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C. H. TfAWNEY, M. A, 








Introduction,... ... ... ... ... ... 1 5 

Curse of Pushpadanta and Malyavan, ... ... ... 4 5 


Story of Pushpadanta when living on the earth as Vararuchi ... 6 10 

How Kanabhuti became a Pisacha, ... ... ... ... 6 7 

Story of Vararuchi'a teacher Varsha, and his fellow-pupils Vyadi and 

Indradatta, ... ... ... ... ... 7 10 


Continuation of the story of Yararuchi, ... ... ... 11 16 

Story of the founding of the city of Pataliputra,.. ... ... 11 16 

Story of king Brahmadatta, ... ... ... ... 12 13 


Continuation of the story of Yararuchi, ... ... ... 16 23 

Story of Upakosa and her four lovers, ... ... ... 17 20 


Conclusion of the story of Yararuchi, ... ... ... 23 31 

Story of S'ivasarman, ... ... ... ... ... 27 28 


Story of Malyavan when living on the earth as Gunadhya,... ... 32 40 

Story of the Mouse-merchant, ... ... ... ... 33 34 

Story of the chanter of the Sama Veda, ... ... ... 34 35 

Story of Satavahana, ... ... ... ... ... 36 37 


Continuation of the story of Gunadhya, ... ... ... 41 47 

How Pushpadanta got his name, ... ... ... ... 43 46 

Story of king S'ivi, ... ... 40 46 



Continuation of the story of Gunadhya, 

Siva's tales, originally composed by Gunadhya in the Paisacha language, 
are made known in Sanskrit under the title of Vrihat Katha, 


Story of the ancestors and parents of Udayana king of Vatsa, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana' s parents, 
Story of S'ridatta and Mrigankavati, ... 

Udayana succeeds to the kingdom of Vatsa, ... 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of king Chandamahasena, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Rupinika, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Devasmita, ... ... ... 

Story of the cunning Siddhikari, ... 

Story of S'aktimati, ... ... ... 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of the clever deformed child, ... 
Story of Ruru, 












Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of the clever physician, ... 

Story of the hypocritical ascetic, 
Story of Unmadini, ... 

Story of the loving couple who died of separation, 
Story of Punyascna, 
Story of Sunda and Upasunda, ... ... 









Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Kunti, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Urvasi, ... 

Story of Vihitasena, ... ... 

Story of Somaprabha, ... ... 

Story of Ahalya, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Vidiishaka, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, ... 

Story of Devadasa, ... ... 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, ... 

Story of Phalabhuti, 

Story of Kuvalay avail and the witch Kalaratri,... 
Story of the birth of Kartikeya, ... ... 

Story of Sundaraka and Kalaratri, ... ... 













Continuation of the story of Udayana, 
Story of Pandu, ... ... 

Story of Devadatta, ... .,. * ... 

Story of Pingalika, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 

Story of Jimutavahana, ... 

Story of Jimutavahana' s adventures in a former life, 

Story of Kadru and Vinata, ... 


Continuation of the story of Udayana, 

Story of Sinhaparakrama,.. 

Birth of Udayana's son Naravahanadatta, 










Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 193 204 

Story of S'aktivega king of tho Vidyadharas, ... ... ... 194 204 

Story of S'iva and Madhava, ... ... .., ... 197 202 

Story of Harasvamin, ... ... ... ... .,. 203 204 


Continuation of tho story of S'aktivega, ... ... ... 205 219 

Story of Asokadatta and Vijayadatta, ... ... ... 208219 


Conclusion of the story of S'aktivega, ... ... ... 220233 

Story of Devadatta, ... ... ... ... ... 229231 

Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 233 



Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... .. 235 216 

Story of Kulingadatta, king of Takshasila, ... ... ... 235246 

Story of the merchant's son in Takshasila, ... ... ... 236 238 

Story of the Apsaras Surabhidatta, ... ... ... ... 238239 

Story of king Dharmadatta and his wife Nagasri ... ... 239 240 

Story of the seven Brahmans who devoured a cow in time of famine, ... 241 

Story of the two ascetics, the one a Brahman, the other a Chandala, ... 241 212 

Story of king Vikramasinha and tho two Brahmans, ... ... 242 246 


Continuation of the story of Kalingadatta, ,.. ... .... 246 257 

Birth of his daughter Kalingasena, ... ... ... 21(5 

Story of the seven princesses,... ... ... ... ... 247 249 

Story of the prince who tore out his own eye, ... ... ... 217 218 

Story of the ascetic who conquered anger, ... ... ... 248 249 

Story of Sulochana and Sushena, ... ... ... ... 249252 

Story of the prince and the merchant's son who saved his life, ... 253 255 

Story of the Brahman and tho Pisacha, ... ... ... 255 256 


Continuation of the story of Kalingadatta, ... ... ... 257267 

Story of Kirtisena and her cruel mother-in-law,... ... ... 260 267 


Continuation of tho story of Kalingadatta, ... ... ... 2G7 274 

Story of Tejasvati, ... ... ... ... ... -7 

Story of tho Brahman Harisarman, ... ... ... ... 272 27-4 




Conclusion of the story of Kalingadatta, ... ... ... 276278 

Story of Usha and Aniruddha, ... ... ... .. 276277 

Kalingasena daughter of Kalingadatta escapes to Vatsa, ... ... 278 

Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 278 280 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 281 291 

Story of the Brahman's son Vishnudatta and his seven foolish companions, 283 285 

Story of Kadaligarbha, ... ... ... ... ... 286290 

Story of the king and the barber's wife, ... ... ... 288289 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 291 302 

Story of S'rutasena, ... ... ... ... ... 292295 

Story of the three Brahman brothers, ... .. ... 293 

Story of Devasena and Unmadini, ... ... ... ... 294 

Story of the ichneumon, the owl, the cat and the mouse, ... ... 296 298 

Story of king Prasenajit and the Brahman who lost his treasure, ... 298299 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 302 317 

Story of king Indradatta, ... ... ... ... 303 

Story of the Yaksha Virupaksha, ... ... ... ... 306307 

Story of S'atrughna and his wicked wife, ... ... ... 312 

Story of king S'urasena and his ministers, ... ... ... 313 314 

Story of king Harisinha, ... ... ... ... ... 314 



Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of Ratnaprabha, ... ... ... ... 

Story of Sattvasfla and the two treasures, ,. ... 

Story of the brave king Vikramatunga, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of king Ratnadhipati and the white elephant S'vetarasmi, 

Story of Yavanasena, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... 

Story of Nischayadatta, ... ... ... 

Story of Somasvamin, ... ... , 

Story of Bhavasannan, ... 






Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of king Vikramaditya and the hetaera, 
Story of king Vikramaditya and the treacherous mendicant, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of S'ringabhuja and the daughter of the Rakshasa, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of Tapodatta, 

Story of Virupasarman, ... ... 

Story of king Vilasasila and the physician Tarunachandra, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... 

Story of king Chirayus and his minister Nagarjuna, ... 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of king Parityagasena, his wicked wife, and his two sons, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... 

Story of the two brothers Pranadhara and Rajyadhara, 
Story of Arthalobha and his beautiful wife, ... ... 

Story of the princess Karpurika in her birth as a swan, ... 



Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of Suryaprabha, 


Continuation of the story of Suryaprabha, 
Story of the Brahman Kala, ... ... 


Continuation of the story of Suryaprabha, ... 
Story of the generous Danava Namuchi, 

Continuation of the story of Suryaprabha, 

Continuation of the story of Si'n-\ aprubh.t, 
Adventure of the witch ;>',UM! luiaani, ... 








405 406 







Continuation of the story of Suryaprabha, 
Story of king Mahasena and his virtuous minister GunaSannan, 




Conclusion of the story of Suryaprabha, ... 
Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 




Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of Alankaravatf, ... 

Story of Rama and Sita, ... ... ... 

Story of the handsome king Prithvirupa, 



Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of Asokamala, ... ... 

Story of Sthulabhuja, 

Story of Anangarati and her four suitors, 

Story of Anangarati in a former birth, 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of king Lakshadatta and his dependent Labdhadatta, . 

Story of the Brahman Viravara, ... ... 

Story of Suprabha, ... ... ... , 



52U 521 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 
Story of the merchant iSamudrasura, ... 
Story of king Chamarabala, 
Story of Yasovarman and the two fortunes, 

521) 531 
532 5;itj 


Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, 

Story of Chiriidatri, 

Story of king Kauakavarsha and Madanasuudari, 

538 5-W 



Continuation of the story of Udayana and his son, ... ... 549 569 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his son Mahipala, and his 

daughter Chandravati,... ... ... ... ... 549 569 

Story of Chakra, ... ... ... ... ... 554556 

Story of the hermit and the faithful wife, ... ... ... 556 557 

Story of Dharmavyadha the righteous seller of flesh, ... ... 557 

Story of the treacherous Pasupata ascetic, ... ... ... 558 559 

Story of king Trihhuvana, ... ... ... ... 558559 

Story of Nala and Damayanti, ... ... ... ... 559 568 


To Fasciculus I. 

Page 1, line 6, for " Part I" read " Book I, called Kathapitha." 

Page 14, add to footnote. " See also Ealston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 230 and Vec- 
kenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 152." 

Page 20, add to footnote. " General Cunningham is of opinion that the denoument 
of this story is represented in one of the Bharhut Sculptures ; see his Stupa of 
Bharhut, p. 53." 

Page 27, 3rd line, from the bottom of the page, add to footnote. " The reader will 
find similar questioning demons described in Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, 
pp. 54_56, and 109." 

Page 40, add to footnote. " See also the 60th Tale in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 
Marchen, Vol. II, p. 17. 

Page 58, add as a note to the story of the guardian lion. " This incident may be 
compared with one described in Weckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 82. 

Pao'e 70, add to footnote at the bottom of the page " Cp. also Veckenstedt's Wen- 
dische Sagen, p. 72." 

Page 77, add to the second footnote " Cp. also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, 
p. 124." 



Pago 5. For note t substitute See note on page 281. 

Page 12, line 16 " Every day when he awakes from sleep, a hundred thousand gold 
pieces shall be found under his pillow." This may be compared with Grimm's No. 60, 
" Die zwei Briider." Each of the brothers finds every day a gold piece under his 

Page 14. Add to footnote See also the story of "Die Kaiserin Trebisonda" in a 
collection of South Italian tales by Woldemar Kaden, entitled " Unter den Olivenbau- 
men'' and published in 1880. The hero of this story plays the same trick as Putraka, 
and gains thereby an inexhaustible purse, a pair of boots which enable the wearer to 
run like the wind, and a mantle of invisibility. See also " Beutel, Miintclchen und 
Wunderhorn" in the same collection, and No. XXII in Miss Stokes's Indian Fairy 
Tales. The story is found in the Avadanas translated by Stanislas Julien : (Leveque, 
Mythes et Legendes de L'Inde et de la Perse, p. 570, Liebrecht, zur Volkskunde, 
p. 117.) M. Leveque thinks that La Fontaine was indebted to it for his Fable 
of L' Huitre et les Plaideurs. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, 
pp. 126127, and 162. 

Page 16, line 1. " And so taking Patali in his arms he flew away from that 
place through the air." Compare the way in which Zauberer Vergilius carries off 
the daughter of the Sultan of Babylon, and founds the town of Naples, which ho 
makes over to her and her children : (Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. VI, 
pp. 354, 355.) Dunlop is of opinion that the mediasval traditions about Vergil are 
largely derived from Oriental sources. 

Page 20. Add to note A faint echo of this story is found in Gonzenbach'u 
Sicilianische Marchen, No. 55, pp. 359 362. Cp. also No. 72(i) in the Novellas 
Morlini. (Liobrecht's Dunlop, p. 497.) 

Page 22, last line of the page, " Yogananda threw S'akatala into a dark dungeon 
and his hundred sons with him." Compare this with the story of Ugolino in Dante's 

Pago 30, line 5. For " performing" read " presiding at." 

Page 42. Add to note % This belief seems to be very general in Wales, see Wirt 
Sikes, British Goblins, p. 113. See also Kuhn's Herabkunft des Fcuers, p. 93, De 
Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, p. 285. 

Page 44. Add to note* See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 241, where 
Prince Ivan by the help of his tutor Katoma propounds to the Princess Anna the l;iir, 
a I'iddlc which enables him to win her as his wife. 

10. Add to footnote. M. Levequo (Lcs Myth->s rt I/-^ de L'lado 
p 327) connects this story with that of Philemon and Baucis. LLo lays particular 
stress upon the following lines of Ovid : 


Unieua atuer erat, minimrr custodia 
Qucm Dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant : 
Ille celer penna tardos setate fatigat, 
Eluditque diu, tandemque est visus ad ipsos 
Confugisse deos. Super i vetnere necari. 

See also Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, pp. 187, 297 and 414. 

Page 53, last lino of page. For illustrations of this bath of blood see Dunlop'a 
Liebrecht, page 135, and the note at the end of the book. The story of Der arme 
Heinrich, to which Liebrecht refers, ia to be found in the Vlth Volume of Simrock's 
Deutsche Volksbuchcr. 

Page 64. Add to note Gigantic birds that feed on raw flesh are mentioned by 
the Pseudo-Callisthenes, Book II, ch. 41. Alexander gets on the back of one of them, 
and is carried into the air, guiding his bird by holding a piece of liver in front of it. 
He is warned by a winged creature in human shape to proceed no further, and descends 
again to earth. See also Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 143 and note. See also Birlinger, Aus 
Schwaben, pp. 6, 6, 7. He compares Pacolet's horse in the story of Valentine and 

Page 68, line 5. For " the god with the bull-blazoned banner" read " the god 
whose emblem is a bull." 

Page 64, line 9. " A village named Nagasthala near Mathura." Mr. Growse 
remarks : " In Hindi the word Nagasthala would assume the form Nagal ; and there 
is a village of that name to this day in the Mahaban Pargana of the Mathura Dis- 

Page 70. Add to note J In the Gehbrnte Siegfried (Simrock's Deutsche Volks- 
biicher, Vol. Ill, pp. 368 and 416), the hero is made invulnerable everywhere but 
between the shoulders, by being smeared with the melted fat of a dragon. Cp. also 
the story of Achilles. For the transformation of Chandamahasena into a boar see 
Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. II, pp. 144, 145, 
and Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, p. 14. 

Page 74, line 7 from the bottom. " Yaugandharayana, by means of that very 
charm, gave Vasantaka a body full of outstanding veins &c." Cp. the way in which 
the Eitter Malegis transmutes Reinold in the story of Die Heimonskinder (Sinirock's 
Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. II, p. 86). " He changed him into an old man, a hundred 
years of age, with a decrepit and misshapen body, and long hair." See also p. 114. 
So Merlin assumes the form of an old man and disguises Uther and Ulfin, Dunlop'a 
History of Fiction, translated by Liebrecht, p. 66. 

1'agc 76, lino 13. Mr. Growse writes to me with reference to the name Loha- 
jangha " This name still exists on the spot, though probably not to be found else- 
where. The original bearer of the title is said to have been one of the demons whom 
Krishna slew, and a village is called Lohaban after him, where an ancient red sand- 
atone image is supposed to represent him, and has offerings of iron made to it ut the 
annual festival. 

Pago 77. Add to note f " See also the story of Heinrich dor Lowe, Simrock's 
Di.-ut.sche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, p. 8. Dr. Kiihler refers to the story of llerzog Ernst. 
The incident will be found in Simrock's version of the story, at page 308 of the Illrd 
Volume of his Deutsche Volksbiichor." 

Pago 79. Add to note f The legend of Garuda and the Balakhilyas is found 
in thu Muhabharata, see De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 96. 


Page 80. Add to note * But Joscphus in Ant. Jud. XVIII, 3, tells it of a Roman 
knight named Mundus, who fell in love with Paulina the wife of Saturninus, and 
by corrupting the priestess of Isis was enabled to pass himself off as Anubis. On tho 
matter coming to the ears of Tiberius, ho had the temple of Isia destroyed, and the 
priests crucified. (Dunlop's History of Fiction, Vol. II, p. 27. Liebrecht's German 
translation, p. 232). A similar story is told by the Pseudo-Callisthenes of Nectaneboa 
and Olympias. 

Page 86. Add to note f See also " The king of Spain and his queen " in Thorpe's 
Yule-tide Stories, pp. 452 455. Thorpe remarks that the tale agrees in substance 
with the ballad of the " Graf Von Rom" in Uhland, II, 784 ; and with the Flemish 
story of " Ritter Alexander aus Metz und Seine Frau Florentina." In the 21st of 
Bandello's novels the test is a mirror (Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 287). See also pp. 85 
and 86 of Liebrecht's Dunlop, with the notes at the end of the volume. 

Page 98, line 3, for " he went and begged the hermit to give him to her in 
marriage" read " he went and begged the hermit to give her to him in marriage." 

Page 98. Add to note * Bernhard Schmidt in his Griechische Marchen, page 37, 
mentions a very similar story, which he connects with that of Admetos and Alkestis. 
In a popular ballad of Trebisond, a young man named Jannis, the only son of hia 
parents, is about to be married, when Charon comes to fetch him. He supplicates 
St. George, who obtains for him the concession, that his life may be spared, in case his 
father will give him half the period of life still remaining to him. His father refuses, 
and in the same way his mother. At last his betrothed gives him half her allotted 
period of life, and the marriage takes place. The story of Ruru is found in the 
Adiparva of the Mahabharata, see Leveque, Mythes et Legendes de 1' Inde, pp. 278, 
and 374. 

Page 99. Add to note. See also Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, 
p. 45. " The vicar of Stranton was standing at the churchyard gate, awaiting the 
arrival of a funeral party, when to his astonishment the whole group, who had arrived 
within a few yards of him, suddenly wheeled and made the circuit of the churchyard 
wall, thus traversing its west, north, and east boundaries, and making the distance 
some five or six times greater than was necessary. The vicar, astonished at this 
proceeding, asked the sexton the reason of so extraordinary a movement. The reply 
was as follows : ' Why, ye wad no hae them carry the dead again the sun ; the dead 
maun aye go with the sun.' This custom is no doubt an ancient British or Celtic 
custom, and corresponds to the Highland usage of making the deazil or walking 
three times round a person according to the course of the sun. Old Highlanders will 
still make the deazil around those to whom they wish well. To go round tho person 
in the opposite direction, or " withershins," is an evil incantation and brings ill- 
fortune. Hunt in his Romances and Drolls of the West of England, p. 418, says, 
"If an invalid goes out for the first time, and makes a circuit, the circuit must be 
with the sun, if against the sun, there will be a relapse. Liebrecht, zur Volks- 
kundo, p. 322, quotes from the Statistical Account of Scotland, Vol. V, p. 88 tho 
following statement of a Scottish minister, with reference to a marriage ceremony : 
" After leaving the church, the whole company walk round it, keeping the church 
walls always on the right hand." 

Thiselton Dyer, in his English Folk-lore, p. 171, mentions a similar custom as 
existing in the West of England. In Devonshire blackhead or pinsoles are cured by 
creeping on one's hands and knees under or through a bramble three times with the 
sun ; that is from cast to west. See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian people, p. 299. 


Page 102 ; Add to note * Cp. Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, 
p. 131. 

Page 103 Add to note * This story bears a certain resemblance to the termina- 
tion of Alles aus einer Erbse, Kadon's Unter den Olivenbiiumen, p. 22. See also 
page 220 of the same collection. 

Page 104. Add to note f Liebrecht, in note 485 to page 413 of his translation of 
Dunlop's History of Fiction, compares this story with one in The Thousand and One 
Days of a princess of Kashmir, who was so beautiful that every one who saw her went 
mad, or pined away. He also mentions an Arabian tradition with respect to the 
Thracian sorceress Uhodope. " The Arabs believe that one of the pyramids is haunted 
by a guardian spirit in the shape of a beautiful woman, the mere sight of whom drives 
men mad." He refers also to Thomas Moore, the Epicurean, Note 6 to Chapter VI, 
and the Adventures of Hatim Tai, translated by Duncan Forbes, p. 18. 

Page 115. For parallels to the story of Urvasi, see Kuhn's Herabkunft des 
Feuer's, p. 88. 

Page 121, lino 6. Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stallybrass, 
p. 121, note,) connects the description of wonderful maidens sitting inside hollow 
trees or perched oc the boughs, with tree-worship. 

Page 130, line 6. Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology (translation by Stallybrass, 
p. 392) remarks " One principal mark to know heroes by is their possessing intelligent 
horses, and conversing with them. The touching conversation of Achilles with his 
Xanthos and Balios finds a complete parallel in the beautiful Karling legend of Bayard. 
(This is most pathetically told in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbucher, Vol. II, Die Heimons- 
kinder, see especially page 64). Grimm proceeds to cite many other instances from 
European literature. See also Note 3 to the XXth story in Miss Stokes's collection. 
See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, p. 336 and./. 

Page 132. Add to note * The belief that the dead rose from the tomb in the 
form of Vampires appears to have existed in Chaldsea and Babylon. Lenormant 
observes in his Chaldiean Magic and Sorcery, (English Translation, p. 37) "In a 
fragment of the Mythological epopee which is traced upon a tablet in the British 
Museum, and relates the descent of Ishtar into Hades, we are told that the goddess, 
when she arrived at the doors of the infernal regions, called to the porter whoso duty 
it was to open them, saying, 

" Porter, open thy door ; 
Open thy door that I may enter. 
If thou dost not open the door, and if I cannot enter, 
I will attack the door, I will break down its bars, 
I will attack the enclosure, I will leap over its fences by force ; 
I will cause the dead to rise and devour the living ; 
I will give to the dead power over the living." 

The same belief appears also to have existed in Egypt. The same author observes 
(p. 02). "These formula) also kept the body fircm beoomhig, during fta separation 

from the soul, the prey of some wieked spirit which would enter, re-animate, and cause 
it to rise again in the form of a vampire. For, according to the Egyptian belief, the 
possessing spirits, and the spectres which frightened or tormented the living were but 
the souls of the condemned returning tu tho earth, before undergoing the annihilation 
of the ' second death.' " 


Pago 133, lino 1. Cp. the way in which the witch treats the corpse of her son 
in the Vlth book of the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, ch. 14, and Lucan'a Pharealia, Book 
VI, 754757. 

Page 134, line 25. Cp. Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. Ill, p. 399. 

Page 137, line 26. General Cunningham identifies Pauudravardhana with the 
modern Pubna. 

Page 138. Add to note See also the 30th page of Lenormant's Chaldn ,m 
Magic and Sorcery, English translation. 

142, lines 1 and 2. For stories of transportation through the air, see Wir 
Sikes, British Goblins, p. 157 and/ 1 . 

Pago 142. Add to footnote. See also the story of Heinrich der Lowe, Simrock's 
Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, pp. 21 and 22. 

Pago 151. Add to note * Probably the expression means " flexible, well-tempered 
sword," as Professor Nflmani Mukhopadhyaya has suggested to me. 

Page 153, lino 21. For the worship of trees and tree-spirits, see Grimm's Teu- 
tonic Mythology, p. 75 and,/'., and Tylor's Primitive Culture, Vol. II, p. 196 and^. 

Pago 154. Add to note See also Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, pp. 200, and 201 ; 
Henderson's Northern Folk-lore, p. 19, Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen, und Gebrauche aus 
Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 128, 213. Professor Jebb, in his notes on Theophrastus* 
Superstitious man, observes " The object of all those ceremonies, in which the offerings 
were carried round the person or place to be purified, was to trace a charmed circle 
within which the powers of evil should not come." 

Page 157. Add to note* In Icelandic Sagas a man with meeting eyebrows is 
said to be a werewolf. The same idea holds in Denmark, also in Germany, whilst in 
Greece it is a sign that a man is a Brukolak or Vampire. (Note by Baring-Gould in 
Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties). 

Page 159, line 15. " Kalaratri came into it with a drawn sword in her hand." 
Cp. the Aethiopica of Heliodorus, Book VII, ch. 15, where the witch is armed with a 
sword during her incantations ; and Homer's Odyssey, XI, 48. See also for the magic 
virtues of steel Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 312, 313. Add to footnote J See also 
Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchon und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 115. 

Pago 166. Add to note f See also Bernhard Schmidt's Gricchische Marchcn, 
p. 38. " A popular ballad referring to the story of Digenis gives him a life of 300 
years, and represents his death as due to his killing a hind that had on its shoulder the 
image of the Virgin Mary, a legend the foundation of which is possibly a recollec- 
tion of the old mythological story of the hind of Artemis killed by Agamemnon." 
[Sophoclis Elcctra, 568.] In the llomance of Doolin of Mayence Guyon kills a hermit 
by mistake for a deer. (Liebrecht's translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction, p. 138) 
See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, pp. 84 86. 

Pago 174, line 13. For " all you desire " read " all ice desire." Liebrccht, speak- 
ing of the novel of Guorino Meschino, compares this tree with the sun and moon- 
trees mentioned in the work of the 1'seudo-Callisthenes, Book III, c. 17. They 
inform Alexander that the years of his life are accomplished, and that ho will die in 
Babylon. See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian people, p. 111. 

Pago 183, lino 1. M. Le"veque considers that the above story, as told in the 
Mahabharata, forms the basis of the Birds of Aristophanes. He identifies Garuda with 
the hoopoe. (Les Mythes et los Legcndes do 1' Inde et de la Perse, p. 14). 

Page 183. Add to note f Seo also Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen, und Gebriiuche 
aus Mekleuburg, Vol. I, p. 277 and/ 1 . 


Page 189. Add to note f For the idea see note on page 305. 

Page 205. Add to note f Lenormant in his ChalcUean Magic and Sorcery, p. 41, 
(English Translation), observes : " We must add to the number of those mysterious 
rites the use of certain enchanted drinks, which doubtless really contained medicinal 
drugs, as a cure for diseases, and also of magic knots, the efficacy of which was firmly 
believed in, even up to the middle ages." See also Ralston's Songs of the Russian 
people, p. 288. 

Page 206. Add to note * Cp. also Kaden's TJnter den Olivenbaumen, p. 56. 

Page 224. Add to note * In Wirfc Sikes's British Goblins, p. 84, a draught from 
a forbidden well has the same effect. 

Page 237, Add to note* See also Bartsch' s Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche aus 
Meklenburg, VoL I, p. 90. 

Page 241, line 4, " Story of the seven Brahmans." This appears to be found in 
a slightly different form in the Harivansa. (Leveque, Mythes et L^gendes de 1'Inde, 
p. 220). 

Page 253. Add to note * A very striking parallel will be found in Bernhard 
Schmidt's Griechische Marchen, Story No. 3, p. 68. In this story the three Moirai 
predict evil. The young prince is saved by his sister, from being burnt, and from 
falling over a precipice when a child, and from a snake on his wedding-day. See also 
De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II, pp. 301302. 

Page 254. Add to note * See also Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors, Book IV 
ch. 9, " Of saluting upon sneezing." 

Page 255, line 22, " the evil importunity of Pisachas." There is a story illus- 
trating the " pertinacity" of goblins in Wirt Sikes's British Goblins, p. 191. 

Page 263. Add to footnote. Compare also the way in which the gardener in 
"Das Rosmarinstrauchlein," Kaden's Unter den Olivenbaumen, p. 12, acquires some 
useful information. The story of Kirtisena from this point to the cure of the king 
closely resembles the latter half of Die Zauberkugeln in the same collection. 

Page 276. Add to footnote. So Arthur in the Romance of Artus de la Bretagne 
(Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 107) falls in love with a lady he sees in a dream. Liebrecht 
in his note at the end of the book tells us that this is a common occurrence in Romances, 
being found in Amadis of Greece, Palmerin of Oliva, the Romans de Sept Sages, 
the Fabliau of the Chevalier a la Trappe, the Nibelungen Lied, &c., and ridiculed by 
Chaucer in his Rime of Sir Topas. He also refers to Athenseus, p. 675, and the Henno- 
timus of Lucian. 

Page 286. Add to note * Cp. the story of St. Macarius. 

Page 290. Add to footnote. See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche 
aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 265, 313, 441444, and 447, where peas are used for 
the same purpose. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 165. 

Page 305. Add to note J The same notion will be found in Bartsch's Sagen, 
Miirchen, und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, pp. 17, 64, 89, 91 ; Vol. II, p. 43. 

Page 306. Add to footnote. For treasures and their guanli itsch's 

Sagen, Miirchon, und Gcl.nluchc aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 213 and Jf\, and for the 
candle of human fat, Vol. II, pp. 333 and 335 of the same work. Cp. also Birliiigi-r, 
Aus Schwaben, pp. 261 and 262 270. 

Page 312. Add to note t The author of Sagas from the Far East remarks ; 
" Scrpont-Cultus was of very ancient observance, and is practised by both foil* 
of Brdhmanism and Buddhism. The Brahmans seem to have dr.-ind to show their 
disapproval of it by placing the serpent-gods in the lower ranks of their mythology, 


(Lassen. I, 707 and 544, n. 2). This cultus, however, seems to have received a fresh 
development about the time of Asoka circa 250 B. C. (Vol. II, p. 467). When Madhy- 
antika went into Cashmere and Gandhara to teach Buddhism after the holding of tho 
third synod, it is mentioned that he found sacrifices to serpents practised there (II. 
234, 235). There is a passage in Plutarch from which it appears to have heen tho 
custom to sacrifice an old woman (previously condemned to death for some crime) to 
the serpent-gods by burying her alive on the banks of the Indus (II. 467, note 4) 
Ktesias also mentions the serpent worship (II. 642). In Buddhist legends serpents 
are often mentioned as protecting patrons of certain towns. (Sagas from the Far 
East, p. 355). See also Mr. F. S Growse's Mathura memoir, p. 71. 

Page 327. Add to footnote. See also Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. I, 
p. 301 ; Vol. Ill, p. 12 ; Vol. VI, p. 289. Lucian in his De Dea. Syria ch. 32, speaks 
of a precious stone of the name of \vxvis which was bright enough to light up a 
whole temple at night. We read in the history of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, Book II, 
ch. 42, that Alexander found in the belly of a fish a precious stone which he had set 
in gold and used at night as a lamp. See also Baring Gould's Curious Myths of the 
Middle Ages, p. 42. 

Page 338. Add to note * The incident in Sicilianische Marchen closely resembles 
one in the story of Fortunatus as told in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbiicher, Vol. Ill, 
p. 175. There is a pipe that compels all the hearers to dance in Hug of Bordeaux, 
Vol. X, p. 263, and a very similar fairy harp in Wirt Sikes's British Goblins, p. 97 ; 
and a magic fiddle in Das Goldene Schachspiel, a story in Kaden's Unter den Olivcn- 
baumen, p. 160. A fiddler in Bartsch's Sagen aus Meklenburg, (Vol. I, p. 130) makes 
a girl spin round like a top. From that day she was lame. See also De Gubernatis, 
Zoological Mythology, Vol. I, pp. 182 and 288, and Baring Gould, Ilnd Series, p. 152. 

Page 343. Add to note. Cp. also Miss Keary's Heroes of Asgard, p. 223, where 
Loki and Iduna in the forms of a falcon and a sparrow are pursued by the giant 
Thiassi in the shape of an eagle. 

Page 350, line 14. Cp. Sicilianische Marchen, Vol. II, p. 46, where the giant 
treacherously lets fall his gauntlet, and asks his adversary to pick it up. His ad- 
versary, the hero of the story, tells him to pick it up himself, and when the giant 
bends down for the purpose, cuts oif his head with one blow of his sword. 

Page 355. Add to note * Another parallel is to be found in Kaden's Unter den 
Olivenbiiumen, p. 168. See also Sagas from the Far East, p. 268 ; Birlinger, Aua 
Schwaben, p. 105. 

Page 360, Note*; 3rd line from bottom. After "p. 408" insert "and Wirt 
Sikes's British Goblins, p. 39." 

Pago 361. Add to note * So in No. 83 of the Sicilianische Marchen the anta 
help Carnfedda because ho once crumbled his bread for them. 

Page 364. Add to footnote. See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen, und Gebrauche 
aus Meklenburg, Vol. I, p. 508. 

Page 369. Add to note on Chapter 39. Cp. also for tho tasks the story of Bisara 
in Kaden's Unter den Olivcnbaumen, and that of Die schone Fiorita. Herr Kaden 
aptly compares the story of Jason and Medea. Another excellent parallel is furnished 
by the story of Schneeweiss-Feuerroth in the same collection, where we have the 
pursuit much as in our text. 

Pago 387. Add to footnote f See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebhiuche 
aus Mcklonburg, Vol. I, p. 474. See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, 
Vol. I, p. 328, Vol. II, p. 317. 

r )7S 

.103. A 'U to note* See also the romance of Parthenopex of Blois in 
Dunlop's History of Fiction, (Liubrucht's translation, p. 17-J). 

Page 465. Add to note * See also Bartsch's Sagen, Miirchen und Gebrauche aus 
Meklenburg, Vol. II, p. 313, and Birlingcr, Aus Schwaben, pp. 374 378, and 404. 
For similar superstitions in ancient Greece see Jebb's Characters of Thoophrastus, 
p. 163, "The superstitious man, if a weasel run across his path, will not pursue his 
walk until some one else has traversed the road, or until he has thrown three stones 
across it. When he sees a serpent in his house, if it be the red snake, he will invoke 
Sabazius, if the sacred snake, he will straightway place a shrine on the spot * * * 
If an owl is startled by him in his walk, he will exclaim " Glory be to Athene !" 
before he proceeds." Jebb refers us to AT. Eccl. 792. 

480. Add to note t The same is asserted by Palladius of the trees in the 
island of Taprobane, where the Makrobioi live. The fragment of Palladius, to which 
I refer, begins at the 7th Chapter of the Illrd book of the History of the Pseudo- 
Callisthenes edited by Carolus Mueller. 

Page 499. Add to note t Kuhn in his "Herabkunft des Feuers" traces this 
story back to the S'atapatha Brahmana. 







May the dark neck of S'iva, which the god of love has, so to speak, 
surrounded with nooses in the form of the alluring looks of Parvati reclin- 
ing on his bosom, assign to you prosperity. 

May that victor of obstacles,* who after sweeping away the stars with 
his trunk in the delirious joy of the evening dance, seems to create others 
with the spray issuing from his hissingf mouth, protect you. 

After worshipping the goddess of Speech, the lamp that illuminates 
countless objects, | I compose this collection which contains the pith of the 

The first book in my collection is called Kathapitha, then conies 
Kathamukha, then the third book named Lavanaka, then follows Xarava- 
hanadattajanana, and then the book called Chahmlarika, and then Madana- 
manchuka, then the seventh book named llatnaprabha, and then the eighth 
book named Suryaprabha, then Alankaravati, then S'aktiyasas, and then 
the eleventh book called Vela, then comes S'asankavati, and then Madivii- 
vati, then comes the book called Paneha followed by Mahabhisheka, 
and then S'uratamanjari, then Padnuivuti, and then will follow the 
eighteenth book Vishamasila. 

* Dr. BrorVnuiis explains this of GancSa, he is probably ; 
the danco. So the poet invokes two gods, 3iva and (.laur-u, and one god. 
vati, the goddess of speech and Icarni; 

t S'tikdra a sound made by drawing in the breath, cxpros -ore. 

% There is a double meaning : paddrtiiu also m.-an-. words and their meanings. 

This book is precisely on the model of that from which it is taken, 
there is not even the slightest deviation, only such language is selected as 
tends to abridge the prolixity of the work ; the observance of propriety 
and natural connexion, and the joining together of the portions of the 
poem so as not to interfere with the spirit of the stories, are as far as 
possible kept in view : I have not made this attempt through desire of a 
reputation for ingenuity, but in order to facilitate the recollection of a 
multitude of various tales. 

There is a mountain celebrated under the name of Himavat, haunted 
by Kinnaras, Gandharvas, and Vidyadharas, a very monarch of mighty 
hills, whose glory has attained such an eminence among mountains that 
Bhavani the mother of the three worlds deigned to become his daughter ; 
the northernmost summit thereof is a great peak named Kailasa, which 
towers many thousand yojanas in the air,* and as it were, laughs forth 
with its snowy gleams this boast " Mount Mandaraf did not become 
white as mortar even when the ocean was churned with it, but I have 
become such without an effort." There dwells Mahesvara the beloved of 
Parvati, the chief of things animate and inanimate, attended upon by 
Ganas, Yidyadharas and Siddhas. In the upstanding yellow tufts of his 
matted hair, the new moon enjoys the delight of touching the eastern 
mountain yellow in the evening twilight. When he drove his trident into 
the heart of Andhaka, the king of the Asuras, though he was only one, the 
dart which that monarch had infixed in the heart of the three worlds was, 
strange to say, extracted. The image of his toe-nails being reflected in 
the crest-jewels of the gods and Asuras made them seem as if they had been 
presented with half moons by his favour. J Once on a time that lord, the 
husband of Parvati, was gratified with praises by his wife, having gained 
confidence as she sat in secret with him ; the moon-crested one attentive 
to her praise and delighted, placed her on his lap, and said, " What can I do 
to please thee ?" Then the daughter of the mountain spake " My lord, if 
tbou art satisfied with me, then tell me some delightful story that is quite 
new." And S'iva said to her, " What can there be in the world, my beloved, 
present, past, or future that thou dost not know ?" Then that goddess, be- 
loved of S'iva, importuned him. eagerly because she was proud in soul ou 
account of his affection. 

Then S'iva wishing to flatter her, began by telling her a very short 
story, referring to her own divine power. 

* Possibly the meaning is that the mountain covers many thousand ynjanas. 

f This mountain K<TV< d the -<itl* and Asuras as a churning stick at the dunning 
of the ocean for the recovery of the Amrita and fourteen other precious things lost 
during the <1< 

S'iva himself wears a moon's cresceut. 

" Once on a time* Brahma and Narayana roaming through the world 
in order to behold me, came to the foot of Himavat. Then they beheld 
there in front of them a great flame-linga ;f in order to discover the 
end of it, one of them went up, and the other down ; and when they could 
not find the end of it, they proceeded to propitiate me by means of austeri- 
ties : and I appeared to them and bade them ask for some boon : hearing 
that Brahma asked me to become his son ; on that account he has ceased 
to be worthy of worship, disgraced by his overweening presumption. 

" Then that god Narayana craved a boon of me, saying Oh revered 
one, may I become devoted to thy service ! Then he became incarnate, and 
was born as mine in thy form ; for thou art the same as Narayana, the 
power of me all-powerful. 

" Moreover thou wast my wife in a former birth." When S'iva had 
thus spoken, Parvati asked, " How can I have been thy wife in a former 
birth ?" Then S'iva answered her. " Long ago to the Prajapati Daksha were 
born many daughters, and amongst them thou, goddess ! He gave thee in 
marriage to me, and the others to Dharma and the rest of the gods. Once 
on a time he invited all his sons-in-law to a sacrifice. But I alone was not 
included in the invitation ; thereupon thou didst ask him to tell thee why 
thy husband was not invited. Then he uttered a speech which pierced thy 
ears like a poisoned needle ; ' Thy husband wears a necklace of skulls ; 
how can he be invited to a sacrifice ?' 

" And then thou, my beloved, didst in anger abandon thy body, ex- 
claiming, ' This father of mine is a villain ; what profit have I then in this 
carcase sprung from him ?' 

" And thereupon in wrath I destroyed that sacrifice of Daksha. Then 
thou wast born as the daughter of the mount of snow, as the moon's digit 
springs from the sea. Then recall how I came to the Himalaya in order 
to perform austerities ; and thy father ordered thee to do me service as his 
guest : and there the god of love who had been sent by the gods in order 
that they might obtain from me a son to oppose Taraka, was consumed,]; 
when endeavouring to pierce me, having obtained a favourable opportunity. 
Then I was purchased by thee, the enduring one, with severe austerities, 
and I accepted this proposal of thine, my beloved, in order that I might 
add this merit to my stock. || Thus it is clear that thou wast my wife in 

* The Sanskrit word Asti meaning ' thus it is" is a common introduction to a tale. 

f The linga or phallus is a favourite emblem of S'iva. Flame is one of his eight 
tanus or forms. 

J He was burnt up by the fire of S'iva's eye. 

Compare Kumara Sambhava Sarga V, line 86. 

|| Heading tatsanchaydya as one word. Dr. Brocthaus omits the line. Professor 
E. B. Cowell would read priyam for priye. 

a former birth. What else shall I tell thee ?" Thus Siva spake, and when 
he had ceased, the goddess transported with wrath, exclaimed, " Thou art 
a deceiver ; thou wilt not tell me a pleasing tale even though I ask thee : 
Do I not know that thou worshippest Sandhya, and bearest Ganga on thy 
head ?" Hearing that, S'iva proceeded to conciliate her and promised to 
tell her a wonderful tale : then she dismissed her anger. She herself gave 
the order that no one was to enter where they were ; Nandin* thereupon 
kept the door, and S'iva began to speak. 

" The gods are supremely blessed, men are ever miserable, the actions 
of demigods are exceedingly charming, therefore I now proceed to relate 
to thee the history of the Vidyadharas." While S'iva was thus speaking 
to his consort, there arrived a favourite dependant of Siva's, Pushpadanta, 
best of Ganas,t and his entrance was forbidden by Xandin who was guard- 
ing the door. Curious to know why even he had been forbidden to enter 
at that time without any apparent reason, Pushpadanta immediately enter- 
ed, making use of his magic power attained by devotion to prevent his 
being seen, and when he had thus entered, he heard all the extraordinary 
and wonderful adventures of the seven Vidyadharas being narrated by the 
trident-bearing god, and having heard them he in turn went and narrated 
them to his wife Jaya ; for who can hide wealth or a secret from women ? 
Java the doorkeeper being filled with wonder went and recited io in the 
presence of Parvati. How can women be expected to restrain their speech ? 
And then the daughter of the mountain flew into a passion, and said to her 
husband, " Thou didst not tell me any extraordinary tale, for Jaya knows 
it also." Then the lord of Uma, perceiving the truth by profound medi- 
tation, thus spake : " Pushpadanta employing the magic power of devotion 
entered in where we were, and thus managed to hear it. He narrated it 
to Java ; no one else knows it, my beloved." 

Having heard this, the goddess exceedingly enraged caused Pushpa- 
danta to be summoned, and cursed him, as he stood trembling before her, 
saying, " Become a mortal thou disobedient servant. "J She cursed also 
the (Sana M;ilyav;in who presumed to intercede on his behalf. Then the 
two fell at her feet together with .Java and entreated her to say when the 
curse would end, and the wife of S'iva slowly uttered this speech " A 
Yaksha named Supratika who has been made a 1'isaeha by the curse of 
Kuvera is iv.-iding in the Yindhya forest under the name of Kanahhuti. 
When thou shalt see him and, calling to mind thy origin, tell him this 
tale, then, Pushpadanta, thou shalt be released from this curse. And 

* One of S'iva's favourite : 

t Attendant* of S'iv.i, inv-iiini 

J For the alh'i/nta of Dr. lirockkuus's text 1 road ai-inita. 

when Malyavan shall hear this talc from Kanabhuti, then Kanabhuti shall 
be released, and thou, Malyavan, when thou hast published it abroad, shalt 
be free also." Having thus spoken the daughter of the mountain ceased, 
and immediately those Ganas disappeared instantaneously like flashes of 
lightning. Then it came to pass in the course of time that Gauri full of 
pity asked S'iva, " My lord, where on the earth have those excellent Pra- 
mathas* whom I cursed, been born ?" And the moon-diademed god answered : 
" My beloved, Pushpadanta has been born under the name of Vararuchi 
in that great city which is called Kausarnbi.f Moreover Malyavan also 
has been born in the splendid city called Supratishthita under the name of 
Gunadhya. This, goddess, is what has befallen them." Having given 
her this information with grief caused by recalling to mind the degrada- 
tion of the servants that had always been obedient to him, that lord con- 
tinued to dwell with his beloved in pleasure-arbours on the slopes of mount 
Kailasa, which were made of the branches of the Kalpa tree. 


Then Pushpadanta wandering on the earth in the form of a man, was 
known by the name of Vararuchi and Katyayana. Having attained per- 
fection in the sciences, and having served Nanda as minister, being wearied 
out he went once on a time to visit the shrine of Durga. And that god- 
dess, being pleased with his austerities, ordered him in a dream to repair 
to the wilds of the Vindhya to behold Kanabhuti. And as he wandered 
about there in a waterless and savage \vood,|| full of tigers and apes, he 
beheld a lofty Nyagrodha tree.^f And near it he saw, surrounded by hun- 
dreds of Pisachas, that Pisacha Kanabhuti, in stature like a $>dla tree. 

* Pramatha, an attendant on S'iva. 

t Kausambf succeeded Hastinapur as the capital of the emperors of India. Its 
precise site has not been ascertained, but it was probably somewhere in the Doaba, or 
at any rate not far from the west bank of the Yamuna, as it bordered upon Magadha and 
was not far from the Vindhya hills. It is said that there are ruins at Karali or Karari 
about 14 miles from Allahabad on the western road, which may indicate the site of 
Kausambi. It is possible also that the mounds of rubbish about Karrah may c<>: 
some vestiges of the ancient capital a circumstance rendered more probable by tho 
inscription found there, which specifies Kata as comprised within Kausiimba mandala 
or the district of Kausambf. [Note in Wilson's Essays, p. 163.] 

J A tree of Indra's Paradise that grants all <L >: : 

More literally, tho goddess that dwells in tho Vindhya hills. Her shrine is near 

|| Dr. Brockhaus makes parusha a proper name. 
. H ficui Indica. 

When Kanabhuti bad seen him and respectfully clasped bis feet, Katyaya- 
n;i. sitting down immediately spake to bim. " Thou art an observer of 
the good custom, bow hast thou come into this state ?" Having heard this 
Kanabhuti said to Katyayana, who bad shewn affection towards bim, I 
know not of myself, but listen to what I beard from Siva at Ujjayini in 
the place where corpses are burnt ; I proceed to tell it thee. The adorable 
god was asked by Durga " Whence, my lord, comes thy delight in skulls 
and burning-places ?" He thereupon gave this answer. 

" Long ago when all tilings had been destroyed at the end of a Kalpa, 
the universe became water : I then cleft my thigh and let fall a drop of 
blood ; that drop falling into the water turned into an egg, from that 
sprung the Supreme Soul,* the Disposer ; from bim proceeded Nature, f 
created by me for the purpose of further creation, and they created the 
other lords of created beings, J and those in turn the created beings, for 
which reason, my beloved, the Supreme Soul is called in the world the 
grandfather. Having thus created the world, animate and inanimate, that 
Spirit became arrogant : thereupon I cut off his bead : then through 
regret for what I bad done, I undertook a difficult vow. So thus it comes 
to pass that I carry skulls in my band, and love the places where corpses 
are burned. Moreover this world resembling a skull, rests in my band ; 
for the two skull-shaped halves of the egg before mentioned are called 
heaven and earth." When S'iva had thus spoken, I, being full of curiosity, 
determined to listen ; and Purvati again said to her husband. " After how 
long a time will that Pushpadanta return to us ?" Hearing that, Mahes- 
vara spoke to the goddess, pointing me out to her ; " That Pisacba whom 
thou beholdeit there, was once a Yakaha, a servant of Km era, the god of 
wealth, and he had for a friend a Kakshasa named Sthulasiras ; and the 
lord of wealth perceiving that be associated with that evil one, banished 
him to the wilds of the Vindhya mountains. But his brother Dirghajangba 
fell at the feet of the god, and humbly asked when the curse would end. 
Then the god of wealth said " After thy brother has heard the great tale 
from Pushpadanta, who lias been born into this world in consequence of a 
curse, and after he has in turn told it to Malyavan, who owing to a curse 
has become a human being, he together with those two Ganas shall be 
released from the elTeets of the curse." Such were the terms on which the 
god of wealth then ordained that Malyavan should obtain remission from 
bis curse here below, and thou didst fix the same in the case oi.' PushpacUui- 

Pitman = Fitm*!"'. \\\>- >i>irit. 

t Pratrilij the original source or rath IH.V..T of creating the ni;. 


J Prujiipiili. 

The spirit was of course Brahma whowo head Siva cut off. 

ta ; recall it to mind, my beloved." When I hoard that speech of Siva, I 
came here overjoyed, knowing that the calamity of my curse would 1 > 
terminated by the arrival of Pushpadanta. "When Kanablmti censed at't>-r 
telling this story, that moment Vararuchi remembered his origin, and 
exclaimed like one aroused from sleep, " I am that very Pushpadanta, hear 
that tale from me." Thereupon Katyayana related to him the seven great 
tales in seven hundred thousand verses, and then Kanabhuti said to him 
" My lord, thou art an incarnation of S'iva, who else knows this st< 
Through thy favour that curse has almost left my body. Therefore tell me 
thy own history from thy birth, thou mighty one, sanctify me yet further, 
if the narrative may be revealed to such a one as I am." Then Vararuchi, 
to gratify Kanabhuti, who remained prostrate before him, told all his his- 
tory from his birth at full length, in the following words : 

Story of VdrarucM, Jns teacher Varsha, I the city of Kausambi there 

and his fMow-jnipils Vyadi and Indradatta. lived a Brahman called Somadatta, 
who also had the title of Agnisikha, and his wife was called Vasudatta. 
She was the daughter of a hermit, and was born into the world in this position 
in consequence of a curse ; and I was born by her to this excellent Brah- 
man, also in consequence of a curse. Now while I was still quite a child 
my father died, but my mother continued to support me, as I grew up, by 
severe drudgery ; then one day two Brahmans came to our house to stop 
a night, exceedingly dusty with a long journey ; and while they were stay- 
ing in oui" house there arose the noise of a tabor, thereupon my mother 
said to me, sobbing, as she called to mind her husband "there, my son, is 
your father's friend Bhavananda, giving a dramatic entertainment." I an- 
swered, " I will go and see it, and will exhibit the whole of it to you, with 
a recitation of all the speeches." On hearing that speech of mine, those 
Brahmans were astonished, but my mother said to them " Come, my 
children, there is no doubt about the truth of what he says ; this boy will 
remember by heart everything that he has heard once." Then they, in 
order to test me, recited to rne a Pratisdkhya* ; immediately I repeated the 
whole in their presence, then I went with the two Brahmans and saw that 
play, and when I came home, I went through the whole of it in front of 
my mother : then one of the Brahmans, named Vyadi, having ascertained 
that I was able to recollect a thing on hearing it once, told with submi 
reverence this tale to my mother. 

Mother, in the city of Vetasa there were two Brahman brothers, Deva- 
Swamin and Karambaka, who loved one another very dearly, this Indradatta 
here is the son of one of them, and I am the son of the other, and my name 

* A grammatical treatise on the rules regulating the euphonic combination of 
letters and their pronunciation peculiar to oue of the diU'cmit i>akhaa or brunches of 
the Yedas. M. W. s. v. 


is Vyadi. It came to pass that my father died. Owing to grief for his 
loss, the father of Indradatta went on the long journey,* and then the 
hearts of our two mothers broke with grief ; thereupon being orphans 
though we had wealth,f and, desiring to acquire learning, we went to the 
southern region to supplicate the lord Kartikeya. And while we were engaged 
in austerities there, the god gave us the following revelation in a dream. 
" There is a city called Pataliputra, the capital of king Nanda, and in it 
there is a Brahman, named Varsha, from him ye shall learn all knowledge, 
therefore go there." Then we went to that city, and when we made en- 
quiries there, people said to us : " There is a blockhead of a Brahman in 
this town, of the name of Varsha." Immediately we went on with minds 
in a state of suspense, and saw the house of Varsha in a miserable condition, 
made a very ant-hill by mice, dilapidated by the cracking of the walls, 
untidy,^ deprived of eaves, looking like the very birth-place of misery. 

Then, seeing Varsha plunged in meditation within the house, we ap- 
proached his wife, who shewed us all proper hospitality ; her body was 
emaciated and begrimed, her dress tattered and dirty ; she looked like the 
incarnation of poverty, attracted thither by admiration for the Brahman's 
virtues. Bending humbly before her, we then told her our circumstances, 
and the report of her husband's imbecility, which we heard in the city. 
She exclaimed " My children, I am not ashamed to tell you the truth ; 
listen ! I will relate the whole story," and then she, chaste lady, proceeded 
to tell us the tale which follows : 

There lived in this city an excellent Brahman, named S'ankara Svamin, 
and he had two sons, my husband Varsha, and Upavarsha ; my husband 
was stupid and poor, and his younger brother was -just the opposite : and 
Upavarsha appointed his own wife to manage his elder brother's house. 
Then in the course of time, the rainy season came on, and at this time the 
women are in the habit of making a cake of flour mixed with molasses, of an 
unbecoming and disgusting shape, || and giving it to any Brahman who is 
thought to be a blockhead, and if they act thus, this cake is said to remove 
their discomfort caused by bathing in the cold season, and their exhaustion^" 

* i. e., died. 

t Bare we have a pun -which it is impossible to render in English. Andtha 
means without natural protectors and also poor. 

J Taking chhdyd in the sense of sobhd. It might mean "affording no shelter to 
the inmates." 

Dr. Brockhaus translates the line Von dicsem icttrde ich meinem Mannc vcr- 
miihlt, urn fti 

|| Like the Roman fascinum. gtihya = phallus. 

f I read tat for td h according to a conjecture of Professor E. B. Cowdl's. I To 
informs me on the authority of Dr. Rost that the only variants are i>d for tdh and 

caused by bathing in the hot weather ; but when it is given, Brahmans 
refuse to receive it, on the ground that the custom is a disgusting one. 
This cake was presented by my sister-in-law to my husband, together with 
a sacrificial fee ; he received it, and brought it home with him, and got a 
severe scolding from me ; then he began to be inwardly consumed with 
grief at his own stupidity, and went to worship the sole of the foot of the 
god Kartikeya : the god, pleased with his austerities, bestowed on him the 
knowledge of all the sciences ; and gave him this order " When tliou 
findest a Brahman who can recollect what he has heard only once, then 
thou mayest reveal these" thereupon my husband returned home delight- 
ed, and when he had reached home, told the whole story to me. From that 
time forth, he has remained continually muttering prayers and meditating : 
so find you some one who can remember anything after hearing it once, and 
bring him here : if you do that, you will both of you undoubtedly obtain 
all that you desire. 

Having heard this from the wife of Varsha, and having immediately 
given her a hundred gold pieces to relieve her poverty, we went out of that 
city ; then we wandered through the earth, and could not find anywhere a 
person who could remember what he had only heard once : at last we 
arrived tired out at your house to-day, and have found here this boy, your 
son, who can recollect anything after once hearing it : therefore give him 
us and let us go forth to acquire the commodity knowledge. 

Having heard- this speech of Vyadi, my mother said with respect, " All 
this tallies completely, I repose confidence in your tale : for long ago at 

the birth of this my only son, a distinct spiritual* voice was heard from 

yoskitd for yoshitah. Dr. Rost would take evamkrite as the dative of evamkrit. If tdh 
be retained it may be taken as a repetition " having thus prepared it, I say, the women 
give it." Professor Cowell would translate (if tdh be retained) " the women then do 
not need to receive anything to relieve their fatigue during the cold and hot weather." 

Professor E. B. Cowell has referred me to an article by Dr. Liebrecht in the Zeit- 
schrift der Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 

He connects the custom with that of the Jewish women mentioned in Jeremiah 
VII. 18, " The women knead their dough to make cakes to the queen of heaven," and 
he quotes a curious custom practised on Palm Sunday in the town of Saintes. Dulaure 
slates that in his time the festival was called there La fete iles Pinnes; the women and 
children carried in the procession a phallus made of bread, which they called a pintle, at 
the end of their palm branches ; these jn'/ntcs were subsequently blessed by the ] 
and carefully preserved by the women during the year. This article has been repub- 
lisheil by the learned author in his " Zur Volkskunde" (Heilbronn, 1879) p. 430 and 
f f. under the title of " der aufgegessene Gott." It contains many iuteu>ting purallcLj 
to the custom described in the text. 

Literally bodiless she heard the voice, but saw no man. 


heaven. " A boy has been born who shall be able to remember what he has 
heard once ; he shall acquire knowledge from Varsha, and shall make the 
science of grammar famous in the world, and he shall be called Vararuchi 
by name, because whatever is excellent,* shall please him." Having utter- 
ed this, the voice ceased. Consequently, ever since this boy has grown big, 
I have been thinking, day and night, where that teacher Yarsha can be, and 
to-day I have been exceedingly gratified at hearing it from your mouth. 
Therefore take him with you : what harm can there be in it, he is your 
brother ?" When they heard this speech of my mother's, those two, Yyadi 
and Indradatta, overflowing with joy, thought that night but a moment in 
length. Then Vyadi quickly gave his own wealth to my mother to provide 
a feast, and desiring that I should be qualified to read the Yedas, invested 
me with the Brahmanical thread. Then Vyadi and Indradatta took me, 
who managed by my own fortitude to control the excessive grief I felt at 
parting, while my mother in taking leave of me could with difficulty sup- 
press her tears, and considering that the favour of Kartikeya towards them 
had now put forth blossom, set out rapidly from that city ; then in course 
of time we arrived at the house of the teacher Yarsha : he too considered 
that I was the favour of Kartikeya arrived in bodily form. The next day 
he placed us in front of him, and sitting down in a consecrated spot, he 
began to recite the syllable Om with heavenly voice. Immediately the 
Yedas with the six supplementary sciences rushed into his mind, and then 
he began to teach them to us ; then I retained what the teacher told us 
after hearing it once, Yyadi after hearing it twice, and Indradatta after 
hearing it three times : then the Brahmans of the city hearing of a sudden 
that divine sound, came at once from all quarters with wonder stirring in 
their breasts to see what this new thing might be ; and with their reverend 
mouths loud in his praises honoured Yarsha with low bows. Then behold- 
ing that wonderful miracle, not only Upavarsha, but all the citizens of 
Pataliputraf kept high festival. Moreover the king Nanda of exalted 
fortune, seeing the power of the boon of the son of Siva, was delighted, 
and immediately filled the house of Yarsha with wealth, shewing him every 
mark of respect. J 

* Vara = excellent ruth = to please. 

t /. e. Palibothra. 

J Wilson remarks (Essays on Sanskrit Literature, Vol. T, p. IGo). " The contempo- 
rary existence of Nanda with Vararuchi ;md Vyadi i.s a rhvumstanrc of r<>nsidrnil>k> 
int>Ti-t in the literary history of the Hindus, as the two ;ote on 

philological topics. Yararurhi i.s al.-o calli-d in this v. v. ho is one of the 

earliest commentators on 1'anini. Nanda is tin- i>ivd<rrssor or one of the predoi 
of Chandragupta or Sandrakottos : and < -OHM '<|iirntiy thr rhi, ,,f Sanskrit 

grammar arc thus dated from the fourth century bi.i'on: tli \Vo need 



Having thus spoken while Ivdnabbuti was listening with intent mind, 
Vararuchi went on to tell his tale in the wood. 

It came to pass in the course of time, that one day, when the reading 
of the Vedas was finished, the teacher Varsha, who had performed his daily 
ceremonies, was asked by us, " How comes it that such a city as this has 
become the home of Sarasvati and Lakshmi,* tell us that, O teacher." 
I louring this, he bade us listen, for that he was about to tell the history of 
the city. 

story of the founding of the city of There is a sanctifying place of pil- 
Pdtaliputra. grimage, named Kanakhala, at the 

point where the Ganges issues from the hills,f where the sacred stream was 
brought down from the table-land of mount Usinara, by Kanehanapata the 
elephant of the gods, having cleft it asunder. J In that place lived a certain 
Brahman from the Deccan, performing austerities in the company of his 
wife, and to him were born there three sons. In the course of time he and 
his wife went to heaven, and those sons of his went to a place named 
Kajagriha, for the sake of acquiring learning. And having studied the 
sciences there, the three, grieved at their unprotected condition, went to 
the Deccan in order to visit the shrine of the god Kartikeya. Then they 
reached a city named Chinchini on the shore of the sea, and dwelt in the 
house of a Brahman named Bhojika, and he gave them his three daugh- 
ters in marriage, and bestowed on them all his wealth, and having no 
other children, went to the Ganges to perform austerities. And while they 
were living there in the house of their father-in-law, a terrible famine arose 
produced by drought, thereupon the three Brahmans fled, abandoning their 
virtuous wives, (since no care for their families touches the hearts of cruel 
men,) then the middle one of the three sisters was found to be pregnant ; 
and those ladies repaired to the house of Yajnadatta a friend of their 
father's : there they remained in a miserable condition, thinking each on her 
own husband, (for even in calamity women of good family do not forget the 

not suppose that Somadeva took the pains to be exact here ; but it is satisfactory to bo 
made acquainted with the general impressions of a writer who has not been biassed in 
any of his views by Pauranik legends and preposterous chronology." 

* /. e., of learning and material prosperity. 

t Literally the gate of the Ganges : it is now well known under tho name of 
Haridvar (Third war). 

t Dr. Brockhaus renders tho passage " wo Sftva die Jahnari it goldenen Folk am 
den Gipfclii den licnjcs l.'simira licrabsaiulte." 


duties of virtuous wives). Now in course of time the middle one of the 
three sisters gave birth to a son, and they all three vied with one another 
in love towards him. So it happened once upon a time that, as S'iva was 
roaming through the air, the mother of Skanda* who was reposing on 
S'iva' s breast, moved with compassion at seeing their love for their child, 
said to her husband, " My lord, observe, these three women feel great affec- 
tion for this boy, and place hope in him, trusting that he may some day 
support them ; therefore bring it about that he may be able to maintain 
them, even in his infancy." Having been thus entreated by his beloved, S'iva, 
the giver of boons, thus answered her : I adopt him as my protege, for in a 
previous birth he and his wife propitiated me, therefore he has been born on 
the earth to reap the fruit of his former austerities ; and his former wife has 
been born again as Patala, the daughter of the king Mahendravarman, and 
she shall be his wife in this birth also. Having said this, that mighty god 
told those three virtuous women in a dream, " This young son of yours shall 
be called Putraka ; and every day when he awakes from sleep, a hundred 
thousand gold pieces shall be found under his pillow, and at last he shall 
become a king." Accordingly, when he woke up from sleep, those virtuous 
daughters of Yajnadatta found the gold and rejoiced that their vows and 
prayers had brought forth fruit. Then by means of that gold Putraka having 
in a short time accumulated great treasure, became a king, for good fortune is 
the result of austerities.f Once upon a time Yajnadatta said in private to 
Putraka, " King, your father and uncles have gone away into the wide world 
on account of a famine, therefore give continually to Brahmans, in order 
that they may hear of it and return : and now listen, I will tell you the 
story of Brahmadatta. 

There lived formerly in Benares a 
fiforu of king Brahmadatta. -, j -r> i j . 

king named Brahmadatta. He saw 

a pair of swans flying in the air at night. They shone with the lustre of 
Miing gold, and were begirt with hundreds of white swans, and so look- 
ed like a sudden flash of lightning, surrounded by white clouds. And his 
desire to behold them again kept increasing so mightily that he took no 
pleasure in the delights of royalty. And then having taken counsel with 
his ministers he cau^-d a fair tank to l>e made according to a design of his 
own, and gave to all living creatures security from injury. In a short time 
he perceived that those two swans had settled in that lake, and when they 
had become tame he asked them the reason of their golden plumage. And 
then those swans addressed the king with an articulate voice. ' Jn a former 

* Skanda is K&rtikeya and his mother is of course Durga or Purvati the > 
of S>iva. 

t In this case the austerities which he h:ul pn-funurd in a former birth to i>i"jii- 
tiatc B 


birth, O ting, we were born as crows ; and when we were fighting for the 
remains of the daily offering* in a holy empty temple of S'iva, we fell down 
and died within a sacred vessel belonging to that sanctuary, and consequently 
\\vhavebeen born as golden s\v;ms with a remembrance of our former 
birth' ; having heard this the king gazed on them to his heart's content, 
and derived great pleasure from watching them. 

" Therefore you will gain back your father and uncles by an unparalleled 
gift." When Yajnadatta h;id given him this advice, Putraka did as lie re- 
commended ; when they heard the tidings of the distribution those Brah- 
mans arrived : and when they were recognized they had great wealth 
bestowed on them, and were reunited to their wives. Strange to say, even 
after they have gone through calamities, wicked men having tlieir minds 
blinded by want of discernment, are unable to put off their evil nature. 
After a time they hankered after royal power, and being desirous of mur- 
dering Putraka they enticed him under pretext of a pilgrimage to the 
temple of Durga : and having stationed assassins in the inner sanctuary of 
the temple, they said to him, " First go and visit the goddess alone, step 
inside." Thereupon he entered boldly, but when he saw those assas<ins 
preparing to slay him, be asked them why they wished to kill him. 
They replied, " We were hired for gold to do it by your father and uncles." 
Then the discreet Putraka said to the assassins, whose senses were bewilder- 
ed by the goddess, " I will give you this priceless jewelled ornament of 
mine. Spare me, I will not reveal your secret ; I will go to a distant 
land." The assassins said, " So be it," and taking the ornament they depart- 
ed, and falsely in formed the father and uncles of Putraka that he was slain. 
Then those Brahmans returned and endeavoured to get possession of the 
throne, but they were put to death by the ministers as traitors. How can 
the ungrateful prosper ? 

In the meanwhile that king Putraka, faithful to his promise, entered 
the impassable wilds of the Vindhya, disgusted with his relations : as he 
wandered about he saw two heroes engaged heart and soul in a wrestling- 
match, and he asked them who they were. They replied, " We are the two 
sons of the Asura ^laya, and his wealth belongs to us, this vessel, and this 
stick, and these shoes ; it is for these that wo are fjghting, and whichever 
of us proves the mightier is to take them." When he heard this speech of 
theirs, Putraka said with a. smile " That is a fine inheritance for a man." 
Then they said " By putting on these shoes one gains the power of flying 
through the air ; whatever is written with this staff turns out true ; and 
whatever food a man wishes to have in the vessel is found there immediate- 

* /. e. t bali, a portion of the daily m; ul offered to oreatun 's of every il -' ii]>tion, 
especially the household spirits. I'l-actually the bali generally fulls to sonic m>\v, 
hence that bird is culled lulibhuj. 


ly." When he heard this, Putraka said " What is the use of fighting ? make 
this agreement, that whoever proves the hest man in running shall possess 
this wealth."* Those simpletons said " Agreed" and set off to run, while 
the prince put on the shoes and flew up into the air, taking with him the 

* A similar incident is found in Grimm's Fairy Tales translated by Mrs. Paull, 
p. 370. The hero of the tale called the Crystal Ball finds two giants fighting for a little 
hat. On his expn -ssing his wonder, " Ah", they replied " you call it old, you do not know 
its value. It is what is called a wishing-hat, and whoever puts it on can wish himself 
where he will, and immediately he is there." " Give me the hat," replied the young man, 
" I will go on a little way and when I call you must both run a race to overtake me, 
and whoever reaches me first, to him the hat shall belong." The giants agreed and the 
youth taking the hat put it on and went away ; but he was thinking so much of the 
princess that he forgot the giants and the hat, and continued to go further and further 
without calling them. Presently he sighed deeply and said, " Ah if I were only at the 
Castle of the golden sun." 

Wilson (Collected AVorks, Vol. Ill, p. 169, note,) observes that " the story is told 
almost in the same words in the Bahar Danish, a purse being substituted for the rod ; 
Jahandar obtains possession of it, as well as the cup, and slippers in a similar manner. 
"NYVber [Eastern Romances, Introduction, p. 39] has noticed the analogy which the slippers 
bear to tin 1 cap of Fortunatus. The inexhaustible purse, although not mentioned here, is 
of Hindu origin also, and a fraudulent representative of it makes a great figure in one of 
the stories of the Dasa Kumara Charita" [eh. 2, see also L. Dcslongchamps Essai sur 

ables Indiennes. Paris, 1838, p. 35 f. and Grasse, Sagen des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 
1812, p. 19 f.] The additions between brackets are due to Dr. Reinholdt Host the 
editor of "Wilson's Essays. 

The Mongolian form of the story may be found in Sagas from the Far East, p. 24. 
A similar incident is also found in the Swedish story in Thorpe's Scandinavian Tales, 
entitled " the Beautiful Palace East of the Sun and North of the Earth." A youth 
acquires boots by means of which he can go a hundred miles at every step, and a cloak, 
that ivndi rs him invisible, in a very similar way. 

I find that in the notes in Grimm's 3rd Volume, page 168, (edition of 1856) the 
passage in Somadeva is referred to, and other parallels given. The author of these notes 

ares a Swedish story in Cavallius, p. 182, and Priihle, Kindcrmarchen, No. 22. He 
also quotes from the Sidi Kiir, the story to which I have referred in Sagas from the 
Far Bart, and compares a Norwegian story in Ashhjiirnsen, pp. 53, 171, a Hungarian 
story in Muilath and Gaal, N. 7, and an Arabian tale in the continuation of the 1001 
Nights. See also Sicilianischo Marchen by Laura Gonzenbach, Parti, Story 31. 
Here we have a table-clotfe, a purse, and a pipe. When the table-cloth is spread out 
one has only to say Dear little table-cloth, give maccaroni or roast-meat or wh,: 
may be required, and it is immediately present. The purse will supply as much money 

as one asks it for, and the pipe is something like that of the pied piper of Ilanielin, 

one who hears it must dance. Dr. Kiihler in his notes, at the did of Laura 
Gonzenbach' s collection, compares (besides the story ofl'ortutiatu.s, and (Jrinun I Il.:>oi2,) 
:le, Kinder-und Hau>iiiiuvhen, 1 1. 7.'] and 193. Curze, Popular Traditions from 
Waldeck, ]i.:;]. < M-sta Kollianorum, (.'hap. 1 _'<>. (.'ainpl.eH'.- 1 lighlaml Tales, No. 10, 
and many others. The f-h,,, s in <,ur j i may also be cuinparcd with thu bed 

in the IXth Novel of the Xth day of f] ron. 


staff and the vessel ; then he went a great distance in a short time and saw 
beneath him a heautiful city named Akarshika and descended into it from 
the sky. He reflected with himself ; " heteerae are prone to deceive, Bnih- 
mans are like my father and uncles, and merchants are greedy of wealth ; 
in whose house shall I dwell ?" Just at that moment he reached a lonely 
dilapidated house, and saw a single old woman in it ; so he gratified that 
old woman with a present, and lived unobserved in that broken down old 
house, waited upon respectfully by the old woman. 

Once upon a time the old woman in an affectionate mood said to Putra- 
ka " I am grieved, my son, that you have not a wife meet for you. But 
here there is a maiden named Patali, the daughter of the king, and she is 
preserved like a jewel in the upper story of a seraglio." While he was lis- 
tening to this speech of hers with open ear, the god of love found an un- 
guarded point, and entered by that very path into his heart. He made up 
his mind that he must see that damsel that very day, and in the night flew 
up through the air to where she was, by the help of his magic shoes. He 
then entered by a window, which was as high above the ground as the peak 
of a mountain, and beheld that Patali, asleep in a secret place in the sera- 
glio, continually bathed in the moonlight that seemed to cling to her limbs : 
as it were the might of love in fleshly form reposing after the conquest of 
this world. While he was thinking how he should awake her, suddenly 
outside a watchman began to chant ; " Young men obtain the fruit of 
their birth, when they awake the sleeping fair one, embracing her as she 
sweetly scolds, with her eyes languidly opening." On hearing this encou- 
raging prelude, he embraced that fair one with limbs trembling with excite- 
ment, and then she awoke. When she beheld that prince, there was a 
contest between shame and love in her eye, which was alternately fixed on 
his face and averted. When they had conversed together, and gone through 
the ceremony of the Gandharva marriage, that couple found their love 
continually increasing, as the night waned away. Then Putraka took leave 
of his sorrowing wife, and with his mind dwelling only on her went in the 
last watch of the night to the old woman's house. So every night the 
prince kept going backwards and forwards, and at last the intrigue was 
discovered by the guards of the seraglio, accordingly they revealed the 
matter to the lady's father, and he appointed a woman to watch secretly 
in the seraglio at night. She, finding the prince asleep, made a mark with 
red lac upon his garment to facilitate his recognition. In the morning she 
informed the king of what she had clone, and he sent out spk>s in all 
directions, and Putraka was discovered by the mark and dragged out from 
the dilapidated house into the presence of the king. Seeing that the king 
was enraged, he flew up into the air with the help of the shoes, and enteivd 
the palace of Patali. He said to her, " We are discovered, therefore rise 


up, let us escape with the help of the slices, and so taking Patali in his 
arms he flew away from that place through the air. Then descending from 
heaven near the bank of the Ganges, he refreshed his weary beloved with 
cakes provided by means of the magic vessel. When Patali saw the power 
of Putraka she made a request to him, in accordance with which he sketch- 
ed out with the staff a city furnished with a force of all four arms.* In 
that city he established himself as king, and his great power having attain, 
ed full development, he subdued that father-in-law of his, and became ruler 
of the sea-engirdled earth. This is that same divine city, produced by 
magic, together with its citizens ; hence it bears the name of Pataliputra, 
and is the home of wealth and learning. 

When we heard from the mouth of Varsha the above strange and 
extraordinarily marvellous story, our minds, Kanabhuti, were for a long 
time delighted with thrilling wonder. 


Having related this episode to Kanabhuti in the Vindhya forest, Vara- 
ruchi again resumed the main thread of his narrative. 

While thus dwelling there with Vyadi and Indradatta, I gradually 
attained perfection in all sciences, and emerged from the condition of child- 
hood. Once on a time when we went out to witness the festival of Indra, 
we saw a maiden looking like some weapon of Cupid, not of the nature of 
an arrow. Then, Indradatta, on my asking him who that lady might be, 
replied, " She is the daughter of Upavarsha, and her name is Upakosa," 
and she found out by means of her handmaids who I was, and drawing my 
soul after her with a glance made tender by love, she with difficulty 
managed to return to her own house. She had a face like a full moon, and 
eyes like a blue lotus, she had arms graceful like the stalk of a lotus, and 
a lovely fullf bosom ; she had a neck marked with three lines like a shell, J 
and magnificent coral lips ; in short she was a second Lakshmi, so to speak, 
the store-house of the beauty of king Cupid. Then my heart was cleft by 
the stroke of love's arrow, and I could not sleep that night through my 
desire to kiss her bintb<t lip. Having at last with difficulty gone off to 

* /. f., infantry, cavalry, elephants, and archers. 

t Literally she was s]ili-inlid with a full bosom, ...glorious with ri>i 

uttatmi in the let hall I n .ul iij,itntu. 

J Consid.-icd tu he indicative l' exalt, d I'urtune. Mnit>- Jf'if.- 

Tip ':>'< an 1 ndiaii fruit, this expression may he paralleled hy "currant 

lip'' in tin' Two Noble KiiiSiin n I. 1.21iiur "cherry lip" Jiii-h. 111. I. I. !U. 


sleep, I saw, at the close of night, a celestial woman in white garments ; 
she said to me " Upakosa was thy wife in a former birth ; as she appre- 
ciates merit, she desires no one but thee, therefore, my son, thou oughtest 
not to feel anxious about this matter. I am Sarasvati* that dwell con- 
tinually in thy frame, I cannot hear to behold thy grief." "When she had 
said this, she disappeared. Then I woke up and somewhat encouraged I 
went slowly and stood under a young mango tree near the house of my 
beloved ; then her confidante came and told me of the ardent attachment 
of Upakosa to me, the result of sudden passion : then 1 with my pain 
doubled, said to her, " How can I obtain Upakosa unless her natural pro- 
tectors willingly bestow her upon me ? For death is better than dishon- 
our ; so if by any means your friend's heart became known to her parents, 
perl nips the end might be prosperous. 

" Therefore bring this about, my good woman, save the life of me and 
of thy friend." When she heard this, she went and told all to her friend's 
mother, she immediately told it to her husband Upavarsha, he to Varsha 
his brother, and Varsha approved of the match. Then, my marriage having 
been determined upon, Vyadi by the order of my tutor went and brought 
my mother from Kausambi ; so Upakosa was bestowed upon me by her 
father with all due ceremonies, and I lived happily in Pataliputra with my 
mother and my wife. 

Now in course of time Varsha got a great number of pupils, and 
among them there was one rather stupid pupil of the name of Panini ; he, 
being wearied out with service, was sent away by the preceptor's wife, and 
being disgusted at it and longing for learning, he went to the Himalaya to 
perform austerities : then he obtained from the god, who wears the moon 
as a crest, propitiated by his severe austerities, a new grammar, the source 
of all learning. Thereupon he came and challenged me to a disputation, 
and seven days passed away in the course of our disputation ; on the eighth 
day he had been fairly conquered by me, but immediately afterwards a 
terrible menacing sound was uttered by Siva in the firmament ; owing to 
that our Aindra grammar was exploded in the world,f and all of us, being 
conquered by Panini, became accounted fools. Accordingly full of despon- 
dency I deposited in the hand of the merchant Hiranyadatta my wealth for 
the maintenance of my house, and after informing Upakosa of it, I went 
fasting to mount Himalaya to propitiate S'iva with austerities. 

Upakosa on her part anxious for 
otory of Upakos'a ana her four /< l 

my success, remained in her own 

house, bathing every day in the Ganges, strictly observing her vow. One 

* Goddess of eloquence and learning. 

t See Dr. Burnett's " Aindra grammar" for the lu-uring of this passage on the hii- 
tory of Sanskrit literature. 


(lay, when spring had come, she being still beautiful, though thin and slight- 
ly pale, and charming to the eyes of men, like the streak of the new moon, was 
seen by the king's domestic chaplain while going to bathe in the Ganges, 
and also by the head magistrate, and by the prince's minister ; and imme- 
diately they all of them became a target for the arrows of love. It hap- 
pened too somehow or other that she took a long time bathing that day, 
and as she was returning in the evening, the prince's minister laid violent 
hands on her, but she with great presence of mind said to him, " Dear Sir, 
I desire this as much as you, but I am of respectable family, and my hus- 
band is away from home. How can I act thus ? Some one might perhaps 
see us, and then misfortune \vould befall you as well as me. Therefore you 
must come without fail to my house in the first watch of the night of 
the spring-festival when the citizens are all excited."* When she had said 
this, and pledged herself, he let her go, but, as chance would have it, she 
had not gone many steps further, before she was stopped by the king's 
domestic chaplain. She made a similar assignation with him also for the 
second watch of the same night ; and so he too was, though with difficulty, 
induced to let her go ; but, after she had gone a little further, up comes a 
third person, the head magistrate, and detains the trembling lady. Then 
she made a similar assignation with him too for the third watch of the 
same night, and having by great good fortune got him to release her, she 
went home all trembling, and of her own accord told her handmaids the 
arrangements she had made, reflecting, " Death is better for a woman of 
good family when her husband is away, than to meet the eyes of people who 
lust after beauty." Full of these thoughts and regretting me, the virtuous 
lady spent that night in fasting, lamenting her own beauty. Early the 
next morning she sent a maid-servant to the merchant Hiranyagupta to 
ask for some money in order that she might honour the Brahmans : then 
that merchant also came and said to her in private, " Shew me love, and 
then I will give you what your husband deposited." "When she heard that, 
she reflected that she had no witness to prove the deposit of her husband's 
wealth, and perceived that the merchant was a villain, and so tortured with 
sorrow and grief, she made a fourth and last assignation with him for the 
last watch of the same night ; so he went away. In the meanwhile she 
had prepared by her handmaids in a large vat lamp-black mixed with oil and 
scented with musk and other perfumes, and she made ready four pieces of 
rag anointed with it, and she caused to be made a large trunk with a fas- 
tening outside. So on that day of the spring-festival the prince's minister 
came in the first watch of the night in gorgeous array. AVhen he had 
cd without being observed rpakosa said to him, " I will not receive 
you until you have bathed, so go in and bathe." The simpleton agreed to 
And will not observe you. 


that, and was taken by the handmaids into a secret dark inner apartment. 
There they took off his under-garments and his jewels, and gave him by way 
of an under-garment a single piece of rag, and they smeared the i 
from head to foot with a thick coating of that lamp-black and oil, pretend- 
ing it was an unguent, without his detecting it. While they continued 
rubbing it into every limb, the second watch of the night came and the 
chaplain arrived, the handmaids thereupon said to the minister, " here is the 
king's chaplain come, a great friend of Vararuchi's, so creep into this box" 
and they bundled him into the trunk, just as he was, all naked, with the 
utmost precipitation : and then they fastened it outside with a bolt. The 
priest too was brought inside into the dark room on the pretence of a bath, 
and was in the same way stripped of his garments and ornaments, and made 
a fool of by the handmaids by being rubbed with lamp-black and oil, with 
nothing but the piece of rag on him, until in the third watch the chief magis- 
trate arrived. The handmaids immediately terrified the priest with the 
news of his arrival, and pushed him into the trunk like his predecessor. 
After they had bolted him in, they brought in the magistrate on the pre- 
text of giving him a bath, and so he, like his fellows, with the piece of rag 
for his only garment, was bamboozled by being continually anointed with 
lamp-black, until in the last watch of the night the merchant arrived. The 
handmaids made use of his arrival to alarm the magistrate and bundled 
him also into the trunk, and fastened it on the outside. So those three 
being shut up inside the box, as if they were bent on accustoming themselves 
to live in the hell of blind darkness, did not dare to speak on account of fear, 
though they touched one another. Then Upakosa brought a lamp into the 
room, and making the merchant enter it, said to him, " give me that money 
which my husband deposited with you." When he heard that, the rascal 
said, observing that the room was empty, " I told you that I would give 
you the money your husband deposited with me." Upakosa calling the 
attention of the people in the trunk, said " Hear, ye gods this speech of 
Hiranyagupta." When she had said this, she blew out the light, and the 
merchant, like the others, on the pretext of a bath was anointed by the 
handmaids for a long time with larnp-black. Then they told him to go, 
for the darkness was over, and at the close of the night they took him by 
the neck and pushed him out of the door sorely against his will. Then he 
made the best of his way home, with only the piece of rag to cover his 
nakedness, and smeared with the black dye, with the dogs biting him at 
every step, thoroughly ashamed of himself, and at last reached his own 
house ; and when he got there he did not dare to look his slaves in the 
face while they were washing off that black dye. The path of vice is in- 
deed a painful one. In the early morning Upakosa accompanied by her 
handmaids went, without informing her parents, tu the palace of kin;,' 


Nanda, and there she herself stated to the king that the merchant Hiranya- 
gupta was endeavouring to deprive her of money deposited with him by 
her husband. The king in order to enquire into the matter immediately 
had the merchant summoned, who said " I have nothing in my keeping 
belonging to this lady." Upakosa then said, " I have witnesses, my lord ; 
before he went, my husband put the household gods into a box, and this 
merchant with his own lips admitted the deposit in their presence. Let 
the box be brought here and ask the gods yourself." Having heard this the 
king in astonishment ordered the box to be brought. 

