre du Chouquet in 1757. 

7. Madeleine, made a marriage contract with Louis Marin August i, 1739. He 
was dead by 1759. She was married to Louis de Portneuf by 1760 and w^as living 
in New Orleans. 

8. Frangois. 

9. Catherine, whose first husband was Jean P.aptiste Becquet. Her second hus- 
band was Joseph du Plassy (frequently spelled Place) ; by him she was grand- 
mother of Senator Victor Bogy of Missouri. (Registre de la Paroisse; Tanguay, 
II, 131; Houck, Spanish Regime, I, 8in; Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IX, 
June 19, 1760; ibid., Private Papers, V, March 4, 1760). 

pire Derouse 

Pierre Derouse dit St. Pierre Laverdure, "hobergiste" of Prairie du Rocher 
in 1743- He lived in Fort de Chartres in 1741, and on April 10, 1743, he sold a 
stone house at Kaskaskia to Pierre Louvierre d'Amour. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commer- 
cial Papers, V, VI). 



APPENDIX 97 

fr Derouse 

Frangois Derouse, the son of Pierre Derouse and Catherine Ditorni ; he married 
Marie Joseph Turpin, daughter of Louis Turpin and Dorothee, Alay 25, 1760. 
{Registre de la Paroisse). He was the father of: 

1. Joseph, baptized Alarch 24, 1761. 

2. Jean Baptiste, born March 15, 1762. {Ibid.). 

P. LaVigne 

La Vigne was the "nickname" of several Illinois families. Possibly this man 
was Pierre Texier dit La Vigne, son of Jean Baptiste Texier and Marianne Alig- 
neret, who married Marie Madeleine Turpin, daughter of Joseph Turpin and 
Hypolite Chauvin la Fresniere, January 12. 1751. They were parents of: 

1. Jean Baptiste, born February 22, 1760. 

2. ^larie Louise, born December 27, 1761. 

3. Antoine, born September 13, 1763. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

LaBrierre 

Louis Normand (or Normant) dit La Briere, master smith of Kaskaskia. He 
married Agnes Hulin, daughter of Pierre Hulin and Dorothee, July 13, 1747. 
{Registre de la Paroisse; Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV, March 22, 1740). 

pire Lasonde 

Pierre Pilet dit Lasonde, husband of Catherine IMarie Madeleine Boisron 
(sometimes spelled Boiraud, Bovron, and Bosseron). On May 2, 1737, four arpents 
of land at Prairie du Rocher, reaching from the hills to the Jklississippi, were 
granted to him, and on July 9 another arpent was given to him. He and his wife 
were parents of: 

1. Jean Baptiste, who died August 27, 1721, aged six weeks. 

2. Jean Baptiste, who died November 4, 1722, aged three months. 

3. Antoine, baptized April 19, 1724. 

4. Marie Louise, who married Alphonse Paul Rheaume, son of Simon and 
Elisabeth Rheaume, January 30, 1743. Her second husband was Jean Baptiste 
Alarquis, whom she married January 12, 1751. They were parents of: 

a. Marie Louise, who married Joseph Crely, May 28, 1768. 

5. Marie Barbe, who married Michel Danis, son of Charles Danis and Doro- 
thea, July 29, 1742. The}' were parents of: 

a. Michel, baptized April 16, 1760. 

b. Pelagie, baptized July 18, 1762. 

6. Aladeleine, who married Jean Baptiste ]\Iilot, son of Jean Baptiste Milot 
and Marianne, January 23, 1747. They were parents of: 

a. Frangois, born June 19, 1759. 

b. Alarie Therese, born July 31, 1760. 

c. Felicite, born December 16, 1761. 

d. Pelagie, who married Pierre Gueret dit Dumont February 9, 1763. 

7. Angelique, who married Jean Baptiste Crely, son of Jean Baptiste Crely and 
Francoise Aiet, September 2, 1755. They were parents of: 

a. Antoine, born September 16, 1759. 

b. Jerome, baptized May 5, 1759. 

An Angelique Pilet dit Lasonde, who might have been the same person, married 
Gabriel Aubuchon, and died at Kaskaskia August i, 1776. She was the mother of 
Joseph, who married Alarie Kiercereau Alarch 3, 1794, and of Charles, born and 
died in 1776. 

A Dorothee Pilet who might have been another daughter of Pierre Pilet and 
Catherine, was born in 1739, married February 14, 1759, to Jean Baptiste Olivier, 
son of Jean Olivier and ^Marthe, and died September 8, 1764. They were parents of: 



98 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

1. Nicolas, born June 13, 1759. 

2. Elisabeth, born December 13, 1760. 

3. Rosalie, born February 15, 1763. Married Joseph Lapierre, at St. Louis, 
January 17, 1780. {Registre de la Paroisse; Tanguay, VI, 168). 

Le sr Page 

Prisque Page, negociant of Kaskaskia. He bought two arpents of farm land 
at Kaskaskia from Jacques Michel dit Dufresne, his father-in-law, for 3,000 livres 
June 5, 1755. His wife was Marie Fran(;oise Michel, whom he married February 2, 
1751. He was the father of: 

1. Louis, born February 8, baptized February 10, 1760, at that time in danger 
of death. 

2. Jean Baptiste, born August 20, 1761. 

3. Helene, born January 2, 1763. (Registre de la Paroisse; Kaskaskia Mss., 
Commercial Papers, VHI). 



Le sr Beijard (?) 



FORT DE CHARTRES 



M. Gaignon, inisionare 

Father Frangois Gagnon, secular priest of Ste. Anne of Fort de Chartres. At 
his death he was buried in the parish cemetery, but his bodj' was re-interred in 
1768 in the graveyard at Prairie du Rocher. 

huber finet 

Hubert Finnet, a habitant of Fort de Chartres as early as 1737. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Commercial Papers, HI). On January 9, 1739, an arpent of land above Fort 
de Chartres was granted "Hubert Finnel." (American State Papers, Public Lands, 
H). He was guardian of the minors of Pierre Texier and Marie Jeanne Gaudrie 
in 1741. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, I, January, 1741). 

A Hubert Fine embarked on the ship L'Union, May 28, 1719, to go to 
Louisiana to settle on the concession of Sr. Caze. (La. Hist. Quart., XV, 460 ff.). 
Possibly he later went on to Illinois. 

Gabriel Dodier 

Blacksmith and interpreter of the Illinois country. On January 9, 1738, he w^as 
granted two arpents of land at Fort de Chartres. He was married in April, 1736, 
to Marie Francoise Millet, daughter of Nicolas Millet and Marie Louise Cardinal; 
she died in 1783. He died at Fort de Chartres August i, 1763. They w-ere parents of: 

1. Gabriel, born in 1740 and died in 1S05. 

2. Marie Frangoise, born about 1744, married Jean Baptiste Becquet, black- 
smith, and died in 1785. 

3. Marie Madeleine, born October 15, 1745, died September 5, 1748. 

4. Jeanne. 

5. filisabeth. 

6. Marie Therese, married Simon Coussot ; she died in 1782 at the age of 25 
years. (Houck, History of Missouri, II, 9n; Houck, Spanish Regime, II, 39on; 
Billon, Annals, 429-430). 

Veuve Ste. Ange 

filisabeth Sorel de St. Remain, widow of Robert Groston, Sieur de St. Ange, 
who commanded at Missouri and at the Illinois. He was a lieutenant reforme 
December 19, 1722, and in command of Fort de Chartres from about 1730 to 1732. 
In the latter year he was 60 years of age, a man who could neither read nor write, 
and who, according to his detractors, was "an old imbecile." However, Father 
Tartarin, priest at Kaskaskia, denied that charge and said that St. Ange deserved 



APPENDIX 



99 



a captaincy. (ANC C13A 23:243'). In June, 1736, he was in command at Missouri; 
he died sometime before June 14, 1740. They were the parents of: 

1. Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, born about 1701. He commanded at the Wabash 
post of Vincennes, then in Illinois from the withdrawal of the French under Neyon 
de Villiers until the arrival of the English troops in 1765. Afterwards he was in 
command on the Spanish side of the Mississippi. 

2. Elisabeth, born at the Missouri fort. On April 25, 1740, she made a marriage 
contract with Frangois Coulon de Villiers, son of Nicolas Antoine Coulon de 
Villiers. captain, and Dame de Vercheres. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, III. 
See entry, below, on M. de Villier). 

3. Pierre, killed in the Chickasaw campaign of 1736. His wife was Alarie 
Rose Texier, daughter of Louis Texier and Catherine, an Indian. Marie Rose 
married Nicolas Boyer November 20, 1741. (See entry, above, for Boyer. Kas- 
kaskia Mss.; Regisfre dc la Paroisse). 

J. B. Taillon 

Jean Baptiste Taillon. According to Tanguay the family name was Michel. 
A Joseph Tayon, or Taillon, lived at Fort de Chartres in 1755 (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Commercial Papers, VIII), who went to St. Louis from the fort in 1764 and died 
there in 1807. His wife was Marie Louise Bossett. (Billon, Annals, 414-415). 

Pierre parant 

He came from Beaupre in Canada. He was the husband of Marianne Choboyer. 
and the father of Therese, who first married Albert Marcheteau Desnoyer and then 
Frangois Pancrasse in Cahokia in 1766. (Houck, Spanish Regime, I, I92n ; 
Abstracts, 113). 

jaque fortin 

Jacques Fortin, husband of ^Marie Frangoise Wtn. On April 10, 1760, he sold a 
house and land in Fort de Chartres to Frangois Hennet for 1,000 livres. Three years 
previously, on September 21, 1757, he had sold two arpents in front, on the prairie of 
the IMetchigamia to Joseph Hennet for 160 livres. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial 
Papers, IX). 

Louis Marin 

Louis de la Marque, Sieur de Alarin or Louis Marin, Sieur de la Marque (he 
signed both ways), captain of the militia at Fort de Chartres. He married Frangoise 
Alissouri, widow of Sieur Dubois, officier, and reputed to be De Bourmont's 
mistress. She was one of the Indians whom he took to France. (Bossu, Travels, 
I, 141). In August, 1739, Marin married Madeleine Barrois, daughter of lean 
Baptiste Barrois, the royal notary, and Aladeleine Cardinal. A daughter of theirs 
married Clement de Lor de la Vaure in 1760. (Houck. Spanish Regime, II, 
384-3851) • Marin died sometime before January 30, 1759. In 1760 his widow was 
living in New Orleans. 

Joseph sancha-grin 

The son of Frangois Hennet dit Sanschagrin, Swiss, who died December 25, 
1746, aged 50 years, and Marianne Charpain. At the time of his father's death! 
he was still a minor, as were his brothers and sisters: Genevieve; Jacques; and 
Madeleine, the wife of Michel Lejeune. Frangois, another brother, was their 
guardian. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers. V, February 9, 1747). 

September 21, 1757, he bought two arpents of land fronting the Mississippi in 
the prairie of the Metchigamia from Jacques Fortin for 160 livres. {Ibid., Com- 
mercial Papers, IX). 

January 24, 1742, Frangois Hennet, his father, petitioned for a grant of fifteen 
arpents from the hills to the Mississippi at Fort de Chartres in order to establish 



100 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

his children in a style befitting the offspring of one of the first habitants of the 
country. Benoist and Do la Loere granted him only ten. (Ibid., Private Papers, I. 
See entry, below, for Franqois Sanschagrin). 

Ruelle 

Gendron 

There were several men by that name in Illinois. Pierre Gendron was engaged 
to go to the Illinois on June 6, 1742, by Joseph le Due. {Rapport de L'Archiviste, 
1 929- 1 930, 422). 

Jean Baptistc was a habitant of St. Philippe in 1751. His wife was Cecile Riot, 
who died there February 22, 1762. 

si III 0)1 coiisot 

Husband of Marie Therese Dodier, daughter of Gabriel Dodier and Marie 
Franqoise Millet, who died in 1782, aged 25 (see entry, above, for Gabriel Dodier). 
Cousot died in St. Louis in 1789. (Houck, History of Missouri, II, 54). 

Joseph Baron 

One of the sons of Jean Baptiste Baron, who was baptized at Boucherville, 
Canada, in 1691, and his Indian wife, Alarie Catherine, baptized in 1703. Marie 
Catherine bore Jean Baptiste Baron three children before their marriage: Joseph; 
Susanne, who first married Jacques Barrois and then Joseph Clermont; and 
^Marguerite, born in 1739, married July I, 1754 to Charles Quesnel, died in June, 
1758. Jean Baptiste Baron married a second time, in the late summer of 1748, to 
Domitilla Rollet. 

The Joseph Baron of this census was probably the Joseph who was captain of 
the militia at Ste. Genevieve. On February 26, 1759, Andre Deguire dit La Rose 
married Joseph's widow. (Yealy, Ste. Geneznere, 31). 

Louis desnoye 

Louis Desnoyers, master carpenter and turner of Fort de Chartres. Son of 
Pierre Marcheteau dit Desnoyers and Alarie Marguerite Pilet, baptized at Alontreal, 
February 2, 171 1. His first wife was Frangoise Le Due, baptized April 28, 1714, the 
daughter of Joseph le Due and Genevieve Joly. They were married April 13, 1733. 
Their children were: 

1. Joseph, baptized at Alontreal, February 19, 1734. 

2. Louis, married November 7, 1766 to \'eronique Panisse at St. Louis, Alissouri. 

3. Veronique, married Louis Ride. 

4. !£]isabeth, born June 4, 1745, at Fort de Chartres. 

5. Alexandre, born February 15, 1748, at Fort de Chartres. (Registre de la 
Paroisse; Tanguay, V, 498). 

Louis was a brother of Joseph of Cahokia (see entry below). 

M. de Villier (Possibly Mine.) 

Francois Coulon, Sieur de Villiers, son of Nicolas Antoine Coulon, Sieur de 
Villiers, captain of the troops, and Angelique Jarret de Vercheres. On April 25, 
iy/4.0 17^0, at Fort de Chartres, he signed a marriage contract with filisabeth St. Ange, 
daughter of Robert Groston, Sieur de St. Ange, deceased, and Dame filisabeth Sorel 
de St. Romain. A daughter, Marie, was baptized November 24, 1743, by Father 
Gagnon at Fort de Chartres. 

Elisabeth, another daughter, was married to Pierre Frangois Lusignan, Sieur 
de Volsey, by April 13, 1758. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IX). In 1772, 
on the pretext of visiting her father in New Orleans, she went only as far as Ste. 
Genevieve, where for nearly a year she lived a dissolute life. Sieur Carpentier 
finally took her back to her husband at St. Louis, but it needed the combined 



APPENDIX lOI 

efforts of the governor and his wife, and Father Valentin to persuade De Volsey to 
take her back. 

In 1774 De Volsey had a furlough and returned to France for two years. 
During his absence Elisabeth lived with Kiercereau dit Renaud, and in 1776, shortly 
before De Volsey's return, the two of them ran off to Illinois together. (Billon, 
Annals, 435-436) . 

On January 27, 1781, Elisabeth, stating that De Volsey had mistreated her and 
would not allow her in his house, petitioned the Spanish authorities to force a 
separation of the marriage community and return her dowry. De Volsey consented 
in order that in no future time Elisabeth would have any claim on his estate. He 
offered her a negro, Frangois, aged 30, 2,000 pounds of deerskins, and 160 pesos in 
paper money. She agreed to this settlement. (La. Hist. Quart., XV, 1548). Accord- 
ing to Billon, De Volsey, heartbroken, took to drinking excessively; he died in 1795. 

A son, Jean Jacques, was also apparently one of the children of Frangois de 
Villiers. 

M. Benoy 

Benoist de Ste. Claire, chevalier of the Order of St. Louis, commandant ad 
interim at Illinois, 1740-1742, 1749-1750. He married Marie Bienvenu, daughter of 
Antoine Bienvenu and Frangoise Rabut, January 13, 1750, when he was 57 years old. 
(Registre de la Paroisse). He came to Louisiana as an ensign in 1717, became a 
heutenant in 1732, and a captain, 1737. (ANC C13A 25:87). In 1752 he was the 
oldest captain in the colony. 

At least one child, Jean Baptiste, was born of this marriage (La. Hist. Quart., 
VIII, 175)- After Benoist's death, which occurred sometime before December 20, 
1770, Alarie married Rene Harpain de la Gautrais, widower of Celeste Therese 
Nepveu. 

M. Bucket 

Joseph Buchet, chief clerk of the marine, ordonnafeiir. and judge at Illinois. In 
^733 he was garde magazin at Illinois, and in 1752 he had become ecriimn principal. 
or chief clerk. In 1759 he begged the governor to allow him to retire on account 
of his great age and infirmities. (ANC C13A 17:114''; 36:341-348; 14:315). 

In 1734 Ste. Therese Langloiserie granted him a tract of land supposedly at the 
lower end of the Prairie du Rocher common field. And on April 23, 1743, Buchet 
acknowledged himself to be the owner of land about nine arpents in front joining 
the land of Lasonde and the heirs of Du Tisne, with the lower line being the line 
of the common field of Prairie du Rocher. (American State Papers, Public Lands, 
II, map following p. 182). 

Buchet married Marie Frangoise Potier, who, according to the statement in the 
marriage contract of Toussaint Potier and Catherine Delessart drawn up October '^rc^.r^coi'Sc 
10, 1745, was Ep auguis e La Diise, widow uf Jean Baptiste Poller, Toussahit's fathfer. " g,,i,c ',5 c 
(Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, IV). They were the parents of: ' r 

1. Therese, who died at the age of 51/ years at Fort de Chartres October 26, J^^^' 

2. Joseph, born about 1740; died October 28, 1748. (Fort de Chartres Register, SiSte^ c 
Transcript, 10, 17, 53). ^ 

3. Alexandre, born October 21, 1744, at Fort de Chartres. ^M.cKe,lr 
After the publication of one ban, Buchet married Marie Louise Michel, daughter k'i b<ac4.i 

of Jacques Alichel, January 7, 1748. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

M. Chevalier 

Andre Chevalier, garde magazin at Illinois, serving at least as early as January 
20, 1750. He appears to have had several wives: Louise le Kintrut or le Kintic, 
who was his wife in January, 1750; Frangoise Dupon (?), who was his wife in 



I02 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

February, 1751 ; Genevieve Rivard, widow of Jean Baptiste Monbrun, who signed 
as his wife at a baptism in 1755. He was the father of: 

1. Jeanne, whose mother was Louise le Kintrut, and who married Jacques la 
Mothe at New Orleans in the fall of 1769. (La. Hist. Quart., VI, 151). 

2. A son, born January 18, 1750, at Fort de Chartres, with Joseph Buchet and 
Marie Bienvenu, wife of Bcnoist, his godparents at his baptism January 20. (Fort 
de Chartres Register, Transcript, 66). 

3. A daughter, mother's name not given, married Chevalier Barqueville. (La. 
Hist. Quart.. XXIV, 800). 

4. Elisabeth, daughter of Frangoise Dupon, born at Fort de Chartres February 
28, 1751. Her godparents were Louis Robineau de Portneuf and Elisabeth St. Ange. 
(Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 66). 

Chevalier may also have been the father of Pierre Chevalier, husband of Marie 
Rose de Lisle, whose name appears in later entries in the parish registers. 

Chevalier's house at Fort de Chartres was opposite the new fort on the road 
that led to the main gate and to the Mississippi; it was sold in April, 1759, after 
his death, to his successor. D'.-\imeville. Louis Chancellicr, surgeon-major, was the 
guardian of Chevalier's children. (Kaskaskia Mss., Pi:blic Papers, H, HI). 

Erine, sergent 

Charles Hervy, sergeant in the troops at Fort de Chartres. He was in the 
Illinois country as earh' as 1728, for in that year he was a witness to a marriage con- 
tract drawn there. His wife was Renee Drouin, daughter of Pierre Drouin and 
Perrine, a native of Brittany. Renee had been married to Jean Baptiste Houdet, 
and on May i, 1741, had entered into a marriage contract with Nicolas Pierrot dit 
Lasonde, sergeant of the troops at Fort de Chartres ; Charles Hervy was one of 
the witnesses for the groom. 