Thereupon in a moment that trunk was carried in by many men. 
Then Upakosca said " Relate truly, O gods, what that merchant said and 
then go to your own houses ; if you do not, I will burn you or open the 
box in court." Hearing that, the men in the box, beside themselves with 
fear, said " It is true, the merchant admitted the deposit in our presence." 
Tli en the merchant being utterly confounded confessed all his guilt ; but 
the! king, being unable to restrain his curiosity, after asking permission of 
Upako.-a, opened the chest there in court by breaking the fastening, and 
those three men were dragged out, looking like three lumps of solid dark- 
ness, and were with difficulty recognised by the king and his ministers. 
The whole assembly then burst out laughing, and the king in his curiosity 
asked, what was the meaning of all this ; so the virtuous lady told 
the whole story. All presentin court expressed their approbation of Upakosu's 
conduct, observing : " The virtuous behaviour of women of good family 
who are protected by their own excellent disposition* only, is incredible." 

Then all those coveters of their neighbour's wife were deprived of all 
their living, and banished from the country. Who prospers by immorali- 
Upakosd was dismissed by the king, who shewed his great regard for 
her by a present of much wealth, and said to her : " Henceforth thou art 
my Mstc-r," and so she returned home. Varsha and 1'pavarsha when the\ 
heard it, congratulated that chaste lady, and there was a smile of admira- 
tion on the face of every single person in that city.f 

* Instead of the walls of a seraglio. 

f This story occurs in Scott's Additional Arabian Nights as the Lady of Cairo 
and her four Gallants, [and in his Tales and Anecdotes, Shrewsbury, IMOO, p. l 
the story ot th. Men hunt's wife and her suitors]. It is also one of the lYr>i:u. 
of Arouya [day 146 ff ]. It is a story of anrient ceb-brity in Kin-opt- as Constant du 
Hatnel or la I>ame tpii attrapa 1111 1'retre, nil 1'revot et un FOIVM 

Fabliaux ft CM I Mi'.'. Vd. I V. pp. 21G-5G]. It is curious that the Fabliau 

jilt IIP ith the Hindu original in putting the lovers out of the way and di.-rhiny 

tin-in by the jili a of the bath. ^Nt<- in \\'il>mt's ]v-ays on Sanskrit Literature.. 
by Dr. Host. Vl. I, p. 173.) See also a story contributed 1>\- the lat Mr. l>aiuant to 
the Indian Antiquary, Vol. IX. pp. li and :5, and the XX VI I lib story in Indian F,,ii\ 
Talcs collected and tr.ui.-LiK J b\ .M: ,. ith the note at the cud of the volume. 


In the meanwhile, by performing a very severe penance on the snowy 
mountain, I propitiated the god, the husband of Parvati, the great giver of 
all good things ; he revealed to me that same treatise of Panini ; and in 
accordance with his wish I completed it : then I returned home without 
feeling the fatigue of the journey, full of the nectar of the favour of that 
god who wears on his crest a digit of the moon ; then I worshipped the 
feet of my mother and of my spiritual teachers, and heard from them the 
wonderful achievement of Upakosa, thereupon joy and astonishment swelled 
to the upmost height in my breast, together with natural affection and 
great respect for my wife. 

Now Yarsha expressed a desire to hear from my lips the new grammar, 
and thereupon the god Kartikeya himself revealed it to him. And it came 
to pass that Vyadi and Indradatta asked their preceptor Varsha what fee 
they should give him ? He replied, " Give me ten millions of gold pieces." 
So they, consenting to the preceptor's demand, said to me ; " Come with us, 
friend, to ask the king Nanda to give us the sum required for our teacher's 
fee ; we cannot obtain so much gold from any other quarter : for he posses- 
ses nine hundred and ninety millions, and long ago he declared your wife 
rpakosa, his sister in the faith, therefore you are his brother-in-law ; we 
shall obtain something for the sake of your virtues." Having formed this 
resolution, we three fellow-students* went to the camp of king Nanda in 
Ayodhya, and the very moment we arrived, the king died ; accordingly an 
outburst of lamentation arose in the kingdom, and we were reduced to 
despair. Immediately Indradatta, who was an adept in magic, said, " I will 
enter the body of this dead kingf ; let Vararuchi prefer the petition to me, 
and I will give him the gold, and let Vyadi guard my body until I return." 
Saying this, Indradatta entered into the body of king Nanda, and when the 
king came to life again, there was great rejoicing in the kingdom. While 
Vyadi remained in an empty temple to guard the body of Indradatta, I 
went to the king's palace. I entered, and after making the usual saluta- 
tion, I asked the supposed Nanda for ten million gold pieces as my instruc- 
tor's fee. Then he ordered a man named S'akatala, the minister of the real 
Nanda, to give me ten million of gold pieces. That minister, when he saw 
that the dead king had come to life, and that the petitioner immediately 
got what he asked, guessed the real state of the case. What is there that 
the wise cannot understand ? That minister said " It shall be given, your 
Highness," and reflected with himself ; " Nanda's son is but a child, and our 
realm is menaced by many enemies, so I will do my best for the present to 

* Dr. Brockhaus translates " alle drci wit iiiiscru Sc/iiilcrn." 

t This forms the leading event of the story of Fadlallah in the Persian tales. 
The dervish there avows his having acquired the faculty of animating a dead body 
from an aged Brahman in the Indies. (Wilson.) 


keep his body on the throne even in its present state." Having resolved on 
this, he immediately took steps to have all dead bodies burnt, employing 
spies to discover them, and among them was found the body of Indradatta, 
which was burned after Vyadi had been hustled out of the temple. In the 
meanwhile the king was pressing for the payment of the money, but 
S'akatala, who was still in doubt, said to him, " All the servants have got 
their heads turned by the public rejoicing, let the Brahman wait a moment 
until I can give it." Then Vyadi came and complained aloud in the pre- 
sence of the supposed Nanda, " Help, help, a Brahman engaged in magic, 
whose life had not yet come to an end in a natural way, has been burnt by 
force on the pretext that his body was untenanted, and this in the very 
moment of your good fortune."* On hearing this the supposed Nanda 
was in an indescribable state of distraction from grief : but as soon as 
Indradatta was imprisoned in the body of Nanda, beyond the possibility of 
escape, by the burning of his body, the discreet S'akatala went out and gave 
me that ten millions. 

Then the supposed Nanda,t full of grief, said in secret to Vyadi, 
" Though a Brahman by birth I have become a S'udra, what is the use of 
my royal fortune to me though it be firmly established ?" When he heard 
that, Vyadi comforted him,J and gave him seasonable advice, " You have 
been discovered by S'akatala, so you must henceforth be on your guard 
against him, for he is a great minister, and in a short time he will, when 
it suits his purpose, destroy you, and will make Chandragupta, the son of 
the previous Nanda, king. Therefore immediately appoint Vararuchi your 
minister, in order that your rule may be firmly established by the help of 
his intellect, which is of god-like acuteness." When he had said this, Vyadi 
departed to give that fee to his preceptor, and immediately Yogununda sent 
for me and made me his minister. Then I said to the king, " Though your 
caste as a Unilunan has been taken from you, I do not consider your throne 
secure as long as S'akatala remains in oifice, therefore destroy him by some 
stratagem." When I had given him this advice, Yogananda threw S'aka- 
tala into a dark dungeon, and his hundred sons with him, proclaiming as 

* Compare tin story in the Panchatantra, Benfey's Translation, p. 124, of thn kin^ 
who lost his Lody but eventually recovered it. Benfey in Vol. I, page 128, refers to 
some European parallels. Liehrecht in his Zur Volkskunde, p. 206, mentions a story 
found in Apollonius (Historia Minibilium) which forms a striking parallel to this. 
Aecording to Apollonius, the soul of llermotimos of Klu/oinen;e left his hody frequent- 
lv. re.sided in different places, and uttered all kinds of predictions, returning to his 
lidy whieh remained in his house. At last some spiteful persons hurnt his body in 
the alliance of liis soul. 

f(i d aa being Nanda . hy yoga or magic. 

% I read drd.tya. 

his crime that he had burnt a Brahman alive. One porringer of barley-meal 
and one of water was placed inside the dungeon every day for S'akatala 
and his sons, and thereupon he said to them ; " My sons, even one man 
alone would with difficulty subsist on this barley-meal, much less can a 
number of people do so. Therefore let that one of us, who is able to take 
vengeance on Yogananda, consume every day the barley-meal and the 
water." His sons answered him, "You alone are able to punish him, 
therefore do you consume them." For vengeance is dearer to the resolute 
than life itself. So S'akatala alone subsisted on that meal and water every 
day. Alas ! those whose souls are set on victory are cruel. S'akatala in 
the dark dungeon, beholding the death agonies of his starving sons, thought 
to himself, " A man who desires his own welfare should not act in an arbi- 
trary manner towards the powerful, without fathoming their character and 
acquiring their confidence." Accordingly his hundred sons perished before 
his eyes, and he alone remained alive surrounded by their skeletons. Then 
Yogananda took firm root in his kingdom. And Vyadi approached him 
after giving the present to his teacher, and after coming near to him said, 
" May thy rule, my friend, last long ! I take my leave of thee, I go to 
perform austerities somewhere." Hearing that, Yogananda, with his voice 
choked with tears, said to him, " Stop thou, and enjoy pleasures in my king, 
dom, do not go and desert me." Vyadi answered " King ! Life comes to 
an end in a moment. What wise man, I pray you, drowns himself in 
these hollow and fleeting enjoyments ? Prosperity, a desert mirage, does 
not turn the head of the wise man." Saying this he went away that mo- 
ment resolved to mortify his flesh with austerities. Then that Yogananda 
went to his metropolis Pataliputra, for the purpose of enjoyment, accom- 
panied by me, and surrounded with his whole army. So I having 
attained prosperity, lived for a long time in that state, waited upon by 
Upakosii, and bearing the burden of the office of prime-minister to that 
king, accompanied by my mother and my preceptors. There the Ganges, 
propitiated by my austerities, gave me every day much wealth, and Saras- 
vati present in bodily form told me continually what measures to adopt. 


Having said this, Vararuchi continued his tale as follows : 
In course of time Yogananda became enslaved by his passions, apd like 
a mad elephant he disregarded every restraint. Whom will not a raddeo 
access of prosperity intoxicate ? Then I reflect^ with, myself, " The king 


has burst all bonds, and my own religious duties are neglected being inter- 
fered with by my care for his affairs, therefore it is better for me to draw 
out that S'akatala from his dungeon and make him my colleague in the 
ministry ; eVen if he tries to oppose me, what harm can he do as long as 
I am in office ?" Having resolved on this I asked permission of the king, 
and drew S'akatala out of the deep dungeon. Brahmans are always soft- 
hearted. Now the discreet S'akatala made up his mind, that it would be 
difficult to overthrow Yogananda as long as I was in office, and that he 
had accordingly better imitate the cane which bends with the current, and 
watch a favourable moment for vengeance, so at my request he resumed 
the office of minister and managed the king's affairs. 

Once on a time Yogananda went outside the city, and beheld in the 
middle of the Ganges a hand, the five fingers of which were closely pressed 
together. That moment he summoned me and said, "What does this 
mean ?" But I displayed two of my fingers in the direction of the hand. 
Thereupon that hand disappeared, and the king, exceedingly astonished, 
again asked me what this meant, and I answered him, " That hand meant 
to say, by shewing its five fingers, ' What cannot five men united effect 
in this world ?' Then I, king, shewed it these two fingers, wishing to 
indicate that nothing is impossible when even two men are of one mind." 
When I uttered this solution of the riddle the king was delighted, and 
S'akatala was despondent seeing that my intellect would be difficult to cir- 

One day Yogananda saw his queen leaning out of the window and 
asking questions of a Brahman guest that was looking up. That trivial 
circumstance threw the king into a passion, and he gave orders that the 
Brahman should be put to death ; for jealousy interferes with discernment. 
Then as that Brahman was being led off to the place of execution in order 
that he might be put to death, a fish in the market laughed aloud, though 
it was dead.* The king hearing it immediately prohibited for the present 
the execution of that Brahman, and asked me the reason why the fish 
laughed. I replied that I would tell him after I had thought over the 
matter ; and after I had gone out Sarasvati came to me secretly on my 
thinking of her and gave me this advice ; " Take up a position on the top 

* Dr. Liobrecht in Orient und Occident, Vol. I, p. 341 compares with this story 
one in the old French romance of Merlin. There I\ led in laughs because the wife of 

tlie emperor Julius C;e -a r h;nl twelve y<>im-men disguised as ladies-iii-wait in--. 1 '.en fey, 
in a note on Dr. Liehivrht'.s artlble, compares with the story of Merlin one by tho 
Countess D'Aulnoy, No. 30 <>i' the IVntitmenm.- ..f li.isile, IV. I. ami ;i story 
in the S'uka Saptati. Tbu he quotes from the translation of Demetri . In 

this some cooked fish laugh so that tho whole town hears them. The reason is the 
game as in tho story of Merlin and in our 1 < 

of tliis palm tree at night so as not to be observed, and tbou sbalt without 
doubt hear the reason why the fish laughed." Hearing this I went at 
night to that very place, and ensconced myself on the top of the palm tree, and 
saw a terrible female llakshasa coming past with her children ; when 
they asked her for food, she said, " Wait, and I will give you to-morrow morn- 
ing the flesh of a Brahman, he was not killed to-day."* They said to their 
mother, " Why was he not killed to-day ?" Then she replied, " He was not 
executed because a fish in the town, though dead, laughed when it saw him." 
The sons said, " Why did the fish laugh ?" She continued, " The fish of course 
said to himself all the king's wives are dissolute, for in every part of this 
harem there are men dressed up as women, and nevertheless while these 
escape, an innocent Brahman is to be put to death and this tickled the fish 
so that he laughed. For demons assume these disguises, insinuating them- 
selves into everything, and laughing at the exceeding want of discernment 
of kings." After I had heard that speech of the female Kakshasa I went 
away from thence, and in the morning I informed the king why the fish 
laughed. The king after detecting in the harem those men clothed as 
women, looked upon me with great respect, and released that Brahman 
from the sentence of death. 

I was disgusted by seeing this and other lawless proceedings on the 
part of the king, and, while I was in this frame of mind, there came to 
court a new painter. He painted on a sheet of canvass the principal queen 
and Yogananda, and that picture of his looked as if it were alive, it only 
lacked speech and motion. And the king being delighted loaded that pain- 
ter with wealth, and had the painting set up on a wall in his private apart- 
ments. Now one day when I entered into the king's private apartments, 
it occurred to me that the painting of the queen did not represent all her 
auspicious marks ; from the arrangement of the other marks I conjectured 
by means of my acuteness that there ought to be a spot where the girdle 
comes, and I painted one there. Then I departed after thus giving the 

* Cp. the following passage in a Danish story called Svend's exploits, in Thorpe's 
Yuletide Stories, page 341. Just as he was going to sleep, twelve crows came flying 
and perched in the elder trees over Svend's head. They began to converse together, 
and the one told the other what had happened to him that day. When they were 
ahout to fly away, one crow said, " I am so hungry ; where shall I get something to 
eat ?" " We shall have food enough to-morrow when father has killed Svend," ;uis\, 
the crow's brother. " Dost thou think then that such a miserable fellow dares fight with 
our father ?" said another. " Yes, it is probable enough that he will, but it will not pro- 
fit him much as our father cannot be overcome but with the Man of the Mount's sword, 
and that hangs in the mound, within seven locked doors, before each of which are tw o 
fierce dogs that never sleep." Svend thus learned that he should only be sacrificing 
his strength and life in attempting a combat with the dragon, bcforo ho had made him- 
self master of the Man of the Mount's sword. 

queen all her lucky marks. Then Yogananda entered and saw that spot, 
and asked his chamberlains who had painted it. And they indicated me 
to him as the person who had painted it. Yogananda thus reflected while 
burning with anger ; " No one except myself knows of that spot, which 
is in a part of the queen's body usually concealed, then how can this Vara- 
ruchi have come thus to know it ?* No doubt he has secretly corrupted 
my harem, and this is how he came to see there those men disguised as 
women." Foolish men often find such coincidences. Then of his own 
motion he summoned S'akatala, and gave him the following order : " You 
must put Vararuchi to death for seducing the queen." S'akatala said, " Your 
Majesty's orders shall be executed," and went out of the palace, reflecting, 
" I should not have power to put Vararuchi to death, for he possesses god- 
like force of intellect ; and he delivered me from calamity ; moreover he 
is a Brahman, therefore I had better hide him and win him over to my 
side." Having formed this resolution, he came and told me of the king's 
causeless wrath which had ended in his ordering my execution, and thus 
concluded, " I will have some one else put to death in order that the news 
may get abroad, and do you remain hidden in my house to protect me from 
this passionate king." In accordance with this proposal of his, I remained 
concealed in his house, and he had some one else put to death at night in 
Border that the report of my death might be spread. f When he had in 
this way displayed his statecraft, I said to him out of affection, " You have 
shewn yourself an unrivalled minister in that you did not attempt to put 
me to death ; for I cannot be slain, since I have a Rakshnsa to friend, and 
lie' will come, on being only thought of, and at my request will devour the 
whole world. As for this king he is a friend of mine, being a Brahmau 
named Indradatta, and he ought not to be slain." Hearing this, that minis- 
aid " Shew me the llakshasa." Then I shewed him that Kakshasa who 
came with a thought ; and on beholding him, S'akatala was astonished and 
terrified. And when the liakshasa had disappeared, S'akatala again asked 
me " How did the liakshasa become your friend ?" Then I said " Long 
ago the heads of the police as they went through the city night after night 
on inspecting duty, perished one by one. On hearing that, Yogananda 
made me head of the police, and as I was on my rounds at night, I saw a 
liakshasa roaming about, and he said to me, "Tell me, who is considered 
the best-looking woman in this city ?" AYhen I heard that, I burst out 
laughing and said " You fool, any woman is good-looking to the man who 
admires her." Hearing my answer, he said " You are the only man that 
has beaten me." And now that I had escaped death by solving his riddle, J 

* Compare the " molo cinque-spotted" in Cymbeline. 

f Ciiiiijuirc Measure for JI< 

I Cp. the story of (Edipus and ttu- Muhulhai.' . C. 312. -where 


he again said to me, " I am pleased with you, henceforth you are my friend, 
and I will appear to you when you call me to mind." Thus he spoke and 
disappeared, and I returned hy the way that I came. Thus the llakshasa 
has become my friend, and my ally in trouble. When I had said this, S'aka- 
tala made a second request to me, and I shewed him the goddess of the 
Ganges in human form who came when I thought of her. And that god- 
dess disappeared when she had been gratified by me with hymns of praise. 
But S'akatala became from thenceforth my obedient ally. 

Now once on a time that minister said to me when my state of con- 
cealment weighed upon my spirits ; " why do you, although you know all 
things, abandon yourself to despondency? Do you not know that the 
minds of kings are most undiscerning, and in a short time you will be 
cleared from all imputations ;* in proof of which listen to the following 
tale : 

There reigned here long ago a king 
The story of Sivararman. 

named A'dityavarman, and he had a 

very wise minister, named S'ivavarman. Now it came to pass that one of 
that king's queens became pregnant, and when he found it out, the king 
said to the guards of the harem, " It is now two years since I entered this 
place, then how has this queen become pregnant ? Tell me." Then they 
said, " No man except your minister S'ivavarman is allowed to enter here, 
but he enters without any restriction." When he heard that, the king 
thought, " Surely he is guilty of treason against me, and yet if I put him 
to death publicly, I shall incur reproach," thus reflecting, that king sent 
that S'ivavarman on some pretext to Bhogavarman a neighbouring chief,f 
who was an ally of his, and immediately afterwards the king secretly sent 
off a messenger to the same chief, bearing a letter by which he was ordered 
to put the minister to death. When a week had elapsed after the minis- 
ter's departure, that queen tried to escape out of fear, and was taken by 
the guards with a man in woman's attire, then A'dityavarman when he 
heard of it was tilled with remorse, and asked himself why he had cause- 
lessly brought about the death of so excellent a minister. In the mean- 
while S'ivavarman reached the Court of Bhogavarman, and that messenger 
came bringing the letter ; and fate would have it so that after Bhogavar- 
man had read the letter he told to S'ivavarman in secret the order he had 
received to put him to death. 

The excellent minister .S'ivavarman in his turn said to that chief, 

Yodhisthixa is questioned by a Yaksha. Benfey compares Mahabharata XIII (IV, 

206) 6883-5918 where ;i liniluuaii seized by a Uakshusa rsraprtl in tlu- same way. 
* Reading chuddkis for the chudis of Dr. Brockluuis' ; 
t Samanta seoms to mean a feudatory or dependent prince. 


" put me to death ; if you do not, I will slay myself with my own hand." 
When he heard that, Bhogavarman was filled with wonder, and said to 
him, " What does all this mean ? Tell me Brahman, if you do not, you will 
lie under my curse." Then the minister said to him, " King, in whatever 
land I am slain, on that land God will not send rain for twelve years." 
When he heard that, Bhogavarman debated with his minister, "that 
wicked king desires the destruction of our land, for could he not have em- 
ployed secret assassins to kill his minister ? So we must not put this 
minister to death, moreover we must prevent him from laying violent hands 
on himself." Having thus deliberated and appointed him guards, Bhoga- 
varman sent S'ivavarman out of his country that moment ; so that minister 
by means of his wisdom returned alive, and his innocence was established 
from another quarter, for righteousness cannot be undone. 

In the same way your innocence will be made clear, Katyayana ; remain 
for a while in my house ; this king too will repent of what he has done. 
When Sakatala said this to me, I spent those days concealed in his house, 
waiting my opportunity. 

Then it came to pass that one day, Kanabhuti, a son of that Yoga- 
nanda named Hiranyagupta went out hunting, and when he had somehow 
or other been carried to a great distance by the speed of his horse, while 
he was alone in the wood the day came to an end ; and then he ascended a 
tree to pass the night. Immediately afterwards a bear, which had been 
terrified by a lion, ascended the same tree ; he seeing the prince frightened, 
said to him with a human voice, " Fear not, thou art my friend," and thus 
promised him immunity from harm. Then the prince confiding in the 
bear's promise went to sleep, while the bear remained awake. Then the 
lion below said to the bear, " Bear, throw me down this man, and I will go 
away." Then the bear said, " Villain, I will not cause the death of a 
friend." When in course of time the bear went to sleep while the prince 
was awake, the lion said again, " Man, throw me down the bear." When 
he heard that, the prince, who through fear for his own safety wished to 
propitiate the lion, tried to throw down the bear, but wonderful to Fay, it 
did not fall, since Fate caused it to awake. And then that bear said to the 
prince, " become insane, thou betrayer of thy friend,"* laying upon him a 
curse destined not to end until a third person guessed the whole transac- 
tion. Accordingly the prince, when he reached his palace in the morning 
went out of his mind, and Yogananda seeing it, \vas immediately plunged 
in despondency ; and said, " If Vararuchi were alive at this moment, all this 
matter would be known ;" curse on my readiness to have him put to death ! 

* Benfey considers that this story was originally Budilhistic. A very similar 
story is quoted by him from thu Kurin;is;it;iku. (runchutautiu I, p. 209) cp. also c. 65 
of this work. 


S'akatala, when he heard this exclamation of the king's, thought to hims.-lf, 
"Ha! here is an opportunity ohtained for bringing Katyayana out of con- 
cealment, and he being a proud man will not remain here, and the king 
will repose confidence in me." After reflecting thus, he implored pardon, 
and said to the king, " King, cease from despondency, Vararuchi re- 
mains alive." Then Yogananda said. " Let him he brought quickly." 
Then I was suddenly brought by S'akatala into the presence of Yogananda 
and beheld the prince in that state ; and by the favour of Sarasvati I was 
enabled to reveal the whole occurrence ; and I said, " King, he has proved 
a traitor to his friend" ; then I was praised by that prince who was deli- 
vered from his curse ; and the king asked me how I had managed to find 
out what had taken place. Then I said, " King, the minds of the wise see 
everything by inference from signs, and by acuteness of intellect. So I 
found out all this in the same way as I found out that mole." When I 
had said this, that king was afflicted with shame. Then without accepting 
his munificence, considering myself to have gained all I desired by the 
clearing of my reputation, I went home : for to the wise character is 
wealth. And the moment I arrived, the servants of my house wept before 
me, and when I was distressed at it Upavarsha came to me and said, 
" Upakosa, when she heard that the king had put you to death, committed 
her body to the flames, and then your mother's heart broke with grief." 
Hearing that, senseless with the distraction produced by recently aroused 
grief, I suddenly fell on the ground like a tree broken by the wind : and 
in a moment I tasted the relief of loud lamentations ; whom will not the 
fire of grief, produced by the loss of dear relations, scorch ? Varsha came 
and gave me sound advice in such words as these, " The only thing that 
is stable in this ever-changeful world is instability, then why are you dis- 
tracted though you know this delusion of the Creator" ? By the help of 
these and similar exhortations I at length, though with difficulty, regained 
my equanimity ; then with heart disgusted with the world, I flung aside 
all earthly lords, and choosing self-restraint for my only companion, I 
went to a grove where asceticism was practised. 

Then, as days went by, once on a time a Brahman from Ayodhya came 
to that ascetic-grove while I was there : I asked him for tidings about 
Yogananda's government, and he recognizing me told me in sorrowful 
accents the following story : 

" Hear what happened to Nanda after you had left him. gfakaf al:>. 
waiting for it a long time, found that he hud now obtained an opportunity 
of injuring him. While thinking how he might by some device get 
Yogananda killed, he happened to see a Bnihman named Chanakya digging 
up the earth in his path ; he said to him, " Why are you digging up the 
earth ?" The Brahman, whom he hud asked, said, I am rooting up a plant 


of darlJia grass here, because it has pricked my foot.* When he heard 
that, the minister thought that Brahman who formed such stern resolves out 
of anger, would be the best instrument to destroy Nanda with. After 
asking his name he said to him, " Brahman, I assign to you the duty of 
performing a s'rdddha on the thirteenth day of the lunar fortnight, in the 
house of king Nanda ; you shall have one hundred thousand gold pieces by 
way of fee, and you shall sit at the board above all others ; in the mean- 
while come to my house." Saying this, S'akatala took that Brahman to 
his house, and on the day of the s'rdddha he showed the Brahman to the 
king, and he approved of him. Then Chanakya went and sat at the head 
of the table during the s'rdddha, but a Brahman named Subandhu desired 
that post of honour for himself. Then S'akatala went and referred the 
matter to king Nanda, who answered, " Let Subandhu sit at the head 
of the table, no one else deserves the place." Then S'akatala went, 
and, humbly bowing through fear, communicated that order of the 
king's to Chanakya, adding, " it is not my fault." Then that Chanakya, 
being, as it were, inflamed all over with wrath, undoing the lock of hair 
on the crown of his head, made this solemn vow, " Surely this Nanda must 
be destroyed by me within seven days, and then my anger being ap- 
peased I will bind up my lock." When he had said this, Yogananda was 
enraged ; so Chanakya escaped unobserved, and S'akatala gave him refuge 
in his house. Then being supplied by S'akatala with the necessary instru- 
ments, that Brahman Chanakya went somewhere and performed a magic 
rite ; in consequence of this rite Yogananda caught a burning fever, and 
died when the seventh day arrived ; and S'akatala, having slain Nanda's son 
Hiranyagupta, bestowed the royal dignity upon Chandragupta a son of the 
previous Nanda. And after he had requested Chanakya, equal in ability to 
Brihaspati,t to be Chandragupta's prime-minister, and established him in 
the office, that minister, considering that all his objects had been accom- 
plished, as he had wreaked his vengeance on Yogananda, despondent through 
sorrow for the death of his sons, retired to the forest." J 

After I had heard this, O Kanabhuti, from the mouth of that Brahman, 
1 became exceedingly afllicted, seeing that all things are unstable ; and on 
account of my affliction J came to visit this shrine of Dunra, and through 
her favour having beheld you, O my friend, I have remembered my former 


* Probably his foot bled, and so he contracted defilement. 

f The preceptor of the gods. 

J See the Mudra Kakshasa for another version of this story. (Wilson. Hindu 
Theatre, Vol. II.) Wilson remarks that the story i& ulttu told differently in the Pura- 


And having obtained divine discernment I have told you the great 
tale : now as my curse has spent its strength, I will strive to leave the 
body ; and do you remain here for the present, until there comes to you 
a Brahman named Gunadhya, who has forsaken the use of three langua- 
ges,* surrounded with his pupils, for he like myself was cursed by the 
goddess in anger, being an excellent Gana M&yar&n by name, who for 
taking my part has become a mortal. To him you must tell this tale 
originally told by Siva, then you shall be delivered from your curse, and so 
shall he. 

Having said all this to Kanabhuti, that Vararuchi set forth for the 
holy hermitage of Badarika in order to put off his body. As he was going 
alon<* he beheld on the banks of the Ganges a vegetable-eatingf hermit, 
and while he was looking on, that hermit's hand was pricked with Jcusa 
grass. Then Vararuchi turned his blood, as it flowed out, into sap J through 
his magic power, out of curiosity, in order to test his egotism ; on behold- 
ing that, the hermit exclaimed, " Ha ! I have attained perfection ;" and so 
he became puffed up with pride. Then Vararuchi laughed a little and said 
to him, " I turned your blood into sap in order to test you, because even 
now, hermit, you have not abandoned egotism. Egotism is in truth an 
obstacle in the road to knowledge hard to overcome, and without knowledge 
liberation cannot be attained even by a hundred vows. But the perishable 
joys of Svarga cannot attract the hearts of those who long for liberation, 
therefore, O hermit, endeavour to acquire knowledge by forsaking egotism." 
Having thus read that hermit a lesson, and having been praised by him 
prostrate in adoration, Vararuchi went to the tranquil site of the hermitage 
of Badari. There he, desirous of putting off his mortal condition, resorted 
for protection with intense devotion to that goddess who only can protect, 
and she manifesting her real form to him told him the secret of that medi- 
tation which arises from fire, to help him to put off the body. Then Vara- 
ruchi having consumed his body by that form of meditation, reached his 
own heavenly home ; and henceforth that Kanabhuti remained in the Vin- 
dhya forest eager for his desired meeting with Gunadhya. 

* Sanskrit, Prakrit and his own native dialect. 

t I change Dr. Brockhaus's Stikdsana into S'dkdsana. 

J As, according to my reading, he ate vegetables, his blood was turned into tho 
iuice of vegetables. Dr. Brockhaus translates machte dass das heransstromende Blut r 
Krystallen sich bildete. 

A celebrated place of pilgrimage near the source of the Ganges, the Bhudrmath 
of modern travellers. (Monier Williams, . .) 


Then that Mtilyavan wandering about in the wood in human form, 
passing under the name of Gunadhya, having served the king Satavahana, 
and having, in accordance with a vow, abandoned in his presence the use of 
Sanskrit and two other languages, with sorrowful mind came to pay a visit 
to Durga, the dweller in the Vindhya hills ; and by her orders he went and 
beheld Kanabhuti. Then he remembered his origin and suddenly, as it 
were, awoke from sleep ; and making use of the Paisacha language, which 
was different from the three languages he had sworn to forsake, he said to 
Kanabhuti, after telling him his own name ; " Quickly tell me that tale 
which you heard from Pushpadanta, in order that you and I together, 
my friend, may escape from our curse." Hearing that, Kanabhuti bowed 
before him, and said to him in joyful mood, " I will tell you the story, but 
great curiosity possesses me, my lord, first tell me all your adventures from 
your birth, do me this favour." Thus being entreated by him, Gunadhya 
proceeded to relate as follows : 

In Pratishthana* there is a city named Supra tishthita ; in it there 
dwelt once upon a time an excellent Brahman named Somasarman, and he, 
my friend, had two sons Vatsa and Gulmaka, and he had also born to him 
a third child, a daughter named 'S'rutartha. Now in course of time, that 
Brahnian and his wife died, and those two sons of his remained taking care 
of their sister. And she suddenly became pregnant. Then Vatsa and 
Gulma began to suspect one another, because no other man came in their 
sister's way : thereupon S'rutartha, who saw what was in their minds, said 
to those brothers, " Do not entertain evil suspicions, listen, I will tell you 
the truth ; there is a prince of the name of Kirtisena, brother's son to 
Viisuki, the king of the Nagas ;f he saw me when I was going to bathe, 
thereupon he was overcome with love, and after telling me his lineage and 
his name, made me his wife by the Gandharva marriage ; he belongs to the 
Brahman race, and it is by him that I am pregnant." When they heard 
this speech of their sister's, Vatsa and Gulma said, " What confidence can we 
repose in all this ?" Then she silently called to mind that Naga prince, 

Pratishthiina according to Wilson is celebrated as the capital of Salivahana. It 
is identifiable with Peytan on the Godavari. the Bathana or Paithana of Ptolemy, the 
capital of Siripolemaio.s. Wilson identifies this name with Salivahana, but Dr. Rost re- 
marks that Lassen more correctly identifies it with that of S'ri Pullman of the Andhra 
dynasty who reigned at Pratishthana after the overthrow of the house of Salivahana 
about 130 A. D. 

f Fabulous serpent-demons having the head of a man with the tail of a serpent. 
(Monicr Williaind, a. .) 


and immediately he was thought upon, he came and said to Vatsa and 
Gulma, "In truth I have made your sister my wife, she is a glorious hea- 
venly nymph fallen down to earth in consequence of a curse, and you too 
have descended to earth for the same reason, but a son shall without fail 
be born to your sister here, and then you and she together shall be freed 
from your curse." Having said this he disappeared, and in a few days from 
that time, a son was born to S'rutartha ; know me my friend as that son.* 
At that very time a divine voice was heard from heaven, " This child that 
is born is an incarnation of virtue, and he shall be called Gunadya,t and is 
of the Brahman caste. Thereupon my mother and uncles, as their curse 
had spent its force, died, and I for my part became inconsolable. Then I 
flung aside my grief, and though a child I went in the strength of my self- 
reliance to the Deccan to acquire knowledge. Then, having in course of 
time learned all sciences, and become famous, I returned to my native land 
to exhibit my accomplishments ; and when I entered after a long absence 
into the city of Supratishthita, surrounded by my disciples, I saw a wonder- 
fully splendid scene. In one place chanters were intoning according to 
prescribed custom the hymns of the Sama Veda, in another place Brahmans 
were disputing about the interpretation of the sacred books, in another 
place gamblers were praising gambling in these deceitful words, " Whoever 
knows the art of gambling, has a treasure in his grasp," and in another 
place, in the midst of a knot of merchants, who were talking to one another 
about their skill in the art of making money, a certain merchant spoke as 
follows : 

It is not very wonderful that a 

Story of the Mouse-merchant. JIT. i_ i i ,n , 

thntty man should acquire wealth by 

wealth ; but I long ago achieved prosperity without any wealth to start 
with. My father died before I was born, and then my mother was depriv- 
ed by wicked relations of all she possessed. Then she fled through fear of 
them, watching over the safety of her unborn child, and dwelt in the house 
of Kumaradatta a friend of my father's, and there the virtuous woman gave 
birth to me, who was destined to be the means of her future mainte- 
nance ; and so she reared me up by performing menial drudgery. And as 
she was so poor, she persuaded a teacher by way of charity to give me some 
instruction in writing and ciphering. Then she said to me, " You are the 
son of a merchant, so you must now engage in trade, and there is a 
rich merchant in this country called Yisakhila ; he is in the habit of lend- 
ing capital to poor men of good family, go and entreat him to ghv 
something to start with." Then I went to his house, and he at the 
moment I entered, said in a rage to some merchant's son -, this 

* It seems to me that tvam in Dr. Brockhaus' text must be a misprint fur (am. 
t / f., rich in virtues, and good qualities. 


dead mouse here upon the floor, even that is a commodity by which a capa- 
ble man would acquire wealth, but I gave you, you good-for-nothing fellow, 
many dinars* and so far from increasing them, you have not even been 
able to preserve what you got." When I heard that, I suddenly said to 
th:;t Yisakhila, " I hereby take from you that mouse as capital advanced ;" 
saying this I took the mouse up in my hand, and wrote him a receipt for 
it, which he put in his strong box, and off I went. The merchant for his 
part burst out laughing. Well, I sold that mouse to a certain merchant 
as cat's-meat for two handfuls of gram, then I ground up that gram, and 
taking a pitcher of water, I went and stood on the cross-road in a shady 
place, outside the city ; there I offered with the utmost civility the water 
and gram to a band of wood-cutters ;f every wood -cutter gave me as a 
token of gratitude two pieces of wood ; and I took those pieces of wood 
and sold them in the market ; then for a small part of the price which I 
got for them, I bought a second supply of gram, and in the same way on a 
second day I obtained wood from the wood-cutters. Doing this every day 
I gradually acquired capital, and I bought from those wood-cutters all 
their wood for three days. Then suddenly there befell a dearth of wood 
on account of heavy rains, and I sold that wood for many hundred panas, 
with that wealth I set up a shop, and engaging in traffic, I have become a 
very wealthy man by my own ability. Then I made a mouse of gold, and 
gave it to that Visakhila, then he gave me his daughter ; and in conse- 
quence of my history I am known in the world by the name of Mouse. So 
without a coin in the world I acquired this prosperity. All the other mer- 
chants then, when they heard this story, were astonished. How can the 
mind help being amazed at pictures without^walls ?J 

In another place a Brahman who 
&lor;/ of the chanter of the Kama 1 eua. A 

had got eight gold maslias as a pre- 
sent, a chanter of the Sama Veda, received the following piece of advice 
from a man who was a bit of a roue, " You get enough to live upon by 
your position as a Brahman, so you ought now to employ this gold for the 
purpose of learning the way of the world in order that you may become a 
knowing fellow." The fool said " Who will teach me ?" Thereupon the 
roue said to him, " This lady named Chaturika, go to her house." The 

* From the Greek Srivdptov = denarius. (Monier "Williams . r.) Dramma = Or. 
Spax^ is used in the Panehatantra ; see Dr. Liihler's Notes to Panchatantra, IV ;uid 
V, Note on P. 40, 1. 3. 

t Literally wood-carriers. 

J He had made money without capital, so his achievements are compared to pic- 
tures suspended in tin: air: 


Brahman said, " What am I to do there" ? The roue replied " Give her 
gold, and in order to please her make use of some sdma."* When he heard 
this, the chanter went quickly to the house of Chaturik.-i ; when he enl 
the lady advanced to meet him and he took a seat. Then that Brahman 
gave her the gold and faltered out the request, " Teach me now for thi.s fee 
the way of the world." Thereupon the people who were there began to 
titter, and he, after reflecting a little, putting his hands together in the 
shape of a cow's ear, so that they formed a kind of pipe, hegan, like a 
stupid idiot, to chant with a shrill sound the Sama Veda, so that all the 
roues in the house came together to see the fun ; and they said " Whence 
lias this jackal blundered in here ? Come, let us quickly give him the 
half-moonf on his throat." Thereupon the Brahman supposing that the 
half-moon meant an arrow with a head of that shape, and afraid of having 
his head cut off, rushed out of the house, bellowing out, " I have learnt the 
way of the world ;" then he went to the man who had sent him, and told 
him the whole story. He replied " when I told you to use sdma, I meant 
coaxing and wheedling ; what is the propriety of introducing the Veda in a 
matter of this kind? The fact is, I suppose, that stupidity is engrained 
in a man who muddles his head with the Vedas ?" So he spoke, bursting 
with laughter all the while, and went off to the lady's house, and said to 
her, " Give back to that two-legged cow his gpld- fodder." So she laughing 
gave back the money, and when the Brahman got it, he went back to his 
house as happy as if he had been born again. 

Witnessing strange scenes of this kind at every step, I reached the 
palace of the king which was like the court of Indra. And then I 
entered it, with my pupils going before to herald my arrival, and 
saw the king Satavahana sitting in his hall of audience upon a 
jewelled throne, surrounded by his ministers, S'arvavarman and his 
colleagues, as Indra is by the gods. After I had blessed him and 
had taken a seat, and had been honoured by the king, S'arvavarman and the 
other ministers praised me in the following words, "This man, O king, is 
famous upon the earth as skilled in all lore, and therefore his name Gunu- 
dhyaj is a true index of his nature." Satavahana hearing me praised in 
this style by his ministers, was pleased with me and immediately enter- 
tained me honourably, and appointed me to the office of Minister. Then L 
married a wile, and lived there comfortably, looking after the king's affairs 
and inst rut-ting my pupils. 

* The vita or rout- meant "conciliation" but the chanter of the Sdma Veda took 
it to moan " hymn." 

f 1. e., scizo him with curved h;uid, and fling him out neck and crop. T'v 

otnlor supposed them to menu a en s<:'t ut-huuk'd arrow. 

J 1, e., ri.-h in accomplishments. 


Once, as I was roaming about at leisure on the banks of the Godavari 
out of curiosity, I beheld a garden called Devikriti, and seeing that it was 
an exceedingly pleasant garden, like an earthly Nandana,* I asked the 
gardener how it came there, and he said to me, " My lord, according to the 
story which we hear from old people, long ago there came here a cortain 
Brahman who observed a vow of silence and abstained from food, he made 
this heavenly garden with a temple; then all the Brahmans assembled here 
out of curiosity, and that Brahman being persistently asked by them told 
his history. There is in this land a province called Vakakachchha on the 
banks of the Xarmada, in that district I was born as a Brahman, and in 
former times no one gave me alms, as I was lazy as well as poor ; then in 
a fit of annoyance I quitted my house being disgusted with life, and 
wandering round the holy places, I came to visit the shrine of Durga the 
dweller in the Vindhya hills, and having beheld that goddess, I reflected, 
' People propitiate with animal offerings this giver of boons, but I will 
slay myself here, stupid beast that I am.' Having formed this resolve, I 
took in hand a sword to cut off my head. Immediately that goddess being 
propitious, herself said to me, ' Son, thou art perfected, do not slay thy- 
self, remain near me ;' thus I obtained a boon from the goddess and attained 
divine nature ; from that day forth my hunger and thirst disappeared ; then 
once on a time, as I was remaining there, that goddess herself said to me, 
' Go, my son, and plant in Pratishthana a glorious garden ;' thus speaking, 
she gave me, with her own hands, heavenly seed ; thereupon I came here 
and made this beautiful garden by means of her power ; and this garden 
you must keep in good order. Having said this, he disappeared. In this 
way this garden was made by the goddess long ago, my lord." When I 
had heard from the gardener this signal manifestation of the favour of the 
goddess, I went home penetrated with wonder. 

When Guiuidhyahad said this, 
The story of Satavaha/ta. 

Kanablmti asked, " Why, my lord, 

\\as the king called Satavahana ?" Then Guuadhya said, Listen, I will tell 
you the reason. There was a king of great power named Dvipikarni. 
He had a wife named S'aktimati, whom he valued more than life, and onee 
upon a time a snake bit her as she was sleeping in the garden. Thereupon 
she died, and that king thinking only of her, though he had no son, took 
a vow of perpetual cha>tit,y. Then once upon a time tin- god of the moony 
crest said to him in a dream " While wandering in the forest thou shalt 
behold a boy mounted on a lion, take him and go home, he shall he thy 
son." Then the king woke up, and rejoiced remembering that dream, and 
one day in his passion for the chase he went to a di>tant wood ; there in 
the middle of the day that king beheld on the hank of a lotus-lake a boy 
* Indru'a pleasure-ground or Elysium. 


splendid as the sun, riding on a lion ; the lion desiring to drink water set 
down the boy, and then the king remembering his dream slew it with one 
arrow. The creature thereupon abandoned the form of a lion, and suddenly 
assumed the shape of a man ; the king exclaimed, " Alas ! what means 
this ? tell me !" and then the man answered him " king, I am a Yaksha 
of the name of Sata, an attendant upon the god of wealth ; long ago 
I beheld the daughter of a Rishi bathing in the Ganges ; she too, when she 
beheld me, felt love arise in her breast, like myself : then I made her my 
wife by the Gandharva form of marriage ; and her relatives, finding it out, 
in their anger cursed me and her, saying, " You two wicked ones, doing 
what is right in your own eyes, shall become lions." The hermit-folk 
appointed that her curse should end when she gave birth to offspring, and 
that mine should continue longer, until I was slain by thee with an arrow. 
So we became a pair of lions ; she in course of time became pregnant, and 
then died after this boy was born, but I brought him up on the milk of 
other lionesses, and lo ! to-day I am released from my curse having been 
smitten by thee with an arrow. Therefore receive this noble son which I 
give thee, for this thing was foretold long ago by those hermit-folk." 
Having said this that Guhyaka named Sata disappeared,* and the king 
taking the boy went home ; and because he had ridden upon Sata he gave 
the boy the name of Satavahana, and in course of time he established 
him in his kingdom. Then, when that king Dvipikarni went to the forest, 
this Satavahana became sovereign of the whole earth. 

Having said this in the middle of his tale in answer to Kanabhuti's 
question, the wise Gunadhya again called to mind and went on with the 
main thread of his narrative. Then once upon a time, in the spring 
festival that king Satavahana went to visit the garden made by the god- 
dess, of which I spake before. He roamed there for a long time like 
Indra in the garden of Nandana, and descended into the water of the lake to 
amuse himself in company with his wives. There he sprinkled his beloved 
ones sportively with water flung by his hands, and was sprinkled by them 
in return like an elephant by its females. His wives with faces, the eyes 
of which were slightly reddened by the colly rium washed into them, and 
which were streaming with water, and with bodies the proportions of 
which were revealed by their clinging garments, pelted him vigorously ; 
and as the wind strips the creepers in the forest of leaves ami ilowers, so 
he made his fair ones who fled into the adjoining shrubbery lose the marks 
on their foreheadsf and their ornaments. Then one of his qutvns tardy 

* Guhyaka hero synonymous with Yaksha. The Guhyakas like tin.- Yakshas aro 
attendants upon Kuvera the god of wealth. 

t The tilaku a mark made upon the forehead or betwri n tin cyrln-uv, 
coloured earths, sandal-wood, >!CL'., serving as ail oruauicut or a strtarial distinction. 
M oilier Williams i. ;. 


with the weight of her breasts, with body tender as a s'in'sJta flower, be- 
came exhausted with the amusement ; she not being able to endure more, 
said to the king who was sprinkling her with water, " do not pelt me 
with water-drops ;" on hearing that, the king quickly had some sweet- 
meats* brought ; then the queen burst out laughing and said again " king, 
what do we want with sweetmeats in the water ? For I said to you, do 
not sprinkle me with water-drops. Do you not even understand the 
coalescence of the words m/i and udaka, and do you not know that chapter 
of the grammar, how can you be such a blockhead ?" When the queen, who 
knew grammatical treatises, said this to him, and the attendants laughed, 
the king was at once overpowered with secret shame ; he left off romping 
in the water and immediately entered his own palace unperceived, crest- 
fallen, and full of self -contempt. Then he remained lost in thought, 
bewildered, averse to food and other enjoyments, and, like a picture, 
even when asked a question, he answered nothing. Thinking that 
his only resource was to acquire learning or die, he flung himself down on 
a couch, and remained in an agony of grief. Then all the king's atten- 
dants, seeing that he had suddenly fallen into such a state, were utterly 
beside themselves to think what it could mean. Then I and S'arvavarman 
came at last to hear of the king's condition, and by that time the day 
was almost at an end. So perceiving that the king was still in an un- 
satisfactory condition, we immediately summoned a servant of the king 
named liajahansa. And he when asked by us about the state of the king's 
health, said this " I never before in my life saw the king in such a state 
of depression : and the other queens told me with much indignation that 
he had been humiliated to-day by that superficial blue-stocking, the daughter 
of Yishnusakti." When S'arvavarman and I had heard this from the 
mouth of the king's servant, we fell into a state of despondency, and thus 
reflected in our dilemma ; " If the king were afflicted with bodily di.~ 
we might introduce the physicians, but if his disease is mental it is im 
possible to find the cause of it. For there is no enemy in his country 
the thorns of which arc destroyed, and these subjects an- at tached to him ; 
no dearth of any kind is to be seen ; so how can this sudden melancholy of 
the king's have arisen?" After we had debated to this effect, the wise 
S'arvavarman said as follows " I know the cause, this king i- -,l by 

sorrow for his own ignorance, for he is always ex]>r desire I'or 

culture, saying ' I am a blockhead ;' I long ago detected this desire of his, 
and we have heard that the occasion of the present fit is his having ' 
humiliated by the queen." Thus we debated with one another and after 

* Tli j>;irti,-!r ;,' .-o.-ilosi'os -with u<l<iknih (the plural instrumrn!, 

of udaku] into mmlukiiih, and ivi/>: -"b^" word) iii'/aus " with :>wt.vt.iue;itd." 


we had passed that night, in the morning we went to the private apart- 
ments of tiie sovereign. There, though strict orders had been given that 
no one was to enter, I managed to get in with difficulty, and after me 
S'arvavarman slipped in quickly. I then sat down near the king ami | 
him this question "Why, king, art thou without cause thus des- 
pondent ?" Though he heard this, Satavahana nevertheless remained silent, 
and then S'arvavarman uttered this extraordinary speech, " King, thou 
didst long ago say to me, ' Make me a learned man. ' Thinking upon 
that I employed last night a charm to produce a dream.* Then I saw in 
my dream a lotus fallen from heaven, and it was opened by some heavenly 
youth, and out of it came a divine woman in white garments, and imme- 
diately, (.) king, she entered thy mouth. When I had seen so much I 
woke up, and I think without doubt that the woman who visibly entered 
thy mouth was Sarasvati. As soon as S'arvavarman had in these terms 
described his dream, the king broke his silence and said to me with the 
utmost earnestness, " In how short a time can a man, who is diligently 
taught, acquire learning ? Tell me this. For without learning all this 
regal splendour has no charms for me. What is the use of rank and power 
to a blockhead ? They are like ornaments on a log of wood." Then I 
said, " King, it is invariably the case that it takes men twelve years to 
learn grammar, the gate to all knowledge. But I, my sovereign, will 
teach it you in six years." When he heard that, S'arvavarman suddenly 
exclaimed in a fit of jealousy " How can a man accustomed to enjoy- 
ment endure hardship for so long ? So I will teach you grammar, my 
prince, in six months." W T hen I heard this promise which it seemed 
impossible to make good, I said to him in a rage, " If you teach the king 
in six months, I renounce at once and for ever Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the 
vernacular dialect, these three languages which pass current among men ;f 
then S'arvavarman said " And if I do not do this, I S'arvavarman, will 
carry your shoes on my head for twelve years." Having said this he went 
out ; I too went home ; and the king for his part was comforted, expecting 
that he would attain his object by means of one of us two. Now S'arva- 
varman being in a dilemma, seeing that his promise was one very difficult 
to perform, and regretting what he had done, told the whole story to his 
wife, and she grieved to hear it said to him, " My lord, in this difficulty 
there is no way of escape for you except the favour of the Lord Karti- 
ke v a. J " It is so," said S'arvavarman and determined to implore it. Accord- 

* So explained by Bohtlingk and Roth s. v. cp. Tarunga 72 si. 103. 

t Ho al'tenvards learns to speak in the lan.^ua^o of the 1'iiuchas, goblins, r 

Called also Kumara. This was no doubt indicated by the Kiuimra or boy, who 
opened the lotus. 


ingly in the last watch of the night, S'arvavarman set out fasting for the 
shrine of the god. Now I came to hear of it by means of my secret emis- 
saries, and in the morning I told the king of it ; and he, when he heard it, 
wondered what would happen. Then a trusty Rajput called Sinhagupta 
said to him, " When I heard, king, that thou wast afflicted I was seized 
with great despondency. Then I went out of this city, and was preparing 
to cut off my own head hefore the goddess Durga in order to ensure thy 
happiness. Then a voice from heaven forbade me, saying, ' Do not so, the 
king's wish shall be fulfilled.' Therefore, I believe, thou art sure of suc- 
cess." When he had said this, that Sinhagupta took leave of the king, and 
rapidly despatched two emissaries after S'arvavarman ; who feeding only on 
air, observing a vow of silence, steadfast in resolution, reached at last the 
shrine of the Lord Kartikeya. There, pleased with his penance that spared 
not the body, Kartikeya favoured him according to his desire ; then the 
two spies sent by Sinhagupta came into the king's presence and reported 
the minister's success. On hearing that news the king was delighted and 
I was despondent, as the cMtaka joys, and the swan grieves, on seeing the 
cloud.* Then S'arvavarman arrived successful by the favour of Kartikeya, 
and communicated to the king all the sciences, which presented themselves 
to him on his thinking of them. And immediately they were revealed to 
the king Satavahana. For what cannot the grace of the Supreme Lord 
accomplish ? Then the kingdom rejoiced on hearing that the king had 
thus obtained all knowledge, and there was high festival kept throughout 
it ; and that moment banners were flaunted from every house, and being 
fanned by the wind, seemed to dance. Then S'arvavarman was honoured 
with abundance of jewels fit for a king by the sovereign, who bowed humbly 
before him, calling him his spiritual preceptor, and he was made governor 
of the territory called Vakakachchha, which lies along the bank of the Nar- 
mada. The king being highly pleased with that Rajput Sinhagupta, who 
first heard by the mouth of his spies, that the boon had been obtained from 
the six-faced god,f made him equal to himself in splendour and power. 
And that queen too, the daughter of Vishnusakti, who was the cause of his 
acquiring learning, he exalted at one bound above all the queens, through 
affection anointingj her with his own hand. 

* The cMtaka lives on rain-drops, but the poor swan has to tike a long journey 
to the WUKI.SI lake beyond the snowy hills, at the approach of the rainy season. 
t Kartikoya. 
J More literally sprinkling her with watrr. 


Then, having taken a vow of silence, I came into the presence of the 
sovereign, and there a certain Brahman recited a slokn- he had com- 
posed, and the king himself addressed him correctly in the Sanskrit lan- 
guage ; and the people who were present in court were delighted when tln-y 
witnessed that. Then the king said deferentially to S'arvavarman " Tell 
me thyself after what fashion the god shewed thee favour." Hearing that, 
S'arvavarman proceeded to relate to the king the whole story of Kartikeya's 
favourable acceptance of him. 

" I went, O king, on that occasion fasting and silent from this place, so 
when the journey came to an end, being very despondent, and emaciated 
with my severe austerities, worn out I fell senseless on the ground. Then, 
I remember, a man with a spear in his hand came and said to me in distinct 
accents, 'Rise up, my son, everything shall turn out favourably for thee.' 
By that speech I was, as it were, immediately bedewed with a shower of 
nectar, and I woke up, and seemed free from hunger and thirst and in good 
case. Then I approached the neighbourhood of the god's temple, over- 
powered with the weight of my devotion, and after bathing I entered the 
inner shrine of the god in a state of agitated suspense. Then that Lord 
Skanda* gave me a sight of himself within, and thereupon Sarasvati in 
visible shape entered my mouth. So that holy god, manifested before me, 
recited the sutra beginning ' the traditional doctrine of letters.' On 
hearing that, I, with the levity which is so natural to mankind, guessed the 
next sutra and uttered it myself. Then that god said to me, 'if thou 
hadst not uttered it thyself, this grammatical treatise would have supplant- 
ed that of Panini. As it is, on account of its conciseness, it shall be called 
Katantra, and Kahipaka, from the tail (kaldpfi) of the peacock on which I 
ride.' Having said this, that god himself in visible form revealed to me 
that new and short grammar, f and then added this besides ; ' That king 
of thine in a former birth was himself a holy sage, a pupil of the hermit 
Bharadvaja, named Krishna, great in austerity : and he, having beheld a 

* Skanda is another name of Kartikeya. 

t This grammar is extensively in use in the eastern parts of Bengal. The ruli s 
arc attributed to Sarvavarma, hy the inspiration of K;irtik< ya, as narrated in tin 
The tfjnftt or gloss is the work of Durgi Singh and that again is commented <>n Vv 
Trilochana Dasa and Kaviraja. Vararuchi is the supposed author of an illustration of 
the Conjugations and Sripali Yarma of a. Supplement. Other Commentaries are attri- 
buted to Gopi Niitha, Kula Chandra and Visvi>var;i. (X<>t' in \\'i!,-"n's I 
I. p. 183.) 


hermit's daughter who loved him in return, suddenly felt the smart of the 
wound which the shaft of the flowery-arrowed god inflicts. So, having 
been cursed hy the hermits, he has now become incarnate here, and that 
hermit's daughter has become incarnate as his queen. 

So this king Satavahana, being an incarnation of a holy sage,* when 
he beholds thee, will attain a knowledge of all the sciences according to thy 
wish. For the highest matters are easily acquired by great-souled ones, 
having been learnt in a former birth, the real truth of them being recalled 
by their powerful memories. 'f When the god had said this, he disappeared, 
and I went out, and there grains of rice were presented me by the god's 
servants. Then I proceeded to return, O king, and wonderful to say, 
though I consumed those grains on my journey day after day, they remain- 
ed as numerous as ever." When he had related his adventure, S'arvavarman 
ceased speaking, and king Satavahana in cheerful mood rose up and went 
to bathe. 

Then I, being excluded from business by my vow of silence, took leave, 
with a low bow only, of that king who was very averse to part with me, 
and went out of that town, accompanied by only two disciples, and, with 
my mind bent on the performance of austerities, came to visit the shrine of 
the dweller in the Vindhya hills, and having been directed by the goddess 
in a dream to visit thee, I entered for that purpose this terrible Vindhya 
forest. A hint given by a Pulinda enabled me to find a caravan, and so 
somehow or other, by the special favour of destiny, I managed to arrive 
here, and beheld this host of Pisachas, and by hearing from a distance their 
conversation with one another, I have contrived to learn this PaisYicha lan- 
guage, which has enabled me to break my vow of silence ; 1 then made use 
of it to ask after you, and, hearing that you had gone to Ujjayini, I waited 
here until your return ; on beholding you I welcomed you in the fourth 
language, (the speech of the Pisachas), and then I called to mind my origin ; 
this is the story of my adventures in this birth. 

When Gun&dhya had said this, K&nabhuti said to him, "hear, how 
your arrival was made known to me last night. I have a friend, a Eaksha- 
sa of the name of Bhutivarman, who possesses heavenly insight ; and I 
went to a garden in Ujjayini, where he resides. On my asking him when 
my own curse would come to an end, he .said, wo have no power in the 
day, wait, and I will tell you at night. I consented and when night came 
on, I asked him earnestly the reason why goblinsj delighted in disporting 

* Risliis. 

f omora means tendency produced -by some past inflwiuv, often works in a 
former liirih. . 

; For tin 1 , idea op. Shaki'sprar, Hamlet, Act I. Si 1 . 1. (towards the end) and nume- 
rous other 1'iis^iijes in the same author. 


themselves then, as they were doing. Then Bhutivarman said to me, ' Lis- 
ten, I will relate what I heard S'iva say in a conversation with Brahma. 
R&kshasas, Vakshas, and Pisachas have no power in the day, being dazed 
with the brightness of the sun, therefore they delight in the night. And 
where the gods are not worshipped, and the Brahmans, in due form, and 
where men eat contrary to the holy law, there also they have power. 
Where there is a man who abstains from flesh, or a virtuous woman, there 
they do not go. They never attack chaste men, heroes, and men awake.'* 
When he said this on that occasion Bhutivarman continued, ' Go, for Gumi- 
dhya has arrived, the destined means of thy release from the curse.' So 
hearing this, I have come, and I have seen thee, my lord ; now I will 
relate to thee that tale which Pushpadanta told ; but I feel curiosity on 
one point ; tell me why he was called Pushpadanta and thou Malyavan." 
Hearing this question from Kanabhiiti, Gunadhya said to him. On the 

Story of Pushpadanta, bank the Gan 8f there is a dls ' 

trict granted to Brahmans by royal 

charter, named Bahusuvarnaka, and there lived there a very learned Brah- 
man named Govindadatta, and he had a wife Agnidatta who was devoted 
to her husband. In course of time that Brahman had five sons by her. 
And they, being handsome but stupid, grew up insolent fellows. Then a 
guest came to the house of Govindadatta, a Brahman Vaisvanara by name, 
like a second god of fire.f As Govindadatta was away from home when 
he arrived, he came and saluted his sons, and they only responded to his 
salute with a laugh ; then that Brahman in a rage prepared to depart from 
his house. While he was in this state of wrath Govindadatta came, and 
asked the cause, and did his best to appease him, but the excellent Brah- 
man nevertheless spoke as follows " Your sons have become outcasts, as 
being blockheads, and you have lost caste by associating with them, there- 
fore I will not eat in your house ; if I did so, I should not be able to purify 
myself by any expiatory ceremony." Then Govindadatta said to him with 
an oath, " I will never even touch these wicked sons of mine." His hos- 
pitable wife also came and said the same to her guest ; then Vaisvanara 
was with difficulty induced to accept their hospitality. One of Gurudat- 
ta's sons, named Devadatta, when he saw that, was grieved at his father's 
sternness, and thinking a life of no value which was thus branded by his 
parents, went in a state of despondency to the hermitage of Badarika to 
perform penance ; there he first ate leaves, and afterwards he fed only on 
smoke, persevering in a long course of austerities in order to propitiate the 
husband of Uma. J So S'ambhu,^ won over by his severe austerities, inani- 

* Brockhaus renders it Fromne, Helden und Wdse. 
t Vaisvanara is an epithet of Agui or Fire. 
1 S'iva. 


fested himself to him, and he craved a boon from the god, that he might 
ever attend upon him. S'umbhu thus commanded him " Acquire learn- 
ing, and enjoy pleasures on the earth, and after that thou shalt attain all 
thy desire." Then he, eager for learning, went to the city of Pataliputra, 
and according to custom waited on an instructor named Vedakumbhu. 
When he was there, the wife of his preceptor distracted by passion, which 
had arisen in her heart, made violent love to him ; alas ! the fancies of 
women are ever inconstant ! Accordingly Devadatta left that place, as his 
studies had been thus interfered with by the god of love, and went to Pra- 
tishthana with unwearied zeal. There he repaired to an old preceptor 
named Mantrasvamin, with an old wife, and acquired a perfect knowledge of 
the sciences. And after he had acquired learning, the daughter of the 
king Susarman, S'ri by name, cast eyes upon the handsome youth, as the 
goddess S'ri upon Vishnu. He also beheld that maiden at a window, look- 
ing like the presiding goddess of the moon, roaming through the air in a 
magic chariot. Those two were, as it were, fastened together by that look 
which was the chain of love, and were unable to separate. The king's 
daughter made him a sign to come near with one finger, looking like Love's 
command in fleshly form. Then he came near her, and she came out of 
the women's apartments, and took with her teeth a flower and threw it 
down to him. He, not understanding this mysterious sign made by the 
princess, puzzled as to what he ought to do, went home to his preceptor. 
There he rolled on the ground unable to utter a word, being consumed 
within with burning pain, like one dumb and distracted ; his wise precep- 
tor guessing what was the matter by these love- symptoms, artfully ques- 
tioned him, and at last he was with difficulty persuaded to tell the whole 
story. Then the clever preceptor guessed the riddle, and said to him,* 
" By letting drop a flower with her tooth she made a sign to you, that you 
were to go to tbis temple rich in flowers called Pushpadanta, and wait there : 
so you had better go now." When he heard this and knew the meaning of 
the sign, the youtli forgot his grief. Then he went into that temple and 
remained there. The princess on her part also went there, giving as an 
excuse that it was the eighth clay of the month, and then entered the inner 
shrine in order to present herself alone before the god ; then she touched 
her lover who was behind the panel of the door, and he suddenly springing 
up threw his arms round her neck. She exrlaimed, " this is strange ; how 
did you guess the meaning of that sign of mine '?" He replied, " it was my 
preceptor that found it out, not I." Then the princess flew into a passion 
and said, " Let me go, you arc a dolt," and immediately rushed out of the 
temple, fearing that her secret would be discovered. Devadatta on his part 
went away, and thinking in solitude.on his beloved, who was no sooner seen 
* Cp. the 1st story iii the Wtulu ruuchuvinsiti, Chapter ~o of this work. 


than lost to his eyes, was in such a ^t;ite that the taper u[ his life was well 
nigh melted away in the lire of bereavement. S'iva, who had been lx:fore 
propitiated by him, commanded an attendant of his, of the name of Pan- 
chasikha, to procure for him the desire of his heart. That excellent Gana 
thereupon came, and consoled him, and caused him to assume the dress of 
a woman, and he himself wore the semblance of an aged Brahman. Then that 
worthy Gana went with him to king Susarman the father of that bright- 
eyed one, and said to him ; " My son has been sent away somewhere, I go 
to seek him : accordingly I deposit with thee this daughter-in-law of mine, 
keep her safely, O king." Hearing that, king Susarman afraid of a Brah- 
man's curse, took the young man and placed him in his daughter's guarded 
seraglio, supposing him to be a woman. Then after the departure of Pancha- 
siklia, the Brahman dwelt in woman's clothes in the seraglio of his beloved, 
and became her trusted confidante. Once on a time the princess was full 
of regretful longing at night, so he discovered himself to her and secretly 
married her by the Gandharva form of marriage. And when she became 
pregnant, that excellent Gana came on his thinking of him only, and car- 
ried him away at night without its being perceived. Then he quickly rent 
off from the young man his woman's dress, and in the morning Panchasikha 
resumed the semblance of .a Brahman ; and going with the young man to 
the king Susarman he said ; " O king, I have this day found my son : so 
give me back my daughter-in-law." Then the king, supposing that she had 
fled somewhere at night, alarmed at the prospect of being cursed by the 
Brahman, said this to his ministers. " This is no Brahman, this is some god 
come to deceive me, for such things often happen in this world. 

So in former times there was 
Story of king bivi. 

a king named S'ivi, self-denying, 

compassionate, generous, resolute, the protector of all creatures ; and in 
order to beguile him Indra assumed the shape of a hawk, and swiftly pur- 
sued Dharma,* who by magic had transformed himself into a dove. The 
dove in terror went and took refuge in the bosom of S'ivi. Then the hawk 
addressed the king with a human voice ; ' king, this is my natural food, 
surrender the dove to me, for I am hungry. Know that my death will 
immediately follow if you refuse my prayer ; in that case where Avill be 
your righteousness ?' Then S'ivi said to the god, ' this creature has lli-d to 
me for protection, and I cannot abandon it, therefore I will give you an 
equal weight of some other kind of flesh.' The hawk said, ' if this be so, then 
give me your own flesh.' The king, delighted, consented to do so. But as fast 
as he cut off his flesh and threw it on the scale, the dove seemed to weij.'h 
more and more in the balance. Then the king threw his whole body on 
to the scale, and thereupon a celestial voice was heard, ' Well done ! this 

* The god of justice. 


is equal in weight to the dove.' Then Indra and Dharma abandoned the 
form of hawk and dove, and being highly pleased restored the body of king 
S'ivi whole as before, and, after bestowing on him many other blessings, 
they both disappeared. In the same way this Brahman is some god that 
has come to prove me."* 

Having said this to his ministers, that king Susarman of his own 
motion said to that excellent Gana that had assumed the form of a Brah- 
man, prostrating himself before him in fear, <; Spare me ; that daughter- 
in-law of thine was carried off last night. She has been taken somewhere 
or other by magic arts, though guarded night and day." Then the Gana, 
who had assumed the Brahman's semblance, pretending to be with difficul- 
ty won over to pity him, said, " If this be so, king, give thy daughter in 
marriage to my son." When he heard this, the king afraid of being cursed, 
gave his own daughter to Devadatta : then Panchasikha departed. Then 
Devadatta having recovered his beloved, and that in an open manner, 
flourished in the power and splendour of his father-in-law who had no son 
but him. And in course of time Susarman anointed the son of his dau^h- 


ter by Devadatta, Mahidhara by name, as successor in his room, and retired 
to the forest. Then having seen the prosperity of his sou, Devadatta consi- 
dered that he had attained all his objects, and he too with the princess 
retired to the forest. There he again propitiated Siva, and having laid 
aside his mortal body, by the special favour of the god he attained the 
position of a Gana. Because he did not understand the sign given by the 
ilower dropped from the tooth of his beloved, therefore he became known 
bv the name of Pushpadanta in the assembly of the Ganas. And his wife 
became a door-keeper in the house of the goddess, under the name of Jay;i : 
this is how he came to be called Pushpadauta : now hear the origin of my 

Long ago I was a son of that same Brahman called Govindadatta the 
father of Devadatta, and my name was Somadatta. I left my home indig- 
nant for the same reason as Devadatta, and I performed austerities on the 
Himalaya continually .striving to propitiate S'iva with offerings of many 
garlands. The god of the moony crest, being pleased, revealed himself to 
me in the same way as he did to my brother, and I chose the privilege of 
attending upon him as a Gana, not being desirous of lower pleasures. The 
husband of the daughter of the mountain, that mighty god, thus addressed 

* Benfey < his story as Buddhistic in its origin. In the " Memoires Sur 

les Contrees Occidentals trndnits du Sanscrit pur HioucnThsang ct du Chinois par 
Stanislas Julien" we arc expressly told that Gautama Buddha gave his flesh ; 
as Sivi in a furmer state of < It is told of many other person-. 

I'IIIK hiitantra, Vol. I, p. 388, cp. also Campbell's West Highland Tales, p. 23'J, Vol. I, 


me ; " Because I have been worshipped by thco with garlands of flowers 
growing in trackless forest-regions, brought with thy own hand, therefore 
thou shalt be one of my Ganas, and shalt bear the name of M&lyaT&n." 
Then I cast off my mortal frame, and immediately attained the holy state 
of an attendant on the god. And so my name of Malyav;in was bestowed 
upon me by him who wears the burden of the matted locks,* as a mark of 
his special favour. And I, that very Malyavtin, have once more, O Kana- 
bhuti, been degraded to the state of a mortal, as thou seest, owing to the 
curse of the daughter of the mountain, therefore do thou now tell me the 
tale told by S'iva, in order that the state of curse of both of us may cease. 

Note to Chapter VII. 

" Rakshasas, Yakshas, and Pi&tchas have no power in the day, being 
dazed with the brightness of the sun therefore they delight in the night." 

Farmer commenting on Hamlet, Act I, Sc. I, 150, quotes the follow- 
ing lines of Prudentius Ad Gallicinium. Ferunt vagantes dsernonas, 
Lsetos tenebris noctium, Gallo canente exterritos, Sparsim timere et cedere. 
Hoc esse signum prascii Norunt repromissae spei, Qua nos soporis liberi 
Speramus adventum Dei. Douce quotes from another hymn said to have 
been composed by Saint Ambrose and formerly used iu the Salisbury 
service. Prreco diei jam sonat, Noctis profundse pervigil ; Nocturna lux 
viantibus, A nocte noctem segregans. Hoc excitatus Lucifer Solvit polurn 
caligine ; Hoc omnis errorum cohors Viam nocendi deserit. Gallo canente 
spes redit &c. 


In accordance with this request of Gunadhyathat heavenly tale con.-ist- 
ing of seven stories was told by Kanabhuti in his own language, and Guna- 
dhya for his part using the same Paisacha language threw them into seven 
hundred thousand couplets in seven years ; and that great poet, for fear that 
the Vidyadharas should steal his composition, wrote it with his own blood 
in the forest, not possessing ink. And so the Vidhyudharas, Siddhas 
and other demigods came to hear it, and the heaven above where Kiiiia- 
bhuti was reciting, was, as it were, continually covered with a canopy. And 
Kanabhuti, when he had seen that great tale composed by Gunudhyu, was 
released from his curse and went to his own place. There were also other 
Pisiichas that accompanied him in his wanderings : they too all of them 
attained heaven, having heard that heavenly tale. Then that great poet 

* /. c., S'ivu. 


Gunadhya began to reflect, " I must make this Great Tale* of mine cur- 
rent on the earth, for that is the condition that the goddess mentioned 
when she revealed how my curse would end. Then how shall I make it 
current ? To whom shall I give it ?" Then his two disciples that had 
followed him, one of whom was called Gunadeva, and the other Nandidcva 
said to him, " The glorious Satavahana alone is a fit person to give this 
poem to, for being a man of taste he will diffuse the poem far and wide, as 
the wind diffuses the perfume of the flower." " So be it," said Gumiclhya, 
and gave the book to those two accomplished disciples and sent them to that 
king with it ; and went himself to that same Pratishthana, but remained 
outside the city in the garden planted by the goddess, where he arranged 
that they should meet him. And his disciples went and showed the poem 
to king Satavahana, telling him at the same time that it was the work of 
Gunadhya. When he heard that Paisacha language and saw that they had 
the appearance of Pisachas, that king, led astray by pride of learning, said 
with a sneer, " The seven hundred thousand couplets are a weighty autho- 
rity, but the Paisacha language is barbarous, and the letters are written in 
blood ; away with this Paisacha tale." Then the two pupils took the book, 
and returned by the way which they came, and told the whole circumstance 
to Gunadhya. Gunadhya for his part, when he heard it, was immediately 
overcome with sorrow; who indeed is not inly grieved when scorned by a com- 
petent authority ? Then he went with his disciples to a craggy hill at no great 
distance, in an unfrequented but pleasant spot, and first prepared a conse- 
crated fire cavity. Then he took the leaves one by one, and after he had 
read them aloud to the beasts and birds, he flung them into the fire while 
his disciples looked on with tearful eyes. But he reserved one story, con- 
sisting of one hundred thousand couplets, containing the history of Kara- 
vahanadatta, for the sake of his two disciples, as they particularly fancied 
it. And while he was reading out and burning that heavenly tale, all the 
deer, boars, buffaloes and other wild animals, came there, leaving the pas- 
turage, and formed a circle around him, listening with tears in their eyes, 
unable to quit the spnt.f 

In the meanwhile king Satavahana fell sick. And the physicians said 
that his illness was due to eating meat wanting in nutritive qualities. And 
when the cooks were scolded for it, they said " The hunters bring in to us 
ilesh of this kind." And when the hunters were taken to task, they said, 
"On a hill not very far from here there is a Brahman reading, who throws 
into the fire every leaf as soon as he has read it ; so all the animals go 
there and listen without e\er irra/ing, they never wander anywhere else, 
consequently this Ilesh of theirs is wanting in nutritive properties on ac- 

Vrihat Kutha. 

| Compare the .-4'jry of Orpheus. 


count of their going without food." When ho heard this speech of the 
hunters he made them shew him the way, and out of curiosity went in 
person to see Gunadhya, and he beheld him owing to his forest life over- 
spread with matted locks, that looked like the smoke of the fire of his curse, 
that was almost extinguished. 

Then the king recognized him as he stood in the midst of the weeping 
animals, and after he had respectfully saluted him, he asked him for an 
explanation of all the circumstances. That wise Brahman then related to 
the king in the language of the demons his own history as Pu.shpadanta, 
giving an account of the curse and all the circumstances which originated 
the descent of the tale to earth. Then the king, discovering that he was 
an incarnation of a Gana, bowed at his feet, and asked him for that celcst ial 
tale that had issued from the mouth of S'iva. Then Gunadhya said to that 
king Satavahana ; " O king I have burnt six tales containing six hundred 
thousand couplets ; but here is one tale consisting of a hundred thousand 
couplets, take that :* and these two pupils of mine shall explain it to you." 
So spake Gunadhya and took leave of the king, and then by strength of 
devotion laid aside his earthly body, and released from the curse ascended 
to his own heavenly home. Then the king took that tale which Gunadhya 
had given, called Vrihat Katha, containing the adventures of Naravahana- 
datta, and went to his own city. And there he bestowed on Gunadeva and 
Nandideva, the pupils of the poet who composed that tale, lands, gold, gar- 
ments, beasts of burden, palaces, and treasures. And having recovered the 
sense of that tale with their help, Satavahana composed the book named 
Kathapitha, in order to shew how the tale came to be first made known in 
the Paisacha language. Now that tale was so full of various interest, that 
men were so taken up with it as to forget the tales of the gods, and 
after producing that effect in the city it attained uninterrupted renown in 
the three worlds. 

* It is unnecessary to remind the reader of the story of the Sibyl. 



This ncctarous tale sprang in old time from the mouth of S'iva, set in 
motion by his love for the daughter of the Himalaya, as the nectar of im- 
mortality sprang from the sea, when churned by the mountain Mumlarn. 
Those who drink eagerly the nectar of this tale, have all impediments re- 
moved and gain prosperity, and by the favour of S'iva attain, while living 
upon earth, the high rank of gods. 


May the water of S'iva's sweat, fresh from the embrace of Gauri,* 
which the god of love when afraid of the fire of S'iva's eye, employs as his 
aqueous weapon, protect you. 

Listen to the following tale of the Vidyadharas, which the excellent 
Gana Pushpadanta heard on mount Kailasa from the god of the matted 
locks, and which Kanabhuti heard on the earth from the same Pushpadanta 
after he had become Vararuchi, and which Gunadhya heard from Kanabhu- 
ti, and Satavahana heard from Gunadhya. 

,. , . There is a land famous under 

Story of Udayana Icing of v atsa. 

the name of Vatsa, that appears as 

if it had been made by the Creator as an earthly rival to dash the pride of 
heaven. In the centre of it is a great city named Kausambi, the favourite 
dwelling-place of the goddess of prosperity ; the ear-ornament, so to si 
of the earth. In it dwelt a king named S'atanika, sprung from the Panda- 
va family, he was the son of Janamejaya, and the grandson of king Parik- 
shit, who was the great-grandson of Abhimanyu. The first progenitor of 
his race was Arjuna, the might of whose strong arms was tested in a strug- 
gle with the mighty arms of S'iva ;f his wife was the earth, and also Vish- 

* I. r.. !>' 

t I believe this refers to Arjuna's combat with the god when lie had assumed tb- 
form of a Kirata or mountaineer. S'iva is In re rail d Trimiran, the enemy or dertroyat 
of Tripura. Dr. Broekhaus renders it quite dul'uvntly. 


numati his queen ; the first produced jewels, but the second did not produce 
a son. Once on a time, as that king was roaming about in his passion for 
the chase, he made acquaintance in the forest with the hermit S'andilya. 
That worthy sage finding out that the king desired a son, came to Kau- 
sambi and administered to his queen an artfully prepared oblation* 
consecrated with mystic verses. Then he had a son born to him called 
Sahasranika. And his father was adorned by him as excellence is by 
modesty. Then in course of time Statanika made that son crown-prince 
and though he still enjoyed kingly pleasures, ceased to trouble himself 
about the cares of government. Then a war arose between the gods and 
Asuras, and Indra sent Matali as a messenger to that king begging for 
aid. Then he committed his son and his kingdom to the care of his princi- 
pal minister, who was called Yogandhara, and his Commander-in-chief, whose 
name was Supratika, and went to Indra with Matali to slay the Asuras in 
fight. That king, having slain many Asuras, of whom Yamadanshtra was 
the chief, under the eyes of Indra, met death in that very battle. The 
king's body was brought back by Matali, and the queen burnt herself with 
it, and the royal dignity descended to his son Sahasranika. Wonderful to 
say, when that king ascended his father's throne, the heads of the kings 
on every side of his dominions were bent down with the weight. Then 
Indra sent Matali, and brought to heaven that Sabasranika, as being the 
son of his friend, that he might be present at the great feast which he was 
holding to celebrate his victory over his foes. There the king saw the 
gods, attended by their fair ones, sporting in the garden of Nandana, and 
desiring for himself a suitable wife, fell into low spirits. Then Indra, 
perceiving this desire of his, said to him ; " King, away with despondency, 
this desire of thine shall be accomplished. For there has been born upon 
the earth one, who was long ago ordained a suitable match for thee. For 
listen to the following history, which I now proceed to relate to thec. 

" Long ago I went to the court of Brahma in order to visit him, and a 
certain Yasu named Yidlmma followed me. "While we were then.-, an 
Apsarasf named Alambusha came to see Brahma, and her robe was blown 
aside by the wind. And the Vasu, when he beheld her, was overpowered by 
love, and the Apsaras too hud her eyes immediately attracted by his form. 
The lotus-sprung god,* when he beheld that, looked me full in the f';uv, 
and 1, knowing his moaning, in wrath cursed those two, 'Be born, you two, 
shameless creatures, into the world of mortals, and there become man and 

* Composed of rice, milk, sugar and spires. 

t Certain female divinities who reside in the sky and aro the wives of th. 
dharvas. lUunier Williams, *. v. 

J Brahuia. He euuTges from a lotus growing from tin navel 

wife.' That Vasu has been born as thou, Sahasranika, the son of S'atanika, 
an ornament to the race of the moon. And that Apsaras too has been born 
in Ayodhya as the daughter of king Kritavarman, Mrigavati by name, she 
shall be thy wife." By these words of Indra the ilame of love was fanned 
in the passionate* heart of the king and burst out into full blaze ; as a 
fire when fanned by the wind. Indra then dismissed the king from heaven 
with all due honour in his own chariot, and he set out with Matalif for 
his capital. But as he was starting, the Apsaras Tilottamii said to 
him out "of affection, " King I have somewhat to say to thee, wait a mo- 
ment." But he, thinking on Mrigavati, went off without hearing what 
she said, then Tilottama in her rage cursed him ; " King, thou shalt be 
separated for fourteen years from her who has so engrossed thy mind that 
thou dost not hear my speech." Now Matali heard that curse, but the 
king, yearning for his beloved, did not. In the chariot he went to Kau- 
sainbi but in spirit he went to Ayodhya. Then the king told with longing 
heart, all that he had heard from Indra with reference to Mrigavati, to his 
ministers, Yogandhara and the others : and not being able to endure delay, 
he sent an ambassador to Ayodhya to ask her father Kritavarman 
for the hand of that maiden. And Kritavarman having heard from 
the ambassador his commission, told in his joy the queen Kalavati, 
and then she said to him " King we ought certainly to give Mriga- 
vati to Sahasranika, and, I remember, a certain Brahman told me this very 
thing in a dream" ; then in his delight the king showed to the ambassador 
Mrigavati's wonderful skill in dancing, singing, and other accomplishments, 
and her matchless beauty ; so the king Kritavarman gave to Sahasranika 
that daughter of his who was unequalled as a mine of graceful arts, and 
who shone like an incarnation of the moon ; that marriage of Sahasranika 
and Mrigavati was one in which the good qualities of either party supple- 
mented those of the other, and might be compared to the union of learning 
and intelligence. 

Not long after sons were born to the king's ministers ; Yogandhara 
had a son born to him named Yaugandliar;iy;iua ; and Supratika had a son 
born to him named Ilumanvat. And to the king's master of the revels was 
born a son named Vasantaka. Then in a few days Mrigavati l>tvanu- 
slightly pale and promised to bear a child to king Sahasranika. And then 
she asked the king, who was never tired of looking at her, to gratify her 
longing by filling a tank full of blood for her to bathe in. Accordingly 
the king, who was a righteous man, in order to gratify her dcsitv. had a 
tank tilled with the juice of lac and other red extracts, so that it seemed 
to be full of blood. And while she was bathing in that lake, and cover, .1 

* In the word sttxw/u' there is probably a pun ; snrha meaning love, and also oil. 
f The charioteer of Iiidru. 