Hervy had died by December 21, 1759, for on that date his widow sold 
everything she owned in Nouvelle Chartres — a house, barn, four oxen, four 
cows, two arpents of land, a plow, cart, feather bed, etc., for 6,000 livres. (Kas- 
kaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, V, May i, 1741 ; IX, December 21, 1759). 

toussin Dardeine 

Toussaint Dardenne, son of Toussaint Dardenne and Marie Jeanne Mezeret of 
Montreal, baptized at Montreal January 2;^, 1717. (Tanguay, III, 241. An entry in 
the parish register of Fort de Chartres gives his mother's name as Marie Frangoise 
Mesere.) On November 21, 1747, Dardenne married Alarie Lever, widow of 
Michel Vien of Fort de Chartres. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 45). 

M. Duclos, officier 

Alexandre de Celle Duclos, officer of the troops at Fort de Chartres, son of 
Gabriel Duclos and Alarguerite St. Michel, native of the parish of St. Nicolas in 
the bishopric of Quebec. He entered into a marriage contract with Elisabeth 
Philippe, widow of Etienne Hebert and daughter of Michel Philippe and Marie 
Rouensa, November 21, 1735. His brother, Joseph, was a witness. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Private Papers, II). Elisabeth died January 2, 1747, at Fort de Chartres, aged 40 
years. Of their children, there is record of: 

1. Elisabeth, married Pierre Frederic Darensbourg, officer of the infantry in 
garrison at Fort de Chartres, son of Frederic Darensbourg, Swedish commandant 
at the post of Les Allemands, February 22, 1762. 

2. Marie Joseph, born December 7, 1744, died January 16, 1745. 

3. Pierre, born April 9, 1746, baptized the next day with Pierre de Chaufour 
de Louvier and Elisabeth Duclos (probably his sister) as sponsors. 

4. Antoine, married Marie Jeanne Fontaille Saucier, died b}' 17S6. (Fort de 
Chartres Register, Transcript; Registre de la Paroisse). ? 



APPENDIX 103 

M. Duclos had, in 1740, served six years at Illinois, was a cadet a I'eguHlette in 
the company of M. de Blanc, was 33 years of age and characterized by Bienville as 
"sagacious." He became an ensign en second December i, 1740; ensign en pied 
February i, 1754. (ANC C13A 25:93; D2C4). 

In 1745, Alexandre Duclos received the grant of an island in the ]\Iississippi 
opposite the fort. 

5"/. Loren, soldat 

Possibly Frangois Laheuf dit St. Laurent, whose land was announced for sale, 
January 12, 1755. (Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, III). 

Rene Pierre Cheval 

J. B. Martigny 

Jean Baptiste Martigny, son of Jacques Lemoine, Sieur de Martigny, and 
Angelique Juillet of Varcnnes. On September 6, 1745, at Fort de Chartres, he mar- 
ried Marie, daughter of Ignace Hebert and Helene Danis. Bans were dispensed with 
for "a good and legitimate reason." (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 24). 
Marie, according to Houck (Spanish Regime, II, 390n), was the widow of Hvacinthe 
St. Cyr. 

Twin daughters, Elisabeth and Helene, were born to the couple May 17, 1746. 
R. Baby and Helene Danis were godparents of Helene ; Germain dit Matis and 
Elisabeth Sorel were godparents of Elisabeth. Helene died the following day. (Fort 
de Chartres Register, Transcript, 32). 

According to one account, not altogether reliable, Martigny went to St. Louis 
with Chouteau, where he became wealthy and prominent ; he died in September, 1792. 

Dagnio 

Philippe Dagneau, syndic of the parish of Ste. Anne of Fort de Chartres in 
1748. His wife was Marie Joseph Picard. They were parents of: 

1. Marie Joseph, born and baptized May 5, 1745, at Fort de Chartres with 
Philippe Picard and Marie Joseph Langlois as godparents. She died October 6, 1748. 

2. Michel, born and baptized September 18, 1748. M. Michel Louvier and 
Helene Hebert were his sponsors. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 52, 54). 

Michel Louvierre 

Michel d' Amours de Louvier, cadet a I'eguiUette. In 1740 he had served four 
years at Illinois, was 28 years old, and reported by Bienville to be "very sagacious." 
(ANC C13A 25:93"). He married Marie Jeanne Boulogne in 1737. Those children 
whose births are recorded in the parish registers are: 

1. Marie Anne, born and baptized January 10, 1745. She died the following 
March 22. 

2. ^Marguerite, aged 5 (?), died October i, 1747. (Her parents are not given in 
the register, but I think she was probably the daughter of this couple.) 

3. Pierre, born and baptized October 23, 1748. 

IMichel Louvier had died by January 16, 1758, for in a document of that date 
Pierre de Chaufour de Louvier w^as acting as executor of his will and guardian 
of his minor children. (Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, III). 

Veiiz'e Hebert 

Helene Danis, widow of Ignace Hebert, captain of the militia at Fort de 
Chartres. Ignace Hebert was the son of Ignace Hebert and Jeanne Messier St. 
Michel, baptized at Varennes June 8, 1694. (Tanguay, IV, 476). On November 27, 
1728, he entered into a marriage contract with Helene Danis, widow of Alathurin 
Chaput, whom she had married January 14, 1724. Their children were: 

1. Ignace, bom in 1730, died by 1786. (Billon, Annals. 431). h-y\'7yo . vJ^do^^i. n.,v>e Koie. '^ 

2. Helene, born in 1732. (Ibid.). She became the third wife of Louis Turpin ^ 



I04 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

of Kaskaskia, March 21, 1751. On December 20, 1752, she made a marriage con- 
tract with Henri Carpentier, and he, in turn, married Marie Aubuchon, November 
8, 1757- 

3. Marie, married Jean Baptiste Martigny after the death of her husband, Hya- 
cinthc St. Cyr (see entry, above, for J. B. Martigny). 

4. Rene, died September 29, 1744, aged 8 years. 

5. Joseph, married Agnes Alichel Philippe, daughter of Jacques Michel Philippe 
and Marie Anne Boulogne. 

6. August. 

7. Francois, born in 1750; killed by Indians in 1780. (A son, his name not given, 
was born September 5 and baptized the next day at Fort de Chartres). 

Ignace Hebert apparently came to Illinois in the summer of 1725, for on May 
30 of that year one Hebert, a Canadian, received permission from the Superior 
Council of Louisiana to sell his house at New Orleans before he started for Illinois. 
(La. Hist. Quart., II, 331). 

\'euve Hebert moved to St. Louis in 1769 from Fort dc Chartres. (Houck, 
History of Missouri, II, 22n). 

Etienne Hebert, a brother of Ignace, was in Kaskaskia as early as July 14, 
1721, when he was godfather to fitiennc Lalandc, one of the twin sons of Jacques 
Lalande and Marie Tetio. Alarie Louise Coignon, widow of Frangois Chesne, was 
his wife in February, 1725. February 11, 1727, there was a marriage contract 
between Etienne Hebert and filisabeth Philippe, daughter of Michel Philippe 
and Marie Rouensa. (Kaskaskia ^Iss., Private Papers, VI). He had died by 
November 21, 1735, ^s on that day his widow entered into a marriage contract 
with M. Alexandre de Celle Duclos (see entrj' above). 

The Provincial Council of Illinois on May 2, 1724, granted to Hebert le 
jeune three arpents of land, 50 in depth, at Fort de Chartres, touching on one 
side the land of Jacques Catherine and on the other that of Bellegard (Kaskaskia 
AIss., Private Papers, II), and on January 30, 1725, the Council granted to "Etienne 
Hebert, captain of the militia" the land "which he holds" at Fort de Chartres to 
hold "en franc alleu" for services rendered to the Company'. {Ibid., Public 
Papers, I). 

Joachim Gerard 

Huissier of Illinois. He was the son of Sieur Gerard and Barbe Colanson of 
the parish of St. Eustache. He married Gilleta Bonte, widow of Gregoire Kiercereau 
(variously spelled) January 23, 1748. 

Angelique, ZTUZ'e 

philibot 

Charles Philibot, voyageiir, son of Charles Philibot and Marie Charlotte Bis- 
sonnet. (La. Hist. Quart., IX, 162. Tanguay, IV, 39, does not list a Charles among 
the children of this marriage). On February 8, 1747, he made a marriage contract 
with Marie Anne Boulogne, widow of Jacques Philippe, and daughter of Pierre 
Boulogne and Catherine Raget. The children of whom there is record are: 

1. Alexis, born January 28, baptized January 31, 1748. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

2. Therese, baptized January 14, 1750. (Ibid.). 

3. Marguerite, aged 18 in 1773, wife of Senor Sibilor (Spanish spelling. La. 
Hist. Quart., IX, 162). 

4. Jean, aged 14 in 1773. (Ibid.). 

5. Charles, aged 9 in 1773. (Ibid.). 

francois Larche 

Merchant, voyageur. The family of L'Archeveque et L'Arche was numerous in 
Canada; several were Illinois merchants — Augustin, Charles, Jean, Francois, 
Joseph, Louis, all sons of Jean I'Archeveque and Catherine Delaunay. 



APPENDIX 105 

This Francois seems to be the son of Jean and Angelique de Rainville. On 
February 9, 1750, he married EHsabeth Sorel, daughter of the late Antoine Sorel. 
(The parish register says Jean, son of Jean Frangois). 

December 30, 1752, a son, Frangois, was born to Francois Larche and EHsabeth 
Sorel. He died January 5, 1753. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 63). 

A daughter, Helene, date of birth unknown, but probably in 1750 or 1751, mar- 
ried Pierre La Croix June 25, 1767, at St. Louis, Missouri. (Tanguay, III, 165). 

However, a Frangois Larche of Illinois, whose wife was Julienne la Brosse and 
whose brother was Joseph Larche, is mentioned in the records of the Superior 
Council of Louisiana in February and March, 1740. {La. Hist. Quart., X, 262, 273). 

Andre de jar din 

Andre Thomas Desjardins, negociant of Fort de Chartres, son of Pierre Des- 
jardins and Madeleine Bonhomme (?), native of the parish of St. Nicolas in the 
diocese of Cambrai. He made a marriage contract with Alarie Joseph, daughter of 
Antoine Sorel dit Dauphine and Lucie Rolet of Fort de Chartres July 30, 1740. 
(Kaskaskia AIss., Private Papers, III). 

A daughter, Alarie Joseph, was born December 8, 1743, her godparents being 
Antoine Sorel and Helene Danis. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 13). 

St. Germin, soldat 

Thomas Alexandre St. Germin dit Laville (or, possibly de Laville dit St. 
Germin), soldier in the company of M. Benoist, son of Thomas Laville and Lenore 
Letellier of the parish of St. Sulpice, in the bishopric of Paris, married Marie 
Joseph Quebedcau, widow of Maturin Pineaux, and daughter of Joseph Quebedeau 
dit Lespagniol and Alarie Anne Antoine Beau (Alarianne?) ]^Iay 19, 1749. (Fort de 
Chartres Register, Transcript, 20, 55). Died 1764. 

Gil DCheniin, soldat 

Gilles (one document has it Gilbert) du Cheniin. His wife was Marie Jeanne 
Quebedeau, probably the daughter of Joseph Quebedeau and Marie Anne /(ntoine 
Beau. They were the parents of: 

1. Charles, baptized in January, 1751. 

2. Therese, born February 14, 1753, married Pierre Montardy, sergeant, of 
Montauban, France, at Fort de Chartres in 1765. (Fort de Chartres Register, Tran- 
script, 72>; Houck, Spanish Regime, I, i83n). Montardy, born in 1736, went with 
St. Ange to St. Louis, and was much esteemed; in 1787 he was captain of the 
militia. He died in 1809. {Am. Hist. Rev., January, 1914, XIX, 325n). 

fr. Sanchagrin 

Frangois Hennet dit Sanschagrin, master roofer of Fort de Chartres. He was 
the son of Frangois Hennet, Swiss, and Marianne Charpain (see entry, above, for 
Joseph Sanschagrin). The children of the elder Hennet included: 

1. Marie Madeleine, who entered into a marriage contract with Michel le 
Jeune dit Le Gaspare, a Swiss, April 23, 1740. Among their children were: 

a. Michel, born and baptized July 7, 1744. 

b. Joseph, baptized December 4, 1746. 

2. Frangois, married Marguerite Becquet, daughter of Jean Baptiste Becquet 
and Catherine Barreau, June 30, 1740. 

3. Joseph, married filisabeth Roy, daughter of Rene Roy, surgeon, and Agnes 
Philippe, January 11, 1752. 

4. Genevieve, made a marriage contract with Charles Cadron, son of Pierre 
Cadron, June 18, 1747. 

5. Jacques, made a marriage contract with Marie Francoise Eloy, Februarv 7, 
1757. {Abstracts, 61). 

6. ]\Iathurin. 



I06 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Marianne Charpain apparently died early in 1734, for on April 15 of that year 
there was an inventory made of her estate. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, II). 

Veuz'e Baquette 

Probably Catherine Barreau (variously spelled). There were two families of 
Becquets in Illinois. Jean Baptiste Becquet, locksmith, usually referred to in docu- 
ments as "Maitre Becquet," was the son of Jean Baptiste Nicolas Becquet, master 
locksmith of Paris, and Frangoise Masse (spelling?). The children of Maitre Jean 
and Catherine Barraux were: 

1. Marguerite, married Francois Hennet, le jeunc, June 30, 1740 (see entry, 
above, for Francois Sanschagrin). 

2. Frangoisc, who entered into a marriage contract with Charles Xeau, son of 
Frangois Neau and Therese Chartier January 8. 1736. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private 
Papers, II). He was dead by 1740. (Ibid., Commercial Papers, IV). 

3. Jean Baptiste, born at Fort de Chartres in 1725. He married Marie Fran- 
(^oise Dodier (see entry for Gabriel Dodier, above). They went to St. Louis in 
1765, where she died in 1785 and he in 1797. 

4. Marie, who, while still a minor, made a marriage contract with Francois 
Xavier Rollet, merchant of Illinois living at Cahokia, widower of Domitilla, and 
son of Jacques Rollet and the late Toinette Aubert, July 27, 1745. {Ibid., Private 
Papers, I\'). She apparently died shortly, for on June 14, 1747, he married Mari- 
anne Fouillard, widow of Jean Baptiste Girard. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

The other family of Becquets were descendents of Jean Becquet and Jeanne 
Claire Demonte (spelling ?), natives of a village on the Sambre in Cambrai. Their 
son, Jean Frangois, married, on May 4, 1728, Marie Anne Fafart. widow of Nicolas 
Cadrin, and daughter of Pierre Boisjoly Fafart, born in 1711 and baptized June 3, 
1714. (Ibid.). He had died by December 30, 1738, when she asked for the appoint- 
ment of a guardian for their minor children. (Kaskaskia Mss., Public Papers, I). 
She married Sieur Ducouadie after Becquet's death; she had died by ^March 3, 1741. 
(Ibid., Private Papers, I). The children of Jean Francois Becquet and Marie Anne 
Fafart were: 

1. Jean Baptiste, a miller, who on January 19, 1752, married Elisabeth Marche- 
teau des Noyers, daughter of Joseph Marcheteau and Madeleine Robert at Cahokia. 
They went to St. Louis in 1765. (Billon, Annals, 431). 

2. Louis. 

3. Pierre. (Registre de la Paroisse). 

Louis Metizier 

Louis Metivier, habitant. The first Metivier in the Illinois appears to have been 
Henri, baptized in 1693, died February 12, 1723, at Kaskaskia. (Registre de la 
Paroisse). His wife was Marguerite Clairjon (variously spelled) who on June 15, 
17-23, married Pierre la Chauvetat (also spelled variously) of La Rochelle. She 
died January 15, 1726. (Ibid.). Their children included: 

1. Henri, born and baptized May 5, 1720. 

2. A daughter, born September 7, 1721. 

Louis, who was very likely another son, had by April, 1737, married Marie 
Fafart, daughter of Jean Fafart and Marguerite Couquet. 

There are recorded the deaths of three children who might have been the sons 
of Louis: 

a. Nicolas, died October 20, 1748, aged 15 years. 

b. Philippe, died September, 1748. 

c. Louis, aged 9 years, died September 28, 1748. (Fort de Chartres Register, 
Transcript, 44, 54, 52). 

Marianne Aletivier, relationship not established, widow of Felix Quirigou, mar- 
ried Louis Marcheteau des Noyers, widower of Franqoise le Due, in St. Louis, 
July 2, 1772. (Tanguay, V, 498). 



APPENDIX 107 

One Metivier, who might have been Louis, was a master carpenter in Illinois in 
1731. (Kaskaskia AIss., Commercial Papers, II, August 23, 1731). \ 

Veuve Levremond 

She may have been the wife of Etienne Yevremon (so transcribed from the 
Fort de Chartres Parish Register), who died October 18, 1744, at St. Philippe, aged 
about 45 years. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 17). 

Jen Giiilliot 

This may have been Jean Gilgau dit Contois, soldier, son of Jean Gilgau and 
Catherine Bonnechant, and native of St. Pierre in the bishopric of Besancon, for 
his name is variously spelt. ^Jrlehims^f signe4 as Jean Guillegot. He married Jeanne 
Texier, widow of Antoine JoulJer^ se"rg'^ant of the company \of Grandpre, July 9, 
1746. He was the father of Louis, born January 2S, 1752. (Fort de Chartres 
Register, Transcript, 35, 65). ' 

Bonjeau (?), soldat /c hS; r,~w- L rSa^tf^ - fc S". 

Apparently Nicolas Beaugenoux (also spelled in a variety of ways). He was a 
soldier in the company of Mimbret and died in St. Louis in 1770. (Houck, Spanish 
Regime, II, 382n). 

His wife was Marie Anne Henrion, probably the daughter of Jean Henrion and 
Alarie Barbe Babstot. The register of Ste. Anne's records the birth of: 

1. Nicolas, in September, 1747; baptized in May, 1748. 

2. Marie Joseph, born and baptized January 4, 1750. Billon {Annals, 415-416) 
mistakingly gives the son, Nicolas, as having been born in Canada in 1741, then lists 
these other children: 

1. Charles. 

2. Marie Joseph, born in 1748 (incorrect), died, 1799. 

3. Helene, born, 1751. 

4. Therese. 

5. Agnes Frangoise. 

6. Elisabeth. 

pol Roussel, soldat 

Paul Desrousselle, habitant of St. Philippe, bought a poorly built house in Fort 
de Chartres from Jerome Matis for 200 livres, January 18, 1751. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Commercial Papers, VIII). 

A Francois Roussel, soldier in the company of Grandpre, son of Jean Frangois 
Roussel and Marie . . . , of the parish of Vesou in Franche-Comptee, married 
Catherine Barbe, widow of Nicolas Nokc (Noise' ?) of St. Philippe on May 20, 
1749. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 55). This might have been the same 

Damme veuve Labarre v 

Marie Anne Adhemar, daughter of Gaspard Adhemar, Sieur de Lantagnac, 
governor of Manton in Provence, and Jeanne de Truchi, baptized at Quebec June 
14, 1722. (Tanguay, II, 6). She married Augustin Antoine de la Barre, Seigneur 
du Jardin, son of Antoine and Marie Anne Capon of St. Germain-en-laye, at 
Quebec November 28, 1741. {Ibid., Ill, 283). 

The births of two sons, Louis, and one not named, are recorded in the parish 
register of Ste. Anne of Fort de Chartres: Louis on February 9, 1751, and his 
brother the next month, on March 29, 1751. (Similar odd records appear in 
Tanguay) . 

Labarre, lieutenant in the troops, commanded the post of the Missouri and 
was killed by a soldier of his garrison on February 24, 1751. The soldier was ex- 
ecuted for his crime on March 18. (ANC C13A 35:173). 

Macarty, commandant at Illinois, in a letter to Vaudreuil dated December 8, 



I08 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

1752, stated that Mmc. Labarrc had decided to go back to Canada since she had 
heard of Vaudrcuil's aiipointment as governor-general. Macarty intended to have 
her escorted by troops as far as Peoria, and would recommend her and her family' 
to the voyagcurs. He was writing Beaujeu at Mackinac to assist her all he could. 
She was to leave the following spring if her health permitted. (HAILO 413). 

Apparently the couple had another son whose birth is not recorded at Illinois, 
for in the army lists of January i, 1757, there is listed, as a cadet a I'egnillette, one 
Augustin Antoine Labarre. (ANC D2C5l). 

M. Chancellier 

Louis Chancellier, surgeon at Illinois at least from the spring of 1748, when 
he was living in Kaskaskia, to December 31, 1759, when he was surgeon-major at 
Illinois, drawing the pay of 1,000 livres a year. (Kaskaskia AIss., Commercial 
Papers, VII, March 30, 1748; ANC D2CS2:i26). 

On January 5, 1752, when he was living in Kaskaskia, he sold a house and 
some land in Fort de Chartres to Jean Baptiste Langevin, negociant, of Fort de 
Chartres, for 1,000 livres. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VIII). 

Lhermittc, soldat 

On July 26, 1760, there was a judicial sale of the property of one Remy Guertot 
dit L'hermitte, possibly the individual named here. 

ST. PHILIPPE 
Concession de M. Bucket 

Land owned by Buchet at St. Philippe (see entry, above, for him). 

Sr. Lacroix 

Frangois Lacroix, z-oyageur and merchant, whose wife was Barbe Montmeunier 

of Rouen, Normandy. (Tanguay, V, 72). On June 4, 1723, he received permission 

^^^o leave Quebec with his wife and five children to establish himself in Illinois. 

o flai^ 7"-^/ (Rapport de L'Archiznste, 1921-1922:203). Their children were: 

^ rr!^ -^ I. Marie Joseph, married first to Jean Baptiste Gouin dit Champagne, the con- 

//!?3 tract dated February 14, 173^. (Abstracts). Her second husband w^as Alexandre 

Langlois, whom she married at Cahokia, March i, 1756. (Tanguay, V, 72). 

2. Agnes. Her marriage contract with Louis Boisset, son of Louis Boisset and 
,,iy^fj^^ Angelique B?'1"'?'of Quebec, was dated February 14, 1726. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private 
/^ Papers, II). Their children were: Louis; Marie Louise, married Alichel Taillon ; 

Jeanette. Her second husband was Jean Chauvin, son of Jacques Chauvin and 
Marie Cochons (?). The contract was dated September 29, 1737. (Ibid.). 

3. Barbe, who was married to Henri Saucier, son of Jean Baptiste Saucier and 
Gabrielle Savary as early as 1733. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1733). 

There may have been another daughter, the wife of Jean Baptiste Alercier, for 
he was one of the witnesses for Agnes Lacroix at the time of the drawing of the 
contract between her and Jean Chauvin in 1737, and it is stated there that Mercier 
is her brother-in-law.- fc > «ai\f '. >< ^ Ttrpfer5"t>«?'r-^ ^'-^ '"> '-«•'- k'r<3i^^«r c.,- 5t«,^'ifVo<-*.<i< ^■r.^ 

It is possible that another daughter was married to Sebastien Gouin dit Cham- 
pagne of St. Philippe, but I am inclined to think that the documents speak of Jean 
Baptiste, the husband of Marie Joseph, occasionally as Sebastien. 

Marie Louise Lacroix, wife of Jean Baptiste Beauvais as early as 1733, and aged 
about 44 years in 1748, may have been another daughter. 

On Alarch 24, 1736, Francois Lacroix was granted five arpents of land above 
the common field at St. Philippe. (American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map 
of St. Philippe). 

Charle Cadron dit St. Pierre 

Son of Pierre Cadron and Madeleine Desrosiers, of the parish of St. Antoine 



APPENDIX 109 

in Canada; married Genevieve Hennet, June, 1747 (see entry, above, for PVangois 
Sanschagrin). 

Very likely Charles Cadron dit St. Pierre, captain of the militia at St. Philippe 
in 1762, was the same man. His wife then was Marie Jeanne Mercier. They seem to 
have had at least three children: 

1. Pierre Charles, born March 5, 1762. 

2. Alarie Jeanne, married Mathieu Saucier, a French officer. 

3. Marie Anne. 

According to testimony reported in American State Papers (Public Lands, II, 
138, 194), Charles Cadron had a grant of land of about 3,000 acres at St. Philippe, 
and a lot and twenty acres with a water mill on the road from Fort de Chartres 
to St. Philippe. 

On July 7, 1770, Charles Cadron transferred all real and personal property to 
Edward Coles for his debt of 200 pounds, 12 shillings. The previous April he and 
his wife, Alarie Jeanne Mercier, gave a mortgage on their property to Daniel Blouin 
for a debt of 8,549 livres. ~. 

Vivareinne 

Jean Baptiste Vivareinne, son of Pierre Vivareinne of Amiens in Picardy and 

Gabrielle Savary, born in 1719. He entered into a marriage contract with Marianne 

Claude Rondeau, daughter of Pierre la Sauvetot dit St. Pierre and Catherine Anne 

:?2 ^ Federolle, August '3, 1740. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, III). The births 

recorded in the register of Ste. Anne are: 

1. A daughter, born January 28, 1748, baptized the same daj'. 

2. Marie Frangoise, born February 16, baptized February 19, 1752. Her god- 
parents were Frangois Saucier, engineer, and Marie Joseph Lacroix, wife of Jean 
Baptiste Gouin. 

A Jean Baptiste Vivareinne signed the baptismal register February 4, 1752, as a 
cadet a I'egiiillette. I am not sure, but I suspect this is the same individual. 

Gabrielle Savary, his mother, was first married to Jean Baptiste Saucier (see 
footnote 15, p. 29). 

Lacroix Lenoir e 

I suspect, although I have no definite proof, that this is one of the members 
of the family of Hubert dit Lacroix who lived in Illinois, and may or may not 
have been related to the family of Frangois Lacroix. All I can do is list the names 
of those of whom there is some record: 

Antoine Dorval, merchant of Kaskaskia and Cahokia was married to Veronique 
Hubert Lacroix as early as June 11, 1732, when they acknowledged before a notary 
at Quebec their indebtedness to Antoine Salvaye, Sieur de Fremont, for the sum 
of 627 livres 19 sous for their trip to Cahokia. {Rapport de L'Archiviste, 1929-1930: 
293). It may be that Veronique was the Marie Frangoise Veronique listed in 
Tanguay, IV, 531, as the daughter of Louis Hubert and Marguerite Trottier. 

Daniel Hubert Lacroix, Illinois trader, apparently residing in New Orleans at 
least part of the time, was 38 years of age in 1752. {La. Hist. Quart., XXI, 889). 

Jean Baptiste Hubert Lacroix was the husband of Catherine Aubuchon, daugh- 
ter of Pierre Aubuchon. 

Marie Frangoise Hubert Lacroix was sponsor at a baptism at St. Philippe 
October 11, 1763. 

Pierre Hubert Lacroix lived at Fort de Chartres in 1759. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Public Papers, III, February 11, 1759). 

Alarie Therese Loisel was the wife of Hubert Lacroix of St. Philippe in Julv, 
1764. 

Nicola Blondin 

Nicolas Provot dit Blondin, son of Claude Provot and Alarianne of Boulogne. 
His first wife was Alarie Therese Kier ...(?) by whom he had children. 



no KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

On July 27, 1745, he married Marie Frangoise Quebedeau, daughter of Joseph 
Quebedcau and Marie Anne Antoine Beau. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 
23; Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, IV). So far I have found the records of only 
three children born of this marriage: 

1. Fran(;oise, bom November 20, 1747, baptized the next day. 

2. Louis, born and baptized February 21, 1763. 

3. Jean Baptiste, married Agnes Loisel in 1765. 

However, there were undoubtedly more children. The names of Joseph, and 
Madeleine Provot which appear in the baptismal register as sponsors in 1762 are 
probably the children of Nicolas. 

Nicolas Provot was in the Illinois as early as 1736, for on March 24 of that 
year he was granted three arpents of land at St. Philippe. (American State Papers, 
Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 192). 

Buteau 

Probably Charles Buteau. On Alarch 24, 1736, seven arpents frontage, extend- 
ing from the hills to the Mississippi at St. Philippe were granted to Pierre Buteau. 
{American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 192). 

Although I have no definite proof, I suspect that Charles Buteau, whose wife 
was Madeleine Gautier, was the son of the above Pierre, or his brother. They 
were the parents of: 

1. Alarie Louise, born April i, 1763, at St. Philippe. 

2. Pierre, who in 1786 married Angelique Lecompte, daughter of Jacques 
Lecompte and Marie Louise. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 80-81). 

Nicola Lois ell e 

Baptiste Loiselle 

Loisel was a common name in St. Philippe, but I find no record of a Nicolas. 

On Alay 2, 1724, two arpents above Fort de Chartres were granted to Toussaint 
Loisel. {American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 186). 

Toussaint was the son of Joseph Loisel and Jeanne Duchene (Tanguay has it 
Jeanne Langlois) of Pointe aux Trembles, Montreal. He was baptized there March 
17, 1690 (Tanguay, I, 396), and married in Kaskaskia January 11, 1724, to Cecile 
Brunet, daughter of Jean Brunct dit Bourbonnois, second lieutenant of the militia, 
and Elisabeth Deshayes. (Registre de la Paroisse). He was dead by October 11, 
1741, for on that date a guardian was elected for his minor children. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Commercial Papers, V). 

A son, Toussaint, was born in February, 1726, and died December 10, 1746, at 
Fort de Chartres. 

The relationship of the other Loisels whose names appear in the records is not 
clear. 

On March 24, 1736, one and one-half arpents stretching from the hills to the 
Mississippi at St. Philippe were granted to Jean Baptiste Loisel. {American State 
Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 192). This may be the Baptiste Loisel of the 
census. 

On the same day two arpents were granted to Antoine Loisel. {Ibid.). Antoine 
Loisel was godfather at a baptism at Fort de Chartres in January, 1726. 

Probably it was the same Antoine whose wife was Alarie Texier. They were 
parents of: 

1. Marie Barbe, born February 3, 1750. 

2. Antoine Loisel, when about 5 years old, died at St. Philippe January i, 1752. 

It is possible that all these men — Nicolas, Antoine, Jean Baptiste, and Tous- 
saint were brothers. Tanguay gives Jean Baptiste as the brother of Toussaint, and 
lists his wife as Marie Anne Baudry, married in 1719. (Tanguay, I, 396). 

Baptiste Champagne 

Jean Baptiste Gouin dit Champagne, blacksmith, son of Sebastien Gouin and 



APPENDIX III 

Louise de Rainville, baptized at Montreal February 26, 1706. (Tanguay, IV, 333). 
He married Alarie Joseph Lacroix, daughter of Frangois Lacroix and Barbe Mont- 
meunier of St. Philippe, February 14, 1730 (see entry, above, for Frangois Lacroix). 
He died sometime between 1751 and March i, 1756, when his widow married Alex- 
andre Langlois at Cahokia. (Tanguay, V, 72). 

Three arpents at St. Philippe were granted to Jean Baptiste Gouin on March 
24, 1736. (American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 192). 

Toussin Veaudrie 

Toussaint Vaudry. Possibly the son of Jacques Vaudry and Alarie Frangoise 
Joly, baptized at St. Frangois, lie Jesus, July 6, 1707. (Tanguay, VH, 430). 

The only basis for this assumption is that Toussaint was a brother of Pierre 
Vaudry, engaged to go to Illinois in 1742 (Rapport de L'Archiznste, 1929-1930:419), 
and Tanguay lists among the children of the above couple both a Toussaint and a 
Pierre. 

At any rate, Toussaint Vaudry was the godfather of Angelique Heneaux at 
her baptism March 23, 1746. 

His wife was Marianne Pre, daughter of Pierre Pre; she died at Fort de 
Chartres November i, 1727 (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, VI). 

On ^larch 28, 1760, \'audry bought from Daniel Blouin, negociant, three arpents 
at St. Philippe for 300 livres. (Ibid., Commercial Papers, IX). 

Metote 

Gabriel Metote, son of Jacques Metote and Madeleine Meseray, native of the 
parish of St. Nicolas in the bishopric of Quebec. (Kaskaskia AIss., Private Papers, 
II, January 15, 1735). Tanguay lists no Jacques Metote, but gives ^iladeleine Meseray 
as the wife of Abraham Aletote. There is no Gabriel given in any of the families. 
(Tanguay, VII, 12). 

On January 15, 1735, Gabriel Metote entered into a marriage contract with 
Marie Turpin, natural daughter of Jean Baptiste Turpin and Marie Jeanne, native 
of Alobile. They were parents of: 

1. Felix, born January i, 1748, baptized January 3. He died May 29 the same 
year. 

2. Marie Catherine, born and baptized May 31, 1751. (Fort de Chartres Register, 
Transcript, 47, 50, 68). 

On March 22, 1736, four arpents of land at St. Philippe were granted to Gabriel 
Metote. (American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 192). 

Joseph Metote of Fort de Chartres may have been a nephew of Gabriel. At any 
rate he was the son of Rene ^letote and Marie Lambert of Quebec. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Private Papers, IV, June, I745)- Tanguay, VII, 12, gives Rene as the son of 
Abraham Aletote and Madeleine Aleseraj'. 

Bellecoiir 

Joseph Bellecourt, voyageur and habitant. His wife was Alarie Mercier; there 
is record of the birth of a daughter, Marie Joseph, April 2, 1762, and a son, Joseph, 
June 28, 1764. 

A will of his, dated October 11, 1748, has bequests to Jean Baptiste Gouin dit 
Champagne and Louis Robert, his relatives. Apparently, then, his wife was the 
daughter of Jean Baptiste ^Mercier and Marie Aladeleine Baret, for one of their 
daughters, Madeleine, married Louis Robert. Their son, Jean Baptiste, was mar- 
ried to one of the daughters of Frangois Lacroix and Barbe Montmeunier, another 
daughter being the wife of Jean Baptiste Gouin dit Champagne. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Private Papers, V). Jean Baptiste Chauvin, named executor of the will, was an 
uncle of Madeleine Mercier. 

On July 19, 1751, Joseph Bellecourt bought from Joseph Desruisseaux eighteen 
arpents en face along the Mississippi in the Grand Prairie between the land of the 



112 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Dutisne heirs and that of the heirs of Pierre Chabot. (Ibid., Commercial Papers, 

yiii). 

An L. Belcour was huisser in Illinois in 1728. He may have been a relative. 

Baptist e deschant 

Michel Lejeunne 

Michel Lejeune dit Le Gaspare, Swiss, son of Claude Lejeune and Catherine. 
His wife was Marie Madeleine Hennet, daughter of another Swiss, Frangois Hennet 
dit Sanschagrin (see entry for him above), whom he married in April, 1740. 
(Abstracts). They had at least two children: 

1. Michel, baptized July 7, 1744. 

2. Joseph, baptized December 4, 1746. 

Marie Frangoise Lejeune, wife of Pie/re Perault and mother of a daughter 
born November 15, 1761, was probably another child of Michel Lejeune. Alichel 
Lejeune, the son, was godfather at the baptism. 

On June 26, 1744, Alichel Lejeune, artisan of Fort de Chartres, bought some 
land located in Prairie Chassin from Guillaume Mercier dit Toulouse and his wife, 
Marie Jeanne Alercier. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VI). 

Veuve Lafleuve 

Probably the widow of Claude Lafleuve of St. Philippe, who died there Feb- 
ruary 25, 1751, aged about 50 years. The register of Ste. Anne states that he was 
unable to confess because he was deaf and dumb. 

On June 9, 1736, he was engaged by St. Joseph Philipaux to go to Illinois. 
{Rapport de L'Archiviste, 1929-1930:336). 

^tienne LaLande 

The son of Jacques Guillemot dit Lalande, captain of the militia, and Marie 
Tetio. Born and baptized July 14, 1721, at Kaskaskia, he had a twin brother, 
Gabriel, who died sometime between January, 1739, and January, 1740. The twins' 
godparents were Etienne Hebert, Gabriel Bertrand Cardinal, Agnes Philippe, and 
Madeleine Quesnel. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, III; Rcgistre de la Paroisse). 

The children of Jacques Lalande and Marie Tetio were: 

1. Jacques, baptized February 10, 1715, at Kaskaskia. 

2. filizabeth, baptized November 20, 1717. 

3. Marie Charles, baptized November 20, 1717; married Pierre Aubuchon ; 
buried February 8, 1765. 

4. and 5. Gabriel and fitienne, born and baptized July 14, 1721. ^fitienne on June 
I, 1744, married Jeanne Perthius, native of Detroit, the daughter of Pierre Perthius 
and Catherine Malet. 

6. Jean Baptiste, born in 1722, died April 27, 1724. 

Jacques Lalande, the elder, died about January 18, 1739, for on that date his 
wife was elected guardian of their children, Jacques, Gabriel, and fitienne ; Charles 
Pepin, their cousin because of his wife, was elected their subroge tutor. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Private Papers, III). 

There was another family of Lalandcs in Illinois at the same time, that of Jean 
Baptiste Guillemot dit Lalande, son of Jacques Frangois Guillemot and Madeleine 
Dupont, baptized at Montreal July 18, 1694. (Tanguay, V, 417). He married 
Catherine Ouabanakicoue, an Indian, the widow of Louis Texier, marguiller of 
Kaskaskia, who died at Natchez, June 3, 1721. 

A son. Marc Antoine, was born October 7, 1723, and baptized October 20, with 
Marc Antoine de la Loere des Ursins, director of the Company, and Marguerite, an 
Indian, as his godparents. 

On February 20, 1734, Jean Baptiste married Charlotte Marchand at Montreal. 
They were the parents of: 

I. Charles, baptized June 6, 1735. 



APPENDIX 113 

2. Charlotte, married Jacques Lacourse, widower of Jeanne Bienvenu, February 

3. 1749- 

3. Louis, born February 25, 1744. 

4. Elisabeth, married Charles Bienvenu dit Delisle, June 2, 1760. (Registre de la 
Paroisse) . 

On May 12, 1724, one-half league on the Grand Prairie stretching from the 
hills to the Mississippi was granted by the Company to Jean Baptiste Lalande. 
{American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 182). 

I have no actual proof, but I strongly suspect that Jacques and Jean Baptiste 
were brothers. Tanguay (I, 291) gives a Jacques, baptized July 20, 1690, at ]\Iontreal 
as one of the children of Jacques Frangois Lalande and Madeleine Dupont. 

PRAIRIE DU ROCHER 
Sajtr egret 

Probably Ambroise Moreau dit Sansregret. He was granted two and one-half 
arpents en face at Prairie du Rocher May 2, 1737, adjoining the lands of Rene Grude 
and Frangois Corset. (American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map of Prairie 
du Rocher). 

His wife was Jeanne Paule. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II, April 
21, 1733). 

Frangois de Chofour Lonzner 

No doubt a relative of Michel Louvier and Pierre Louvier, but I have so far 
found no record of a Frangois in the Illinois (see entry for Alichel Louvier, above). 

Aitgtistin Langloy 

Augustin Langlois, merchant, one of the chief habitants of Prairie du Rocher. 
He was probably the Augustin listed by Tanguay (I, 346) who was the eighth of 
the twelve children of Germain Langlois and Jeanne Chalifour of Quebec, baptized 
at Charlesbourg February 6, 1692. 