\vith red dye, a bird of the race of Garuda* suddenly pounced upon her 
and carried her off thinking she was raw flesh. As soon as she Avas carried 
away in some unknown direction by the bird, the king became distracted, 
and his self-command forsook him as if in order to go in search of her. 
His heart was so attached to his beloved that it was in very truth carried 
off by that bird, and thus he fell senseless upon the earth. As soon as he 
had recovered his senses, Ma/tali, who had discovered all by his divine power, 
descended through the air and came where the king was. He consoled the 
king, and told him the curse of Tilottama with its destined end, as he had 
heard it long ago, and then he took his departure. Then the king tormen- 
ted with grief lamented on this wise ; " Alas my beloved, that wicked 
Tilottama has accomplished her desire." But having learned the facts 
about the curse, and having received advice from his ministers, he managed, 
though with difficulty, to retain his life through hope of a future reunion. 

But that bird, which had carried off Mrigavati, as soon as it found out 
that she was alive, abandoned her, and as fate would have it, left her on the 
mountain where the sun rises. And when the bird let her drop and de- 
parted, the queen, distracted with grief and fear, saw that she was left 
unprotected on the slope of a trackless mountain. While she was weeping 
in the forest, alone, with one garment only to cover her, an enormous ser- 
pent rose up and prepared to swallow her. Then she, for whom prosperity 
was reserved in the future, was delivered by some heavenly hero that came 
down and slew the serpent, and disappeared almost as soon as he was seen. 
Thereupon she, longing for death, flung herself down in front of a wild 
elephant, but even he spared her as if out of compassion. Wonderful was 
it that even a wild beast did not slay her when she fell in his way ! Or 
rather it was not to be wondered at. What cannot the will of S'iva effect ? 

Then the girl tardy with the weight of her womb, desiring to hurl 
herself down from a precipice, and thinking upon that lord of hers, 
wept aloud ; and a hermit's son, who had wandered there in search of roots 
and fruits, hearing that, came up, and found her looking like the in- 

* This is the Roc or Rokh of Arabian romance, agreeing in the multiplicity of 
individuals as well as their propensity for raw flesh. 

(See Sindhad's Voyages ed. Langles, p. 149.) The latter characteristic, to the snh. 
version of all poetical fancies, has acquired, it may be supposed, for the Adjutant (Ardea 
Argila) the name of (rartida. A irnndervogel is the property of all people, and thu 
Garuda of the Hindoos is represented by the Eorosh of the /cud, Simoorgh of the Per- 
sians, the Anka of the Arabs, the Kerkes of the Turks, the Kirni of the .lapam 
sacred dragon of the Chinese, the Griffin of Chivalry, the Phoenix of classical fable, 
the wise and ancient bird that sits upon the ash Yggdrasil of the Kdda, and according 
to Faber with all the rest is a miflrepieeentation of the holy cherubim that guard' I 
gate of Paradise. Some writers have even traced the twelve knights of the round table 
to the twelve Koes of Persian story. (Wilson's Essays. Vol. I, pp. 192, 193, note.) 

carnation of sorrow. And he, after questioning the queen about her 
adventures, and comforting her as well as he could, with a heart melted 
with compassion led her off to the hermitage of Jamadagni. There she 
heheld Jamadagni, looking like the incarnation of comfort, whose brightness 
so illumined the eastern mountain that it seemed as if the rising sun ever 
rested on it. When she fell at his feet, that hermit who was kind to all 
that came to him for help, and possessed heavenly insight, said to her 
who was tortured with the pain of separation ; " Here there shall be 
born to thee, my daughter, a son that shall uphold the family of his father, 
and thou shalt be reunited to thy husband, therefore weep not." When 
that virtuous woman heard that speech of the hermit's, she took up 
her abode in that hermitage, and entertained hope of a reunion with 
her beloved. And some days al'ter, the blameless one gave birth to a 
charmingly beautiful son, as association with the good produces good 
manners. At that moment a voice was heard from heaven ; " an august 
king of great renown has been born, Udayana by name, and his son shall 
be monarch of all the Vidyadharas." That voice restored to the heart of 
Mrigavati joy which she had long forgotten. Gradually that boy grew up 
to size and strength in that grove of asceticism, accompanied by his own 
excellent qualities as playmates. And the heroic child had the sacraments 
appropriate to a member of the warrior-caste performed for him by Jama- 
dagni, and was instructed by him in the sciences, and the practice of arche- 
ry. And out of love for him Mrigavati drew off from her own wrist, and 
placed on his, a bracelet marked with the name of Sahasranika. Then that 
Udayana roaming about once upon a time in pursuit of deer, beheld in the 
forest a snake that had been forcibly captured by a S'avara.* And he, 
feeling pity for the beautiful snake, said to that S'avara, " Let go this 
snake to please me." Then that S'avara said, " My lord, this is my liveli- 
hood, for I am a poor man, and I always maintain myself by exhibiting 
dancing snakes. The snake I previously had having died, I searched 
through this great wood, and, finding this one, overpowered him by charms 
and captured him." When he heard this, the generous Udayana gave that 
S'avara the bracelet which his mother had bestowed on him, and persuaded 
him to set the snake at liberty. The S'avara took the bracelet and depart- 
ed, and then the snake being pleased with Udayana bowed before him and 
said as follows, " I am the eldest brother of Yasuki,f called Vasunemi : 
receive from me, whom thou hast preserved, this lute, sweet in the sound- 
ing of its strings, divided according to the division of the quarter-tones ; 

* A wild mountaineer. Dr. Biihler observes that the names of these tribes are 
,.Ty vaguely in JSanskut story-books. 
t Sovereign of the snakes. 


and betel leaf, together with the art of weaving unfading garlands, and 
adorning the forehead with marks that never become indistinct." Then 
Udayana furnished with all these, and dismissed by the snake, returned to 
the hermitage of Jamadagni, raining nectar, so to speak, into the eyes of his 

In the meanwhile that S'avara who had lighted on this forest, and 
while roaming about in it had obtained the bracelet from. Udayana by the 
will of fate, was caught attempting to sell this ornament marked with the 
king's name in the market, and was arrested by the police, and brought 
up in court before the king. Then king Sahasranika himself asked him 
in sorrow whence he had obtained the bracelet. Then that S'avara told 
him the whole story of his obtaining possession of the bracelet, beginning 
with his capture of the snake upon the eastern mountain. Hearing that 
from the S'avara, and beholding that bracelet of his beloved, king Sahasra- 
nika ascended the swing of doubt. 

Then a divine voice from heaven delighted the king who was tortured 
with the fire of separation, as the rain-drops delight the peacock when 
afflicted with the heat, uttering these words " Thy curse is at an end, O 
king, and that wife of thine Mrigavati is residing in the hermitage of 
Jamadagni together with thy son." Then that day at last came to an end, 
though made long by anxious expectatiou, and on the morrow that king 
Sahasranika, making the S'avara show him the way, set out with his army 
for that hermitage on the eastern mountain, in order quickly to recover his 
beloved wife. 


After he had gone a long distance the king encamped that day in a 
certain forest on the border of a lake. He went to bed weary, and in the 
evening he said to Sangataka a story-teller who had come to him on account 
of the pleasure he took in his service ; " Tell me some tale that will glad- 
don my heart, for I am longing for the joy of beholding the lotus-face of 
Mrigavati." Then Sangataka said, King why do you grieve without cause ? 
The union with your queen, which will mark the termination of your curse, 
is nigh at hand. Human beings experience many unions and separations : 
and I will tell you a story to illustrate this ; listen, my lord ! 

Once on a time there lived in 
Story of&ridaita and MrigdnkaiDati. 

the country of Malava a Brahman 

named Yujnasoma. And that good man had two sons born to him, beloved 
by men. One of them was known as Kulunemi and the second was named 


Vigatabhaya. Now, when their fatlier had gone to heaven, those two bro- 
thers, having passed through the age o childhood, went to the city of 
Fatal iputra to acquire learning. And when they had completed their 
studies, their teacher Devasarman gave them his own two daughters, like 
another couple of sciences incarnate in bodily form. 

Then seeing that the householders around him were rich, K.ilanemi 
through envy made a vow and propitiated the goddess of Fortune with burnt- 
offerings. And the goddess being satisfied appeared in bodily form and 
said to him " Thou shalt obtain great wealth and a son who shall rule the 
earth ; but at last thou shalt be put to death like a robber, because thou 
hast offered flesh in the fire with impure motives." When she had said this, 
the goddess disappeared ; and Kalanemi in course of time became very rich ; 
moreover after some days a son was born to him. So the father, whose 
desires were now accomplished, called that son S'ridatta,* because he had 
been obtained by the favour of the goddess of Fortune. In course of time 
S'ridatta grew up, and though a Brahman, became matchless upon earth in 
the use of weapons, and in boxing and wrestling. 

Then Kalanemi's brother Vigatabhaya went to a foreign land, having 
become desirous of visiting places of pilgrimage, through sorrow for his 
wife, who died of the bite of a snake. 

Moreover the king of the land, Yallabhasakti, who appreciated good 
qualities, made S'ridatta the companion of his son Vikramasakti. So he 
had to live with a haughty prince, as the impetuous Bhima lived in his 
youth with Duryodhana. Then two Kshatriyas, natives of Avanti, Bahu- 
salin and Vajramushti became friends of that Brahman's. And some other 
nien from the Deccan, sons of ministers, having been conquered by him in 
wrestling, resorted to him out of spontaneous friendship, as they knew how 
to value merit. Mahabala and Vyaghrabhata and also Upendrabala and a 
man named Nishthuraka became his friends. One day, as years rolled on, 
S'ridatta, being in attendance on the prince, went with him and those friends 
to sport on the bank of the Ganges ; then the prince's own servants made 
him king, and at the same time S'ridatta was chosen king by his friends. 
This made the prince angry, and in over-weening confidence he at once 
challenged that Brahman hero to fight. Then being conquered by him in 
wrestling, and so disgraced, he made up his mind that this rising hero should 
be put to death. But S'ridatta found out that intention of the prince's, 
and withdrew in alarm with those friends of his from his presence. And 
as lie was going along, he saw in the middle of the Ganges a woman 1 
dragged under by the stream, looking like the goddess of Fortune in the 
middle of the sea. And then he plunged in to pull her out of the water, 
leaving Bahusalin and his five other friends on the bank. Then that woman, 

* /. e., given by Fortune. 


though he seized her by the hair, sank deep in the water ; and he dived as 
deep in order to follow her. And after he had dived a long way, he sud- 
denly saw a splendid temple of S'iva, but no water and no woman.* After 
beholding that wonderful sight, being wearied out he paid his adorations to 
the god with the bull-blazoned banner, and spent that night in a beautiful 
garden attached to the temple. And in the morning that lady was seen 
by him having come to worship the god S'iva, like the incarnate splendour 
of beauty attended by all womanly perfections. And after she had wor- 
shipped the god, the moon-faced one departed to her own house, and SVi- 
datta for his part followed her. And he saw that palace of hers resembling 
the city of the gods, which the haughty beauty entered hurriedly in a 
contemptuous manner. And without deigning to address him, the graceful 
lady sat down on a sofa in the inner part of the house, waited upon by 
thousands of women. And SVidatta also took a seat near her ; then sud- 
denly that virtuous lady began to weep. The tear-drops fell in an unceas- 
ing shower on her bosom, and that moment pity entered into the heart of 
SVidatta. And then he said to her, " Who art thou, and what is thy 
sorrow ? Tell me, fair one, for I am able to remove it." Then she said 
reluctantly, " We are the thousand granddaughters of Balif the king of 
the Daityas, and I am the eldest of all, and my name is Vidyutprabha. 
That grandfather of ours was carried off by Vishnu to long imprisonment, 
and the same hero slew our father in a wrestling-match. And after he had 
slain him, he excluded us from our own city, and he placed a lion in it to 
prevent us from entering. The lion occupies that place, and grief our 
hearts. It is a Yaksha that was made a lion by the curse of Kuvera, and 
long ago it was predicted that the Yaksha's curse should end when he was 
conquered by some mortal ; so Vishnu deigned to inform us on our humbly 
asking him how we might be enabled to enter our city. Therefore subdue 
that lion our enemy ; it was for that reason, O hero, that I enticed you 
hither. And when you have overcome him you will obtain from him a 
sword named Mriganka, by the virtue of which you shall conquer the world 
and become a king." When he heard that, S'ridatta agreed to undertake 
the adventure, and after that day had passed, on the morrow he took those 
Daitya maidens with him as guides, and went to that city, and there he 
overcame in wrestling that haughty lion. He being freed from his curse 

Cp. the story of Sattvasfla, which is the seventh tale in the Vctala Panchavin. 
s'ati, and will be found in Chapter 81 of this work. Cp. also the story of S'aktidevu in 
Book V. ch. 26, and Ealston's remarks on it in his Russian Folk-Tales, p. 99. 

t Vishnu assumed the form of a dwarf and appeared before liuli, and uskod for as 
much land as he could stcj> ovi-r. On Bali's granting it, Vishnu dilating himself, in 
tis o :-! qis deprived him of heaven and earth, but left the lower regions still in his douii- 


assumed a human form, and out of gratitude gave his sword to the man 
who had put an end to his curse, and then disappeared together with tho 
burden of the sorrow of the great Asura's daughter. Then that S'ridatta, 
together with the Daitya's daughter, who was accompanied by her younger 
sisters, entered that splendid city which looked like the serpent Ananta* 
having emerged from the earth. And that Daitya maiden gave him a ring 
that destroyed the effect of poison. Then that young man remaining there 
fell in love with her. And she cunningly said to him, " Bathe in this tank, 
and when you dive in, take with you this swordf to keep off the danger of 
. crocodiles." He consented, and diving into the tank, rose upon that very 
bank of the Ganges from which he first plunged in. Then he, seeing the 
ring and the sword, felt astonishment at having emerged from the lower 
regions, and despondency at having been tricked by the Asura maid. Then 
he went towards his own house to look for his friends, and as he was going 
he saw on the way his friend Nishthuraka. Nishthuraka came up to him 
and saluted him, and quickly took him aside into a lonely place, and when 
asked by him for news of his relations, gave him this answer ; " On that 
occasion when you plunged into the Ganges we searched for you many days, 
and out of grief we were preparing to cut off our heads, but a voice from 
heaven forbade tht attempt of ours saying, ' My sons, do no rash act, 
your friend shall return alive.' And then we were returning into the pre- 
sence of your father, when on the way a man hurriedly advanced to meet 
us and said this ' You must not enter this city at present, for the king 
of it Vallabhasakti is dead, and the ministers have with one accord con- 
ferred the royal dignity on Vikramasakti ; now the day after he was made 
king he went to the house of Kalanemi, and full of wrath asked him where 
his son S'ridatta was, and he replied ' I do not know.' Then the king in a 
rage, supposing he had concealed his son, had him put to death by impale- 
ment as a thief. When his wife saw that, her heart broke. Men of 
cruel deeds must always pile one evil action upon another in long succes- 
sion ; and so Vikramasakti is searching for S'ridatta to slay him, and you 
are his friends, therefore leave this place.' When the man had given us this 
warning, Bahusalin and his four companions being grieved went by common 
consent to their own home in Ujjayini. And they left me here in conceal- 
ment, my friend, for your sake. So come, let us go to that very place to 
meet our friends." Having heard this from Nishthuraka, and having be- 
wailed his parents, S'ridatta cast many a look at his sword, as if reposing 
in that his hope of vengeance ; then the hero, biding his time, set out 
accompanied by Nishthuraka for that city of Ujjayini in order to meet his 

* sln<nita, endless, or infinite, is a name of tho thousand-headed serpent Scsha. 
f Reading khadyiun for tho khudyc of Dr. Brockhaus's text. 


And as he was relating to his friend his adventures from the time of 
his plunging into the stream, S'ridatta beheld a woman weeping in the 
road ; when she said, " I am a woman going to Ujjayini and I have lost 
my way," S'ridatta out of pity made her journey along with him. He and 
Nishthuraka, together with that woman, whom he kept with him out of 
compassion, halted that day in a certain deserted town. There he suddenly 
woke up in the night and beheld that the woman had slain Nishthuraka, 
and was devouring his flesh with the utmost delight. Then he rose up 
drawing his sword Mriganka, and that woman assumed her own terrible 
form, that of a Rakshasi,* and he seized that night-wanderer by her hair, 
to slay her. That moment she assumed a heavenly shape and said to him, 
" Slay me not, mighty hero, let me go, I am not a Rakshasi ; the hermit 
Visvamitra imposed this condition on me by a curse. For once when he 
was performing austerities from a desire to attain the position of the god 
of wealth, I was sent by the god to impede him. Then finding that I was 
not able to seduce him with my alluring form, being abashed, I assumed in 
order to terrify him a formidable shape. When he saw this, that hermit 
laid on me a curse suitable to my offence, exclaiming ' Wicked one, be- 
come a Rakshasi and slay men.' And he appointed that my curse should 
end when you took hold of my hair ; accordingly I assumed this detestable 
condition of a Rakshasi, and I have devoured all the inhabitants of this 
town ; now to-day after a long time yoikhave brought my curse to an end 
in the manner foretold ; therefore receive now some boon." When he heard 
that speech of hers, S'ridatta said respectfully, " Mother grant that my 
friend may be restored to life. What need have I of any other boon ?" " So 
be it," said she, and after granting the boon disappeared. Arid Nishthuraka 
rose up again alive without a scratch on his body. Then S'ridatta set out 
the next morning with him, delighted and astonished, and at last reached 
Ujjayini. There he revived by his appearance the spirits of his friends, who 
were anxiously expecting him, as the arrival of the cloud revives the pea- 
cocks. And after he had told all the wonders of his adventures, IJuhusa- 
lin went through the usual formalities of hospitality, taking him to his o\vn 
home. There S'ridatta was taken care of by the parents of Bahusulin, and 
lived with his friends as comfortably as if he were in his own ho" 

Once on a time, when the great feast of spring-tidef bad arrived, he 
went with his friends to behold some festal rejoicings in a garden. There 
he beheld a maiden, the daughter of king Jjimbaki, who had come to see 
the show, looking like the goddess of ilu- Splendour of Spring present in 
bodily form. She, by name Mrigankavati, that moment p I into 

bis heart, as if through the openings left. 1>\ in.- expansion of his eye. Her 

* I'Vinalo demon. The JJukshusas are often c ill da " Hv 
f Or more literally of the mouth, i. < ., March- Aju-il. 

passionate look too, indicative of the beginning of love, fixed on him, went 
and returned like a confidante. When she entered a thicket of trees, S'ri- 
datta not beholding her, suddenly felt his heart so empty that he did not 
know where he was. His friend Bahusalin, who thoroughly understood 
the language of gestures, said to him, "My friend, I know your heart, do 
not deny your passion, therefore, come, let us go to that part of the garden 
where the king's daughter is." He consented and went near her accom- 
panied by his friend. That moment a cry was heard there, which gave 
great pain to the heart of S'ridatta, " Alas the princess has been bitten by 
a snake!" Bahusalin then went and said to the chamberlain " My friend 
here possesses a ring that counteracts the effects of poison, and also healing 
spells." Immediately the chamberlain came, and bowing at his feet, quick- 
ly led S'ridatta to the princess. He placed the ring on her finger, and then 
muttered his spells so that she revived. Then all the attendants were de- 
lurhted, and loud in praise of S'ridatta, and the king Bimbaki hearing the 
circumstances came to the place. Accordingly S'ridatta returned with his 
friends to the house of Bahusalin without taking back the ring. And all 
the gold and other presents, which the delighted king sent to him there, 
lie handed over to the father of Bahusalin. Then, thinking upon that fair 
one, he was so much afflicted, that his friends became utterly bewildered as 
to what to do with him. Then a dear friend of the princess, Bhavanika 
by name, came to him on pretence f of returning the ring ; and said to him, 
" That friend of mine, illustrious Sir, has made up her mind, that either 
you must save her life by becoming her husband, or she will be married to 
her grave." When Bhavanika had said this, S'ridatta and Bahusalin and 
the others quickly put their heads together and came to the following reso- 
lution, " We will carry off this princess secretly by a stratagem, and will 
go unperceived from here to Mathura and live there." The plan having 
been thoroughly talked over, and the conspirators having agreed with one ano- 
ther what each was to do in order to carry it out, Bhavanika then depart (!. 
And the next day Bahusalin, accompanied by three of his friends, went to 
IMathura on pretext of trafficking, and as he went he posted in concealment 
at intervals swift horses for the conveyance of the princess. But S'ridat- 
ta then brought at eventide a woman with her daughter into the palace of 
the princess, after making them both drink spirits, and then l>li;lvanik;i. on 
pretence of lighting up the palace, set tire to it, and secretly conveyed the 
princess out of it ; and that moment S'ridatta, who was remaining out 
received her, and sent her on to Bahusalin, who had started in the mornii i:, 
and directed two of his friends to attend on her and also llhdvani:, 
that drunken woman and her daughter were burnt in the palace of the prin- 
cess, and people supposed that the princess had been burnt with her friend. 


But S'lidatta took care to show himself in the morning:, as before, in the 
city ; then on the second night, taking with him his sword Mriganka, he 
started to follow his beloved, who had set out before him. And in his 
eagerness he accomplished a great distance that night, and when the morn- 
ing watch* had passed, he reached the "Vindhya forest. There he first 
beheld unlucky omens, and afterwards he saw all those friends of his to- 
gether with Bhavanika lying in the road gashed with wounds. And when he 
came up all distracted, they said to him, " We were robbed to-day by a 
large troop of horsemen that set upon us. And after we were reduced to 
this, state, one of the horsemen threw the terrified princess on his horse and 
carried her off. So before she has been carried to a great distance, go in 
this direction, do not remain near us, she is certainly of more importance 
than we." Being urged on with these words by his friends, S'ridatta rapidly 
followed after the princess, but could not help frequently turning round to 
look at them. And after he had gone a considerable distance, he caught 
up that troop of cavalry, and he saw a young man of the warrior caste in 
the midst of it. And he beheld that princess held by him upon his horse. 
So he slowly approached that young warrior ; and when soft words would 
not induce him to let the princess go, he hurled him from his horse with a 
blow of his foot, and dashed him to pieces on a rock. And after he had 
slain him, he mounted on his horse and slew a great number of the other 
horsemen who charged him in anger. Ajid then those who remained alive, 
seeing that the might which the hero displayed was more than human, fled 
away in terror; and S'ridatta mounted on the horse with the princess Mri- 
gankavati and set out to find those friends of his. And after lie had gone a 
little way, he and his wife got off the horse which had been severely wound- 
ed in the fight, and soon after it fell down and died. And then his beloved 
Mfig&nkavati, exhausted with fear and exertion, became very thirsty. And 
leaving her there, he roamed a long distance hither and thither, and while 
he was looking for water the sun set. Then he discovered that, though he 
hud found water, he had lost his way, and he passed that night in the wood 
roaming about, moaning aloud like a Chakravaka.f And in the morning 
he reached that place, which was easy to recognise by the carcass of tlio 
horse. And nowhere there did he behold his beloved princess. Then in hid 
distraction lie placed his sword Mriganka. on the ground, and climbed to 
the top of a tree, in order to cast his eye in all directions for her. That 
very moment a certain S'avnra chieftain passed that way ; and he came up 
and took the sword from the foot of the tree. Beholdin that S'avara 

At nine o'clock in 

t Alias C;is;irc;i, commonly callc d the I'-rahmany thick. The male lias to ]K, 

i'juiruUd from its female : ii \v> an lu trust tin; unanimous testimony of Hindu 



chieftain, S'ridatta came down from the top of the tree, and in great grief 
asked him for news of his beloved. The S'avara chieftain said " Leave this 
place and come to my village ; I have no doubt she whom you seek has 
gone there ; and I shall come there and return you this sword." When the 
S'avara chieftain urged him to go with these words, S'ridatta, being hiins'-lt' 
all eagerness, went to that village with the chief's men. And there those 
men said to him, " Sleep off your fatigue," and when he reached the 
house of the chief of the village, being tired he went to sleep in an instant. 
And when he woke up he saw his two feet fastened with fetters, like the 
two efforts he had made in order to obtain his beloved, which failed to reach 
their object. Then he remained there weeping for his darling, who, like the 
course of destiny, had for a moment brought him joy, and the next moment 
blasted his hopes. 

One day a serving maid .of the name of Mochanika came to him and 
said, Illustrious Sir, unwittingly you have come hither to your death ? 
For the S'avara chieftain has gone somewhither to accomplish certain weighty 
affairs, and when he returns, he will offer you to Chandika.* For with 
that object he decoyed you here by a stratagem from this slope of the wild 
Vindhya hill, and immediately threw you into the chains in which you now 
are. And it is because you are intended to be offered as a victim to the 
goddess, that you are continually served with garments and food. 
But I know of only one expedient for delivering you, if you agree to it. 
This S'avara chieftain has a daughter named Sundari, and she having seen 
you is becoming exceedingly love-sick ; marry her who is my friend, then 
you will obtain deliverance. f When she said this to him, S'ridatta consent- 
ed, desiring to be set at liberty, and secretly made that S'undari his wife by 
the Gandharva form of marriage. And every night she removed his chains 
and in a short time Sundari became pregnant. Then her mother, having 
heard the whole story from the mouth of Mochanika, out of love for her 
son-in-law S'ridatta, went and of her own accord said to him " My son, 
S'richanda the father of Sundari is a wrathful man, and will show thee no 
mercy. Therefore depart, but thou must not forget Sundari." When his 
mother-in-law had said this, she set him at liberty, and S'ridatta departed 
after telling Sundari that the sword, which was in her father's possession, 
really belonged to himself. 

So he again entered full of anxiety that forest, in which he had before 
wandered about, in order again to search for traces of Mri^avati. And 
having seen an auspicious omen he came to that same place, where that 

* A name of Durga. Cp. Prescott's account of the human sacrifices in Mexico. 
Vol. I pp. 62, 63. 

t This incident reminds us of the fifth talc iu Wright's Gcsta liomanorum. 


horse of his died before, and whence his wife was carried off. And there 
lie saw near* him a hunter coming towards him, and when lie saw him he 
asked him for news of that gazelle-eyed lady. Then the hunter asked him 
" Are you S'ridatta?" and he sighing replied " I am that unfortunate man." 
Then that hunter said, " Listen, friend, I have somewhat to tell you. I saw 
that wife of yours wandering hither and thither lamenting your ahsenee, 
and having asked her her story, and consoled her, moved with compassion I 
took her out of this wood to my own village. But when I saw the young 
Pulindasf there, I was afraid, and I took her to a village named Nagasthala 
near Mathura. And then I placed her in the house of an old Brahman named 
'Visvadatta commending her with all due respect to his care. And thence 
I came here having learnt your name from her lips. Therefore you had 
better go quickly to Nagasthala to search for her." When the hunter 
had told him this, S'ridatta quickly set out, and he reached Nagasthala in 
the evening of the second day. Then he entered the house of Visvadatta 
and when he saw him said, " Give me my wife who was placed here by the 
hunter." Yisvadatfca when he heard that, answered him, "I have a friend in 
Mathura a Brahman, dear to all virtuous men, the spiritual preceptor and 
minister of the king S'urasena. In his care I placed your wife. For this 
village is an out-of-the-way place and would not afford her protection. So 
go to that city to-morrow morning, but to-day rest here." When Visvadatta 
said this, he spent that night there, and .the next morning he set off, and 
reached Mathura on the second day. Being weary and dusty with the 
long journey, he bathed outside that city in the pellucid water of a lake. 
And he drew out of the middle of the lake a garment placed there by 
some robbers, not suspecting any harm. But in one corner of the garment, 
which was knotted up, a necklace was concealed. J Then S'ridatta took 
that garment, and in his eagerness to meet his wife did not notice the neck- 
lace, and so entered the city of Mathura. Then the city police recognized the 
garment, and (hiding the necklace, arrested S'ridatta as a thief, and carried 
him off, and brought him before the chief magistrate exactly as he was 
found, with the garment in his possession ; by him he was handed up to 
the king, and the king ordered him to be put to death. 

Then, .-is lie was being led oft' to the place of execution with the drum 
being beaten behind him, his wife Mrig&nkavati saw him in the di>tance. 
She. went in a state of the utmost distraction and said to the chief minis- 
ter, in whose house she was residing, u Yonder is my husband being led off 

* Or it may moan ' i'mm a <lM;m<v," as Dr. Brockhaus taL 
t l'n/i>if/n, juiiiii' of 

A common way of CUITV iii numry in liulia at the ]uvs<-it day. 
Comnaiv tliu Sivut.' of the Toy Curt in the 1st volume of Wilson's Hindu 


to execution." Then that minister went and ordered the executioners to 
desist, and, by making a representation to the king, got .S'ridatta pardoned, 
and had him brought to his house. And when S'ridatta reached his house, 
and saw that minister, he recognised him and fell at his feet, exclaiming, 
" What ! is this my uncle Vigatabhaya, who long ago went to a foreign 
country, and do I now by good luck find him established in the position of 
a minister ?" He too recognised to his astonishment S'ridatta as his brother's 
son, and embraced him, and questioned him about alibis adventures. Then 
S'ridatta related to his uncle his whole history beginning with the execution 
of his father. And he, after weeping, said to his nephew in private, " Do 
not despond, my son, for I once brought a female Yaksha into subjection, 
by means of magic ; and she gave me, though I have no son, five thousand 
horses and seventy millions of gold pieces : and all that wealth is at your 
disposal." After telling him this, his uncle brought him his beloved, and he, 
having obtained wealth, married her on the spot. And then he remained 
there in joy, united with that beloved Mrigankavati as a bed of white 
lotuses* with the night. But even when his happiness was at its full, 
anxiety for Bahusalin and his companions clouded his heart, as a spot of 
darkness does the full moon. Now one day his uncle said secretly to 
S'ridatta : " my son, the king S'urasena has a maiden daughter, and in ac- 
cordance with his orders I have to take her to the land of Avanti to give 
her away in marriage ; so I will take her away on that very pretext, and 
marry her to you. Then, when you have got possession of the force that 
follows her, with mine already at your disposal, you will soon gain the 
kingdom that was promised you by the goddess S'ri." Having resolved on 
this, and having taken that maiden, S'ridatta and his uncle set out with their 
army and their attendants. But as soon as they had reached the Yindhya 
forest, before they were aware of the danger, a large army of brigands set 
upon them showering arrows. After routing S'ridatta' s force, and seizing 
all the wealth, they bound S'ridatta himself, who had fainted from his 
wounds, and carried him off to their village. And they took him to the 
awful temple of Durga, in order to offer him up in sacrifice, and, as it were, 
summoned Death with the sound of their gongs. There Sundari saw him, 
one of his wives, the daughter of the chief of the village, who had come 
with her young son to visit the shrine of the goddess. Full of joy s-ho 
ordered the brigands, who were between her and her husband, to stand aside, 
and then S'ridatta entered her palare with her. Immediately Sridatta 
obtained the sovereignty of that village, which Sundari's father, having 
HO son, bequeathed to her when he went to heaven. !.itt.i 

recovered his wife and his sword Mriganka, and also his uncle and 

* The esculent white lotus (Sanskrit kumuda) expands its petals ut night, and 
closes them iu the daytime. 



his followers, who had been overpowered by the robbers. And, while he was 
in that town, he married the daughter of S'urasena, and became a great king 
there. And from that place he sent ambassadors to his two fathers-in-law, 
to Bimbaki, and king S'urasena. And they, being very fond of their daugh- 
ters, gladly recognised him as a connection, and came to him accompanied 
by the whole of their armies. And his friends Bahusalin and the others, who 
had been separated from him, when they heard what had happened, came 
to him with their wounds healed and in good health. Then the hero 
marched, united with his fathers-in-law, and made that Vikramasakti, who 
had put his father to death, a burnt-offering in the flame of his wrath. 
And then S'ridatta, having gained dominion over the sea-encircled earth, and 
deliverance from the sorrow of separation, joyed in the society of Mrigan- 
kavati. Even so, my king, do men of firm resolution cross the calamitous 
sea of separation and obtain prosperity. 

After hearing this tale from Sangataka, the king Sahasranika, though 
longing for the sight of his beloved one, managed to get through that night 
on the journey. Then, engrossed with his desire, sending his thoughts on 
before, in the morning Sahasranika set out to meet his darling. And in a 
few days he reached that peaceful hermitage of Jamadagni, in which even 
the deer laid aside their wantonness. And there he beheld with reverence 
that Jamadagni, the sight of whom was sanctifying, like the incarnate form 
of penance, who received him hospitably. And the hermit handed over to 
him that queen Mrigavati with her son, regained by the king after long 
separation, like tranquillity accompanied with joy. And that sight which 
the husband and wife obtained of one another, now that the curse had 
ceased, rained, as it were, nectar into their eyes, which were filled with tears 
of joy. And the king embracing that son Udayana, whom he now beheld 
for the first time, could with difficulty let him go, as he was, so to speak, 
riveted to his body with his own hairs that stood erect from joy.* Then 
king Sahasranika took his queen Mrigavati with Udayana, and, bidding 
adieu to Jamadagni, set out from that tranquil hermitage for his own city, 
and even the deer followed him as far as the border of ths hermitage with 
tearful eyes. Beguiling the way by listening to the adventures of his beloved 
wife during the period of separation, and by relating his own, he at length 
reached the city of Kausambi, in which triumphal arches were erected and 
banners displayed. And he entered that city in company with his wife 
and child, being, so to speak, devoured! by the eyes of the citizens, that hail 
the fringe of their lashes elevated. And immediately the king appointed 
his son Udayana crown-prince, being incited to it by his excellent qualities. 

* In Sanskrit poetry horripilation is often said to bo produced by joy. I have 
her the words "from joy" in order to make the meaning clear. 

t Literally drunk in. 


And he assigned to him as advisers the sons of his own ministers, Vusantaka 
and Rinnan vat and Yaugandharayana. Then a rain of flowers fell, and a 
celestial voice was heard " By the help of these excellent ministers, the 
prince shall obtain dominion over the whole earth." Then the king 
devolved on his son the cares of empire, and enjoyed in the society of Mri- 
gavati the long-desired pleasures of the world. At last the desire of earthly 
enjoyment, beholding suddenly that old age, the harbinger of composure 
had readied the root of the lung's ear,* became enraged and fled far from 
him. Then that king Sahasranika established in his throne his excellent 
son Udayana,f whom the subjects loved so well, to ensure the world's pros, 
perity, and accompanied by his ministers, and his beloved wife, ascended the 
Himalaya to prepare for the last great journey. 


Then Udayana took the kingdom of Vatsa, which his father had be- 
queathed to him, and, establishing himself in Kausambi, ruled his subjects 
well. But gradually he began to devolve the cares of empire upon his 
ministers, Yaugandharayana and others, and gave himself up entirely to 
pleasures. He was continually engaged in the chase, and day and night 
he played on the melodious lute which VasukiJ gave him long ago ; and he 
subdued evermore infuriated wild elephants, overpowered by the fascinating 
spell of its strings' dulcet sound, and, taming them, brought them home. 
That king of Vatsa drank wine adorned by the reflection of the moon-faces 
of fair women, and at the same time robbed his minister's faces of their 
cheerful hue. Only one anxiety had he to bear, he kept thinking, " No- 
where is a wife found equal to me in birth and personal appearance, the 
maiden named Yasavadatta alone has a liking for me, but how is she to be 
obtained ?" Chandamahasena also in Ujjayini thought ; " There is no suit- 
able husband to be found for my daughter in the world, except one Udayana 
by name, and he has ever been my enemy. Then how can I make him my 

* Alluding to his grey hairs. In all eastern stories tho appi'aramv of the first 
grey hair is a momentous epoch. The point of the whole passage consists in the 1'aet 
that jard, old age, is feminine in form. 

t There is a pun between the name of the king Udayana and prosperity (itdaya). 

J Not VYisuki, but his eldest brother. 

Ch hdi/d means "colour ;" ho drank their colour, /.<., madr them pair. It also 
means "reflection in the wine." 


son-in-law and my submissive ally ? There is only one device which can 
effect it. He wanders about alone in the forest capturing elephants, for he 
is a king addicted to the vice of hunting ; I will make use of this failing 
of his to entrap him and bring him here by a stratagem : and, as he is 
acquainted with music, I will make this daughter of mine his pupil, and 
then his eye will without doubt be charmed with her, and he will certainly 
became my son-in-law, and my obedient ally. No other artifice seems appli- 
cable in this case for making him submissive to my will." Having thus 
reflected, he went to the temple of Durga, in order that his scheme 
might be blessed with success, and, after worship and praise, offered a prayer 
to the goddess. And there he heard a bodiless voice saying, " This desire 
of thine, O king, shall shortly be accomplished." Then he returned satisfied, 
and deliberated over that very matter with the minister Buddhadatta* 
saying " That prince is elated with pride, he is free from avarice, his sub- 
jects are attached to him, and he is of great power, therefore he cannot be 
reached by any of the four usual expedients beginning with negotiation, 
nevertheless let negotiation be tried first.f Having thus deliberated, the 
king gave this order to an ambassador, " Go and give the king of Yatsa 
this message from me ; ' My daughter desires to be thy pupil in music, 
if thou love us, come here and teach her.' " When sent off by the king 
with this message, the ambassador went and repeated it to the king of 
Vatsa in Kausambi exactly as it was delivered ; and the king of Vatsa, 
after hearing this uncourteous message from the ambassador, repeated it in 
private to the minister Yaugandharayana, saying " Why did that monarch 
send me that insolent message ? What can be the villain's object in making 
such a proposal ?" When the king asked him this question, the great 
minister Yaugandharayana, who was stern to his master for his good, thus 
answered him ; " Your reputation for vice J has shot up in the earth like 
a creeper, and this, O king, is its biting bitter fruit. For that king Chanda- 
mahasena, thinking that you are the slave of your passions, intends to 
ensnare you by means of his beautiful daughter, throw you into prison, 
and so make you his unresisting instrument. Therefore abandon kingly 

* t. ., given by Buddha. 

f The four Upayas or means of success arc sdman, negotiation, which his pride 
would render futil ', <l<ut, giving, which appeals to avarice, bhedu, sowing dissension, 
which would he useless where a king is beloved by his subjects, and danciti, open force, 
of no use in the case of a powerful king like Udayana. 

; The chief vices of kings denounced by Hindu writers on statecraft are : llunt_ 
ing, gambling, sleeping in the day, calumny, addiction to women, drinking spirits, 
dancing, singing, and instrumental music, idle roaming, Iheso proceed from the love of 
pleasure, others proceed from anger, j'r., lal'-bnu-in^, violence, insidious injury, en\y> 
detraction, unjust seizure of property, abuse, assault. See Monier Williams s. v, 


vices, for kings that fall into them are easily captured by their enemies, 
even as elephants are taken in pits." When his minister had said this to 
him, the resolute king of Vatsa sent in return an ambassador to Chanda- 
mahasena with the following reply, " If thy daughter desires to become 
my pupil, then send her here." When he had sent this reply, that king of 
Vatsa said to his ministers "I will march and bring Chandamaha 
here in chains." When he heard that, the head minister Yaugandharayana 
said " That is not a fitting thing to do, my king, nor is it in thy power 
to do it. For (Jhandamahasena is a mighty monarch, and not to be sub- 
dued by thee. And in proof of this, hear his whole history, which I now 
proceed to relate to thee." 

There is in this land a city named 
Story of king Chandamahasena. .. . , 

Ujjayini, the ornament of the earth, 

that, so to speak, laughs to scorn with its palaces of enamelled white- 
ness* Amaravati, the city of the gods. In that city dwells S'iva 
himself, the lord of existence, under the form of Mahakala,f when 
he desists from the kingly vice of absenting himself on the heights 
of mount Kailasa. In that city lived a king named Maheudravarman, 
best of monarchs, and he had a son like himself, named Jayasena. Then to 
that Jayasena was born a son named Mahasena, matchless in strength of 
arm, an elephant among monarchs. And that king, while cherishing his 
realm, reflected, "I have not a sword worthy of me, nor a wife of good 
family." Thus reflecting that monarch went to the temple of Durga, and 
there he remained without food, propitiating for a long time the goddess. 
Then he cut off pieces of his own flesh, and offered a burnt-offering with 
them, whereupon the goddess Durga being pleased appeared in visible shape, 
and said to him, " I am pleased with thee, -receive from me this excellent 
sword, by means of its magic power thou shalt be invincible to all thy 
enemies. Moreover thou shalt soon obtain as a wife Anguravati, the daugh- 
ter of the Asura Angaraka, the most beautiful maiden in the three worlds. 
And since thou didst here perform this very cruel penance, therefore thy 
name shall be Chandamahasena." Having said this and given him the 
sword, the goddess disappeared. But in the king there appeared joy at the 
fulfilment of his desire. He now possessed, king, two jewels, his sword 
and a furious elephant named Nadagiri, which were to him what the 
thunderbolt and Airavana are to Indra. Then that king, delighting in the 
power of these two, one day went to a great forest to hunt; and there he 

* Sudhdilhauta may mean " white us plaster," but more probably hero " whiteiie.t 
with plaster" like the houses in the European quarter of the " City of p.. 

t A linga of S'iva in Ujjayini. S'iva is here compared to an earthly monarch sub- 
ject to the vyasana of roaming. I take it, the poet means, Ujjayini is abater place 
than Kailasa. 


beheld an enormous and terrible wild boar ; like the darkness of the night 
suddenly condensed into a solid mass in the day time. That boar was not 
wounded by the king's arrows, in spite of their sharpness, but after breaking 
the king's chariot* fled and entered a cavern. The king, leaving that car 
of his, in revengeful pursuit of the boar, entered into that cavern with only 
his bow to aid him. And after he had gone a long distance, he beheld a 
great and splendid capital, and astonished he sat down inside the city on 
the bank of a lake. While there, he beheld a maiden moving along, sur- 
rounded by hundreds of women, like the arrow of love that cleaves the 
armour of self-restraint. She slowly approached the king, bathing him, so 
to speak, again and again in a look, that rained in showers the nectar of 
love.f She said, " who art thou, illustrious sir, and for what reason hast thou 
entered our home on this occasion ?" The king, being thus questioned by her, 
told her the whole truth; hearing which, she let fall from her eyes a pas- 
sionate flood of tears, and from her heart all self-control. The king said, 
"Who art thou, and why dost thou weep?" When he asked her this question, 
she, being a prisoner to love at his will, answered him, " The boar that entered 
here is the Daitya Angaraka by name. And I am his daughter, king, and 
my name is Angaravati. And he is of adamantine frame, and has carried 
off these hundred princesses from the palaces of kings and appointed them to 
attend on me. Moreover this great Asura has become a Kakshasa owing to 
a curse, but to-day as he was exhausted with thirst and fatigue, even when he 
found you, he spared you. At present he has put off the form of a boar and 
is resting in his own proper shape, but when he wakes up from his sleep, he will 
without fail do you an injury. It is for this reason that I see no hope of 
a happy issue for you, and so these tear-drops fall from my eyes like my 
vital spirits boiled with the fire of grief." When he heard this speech of 
Angaravati's the king said to her, " If you love me, do this which I ask you. 
When your father awakes, go and weep in front of him, and then he will 
certainly ask you the cause of your agitation ; then you must say If some 
one were to slay thee, what would become of me ? J This is the cause of 

* Dr. Brockhaus translates it Stiirzte den Wmjen di's K<'tiys ton. Can 
mean horses, like >//">/i/> <'/(,/>"< Achilli? If so, dhatya would mean, having killed. 

f HUSH means nectar, and indeed any liquid, and also emotion, passion. The pun 
is of course most intentional in the original. 

J Cp. the story of Ohime in the " Sicilianischo Marchen" collected by Laura von 
Gonzenbach \\h<Te .Maruzza asks Ohime how it would he possible to kill him. So in 
Indian Fairy Tales, collected l>y .Miss Stokes, Iliralal Lasa persuadis Suualiri Uani to 
ask his father where he kept his soul. Some interesting remarks on this* subject will 
be found in the notes to this tale (Indian Fairy Tales, p. 2GO.) See also No. I, in 
Campbell's Tales of the \VrMern Highlands, and Dr. Kcmhold Holder's remarks in 
Orient and Occident, Vol. II, p. 100. Cp. also lial-ston's liussiaii Folk-Tales, pp. 80, 81 
and 136. 


my grief. If you do this, there will be a happy issue both for you and 
ine." When the king said this to her, she promised him that she would 
do what he wished. And that Asura maiden, apprehending misfortune, 
placed the king in concealment, and went near her sleeping father. Then 
the Daitya woke up, and she began to weep. And then he said to her, 
" Why do you weep, my daughter ?" She with affected grief said to him, " If 
some one were to slay tliee, what would become of me ?" Then he burst out 
laughing and said ; " Who could possibly slay me, my daughter, for I am 
cased in adamant all over, only in my left hand is there an unguarded place, 
but that is protected by the bow." In these words the Daitya consoled his 
daughter, and all this was heard by the king in his concealment. Imme- 
diately afterwards the Diinava rose up and took his bath, and proceeded in 
devout silence to worship the god S'iva ; at that moment the king appeared 
with his bow bent, and rushing up impetuously towards the Daitya, chal- 
lenged him to light. He, without interrupting his devout silence, lifted his 
left hand towards the king and made a sign that he must wait fora moment. 
The king for his part, being very quick of hand, immediately smote him 
with an arrow in that hand which was his vital part. And that great Asura 
Angaraka, being pierced in a vital spot, immediately uttered a terrible cry 
and fell on the ground, and exclaimed, as his life departed, " If that man, 
who has slain me when thirsty, does not offer water to my manes every 
year, then his five ministers shall perish." After he had said this, that 
Daitya died, and the king, taking his daughter Angaravat as a prize, 
returned to Ujjayini. There the king Chandamahasena married that 
Daitya maiden, and two sons were born to him, the first named Gopalaka, 
and the second Palaka ; and when they were born, he held a feast in honour 
of Indra on their account. Then Indra, being pleased, said to that king 
in a dream, " By my favour thou shalt obtain a matchless daughter." 
Then in course of time a graceful daughter was born to that king, like a 
second and more wonderful shape of the moon made by the Creator. And 
on that occasion a voice was heard from heaven ; " She shall give birth 
to a son, who shall be a very incarnation of the god of love, and king of 
the Vidyadharas." Then the king gave that daughter the name of Yasava- 
datta, because she was given by Indra being pleased with him. And that 
maiden still remains unmarried in the house of her father, like the goddess 
of prosperity in the hollow cavity of the ocean before it was churned. 
That king Chandamahasena cannot indeed be conquered by you, king, in 
the first place because he is so powerful, and in the next place because his 
realm is situated in a difficult country. Moreover he is ever longing to give 
you that daughter of his in marriage, but being a proud monarch, he il 
the triumph of himself and his adherents. But, 1 think, you must certainly 
marry that Yasavadattii. When he heard this, that king of Yatsa imme- 
diately lost his heart to Vasavadatta. 


In the meanwhile the ambassador, sent by the king of Vatsa in answer 
to Chandamahasena's embassy, went and told that monarch his master's 
reply. Chandamahasena for his part, on hearing it, began to reflect " It 
is certain that that proud king of Vatsa will not come here. And I can- 
not send my daughter to his court, such conduct would be unbecoming ; so I 
must capture him by some stratagem and bring him here as a prisoner." 
Having thus reflected and deliberated with his ministers, the king had 
made a large artificial elephant like his own, and, after filling it with con- 
cealed warriors, he placed it in the- Vindhya forest. There the scouts kept 
in his pay by the king of Vatsa, who was passionately fond of the sport of 
elephant-catching, discerned it from a distance ;* and they came with speed 
and informed the king of Vatsa in these words : " O king, we have seen a 
single elephant roaming in the Vindhya forest, such that nowhere else in 
this wide world is his equal to be found, filling the sky with his stature, 
like a moving peak of the Vindhya range." 

Then the king rejoiced on hearing this report from the scouts, and he 
gave them a hundred thousand gold pieces by way of reward. The king 
spent that night in thinking ; " If 1 obtain that mighty elephant, a fit match 
for Nadagiri, then that Chandamaha.sena will certainly be in my power, 
and then he will of his own accord give me his daughter Vasavadatta." So 
in the morning 'he started for the Vindhya forest, making these scouts 
shew him the way, disregarding, in his ardent desire to capture the elephant, 
the advice of his ministers. He did not pay any attention to the fact, that 
the astrologers said, that the position of the heavenly bodies at the moment 
of his departure portended the acquisition of a maiden together with im- 
prisonment. When the king of Vatsa reached the Vindhya forest, lie 
made his troops halt at a distance through fear of alarming that elephant, 
and accompanied by the scouts only, holding in his hand his melodious 
lute, he entered that great forest boundless as his own kingly vice. The 
king saw on the southern slope of the Yindhya range that elephant looking 
like a real one, pointed out to him by his scouts from a distance. He 
slowly approached it, alone, playing on his lute, thinking how lie should 
bind it, and singing in melodious tones. As his mind was fixed on his 

* They would not go near for fear of disturbing it. Wild elephants arc timid, so 
Him- IB maze probability in this sl.n-y, than in that of the Trojan horse. Kvm now 

scouts who mink down a wild beast in India, almost lose their heads with excitement. 

music, and the shades of evening were setting in, that king did not per- 
ceive that the supposed wild elephant \vas an artificial one. The elephant 
too for its part, lifting up its ears and Happing them, as if through delight 
in the music, kept advancing and then retiring, and so drew the king to a 
great distance. And then, suddenly issuing from that artificial elephant, a 
body of soldiers in full armour surrounded that king of Vatsa. When he 
beheld them, the king in a rage drew his hunting knife, but while he was 
lighting with those in front of him, he was seized by others coming up 
behind. And those warriors with the help of others, who appeared at a 
concerted signal, carried that king of Vatsa into the presence of Chamla- 
rnahasena. Chandamahasena for his part came out to meet him with the- 
utmost respect, and entered with him the city of Ujjayini. Then the newly 
arrived king of Vatsa was beheld by the citizens, like the moon, pleasing to 
the eyes, though spotted with humiliation. Then all the citizens, suspect- 
ing that he was to be put to death, through, regard for his virtues assembled 
and determined to commit suicide.* Then the king Chandamahasena put 
a stop to the agitation of the citizens, by informing them that he did not 
intend to put the monarch of Vatsa to death, but to win him over. So 
the king made over his daughter Vasavadatta on the spot to the king oE 
Vatsa, to be taught music, and said to him " Prince, teach this lady music ; 
iu this way you will obtain a happy issue to your adventure, do not despond." 
But when he beheld that fair lady, the mind of the king -of Vatsa was so 
steeped in love that he put out of sight his anger : and her heart and mind 
turned towards him together ; her eye was then averted through modesty, 
but her mind not at all. So the king of Vatsa dwelt in the concert-room 
of Chandamahasena's palace, teaching Vasavadatta to sing, with his eyes 
ever fixed on her. In his lap was his lute, in his throat the quarter-tone of 
vocal music, and in front of him stood Vasavadatta delighting his heart. 
And that princess Vasavadatta was devoted in her attentions to him, re- 
sembling the goddess of Fortune in that she was firmly attached to him, 
and did not leave him though he was a captive. 

In the meanwhile the men who had accompanied the king returned to 
Kausambi, and the country, hearing of the captivity of the monarch, was 
thrown into a state of great excitement. Then the enraged subjects, out of 
love for the king of Vatsa, wanted to make a generalf assault on rjjayini. 
Hut llumanvat checked the impetuous fury of the subjects by telling them 
that Chandamah;iseua was not to be overcome by force, for he was a mighty 
monarch, and besides that an assault was not advisable, for it might en- 
danger the safety of the king -of Vatsa ; but their object must l>e attained 
by policy. Then the calm and resolute Yaugamlharayana, seeing that the 

* /. f., they sat in Dliarna outside tho door of tin; |i;'.' 
f IVrlinjis \\v slimilil ivail x.imn, lining on*' word. 



country was loyal, and would not swerve from its allegiance, said to 
Kumanvat and the others; "All of you must remain here, ever on the alert ; 
you must guard this country, and when a fit occasion comes you must 
display your prowess ; but I will go accompanied by Vasantaka only, 
and will without fail accomplish by my wisdom the deliverance of the king 
and bring him home. For he is a truly firm and resolute man whose wis- 
dom shines forth in adversity, as the lightning flash is especially brilliant 
during pelting rain. I know spells for breaking through walls, and for 
rending fetters, and receipts for becoming invisible, serviceable at need." 
Having said this, and entrusted to Kumanvat the care of the subjects, 
Yaugandharayana set out from Kausambi with Vasantaka. And with him 
he entered the Vindhya forest, full of life* like his wisdom, intricate and 
trackless as his policy. Then he visited the palace of the king of the 
Pulindas, Pulindaka by name, who dwelt on a peak of the Vindhya range, 
and was an ally of the king of Vatsa. He first placed him, with a large 
force at his heels, in readiness to protect the king of Vatsa when he return- 
ed that way, and then he went on accompanied by Vasantaka and at last 
arrived at the burning-ground of Mahakala in Ujjayini, which was densely 
tenanted by vampiresf that smelt of carrion, and hovered hither and thither, 
black as night, rivalling the smoke-wreaths of the funeral pyres. And 
there a Brahman- Rakshasa of the name of Yogesvara immediately came up 
to him, delighted to see him, and admitted him into his friendship ; then, 
Yaugandharayana by means of a charm, which he taught him, suddenly 
altered his shape. That charm immediately made him deformed, hunch- 
backed, and old, and besides gave him the appearance of a madman, so that 
he produced loud laughter in those who beheld him. And in the same way 
Yaugandharayana, by means of that very charm, gave Vasantaka a body 
full of outstanding veins, with a large stomach, and an ugly mouth with 
projecting teeth ; then he sent Vasantaka on in front to the gate of the 
king's palace, and entered Ujjayini with such an appearance as I have de- 
scribed. There he, singing and dancing, surrounded by Brahman boys, 
1. -In/Id with curiosity by all, made his way to the king's palace. And there 
be excited by that behaviour the curiosity of the king's wives, and was afc 

Sattva, when applied to the forest, means animal, when applied to wisdom, it 
means excellence. 

f Vetdla is especinlh us- d of a goblin that tenants dead bodies. See Colonel IJ. 
Burton's Tales of Vikranu'ulitya and the Yampiiv. They will be found in the 12th 
book of this work. In thf Vth Chapter of Ilalston's Russian Folk-Tales will be found 
much interesting information with iv^ard to th>' Slavonic superstitions about Ya7i. 
They resemble very closely thus,' uitlu 1 1 Indus. See especially p. 311. "At 
roads, or in the neighbourhood of cemeteries, an animated corpse of this description 
often lurks, watching for some unwary traveller whom it may be able to flay and cat." 


last heard of by Vasavadattd. She quickly sent a maid and had him 
brought to the concert-room. For youth is twin-brother to mirth. And 
when Yaugandharayana came there and beheld the king of Vatsa in fetters, 
though he had assumed the appearance of a madman, he could not help 
shedding tears. And he made a sign to the king of Vatsa, who quickly 
recognized him, though he had come in disguise. Then Yaugandharayana 
by means of his magic power made himself invisible to Vasavadatta and 
her maids. So the king alone saw him, and they all said with astonish- 
ment, " that maniac has suddenly escaped somewhere or other." Then the 
. king of Vatsa hearing them say that, and seeing Yaugandharayana in front 
of him, understood that this was due to magic, and cunningly said to 
Vasavadatta ; " Go my good girl, and bring the requisites for the worship 
of Sarasvati." When she heard that, she said, "So I will," and went out 
with her companions. Then Yaugandharayana approached the king and 
communicated to him, according to the prescribed form, spells for breaking 
chains ; and at the same time he furnished him with other charms for 
winning the heart of Vasavadatta, which were attached to the strings of 
the lute ; and informed him that Vasantaka had come there and was stand- 
ing outside the door in a changed form, and recommended him to have that 
Brahman summoned to him ; at the same time he said " When this lady 
Vasavadatta shall come to repose confidence in you, then you must do what 
I tell you, at the present remain quiet." Having said this, Yaugandhara- 
yana quickly went out, and immediately Vasavadatta entered with the 
requisites for the worship of Sarasvati. Then the ' king said to her, 
" There is a Brahman standing outside the door, let him be brought in to 
celebrate this ceremony in honour of Sarasvati, in order that he may obtain 
a sacrificial fee." Vasavadatta consented, and had Vasantaka, who wore a 
deformed shape t summoned from the door into the music-hall. And when 
he was brought and saw the king of Vatsa, he wept for sorrow, and then 
the king said to him, in order that the secret might not be discovered, 
" Brahman, I will remove all this deformity of thine produced by sickness ; 
do not weep, remain here near me." And then Vasantaka said " It is a 
great condescension on thy part, O king." And the king seeing how he 
was deformed could not keep his countenance. And when he saw that, 
Vnsantaka guessed what was in the king's mind, and laughed so that the 
deformity of his distorted face was increased ; and thereupon Vasavadatta, 
beholding him grinning like a doll, burst out laughing also, and was much 
delighted ; then the young lady asked Vasantaka in fun the following ques- 
tion : " Brahman, what science are you familiar with, tell us ?" So he said, 
" Princess, I am an adept at telling tales." Then she said " Come, tell me 
a tale." Then in order to please that princess, Vasantaka told the following 
tale, which was charming by its comic humour and variety. 


There is in this country a cit v 

'* , ,, ,. , ., , . ,,' , ",. 

named Matliura, the birthplace or 

Krishna, in it there was a liciara known hy the name of Riipinikii ; she 
had 1'or a mother an old I'-uttini named Makaradanshtra, who seemed a 
lump of poison in the eyes of the young men attracted by her daughter's 
charms. One day Rupinika went at the time of worship to the temple to 
perform her duty,* and beheld from a distance a young man. When she 
saw that handsome young fellow, he made such an impression upon her 
heart, that all her mother's instructions vanished from it. Then she said 
to her maid, " Go and tell this man from me, that he is to come to my house 
to-day." The maid said, " So I will," and immediately went and told him. 
Then the man thought a little and said to her ; " I am a Brahman named 
Lohajangha ; I have no wealth ; then what business have I in the house of 
Rupinika which is only to be entered by the rich." The maid said, " My 
mistress does not desire wealth from you," whereupon Lohajangha con- 
sented to do as she wished. When she heard that from the maid, Rupinika 
went home in a state of excitement, and remained with her eyes iixed on 
the path by which he would come. And soon Lohajangha came to her 
house, while the kuttini Makaradanshtra looked at him, and wondered 
where he came from. Rupinika, for her part, when she saw him, rose up to 
meet him herself with the utmost respect, and clinging to his neck in her 
joy, led him to her own private apartments. Then she was captivated with 
Loliajangha's wealth of accomplishments, and considered that she had 
only born to love Mm. So she avoided the society of other men, and that 
young fellow lived with her in her house in great comfort. Rupinika's 
mother, Makaradanshtra, who had trained up many hetccrce, was annoyed 
when she saw this, and said to her in private ; " My daughter, why do you 
associate with a poor man ? Hetcerce of good taste embrace a corpse in 
preference to a poor man. What business has a lietcera like you with 
affection ? How have you come to forget that great principle ? The 
light of a redf sunset lasts but a short time, and so does the splendour of 
a Itctccra who gives way to affection. A hctcera, like an actress, should exhibit 
an assumed affection in order to get wealth ; so forsake this pauper, do not 
ruin yourself." When she heard this speech of her mother's, Ifiipinika said 
in a rage, "Do not talk in this way, for I love him more than my life. 
And as for wealth, I have plenty, what do I want with more? So you 
must not speak to me again, mother, in this way." When she heard this, 
Makaradanshtr.i was in a rage, and she remained thinking over some device 
for getting rid of this Lohajangha. Then she saw coining along the road a 
certain Rajput, who had spent all his wealth, surrounded by retainers with 

* SlU'll pro]ilr dunce ill tc7ll]ilrs I liclii'Vr. 

t lidyiiii m. ;tiis all' vtioiKitu and ulsso red. 


swords in their hands. So she went up to him quickly an.) him 

aside, said " My houso is heset by a certain poor lover. So Come tl 
yourself to-day, and take such order with him that ho shall depart from 
my house, and do you possess my daughter." "Agreed," said the Rajput, 
and entered that house. At that precise moment Kupinika was in t he- 
temple, and Lohajanglni meanwhile was absent somewhere, and suspecting 
nothing, lie returned to the house a moment afterwards. Immediately the 
retainers of the Rajput ran upon him, and gave him severe kicks and blows 
on all his limbs, and then they threw him into a ditch full of all kinds of 
impurities, and Lohnjangha with difficulty escaped from it. Then Riipini- 
ka returned to the house, and when she heard what had taken place, she 
was distracted with grief, so the Rajput, seeing that, returned as he came. 

Lohajangha, after suffering this brutal outrage by the machinations of 
the kuttini, set out for some holy place of pilgrimage, in order to leave his 
life there, now that he was separated from his beloved. As he was going 
along in the wild country,* with his heart burning with anger against the 
Jcuttini, and his skin with the heat of the summer, he longed for shade. 
Not being able to find a tree, he lighted on the body of an elephant, which 
had been stripped of all its fleshf by jackals making their way into it by 
the hind-quarters ; accordingly Lohajangha being worn out crept into this 
carcase, which was a mere shell, as only the skin remained, and went to 
sleep in it, as it was kept cool by the breeze which freely entered. Then 
suddenly clouds arose from all sides, and began to pour down a pelting 
shower of rain ; that rain made the elephant's skin contract so that no 
aperture was left, and immediately a copious inundation came that way, 
and carrying off the elephant's hide swept it into the Ganges ; so eventual- 
ly the inundation bore it into the sea. And there a bird of the race of 
Garuda saw that hide, and supposing it to be carrion, took it to the other 
side of the sea ; there it tore open the elephant's hide with its claws, and, 
seeing that there was a man inside it, fled away. But Lohajangha was 
awaked by the bird's pecking and scratching, and came out through the 
aperture made by its beak. And finding that he was on the other side of 
the sea, he was astonished, and looked upon the whole thing as a dav-dream; 
then he saw there to his terror two horrible Rakshasas, and those two for 
their part contemplated him from a distance with feelings of fear. Remem- 

* Atavf is generally translated " forest." I believe the English word " forest" doee 
not necessarily imply trees, but it is perhaps bettor to avoid it here. 

t For tho vritam of the text I read kritntn. Cp. this incident with Joseph'* 
adventure in the 6th story of the Sicilianisehe Marchon. He is sown up in a 1: 
skin, and carried by ravens to the top of a high mountain. Tin TO he stamps ami 
finds a wooden trap-door under his feet. In the notes l>r. Ivohlcr refers to t; 
Campbell No. 11, the Story of Siudbud and other parallels, 


bering how they were defeated by llama, and seeing that Lohajangha was 
also a man who had crossed the sea, they were once more alarmed in their 
hearts. So, after they had deliberated together, one of them went off 
immediately and told the whole occurrence to king Vibhishana; king Vibhi- 
shana too, as he had seen the prowess of Kama, being terrified at the 
arrival of a man, said to that Rakshasa; "Go, my good friend, and tell that 
man from me in a friendly manner, that he is to do me the favour of com- 
ing to my palace." The Rakshasa said, "I will do so," and timidly approached 
Lohajangha, and told him that request of his sovereign's. Lohajangha for 
his part accepted that invitation with unruffled calm, and went to Lanka 
with that Rakshasa and his companion. And when he arrived in Lanka, he 
was astonished at beholding numerous splendid edifices of gold, and enter- 
ing the king's palace, he saw Vibhishana. The king welcomed the Brahman, 
who blessed him in return, and then Vibhishana said, " Brahman, how did 
you manage to reach this country ?" Then the cunning Lohajangha said 
to Vibhishana " I am a Brahman of the name of Lohajangha residing 
in Mathura ; and I, Lohajangha being afflicted at my poverty, went to the 
temple of the god, and remaining fasting, for a long time performed 
austerities in the presence of Narayana.* Then the adorable Hari* com- 
manded me in a dream, saying, ' Go thou to Vibhishana, for he is a faith- 
ful worshipper of mine, and he will give thee wealth.' Then, I said, 
' Vibhishana is where I cannot reach him' but the lord continued, 
' To-day shalt thou see that Vibhishana.' So the lord spake to me, and 
immediately I woke up and found myself upon this side of the sea. I 
know no more." When Vibhishana heard this from Lohajangha, reflecting 
that Lanka was a difficult place to reach, he thought to himself " Of a 
truth this man possesses divine power." And he said to that Brahman, 
" Remain here, I will give you wealth." Then he committed him to the care 
of the man-slaying Rakshasas as an inviolable deposit ; and sent some of 
his subjects to a mountain in his kingdom called Swarnamula, and brought 
from it a young bird belonging to the race of Garuda ; and he gave it to 
that Lohajangha, (who had to take a long journey to Mathura,) to ride upon, 
in order that he might in the meanwhile break it in. Lohajangha for his 
part mounted on its back, and riding about on it in Lanka, rested there 
for some time, being hospitably entertained by Vibhishana. 

One day he asked the king of the Rakshasas, feeling curiosity on the 
point, why the whole ground of Lanka was made of wood ; and Vibhishana 
when he heard that, explained the circumstance to him, saying, " Brahman, 
if you take any interest in this matter, listen, I will explain it to you. 
Long ago Garuda the son of Kasyapa, wishing to redeem his mother from 
her slavery to the snakes, to whom she had been subjected in accordance 
* Names of Vishnu, who become iucuruatu in the hero Kfishna. 


with an agreement,* and preparing to obtain from the gods the nectar 
which was the price of her ransom, wanted to eat something which would 
increase his strength, and so he went to his father, who being importuned 
said to him, " My son, in the sea there is a huge elephant, and a huge tor- 
toise. They have assumed their present forms in consequence of a curse : 
go and eat them." Then Garuda went and brought them both to eat, and 
then perched on a bough of the great wishing-tree of paradise. And 
when that bough suddenly broke with his weight, he held it up with his 
beak, out of regard to the Balakhilyasf who were engaged in austerities 
underneath it. Then Garuda, afraid that the bough would crush mankind, 
if he let it fall at random, by the advice of his father brought the bough 
to this uninhabited part of the earth, and let it drop. Lanka was built on 
the top of that bough, therefore the ground here is of wood." When he 
heard this from Vibhishana, Lohajangha was perfectly satisfied. 

Then Vibhishana gave to Lohajangha many valuable jewels, as he 
desired to set out for Mathura. And out of his devotion to the god Vish- 
nu, who dwells at Mathura, he entrusted to the care of Lohajangha a lotus, 
a club, a shell, and a discus all of gold, to be offered to the god ; Lohajan- 
gha took all these, and mounted the bird given to him by Vibhishana, that 
could accomplish a hundred thousand yojanas,^ and rising up into the air 
in Lanka, he crossed the sea and without any difficulty arrived at Mathura. 
And there he descended from the air in an empty convent outside the town, 
and deposited there his abundant treasure, and tied up that bird. And then 
he went into the market and sold one of his jewels, and bought garments 
and scented unguents, and also food. And he ate the food in that convent 
where he was, and gave some to his bird ; and he adorned himself with the 
garments, unguents, flowers and other decorations. And when night came, 
he mounted that same bird and went to the house of Rupinika, bearing in 
his hand the shell, discus and mace ; then he hovered over it in the air, 
knowing the place well, and made a low deep sound, to attract the atten- 
tion of his beloved, who was alone. But Rupinika, as soon as she heard 
that sound, came out, and saw hovering in the air by night a being like 
K;ir:iyana, gleaming with jewels. He said to her, "I am Hari come hither 
for thy sake ;" whereupon she bowed with her face to the earth and said 

* Sec Chapter 22 II. 181 and ff. Kasynpa's two wives disputed about the colour 
of the sun's horses. They agnvtl that whichever was in the wrong should become a 
slave to the other. Kadrii, the mother of the snakes, won by getting her children to 
darken the horses. So Uariula's mother Vinata became a slave. 

f Divine personages of the size of a thumb ; sixty thousand were produced from 
Brahma's body and surrounded the chariot of the sun. 

I A yojana is probably 9 miles, some say 2-J, some 4 or 5. See Monier Williams 


" May the god have mercy upon me !" Then Lohajangha descended and 
tied up his bird, and entered the private apartments of his beloved hand in 
hand with her. And after remaining there a short time, he came out, and 
mounting the bird as before, went off through the air.* In the morning 
Rupinika remained observing an obstinate silence, thinking to herself <: I 
am the wife of the god Vishnu, I must cease to converse with mortals." 
And then her mother Makaradanshtra said to her, " Why do you behave 
in this way, my daughter ?" And after she had been perseveringly question- 
ed by her mother, she caused to be put up a curtain between herself and 
her parent, and told her what had taken place in the night, which was the 
cause of her silence. When the kuttini heard that, she felt doubt on the 
subject, but soon after at night she saw that very Lohajangha mounted on 
the bird, and in the morning Makaradanshtra came secretly to Rupinika, 
who still remained behind the curtain, and inclining herself humbly, pre- 
ferred to her this request ; " Through the favour of the god, thou, my 
daughter, hast obtained here on earth the rank of a goddess, and I am thy 
mother in this world, therefore grant me a reward for giving thee birth ; 
entreat the god that, old as I am, with this very body I may enter Paradise ; 
do me this favour." Rupinika consented and requested that very boon from 
Lohajangha, who came again at night disguised as Vishnu. Then Lohajan- 
gha, who was personating the god, said to-that beloved of his " Thy mother 
is a wicked woman, it would not be fitting to take her openly to Paradise, 
but on the morning of the eleventh day the door of heaven is opened, and 
many of the Ganas, Suva's companions, enter into it before any one else is 
admitted. Among them I will introduce this mother of thine, if she assume 
their appearance. So, shave her head with a razor, in such a manner that 
five locks shall be left, put a necklace of sculls round her neck, and strip- 
ping off her clothes, paint one side of her body with lamp-black, and the 
other with red lead,f for when she has in this way been made to resemble 
a Gana, I shall find it an easy matter to get her into heaven." When he 
had said this, Lohajangha remained a short time, and then departed. And 
in the morning Rupinika attired her mother as lie had directed ; and then 
she remained with her mind entirely fixed on Paradise. So, when night 
came, Lohajangha appeared again, and Rupinika handed over her mother to 

* Compare the 5th story in the first book of the Panchatuntra, in Benfey's transla- 

Benfey shews that this story found its way into Mahometan collections, such as the 
Thousand and one Nights, and the Thousand and one Days, as also into the Decameruno 
of Boccaccio, and other European story-hooks, Vol. I, p. 159, and ft'. 

The story, as given in tho Panchatantra, reminds us of the Squire's Talc in riiauecr. 

t Thus she represented the Arddhun;iri>vara, or s'iva half male, and half female, 
which compound figure is to be painted in this manner. 


him. Then he mounted on the bird, and tooi*the kuttini with him naked, 
and transformed as he had directed, and he flew up rapidly with her into 
the air. While he was in the air, he beheld a lofty stone pillar in front of 
a temple, with a discus on its summit. So he placed her on the top of the 
pillar, with the discus as her only support,* and there she hung like a 
banner to blazon forth his revenge for his ill-usage. He said to her " Re- 
main here a moment while I bless the earth with my approach," and vanish, 
ed from her sight. Then beholding a number of people in front of the 
temple, who had come there to spend the night in devout vigils before the 
festive procession, he called aloud from the air " Hear, ye people, this very 
day there shall fall upon you here the all-destroying goddess of Pestilence, 
therefore fly to Hari for protection." When they heard this voice from 
the air, all the inhabitants of Mathura who were there, being terrified, 
implored the protection of the god, and remained devoutly muttering 
prayers to ward off calamity. Lohajangha, for his part, descended from the 
air, and encouraged them to pray, and after changing that dress of his, came 
and stood among the people, without being observed. The Tcuttini thought, 
as she sat upon the top of the pillar, " the god has not come as yet, and I 
have not reached heaven." At last feeling it impossible to remain up there 
any longer, she cried out in her fear, so that the people below heard ; 
" Alas ! I am falling, I am falling." Hearing that, the people in front of 
the god's temple were beside themselves, fearing that the destroying goddess 
was falling upon them, even as had been foretold, and said, " O goddess, do 
not fall, do not fall." So those people of Mathura, young and old, spent 
that night in perpetual dread that the destroying goddess would fall upon 
them, but at last it came to an end ; and then beholding that kuttini upon 
the pillar in the state described,f the citizens and the king recognized her 
at once ; all the people thereupon forgot their alarm, and burst out laugh- 
ing, and Rupinika herself at last arrived having heard of the occurrence. 
And when she saw it, she was abashed, and with the help of the people, 
who were there, she managed to get that mother of hers down from the top 
of the pillar immediately : then that kuttini was asked by all the people 
there, who were filled with curiosity, to tell them the whole story, and she 

* She held on to it by her hands. 

t Wilson remarks that this presents some analogy to the story in the Decamorone 
(Nov. 7 Gior. 8) of the scholar and the widow " la quale egli con un suo consiglio, di 
mezzo Luglio, ignuda, tutto un di fa stare in su una torre." It also hears some resem- 
blance to the story of the Master Thief in Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, page 272. Tho 
Master thief persuades the priest that he will take him to heaven. He thus induces 
him to get into a sack, and then he throws him into the goose-house, and when th. 
geese peck him, tells him that he is in purgatory. The story is Norwegian. See also 
Sir G. W. Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, Vol. 1. p. 1-7. 


did so. Thereupon the king, the Brahmans, and the merchants, thinking 
that that laughable incident must have been brought about by a sorcerer or 
some person of that description, made a proclamation, that whoever had 
made a fool of the Tcuttini, who had deceived innumerable lovers, was to shew 
himself, and he would receive a turban of honour on the spot. When he 
heard that, Lohajangha made himself known to those present, and being 
questioned, he related the whole story from its commencement. And he 
offered to the god the discus, shell, club, and lotus of gold, the present 
which Vibhishana had sent, and which aroused the astonishment of the 
people. Then all the people of Mathura, being pleased, immediately 
invested him with a turban of honour, and by the command of the king, 
made that Rupinika a free woman. And then Lohajangha, having wreaked 
upon the Tcuttini his wrath caused by her ill-usage of him, lived in great 
comfort in Mathura with that beloved of his, being very well off by means 
of the large stock of jewels which he brought from Lanka. 

Hearing this tale from the mouth of the transformed Vasantaka, Vasa- 
vadatta who was sitting at the side of the fettered king of Vatsa, felt 
extreme delight in her heart. 


As time went on, Vasavadatta began to feel a great affection for the 
king of Vatsa, and to take part with him against her father. Then Yau- 
gandharayana again came in to see the king of Vatsa, making himself 
invisible to all the others, who were there. And he gave him the following 
information in private in the presence of Vasantaka only ; " King, you were 
made captive by king Chandamahasena by means of an artifice. And he 
wishes to give you his daughter, and set you at liberty, treating you with 
all honour ; so let us carry off his daughter and escape. For in this way 
we shall have revenged ourselves upon the haughty monarch, and we shall 
not be thought lightly of in the world for want of prowess. Now the king 
has given that daughter of his, Vasavadatta, a female elephant called Bha- 
dravati. And no other elephant but Nadagiri is swift enough to catch her 
up, and he will not fight when he sees her. The driver of this elephant is 
a man here called A'shadhaka, and him I have won over to our side by 
giving him much wealth. So you must mount that elephant with Vasava- 
datta, fully armed, and start from this place secretly by night. And you 
must have the superintendent of the royal elephants here made drunk with 
wine, in order that he may not perceive what is about to take place, for he 


understands every sign that elephants give. I, for my part, will first repair 
to your ally Pulindaka in order that he may be prepared to guard the road 
by which you escape." When he had said this, Yaugandharayana departed. 
So the king of Vatsa stored up all his instructions in his heart ; and soon 
Vasavadatta came to him. Then he made all kinds of confidential speeches 
to her, and at last told her what Yaugandharayana had said to him. She 
consented to the proposal, and made up her mind to start, and causing the 
elephant driver A'shadhaka to be summoned, she prepared his mind for the 
attempt, and on the pretext of worshipping the gods, she gave the superin- 
tendent of the elephants, with all the elephant drivers, a supply of spirits, 
and made them drunk. Then in the evening, which was disturbed with the 
echoing roar of clouds,* A'shadhaka brought that female elephant ready 
harnessed, but she, while she was being harnessed, uttered a cry, which was 
heard by the superintendent of the elephants, who was skilled in elephants' 
language ; and he faltered out in a voice indistinct from excessive intoxica- 
tion, " the female elephant says, she is going sixty-three yojanas to-day." 
But his mind in his drunken state was not capable of reasoning, and the 
elephant-drivers, who were also intoxicated, did not even hear what he said. 
Then the king of Vatsa broke his chains by means of the charms, which 
Yaugandharayana had given him, and took that lute of his, and Vasava- 
datta of her own accord brought him his weapons, and then he mounted the 
female elephant with Vasantaka. And then Vasavadatta mounted the same 
elephant with her friend and confidante Kanchanamala ; then the king of 
Vatsa went out from Ujjayini with five persons in all, including himself and 
the elephant-driver, by a path which the infuriated elephant clove through 
the rampart. 

And the king attacked and slew the two warriors who guarded that 
point, the Kajputs Virabahu and Talabhata. Then the monarch set out 
rapidly on his journey in high spirits, mounted on the female elephant, 
together with his beloved, A'shadhaka holding the elephant-hook ; in the 
meanwhile in Ujjayini the city-patrol beheld those guards of the rampart 
lying dead, and in consternation reported the news to the king at night. 
Chandamahasena enquired into the matter, and found out at last that the 
king of Vatsa had escaped, taking Vasavadatta with him. Then the alarm 
spread through the city, and one of his sons named Palaka mounted Nada- 
giri and pursued the king of Vatsa. The king of Vatsa for his part, com- 
bated him with arrows as he advanced, and Nadagiri, seeing that female 
elephant, would not attack her. Then Palaka, who was ready to listen to 
reason, was induced to desist from the pursuit by his brother Gopalaka, 
who had his father's interests at heart ; then the king of Vatsa boldly con- 

* TijpVoj'Tes VVKTO. xeifJ-epiov SSan ical b.vep.<? ol S/u 'afff\rivov Qyfffav, Thucyd. 
III. 22. 


tinued his journey, and as he journeyed, the night gradually came to an 
end. So by the middle of the day the king had reached the Vindhya forest, 
and his elephant having journeyed sixty-three yojanas, was thirsty. So the 
king and his wife dismounted, and the female elephant having drunk water, 
owing to its being bad, fell dead on the spot. Then the king of Vatsa and 
Vasavadatta, in their despair, heard this voice coming from the air " I, 
king, am a female Vidyadhara named Mayavati, and for this long time I 
have been a female elephant in consequence of a curse ; and to-day, lord 
of Vatsa, I have done you a good turn, and I will do another to your son 
that is to be : and this queen of yours Vasavadatta is not a mere mortal ; 
she is a goddess for a certain cause incarnate on the earth." Then the king 
regained his spirits, and sent on Vasantaka to the plateau of the Vindhya 
hills to announce his arrival to bis ally Pulindaka ; and as he was himself 
journeying along slowly on foot with his beloved, he was surrounded by 
brigands, who sprang out from an ambuscade. And the king, with only his 
bow to help him, slew one hundred and five of them before the eyes of 
Vasavadatta. And immediately the king's ally Pulindaka came up, toge- 
ther with Yaugandharayana, Vasantaka shewing them the way. The king 
of the Bheels ordered the surviving brigands* to desist, and after prostra- 
ting himself before the king of Vatsa, conducted him with his beloved to 
his own village. The king rested there that night with Vasavadatta, whose 
foot had been cut with a blade of forest grass, and early in the morning the 
general Eumanvat reached him, who had before been summoned by Yaugan- 
dharayana, who sent a messenger to him. And the whole army came with 
him, filling the land as far as the eye could reach, so that the Vindhya 
forest appeared to be besieged. So that king of Vatsa entered into the 
encampment of his array, and remained in that wild region to wait for 
news from Ujjayini. And, while he was there, a merchant came from 
Ujjayini, a friend of Yaugandharayana's, and when he had arrived reported 
these tidings, " The king Chandamahasena is pleased to have thee for a 
son-in-law, and he has sent his warder to thee. The warder is on the way, 
but he has stopped short of this place, however, I came secretly on in front 
of him, as fast as I could, to bring your Highness information." 

When he heard this, the king of Vatsa rejoiced, and told it all to 
Vasavadatta, and she was exceedingly delighted. Then Vasavadatta, having 
abandoned her own relations, and being anxious for the ceremony of mar- 
riage, was at the same time bashful and impatient : then she said, in order 

* The word dasyu here means savage, barbarian. These wild mountain tribes 
called indiscriminately Savaras, Pulindas, Bhillas &c., seem to have been addicted to 
cattle-lifting and brigandage. So the word dasyu comes to mean robber. Even the 
virtuous S'avuru prince 1 described in the story of Jimiitavahana plunders a caravan. 


to divert her thoughts, to Vasantaka who was in attendance " Tell me some 
story." Then the sagacious Vasantaka told that fair-eyed one the follow - 
ing tale in order to increase her affection for her husband. 

There is a city in the world 

Story of Devasmita. J 

famous under the name or Tamralip- 

ta, and in that city there was a very rich merchant named Dhanadatta. 
And he, being childless, assembled many Brahmans and said to them with 
due respect; "Take such steps as will procure me a son soon." Then those 
Brahmans said to him: "This is not at all difficult, for Brahmans can 
accomplish all things in this world by means of ceremonies in accordance 
with the scriptures. To give you an instance there was in old time a king 
who had no sons, and he had a hundred and five wives in his harem. And 
by means of a sacrifice to procure a son, there was born to him a son named 
Jantu, who was like the rising of the new moon to the eyes of his wives. 
Once on a time an ant bit the boy on the thigh as he was crawling about 
on his knees, so that he was very unhappy and sobbed loudly. Thereupon 
the whole harem was full of confused lamentation, and the king himself 
shrieked out ' My son ! my son !' like a common man. The boy was soon 
comforted, the ant having been removed, and the king blamed the misfor- 
tune of his only having one son as the cause of all his grief. And he asked 
the Brahmans in his afiliction if there was any expedient by which he might 
obtain a large number of children. They answered him, ' king, there 
is one expedient open to you ; you must slay this son and offer up all his 
flesh in the fire. By smelling the smell of that sacrifice all thy wives will 
obtain sons.' When he heard that, the king had the whole ceremony per- 
formed as they directed ; and he obtained as many sons as he had wives. 
So we can obtain a son for you also by a burnt-offering." When they liad 
said this to Dhanadatta, the Brahmans, after a sacrificial fee had been pro- 
mised them, performed a sacrifice : then a son was born to that merchant. 
That son was called Guhasena, and he gradually grew up to man's estate. 
Then his father Dhanadatta began to look out for a wife for him. 

Then his father went with that son of his to another country, on the 
pretence of traffic, but really to get a daughter-in-law, there he asked an 
excellent merchant of the name of Dharmagupta to give him his daughter 
named Devasmita for his son Guhasena. But Dharmagupta, who was 
tenderly attached to his daughter, did not approve of that connexion, reflect- 
ing that the city of Tamralipta was very far off. But when Devasmita 
beheld that Guhasena, her mind was immediately attracted by his virtues, 
and she was set on abandoning her relations, and so she made an assigna- 
tion with him by means of a confidante, and went away from that country 
at night with her beloved and his father. When they reached Tamralipta 
they were married, and the minds of the young couple were firaily knit 

together by the bond of mutual love. Then Guhasena's father died, and 
he himself was urged by his relations to go to the country of Kataha* 
for the purpose of trafficking ; but his wife Devasmita was too jealous to 
approve of that expedition, fearing exceedingly that he would be attracted 
by some other lady. Then, as his wife did not approve of it, and his rela- 
tions kept inciting him to it, Guhasena, whose mind was firmly set on doing 
his duty, was bewildered. Then he went and performed a vow in the tem- 
ple of the god, observing a rigid fast, trusting that the god would shew 
him some way out of his difficulty. And his wife Devasmita also perform- 
ed a vow with him ; then S'iva was pleased to appear to that couple in a 
dream ; and giving them two red lotuses the god said to them, " take each 
of you one of these lotuses in your hand. And if either of you shall be 
unfaithful during your separation, the lotus in the hand of the other shall 
fade, but not other wisef." After hearing this, the two woke up, and each 

* Cathay? 

t Compare the rose garland in the story of the Wright's Chaste Wife ; edited for 
the early English Text Society by Frederick J. Furnivall, especially lines 58 and ff. 

" Wete thou wele withowtyn fable 

" Alle the whyle thy wife is stable 

" The chaplett wolle holde hewe ; 

" And yf thy wyfe use putry 

" Or tolle eny man to lye her by 

Then wolle yt change hewe, 

And by the garland thou may see, 

Fekylle or fals yf that sche be, 

Or elles yf she be true. 

See also note in Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit Literature, Vol. I, p. 218. He tells 
us that in Perce Forest the lily of the Katha Sarit Sagara is represented by a rose. In 
Amadis de Gaul it is a garland which blooms on the head of her that is faithful, and 
fades on the brow of the inconstant. In Les Contes a rire, it is also a flower. In 
Ariosto, the test applied to both male and female is a cup, the wine of which is spilled 
by the unfaithful lover. This fiction also occurs in the romances of Tristan, Perceval 
and La Morte d 'Arthur, and is well known by La Fontaine's version, La Coupe En- 
chantee. In la Lai du Corn, it is a drinking-horn. Spenser has derived his girdle of 
Florimel from these sources or more immediately from the Fabliau, Le Manteau mal 
taille or Le Court Mantel, an English version of which is published in Percy's Re- 
liques, the Boy and the Mantel (Vol. III.) In the Gesta Romanorum (c. 69) the test is 
the whimsical one of a shirt, which will neither require washing nor mending as long as 
the wearer is constant. (Not the wearer only but the wearer and his wife). Davenant 
has substituted an emerald for a flower. 

The bridal stone, 

And much renowned, because it clristrin-s.s loves, 

And will, when worn by the neglected wife, 

Shew when her absent lord disloyal proves 

By faintness and a pale decay of life. 

beheld in the hand of the other a red lotus, and it seemed as if they had 
got one another's hearts. Then Guhasena set out, lotus in hand, but 
Devasmita remained in the house with her eyes fixed upon her flower- 
Guhasena for his part quickly reached the country of Katuha, and began 
to buy and sell jewels there. And four young merchants in that country, 
seeing that that unfading lotus was ever in his hand, were greatly astonished. 
Accordingly they got him to their house by an artifice, and made him drink 
a great deal of wine, and then asked him the history of the lotus, and he 
being intoxicated told them the whole story. Then those four young mer- 
chants, knowing that Guhasena would take a long time to complete his 
sales and purchases of jewels and other wares, planned together, like rascals 
as they were, the seduction of his wife out of curiosity, and eager to accom- 
plish it set out quickly for Tamralipta without their departure being noticed. 
There they cast about for some instrument, and at last had recourse to a 
female ascetic of the name of Yogakarandika, who lived in a sanctuary of 
Buddha ; and they said to her in an affectionate manner, " Reverend 
madam, if our object is accomplished by your help, we will give you much 
wealth." She answered them ; " No doubt, you young men desire some 
woman in this city, so tell me all about it, I will procure you the object of 
your desire, but I have no wish for money ; I have a pupil of distinguished 
ability named Siddhikari ; owing to her kindness I have obtained untold 
wealth." The young merchants asked " How have you obtained untold 
wealth by the assistance of a pupil ?" Being asked this question, the female 
ascetic said, " If you feel any curiosity about the matter, listen, my sons, 
I will tell you the whole story." 

Long ago a certain merchant 

story of tlie cunning Siddhikari. 

came here from the north ; while 

he was dwelling here, my pupil went and obtained, with a treache- 
rous object, the position of a serving-maid in his house, having first 
altered her appearance, and after she had gained the confidence of that 
merchant, she stole all his hoard of gold from his house, and went off secret- 
ly in the morning twilight. And as she went out from the city moving 
rapidly through fear, a certain Domba* with his drum in his hand, saw her, 
and pursued her at full speed with the intention of robbing her. When she 
had reached the foot of a Nyagrodha tree, she saw that he had come up 
with her, and so the cunning Siddhikari said this to him in a plaintive 
manner, " I have had a jealous quarrel with my husband, and I have left 

I may remark that there is a certain resemblance inthisstoryto that of Shakespr.u, '.- 
Cymbeline, which is founded on the 9th Story of the 2nd day in the Decamerone, and to 
the 7th Story in Gonzcnbach's Sicilianische Marchen. 

* A man of low caste now called Dom. They officiate as executioners. 

his house to die, therefore my good man, make a noose for me to hang my- 
self with." Then the Domba thought, "Let her hang herself, why should 
I be guilty of her death, especially as she is a woman," and so he fastened a 
noose for her to the tree. Then Siddhikari, feigning ignorance, said to the 
Domba, "How is the noose slipped round the neck? shew me, I entreat you." 
Then the Domba placed the drum under his feet, and saying, " This is the 
way we do the trick" he fastened the noose round his own throat ; Sid- 
dhikari for her part smashed the drum to atoms with a kick, and that 
Domba hung till he was dead.* At that moment the merchant arrived in 
search of her, and beheld from a distance Siddhikari, who had stolen from. 
him untold treasures, at the foot of the tree. Slje too saw him coming, 
and climbed up the tree without being noticed, and remained there on a 
bough, having her body concealed by the dense foliage. When the mer- 
chant came up with his servants, he saw the Domba hanging by his neck, 
but Siddhikari was nowhere to be seen. Immediately one of his servants 
said " I wonder whether she has got up this tree," and proceeded to ascend 
it himself. Then Siddhikari said " I have always loved you, and now you 
have climbed up where I am, so all this wealth is at your disposal, hand- 
some man, come and embrace me." So she embraced the merchant's servant, 
and as she was kissing his mouth, she bit off the fool's tongue. He, over- 
come with the pain, fell from that tree, spitting blood from his mouth, 
uttering some indistinct syllables, which sounded like Lalalla. When he 
saw that, the merchant was terrified, and supposing that his servant had 
been seized by a demon, he fled from that place, and went to his own house 
with his attendants. Then Siddhikari the female ascetic, equally frighten- 
ed, descended from the top of the tree, and brought home with her all that 
wealth. Such a person is my pupil, distinguished for her great discern- 
ment, and it is in this way, my sons, that I have obtained wealth by her 

When she had said this to the young merchants, the female ascetic 
shewed to them her pupil who happened to come in at that moment ; and 
said to them, "Now, my sons, tell me the real state of affairs what woman 
do you desire ? I will quickly procure her for you." When they heard that 
they said, "procure us an interview with the wife of the merchant Guhasena 
named Devasmita." When she heard that, the ascetic undertook to manage 
that business for them, and she gave those young merchants her own house 
to reside in. Then she gratified the servants at Guhasena's house with 
gifts of sweetmeats and other things, and afterwards entered it with her 

* Compare the way in which the widow's son, the shifty lad, treats Blade 
in Campbell's Tales of the Western Highlands (Talo XVII d. Orient uud Occident. 
Vol. II, p. 303.) 


pupil. Then, as she approached the private rooms of Devasmita, a bitch, 
that was fastened there with a chain, would not let her come near, hut opposed 
her entrance in the most determined way. Then Devasmita seeing her, 
of her own accord sent a maid, and had her brought in, thinking to herself, 
" What can this person be come for ?" After she had entered, the wicked 
ascetic gave Devasmita her blessing, and, treating the virtuous woman with 
affected respect, said to her " I have always had a desire to see you, but 
to-day I saw you in a dream, therefore I have come to visit you with 
impatient eagerness ; and my mind is afflicted at beholding you separated 
from your hushand, for beauty and youth are wasted when one is deprived 
of the society of one's beloved." With this and many other speeches of the 
same kind she tried to gain the confidence of the virtuous woman in a short 
interview, and then taking leave of her she returned to her own house. On 
the second day she took with her a piece of meat full of pepper dust, and 
went again to the house of Devasmita, and there she gave that piece of 
meat to the bitch at the door, and the bitch gobbled it up, pepper and all. 
Then owing to the pepper dust, the tears flowed in profusion from the 
animal's eyes, and her nose began to run. And the cunning ascetic imme- 
diately went into the apartment of Devasmita, who received her hospitably, 
and began to cry. When Devasmita asked her why she shed tears, she 
said with affected reluctance: " My friend, look at this bitch weeping out- 
side here. This creature recognized me to-day as having been its com- 
panion in a former birth, and began to weep ; for that reason my tears 
gushed through pity." When she heard that, and saw that bitch outside 
apparently weeping, Devasmita thought for a moment to herself, " What 
can be the meaning of this wonderful sight ?" Then the ascetic said to her, 
" My daughter, in a former birth, I and that bitch were the two wives of a 
certain Brahman. And our husband frequently went about to other coun- 
tries on embassies by order of the king. Now while he was away from 
Lome, I lived with other men at my pleasure, and so did not cheat the 
elements, of which I was composed, and my senses, of their lawful enjoy- 
ment. For considerate treatment of the elements and senses is held to be 
the highest duty. Therefore I have been born in this birth with a recol- 
lection of my former existence. But she, in her former life, through 
ignorance, confined all her attention to the preservation of her character, 
therefore she has been degraded and born again a one of the canine race, 
however, she too remembers her former birth." The wise Devasmita said to 
herself, " This is a novel conception of duty ; no doubt this woman has 
laid a treacherous snare for me" ; and so she said to her, " Reverend lady> 
for this long time I have been ignorant of this duty, so procure me an 
interview with some charming man." Then the ascetic said "There are 
residing here some young merchants that have come from another country, 


so I will bring them to you." When she had said this, the ascetic returned 
home delighted, and Devasmita of her own accord said to her maids : " No 
doubt those scoundrelly young merchants, whoever they may be, have seen 
that unfading lotus in the hand of my husband, and have on some occasion 
or other, when he was drinking wine, asked him out of curiosity to tell the 
whole story of it, and have now come here from that island to seduce me, 
and this wicked ascetic is employed by them. So bring quickly some wine 
mixed with Datura,* and when you have brought it, have a dog's foot of 
iron made as quickly as possible." When Devasmita had given these orders, 
the maids executed them faithfully, and one of the maids, by her orders, 
dressed herself up to resemble her mistress. The ascetic for her part chose 
out of the party of four merchants, (each of whom in his eagerness said - 
" let me go first" ) one individual, and brought him with her. And con- 
cealing him in the dress of her pupil, she introduced him in the evening into 
the house of Devasmita, and coming out, disappeared. Then that maid, 
who was disguised as Devasmita, courteously persuaded the young merchant 
to drink some of that wine drugged with Datura. That liquor, f like his 
own immodesty, robbed him of his senses, and then the maids took away 
his clothes and other equipments and left him stark naked ; then they 
branded him on the forehead with the mark of a dog's foot, and during the 
night took him and pushed him into a ditch full of filth. Then he recover- 
ed consciousness in the last watch of the night, and found himself plunged 
in a ditch, as it were the hell Amclii assigned to him by his sins. Then he 
got up and washed himself and went to the house of the female ascetic, in 
a state of nature, feeling with his fingers the mark on his forehead. And 
when he got there, he told his friends that he had been robbed on the way, 
in order that he might not be the only person made ridiculous. And the 
next morning he sat with a cloth wrapped round his branded forehead, 
giving as an excuse that he had a headache from keeping awake so long, 
and drinking too much. In the same way the next young merchant was 
maltreated, when he got to the house of Devasmita, and when he returned 
home naked, he said, " I put on my ornaments there, and as I was coming 
out I was plundered by robbers." In the morning he also, on the plea of a 
headache, put a wrapper on to cover his branded forehead. 

In the same way all the four young merchants suffered in turns brand- 
ing and other humiliating treatment, though they concealed the fact. And 
they went away from the place, without revealing to the female Buddhist 
ascetic the ill-treatment they had experienced, hoping that she would suffer 

* Datura is still employed, I U'licvi >, to stujiify people whom it is thought desir- 
able to i-"1>. 

f 1 read ivu for the na of Dr. Broekhaus's 


in a similar way. On the next day the ascetic went with her disciple to 
the house of Devasmita, much delighted at having accomplished what she 
undertook to do. Then Devasmita received her courteously, and made her 
drink wine drugged with Datura, offered as a sign of gratitude. When she 
and her disciple were intoxicated with it, that chaste wife cut off their ears 
and noses, arid flung them also into a filthy pool. Arid being distressed by 
the thought that perhaps these young merchants might go and slay her hus- 
band, she told the whole circumstance to her mother-in-law. Then her 
mother-in-law said to her, " My daughter, you have acted nobly, but 
.possibly some misfortune may happen to my son in consequence of what 
you have done." Then Devasmita said I will deliver him even as S'akti- 
mati in old time delivered her husband by her wisdom. Her mother-in-law 
asked ; "How did S'aktimati deliver her husband? tell me, my daughter." 
Then Devasmita related the following story : 

In our country, within the city, 
Story of Salctimati. . /' J' 

there is the shrine of a powerful 

Yaksha named Manibhadra, established by our ancestors. The people there 
come and make petitions at this shrine, offering various gifts, in order to 
obtain various blessings. Whenever a man is found at night with 
another man's wife, he is placed with her within the inner chamber of the 
Yaksha's temple. And in the morning he is taken away from thence with 
the woman to the king's court, and his behaviour being made known, he is 
punished ; such is the custom. Once on a time in that city a merchant, of 
the name of Samudradatta, was found by a city-guard in the company of 
another man's wife. So he took him and placed him with the woman in 
that temple of the Yaksha, fastening the door firmly. And immediately 
the wise and devoted wife of that merchant, whose name was S'aktimati, 
came to hear of the occurrence ; then that resolute woman, disguising her- 
self, went confidently at night to the temple of the Yaksha, accompanied by 
her friends, taking with her offerings for the god. When she arrived 
there, the priest whose business it was to eat the offerings, through desire 
for a fee, opened the door and let her enter, informing the magistrate of 
what he had done. And she, when she got inside, saw her husband looking 
sheepish, with a woman, and she made the woman put on her own dress, 
and told her to go out. So that woman went out in her dress by night, 
and got off, but S'aktimati remained in the temple -with her husband. And 
when the king's officers came in the morning to examine the merchant, lu- 
was seen by all to be in the company of his own wife.* When he heard 

* A precisely similar story occurs in the Bahar Danish. The turn of tbe chief 
incident, although not the same, is similar to that of Xov VII. Part 4 of P.undello's No- 
vclle, or the Accorto Avvedimento di unit Fanttsca </ liberarc In paJrona e I' t 


that, the king dismissed the merchant from the temple of the Yaksha, as 
it were from the mouth of death, and punished the chief magistrate. So 
S'aktimati in old time delivered her husband by her wisdom, and in the 
same way I will go and save my husband by my discretion. 

So the wise Devasmita said in secret to her mother-in-law, and, in com- 
pany with her maids, she put on the dress of a merchant. Then she embark- 
ed on a ship, on the pretence of a mercantile expedition, and came to the 
country of Ka^aha where her husband was. And when she arrived there, 
she saw that husband of hers, Guhasena, in the midst of a circle of mer- 
chants, like consolation in external bodily form. He seeing her afar off in 
the dress of a man,* as it were, drank her in with his eyes, and thought to 
himself. " Who may this merchant be that looks so like my beloved wife"? 
So Devasmita went and represented to the king that she had a petition to 
make, and asked him to assemble all his subjects. Then the king full of 
curiosity assembled all the citizens, and said to that lady disguised as a 
merchant, "What is your petition ?" Then Devasmita said There are resid- 
ing here in your midst four slaves of mine who have escaped, let the king 
make them over to me. Then the king said to her, " All the citizens are 
present here, so look at every one in order to recognise him, and take those 
slaves of yours." Then she seized upon the four young merchants, whom she 
had before treated in such a humiliating way in her house, and who had 
wrappers bound round their heads. Then the merchants, who were there, 
flew in a passion, and said to her, " These are the sons of distinguished 
merchants, how then can they be your slaves ?" Then she answered them, 
" If you do not believe what I say, examine their foreheads which I marked 
with a dog's foot." They consented, and removing the head-wrappers of 
these four, they all beheld the dog's foot on their foreheads. Then all the 
merchants were abashed, and the king, being astonished, himself asked Dev- 
asmita what all this meant. She told the whole story, and all the people 
burst out laughing, and the king said to the lady, " They are your slaves by 
the best of titles." Then the other merchants paid a large sum of money 
to that chaste wife, to redeem those four from slavery, and a fine to the king's 
treasury. Devasmita received that money, and recovered her husband, and 
being honoured by all good men, returned then to her own city Tamralipta, 
and she was never afterwards separated from her beloved. 

" Thus, O queen, women of good family ever worship their husbands 
with chaste and resolute behaviour,! and never think of any other man, for 

di queUa de la morte. (Wilson's Essays, Vol. I, p. 224.) Cp. also the Mongolian version 
of the story in Sagas from the Far East, p. 320. 

* Cp. the story of the Chest in Campbell's Stories from the Western Highlands. 
It is the first story in the 2nd volume and contains one- or two incidents which remind 
us of this story. t I read 


to virtuous wives the husband is the highest deity." When V&savadatta 
on the journey heard this noble story from the mouth of Vasantaka, she 
got over the feeling of shame at having recently left her father's house, 
and her mind, which was previously attached by strong affection to her hus- 
band, became so fixed upon him as to be entirely devoted to his service. 

Note on Chapter XIII. 

With regard to the incident of the bitch and the pepper in the story of Devasmita 
see the note in the 1st volume of Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit Literature. He says : 
" This incident with a very different and much less moral denouement is one of the stories 
in the Disciplina Clericalis, a collection of stories professedly derived from the Arabian 
fabulists and compiled by Petrus Alfonsus a converted Jew, who flourished about 1106 
and was godson to Alfonso I, king of Arragon. In the Analysis prepared by Mr. 
Douce, this story is the 12th, and is entitled " Stratagem of an old woman in favour of 
a young gallant." She persuades his mistress who had rejected his addresses that her 
little dog was formerly a woman, and so transformed in consequence of her cruelty to 
her lover. (Ellis's Metrical Romances, I, 130.) This story was introduced into 
Europe, therefore, much about the time at which it was enrolled among the contents 
of the Vrihat Katha in Cashmir. The metempsychosis is so much more obvious an ex- 
planation of the change of forms, that it renders it probable the story was originally 
Hindu. It was soon copied in Europe, and occurs in Le Grand as La vieille qui stduisit 
lajeunejille. III. 148 [ed. III. Vol. IV. 50]. The parallel is very close and the old 
woman gives " une chienne a manger des choses fortement saupoudrees de seneve qui lui pico- 
tait le palais et Us narines et V animal larmoyait beaucoup." She then shows her to the 
young woman and tells her the bitch was her daughter. "Son malheur fut d' 'avoir le 
C02ur dur ; unjeune homme I'aimait, die le rebuta. Le malheureux apres avoir tout tente pour 
I' attendrir, desespiire de sa durete en prit tant de chagrin qu'il tomba malade et mourut. 
Dieu I' a bien venge ; voyez en quel etat pour la punir il a reduit ma pauvre Jille, et comment 
ellepleure sa/atite." The lesson was not thrown away. The story occurs also in the 
Gesta Eomanorum as " The Old Woman and her Dog" [in Bohn's edition it is Tale 
XXVIII], and it also finds a place where we should little have expected to find it, in 
the Promptuarium of John Herolt of Basil, an ample repository of examples for com- 
posing sermons : the compiler a Dominican friar, professing to imitate his patron saint, 
who always abundabat exemplis in his discourses." [In Bohn's edition we are told that 
it appears in an English garb amongst a translation of JEsop's Fables published in 
1658.] Dr. Host refers us to Th. Wright, Latin Stories, London, 1842, p. 218. 
Loiseleur Dcslongchamps Essai sur les Fables Indiennes, Paris, 1838, p. 106 ff. F. II. 
Von der Hagen, Gesammtabcuteuer 1850 I, cxii. ff and Griissc, 1. 1, 374 ff. 


Accordingly while the king of Vatsa was remaining in that Vinclhya 
forest, the warder o king Chandamahasena came to him. And when he 
arrived, he did oheisance to the king and spoke as follows: The king Chanda- 
mahasena sends you this message. You did rightly in carrying off Vasava- 
datta yourself, for I had brought you to my court with this very object ; 
and the reason I did not myself give her to you, while you Avere a prisoner, 
was, that I feared, if I did so, you might not be well disposed towards me. 
Now, O king, I ask you to wait a little, in order that the marriage of my 
daughter may not be performed without due ceremonies. For my son 
Gopalaka will soon arrive in your court, and he will celebrate with appro- 
priate ceremonies the marriage of that sister of his. This message the 
warder brought to the king of Vatsa, and said various things to Yasava- 
datta. Then the king of Vatsa, being pleased, determined on going to 
Kausambi with Yasavadatta, who was also in high spirits. He told his 
ally Pulindaka, and that warder in the service of his father-in-law to await, 
where they were, the arrival of Gopalaka, and then to come with him to 
Kausambi. Then the great king set out early the next day for his own 
city with the queen Vasavadatta, followed by huge elephants raining 
streams of ichor, that seemed like moving peaks of the Yindhya range 
accompanying him out of affection ; he was, as it were, praised by the earth, 
that outdid the compositions of his minstrels, while it rang with the hoofs of 
his horses and the tramplings of his soldiers ; and by means of the tower- 
ing clouds of dust from his army, that ascended to heaven, he made Indra 
J'ear that the mountains were sporting with unshorn wings.* Then the 
king reached his country in two or three days, and rested one night in a 
palace belonging to Human vat ; and on the next day, accompanied by his 
beloved, he enjoyed after a long absence the great delight of entering 
Kausambi, the people of which were eagerly looking with uplifted i 
for his approach. And then that city was resplendent as a . wil'e. her lord 
having returned after a long abse .ning her adornment and auspi- 

cious bathing vicariously by means of her women ; and there the citizens, 
their sorrow now at an end, beheld the king of Yatsa accompanied by his 
bride, as peacocks behold a cloud accompanied by lightning ;fand the wives of 
the citizens standing on the tops of the palaces, filled the heaven with their 

* Alluding to Indra'.- having cut tin 1 wiii^s of the mountains, 
f The i" :il'<>\vl arc d. li-ht. d at tin- approach of the rainy season, when 
row'' tonics to :in end. 

faces, that bad the appearance of golden lotuses blooming in the heavenly 
Ganges. Then the king of Vatsa entered bis royal palace with Vasava- 
d;i!l;i, who seemed like a second goddess of royal fortune; and that 
palace then shone as if it had just awaked from sleep, full of kings who 
had come to shew their devotion, festive with songs of minstrels.* Not 
long after came Gopuluka the brother of Vasavadatta,, bringing with him 
the warder and Pulindaka ; the king went to meet him, and Vasavadattu 
received him with her eyes expanded with delight, as if he were a second 
spirit of joy. While she was looking at this brother, a tear dimmed her 

lest she should be ashamed ; and then she, being encouraged by him 
with the words of her father's message, considered that her object in life 
was attained, now that she was reunited to her own relations. Then, on the 
next day, Gopalaka, with the utmost eagerness, set about the high festival 
of her marriage with the king of Vatsa, carefully observing all prescribed 
ceremonies. Then the king of Vatsa received the hand of Vasavadatta, 
like a beautiful shoot lately budded on the creeper of love. She too, with 
her eyes closed through the great joy of touching her beloved's hand, having 
her limbs bathed in perspiration accompanied with trembling, covered all 
over with extreme horripilation, appeared at that moment as if struck by 
the god of the flowery bow with the arrow of bewilderment, the weapon of 
wind, and the water weapon in quick succession ;f when she walked round 
the lire keeping it to the right, her eyes being red with the smoke, she had 
her first taste, so to speak, of the sweetness of wine and honey. J Then by 
means of the jewels brought by Gopalaka, and the gifts of the kings, the 
monarch of Vatsa became a real king of kings. That bride and bridegroom, 
after their marriage had been celebrated, first exhibited themselves to the 

of the people, and then entered their private apartments. Then the 
king of Yatsa, on the day so auspicious to himself invested Gopalaka and 
Pulindaka with turbans of honour and other distinctions, and he commis- 
sioned Yaugandhardyana and Human vat to confer appropriate distinctions 
on the kings who had come to visit him, and on the citizens. Then Yaugan- 
dharayana said to Itumanvat; "The king has given us a difficult commission, 
for men's feelings are hard to discover. And even a child will certainly do 
mischief if not pleased ; to illustrate this point listen to the tale of the 
child Vinashtaka, my friend." 

* It is often the duty of thcso minstrels to wake the king with their s 

t "\Vcipon.s \\vll known in Hindu mythology. See the 6th act of the I 
Kama Charita. 

J Sutnipdtaiii akiii'ot. she tested, so to speak. Cp. Taran^a_i. Si. 93. The fact 
is, the smoke made JUT r\v,s as ml a.s if she had been drinking. 

Or " liku Kuvera." There is a pun here. 


Story of the clew deformed child. Onco n a lime tll(?re was a cer ' 

tnin Brahman named Rudra&raan, 

and he, when he became a householder, had two wives, and one of his wives 
gave birth to a son and died ; and then the Brahman entrusted that son to 
the care of his step-mother ; and when he grew to a tolerable stature, she 
gave him. coarse food ; the consequence was, the boy became pale, and got a 
swollen stomach. Then Rudrasarman said to that second wife, " How comes 
it that you have neglected this child of mine that has lost its mother ?" She 
said to her husband, " Though I take affectionate care of him, he is never- 
theless the strange object you see ; what am I to do with him ?" Where- 
upon the Brahman thought, " No doubt it is the child's nature to be like 
this." For who sees through the deceitfulness of the speeches of women ut- 
tered with affected simplicity ? Then that child began to go by the name of 
Balavinashtaka* in his father's house, because they said this child (bala) is 
deformed (vinashta.) Then Balavinashtaka thought to himself "This 
step-mother of mine is always ill-treating me, therefore I had better be 
revenged on her in some way" for though the boy was only a little more 
than five years old, he was clever enough. Then he said secretly to his father 
when he returned from the king's court, with half suppressed voice " Papa, 
I have two Papas." So the boy said every day, and his father suspecting 
that his wife had a paramour, would not even touch her. She for her part 
thought " Why is my husband angry without my being guilty ; I wonder 
whether Balavinashtaka has been at any tricks ?" So she washed Balavi- 
nashtaka with careful kindness, and gave him dainty food, and taking him 
on her lap, asked him the following question : " My son why have you 
incensed your father Rudrasarman against me ?" When he heard that, the 
boy said to his step-mother, " I will do more harm to you than that, if you 
do not immediately cease ill-treating me. You take good care of your owu 
children ; why do you perpetually torment me ?" When she heard that, she 
bowed before him, and said with a solemn oath, " I will not do so any more ; 
so reconcile my husband to me." Then the child said to her " Well, 
when my father comes home, let one of your maids shew him a 
mirror, and leave the rest to me." She said, "Very well," and 
by her orders a maid shewed a mirror to her husband as soon as he 
returned home. Thereupon the child pointing out the reflection of his father 
in the mirror, said, " There is my second father." When he heard that, 
Rudrasarman dismissed his suspicions and was immediately reconciled to 
his wife, whom he had blamed without cause. 

" Thus even a child may do mischief if it is annoyed, and therefore we 
must carefully conciliate all this retinue." Saying this, Yaugandharayana 
with the help of Rumauvat, carefully honoured all the people on this the 

* Yuuii'' Deformed. 


king of Vatsa's great day of rejoicing. And they gratified all the kings so 
successfully that each one of them thought, " These two men are devoted 
to me alone." And the king honoured those two ministers and Vasantaka 
with garments, unguents, and ornaments bestowed with his own hand, and 
he also gave them grants of villages. Then the king of Vatsa, having cele- 
brated the great festival of his marriage, considered all his wishes gratified, 
now that he was linked to Vasavadatta. Their mutual love, having blos- 
somed after a long time of expectation, was so great, owing to the strength 
of their passion, that their hearts continually resembled those of the sorrow- 
ing Chakravakas, when the night, during which they are separated, comes to 
an end. And as the familiarity of the couple increased, their love seemed 
to be ever renewed. Then Gopalaka, being ordered by his father to return 
to get married himself, went away, after having been entreated by the king 
of Vatsa to return quickly. 

In course of time the king of Vatsa became faithless, and secretly loved 
an attendant of the harem named Virachita, with whom he had previously 
had an intrigue. One day he made a mistake and addressed the queen by 
her name, thereupon he had to conciliate her by clinging to her feet, and 
bathed in her tears he was anointed* a fortunate king. Moreover he mar- 
ried a princess of the name of Bandhumati, whom Gopalaka had captured by 
the might of his arm, and sent as a present to the queen; and whom she 
concealed, changing her name to Manjulika; who seemed like another 
Lakshmi issuing from the sea of beauty. Her the king saw, when he was 
in the company of Vasantaka, and secretly married her by the Gandharva 
ceremony in a summer-house. And that proceeding of his was beheld by 
Vasavadatta, who was in concealment, and she was angry, and had Vasantaka 
put in fetters. Then the king had recourse to the good offices of a female 
ascetic, a friend of the queen's, who had come with her from her father's 
court, of the name of Sankrityanani. She appeased the queen's anger, and 
got Bandhumati presented to the king by the obedient queen, for tender is 
the heart of virtuous wives. Then the queen released Vasantaka from 
imprisonment ; he came into the presence of the queen and said to her with 
a laugh, " Bandhumati did you an injury, but what did I do to you ? You 
are angry with addersf and you kill water-snakes." Then the queen, out of 
curiosity, asked him to explain that metaphor, and he continued as follows: 

Once on a time a hermit's son 
Story of Sum. 

of the name of Ruru, wandering 

about at will, saw a maiden of wonderful beauty, the daughter of a heavenly 
nymph named Menaka by a Vidyadhara, and brought up by a hermit of 

* It must bo remembered that a king among the Hindus was inaugurated with 
water, not oil. 

t The word " adders" must here do duty for all venomous kinds of serpents. 


the name of Sthulakesa in his hermitage. That lady, whose name was 
1'rishadvara, so captivated the mind of that Ruru when he saw her, that 
lie went and begged the hermit to give him to her in marriage. Sthiilakesa 
for his part betrothed the maiden to him, and when the wedding was nigh at 
hand, suddenly an adder bit her. Then the heart of Ruru was full of 
despair, but he heard this voice in the heaven " Brahman raise to life with 
the gift of half thy own life.* this maiden, whose allotted term is at an end." 
When he heard that, Ruru gave her the half of his own life, as he had been 
directed; by means of that she revived, and Ruru married her. Thence- 
forward he was incensed with the whole race of serpents, and whenever he 
saw a serpent he killed it, thinking to himself as he killed each one "This 
may have bitten my wife." One day a water snake said to him with human 
voice, as he was about to slay it, " You are incensed against adders, Brahman, 
but why do you slay water-snakes ? An adder bit your wife, and adders are 
a distinct species from water-snakes ; all adders are venomous, water-snakes 
are not venomous." When he heard that, he said in answer to the water- 
snake, "My friend, who are you?" The water-snake said, "Brahman, I 
am a hermit fallen from my high estate by a curse, and this curse was appointed 
to last till I held converse with you." When he had said this he disappear- 
ed, and after that Ruru did not kill water-snakes. So I said this to you 
metaphorically, " My queen, you are angry with adders and you kill water- 
snakes." When he had uttered this speech, full of pleasing wit, Vasantaka 
ceased, and Vasavadatta sitting at the side of her husband was pleased with 
him. Such soft and sweet tales in which Vasantaka displayed various in- 
genuity, did the loving Udayana, king of Vatsa, continually make use of to 
conciliate his angry wife, while he sat at her feet. That happy king's 
tongue was ever exclusively employed in tasting the flavour of wine, and 
his car was ever delighting in the sweet sounds of the lute, and his eye was 
ever riveted on the face of his beloved. 

Note to Chapter XIV. 

The practice of walking round an object of reverence with the right hand towards 
it, which is one of the ceremonies mentioned in our author's account of Yasavadatla's 
marriage, has been exhaustively discussed by Dr. Samuel Fergusson in his paper "On 
the Ceremonial turn called Desiul," published in the Proerrdings of Hie lioyal Irish 
Academ y for March 1877. (Vol. I. Ser. II. No. 12.) He shews it t> have existed 
among the ancient Romans as well as the Celts. One of the most striking of his quota- 
tions is from the Curculio of Plautus (1.1.69.) PhaMlromiis says Quo 
lust-ill. Palinurus jestingly replies /, t/f.i-/rnr. to. ('p. also the 

following passage of Valerius Flaeeus (Argon VIII. 243). 

* A similar story is found in the IVth book of the Punehatantra, F.-ible 5. where 
1',,-nfev e,,nipares the story of Yiiv:iti ami his sou I'uru. lieiiley I'aiiehalanlra I. -I'M. 


Inde ubi sacrificaa cum conjuge venit ad area 
jEsoiiiikx, tiiimjue adeunt pariterque preeari 
Inclpiuid. Ignem Pollux undamque jugalem 
Prcetulit ut dextrum pariter vertantur in orbern. 

The above passage forms a striking comment upon our text. Cp. also Plutarch in 
this life of Camillus Tavra. tlirwv, KaBbvep for] Pco/xaiois efloy, tir(vau.fvots KO.} fpo<TKw- 
l)ffa<riv, e'wl 8e|i& tf\irTeiv, fa-pd\Tf) ire/>i<rrp6^>rf|U6>'os. It is possible that the following 
passage in Lucretius alludes to the same practice 

Nee pietas ulla est velatum stepe v' 

<ier ad lapidem atque omtics accederead aras. 

Dr. Fergusson is of opinion that this movement was a symbol of the cosmical 
rotation, an imitation of the apparent course of the sun in the heavens. Cp. Hyginus 
Fable CCV. Arge venatrix, cum cervum sequeretur, cervo dixisse fertur : Tit licet Soli* 
cut-sum sequaris, tamen te consequar. Sol, iratus, in cervam earn contertit. He quotes, to 
prove that the practice existed among the ancient Celts, Athenaeus IV, p. 142, who 
adduces from Posidonius the following statement " T6vs 6foi>s irpocrKvvovffiv ^iri Seftct 
<rTpe$6fj.fvoi." The above quotations are but a few scraps from the full feast of Dr. 
Fergusson's paper. See also the remarks of the Rev. S. Beal in the Indian Antiquary 
for March 1880, p. 67. 

B K I I I. 


Honour to that conqueror of obstacles whose favour, I ween, even the 
Creator* implored, in order that he might accomplish the creation of the 
world without let or hindrance. 

That five-arrowed god of love conquers the world, at whose command 
even Siva trembles, when he is being embraced by his beloved. 

Thus having obtained Vasavadatta, that king of Vatsa gradually be- 
came most exclusively devoted to the pleasure of her society. But his 
prime minister Yaugandharayana, and his general Rumanvat, upheld day 
and night the burden of his empire. And once upon a time the minister 
Yaugandharayana, full of anxiety, brought Eumanvat to his house at night 
and said to him as follows : " This lord of Vatsa is sprung from the Fandava 
race, and the whole earth is his by hereditary descent, as also the city named 
of the elephant. f All these this king has abandoned not being desirous 
of making conquests, and his kingdom has so become confined to this one 
small corner of the earth. For he certainly remains devoted to women, 
wine and hunting, and he has delegated to us all the duty of thinking about 
his kingdom. So we by our own intelligence must take such steps, as that 
he shall obtain the empire of the whole earth, which is his hereditary right. 
For, if we do this, we shall have exhibited devotion to his cause, and per- 
formed our duty as ministers ; for every thing is accomplished by intellect, 
and in proof of this listen to the following tale :" 

Once on a time there was a 
Story of the clever physician. 

king named Mahasena, and he 

attacked by another king far superior to him in power. Then the king's 
ministers met together, and in order to prevent the ruin of his interests, 
Mahasena was persuaded by them to pay tribute to that enemy. And 
after he bad paid tribute, that haughty king was exceedingly afflicted, think- 
* I read dhdtd for dhdtrd. f '. Hastinapura. 


ing to himself, " Why have I made submission to my enemy ?" And his sorrow 
on that account caused an abscess to form in his vitals, and he was so pul- 
led down by the abscess that at last he was at the point of death. Then a 
certain wise physician considering that that case could not be cured by 
medicine, said falsely to that king ; " O king, your wife is dead." When he 
heard that, the king suddenly fell on the ground, and owing to the exces- 
sive violence of his grief, the abscess burst of itself. And so the king 
recovered from his disease, and long enjoyed in the society of that queen 
the pleasures he desired, and conquered his enemies in his turn.* 

" So, as that physician did his king a good turn by his wisdom, let us 
also do our king a good turn, let us gain for him the empire of the earth. 
And in this undertaking our only adversary is Pradyota, the king of Ma- 
gadha ; for he is a foe in the rear that is always attacking us behind. So 
we must ask for our sovereign that pearl of princesses, his daughter, -named 
Padmavati. And by our cleverness we will conceal Vasavadatta, somewhere, 
and setting fire to her house, we will give out everywhere that the queen is 
burnt. For in no other case will the king of Magadha give his daughter 
to our sovereign, for when I requested him to do so on a former occasion, 
he answered ' I will not give my daughter, whom I love more than my- 
self, to the king of Vatsa, for he is passionately attached to his wife 
Vasavadatta.' Moreover, as long as the queen is alive, the king of Vatsa 
will not marry any one else ; but if a report is once spread that the queen 
is burnt, all will succeed. And when Padmavati is secured, the king of 
Magadha will be our marriage connection, and will not attack us in the 
rear, but will become our ally. Then we will march to conquer the eastern 
quarter, and the others in due succession, so we shall obtain for the king of 
Vatsa all this earth. And if we only exert ourselves, this king will obtain 
the dominion of the earth, for long ago a divine voice predicted this." 
When Human vat heard this speech from the great minister Yaugandhard- 
yana, he feared that the plan would cover them with ridicule, and so he 
said to him " Deception practised for the sake of Padmavati might some day 
be to the ruin of us both ;" in proof of this, listen to the following tale : 

On the bank of the Ganges there 
,s/o>-y of the hypocritical ascetic. 

is a city named Makamnka ; in that 

city long ago there was a certain ascetic who observed a vow of silence, 
and he lived on alms, and surrounded by numerous other holy h-i^ars, 
dwelt in a monastery within the precincts of a god's temple where he had 
* Hero Wilson observes: The circumgtancee here related are not without analo- 
gies in fact. It i not inarveUous ^therefore that we may trace them in fiction. Tho 
point of the story is tl. iliat <>f the " IVu.x Anglais a Paris," a Fabliau, and of 

" TIM' I'miiiic a IVxtivmitr <l"i to niii ' " v| gprOBft mlrn \"\ant MUI man' <]i;i Lai.-:. 
servants qu'ullo recouvru la saute" <>l Xavanv.(llc]>tamcron. Xouvellr 71). 


taken up his abode. Once, wben be entered a certain merchant's bouse to bog, 
bo saw a beautiful maiden coining out with alms in her hand, and the rascal 
seeing that she was wonderfully beautiful was smitten with love and exclaim- 
ed "Ah! Ah! Alas!" And that merchant overheard him. Then taking 
the alms he had received, he departed to his own house ; and then the mer- 
chant went there and said to him in his astonishment, " Why did you to-day 
suddenly break your vow of silence and say what you did?" When lie heard 
that, the ascetic said to the merchant " This daughter of yours has inauspi- 
cious marks ; when she marries, you will undoubtedly perish, wife, sons, 
and all. So, when I saw her, I was afflicted, for you are my devoted adhe- 
rent ; and thus it was on your account that I broke silence and said what 
I did. So place this daughter of yours by night in a basket, on the top of 
which there must be a light, and set her adrift on the Ganges." The mer- 
chant said, " So I will," and went away, and at night he did all he had been 
directed to do out of pure fear. The timid are ever unreflecting. The 
hermit for his part said at that time to his own pupils, " Go to the Ganges, 
and when you see a basket floating along with a light on the top of it, 
bring it here secretly, but you must not open it, even if you hear a noise 
inside." They said, " We will do so," and off they went ; but before they 
reached the Ganges, strange to say, a certain prince went into the river to 
bathe. He seeing that basket, which the merchant had thrown in, by the 
help of the light on it, got his servants to fetch it for him, and immediate- 
ly opened it out of curiosity. And in it he saw that heart-enchanting girl, 
and he married her on the spot by the Gandharva ceremony of marriage. 
And he set the basket adrift on the Ganges, exactly as it was before, put- 
ting a lamp on the top of it, and placing a fierce monkey inside it. The 
prince having departed with that pearl of maidens, the pupils of the hermit 
came there in the course of their search, and saw that basket, and took it 
up and carried it to the hermit. Then he being delighted, said to them, " I 
will take this upstairs and perform incantations with it alone, but you must 
lie in silence this night." When he had said this, the ascetic took the basket 
to the top of the monastery, and opened it, eager to behold the merchant's 
daughter. And then a monkey of terrible appearance sprang out of it,* 
and rushed upon the ascetic, like his own immoral conduct incarnate in 
bodily form. The monkey in its fury immediately tore off with its teeth 
the nose of the wicked ascetic, and his ears with its claws, as if it had been 
a skilful executioner ; and in that state the ascetic ran downstairs, and 
when his pupils beheld him, they could with diliiculty suppress their laugh- 
ter. And early next morning everybody heard the story, and laughed 
heartily, but the merchant was delighted, and his daughter also, as she had 

* Cp. Sagas from the far East. Tale XI, pp. 123, 124. Here the crime' contemp- 
lated is murder, and the ape is represented by a tiger. 


obtained a good husband. And even as tbe ascetic made himself ridiculous, 
so too may we possibly become a laughing-stock, if we employ deceit, and 
fail after all. For the separation of the king from Vasavadatta involves 
many disadvantages. When Rumanvat had said this to Yaugandharayana, 
the latter answered ; " In no other way can we conduct our enterprise suc- 
cessfully, and if we do not undertake the enterprise, it is certain that with 
this self-indulgent king we shall lose even what territory we have got ; and 
the reputation which we have acquired for statesmanship will be tarnished, 
and we shall cease to be spoken of as men who shew loyalty to their 
sovereign. For when a king is one who depends on himself for success, 
his ministers are considered merely the instruments of his wisdom ; and in 
the case of such monarchs you would not have much to do with their suc- 
cess or failures. But when a king depends on his ministers for success, it 
is their wisdom that achieves his ends, and if they are wanting in enter- 
prise, he must bid a long farewell to all hope of greatness.* But if you 
fear the queen's father Chandamahasena, I must tell you that he and his 
son and the queen also will do whatever I bid them." When Yaugandhara- 
yana, most resolute among the resolute, had said this, Rumanvat, whose heart 
dreaded some fatal blunder, again said to him ; " Even a discerning prince is 
afflicted by the pain of being separated from a beloved woman, much more 
will this king of Vatsa be. In proof of what I say, listen to the following 
tale :" 

f TT 'j- 'j. Once on a time there was a king 

Story of Unmadnn.T 

named Devasena, best of wise men, 

and the city of S'ravasti was his capital. And in that city there was a 
wealthy merchant, and to him there was born a daughter of unparalleled 
beauty. And that daughter became known by the name of Unmadini, 
because every one, who beheld her beauty, became mad. Her father the 
merchant thought, " I must not give this daughter of mine to any one with- 
out telling the king, or he may be angry." So he went and said to the king 
Devasena, " King, I have a daughter who is a very pearl, take her if she 
finds favour in your eyes." When he heard that, the king sent some Brah- 
mans, his confidential ministers, saying to them, " Go and' see if that maiden 
possesses the auspicious marks or not." The ministers said, " We will do so" 
and went. But when they beheld that merchant's daughter, Unmadini, 
love was suddenly produced in their souls, and they became utterly 
bewildered. When they recovered their senses, the Brahmans said to one 
another : " If the king marries this maiden, he will think only of her, and 
will neglect the affairs of the State, and everything will go to rack and 

* Literally a handful of water, such as is offered to the Manes, is offered to For- 
tune. It is all over with his chance of attaining glory, 
t Cp. Sicilianische Marchen, Vol. I, p. 220. 


ruin ; so what is the good of her ?" Accordingly they went and told the 
king, what was not true, that the maiden had inauspicious marks. Then 
the merchant gave that Uumadini, whom the king had refused, and who in 
her heart felt a proud resentment at it, to the king's commander-in-chief. 
When she was in the house of her husband, she ascended one day to the 
roof, and exhibited herself to the king, who she knew would pass that way. 
And the moment the king beheld her, resembling a world-bewildering drug 
employed by the god of love, distraction seemed to be produced within 
him. When he returned to his palace, and discovered that it was the same 
lady he had previously rejected, he was full of regret, and fell violently ill 
with fever ; the commander-in-chief, the husband of the lady, came to him 
and earnestly entreated him to take her, saying, " She is a slave, she is not 
the lawful wife of another, or if it seem fit, I will repudiate her in the 
temple, then my lord can take her for his own." But the king said to him 
" I will not take unto myself another man's wife, and if you repudiate her, 
your righteousness will be at end, and you will deserve punishment at my 
hands." When they heard that, the other ministers remained silent, and 
the king was gradually consumed by love's burning fever, and so died. So 
that king perished, though of firm soul, being deprived of Unmadini ; but 
what will become of the lord of Vatsa without Vasavadatta ? When Yau- 
gandharayana heard this from Kumanvat, he answered ; " Affliction is 
bravely endured by kings who have their eyes firmly fixed on their duty. 
Did not Kama when commissioned by the gods, who were obliged to resort 
to that contrivance, to kill Havana, endure the pain of separation from 
queen Sita ? When he heard this, Rumanvat said in answer " Such as 
Kama are gods, their souls can endure all things. But the thing is intoler- 
able to men ; in proof whereof listen to the following tale. 

There is on this earth a great 

Story of the loving couple who died of . ^ ^ -^ ^^ Mathura. 
separation. J 

In it there lived a certain young 

merchant, called Illaka. And he had a dear wife whose mind was devoted 
to him alone. Once on a time, while he was dwelling with her, the young 
merchant determined to go to another country on account of the exigencies 
of his affairs. And that wife of his wished to go with him. For when 
women are passionately attached to any one, they cannot endure to be 
separated from him. And then that young merchant set out, having offered 
the usual preliminary prayer for success in his undertaking, and did not 
take with him that wife of his, though she had dressed herself for the 
journey. She looking after him, when he had started, with tears in her 
eyes, stood supporting herself against the panel of the door of the court- 
yard. Then, he being out of sight, she was no longer able to endure her 
grief ; but she was too timid to follow him. So her breath left her body. 


And as soon as the young merchant came to know of that, he returned and 
to his horror found that dear wife of his a corpse, with pale though lovely 
complexion, set off by her waving locks, like the spirit of beauty that 
tenants the moon fallen down to the earth in the day during her sleep.* 
So he took her in his arms and wept over her, and immediately the vital 
spirits left his body, which was on fire with the flame of grief, as if they 
were afraid to remain. So that married couple perished by mutual separa- 
tion, and therefore we must take care that the king is not separated from 
the queen." When he had said this, Rumanvat ceased, with his mind full of 
apprehension, but the wise Yaugandharayana, that ocean of calm resolution 
answered him ; " I have arranged the whole plan, and the affairs of kings 
often require such steps to be taken, in proof of it, hear the following tale :" 

There lived long ago in Ujiayini 
Story of Punyasena. 

a king named Punyasena, and once 

on a time a powerful sovereign came and attacked him. Then his 
resolute ministers, seeing that that king was hard to conquer, spread every- 
where a false report that their own sovereign Punyasena was dead ; and 
they placed him in concealment, and burnt some other man's corpse with 
all the ceremonies appropriate to a king, and they proposed to the hostile 
king through an ambassador that, as they had now no king, he should come 
and be their king. The hostile monarch was pleased and consented, and 
then the ministers assembled accompanied by soldiers, and proceeded to 
storm his camp. And the enemy's army being destroyed, Punyasena's 
ministers brought him out of concealment, and having recovered their 
power put that hostile king to death. 

" Such necessities will arise in monarch's affairs, therefore let us reso- 
lutely accomplish this business of the king's by spreading a report of the 
queen's having been burnt." When he heard this from Yaugandharayana, 
who had made up his mind, Eurnanvat said ; " If this is resolved upon, let 
us send for Gopalaka the queen's respected brother, and let us take all our 
measures duly, after consultation with him." Then Yaugandhuniyana said 
" So be it," and llumaiivat allowed himself to be guided, in determining 
what was to be done, by the confidence which he placed in his colleague. 
The next day, these dexterous ministers sent off a messenger of their own to 
bring Gopalaka, on the pretext that his relations longed to see him. And 
as he had only departed before on account of urgent business, Gopalaka 
came at the request of the messenger, seeming like an incarnate festival. 
And the very day he came, Yaugandharayaiia took him by night to his own 
house together with limuanvat, and there he told him of that daring 
scheme which he wished to undertake, all of which he had before deliberat- 
ed about together with that llumanvat ; and Gopalaka desiring the good 

* In the original it is intended to compare the locks to the spots in the moon. 


of the king of Vatsa consented to the scheme though he knew it would 
bring sorrow to his sister, for the mind of good men is ever fixed upon 
duty. Then Rumanvat again said, " All this is well planned, but when 
the king of Vatsa hears that his wife is burnt, he will be inclined to yield 
up his breath, and how is he to be prevented from doing so ? This is a 
matter which ought to be considered. For though all the usual politic 
expedients may advantageously be employed, the principal element of sound 
state-craft is the averting of misfortune." Then Yaugandharayana who 
had reflected on everything that was to be done, said, " There need be no 
. anxiety about this, for the queen is a princess, the younger sister of Gopa- 
laka, and dearer to him than his life, and when the king of Vatsa sees 
how little afflicted Gopalaka is, he will think to himself, ' Perhaps the 
queen may be alive after all, 1 and so will be able to control his feelings. 
Moreover he is of heroic disposition, and the marriage of Padmavati will 
be quickly got through, and then we can soon bring the queen out of con- 
cealment." Then Yaugandharayana, and Gopalaka, and Rumanvat having 
made up their minds to this, deliberated as follows : " Let us adopt the 
artifice of going to Lavanaka with the king and queen, for that district is a 
border-district near the kingdom of Magadha. And because it contains 
admirable hunting-grounds, it will tempt the king to absent himself from 
the palace, so we can set the women's apartments there on fire and carry out 
the plan* on which we have determined. And by an artifice we will take 
the queen and leave her in the palace of Padmavati, in order that Padma- 
vati herself may be a witness to the queen's virtuous behaviour in a state 
of concealment." Having thus deliberated together during the night, they 
all, with Yaugandharayana at their head, entered the king's palace on the 
next day. Then Rumanvat made the following representation to the king, 
" O king, it is a long time since we have gone to Lavanaka, and it is a very 
delightful place, moreover you will find capital hunting-grounds there, and 
grass for the horses can easily be obtained. And the king of Magadha, 
being so near, afflicts all that district. So let us go there for the sake of 
defending it, as well as for our own enjoyment." And the king, when he 
heard this, having his mind always set on enjoyment, determined to go to 
Lavanaka together with Vasavadatta. The next day, the journey having 
been decided on, and the auspicious hour having been fixed by the astrolo- 
gers, suddenly the hermit Narada came to visit the monarch. 

He illuminated the region with his splendour, as he descended from the 
midst of heaven, and gave a feast to the eyes of all spectators, seeming as if 
he were the moon come down out of affection towards his own descendants. t 
After accepting the usual hospitable attentions, the hermit graciously guvo 

* Reading yad hi. 

t The moon was the progenitor of the Paiulavu race. 


to the king, who bowed humbly before him, a garland from the Parijata* 
tree. And he congratulated the queen, by whom he was politely received, 
promising her that she should have a son, who should be a portion of 
Cupidf and king of all the Vidyadharas. And then he said to the king of 
"Vatsa, while Yaugandharayana was standing by, " king, the sight of 
your wife Vasavadatta has strangely brought something to my recollection. 
In old time you had for ancestors Yudhishthira and his brothers. And those 
five had one wife between them, Draupadi by name. And she, like Vasa- 
vadatta, was matchless in beauty. Then, fearing that her beauty would 
do mischief, I said to them, you must avoid jealousy, for that is the seed of 
calamities ; in proof of it, listen to the following tale, which I will relate to 

There were two brothers, Asuras 
Story of Sunda and Upasunda. 

by race, Sunda and Upasunda, hard 

to overcome, inasmuch as they surpassed the three worlds in valour. And 
Brahma, wishing to destroy them, gave an order to Visvakarman,J and had 
constructed a heavenly woman named Tilottama, in order to behold whose 
beauty even S'iva truly became four-faced, so as to look four ways at once, 
while she was devoutly circumambulating him. She, by the order of Brah- 
ma, went to Sunda and Upasunda, while they were in the garden of Kailasa, 
in order to seduce them. And both those two Asuras distracted with love, 
seized the fair one at the same time by both her arms, the moment they saw 
her near them. And as they were dragging her off in mutual opposition, 
they soon came to blows, and both of them were destroyed. To whom is not 
the attractive object called woman the cause of misfortune ? And you, 
though many, have one love, Draupadi, therefore you must without fail 
avoid quarrelling about her. And by my advice always observe this rule 
with respect to her. When she is with the eldest, she must be considered a 
mother by the younger, and when she is with the youngest, she must be 
considered a daughter-in-law by the eldest. Your ancestors, king, accep- 
ted that speech of mine with unanimous consent, having their minds fixed 
on salutary counsels. And they were my friends, and it is through love for 
them that I have come to visit you here, king of Vatsa, therefore I give 
you this advice. Do you follow the counsel of your ministers, as they 
followed mine, and in a short time you will gain great success. For some 
time you will suffer grief, but you must not be too much distressed about 
it, for it will end in happiness." After the hermit Niirada, so clever in 
indirectly intimating future prosperity, had said this duly to the king of 
Vatsa, he immediately disappeared. And then Yaugandharayana and all 
* One of the five trees of Paradise, 
f Kumti the Hindu C'upid. 
} Thu architect or artist of the gods. 


the other ministers, auguring from the speech of that great hermit that the 
scheme they had in view was about to succeed, became exceedingly zealous 
about carrying it into effect. 


Then Yaugandharayana and the other ministers managed to conduct 
the king of Vatsa with his beloved, by the above-mentioned stratagem, to 
Lavanaka. The king arrived at that place, which, by the roar of the host 
echoing through it, seemed, as it were, to proclaim that the ministers' object 
would be successfully attained. And the king of Magadha, when he heard 
that the lord of Vatsa had arrived there with a large following, trembled, 
anticipating attack. But he being wise, sent an ambassador to Yaugandha- 
rayana, and that excellent minister well-versed in his duties, received him 
gladly. The king of Vatsa for his part, while staying in that place, ranged 
every day the wide-extended forest for the sake of sport. One day, the 
king having gone to hunt, the wise Yaugandharayana accompanied by 
Gopalaka, having arranged what was to be done, and taking with him also 
Rumanvat and Vasantaka, went secretly to the queen Vasavadatta, who 
bowed at their approach. There he used various representations to per- 
suade her to assist in furthering the king's interests, though she had been 
previously informed of the whole affair by her brother. And she agreed 
to the proposal, though it inflicted on her the pain of separation. What 
indeed is there which women of good family, who are attached to their 
husbands, will not endure ? Thereupon the skilful Yaugandharayana made 
her assume the appearance of a Brahman woman, having given her a charm, 
which enabled her to change her shape. And he made Vasantaka one-eyed 
and like a Brahman boy, and as for himself, he in the same way assumed 
the appearance of an old Brahman. Then that mighty-minded one took 
the queen, after she had assumed that appearance, and accompanied by 
Vasantaka, set out leisurely for the town of Magadha. And so Vasavadatta 
left her house, and went in bodily presence along the road, though she 
wandered in spirit to her husband. Then Human vat burnt her pavilion 
with fire, and exclaimed aloud "Alas! alas! The queen and Vasantaka 
are burnt." And so in that place there rose to heaven at the same time 
flames and lamentation ; the flames gradually subsided, not so the sound of 
weeping. Then Yaugandharayana with Vasavadatt;i ami Vasantaka reached 
the city of the king of Magadha, and seeing the princess Padmavati in the 
garden, he went up to her with those two, though the guards tried to prevent 


him. And Padmavati, when she saw the queen Vasavadatta in the dress 
of a Brahman woman, fell in love with her at first sight. The princess 
ordered the guards to desist from their opposition, and had Yaugandhara- 
yana, who was disguised as a Brahman, conducted into her presence. And 
she addressed to him this question, " Great Brahman, who is this girl you have 
with you, and why are you come ?" And he answered her, " Princess, this 
is my daughter A'vantika by name, and her husband, being addicted to 
vice,* has deserted her and fled somewhere or other. So I will leave her 
in your care, illustrious lady, while I go and find her husband, and brin- 
him back, which will be in a short time. And let this one-eyed boy, her 
brother, remain here near her, in order that she may not be grieved at 
having to remain alone." He said this to the princess, and she granted 
his request, and, taking leave of the queen, the good minister quickly return- 
ed to Lavanaka. Then Padmavati took with her Vasavadatta, who was 
passing under the name of A'vantika, and Vasantaka who accompanied her 
in the form of a one-eyed boy ; and shewing her excellent disposition by 
her kind reception and affectionate treatment of them, entered her ' 
splendidly- adorned palace ; and there Vasavadatta, seeing Sita in the history 
of Kama represented upon the painted walls, was enabled to bear her own 
sorrow. And Padmavati perceived that Vasavadatta was a person of very 
high rank, by her shape, her delicate softness, the graceful manner in which 
she sat down, and ate, and also by the smell of her body, which was fra- 
grant as the blue lotus, and so she entertained her with luxurious comfort 
to her heart's content, even such as she enjoyed herself. And she thought 
to herself, " Surely she is some distinguished person remaining here in con- 
cealment ; did not Draupadi remain concealed in the palace of the king of 
Virata ?" Then Vasavadatta, out of regard for the princess made for her 
unfading garlands and forehead- streaks, as the king of Vatsa had previous- 
ly taught her ; and Padmavati's mother, seeing her adorned with them, 
asked her privately who had made those garlands and streaks. Then 
Padmavati said to her, " There is dwelling here in my house a certain lady of 
the name of A'vantika, she made all these for me." When her mother heard 
that, she said to her, then, my daughter, she is not a woman, she is some 
goddess, since she possesses such knowledge ; gods and also hermits remain 
in the houses of good people for the sake of deluding them, and in proof of 
this listen to the following anecdote. 

Story of Kunti. TherG WaS nC a khl S lia d 

Kuntibhoga ; and a hermit of the 

name of Durvasas, who was exceedingly fond of deluding people, came and 
stayed in his palace. Ho commissioned his own daughter Kunti to attend 

* This is literally true. The king was addicted to the vyasana or vice of hunt- 


upon the hermit, and she diligently waited upon him. And one day he, 
wishing to prove her, said to her, " Cook boiled rice with milk and sugar 
quickly, while I bathe, and then I will come and eat it." The sage said this, 
and bathed quickly, and then he came to eat it, and Kunti brought him 
the vessel full of that food ; and then the hermit, knowing that it was al- 
most red-hot with the heated rice, and seeing that she could not hold it in her 
hands,* cast a look at the back of Kunti and she perceiving what was pass- 
ing in the hermit's mind, placed the vessel on her back ; then he ate to 
his heart's content while Kunti's back was being burnt, and because, 
though she was terribly burnt, she stood without being at all discomposed, 
the hermit was much pleased with her conduct, and after he had eaten 
granted her a boon. 

" So the hermit remained there, and in the same way this A'vantika, who 
is now staying in your palace, is some distinguished person, therefore endea- 
vour to conciliate her." When she heard this from the mouth of her mother, 
Padmavati showed the utmost consideration for Vasavadatta, who was living 
disguised in her palace. And Vasavadatta for her part, being separated 
from her lord, remained there pale with bereavement, like a lotus in the 
night. f But the various boyish grimaces, which Vasantaka exhibited,! 
again and again called a smile into her face. 

In the meanwhile the king of Vatsa, who had wandered away into 
very distant hunting-grounds, returned late in the evening to Lavanaka. 
And there he saw the women's apartments reduced to ashes by fire, and 
heard from his ministers that the queen was burnt with Vasantaka. And 
when he heard it, he fell on the ground, and he was robbed of his senses by 
unconsciousness, that seemed to desire to remove the painful sense of grief. 
But in a moment he came to himself and was burnt with sorrow in his 
heart, as if penetrated with the fire that strove to consume the image of 
the queen imprinted there. Then overpowered with sorrow he lamented, and 
thought of nothing but suicide ; but a moment after he began to reflect, 
calling to mind the following prediction " From this queen shall be born 
a son who shall reign over all the Vidyadharas. This is what the hermit 
Narada told me, and it cannot be false. Moreover that same hermit 
warned me that I should have sorrow for some time. And the affliction of 
Gopalaka seems to be but slight. Besides I cannot detect any excessive 
grief in Yaugandharayana and the other ministers, therefore I suspect the 
queen may possibly be alive. But the ministers may in this matter have 

* I read Jiastagraltdyogydm for the dhastagraliayoyyam of Dr. Brockhaus. 

t The flower closes when the sun *> 

J To keep up his character us a Brahman boy. 

I read ddhaishind. 


employed a certain amount of politic artifice, therefore I may some day be 
re-united with the queen. So I see an end to this affliction." Thus reflect- 
ing and being exhorted by his ministers, the king established in his heart 
self-control. And Gopalaka sent off a private messenger immediately, 
without any one's knowing of it, to his sister, to comfort her, with an exact 
report of the state of affairs. Such being the situation in Lavanaka, the 
spies of the king of Magadha who were there, went off to him and told him 
all. The king who was ever ready to seize the opportune moment, when 
he heard this, was once more anxious to give to the king of Vatsa his 
daughter Padmavati, who had before been asked in marriage by his minis- 
ters. Then he communicated his wishes with respect to this matter to the 
king of Vatsa, and also to Yaugandharayana. And by the advice of Yau- 
gandharayana, the king of Vatsa .accepted that proposal, thinking to him- 
self that perhaps this was the very reason why the queen had been concealed. 
Then Yaugandharayana quickly ascertained an auspicious moment, and sent 
to the sovereign of Magadha an ambassador with an answer to his proposal 
which ran as follows : " Thy desire is approved by us, so on the seventh day 
from this, the king of Vatsa will arrive at thy court to marry Padmavati, 
in order that he may quickly forget Vasavadatta." This was the message 
which the great minister sent to that king. And that ambassador conveyed 
it to the king of Magadha, who received him joyfully. Then the lord of 
Magadha made such preparations for the joyful occasion of the marriage, 
as were in accordance with his love for his daughter, his own desire, and 
his wealth ; and Padmavati was delighted at hearing that she had obtained 
the bridegroom she desired, but, when Vasavadatta heard that news, she 
was depressed in spirit. That intelligence, when it reached her ear, changed 
the colour of her face, and assisted the transformation effected by her dis- 
guise. But Vasantaka said, " In this way an enemy will be turned into a 
friend, and your husband will not be alienated from you." This speech of 
Vasantaka's consoled her like a confidante, and enabled her to bear up. Then 
the discreet lady again prepared for Padmavati unfading garlands and 
forehead-streaks, both of heavenly beauty, as her marriage was now nigh, 
at hand ; and when the seventh day from that arrived, the monarch of 
Vatsa actually came there with his troops, accompanied by his ministers, 
to marry her. How could he in his state of bereavement have ever thought 
of undertaking such a thing, if he had not hoped in that way to recover 
the queen ? And the king of Magadha immediately came with great de- 
lio-ht to meet him, (who was a feast to the eyes of the king's subjects,) as 
the sea advances to meet the rising moon. Then the monarch of Vatsa 
entered the city of the king of Magadha, and at the same time great joy 
entered the minds of the citizens on every side. There the women beheld 
him fascinating* the mind, though his frame was attenuated from be- 
* This applies also to the god of love who bewilders the mind. 


reavement, looking like the god of love, deprived of his wife Eati. 
Then the king of Vatsa entered the palace of the lord of Magadha, 
and proceeded to the chamber prepared for the marriage ceremony, 
which was full of women whose hushands were still alive. In that 
chamber he beheld Padmavati adorned for the wedding, surpassing 
with the full moon of her face the circle of the full moon. And seeing 
that she had garlands and forehead-streaks such as he himself only could 
make, the king could not help wondering where she got them. Then he 
ascended the raised -platform of the altar, and his taking her hand there 
was a commencement of his taking the tribute* of the whole earth. The 
smoke of the altar dimmed his eyes with tears, as supposing that he could 
not bear to witness the ceremony, since he loved Vasavadatta so much. 
Then the face of Padmavati, reddened with circumambulating the fire, 
appeared as if full of anger on account of her perceiving what was passing 
in her husband's mind. When the ceremony of marriage was completed, 
the king of Vatsa let the hand of Padmavati quit his, but he never even 
for a moment allowed the image of Vasavadatta to be absent from his 
heart. Then the king of Magadha gave him jewels in such abundance, 
that the earth seemed to be deprived of her gems, they all having been 
extracted. And Yaugandharayana, calling the fire to witness on that 
occasion, made the king of Magadtia undertake never to injure his master. 
So that festive scene proceeded, with the distribution of garments and 
ornaments, with the songs of excellent minstrels, and the dancing of danc- 
ing-girls. In the meanwhile Vasavadatta remained unobserved, hoping for 
the glory of her husband, appearingf to be asleep, like the beauty of the 
moon in the day. Then the king of Vatsa went to the women's apart- 
ments, and the skilful Yaugandharayana, being afraid that he would see 
the queen, and that so the whole secret would be divulged, said to the 
sovereign of Magadha, " Prince, this ve/y day the king of Vatsa will set 
forth from thy house." The king of Magadha consented to it, and then the 
minister made the very same announcement to the king of Vatsa, and he 
also approved of it. 

Then the king of Vatsa set out from that place, after his attendants 
had eaten and drunk, together with his ministers, escorting his bride Pad- 
mavati. And Vasavadatta, ascending a comfortable carriage sent by Pad- 
mavati, with its great horses also put at her disposal by her, went secretly 
in the rear of the army, making the transformed Vasantaka precede her. 
At last the king of Vatsa reached Lavanaka, and entered his own house, 
together with his bride, but thought all the time only of the queen Vasava- 
datta. The queen also arrived and entered the house of Gopalaka at night, 
* Kara moans hand, and alao tribute. f I read ii\i i'or eva, 



making the chamberlains wait round it. There she saw her brother Gopa- 
laka, who shewed her great attention, and she embraced his neck weeping, 
while his eyes filled with tears ; and at that moment arrived Yaugandhara- 
yana, true to his previous agreement, together with Rumanvat, and the 
queen shewed him all due courtesy. And while he was engaged in dispell- 
ing the queen's grief caused by the great effort she had made, and her 
separation from her husband, those chamberlains repaired to Padmavati, 
and said, " Queen, A'vantika has arrived, but she has in a strange way dis- 
missed us, and gone to the house of prince Gopalaka." When Padmavati 
heard that representation from her chamberlains, she was alarmed and in 
the presence of the king of Vatsa answered them, " G-o and say to A'vantika, 
' The queen says You are a deposit in my hands, so what business have 
you where you are ? Come where I am.' " When they heard that, they de- 
parted and the king asked Padmavati in private who made for her the 
unfading garlands and forehead-streaks. Then she said, " It is all the 
product of the great artistic skill of the lady named A'vantika who was 
deposited in my house by a certain Brahman." No sooner did the king hear 
that, then he went off to the house of Gopalaka, thinking that surely 
Yusavadatta would be there. And he entered the house, at the door of 
which eunuchs were standing,* and within which were the queen, Gopalaka, 
the two ministers, and Vasantaka. There he saw Vasavadatta returned 
from banishment, like the orb of the moon freed from its eclipse. Then 
he fell on the earth delirious with the poison of grief, and trembling was 
produced in the heart of Vasavadatta. Then she too fell on the earth with 
limbs pale from separation, and lamented aloud, blaming her own conduct. 
And that couple, afflicted with grief, lamented so that even the face of 
Yaugandharayana was washed with tears. And then Padmavati too heard 
that wailing, which seemed so little suited to the occasion, and came in a 
state of bewilderment to the place whence it proceeded. And gradually 
finding out the truth with respect to the king and Vasavadatta, she was 
reduced to the same state, for good women are affectionate and tender-heart- 
ed. And Vasavadatta frequently exclaimed with tears, " What profit is 
there in my life that causes only sorrow to my husband ?" Then the calm 
Yaugandharayana said to the king of Vatsa : " King, I have done all this in 
order to make you universal emperor, by marrying you to the daughter of 
the sovereign of Magadha. and the queen is not in the slightest degree to 
blame ; moreover this, her rival wife, is witness to her good behaviour during 
her'absence from you." Thereupon Padmavati, whose mind was free from 
jealousy, said, " I am ready to enter the fire on the spot to prove her inno- 
cence." And the king said, " 1 am in fault, as it was for my sake that the 
queen endured this great afllu-tion." And Vasuvadalta having firmly resolv- 

* Re&dingtaddvd>-aiit/nttimu/i<UttiniHt as one word. 


ed, said, " I must enter the fire to clear from suspicion the mind of the 
king." Then the wise Yaugandharayana, best of right-acting men, rinsed 
his mouth, with his face towards the east, and spoke a blameless speech ; 
" If I have been a benefactor to this king, and if the queen is free from stain, 
speak, ye guardians of the world; if it is not so, I will part from my body." 
Thus he spoke and ceased, and this heavenly utterance was heard : " Happy 
art thou, king, that hast for minister Yaugandharayana, and for wife 
Vasavadatta, who in a former birth was a goddess; not the slightest blame 
attaches to her." Having uttered this, the Voice ceased. All who were 
present, when they heard that sound, which resounded though all the 
regions, delightful as the deep thunder-roar at the first coming of the rain- 
clouds, having endured affliction for a long time, lifted up their hands 
and plainly imitated peafowl in their joy. Moreover the king of Vatsa 
and Gopalaka praised that proceeding of Yaugandharayana's, and the for- 
mer already considered that the whole earth was subject to him. Then 
that king possessing those two wives, whose affection was every day 
increased by living with him, like joy and tranquillity come to visit him in 
bodily form, was in a state of supreme felicity. 


The next day, the king of Vatsa, sitting in private with Vasavadatta 
and Padmavati, engaged in a festive banquet, sent for Yaugandharayana, 
Gopalaka, Rumanvat and Vasantaka, and had much confidential conversa- 
tion with them. Then the king, in the hearing of them all, told the 
following tale with reference to the subject of his separation from his 

Once on a time there was a king 
Story of Urrau. , 

of the name or rururavas, who was 

a devoted worshipper of Vishnu ; he traversed heaven as well as earth with- 
out opposition, and one day, as he was sauntering in Nandana, the garden 
of the gods, a certain Apsaras of the name of Urvasi, who was a second 
stupifying weapon* in the hands of Love, cast an eye upon him. The 
moment she beheld him, the sight so completely robbed her of her senses, 
that she alarmed the timid minds of Rumblui and her other friends. The 
king too, when he saw that torrent of the nectar of beauty, was quite 
faint with thirst, because he could not obtain possession of her. Theu 

* This, with the water weapon, and that of whirlwind, is mentioned iu the Kainu- 
yaiia and tno Uttara llama (Jliaritu. 


Vishnu, who knoweth all, dwelling in the sea of milk, gave the following 
command to Narada, an excellent hermit, who came to visit him "0 Divine 
sage,* the king Pururavas, at present abiding in the garden of Nandana, 
having had his mind captivated by Urvasi, remains incapable of bearing 
the pain of separation from his love. Therefore go, O hermit, and inform- 
ing Indra as from me, cause that Urvasi to be quickly given to the king." 
Having received this order from Vishnu, Narada undertook to execute it, 
and going to Pururavas who was in the state described, roused him from 
his lethargy and said to him ; " Rise up, O king, for thy sake I am sent 
here by Vishnu, for that god does not neglect the sufferings of those who 
are uufeignedly devoted to him." With these words, the hermit Narada 
cheered up Pururavas, and then went with him into the presence of the king 
of the gods. 

Then he communicated the order of Vishnu to Indra, who received it 
with reverent mind, and so the hermit caused Urvasi to be given to Puru- 
ravas. That gift of Urvasi deprived the inhabitants of heaven of life, but 
it was to Urvasi herself an elixir to restore her to life. Then Puniravas 
returned with her to the earth, exhibiting to the eyes of mortals the 
wonderful spectacle of a heavenly bride. Thenceforth those two, Urvasi 
and that king, remained, so to speak, fastened together by the leash of gaz- 
ing on one another, so that they were unable to separate. One day Puru- 
ravas went to heaven, invited by Indra to assist him, as a war had arisen 
between him and the Danavas. In that war the king of the Asuras, named 
May.idhara, was slain, and accordingly Indra held a great feast, at which 
all the nymphs of heaven displayed their skill. And on that occasion Pu- 
ruravas, when he saw the nymph Rambha performing a dramatic dance 
called cliftlita,^ with the teacher Tumburu standing by her, laughed. Then 
Jlambhsi said to him sarcastically " I suppose, mortal, you know this 
heavenly dance, do you not ?" Pururavas answered, " From associating with 
Urvasi, I knew dances which even your teacher Tumburu does not know." 
"When Tumburu heard that, he laid this curse on him in his wrath, "Ma vest 
thou be separated from Urvasi until thou propitiate Krishna." When he 
heard that curse, Pururavas went and told Urvasi what had happened to 
him, which was terrible as "a thunderbolt from the blue." Immediately 
some Gandharvas swooped down, without the king's seeing them, and carried 
off Urvasi, whither he knew not. Then Pururavas, knowing that the cala- 
mity was due to that curse, went and performed penance to appease Yislnm 
in the hermitage of LJadarika. 

But I'rvasi, ivniaining in the country of the Gandharvas, afllicted at 
her separation, was as void of sense as if she had been dead, asleep, or a 

* Or Devarshi, belonging to the hi^hi-st cl.-iss of Hishis or patriarchal saints, 
f This dance is mentioned in li >( the 


mere picture. She kept herself alive with hoping for the end of the curse, 
but it is wonderful that she did not lose her hold on life, while she remain- 
ed like the female ohdkravdka during the night, the appointed time of her 
separation from the male bird. And Pururavas propitiated Vishnu by 
that penance, and, owing to Vishnu's having been gratified, the Gandharvas 
surrendered Urvasi to him. So that king, re-united to the nymph whom 
he had recovered at the termination of the curse, enjoyed heavenly plea- 
sures, though living upon earth. 

The king stopped speaking, and Vasavadatta felt an emotion of shame 
at having endured separation, when she heard of the attachment of Urvasi 
to her husband. 

Then Yaugandharayana, seeing that the queen was abashed at having 
been indirectly reproved by her husband, said, in order to make him feel in 
his turn, " King, listen to this tale, if you have not already heard it. 

There is on this earth a city of 
Story of Vihitasena. . , 

the name or limira, the dwelling ot 

the goddess of Prosperity ; in it there was a famous king named Vihitasena; 
he had a wife named Tejovati, a very goddess upon earth. That king was 
ever hanging on her neck, devoted to her embraces, and could not even, 
bear that his body should be for a short time scratched with the coat of 
mail. And once there came upon the king a lingering fever with diminish- 
ing intensity ; and the physicians forbad him to continue in the queen's 
society. But when he was excluded from the society of the queen, there 
was engendered in his heart a disease not to be reached by medicine or treat- 
ment. The physicians told the ministers in private that the disease might 
relieve itself by fear or the stroke of some affliction. The ministers reflect- 
ed " How can we produce fear in that brave king, who did not tremble 
when an enormous snake once fell on his back, who was not confused when 
a hostile army penetrated into his harem ? It is useless thinking of devices 
to produce fear ; what are we ministers, to do with the king ?" Thus the 
ministers reflected, and after deliberating with the queen, concealed her, and 
said to the king, " The queen is dead." While the king was tortured with 
that exceeding grief, in his agitation that disease in his heart relieved it- 
self.* When the king had got over the pain of the illness, the ministers 
restored to him that great queen, who seemed like a second gift of ease, 
and the king valued her highly as the saviour of his life, and was too wise 
to bear anger against her afterwards for concealing herself. 

For it is care for a husband's interests that entitles a king's wife to 
the name of queen; by mere compliance with a husband's whims the name 

* Literally broke. The vyddhi or disease must have been of the nature of an 


of queen is not obtained. And discharging the duty of minister means un- 
divided attention to the burden of the king's affairs, but the compliance 
with a king's passing fancies is the characteristic of a mere courtier. Ac- 
cordingly we made this effort in order to come to terms with your enemy, 
the king of Magadha, and with a view to your conquering the whole earth. 
So it is not the case that the queen, who, through love for you, endured 
intolerable separation, has done you a wrong ; on the contrary she has con- 
ferred on you a great benefit." When the king of Vatsa heard this true 
speech of his prime-minister's, he thought that he himself was in the wrong, 
and was quite satisfied. 

And he said ; "I know this well enough, that the queen, like Policy in- 
carnate in bodily form, acting under your inspiration, has bestowed upon 
me the dominion of the earth. But that unbecoming speech, which I utter- 
ed, was due to excessive affection ; how can people whose minds are blinded 
with love bring themselves to deliberate calmly ?*" With such conversation 
that king of Vatsa brought the day and the queen's eclipse of shame to an 
end. On the next day a messenger sent by the king of Magadha, who had 
discovered the real state of the case, came to the sovereign of Vatsa, and said 
to him as from his master ; " We have been deceived by thy ministers, 
therefore take such steps as that the world may not henceforth be to us a 
place of misery." When he heard that, the king shewed all honour to the 
messenger, and sent him to Padmavati to take his answer from her. She, 
for her part, being altogether devoted to Vasavadatta. had an interview with 
the ambassador in her presence. For humility is an unfailing character- 
istic of good women. The ambassador delivered her father's message 
' 31 v daughter, you have been married by an artifice, and your husband is 
attached to another, thus it has come to pass that I reap in misery the fruit 
of being the father of a daughter." But Padmavati thus answered him, 
Say to my father from me here " What need of grief ? For my husband 
is very indulgent to me, and the queen Vasavadatta is my affectionate sis- 
ter, so my father must not be angry with my husband, unless he wishes to 
break his own plighted faith and my heart at the same time." When this 
becoming answer had been given by Padmavati, the queen Vasavadatta 
hospitably entertained the ambassador and then sent him away. When 
the ambassador had departed, Padmavati remained somewhat depr< 
with regret, calling to mind her father's house. Then Vasavadatta onl 
Vasantaka to amuse her, and he came near, and with that object proceeded 
to tell the following tale : 

There is a city, the ornament of 
the earth, called IVitaliputra. and in it 

there was a great merchant named Dharmagupta. He had a wife named 
Amarc ct sjt) > concolitur. (Publius Syrus.) 


Chandraprabha, and she once on a time became pregnant, and brought forth 
a daughter beautiful in all her limbs. That girl, the moment she was born, 
illuminated the chamber with her beauty, spoke distinctly,* and got up 
and sat down. Then Dharmagupta, seeing that the women in the lying-in- 
chamber were astonished and terrified, went there himself in a state of 
alarm. And immediately he asked that girl in secret, bowing before her 
humbly, " Adorable one, who art thou, that art thus become incarnate in my 
family ?" She answered him, " Thou must not give me in marriage to any 
one ; as long as I remain in thy house, father, I am a blessing to thee ; 
what profit is there in enquiring further ?" When she said this to him, 
Dharmagupta was frightened, and he concealed her in his house giving out 
abroad that she was dead. Then that girl, whose name was Somaprabha 
gradually grew up with human body, but celestial splendour of beauty. 
And one day a young merchant, of the name of Guhachandra, beheld her, as 
she was standing upon the top of her palace, looking on with delight at the 
celebration of the spring-festival ; she clung like a creeper of love round 
his heart, so that he was, as it were, faint, and witb difficulty got home to 
his house. There he was tortured with the pain of love, and when his pa- 
rents persistently importuned him to tell them the cause of his distress, he 
informed them by the mouth of a friend. Then his father, whose name was 
Guhasena, out of love for his son, went to the house of Dharmagupta, to 
ask him to give his daughter in marriage to Guhachandra. Then Dharma- 
gupta put off Guhasena when he made the request, desiring to obtain a 
daughter-in-law, and said to him, " The fact is, my daughter is out of her 
mind." Considering that he meant by that to refuse to give his daughter, 
Guhasena returned home, and there he beheld his son prostrated by the 
fever of love, and thus reflected, " I will persuade the king to move in this 
matter, for I have before this conferred an obligation on him, and he will 
cause that maiden to be given to my son, who is at the point of death." 
Having thus determined, the merchant went and presented to the king a 
splendid jewel, and made known to him his desire. The king, for his part, 
being well-disposed towards him, commissioned the head of the police to 
assist him, with whom he went to the house of Dharmagupta ; and sur- 
rounded it on all sides with policemen, f so that Dharmagupta's throat 
was choked with tears, as he expected utter ruin. Then Somaprabha said to 
Dharmagupta " Give me in marriage, my father, let not calamity befall 
you on my account, but I must never be treated as a wife by my husband, 

* Licbrecht in an essay on some modern Greek songs (Zur Volkskundo, p. 211) 
gives numerous stories of children who spoke shortly after birth. It appears to have 
been generally considered an evil omen. Cp. the Romance of Merlin. (Dunlop's His- 
tory of Fiction, p. 146.) 

f More literally ; blockaded his house with policemen, and his throat with tears. 


and this agreement you must make in express terms with my future father- 
in-law." When his daughter had said this to him. Dharmagupta agreed to 
give her in marriage, after stipulating that she should not be treated as a 
wife ; and Guhasena with inward laughter agreed to the condition, thinking 
to himself, " Only let my son be once married." Then Guhachandra, the 
son of Guhasena, went to his own house, taking with him his bride 
Somaprabha. And in the evening his father said to him, " My son, 
treat her as a wife, for who abstains from the society of his own 
wife ?" When she heard that, the bride Somaprabha looked angrily at her 
father-in-law, and whirled round her threatening fore-finger, as it were the 
decree of death. When he saw that finger of his daughter-in-law, the 
breath of that merchant immediately left him, and fear came upon all 
besides. But Guhachandra, when his father was dead, thought to himself, 
" The goddess of death has entered into my house as a wife." And thenceforth 
he avoided the society of that wife, though she remained in his house, and 
so observed a vow difficult as that of standing on the edge of a sword. 
And being inly consumed by that grief, losing his taste for all enjoyment, 
he made a vow and feasted Brahmans every day. And that wife of his, of 
heavenly beauty, observing strict silence, used always to give a fee to those 
Brahmans after they had eaten. One day an aged Brahman, who had come 
to be fed, beheld her exciting the wonder of the world by her dower of beau- 
ty ; then the Brahman full of curiosity secretly asked Guhachandra ; " Tell 
me who this young wife of yours is." Then Guhachandra, being importuned 
by that Brahman, told him with afflicted mind her whole story. When he 
heard it, the excellent Brahman, full of compassion, gave him a charm for 
appeasing the fire, in order that he might obtain his desire. Accordingly, 
while Guhachandra was in secret muttering that charm, there appeared to 
him a Brahman from the midst of the fire. And that god of fire in the 
shape of a Brahman, said to him, as he lay prostrate at his feet, " To-day I 
will eat in thy house, and I will remain there during the night. And after 
I have shewn thee the truth with respect to thy wife, I will accomplish 
thy desire." When he had said this to Guhachandra, the Brahman entered 
his house. There he ate like the other Brahmans, and lay down at night 
near Guhachandra for one watch of the night only, such was his unweary- 
ing zeal. And at this period of the night, Somaprabha, the wife of Guha- 
chandra, went out from the house of her husband, all the inmates of which 
were asleep. At that moment that Brahman woke up Guhachandra, and 
said to him, " Come, see what thy wife is doing." 