He and his two brothers, Etienne, baptized at Charlesbourg June 2, 1686, and 
Louis, baptized at Quebec, August 28, 1698, were settled on Bienville's concession 
near New Orleans in 1728. Augustin held six arpents there, Etienne seven, and Louis 
ten. (La. Hist. Quart., X, 9). 

Just when Augustin came to Illinois is not certain, but on August 10, 1737, at 
New Orleans the following document, dated August 7, 1737, was recorded by Louis 
Langlois: 

"Ste. Therese de I'Angloiserie gives to Augustin I'Anglois my domain of Rock 
Prairie [Prairie of the Rock] and I exact nothing from the [other] settlers on the 
same Prairie; they are all lords and masters." (Ibid., V, 408). 

According to American State Papers (Public Lands, II, map of Prairie du 
Rocher), in July, 1737, seven arpents were "surveyed" near Prairie du Rocher for 
Augustin Langlois. M_j,_^ 

His wife was Louise Beaudreau or Beaudron. They were the parents of: 
^^i. A son, aged i year, died in 1744. 

27Louise, born in New Orleans, married first Simon Gautier, February 10, 1741, 
and then, while still a minor, Joseph Liberville dit Joyeuse of La Chine, June 14, 
1745. He in turn married on May 23, 1758, Aladeleine Monique Boudrand, widow 
of Richard. 

3. Marie Joseph who made a marriage contract with Frangois Marie Gilbert 
dit Sanspeur April 27, 1749. 

4. Antoine, born January, 1750. 

Louis Langlois, brother of Augustin, was also an Illinois merchant, but he 
ordinarily lived at New Orleans. His wife was Marie Louise Girardy, later the 
wife of Charles Tarascon. Louis died about 1750. (La. Hist. Quart., XXII, 1177, 
1185). 



114 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Etienne Langlois was likewise a merchant in Illinois and lieutenant of the 
militia. He had died by 1737. His wife was Marie Catherine Beaudreau (probably 
the sister of Louise, above), who bore him the following children: 

1. Perrine, married Michel Forestier. 

2. Frangois. 

3. Louis. 

4. Augustin. 

5. Gerard, married Marie Anne Dubois. 

6. Marie Joachim, born in New Orleans, married Louis de Populus, ensign at 

Fort de Chartres, in August, 1740. \-^^.6a. i-'^t-a-^ /C- u2. 

7. Antoinette, married Pierre Boucher Monbrun de la Seaudrais.-'^ '^■^3 </W*i^ ca~0<»*^ jj^ 

8. Marie, married Pierre Messager. (La. Hist. Quart., XIX, 1080, 1084; 
XXI, 292). /" c^,-U-.U ^^.(i-tc^-^ : Uf ■ ..;•■- 

Their mother married Urbain Gervais, and died in New Orleans in December, 
1747, leaving "six or seven" children Cnpi-inrrntl]' h\ — hrr — ulalliag^^ to . Gcrvaia). 
(/6tU, XIX, 755). /* '^ J / /rl'^ - --• ^ * 

Louii Despagne * 

Louis Levasseur dlt Louis Despagne, living in Fort de Chartres in 1737. (Kas- 
kaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, II, February 5, 1737). 

Bastien et J. B. Morin 

Frangois Bastien and Jean Baptiste Morin. 

Jean Baptiste was the husband of Bastien's daughter, Marie, and father of 
two children, Alarie and Baptiste Alorin. 

Frangois Bastien may have been a Swiss. There are documents which speak of 
a Frangois Sebastien dit Frangois le Suisse of Fort de Chartres, who might pos- 
sibly have been the Frangois Bastien of the census. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial 
Papers, V). In July, 1737, he was granted four arpents of land at Prairie du 
Rocher. {American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 182). 

His wife, in 1737, was Frangoise. He was the father of: 

1. Marie, who married Jean Baptiste Morin, died by 1763. 

2. A son, who was buried October 30, 1743, at eighteen months. 

Bastien died on, or just before, June 10, 1763, for on that date an inventory 
was made of his estate which amounted in value to 38,165 livres 6 sous. Among 
other things, he owned a house at Prairie du Rocher, a mill, three negroes, an 
Indian female slave and her daughter, a mulatto and her daughter, three arpents 
of land at Du Rocher, two arpents elsewhere, and one arpent at La Prairie. (Kas- 
kaskia AIss., Private Papers, V). 

Veuve Legras 

It is difficult to say just to whom this entry refers, for there were in the Illinois 
country three brothers Legras and a fourth man of the same name who may have 
been another brother or a son of one of them. 

Jean Baptiste Legras, interpreter and merchant of Montreal, was their father. 
By his first wife, Marie Genevieve Maillet, he had seven children, among them a son, 
Daniel, baptized at Montreal February 16, 1698. (Tanguay, V, 300). Daniel married 
Susanne Kerami, an Indian, widow of Antoine Beausseron dit Leonard, at Kas- 
kaskia June 7, 1728. (Regisire de la Paroisse). She died October 28, 1747. (Kas- 
kaskia ;Mss., Private Papers, V). Daniel died about January 14, 1748. (Ibid.). 

By his second wife, Marie Philippe, Jean Baptiste had four children, two of 
them sons: Jean Baptiste and Charles Dominique, who went to the Illinois country 
also. Jean Baptiste, le jenne, was baptized April 8, 1705, and married Genevieve 
Gamelin January 11, 1733. Charles was baptized August 4, 1709, at Montreal and 
was killed on the Ohio in the latter part of 1741. A sale of his goods was made 
at Kaskaskia December 5, 1741. (Ibid., Private Papers, IV). 



APPENDIX 115 

The fourth Legras in Illinois was Jean Ignace, of Prairie du Rocher, who had 
died by January 21, 1740. {Ibid., Private Papers, III). His wife was Jeanne 
Germain who married, after Legras' death, Jean Chabot, her third husband. He 
had died by 1749. A daughter of Jean Ignace and Jeanne, whose name was also 
Jeanne, married Jean Baptiste Barbeau October 29, 1748. (Fort de Chartres 
Register, Transcript, 54). 

It is possible, of course, that the Veuve Legras of the census was Jeanne 
Germain, but I think it improbable that she would have been called "The Widow 
Legras" rather than the "Widow Chabot." 

There are two other Legras' unaccounted for. A Michel Legras was a witness 
at Fort de Chartres, January 11, 1752 (ibid.), and a Legras who was a hunter for 
the Compan}^ of the Indies died without heirs at Kaskaskia in October, 1724. (Kas- 
kaskia AIss., Commercial Papers, I). 

According to the map of Prairie du Rocher in American State Papers, Public 
Lands, II, on July 9, 1737, one arpent at Du Rocher was "surveyed" for Ignace 
Legras ; the previous day six arpents there were "surveyed" for Legras dit 
.A^. "•. ^Gtoce Jean. ' 

Barbo Lejeune 

Barbo I'aime 

Barbeau the younger and Barbeau the elder. The relationship of the various 
Barbeau men is rather confused. 

Jean Baptiste Barbeau, son of Jean Baptiste Barbeau and Silvie Le Aloine (or 
Marne), married Catherine Alarie, daughter of Henri Alarie and Jeanne, August '2, 
1746. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 36). I have a record of one son, 
Joseph, born January 29, 1750, baptized at Ste. Anne's the following day; his 
godfather was Baptiste Barbeau, and his godmother, Marie Crude. (Ibid., 61). 

Then the same register has an entry for October 29, 1748, in which it is stated 
that Jean Baptiste Barbeau, son of the late Baptiste Barbeau and . . . , living then 
in New Orleans, married Jeanne, daughter of the late Jean Ignace Legras and 
Jeanne Germain. Which one of these Jean Baptistes is the elder and which the 
younger, I do not know. 

Jean Baptiste Barbeau, the elder, was a master carpenter and joiner. There 
are several records among the Kaskaskia Manuscripts of land sales to him in the 
1740's and 1750's. 

habitation de lasonde 

(See entry, above, for Pierre Pilet dit Lasonde). 

habitation de Bienvenu 

Land belonging to Antoine Bienvenu of Kaskaskia (see above). On May 2, 
'^737, four arpents front from the hills to the Mississippi at Prairie du Rocher was 
granted to Antoine Bienvenu and a second grant of one arpent front there was 
made July 9, 1737. (American State Papers, Public Lands, II, map opposite p. 182). 

Pol Biset 

Veuve Gossio 

Marie Rose Gonneau, widow of Charles Gossiaux, master mason, who died 
February 8, 1751, aged about 52 years. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 66). 
She had previously been the wife of Pierre Claude Marechal, by whom she had a 
son, Pierre Claude. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VI, January 30, 1743). 

Charles Gossiaux was the son of Philippe Gossiaux of the diocese of Cambrais ; 
on September 13, 1723, at Kaskaskia he married Jeanne Bienvenu, daughter of 
PhiHppe Bienvenu and Franqoise Alarie, native of the parish of Pleines in the 
diocese of Cannes. (Registre de la Paroisse). She had died by September 12, 1729, 



Il6 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

when an assembly of relatives and friends was held to elect guardians for her 
minor children. There were two at least: 

1. Jacques. 

2. Jeanne, who married Guillaume Mercier dit Toulouse, and who died De- 
cember 21, 1746. 

By his second wife, Marie Gonneau, he was the father of: 
I. Marie, who married Jean Gilbert, son of Simon Gilbert and Margaret 
Lepage, May 3, 1746. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 31). 

Gilbert sanpeur 

Probably Antoine Gilbert dit Sanspeur, husband of Dorothee Mercier, the 
widow of Nicolas Thuillier Devegnais and of Pierre Chabot, whom he married at 
Kaskaskia, July 13, 1756. {Registre de la Paroisse). 

February 4, 1746, the partnership between Gilbert Sanspeur, voyageur, and 
Pierre Galand, voyageur, was dissolved. 

CAHOKIA 
M. Mercier, Pretre 

Jean Baptiste Alercier, priest of the Seminary of Foreign Missions, Superior of 
the Cahokia Mission. 

Le sietir Mersie 

Doubtless Frangois Alercier, whose wife was Catherine Lafontaine (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Private Papers, V, January 11, 1749). Tanguay gives Frangois as the son of 
Jean Frangois Alercier, and his wife as Ursule la Fortune, whom he married about 
1718. They were the parents of a daughter who was born in September, 1727, at 
Quebec, and who died there the following month. Ursule died at Cahokia March 
II. 1755- (Tanguay, V, 606). It is quite possible that Catherine Lafontaine and 
Ursule La Fortune are the same individual. 

The family of Merciers was a big one in Illinois and the relationships are 
considerably involved. Just what relation Frangois IMercier of Cahokia was to 
Jean Baptiste Mercier of Kaskaskia (see entry, above, for him) I do not know, 
but it is quite likely that they were related. 

Frangois Mercier of Cahokia was a blacksmith. 

Martin 

Jacques Martin, native of the diocese of Tarentaise in Savoy. His wife was 
Catherine Noizet-Labbe; their children were: 

1. Marie, baptized September 12, 1748, at Cahokia. 

2. Jacques, baptized January 11, 1751. 

3. Gabriel, baptized February 14, 1753. (Tanguay, V, 542). 

On June 26, 1747, he bought some land in Cahokia prairie from Frangois 
Mercier. (Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, VIII). 

Rotiseur 

An Antoine Rotisseur was a voyageur, and on September 23, 1737, was hired 
by Alphonse Moreau, another voyageur, to accompany him to Missouri to trade 
with the Indians. Moreau agreed to furnish his engage with moccasins and pay him 
250 livres in beavers or other peltries upon their return to Kaskaskia. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Commercial Papers, III). 

Louis geau 

His name is spelled variously. On Father Mercier's map of Cahokia his name 
is spelled Louis Gault. He was a habitant of the village. 



APPENDIX 117 

Capticin 

Jean Augustin Perrin dit Capucin, in 1740 a habitant of Fort de Chartres. 
(Kaskaskia Mss., Commercial Papers, IV, September 4, 1740). 

He was the godfather and subroge tutor of Marie Therese Pancrasse of 
Cahokia. (Ibid., Private Papers, IV). 

Baroy 

Jacques Barrois, one of the nine children of Jean Baptiste Barrois, royal notary 
of Illinois, and Madeleine Cardinal. Those children were: 

1. Joseph, baptized at Detroit, 1722. 

2. Bonaventure, baptized at Detroit, 1724; he was a prisoner of the English in 
1760 at the time of the division of his father's estate. 

3. Louis, baptized July 14, 1732. 

4. Marianne, born in Montreal, married April 27, 1745, to Pierre la Feme, 
surgeon at Illinois. 

5. Jacques, October 12, 1747, married Susanne Baron, aged 17. Jacques must 
have died shortly after the census was taken, for on January 7, 1754, his widow 
married Joseph Clermont. (Tanguay, II, 131). 

6. Celeste Therese, married in 1757 to Frangois Le Fevre du Chouquet. 

7. Madeleine, whose first husband was Louis Marin, whom she married in 
1739; he had died by 1759. Her second husband was Louis Robineau de Portneuf, 
the widower of Marie Therese Trudeau. 

8. Frangois, still a minor in 1760. 

9. Catherine, whose first husband was Jean Baptiste Becquet. Her second 
husband was Joseph du Plassy (or Place). 

Veuve Lajoy 

Probably Marie Therese Pancrasse, daughter of Pancrasse of Strasbourg and 
Marie Henne, both of whom were dead by 1746. She married Joseph Brault dit 
Pominville October 9, 1743, at Cahokia. He was killed by the Sioux May 19, 1745. 
(Tanguay, II, 454). On January 10, 1746, at Cahokia she married Bernard Bouillon 
dit Lajoy, son of Valentin Bouillon and Marie Frangoise Richer of the diocese of 
Soissons. They were parents of: 

I. Marie Therese, baptized November 24, 1746, at Cahokia. 

Veuve Lajoy married for the third time February 15, 1752, at Cahokia to Jean 
Roy dit Lapense. (Tanguay, VII, 71). They were the parents of: 

1. Jean Pierre, baptized April 2, 1753. 

2. Marie Therese, baptized April 30, 1755. 

3. Joseph, baptized February 19, 1757. 

4. Alexis, baptized November 10, 1758. 

5. Frangois Ange, baptized October 2, 1760. (Ibid.). 

Lafleur 

Paul Poupart dit Lafleur, son of Jean Poupart and Marianne Eugene. He 
entered into a marriage contract at Cahokia January 11, 1749, with Frangoise, 
daughter of the late Pierre Santorum and the late Genevieve Billard. (Kaskaskia 
Mss., Private Papers, V). 

Lapense 

Jean Roy dit Lapense, son of Frangois Roy and Catherine Plumereau, baptized 
at La Chine March 31, 1708. He was married first at Montreal April 24, 1741, to 
Marguerite Boyer, daughter of Antoine Boyer and Louise Payet dit St. Amour, 
who was baptized August 16, 171 1, at Montreal and died there January 14, 1748. 
Their children were: 

1. Jean Baptiste, baptized at Montreal March 19, died July 13, 1742. 

2. Pierre, baptized May 26, 1743. 



Il8 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

3. Ignace, baptized December 31, 1747, married February 18, 1770, to Marie 
Joseph de Rainville at St. Constant. (Tanguay, VII, 82-83). 

He married a second time, February 15, 1752, at Cahokia to Marie Therese 
Pancrasse, widow of Bernard Bouillon dit Lajoy (see entry, above, for Veuve 
Lajoy). 

Laznolette 

Pierre Dumont dit Laviolette, voyageur, ncgociant, son of Franqois Dumont 
and Jeanne Dumas. He was born April 22, 1704, at Bout de I'lsle, Montreal. On 
September 5, 1747, at Kaskaskia he made a marriage contract with Agnes Marthe 
Clement, native of Flanders, and widow of Augustin St. Yves. She was born in 
1711 and died at Cahokia December 21, 1751. They were the parents of: 

I. Marie Joseph, baptized at Cahokia September 24, 1751 ; died there January 
16, 1752. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, V; Tanguay, III, 535, 537). 

des Noye 

Joseph Marchcteau des Noyers, merchant and voyageur, one of the fifteen 
children of Pierre Marchcteau and Marie Marguerite Pilet, baptized at Montreal 
October 6, 1699. His first wife was Aladeleine Robert, born in 171 1, whom he mar- 
ried at Detroit February i, 1728, and who died at Montreal November 21, 1730. 
They had two children: 

1. Joseph, baptized at Detroit December 2, 1728; died there December 22, 1729. 

2. Jeanne, baptized at Detroit March 20, 1730, married January 7, 1747, at 
Cahokia to Charles Routier. 

Joseph's second wife was Elisabeth Leduc, whom he married at Montreal February 
9, ^733- They were the parents of: 

1. filisabeth, baptized at Alontreal September 6, 1734; married at Cahokia January 
19, 1752, to Jean Baptiste Becquet. 

2. Antoine, baptized at Montreal April 5, died April 15, 1736. 

3. Marie Joseph, married at Cahokia January 12, 1759, to Toussaint Cellier, died 
there July 19, 1759. 

4. Joseph, baptized June 18, 1744, at Bout de I'lsle, Montreal. 

The elder Joseph IMarcheteau was the brother of Louis Marchcteau des Noyers 
of Fort de Chartres (see his entry, above). 

Routier 

Charles Amador Routier, mason, son of Jean Baptiste Routier and his second 
wife, Marie Barbe Moisan, baptized at Ste. Foye January 22, 1710, married January 
7, 1747, at Cahokia to Jeanne, daughter of Joseph Alarcheteau des Noyers and 
Madeleine Robert (see above). Their children included: 

1. Charles, baptized at Cahokia, November 5, 1747. 

2. Genevieve, baptized at Cahokia April 6. 1749, married Louis Bissonnet at St. 
Louis, April 30, 1771. 

Charles Routier, the elder, died in 1777. (Billon, Annals, 427). 

Locat 

Pierre Locat, husband of Marie Chevalier, father of Rene, who married Marie 
Aubuchon in 1776. 

Alarechal 

Nicolas Marechal, son of Jean Marechal and Dame Mcunicr, native of the 
bishopric of \'erdun. On August 20, 1735, he made a marriage contract with Marie 
Jeanne Illeret, daughter of Claude Illeret and Marie Martin, native of Fort de 
Chartres. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, II). 

They were the parents of nine children: 

I. Marie Joseph, baptized September 28, 1745, at Cahokia. 



APPENDIX 119 

2. Marie Catherine, baptized October 19, 1747, married September 6, 1767, to 
Frangois Moreau at St. Louis. 

3. Jean Baptiste, baptized August 29, 1749. 

4. Francois, baptized March 31, 1751, married in 1775 to ^farie Therese Riviere. 

5. ^larie Susanne, baptized July 23, 1753, died August 20, 1754. 

6. Jacques, married in 17S4 to Genevieve Cardinal. 

7. Antoine, baptized in 1754, married at St. Louis to Catherine Tabeau, January 

7, -^m- 

8. Joseph, baptized October 13, 1755. 

9. Marie filisabeth, baptized November l, 1757, first married January 19, 1774, 
to Antoine Martin at St. Louis, then February 20, 1791, to Jean Baptiste Primeau 
at St. Louis. (Tanguay, V, 507). 

Peliie 

Probably Peltier (see entry, above, for Antoine Peltier d\t Antaya). 

Plac'xt 

Probably Place. 

Dorion 

Joseph Dorion, one of the fourteen children of Pierre Dorion and Genevieve 
Chapeau of Quebec, baptized there April 5, 1717. (Tanguay, lU, 432). On August 
10, 1749, at Cahokia he entered into a marriage contract with Marie Anne Padoka, 
widow of Louis Richard. 

Alarie 

See the entry, above, for Francois Alarie. Very likely this Alarie belongs to 
the same family. 