And by magic power lu> gave Guhachandra and himself the shape of 
bees,* and going out he sncwed him that wife of his, who had issued from 

* So in the XXIst of Miss Stokes's Indian Fairy Talcs tho//r changes the king's 
sou into a fly. (']). ;ilso Veckenatedt's Wend a, p. 127. 


the house. And that fair one went a long distance outside the city, and 
the Brahman with Guhachandra followed her. Thereupon Guhachandra 
saw before him a Nyagrodha* tree of wide extent, beautiful with its shady 
stem, and under it he heard a heavenly sound of singing, sweet with strains 
floating on tlie air, accompanied with the music of the lyre and the flute. 
And on the trunk of the tree he saw a heavenly maiden, like his wife in 
appearance, seated on a splendid throne, eclipsing by her beauty the moon- 
beam, fanned with white chowries, like the goddess presiding over the 
treasure of all the moon's beauty. And then Guhachandra saw his wife 
ascend that very tree and sit down beside that lady, occupying half of her 
throne. While he was contemplating those two heavenly maidens of equal 
beauty sitting together, it seemed to him as if that night were lighted by 
three moons. f 

Then he, full of curiosity thought, for a moment, " Can this be sleep or 
delusion ? But away with both these suppositions ! This is the expanding 
of the blossom from the bud of association with the wise, which springs 
on the tree of right conduct, and this blossom gives promise of the appropri- 
ate fruit." While he was thus reflecting at his leisure, those two celestial 
maidens, after eating food suited for such as they were, drank heavenly wine. 
Then the wife of Guhachandra said to the second heavenly maiden, " To- 
day some glorious Brahman has arrived in our house, for which reason, my 
sister, my heart is alarmed and I must go." In these words she took leaVe 
of that other heavenly maiden and descended from the tree. When Guha- 
chandra and the Brahman saw that, they returned in front of her, still pre- 
serving the form of bees, and arrived in the house by night before she did, 
and afterwards arrived that heavenly maiden, the wife of Guhachandra, and 
she entered the house without being observed. Then that Brahman of his 
own accord said to Guhachandra ; " You have had ocular proof that your wife 
is divine and not human, and you have to-day seen her sister who is also 
divine ; and how do you suppose that a heavenly nymph can desire the 
society of a man ? So I will give you a charm to be written up over her 
door, and I will also teach you an artifice to be employed outside the house, 
which must increase the force of the charm. A fire burns even without 
being fanned, but much more when a strong current of air is brought to 
bear on it ; in the same way a charm will produce the desired effect unaided, 
but much more readily when assisted by an artifice." When he had said this, 

* Ficus Indica. Such a tree is said to have sheltered an army. Its branches take 
root and form a natural cloister. Cp. Milton's Paradise Lost, Book IX, line. 

t For tfee illuminating power of female beauty, see Note 3 to the 1st Tale in 
Stokes's Collection, where parallels are cited from tho folk-lore of Jim-ope atid Asia. 


the excellent Brahman gave a charm to Guhachanclra, and instructed him 
in the artifice, and then vanished in the dawn. Guhachandra for his part 
wrote it up over the door of his wife's apartment, and in the evening had 
recourse to the following stratagem calculated to excite her affection. He 
dressed himself splendidly and went and conversed with a certain lietoEra 
before her eyes. When she saw this, the heavenly maiden being jealous, 
called to him with voice set free by the charm, and asked him who that 
woman was ? He answered her falsely ; " She is a hetasra who has taken a 
fancy to me, and I shall go and pay her a visit to-day." Then she looked at 
him askance with wrinkled brows, and lifting up her veil with her left hand, 
said to him, "Ah ! I see : this is why you are dressed so grandly, do not 
go to her, what have you to do with her ? Visit me, for I am your wife." 
"When he had been thus implored by her, agitated with excitement, as if she 
were possessed, though that evil demon which held her had been expelled 
by the charm, he was in a state of ecstatic joy, and he immediately entered 
into her chamber with her, and enjoyed, though a mortal, celestial happiness 
not conceived of in imagination. Having thus obtained her as a loving 
wife, conciliated by the magic power of the charm, who abandoned for him 
her celestial rank, Guhachandra lived happily ever after. 

" Thus heavenly nymphs, who have been cast down by some curse, live 
as wives in the houses of righteous men, as a reward for their good deeds, 
such as acts of devotion and charity. For the honouring of gods and 
Brahmans is considered the wishing-cow* of the good. For what is not 
obtained by that ? All the other politic expedients, known as conciliation 
and so on, are mere adjuncts. f But evil actions are the chief cause of even 
heavenly beings, born in a very lofty station, falling from their high estate ; 
as a hurricane is the cause of the falling of blossoms." When he had said this 
to the princess, Vasantaka continued ; " Hear moreover what happened to 

Once upon a time there was a 

Story of Ahalya. 

great hermit named Gautama, who 

knew the past, the present, and the future. And he had a wife named 
Ahalya, who in beauty surpassed the nymphs of heaven. One day Indra, in 
love with her beauty, tempted her in secret, for the mind of rulers, blinded 
with power, runs towards unlawful objects. 

And she in her folly encouraged that husband of S'achi, being the .-lave 
of her passions ; but the hermit Gautama found out the intrigue by his 
superhuman power, and arrived upon the scene. And Indra immediately 

* Kdmadhenu means a cow granting all il h a cow is said to have bo- 

f Conciliation, l>ril-n. sowing disfl nsion, and \v;u. 


assumed, out of fear, the form of a cat. Then Gautama said to Ahalya ; 
" Who is here ?" She answered her husband ambiguously in the Prakrit 
dialect, "Here forsooth is a cat," so managing to preserve verbal truth.* 
Thou Gautama said, laughing, " It is quite true that your lover is here, and 
he inflicted on her a curse, but ordained that it should terminate because 
she had shewed some regard for truth." The curge ran as follows ; " Woman 
of bad character, take for a long time the nature of a stone, until thou be- 
hold Kama wandering in the forest." And Gautama at the same time 
inflicted on the god Indra the following curse; "A thousand pictures of 
that which thou hast desired shall be upon thy body, but when thou shalt 
behold Tilottama, a heavenly nymph, whom Visvakarman shall make, they 
shall turn into a thousand eyes." When he had pronounced this curse, the 
hermit returned to his austerities according to his desire, but Ahalya for 
her part assumed the awful condition of a stone. And Indra immediately 
had his body covered with repulsive marks ; for to whom, is not immorality 
a cause of humiliation ? 

" So true is it that every man's evil actions always bear fruit in himself, 
for whatever seed a man sows, of that he reaps the fruit. Therefore per- 
sons of noble character never desire that, which is disagreeable to their 
neighbours, for this is the invariable observance of the good, prescribed by 
divine law. And you two were sister goddesses in a former birth, but you 
have been degraded in consequence of a curse, and accordingly your hearts 
are free from strife and bent on doing one another good turns." When 
they heard this from Vasantaka, Vasavadatta and Padmavati dismissed from 
their hearts even the smallest remnants of mutual jealousy. But the queen 
Yfisavadatta made her husband equally the property of both, and acted as 
kindly to Padmavati as if she were herself, desiring her welfare. 

When the king of Magadha heard of that so great generosity of hers 
from the messengers sent by Padmavati, he was much pleased. So on the 
next day the minister Yaugandharayana came up to the king of Vatsa 
in the presence of the queen, the others also standing by, and said, " Why 
do we not go now to Kausambf, my prince, in order to begin our enter- 
prise, for we know that there is nothing to be feared from the king of 
Magadha, even though he has been deceived ? For he has been completely 
gained over by means of the negotiation termed ' Giving of a daughter' : and 
how could he make war and so abandon his daughter whom he loves more 
than life? He must keep his word; moreover he has not been deceived by 
you ; I did it all myself ; and it does not displease him ; indeed I have 
learned from my spies that he will not act in a hostile way, and it was tVr 
this very purpose that we remained here for these days." While \augan- 
dharayana, who had accomplished the task he had in hand, was speaking 
* Tho Prakrit word majjao means "a '.if ni.l .i!.-> my lover." 


thus, a messenger belonging to the king of Magadha arrived there, and en- 
tered into the palace immediately, being announced by the warder, and after 
he had done obeisance, he sat down and said to the king of Yatsa ; " The 
king of Magadha is delighted with the intelligence sent by the queen Pad- 
mavati, and he now sends this message to your Highness ' What need is 
there of many words ? \ have heard all, and I am pleased with thee. 
Therefore do the thing for the sake of which this beginning has been made ; 
we submit ourselv,-*.' ' The king of Vatsa joyfully received this clear speech 
of the messenger's, resembling the blossom of the tree of policy planted by 
Yaugandharayana. Then he brought Padmavati with the queen, and, after 
he had bestowed a present upon the messenger, he dismissed him with 
honour. Then a messenger from Chandamahasena also arrived, and, after 
entering, he bowed before the king, according to custom, and said to him, 
" king, his majesty Chandamahasena, who understands the secrets of policy, 
has learnt the state of thy affairs and delighted sends this message ' Your 
majesty's excellence is plainly declared by this one fact, that you have 
Yaugandharayana for your minister, what need of further speeches ? Blessed 
too is Yasavadatta, w r ho, through devotion to you, has done a deed which 
makes us exalt our head for ever among the good, moreover Padmavati is 
not separated from Vasavadatta in my regard, for they two have one heart ; 
therefore quickly exert yourself.' " 

When the king of Vatsa heard this speech of his father-in-law's mes- 
senger, joy suddenly arose in his heart, and his exceeding warmth of affec- 
tion for the queen was increased, and also the great respect which he felt 
for his excellent minister. Then the king, together with the queens, enter- 
tained the messenger according to the laws of due hospitality, in joyful 
excitement of mind, and sent him away pleased ; and as he was bent on 
commencing his enterprise, he determined, after deliberating with his 
ministers, on returning to Kausambi. 


So on the next day the king of Vatsa set out from Lavanaka for Kau- 
amhi, accompanied by his wives and his ministers, and as he advanced, shouts 
broke forth from his forces, that tilled the plains like the waters of the 
ocean overflowing out of due time. An image would be furnished of that 
king advancing on his mighty elephant, if the sun were to journey in the 
heaven accompanied bv ru mountain. That king, shaded with his 

white umbrella, shewed as if waited upon by the moon, delighted at having 


outdone the splendour of the sun. While he towered resplendent above 
them all, the chiefs circled around him, like the planets* in their orbits 
around the polar star. And those queens, mounted on a female elephant 
that followed his, shone like the earth-goddess and the goddess of Fortune 
accompanying him out of affection in visible shape. The earth, that lay in 
his path, dinted with the edges of the hoofs of the troops of his prancing 
steeds, seemed to bear the prints of loving nails, as if it had been enjoyed 
by the king. In this style progressing, the king of Vatsa, being continu- 
ally praised by his minstrels, reached in a few days the city of Kausambi, 
in which the people kept holiday. The city was resplendent on that occa- 
sion, her lordf having returned from sojourning abroad. She was clothed 
in the red silk of banners, round windows were her expanded eyes, the full 
pitchers in the space in front of the gates were her two swelling breasts, the 
joyous shouts of the crowd were her cheerful conversation, and white 
palaces her smile. J So, accompanied by his two wives, the king entered 
the city, and the ladies of the town were much delighted at beholding him. 
The heaven was filled with hundreds of faces of fair ones standing on char- 
ming palaces, as if with the soldiers of the moon that was surpassed in 
beauty by the faces of the queens, having come to pay their respects. And 
other women established at the windows, looking with unwinking eyes,|| 
seemed like heavenly nymphs in aerial chariots, that had come there out of 
curiosity. Other women, with their long-lashed eyes closely applied to the 
lattice of the windows, made, so to speak, cages of arrows to confine love. 
The eager eye of one woman expanded with desire to behold the king, came, 
so to speak, to the side of her ear*|[, that did not perceive him, in order to in- 
form it. The rapidly heaving breasts of another, who had run up hastily, 
seemed to want to leap out of her bodice with ardour to behold him. The 
necklace of another lady was broken with her excitement, and the pearl-beads 
seemed like tear-drops of joy falling from her heart. Some women, behold- 
ing Vasavadatta and remembering the former report of her having been 
burned, said as if with anxiety ; " If the fire were to do her an injury at 
Lavanaka, then the sun might as well diffuse over the world darkness 
which is alien to his nature." Another lady beholding Padmavati said to 
her companion; " i am glad to see that the queen is'not put to shame by 

Cp. Schiller's "Der Graf von Habsburg," lines 9 12. 

t The word pati here means king and husband. 

J A smile is always white according to the Hindu poetic canons. 

The countenance of the fair ones were like moons. 

|| There should be a mark of elision before mmishekahandh. 

IF The eyes of Hindu ladies are said to roach to their ears. I read laddkhydtnm 
for taddkhydtim with a MS. in the Sanskrit college, kindly lent me by the Librarian 
with the consent of the Principal. 


her fellow-wife, who seems like her friend." And others beholding those 
two queens, and throwing over them garlands of eyes expanded with joy so 
as to resemble blue lotuses, said to one another ; " Surely S'iva and Vishnu 
have not beheld the beauty of these two, otherwise how could they regard 
with much respect their consorts Uma and S'rf ?" In this way feasting the 
eyes of the population, the king of Vatsa with the queens entered his own 
palace, after performing auspicious ceremonies. Such as is the splendour 
of a lotus-pool in windy weather, or of the sea when the moon is rising, 
such was at that period the wonderful splendour of the king's palace. And 
in a moment it was filled with the presents, which the feudatories offered to 
procure good luck, and which foreshadowed the coming in of offerings from 
innumerable kings. And so the king of Vatsa, after honouring the chiefs, 
entered with great festivity the inner apartments, at the same time finding 
his way to the heart of every one present. And there he remained between 
the two queens, like the god of Love between liati and Priti,* and spent 
the rest of the day in drinking and other enjoyments. 

The next day, when he was sitting in the hall of assembly accompanied 
by his ministers, a certain Brahman came and cried out at the door ; " Pro- 
tection for the Brahmans ! king ! certain wicked herdsmen have cut off 
my son's foot in the forest without any reason." When he heard that, the 
king immediately had two or three herdsmen seized and brought before 
him, and proceeded to question them. Then they gave the following 
answer; "O king, being herdsmen we roam in the wilderness, and there we 
have among us a herdsman named Devasena, and he sits in a certain place 
in the forest on a stone seat, and says to us 'I am your king' and gives us 
orders. And not a man among us disobeys his orders. Thus, O king, that 
herdsman rules supreme in the wood. Now to-day the son of this Brahman 
came that way, and did not do obeisanceto ttie herdsman king, and when we by 
the order of the king said to him 'Depart not without doing thy rever- 
ence' the young fellow pushed us aside, and went off laughing in spite of 
the admonition. Then the herdsman king commanded us to punish the 
contumacious boy by cutting off his foot. So we, king, ran after him, 
and cut off his foot ; what man of our humble degree is able 
to disobey the command of a ruler r" When the herdsmen had made this 
representation to the king, the wise Yaugandhar&yana, after thinking it 
. said to him in private ; " Certainly that place must contain treasure, 
on the strength of which a mere herdsman has such influence.f So let us 

* Love ar. \.i the Hindu Cupid. 

t Bo the mouse in the Panchatantara p CHi-n- 

I'aiirhiit-.mtra. Vol. I. 1. II. ]>. ITS.) , - found also in tho 

Glt I thifl work. from the Fur 1, 7 and 203. 

go there." When his minister hud said this to him, the king made t ! 
herdsmen show him the way, and went to that place in the forest with his 
soldiers and his attendants. 

And while, after the ground had been examined, peasants were digging 
there, a Yaksha in stature like a mountain rose up from beneath it, and 
said, " O king, this treasure, which I have so long guarded, belongs to thee, 
as having been buried by thy forefathers, therefore take possession of it." 
After he had said this to the king and accepted his worship, the Yakslia 
disappeared, and a great treasure was displayed in the excavation. And 
from it was extracted a valuable throne studded with jewels,* for in the 
time of prosperity a long series of happy and fortunate events takes 
place. The Lord of Vatsa took away the whole treasure from the spot in 
high glee, and after chastising those herdsmen returned to his own city. 
There the people saw that golden throne brought by the king, which seem- 
ed with the streams of rays issuing from its blood-red jewels to foretellf 
the king's forceful conquest of all the regions, and which with its pearls 
fixed on the end of projecting silver spikes seemed to show its teeth as if 
laughing again and again when it considered the astonishing intellect of 
the king's ministers ;J and they expressed their joy in a charming manner, 
by striking drums of rejoicing so that they sent forth their glad sounds. 
The ministers too rejoiced exceedingly, making certain of the king's 
triumph ; for prosperous events happening at the very commencement of 
an enterprise portend its final success. Then the sky was filled with Hags 
resembling flashes of lightning, and the king like a cloud rained gold on his 
dependants. And this day having been spent in feasting, on the morrow 
Yaugandhaniyana, wishing to know the mind of the king of Vatsa, said to 
him ; " king, ascend and adorn that great throne, which thou hast obtain- 
ed by inheritance from thy ancestors." But the king said, " Surely it is only 
after conquering all the regions that I can gain glory by ascending that 
throne, which those famous ancestors of mine mounted after conquering 
the earth. Not till I have subdued this widely-gemmed earth bounded by 
the main, will I ascend the great jewelled throne of my ancestors." Saying 
this, the king did not mount the throne as yet. For men of high birth 
possess genuine loftiness of spirit. Thereupon Yaugandharayana being de- 
lighted said to him in private ; " Bravo \ my king \ So make first an attempt 
to conquer the eastern region." When he heard that, the king eagerly asked 
his minister ; " When there are other cardinal points, why do kings lirst 
march towards the East ?" When Yaugandharayana heard this, he said to him 

* Cp. Sagas from the Far East, p. 263. 

f I road (lars'nyiit. 

J Sati is a misprint for matt, Lohtlinijk and Kuth sv. 


again ; " The North, king, though rich, is defiled by intercourse with bar- 
barians, and the West is not honoured as being the cause of the setting of 
the sun and other heavenly bodies ; and the South is seen to be neighboured 
by Eakshasas and inhabited by the god of death ; but in the eastern quar- 
ter the sun rises, over the East presides Indra, and towards the East flows 
the Ganges, therefore the East is preferred. Moreover among the coun- 
tries situated between the Vindhya and Himalaya mountains, the country 
laved by the waters of the Ganges is considered most excellent. Therefore 
monarch s who desire success march first towards the East, and dwell more- 
over in the land visited by the river of the gods.* For your ancestors alo 
conquered the regions by beginning with the East, and made their dwelling 
in Hastinapura on the banks of the Ganges ; but S'atanika repaired to 
Ivausambi on account of its delightful situation, seeing that empire depend- 
ed upon valour, and situation had nothing to do with it." When he had 
said this Yaugandharayana stopped speaking ; and the king out of his great 
' regard for heroic exploits said ; " It is true that dwelling in any prescribed 
country is not the cause of empire in this world, for to men of brave dis- 
position their own valour is the only cause of success. For a brave man by 
himself without any support obtains prosperity ; have you never heard a 
propos of this the tale of the brave man ?" Having said this, the lord of 
Vatsa on the entreaty of his ministers again began to speak, and related in 
the presence of the queens the following wonderful story. 

In the city of Ujjayini, which is 

Story of VidiishaJca. 

celebrated throughout the earth, 

there was in former days a king named Adityasena. He was a treasure- 
house of valour, and on account of his sole supremacy, his war chariot, like 
that of the sun.f was not impeded anywhere. When his lofty umbrella, 
gleaming white like snow, illuminated the firmament, other kings free from 
heat depressed theirs. He was the receptacle of the jewels produced 
over the surface of the whole earth, as the sea is the receptacle of waters. 
Once on a time, he was encamped with his army on the banks of the 
Ganges, where he had come for some reason or other. There a certain 
rich merchant of the country, named Gunavartman, came to the king 
bringing a gem of maidens as a present, and sent this message by the 
mouth of the warder. This maiden, though the gem of the three worlds, 
has been born in my house, and I cannot give her to any one else, only 
your Highness is fit to be the husband of such a girl. Then Gunavartman 

* i. e. the Ganges). 

t In Sanskrit pratdpa the word translated " valour," also means heat, and chakra 
may refer to the wheels of the chariot and the orb of the sun, so that there is a pun all 


entered and shewed his daughter to the king. The king, when he beheld 
that maiden, Tejasvati by name, illuminating with her brightness the quar- 
ters of the heavens,like the flame of the rays from, the jewels in the temple 
of the god of Love, was all enveloped with the radiance of her beauty and 
fell in love with her, and, as if heated with the fire of passion, began to dis- 
solve in drops of sweat. So he at once accepted her, who was fit for the 
rank of head queen, and being highly delighted made Gunavartman equal 
to himself in honour. Then, having married his dear Tejasvati, the king 
thought all his objects in life accomplished, and went with her to Ujjayini. 
There the king fixed his gaze so exclusively on her face, that he could not 
see the affairs of his kingdom, though they were of great importance. And 
his ear being, so to speak, riveted on her musical discourse could not be 
attracted by the cries of his distressed subjects. The king entered into his 
harem for a long time and never left it, but the fever of fear left the hearts 
of his enemies. And after some time there was born to the king, by the 
queen Tejasvati, a girl welcomed by all, and there arose in his heart the 
desire of conquest, which was equally welcome to his subjects. That 
girl of exceeding beauty, who made the three worlds seem worthless as 
stubble, excited in him joy, and desire of conquest excited his valour. Then 
that king A'dityasena set out one day from Ujjayini to attack a certain 
contumacious chieftain ; and he made that queen Tejasvati go with him 
mounted on an elephant, as if she were the protecting goddess of the host. 
And he mounted an admirable horse, that in spirit and fury resembled a 
torrent,* tall like a moving mountain, with a curl on its breast, and a 
girth. It seemed to imitate with its feet raised as high as its mouth, the 
going of Garuda wbich it had seen in the heaven, rivalling its own swift- 
ness, and it lifted up its head and seemed with fearless eye to measure the 
earth, as if thinking, " what shall be the limit of my speed ?" And after 
the king had gone a little way, he came to a level piece of ground, and put 
his horse to its utmost speed to shew it off to Tejasvati. That horse, on 
being struck with his heel, went off rapidly, like an arrow impelled from a 
catapult, in some unknown direction, so that it became invisible to the eyes 
of men. ' The soldiers, when they saw that take place, were bewildered, and 
horsemen galloped in a thousand directions after the king, who was run 
away with by his horse, but could not overtake him. Thereupon the 
ministers with the soldiers, fearing some calamity, in their anxiety took 
with them the weeping queen and returned to Ujjayini ; there they remain- 
ed with gates closed and ramparts guarded, seeking for news of the king, 
having cheered up the citizens. 

In the meanwhile the king was carried by the horse in an instant to 
the impassable forest of the Vindhya hills, haunted by terrible lious. Then 
* More literally, a torrent of pride and kicking. 



the horse happened to stand still, and the king was immediately distracted 
with bewilderment, as the great forest made it impossible for him to know 
whereabouts he was. Seeing no other way out of his difficulties, the king, 
who knew what the horse had been in a former birth, got down from his 
saddle, and prostrating himself before the excellent horse, said to him : " Thou 
art a god ; a creature like thee should not commit treason against his lord ; 
so I look upon thee as my protector, take me by a pleasant path." When 
the horse heard that, he was full of regret, remembering his former birth, 
and mentally acceded to the king's request, for excellent horses are divine 
beings. Then the king mounted again, and the horse set out by a road 
bordered with clear cool lakes, that took away the fatigue of the journey ; 
and by evening the splendid horse had taken the king another hundred 
yojanas and brought him near Ujjayini. As the sun beholding his horses, 
though seven in number, excelled by this courser's speed, had sunk, as it 
were through shame, into the ravines of the western mountain, and as the 
darkness was diffused abroad, the wise horse seeing that the gates of Ujja- 
yini were closed, and that the burning-place outside the gates was terrible 
at that time, carried the king for shelter to a concealed monastery of 
Brahmans, that was situated in a lonely place outside the walls. And the 
king A'dityasena seeing that that monastery was a fit place to spend the 
night in, as his horse was tired, attempted to enter it. But the Brahmans, 
who dwelt there, opposed his entrance, saying that he must be some keeper 
of a cemetery* or some thief. And out they poured in quarrelsome mood, 
with savage gestures, for Brahmans who live by chanting the Sanaa Veda, 
are the home of timidity, boorishness, and ill-temper. While they were 
clamouring, a virtuous Bniiunan named Vidushaka, the bravest of the brave, 
came out from that monastery. He was a young man distinguished for 
strength of arm, who had propitiated the fire by his austerities, and obtain- 
ed a splendid sword from that divinity, which he had only to think of, and 
it came to him. That resolute youth Yidushaka seeing that king of dis- 
tinguished bearing, who had arrived by night, thought to himself that he 
was some god in disguise. And the well-disposed youth pushed away all 
those other Brahmans, and bowing humbly before the king, caused him to 
enter the monastery. And when he hud rested, and had the dust of the 
journey washed off by female slaves, Yidushaka prepared for him suitable, 
food. And he took the saddle oii' that excellent horse of his, and relieved 
its fatigue by giving it grass and other fodder. And after he had made a 
bed for the wearied king, lie said to him, "My lord, 1 will guard your per- 
son, so sleep in peace" and while the king slept, that Bruhman kept watch 
the whole night at the door with the sword of the Fire god in his hand, that 
came to him on his thinking of it. 

* Tin' k< i T "l';i l'umiu;, r "i luirial-frn'uml would 


And on the morrow early, Vidushaka, without receiving any orders, of 
his own accord saddled the horse for the king, as soon as he awoke. The 
king for his part took leave of him, and mounting his horse entered the 
city of Ujjayini, beheld afar off by the people bewildered with joy. And 
the moment he entered, his subjects approached him with a confused hum 
of delight at his return. The king accompanied by his ministers entered 
the palace, and great anxiety left the breast of the queen Tejasvati. Imme- 
diately grief seemed to be swept away from the city by the rows of silken 
flags displayed out of joy, which waved in the wind ; and the queen made 
high festival until the end of the day, until such time as the people of the 
city and the sun were red as vermilion.* And the next day the king 
A'dityasena had Vidushaka summoned from the monastery with all the other 
Brahman s. And as soon as he had made known what took place in the 
night, he gave his benefactor Vidushaka a thousand villages. And the 
grateful king also gave that Brahman an umbrella and an elephant and 
appointed him his domestic chaplain, so that he was beheld with great 
interest by the people. So Vidushaka then became equal to a chieftain, for 
how can a benefit conferred on great persons fail of bearing fruit ? And the 
noble-minded Vidushaka shared all those villages, which he had received 
from the king, with the Brahmans who lived in the monastery. And he 
remained in the court of the king in attendance upon him, enjoying toge- 
ther with the other Brahmans the income of those villages. But as time 
went on, those other Brahmans began striving each of them to be chief, and 
made no account of Vidushaka, being intoxicated with the pride of wealth. 
Dwelling in separate parties, seven in one place, with their mutual rivalries 
they oppressed the villages like malignant planets. Vidushaka regarded 
their excesses with scornful indifference, for men of firm mind rightly treat 
with contempt men of little soul. Once upon a time a Brahman of the 
name of Chakradhara, who was naturally stern, seeing them engaged in 
wrangling, came up to them. Chakradhara, though he was one-eyed, was 
keen-sighted enough in deciding what was right in other men's affairs, and 
though a hunchback, was straightforward enough in speech. He said to 
them " While you were living by begging, you obtained this windfall, you 
rascals, then why do you ruin the villages with your mutual intolerance ? 
It is all the fault of Vidushaka who has permitted you to act thus ; so you 
may be certain that in a short time you will again have to roam about 
begging. For a situation, in which there is no head, and every one has to 
shift for himself by his own wits as chance directs, is better than one of 
disunion under many heads, in which all affairs go to rack and ruin. So 
take my advice and appoint one firm man as your head, if you desire un- 

* Probably the people sprinkled one another with red powder as at tho II, : 


shaken prosperity, which can only be ensured by a capable governor." On 
hearing that, every one of them desired the headship for himself ; thereupon 
Chakradhara after reflection again said to those fools ; " As you are so 
addicted to mutual rivalry I propose to you a basis of agreement. In the 
neighbouring cemetery three robbers have been executed by impalement ; 
whoever is daring enough to cut off the noses of those three by night and 
to bring them here, he shall be your head, for courage merits command.*" 
When Chakradhara made this proposal to the Brahmans, Vidiishaka, who 
was standing near, said to them ; " Do this, what is there to be afraid of ?" 
Then the Brahmans said to him ; " We are not bold enough to do it, let 
whoever is able, doit, and we will abide by the agreement." Then Vidusha- 
ka said, " Well, I will do it, I will cut off the noses of those robbers by 
night and bring them from the cemetery." Then those fools, thinking the 
task a difficult one, said to him ; " If you do this you shall be our lord, we 
make this agreement." When they had pronounced this agreement, and 
night had set in, Vidushaka took leave of those Brahmans and went to the 
cemetery. So the hero entered the cemetery awful as his own undertaking, 
with the sword of the Fire-god, that came with a thought, as his only 
companion. And in the middle of that cemetery where the cries of vul- 
tures and jackals were swelled by the screams of witches, and the flames of 
the funeral pyres were reinforced by the fires in the mouths of the fire- 
breathing demons, he beheld those impaled men with their faces turned up, 
as if through fear of having their noses cut off. And when he approached 
them, those three being tenanted by demons struck him with their fistsf ; 
and he for his part slashed them in return with his sword, for fear has not 
learned to bestir herself in the breast of the resolute. Accordingly the 
corpses ceased to be convulsed with demons, and then the successful hero 
cut off their noses and brought them away, binding them up in his garment. 
And as he was returning, he beheld in that cemetery a religious mendicant 
sitting on a corpse muttering charms, and through curiosity to have the 
amusement of seeing what he was doing, he stood concealed behind that 
mendicant. In a moment the corpse under the mendicant gave forth a 
hissing sound, and flames issued from its mouth, and from its navel mustard- 
seeds. And then the mendicant took the mustard-seeds, and rising up 
struck the corpse with the flat of his hand, and the corpse, which was 

* So in Grimm's Miirchen von einem der auszog das Fiirchten zu lernen the youth is 
recommended to sit under the gallows where seven men have been executed. Cp. also 
the story of "The Shroud" in Ralston's Russian Folk -Tales, p. 307. 

t Cp. Ralston's account of the Vampire as represented in the Skazkas. " It is 
as a vitalized corpse that the visitor from the other world comes to trouble mankind, 
often subject to human appetites, constantly endowed with more than human strength 
and malignity." Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 306. 


tenanted by a mighty demon, stood up, and then that mendicant mounted 
on its shoulder, and began to depart at a rapid rate, and Vidushaka 
silently followed him unobserved, and after he had gone a short 
distance Vidushaka saw an empty temple with an image of Durga in it. 
Then the mendicant got down from the shoulder of the demon, and entered 
the inner shrine of the temple, while the demon fell flat on the earth. But 
Vidushaka was present also, contriving to watch the mendicant, unperceived 
by him. The mendicant worshipped the goddess there and offered the fol- 
lowing prayer; "If thou art pleased with me, goddess, grant me the 
desired boon. If not I will propitiate thee with the sacrifice of myself." 
When the mendicant, intoxicated with the success of his powerful spells, 
said this, a voice coming from the inner shrine thus addressed the mendi- 
cant ; " Bring here the maiden daughter of king A'dityasena, and offer her 
as a sacrifice, then thou shalt obtain thy desire." When the mendicant 
heard this, he went out, and striking once more with his hand the demon,* 
who hissed at the blow, made him stand upright. And mounting on the 
shoulder of the demon, from whose mouth issued flames of fire, he flew 
away through the air to bring the princess. Vidushaka seeing all this from 
his place of concealment thought to himself; "What! shall he slay the 
king's daughter while I am alive ? I will remain here until the scoundrel 
returns." Having formed this resolve, Vidushaka remained there in conceal- 
ment. But the mendicant entered the female apartments of the palace 
through the window, and found the king's daughter asleep, as it was night. 
And he returned, all clothed in darkness, through the air, bringing with him 
the princess who illuminated with her beauty the region, as Eahu carries 
off a digit of the moon. And bearing along with him that princess who 
exclaimed in her grief " Alas! my father ! Alas! my mother" he descended 
from the sky in that very temple of the goddess. And then, dismissing 
the demon, he entered with that pearl of maidens into the inner shrine of 
the goddess, and while he was preparing to slay the princess there, Vidu- 
shaka came in with his sword drawn. He said to the mendicant, " Villain ! 
do you wish to smite a jasmine flower with a thunder-bolt, in that you 
desire to employ a weapon against this tender form ?" And then he seized 
the trembling mendicant by the hair, and cut off his head. And he con- 
soled the princess distracted with fear, who clung to him closely as she 
began to recognise him. And then the hero thought ; " How can I manage 
during the night to convey this princess from this place to the harem?" 
Then a voice from the air addressed him ; " Hear this O Vidushaka ! the 
mendicant, whom thou hast slain, had in his power a great demon and some 
grains of mustard-seed. Thence arose his desire to be ruler of the earth 
and marry the daughters of kings, and so the fool has this day been baffled. 

* /. e., the corpse tenanted by the Vetala or demon. 


Therefore tliou hero, take those mustard-seeds, in order that for this night 
only thou mayest be enabled to travel through the air." Thus the aerial 
voice addressed the delighted Vidushaka ; for even the gods often take such 
a hero under their protection. Then he took in his hand those grains of 
mustard-seed from the corner of the mendicant's robe, and the princess in 
his arms. And while he was setting out from that temple of the goddess, 
another voice sounded in the air ; " Thou must return to this very temple 
of the goddess at the end of a month, thou must not forget this, O hero !" 
When he heard this, Vidushaka said " I will do so," and by the favour of 
the goddess he immediately flew up into the air bearing with him the 
princess. And ilying through the air he quickly placed that princess in 
her private apartments, and said to her after she had recovered her spirits ; 
" To-morrow morning I shall not be able to fly through the air, and so all 
men will see me going out, so I must depart now." When he said this to 
her, the maiden being alarmed, answered him ; " When you are gone, this 
breath of mine will leave my body overcome with fear. Therefore do not 
depart, great-souled hero ; once more save my life, for the good make it 
their business from their birth to carry out every task they have under- 
taken." When the brave Vidushaka heard that, he reflected, " If I go, and 
leave this maiden, she may possibly die of fear ; and then what kind of 
loyalty to my sovereign shall I have exhibited ? Thinking thus he remain- 
ed all night in those female apartments, and he gradually dropped off to 
sleep wearied with toil and watching. But the princess in her terror passed 
that night without sleeping : and even when the morning came she did not 
wake up the sleeping Vidushaka, as her mind was made tender by love, 
and she said to herself ; " Let him rest a little longer." Then the servants 
of the harem came in and saw him, and in a state of consternation they 
went and told the king. The king for his part sent the warder to discover 
the truth, and he entering beheld Vidushaka there. And he heard the 
whole story from the mouth of the princess, and went and repeated it all 
to the king. And the king knowing the excellent character of Vidushaka, 
was immediately bewildered, wondering what it could mean. And he had 
Vidushaka brought from his daughter's apartment, escorted all the way by 
her soul, which followed him out of affection. And when he arrived, the 
king asked him what had taken place, and Vidushaka told him the whole 
story from the beginning, and shewed him the noses of the robbers fastened 
up in the end of his garment, and the mustard-seeds which had been in the 
possession of the mendicant, different from those found on earth. The 
high-minded monarch suspected that Vidushaka's story was true from these 
circumstances, so he had all the 15r;ihma.ns of the monastery brought before 
him, together with Ohakradhttft, and asked about the original cause of the 
whole matter. And he went in person to the cemetery and saw those men 


with their noses cut off, and that hase mendicant with his neck severed, and 
then he reposed complete confidence in, and was much pleased with, the 
skilful and successful Vidushaka, who had saved his daughter's life. And 
he gave him his own daughter on the spot ; what do generous men with- 
hold when pleased with their benefactors ? Surely the goddess of Pros- 
perity,* out of love for the lotus, dwelt in the hand of the princess, since 
Vidushaka obtained great good fortune after he had received it in the 
marriage ceremony. Then Vidushaka enjoying a distinguished reputation, 
and engaged in attending upon the sovereign, lived with that beloved wife 
in the palace of king A'dityasena. Then as days went on, once upon a time 
the princess impelled by some supernatural power said at night to Vidu- 
shaka ; " My lord, you remember that when you were in the temple of the 
goddess a divine voice said to you, ' Come here at the end of a month.' 
To-day is the last day of the month, and you have forgotten it." When his 
beloved said this to him, Vidushaka was delighted, and recalled it to mind, 
and said to his wife " Well remembered on thy part, fair one ! But I had 
forgotten it. And then he embraced her by way of reward." And then, 
while she was asleep, he left the women's apartments by night, and in high 
spirits he went armed with his sword to the temple of the goddess ; then 
he exclaimed outside, " I Vidushaka am arrived :" and he heard this speech 
uttered by some one inside " Come in, Vidushaka." Thereupon he entered 
and beheld a heavenly palace, and inside it a lady of heavenly beauty with 
a heavenly retinue, dispelling with her brightness the darkness, like a night 
set on fire, looking as if she were the medicine to restore to life the god of 
love consumed with the fire of the wrath of S'iva. He wondering what it 
could all mean, was joyfully received by her in person with a welcome full 
of affection and great respect. And when he had sat down and had gained 
confidence from seeing her affection, he became eager to understand the 
real nature of the adventure, and she said to him ; " I am a maiden of the 
Vidyadhara race, of high descent, and my name is Bhadni, and as I was 
roaming about at my will I saw you here on that occasion. And as my 
mind was attracted by your virtues, I uttered at that time that voice which 
seemed to come from some one invisible, in order that you might return. 
And to-day I bewildered the princess by employing my magic skill, so that 
under my impulse she revived your remembrance of this matter, and for 
your sake I am here, and so, handsome hero, I surrender myself to you ; 
marry me." The noble Vidushaka, when the Vidyadhari Bluulra addi 

* Lakshmf or Sri the goddess of Prosperity appeared after the churning of the 

DCean witha lotus in her hand. According to another story she is said te. have a]., 

at the creation floating mi the \p:m'l>-'l |e :l v, - ,<[' a lotus-ltawer. The hand of a lud\ i> 

often compared to a lotus. 


him in this style, agreed that moment, and married her by the Gandharva 
ceremony. Then he remained in that very place, having obtained celestial 
joys, the fruits of his own valour, living with that beloved wife. 

Meanwhile the princess woke up when the night came to an end, and 
not seeing her husband, was immediately plunged in despair. So she got 
up and went with tottering steps to her mother, all trembling, with her 
eyes flooded with gushing tears. And she told her mother that her hus- 
band had gone away somewhere in the night, and was full of self-reproach, 
fearing that she had been guilty of some fault. Then her mother was dis- 
tracted owing to her love for her daughter, and so in course of time the 
king heard of it, and came there, and fell into a state of the utmost anxiety. 
When his daughter said to him " I know my husband has gone to the 
temple of the goddess outside the cemetery" the king went there in person. 
But he was not able to find Vidushaka there in spite of all his searching, 
for he was concealed by virtue of the magic science of the Vidyadhari. 
Then the king returned, and his daughter in despair determined to leave 
the body, but while she was thus minded, some wise man came to her and 
said this to her ; " Do not fear any misfortune, for that husband of thine 
is living in the enjoyment of heavenly felicity, and will return to thee 
shortly." When she heard that, the princess retained her life, which was 
kept in her by the hope of her husband's return, that had taken deep root 
in her heart. 

Then, while Vidushaka was living there, a certain friend of his beloved, 
named Yogesvari, came to Bhadra, and said to her in secret " My 
friend, the Vidyadharas are angry with you because you live with a 
man, and they seek to do you an injury, therefore leave this place. There 
is a city called Karkotaka on the shore of the eastern sea, and beyond that 
there is a sanctifying stream named S'itoda, and after you cross that, there 
is a great mountain named Udaya,* the land of the Siddhas,f which the 
Vidyadharas may not invade ; go there immediately, and do not be anxious 
about the beloved mortal whom you leave here, for before you start you 
can tell all this to him, so that he shall be able afterwards to journey there 
\\illi speed." When her friend said this to her, Bhadra was overcome with 
fear, and though attached to Vidushaka, she consented to do as her friend 
advised. So she told her scheme to Vidushaka, and providently gave him 
her ring, and then disappeared at the close of the night. And Vidushaka 
immediately found himself in the empty temple of the goddess, in which 
he had been before, and no Bhadra and no palace. Remembering the delu- 
sion produced by 15h;ulni's magic skill, and beholding the ring, Vidushaka 
was overpowered by a paroxysm of despair and wonder. Ami remembering 

* /. e., rising ; the eastern mountain behind which the sun is Mipjinscd to rise. 
t /. ., semi- divine beings supposed to bo of great purity and holiness. 


her speech as if it were a dream, he reflected, " Before she left, she assigned 
as a place of meeting the mountain of the sun-rising; so I must quickly go 
there to find her : but if I am seen by the people in this state, the king 
will not let me go : so I will employ a stratagem in this matter, in order 
that I may accomplish my object." So reflecting, the wise man assumed 
another appearance, and went out from that temple with tattered clothes, 
begrimed with dust, exclaiming, "Ah Bhadra! Ah Bhadra !" And imme- 
diately the people, who lived in that place, beholding him, raised a shout ; 
"Here is Vidushaka found !" And the king hearing of it came out from his 
palace in person, and seeing Vidushaka in such a state, conducting himself 
like a madman, he laid hold on him and took him back to his palace. When 
he was there, whatever his servants and connexions, who were full of affec- 
tion, said to him, he answered only by exclaiming. " All Bhadra ! Ah Bhadra !" 
And when he was anointed with unguents prescribed by the physicians, he 
immediately defiled his body with much cinder-dust ; and the food which 
the princess out of lovo offered to him with her own hands, he instantly 
threw down and trampled under foot. And in this condition Vidushaka 
remained there some days, without taking interest in anything, tearing his 
own clothes, and playing the madman. And A'dityaaeoa thought to him- 
self ; " His condition is past cure, so what is the use of torturing him ? He 
may perhaps die, and then I should be guilty of the death of a Brahman, 
whereas if he roams about at his will, he may possibly recover in course of 
time." So he let him go. Then the hero Vidushaka, being allowed to roam 
where he liked, set out the next day at his leisure to find Bhadra, taking 
with him the ring. And as he journeyed on day by day towards the East, 
he at last reached a city named Paundravardhana, which lay in his way as 
he travelled on ; there he entered the house of a certain aged Brahman 
woman, saying to her " Mother, I wish to stop here one night." And she 
gave him a lodging and entertained him, and shortly after, she approached 
him, full of inward sorrow, and said to him " My son, I hereby give thee 
all this house, therefore receive it, since I cannot now live any longer." He, 
astonished, said to her " Why do you speak thus ?" Then she said "Lis- 
ten, I will tell you the whole story," and so continued as follows " My son, 
in this city there is a king named Devas'_>n;\, and to him there was born one 
daughter, the ornament of the earth. The affectionate king said 'I have 
with, difficulty obtained this one daughter', so he gave her the name of 

" In course of time when she had grown up, the king gave her in mar- 
riage to the king of Kaehchhapa, whom he had brought to his own palace. 
The king of Kaehchhapa entered at night the private apartment-; of his 
bride, and died the very first time he entered them. Tlu-:i t'i.- king much 
distressed, again gave his daughter in marriage to another king; he also 


perished in the same way* : and when through fear of the same fate other 
kit'gs did not wish to marry her, the king gave this order to his 
general ' You must bring a man in turn from every single house in this 
country, so that one shall bo supplied every day, and he must be a Brahman, 
or a Kshatriya. And after you have brought the man, you must cause him 
to enter by night into the apartment of my daughter ; let us see how many 
will perish in this way, and how long it will go on. Whoever escapes shall 
afterwards become her husband ; for it is impossible to bar the course of 
fate, whose dispensations are mysterious.' The general, having received this 
order from the king, brings a man every day turn about from every house 
in this city, and in this way hundreds of men have met their death in the 
apartment of the princess. Now I, whose merits in a former life must have 
been deficient, have one son here ; his turn has to-day arrived to go to the 
palace to meet his death ; and I being deprived of him must to-morrow 
enter the fire. Therefore, while I am still alive, I give to you, a worthy 
object, all my house with my own hand, in order that my lot may not again be 
imfortunate in my next birth." When she had said this, the resolute Vidu- 
shaka answered ; " If this is the whole matter, do not be despondent, mother, 
I will go there to-day, let your only son live. And do not feel any com- 
miseration with regard to me, so as to say to yourself ' Why should I be 
the cause of this man's death ?' for owing to the magical power which I 
possess I run no risk by going there." When Vidushaka had said this, that 
Brahman woman said to him, " Then you must be soms god come here as 
a reward for my virtue, so cause me, my son, to recover life, and yourself 
to gain felicity." When she had expressed her approval of his project in 
these words, he went in the evening to the apartment of the princess, toge- 
ther with a servant appointed by the general to conduct him. There he 
beheld the princess Hushed with the pride of youth, like a creeper weighed 
down with the burden of its abundant llowers that had not yet been gather- 
ed. Accordingly, when night came, the princess went to her bed, and 
Vidushaka remained awake in her apartment, holding in his hand the sword 
of the Fire-god, which came to him with a thought, saying to himself, " I 
will find out who it is that slays men here." And when people weiv all 
p, lie saw a terrible R&kshasa coming from the side of the apartment 
where the entrance was, having first opened the door ; and the Il;ik 
standing at the entrance stretched forward into the room an arm. which 
had been the swift wand of Death to hundreds of men. Hut Vidushaka in 
wrath springing forward, cut off suddenly the arm of the Kakshasa with one 
stroke of his sword. f And the Jlaksluisa immediately lied away through 

* Coill]i:in> the Apurrvjilril linuk ni'Ttiliit. 

t Elalston in his Bussian L'ulk-Talrs. ji. 1270, <(>]. incident with, one in a. 

Polish story, and iu the Kussian story ul' the Witch Curl. ILL Luth the arm of the 
destroyer is cut off. 


fear of his exceeding valour, with the loss of one arm, never again to return. 
When the princess awoke, she saw the severed arm lying there, and she 
was terrified, delighted and astonished at the same time. And in the morn- 
ing the king Devasena saw the arm of the Kakshasa, which had fallen down 
after it was cut off, lying at the door of his daughter's apartments ; in this 
way Vidushaka, as if to say ' Henceforth no other men must enter here" 
fastened the door as it were with a long bar.* Accordingly the delighted 
king gave to Vidushaka, who possessed this divine power, his daughter and 
much wealth ; and Vidiishaka dwelt there some days with this fair one, as 
if with prosperity incarnate in bodily form. But one day he left the prin- 
while asleep, and set out at night in haste to find his Bhadra. And 
the princess in the morning was afflicted at not seeing him, but she was 
comforted by her father with the hope of his return. Vidushaka journey- 
ing on day by day, at last reached the city of Tamralipta not far from the 
eastern sea. There he joined himself to a certain merchant, named 'Skan- 
dhadusa who desired to cross the sea. In his company, embarking on a 
ship laden with much wealth belonging to the merchant, he set out on the 
ocean path. Then that ship was stopped suddenly when it had reached the 
middle of the ocean, as if it were held by something. And when it did not 
move, though the sea was propitiated with jewels, that merchant Skandha- 
dtisa being grieved, said this : " Whosoever releases this ship of mine which 
is detained, to him I will give half of my own wealth and my daughter." 
The resolute-souled Vidushaka, when he heard that, said, " I will descend 
into the water of the sea and search it, and I will set free in a moment 
this ship of yours which is stopped : but you must support me by ropes 
fastened round my body. And the moment the ship is set free, you must 
draw me up out of the midst of the sea by the supporting ropes." The 
merchant welcomed his speech with a promise to do what he asked, and 
the steersmen bound ropes under his armpits. Supported in that way 
Vidushaka descended in the sea ; a brave man never desponds when the 
moment for action has arrived. So taking in his hand the sword of the 
Fire-god, that came to him with a thought, the hero descended into the 
midst of the sea under the ship. And there he saw a giant asleep, and he 
saw that the ship was stopped by his leg. So he immediately cut oft' his 
leg with his sword, and at once the ship moved on freed from its impedi- 
ment. When the wicked merchant saw that, he cut the ropes, by which 
Vidushaka was supported, through desire to save the wealth he had promis- 
ed him ; and went, swiftly to the other shore of the ocean vast as his own 
avarice, in the ship which had thus been set free. Vidushaka for his part, 
being in the midst of the sea with the supporting ropes cut, rose to the 

* I read iva; tho arm was the lon^ bur, and tkc whole j . of the 

rhetorical figure culled utprekthd* 


surface, and seeing how matters stood he calmly reflected for a moment ; 
' Why did the merchant do this ? Surely in this case the proverb is appli- 
cable ; ' Ungrateful men blinded by desire of gain cannot see a benefit.' 
Well, it is now high time for me to display intrepidity, for if courage fails, 
even a small calamity cannot be overcome." Thus he reflected on that occa- 
sion, and then he got astride on the leg which he had cut off from the giant 
sleeping in the water, and by its help he crossed the sea, as if with a boat, 
paddling with his hands, for even destiny takes the part of men of distin- 
guished valour. Then a voice from heaven addressed that mighty hero, 
who had come across the ocean, as Hanuman did for the sake of llama* ; 
" Bravo, Vidushaka ! Bravo ! who except thee is a man of valour ? I am 
pleased with this courage of thine : therefore hear this. Thou hast reached 
a desolate coast here, but from this thou shalt arrive in seven days at the 
city of Karkotaka ; then thou shalt pluck up fresh spirits, and journeying 
quickly from that place, thou shalt obtain thy desire. But I am. the Fire, 
the consumer of the oblations to gods and the spirits of deceased ancestors, 
whom thou didst before propitiate : and owing to my favour thou shalt 
feel neither hunger nor thirst, therefore go prosperously and confidently ;" 
having thus spoken, the voice ceased. And Vidii.shaka, when he heard that, 
bowed, adoring the Fire-god, and set forth in high spirits, and on the seventh 
day lie reached the city of Karkotaka. And there he entered a monastery, 
inhabited by many noble Brahmans from various lands!, who were noted 
for hospitality. It was a wealthy foundation of the king of that place 
A'ryavarman, and had annexed to it beautiful temples all made of gold. 
There all of the Brahmans welcomed him, and one Brahman took the guest 
to his chamber, and provided him with a bath, with food and with clothing. 
And while he was living in the monastery, he heard this proclamation being 
made by beat of drum in the evening ; " Whatever Brahman or Kshatriya 
wishes to-morrow morning to marry the Icing's daughter, let him spend a 
night in her chamber." When he heard that, he suspected the real reason, 
and being always fond of daring adventures, he desired immediately to go to 
the apartment of the princess. Thereupon the Brahmans of the m< mastery 
said to him, "Brahman, do not be guilty of rashness. The apartment of 
the princess is not rightly so called, rather is it the open mouth of death,f 
for wluever enters it at night does not escape alive, and many daring men 
have thus met their death there." In spite of what these Brahmans told 
him, Vidushaka would not take their advice,! but went to the palace of the 
king with his servants. There the king A'ryavurman, when he saw him, 

There is probably a pun here. JRdmdrtham may mean " for the sake of a fair 

t I read iia tad for tatra with n ]US. in (In- Sanskrit College. 
J Here there is a pun on Anangu, u name of the Hindu Cupid. 

1 II 

welcomed him in person, and at night he entered the apartment of the 
king's daughter, looking like the sun entering the fire. And he beheld that 
princess who seemed by her appearance to be attached to him, for she look- 
ed at him with tearful eye, and a sad look expressive of the grief produced 
by utter despair. And he remained awake there all night gazing intently, 
holding in his hand the sword of the Fire-god that carne to him with a 
thought. And suddenly he beheld at the entrance a very terrible Ilakshasa, 
extending his left hand because his right had been cut off. And when he 
saw him, he said to himself ; " Here is that very li;ikshasa, whose arm 
I cut off in the city of Paundravardhana. So I will not strike at his arm 
again, lest he should escape me and depart as before, and for this reason it 
is better for me to kill him." Thus reflecting, Vidushaka ran forward and 
seized his hair, and was preparing to cut off his head, when suddenly the 
Raksliasa in extreme terror said to him ; " Do not slay me, you are brave, 
therefore shew mercy." Vidiishaka let him go and said, " Who are you, and 
what are you about here ?" Then the Ilakshasa, bsing thus questioned by 
the hero, continued " My name is Yamadanshtra, and I had two daughters, 
this is one, and she who lives in Paundravardhana is another. And S'iva 
favoured me by laying on me this command ; ' Thou must save the two 
princesses from marrying any one who is not a hero.' While thus engaged 
I first had an arm cut off at Paundravanlhana, and now I have been con- 
quered by you here, so this duty of mine is accomplished." When Vidusha- 
ka heard this, he laughed, and said to him in reply ; " It was I that cut off 
your arm there in Paunclravardhana." The Eakshasa answered " Then you 
must be a portion of some divinity, not a mere man, I think it was for 
your sake that S'iva did me the honour of laying that command upon me. 
So henceforth I consider you my friend, and when you call me to mind I 
will appear to you to ensure your success even in difficulties." In these 
words the Ilakshasa Yamadanshtra out of friendship chose him as a sworn, 
brother, and when Vidushaka accepted his proposal, disappeared. Vidiisha- 
ka, for his part, was commended for his valour by the princess, and spent 
the night there in high spirits ; and in the morning the king hearing of 
the incident and highly pleased, gave him his daughter as the conspicuous 
banner of his valour together with much wealth. Vidushaka lived there 
some nights with her, as if with the goddess of prosperity, bound so firmly 
by his virtue* that she could not move a step. But one night he went off 
of his own accord from that place, longing for his beloved lihadni, for who 
that has tasted heavenly joys, can take pleasure in any other ? And after 
he had left the town, he called to mind that Jlakshasa, and said to him, 
who appeared the moment he called him to mind, and made him a bow, 
" My friend, 1 must go to the land of the Siddhas on the Kastorn mountain 

* Here there is a pun. The word yuya also means i 


for the sake of the Vidyadhari named Bhadra, so do you take me there." 
The Rakshasa said " Very good" so he ascended his shoulder, and travelled 
in that night over sixty yojanas of difficult country ; and in the morning 
he crossed the S'itoda a river that cannot be crossed by mortals, and with- 
out effort reached the border of the land of the Siddhas. The liakshasa 
said to him ; " Here is the blessed mountain, called the mountain of the 
rising sun, in front of you, but I cannot set foot upon it as it is the home 
of the Siddhas." Then the liakshasa being dismissed by him departed, and 
there Vidushaka beheld a delightful lake, and he sat down on the bank of 
that lake beautiful with the faces of full-blown lotuses, which, as it were, 
uttered a welcome to him with the hum of roaming bees. And there he 
saw unmistakeable footsteps as of women, seeming to say to him, this is 
the path to the house of your beloved. While he was thinking to him- 
self " Mortals cannot set foot on this mountain, therefore I had better 
stop here a moment, and see whose footsteps these are" there came to the 
lake to draw water many beautiful women with golden pitchers in their 
bands. So he asked the women, after they had filled their pitchers with 
water, in a courteous manner ; " For whom are you taking this water ?" And 
those women said to him " Excellent Sir, a Vidyadhari of the name of 
Bhadra is dwelling on this mountain, this water is for her to bathe in." 
Wonderful to say ! Providence seeming to be pleased with resolute men, 
who attempt mighty enterprises, makes all things subserve their ends. For 
one of these women suddenly said to Vidushaka ; " Noble sir, please lift this 
pitcher on to my shoulder." He consented and when he lifted the pitcher 
on to her shoulder, the discreet man put into it the jewelled ring he had 
before received from Bhadra,* and then he sat do\vn again on the bank of 
that lake, while those women went with the water to the house of Bhadra. 
And while they were pouring over Bhadra the water of ablution, her ring 
fell into her lap. When Bhadra saw it, she recognized it and asked those 
friends of hers whether they had seen any stranger about. And they gave 
her this answer ; " We saw a young mortal on the banks of the lake, and he 
lifted this pitcher for us." Then Bhadra said " Go and make him bathe and 
adorn himself, and quickly bring him here, for he is my hushand who 
has arrived in this country." When Bhadra had said this, her companions 
went and told Vidushaka the state of the, and after lie had bat hod 
brought him into her presence. And when he arrived, he saw after long 
separation Bhadra who was eagerly expecting him, like the ripe blooming 

* Cp. the way in which Torello informs his wife of hi* presenee in J'.o 
Decameron Xth day Nov. IX. Thr nov. 1> of tin- Xtli day must he derived frm Indian, 
and probahly Huddlii , There i- a I'.uddhistie vein in all of them. A 

striking parallel to the "uh N<>v.-l of the Xth day -will he found further on in this work. 

Cp. also, for the incident of the ring, Thorpe's Yulelido (Stories, p. 1G7. 


fruit of the tree of hi? own valour in visible form : she for her part rose up 
when she saw Lim, and offering him the arglia* so to speak, by sprinkling 
him with her tears of joy, she fastened her twining arms round his neck 
like a garland. When they embraced one another, the long accumulated 
all't'ctionf seemed to ooze from their limbs in the form of sweat, owing to 
excessive pressure. Then they sat down, and never satisfied with gazing 
at one another, they both, as it were, endured tbe agony of longing multi- 
plied a hundred-fold. Bhadra then said to Vidushaka ; " How did you 
come to this land ?" And he thereupon gave her this answer ; " Sup- 
ported by affection for thee, I came here enduring many risks to 
my life, what else can I say, fair one ? When she heard that, see- 
ing that his love was excessive, as it caused him to disregard his 
own life, Bhadra said to him who through affection had endured the utmost, 
" My busband, I care not for my friends, nor my magic powers ; you are my 
life, and I am your slave, my lord, bought by you with your virtues." Then 
Vidushnka said, " Then come with me to live in Uj jayini, my beloved, leaving 
all this heavenly joy." Bhadra immediately accepted his proposal, and gave 
up all her magic gifts, (which departed from her the moment she formed 
that resolution,) with no more regret than if they had been straw. Then 
Vidushaka rested with her there during that night, being waited on by her 
friend Yogesvari, and in the morning the successful hero descended with 
her from the mountain of the sun-rise, and again called to mind the Rak- 
shasa Yamadanshtra ; the Rakshasa came the moment he was thought of, 
and Vidushaka told him the direction of the journey he had to take, and 
then ascended his shoulder, having previously placed Bhadra there. She 
too endured patiently to be placed on the shoulder of a very loathsome 
Kakshasa ; what will not women do when mastered by affection ? So Vidu- 
shaka, mounted on the Rakshasa, set out with his beloved, and again reached 
the city of Karkotaka ; and there men beheld him with fear inspired by 
the sight of the Rakshasa ; and when he saw king A'ryavarman, he demand- 
ed from him his daughter ; and after receiving that princess surrendered 
by her father, whom he had won with his arm, he set forth from that city 
in the same style, mounted on the Rakshasa. And after he had gone some 
distance, he found that wicked merchant on the shore of the sea. who long ago 
cut the ropes when he had been thrown into the sea. And he took, together 
with his wealth, his daughter, whom he had before won as a reward for 
setting free the ship in the sea. And he considered the depriving that 
villain of his wealth as equivalent to putting him to death, for grovelling 
souls often value their hoards more than their life. Then mounted on the 

* An oblation to gods or venerable men of rice, diirvu grass, flowers. A:e., with 
water, or of water only in a small boat-shaped vessel. 
t Sm/tit means oil, and also affeetiuu. 


Rakshasa as on a chariot, taking with him that daughter of the merchant, he 
flew up into the heaven with the princess and Bhadra, and journeying throuo-h 
the air, he crossed the ocean, which like his valour was full of boisterous 
impetuosity, exhibiting it to his fair ones.* And he again reached the city 
of Paundravardhana, beheld witli astonishment by all as he rode on a Rak- 
shasa. There he greeted his wife, the daughter of Devasena, who had long 
desired his arrival, whom he had won by the defeat of the Rakshasa ; and 
though her father tried to detain him, yet longing for his native land, he 
took her also with him, and set out for Ujjayini. And owing to the speed 
of the Rakshasa, he soon reached that cit}', which appeared like his satisfac- 
tion at beholding his home, exhibited in visible form. Tliere Vidushaka 
was seen by the people, perched on the top of that huge Rakshasa, whose 
vast frame was illuminated by the beauty of his wives seated on his shoul- 
der, as the moonf rising over the eastern mountain with gleaming herbs on. 
its summit. The people being astonished and terrified, his father-in-law 
the king A'dityasena came to hear of it, and went out from tha city. 
But Vidushaka, when he saw him, quickly descended from the Rakshasa, 
and after prostrating himself approached the king ; the king too welcomed 
him. Then Vidushaka caused all his wives to come down from the shoulder 
of the Rakshasa, and released him to wander where he would. And after 
that Rakshasa had departed, Vidushaka accompanied by his wives entered 
the king's palace together with the king his father-in-law. There he de- 
lighted by his arrival that first wife of his, the daughter of that king, who 
suffered a long regret for his absence. And when the king said to him ; 
" How did you obtain these wives, and who is that Rakshasa ?" he told him 
the whole story. Then that king pleased with his son-in-law's valour, and 
knowing what it was expedient to do, gave him half his kingdom ; and 
immediately Vidushaka, though a Brahman, became a monarch, with a lofty 
white umbrella and cliowries waving on both sides of him. And then the 
cit} r of Ujjayini was joyful, full of the sound of festive drums and music, 
littering shouts of delight. Thus he obtained the mighty rank of a king, 
and gradually conquered the whole earth, so that his foot was worshipped 
by all kings, and with Bhadra for his consort he long lived in happiness 
with those wives of his, who were content, having abandoned jealousy. Thus 
resolute men when fortune favours them, lind their own valour a great and 
successful stupefying charm that forcibly draws towards them prosperity. 

* Sattva when applied to the ocean probably means " mon the whole 

compound would mean "in which was conspicuous the fury of gambling mon>: 
The pun defies translation. 

f I read a The "Rukshasa is compared to the mountain, Vidushaka to the 

moon, his wives to the gleaming herbs. 


When they heard from the mouth of the king of Vatsa this varied 
tale* full of marvellous incident, all his ministers sitting by his side and 
his two wives experienced excessive delight. 


Then Yaugandharayana said to the king of Vatsa ; " King, it is known 
that you possess the favour of destiny, as well as courage ; and I also have 
taken some trouble about the right course of policy to be pursued in this 
matter : therefore carry out as soon as possible your plan of conquering the 
regions." "When his chief minister had said this to him, the king of Vatsa 
answered, " Admitting that this is true, nevertheless the accomplishment 
of auspicious undertakings is always attended with difficulties, accordingly 
I will with this object propitiate S'iva by 'austerities, for without his favour, 
how can I obtain what I desire ?" When they heard that, his ministers 
approved of his performing austerities, as the chiefs of the monkeys did in 
the case of Rama, when he was intent upon building a bridge over the ocean. 
And after the king had fasted for three nights, engaged in austerities with 
the queens and the ministers, S'iva said to him in a dream " I am satisfied 
witli thee, therefore rise up, thou shalt obtain an unimpeded triumph, and 
shalt soon have a son who shall be king of all the Vidyadharas." Then 
the king woke up, with all his fatigue removed by the favour of S'iva, like 
the new moon increased by the rays of the sun. And in the morning he 
delighted his ministers by telling them that dream, and the two queens, 
tender as flowers, who were worn out by the fasting they had endured to 
fulfil the vow. And they were refreshed by the description of his dream, 
well worthy of being drunk in with the ears, and its effect was like that of 
medicine,t for it restored their strength. The king obtained by his 
austerities a power equal to that of his ancestors, and his wives obtained 
the saintly renown of matrons devoted to their husband. But on the 
morrow when the feast at the end of the fast was celebrated, and the citizens 
were beside themselves with joy, Yaugandharayaua thus addressed the king 

* Thorpe in his Yule-tide Stories remarks that the story of Vidushaka somewhat 
resembles in its ground-plot tho tale of the Beautiful Palaco Ivist of the Sun and North 
of the Earth. With the latter he also compares the story of S'aktivega in tho 5th book 
of the Katha Sarit Sagara. (See tho table of contents of Thorpe's Yule-tide S: 
p. xi.) Cp. also Sicilianischo Miuuhcn, Vol. II, p. I, and for tho cutting off of tho 
giant's arm, p. 50. 

f Perhaps we should read sviidcaushad/ta = sweet medicine. 


" You are fortunate, king, in that the holy god S'iva is so well disposed 
towards you, so proceed now to conquer your enemies, and then enjoy the 
prosperity won by your arm. For when prosperity is acquired by a king's 
own virtues, it remains fixed in his family, for blessings acquired by 
the virtues of the owners are never lost. And for this reason it was that that 
treasure long buried in the ground, which had been accumulated by your 
ancestors and then lost, was recovered by you. Moreover with reference 
to this matter hear the following tale :" 

Long ago there was in the city 

Story of Devadasa. * 

ot Patahputra a certain merchant s 

son, sprung from a rich family, and his name was Devadasa. And he mar- 
ried a wife from the city of Paundravardhana, the daughter of some rich 
merchant. When his father died, Devadasa became in course of time addic- 
ted to vice, and lost all his wealth at play. And then his wife's father came 
and took away to his own house in Paundravardhana his daughter, who was 
distressed by poverty and the other hardships of her lot. Gradually the 
Jiusband began to be afflicted by his misfortunes, and wishing to be set up 
in his business, he came to Paundravardhana to ask his father-in-law to 
lend him the capital which he required. And having arrived in the evening 
at the city of Paundravardhana, seeing that he was begrimed with dust, 
and in tattered garments, he thought to himself, " How can I enter my 
father-in-law's house in this state ? In truth for a proud man death is 
preferable to exhibiting poverty before one's relations." Thus reflecting, 
he went into the market-place, and remained outside a certain shop during 
the night, crouching with contracted body, like the lotus which is folded at 
night. And immediately he saw a certain young merchant open the door 
of that shop and enter it. And a moment after he saw a woman come with 
noiseless step to that same place, and rapidly enter. And while he fixed 
his eyes on the interior of the shop in which a light was burning, he recog- 
nized in that woman his own wife. Then Devadasa seeing that wife of 
his repairing to another man, and bolting the door, being smitten with the 
thunderbolt of grief, thought to himself ; " A man deprived of wealth 
loses even his own body, how then can he hope to retain the affections of 
a woman ? For women have fickleness implanted in their nature by an 
invariable law, like the flashes of lightning. So here I have an instance o 
the misfortunes which befall men who fall into the sea of vice, and of the 
behaviour of an independent woman who lives in her father's house." Thus 
he reflected as he stood outside, and he seemed to himself to hear his wife 
confidentially conversing with her lover. So he applied his ear to the door, 
and that wicked woman was at the moment saying in secret to the mer- 
chant, her paramour ; " Listen ; as I am so fond of you, I will to-day toll 
you a secret ; my husband long ago had a great-grandfather named Viravar- 


man ; in the courtyard of his house he secretly buried in the ground four 
jars of gold, one jar in each of the four corners. And he then informed 
one of his wives of that fact, and his wife at the time of her death told her 
daughter-in-law, she told it to her daughter-in-law who was my mother-in- 
law, and my mother-in-law told it to me. So this is an oral tradition in 
my husband's family, descending through the mothers-in-law. But I did not 
tell it to my husband though he is poor, for he is odious to me as being 
addicted to gambling, but you are above all dear to me. So go to my hus- 
band's town and buy the house from him with money, and after you have 
obtained that gold, come here and live happily with me." When the mer- 
chant, her paramour, heard this from that treacherous woman, he was much, 
pleased with her, thinking that he had obtained a treasure without any 
trouble. Devadasa for his part, who was outside, bore henceforth the hope 
of wealth, so to speak, riveted in his heart with those piercing words of his 
wicked wife. So he went thence quickly to the city of Pataliputra, and 
after reaching his house, he took that treasure and appropriated it. Then 
that merchant, who was in secret the paramour of his wife, arrived in that 
country, on pretence of trading, but in reality eager to obtain the treasure. 
So he bought that house from Devadasa, who made it over to him for a 
large sum of money. Then Devadasa set up another home, and cunningly 
brought back that wife of his from the house of his father-in-law. When 
this had been done, that wicked merchant, who was the lover of his wife, not 
having obtained the treasure, came and said to him ; "This house of yours 
is old, and I do not like it. So give me back my money, and take back 
your own house." Thus he demanded, and Devadasa refused, and being 
engaged in a violent altercation, they both, went before the king. In his 
presence Devadasa poured forth the whole story of his wife, painful to him 
as venom concealed in his breast. Then the king had his wife summoned, 
and after ascertaining the truth of the case, he punished that adulterous 
merchant with the loss of all his property ; Devadasa for his part cut off 
the nose of that wicked wife, and married another, and then lived happily 
in his native city on the treasure he had obtained. 

" Thus treasure obtained by virtuous methods is continued to a man's 
posterity, but treasure of another kind is as easily melted away as a flake of 
snow when the rain begins to fall. Therefore a man should endeavour to 
obtain wealth by lawful methods, but a king especially, since wealth is the 
root of the tree of empire. So honour all your ministers according to 
custom in order that you may obtain success, and then accomplish the con- 
quest of the regions, so as to gain opulence in addition to virtue. For out 
of regard to the fact that you are allied by marriage with your two power- 
ful fathers-in-law, few kings will oppose you, most will join you. However, 
this king of Benares named Brahmadatta is always your enemy, therefore 


conquer him first ; when he is conquered, conquer the eastern quarter, and 
gradually all the quarters, and exalt the glory of the race of Pandu gleam- 
ing white like a lotus." When his chief minister said this to him, the king 
of Vatsa consented, eager for conquest, and ordered his subjects to prepare 
for the expedition ; and he gave the sovereignty of the country of Videha 
to his brother-in-law Gopalaka, by way of reward for his assistance, thereby 
shewing his knowledge of policy ; and he gave to Sinhavarman the brother 
of Padmavati, who came to his assistance with his forces, the land of 
Chedi, treating him with great respect ; and the monarch summoned Pulin- 
daka the friendly king of the Bhillas,* who filled the quarters with his 
hordes, as the rainy season fills them with clouds ; and while the prepara- 
tion for the expedition was going on in the great king's territories, a 
strange anxiety was produced in the heart of his enemies ; but Yaugandha- 
rayana first sent spies to Benares to find out the proceedings of king Brah- 
madatta ; then on an auspicious day, being cheered with omens portending 
victory, the king of Vatsa first marched against Brahmadatta in the Eastern 
quarter, having mountedf a tall victorious elephant, with a lofty umbrella 
on its back, as a furious lion ascends a mountain with one tree in full bloom 
on it. And his expedition was facilitated J by the autumn which arrived as 
a harbinger of good fortune, and shewed him an easy path, across rivers 
flowing with diminished volume, and he filled the face of the land with his 
shouting forces, so as to produce the appearance of a sudden rainy season 
without clouds ; and then the cardinal points resounding with the echoes 
of the roaring of his host, seemed to be telling one another their fears of 
his coming, and his horses, collecting the brightness of the sun on their 
golden trappings, moved along followed, as it were, by the fire pleased with 
the purification of his army. 

And his elephants with their ears like white clioicries, and with streams 
of ichor flowing from their temples reddened by being mixed with vermi- 
lion, appeared, as he marched along, like the sons of the mountains, streaked 
with white clouds of autumn, and pouring down streams of water coloured 
with red mineral, sent by the parent hills, in their fear, to join his expedi- 
tion. And the dust from the earth concealed the brightness of the sun, 
as if thinking that the king could not endure the effulgent splendour of 
rivals. And the two queens followed the king step by step on the \vav, 
like the goddess of Fame, and the Fortune of Victory, attracted by his 

* I. y., Bheels. 
t I road drudhah. 

J A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads samlharah for the sampadah of Dr. Brock- 
haus's text. 

Luftratio exereitus ; waving lights formed part of the ceremony. 


politic virtues.* The silk of his host's banners, tossed to and fro in the 
wind, seemed to say to his enemies, " Bend in submission, or flee." Thus 
be marched, beholding the districts full of blown white lotuses, like the up- 
lifted hoods of the serpent S'eshaf terrified with fear of the destruction of 
the world. In the meanwhile those spies, commissioned by Yaugandhara- 
yana, assuming the vows of scull-bearing worshippers of Siva, reached the 
city of Benares. And one of them, who was acquainted with the art of jug- 
gling, exhibiting his skill, assumed the part of teacher, and the others passed 
themselves off as his pupils. And they celebrated that pretended teacher, 
who subsisted on alms, from place to place, saying, " This master of ours 
is acquainted with past, present, and future." Whatever that sage pre- 
dicted, in the way of fires and so on, to those who came to consult him about 
the future, his pupils took care to bring about secretly ; so he became 
famous. He gained complete ascendancy over the mind of a certain Raj- 
put courtier there, a favourite of the king's, who was won over by this 
mean skill of the teacher's. And when the war with the king of Vatsa 
came on, the king Brahmadatta began to consult him by the agency of the 
Rajput, so that he learnt the secrets of the government. Then the minis- 
ter of Brahmadatta, Yogakarandaka, laid snares in the path of the king of 
Vatsa as he advanced. He tainted, by means of poison and other delete- 
rious substances, the trees, flowering creepers, water and grass all along the 
line of march. And he sent poison-damsels;]; as dancing girls among the 
enemy's host, and he also despatched nocturnal assassins into their midst. 
But that spy, who had assumed the character of a prophet, found all this 
out, and then quickly informed Yaugandharayana of it by means of his 
companions. Yaugandharayana for his part, when he found it out, purified 
at every step along the line of march the poisoned grass, water, and so on, 
by means of corrective antidotes, and forbade in the camp the society of 
strange women, and with the help of Rumanvat he captured and put to 
death those assassins. When he heard of that, Brahmadatta having found 
all his stratagems fail, came to the conclusion that the king of Vatsa, who 
filled with his forces the whole country, was hard to overcome. After deli- 
berating and sending an ambassador, he came in person to the king of 
Vatsa who was encamped near, placing his clasped hands upon his head in 
token of submission. 

* It also means " drawing cords." 

t He is sometimes represented as bearing the entire world on one of his heads. 

J One of these poison-damsels is represented as having been employed against 
Chandragupta in the Mudru liak--liasa. Compare the Xlth tale in the Gesta Romano- 
rum, where an Indian queen sends one to Alexander the Great. Aristotle frustrates 
the stratagem. 


The king of Vatsa for his part, when the king of Benares came to 
him, bringing a present, received him with respect and kindness, for heroes 
love submission. He being thus subdued, that mighty king went on 
pacifying the East, making the yielding bend, but extirpating the obstinate, 
as the wind treats the trees, until he reached the Eastern ocean, rolling: 

/ 7 O 

with quivering waves, as it were, trembling with terror on account of the 
Ganges having been conquered. On its extreme shore he set up a pillar of 
victory,* looking like the king of the serpents emerging from the world 
below to crave immunity for Patala. Then the people of Kalingaf sub- 
mitted and paid tribute, and acted as the king's guides, so that the renown 
of that renowned one ascended the mountain of Mahendra. Having con- 
quered a forest of kings by means of his elephants, which seemed like the 
peaks of the Vindhya come to him terrified at the conquest of Mahendra, 
he went to the southern quarter. There he made his enemies cease their 
threatening murmurs and take to the mountains, strengthlessj and pale, 
treating them as the season of autumn, treats the clouds. The Kaveri 
being crossed by him in his victorious onset, and the glory of the king of 
the Chola race being surpassed, were befouled at the same time. He no 
longer allowed the ]VIuralas|| to exalt their heads, for they were completely 
beaten down by tributes imposed on them. Though his elephants drank 
the waters of the Godavari divided into seven streams, they seemed to 
discharge them again seven-fold in the form of ichor. Then the king cross- 
ed the Eeva and reached Ujjayini, and entered the city, being made by king 
Chandamahasena to precede him. And there he became the target of the 
amorous sidelong glances of the ladies of Malava, who shine with twofold 
beauty by loosening their braided hair and wearing garlands, and he remain- 
ed there in great comfort, hospitably entertained by his father-in-law, so 

* Jayastambha. "Wilson remarks that the erection of these columns is often alluded 
to by Hindu writers, and explains the character of the solitary columns which are some- 
times met with, as the Lat at Delhi, the pillars at Allahabad, Buddal, &c. 

t Kalinga is usually described as extending from Orissa to Dravida or below 
Madras, the coast of the Northern Circars. It appears, however, to be sometimes the 
Delta of the Ganges. It was known to the ancients as Regio Calingarum, and is fami- 
liar to the natives of the Eastern Archipelago by the name of Kling. Wilson. 

t The clouds are nihsdra void of substance, as being no longer heavy with rain. 
The thunder ceases in the autumn. 

Chola was the sovereignty of the western part of the Peninsula on the Carnatic, 
extending southwards to Tanjore where it was bounded by the Paudyan kingdom. It 
appears to have been the regio Soretanum of Ptolemy and the Chola mandala or 
district furnishes the modern appellation of the Coromandcl Coast. Wilson, Essays, 
p. 241 note. 

|| Murala is another name fur Kerala now Malabar (Hall.) Wilson identities it 
with the Curula of Ptolemy. 


that he even forgot the long-regretted enjoyments of his native land. And 
Vasavadatta was continually at her parents' side, remembering her child- 
hood, seeming despondent even in her happiness. The king Chandamaha- 
sena was as much delighted at meeting Padmavati, as he was at meeting 
again his own daughter. But after he had rested some days, the delighted 
king of Vatsa, reinforced hy the troops of his father-in-law, marched to- 
wards the western region ; his curved sword* was surely the smoke of the 
fire of his valour, since it dimmed with gushing tears the eyes of the 
women of Lata ; the mountain of Mandara, when its woods were broken 
through by his elephants, seemed to tremble lest he should root it up to 
churn the sea.f Surely he was a splendid luminary excelling the sun and 
other orbs, since in his victorious career he enjoyed a glorious rising even 
in the western quarter. Then he went to Alaka, distinguished by the 
presence of Kuvera, displaying its beauties before him, that is to say, to 
the quarter made lovely by the smile of Kailasa, and having subdued the 
king of Sindh, at the head of his cavalry he destroyed the Mlechchhas as 
Raina destroyed the Kakshasas at the head of the army of monkeys ; the 
cavalry squadrons of the TurushkasJ were broken on the masses of his 
elephants, as the waves of the agitated sea on the woods that line the sea- 
shore. The august hero received the tribute of his foes, and cut off the 
head of the wicked king of the Parasikas as Vishnu did that of Kahu.|| 
His glory, after he had inflicted a defeat on the Hunas^f, made the four 
quarters resound, and poured down the Himalaya like a second Ganges. 
When the hosts of the monarch, whose enemies were still from fear, were 
shouting, a hostile answer was heard only in the hollows of the rocks. It 
is not strange that then the king of Kamarupa,** bending before him with 
head deprived of the umbrella, was without shade and also without bright- 
ness. Then that sovereign returned, followed by elephants presented by 
the king of Kamarupa, resembling moving rocks made over to him by the 
mountains by way of tribute. Having thus conquered the earth, the king 
of Vatsa with his attendants reached the city of the king of Magadha the 
father of Padmavati. But the king of Magadha, when he arrived with the 
queens, was as joyous as the god of love when the moon illuminates the 
night. Vasavadatta, who had lived with him before without being recog- 

* Or perhaps more literally " creeper- like sword." 

t It had been employed for this purpose by the gods and Asunis. Lata = tho 
Larice of Ptolemy. ( Wilson.) 

% Turks, the Indo-scythso of the ancients. ( Wilson.) 


|| A Daitya or demon. His head swallows the sun and moon. 

H Perhaps tho Huns. 

** Tho western portion of Assam. (Wilson.) 


nised, was now made known to him, and lie considered her deserving of the 
highest regard. 

Then that victoi'ious king of Vatsa, having been honoured by the king 
of Magadha with his whole city, followed by the minds of all the people 
which pursued him out of affection, having swallowed the surface of the 
earth ,vith his mighty army, returned to Lavanaka in his own dominions. 


Then the king of Vatsa, while encamped in Lavanaka to rest his army, 
said in secret to Yaugandharayana, " Through your sagacity I have con- 
quered all the kings upon the earth, and they being won over by politic 
devices will not conspire against me. But this king of Benares, Brahma- 
datta, is an ill-conditioned fellow, and he alone, I think, will plot against 
me ; what confidence can be reposed in the wicked-minded ?" Then Yaugan- 
dharayana, being spoken to in this strain by the king, answered, " O king, 
Brahmadatta will not plot against you again, for when he was conquered 
and submitted, you shewed him great consideration ; and what sensible man 
will injure one who treats him well ? Whoever does, will find that it turns 
out unfortunately for himself, and on this point, listen to what I am going 
to say ; I will tell you a tale." 