St. Jean 

Jean Andreau dit St. Jean, son of Jean Andreau and Marie Bobin, entered into 
a marriage contract with Alarie Louise at Cahokia, July 5, 1749. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Private Papers, V). According to the unreliable Abstracts, Alarie Louise was the 
widow of Charles Erhy of Quebec. 

STE. GENEVIEVE 
Larose 

Andre Deguire, son of Andre Deguire dit Larose and Elisabeth Bourbonnois. 
Captain of the militia at Ste. Genevieve. On August 24, 1756, he married Marguerite 
Gouvereau, daughter of Etienne Gouvereau and Marie Millet. February 26, 1759, he 
married the widow of Joseph Baron. 

Jean Baptiste Deguire dit Larose, master tailor of Kaskaskia, may have been 
a brother of Andre, le jeune. 

Antoine Ohichon 

Antoine Aubuchon, son of Joseph Aubuchon and Elisabeth Cusson, baptized in 
Montreal November 13, 1703. (Tanguay, II, 69). Brother of Joseph, Jean Baptiste, 
and Pierre, all habitants of Kaskaskia. 

His wife was Elisabeth, daughter of Joseph Delaunais and Elisabeth Bourbon- 
nois. (See entry, above, for Larose. The mother of his wife was the mother of 
Andre Deguire by her second husband.) 

They were parents of: 

1. Antoine, married Marie Veronneau, daughter of Jean Baptiste Veronneau 
and Marthe Duplessis, in Ste. Genevieve in 1766. 

2. Elisabeth, married Dominique, son of Jean Baptiste la Source and Frangoise 
Rivard July i, 1755. 



I20 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Diiboy et Truto 

A Rene Dubois witnessed a bill of sale at Kaskaskia October 31, 1747, and a 
Louis Truto was a witness there September 26 of the same year. (Kaskaskia Mss., 
Commercial Papers, VII). 

Whether these are the Dubois' and Trutos of the census I do not know. On 
July 15, 1758, one Dubois, habitant of Ste. Genevieve, sold a house and the land 
around it with the small buildings on it to Jacques Lacourse of Kaskaskia. He him- 
self had bought the land from Pierre Billeron ; the buildings were his own work. 
(Ibid., Commercial Papers, IX). 

I would guess that "Truto" should have been spelled "Trudeau" and that the 
person here referred to was a brother of Dame Marie Therese Trudeau, wife of the 
commandant of the Illinois, Alphonse la Buissonniere ; after his death on Decem- 
ber II, 1740, she married Louis Robineau de Portneuf, officer at Illinois. At least 
two of her brothers, sons of Frangois Trudeau of Xew Orleans, lived in Illinois. 

Ledoux 

Otoiiie Eneo 

Antoine Heneaux, son of Toussaint Heneaux and Antoinette Potier. He was a 
resident of Fort de Chartres when his wife, Cecile Bourbonnois, daughter of Jean 
Brunet dit Bourbonnois and Elisabeth Deshayes, died there December 23, 1743, aged 
about 22 years. (Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript, 13). 

In June, 1745, he married Charlotte Chassin at Fort de Chartres. She was prob- 
ably the daughter of Agnes Philippe and Nicolas Michel Chassin, clerk of the 
Company. 

They were the parents of: 

1. Angelique, born ]\Iarch 23, 1746. 

2. Toussaint, born August 28, 1748. 

His third wife was Michele Place (or Duplassy), whom he married in June, 
1754. (Abstracts). 

Jaque Chouquet 

Jacques Lefevre du Chouquet, son of Louis Lefebvre, merchant of Alontreal, 
and Angelique Perthius, baptized at Montreal March 17, 1708. (Tanguay, \', 266- 
267). On January 19, 1739, he made a marriage contract with Marie Tetio, widow of 
Jacques Lalande, at Kaskaskia. (Kaskaskia Mss., Private Papers, III). 

/. B. Beauvay 

Jean Baptiste Beauvais, probably the son of Jean Baptiste Ste. Gemme Beauvais 
and Marie Louise Lacroix of Kaskaskia, or possiblv the elder Beauvais himself. o/ac- ^f 'Sr^ /7 

AC «*ci0^wfeX 
Bon dit Simonfold ^,2.Z^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
I. UNPUBLISHED SOURCES 

Abstracts of Kaskaskia Marriage Contracts from 1720 to 1778. Carbon copy of an 
alphabetical index transcribed and abstracted by Mrs. Nettie H. Beauregard 
for the Missouri Historical Society. It ought to be of considerable value for 
tracing family relationships, but, unfortunately, it is full of errors, and can not 
be relied upon. Dates are frequently wrong, and individuals of the same name 
are usually confused. (Cited as Abstracts) . 

Archives du Service Hydrographic. Photostats in the Illinois Historical Survey. 
(Cited as ASH.) 

Archives Nationales, Colonies, chiefly series C13A and B. Photostats in the Illinois 

Historical Survey. (Cited as ANC). 
Church Records of Ste. Anne of Fort Chartres. Copy by J. C. Burke, S.J., from 

the originals in the diocesan chancery, Belleville, 111. St. Louis University, St. 

Louis, AIo. (Cited as "Fort de Chartres Register, Transcript"). 
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HiLGAARD, E., "Botanical Features of the Illinois Prairies," typed manuscript in the 
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Kaskaskia Alanuscripts, circuit clerk's office, Randolph County courthouse, Chester, 
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Laval Manuscripts. Transcripts from the archives of Laval University, Quebec, in 
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Loudoun Collection, Vaudreuil papers. Originals owned by the Huntington Library. 
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belong to the diocese of Belleville, but are deposited in the archives of St. Louis 
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morocco leather with silver clasps. 

II. PUBLISHED SOURCES 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth (ed.), Kaskaskia Records, 1778-1790, Springfield, 
1909. (Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, vol. V). 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth, and Carter, Clarence Edwin (eds.). The Critical 
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, The New Regime, 1765-1767, Springfield, 1916. {Collections of the 

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Austin, Moses, "A Memorandum of M. Austin's Journey from the Lead Mines 
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121 



122 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

Bossu, N., Travels Through That Part of North America Formerly Called Louisi- 
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Ottawa, 1884-1905. 
^ Carriere, J. M., French Folk Tales of Missouri, Northwestern University Studies 
in the Humanities, no. i, Evanston, 1937. 

CoLLOT, Victor, A Journey in North America, containing a surz'ey of the countries 
watered by the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and other affluing rivers; with 
exact observations on the courses and soundings of these riz-ers; and on the 
tozctis, znllages, hamlets and farms of that part of the new world; followed 
by philosophical, political, military and commercial remarks and by a projected 
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no. 4, 1924). 

D'AuxERRE, Louis Leger, La Nouvelle Maison Rustique on Economic Gencrale de 
Toils Les Biens de Campagne, 2 vols., 8th ed., Paris, 1763. 

EscHMANN, C. J., "Kaskaskia Church Records," Illinois State Historical Society, 
Transactions, 1904, pp. 395-413. 

Flagg, Edmund, The Far West: or a tour beyond the mountains. Embracing out- 
lines of western life and scenery; sketches of the prairies, rivers, ancient 
mounds, early settlements of the French, 2 vols., New York, 1838. 

HoucK, Louis, The Spanish Regime in Missouri; a collection of papers and docu- 
ments relating to upper Louisiana, principally within the present limits of Mis- 
souri, during the dominion of Spain, from the archives of the Indies at Seville, 
etc., 2 vols., Chicago, 1909. 

HuTCHixs, Thomas, A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land and North Carolina (reprinted from the original of 1778, edited bj' Fred- 
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"Journal of Jean Baptiste Truteau," American Historical Rcz'iezv, vol. XIX, Janu- 
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Kellogg, Louise Phelps (ed.). Journal of a Voyage to North America from the 
French of Pierre Frangois de Charlevoix, 2 vols., Chicago, 1923. 

Le Page du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, 3 vols., Paris, 1758. 

^L^RGRY, Pierre (ed.), Decouvertes et ^tablissements des Frangois dans I'Oucst et 
dans le Sud de I'Amerique Septentrionale 1614-1698, Memoires et Documents 
Inedits, 6 vols., Paris, 1879. 

:Merexess, Newton D. (ed.), Travels in the American Colonies, New York, 1916. 

Mississippi Provincial Archiz-es, 1729-1740, French Dominion, (vol. I), collected, 
edited, and translated by Dunbar Rowland and G. A. Sanders, Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, 1927; vol. n (1701-1729), 1929. 

Moses, John, Illinois, Historical and Statistical, 2 vols., Chicago, 1889. 

Pease, T. C. (ed.), Illinois on the Eve of the Seven Years' War, Springfield, 1940. 
{Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, vol. 29). 

PiTTMAN, Captain Philip, The Present State of the European Settlements on the 
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and draughts. An exact reprint of the original edition, London, 1770; edited, 
with introduction, notes, and index by Frank Heywood Hodder, Cleveland, 1906. 

Rapport de L'Archiviste de la Province de Quebec, Quebec, 1921-1922, 1928-1929. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 23 

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Reynolds, Johx, Pioneer History of Illinois, Belleville, 111., 1852. 

Thwaites, Reuben G. (ed.), Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and 
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Cleveland, 1904. 

Wisconsin Historical Collections, vols. XVI, XVII, XVIII. 

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Park Service, St. Louis, 1940. 
Alvord, Cl.a.rence W., The Illinois Country, Springfield, 1920. 
Babeau, Albert, La Vie Rurale dans L' Ancienne France, Paris, 1885. 
Billon, F. L., Annals of St. Louis in Its Early Days under the French and Spanish 

Dominations, 1764-1804, St. Louis, 1886. 
Bouchard, Georges, Vielles Chases Vielles Gens, Montreal, 1931. 
Carless, William, The Arts and Crafts of Canada, McGill University Publications, 

series XIII, no. 4, Montreal, 1925. 
Clouzot, Henri, Painted and Printed Fabrics, New York, 1927. 
DoNDORE, Dorothy Anne, The Prairie and the Making of Middle America, Cedar 

Rapids, Iowa, 1926. 
Dorrance, W.ard, The Surziual of French in the Old Sainte Genevieve District, 

University of Missouri Studies, vol. X, Columbia, 1935. 
Paris, John T., The Romance of Forgotten Towns, New York and London, 1925. 
Heinrick, Pierre, La Louisiane sous la Compagnie des hides, i/iy-i/S^i Paris, 1908. 
Hodge, F. W. (ed.), Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, 2 vols., 

Washington, 1910. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnolog}", 

Bulletin 30). 
HoucK, Louis, A History of Missouri from the Earliest Explorations and Settle- 
ments until the Admission of the State into the Union, 2 vols., Chicago, 1908. 
King, Grace E., Creole Families of New Orleans, New York, 1921. 
La Tradition en Poitou et Charents, Societe d'Ethnographie Nationale et d'Art 

Populaire, Congress de Niort, 1896. 
Mareschal, M. a. a.. La Faience Populaire au XVIII"" Siccle, Paris, 1872. 
Mason, Edward G., Illinois in the Eighteenth Century, Kaskaskia and Its Parish 

Record, Old Fort Chartres and Col. John Todd's Record Book, Chicago, 1881. 
Old Manors and Old Houses, Historic Monuments Commission of the Province of 

Quebec, Quebec, 1927. 
Palm, Sister Mary Borgias, Jesuit Missions of the Illinois Country, 1673-1763, 

Cleveland, 1933. 
Parish, John Carl, The Man zvith the Iron Hand, Boston, 1913. 
Parkm.\n, Francis, Pioneers of France in the New World, Boston, 1910. 
PiTON, Camille, Le Costume Ciz'il en France au XIII' au XIX' Siecle, Paris, n.d. 
Quaife, M. M., Two Girls of Old Detroit, Burton Historical Collection Leaflet, vol. 

VIII, Detroit, 1930. 
Quicher.at, J., Histoire du Costume en France, Paris, 1S75. 
Roy, Pierre-Georges, Sieur de Vincenncs Identified, Indiana Historical Society, 

Publications, Indianapolis, n.d. 



124 KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 

^ ScHLARMAX, Right Rev. Joseph H., From Quebec to Nezu Orleans, Belleville, 111., 
1929. 

Surrey, N. M., Calendar of Manuscripts in Paris Archives and Libraries Relating 
to the History of the Mississippi Valley to 1803, 2 vols., Washington, 1928. 

, The Commerce of Louisiana during the French Regime, 1699-1763, 

New York, 1916. 

Tanguay, L'Abiu': Cyprien, Dictionnaire Genealogique des Families Canadiennes 
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The Old St. Louis Riverfront, An Exhibition of Architectural Studies in the His- 
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* Traquair, Ramsay, Old Architecture of French Canada, McGill University Publi- 
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ViLLiERS DU Terrace, AIarc de, Les Dernieres Annees de la Louisiane Frangois, 
Paris, 1903. 
■». Wallace, Joseph, The History of Illinois and Louisiana, Cincinnati, 1893. 

Whiteford, Mrs. Kathyrn, A Genealogy and History of Jacques Timothe Bucher, 
Sieur de Monbreun, Ann Arbor, 1939. 

Ye.^ly, F. J., Sainte Genezneve, Ste. Genevieve, Mo., 1935. 

2. Magazine Articles 
"Baptism of the First Church Bell in St. Louis, December 24, 1774," Missouri 
Historical Society Collections, III, 436. 
% Bender, Prosper, "Holidays of the French Canadians," Magazine of American 
History, XX, 461-468. 

, "The Historic Games of Old Canada," Magazine of American History, 

XXVI, 367-374- 

BovEY, Wilfred, "Some Notes on Arkansas Post and St. Philippe in the Mississippi 
Valley," Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, section II, May, 1939. 

Burnham, J. H., "The Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River," Illinois 
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Cle.ments, E. S. and F. E., "Flower Pageant of the Midwest," National Geographic 
Magazine, LXXVI, 219-270. 

Cole, Mary, "Some Hitherto Unpublished Traditions," Antiques, VIII, 206. 

Dart, Henry P., "A Judicial Auction Sale in Louisiana, 1739," The Louisiana His- 
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, "Marriage Contracts of French Colonial Louisiana," The Louisiana 

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Forbes, S. A., "The Gui Annee in Illinois," Urbana, 1896. In typescript in the Illi- 
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"Kaskaskia, a Vanished Capital," Chautauquan, XXX, 472 ft. 
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Massicotte, E. Z., "Lc Costume Civil Masculin a Montreal au Dix-Septieme Siecle," 
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LXII, 441-469. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY I25 

Peterson, Charles, "The French Architecture of the Illinois Country," Missouriana, 
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"Records of a Lost Empire in Illinois," Chautauquan, XXXIII, 478-486. 
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, "Decorative Carvings on Alsatian Wine Barrels," Antiques, XV, 297 ff. 

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RoTHENSTEiNER, JoHN E., "Earliest History of Mine La Motte," Missouri Historical 
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Snyder, John F., "Captain John Baptiste Saucier," Illinois State Historical Society, 

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INDEX TO NAMES 



Aco (Accault), Michael, 13, 14, 75 

Aco, Pierre, 14, 33 

Adhemar, Gaspard, Sieur de Lantagnac, 
107 

Adhemar, Marie Anne, 107 

Aiet (Ayet), Marie Franqoise, 85, 88, 97 

Aiet, N., 84 

Alarie (Alary, Allaric, Allard), Cath- 
erine, 84, 85, 89, 90, II5' 

Alarie, Francois Joseph, 80, M.Vgo^ 119 

Alarie, Frangoise, 36, 80, 88,^95, 115 

Alarie, Henri, 115 

Alarie, Hyacinthe, 90 

Alarie, Jacques, 90, 91 

Alarie, Jean Baptiste, 82, 90, 94 

Alarie, Jeanne, 115 

Alarie, Marie Catherine, 91 

Alarie, Marie Jeanne, 91 

Alarie, Marie Louise, 85, 88, 90 

Alarie, Philippe, 80 

Alarie, Pierre, 80 

Alarie, Rene, 82, 90, 94 

Allain, Benoit, dit Tourangeau, 63 

Amiot, Jean Baptiste, 62 

Anard, Agnes, 80 

Andreau, Jean, 119 

Andreau, Alarie Louise, 119 

Antaya, see Peltier. 

Ariga, Dorothee, 82 

Aube, Josephe, 85 

Aubert, Father, 27 

Aubert, Toinette, 106 

Aubuchon, Antoine, 84, 89, 90, 94, 119 

Aubuchon, Catherine, 109 

Aubuchon, Charles, 97 

Aubuchon, Elizabeth, 22,(83^84, ^g,)(94/ 
119 

Aubuchon, Gabriel, 97 

Aubuchon, Henri, 86 

Aubuchon, Jean Baptiste, 35, 62, 94, 119 

Aubuchon, Joseph, 21, 81, 91, 94, 167) iig 

Aubuchon, Louis, 94 

Aubuchon, Marie, 82, 84,186, 90, 94, 96, 
104, 118 ' ^-- 

Aubuchon, Pierre, 66, 82, 83, 84, 90, 91, 
94, 109, 112, 119 

Aufrere, Marie Therese, 84 

Avarice, Madeleine, 81 

Axiga, Therese, 80 

Babstot, Marie Barbe, 107 
Baby, R., 103 
Baillargeon, Antoine, 15 
Baillargeon, Domitilla, 15, 79, 88, 90 
Baillargeon, Dorothee, 79 



Baillargeon, Pierre, 15, 79 

Banchaud, Anne, 82 

Barbeau, Jean Baptiste, 30, 62, 86, 115 

Barbeau, Jeanne, 86 

Barbeau, Joseph, 115 

Baret, Marie Madeleine, 73, 79, in 

Baron, Jean Baptiste, 100 

Baron, Joseph, 100, 1 19 

Baron, Marguerite, 100 ^ . 

Baron, Marie Catherine, 45, 100 -< I 

Baron, Pierre, 84 

Baron, Susanne, ^, 96, 100, 117 

Barqueville, Chevalier, 102 

Barreau (Barraux), Catherine, 105, 106 

Barrois, Antoine Jean Baptiste, 96 

Barrois, Bonaventure, 96, 117 

Barrois, Catherine, 96, 117 

Barrois, Celeste Therese, 96, 117 

Barrois, Frangois, 96, 117 

Barrois, Jacques, 96, 100, 117 

Barrois, Jean Baptiste (Bertlot dit Bar- 
rois), 20, 7;^, 82, 96, 99, 117 

Barrois, Joseph, 96, 117 

Barrois, Louis, 20, 96, 117 

Barrois, Madeleine, 96, 99, 117 

Barrois, Marianne, 73, 82, 96, 117 

Bastien, Frangois (Sebastien Frangois?), 
46, 114 

Bastien, Frangoise, 114 

Bastien, Marie, 114 

Bastien, Sieur, 60 

Baston, Jacques, 63, 81, 93 

Baud, Marie Marguerite, 85, 87 

Baudry, Marie Anne, no 

Beau, Marie Anne Antoine, 105, no 

Beaubin, Hubert, 63 

Beaubois, Father, 21, 43 <f^\ ^ 

Beaudreau, Louise, 92, 113, ii4x Bo^ie^e^n^KAne. S«Hr»<L f 

Beaudreau, Marie Catherine, •§*, 93, 114 

Beaudron (Boudrand), Marie Madeleine 
Monique, 84, 92, 94, 113 

Beaugenoux, Agnes Frangoise, 107 

Beaugenoux, Charles, 107 

Beaugenoux, Elisabeth, 107 

Beaugenoux, Helene, 107 

Beaugenoux, Marie Joseph, 107 

Beaugenoux, Nicolas, 66, 107 

Beaugenoux, Therese, 107 

Beaujeu, 108 

Beaupre, Jean Baptiste, 62 

Beausseron, Antoine (Beausseron dit 
Leonard), 22, 33, 59, 79, 04 

Beausseron, Augustin, 33 

Beauvais, Alexis, 91 



127 



128 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Beauvais, Antoinc, 84 

Beauvais, Catherine, 22, 84, 89, 91 

Beauvais, filisabeth, 84 

Beauvais, Jean Baptiste St. Gcmme, 60, 

83. 93. 95. 108. 120 
Beauvais, ^^arie Charlotte, 90, 91 
Beauvais, Marie Fran(;oise, 91 
Beauvais, ^farie Jeanne, 83, 95 
Beauvais, Rapliael, 62, 65, 84, 85, 89, 91, 

95 
Becquet, Frangois, 81 
Becquet, Frangoise, 106 
Becquet, heirs of, 60 
Becquet, Jean, 61, 106 
Becquet, Jean Baptiste, 60, 61, 81, 96, 1® 

105, 106, 117, 118 
Becquet, Jean Baptiste Nicolas, 106 
Becquet, Jean Frangois, 15, 106 
Becquet, Louis. 106 
Becquet, Marguerite, 105, 106 
Becquet, Marie, 106 
Becquet, Pierre, 106 
Becquet, Widow, 106 
Beijard, Sieur, 98 
Belcour, L., 112 
Bellecourt, Joseph, iii 
Bellecourt, Marie Joseph, in 
Bellegard, 104 
Bellehumeur, Elizabeth, 81 
Benoist, Jean Baptist, Sieur de St. Claire 

(variousl}' spelled), 17, 83, 95, 100, 

loi, 102, 105 
Bertet, Chevalier de, 17, 56, 82 
Bicheron, Catherine, 83, 93 
Bienvenu (two families, one is dit De- 
lisle), 95 
Bienvenu, Antoine, 21, 59, 80, 81, 82, 83, 

93, 94, 95, lOi, 115 
Bienvenu, Antoine Laurent, 83 
Bienvenu, Charles, dit Delisle, 63, 85, 113 
Bienvenu, Elisabeth, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88, 94, 

95 
Bienvenu, Frangois, dit Delisle, 63, 85 
Bienvenu, habitation of, 115 
Bienvenu, Jeanne, 36, 80, 81, 83, 93, 95, 

113, 115 
Bienvenu, Louis, dit Delisle, 83 
Bien\-enu, Marie, 35, 83, 95, lOi, 102 
Bienvenu, Philippe, 31, 33, 36, 61, 63, 80, 

88, 95, 115 
Bienville, 12, 25, 75, 76, 103, 113 
Billard, Genevieve, 117 
Billeron, Jacques (dit La Fatigue), 74, 

89 
Billeron, Joseph, 74, 89 



Billeron, Leonard, 20, 74, 82, 83, 84, 86, 

88, 89 

Billeron, Marianne, 74. 82, 86, 89, 94 
Billeron, Pierre, 74, 83, 89, 94, 120 
Bincteau, Father, 15 
Biset, Pol, 115 
Bissonet, Joseph, 62 
Bissonet, Louis, 118 
Bissonet, Marie Charlotte, 104 
Bizaillon, 15 
Bizaillon, Marie, 15 
Bizaillon, ^^aric Therese, 15 
Bizaillon, Pierre, 15 
Blot, 73. 81 
Blot, Cecile, 100 
'Blot, Etiennc, 80 
Blot, Nicolas, 80 
Blot, Pierre, 58 
Blouin, Daniel, •^, 87, 109, 1 1 1 
Blouin, Helene, 87 
Blouin, Jean Pierre, 85, 87 
Bobe, Father, 19 
Bobin, Marie, 119 

"Bodereau, Marie, 8i^W«««A*-'2-^^, ^^-'^"^ ia^v.*^ 
Bodin, Marie, 84, 91 
Bogy, Senator Victor, 96 
Boisbriant, Pierre Duque, Sieur de, 17, 

18, 19, 21, 25, 31, 33 
Boisron, Catherine Marie Madeleine 

(variously spelled), 58, 79, 82, 84, 88, 

89, 92, 97 
Boisseau, Therese, 80 
Boisset, Jeanette, 108 
Boisset, Louis, 108 
Boisset, Marie Louise. 108 
Bon, dit Simonfold, 120 
Bonhomme, Catherine, 62 
Bonhomme (?), Madeleine, 105 
Bonjeau (?), soldier, 107 
Bonnechant, Catherine, 107 
Bonte, Gillet a, 62, 104 

Bore, Jean Baptiste Etienne, 95 

Bore, Jeanne Marguerite, 95 

Bore, Louis, 22, 57, 62, 65, 95 

Bore, Marie Jeanette, 95 

Borel, Marie Frangoise, 84 

Bortan, Frangois Cecile (also Bontan), 

81, 82, 96 
Bossett, Marie Louise, 99 
Boucher, Jean Baptiste, 62 
Bouillon, Bernard, dit Lajoy, 62, 117, 118 
Bouillon, Marie Therese, 117 
Bouillon, Valentin, 117 
Boullanger, Father, 21, 25, 74 
Boulogne, Marie Anne, 104 



INDEX 



129 



Boulogne, Alarie Jeanne, 103 

Boulogne, Pierre, 104 

Bourbeau, Marie Madeleine (variously 

spelled), 81, 93, 95 
Bourdon, Jacques, 15, 20, 3;;^. 43, 48, 66, 

73 
Bourdon, Marguerite, 15 
Bourdon, Marie, 15 
Bourdon, Michael. 81 
Bourdon. Pierre, 81 
Bouvier, Pierre, 50 
Boyer, Antoine, 81, 117 
Boyer, Jacques, 87 
Boyer, Jeanne, 29, 81, 89 
Boyer, Marguerite, 117 
Boyer, Marianne, 82 
Boyer, Marie Louise, 87 
Boyer, Nicolas, 35, 81, 82, 87, 96, 99 
Boyer, Nicolas Antoine, 87 
Brault, Joseph dit Pominville, 117 
Brazeau, Charles, 81, 85, 88, 90 
Brazeau, Frangois^^87 
Brazeau, Joseph, 35, 60, 87 
Brazeau, Louis, 35 
Brazeau, Marie Frangoise, 35 
Brontin, map of, 39 
Brosse, Raimond, dit St. Cerny, 88 
Brunet (dit Bourbonnois), Cecile, 80, 

91, no, 120 
Brunet, Elisabeth, 79, 84, 91, 119 
Brunet, Francois, 93 
Brunet, Jean, 79, 80, no, 120 
Brunet, Jean Baptiste, 91, 94 
Brunet, Marie, 83, 84, 91, 94 
Brunet, Marie Louise, 93 
Brussant, Simone, 83, 89 
Buchet, Alexandre, 19, loi 
Buchet, Joseph, 19, 29, 61, 62, 76, 82, 91, 

loi, 102 
Buchet, M., concession of, 108 
Buchet, Therese, 19, loi 
Buteau, Charles, no 
Buteau, Marie Louise, 1 10 
Buteau, Pierre, no 
Buyat, Sieur, 29 

Cabassier, Charles, 83, 93 
Cabassier, Francois Xavier, 93 
Cabassier, Jean Baptiste, 93 
Cabassier, Louis, 76, 83, 93 
Cabassier, Alarie Catherine, 93 
Cadillac, Lamothe, 16 
Cadrin, Michael Frangois (Quadrin), 80 
Cadrin, Nicolas, 15, 80, 81, 106 
Cadron, Charles, dit St. Pierre, 105, 108, 
109 



Cadron, Marie Anne. 109 

Cadron, Marie Jeanne, 109 

Cadron, Pierre, 105. 108 

Cadron, Pierre Charles, 109 

Caillot, Nicolas, dit La Chance, 63, 84 

Campo, Etienne, 15 

Capon, Antoine, dit Boisetout, 83, 88 

Capon, Marie Anne, 107 

Capuchins, 76 

Cardinal, Gabriel Bertrand, 112 

Cardinal, Genevieve, 119 

Cardinal, Jacques, 58 

Cardinal, Louise, 58 

Cardinal, Aladeleine, 73, 82, 96, 99, 117 

Cardinal, Marie Louise, 58, 98 

Carmouche, Louise, 95 

Caron, Claude, 29, 59, 81, 89 

Caron, Elizabeth, 29, 89 

Caron, Jean Baptiste, 29, 89 

Caron, Alarie Joseph, 29, 89 

Carpentier, Henri, 84, 86, 90, 94, 100, 104 

Carpentier, Marie, 86, 94 

Carpentier, Pelagic, 86 

Carrier, Antoine, 22, 62, 79, 95 

Carrier, Celeste Therese, 22, 79, 95 

Carrier, Marie Madeleine, 22, 79 

Catherine, Jacques, 104 

Catois, Marie Claire, 74, 79, 82, 83, 86, 

88, 89 
Caton, Henri, 94 
Causon, Marie, 79 
Caze, Sieur, 98 
Cellier, Toussaint, 1 18 
Cesire, Antoine, 95 
Cesire, Joseph, 95 
Chabot, Jean, 115 
Chabot, Pierre, 15, 79, 92, 116 
Chabot, Pierre, heirs of, 112 
Chabot, Symphorosa, 15 
Chalifour, Jeanne, 113 
Champagne, Pierre, 15 
Chancellier, Louis, 74, 102, 108 
Channeton, Pierre, 80 
Chapeau, Genevieve, 119 
Chaponga, J. B., 93 
Chapoton, Louis Clotilde, 92 
Chaput, Mathurin, 80, 103 
Chaput, Michael, 80 
Charant, Mathurin, 23, 61 
Charest, Frangoise Claire, 93 
Charleville, 57 
Charpain, Alarianne, 99. 105 
Charpentier, Alarie Madeleine, 58 
Chartier, Therese, 106 
Chassin, Charlotte, 19, 120 



I30 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Chassin, Madeleine, 19 

Chassin, Marie Agnes, 86 

Chassin, Nicolas Michael, 17, 19, 20, 73. 

74, 86, 120 
Chauvin, Helene Charleville, 85, 87 
Chauvin, Hypolite, 83, 97 
Chauvin, Jacques, 62, 108 
Chauvin, Jean Baptiste, dit Charleville, 

35. 62, 87, 108. Ill 
Chauvin, Joseph, dit Charleville, 61, 85, 

87, 89 
Chauvin, Jules, 87 
Chauvin, Louis, 63, 83, 87 
Chauvin, Michelle, 43 

Chauvin, Philippe, dit Joyeuse, 44, 87 

Chauvin, Thomas, 54, 62 

Chauvin, Veuve Loui, 87 

Chene, Marie, 82 

Cheneau, Antoine, dit Sanschagrin, 63, 

82, 96 
Chenier, Claude, 93 
Chenier, Joseph, 93 
Chesne, Frangois, 104 
Chesne, Alarie, 92 
Cheval, Rene Pierre, 103 
Chevalier, Andre, 35, lOi 
Chevalier, Elisabeth, 102 
Chevalier, Jean, 19 
Chevalier, Jeanne, 102 
Chevalier, Marie, 118 
Chevalier, Pierre, 102 
Chiquot, Marie Catherine, 96 
Choboyer, Marianne, 99 
Chouteau, 103 

Clairjon, Marguerite, 80, 106 
Clark, George Rogers, 29 
Claude, Victoire, 76 
Clement, Agnes Martha, 91, 118 
Clement. }^Iarc, 80 
Clermont, Joseph, 100, 117 
Cocherin, Robert, 84 
Cochons, Marie, 62, 108 
Coignon, Marie Louise, 104 
Colanson, Barbe, 104 
Coles, Edward, 109 
Colet, 22 

Conde, Andre August, 73 
Corset, Catherine, 83, 88 
Corset, Francois, dit Coco, 62, 83, 84, 85, 

88, 113 

Corset, Marie Jeanne, 84, 88 

Coulon, Frangois, Sieur de Villiers, 100 

Coulon, Marie, 80, 90 

Couquet, Marguerite, 106 

Courtois, Jean Joseph, 81, 93 



Courtois, Joseph, 59, 63, 81 

Courtois, Marguerite, 93 

Coussot, Simon, 98, 100 

Couturier, Jean Baptiste, 84 

Crely, Antoine, 97 

Crely, Jean Baptiste, 52, 84, 85, 88, 97 

Crely, Jerome, 97 

Crely, Joseph, 85, 88, 89, 97 

Cressman, Marguerite, 84, 88 

Crete, Genevieve, 86 

Crozat, Antoine, 16 

Cuillier, Jean Baptiste, 79 

Cuillier, Nicolas, 79 

Cusson, Elizabeth, 81, 91, 94, 119 

Cusson, Marie, 87 

Dagneau, Aiarguerite, 85, 94 

Dagneau, Marie Joseph, 103 

Dagneau, Michel, 103 

Dagneau, Philippe, 103 

D' Amour, Pierre Louviere, 36 

Danis, Charles, 44, 79, 80, 82, 90, 97 

Danis, Charles Pierre, 44 

Danis, Dorothee, 44, 79, 82, 97 

Danis, Helene, 80, 90, 103, 104, 105 

Danis, Louise, 95 

Danis, Marie Anne, 44 

Danis, Michel, 44, 79, 82, 97 

Danis, Pelagic, 97 

Danis, Pierre, 61, 80 

Danis, Therese, 91 

Dardenne, Toussaint, 102 

Darensburg, Pierre Frederic, 102 

D'Artaguiette, Diron, 13, 15, 17, 25, 38, 

D'Artaguiette, Pierre, 76 

D'Auneville, Antoine Simon, 19, 35, 102 

Dayon, Frangois, 63 

De Baugy, 17 

De Beaupre, Elizabeth, 95 

De Blanc, Cesar, 35, 103 

Deble, Anne Marie, 61, 80 

De Bonaccueil, Genevieve, 83 

De Bourgmont, 99 

De Cheuraineville, Alarie Madeleine, 49 

De Couagne, Rene, 60 

Degaignee, Pierre, 96 

Deganier, Jacques, 82 

Deganier, Jean Baptiste, 82 

Deganier, Marie Catherine, 82, 87 

De Gruys, Antoine, 84 

Deguire, Andre, dit La Rose, 84, 91, 100, 

119 
Deguire, Frangois, 73 
Deguire, Jean Baptiste, 62, 66, 84, 94, 119 



INDEX 



131 



Deguire, Marie Joseph, 84 

Deguire, Marie Rose, 82 

De la Barre, Antoine, 107 

De la Barre, Augustin Antoine, 107, 108 

De la Barre, Louis, 107 

De la Barre, Mme, 107, 108 

De la Chaise, 25 

De la Chapelle, Basile, 85, 92 

De la Chapelle, Charles Jannot, 49, 81, 89 

De la Chapelle, Jean Jannot, 85 

De la Chapelle, Pierre, 81, 89 

De la Croix, Monsieur Dussault, 84 

De la Feme, Pierre Bardet, 96 

De la Forest, 17 

De la Garceniere, Daniel Fagot, 83 

De la Gautrais, Pierre Rene Harpain, 43. 

95, loi 
De la Marque, Louis Alarin, 99 
De I'Amour, Louise, 81 
De la Renaudiere, Marie Frangoise, 79 
De la Renaudiere, Philippe, 79 
Delaunaj', Catherine (also spelled De 

Launay or De Launais), 104 
Delaunay, Charles Joseph, 15, 79, 91 
Delaunay, filisabeth, 79, 84, 89, 90, 119 
Delaunay, Frangois, 80 
Delaunay, Jean Jacques, 15 
Delaunay, Joseph, 79, 119 
Delaunay, Louis, 15 
De la Vaure, Clement de Lor, 99 
Delessart, Catherine, 61, ^2, loi 
Delisle, 57, 63 
Delisle, Marie Rose, 102 
De Louvier, Francois Chaufour, 113 
De Louvier, Marguerite, 103 
De Louvier, Marie Anne, 103 
De Louvier, Michel Chaufour, 103, 113 
De Louvier, Michel D' Amours, 103 
De Louvier, Pierre Chaufour, 102, 103, 

113 
De ^lonbrun, Frangois, 93 
De ^lonbrun, Jean Baptiste, 93, 102 
De Monbrun, Louis, 93 
De Alonbrun, Marie Therese, 93, 95 
De Monbrun, Pierre Boucher, 58, 93, 95, 

114 
De Monbrun, Placide, 93 
De Monbrun, Rene Jean Boucher, 93 
De Alontcharvaux, Charles, 86 
De Montcharvaux, Francois, 86 
De Montcharvaux, Jean Frangois, 86 
De Montcharvaux, Jean Louis Joseph, 86 
De Montcharvaux, Marie Agnes, 86 
De A'lontcharvaux, Pierre, 86 
Demonte, Jean Claire, 81, 106 



De Montigny, Monsieur, 15 

De Populus, Louis, 114 

De Portneuf, Louis, 96, 102, 114, 117, 120 

De Poutre, Marie Catherine, 73 

De Rainville, Angelique, 105 

De Rainville, Louise, 11 1 

De Rainville, Alarie Joseph, 118 

D'Eraque, Sieur, 12 

De Rastel, Jean Joseph, 85 

De Rocheblave, Jean Joseph, Marquis, 85 

De Rocheblave, Philippe Frangois, 85, 91 

Derosiers, Antoine, 62 

Derounsay, Angelique, 87 

Derousse, Frangois, 83, 90, 97 

Derousse, Joseph, 97 

Derousse, Jean Baptiste, 97 

Derousse, Pierre, dit St. Pierre, 36, 83, 

96, 97 
De St. Romain, Dame Elizabeth Sorel, 

98, 100 
De St. Vallier, 86 
Desgagniers, Jacques, 88 
Desgagniers, Jean Baptiste, 85, 88 
Desgagniers, Marguerite, 85 
Desgly, Lt., 50 

Deshayes, Elisabeth, 80, 91, 94, no, 120 
Desjardins, Andre Thomas, 105 
Desjardins, Marie Joseph, 105 
Desjardins, Pierre, 105 
Des Liettes, Charles Henri, 17, 18, 21, 49 
Desmoulins, filizabeth, 80, 97 
Desmoulins, Frangois, 88 
Desmoulins, Louis, 88 
Desrosiers, Madeleine, 108 
Desrousselle, Paul (see Roussel) 
Desruisseaux, 30 
Desruisseaux, Joseph, 59, in 
Des Tours, Marie des Trehans, 95 
Des Ursins, Marc Antoine de la Loere, 

17, 19, 25, 43, 48, 61, 79, 100, 112 
De Truchi, Jeanne, 107 
De Vercheres, Angelique Jarret, 99, 100 
De Verges, Bernard Chevalier, 86 
De Verges, Pierre, 86 
De Vienne, Alarie Louise, 86 
De Villiers, Elizabeth, 100, loi 
De Villiers, Frangois Coulon, 99, 100, loi 
De Villiers, Jean Jacques, loi 
De Villiers, Marie, 100 
De Villiers, Neyon, 8, 17, 85, 99 
De Villiers, Nicolas Antoine Coulon, 99, 