There was once on a time in the 
Story of Phalaohuti. 

land of Padma an excellent Brah- 
man of high renown, named Agnidatta, who lived on a grant of land given 
by the king. He had born to him two sons, the elder named Somadatta, 
and the second Vaisvanaradatta. The elder of them was of fine person, but 
ignorant, and ill-conducted, but the second was sagacious, well-con- 
ducted, and fond of study. And those two after they were married, 
and their father had died, divided that royal grant and the rest of 
his possessions between them, each taking half ; and the younger of 
the two was honoured by the king, but the elder Somadatta, who was 
of unsteady character, remained a husbandman. One day a Brah- 
man, who had been a friend of his lather's, seeing him engaged in conversa- 
tion with some Sfudras, thus addressed him, " Though you are the son of 
Agnidatta, you behave like a S'udra, you blockhead, and you are not asham- 
ed, though you see your own brother in favour with the king." Somadatta, 
when he heard that, Hew into a passion, and forgetting the respect due to 
the old man, ran upon him, and gave him a kick. Then the Uralnnan, 
enraged on account of the kick, immediately called on some other Bruhmans 


to bear witness to it, and went and complained to the king. The king sent 
out soldiers to take Somadatta prisoner, but they, when they went out, were 
slain by his friends, who had taken up arms. Then the king sent out a 
second force, and captured Somadatta, and blinded by wrath ordered him to 
be impaled. Then that Brahman, as he was being lifted on to the stake, 
suddenly fell to the ground, as if he were flung down by somebody. And 
those executioners, when preparing to lift him on again, became blind, for 
the fates protect one who is destined to be prosperous. The king, as soon 
as he heard of the occurrence, was pleased, and being entreated by the 
younger brother, spared the life of Somadatta ; then Somadatta, having 
escaped death, desired to go to another land with his wife on account of the 
insulting treatment of the king, and when his relations in a body disapproved 
of his departure, he determined to live without the half of the king's grant, 
which he resigned ; then, finding no other means of support, he desired to 
practise husbandry, and went to the forest on a lucky day to find a piece of 
ground suitable for it. There he found a promising piece of ground, from 
which it seemed likely that an abundant crop could be produced, and ia 
the middle of it he saw an Asvattha tree of great size. Desiring ground 
fit for cultivation, and seeing that tree to be cool like the rainy season, as 
it kept off the rays of the sun with its auspicious thick shade, he was much 
delighted. He said, " I am a faithful votary of that being, whoever he may 
be, that presides over this tree," and walking round the tree so as to ksep it 
on his right, he bowed before it. Then he yoked a pair of bullocks, and 
recited a prayer for success, and after making an oblation to that tree, he 
began to plough there. And he remained under that tree night and day, 
and his wife always brought him his meals there. And in course of time, 
when the corn was ripe that piece of ground was, as fate would have it, 
unexpectedly plundered by the troops of a hostile kingdom. Then the hos- 
tile force having departed, the courageous man, though his corn was 
destroyed, comforted his weeping wife, gave her the little that remained, 
and after making an offering as before, remained in the same place, 
tinder the same tree. Tor that is the character of resolute men, that 
their perseverance is increased by misfortune. Then one night, when he 
was sleepless from anxiety and alone, a voice came out from that 
Asvattha tree, " Somadatta, I am pleased with thee, therefore go to the 
kingdom of a king named A'dityaprabha in the land of S'rikantha ; conti- 
nually repeat at the door of that king, (after reciting the form of words 
used at the evening oblation to Agni,) the following sentence ' I am Phala- 
bluiti by name, a Brahman, hear what I say : he who doas good will obtain 
good, and he who does evil, will obtain evil ;' by repeating this there thou 
shalt attain great prosperity ; and now learn from me the form of words 

l :> I- 

used at the evening oblation to Agni ; lama Yaksha." Having said this, 
and having immediately taught him by his power the form of words used 
in the evening oblation, the voice in the tree ceased. And the next morning 
the wise Somadatta set out with his wife, having received the name of 
Phalabhiiti by imposition of the Yaksha, and after crossing various forests 
uneven and labyrinthine as his own calamities,* he reached the land of 
S'rikantha. There he recited at the king's door the form of words used at 
the evening oblation, and then he announced, as he had been directed, his 
name as Phalabhiiti, and uttered the following speech which excited the 
curiosity of the people, " The doer of good will obtain good, but the doer 
of evil, evil." And after he had said this frequently, the king A'ditya- 
prabha, being full of curiosity, caused Phalabhiiti to be brought into the 
palace, and he entered, and over and over again repeated that same speech in 
the presence of the king. That made the king and all his courtiers laui^h. 
And the king and his chiefs gave him garments and ornaments, and also 
villages, for the amusement of great men is not without fruit ; and so 
Phalabhiiti, having been originally poor, immediately obtained by the favour 
of the Guhyakaf wealth bestowed by the king ; and by continually reciting 
the words mentioned above, he became a special favourite of the monarch 
for the regal mind loves diversion. And gradually he attained to a 
position of love and respect in the palace, in the kingdom, and in the 
female apartments, as being beloved by the king. One day that king 
A'dityaprabha returned from hunting in the forest, and quickly entered his 
harem ; his suspicions were aroused by the confusion of the warders, and 
when he entered, he saw the queen named Kuvalayavali engaged in wor- 
shipping the gods, stark naked, J with her hair standing on end, and her 
eyes half-closed, with a large patch of red lead upon her forehead, with her 
lips trembling in muttering charms, in the midst of a great circle strewed 
with various coloured powders, after offering a horrible oblation of blood, 
spirits, and human flesh. She for her part, when the king entered, in her 
confusion seized her garments, and when questioned by him immediately 
answered, after craving pardon for what she had done, ' ; I have gone through 
this ceremony in order that you might obtain prosperity, and now, my lord, 

* I here read durdasah for the durdarsdh of Dr. Brockhaus' text. It must be a 
misprint. A MS. in tin San-krit College reads durdas'dh. 

f The Guhyakas are demi-gods, attendants upon Kuvcra and guardians of his 

\ Literally having the cardinal points as her only garment. 

For the circle cp. Jinny VI. I 'art II. Act I, Sc. IV, line 25 and Henry V. 
Act V, Sc. 2, line 420. " If you would mnjmv. you must make a cirri, ." fcW also 
Ralston' s Russian Folk-Tak.-, p. T t . \\i -hi unit's Wendisdu' Sa-. n, pp. i><>2, 30'2, 

Ijsten to the way in which I learnt these rites, and the secret of my magic 

Story of Euvalaydvali and the witch Long ago, when I was living in 

Edlardtri. tny father's house, I was thus ad- 

dressed, while enjoying myself in the garden during the spring festival, by 
my friends who met me there ; " There is in this pleasure-garden an ima^e 
of Ganesa, the god of gods, in the middle of an arbour made of trees, and 
that image grants boons, and its power has been tested. Approach with 
devout faith that granter of petitions, and worship him, in order that you 
may soon obtain without difficulty a suitable husband." When I heard that 
I asked my friends in my ignorance ; " What ! do maidens obtain husbands 
by worshipping Ganesa ?" Then they answered me ; " Why do you ask 
such a question ? Without worshipping him no one obtains any success 
in this world ; and in proof of it we will' give you an instance of his power, 
listen." Saying this, my friends told me the following tale: 

Long ago, when Indra oppressed 
Story of the birth of Kdrtikeya. . m , . . 

by laraka was desirous or obtaining 

a son from S'iva to act as general of the gods, and the god of love had been 
consumed,* Gauri by performing austerities sought and gained as a husband 
the three-eyed god, who was engaged in a very long and terrible course of 
mortification. Then she desired the obtaining of a son, and the return to 
life of the god of love, but she did not remember to worship Ganesa in 
order to gain her end. So, when his beloved asked that her desire should be 
granted, S'iva said to her, " My dear goddess, the god of love was born long 
ago from the mind of Brahma, and no sooner was he born than he said in 
his insolence, 'Whom shall I make mad? (kan darpayami) .' So Brahma 
called him Kandarpa, and said to him, 'Since thou art very confident, my son, 
avoid attacking S'iva only, lest thou receive death from him.' Though 
the Creator gave him this warning, the ill-disposed god came to trouble my 
austerities, therefore he was burnt up by me, and he cannot be created attain 
with his body.f But I will create by my power a son from you, for I do 
not require the might of love in order to have offspring as mortals do." 
While the god, whose ensign is a bull, J was saying this to Parvati, Brahma 
accompanied by Indra appeared before him ; and when he had been praised 
by them, and entreated to bring about the destruction of the AsuraTuraka, 
S'iva consented to beget on the goddess a son of his body. And. at their 
entreaty, he consented that the god of love shpuld be born without body in 

* i. e. by the fire of S'iva's eye. 

t Perhaps we ought to read sadehaisi/a. I find this reading in a MS. 1. 
the librarian of the Sanskrit College with lh<; kind prniii.-<.>ii'n <>!' tie 
i t. e. S'iva. 


the minds of animate creatures, to prevent the destruction of created beings, 
And he gave permission to love to influence his own mind ; pleased with 
that, the Creator went away and Parvati was delighted. But when, after 
the lapse of hundreds of years, there appeared no hope of Parvati having 
any offspring, the god by the order of Brahma called to mind Agni ; 
Agni for his part, the moment they called him to mind, thinking that the 
foe of the god of love was irresistible, and afraid to interfere, fled from the 
gods and entered the water ; but the frogs being burned by his heat told 
the gods, who were searching for him, that he was in the water ; then Agni 
by his curse immediately made the speech of the frogs thenceforth inarticulate, 
and again disappearing fled to a place of refuge. There the gods found 
him. concealed in the trunk of a tree, in the form of a snail, for he was betrayed 
by the elephants and parrots, and he appeared to them. And after making 
by a curse the tongues of the parrots and the elephants incapable of clear 
utterance, he promised to do what the gods requested, having been praised 
by them. So he went to S'iva, and after inclining humbly before him, 
through fear of being cursed, he informed him of the commission the gods 
had given him. S'iva thereupon deposited the embryo in the fire. Then 
the goddess distracted with anger and grief, said, " I have not obtained a son 
from you after all," and S'iva said to her ; "An obstacle has arisen in this 
matter, because you neglected to worship Ganesa, the lord of obst. 
therefore adore him now in order that a child may be born to us of the fire." 
"When thus addressed by S'iva, the goddess worshipped Ganesa, and the fire 
became pregnant with that germ of S'iva. Then, bearing that embryo of 
S'iva, the fire shone even in the day as if the sun had entered into it. And 
then it discharged into the Ganges the germ difficult to bear, and the 
Ganges, by the order of S'iva, placed it in a sacrificial cavity on mount 
Meru.* There that germ was watched by the Ganas, Siva's attend 
and after a thousand years had developed it, it became a boy with six f 
Then, drinking milk with his six mouths from the breasts of the six Kritti- 
k;isf appointed by Gauri to nurse him, the boy grew big in a few days. In 
the meanwhile, the king of the gods, overcome by the Asura Taruka, lied to 
the difficult peaks of mount Meru, abandoning the field of battle. And the 
gods together with the llishis went to the six-mouthed Kartikeva fur pro- 
tection, and he, defending the gods, remained surrounded by them. When 
Indra heard that, he was troubled, considering that his kingdom was taken 
from him, and being jealous he went and made war upon K.irtikeya. But 

* In this wild 1 milling one in the first book of th<' IMm:iy:mn, I have 

omitted some details I'm- reasons which will Lo obvious to those who read it in the ori- 

f 1. 1. tl. los. 


from the body of Kartikeya, when struck by the thunderbolt of Indra, there 
sprang two sons called S'akha and Yisaklia, botli of incomparable 
might. Then Siva, came to his offspring Kartikeya, who exceeded 
Indra in might, and forbade him and his two sons to fight, and rebuk- 
ed him in the following words : " Thou wast born in order that thou 
mightest slay Taraka and protect the realm of Indra, therefore do thy 
own duty." Then Indra was delighted and immediately bowed 
before him, and commenced the ceremony of consecrating by ablu- 
tions Kartikeya as general of his forces. But when he himself lift- 
ed the pitcher for that purpose, his arm became stiff, wherefore he 
was despondent, but S'iva said to him ; " Thou didst not worship the 
elephant-faced god, when thou desiredst a general ; it was for this reason 
that thou hast met with this obstacle, therefore adore him now." Indra, 
when he heard that, did so, and his arm was set free, and he duly performed 
the joyful ceremony of consecrating the general. And not long after, the 
general slew the Asura Taraka, and the gods rejoiced at having accom- 
plished their object, and Gauri at having obtained a son. So, princess, you 
see even the gods are not successful without honouring Ganesa, therefore 
adore him when you desire a blessing. 

After hearing this from my companions I went, my husband, and 
worshipped an image of Ganesa, that stood in a lonely part of the garden, 
and after I had finished the worship, I suddenly saw that those companions 
of mine had flown up by their own power and were disporting themselves 
in the fields of the air ; when I saw that, out of curiosity I called them 
and made them come down from the heaven, and when I asked them about 
the nature of their magic power, they immediately gave me this answer ; 
" These are the magic powers of witches' spells, and they are due to the eating 
of human flesh, and our teacher in this is a Brahman woman known by the 
name of. Kalaratri." When my companions said this to me, I being desir- 
ous of acquiring the power of a woman that can fly in the air, but afraid of 
eating human Hush, was for a time in a state of hesitation ; then eager to 
possess that power, I said to those friends of mine, " Cause me also to be 
instructed in this science." And immediately they went and brought, in 
accordance with my request, Kalar.-itri, who was of repulsive appearance. 
Her eyebrows met,* she had dull eyes, a depressed flat nose, large ch< 
widely parted lips, projecting teeth, a long neck, pendulous breasts, a large 
belly, and broad expanded feet. She appeared as if the creator had made 
her as a specimen of his skill in producing ugliness. When I fell at her 

* Mr. Tylor (in his Primitive Culture, Vol. II, p. 176) speakim* of Sla\ 
superstitions, says, " A man whose eyebrows meet as if his soul were taking flight to 
enter some other body, may be marked by this si^u cither us a were-wolf or a vampire." 


feet, after bathing and worshipping Ganesa, she made me take off my clothes 
and perform, standing in a circle, a horrible ceremony in honour of S'iva in 
his terrific form, and after she had sprinkled me with water, she gave me 
various spells known to her, and human flesh to eat that had been offered 
in sacrifice to the gods ; so, after I had eaten man's flesh and had received 
the various spells, I immediately flew up, naked as I was, into the heaven 
with my friends, and after I had amused myself, I descended from the 
heaven by command of my teacher, and I, the princess, went to my own 
apartments. Thus even in my girlhood I became one of the society of 
witches, and in our meetings we devoured the bodies of many men. 

But listen, king, to a story which 
Story of StunJaraJca. j ,. " 

is a digression from my main tale. 

That Kalaratri had for husband a Brahman of the name of Vishnusvamin, 
and he, being an instructor in that country, taught many pupils who came 
from different lands, as he was skilful in the exposition of the Vedas. And 
among his pupils he had one young man of the name of Sundaraka, the 
beauty of whose person was set off by his excellent character ; one day the 
teacher's wife Kalaratri being love-sick secretly courted him, her husband 
having gone away to some place or other. Truly Love makes great sport 
with ugly people as his laughing-stocks, in that she, not considering her 
own appearance, fell in love with Sundaraka. But he, though tempted, 
detested with his whole soul the crime ; however women may misbehave, 
the mind of the good is not to be shaken. Then, he having departed, 
Kalaratri in a rage tore her own body with bites and scratches, and she 
remained weeping,* with dress and locks disordered, until the teacher 
Vishnusvamin entered the house. And when he had entered, she said to 
him, " Look, my Lord, to this state has Sundaraka reduced me, endeavour- 
ing to gain possession of me by force." As soon as the teacher heard 
that, he was inflamed with anger, for confidence in women robs even wise 
men of their power of reflection ; and when Sundaraka returned home at 
night, lie ran upon him, and he and his pupils kicked him, and struck him 
with lists, and sticks ; moreover when he was senseles* with the blows, he 
ordered his pupils to. fling him out in the road by night, without regard to 
his safety, and they did so. Then Sundaraka was gradually restored to 
consciousness by (he cool night breeze, and seeing himself thus outraged he 
reflected, " Alas ! the instigation of a woman troubles tin- minds even of those 
men whose souls are not under the dominion of passion, as a storm disturbs 
the repose of lakes which are not reached by clust.f This is why that 
teacher of mine in the excess of his anger, though old and wise, was so in- 

* I rcinl ' 

f rajas in Sanskrit mi'iin* ilu.-l and also passion. 


considerate as to treat me so cruelly. But the fact is, lust and wrath are 
appointed in the dispensation of fate, from the very birth even of wiseBnih- 
inans, to be the two bolts on the door of their salvation.* For were not the 
sages long ago angry with Siva in the devaddru-wooA, being afraid that 
their wives would go astray ? And they did not know that he was a god, 
as he had assumed the appearance of a Buddhist mendicant, with the inten- 
tion of shewing Um;i that even Rishis do not possess self-restraint. But 
after they had cursed him, they discovered that he was the ruling god, that 
shakes the three worlds, and they fled to him for protection. So it appears 
that even hermits injure others, when beguiled by the six faults that are 
enemies of man,f lust, wrath, and their crew, much more so Brahmans 
learned in the Vedas." Thinking thus, Sundaraka from fear of robbers 
during the night, climbed up and took shelter in a neighbouring cow- 
house. And while he was crouching unobserved in a corner of that cow- 
house, Kalaratri came into it with a drawn sword in her hand, terrible 
from the hissing she uttered, with wind and flames issuing from her 
mouth and eyes, accompanied by a crowd of witches. Then the terrified 
Sundaraka, beholding Kalaratri arriving in such a guise, called to mind 
the spells that drive away Hakshasas, and bewildered by these spells 
Kalaratri did not see him crouching secretly in a corner, with his limbs 
drawn together from fear. Then Kalaratri with her friends recited the 
spells that enable witches to fly, and they flew up into the air, cow-house 
and all. 

And Sundaraka heard the spell and remembered it ;J but Kalaratri 
with the cow-house quickly flew through the air to Ujjayinf : there she 
made it descend by a spell in a garden of herbs, and went and spor- 
ted in the cemetery among the witches : and immediately Sundaraka being 
hungry went down into the garden of herbs, and made a meal on some 
roots which he dug up, and after he had allayed the pangs of hunger, and 
returned as before to the cow-house, Kalaratri came back in the middle of 
the night from her meeting. Then she got up into the cow-house, and, 
just as before, she flew through the air with her pupils by the power of her 
magic, and returned home in the night. And after she had replaced the 
cow-house, which she made use of as a vehicle, in its original situation, and 
had dismissed those followers of hers, she entered her sleeping apartment. 
And Sundaraka, having thus passed through that night, astonished at the 

* i. e. immunity from future births. 

t t. e. desire, wrath, covetousness, bewilderment, pride and envy. 
% See Weckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 289, where a young man over! 
with similar iViiults. 


troubles he had undergone, in the morning left the cow-house and went to 
his friends ; there he related what had happened to him, and, though desir- 
ous of going to some other country, he was comforted by those friends and 
took up bis abode among them, and leaving the dwelling of his teacher, and 
taking his meals in the almshouse for Brahmans, he lived there enjoying 
himself at will in the society of his friends. One day Kalaratri, having 
gone out to buy some necessaries for her house, saw Sundaraka in the mar- 
ket. And being once more love-sick, she went up to him and said to him 
a second time " Sundaraka, shew me affection even now. for my life de- 
pends on you." When she said this to him, the virtuous Sundaraka said 
to her, " Do not speak thus, it is not right ; you are my mother, as 
being the wife of my teacher." Then Kalaratri said; "If you know 
what is right, then grant me my life, for what righteousness is greater 
than the saving of life ?" Then Sundaraka said " Mother, do not en- 
tertain this wish, for what righteousness can there be in approaching 
the bed of my preceptor." Thus repulsed by him, and threatening him 
in her wrath, she went home, after tearing her upper garment with her 
own hand, and shewing the garment to her husband, she said to him, 
" Look, Sundaraka ran upon me, and tore this garment of mine in this 
fashion ;" so her husband went in his anger and stopped Sundaraka's sup- 
ply of food at the almshouse, by saying that he was a felon who deserved 
death. Then Sundaraka in disgu.>t, being desirous of leaving that country, 
and knowing the spell for flying up into the air which he had learnt in the 
cow-house, but being conscious that he had forgotten, after hearing it, the 
spell for descending from the sky, which he had been taught there also, 
a^ain went in the night to that deserted cow-house, and while he was there, 
Kalaratri came as before, and flying up in the cow-house in the same way 
as on the former occasion, travelled through the air to Ujjayini, and having 
made the cow-house descend by a spell in the garden of herbs, went again 
to the cemetery to perform her nightly ceremonies. 

And Sundaraka heard that spell again, but failed again to retain it; 
for how can magic practices be thoroughly learnt without explanation by a 
teacher? Then he ate some roots there, and put some others in the cow- 
house to take away with him, and remained there as before ; then Kalaratri 
came, and climbing up into the cow-house, flew through the air by night, 
and stopping the vehicle, entered her house. In the morning Sundaraka 
also left that house, and taking the roots with him he went to the market 
in order to procure money with which to purchase food. And while he 
was selling them there, some servants of the king's, who were natives of 
Malava, took them away without paying for them, seeing that they 
the produce of their own country. Then he began to remonstrate angrily, 
so they manacled him, and took him before the king on a charge of throwing 


stones at them, and his friends followed him. Those villains said to the 
king" This man, when we asked him how he managed continually to 
bring roots from Malava and sell them in Ujjayini, would not give us any 
answer, on the contrary he threw stones at us." 

When the king heard this, he asked him about that marvel,* then his 
friends said " If he is placed on the palace with us, he will explain the 
whole wonder, but not otherwise." The king consented, and Sundaraka 
was placed on the palace, whereupon by the help of the spell he suddenly 
flew up into the heaven with the palace. _ And travelling on it with his 
friends, he gradually reached Prayaga,f and being now weary he saw a cer- 
tain king bathing there, and after stopping the palace there, he plunged 
from the heaven into the Ganges, and, beheld with wonder by all, he 
approached that king. The king inclining before him, said to him, " Who 
art thou, and why hastthou descended from heaven ?" Sundaraka answered, 
" I am an attendant of the god S'iva, named Murajaka, and by his command 
I have come to thee desiring human pleasures." When the king heard this, 
he supposed it was true, and gave him a city, rich in corn, filled with jewels, 
witli women and all the insignia of rank. Then Sundaraka entered that 
city and flew up into the heaven with his followers, and for a long time 
roamed about at will, free from poverty. L} r ing on a golden bed, and fan- 
ned with cliowries by beautiful women, he enjoyed happiness like that of 
Indra. Then once on a time a Siddha, that roamed in the air, with whom he 
had struck up a friendship, gave him a spell for descending from the air, 
and Sundaraka, having become possessed of this spell enabling him to come 
down to earth, descended from the sky-path in his own city of Kanya- 
kubja. Then the king hearing that he had come down from heaven, pos- 
sessed of full prosperity, with a city, went in person to meet him out of 
curiosity, and Sundaraka, when recognized and questioned, knowing what to 
say on all occasions, informed the king of all his own adventures brought 
about by Kalaratri. Then the king sent for Kalaratri and questioned her, 
and she fearlessly confessed her improper conduct, and the king was angry 
and made up his mind to cut off her ears, but she, when seized, disappeared 
before the eyes of all the spectators. Then the king forbade her to live in 
his kingdom, and Suudaraka having been honourably treated by him return- 
ed to the air. 

Having said this to her husband the king Adityaprabha, the queen 
Kuvalaydvali went on to say; "King, such magic powers, produced 
by the spells of witches, do exist, and this thing happened in my 
father's kingdom, and it is famous in the world, and, as 1 told you at first, 
I am a pupil of Kalaratri's, but because I am devoted to my husband, I 

* I read tan tail. 

t Called more usually by Engli \lluhubuJ. 

possess greater power even than she did. And to-day you saw me just at 
the time when I had performed ceremonies to ensure your welfare, and was 
endeavouring to attract by a spell a man to offer as a victim. So do you 
enter now into our practice, and set your foot on the head of all kings, 
conquering them by magic power. When he heard this proposal, the king 
at iirst rejected it, saying, " What propriety is there in a king's connect- 
ing himself with the eating of human flesh, the practice of witches ?" But 
when the queen was bent on committing suicide, he consented, for how can 
men who are attracted by the objects of passion remain in the good path ? 
Then she made him enter into the circle previously consecrated, and said to 
the king, after he had taken an oath ; " I attempted to draw hither as a vic- 
tim. that Brahman named Phalabhuti, who is so intimate with you, but 
the drawing him hither is a difficult task, so it is the best way to initiate 
some cook in our rites, that he may himself slay him and cook him. And 
you must'not feel any compunction about it, because by eating a sacrificial 
offering of his flesh, after the ceremonies are complete, the enchantment 
will be perfect, for he is a Brahman of the highest caste." When his belov- 
ed said this to him, the king, though afraid of the sin, a second time con- 
sented. Alas ! terrible is compliance with women ! Then that royal couple 
had the cook summoned, whose name was Sahasika, and after encouraging 
him, and initiating him, they both said to him, " Whoever comes to you 
to-morrow morning and says ' The king and queen will eat together to-day, 
so get some food ready quickly,' him you must slay, and make for us 
secretly a savoury dish of his flesh." When the cook heard this, he consent- 
ed, and went to his own house. And the next morning, when Phalabhuti 
arrived, the king said to him, " Go and tell the cook Sahasika in the kitchen, 
' the king together with the queen will eat to-day a savoury mess, therefore 
pr-pare as soon as possible a splendid dish.' " Phalabhuti said, " I will dost)" 
and went out. AVhenhc was outside, the prince whose name was Chandra* 
prabha, came to him, and said " Have made for me this very day with this 
gold a pair of earrings, like those you had made before for my noble father." 
When the prince said this, Phalabhuti, in order to please him, went that 
moment, as lie was commissioned, to get the earrings made, and the prince 
readily went with the kini;-" which Phalabhuti told him, alone to 

the kitchen ; when he got there and told the king's message, the rook 
Sahasika, true to his agreement, immediately killed him with a knife, and 
made a dish of his flush, which the king and q >. -forming i 

ceremonies, ate, not knowing the truth ;* and ai'u>r spending that night in 

'nds one of Schiller's ballad 
(Henley Paj Vol. I. ]'. 320.) 

The stor\ in in Schiller's l>all;id is identical with the story of Ful^rnti- 

us which is found mine English < e --ta ii'i'inanovmii, * uumanorum, In- 


remorse, the next morning the king saw Phalabhuti arrive with the ear- 
rings in his hand. 

So, being bewildered, he questioned him about the earrings immediate- 
ly ; and when Phalabhuti had told him his story, the king tell on the earth, 
and cried out ; " Alas my son !" blaming the queen and himself, and when 
his ministers questioned him, he told them the whole story, and repeated 
what Phalabhuti had said every day " ' The doer of good will obtain good, 
and the doer of evil, evil.' Often the harm that one wishes to do to another, 
recoils on one's self, as a ball thrown against a wall rebounding frequently ; 
thus we, wicked ones, desiring to slay a Brahman, have brought about our 
own son's death, and devoured his flesh." After the king had said this and 
informed his ministers, who stood with their faces fixed on the earth, of 
the whole transaction, and after he had anointed that very Phalabhuti as 
king in his place, he made a distribution of alms and then, having no son, 
entered the fire with his wife to purify himself from guilt, though already 
consumed by the tire of remorse : and Phalabhuti, having obtained the 
royal dignity, ruled the earth ; thus good or evil done by a man is made to 
return upon himself. 

Having related the above tale in the presence of the king of Vatsa, 
Yaugandharavana again said to that king ; " If Brahmadatta therefore were 
to plot against you, O great king, who, after conquering him, treated him. 
kindly, he ought to be slain." When the chief minister had said this to 
him, the king of Vatsa approved of it, and rising up went to perform the 
duties of the day, and the day following he set out from Lavanaka to go to 
his own city Kausambi, having accomplished his objects in effecting the 
conquest of the regions ; in course of time the lord of earth accompanied 
by his retinue reached his own city, which seemed to be dancing with de- 
light, imitating with banners uplifted the taper arms* of the dancing girl. 
So he entered the city, producing, at every step, in the lotus-garden com- 
posed of the eyes of the women of the city, the effect of the rising of a 
breeze. And the king entered his palace, sung by minstrels, praised by 
bards, and worshipped by kings. Then the monarch of Vatsa laid his com- 
mands on the kings of every land, who bowed before him, and triumphant- 
ly ascended that throne, the heirloom of his race, which he had found long 

troduction, page 1. Douce says that the story is found in Scott's Talcs from the Arabic 
and Persian, p. 53 and in the Contes devots or Miracles of the Virgin. (Le Grand, 
Fahliaux, v. 7-1.) Mr. Collier states upon the authority of M. 1'. :t Schiller 

founded his ballad upon an Alsatian tradition which he heard at Manui: 
also the 80th of the Sicilianischo Marchen which ends with the.-*: words, ' H'cr gute* 
t/uil. irinl I//'/'. s Hi- a." 
* Literally creeper-like. 


ago in the deposit of treasure. And the heaven was filled with the com- 
bined high and deep echoes of the sound of the drums, which accompanied 
the auspicious ceremonies on that occasion, like simultaneous shouts of 
applause uttered by the guardians of the world, each in his several quarter, 
being delighted with the prime minister of the king of Vatsa. Then the 
monarch, who was free from avarice, distributed to the Brahmans all kinds 
of wealth acquired by the conquest of the world, and after great festivities, 
satisfied the desires of the company of kings and of his own ministers. 
Then in that city filled with the noise of drums resembling the thunder of 
the clouds, while the king was raining benefits on the fields* according to 
each man's desert, the people, expecting great fruit in the form of corn, kept 
high festival in every house. Having thus conquered the world, that vic- 
torious king devolved on Kumanvat and Yaugaudharayana the burden of 
his realm, and lived at ease there with Vasavadatta and Padmiivati. So 
he, being praised by excellent bards, seated between those two queens as if 
they were the goddesses of Fame and Fortune, enjoyed the rising of the 
moon white as his own glory, and continually drank wine as he had swal- 
lowed the might of his foes. 

* There is a double meaning here; kafietra moans fit recipients as well as field. 
The king no doubt distributed corn. 



Victory to the conqueror of obstacles,* who marks with a line like the 
pnrting of the hair, the principal mountains! by the mighty fanning of 
his ear-flaps, pointing out, as it were, a path of success ! 

Then Udayana, the king of Vatsa, remaining in Kausambi, enjoyed the 
conquered earth which was under one umbrella ; and the happy monarch 
devolved the care of his empire upon Yaugandharayana and Kumanvat, and 
addicted himself to pleasure only in the society of Vasantaka. Himself 
playing on the lute, in the company of the queen Vasavadatta and Padma- 
vati, he was engaged in a perpetual concert. While the notes of his lyre 
were married to the soft sweet song of the queens, the rapid movement of 
his executing finger alone indicated the difference of the sounds. And 
while the roof of the palace was white with moonlight as with his own 
glory, he drank wine in plenteous streams as he had swallowed the pride of 
his enemiesj ; beautiful women brought him, as he sat retired, in vessels of 
gold, wine flaming with rosy glo\v, as it were the water of his appoint- 
ment as ruler in the empire of love ; he divided between the two queens 
the cordial liquor red, delicious, and pellucid, in which danced the reflection 
of their faces ; as he did his own heart, impassioned, enraptured and trans- 
parent, in which the same image was found ; his eyes were never sated with 
resting on the faces of those queens, which had the eyebrows arched, and 
blushed with the rosy hue of love, though envy and anger were far from 
them ; the scene of his banquet, tilled with many crystal goblets of win.-, 

* i. e. the god Gancsa, who has an elephant's head. 

t Seven principal mountains arc supposed to exist in eneh Yarsha or division of a 

| There is a reference here to the nintia or ichor which exud- - h"iu ;i 
temples when in rut. 

raija also means passion. 


gleamed like a lake of white lotuses tinged red with the rising sun. And 
occasionally, accompanied by huntsmen, clad in a vest dark given as the 
puldsa tree, he ranged, bow and arrows in hand, the forest full of wild b. 
which was of the same colour as himself. He slew Avith arrows herds of 
wild boars besmeared with mud, as the sun disperses with its dense rays 
the masses of darkness ; when lie ran towards them, the antelopes fleeing 
in terror, seemed like the sidelong glances of the quarters previously con- 
quered* b} r him. 

And when he slew the buffaloes, the ground, red with blood, looked 
like a bed of red lotuses, come to thank him humbly for delivering it from 
the goring of their horns. When the lions too were transfixed by his 
javelins falling in their open mouths, and their lives issued from them with 
a suppressed roar, he was delighted. In that wood he employed dogs in 
the ravines, and nets in the glades; this was the method of his pursuit of 
the chase in which he relied only upon his own resources. "While he was 
thus engaged in his pleasant enjoyments, one day the hermit Narada came 
to him as he was in the hall of audience, diffusing a halo with the radiance 
of his body, like the sun, the orb of heaven, descending therefrom out of 
love for the Solar dynasty. The king welcomed him, inclining before him 
again and again, and the sage stood a moment as if pleased, and said to that 
king, " Listen, king, I will tell you a story in few words ; you had an 
ancestor once, a king of the name of P;indu; he like you had two noble 
wives ; one wife of the mighty prince was named Kunti and the other 
!M;idri That Pandu conquered this sea-engirdled earth, and was very 
prosperous, and being addicted to the vice of hunting he went one day to 
the forest. There he let fly an arrow and slew a hermit of the name of 
Arindama, who was sporting with his wife in the form of a deer.f That 
hermit abandoned that deer-form, and with his breath struggling in his 
throat cursed that Pandu, who in his despair had flung away his b iw ; 
' Since I have been slain while sporting at will by thee, inconsiderate one, 
thou also shalt die in the embraces of thy wife.' Having been thus cur 

MI, through fear of its effect, abandoned the desire of enjoyment, and 
accompanied by his wives lived in a tranquil grove of ascetic qnir, 
While he was there, one day impelled by that curse, he suddenly approach- 
ed his beloved M;idri, and died. So you may r I that the occupa- 
tion called hunting is a madness of kings, for other kings have been done 
to death by it, even as the various deer they have slain. For how can 

* Tli !)(< ivod of as womon. 

f In ih" XYIII'.h tal teRomanorum Julian is led into trouble by purro- 

ing (i doer. The animul turns round and xiy.s to him, "Thou who i>iir.suc.t me so 
!y shalt be the destruction of thy parents." 


hunting produce benign results, since the genius of hunting is like a female 
Kakshasa, roaring horribly, intent on raw flesh, defiled with dust, with 
upstanding hair and lances for teeth. Therefore give up that useless 
exertion, the sport of hunting ; wild elephants and their slayers are exposed 
to the same risk of losing their lives. And you, who are ordained for pros- 
perity, are dear to me on account of my friendship with your ancestors, so 
hear how you are to have a son who is to be a portion of the god of love. 
Long ago, when Kati worshipped S'iva with praises in order to effect the 
restoration of Kama's body, S'iva being pleased told her this secret in few 
words ; 'This Gauri,* desiring a son, shall descend to earth with a part of 
herself, and after propitiating me, shall give birth to an incarnation of 
Kama.' Accordingly, king, the goddess has been born in the form of this 
Yasavadatta, daughter of Chandamahasena, and she has become your queen. 
So she, having propitiated S'iva, shall give birth to a son who shall be a 
portion of Kama, and shall become the emperor of all the Vidyadharas." 
By this speech the Rishi Narada, whose words command respect, gave back 
to the king the earth which he had offered him as a present, and then dis- 
appeared. When he had departed, the king of Vatsa in company with 
Yasavadatta, in whom had arisen the desire of obtaining a son, spent the 
day in thinking about it. 

The next day the chief warder called Nityodita, came to the lord of 
Vatsa while he was in the hall of assembly, and said to him ; " A certain 
distressed Brahman woman, accompanied by two children, is standing at 
the door, king, desiring to see your Highness." When the king heard 
this, he permitted her to enter, and so that Brahman woman entered, thin, 
pale, and begrimed, distressed by the tearing of her clothes and wound- 
ing of her self-respect, carrying in her bosom two children looking like 
Misery and Poverty. After she had made the proper obeisance, she said to 
the king, " I am a Brahman woman of good caste, reduced to such poverty ; 
as fate would have it, I gave birth to these two boys at the same time, and 
I have no milk for them, king, without food. Therefore I have come in 
my misery and helplessness for protection to the king, who is kind to all 
who fly to him for protection ; now, my lord the king must determine what 
my lot is .to be." When the king hoard that, he was filled with pity, and 
sai.l to the warder, " Take this woman and commend her to the queen 
Yasavadatta." Then that woman was conducted into the presence of the 
queen by that warder, as it were by her own good actions marching in 
front of her. The queen, when she heard from that warder that the 
Brahman woman who had come had been sent by the king, felt all the 
more confidence in her. And when she saw that the woman, though 
had two children, she thought, "This is exceedingly unfair dealing on the part 
* /. tj. Uiad and 1'urvuti. Kama = the ^uJ of love. 


of the Creator! Alas! he grudges a son to me who am rich, and shews affec- 
tion to one who is poor ! I have not yet one son, but this woman has these 
twins." Thus reflecting, the queen, who was herself desiring a bath, gave 
orders to her servants to provide the Brahman Woman with a bath and other 
restoratives. After she had been provided with a bath, and had had clothes 
given her, and had been supplied by them with agreeable food, that Brah- 
man woman was refreshed like the heated earth bedewed with rain. And 
as soon as she had been refreshed, the queen Vasavadatta, in order to test 
her by conversation, artfully said to her, " O Brahman lady, tell us some 
tale," when she heard that, she agreed and began to tell this story. 

In old time there was a certain 
Story of Devadatta. ,. , ,. ,, T 

petty monarch or tne name of Jaya- 

datta and there was born to him a son, named Devadatta. And that wise king 
wishing to marry his son who was grown up, thus reflected " The prosperi- 
ty of kings is very unstable, being like a hcteera to be enjoyed by force, 
but the prosperity of merchants is like a woman of good family, it is steady 
and does not fly to another man. Therefore I will take a wife to my son 
from a merchant's family, in order that misfortune may not overtake his 
throne, though it is surrounded with many relations." Having formed this 
resolve, that king sought for his son the daughter of a merchant in Patali- 
putra named Vasudatta. Vasudaita, for his part, eager for such a distin- 
guished alliance, gave that daughter of his to the prince, though, he dwelt 
in a remote foreign land. 

And he loaded his son-in-law with wealth to such an extent that he no 
longer felt much respect for his father's magni licence. Then king Java- 
datta dwelt happily with that son of his who had obtained the daughter of 
that rich merchant. Now one day the merchant Vasudatta came, full of 
desire to see his daughter, to the palace of his connexion by marriage, and 
took away his daughter to his own home. Shortly after the king .Java- 
datta suddenly wont to heaven, and that kingdom was seized by his relations 
who rose in rebellion ; through fear of them his son Devadatta was secretly 
taken away by his mother during the night to another country. Then 
that mother distressed in soul said to the prince " Our feudal lord is the 
emperor who rules the eastern region, repair to him, my son, he will pro- 
cure you the kingdom." When his mother said this to him, the prince 
answered her ; " Who will respect me it' 1 go there without attemlan 
When she heard that, his mother went on to say, " Go to the house of vour 
father-in-law, and get money there and so procure followers, and then r. 
to the emperor." Jli.'ing urged in (lies- words by his mother, the prince, 
though full of shame, slowly plodded on and reached his father- in-] 
house in the evening, but he could not bear to enter at such an unseason- 
able hour, for he was afraid of shedding tears, being bereaved of his father, 


and having lost his worldly splendour, besides shame withheld him. So he 
remained in the veramldi of an alms house near, and at night he suddenly 
beheld a woman descending with a rope from his father-in-law's lions.-, and 
immediately he recognized her as his wife, for she was so resplendent with 
jewels that she looked like a meteor fallen from the clouds, and he was 
much grieved thereat, but she, though she saw him, did not recognise him, 
as he was emaciated and begrimed, and asked him who he was ; when he 
heard that, he answered, "I am a traveller ;" then the merchant's daughter 
entered the alms-house, and the prince followed her secretly to watch 
There she advanced towards a certain man, and he towards her, and asking 
her why she had come so late, he bestowed several kicks on her.* Then 
the passion of the wicked woman was doubled, and she appeased him and 
remained with him on the most affectionate terms. When he saw that, 
the discreet prince reflected ; "This is not the time for me to shew anger, for 
I have other affairs in hand, and how could I employ against these two 
contemptible creatures, this wife of mine and the man who has done me this 
wrong, this sword which is to be used against my foes ? Or what quarrel 
have I with this adulteress, for this is the work of malignant destiny, that 
showers calamities upon me, shewing skill in the game of testing my firmness? 
It is my marriage with a woman below me in rank that is in fault, not the 
woman herself ; how can a female crow leave the male crow to take pleasure 
in a cuckoo ?" Thus reflecting, he allowed that wife of his to remain in the 
society of her paramour ; for in the minds of heroes possessed with an 
ardent desire of victory, of what importance is woman, valueless as ;i 
straw ? But at the moment when his wife ardently embraced her paramour, 
there fell from her ear an ornament thickly studded with valuable jewels. 
And she did not observe this, but at the end of her interview taking leave 
of her paramour, returned hurriedly to her house as she came. And that 
unlawful lover also departed somewhere or other. Then the prince saw 
that jewelled ornament and took it up ; it flashed with many jewel-gleams, 
dispelling the gathering darkness of despondency, and seemed like a hand- 
lain]) obtained by him to assist him in searching for his lost prosperity. 
The prince immediately perceived that it was very valuable, and went off, 
having obtained all he required, to Kanyakubja ; there he pledged that orna- 
ment for a hundred thousand gold pieces, and alter buying horses and 
elephants went into the presence of the emperor. And with the tr. 
which he gave him, he marched and slew his enemies in fight, and : 
his father's kingdom, and his mother applauded his success. Then lie 
redeemed from pawn that ornament, and sent it to his father-in-law to re- 
veal that unsuspected secret ; his father-in-law, when he saw that ear-ring of 

* Cp. Lane's Ar:il>i;;n Nu:ht>. Vol. I, p. 90; also an incident in Gill and Sunnubar, 
(Liebrecht y.ur \\>lkskundr, p. 1-1 -t) 


his daughter's, which had come to him in such a way, was confounded and 
shewed it to her : she looked upon it, lost long ago like her own virtue, 
and when she heard that it had been sent by her husband, she was distracted 
and called to mind the whole circumstance : " This is the very ornament 
which I let fall in the alms-house the night I saw that unknown traveller 
standing there ; so that must undoubtedly have been my husband come to 
test my virtue, but I did not recognize him, and he picked up this orna- 
ment." While the merchant's daughter was going through this train of 
reflection, her heart, afflicted by the misfortune of her unchastity having 
been discovered, in its agony, broke. Then her father artfully questioned a 
maid of hers who knew all her secrets, and found out the truth, and so 
ceased to mourn for his daughter ; as for the prince, after he recovered the 
kingdom, he obtained as wife the daughter of the emperor won by his vir- 
tues, and enjoyed the highest prosperity. 

So you see that the hearts of women are hard as adamant in daring 
sin, but are soft as a flower when the tremor of fear falls upon them. But 
there are some few women born in good families, that, having hearts virtu- 
ous* and of transparent purity, become like pearls the ornaments of the 
earth. And the fortune of kings is ever bounding away like a doe, but the 
wise know how to bind it by the tether of firmness, as you see in my story ; 
therefore those who desire good fortune must not abandon their virtue even in 
calamity, and of this principle my present circumstances are an illustration, 
for I preserved my character, O queen, even in this calamity, and that has 
borne me fruit in the shape of the good fortune of beholding you. 

Having heard thistale from the mouth of that Brahman woman, the queen 
Vasavadatta, feeling respect for her, immediately thought, " Surely this 
Brahman woman must be of good family, for the indirect way in which she 
alluded to her own virtue and her boldness in speech prove that she is of 
gentle birth, and this is the reason why she shewed such tact in entering the 
king's court of justice," having gone through these reflections, the queen 
again said to the Brahman woman : " Whose wife arc YOU, or what is the 
history of your life ? Tell me." When she heard that, the Bra iman 
woman again began to speak 

Queen, there was a certain 
Story of Pinqalikd. _ , . . , ,. , . , . 

Brahman in the country or Malava, 

named Agnidatta, the home of Fortune and of Learning, who willingly im- 
poverished himself to help suppliants, and in course of time there were born 
to him two sons like himself ; the eldest was railed S'ankanulatta and the 
othrr SYmtikara ; of these two, oh glorious one, SYmtikara suddenly left his 
father's house in quest of learning, while he was still a boy. and went. I 
know not whither, and the other son his elder brother married me, who am 
* Here there is a pun, suvritta meaning also well-rounded. 


the daughter of Yajnadatta who collected wealth for the sake of sacri- 
fice only. In course of time the father of my husband, who was named Agni- 
datta, being old, went to the next world and his wife followed him,* and my 
husband left me, when I was pregnant, to go to holy places, and through 
sorrow for his loss abandoned the body in tin- purified by the godde.-s Sara.s- 
vati ; and when that fact was told us by those who accompanied him in his 
pilgrimage, I was not permitted to follow him by 1113- relations, as I was 
pregnant. Then, while my grief was fresh, brigands suddenly swooped down 
on us and plundered my house and all the royal grant ; immediately I fled 
with three Brahman women from that place, for fear that I might be out- 
raged, taking with me very few garments. And, as the whole kingdom 
was ravaged, I went to a distant land accompanied by them, and remained 
there a month only supporting myself by menial drudgery. And then 
hearing from people that the king of Vatsa was the refuge of the helpless, 
I came here with the three Brahman women, with no other travelling pro- 
vision than my virtue ; and as soon as I arrived I gave birth at the same 
time to two boys. Thus, though I have the friendly assistance of these three 
Brahman women, I have suffered bereavement, banishment, poverty, and 
now comes this birth of twins ;' Alas ! Providence has opened to me the door 
of calamity. Accordingly, reflecting that 1 had no other means of main- 
taining these children, I laid aside shame, the ornament of women, and en- 
tering into the king's court I made a petition to him. Who is able to 
endure the sight of the misery of youthful offspring ? And in conse- 
quence of his order, I have come into your august presence, and my 
calamities have turned back, as if ordered away from your door. This is 
my history: as for my name, it is Pingalika, because from my childhood 
my eyes have been reddened by the smoke of the burnt-offerings. And 
that brother-in-law of mine S'antikara dwells in a foreign land, but in what 
land he is now living, I have not as yet discovered. 

When the Brahman woman had told her history in these words, the 
queen came to the conclusion that she was a lady of high birth, and after 
reflecting, said this to her with an affectionate manner : " There is dwelling 
here a foreign Brahman of the name of S'antikara, and he is our domestic 
chaplain ; I am certain he will turn out to be your brother-in-law." After 
saying this to the eager Brahman lady, the queen allowed that night to 
pass, and the next morning sent for S'antikara and asked him about his de- 
scent. And when he had told her his descent, she, ascertaining that the two 
accounts tallied completely, shewed him that Bralnnun lady, and said to 
],;, Here is your brother's wife." And when they recognised one another, 
and he had heard of the death of his relations, he took the Brahman lady 
the wife of his brother to his own house. There he mourned exceedingly, 
* t. e. burnt hersolt' with his body. 


as was natural, for the death of his parents and his brother, and comforted 
the lady who was accompanied by her two children ; and the queen Vasa- 
vadatta settled that the Brahman lady's two young sons should be the 
domestic chaplains of her future son, and the queen also gave the eldest 
the name of S'antisoma. and the next of Vaisvanara, and she bestowed on 
them much wealth. The people of this world are like a blind man, being 
led to the place of recompense by their own actions, going before them,* 
and their courage is merely an instrument. Then those two children, and 
their mother and S'antikara remained united there, having obtained wealth. 
Then once upon a time, as days went on, the queen Vasavadatta 
beheld from her palace a certain woman of the caste of potters coming with 
five sons, bringing plates, and she said to the Brahman lady Pingalika, who 
;t her side ; ''Observe, my friend : this woman has five sons, and I have 
not even one as yet, to such an extent is such a one the possessor of merit, 
while such a one as myself is not." 

Then Pingalika said, " Queen, these numerous sons are people who 
have committed many sins in a previous existence, and are born to poor 
people in order that they may suffer for them, but the son that shall be 
born to such a one as you, must have been in*a former life a very virtuous 
person. Therefore do not be impatient, you will soon obtain a son such as 
you deserve." Though Pingalika said this to her, Vasavadatta, being 
eager for the birth of a son, remained with her mind overpowered by 
anxiety about it. At that moment the king of Vatsa came and perceiving 
what was in her heart said " Queen, Narada said that you should obtain a 
son by propitiating S'iva, therefore we must continually propitiate Siva, 
that granter of boons " Upon that, the queen quickly determined upon 
performing a vow, and when she had taken a vow, the king and his minis- 
and the whole kingdom also took avow to propitiate S'iva; and after 
the royal couple had fasted for three nights, that Lord was so pleased that 
he himself appeared to them and commanded them in a dream, " Itise 
up ; from you shall spring a son who shall be a portion of the god of love, 
and owing to my favour shall be king of all the Vidyadharas." When the 
god, whose crest is the moon, had said this and disappeared, that couple 
woke up, and immediately felt unfeigned joy at having obtained their boon, 
and considered that they had gained their object. And in the morning 
the king and queen rose up, and after delighting the subjects with the ; 
of the nectarous story of their dream, kept high festival with their relations 
and servants, and broke in this manner the fast of their vow. After some 
days had -rtain man with matted locks came and gave the queen 

vadatta a fruit in her dream. Then the, king of Vatsa rejoiced with 
the queen, who informed him of that clear dream, and lie was congratulated 
* rurt,gailt m> in a previous life," and also " going before." 


by his ministers, and supposing that the god of the moon-crest had given 
her a sou under the form of a fruit, he considered the fulfilment of his wish 
to be not far off. 


Then, in a short time, Vasavadattd became pregnant with a child, 
glorious inasmuch as it was an incarnation of the god of Love, and it was 
a feast to the eyes of the king of Vatsa. She shone with a face, the eyes 
of which rolled, and which was of palish hue, as if with the moon come to 
visit her out of affection for the god of Love conceived in her. When she 
was sitting down, the two images of her form, reflected in the sides of the 
jewelled couch, seemed like Rati and Priti come there out of regard for 
their husband.* Her ladies-in-waiting attended upon her like the Sciences 
that grant desires, come in bodily form to shew their respect for the future 
king of the Vidyadharasf conceived in her. At that time she had breasts 
with points dark like a folded bud, resembling pitchers intended for the 
inaugural sprinkling^ of her unborn son. When she lay down on a com- 
fortable couch in the middle of the palace, which gleamed with pavement 
composed of translucent, flashing, .lustrous jewels, she appeared as if she 
were being propitiated by the waters, that had come there trembling, 
through fear of being conquered by her future son, with heaps of jewels on 
every side. Her image reflected from the gems in the middle of the 
chariot, appeared like the Fortune of the Vidyaharas coming in the heaven 
to offer her adoration. And she felt a longing for stories of great magi- 
cians provided with incantations' by means of spells, introduced appropriately 
in conversation. Vidyadhara ladies, beginning melodious songs, waited 
upon her when in her dream she rose high up in the sky, and when she 
woke up, she desired to enjoy in reality the amusement of sporting in the 
air, which would give the pleasure of looking down upon the earth. And 
Yaugandharayana gratified that longing of the queen's by employing spells, 
machines, juggling, and such like contrivances. So she roamed through 
the air by means of those various contrivances, which furnished a wonderful 
spectacle to the upturned eyes of the citizens' wives. But once on a time, 

* I read with a MS. in tho Sanskrit College pafisiiefiad for pratisnehdd. The two 
wives of the god of Love came out of love to their husband, who was conceived in 

t Vidyddhara moans literally " magical-knowledge-holder." 

J The ceremony of coronation. 


when she was in her palace, there arose in her heart a desire to hear the 
glorious tales of the Vidyadharas ; then Yaugandharayana, being entreated 
by that queen, told her this tale while all were listening. 

There is a great mountain 
Story of Jimutavahana. , TT . , . 

named Himavat, the rather or the 

mother of the world,* who is not only the chief of hills, but the spiritual 
preceptor of S'lva, and on that great mountain, the home of the Vidyadliaras, 
dwelt the lord of the Vidyadliaras, the king Jimutaketu. And in his 
house there was a wishing-tree. which had come down to him from his an- 
cestors, called by a name which expressed its nature, The Giver of Desires. 
And one day the king Jimutaketu approached that wishing-tree in his 
garden, which was of divine nature, and supplicated it; "We always obtain 
from you all you desire, therefore give me, O god, who am now childless, a 
virtuous son." Then the wishing-tree said, "King, there shall be born to 
thee a son who shall remember his past birth, who shall be a hero in 
giving, and kind to all creatures." When he heard that, the king was de- 
lighted, and bowed before that tree, and then he went and delighted his queen 
with the news : accordingly in a short time a son was born to him, and his 
father called the son Jimutavahana. Then that Jimutavahana, who was of 
great goodness, grew up step by step with the growth of his innate compas- 
sion for all creatures. And in course of time, when he was made Crown- 
Prince, he being full of compassion for the world said in secret to his father, 
who was pleased by his attentions " I know, father, that in this world all 
things perish in an instant, but the pure glory of the great alone endures 
till the end of a Kalpa.f If it is acquired by benefiting others, what 
other wealth can be, like it, valued by high-minded men more than life. 
And as for prosperity, if it be not used to benefit others, it is like lightning 
which for a moment pains the eye, and flickering disappears somewhere or 
other. So, if this wishing-tree, which we possess, and which grants all 
desires, is employed for the benefit of others, we shall have reaped from it 
all the fruit it can give. So let me take such steps as that by its riches the 
whole multitude of men in need may be rescued from poverty." This peti- 
tion JinuUavahana made to his father, and having obtained his permission* 
he went and said to that wishing-tree, "O god, thou always givest us 
the desired fruit, therefore fulfil to-day this one wish of ours. O my friend, 
relieve this whole world from its poverty, success to thee, thou art be- 
stowed on the world that desires wealth !" The wishing-tree being address- 
ed in this style by that self-denying one, showered niueli gold on the earth, 
and all the people rejoired ; what other compassionate incarnation of a Bo- 
dhisattva except the glorious .liiuutavaliana would be able to dispose even of 

* A>iil>il;<i, i. /., IMrvati tlir wife of S'iva. 
t A period of 432 million years of mortals. 


a wish ing- tree in favour of the needy ? For this reason every region of 
the earth* became devoted to Jimutavahana, and his stainless fame was 
spread on high. 

Then the relations of Jfmutaketu, seeing that his throne was firmly 
established by the glory of his son, were envious, and became hostile to 
him. And they thought it would be easy to conquer that place, which 
possessed the excellent wishing-tree that was employed for bestowing 
gifts, on account of its not being strong : then they assembled and deter- 
mined on war, and thereupon the self-denying Jimutavahana said to his 
father, "As this body of ours is like a bubble in the water, for the sake of 
what do we desire prosperity, which flickers like a candle exposed to the 
wind ? And what wise man desires to attain prosperity by the slaughter of 
others ? Accordingly, my father, I ought not to fight with my relations. 
But I must leave my kingdom and go to some forest or other ; let these 
miserable wretches be, let us not slay the members of our own family." 
When Jimutavahana had said this, his father Jimutaketu formed a resolu- 
tion and said to him ; " I too must go, my son, for what desire for rule can 
I, who am old, have, when you, though young, out of compassion abandon 
your realm as if it were so much grass ?" In these words his father express- 
ed his acquiescence in the project of Jimutavahana, who then, with his father 
and his father's wife, went to the Malaya mountain. There he remained 
in a hermitage, the dwelling of the Siddhas, where the brooks were hidden 
by the sandal-wood trees, and devoted himself to taking care of his father. 
There he struck up a friendship with the self-denying son of Visvavasu, the 
chief prince of the Siddhas, whose name was Mitravasu. And once on a 
time the all-knowing Jimutavahana beheld in a lonely place Mitravasu's 
maiden sister, who had been his beloved in a former birth. And the mu- 
tual gaze of those two young people was like the catching in a frail net of 
the deer of the mind.f 

Then one day Mitravasu came up suddenly to Jimutavahana, who 
deserved the respect of the three worlds, with a pleased expression, and 
said to him, " I have a younger sister, the maiden called Malaya vati ; I give 
her to you, do not refuse to gratify my wish." When Jimutavahana heard 
that, he said to him, "0 prince, she was my wife in a former birth, and in 
that life you became my friend, and were like a second heart to me. I am 
one who remembers the former state of existence, I recollect all that hap- 
pened in my previous birth." When he said this, Mitravasu said to him, 
" then tell me this story of your former birth, for I feel curiosity about it." 
When he heard this from Mitravasu, the benevolent Jimiitavahaua told 
him the tale of his former birth as follows : 

* More literally the cardinal and intermediate points, 
f Reading manomrigi, the deer of the mind. 


Story of Jtmutavdhana's adventures in Thus it is; formerly I was a 

a former birth. sky-roaming Vidyadhara, and once 

on a time I was passing over a peak of the Himalaya. And then S'iva, who 
was below, sporting with Gauri, being angry at my passing above him, curs- 
ed me, saying, " Descend into a mortal womb, and after obtaining a Vidya- 
dhari for your wife, and appointing your son in your place, you shall 
remember your former birth, and again be born as a Vidyadhara." Having 
pronounced when this curse should end, S'iva ceased and disappeared ; and 
soon after I was born upon earth in a family of merchants. And I grew 
up as the son of a rich merchant in a city named Vallabhi, and my name 
was Vasudatta. And in course of time, when I became a young man, I had 
a retinue given me by my father, and went by his orders to another land to 
traffic. As I -was going along, robbers fell upon me in a forest, and after 
taking all my property, led me in chains to a temple of Durga in their 
village, terrible with a long waving banner of red silk like the tongue of 
Death eager to devour the lives of animals. There they brought me into 
the presence of their chief named Pulindaka, who was engaged in wor- 
shipping the goddess, in order that I might serve as a victim. He, though 
he was a S'avara,* the moment he saw me, felt his heart melt with pity 
for me ; an apparently causeless affectionate movement of the heart is a 
sign of friendship in a former birth. Then that S'avara king, having saved 
me from slaughter, was about to complete the rite by the sacrifice of him- 
self, when a heavenly voiee said to him " Do not act thus, I am pleased 
with thee, crave a boon of me," thereupon he was delighted, and said " 
goddess, thou art pleased ; what other blessing can I need, nevertheles- 1 
ask so much may I have friendship with this merchant's son in another 
birth also." The voice said " So be it," and then ceased, and then tha 
vara gave me much wealth, and sent me back to my own home. And then, 
as I had returned from foreign travel and from the jaws of death, in 
when he heard the whole occurrence, made a great feast in my honour. 
And in course of time I saw there that very same S'avara chief, whom the 
king had ordered to be brought before him as a prisoner for plundering a 
caravan. I told my father of it immediately, and making a pel it ion to the 
king, 1 saved him from capital punishment by the payment of a hundred 
thousand gold-pieces. And having in this way repaid the benefit, which he 
conferred upon me by saving my life, J brought him to my house, and en- 
tertained him honourably for a long time with all loving attention. And 
then, after this hospitable entertainment, 1 dismissed hhu, and lie went to 
his own village fixing upon me a heart tender with al'hvl ion. Then, while 
he thought about a present for me that mi^ht be worthy of my return for 
his previous kindness, he came to the conclusion that the pearls and musk 
* Member of a savngv tril>< . 


and treasures of that kind, which were at his disposal, were not valuable 
enough. Thereupon he took his bow and went off to the Himalaya to 
shoot elephants, in order to obtain a surpassingly splendid necklace* for 
me. And while he was roaming about there, he reached a great lake with 
a temple upon its shore, being welcomed by its lotuses, which were as devo- 
ted to their friendf as he was to me. And suspecting that the wild 
elephants would come there to drink water, he remained in concealment 
with his bow, in order to kill them. In the meanwhile he saw a young lady 
of wonderful beauty come riding upon a lion to worship Siva, whose temple 
stood on the shore of the lake ; looking like a second daughter of the king 
t>f the snowy mountains, devoted to the service of Siva while in her girl- 
hood. And the S'avara, when he saw her, being overpowered with wonder, 
reflected " Who can this be ? If she is a mortal woman, why does she ride 
upon a lion ? On the other hand, if she is divine, how can she be seen by 
such as me ? So she must certainly be the incarnate development of the 
merits of my eyes in a former birth. If I could only marry my friend to 
her, then I should have bestowed upon him a new and wonderful recom- 
pense. So I had better first approach her to question her." Thus reflect- 
ing, my friend the S'avara advanced to meet her. In the meanwhile she 
dismounted from the lion, that lay down in the shade, and advancing began 
to pick the lotuses of the lake. And seeing the S'avara, who was a 
stranger, coming towards her and bowing, out of a hospitable feeling she 
gratified him with a welcome. And she said to him " Who are you, and 
why have you come to this inaccessible land?" Thereupon the S'avara 
answered her, " I am a prince of the Savaras, who regard the feet of Bhavuni 
as my only refuge, and I am come to this wood to get pearls from the heads 
of elephants. But when I beheld you just now, O goddess, I called to 
mind my own friend that saved my life, the son of a merchant prince, the 
auspicious Yasudutta. For he, Ofair one, is, like you, matchless for beauty 
and youth, a very fount of nectar to the eyes of this world. Happy is 
that maiden in the world, whose braceleted hand is taken in this life by 
that treasure-house of friendship, generosity, compassion, and patience. And 
if this beautiful form of yours is not linked to such a man, then I cannot 
help grieving that K;ima bears the bow in vain." By these words of the 
king of the hunters the mind of the maiden was suddenly carried away, 
as if by the syllables of the god of Love's bewildering spell. And prompt- 
<<1 l>y love, she said to that S'avara, "Where is that friend of yours? 
Bring him here and shew him to me." When he heard that, he said ' I 
will do so," and that moment the S'avara took leave of her and sot out ou 
his journey in high spirits, considering his object attained. And after he 

/. e. of tho pearls in the heads of the elephants, 
t /. e. the sun. 



had reached his village, he took with him pearls and musk, a weight suf- 
ficient for hundreds of heavily-laden porters, and came to our house. There 
he was honoured by all the inmates, and entering it, he offered to my 
father that present, which was worth much gold. And after that day and 
that night had been spent in feasting, he related to me in private the story 
of his interview with the maiden from the very commencement. And he 
said to me, who was all excitement, " Come, let us go there," and so the 
S'avara carried me off at night just as he pleased. And in the morning niv 
father found that I had gone off somewhere with the S'avara prince, but 
feeling perfect confidence in his affection, he remained master of his feel- 
ings. But I was conducted in course of time by that S'avara, who travelled 
fast, to the Himalaya, and he tended me carefully throughout the journey. 
And one evening we reached that lake, and bathed, and we remained 
that one night in the wood eating sweet fruits. That mountain wood, in 
which the creepers strewed the ground with flowers, and which was charm- 
ing with the hum of bees, full of balmy gales, and with beautiful gleaming 
herbs for lamps, was like the chamber of Rati to repose in during the 
night for us two, who drank the water of the lake. Then, the next day 
that maiden came there, and at every step my mind, full of strange long- 
ings, flew to meet her, and her arrival was heralded by this my right eye, 
throbbing as if through eagerness to behold her.* And that maid with 
lovely eyebrows was beheld by me, on the back of a knotty-maned lion, like 
a digit of the moon resting in the lap of an autumn cloud ; and I cannot 
describe how my heart felt at that time while I gazed on her, being full o 
tumultuous emotions of astonishment, longing, and fear ; then that maiden 
dismounted from the lion, and gathered flowers, and after bathing in the 
lake, worshipped S'iva who dwelt in the temple on its banks. f And when the 
worship was ended, that S'avara, my friend, advanced towards her and an- 
nouncing him self, bo wed, and said to her who received him courteously ; "God- 
dess, 1 have brought that friend of mine as a suitable bridegroom for you : 
if you think proper, I will shew him to you this moment." When she 
heard that, she said, " Shew him," and that S'avara came and took me near her 
and shewed me to her. She looked at me askance with an eye that shed 
love, and being overcome by Cupid's taking possession of her soul, said to 
that chieftain of the S'avaras ; " This friend of yours is not a man, surely he 
is some god come here to deceive me to-day : how could a mortal have such 
a handsome shape ?" When I heard that> I said myself to remove all doubt 
from her mind : " Fair one, I am in very truth a mortal, what is the use of 
employing fraud against one so honest as yourself, lady? For I am the son 
of a merchant named Mahadhanu that dwells in Vallablii, and I was gained 

* Throbbing of the riu;lit >-y>- in men portends union with the beloved, 
f No doubt by offering the flowers which she hud gathered. 


by my father by the blessing of Sfiva. For ho, when performing austerities 
to please the god of the moony crest, in order that he might obtain a son, 
was thus commanded by the god in a dream being pleased with him; 'llise 
up, there shall spring from thee a great-hearted son, and this is a great 
secret, what is the use of setting it forth at length?' After hearing this, 
he woke up, and in course of time I was born to him as a son, and I am 
known by the name of Vasudatta. And long ago, when I went to a foreign 
land, I obtained this Sfavara chieftain for a chosen friend, who shewed 
himself a true helper in misfortune. This is a brief statement of the truth 
about me." When I had said this I ceased ; and that maiden, with her face 
cast down from modesty, said " It is so ; to-day, I know, Sava being propi- 
tiated deigned to tell me in a dream, after I had worshipped him, ' To-mor- 
row morning thou shalt obtain a husband :' so you are my husband, and 
this friend of yours is ray brother." When she had delighted me by this 
nectar-like speech, she ceased ; and after I had deliberated with her, I 
determined to go to my own house with my friend, in order that the mar- 
riage might be solemnized in due form. Then that fair one summoned by 
a sign of her own that lion, on which she rode, and said to me, " Mount it, 
my husband," then I, by the advice of my friend, mounted the lion, and 
taking that beloved one in my arms, I set out thence for my home, having 
obtained all my objects, riding on the lion with my beloved, guided by 
that friend. And living on the flesh of the deer that he killed with his 
arrows, we all reached in course of time the city of Vallabhi. Then the 
people, seeing me coining along with my beloved, riding on a lion, being 
astonished, ran and told that fact quickly to my father. He too came to 
meet me in his joy, and when lie saw me dismount from the lion and fall at 
his feet, he welcomed me with astonishment. 

And when he saw that incomparable beauty adore his feet, and per- 
ceived that she was a fit wife for me, he could not contain himself for joy. 
So he entered the house, and after asking us about the eircumstanees, ha 
made a great feast, praising the friendship of the S'avara chieftain. And 
the next day, by the appointment of the astrologers, I married that excellent 
maiden, and all my friends and relations assembled to witness our wedding. 
And that lion, on which my wife had ridden, having witnessed the marriage, 
suddenly before the eyes of all, assumed the form of a man. Then all the by- 
standers were bewildered thinking " What can this mean ?" But he, assum- 
ing heavenly garments ami ornaments, thus addressed me: " I am a Yidva- 
dhara named Chitrangada, and this maiden is my daughter Manovati by name, 
dearer to me than life. I used to wander continually through the forest with 
her in my arms, and one day I reached the Ganges, on the banks of which arc 
many ascetic groves. And as 1 was going along in the middle of the river, lor 
fear of disturbing the ascetics, my garland by accident fell into its wai 


Then the hermit Narada, who was under the water, suddenly rose up, and 
angry because the garland had fallen upon his back, cursed me in the 
following words : ' On account of this insolence, depart, wicked one, thou 
shalt become a lion, and repairing to the Himalaya, shalt carry this daughter 
upon thy back. And when thy daughter shall be taken in marriage by a 
mortal, then after witnessing the ceremony, thou shalt be freed from this 
curse.' After being cursed in these words by the hermit, I became a lion, 
and dwelt on the Himalaya carrying about this daughter of mine, who is 
devoted to the worship of S'iva. And you know well the sequel of the 
story, how by the exertions of the S'avara chieftain this highly auspicious 
event has been brought about. So I shall now depart ; good luck to you 
all ! I have now reached the termination of that curse." Having said this, 
that Vidyadhara immediately flew up into the sky. Then my father, 
overwhelmed with astonishment at the marvel, delighted at the eligible 
connection, and finding that his friends and relations were overjoyed, made 
a great feast. And there was not a single person who did not say witli 
astonishment, reflecting again and again on that noble behaviour of the 
S'avara chieftain " Who can imagine the actions of sincere friends, who 
are not even satisfied when they have bestowed on their sworn brothers the 
gift of life ?" The king of the land too, hearing of that occurrence, was 
exceedingly pleased with the affection which the S'avara prince had shown 
me, -ind finding he was pleased, my father gave him a present of jewels, and 
so induced him immediately to bestow on the S'avara a vast forest territory. 
Then I remained there in happiness, considering myself to have attained 
all that heart could wish, in having Manovati for a wife, and the S'avara 
prince for a friend. And that S'avara chieftain generally lived in my house 
finding that he took less pleasure in dwelling in his own country than he 
formerly did. And the time of us two friends, of him and me, was spent 
in continually conferring benefits upon one another without our ever being 
satisfied. And not long after I had a son born to me by Manovati, who 
seemed like the heart-joy of the whole family in external visible form ; 
and being called Hiranyadatta he gradually grew up, and after having 

instructed, he was married. Then my father having witnessed that, 

considering that the object of his life had been accomplished, being 

old, went to the Ganges with his wife to leave the body. Then I was 

aiHicted by my father's death, but having been at last persuaded by my 

relations to control my feelings, I consented to uphold the burden of the 

family. And at that time on the one hand the sight of the beautiful face 

of Manovati, and on the other the society of the S'avara prince delighted 

me. Accordingly those days of mine passed, joyous from the goodness of 

son, charming from the excellence of my wife, happy from the society 

of my friend. 


Then, in course of time, I became well-stricken in years, and old age 
seized me by the chin, as it were out of love giving me this wholesome re- 
proach " Why are you remaining in the house so long as this, my son ?" 
Then disgust with the world was suddenly produced in my breast, and long- 
ing for the forest I appointed my son in my stead. And with my wife I 
went to the mountain of Kalinjara, together with the king of the S'avaras, 
who abandoned his kingdom out of love to me. And when I arrived there, 
I at once remembered that I had been a Vidyadhara in a former state of 
existence, and that the curse I had received from S'iva had come to an end. 
And I immediately told my wife Manovati of that, and my friend the 
king of the S'avaras, as I was desirous of leaving this mortal body. I 
said " May I have this wife and this friend in a future birth, and may 
I remember this birth," and then I meditated on S'iva in my heart, and 
flung myself from that hill side, and so suddenly quitted the body together 
with that wife and friend. And so I have been now born, as you see, in 
this Vidyadhara family, under the name of Jimutavahana, with a power 
of recollecting my former existence. And you, that prince of the 
S'avaras, have been also born again by the favour of S'iva, as Mitravasu 
the son of Visvavasu the king of the Siddhas. And, my friend, that 
A'idyadhara lady, my wife Manovati, has been again born as your sister 
Malayavati by name. So your sister is my former wife, and you were my 
friend in a former state of existence, therefore it is quite proper that I 
should marry her. But first go and tell this to my parents, for if the 
matter is referred to them, your desire will be successfully accomplished. 

When Mitnivasu heard this from Jimutavahana, he was pleased, and he 
went and told all that to the parents of Jimutavahana. And when they 
received his proposal gladly, he was pleased, and went and told that same 
matter to his own parents. And they were delighted at the accomplish- 
ment of their desire, and so the prince quickly prepared for the marriage 
of his sister. Then Jimutavahana, honoured by the king^ of the Siddhas, 
received according to usage the hand of Malayavati. And there was a 
great festival, iu which the heavenly minstrels bustled about, the dense 
crowd of the Siddhas assembled, and which was enlivened by bounding 
Yiuyadharas. Then Jinu'itavahana was married, and remained on that 
Malaya mountain 'with his wife in very great prosperity. And once on a 
time he went with his brother-in-law Mitnivasu to behold the woods on 
the shore of the sea. And there he saw a young man come in an ag'r 
state, sending away his mother, who kept exclaiming ' Alas ! my - 
And another man, who seemed to be a soldier, following him, conducted 
him to a broad and hi^h slab of rock and left him there. Jimuta- 
vahana said to him : " Who are you ? What are you about to do, and 


why does your mother weep for you ?" Then the man told him his 

" Long ago Kadru and Vinata, the two wives of Kas'yapa,.had a dispute 
in the course of a conversation which they were carrying on. The former 
said that the Sun's horses were black, the latter that they were white, and 
they made an agreement that the one that was wrong should become a 
slave to the other.* Then Kadru, bent on winning, actually induced her 
sons, the snakes, to defile the horses of the Sun by spitting venom over 
them ; and shewing them to Vinata in that condition, she conquered her 
by a trick and made her her slave : terrible is the spite of women against 
each other ! When Garuda the son of Vinata heard of that, he came and 
tried to induce Kadru by fair means to release Vinata from her slavery ; 
then the snakes, the sons of Kadru, reflecting, said this to him ; " O Garuda, 
the gods have began to churn the sea of milk, bring the nectar thence and 
give it to us as a substitute, and then take your mother away with you, 
for you are the chief of heroes.' When Garuda heard that, he went to the 
sea of milk, and displayed his great might in order to obtain the nectar. 
Then the god Vishnu pleased with his might deigned to say to him, ' I 
am pleased with thee, choose some boon.' Then Garuda, angry because his 
mother was made a slave, asked as a boon from Vishnu ' May the snakes 
become my food.' Vishnu consented, and when Garuda had obtained the 
nectar by his own valour, he was thus addressed by Indrawhohad heard the 
whole story : ' King of birds, you must take steps to prevent the foolish 
snakes from consuming the nectar, and to enable me to take it away from 
them again.' When Garuda heard that, he agreed to do it, and elated by 
the boon of Vishnu, he went to the snakes with the vessel containing the 

And he said from a distance to those foolish snakes, who were terrified 
on account of the boon granted to him, " Here is the nectar brought by me, 
release my mother and take it ; if you are afraid, I will put it for you on a bed 
of Darbha grass. When I have procured my mother's release, I will go ; 
take the nectar thence." The snakes consented, and then he put the vessel of 
nectar on a pure bed of Kusa grass,f and they let his mother go. So 
Garuda depart I'd, having thus released his mother from slavery; but while 
the snakes were unsuspectingly taking the nectar, Inilra suddenly swooped 
down, and bewildering them by his power, carried off the vessel of nectar 
from the bed of Kusa grass. Then the snakes in despair lieked that bed of 
Darbha grass, thinking there might be a drop of spilt nectar on it ; the 
effect was that their tongues were split, and they became double-tongued 

* Like tlie t.wo physicians in (irstu Komanorum, LXXY1. 
f A peculiarly sum.'d kind ul'Durblm grass. 


fur nothing. What Imt ridicule can ever be the portion of the over-greedy ? 
Tlien the snakes did not obtain the nectar of immortality, and their enemy 
C inula, on the strength of Vishnu's boon, began to swoop down and" devour 
them. And this he did again and again. And while he was thus attacking 
them, the snakes* in Patala were dead with fear, the females miscarried, and 
the whole serpent race was well-nigh destroyed. And Vasuki the king of 
the snakes, seeing him there every day, considered that the serpent world 
was ruined at one blow : then, after reflecting, he preferred a petition to 
that Garucla of irresistible might, and made this agreement with him " I 
will send you every day one snake to eat, O king of birds, on the hill that 
rises out of the sand of the sea. But you must not act so foolishly as to 
enter Patala, for by the destruction of the serpent world your own object 
will be baffled." When Vasuki said this to him, Garucla consented, and 
began to eat every day in this place one snake sent by him : and in this way 
innumerable serpents have met their death here. But I am a snake called 
S'ankachuda,t and it is my turn to-day : for that reason I have to-day, by 
the command of the king of the snakes, in order to furnish a meal to Garucla, 
come to this rock of execution, and to be lamented by my mother." 

When Jimutavahana heard this speech of S'ankachuda's, he was griev- 
ed, and felt sorrow in his heart and said to him, " Alas ! Vasuki exercises 
his kingly power in a very cowardly fashion, in that with his own hand he 
conducts his subjects to serve as food for his enemy. Why did he not 
first offer himself to Garucla ? To think of this effeminate creature choos- 
ing to witness the destruction of his race ! And how great a sin does Garu- 
da, though the son of Kasyapa, commit ! How great folly do even great ones 
commit for the sake of the body only ! So I will to-day deliver you alone 
from Garucla by surrendering my body. Do not be despondent, my friend." 
When S'ankachuda heard this, he out of his firm patience said to him, " This 
be far from thee, great-hearted one, do not say so again. The destruc- 
tion of a jewel for the sake of a piece of glass is never becoming. And I 
will never incur the reproach of having disgraced my race." In these words 
the good snake S'ankachuda tried to dissuade Jimutavahana, and thinking 
that the time of Garuda's arrival would come in a moment, he went to 
worship in his last hour an image of S'iva under the name of Gokarna, that 

* Rdjila is a striped snake, said to be the same as the dundubha a nou-venomous 

f Thc,rcmarks which Ralston makes (Russian Folk-tales, page 65) with regard to 
the snake as represented in Russian stories, are applicable to the Naga of Hindu super- 
stition; "Sometimes ho retains throughout tho story an exclusively reptilian < .;. 
ter, sometimes he is of a mixed nature, paitly serpent and partly man." The v 
described in Weckenstedt's Wendischo Sagen, (pp. 402 409,) resemble in some points 
the snakes which we hear so much of in the present work. 


stood on the shore of the sea. And when lie was gone, Jimutavahana, that 
treasure-house of compassion, considered that he had. gained an opportunity 
of offering himself up to save the snake's life. Thereupon he quickly dis- 
missed Mitravasu to his own house on the pretext of some business, artfully 
pretending that he himself had forgotten it. And immediately the earth 
near him trembled, being shaken by the wind of the wings of the approach- 
ing Garuda, as if through astonishment at his valour. That made Jimuta- 
vahana think that the enemy of the snakes was approaching, and full of 
compassion for others he ascended the stone of execution. And in a 
moment Garuda swooped down, darkening the heaven with his shadow, and 
carried off that great-hearted one, striking him with his beak. He shed 
drops of blood, and his crest-jewel dropped off torn out by Garuda, who 
took him away and began to eat him on the peak of the mountain. At 
that moment a rain of flowers fell from heaven, and Garuda was astonished 
when he saw it, wondering what it could mean. 

In the meanwhile S'ankachiula came there, having worshipped Gokarna, 
and saw the rock of execution sprinkled with many drops of blood ; then 
he thought " Alas ! surely that great-hearted one has offered himself for 
me, so 1 wonder where Garuda has taken him in this short time. I must 
search for him quickly, perhaps I may find him." Accordingly the good 
snake went following up the track of the blood. And in the meanwhile 
Garuda, seeing that Jimutavahana was pleased, left off eating and thought 
with wonder : " This must be some one else, other than I ought to have taken, 
for though I am eating him, he is not at all miserable, on the contrary the 
resolute one rejoices." While Garuda was thinking this, Jimutavahana, 
though in such a state, said to him in order to attain his object : " O king 
of birds, in my body also there is flesh and blood ; then why have you 
suddenly stopped eating, though your hunger is not appeased?" When he 
heard that, that king of birds, being overpowered with astonishment, said 
to him "Noble one, you are not a snake, tell me who you are." Jimuta- 
vahana was ju-^t answering him, " I am a snake,* so eat me, complete what 
you have begun, for men of resolution never leave unfinished an under- 
taking they have begun," when S'ankachiida arrived and cried out from a- 
far, " Stop, stop, Garuda, he is not a snake, I a'n the snake meant for you, 
so let him go, alas ! how have you suddenly come to make this mista 
On hearing that, the king of birds was excessively bewildered, and .Jimuta- 
vahana \\ I at not having accomplished his desire. Then Garuda, 

learning, in the course of their conversation! with one another, that he had 

* The word itdga, wliirh meanfl Miuki-. may uLso me:ui, as Dr. Brockhaus explains it, 
a mountain' / <'i mountain. 

f I oonjirtmv />"//,'/</ for l,-nu>i!nl. 1 <. krandat we musl suppose that 

the king oi the YuKadharu* \vept lit < 'I'-su-ritiiv \\.is frustrated. 

begun to devour by mistake the king of the Vidyadharas, was much 
grieved. He began to reflect, "Alas ! in my cruelty I have incurred sin. 
In truth those who follow evil courses easily contract guilt. But this great- 
hearted one who has given his life for another, and despising* the world, 
which is altogether under the dominion of illusion, come to face me, de- 
serves praise." Thinking thus, he was about to enter the fire to purify 
himself from guilt, when Jimutavahana said to him : " King of birds, why 
do you despond ? If you are really afraid of guilt, then you must deter- 
mine never a-'uiii to eat these snakes : and you must repent of eating all 
those previously devoured, for this is the only remedy available in this case, 
it was idle for you ever to think of any other." Thus Jimutavahana, full of 
compassion for creatures, said to Garuda, and he was pleased and accepted the 
advice of that king, as if he had been his spiritual preceptor, determining to 
do what he recommended ; and he went to bring nectar from heaven to restore 
to life rapidly that wounded prince, and the other snakes, whose bones only 
remained. Then the goddess Gauri, pleased with Jimutavahana's wife's 
devotion to her, came in person and rained nectar on him : by that his 
limbs were reproduced with increased beauty, and the sound of the drums 
of the rejoicing gods was heard at the same time. Then, on his rising up 
safe and sound, Garuda brought the nectar of immortality! from heaven, 
and sprinkled it along the whole shore of the sea. That made all the 
snakes there rise up alive, and then that forest along the shore of the sea, 
crowded with the numerous tribe of snakes, appeared like PatalaJ come 
to behold Jimutavahana, having lost its previous dread of Garuda. Then 
Jimutavdhana's relations congratulated him, having seen that he was glori- 
ous with unwounded body and undying fame. And his wife rejoiced with 
her relations, and his parents also. Who would not joy at pain ending in 
happiness ? And with his permission S'ankachuda departed to Ilasutala. 
and without it his glory, of its own accord, spread through the three worlds. 
Then, by virtue of the favour of the daughter of the Himalaya all his 
relations, Matanga and others, who were long hostile to him, came to 
Garuda, before whom the troops of gods were inclining out of love, an I 
timidly approaching the glory of the Vidyadhara race, prostrated themsehv- 

* I read ndlmk for nilah. 

t In 1h<! Sicilian stories of the Riirnorn. von Gonzonhnrh an ointment dors duty 
for the (imrita, cp. for one instance out of many, pap;e 145 of that work. K :ilst<>n re- 
marks that in Euro])' ;]< ra\vn is connected with the \Vafcrof Life. See 
his exhaustive account of this cycle ( ,f M<.nes on pauvs 231 and i>:!2 nf his Kalian Kolk- 
lales. See also Veekenstedt's Womlisehr Sa-< n. p. -'I,"., and lh. rttffj \vlii.-h 

011 jriov 227. 