100 
De Volsey, Pierre Frangois Lusignan, 

Sieur, 100, loi 
Dielle, Frangois, 35, 36, '^ips- 



132 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Dielle, Jacques, 6i 

Dielle, Jean Franqois, 6i, 62, 91 

Dillon, Diana filizabetli, 85 

Dionet, Fran<;ois, 81 

Diron, Capt., 17 

Ditorni, Catherine, 83, 97 

Dizier, Franqois, 35, 87 

Dodier, Elisabeth, 98 

Dodier, Gabriel, 63, 98, 100, 106 

Dodier, Jeanne, 98 

Dodier, Marie Fran(;oise, 98, 106 

Dodier, Marie Madeleine, 98 

Dodier, Marie Therese, 98, 100 

Dome, Charles, 83, 93 

Dome, Victoire Claude, 76, 83, 93 

Domene, Jean Jacques, 94 

Dorion, Joseph, 1 19 

Dorion, Pierre, 119 

Dornon, Jean Baptiste, 83, 91 

Dorval, Antoine, 58, 109 

Doza, Joseph, 66, 84, 94 

Doza, Marguerite, 36 

Doza, Marianne, 94 

Doza, Marie, 85 

Doza, Marie Anne, 85 

Doza, Noel Joseph, 91 

Doza, Pierre, 66, 73, 84, 91, 94 

Drouet, Francois Antoine, Sieur de Ba- 

jolet, 84 
Drouin, Perrine, 102 
Drouin, Pierre, 102 
Drouin, Renee, 47, 102 
Dubois, Frangoise, 93, 99 
Dubois, Louis, 93, 99 
Dubois, Marie Anne, 1 14 
Dubois, Rene, 120 
Dubord. Elisabeth, 94 
Dubord, Joseph, 84, 94, 95 
Du Chemin, Charles, 105 
Du Chemin, Gilles, 105 
Du Chemin, Therese, 105 
Duchene, Jeanne, 80, no 
Du Chouquet, Frangois, 96, 117 
Du Chouquet, Jacques, 120 
Du Chouquet, Joseph, 82 
Du Chouquet, Louis, 58, 59, 120 
Duclos, Alexandre, 29, 35, 102, 103, 104 
Duclos, Antoine de Selle, 29, 102 
Duclos, Elisabeth, 102 
Duclos, Gabriel, 102 
Duclos, Joseph, 102 
Duclos, Marie Joseph, 102 
Duclos, Pierre, 102 
Ducouadie, Sieur, 60, 106 
; l)ufour, Martias, dit Tourangeau, 81, 96 



Dufresne, 67 

Dufresne, Jacques Michel, 85, 91 

Dufresne, Marie Frangoise, 91 

Dufresne, Marie Louise, 91 

Dufresne, Marie Michel, 85, 91 

Dumas, Jeanne, 118 

Du Merbion, Lt., 17 

Dumont, Frangois, 118 

Dumont, Marie Joseph, 118 

Dumont, Pierre, dit Laviolette, 82, 118 

Du Plassy, Joseph, 96, 117 

Duplessis, Marthe, 119 

Dupon, Frangoise, lOl, 102 

Dupont, Madeleine, 112, 113 

Du Pre, Frangoise, 81 

Du Pre, Tean Baptiste, 81 

Du Pre, Pierre, 81 

Durand, Jean, 79 

Durand, Pierre, 79 

Du Rivage, Marie, 85 

Du Tisne, 17, 22, 43, loi 

Du Tisne, Charles Claude, 43 

Du Tisne, heirs of, 112 

Duverge, Jacques, 66, 73 

Elo}-, Marie Frangoise, 105 
Erhy, Charles, 119 
Eugene, Marianne, 117 

Fabert, Denise, 81 

Fabert, Jean, 81, 106 

Fafart, Joseph, dit La Fresnaye, 15 

Fafart, Marianne, 15, 80, 81, 106 

Fafart, Pierre Boisjoly, 15, 80, 106 

Federolle, Catherine Anne, 109 

Felix, Catherine, 85, 89 

Ferrarois, Sieur, 17 

Finnet, Hubert, 98 

Flagg, 27 

Flamand, Pire, 91 

Flaucourt, De la Loere, 20 

Fontaille, Marie Jeanne, 29 

Forel, Joseph, dit Chaponga, 82, 93 

Forestier, Catherine, 15 

Forestier, Michel, 114 

Foret, Marie, 61, 80 

Fortin, Jacques, 99 

Fouillard, Jacques, 80 

Fouillard, Marianne, 80, 82, 83, 89, 106 

Franchomme, 49 ''- 

Francoeur, Joseph, 87 

Francoeur, ^larianne, 87 

Frederick, surgeon of Illinois, 73 

Gage, 25, 39 

Gagnon, Father Frangois, 98, 100 



INDEX 



133 



Galand, Pierre, 116 

Gamelin, Genevieve, 114 

Gaudreau, Etienne, 35, 61, 62 

Gaudrie, Marie Jeanne, 98 

Gautier, Madeleine, no 

Gautier, Simon, 81, 82, 92. 113 

Geau, Louis (Gault), 116 

Gendron, Jean Baptiste, 100 

Gendron, Pierre, 100 

Gerard, Joachim, 62, 104 

Germain, Jeanne, 115 

Germain, dit Matis, 103 

Gervais, Frangois, 66 

Gervais, Urbain, 52, 114 

Giard, Alarianne, 84 

Giard, Marie Angelique, 84 

Giard, Pierre, 73 

Gignard, Marguerite, 84, 91, 94 

Gilbert, Antoine, dit Sanspeur, 84, 92, 

116 
Gilbert, Frangois Marie, 113 
Gilbert, Jean, 84, 116 
Gilbert, Simon, 116 
Gilgau, Jean, dit Contois, 107 
Gilgau, Louis, 107 
Girard, Antoine, 83, 91 ' 
Girard, Jean Baptiste, 82, 84, 89, 106 
Girardeau, Jean Baptiste, 43, 79 
Girardeau, Pierre, 79 
Girardy, Marie Louise, 113 
Girardy, Alarie Rose, 29 
Glinel, 2^Iarie Anne, 79 
Glinel, Marie Joseph, 79 
Glinel, Pierre, 79 
Godeau, Franqois, 88 
Godeau, Louise Marguerite, 84 
Godeau, Marie Josephe, 74, 84, 88 
Godeau, :Michel, 74, 84, 85, 88 
Godeau, Therese, 85, 88 
Godefro}-, Jacques, 82, 92 
Goilee, Jean Baptiste, dit Belisle, 63 
Gonneau, Marie Rose, 36, 115, 116 
Gossiaux, Charles, 36, 80, 115 
Gossiaux, Jacques, 36, 116 
Gossiaux, Jeanne, 36, 116 
Gossiaux, Marie, 36, 116 
Gossiaux, Philippe, 36, 80, 115 
Gossiaux, Pierre, 36 
Gouin, Jean Baptiste, dit Champagne, 62. 

108, 109, 1 10, III 
Gouin, Sebastien, 108, no 
Goulet, Angelique, 85 
Gouveraux, Antoine, 95 
Gouveraux, Etienne, 63, 83, 84, 87, n9 
Gouveraux, Marguerite, 84, 119 



Grandpre, company of, 107 

Gravier, Father Jacques, 14, 15 

Grignon, Jacques, 36 

Crude, Marie, 115 

Crude, Rene, 61, 80, n3 

Gueret, Pierre, dit Dumont, 85, 92, 97 

Guerlin, Catherine, 90 

Guertot, Remy, dit L'hermitte, 108 

Guillegot, Jean, 107 

Guillemot, dit Lalande, see Lalande. 

Guillon, Jean Baptiste, 36 

Guivremont, Etienne, 58 

Guivremont, Jean, 58 

Hayot, Marie ^ladeleine, 86 

Hebert, August, 104 

Hebert, Etienne, 80, 102, 104, 112 

Hebert, Francois, 104 

Hebert, Helene, 90, 103, 104 

Hebert, Ignace, 80, 90, 103, 104 

Hebert, Joseph, 104 

Hebert, Marie, 103, 104 

Hebert, Rene, 104 

Heneaux, Angelique, in, 120 

Heneaux, Antoine, 91, 120 

Heneaux, Toussaint, 120 

Henne, Marie, 117 

Hennet, Frangois, dit Sanschagrin, 63, 

99, 105, 106, 109, 112 
Hennet, Genevieve, 99, 105, 109 
Hennet, Jacques, 99, 105 
Hennet, Joseph, 73, 99 
Hennet, Aladeleine Marie, 99, 105, 112 
Hennet, Mathurin, 105 
Henrion, Charles, 66 
Henrion, Frangois, 66 
Henrion, Genevieve, 66 
Henrion, Jean, 66, 107 
Henrion, Marie Anne, 66, 107 
Henrion, Marie Barbe, 66 
Henrion, Pierre, 66 
Henry, Jean, dit La Rose, 88 
Henry, Marie Frangoise, 85, 91 
Hervy, Charles, 47, 102 
Hilgaard, 58 

Houdet, Jean Baptiste, 102 
Hubert, Daniel, 109 
Hubert, Jean Baptiste, 109 
Hubert, dit Lacroix, 109 
Hubert, Louis, 109 
Hubert, Marie Frangoise, 109 
Hubert, Marthe, 90 
Hubert, Pierre, 109 
Hubert, Veronique, 109 
Huchet, Marie Therese, 85, 88 



134 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Huet, Charles, 62, 96 
Huet, Jean, 96 
Huet, Joseph, 54, 96 
Hulin, Agnes, 82, 88, 97 
Hulin, Dorothee, 88. 97 
Hulin, Louise, 82, 88 
Hulin, Marie Louise, 85 
Hulin, Pierre, 59, 82, 88, 96, 97 

Iberville, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur, 10, 17 
Illeret, Claude, 61, 80, 118 
lUeret, Marie Jeanne, 118 
Imbert, Nicolas, 61 

Janis, Francois, 83, 89 

Janis, Nicolas, 22, 63, 83, 89 

Javoine, Jerome, 62 

Jerome, notary, 20 

Jodain, Frangoise, 49 

Joly, Genevieve, 100 

Joly, Marie Frangoise, iii (^;//,^^fe', 

Joubert, Antoine, 107 -<itLi.Mak^(ra^n<L. 

Jousset, Marguerite, 88 

Juchereau, Charles de St. Denys, 10 

Juillet, Angelique, 103 

Jusseaume, Leonard, 85 

Jusseaume, Paul, dit St. Pierre, 85, 90 

Kennarde, Jeanne, 84 

Kenny, Father, 90 

Kerami, Suzanne, 15, 22, 33, 80, 81, 114 

Kerlerec, Governor, 29, 63 

Kiercereau, Genevieve, 62 

Kiercereau, Gregoire Rene, 61, 62, 104 

Kiercereau, Jklarie Madeleine, 62, 97 

Kiercereau, Paul, 62 

Kiercereau, dit Renaud, loi 

Kiercereau, Renee, 61 

King, Grace, 95 

Labeuf, dit St. Laurent, Frangois, 103 

La Bolle, Joseph, 63, 84 

La Bonte, Pierre, 52, 63 

La Brier, Catherine, 84, 89 

La Brise, Marie Frangoise, 19, 61, 62, 72, 

79, loi 
La Brosse, Julienne, 105 
La Buissonniere, Alphonse, 17, 50, 75, 76, 

120 
La Chauvetet, Pierre, 106 
La Chenais, Catherine Frangoise, 59 
La Chenais, Charlotte, 29, 59, 81, 89 
La Chenais, Frangois, 59 
La Chenais, Jean Baptiste, 59 
La Chenais, Louise, 59 
La Chenais, Marie Anne, 59 
La Chenais, Philippe, 29, 59, 61, 81, 89 



Laclede, Pierre, 8 

La Course, Jacques, 81, 83, 95, 113, 120 

La Course, Jacques Gabriel, 93 

La Course, Marie Louise, 83, 94 

La Course, Pierre, 81, 82, 84, 93, 94, 95 

La Course, Widow, 94 

La Croix, 63 

La Croix, Agnes, 62, 108 

La Croix, Barbe, 29, 108 

La Croix, Frangois, 29, 54, 62, 108, 109, 

III 
La Croix, Marie Joseph, 108, 109, in 
La Croix, Marie Louise, 83, 93, 95, 108, 

120 
La Croix, Pierre, 105 
La Feme, 47 
La Feme, Anne, 73 
La Feme, Jean Pierre, 82 
La Feme, Pierre Ignace Bardet, 73, 82, 

96, 117 
Lafleuve, Claude, 112 
Lafleuve, Widow, 112 
Lafontaine, Catherine, 116 
Lafontaine, Marianne, 83, 91 
La Forest, 15 
La Fortune, Ursule, 116 
La Framboise, Antoine, 84 
La Fresniere, Hj-polite Chauvin, 83, 97 
Lalande, Charles, 112 
Lalande, Charlotte, 83, 94, 113 
Lalande, Elizabeth, 63, 85, 112, 113 
Lalande, Etienne, 59, 63, 82, 104, 112 
Lalande, Gabriel, 112 
Lalande, (Guillemot, dit Lalande), 36, 

73 
Lalande, Jacques, 58, 63, 79, 82, 104, 112, 

120 
Lalande, Jacques Frangois, 112, 113 
Lalande, Jean Baptiste, 35, 83, 85, 94, 

112, 113 
Lalande, Louise, 113 
Lalande, Marc Antoine, 112 
Lalande, Marie Charles, 112 
L'Allemand, 37, 56 
Lalumandiere, Frangois, dit La Fleur, 62, 

63, 81, 85, 92 
Lalumandiere, Jean Baptiste, 92 
Lalumandiere, Joseph, 92 
Lalumandiere, Louise, 85, 92 
Lalumandiere, l^Iarianne, 92 
Lambert, Marie, iii 
La Mirande, Joseph, 83 
La Mothe, Jacques, 102 
Lamy, Frangoise, 49, 81, 89 
Lamy, Isaac, 49 
Lamy, Joseph, 22, 49, 79, 80, 81, 89 



INDEX 



135 



Lamy, Joseph Marie, 79 

Landreville, Angelique, 80 

Langevin, Jean Baptiste, 108 

Langlois, Alexandre, 108, iii 

Langlois, Antoine, 113 

Langlois, Antoinette, 93, 114 

Langlois, Augustin, 81, 92, 113, 114 

Langlois, fitienne, 93, 113, 114 

Langlois, Frangois, 114 

Langlois, Gerard, 114 

Langlois, Germain, 113 

Langlois, Jeanne, no 

Langlois, Louis, 113, 114 

Langlois, Louise, 113 

Langlois, Marie, 114 

Langlois, Marie Joachim, 114 

Langlois, Marie Joseph, 103, 113 

Langlois, Marie Louise, 81, 82, 84, 90, 92 

Langlois, Perrine, 114 

Langlois, St. Therese (Langloiserie), 19, 

loi, 113 
La Parriere, Jeanne, 63, 85 
La Pierre, Jean Baptiste, 81 
Lapierre, Joseph, 98 
La Plume, Francois, 33 
La Pointe, Louise, 82, 87, 92 
La Pointe, Marie, 83 
La Porte, Angelique, 85 
Larche, Augustin (L'archeveque), 104 
Larche, Charles, 104 
Larche, Frangois, 104, 105 
Larche, Helene, 105 
Larche, Jacques, 86 
Larche, Jean, 104, 105 
Larche, Joseph, 104, 105 
Larche, Louis, 104 
Larche, Marie Therese, 86 
L'Argilier, Jacques, dit Le Castor, 13 
La Riviere, Jean Baptiste, 62 
La Roche, Joseph, 83 
La Roche, Marie, 83 
La Salle, 10, 13 
Lasauvetot, Pierre, dit St. Pierre, see 

La Chauvetet, 109 
Lasonde, habitation of, loi, 115 
La Source, Antoine, 22, 85, 89 
La Source, Dominique, 22, 80, 84, 89, 119 
La Source, Frangois, 90 
La Source, Jean Baptiste Thaumur, 22, 

37, 59, 80, 83, 84, 85, 89, 90, 91, 119 
La Source, Marie Louise, 22, 83, 89 
La Vallee, Louis, 65 
La Vigne, P., 49, 97 
Laville, Thomas, 105 
Laviolette, Henri, 15 



Laviolette, Jacques, :s 

Laviolette, Jean Colon, 15 

Laviolette, Alichael, 15 

Law, John, 16 

Leber, Anne, 96 

Le Boulanger, Alarie Renee, 95 

Lecompte, AVigelique, no 

Lecompte, Jacques, no 

Lecompte, Jean Baptiste, 61 

Lecompte, Marie Louise, no 

Le Cour, Joseph, 81 

Le Cour, Michael, 65 

Ledoux, 120 

Leduc, Elisabeth, 118 

Leduc, Frangoise, 100, 106 

Leduc, Joseph, 100 

Legras, Charles Dominique, 22, 114 

Legras, Daniel, 22, 81, 114 

Legras, Jean, 22 

Legras, Jean Baptiste, 22, 81, n4 

Legras, Jean Ignace, 115 

Legras, Jeanne, 115 

Legras, Marie Jeanne, 86 

Legras, Michel, 115 

Legras, Widow, 114, 115 

Lejeune, Catherine, 112 

Lejeune, Claude, 112 

Lejeune, Joseph, 105, 112 

Lejeune, Marie Frangoise, 112 

Lejeune, Michel, dit Le Gaspare, 99, 105, 

112 
Le Kintrut, Louise, loi, 102 
Le Mai, Marianne, 82, 92 
Le Alieux, Claude, 85 
Le Mieux, Frangois, 85 
Le Moine, Marianne, 63, 85 
Le Moine, Rene Alexandre, Sieur Des- 

pins, 83, 95 
Le Moine, Silvie (or Marne), 115 
Leonard, 81 
Lepage, Adel, 29 
Lepage, Margaret, 116 
Le Roy, Marie Joseph, 81 
L'Esperance, Joseph, 58 
Letellier, Lenore, 105 
Levasseur, Louis, dit Despagne, 114 
Leveille, Frangoise, 92 
Lever, Marie, 102 
Le Vert, Marie Frangoise, 33 
Levremond, Widow, 107 
Liberville, Joseph, dit Joyeuse, 82, 84, 92, 

94, 113 
Limbe, Pierre, 58. 59 
Locat, Pierre, n8 
Locat, Rene, 118 



L 



c\ro . 



'7 ^. 



136 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Loisel, Agnes, no 
Loisel, Antoine, no 
Loisel, Jean Baptistc, no 
Loisel, Joseph, 80, no 
Loisel, Marie Barbe, no 
Loisel, Marie Therese, 109 
Loisel, Nicolas, no 
Loisel, Toussaint, 80, 91, no 
Longval, Louis, 83 
Lorrain, Joseph, 80 
Lorrain. Marie, 80 
Louce, Etienne, 61 
Lugre, Marie, 80 

Macarty, Commandant, 17, 19, 23, 27, 29, 
39, 56, 57, 63, 70, 74, 84, 86, 107, 108 

Macarty, Eulalie, 29 

Alailhot, Suzanne, 87 

Maillet, Marie Genevieve, 1 14 

Mallet, 67 

Mallet, Catherine, 63, 82, 92, n2 

Mallet, Frangoise, 81 

Mallet, Genevieve, 22 

Mallet, Jean Baptiste, 19 

Mallet, Marianne, 81 

Mallet, Pierre, 81 

Manuel, Jean, 63, 85 

Manuel, Madeleine, 63, 85 

Marain, 66 

Marc, Agnes, 82 

Marchand, Charlotte, 83, 85, 94, 112 

Marcheteau, Albert, dit Desnoj'er, 99 

Marcheteau, Alexandre, 100 

Marcheteau, Antoine, n8 

Marcheteau, Elisabeth, 100, 106, 1 18 

Marcheteau, Jeanne, n8 

Marcheteau, Joseph, 100, 106, n8 

Marcheteau, Louis, 62, 100, 106, n8 

Alarchetcau, Marie Joseph, 118 

Marcheteau, Pierre, 100, n8 

Marcheteau, Yeronique, 100 

Marcon, Genevieve, 82 

Marechal, Antoine, 118 

Marechal, Frangois, 1 19 

Marechal, Jacques, n9 

Marechal, Jean, n8 

Marechal, Jean Baptiste, n9 

Marechal, Joseph, 1 19 

Marechal, Marie Catherine, 119 

Marechal, Marie Elisabeth, 119 

Marechal, Marie Joseph, n8 

Marechal, Marie Susanne, 1 19 

Marechal, Nicolas, 62, 118 

Marechal, Pierre Claude, dit La Bonte, 
36, 52, 63, 115 

Marest, Father Gabriel, 10, 12, 13 



Marin, Louis, Sieur de la Marque, 96, 

99, 117 
Marinau, Jacques, 62 
Marquette, Father, 13 
Marquis, Jean Baptiste, 61, 62, 83, 88, 

89, 97 
Marquis, Marie Louise, 88, 89, 97 
Martigny, filisabeth, 103 
Afartigny, Helcne, 103 
Martigny, Jacques le Moine, Sieur de, 

103 
Martigny, Jean Baptiste, 103, 104 
Martign}', Marie, 103 
Alartin, Antoine, n9 
Martin, Gabriel, n6 
Martin, Jacques, n6 
Martin, Simone Marie, 61, 80, 116, n8 
Masse, Frangoise, 106 
Matis, Jerome, 107 
Maurice, Jean Baptiste, 84, 88 
Maurin, Antoine, 85, 94 
Mean, Marie, 81 
Alean, Sieur, 17 
Melet, Pierre, 95 
Melique, Frangois, 85, 88 
Melique, Lt., 79 
Melique, Pierre, ^t, 
Melot, Frangoise, 85, 88 
Alelot, Pierre, 88 
Menard, Pierre, 31, 37 
Meneux, Frangoise, 94 
Mercier, 62 
Alercier, Dorothee, 15, 36, 79, 82, 83, 84, 

85, 92, 96, 116 
Mercier, Frangois, 116 
Mercier, Guillaume, dit Toulouse, 112, 

n6 
Mercier, Jacques, 87 
Mercier, Jean Baptiste, 7;^, 79, 108, ni, 

n6 
Mercier, Jean Frangois, n6 
Mercier, Joseph Marie, 62, 82, 87 
Mercier, Louis, 82, 87 
Mercier, Madeleine, 73, in 
Mercier, Marie, ni 
Mercier, Marie Catherine, 87 
Mercier, Marie Jeanne, 109, 1 12 
Mercier, Pierre Joseph, 87 
Mercier, Renee, 15 
Meseraj', Madeleine, 1 1 1 
Messager, Pierre, 50, 66, 114 
Aletivier, 61 

Metivier, Henry, 80, 106 
Metivier, Louis, 60, 106, 107 
Metivier, Marianne, 106 
Metivier, Nicolas, 106 



INDEX 



137 



Aletivier, Philippe, 106 

Metote, Abraham, 1 1 r 

Metote, Felix, in 

Metote, Gabriel, 1 1 1 

Metote, Jacques, in 

Metote, Joseph, in 

Metote, Marie Catherine, in 

Metote, Rene, in 

Meunier, Dame, 118 

Mezeret, Alarie Jeanne, 102 

Michael, 99 

Michael, Jacques, dit Dufrene, 19, 82, 83, 
98, lOI 

Michael, Marie Frangoise, 83, 98 

Michael, Marie Louise, 19, 82, loi 

^lichelle. Elizabeth, 29 

Midan, Anne, 79 

Migneret, Marianne (also Milleret), 15, 
80, 83, 87, 97 

Aligneret, Nicolas, 15 

Migneret, Pierre, 15, 80 

Milot, Felicite, 92, 97 

Milot, Frangois, 92, 97 

Milot, Jean Baptiste, 92, 97 

Milot, Marianne, 92, 97 

Milot, Marie Therese, 92, 97 

Alilot, Pelagic, 92, 97 

Milleret, 15 

Millet, Jacques, 61 

Millet, Marie, 84, 119 

Millet, Marie Frangoise, 98, 100 

Alillet, Nicolas, 58, 98 

Millot, Jean Baptiste, 82, 85 

Millot, Marianne. 82 

Millot, Pelagic, 85 

Mimbret, Company of, 107 

Missouri, Frangoise, 99 

Moisan, Marie Barbe, 118 
TMonbrun, Jean Baptiste, 102 
^ Monbrun, Pierre, 95 
^Monbrun, Therese, 95 

Montard}', Pierre, 105 

Alontmeunier, Barbe, 29, 62, 108, in 

Moran, Marie Anne, 81, 92 

Moreau, Alphonse, 116 

Moreau, Ambrose, dit Sansregret, 113 

Moreau, Charlotte, 84 

Moreau, Frangois, 119 

Moreau, Joseph Valentin, 61, 62 

Moreau, touise Eustache, 36, 62 

Moreau, Louise Frangoise, 62 

Moreau, Valentin, 84 

Morin, Baptiste, 114 

Morin, Jean Baptiste, 114 

Mounton, Philippe, 66 



Nantais, 63 
Neau, Charles, 106 
Neau, Frangois, 106 

Nepveu, Celeste Therese, 43, 79, 95, loi 
Nepveu, Elizabeth, 43 
Nepveu, Jacques, 43 
Nepveu, Jean Michael, 43 
Nepveu, Alarie Catherine, 43 
Nepveu, Susanne, 43 
Neupart, Jean Baptiste, 66 

Nicole, Etienne, 84 , ^ 

Noire, Catherine Barbe, 107 ^ /\/<3 1 S>^ cU < t ) -^ t='>e 
Noire, Nicolas, 107 I 

Noizet-L'abbe, Catherine, 116^ 
Normand, Louis, dit Labriere, 36, 61, 62, 
82, 97 

Olivier, Dorothee, 82, 87 

Olivier, Elisabeth, 98 

Olivier, Jean, 97 

Olivier, Jean Baptiste, 82, 84, 87, 97 

Olivier, Marie, 58 

Olivier, Marthe, 87, 97 

Olivier, Nicolas, 98 

Olivier, Rosalie, 98 

Ollivier, J., 79 

Outellas, Philippe, 91 

Outlas, Frangoise, 66, 84 

Padoka, Marie Anne, 119 

Page, Helene, 98 

Page, Jean Baptiste, 98 

Page, Louis, 98 

Page, Prisque, 83, 91, 98 

Pancrasse, 117 

Pancrasse, Frangois, 99 

Pancrasse, Marie Therese, 117, 118 

Parant, Pierre, 99 

Parant, Therese, 99 

Pare, Jean, 30 

Paule, Jeanne, 1 13 

Paj'ct, Louise, dit St. Amour, 87, 117 

Pelle, Antoine, dit La Plume, 61 

Peltier, Antoine, dit Antaya, 60, 85, 94, 

119 
Peltier, Joseph, 84, 91, 94 
Peltier, Josephe, 84, 91, 94 
Peltier, Marie Agnes, 94 
Peltier, Marie Charlotte, 94 
Peltier, Marie Madeleine, 94 
Peltier, Alichel, 94 
Peltier, Pelagic, 85, 94 
Penicaut, 12, 13, 25 
Pepin, Charles, 62, 112 
Perault, Pierre, 112 



138 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Perico, Pierre, 60 

Perier, Governor, 18, 73, 75 

Perillaud, Andre, 20 

Perrico, Laurent, dit Olivier, 59 

Perrin, Jean Augustin, dit Capiicin, 117 

Perron, Francois, 83, 89 

Perthius, Alexis, 63 

Perthius. Angelique, 63, 83, 87, 120 

Perthius, Catherine, 63 

Perthius, Claire, 63 

Perthius, FranQois, 63 

Perthius, Jeanne, 63, 82, 112 

Perthius, Joseph, 63 

Perthius, Louise, 63, 81, 85, 92 

Perthius, Madeleine, 63 

Perthius, Alarguerite, 63, 81, 93 

Perthius, Pierre, 63, 82, 92, 112 

Peterson, Charles, 30 

Petit, Catherine, 84 

Philibot, Alexis, 104 

Philibot, Charles, 104 

Philibot, Jean, 104 

Philibot, Marguerite, 104 

Philibot, Therese, 104 

Philipaux, St. Joseph, 112 

Philippe, Agnes, 19, 73, 86, 104, 105, 112, 

120 
Philippe, Elizabeth, 80, 102, 104 
Philippe, fitienne, 77, 96 
Philippe, Jacques, 14, 104 
Philippe, Joseph, 66 
Philippe, Josephine Marie, 81 
Philippe, Marie, 114 
Philippe, Michael, 14, 19, 66, 77, 79, 81, 

102, 104 
Picard, Alexis, 83 
Picard, Marie Joseph, 103 
Picard, Philippe, 103 
Pien, Mathieu, 30 
Pierrot, Nicolas, dit Lasonde, 102 
Pigniol, 2nd Lt., 17 

Pilet, Angelique, dit Lasonde, 84, 88, 97 
Pilet, Antoine, 79, 97 
Pilet, Barbe, 82 
Pilet, Dorothee, 84, 97 
Pilet, Jean Baptiste, 97 
Pilet, Madeleine, 81, 82, 85, 92, 97 
Pilet, Marie, 84, 88 
Pilet, Marie Barbe, 44, 97 
Pilet, Marie Louise, 81, 83, 89, 97 
Pilet, Marie Alarguerite, 100, 118 
Pilet, Pierre, 36, 58, 79, 81, 82, 84, 88, 

89, 92, 97, 115 
Pineaux, Maturin, 105 
Pittman, 25, 31, 37 
Pivare, Perrine, 79 



Pivet, Perrine, 15 

Place, Jean Baptiste, 20 

Place, Michel, 83, 120 

Placit, 119 

Plumereau, Catherine, 117 

Potier, 7:i 

Potier, Alexandre, 19 

Potier, Antoinette, 120 

Potier, Catherine, 79 

Potier, Charles, 66 

Potier, Christopher, 80 

Potier, Guillaume, 66, 79 

Potier, Jacques, 61 

Potier, Jean Baptiste, 19, 37, 61, 62, 65, 

72, 79, lOI 
Potier, Jeanne, 61 
Potier, Joseph, 19, 61, 72 
Potier, Louis, 61 
Potier, Marc Antoine, 79 
Potier, Marguerite, 66, 79 
Potier, Marie, 66, 79 
Potier, Marie Catherine, 61, 62 
Potier, Marie Frangoise, 61, 82, 91, loi 
Potier, Marie Marguerite, 66 
Potier, Therese, 19 
Potier, Toussaint, 61, 72, 79, loi 
Poupart, Jean, 117 
Poupart, Paul, dit Lafleur, 117 
Pouvre, Eugene, dit Beausoleil, 74, 84, 88 
Pratte, Jean Baptiste, 92 
Pre, Marianne, in 
Pre, Pierre, 11 1 
Prevost, 73 

Primeau, Jean Baptiste, 119 
Provot, Claude, 109 
Provot, Frangoise, no 
Provot, Jean Baptiste, no 
Provot, Joseph, no 
Provot, Louis, no 
Provot, Madeleine, no 
Provot, Marianne. 109 
Provot, Nicolas, dit Blondin, 109, no 
Prudhomme, Catherine, 62 
Prudhomme, Jeanne, 80, 89 

Quadrin, Michael Francois, 80 
Quadrin, Nicolas, see Cadrin, 80 
Quebedeau, Joseph, dit Lespagniol, 105, 

no 
Quebedeau, Marie Frangoise, 1 10 
Quebedeau, Alarie Joseph, 105 
Quesnel, Charles, 100 
Quesnel, Dominique, 61, 62 
Quesnel, Marie Louise, 83, 87 
Quesnel, Marie Madeleine, 22, 62, 79, 95, 

112 



INDEX 



139 



Quesnel, Oliver, 62 
Quesnel, Raimond, 62, 66 
Quirigou, Felix, 106 

Rabut, Frangoise, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 88, 

93, 94, 95, loi 
Raget, Catherine, 104 
Renand, Marguerite, 83 
Renault, Alarguerite Angelique, 93 
Renault, Philippe, 18, 30, 38, 59 
Rheaume, Alphonse Paul, 81, 83, 89, 97 
Rheaume, filisabeth, 97 
Rheaume, Simon, 81, 97 
Richard, Daniel, 94 
Richard, Jean Baptiste, 36, 59, 84, 92, 94, 

113 
Richard, Louis,. 119 
Richer, Alarie Frangoise, 117 
Ride, Jean Baptiste, dit Beausseron, 33 
Ride, Louis, 100 
Rivard, Genevieve, 85, 87, 102 
Rivard, Marie Frangoise, 22, 49, 79, 80, 

81, 83, 84, 85, 89, 91, 119 
Riviere, Frangoise, 83 
Riviere, Marie Therese, 119 
Rivierre, Antoine, 62 
Robert, Louis, in 
Robert, Madeleine, 106, 118 
Robillard. Aladeleine, 62 
Rogue, Charles, dit Desvertus, 37 
Roland, Antoine, 62 
Rolet, Lucie, 105 
Rollet, Domitilla, 100, 106 
Rollet, Frangois Xavier, 82, 83, 89, 106 
Rollet, Jacques, 106 
Rondeau, Marianne Claude, 109 
Rotisseur, Antoine, 116 
Rouensa, Chief of the Kaskaskia Indians, 

13, 14 
Rouensa, Marie, 13, 14, 19, S3, 75, 81, 102, 

103, 104 
Roussel, Frangois, 107 
Roussel, Jean Frangois, 107 
Routier, Charles Amador, 118 
Routier, Genevieve, 118 
Routier, Jean Baptiste, 118 
Roy, Alexis, 117 
Roy, Elizabeth, 73, 105 
Roy, Frangois, 117 
Roy, Frangois Ange, 117 
Roy, Ignace, 118 
Roy, Jacques, 85, 89 
Roy, Jean, 73, 117 
Roy, Jean Baptiste, 117 
Roy, Jean Pierre, 117 
Roy, Joseph, 63, 117 



Roy, Marianne, 22, 85, 89 
Roy, Marie Louise, 82, 94 
Roy, Marie Therese, 117 
Roy, Monsieur, 7 
Roy, Pierre, 117 
Roy, Rene, 19, 73, 105 
Royer, Marianne, 94 
Royer, Marie, 90 
Ruelle, 100 

St. Ange, Elisabeth, 99, 100, 102 

St. Ange, Louis de Bellerive, 8, 17, 99 

St. Ange, Pierre Groston, 17, 35, 81, 87, 

99 
St. Ange, Robert, Sieur de, 98, 100 
St. Ange, Sieur, 8, 18, 49, 73, 105 
St. Ange, Widow, 98 
St. Cyr, Hyacinthe, 103, 104 
St. Germain, Thomas Alexandre, dit La- 

ville, 105 
St. Loren, 103 
St. Louis, Marguerite, 84 
St. Michel, Jeanne Messier, 103 
St. Michel, Marguerite, 80, 102 
St. Pierre, 66 
St. Pierre, Marie Anne, 29 
St. Pierre, Renee, 83 
Ste. Thereses Langloiserie, loi 
St. Yves, Augustin, 82, 91, 118 
St. Yves, Therese, 91 
Salmon, M., 25, 27 

Salvaye, Antoine, Sieur de Fremont, 109 
Sansoucy, Antoine, 80, 82, 93 
Sansoucy, Frangoise, 80, 82, 93 
Santorum, Frangoise, 117 
Santorum, Pierre, 117 
Saucier, Frangois, 8, 29, log 
Saucier, Henri, 29, 108 
Saucier, Jean Baptiste, 29, 59, 108 
Saucier, Alarie Jeanne Fontaille, 102 
Saucier, Alathieu, 109 
Savary, Gabrielle, 29, 108, 109 
Scionaux, Prangoise, 85 
Scionaux, Louis, 85 
Sebastien, Frangois, dit Le Suisse, dit 

Canarie, 30, 114 
Seeloff, Conrad, dit Caulet, 63, 85 
Segnier, Alarguerite, 80 
Seguin, Frangoise, 85 
Seguin, Joseph, dit Laderoute, 85, 91 
Seguin, Jacques, dit Laderoute, 83, 92, 

93, 96 
Seguin, Jean Baptiste, 96 
Seguin, Louis, 96 
Seguin, Marianne, 85, 92 
Seguin, Marie Anne, 85, 92 



140 



KASKASKIA UNDER THE FRENCH REGIME 



Scguin, Marie Frangoise, 85 

Sernin, Josei)h, 81 

Sibilor, Senor, 104 

Simon, Siciir, 17 

Snyder, Dr. John F., 29 

Sorel, Antoine, dit Dauphine. 105 

Sorel, Elisabeth dc St. Romain, 98, 100, 

103, 105 
Sorel, Marie Jo.seph, 105 
Souhait, Anne, 79 
Souhait, Charles, 79 
Stirhng, Capt. Thomas, 8 

Tabcau, Catlierine, 1 19 

Taillon, Jean Baptiste, 99 

Taillon, Joseph, 99 

Taillon, Michel, 108 

Tarascon, Charles, 113 

Tartaran, Father, 21, 25, 27, 75, 98 

Tetio, Marie, 63, 79, 82, 104, 112, 120 

Texier, Antoine, 97 

Texier, Catherine, 35, 87, 99 

Texier, Jean Baptiste, 15, 80, 83, 87, 97 

Texier, Jeanne, 107 

Texier, Joseph, 87 

Texier, Louis, 35, 87, 99, 112 

Texier, Marguerite, 29, 59, 81, 89 

Texier, Marie, no 

Texier, Marie Louise, 83, 97 

Texier, Alarie Rose, 35, 81, 82, 87, 99 

Texier, Paul, 35 

Texier, Petronilla, 81, 89 

Texier, Pierre, 83, 97, 98 

Texier, Symphorosa, 35 

Thuillier, Elizabeth, dit Devegnois, 83 

Tliuillier, Frangoise, 82, 92 

Thuillier, Jacques, 85, 92 

Thuillier, Jean Baptiste, 92 

Thuillier, Marie Rose, 83, 92, 96 

Thuillier, Nicolas, 36, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92, 

96, 116 
Thuillier, Widow, 96 
Tiberge, Louis Alexandre, 93 
Tirard, Louis, dit St. Jean, 84 
Tonti, Antoine, 15, 17, 49 
Trotier, Marie Jeanne, 95 
Trottier, Alarguerite, 109 
Trudeau, Frangois, 120 
Trudeau, Marie Therese, 75, 76, 117, 120 
Trudeau, Sieur, 76 
Truto, Louis, 120 
Turpin, Agnes, 90 



Turpin, Dorothee, 80, 83, 85, 90, 97 

Turpin, Elizabeth, 79, 90, 91, 95 

Turpin, Jean Baptiste, in 

Turpin, Jeanne, ()0 

Turpin, Joseph, 83, 97 

Turpin, Louis, 22, 25, 37, 44, 58, 61, 79, 

80. 83, 85, 90, 91. 97, 103 
Turpin, Louise Frangoise, 90 
Turpin, Marie, 90, ni 
Turpin, Marie Jeanne, in 
Turpin, Marie Joseph, 83, 90, 97 
Turpin, Afarie ^^adeleine, 83, 97 
Turpin, Pierre Alexandre, 90 
Turpin, Therese, 85, 90 

L^rbain, Marie Anne, 62 

Valentin, Father, lOi 

Valle, Charles, 82, 86 

Valle, Frangois, 37, 82, 86, 87, 89, 94 

Valle, Jean Baptiste, 86 

Valle, Joseph, 86 

Valle, Marie Louise, 86 

Varenne, company of, 88 

Vaudreuil, 29, 57, 74, 107, 108 

Vaudry, Jacques, in 

Vaudry, Pierre, in 

Vaudry, Toussaint, in 

Vernay, Louis, 29 

Veronneau, Denis, 90 

Verrier, Pierre, 80 

Verroneau, Jean Baptiste, 90, 119 

Verroneau, Marie, 90, 119 

Vien, Alarie Frangoise, 99 

Vien, IMichael, 33, 102 

Villars, Louis du Breuil, 86 

Vincennes, Frangois Margane, Sieur de, 

77, 91, 96 
Vincennes, Alarie, 60, 77,, 83, 91 
Vivareinne, Frangois, 29 
Vivareinne, Jean Baptiste, 29, 109 
Vivareinne, Marie Frangoise, 29, 109 
Vivareinne, Pierre, 29, 109 
Vivier, Father, 54, 56, 57 

Watrin, Father, 27 
Watrin, Philibert, 86 

Ycvremon, Etiennc, 107 

Zebedee, 12 






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