J The home <! ihc .-< 

Here equivalent to l':i! 



at his feet. And being entreated by them, the benevolent Jimutavahana went 
from that Malaya mountain to his own home, the slope of the Himalaya. 
There, accompanied by his parents and Mitravasu and Malayavati, the 
resolute one long enjoyed the honour of emperor of the Vidyiidharas. 
Thus a course of fortunate events always of its own accord follows the 
footsteps of all those, whose exploits arouse the admiration of the three 
worlds. When the queen Vasavadatta heard this story from the mouth of 
Yaugandhaniyana, she rejoiced, as she was eager to hear of the splendour 
of her unborn son. Then, in the society of her husband, she spent that 
day in conversation about her son, who was to be the future king of the 
Vidy&dharas, which was suggested by that story, for she placed unfailing 
reliance upon the promise of the favouring gods. 


Then Yasavadatta on the next day said to the king of Vatsa in private, 
while he was surrounded by his ministers ; " My husband, ever since I 
have been pregnant with this child, the difficult duty of taking care of it 
afflicts my heart ; and last night, after thinking over it long, I fell asleep 
with difficulty, and I am persuaded I saw a certain man come in my dream, 
glorious with a shape distinguished by matted auburn locks and a trident- 
bearing hand ; and he approaching me, said as if moved by compassion, 
'My daughter, you need not feel at all anxious about the child with which 
you are pregnant, I will protect it, for I gave it to you. And hear some- 
thing more, which I will tell you to make you confide in me ; a certain 
woman waits to make a petition to you to-morrow, she will come dragging 
her husband with her as a prisoner, reviling him, accompanied by five sons, 
begirt with many relations : and she is a wicked woman who desires by 
the help of her relations to get that husband of hers put to death, and all 
that she will say will be false. And you, my daughter, must beforehand 
inform the king of Vatsa about this matter, in order that that good man 
may be freed from that wicked wife.' This command that august one 
gave and vanished, and ] immediately woke up, and lo ! the morning had 
come." When the queen had said that, all spoke of the favour of Siva, 
and were astonished, their minds eagerly expecting the fulfilment of the 
dream ; when lo ! at that very moment the chief warder entered, and 
suddenly said to the king of Vatsa, who was compassionate to the alHu-ted, 
"O king, a certain woman has come to make a representation, accompanied 
by her relations, bringing with her live sons, reviling her helpless husband." 

When the king heard that, being astonished at the way it tallied with the 
queen's dream, he commanded the warder to bring her into his presence. 
And the queen Vasavadatta felt the greatest delight, having become certain 
that she would obtain a good son, on account of the truth of the dream. 
Then that woman entered by the command of the warder, accompanied by 
her husband, looked at with curiosity by all, who had their faces turned 
towards the door. Then, having entered, she assumed an expression of 
misery, and making a bow according to rule, she addressed the king in 
council accompanied by the queen : " This man, though he is my husband, 
does not give to me, helpless woman that I am, food, raiment, and 
other necessaries, and yet I am free from blame with respect to him." 

When she had said this, her husband pleaded " King, this woman 
speaks falsely, supported by her relations, for she wishes me to be put to 
death. For I have given her supplies beforehand to last till the end of 
the year, and other relations of hers, who are impartial, are prepared to 
witness the truth of this for me." When he had said this to the king, the 
king of his own accord answered : " The trident-bearing god himself has 
given evidence in this case, appearing to the queen in a dream. What need 
have we of more witnesses ? This woman with her relations must be punish- 
ed." When the king had delivered this judgment, the discreet Yaugandha- 
ravana said, "Nevertheless, king, we must do what is right in accordance with 
the evidence of witnesses, otherwise the people, not knowing of the dream, 
would in no wise believe in the justice of our proceedings." When 
the king heard that, he consented and had the witnesses summoned 
that moment, and they, being asked, deposed that that woman was speaking 
falsely. Then the king banished her, as she was plotting against one well 
known to be a good husband, from his territory, with her relations and her 
sons. And with heart melting from pity he discharged her good husband, 
after giving him much treasure sufficient for another marriage. And in 
connexion with the whole affair the king remarked, " An evil wife, of 
wildly* cruel nature, tears her still living husband like a she-wolf, when he 
has fallen into the pit of calamity; but an affectionate, noble, and magnani- 
mous wife averts sorrow as the shadef of the wayside-tree averts heat, and is 
acquired by a man's special merits." Then Vasantaka, who was a clever 
story-teller, being at the king's side, said to him apropos of this : "More- 
over, king, hatred and affection are commonly produced in living beings in 
this world owing to their continually recalling the impressions of a past 
state of existence, and in proof of this, hear the story which I am about to 

* Here there is a pun : dkitlu may also mean " by descent. 

t Kulind may mean falling on the earth, iv I'm ing to the shade of the tree. Mdr- 
gasihd means " in the right path" when applied to the wife. 


There was a king in Benares 
Story of Sinhaparakrama. , , r -, 111 

named Vikramaehanda, and he had 

favourite follower named Sinhaparakrama ; who was wonderfully suc< 
ful in all battles and in all gambling contests. And he had a wife very 
deformed both in body and mind, called by a name, which expressed her 
nature, Kalahakari.* This brave man continually obtained much money 
both from the king and from gambling, and, as soon as he got it, he gave it 
all to his wife. But the shrewish woman, backed by her three sons b 
ten by him, could not in spite of this remain one moment without a quar- 
rel. She continually worried him by yelling out these words at him with 
her sons " You are always eating and drinking away from home, and you 
i;ivo us anything." And though he was for ever trying to propitiate 
her with meat, drink, and raiment, she tortured him day and night like an 
interminable thirst. Then, at last, Sinhaparakrama vexed with indignation 
on that account, left his house, and went on a pilgrimage to the go< 
Durga that dwells in the Vindhya hills. While he was fasting, the goddess 
said to him in a dream : " Eise up, my son, go to thy own city of Bena- 
res ; there is an enormous nyagrodha tree, by digging round its root 
thou wilt at once obtain a treasure. And in the treasure thou wilt find a 
dish of emerald, bright as a sword-blade, looking like a piece of the sky 
fallen down to earth ; casting thy eyes on that, thou wilt see, as it were, 

led inside, the previous existence of every individual, in whatever case 
thou mayest wish to know it. By means of that thou wilt learn the pre- 
vious birth of thy wife and of thyself, and having learned the truth wilt 
dwell there in happiness free fromgrief." Having thus been addressed by the 
goddess, Sinhaparakrama woke up and broke his fast, and went in the 
morning to Benares ; and after he had reached the city, he found at the 
root of the nya</rodha tree a treasure, and in it he discovered a large 

dd dish, and, eager to learn the truth, he saw in that dish that in a 
previous birth his wife had been a terrible she-bear, and himself a lion. 
And so recognising that the hatred between himself and his wife was 
irremediable owing to the influence of bitter enmity in a previous birth, he 
abandoned grief and bewilderment. Then Sihhaparakrama examined many 
maidens by means of the dish, and discovering that they had belonged to 
alien racea i" a previous birth, he avoided them, but after he had discovered 
one, who had been a lioness in a previous birth and so was a suitable match 
for him, he married her as his second wife, and her name was Sinhasri. And 
alter assigning to that Kalalsakari one village only as her portion, he lived, 
delighted with the acquisition of treasure, in the society of his new 
Thus, O king, wives and others are friendly or hostile to men in this world 
by virtue of impressions in a previous state of existence. 

* 1. - . M;i>iiiiu Contentious. Her husband's name means " of lion-like might." 


When the kiiiLr <>F Yatsa had heard this wonderful story from V, 
taka, he was exceedingly delighted ;ind so was the queen Y ;!>;;> And 

the king was never weary day or night of contemplating the moon-like face 
of the pregnant queen. And as days went on, there were born to all oi 
ministers in due course sons with auspicious marks, who heralded approaching 
good fortune. First there was horn to Yaugandhar;iyana, the chief minis- 
ter, a son Marubhiiti by name. Then Human vat had a son called Hari- 
sikha, and to Yasantaka there was born a son named Tapan taka. And to the 
head-warder called Xityodita, whose other title was Ityaka,* there was born 
a son named Gomukha. And after they were born a great feast took place, 
and during it a bodiless voice was heard from heaven " These ministers 
shall crush the race of the enemies of the son of the king of Yatsa here, 
the future universal emperor. And as days went by, the time drew near 
for the birth of the child, with which the queen Vasavadatta was destined 
to present the king of Vatsa, and she repaired to the ornamented lying-in- 
chamber, which was prepared by matrons having sons, and the windows of 
which were covered with iirka and sami plants. The room was hung with 
various weapons, rendered auspicious by being mixed with the gleam of 
jewel-lamps, shedding a blazef able to protect the child ; and secured by 
conjurers who went through innumerable charms and spells and other in- 
cantations, so that it became a fortress of the matrons hard for calamity 
to storm, and there she brought forth in good time a prince of lovely as- 
pect, as the heaven brings forth the moon from which stream pure necta- 
rous rays. The child, when born, not only irradiated that room, but the 
heart also of that mother from Avhich the darkness of grief had departed ; 
then, as the delight of the inmates of the harem was gradually extended, 
the king heard of the birth of a son from the people who were admitted to 
it ; the reason he did not give his kingdom in his delight to the person, 
who announced it, was, that he was afraid of committing an impropriety, 
not that he was avaricious. And so the king, suddenly coming to the 
harem with longing mind, beheld his son, and his hope bore fruit after a 
long delay. The child had a long red lower lip like a leaf, beautiful How- 
ing hair like wool, and his whole face was like the lotus, which the goddess 
of the Fortune of empire carries for her delight. He was marked on his 
soft feet with umbrellas and cJiotories, as if the Fortunes of other kings 
had beforehand abandoned their badges in his favour, out of fear. Then, 
while the king shed with tearful eye, that swelled with the pressure of the 
fulness of the weight of his joy, drops that seemed to be drops of paternal 

* I read (jil'tcr IJiihtlinpk ami Until) lli/akd^mra. feW Chapter 34. a' 1. 115. 
f 2V<a=also means might, courage. 


affection,* and the ministers with Yaugandbarayana at their head rejoiced, 
a voice was heard from heaven at that time to the following effect : 

" King, this son that is. horn to thee is an incarnation of Kama,f and 
know that his name is Naravahanadatta ; and he will soon become emperor 
of the kings of the Vidyadharas, and maintain that position unwearied for 
a kalpa of the gods."J When so much had heen said, the voice stopped, 
and immediately a rain of flowers fell from heaven, and the sounds of the 
celestial drums went forth. Then the king, excessively delighted, made a 
great feast, which was rendered all the more solemn from the gods having 
begun it. The sound of cymbals floated in the air rising from temples, 
as if to tell all the Vidyadharas of the birth of their king : and red banners, 
flying in the wind on the tops of the palaces, seemed with their splendour 
to fling red dye to one another. On earth beautiful women assembled 
and danced everywhere, as if they were the nymphs of heaven glad that the 
god of love had been born with a body. And the whole city appeared 
equally splendid with new dresses and ornaments bestowed by the rejoicing 
king. For while that rich king rained riches upon his dependants, nothing 
but the treasury was empty. And the ladies belonging to the families of 
the neighbouring chieftains came in from all sides, with auspicious prayers, 
versed in the good custom, || accompanied by dancing girls, bringing with 
them splendid presents, escorted by various excellent guards, attended with 
the sound of musical instruments, like all the cardinal points in bodily 
form. Every movement there was of the nature of a dance, every word 
uttered was attended with full vessels,^ every action was of the nature of 
munificence, the city resounded with musical instruments, the people were 
adorned with red powder, and the earth was covered with bards, all these 
things were so in that city which was all full of festivity. Thus the great 
feast was carried on with increasing magnificence for many days, and did not 
come to an end before the wishes of the citizens were fully satisfied. And 
as days went on, that infant prince grew like the new moon, and his father 
bestowed on him with appropriate formalities the name of Naravahanadatta, 

* Sneha which moans love, also means oil. This is a fruitful source of puns in 

t The Hindu Cupid. 

J Infinitely longer than a mortal kalpa. A mortal kalpa lasts 432 million 

He is often called Ananga, the bodiless, as his body was consumed by the firo 
of S'iva's eye. 

|| Or virtuous and generous. 

U It is still the custom to give presents of vessels filled with rice and coins. Emp- 
ty vessels arc inauspicious, and even now if a Bengali on going out of his housa 
meets a person carrying nn empty pitcher, he turns back, aud waits a minute or two. 


which had been previously assigned him by the heavenly voice. His father 
\v;is delighted when he saw him make his first two or three tottering steps, 
in which gleamed the sheen of his smooth fair toe-nails, and when he heard 
him utter his first two or three indistinct words, shewing his teeth which 
looked like buds. Then the excellent ministers brought to the infant 
prince their infant sons, who delighted the heart of the king, and com- 
mended them to him. First Yaugandharayana brought Marubhuti, and 
then Human vat Harisikha, and then the head-warder named Ityaka brought 
Gomukha, and Vasantaka his son named Tapantaka. And the domestic 
chaplain S'antikara presented the two twin sons of Pingalika, his nephews 
S'antisoma and Vaisvanara. And at that moment there fell from heaven 
a rain of flowers from the gods, which a shout of joy made all the more 
auspicious, and the king rejoiced with the queens, having bestowed presents 
on that company of ministers' sons. And that prince Naravahanadatta 
was always surrounded by those six ministers' sons devoted to him alone 
who commanded respect even in their boyhood,* as if with the six poli- 
tical measures that are the cause of great prosperity. The days of the 
lord of Vatsa passed in great happiness, while he gazed affectionately on 
his son with his smiling lotus-like face, going from lap to lap of the kings 
whose minds were lovingly attached to him, and making in his mirth a 
charming indistinct playful prattling. 

* Peace, war, march, halt, stratagem and recourse to the protection of a mightier 



May Ganes*a, painting the earth with mosaic by means of the particles 
of reft lead flying from his trunk whirled round in his madness,* and so, as 
it were, burning up obstacles with the flames of his might, protect you. 

Thus the king of Vatsa and his queen remained en gaged in bringing 
up their only son Naravahanadatta, and once on a time the minister Yaug- 
andharayana, seeing the king anxious about taking care of him, said to him 
as he was alone, " King, you must never feel any anxiety now about the 
prince Naravahanadatta, for he has been created by the adorable god S'iva 
in your house as the future emperor over the kings of the Vidyadharas ; 
and by their divine power the kings of the Vidyadharas have found this 
out, and meaning mischief have become troubled, unable in their hearts to 
endure it ; and knowing this, the god with the moon-crest has appointed 
a prince of the Ganas,t Stambhaka by name, to protect him. And he re- 
mains here invisible, protecting this son of yours, and Narada coming 
swiftly informed me of this." While the minister was uttering these 
words, there descended from the midst of the air a divine man wearing a 
diadem and a bracelet, and armed with a sword. He bowed, and then the 
king of Vatsa, after welcoming him, immediately asked him with curiosity : 
" Who are you, and what is your errand here ?" He said, " I was once a 
mortal, but I have now become a king of the Vidy;idhuras, named S'akti 
and I have many enemies. I have found out by my power that your son is 
destined to be our emperor, and I have come to see him, O king." When 
S'aktivega, over-awed at the sight of his future emperor, had said this, the 
king of Vatsa was pleased and again asked him in his astonishment, " How 
can the rank of a Vidy&dhara be attained, and of what nature is it, and 
how did you obtain it? Tell me this, my friend." When he 1. 
speech of the king's, that Vidyudhara S'aktivega courteously bowing, an- 
swered him thus, "0 king, resolute souls having propitiated Siva either 

* The elephant-headed god has his trunk minted with rod load like a tun. 
pliant, and is also liable to Income >n<m(. 
f Followers and attendants upon S'iva. 


in this or in a former birth, obtain by his favour the rank of Yidyadhara. 
And that rank, denoted by the insignia of supernatural knowledge, of 
sword, garland and so on, is of various kinds, but listen ! I will tell you how 
I obtained it. Having said this, S'aktivegatold the following story, relating 
to himself, in the presence of the queen Vasavadatta. 

Story o/S'aklivega king of the 7 id yd- There lived long ago in a city 

dharas. called Yardhamana,* the ornament 

of the earth, a king the terror of his foes, called Paropakarin. And this 
exalted monarch possessed a queen of the name of Kanakaprabha,t as the 
cloud holds the lightning, but she had not the fickleness of the lightning. 
And in course of time there was born to him by that queen a daughter, 
who seemed to have been formed by the Creator to dash Lakshmi's pride 
in her beauty. And that moon of the eyes of the world was gradually 
reared to womanhood by her father, who gave her the name of Kanakarekha 
suggested by her mother's name Kanakaprabha. Once on a time, when she 
had grown up, the king, her father, said to the queen Kanakaprabha, who 
came to him in secret : "A grown up daughter cannot be kept in one's house, 
accordingly Kanakarekha troubles my heart with anxiety about a suitable 
marriage for her. For a maiden of good family, who does not obtain a 
proper position, is like a song out of tune ; when heard of by the ears even 
of one unconnected with her, she causes distress. But a daughter, who 
through folly is made over to one not suitable, is like learning imparted to 
one not fit to receive it, and cannot tend to glory or merit but only to 
regret. So I am very anxious as to what king I must give this daughter 
of mine to, and who will be a fit match for her." When Kanakaprabha 
heard this, she laughed and said, " You say this, but your daughter does 
not wish to be married ; for to-day when she was playing with a doll and 
making believe it was a child, I said to her in fun, ' My daughter, when shall 
I see you married ?' When she heard that, she answered me reproachfully : 
' Do not say so, you must not marry me to any one ; and my separation from 
you is not appointed, I do well enough as a maiden, but if I am married, 
know that I shall be a corpse ; there is a certain reason for this.' A- 
lias said this to me I have come to you, O king, in a state of dist- 
for, as she has refused to be married, what xise is there in deliberating about 
a bridegroom ?" When the king heard this from the queen, he was be- 
wildered, and going to the private apartments of the princess he said to 
his daughter : " When the maidens of the gods and Asuras practise austerities 
in order to obtain a husband, why, my daughter, do you refuse to take <>: 
When the princess Kanakarekha heard this speech of her father's, she fixed 
her eyes on the ground and said, Father, I do not desire to be married at 
at, so what object has my father in it, and why does he insist 
* The modern Lurdwaii. f /, c. Gold-gleam. 


upon it ?" That king Paropakarin, when his daughter addressed him 
in that way, being the discreetest of men, thus answered her : " How 
can sin be avoided unless a daughter is given in marriage ? And indepen- 
dence is not fit for a maiden who ought to be in dependence on 
relations ? For a daughter in truth is born for the sake of another 
and is kept for him. The house of her father is not a fit place for 
her except in childhood. For if a daughter reaches puberty unmarried, 
her relations go to hell, and she is an outcast, and her bridegroom is called 
the husband of an outcast." When her father said this to her, the princess 
Kanakarekha immediately uttered a speech that was in her mind, " Father, 
if this is so, then whatever Brahman or Kshatriya has succeeded in seeing 
the city called the Golden City, to him I must be given, and he shall be my 
husband, and if none such is found, you must not unjustly reproach me." 
When his daughter said that to him, that king reflected : *' It is a good 
thing at any rate that she has agreed to be married on a certain condition, 
and no doubt she is some goddess born in my house for a special reason, 
for else how comes she to know so much though she is a child ?" Such were 
the king's reflections at that time : so he said to his daughter, " I will do 
as you wish," and then he rose up and did his day's work. And on the next 
day, as he was sitting in the hall of audience, he said to his courtiers, 
" lias any one among you seen the city called the Golden City ? Whoever 
has seen it, if he be a Brahman or a Kshatriya, I will give him my daughter 
Kanakarekha., and make him crown-prince." And they all, looking at one 
another's faces, said, " We have not even heard of it, much less have we 
seen it. Then the king summoned the warder and said to him, " Go and 
cause a proclamation to be circulated in the whole of this town with the 
beating of drums, and find out if any one has really seen that city." When 
the warder received this order, he said, " I will do so," and went out ; and 
after he had gone out, he immediately gave orders to the police, and caused 
a drum to be beaten all round the city, thus arousing curiosity to hear the 
proclamation, which ran as follows : ' Whatever Brahman or Kshatriya 
youth has seen the city called the Golden City, let him speak, and the king 
will give him his daughter and the rank of crown-prince." Such was the 
astounding announcement proclaimed all about the town after the drum 
had been beaten. And the citizens raid, after hearing that proclamation: 
" What is this Golden City that is to-day proclaimed in our town, which lias 
never been heard of or seen even by those among us who are old ?" But not 
a single one among them said, " I have seen it." 

And in the meanwhile a Brahman living in that town, S'aktideva by 
name, the son of Baladeva, heard that proclamation ; that youth, being 
addicted to vice, had been rapidly stripped of his wealth at the gaming- 
table, and he reflected, being excited by hearing oi' the giving in marriage 


of the king's daughter : ' As I have lost all my wealth by gambling, I 
cannot now enter the houne of my father, nor even the house of a hetcera, 
so, as I have no resource, it is better for me to assert falsely to those who 
are making the proclamation by beat of drum, that I have seen bhat city. 
Who will discover that I know nothing about it, for who has ever seen it ? 
And in this way I may perhaps marry the princess." Thus reflecting Sfakti- 
deva went to the police, and said falsely, " I have seen that city." They 
immediately said to him, " Bravo ! then come with us to the king's 
warder." So he went with them to the warder. And in the same 
way he falsely asserted to him that he had seen that city, and 
he welcomed him kindly, and took him to the king. And without 
wavering he maintained the very same story in the presence of the king : 
what indeed is difficult for a blackleg to do who is ruined by play ? Then 
the king, in order to ascertain the truth, sent that Brahman to liis daughter 
Kanakarekha, and when she heard of the matter from the mouth of the 
warder, and the Brahman came near, she asked him : " Have you seen that 
Golden City ?" Then he answered her, " Yes, that city was seen by me 
when I was roaming through the earth in quest of knowledge."* She 
next asked him, " By what road did you go there, and what is it like '?" 
That Brahman then went on to say : " From this place I went to a town 
called Harapura, and from that I next came to the city of Benares ; and 
from Benares in a few days to the city of Paunclravardhana, thence I went to 
that city called the Golden City, and I saw it, a place of enjoyment for 
those who act aright, like the city of Indra, the glory of which is made for 
the delight of gods.f And having acquired learning there, I returned 
here after some time ; such is the path by which I went, and such is that 
city." After that fraudulent Brahman S'aktideva had made up this story, 
the princess said with a laugh ; <: Great Brahman, you have indeed seen 
that city, but tell me, tell me again by what path you went." When S'akti- 
deva heard that, he again displayed his effrontery, and then the princess 
had him put out by her servants. And immediately after putting him out, 
she went to her father, and her father asked her : "Did that Brahman speak 
the truth ?" And then the princess said to her father : " Though you are 
a king you act without due consideration ; do you not know that ris_ 
deceive honest people ? For that Brahman simply wants to impose on me 
with a falsehood, but the liar has never seen the golden city. And all 
kinds of deceptions are practised on the earth by rogues ; for listen to the 

* For an account of the wanderjakre of young Brahman students, sco Dr. Biihlor'a 
introduction to tli ' .<kailevavharita. 

t More literally Those whose eyes do not wink. The epithet also means "worthy 
of being regarded with unwinking eyes." No doubt thiri ambiguity is intended. 


story of S'iva and Ma.lliava, wliieh I will tell you." Having*said this, the 
princess told the following tale : 

There is an excellent city right- 
Story of S'iva and Mddhava. , j T> j. 

ly named llatnapura,* and m it 

there were two rogues named S'iva and Mddhava. Surrounding themselves 
with many other rogues, they contrived for a long time to rob, by making 
use of trickery, all the rich men in the town. And one day those two deli- 
berated together and said " We have managed by this time to plunder this 
town thoroughly ; so let us now go and live in the city of Ujjayini ; there 
we hear that there is a very rich man named S'ankarasvamin, who is chap- 
lain to the king. If we cheat him out of his money we may thereby enjoy 
the charms of the ladies of Mulava. He is spoken of by Brahmans as a 
miser, because he withholdsf half their usual fee with a frowning face, 
though he possesses treasure enough to fill seven vessels ; and that Brah- 
mau has a pearl of a daughter spoken of as matchless, we will manage to 
get her too out of him along with the money." Having thus determined, 
and having arranged beforehand what part each was to play, the two rogues 
Siva and Madhava went out of that town. At last they reached Ujjayini, and 
Madhava, with his attendants, disguised as a Ilajput, remained in a certain 
village outside the town. But S'iva, who was expert in every kind of de- 
ception, having assumed perfectly the disguise of a religious ascetic, first 
entered that town alone. There he took up his quarters in a hut on the 
banks of the Sipni, in which he placed, so that they could be seen, clay, 
darllia grass, a vessel for begging, and a deer-skin. And in the morning 
he anointed his body with thick clay, as if testing beforehand his destined 
smearing with the mud of the hell Avichi. And plunging in the water 
of the river, he remained a long time with his head downward, as if rehears- 
ing beforehand his future descent to hell, the result of his evil actions. 
And when he rose up from his bath, he remained a long time looking up 
towards the sun, as if shewing that he deserved to be impaled. Then he 
went into the presence of the god and making rings of Kusa grass,J and 
muttering prayers, he remained sitting in the posture called Padmasana, 
with a hypocritical cunning face, and from time to time he made an offer- 
ing to Vishnu, having gathered white nowers, even as he took captive the 

* /. e. the city of jewels. 

t -4 / */.-flrf/Mifltrauslati d "granting" by Monicr Williams and the Petersburg lexico- 

| These are worn on the fingers when offerings are mado. 

A particular posture in religious meditation, sitting with the thighs crossed* 
with one hand resting on (he lol't thigh, the other hold up with the thumb upon tho 
heart, and the ryes directed to the tip of the noso. 


simple hearts of the good by his villainy ; and having made his offering he 
again pretended to betake himself to muttering his prayers, and prolonged 
his meditations as if fixing his attention on wicked ways. And the next 
day, clothed in the skin of a black antelope, he wandered about the city 
in quest of alms, like one of his own deceitful leers intended to beguile it, 
and observing a strict silence he took three handfuls of rice from Brah- 
mans' houses, still equipped with stick and deer- skin, and divided the food 
into three parts like the three divisions of the day, and part he gave to the 
crows, and part to his guest, and with the third part he filled his maw ; 
and he remained for a long time hypocritically telling his beads, as if he 
were counting his sins at the same time, and muttering prayers ; and in the 
night he remained alone in his hut, thinking over the weak points of his 
fellow-men, even the smallest ; and by thus performing every day a difficult 
pretended penance he gained complete ascendancy over the minds of the 
citizens in every quarter. And all the people became devoted to him, and 
a report spread among them in every direction that S'iva was an exceeding- 
ly self-denying hermit. 

And in the meanwhile his accomplice, the other rogue Madhava, having 
heard from his emissaries how he was getting on, entered that city ; and tak- 
ing up his abode there in a distant temple, he went to the bank of the Sipra to 
bathe, disguised as a llujput, and after bathing, as he was returning with his 
retinue, he saw S'iva praying in front of the god, and with great veneration 
he fell at his feet, and said before all the people, " There is no other such 
ascetic in the world, for he has been often seen by me going round from 
one holy place to another." But S'iva, though he saw him, kept his neck 
immoveable out of cunning, and remained in the same position as before, and 
Madhava returned to his own lodging. And at night those two met 
together and ate and drank, and deliberated over the rest of their pro- 
gramme, what they must do next. And in the last watch of the night S'iva 
went back leisurely to his hut. And in the morning Madhava said to one 
of his gang, " Take these two garments and give them as a present to the do- 
mestic chaplain of the king here, who is called S'ankarasv;iinin, and say to 
him respectfully: ' Then- is a llajput come from the Deccan of the name 
of Madhava, who has been oppressed by his relations, and he brings with 
him much inherited wealth ; he is accompanied by some other Rajpiits like 
himself, and he wishes to enter into the service of your king here, and he 
has sent me to visit you, treasure-house of glory.' " The rogn , \\ ln> was 
sent off by Madhava with this message, went to the house of that chaplain 
with the present, in his hand, and after approaching him, and giving him. 
the present at a favourable moment, he delivered to him in private Ma.iha- 
TO'fl as lie had been ordered ; he. for his part, out of his greed lor 

presents, believed it all, anticipating other favours in the future, for a bribe 


is the sovereign specific for attracting the covetous. The rogue then came 
back, and on the next day Madhava. having obtained a favourable opportu- 
nity, went in person to visit that chaplain, accompanied by attendants, who 
hypocritically assumed the appearance of men desiring service,* passing 
themselves off as Rajput*, distinguished by the maces they carried ; he 
had himself announced by an attendant preceding him, and thus he ap- 
proached the family priest, who received him with welcomes which ex- 
pressed his delight at his arrival. Then Madhava remained eng. 
in conversation with him for some time, and at last being dism: 
. by him, returned to his own house. On the next day he sent another 
couple of garments as a present, and again approached that chaplain and 
said to him, " I indeed wish to enter into service to please my retainers, 
for that reason I have repaired to you, but I possess wealth." When the 
chaplain heard that, he hoped to get something out of him, and he promis- 
ed Madhava to procure for him what he desired, and he immediately went 
and petitioned the king on this account, and, out of respect for the chap- 
lain, the king consented to do what he asked. And on the next day the 
family priest took Madhava and his retinue, and presented them to the 
king with all due respect. The king too, when he saw that Madhava re- 
sembled a Eajpiit in appearance, received him graciously and appointed him 
a salary. Then Madhava remained there in attendance upon the king, and 
every night he met S'iva to deliberate with him. And the chaplain en- 
treated him to live with him in his house, out of avarice, as he was intent 
on presents. 

Then Madhava with his followers repaired to the house of the chap- 
lain ; this settlement was tbe cause of the chaplain's ruin, as that of the mouse 
in the trunk of the tree was the cause of its ruin. And he deposited a safe in 
the strong room of the chaplain, after filling it with ornaments made of 
false gems. And from time to time he opened the box and by cunningly 
half-shewing some of the jewels, he captivated the mind of the chaplain as 
that of a cow is captivated by grass. And when he had gained in this 
way the confidence of the chaplain, he made his body emaciated by taking 
little food, and falsely pretended that he was ill. And after a lew days 
had passed, that prince of rogues said with weak voice to that chaplain, 
who was at his bedside ; " My condition is miserable in this body, so bring, 
good Unihman, some distinguished man of your caste, in order that I may 
bestow my wealth upon him for my happiness here and heivat'U'r, for, life 
being unstable, what care can a wise man have for riches ?" That chaplain, 

* Edrpalika may mean a pilgrim, but it scorns to bo used m tin- K. S. S. to im an a 
kind of dependant on a king or great man, usually a t'or< i-n< r. > -38, 63, and 

81 of this work. 


who was devoted to presents, when addressed in this way, said, " I will do 
so," and Madhava fell at his feet. Then whatever Brahman the chaplain 
brought, Madhava refused to receive, pretending that he wanted a more 
distinguished one. One of the rogues in attendance upon Madhava, when 
he saw this, said " Probably an ordinary Brahman does not please him. So 
it will be better now to find out whether the strict ascetic on the banks of 
Sipra named S'iva pleases him or not ?" When Madhava heard that, he said 
plaintively to that chaplain : " Yes, be kind, and bring him, for -there is no 
other Brahman like him." 

The chaplain, thus entreated, went near S'iva, and beheld him immove- 
able, pretending to be engaged in meditation. And then he walked round 
him, keeping him on his right hand, and sat down in front of him : and 
immediately the rascal slowly opened his eyes. Then the family priest, 
bending before him, said with bowed head, " My Lord, it' it will not make 
you angry, I will prefer a petition to you. There is dwelling here a very 
rich Eajput from the Deccan, named Madhava, and he, being ill, is desirous 
of giving away his whole property : if you consent, he will give you that 
treasure which glitters with many ornaments made out of priceless gems." 
When S'iva heard that, he slowly broke silence, and said, " O Brahman, since 
I live on alms, and observe perpetual chastity, of what use are riches to 
me ? Then that chaplain went on to say to him, " Do not say that, great 
Brahman, do you not know the due order of the periods in the life of a 
Brahman ?* By marrying a wife, and performing in his house offerings to 
the Manes, sacrifices to the gods and hospitality to guests, he uses his pro- 
perty to obtain the three objects of life ;f the stage of the householder is 
the most useful of all." Then S'iva said, " How can I take a wife, for I will 
not marry a woman from any low family ?" When the covetous chaplain 
heard that, he thought that he would be able to enjoy his wealth at will, 
and, catching at the opportunity, he said to him : " I have an unmarried 
daughter named Vinayasvdnrini, and she is very beautiful, I will bestow 
her in marriage on you. And I will keep for you all the wealth which 
you receive as a donation from Madhava, so enter on the duties of a house- 
holder. When S'iva heard this, having got the very thing he wanted, he 
said, " Brahman, if your heart is set on this.J I will do what you say. 
But I am an ascetic who knows nothing about gold and jewels -. 1 shall act 
as you advise ; do as you think best." When the chaplain heard that 
speech of S'iva's, he was delighted, and the fool said, "Agreed" and con- 

* First ho should bo a BraJnnachdrin or unmarried ivliijioiis siuJrnt, nrxt a Gri- 
hastha or h ;iii!-lioiv(, lastly ;i BliiL'slin in- In 

f '. e. virtue, \w -urc; ilJiunna, nrtlia, k(im<i. 

J Graha, also means planet, '. e. inauspicious planet. S'iva tells tlu- truth L 


ducted S'iva to his house. And when he had introduced there that inaus- 
picious guest named Siva,* he tuld Madhava what he had done and was 
applauded by him. And immediately he gave S'iva his daughter, who had 
been can-fully brought up, and in giving her he seemed to be giving a 
his own prosperity lost by his folly. And on the third day after his man 
he took him to Madhava who was pretending to be ill, to receive his pr. 
And Ma'lhava rose up and fell at his feet and said what was quite true, " I 
adore thee whose asceticism is incomprehensible. "f " And in accordance with 
the prescribed form he bestowed on S'iva that box of ornaments made of many 
. sham jewels, which was brought from the chaplain's treasury. S'iva for 
his part, after receiving it, gave it into the hand of the chaplain, saying, 
'J know nothing about this, but you do." And that priest immediately 
took it, saying, " I undertook to do this long ago, why should you trouble 
yourself about it ?" Then S'iva gave them his blessing, and went to his 
wife's private apartments, and the chaplain took the box and put it in his 
strong room. Madhava for his part gradually desisted from feigning sick- 
ness, affecting to feel better the next day, and said that his disease had been 
cured by virtue of his great gift. And he praised the chaplain when he came 
near, saying to him, " It was by your aiding me in an act of faith that I 
tided over this calamity." And he openly struck up a friendship with 
S'iva, asserting that it was due to the might of Siva's holiness that his life 
had been saved. S'iva, for his part, after some days said to the chaplain: 
" How long am I to feast in your house in this style ? Why do you 
not take from me those jewels for some fixed sum of money ? If they are 
valuable, give me a fair price for them." "When the priest heard that, 
thinking that the jewels were of incalculable value, he consented, and 
gave to S'iva as purchase-money his whole living. And he made S'iva 
sign a receipt for the sum with his own hand, and he himself too signed a 
receipt for the jewels, thinking that that treasure far exceeded his own 
wealth in value. And they separated, taking one another's receipts, and 
the chaplain lived in one place, while S'iva kept house in another. And 
then S'iva and Madhava dwelt together and remained there leading a verv 
pleasant life consuming the chaplain's wealth. And as time went on, 
thai chaplain, being in need of cash, went to the town to sell one of the 
ornaments in the baxar. 

Then the merchants, who were connoisseurs in jewels, said after 
examining it, " ILa! the man who m sham jewels was a clever 

fellow, whoever he was. For this ornament is composed of j 
glass and quartz coloured with various colours and fastened to^.-tiicr with 
brass, and there are no gems or gold in it." When the c-haplain heaixl \ 
* '. e. the auspicious or friendly one. 
t Tlifiv is pi-okiMy a <luMr DH aniug iu the word " incoini'i 



he went in his agitation and brought all the ornaments from his house, and 
showed them to the merchants. When they saw them, they said that all 
of them were composed of sham jewels in the same way ; but the chaplain, 
when he heard that, was, so to speak, thunderstruck. And immediately 
the fool went off and said to S'iva, " Take back your ornaments and give me 
back my own wealth." But S'iva answered him, " How can I possibly have 
retained your wealth till now? Why it has all in course of time been 
consumed in my house." Then the chaplain and S'iva fell into an altercation, 
and went, both of them, before the king, at whose side Madhava was stand- 
ing. And the chaplain made this representation to the king : " S'iva has 
consumed all my substance, taking advantage of my not knowing that a 
great treasure, which he deposited in my house,* was composed of skilfully 
coloured pieces of glass and quartz fastened together with brass." Then 
S'iva said, " King, from my childhood I have been a hermit, and I was 
persuaded by that man's earnest petition to accept a donation, and when 
I took it, though inexperienced in the ways of the world, I said to him. 
' I am no connoisseur in jewels and things of that kind, and I rely upon 
you,' and he consented saying, ' I will be your warrant in the matter.' 
Andlaccepted all the donation and deposited it in his hand. Then he bought 
the whole from me at his own price, and we hold from one another mutual 
receipts ; and now it i* in the king's power to grant me help in my sorest 
need." S'iva having thus finished his speech, Madhava said, " Do not 

his, you are honourable, but what fault have I committed in the matter? 
I never received anything either from you or from Siva ; I had some 
wealth inherited from my father, which I uad long deposited elsewhere ; 
then I brought that wealth and presented it to a Brahman. If the gold 
is not real gold, and the jewels are not real jewels, then let us suppose that I 
have reaped fruit from giving away brass, quartz, and glass. But the fact 
that I was persuaded with sincere heart that I was giving somethir 
clear from this, that 1 rccoVered from a very dangerous illness." When 
i this to him without any alteration in the expression of his 

. the king laughed and all his ministers, and they were highly < 
And those present in court said, laughing in their sleeves, " X, 
Mudhava nor S'iva has done anything unfair." Thereupon that chaplain 
departed with downcast countenance, having lost his wealth. For of 
what calamities is not the blinding of the mind with excessive greed the 
cause? And so those two rogues 6'iva and Madhava long remained there, 
liappv in having obtained the favour of the delighted king. 

''Thus do rogues spread the webs of their tongue with hundreds of 
intricate threads, like fishermen upon dry land, living by the net. So 
may be certain, my !;n ,-. that thi> Brahman is a casein point. By falsely 
i ought to read flatted for ttitni. 

rting that he has seen the City of Gold, he wishes to deceive you, and 
to obtain me for a wife. So do not be in a hurry to get me married ; I shall 
remain unmarried at present, and we will see what will happen." When the 
king Paropakarin heard thisfromhis daughter Kanakarekha, he thus answer- 
ed her: " When a girl is grown up, it is not expedient that she should remain 
long unmarried, for wicked people envious of good qualities, falsely impute 
sin. And people are particularly fond of blackening the character of one 
distinguished ; to illustrate this, listen to the story of Harasvamin which 
I am about to tell you." 

There is a city on the banks of 
btory oj Jfarasvamin. 

the Ganges named Kusumapura,* and 

in it there was an ascetic who visited holy places, named Harasvamin. He 
was a Brahman living by begging; and constructing a hut on the banks of 
the Ganges, he became, on account of his surprisingly rigid asceticism, the 
object of the people's respect. f And one day a wicked man among the 
inhabitants, who could not tolerate his virtue, seeing him from a distance 
going out to beg, said, "Do you know what a hypocritical ascetic that is ? 
It is he that has eaten up all the children in this town." When a second 
there who was like him, heard this, he said, " It is true, I also have hoard 
people saying this." And a third confirming it said, " Such is the fact." 
The chain of villains' conversation binds reproach on the good. And in 
this way the report spread from ear to ear, and gained general credence in 
the city. And all the citizens kept their children by force in their houses, 
saying, " Harasvamin carries off all the children and eats them." And 
then the Brahmans in that town, afraid that their offspring would be 
destroyed, assembled and deliberated about his banishment from the city. 
And as they did not dare to tell him face to face, for fear he might perhaps 
eat them up in his rage, they sent messengers to him. And those messen- 
gers went and said to him from a distance ; " The Brahmans command you 
to depart from this city." Then in his astonishment he asked them " Wl 
And they went on to say ; " You eat every child as soon as you see it." 
When Harasvamin heard that, he went near those Brahmans, in order to re- 
assure them, and the people fled before him for fear. And the Brahma;: 
soon as they saw him, were terrified and went up to the top of their monas- 
tery. People who are deluded by reports are not, as a rule, capable of dis- 
crimination. Then Harasvamin standing below called all the Urahii 
who were above, one by one, by name, and said to them, " What delusion is 

* The city of flowers, i. ij. lYituliputm. 

t IVrhaps wo on-lit to iv-nl i/nijuu tor duditu. This I find ia the reading of an 

lit MS. mth.' S.mskiii <'ulli'-v, lor the loan of which I am deeply i 
tli.- Principal Olid the Librarian. 


this, Br&hmatM ? Wliy do you not ascertain with one another how many 
children I have cute 1 .!, and \vlii )se. and how many of each man's children.'' 
When they heard that, the Brahmans began to compare notes among them- 
selves, and found that all of them had all their children left alive. And in 
course of time other citizens, appointed to investigate the matter, admitted 
that all their children were living. And merchants and Brahmans and all 
said, " Alas in our folly we have belied a holy man ; the children of all of us 
are alive ; so whose children can he have eaten ?" Harasvamin, being thus 
completely exonerated, prepared to leave that city, for his mind was seized 
with disgust at the slanderous report got up against him by wicked men. 
For what pleasure can a wise man take in a wicked place, the inhabitants 
of which are wanting in discrimination ? Then the Brahmans and mer- 
chants, prostrating themselves at his feet, entreated him to stay there, and 
he at last, though with reluctance, consented to do so. 

" In this way evil men often impute crime falsely to good men, allowing 
their malicious garrulity full play on beholding their virtuous behaviour. 
Much more, if they obtain a slight glimpse of any opportunity for attack- 
ing them, do they pour copious showers of oil on the fire thus kindled. 
Therefore if you wish, my daughter, to draw the arrow from my heart, you 
must not, while this fresh youth of yours is developing, remain unmarried 
to please yourself, and so incur the ready reproach of evil men." Such was 
the advice which the princess Kanakarekha frequently received from her 
father the king, but she, being firmly resolved, again and again answered 
him : " Therefore quickly search for a Brahman or Kshatriya who has 
seen that City of Gold and give me to him, for this is the condition I have 
named." When the king heard that, reflecting that his daughter, who 
remembered her former birth, had completely made up her mind, and seeing 
no other way of obtaining for her the husband she desired, he issued another 
order to the effect that henceforth the proclamation by beat of drum was to 
take place every day in t1% city, in order to lind out whether any of the new- 
comers had seen the Golden City. And once more it was proclaimed in 
quarter of the city every day, after the drum had been beaten, " If any 
Brahman or Kshatriya has seen the Golden City, let him speak ; the king 
will give him his own daughter, together with the rank of Crown-prince." 
But no one was found who had obtained a sight of the Golden City. 



In the meanwhile the young Brahman S'aktivega, in very low spirits, 
having been rejected with contempt by the princess he longed for, said to 
himself; " To-day by asserting falsely that I had seen the Golden City, I 
certainly incurred contempt, but I did not obtain that princess. So I must 
roam through the earth to find it, until I have either seen that city or 
lost my life. For of what use is my life, unless I can return having seen 
that city, and obtain the princess as the prize of the achievement ?" Having 
thus taken a vow, that Brahman set out from the city of Vardhamana, 
directing his course toward the southern quarter, and as he journeyed, he at 
last reached the great forest of the Vindhya range, and entered it, which 
was difficult and long as his own undertaking. And that forest, so to speak, 
fanned, with the soft leaves of its trees shaken by the wind, him, who was 
heated by the multitudinous rays of the sun ; and through grief at being 
overrun with many robbers, it made its cry heard day and night in the shrill 
screams of animals which were being slain in it by lions and other noisome 
beasts. And it seemed, by the unchecked rays of heat flashed upward from 
its wild deserts, to endeavour to conquer the fierce brightness of the sun : 
in it, though there was no accumulation of water, calamity was to be easilv 
purchased :* and its space seemed ever to extend before the traveller as 
fast as he crossed it. In the course of many days he accomplished a long 
journey through this forest, and beheld in it a great lake of cold pure water 
in a lonely spot : which seemed to lord it over all lakes, with its lotuses 
like lofty umbrellas, and its swans like gleaming white chowries. In the 
water of that lake he performed the customary ablutions, and on its north- 
ern shore he beheld a hermitage with beautiful fruit-bearing trees : and he 
saw an old hermit named Suryatapas sitting at the foot of an Asvattha tnv, 
surrounded by ascetics, adorned with a rosary, the beads of which 
by their number seemed to be the knots that marked the centuries of his 
life,f and which rested against the extremity of his ear that was white 
with age. And he approached that hermit with a bow, and the hermit wel- 
comed him with hospitable greetings. And the hermit, after entertaining 
him with fruits and other delicacies, asked him, " Whence have you come, 
and whither are you going? Tell me, good sir." And S'aktideva inclining 
respectfully, said to that hermit, " I have come, venerable sir, from the 

* Probably a poor pun. 

t <;/'. T T ttara Kama Cbaritu (Yidyasagara's edition) Act III, p. S-. tin' spc.rh of 
the rivtT-ijoddtJsis Tiuuuau. 


city of Vardham&na, and I have undertaken to go to the Golden City in 
accordance with a vow. But I do not know where that city lies ; tell me 
venerable sir, if you know." The hermit answered, " My son, I have 
lived eight hundred years in this hermitage, and I have never even heard of 
that city." S'aktideva when he heard this from the hermit, was cast down, 
and said again " Then my wanderings through the earth will end hy my 
dvin 01 here." Then that hermit, having gradually elicited the whole story 
said to him, " If you are firmly resolved, then do what I tell you. Three 
yojanas from here there is a country named Kampilya, and in it is a moun- 
tain named Uttara, and on it there is a hermitage. There dwells my noble 
elder brother named Dirghatapas ;* go to him, he being old may perhaps 
know of that city." When S'aktideva heard that, hope arose in his breast, 
and having spent the night there he quickly set out in the morning from 
that place. And wearied with the laborious journey through difficult forest 
country, he at last reached that region of Kampilya and ascended that 
mountain Uttara ; and there he beheld that hermit Dirghatapas in a her- 
mitage, and he was delighted and approached him with a bow : and the 
hermit received him hospitably : and S'aktideva said to him, " I am on my 
way to the City of Gold spoken of by the king's daughter : but I do not 
know, venerable sir, where that city is. However I am bound to find it, 
so I have been sent to you by the sage Suryatapas in order that I may dis- 
cover where it lies." When he had said this, the hermit answered him, 
" Though I am so old, my son, I have never heard of that city till to-day ; I 
have made acquaintance with various travellers from foreign lands, and I 
have never heard any one speak of it ; much less have I seen it. But I am 
sure it must be in some distant foreign island, and I can tell you an expedient 
to help you in this matter ; there is in the midst of the ocean an island named 
Utsthala, and in it there is a rich king of the Nishadasf named Satyavrata. He 
goes to and fro among all the other islands, and he may have seen or 
heard of that city. Therefore first go to the city named Yitankapura 
situated on the border of the sea. And from that place go with some mer- 
chant in a ship to the island where that Nishada dwells, in order that 
may attain your object." When S'aktideva heard this from the hermit, he 
immediately followed his advice, and taking leave of him set out from the her- 

* In the story of the Beautiful Palace East of the Sun and North of tin- Ivir'h, 
(Thorpe, Yule-tido Stories, p. 158) an old woman sends the youth, who is in qn 
the palace, to her old sister, who again re f era him to an older .sister dwelling in a 
ruinous cottage on a mountain. In Signora von Gon/.i nkich's Sieili : : ii.-n, 

p. 86, the prince is sent by one u KhiMrdlcr" to his brother, and this hrotln-i- sends him 
to an older brother and lie again t 

|i. Ki'J. Compare also the .-: ;n ut' HI liasra in Lan.-'s Arabian Nights. 

t Wild aboriginal tribes not belonging to the Aryan i 


mitage. And after accomplishing many Icos and crossing many lands, he 
reached the city of Vitankajmra, the ornament of the- sea-shore. The; 
sought out a merchant named Samudradatta, who traded with the island of 
I'tsthala, and struck up a friendship with him. And he went on hoard his ship 
with him, and having food for the voyage fully supplied by his kindness, he set 
out on the ocean-path. Then, when they had but a short distance to travel, 
there arose a black .ploud with rumbling thunder, resembling a roaring 
IJakshasa, with flickering lightning to represent his lolling tongue. And a 
furious hurricane began to blow like Destiny herself, whirling up light 
objects and hurling down heavy.* And from the sea, lashed by the wind, 
great waves rose aloft like the mountains equipped with wings, f indignant 
that their asylum had been attacked. And that vessel rose on high one 
moment, and the next moment plunged below, as if exhibiting how rich 
men are first elevated and then cast down. And the next moment that 
ship, shrilly laden with the cries of the merchants, burst and split asunder 
as if with the weight. And the ship being broken, that merchant its 
owner fell into the sea, but floating through it on a plank he at last reached 
another vessel. But as S'aktideva fell, a large fish, opening its mouth and 
neck, swallowed him without injuring any of his limbs. And as that fish 
was roaming at will in the midst of the sea, it happened to pass near 
the island of Utsthala; and by chance some servants of that king of 
the fishermen Satyavrata, who were engaged in the pursuit of small fish, came 
there and caught it. And those fishermen, proud of their prize, immediately 
dragged it along to shew to their king, for it was of enormous size. He too, 
out of curiosity, seeing that it was of such extraordinary size, ordered his 
servants to cut it open ; and when it was cut open, S'aktideva came out 
alive from its belly, having endured a second wonderful imprisonment in 
the womb. J Then the fisher-king Satyavrata, when he saw that young man 
come out and bestow his blessing on him, was astonished, and asked him, 
" Who are you, and how did this lot of dwelling in the belly of the fish befall 
you? What means this exceedingly .strange fate that you have suffered." 
When S'aktideva heard this, he answered that king of the fishermen : "I 
am a Brahman of the name of S'aktideva from the city of Vardhaniana ; 

* Destiny often elevates the worthless, and hurls down men of worth. 

t The usual story is that Indra cut off the wings of all except Muiruika the son of 
Himavat by Mena. He took nfbge in the sea. Here it is represented that more es- 
caped. So in Bhartrihari Xiti S'ataka st. 76 (Bombay edition). 

J For Saktideva's imprisonment in the belly of the fish rp. Chapter 74 of this 
work, Indian Fairy Tales l>y Miss Stokes, X... XiV, and Lncian's Yera Ili~ 
I. In this tale tile (ish swallows a ship. The civw disn v, ; countries in Hi, 
inside, cstal' a "scientific frontier," and purstu a policy of Annexation. Seo also 
Lane's, Arabian Niyhts, Vol. Ill, p. 104. 


and I am bound to visit the City of Gold, and because I do not know where 
it is, I have for a long time wandered far over the earth ; then I gat 1 
from a speech of Dirghatapas' that it was probably in an island, so I set 
out to find Satyavrata the king of the fishermen, who lives in the island of 
Utsthala, in order to learn its whereabouts, but on the way I suffered 
shipwreck, and so having been whelmed in the sea and swallowed by a fish, 
I have been brought here now." When S'aktideva had said this, Satyavrata 
said to him : " I am in truth Satyavrata, and this is the very island vou 
were seeking ; but though I have seen many islands, I have never seen the 
city you desire to find, but I have heard of it as situated in one of the 
distant islands. Having said this, and perceiving that S'aktideva was cast 
down, Satyavrata out of kindness for his guest went on to say: " Brahman, do 
not be despondent ; remain here this night, and to-morrow morning I will 
devise some expedient to enable you to attain your object." The Brahman 
was thus consoled by the king, and sent off to a monastery of Brahmans, 
where guests were readily entertained. There Satyavrata was supplied 
with food by a Brahman named Vishnudatta, an inmate of the monastery, 
and entered into conversation with him. And in the course of that con. 
versation, being questioned by him, he told him in a few words his country, 
his family, and his whole history. When Vishnudatta heard that, he immedi- 
ately embraced him, and said in a voice indistinct from the syllables being 
choked with tears of joy: " Bravo ! you are the son of my maternal uncle 
and a fellow-countryman of mine. But I long ago in my childhood left 
that country to come here. So stop here awhile, and soon the stream of 
merchants and pilots that come here from other islands will accomplish 
your wish." Having told him his descent in these words, Vishnudatta waited 
upon S'aktideva with all becoming attentions. And S'aktideva, forgetting 
the toil of the journey, obtained delight, for the meeting a relation in a 
foreign land is like a fountain of nectar in the desert. And he considered 
that the accomplishment of his object was near at hand, for good luek, 
befalling one by the way indicates success in an undertaking. So lie 
,ed at night sleepless upon his bed, with his mind fixed upon the 
attainment of his desire, and Vishnudatta, who was by his side, iu order to 
encourage and delight him at the same time, related to him the following 
tale : 

Formerly there was a great Brah- 
Story of Aiokadatta and 7 ijai/ailatta.* 

man named Govindasvamm, living on 

a great royal grant of land on the banks of the \ aniuiia. And in eourse 
of time tin iv were born to that virtuous Brahman two sons like him 
Asokadatta and Vijayadatta. While they were living there, there ar. 

Of. Grimm's Marchen, Xo. 60, Minimi. Nos. ".!' .UK! JO. with 
Dr. Kohl' , 


terrible famine in that land, and so Govindasv;imin said to his wife ; " This 
land is ruined by famine, and I cannot bear to behold the misery of my 
friends and relations. For who gives anything to anybody ? So let us at 
any rate give away to our friends and relations what little food we pu 
and leave this country. And let us go with our family to Benares to live 
there." When he said this to his wife, she consented, and he gave away his 
food, and set out from that place with his wife, sons, and servants. For 
men of noble soul cannot bear to witness the miseries of their relatives. 
And on the road he beheld a skull-bearing S'aiva ascetic, white with ashes, 
and with matted hair, like the god S'iva himself with his half-moon. The 
Brahman approached that wise man with a bow, and out of love for his. 
sous, asked him about their destiny, whether it should be good or bad, and 
that Yogi answered him : " The future destiny of your sons is auspicious, 
but you shall be separated, Brahman, from this younger one Vijayadatta, 
and finally by the might of the second Asokadatta you shall be reunited to 
him." Govindasvamin, when that wise man said this to him, took leave of 
him and departed overpowered with joy, grief, and wonder ; and after reach- 
ing Benares he spent the day there in a temple of Durga outside the town, 
engaged in worshipping the goddess and such like occupations. And iu 
the evening he encamped outside that temple under a tree, with his family, 
in the company of pilgrims who had come from other countries. And at night, 
while all were asleep, wearied with their long journey, stretched out on 
strcnvn leaves, and such other beds as travellers have to put up with, his 
younger son Vijayadatta, who was awake, was suddenly seized with a 
cold ague-fit ; that ague quickly made him tremble, and caused his hair 
to stand on end, as if it had been the fear of his approaching separation 
from his relations. And oppressed with the cold he woke up his father, 
ar.d said to him : " A terrible ague afllicts me here now, father, so bring 
fuel and light me a fire to keep off the cold, in no other way can I obtain 
ivlicf or get through the night." When Govindasvamin heard him say 
this, he was distressed at his suffering, and said to him ; " Whence can 
I procure lire now my son ?" Then his son said ; ' AVhy surely we may 
B66 a fire burning near us on this side, and it is very large, so why should 
I not go there and warm my body ? So take me by the hand, for I 
have a shivering fit, and lead me there." Thus entreated bv his son tho 
Brahman went on to say : " This is a cemetery,* and the fire is that of a 
funeral pyre, so how can you go to a place terrible from the presence of 
goblins and other spirits, for you are only a child ?" When the IT 
Vijayadatta heard that speech of his affectionate father's, he laughed 
and said in his confidence. " What can the wretched goblins and other 
evil ones do to me ? Am I a weakling ? So take me there without 

* If such u word can be applied to a place \\heiv bodies arc burnt. 



fear." When be said this so persistently, his father led him there, and the 
boy warming his body approached the pyre, which seemed to bear on itself 
the presiding deity of the Rakshasas in visible form, with the smoke of 
the flames for dishevelled hair, devouring the flesh of men. The boy at 
once encouraged his father* and asked him what the round thing was 
that he saw inside the pyre. And his father standing at his side, answered 
him, " This, my son, is the skull of a man which is burning in the pyre." 
Then the boy in his recklessness struck the skull with a piece of wood 
lighted at the top, and clove it. The brains spouted up from it and entered 
his mouth, like the initiation into the practices of the Rakshasas, bestowed 
upon him by the funeral flame. And by tasting them that boy became a 
Rakshasa, with hair standing on end, with sword that he had drawn from 
the flame, terrible with projecting tusks : so he seized the skull and drink- 
ing the brains from it, he licked it with tongue restlessly quivering like 
the flames of fire that clung to the bone. Then he flung aside the skull, 
and lifting his sword he attempted to slay his own father Govindasvamin. 
But at that moment a voice came out from the cemetery, " Kapalasphota,f 
thou god, thou oughtest not to slay thy father, come here." When the 
boy heard that, having obtained the title of Kapalasphota and become a 
Rakshasa, he let his father alone, and disappeared ; and his father departed 
exclaiming aloud, " Alas my son ! Alas my virtuous son ! Alas Yijaya- 
datta!" And he returned to the temple of Durga ; and in the morning 
he told his wife and his eldest son Asokadatta what had taken place. Then 
that unfortunate man together with them suffered an attack of the fire 
of grief, terrible like the falling of lightning from a cloud, so that the 
other people, who were sojourning in Benares, and had come to visit the 
shrine of the goddess, came up to him and sympathised heartily with his 
sorrow. In the meanwhile a great merchant, who had come to worship the 
goddess, named Samudradatta, beheld Govindasvamin in that state. The 
good man approached him and comforted him, and immediately took him 
and his family home to his own house. And there he provided him with a 
bath and other luxuries, for this is the innate tendency of the great, to 
have mercy upon the wretched. Govindasvamin also and his wife recovered 
their self-command, having heard J the speech of the great S'aiva ascetic, 
hoping to be re-united to their son. And thenceforth he lived in that city 
of Benares, in the house of that rich merchant, having been asked by him 

SamdSvasya, the reading of a BIS. in the Sanskrit College, would perhaps give 
a better sense. 

f /. c. skull-cleaver. 

J Perhaps we ought to read wtrilod for tfrnttd, " iJuiU'inK-ring, culling to 


to do so. And there his other son Asokadatta grew up to be a young man, 
and after studying the sciences learnt boxing and wrestling. And gradually 
he attained such eminence in these arts, that he was not surpassed by any 
champion on the earth. And once on a time there was a great gathering 
of wrestlers at an idol procession, and a great and famous wrestler came from 
the Deccan. He conquered all the other wrestlers of the king of Benares, 
who was called Pratapamukuta, before his eyes. Then the king had Asoka- 
datta quickly summoned from the house of that excellent merchant, and 
ordered him to contend with that wrestler. That wrestler began the com- 
bat by catching the arm of Asokadatta with his hand, but As'okadatta seized 
his arm, and hurled him to the ground. Then the field of combat, as it 
were, pleased, applauded the victor with the resounding noise produced by 
the fall of that champion wrestler. And the king being gratified, loaded 
Asokadatta with jewels, and having seen his might, he made him his own 
personal attendant. So he became a favourite of the king's, and in time 
attained great prosperity, for to one who possesses heroic qualities, a king 
who appreciates merit is a perfect treasure-house. Once on a time, that 
king went on the fourteenth day of the month away from his capital, to 
worship the god S'iva in a splendid temple in a distant town. After he 
had paid his devotions, he was returning by night near the cemetery 
when he heard this utterance issue from it : " O king, the chief magistrate 
out of private malice proclaimed that I deserved death, and it is now the 
third clay since I was impaled, and even now my life will not leave my 
body, though I am innocent, so I am exceedingly thirsty ; king, order 
water to be given me." When the king heard it, out of pity he said to his 
personal attendant Asokadatta, " Send that man some water." Then Asoka- 
datta said, " Who would go there at night ? So I had better go 
myself." Accordingly he took the water, and set off. After the king had 
proceeded on his way to his capital, the hero entered that cemetery, the 
interior of which was difficult to penetrate, as it was filled with dense dark- 
ness within ; in it there were awful evening oblations offered with tho 
human flesh scattered about by the jackals ; in places the cemetery was 
lighted up by the flaming beacons of the blazing funeral pyres, and in it 
the Vetalas made terrible music with the clapping of their hands, so that 
it seemed as if it were the palace of black night. Then he cried aloud, 
' Who asked the king for water ?" And he hoard from one quarter an answer, 
" I asked for it." Following the voice he went to a funeral pyre near, and 
beheld a man impaled on the top of a stake, and underneath it he saw a 
woman that he had never seen before, weeping, adorned with beautiful 
ornaments, lovely in every limb ; like the night adorned with the ra 
the moon, now that the moon itself had set, its splendour Irivinj; waned 
in the dark fortnight, come to worship the funeral pyre. Ho a.skod the 


woman : " Who are you, mother, and why are you standing weeping here ?" 
She answered him, " I am the ill-fated wife of him who is here impaled, and 
I am waiting here with the firm intention of ascending the funeral pyre 
with him. And I am waiting some time for his life to leave his body, for 
though it is the third day of his impalement, his breath does not depart. 
And he often asks for that water which I have brought here, but I cannot 
reach his mouth, my friend, as the stake is high." When he heard that 
speech of hers, the mighty hero said to her : " But here is water in my hand 
sent to him by the king, so place your foot on my back and lift it to his 
mouth, for the mere touching of another man in sore need does not dis- 
grace a woman." When she heard that, she consented, and taking the 
water she climbed up so as to plant her two feet on the back of Asokadatta, 
who bent down at the foot of the stake. Soon after, as drops of blood 
unexpectedly began to fall upon the earth and on his back, the hero lifted 
up his face and looked. Then he saw that woman cutting off slice after 
slice of that impaled man's flesh with a knife, and eating it.* 

Then, perceiving that she was some horrible demon, f he dragged her 
down in a rage, and took hold of her by her foot with its tinkling anklets 
in order to dash her to pieces on the earth. She, for her part, dragged 
away from him that foot, and by her deluding power quickly flew up into 
the heaven, and became invisible. And the jewelled anklet, which had fallen 
from her foot, while she was dragging it away, remained in one of 
Asokadatta' s hands. Then he, reflecting that she had disappeared after 
shewing herself mild at first, and evil-working in the middle, and at the 
end horror-striking by assuming a terrible form, like association with wicked 
men, and seeing that heavenly anklet in his hand, was astonished, 
grieved and delighted at the same time ; and then he left that cemetery, 
taking the anklet with him, and went to his own house, and in the morn- 
ing, after bathing, to the palace of the king. 

And when the king said " Did you give the water to the man who 
was impaled," he said he had done so, and gave him that anklet ; and when 
the king of his own accord asked him where it came from, he told that 
king his wonderful and terrible night-adventure. And then the king, per- 
ceiving that his courage was superior to that of all men, though he was 

* So in Signora Von Gonzcnbach's Sicilian Stories, p. 66, a lovely woman opens 
with a knifo the veins of the sleeping prince and drinks his blood. See also Veulcen- 
stedt's Wcndische Sagon, p. 354. Ralston in his Eussian Folk-Talcs, p. 17, compares 
this part of the story with a Russian story and that of Sidi Noman in the " Thousand 
and One Nighta," he refers also to Lane's Translation, vol. I, p. 32. 

t One is tempted to read vikritdin for vikritim, but vikriti is translated by the 
rHcrsburg lexicographers as Gespenstcrschcinnntj . Vikritdm would incuii transformed 
nto a Kukthasi. 


before pleased with his other excellent qualities, was now more exceedingly 
delighted ; and he took that anklet in his joy and gave it with his own 
hand to the queen, and described to her the way in which he had obtained 
it. And she, hearing the story and beholding that heavenly jewelled anklet, 
rejoiced in her heart and was continually engaged in extolling Asokadatfca. 
Then the king said to her : " Queen, in birth, in learning, in truthfulness 
and beauty Asokadatta is great among the great ; and I think it would be 
a good thing if he were to become the husband of our lovely daughter 
Madanalekha ; in a bridegroom, these qualities are to be looked for, not for- 
tune that vanishes in a moment, so I will give my daughter to this excel- 
lent hero." When she heard that speech of her husband's, that queen 
approving the proposal said, " It is quite fitting, for the youth will be an ap- 
propriate match for her, and her heart has been captivated by him, for she 
saw him in a spring-garden, and for some days her mind has been in a state 
of vacancy and she neither hears nor sees ; I heard of it from her confidante, 
and, after spending an anxious night, towards morning I fell asleep, and I 
remember I was thus addressed by some heavenly woman in a dream, 
' My child, thou must not give this thy daughter Madanalekha to any one 
but Asokadatta, for she is his wife acquired by him in a former birth.' 
And when I heard it, I woke up, and in the morning I want myself on the 
strength of the dream and consoled my daughter. And now, my husband 
has of his own accord proposed the marriage to me. Let her therefore be 
united to him, as a spring-creeper to its stalk." When the king's beloved 
wife said this to him, he was pleased, and he made festal rejoicings, and 
summoning Asokadatta gave that daughter to him. And the union of 
those two, the daughter of the king, and the son of the great Brahman, was 
such that each enhanced the other's glory, like the union of prosperity 
and modesty. And once upon a time the queen said to the king, with 
reference to the anklet brought by Asokadatta : " My husband, this anklet 
by itself does not look well, so let another be made like it." When the 
king heard that, he gave an order to the goldsmiths and other craftsmen 
of the kind, to make a second anklet like that. But they, after examining 
it said ; " It is impossible, O king, to make another like it, for the work is 
heavenly, not human. There are not many jewels of this kind upon the 
earth, so let another be sought for where this was obtained." When the 
king and the queen heard this, they were despondent, and Asokadatta who 
was there, on seeing that, immediately said, " I myself will bring you a fel- 
low to that anklet." And having made this promise he could not give up tho 
project on which he was resolved, although the king, terrified at his tern 
endeavoured to dissuade him out of affection. And taking tho anklet he 
went again on the fourteenth night of the black fortnight to the cemetery 
where he had first obtained it ; and after he had entered that cemetery which 


was full of Kakshasas as it was of trees, besmirched with the copious smoke 
of the funeral pyres, and with men hanging from their trunks* which 
were weighed down and surrounded with nooses, he did not at first see that 
woman that he had seen before, but he thought of an admirable device for ob- 
taining that bracelet, which was nothing else than the selling of human flesh. f 
So he pulled down a corpse from the noose by which it was suspended on 
the tree, and he wandered about in the cemetery, crying aloud " Human 
flesh for sale, buy, buy !" And immediately a woman called to him from a 
distance, saying, " Courageous man, bring the human flesh and come along 
with me." When he heard that, he advanced following that woman, and be- 
held at no great distance under a tree a lady of heavenly appearance, surround- 
ed with women, sitting on a throne, glittering with jewelled ornaments, whom 
he would never have expected to find in such a place, any more than to find 
a lotus in a desert. And having been led up by that woman, he 
approached the lady seated as has been described, and said, " Here 
I am, I sell human flesh, buy, buy !" And then the lady of heaven- 
ly appearance said to him, " Courageous hero, for what price will you 
sell the flesh ?" Then the hero, with the corpse hanging over his 
shoulder and back, said to her, shewing her at the same time that single 
jewelled anklet which was in his hand, " I will give this flesh to whoever 
will give me a second anklet like this one ; if you have got a second like it, 
take the flesh." When she heard that, she said to him, " I have a second 
like it, for this very single anklet was taken by you from me. I am that 
very woman who was seen by you near the impaled man, but you do not 
recognise me now, because I have assumed another shape. So what is the 
use of flesh ? If you do what I tell you, I will give you my second anklet, 
which matches the one in your hand." When she said this to the hero, he 
consented and said, " I will immediately do whatever you say." Then she 
told him her whole desire from the beginning : " There is, good sir, a city 
named Trighanta on a peak of the Himalayas. In it there lived a heroic 
prince of the Eakshasas named Lambajihva. I am his wife, Vidyuchchhiklul 
by name, and I can change my form at will. And as fate would have it, 
that husband of mine, after the birth of my daughter, was slain in battle 
fighting in front of the king Kapalasphota ; then that king being pl<\i>t\l 
gave me his own city, and I have lived with my daughter in great comfort 
on its proceeds up to the present time. And that daughter of mine has 
by this time grown up to fresh womanhood, and I have great anxiety 
in my mind as to how to obtain for her a brave husband. Then being here 
on the fourteenth night of the lunar fortnight, and seeing you coming 

* SJcandha wlu-n applied to the Rakshasas means shoulder. 

t Literally u'tvat. H,-sh. " limit" seems to give the idea of unlawfulness, as iu tho 
Greek futya Zpyov. 


along this way with the king, I thought ' This good-looking yonth is a 
hero and a fit match for my daughter. So why should I not devise some 
stratagem for obtaining him ?' Thus I determined, and imitating the voice 
of an impaled person, I asked for water, and brought you into the middle 
of that cemetery by a trick. And there I exhibited my delusive power in 
assuming a false shape and other characteristics, and saying what was false 
I imposed upon you there, though only for a moment. And I artfully left 
one of my anklets there to attract you again, like a binding chain to draw 
you, and then I came away. And to-day I have obtained you by that very 
expedient, so come to my house ; marry my daughter and receive the other 
anklet." When the Rakshasi said this to him, the hero consented, and by 
means of her magic power he went with her through the air to her city. 
And he saw that city built of gold on a peak of the Himalayas, like the 
orb of the sun fixed in one spot, being weary with the toil of wandering 
through the heavens. There he married that daughter of the prince of 
the Rakshasas, by name Vidyutprabha, like the success of his own daring 
incarnate in bodily form. And Asokadatta dwelt with that loved one 
some time in that city, enjoying great comfort by means of his mother-in- 
law's wealth. Then he said to his mother-in-law, " Give me that anklet, 
for I must now go to the city of Benares, for I myself long ago promised 
the king that I would bring a second anklet, that would vie with the first 
one so distinguished for its unparalleled beauty." The mother-in-law, having 
been thus entreated by her son-in-law, gave him that second anklet of hers, 
and in addition a golden lotus. 

Then he left that city with the anklet and the lotus, after promising 
to return, and his mother-in-law by the power of her magic knowledge 
carried him once more through the air to the cemetery. And then she 
stopped under the tree and said to him, " I always come here on the four- 
teenth night of the black fortnight, and whenever you come here on that* 
night, you will find me here under the banyan-tree." When Asokadatta 
heard this, he agreed to come there on that night, and took leave of that 
Rakshasi, and went first to his father's house. And just as he was gladdening 
by his unexpected arrival his parents, who were grieved by such an absence of 
his, which doubled their grief for their separation from their younger son, the 
king his father-in-law, who had heard of his arrival, came in. The king in- 
dulged in a long outburst of joy, embracing him who bent before him, with 
limbs the hairs of which stood on end like thorns, as if terrified at touching 
one so dariug.f Then Asokadatta entered with him the palace of the king, 

* Reading tasijdn for tasman. 

t Soniudevu no doubt menus that the hairs on the king's body stood on end with 



like joy incarnate in bodily form, and he gave to the king those two anklets 
matched together, which so to speak praised his valour with their tinkling, 
and he bestowed on that king the beautiful golden lotus, as it were the 
lotus, with which the presiding Fortune of the Kakshasas' treasure plays, 
torn, from her hand ; then being questioned out of curiosity by the king 
and queen he told the story of his exploits, which poured nectar into their 
ears. The king then exclaimed " Is glittering glory, which astonishes 
the mind by the description of wonderful exploits, ever obtained without 
a man's bringing himself to display boldness ?" Thus the king spake on 
that occasion, and he and the queen, who had obtained the pair of anklets, 
considered their object in life attained, now that they had such a son-in-law. 
And then that palace, resounding with festal instruments, appeared as if 
it were chanting the virtues of Asokadatta. And on the next day the king 
dedicated the golden lotus in a temple made by himself, placing it upon a 
beautiful silver vessel; and the two together, the vessel and the lotus, gleam- 
ed white and red like the glory of the king and the might* of Asokadatta. 
And beholding them thus, the king, a devout worshipper of S'iva, with eyes 
expanded with joy, spoke inspired with the rapture of adoration, " Ah ! this 
lofty vessel appears, with this lotus upon it, like S'iva white with ashes, with 
his auburn matted locks. If I had a second golden lotus like it, I would 
place it in this second silver vessel." When Asokadatta heard this 
speech of the king's, he said, "I, king, will bring you a second golden lotus ;" 
when the king heard that, he answered him, "I have ho need of another 
lotus, a truce to your temerity !" Then as days went on, Asokadatta 
being desirous of bringing a golden lotus, the fourteenth day of the 
black fortnight returned ; and that evening the sun, the golden lotus of the 
sky-lake, went to the mountain of setting, as if out of fear, knowing 
his desire for a golden lotus ; and when the shades of night, brown as 
smoke, began immediately to spread everywhere like Ilukshasas, proud of 
having swallowed the red clouds of evening as if they were raw ilcsh, and 
the mouth of night, like that of an awful female goblin, began to yawn, 
shining and terrible as (a mala, full of flickering names, f Asokadatta of 
his own accord left the palace where the princess was asleep, and again 
went to that cemetery. There he beheld at the foot of that banyan-tree his 
mother-in-law the l{;ikshasi, who had again come, and who received him 
with a courteous welcome, and with her the youth went again to her home, 
the peak of the Himalayas, where his wife was anxiously awaiting him. 
And after he had remained some- time with his wife, he said to his mother- 
in-law, " Give mo a second golden lotus from somewhere or other." When 

* According to the- canons of Hindu rhetoric i*lury is uhv.iys while. 
1 Night u compared to a female goblin, (Rdkshtaf). Those civutmvs hv, 


she heard that, she said to him, " Whence can I procure another golden 
lotus? But th -iv i> :i lake here belonging to our king Kapalasphofa, 
where golden lotuses of this kind grow on all sides. From that lake he 
gave that one lotus to iny husband as a token of affection." When she said 
tliis, he answered her, " Then take me to that hike, in order that I m;iy my- 
self take a golden lotus from it." She then attempted to dissuade him 
saying, " It is impossible ; for the lake is guarded by terrible llaksha.- 
but nevertheless he would not desist from his importunity." Then at last his 
mother-in-law was with much dilHculty induced to take bim there, and he 
beheld from afar that heavenly lake on the plateau of a lofty mountain, 
covered with dense and tall-stalked lotuses of gleaming gold, as if from 
continually facing the sun's rays they had drunk them in, and so become 
interpenetrated with them. 

So he went there and began to gather the lotuses, and while he was 
thus engaged, the terrible Itakshasas, who guarded it, endeavoured to pre- 
vent him from doing so. And being armed he killed some of them, but 
the others fled and told their king Kapalasphota,* and when that king of 
the Rakshasas heard of it, he was enraged and came there himself, and saw 
Asokadatta with the lotuses he had carried off. And in his astonishment 
he exclaimed as he recognised his brother : " What ! is this my brother 
Asokadatta come here ?" Then he flung away his weapon, and with his 
eyes washed with tears of joy, he quickly ran and fell at his feet, and said 
to him : " I am Yijayadatta, your younger brother, we are both the sons of 
that excellent Brahman Govindasvamin. And by the appointment of des- 
tiny, I became a llakshasa such as you see, and have continued such for 
this long time, and I am called Kapalasphota from niy cleaving the skull 
on the funeral pyre." 

But now from seeing you I have remembered my former Brahman 
nature, and that R;ikshasa nature of mine, clouded my mind with de- 
lusion, has left me." When Yijayadatta said this, Asokadatta embraced 
him, and so to speak, washed with copious tears of joy his body defiled by the 
lldkshasa nature. And while he was thus engaged, there descended from 
heaven by divine command the spiritual guide of the Yidyadharas, named 
Kausika. And he approaching these two brothers, said, " You and your 
family are all Vidyadharas, who have been reduced to this state by a curse, 
and now the curse of all of you has terminated. So receive these sciences, 
which belong to you, and which you must share with your relations. And 
return to your own proper dwelling taking with you your relations." 
Having said this, the spiritual guide, after bestowing the sciences on them, 
ascended to heaven. 

And they, having become Vidyadhnvas, awoke from tln-ir lonir <! 
* Cp. Su-iliauisL-hu 3J.arub.en collected by Laura Von Gonzeubueh. Yal. I, p. iGO. 



and went through the air to that peak of the Himalayas, taking with them 
the golden lotuses, and there Asokadatta repaired to his wife the daughter 
of the king of the liakshasas, and then her curse came to an end, and she 
became a Vidyadhari. And those two brothers went in a moment with 
that fair-eyed one to Benares, travelling through the air. And there they 
visited their parents, who were scorched with the fire of separation, and re- 
freshed them by pouring upon them the revivifying nectar of their own 
appearance. And those two, who, without changing the body, had gone 
through such wonderful transformations, produced joy not only in their 
parents, but in the people at large. And when Vija3 r adatta's father, after so 
long a separation, folded him in a close embrace, he filled full not only his 
arms, but also his desire. Then the king Pratapamukuta, the father-in-law 
of Asokadatta, hearing of it, came there in higli delight ; and Asokadatta, 
being kindly received by the king, entered with his relations the king's 
palace, in which his beloved was anxiously awaiting him, and which was in a 
state of festal rejoicing. And he gave many golden lotuses to that king, 
and the king was delighted at getting more than he had asked for. Then 
Vijayadatta's father Govindasvamin, full of wonder and curiosity, said to 
him in the presence of all : " Tell me, my son, what sort of adventures you 
had, after you had become a Kakshasa in the cemetery during the night." 
Then Vijayadatta said to him " My father, when in my reckless frivolity I 
had cloven the burning skull on the funeral pyre, as fate would have it, I 
immediately, as you saw, became a Rakshasa by its brains having entered 
my mouth, being bewildered with delusion. Then I was summoned \>y the 
other Bakshasas, who gave me the name of Kapalasphota, and I joined 
them. And then I was led by them to their sovereign the king of the lx;ik- 
shasas, and he, when he saw me, was pleased with me and appointed me 
commander-in-chief. And once on a time that king of the Rakshasas went 
in his infatuation to attack the Gandharvas, and was there slain in battle 
by his foes. And then his subjects accepted my rule, so I dwelt in his 
city and ruled those Bakshasas, and while I was there, I suddenly beheld 
that elder brother of mine Asokadatta, who had come for golden lotuses, 
and the sight of him put a stop to that Kakshasa nature in me. "What 
follows, how we were released from the power of the eurse, and tip 
recovered our sciences,* all this my elder brother will relate to you." 
When Vijayadatta had told this story, Asokadatta began to tell his from 
the beginning : "Long ago \ve were Vidyadhtiras, and from the heaven we 
beheld the daughters of the hermits bathing in the (langes near the hermit- 
age of (};ilava,t and then we fell suddenly in love with them, and they re- 

* Magical scicnr 's. in virtue of which they wore Vid\ " ^-holders. 

t A son or pupil ol Visvainitru. 


turned our affection ; all this took place in secret, but their relations, who 
possessed heavenly insight, found it out and cursed us in their anger : 
' May you two wicked ones be born both of you to a mortal woman, and 
then you shall be separated in a marvellous manner, but when the second 
of you shall behold the first arrived in a distant land, inaccessible to man, 
and shall him, then you shall have your magic knowledge restored 
to you by the spiritual preceptor of the Vidyadharas, and you shall again 
become Vidyadharas, released from the curse and re-united to your friends.' 
Having been cursed in this way by those hermits, we were both born 
here in this land, and you know the whole story of our separation, 
and now by going to the city of the king of the Rakshasas, by virtue 
of my mother in-law's magic power, to fetch the golden lotuses, I 
have found this younger brother of mine. And in that very place we 
obtained the sciences from our preceptor Prajnaptikausika, and suddenly 
becoming Vidyadharas we have quickly arrived here." Thus Asokadatta 
spoke, and then that hero of various adventures, delighted at having 
escaped the darkness of the curse, bestowed on his parents and his be- 
loved, the daughter of the king, his own wonderful sciences of many kinds, 
so that their minds were suddenly awakened, and they became Vidyadharas. 
Then the happy hero took leave of the king, and with his brother, his 
parents, and his two wives, ilew up, and quiekly reached through the air 
the palace of his emperor. There he beheld him, and received his orders, 
and so did his brother, and he bore henceforth the name of Asokavega, and 
his brother of Vijayavega. And both, the brothers, having become noble 
Vidyadhara youths, went, accompanied by their relations, to the splendid 
mountain named Govindakuta, which now became their home. And Pratapa- 
mukuta the king of Benares, overpowered by wonder, placed one of the 
golden lotuses in the second vessel in his temple, and offered to S'iva the 
other golden lotuses presented by Asokadatta, and delighted with the honour 
of his connexion, considered his family highly fortunate. 

" Thus divine persons become incarnate for some reason, and are born in 
this world of men, and possessing their native virtue and courage, attain suc- 
cesses which it is hard to win. So I am persuaded that you, sea of com- 
are some portion of a divinity, and will attain success as you desire ; daring 
in achievements hard to accomplish even by the great, generally indicates a 
sur- passingly excellent nature. Moreover the princess Kanakarekha, whom 
you love, must surely he a heavenly being, otherwise being a mere child how 
could she desire a husband that has seen the Golden City r" Having 
heard in secret this long and interesting story from Vishnudatta. S'aktideva, 
J3tiui*.>p in his heart to behold the Golden City, and supporting himself with 
resolute patience, managed to get through the night. 



The next morning, while S'aktideva was dwelling in the monastery in 
the island of Utsthala, Satyavrata, the king of the fishermen, came to him, 
and said to him in accordance with the promise which he had made before, 
" Brahman, I have thought of a device for accomplishing your wish ; there 
is a fair isle in the middle of the sea named Ratnakuta, and in it there is 
a temple of the adorable Vishnu founded by the Ocean, and on the twelfth 
day of the white fortnight of A'shadha there is a festival there with a 
procession, and people come there diligently from all the islands to offer 
worship. It is possible that some one there might know about the Golden 
City, so come let us go there, for that day is near." When Satyavrata made 
this proposal, S'aktideva consented gladly, and took with him the provisions 
for the journey furnished by Vishnudatta. Then he went on board the 
ship brought by Satyavrata, and quickly set out with him on the ocean- 
path, and as he was going with Satyavrata on the home of marvels* in 
which the monsters resembled islands, he asked the king, who was steering 
the ship, " What is this enormous object which is seen in the sea far off 
in this direction, looking like a huge mountain equipped with wings rising 
at will out of the sea ?" Then Satyavrata said : " Brahman, this is a banyan- 
tree, f underneath it they say that there is a gigantic whirlpool, the mouth of 

ibmarine fire. And we must take care in passing this way to avoid 
that spot, for those who once enter that whirlpool never return again." 
While Satyavrata was thus speaking, the ship began to be carried in that 
very direction by the force of the wind ;J when Satyavrata saw this, he 
again said to S'aktideva : " Brahman, it is clear that the time of our destruc- 
tion has now arrived, for see, this ship suddenly drifts in that direction. 
And now I cannot anyhow prevent it, so we are certain to be cast into that 
dr-p whirlpool, as into the mouth of death, by the sea which draws us on 
as if it were mighty fate, the result of our deeds. And it grieves me not 
for myself, for whose body is continuing? But it grieves me to think that 
your desire has not been accomplished in spite of all your toils, so while I 

back this ship for a moment, quickly climb on to the boughs of this 
banyan-tree, perhaps some expedient may piv.-vnt itself for .saving the life of 
one of such noble form, for who can calculate the caprices of fate or the waves 

* /. e. the Oc! 

t Compare the tptvfbs futyas <f>fa\ouri rtdij^us in the Odyssey, I'.i><>k XII., 103. 
J The metre of this lino is incurn <[, Thm> ia :i supiTtluous syll;il'!< 
wo ought to rea<. '<tli, 1>y the cum-nt. 

{ I think we ought to read adhah, 


of the sea ?" While the heroic Satyavrata was saying this, the ship drew near 
the tree ; at that moment S'aktideva made a leap in his terror, and caught 
a broad branch of that marine banyan-tree,* but Satyavrata's body and 
ship, which he offered for another, were swept down into the whirlpool, aud 
he entered the mouth of the submarine fire. But S'aktideva, though he had 
escaped to the bough of that tree, which filled the regions with its branches, 
was full of despair and reflected " I have not beheld that Golden City, and 
I am perishing in an uninhabited place, moreover I have also brought about 
the death of that king of the fishermen. Or rather who can resist the 


awful goddess of Destiny, that ever places her foot upon the heads of all 
men ?f While the H nil i man youth was thus revolving thoughts suited to 
the occasion on the trunk of the tree, the day came to an end. And in the 
evening he saw many enormous birds, of the nature of vultures, coming 
into that banyan-tree from all quarters, filling the sides of heaven with 
their cries, and the waves of the sea, that was lashed by the wind of 
their broad wings, appeared as if running to meet them out of affection 
produced by long acquaintance. 

Then he, concealed by the dense leaves, overheard the conversation of 
those birds perched on the branches, which was carried on in human lan- 
guage. One described some distant island, another a mountain, another a 
distant region as the place where he had gone to roam during the day, but 
an old bird among them said, " I went to-day to the Golden City to disport 
myself, and to-morrow morning I shall go there again to feed at my ease, 
for what is the use of my talcing a long and fatiguing journey ?" S'akti- 
deva's sorrow was removed by that speech of the bird's, which resembled a 
sudden shower of nectar, and he thought to himself, " Bravo ! that city 
does exist, and now I have an instrument for reaching it, this gigantic bird 
given me as a means of conveyance." Thinking thus, S'aktideva slowly 
advanced and hid himself among the back-feathers of that bird while it was 
asleep, and next morning, when the other birds went off in different directions, 
that vulture exhibiting a strange partiality to the Brahman like destiny. ; 
carrying S'aktideva unseen on his back where he had climbed up, went 
immediately to the Golden City to feed again. Then the bird alighted in 

* Cp. Odyssey XII., 432 avr&p iyh ictn\ fj.aKpbv tpivebv tyoa' &tp9eh 

T$ irpofftyvs ^x^W & s vvKTfpis. See also Lane's Arabian 
Nights, Vol. Ill, p. 7. 

t AAX '&pa yyt KO.T avtipuv Kpdara Babtt. Iliad XIX, v. 93. 

J fid-tltt'/idti' ills. i meant (lappm:;- of wings. So there is probably a pun here. 

So in the Swedish talc " The Beautiful I'aLuv Ka<t of the Sun and North of tho 
Earth," tho Plurnix carries the youth on his back to the Palace. 1'. 
Arabian Xights. Xi^lit 77. S, l.ano, Vol. Ill, p. 17 and compare the Halt-yon in 
Lueian's Vera Historia, Book II. 40, (Taut-hint/ edition,) whose ne>t is s,-\vn miles in 
circumference, und whose t-yg is probably tho prototype of that in the Arabian J\ 


a garden, and S'aktideva got down from its back unobserved and left it, but 
while he was roaming about there, he saw two women engaged in gathering 
flowers ; he approached them slowly, who were astonished at his appearance, 
and lie asked them, " What place is this, good ladies, and who are you ?" 
And they said to him ; " Friend, this is a city called the Golden City, a seat 
of the Vidyadharas, and in it there dwells a Vidyadhari, named Chandra- 
prabha, and know that we are the gardeners in her garden, and we are 
gathering these flowers for her." Then the Brahman said ; " Obtain for me 
an interview with your mistress here." When they heard this, they consented, 
and the two women conducted the young man to the palace in their city. 
When he reached it, he saw that it was glittering with pillars of precious 
stones, and had walls of gold,* as it were the very rendezvous of prosperity. 
And all the attendants , when they saw him arrived there, went and told 
Chandraprabha the marvellous tidings of the arrival of a mortal ; then she 
gave a command to the warder, and immediately had the Brahman brought 
into the palace and conducted into her presence ; when he entered, he 
beheld her there giving a feast to his eyes, like the Creator's ability to 
create marvels, represented in bodily form. And she rose from her jewelled 
couch, while he was still far off, and honoured him with a welcome herself, 
overpowered by beholding him. And when he had taken a seat, she asked 
him, " Auspicious sir, who are you, that have come here in such guise, and how 
did you reach this land inaccessible to men r" When Chandraprabha in her 
curiosity asked him this question, S'aktideva told her his country and his 
birth and his name, and he related to her how he had come in order to obtain 
the princess Kanakarekha as the reward of beholding the Golden City. 
When Chandraprabha heard that, she thought a little and heaved a deep 
sigh, and said to S'aktideva in private ; " Listen, I am now about to tell you 
something, fortunate sir. There is in this land a king of the Yidyadharas 
named S'asikhanda, and xve four daughters were born to him in due course ; 
I am the oldest Chandraprabha, and the next is Chandrarekha, and the 
third is S'asirekha and the fourth S'asiprabha. We gradually grew np to 
womanhood in our father's house, and once upon a time those thnv sisters 
of mine went together to the shore of the Ganges to bathe, while I was 
detained at home by illness ; then they began to play in the water, and in 
the insolence of youth they sprinkled with water a hermit named Agrya- 
tapas, while he was in the stream. That hermit in his wrath cursed those 
girls, who had carried their merriment too far, saying : " You wicked maid- 
ens, lie born all of you in the world of mortals." When our father hoard that, 
he went and pacified the great hermit, and the hermit told how the curse of 
each of them severally should end, and appointed to each of them in her 
mortal condition the power of remembering her former existence, supple- 
mented with divine insight. Then, they having left their bodies and gone 
* We should read 

to the world of men, my father bestowed on me this city, and in his grief 
went to the forest, but while I was dwelling here, the goddess Durga 
informed me in ;i dream that a mortal should become my husband. For this 
reason, though my father has recommended to me many Vidyadhara suitors, 
I have rejected them all and remained unmarried up to this day. But now 
I am subdued by your wonderful arrival and by your handsome form, and 
I give myself to you ; so I will go on the approaching fourteenth day of 
the lunar fortnight to the great mountain called Rishabha to entreat my 
father for your sake, for all the most excellent Vidyadharas assemble there 
from all quarters on that day to worship the god S'iva, and my father 
comes there too, and after I have obtained his permission, I will return 
here quickly ; then marry me. Now rise up." 

Having said this, Chandraprabha supplied S'aktideva with various kinds 
of luxuries suited to Vidyadharas, and while he remained there, he was as 
much refreshed, as one heated by a forest conflagration would be by bathing 
in a lake of nectar. And when the fourteenth day had arrived, Chandra- 
prabha said to him: " To-day I go to entreat my father's permission to 
marry you, and all my attendants will go with me. But you must not be 
grieved at being left alone for two days, moreover, while you remain alone 
in this palace, you must by no means ascend the middle terrace." When 
Chandraprabha had said this to that young Brahman, she set out on her 
journey leaving her heart with him, and escorted on her way by his. And 
S'aktideva, remaining there alone, wandered from one magnificent part of 
the palace to another, to delight his mind ; and then he felt a curiosity to 
know why that daughter of the Vidyadhara had forbidden him to ascend 
the roof of the palace, and so he ascended that middle terrace of the palace, 
for men are generally inclined to do that which is forbidden : and when he 
had ascended it, he saw three concealed pavilions, and he entered one of 
them, the door of which was open, and when he had entered it he saw a cer- 
tain woman lying on a magnificently jewelled sofa, on which there was a 
mattress placed, whose body was hidden by a sheet. But when he lifted 
up the sheet and looked, he beheld lying dead in that guise that beautiful 
maiden, the daughter of king Paropakarin ; and when he saw her there, he 
thought, " What is this great wonder ? Is she sleeping a sleep from which 
there is no awaking, or is it a complete delusion on my part ? That woman, 
for whose sake I have travelled to this foreign land, is lying here without 
breath, though she is alive in my own country, and she still retains her 
beauty unimpaired, so I may be certain that this is all a magic show, which 
the Creator for some reason or other exhibits to beguile me." Thinking 
thus, he proceeded to enter in succession those other two pavilions, 
and ho beheld within them in the same way two other maidens ; then 
he went in his astonishment out of the palace, and sitting down he 


remained looking at a very beautiful lake below it, and on its bank 
he beheld a horse with a jewelled saddle ; so he descended immediately from 
where he was, and out of curiosity approached its side ; and seeing 
that it had no rider on it, he tried to. mount it, and that horse 
struck him with its heel and flung him into the lake. And after he had 
sunk beneath the surface of the. lake,;he quickly rose up to his astonishment 
from the middle of a garden-lake in his own city of Vardhamana ; and he 
saw himself suddenly standing in the water of a lake in his own native city, 
like the kumuda plants, miserable without the light of the moon.* He re- 
flected " How different is this city of Vardhamana from that city of the 
Vidyadharas ! Alas ! what is this great display of marvellous delusion ? Alas ! 
I, ill-fated wretch, am wonderfully deceived by some strange power ; or 
rather, who on this earth knows what is the nature of destiny ?" Thus reflect- 
ing S'aktideva rose from the midst of the kke, and went in a state of 
wonder to his own father's house. There he made a false representation, 
giving as an excuse for his absence that he had been himself going about 
with a drum, and being gladly welcomed by his father he remained with his 
delighted relations ; and on the second day he went outside his house, and 
heard again these words being proclaimed in the city by beat of drum, 
" Let whoever, being a Brahman or a Kshatriya, has really seen the Golden 
City, say so : the king will give him his daughter, and make him crown- 
prince." Then S'aktideva hearing that, having successfully accomplished 
the task, again went and said to those who were proclaiming this by beat 
of drum, " I have seen that city." And they took him before that king, 
and the king recognising him, supposed that he was again saying what was 
untrue, as he had done before. But he said " If I say what is false, and 
if I have not really seen that city, I desire now to be punished with 
death ; let the princess herself examine me." When he said this, the king 
went and had his daughter summoned by his servants. She, when she saw 
that Brahman, whom she had seen before, again said to the king ; " My 
father, he will tell us some falsehood again." Then S'aktideva said to 
her, " Princess, whether I speak truly or falsely, be pleased to explain 
this point which excites my curiosity. How is it that I saw you lying 

* Or Chandraprabha, whose name means " light of the moon." The for" 
chamber will at once remind the reader of Porrault' s La B.irlir llleue. Tht> lake inci- 
dent is exactly similar to one in Chapter 81 of this work and to that of Kandarpaketq 
in the Hit' i;:;M<>uV Ku iau Folk-tales page 99. ![< r fersto tlii-:-!<>iy and 

compares it with that of tho Third liojal Mendicant, Lane I, 160-173, and gives i 
European equivalents. Si-.- al.-.> Y. rkvn.4.-ilt's YVYiulis.-h" ya^vii. p. lM-1. Many jvirnllrls 
wfll be found in the not.- to Grimm's Mo-rchen, Mus. 3 and -10 ; to which 

. in his exhaustive nuto. 


dead on a sofa in the golden city, and yet see you here alive ?" When the 
princess Kanakarekha had been asked this question by S'aktideva, and fur- 
nished with this token of his truth, she said in the presence of her father: 
" It is true that this groat-hearted one has seen that city, and in a short 
time he will be my husband, when I return to dwell there. And there he 
will marry my other three sisters ; and he will govern as king the Vi 
dharas in that city. But I must to-day enter rny own body and that city, 
for I have been born here in your house owing to the curse of a hermit, 
who moreover appointed that my curse should end in the following way, 
' When you shall be wearing a human form, and a man, having beheld your 
body in the Golden City, shall reveal the truth, then you shall be freed 
from your curse, and that man shall become your husband.' And though. 
I am in a human body I remember my origin, and I possess supernatural 
knowledge, so I will now depart to my own. Vidyadhara home, to a happy 
fortune." Saying this the princess left her body, and vanished, and a con- 
fused cry arose in the palace. And S'aktideva, who had now lost both the 
maidens, thinking over the two beloved ones whom he had gained by various 
difficult toils, and who yet were not gained, and not only grieved but blam- 
ing himself, with his desires not accomplished, left the king's palace* and 
in a moment went through the following train of thought : " Kanakarekha 
said that I should attain my desire ; so why do I despond, for success 
depends upon courage ? I will again go to the Golden City by the same 
path, and destiny will without doubt again provide me with a means of 
getting there." Thus reflecting S'aktideva set out from that city, for 
resolute men who have once undertaken a project do not turn back without 
accomplishing their object. And journeying on, he again reached after a 
Ipng time that city named Vitankapura, situated on the shore of the sea. 
And there he saw the merchant coining to meet him, with whom he origin- 
ally went to sea, and whose ship was wrecked there. He thought, " Can this 
be Samudradatta, and how can he have escaped after falling into the sea ? 
But how can it be otherwise ? I myself am a strange illustration of its pos- 
sibility." While he approached the merchant thinking thus, the merchant re- 
cognised him, and embraced him in his delight, and he took him to his own 
house and after entertaining him, asked him " When the ship foundered, 
how did you escape from the sea?" S'aktideva then told him his whole history, 
how, after being swallowed by a fish, he first reached the island of I'tsthula, 
and then he asked the good merchant in his turn : " Tell me ;ilso how you 
es-Mpud from the sea." Then the merchant said, " After I fell into the sea 
that time, I remained Heating for three days supported on a plunk. Then 
a .-hip suddenly came that way, and I, crying out, was deserifd l>y those in 
her, and taken on board her. And when I got on board, I saw my own 
father who had gone Lo a distant isluud long before, aud wus now returning 


after a long absence. My father, when he saw me, recognised me, and 
embracing me asked my story with tears, and I told it him as follows 
'My father, you bad been away for a long time and had not returned, 
and so I set about trading myself, thinking it was my proper employ- 
ment ; then on my way to a distant island my ship was wrecked, and 
I was plunged in the sea, and you have found me and rescued me.' 
When I had said this to him, my father asked me reproachfully 
'Why do you run such risks ? For I possess wealth, my son, and I am 
engaged in acquiring it, see, I have brought you back this ship full of gold.' 
Thus spoke my father to me, and comforting me took me home in that 
very ship to my own dwelling in Vitankapura." When S'aktideva had hoard 
this account from the merchant, and had rested that night, he said to him 
on the next day " Great merchant, I must once more go to the island of 
Utsthala, so tell me how I can get there now." The merchant said to 
him " Some agents of mine are preparing to go there to-day, so go on 
board the ship, and set out with them." Thereupon the Brahman set out 
with the merchant's agents to go to that island of Utsthala, and by 
chance the sons of the king of the fishermen saw him there, and when 
they were near him, they recognised him and said, " Brahman, you 
went with our father to search here and there for the Golden City, 
and how is it that you have come back here to-day alone ?" Then 
S'aktideva said, "Your father, when out at sea, fell into the mouth of 
the submarine fire, his ship having been dragged down by the current." 
When those sons of the fisher-king heard that, they were angry and said 
to their servants " Bind this wicked man, for he has murdered our father. 
Otherwise how could it have happened that, when two men were in the 
same ship, one should have fallen into the mouth of the submarine fire, and 
the other escaped it. So we must to-morrow morning sacrifice our father's 
murderer in front of the goddess Durga, treating him as a victim." 
Having said this to their servants, those sons of the fisher-king bound 
S'aktideva, and took him off to the awful temple of Durga, the belly of which 
was enlarged, as if it continually swallowed many lives, and which was like 
the mouth of death devouring tamdla with projecting teeth. There S'akti- 
deva remained bound during the night in fear for his life, and he thus 
]>r;i yed to the goddess Durga, " Adorable one, grantor of boons, thou didst 
deliver the world with thy form which was like the orl> of the rising sun, 
:'.]<] icaring as if it had drunk its lill of the blood gush! i'rom tho 

throat of the giant Ruru ;* therefore deliver me, thy constant votary, who 
lia\e come a long distance out of desire to obtain my beloved, but am now 
fallen without cause into the power of my enemies." Thus he pray* 

* Tho Uuiiin-im uru a rl;i-s of domona or giants. Ruru was a Daaava slain by 



the goddess, and \vitli difficulty went off to sleep, and in the night he saw a 
woman come out of the inner cell of the temple ; that woman of heavenly 
beauty came up to him, and said with a compassionate manner, " Do not 
iVar. S'aktideva, no harm shall happen to you. The sons of that fisher- 
king have a sister named Vindumati, that maiden shall see you in the 
morning and claim you for a husband, and you must agree to that, she will 
bring about your deliverance : and she is not of the fisher-caste : for she 
is a celestial female degraded in consequence of a curse." When he heard 
this, he woke up, and in the morning that fisher-maiden came to the temple, 
a shower of nectar to his eyes. And announcing herself, she came up to 
him and said in her eagerness, " I will have you released from this prison, 
therefore do what I desire. For I have refused all these suitors approved 
of by my brothers, but the moment I saw you, love arose in my soul, 
therefore marry me." When Vindumati, the daughter of the fisher-king, 
said this to him, S'aktideva remembering his dream, accepted her proposal 
gladly ; she procured his release, and he married that fair one, whose wish 
was gratified by her brothers receiving the command to do so from Durga, 
in a dream. And he lived there with that heavenly creature that had 
assumed a human form, obtained solely by his merits in a former life, as if 
with happy success. And one day, as he was standing upon the roof of his 
palaee, he saw a Chandala coming along with a load of cow's flesh, and he 
said to his beloved " Look, slender one ! how can this evildoer eat the 
flesh of cows, those animals that are the object of veneration to the three 
worlds ?" Then Vindumati, hearing that, said to her husband ; " The wicked- 
ness of this act is inconceivable, what can we say in palliation of it. I 
have been born in this race of fishermen for a very small offence owing to 
the might of cows, but what can atone for this man's sin ?" When she 
said this, S'aktideva said to her ; " That is wonderful : tell me, my beloved, 
who you are, and how you came to be born in a family of fishermen." When 
he asked this with much importunity, she said to him, " I will tell you, 
though it is a secret, if you promise to do what I ask you." He affirmed 
with an oath ; " Yes, 1 will do what you ask me." 

She then told him first what she desired him to do; " In this island yu 
will soon marry another wife, and she, my husband, will soon became ] 
nant, and iu the eighth month of her pregnancy you must cut her op-v 
take out the child, and you must feel no compunction about it." Thus she 
said, and he was astonished, exclaiming, " What can this mean ?" and he was 
full of horror, but that daughter of the fisher-king went on to - iy, " 1'1'is 
request of mine you must perform for a certain reason ; now hear who I 
am, and how I came to be born in a family oL' fishermen. I. iu a 

former birth I was a certain Vidyjidhari, and now 1 have fallen into tho 


world of men in consequence of a curse. For when I was a Vidyadhari, I 
bit asunder some strings with my teeth and fastened them to lyres, and it 
is owing to that that I have been born here in the house of a fisherman. 
So, if such a degradation is brought about by touching the mouth with the 
dry sinew of a cow, much more terrible must be the result of eating cow's 
flesh !" While she was saying this, one of her brothers rushed in in a state 
of perturbation, and said to S'aktideva, " Rise up, an enormous boar has 
appeared from somewhere or other, and after slaying innumerable persons 
is coming this way in its pride, towards us." When S'aktideva heard that, 
he descended from his palace, and mounting a horse, spear in hand,* he 
g:\lloped to meet the boar, and struck it the moment he saw it, but when 
the hero attacked him the boar fled, and managed, though wounded, to 
enter a cavern : and S'aktideva entered there in pursuit of him, and imme- 
diately beheld a great garden-shrubbery with a house. And when he was 
there, he beheld a maiden of very wonderful beauty, coming in a state of 
agitation to meet him, as if it were the goddess of the wood advancing to 
receive him out of love. 

And he asked her, " Auspicious lady, who are you, and why are you 
perturbed?" Hearing that, the lovely one thus answered him ; " There is 
a king of the name of Chandavikrama, lord of the southern region. 1 am 
his daughter, auspicious sir, a maiden named Vindurekha. But a wicked 
Daitya, with flaming eyes, carried me off by treachery from my father's 
house to-day, and brought me here. And he, desiring flesh, assumed the 
form of a boar, and sallied out, but while he was still hungry, he was pierced 
with a spear to-day by some hero ; and as soon as he was pierced, he came 
in here and died. And I rushed out and escaped without being outraged 
by him." Then S'aktideva said to her, " Then why all this perturbation ? 
For I slew that boar with a spear, princess." Then she said, " Tell me 
who you are," and he answered her " I am a Brahman named S'aktideva." 
Then she said to him, " You must accordingly become my husband," and 
the hero consenting went out of the cavern with her. And when lie 
arrived at home, he told it to his wife Vindumati, and with her consent 
he married that princess Vindurekha. So, while S'aktideva was living there 
with his two wives, one of his wives Vindurekha became pregnant ; and in 
the eighth month of her pregnancy, the first wife Vindumati came up to 
him of her own accord and said to him, " Hero, remember what you pro- 
mised me ; this is the eighth month of the pregnancy of your second \ 
so go and cut her open and bring the child here, for you c;mnot act contrary 
to your own word of honour." When she suid this to S'.-iktideva. he was 
bewildered by affection and compassion; but being bound by his promise 

* In S'loka 172 b. I conjecture S'aktihasto for ti'aktulcio, us we ivad in 8'1. 181 b. 
that the boar was wounded with a tfakti. 


he remained for a short time unable to give an answer ; at last he depnrted 
in a state of agitation and went to Vindurekha ; and she seeing him come 
with troubled air, said to him, " Husband, why are you despondent to-'lay ? 
Surely I know ; you have been commissioned by Vindumati to take out 
the child with which I am pregnant ; and that you must certainly do, for 
there is a certain object in view, and there is no cruelty in it, so do not 
feel compunction ; in proof of it, hear the following story of Devadatta." 

Lnnsr ago there lived in the city of 
Story of Devadatta. 

Kambuka a Brahman named Handatta ; 

and the son of that auspicious man, who was named Devadatta, though he 
studied in his boyhood, was, as a young man, exclusively addict;-d to the 
vice of gaining. As he had lost his clothes and everything by gambling, 
he was not able to return to his father's house, so he entered once on a time 
an empty temple. And there he saw alone a great ascetic, named J41ap4da, 
who had attained many objects by magic, and he was muttering spells in a 
corner. So he went up to him slowly and bowed before him, and the ascetic, 
abandoning his hubit of not speaking to any one, greeted him with a wel- 
come ; and after he had remained there a moment, the ascetic, seeing his 
trouble, asked him the cause, and he told him of his affliction produced by 
the loss of his wealth, which had been dissipated in gambling. Then the 
ascetic said to Devadatta ; " My child, there is not wealth enough in the 
whole world to satisfy gamblers ; but if you desire to escape from your 
calamity, do what I tell you, for I have made preparations to attain the 
rank of a Vidyadhara ; so help me to accomplish this, man of fortunate 
destiny,* you have only to obey my orders and then your calamities will be at 
an cad." When the ascetic said this to him, Devadatta promised to obey 
him, and immediately took up his residence with him. And the next day 
the ascetic went into a corner of the cemetery and performed worship by 
night under a banyan-tree, and offered rice boiled in milk, and flung por- 
tions of the oblation towards the four cardinal points, after worshipping 
them, and said to the Brahman who was in attendance on him ; " You 
must worship here in this style every day, and say ' Vidyutprablui, accept 
this worship.' And then 1 am certain that we shall both attain our 
ends ;" having said this the ascetic went with him to his own house. 
Then Devadatta, consenting, went every day and duly performed worship 
at the foot of that tree, according to his instructions. And one day, at the 
end of his worship, the tree suddenly clave open, and a heavenly nymph, 
came out of it before his eyes, and said, " My good sir, my mi 
summons you to come to her." And then she introduced him into the 
middle of that tree. When he entered it, he beheld a heavenly palace 
made of jewels, and a beautiful lady within it reclining upon a sofa. 
* Literally, having uuspicious marks. 


And he immediately thought " This may he the success of our 
enterprise incarnate in bodily form," but while he was thinking thus, that 
beautiful lady, receiving him graciously, rose with limbs on which the orna- 
ments rang as if to welcome him, and seated him on her own sofa. And 
she said to him, " Illustrious sir, I am the maiden daughter of a king 
of the Yakshas, named Ratnavarsha, and I am known by the name of 
Vidyutprabha ; and this great ascetic Jalapada was endeavouring to gain 
my favour, to him I will give the attainment of his ends, but you are the 
lord of my life. So, as you see my affection, marry me." When she said 
this, Devadatta consented, and did so. And he remained there some time, 
but when she became pregnant, he went to the great ascetic with the in- 
tention of returning, and in a state of terror lie told him all that had hap- 
pened, and the ascetic, desiring his own success, said to him, " My good sir, 
you have acted quite rightly, but go and cut open that Yakshi and 
taking out the embryo, bring it quickly here." The ascetic said this to 
him, and then reminded him of his previous promise, and being dismissed 
by him, the Brahman returned to his beloved, and while he stood there des- 
pondent with reflecting on what he had to do, the Yakshi Vidyutprabha of 
her own accord said to him ; " My husband, why are you cast down '? I 
know, Jalapada has ordered you to cut me open, so cut me open and take 
out this child, and if you refuse, I will do it myself, for there is an object 
in it." Though she said this to him, the Brahman could not bring him- 
self to do it, then she cut herself open and took out the child, and flung it 
down before him and saicl, " Take this, which will enable him who consumes 
it, to obtain the rank of a Vidyadhara. But I, though properly a Vidyadhari, 
have been born as a Yakshi owing to a curse, and this is the appointed end 
of rny curse, strange as it is, for I remember my former existence. Now I 
depart to my proper home, but' we two shall meet again in that place." 
Saying this Vidyutprabha vanished from his eyes. And Devadatta took 
the child with sorrowful mind, and went to that ascetic Jalapada, and gave. 
it to him, as that which would ensure the success of his incantations, for 
good men do not even in calamity give way to selfishness. The great 
ascetic divided the child's flesh, and sent Devadatta to the wood to worship 
Durga in her terrific form. And when the Brahman came back after pr 
ting an oblation, he saw that the ascetic had made away with all the flesh. 
And while he said "What, have you consumed it all?" the treacherous Jala- 
pada, having become a Yidyadhara, ascended to heaven. When he hail 
flown up, with sword blue as the sky, adorned with necklace and br;i 
Devadatta reflected, '' Alas ! how 1 have been deceived by this evil-minded 
one! Or rather on whom does not excessive compliance entail misfortune ? 
So how can 1 revenge myself on him for this ill turn, and how can 1 reach 


him who has become a Vkl yadhara ? Well! I have no other resource in this 
matter except propitiating a Vetala."* After he had made up his mind to 
do this, he went at night to the cemetery. There he summoned at the foot 
of a tree a Vettila into the body of a man, and after worshipping him, he 
made an oblation of human flesh to him. And as that Vetala was not 
sati.stied, and would not wait for him to bring more, he prepared to cut off 
his own flesh in order to gratify him. And immediately that Vetala said 
to that brave man ; " I am pleased with this courage of yours, do not act 
recklessly. So, my good sir, what desire have you for me to accomplish 
for you ?" When the Vetala said this, the hero answered him ; " Take mo 
to the dwelling-place of the Vidyadharas, where is the ascetic Jalapada, who 
deceives those that repose confidence in him, in order that I may 
punish him." The Vetala consented, and placing him on his shoulder, car- 
ried him through the air in a moment to the dwelling of the Vidyadharas ; 
and there he saw Jalapada in a palace, seated on a jewelled throne, elated 
at being a king among the Vidyadharas, endeavouring by various speeches 
to induce that Vidyutprabha.f who had obtained the rank of a Vidyadhari, to 
marry him in spite of her reluctance. And the moment that the young 
man saw him, he attacked him with the help of the Vetala, being to the 
eyes of the delighted Vidyutprablui, what the moon, the repository of nectar, 
is to the partridges. J And Jalapada beholding him suddenly arrived in 
this way, dropped his sword in his fright, and fell from his throne on the 
floor. But Devadatta, though he had obtained his sword, did not slay him, 
for the great-hearted feel pity even for their enemies when they are terri- 

And when the Vetala wanted to kill him, he dissuaded him, and said, 
" Of what use will it be to us to kill this miserable heretic ? So take him 
and place him in his own house on earth, it is better that this wicked skull- 
hearing ascetic should remain there." At the vei*y moment that Devadatta 
was saying this, the goddess Durga descended from heaven and appeaivd 
to him, and said to him who bent before her, " My son, I am satisfied with 
thee now, on account of this incomparable courage of thine ; so I give 
thee on the spot the rank of king of the Vidyadharas." Having said this, 
she bestowed the magic sciences on him, and immediately disappeared. 
And the Vetala immediately took Jalapada, whose splendour fell from him, 
and placed him on earth; (wickedness does not long ensure success;) and 
Devadatta accompanied by Vidyutprablui, having obtained that sovereignty 
of the Vidyadharas, flourished in his kingdom. 

* A spirit that enters dead bodies. 

f I read yidyvtprabkdm for Vidgddhatim. But perhaps it is unnecessary. 

% The Chakoru is said to subsist upon moonbeams. 

So making him u Vidyadliuru or "uuujic-kiiu \vUJgo-holder." 


Having told this story to her husband S'aktidcva, the softly-speaking 
Yindurekha again said to him with eagerness ; " Such necessities do arise, so 
cut out this child of mine as Vindumati told you, without remorse." When 
Yindurekha said this, S'aktideva was afraid of doing wrong, but a voice 
sounded from heaven at this juncture, " O S'aktideva, take out this child 
without fear, and seize it by the neck with your hand, then it will turn into 
a sword." Having heard this divine voice, he cut her open ; and quickly 
taking out the child, he seized it by the throat with his hand ; and no soon- 
er did he seize it, than it became a sword in his hand ; like the long hair of 
Good Fortune seized by him with an abiding grasp. Then that Brahman. 
quickly became a Yidyadhara, and Yindurekha that moment disappeared. 
And when he saw that, he went, as he was, to his second wife Yindumati, 
and told her the whole story. She said to him, " My lord, we are three 
sisters, the daughter of a king of the Vidyadharas, who have been banished 
from Kanakapuri in consequence of a curse. The first was Kanakareklui, 
the termination of whose curse you beheld in the city of Vardhamana ; 
and she has gone to that city of hers, her proper home. For such was 
the strange end of her curse, according to the dispensation of fate, and 
I am the third sister, and now my curse is at an end. And this very day 
I must go to that city of mine, my beloved, for there our Vidyadhara bodies 
remain. And my elder sister, Chandraprabha, is dwelling there ; so you 
also must come there quickly by virtue of the magic power of your sword. 
And you shall rule in that city, after obtaining all four of us as wives, 
bestowed upon you by our father who has retired to the forest, and others 
in addition to us." 

Thus Yindumati declared the truth about herself, and S'aktideva 
consenting, went again to the City of Gold, this time through the air, 
together with that Yindumati. And when he arrived, he again saw those 
three darlings of his bending before him, Kanakarcklui and the others, 
after entering with their souls, as was fitting, those heavenly female bodies, 
which he saw on a former occasion extended lifeless on the couches in \ 
three pavilions. And he saw that fourth sister there, Chandruprabha, who 
had performed auspicious ceremonies, and was drinking in his form with an 
eye rendered eager by seeing him after so long an absence. Jlis arrival 
was joyfully hailed by the servants, who were occupied in their several 
duties, as well as by the ladies, and when he entered the private apartm 
that Chandrapabha said to him " Noble sir, here is that princess KanaLire- 
kha, who was seen by you in the city of Vardhamana, my .-i.-ter ealled 
rhandrarekhd. And here is that daughter of the fisher king, Vindumati, 
whom you first married in the island of Utsthala, my sister S 'a-uvUia. And 
here is m\ youngest sister S'a>ipr:ibh:i, the princess who alter that uas 
brought there by the Danava. and then became your wife. So now come, 


successful hero, with us into the presence of our father, and quickly marry 
us all, when bestowed upon you by him." 

When Chandraprabh& had swiftly and boldly uttered this decree of 
Cupid, S'aktideva went with those four to the recesses of the wood to meet 
their father, and their father, the king of the Vidyadharas, having been 
informed of the facts by all his daughters who bowed at his feet, and also 
moved by a divine voice, with delighted soul gave them all at once to 
S'aktideva Immediately after that, he bestowed on S'aktideva his opulent 
realm in the City of Gold, and all his magic sciences, and he gave the 
successful hero his name, by which he was henceforth known among his 
Vidyadharas. And he said to him ; " No one else shall conquer thee, but 
from the mighty lord of Vatsa there shall spring a universal emperor, who 
shall reign among you here under the title of Naravahanadatta and be thy 
superior, to him alone wilt thou have to submit." With these words the 
mighty lord of the Vidyadharas, named S'asikhandapada, dismissed his son-in- 
law from the wood where he was practising asceticism, after entertaining him 
kindly, that he might go with his wives to his own capital. Then that 
S'aktivega, having become a king, entered the City of Gold, that glory of the 
Vidyadhara world, proceeding thither with his wives. Living in that city, 
the palaces of which gleamed with fabric of gold, which seemed on account 
of its great height to be the condensed rays of the sun falling in brightness, 
be enjoyed exceeding happiness with those fair-eyed wives, in charming 
gardens, the lakes of which had steps made out of jewels. 

Having thus related his wonderful history, the eloquent S'aktivega 
went on to say to the king of Vatsa, " Know me, O lord of Vatsa, ornament 
of the lunar race, to be that very S'aktideva come here, full of desire to 
behold the two feet of your son who is just born, and is destined to be our 
new emperor. Thus I have obtained, though originally a man, the rank of 
sovereign among the Vidyadharas by the favour of Siva : and now, O king, 
I return to my own home ; I have seen our future lord ; may you enjoy 
unfailing felicity." 

After iinishing his tale, S'aktivega said this with clasped hands, and 
receiving permission to depart, Immediately flew up into the sky like the 
moon in brightness, and then the king of Vatsa in the company of his 
wives, surrounded by his ministers, and with his young son, enjoyed, in his 
own capital a state of indescribable felicity. 




May the god with the face of an elephant,* who appears, with his 
head bowed down and then raised, to be continually threatening the hosts 
of obstacles, protect you. 

I adore the god of Love, pierced with the showers of whose arrows even 
the body of S!iva seems to bristle with dense thorns, when embraced by Urna. 

Now hear the heavenly adventures which Naravahanadatta, speaking of 
himself in the third person, told from the very beginning, after he had 
obtained the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas, and had been questioned about 
the story of his life on some occasion or other by the seven Rishis and their 

Then that Naravahanadatta being carefully brought up by his father, 
passed his eighth year. The prince lived at that time with the sons of the 
ministers, being instructed in sciences, and sporting in gardens. And the 
queen Vasavadatta and Padmavati also on account of their exceeding 
affection were devoted to him day and night. He was distinguished by a 
body which was sprung from a noble stock, and bent under the weight of 
his growing virtues, and gradually tilled out, as also by a bow which was 
made of a good bamboo, which bent as the string rose, and slowly arched 
itself into a crescent, f And his father the king of Vatsa spent his time 
in wishes for his marriage and other happiness, delightful because so soon 
to bear fruit. Now hear what happened at this point of the story. 

Story of the merchant' s8on in Taksha- There was once a city named 

TakshasilaJ on the banks of the 

Vitasta, the reflection of whose long line of palaces gleamed in the wat'Ts 
of the river, as if it were the capital of the lower regions come to gaze at its 
splendour. In it there dwelt a king named Kalingadatta, a distingui- 

* /. e. Ganesa who is invoked to remove obstacles. 

t This is an elaborate pun in the original. (?n = string and virtue; vanfa = iticu 
and bamboo. 

I The Taxiln of the Greek writers. The Vitasta ia the Hydaapee of the (. 
now called J helum. 


Buddhist, all whose subjects were devoted to the great Buddha the bride- 
groom of Tara.* His city shone with splendid Buddhist temples densely 
crowded together, as if with the horns of pride elevated because it had no 
rival upon earth. He not only cherished his subjects like a father, but also 
himself taught them knowledge like a spiritual guide. Moreover there 
was in that city a certain rich Buddhist merchant called Vitastadatta, who 
was exclusively devoted to the honouring of Buddhist mendicants. And 
he had a son, a young man named Ratnadatta. And he was always express- 
ing his detestation of his father, calling him an impious man. And 
when his father said to him, " Son, why do you blame me ?" the merchant's 
son answered with bitter scorn, " My father, you abandon the religion of 
the three Vedas and cultivate irreligion. For you neglect the Brahmans 
and are always honouring S'ramnnas.f What have you to do with that 
Buddhist discipline, which all kinds of low-caste men resort to, to grati- 
fy their desire to have a convent to dwell in, released from bathing and 
other strict ordinances, loving to feed whenever it is convenient,^ reject- 
ing the Brahmanical lock and other prescribed methods of doing the hair, 
quite at ease with only a rag round their loins ?" When the merchant heard 
that he said " Religion is not confined to one form ; a transcendent religion 
is a different thing from a religion that embraces the whole world. People 
say that Brahmanism too consists in avoiding passion and other sins, in 
truth, and compassion to creatures, not in quarrelling causelessly with 
one's relations. Moreover you ought not to blame generally that school 
which I follow, which extends security to all creatures, on account of the 
fault of an individual. Nobody questions the propriety of conferring 
benefits, and my beneficence consists simply in giving security to crea- 
tures. So, if I take exceeding pleasure in this system, the principal charac- 
teristic of which is abstinence from injuring any creature, and which brings 
liberation, wherein am I irreligious in doing so?" When his father said this 
to him, that merchant's son obstinately refused to admit it, and only blamed 
his father all the more. Then his father, in disgust, went and reported the 

* Monier Williams says that Tara was the Wife of the Buddha Amoghasiddha. 
Benfey (Orient uiul (Jccidunt, Vol. I, p. 373) says she was a well known Buddhist saint. 
The passage might perhaps mean " The Buddha adorned with most brilliant 

It has been suggested to me that Taravara may mean S'iva, and that the ]>;tss,i;;v 
means that the Saiva and Buuddha religions were both professed in the city of Taksha- 

t /. e. Buddhist ascetics. 

J A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads suJcdla for svaknla : the meaning is much 
the sain". 

A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads nigrahah=* blaming one's relations without 


whole matter to the king Kalingadatta, who superintended the religion of 
his people. The king, for his part, summoned on some pretext the mer- 
chant's son into his judgement-hall, and feigning an anger he did not feel, 
said to the executioner, " I have heard that this merchant's son is wicked 
and addicted to horrible crimes, so slay him without mercy as a corrupter of 
the realm." When the king had said this, the father interceded, and then 
the king appointed that the execution should be put off for two months, 
in order that he might learn virtue, and entrusted the merchant's son to 
the custody of his father, to be brought again into his presence at the end 
of that time. The merchant's son, when he had been taken home to his 
father's house, was distracted with fear, and kept thinking, " What crime 
can I have committed against the king ?" and pondering over his causeless 
execution which was to take place at the end of two months : and so he 
could get no sleep day or night, and was exhausted by taking less than his 
usual food at all times. Then, the reprieve of two months having expired, 
that merchant's son was again taken, thin and pale, into the presence of 
the king. And the king seeing him in such a depressed state said to him 
" Why have you become so thin ? Did I order you not to eat ?" When 
the merchant's son heard that, he said to the king " I forgot myself for 
fear, much more my food. Ever since I heard your majesty order my 
execution, I have been thinking every day of death slowly advancing." 
When the merchant's son &aid this, the king said to him, " I have by an. 
artifice made you teach yourself what the fear of death is.* Such must 
be the fear which every living creature entertains of death, and tell me what 
higher piety can there be than the benefit of preserving creatures from 
that ? So I shewed you this in order that you might acquire religion and 
the desire of salvation, f for a wise man being afraid of death strives to 
attain salvation. Therefore you must not blame your father who follows 
this religion." When the merchant's son heard this, he bowed and said to 
the king " Your majesty has made me a blessed man by teaching me 
religion, and now a desire for salvation has arisen in me, teach me that also, 
my lord." When the king heard that, as it was a feast in the city, he 
gave a vessel full of oil into the hand of the merchant's son and said to 
him, " Take this vessel in your hand and walk all round this city, and 
you must avoid spilling a single drop of it, my son ; if you spill one drop 
of it, these men will immediately cut you down."J Having said this, the 
king dismissed the merchant's son to walk round the city, ordering men 
with drawn swords to follow him. The merchant's son, in his fear, took 
care to avoid spilling a drop of oil, and having perambulated that city with 

* Cp. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 122. 

t Mokshti is the soul's final release from further transmigrations. 

J Cp. Gesta Romanorum CXLIII (Bohn's Edition). 


much difficulty, returned into the presence of the king. The king, -when he 
saw that he had brought the oil without spilling it, said to him : " Did you 
see any one to-day, as you went along in your perambulation of the city ?" 
When the merchant's son heard that, he clasped his hands, and said to the 
king " In truth, my lord, I neither saw nor heard any thing, for at the 
time when I was perambulating the city I had my undivided attention 
fixed on avoiding spilling a drop of oil, lest the swords should descend 
upon me." When the merchant's son said this, the king said to him ; 
" Because your whole soul was intent on looking at the oil, you saw nothing. 
So practise religious contemplation with the same undivided attention. 
For a man, who with intent concentration averts his attention from all 
outward operations, has intuition of the truth, and after that intuition he 
is not entangled again in the meshes of works. Thus I have given you in 
a compendious form instruction in the doctrine of salvation." Thus the king 
spoke and dismissed him, and the merchant's son fell at his feet and went 
home rejoicing to his father's house, having attained all his objects. This 
Kalingadatta, who superintended in this way the religion of his subjects, 
had a wife named Taradatta, of equal birth with the king, who being 
politic and and well-conducted, was such an ornament to the' king as lan- 
guage is to a poet, Who delights in numerous illustrations. She was meri- 
torious for her bright qualities and was inseparable from that beloved king, 
being to him what the moonlight is to the moon, the receptacle of nectar. 
The king lived happily there with that queen, and passed his days like Indra 
with S'achi in heaven. 

At this point of my tale Indra, 

Story of the Apsaras Siirabhidattd. r , i i j 

for some cause or other, had a great 

feast in heaven. All the Apsarases assembled there to dance, except one 
beautiful Apsaras named Surabhidatta, who was not to be seen there. Then 
Indra by his divine power of insight perceived her associating in secret 
with a certain Vidyadhara in Nandana. When Indra saw it, wrath 
arose in his bosom, and he thought " Ah ! these two, blinded with love, 
are both wicked : the Apsaras, because forgetting us she acts in a 
wilful manner, the Vidyadhara, because he enters the domain of the gods 
and commits improprieties. Or rather, what fault is that miserable 
Yidviidhara guilty of? For she has enticed him here, ensnaring him 
with her beauty. A lovely one will sweep away with the sea of her 
beauty, flowing between the lofty banks of her breasts, even one who 
can restrain his pashms. Was not even Siva disturbed long ago when he 
beheld Tilottama, whom the Creator made by taking an atom from all the 
noblest beings ?* And did not Visvamitra leave hi< asceticism when hu be- 

* A kin '1 of Pandora. 


held Menakii ? And did not Yayati cotne to old age for love of 8'anni.shta ? 
So this young Vidyadhara has committed no crime in allowing himself to 
be allured by an Apsaras with her beauty, which is able to bewilder the 
three worlds.* But this heavenly nymph i.s in fault, wicked creature, void 
of virtue, who has deserted the gods, and introduced this fellow into N;m- 
dana." Thus reflecting, the lover of Ahalyaf spared the Vidyadhara youth, 
but cursed that Apsaras in the following words : " Wicked one, take upon 
thyself a mortal nature, but after thou hast obtained a daughter not 
sprung from the womb, and hast accomplished the object of the gods, thou 
shalt return to this heaven." 

In the meanwhile Taradatta, the consort of that king in the city of 
Takshasila, reached the period favourable for procreation. And Surabhi- 
datta, the Apsaras who had been degraded from heaven by the curse of In- 
dra, was conceived in her, giving beauty to her whole body. Then Taradat- 
ta beheld in a dream a flame descending from heaven and entering into her 
womb ; and in the morning she described with astonishment her dream to 
her husband, the king Kaliugadatta ; and he being pleased said to her, 
" Queen, heavenly beings owing to a curse fall into human births, so I am 
persuaded that this is some divine being conceived in you. For beings, 
bound by various works, good and evil, are ever revolving in the state of 
mundane existence in these three worlds, to receive fruits blessed and misera- 
ble." When the queen was thus addressed by the king, she took the oppor- 
tunity of saying to him ; " It is true, actions, good arid bad, have a wonder- 
ful power, producing the perception of joy and sorrow, J and in proof of it I 
will tell you this illustration, listen to me." 

Story of king Dharmadatta and his There once lived a king named 

wife Ndyas'ri. Dharmadatta, the lord of Kosala ; he 

had a queen named Nagasri, who was devoted to her husband and was 
called Arundhati on the earth, as, like her, she was the chief of virtuous 
women. And in course of time, O slayer of your enemies, I was born as 
the daughter of that king by that queen ; then, while I was a mere child, 
that mother of mine suddenly remembered her former birth and said to her 
husband; '' O king, I have suddenly to-day remembered my former birth ; 
it is disagreable to me not to tell it, but if I do tell it, it will cause my 
death, because they say that, if a person suddenly remembers his or her former 
birth and tells it, it surely brings death. Therefore, king, I feel excessively 
despondent." When his queen said this to him, the king answered her ; 

* Compare the argument in the Eunuchus of Terence (III. 5.36 & ff) which shock- 
ed St. Augustine so much (Confessions I. 16). 
t Et tonantem Jovem et adulterantem. 
% I separate balavad from blwgaddyi. 


" My beloved, I, like you, have suddenly remembered iny former birth ; 
therefore tell me yours, and I will toll you mine, let what will be, be ; for 
who can alter the decree of fate." When thus urged by her husband, 
the queen said to him, " If you press the matter, king, then I will tell 
you, listen. 

" In my former birth I was a well-conducted female slave in this very 
land, in the house of a certain Brahman named Madhava. And in that 
birth I had a husband named Devadasa, an excellent hired servant in the 
house of a certain merchant. And so we two dwelled there, having built a 
house that suited us, living on the cooked rice brought from the houses of 
our respective masters. A water vessel and a pitcher, a broom and a brazi- 
er, and I and my husband, formed three couples. We lived happy and con- 
tented in our house into which the demon of quarrelling never entered, 
eating the little food that remained over after we had made offerings to 
the gods, the manes and guests. 

" And any clothes which either of us had over, we gave to some poor 
person or other. Then there arose a grievous famine in our country, and 
owing to that the allowance-t>f food, which we had to receive every day, 
began to come to us in small quantities. Then our bodies became atten- 
uated by hunger, and we began to despond in mind, when once on a time 
at meal-time there arrived a weary Brahman guest. To him we both gave 
all our own food, as much as we had, though we were in danger of our lives. 
When the Brahman had eaten and departed, my husband's breath left him, 
as if angry that he respected a guest more than it. And then I heaped 
up in honour of my husband a suitable pyre, and ascended it, and so laid 
down the load of my own calamity. Then I was born in a royal family, 
and I became your queen, for the tree of good deeds produces to the 
righteous inconceivably glorious fruit." When his queen said this to him, 
the king Dharmadatta said " Come, my beloved, I am that husband of thine 
in a former birth ; I was that very Devadasa the merchant's servant, for 
I have remembered this moment this former existence of mine." Having 
said this, and mentioned the tokens of his own identity, the king, despondent 
and yet glad, suddenly went with his queen to heaven. 

" In this way my parents went to another world, and my mother's sister 
brought me to her own house to rear me, and while I was unmarried, there 
came there a certain Brahman guest, and my mother's sister ordered me to 
wait on him. And 1 diligently strove to please him as Kunti to please 
Durvasas, and owing to a boon conferred by him, I obtained you, a 
virtuous husband. Thus good fortune is the result of virtue, owing to 
which my parents were both born at the same time in royal families, and 
al-'o ivmemb'Tril their former birth.'' Having heard this speeeh of the 
queen Turudatta, the king Kalingadatta, who was exclusively devoted to 

2 11 

righteousness, answered her, " It is true, a trifling act of righteousness 
duly performed will bring much fruit, and in proof of this, O queen, hear 
the ancient tale of the seven Brahmans." 

Story of the seven Brahmans who de- ^ong a o> in a cit 7 called Kun- 

vowed a cow in time of famine. jina, a certain Brahman teacher had 

for pupils seven sons of Brahmans. Then that teacher, under pressure of 
famine, sent those pupils to ask his father-in-law, who was rich in cows, 
to give him one. And those pupils of his went, with their bellies pinched 
by hunger, to his father-in-law, who dwelt in another land, and asked him, 
as their teacher had ordered them, for a cow. He gave them one cow to 
support them, but the miserly fellow did not give them food, though they 
were hungry. Then they took the cow, and as they were returning and 
had accomplished half the journey, being excessively pained by hunger, 
they fell exhausted on the earth. They said " Our teacher's house is 
far off, and we are afflicted by calamity far from home, and food is hard to 
obtain everywhere, so it is all over with our lives. And in the same way 
this cow is certain to die in this wilderness without water, wood, or human 
beings, and our teacher will not derive even the smallest advantage from it. 
So let us support our lives with its flesh, and quickly restore our teacher 
and his family with what remains over : for it is a time of sore distress." 
Having thus deliberated, those seven students treated that cow as a victim, 
and sacrificed it on the spot according to the system prescribed in the sacred 
treatises. After sacrificing to the gods and manes, and eating its flesh 
according to the prescribed method, they went and took what remained 
of it to their teacher. They bowed before him, and told him all that they 
had done, to the letter, and he was pleased with them, because they told 
the truth, though they had committed a fault. And after seven days they 
died of famine, but because they told the truth on that occasion, they were 
born again with the power of remembering their former birth. 

" Thus even a small germ of merit, watered with the water of holy 
aspiration, bears fruit to men in general, as a seed to cultivators, but 
the same corrupted by the water of impure aspiration bears fruit in the 
form of misfortune, and a propos of this I will tell you another tale, 
listen !" 

Story of the two ascetics, one a Brdh- Once on a time two men remain- 

man the other a Chanddla. e( J f or the same length of time fast- 

ing on the banks of the Ganges, one a Brahman and the other a Chandala. 
Of those two, the Brahman being overpowered with hunger, and seeing 
some Nishadas* come that way bringing fish and eating them, thus reflect- 
ed in his folly " O happy in the world are these fishermen, sons of female 

* The name of certain aboriginal tribes described as hunters, fishermen, robbers ic. 

slaves though they bo, for they eat to their fill of the fresh meat of fish !" 
But the other, who was a Charulala, thought, the moment he saw those 
fishermen, " Out on these destroyers of life, and devourers of raw flesh ! 
So why should I stand here and behold their faces ?" Saying this to him- 
self, he closed his eyes and remained buried in his own thoughts. And in 
course of time those two, the Brahman and the Chandala, died of starvation ; 
the Brahman was eaten by dogs on the bank, the Chandala rotted in the 
water of the Ganges. So that Brahman, not having disciplined his spirit, 
was born in the family of a fisherman, but owing to the virtue of the holy 
place, he remembered his former existence. As for that Chandala, who 
possessed self-control, and whose mind was not marred by passion, he was 
born as a king in a palace on that very bank of the Ganges, and recollected 
his former birth. And of those two, who were born with a remembrance 
of their former existence, the one suffered misery being a fisherman, the 
other being a king enjoyed happiness. 

" Such is the root of the tree of virtue ; according to the purity or im- 
purity of a man's heart is without doubt the fruit which he receives." 
Having said this to the queen Taradatta, king Kalingadatta again said 
to her in the course of conversation, " Moreover actions which are really 
distinguished by great courage produce fruit, since prosperity follows on. 
courage ; and to illustrate this I will tell the following wonderful tale. 
Listen !" 

Story of king Vikramarinha and the There is in Avanti a city named 

two Brdhmans. Ujjayini. famous in the world, which 

is the dwelling-place of Siva,* and which gleams with its white palaces as 
if with the peaks of Kailasa, come thither in the ardour of their devotion to 
the god. This vast city, profound as the sea, having a splendid emperor for 
its water, had hundreds of armies entering it, as hundreds of rivers flow 
into the sea, and was the refuge of allied kings, as the sea is of mountains 
that retain their wings, f In that city there was a king who had the name 
of Vikramasinha,J a name that thoroughly expressed his character, for his 
enemies were like deer and never met him in fight. And he, because he 
could never find any enemy to face him, became disgusted with weapons 
and the might of his arm, and was inwardly grieved as he never obtained 
the joy of battle. Then his minister Amaragupta, who discovered his 

* In the original Mahakala, an epithet of Siva in his character as the destroying 

t Generally only one mountain named Mainaka is said to have fled into the sea, 
and retained its wings when Indra clipped those of the ethers. The passage is of 
course an elahorate pun. 

j t. c. lion of valour. 


longing, said to him incidentally in the course of conversation " King, it 
is not hard for kings to incur guilt, it' through pride in their strong arms, 
and confidence in their skill in the use of weapons, they even long for 
enemies ; in this way 13ana in old time, through pride in his thousand arms, 
propitiated S'iva and asked for an enemy that was a match for him in fight, 
until at last his prayer was actually granted, and Vishnu became his enemy, 
and cut off his innumerable arms in battle. So you must not shew dis- 
satisfaction because you do not obtain an opportunity of fighting, and a 
terrible enemy must never be desired. If you want to shew here your skill 
in weapons and your strength, shew it in the forest an appropriate field for 
it, and in hunting. And since kings are not generally exposed to fatigue, 
hunting is approved to give them exercise and excitement, but warlike 
expeditions are not recommended. Moreover the malignant wild animals 
desire that the earth should be depopulated, for this reason the king should 
slay them ; on this ground too hunting is approved. But wild animals 
should not be too unremittingly pursued, for it was owing to the vice of 
exclusive devotion to hunting that former kings, Pandu and others, met 
destruction." When the wise minister Amaragupta said this to him, the 
king Vikramasinha approved the advice saying " I will do so." And the 
next day the king went out of the city to hunt, to a district beset with 
horses, footmen and dogs, and where all the quarters were filled with the 
pitching of various nets, and he made the heaven resound with the shouts 
of joyous huntsmen. And as he was going out on the back of an elephant, 
he saw two men sitting together in private in an empty temple outside the 
walls. And the king, as he beheld them from afar, supposed that they were 
only deliberating together over something at their leisure, and passed on to 
the forest where his hunting was to be. There he was delighted with the 
drawn swords, and with the old tigers, and the roaring of lions, and the scenery, 
and the elephants. He strewed that ground with pearls fallen from the 
nails of elephant-shying lions whom he killed, resembling the seeds of his 
prowess. The deer leaping sideways, being oblique- goers,* went obliquely 
across his path; his straight-flying arrow easily transfixing them first, reached 
afterwards the mark of delight. And after the king had long enjoyed the 
sport of hunting, he returned, as his servants were weary, with slack 
bowstring to the city of Ujjayini. There he saw those two men, whom 
he had seen as he was going out, who had remained the whole time in the 
temple occupied in the same way. He thought to himself " "\Vlio aro 
these, and why do they deliberate so long ? Surely they must be spies, 
having a long talk over secrets." So he sent his warder, and had those men 

* f. c. aiiimuK hoi-i/ontal .><-r.>. The pun drlics translation, the word I have 
translated arrow is literally "the 


captured and brought into his presence, and then thrown into prison. 
And the next day he had them brought into his judgement-hall, and asked 
them " Who are you and why did you deliberate together so long ?" 
When the king in person asked them this, they entreated him to spare 
their lives, and one of these young men began to say ; " Hear, king, I 
will now tell the whole story as it happened. 

" There lived a Brahman, of the name of Karabhaka, in this very city 
of yours. I, whom you see here, am the son of that learned student of 
the Vedas, born by his propitiating the god of fire in order to obtain a 
heroic son. And, when my father went to heaven, and his wife followed 
him,* I being a mere boy, though 1 had learned the sciences, abandoned the 
course of life suited to my caste, because I was friendless. And I set 
myself to practise gaming and the use of arms ; what boy does not 
become self-willed if he is not kept in order by some superior ? And, 
having passed my childhood in this way, I acquired overweening confidence 
in my prowess, and went one day to the forest to practise archery. And 
while I was thus engaged, a bride came out of the city in a covered palan- 
keen, surrounded by many attendants of the bridegroom. And suddenly 
an elephant, that had broken its chain, came from some quarter or other 
at that very moment, and attacked that bride in its fury. And through 
fear of that elephant, all those cowardly attendants and her husband with 
them deserted the bride, and iled in all directions. When I saw that, I 
immediately said to myself in my excitement, ' What ! have these miser- 
able wretches left this unfortunate woman alone ? So I must defend this 
unprotected 4ady from this elephant. For what is the use of life or 
courage, unless employed to succour the unfortunate ?' Thus reflecting 
I raised a shout and ran towards that huge elephant ; and the elephant, 
abandoning the woman, charged down upon me. Then I, before the eyes 
of that terrified woman, shouted and ran, and so drew off that elephant to 
a distance, at last I got hold of a bough of a tree thickly covered with 
leaves, which had been broken oft', and covering myself with it, I went into 
the middle of the tree ; and placing the bough in front of me, I escaped 
by a dexterous oblique movement, while the elephant trampled the bough 
to pieces. Then I quickly went to that lady, who remained terrified there, 
and asked her whether she had escaped without injury. She, when she saw 
me, said with afiiicted and yet joyful manner ; ' How can I be said to be 
uninjured, now that I have been bestowed on this coward, who has deserted 
me in such straits, and fled somewhere or other ; but so far at any rate I 
am uninjured, that I again behold you unharmed. So my husband is 
nothing to me ; you henceforth are my husband, by whom regardless of 
your life, I have been delivered from the jaws of death. And here I see 
* '. e. by burning herself upon the funeral pyre. 

my husband coming with his servants, so follow us slowly ; for when we 
get an opportunity, you and T will elope somewhere together.' When she 
said this, I consented. I ought to have thought ' Though this woman 
is beautiful, and flings herself at my head, yet she is the wife of another ; 
what have I to do with her ?' But this is the course of calm self- 
restraint, not of ardent youth. And in a moment her husband came up and 
greeted her, and she proceeded to continue her journey with him and his 
servants. And I, without being detected, followed her through her long 
journey, being secretly supplied with provisions for the journey by her, though 
I passed for some one unconnected with her. And she, throughout the 
journey, falsely asserted that she suffered pain in her limbs, from a strain 
produced by falling in her terror at the elephant, and so avoided even touch- 
ing her husband. A passionate woman, like a female snake, terrible from the 
condensed venom she accumulates within, will never, if injured, neglect to 
wreak her vengeance. And in course of time we reached the city of Loha- 
nagara, where was the house of the husband of that woman, who lived by 
trading. And we all remained during that day in a temple outside the 
walls. And there I met my friend this second Brahman. And though 
we had never met before, we felt a confidence in one another at lir^t sight ; 
the heart of creatures recognises friendships formed in a previous birth. 
Then I told him all my secret. When he heard it, he said to me of big 
own accord ; ' Keep the matter quiet, I know of a device by which you 
can attain the object, for which you came here ; I know here the sister of 
this lady's husband. She is ready to fly from this place with me, and take 
her wealth with her. So with her help I will accomplish your object for 

" When the Brahman had said this to me, he departed, and secretly 
informed the merchant's wife's sister-in-law of the whole matter. And on 
the next day the sister-in-law, according to arrangement, came with her 
brother's wife and introduced her into the temple. And while we wore 
there, she made my friend at that very time, which was the middle. of the 
day. put on the dress of her brother's wife. And she took him so disguised 
into the city, and went into the house in which her brother lived, after 
arranging what \ve were to do. But I left the temple, and fleeing with the 
merchant's wife dressed as a man, reached at last this city of Ujjayini. 
And her sister-in-law at night fled with my friend from that house, in which 
there had been a feast, and so the people were in a drunken sleep. 

"And then he came with her by stealthy journeys to this city ; so we 
met here. In this way we tsvo have obtained our two wives in the bloom 
of youth, the sister-in-law and her brother's wife, who bestowed them- 
on us out of affection. Consequently, king, we are afraid to dwell any- 
where ; for whose mind is at ease after performing deeds of reckless tome- 


rity ? So the king saw us yesterday from a distance, while we were 
debating about a place to dwell in, and how we should subsist. And your 
majesty, seeing us, had us brought and thrown into prison on the suspicion 
of being thieves, and to-day we have been questioned about our history, 
and I have just told it ; now it is for your highness to dispose of us at 
pleasure." When one of them had said this, the king Vikramasinha said to 
those two Brahmans, " I am satisfied, do not be afraid, remain in this 
city, and I will give you abundance of wealth." When the king had said 
this, he gave them as much to live on as they wished, and they lived happi- 
ly in his court accompanied by their wives. 

" Thus prosperity dwells for men even in questionable deeds, if they 
are the outcome of great courage, and thus kings, being satisfied, take 
pleasure in giving to discreet men who are rich in daring. And 
thus this whole created world with the gods and demons will always 
reap various fruits, corresponding exactly to their own stock of deeds 
good or bad, performed in this or in a former birth. So rest assured, queen, 
that the flame which was seen by you falling from heaven in your dream, 
and apparently entering your womb, is some creature of divine origin, that 
owing to some influence of its works has been conceived in you." The 
pregnant queen Taradatta, when she heard this from the mouth of her own 
husband Kalingadatta, was exceedingly delighted. 


Then the queen Taradatta, the consort of king Kalingadatta in Taksha- 
sila, slowly became oppressed with the burden of her unborn child. A nd 
she, now that her delivery was near, being pale of countenance, with tremu- 
lous eyeballs,* resembled the East in which the pale streak of the young 
moon is about to rise. And there was soon born from her a daughter 
excelling all others, like a specimen of the Creator's power to produce all 
beauty. The lights kept burning to protect the child against evil spirits, 
blazing with oil,f were eclipsed by her beauty, and darkened, as if through 
grief that a son of equal beauty had not been born instead. And her 
father Kalingadatta, when he saw her born, beautiful though she was, 

The word tdrakd means also a star. So hero we have one of those puna in 
which our author delights. 

t Also full of uiTuetion. This is a common pun. 


was filled with despondency at the disappointment of his hope to obtain 
a son like her. Though he divined that she was of heavenly origin, he was 
grieved because he longed for a son. For a son, being embodied joy, is far 
superior to a daughter, that is but a lump of grief. Then in his affliction, 
the king went out of his palace to divert his mind, and he entered a mon- 
astery full of many images of Buddha. In a certain part of the monas- 
tery, he heard this speech being uttered by a begging hermit, who was 
a religious preacher, as he sat in the midst of his hearers. 

" They say that the bestowal of wealth in this world is great asceticism ; 
a man who gives wealth ia said to give life, for life depends on wealth. 
And Buddha, with mind full of pity, offered up himself for another, as if 
he were worthless straw, much more should one offer up sordid pelf. And 
it was by such resolute asceticism, that Buddha, having got rid of desire, 
and obtained heavenly insight, attained the rank of a Buddha. Therefore 
a wise man should do what is beneficial to other beings, by abstaining from 
selfish aspirations even so far as to sacrifice his own body, in order that he 
may obtain perfect insight." 

Thus, long ago, there were born 
Story of the seven princesses. 

in succession to a certain king named 

Krita seven very beautiful princesses, and even while they were still youth- 
ful they abandoned, in disgust with life, the house of their father, and went 
to the cemetery, and when they were asked why they did it, they said to 
their retinue " This world is unreal, and in it this body, and such delights 
as union with the beloved are the baseless fabric of a dream ; only the good 
of others in this revolving world is pronounced to be real ; so let us with 
these bodies of ours do good to our fellow creatures, let us fling these 
bodies, while they are alive, to the eaters of raw flesh* in the cemetery ; 
what is the use of them, lovely though they be ?" 

Story of the prince who tore out his For there lived in old time 

own eye. a certain prince who was disgusted 

with the world, and he, though young and handsome, adopted the life of 
a wandering hermit. Once on a time that beggar entered the house of a 
certain merchant, and was beheld by his young wife with his eyes long as 
the leaf of a lotus. She, with heart captivated by the beauty of his eyes 
said to him, " How came such a handsome man as you to undertake such 
a severe vow as this ? Happy is the woman who is gazed upon with this 
eye of yours !" When the begging hermit was thus addressed by the lady, 
he tore out one eye, and holding it in his hand, said, " Mother, behold this 
eye, such as it is ; take the loathsome mass of flesh and blood, if it pleases 

* Beasts of prey, or possibly Rakshasas. 


you.* And the other is like it ; say, what is there attractive in these ?" 
When he said this to the merchant's wife, and she saw the eye, she was 
despondent, and said, " Alas ! I, unhappy wretch that I am, have done an 
evil deed, in that I have become the cause of the tearing out of your eye !" 
When the beggar heard that, he said, " Mother, do not be grieved, for 
you have done me a benefit ; hear the following example, to prove the 
truth of what I say." 

Story of the ascetic who conquered There lived long ago, in a cer- 

anger. tain beautiful garden on the banks 

of the Ganges, a hermit animated by the desire of experiencing all asceticism. 
And while he was engaged in mortifying the flesh, it happened that a 
certain king came there to amuse himself with the women of his harem. 
And after he had amused himself, he fell asleep under the influence of his 
potations, and while he was in this state, his queens left him out of thought- 
lessness and roamed about in the garden. And beholding in a corner of 
the garden that hermit engaged in meditation, they stood round him out of 
curiosity, wondering what on earth he could be. And as they remained 
there a long time, that king woke up, and not seeing his wives at his side, 
wandered all round the garden. And then he saw the queens standing all 
round the hermit, and being enraged, he slashed the hermit with his sword 
out of jealousy. What crime will not sovereign power, jealousy, cruelty, 
drunkenness, and indiscretion cause separately, much more deadly are they 
when combined, like five fires, f Then the king departed, and though the 
hermit's limbs were gashed, he remained free from wrath ; whereupon a 

* Compare the translation of the life of St. Brigit by Whitley Stokes, (Three 
Middle Irish Homilies, p. 65.) 

" Shortly after that came a certain nobleman unto Dubthach to ask for his 
daughter in marriage. Dubthach and his sons were willing, but Brigit refused. Said 
a brother of her brethren named Beccan unto her : ' Idle is the fair eye that is in thy 
head not to be on a pillow near a husband.' ' The son of the Virgin knoweth' said 
Brigit, ' it is not lively for us if it brings- harm upon us.' Then Brigit put her finger 
under her eye and drew it out of her head till it was on her cheek; and she said: 
<Lo, here is thy delightful eye, O Beccan.' Then his eye burst forthwith. When 
Dubthach and his brethren saw that, they promised that she should never be told to go 
to a husband. Then she put her palm to her eye and it was whole at once. But 
Beccan' s eye was not whole till his death." 

That the biographers of Christian saints were largely indebted to Buddhist 
hagiology, has been shewn by Liebrecht in his Essay on the sources of Barlaam ami 
Josaphat, (Zur Volkskunde, p. 441.) In Mr. Stokes's book, p. 34, will also be found a 
reference to the practice of shewing reverence by walking round persons or things 
keeping the right hand towards them. This is pointed out by Mr. Stokes in his 1'r 
as an interesting link between Ireland and India. 

t They are compared to tho five aacred fires. 

:> Mi 

certain deity appeared and said to him, " Great-souled one, if you approve 
I will slay by my power that wicked man who did this to you in a pas- 
sion." When the hermit heard that, he said, " goddess, say not so, 
for he is my helper in virtue, not a harmer of me. For by his favour 
I have attained the grace of patience ; to whom could I have shown patience, 
goddess, if he had not acted thus towards me ? What anger does the 
wise man shew for the sake of this perishing body ? To shew patience 
equally with regard to what is agreeable and disagreeable is to have attained 
the rank of Brahma." When the hermit said this to the deity, she was pleased, 
and after healing the wounds in his limbs, &he disappeared. 

" In the same way as that ting was considered a benefactor by the 
hermit, you, my mother, have increased my asceticism by causing me to 
tear out my eye." Thus spake the self-subduing hermit to the merchant's 
wife, who bowed before him, and being regardless of his body, lovely though 
it was. he passed on to perfection. 

" Therefore, though our youth be very charming, why should we cling to 
this perishable body ? But the only thing which, in the eye of the wise 
man, it is good for, is to benefit one's fellow-creatures. So we will 
lay down our bodies to benefit living creatures in this cemetery, the natural 
home of happiness." Having said this to their attendants, those seven 
princesses did so, and obtained therefrom the highest beatitude. 

" Thus you see that the wise have no selfish affection even for their own 
bodies, much less for such worthless things* as son, wife, and servants." 

When the king Kalingadatta had heard these and other such things 
from the religious teacher in the monastery, having spent the day there, he 
returned to his palace. And when he was there, he was again afflicted with 
grief on account of the birth of a daughter to him, and a certain Brahman, 
who had .grown old in his house, said to him " King, why do you despond 
on account of the birth of a pearl of maidens ? Daughters are better e\vn 
than sons, and produce happiness in this world and the next. Why do 
kings care so much about those sons that hanker after their kingdom, and eat 
up their fathers like crabs ? But kings like Kuntibhoja and others, by the 
virtues of daughters like Kunti and others, have escaped harm from - 
like the terrible Durvasas. And how can one obtain from a son the same 
fruit in the next world, as one obtains from the marriage of a daugl: 
Moreover I now proceed to tell the tale of Sulochanu, listen to it." 

There was a vouns; king named 
Story of Sulochana and Sushena. . ,. .. _. .. 

Sushena on the mountain or Cliitra- 

kuta, who was created like another god of love by the Creator to spite > 
He made at the foot of that great mountain a heavenly L, r arden, which was 
calculated to make the gods avvrs,. - l( > dwelling in the garden of Nandana, 

* LitiTJillv til" wul'tlllc.-s >tni\v-ln-;ip . ... 



And in the middle of it he made a lake with full-blown lotuses, like a new 
productive bed for the lotuses with which the goddess of Fortune plays. 
This lake had steps leading down into it made of splendid gems, and 
the king used to linger on its bank without a bride, because there were no 
eligible matches for him. Once on a time Rambha, a fair one of heaven, 
came that way, wandering at will through the air from the palace of Indra. 
She beheld the king roaming in that garden like an incarnation of the 
Spring in the midst of a garden of full-blown flowers. She said " Can this 
be the moon, that has swooped down from heaven in pursuit of the goddess 
of Fortune fallen into a cluster of lotuses of the lake ? But that cannot 
be, for this hero's fortune in the shape of beauty never passes away.* 
Surely this must be the god of the flowery arrows come to the garden in 
quest of flowers. But where has Eati, his companion, gone ?" Thus Rambha 
described him in her eagerness, and descending from heaven in human form, 
she approached that king. And when the king suddenly beheld her advanc- 
ing towards him, he was astonished and reflected " Who can this be of 
incredible beauty ? She cannot surely be a human being, since her feet do 
not touch the dust, and her eye does not wink, therefore she must be some 
divine person. But I must not ask her who she is, for she might fly from 
me. Divine beings, who visit men for some cause or other, are generally 
impatient of having their secrets revealed." While such thoughts were 
passing in the monarch's mind, she began a conversation with him, which 
led in due course to his throwing his arms round her neck then and there. 
And he sported long there with this Apsaras, so that she forgot heaven ; 
love is more charming than one's native home. And the land of that king 
was filled with heaps of gold, by means of the Yakshinis, friends of hers, 
who transformed themselves into trees, as the heaven is filled with the 
peaks of Meru. And in course of time that excellent Apsaras became 
pregnant, and bore to king Sushena an incomparably beautiful daughter, 
and no sooner had she given her birth, than she said to the king " king, 
such has been my curse, and it is now at an end ; for I am Rambha, a 
heavenly nymph that fell in love with you on beholding you : and as I have 
given birth to a child, I must immediately leave you and depart. For such is 
the law that governs us heavenly beings ; therefore take care of this 
daughter ; when she is married, we shall again be united in heaven. " When 
the Apsaras Rambha had said this, she departed, sorely against her will, 
and through grief at it, the king was bent on abandoning life. But his 
ministers said to him, "Did Visvarnitra, though despondent, abandon life 
when Menaka had departed after giving birth to Sakuntala ?" When the 
king had been plied by them with such arguments, he took the right view 
of the matter, and slowly recovered his self-command, taking to his heart 
* Here there is a pun on the two meanings of Sri. 


the daughter who was destined to be the cause of their re-union. And that 
daughter, lovely in all her limbs, her father, who was devoted to her, named 
Sulochana, on account of the exceeding beauty of her eyes. 

In time she grew up to womanhood, and a young hermit, named Vatsa, 
the descendant of Kasyapa, as he was roaming about at will, beheld her in 
a garden. He, though he was all compact of asceticism, the moment he 
beheld that princess, felt the emotion of love, and he said to himself then 
and there ; "Oh! exceedingly wonderful is the beauty of this maiden! If 
I do not obtain her as a wife, what other fruit of my asceticism can I 
obtain ?" While thinking thus, the young hermit was beheld by Sulochana, 
and he seemed to her all glorious with brightness, like fire free from smoke. 
When she saw him with his rosary and water vessel, she fell in love also 
and thought " Who can this be that looks so self-restrained and yet so 
lovely ?" And coming towards him as if to select him for her husband, she 
threw over his body the garland* of the blue lotuses of her eyes, and 
bowed before that hermit. And he, with mind overpowered by the decree of 
Cupid, hard for gods and Asuras to evade, pronounced on her the following 
blessing " Obtain a husband." Then the excellent hermit was thus address- 
ed by that lady, whose modesty was stolen away by love for his exceeding 
beauty, and who spoke with downcast face " If this is your desire, and 
if this is not jesting talk, then, Brahman, ask the king, my father, who has 
power to dispose of me." Then the hermit, after hearing of her descent 
from her attendants, went and asked the king Sushena, her father, for her 
hand. He, for his part, when he saw that the young hermit was eminent 
both in beauty and asceticism, entertained him, and said to him " Reverend 
sir, this daughter is mine by the nymph Rambha, and by my daughter's 
marriage I am to be re-united with her in heaven ; so Rambha told me when 
she was returning to the sky ; consider, auspicious sir, how that is to be 
accomplished." When the hermit heard that, he thought for a moment 
" Did not the hermit Ruru, when Pramadvara the daughter of Menaka was 
bitten by a snake, give her the half of his life, and make her his wife ? 
Was not the Chandala Trisanku carried to heaven by Visvamitra ? So 
why should not I do the same by expending my asceticism upon it ? Having 
thus reflected, the hermit said " There is no difficulty in it," and exclaim- 
ed " Hearken ye gods, may this king mount with his body to heaven to 
obtain possession of Rambha by virtue of part of my asceticism." Thus 
the hermit spoke in the hearing of the court, and a distinct answer was heard 
from heaven " So be it." Then the king gave his daughter Sulochara to 
the hermit Vatsa, the descendant of Kasyapa, and ascended to heaven. There 

* In the Svayamvara the maiden threw a garland over the neck of the favoured 



he obtained a divine nature, and lived happily with that Kambha of god- 
like dignity, appointed his wife by Indra. 

" Thus, O king, Sushena obtained all his ends by means of a daughter. 
For such daughters become incarnate in the houses of such as you. And 
this daughter is surely some heavenly nymph, fallen from her high estate 
owing to a curse, and born in your house, so do not grieve, monarch, on 
account of her birth." When king Kalingadatta had heard this tale from 
the Brahman that had grown old in his bouse, he left off being distressed, 
and was comforted. And he gave to his dear young daughter, who gave 
pleasure to his eyes, as if she had been a digit of the moon, the name of 
Kalingasena. And the princess KalingasenS grew up in the house of her 
father amongst her companions. And she sported in the palaces, and in 
the palace-gardens, like a wave of the sea of infancy that is full of the 
passion* for amusement. 

Once on a time the daughter of the Asura Maya, named Somaprabha, 
as she was journeying through the sky, saw her on the roof of a palace 
engaged in play. And Somaprabha, while in the sky, beheld her lovely 
enough to bewilder with her beauty the mind even of a hermit, and feeling 
affection for her, reflected " Who is this ? Can she be the form of the 
moon ? If so, how is it that she gleams in the day ? But if she is Eati, 
where is Kama ? Therefore I conclude that she is a mortal maiden. 

" She must be some celestial nymph that has descended into a king's 
palace in consequence of a curse ; and I am persuaded I was certainly a 
friend of her's in a former life. For my mind's being full of exceeding 
affection for her, tells me so. Therefore it is fitting that I should again 
select her as my chosen friend." Thus reflecting Somaprabha descended 
invisible from heaven, in order not to frighten that maiden ; and she 
assumed the appearance of a mortal maiden to inspire confidence, and 
slowly approached that Kalingasena. Then Kalingasena, on beholding her, 
reflected " Bravo ! here is a princess of wonderful beauty come to visit 
me of her own accord ! she is a suitable friend for me." So she rose up 
politely and embraced that Somaprabha. And making her take a seat, she 
asked her immediately her descent and name. And Somaprabha said to 
her ; "Be patient, I will tell you all." Then in the course of their conver- 
sation they swore friendship to each other with plighted hands. Then. 
Som.iprabh.-i said " My friend, you are a king's daughter, and it is hard to 
keep up friendship with the children of kings. For they fly into an 
immoderate passion on account of a small fault. Hear, with regard to 
this point, the story of the prince and the merchant's son which I am about 
to tell you." 

* Masa also means water. 


St,,r>i ol '///, r ,-i>ice mid the merchant's In the city of Pushkaniviiti 

ton who saved his life* there was a king named Giidhasena, 

and to him there was born one son. That prince was overbearing, and 
whatever he did, right or wrong, his father acquiesced in, because he was 
an only son. And once upon a time, as he was roaming about in a garden, 
he saw the son of a merchant, named Brahmadatta, who resembled himIf 
in wealth and beauty. And the moment he saw him, he selected him for 
his special friend, and those two, the prince and the merchant's son, imme- 
diately became like one another in all things. f And soon they were not 
able to live without seeing one another, for intimacy in a former birth, 
quickly knits friendship. The prince never tasted food that was not first 
prepared for that merchant's son. 

Once on a time the prince set out for Ahichchhatra in order to be mar- 
ried, having first decided on his friend's marriage. And, as he was journeying 
with his troops, in the society of that friend, mounted on an elephant, he 
reached the bank of the Ikshuvati, and encamped there. There he had a 
wine-party, when the moon arose ; and after he had gone to bed, he began 
to tell a story at the solicitation of his nurse. When he had begun his 
story, being tired and intoxicated he was overcome by sleep, and his nurse 
also, but the merchant's son kept awake out of love for him. And when 
the others were asleep, the merchant's son, who was awake, heard in the 
air what seemed to be the voices of women engaged in conversation. The first 
said " This wretch has gone to sleep without telling his tale, therefore I 
pronounce this curse on him. To-morrow morning he shall see a necklace, 
and if he take hold of it, it shall cling to his neck, and that moment cause his 
death." Then the first voice ceased, and the second went on : " And if 
he escape that peril, he shall see a mango-tree, and if he eat the fruit of 

* This story is compared by Benfoy (Orient und Occident, Vol I, p. 374) with 
the story of the faithful servant Viravara in the Hitopadela, which is also found in the 
Vetalapanchnvni- :iti. (see chapter 78 of this work.) Viravara, according to the account 
in the Vetalapanchuvinsati, hears the weeping of a woman. He finds it is the king's 
fortune deserting him. He accordingly offers up his son, and finally slays himself. 
The king is about to do the same when the goddess Durga restores the dead to life. 
The story of " Der Treue Johannes" will at once occur to readers of Grimm's tales. 
According to Benfey, it is also found in the Pentamerone of Basile. The form of the 
tale in our text is very similar to that in Grimm. (See Benfey's Panchatantra, 
Vol. I, p. 416.) The story of the faithful Viravara occurs twice in this collection, 
in chapter 53, and also in chapter 78. Sir G. Cox (in his Aryan Mythology, Vol. I 
p. 148), compares the German story with one in Miss Froro's Old DC.-, -m I'.iys, the 
5th in that collection. Other parallels will be found in the notes in Grimm's third 

t The same idea is found in Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III, Sc. 2, begin- 
ning, " We, Hermia, like two artificial gods ice." 

it, he shall then and there lose his life." Having uttered this, that voice 
also ceased, and then the third said " If he escape this also, then, if he 
enter a house to be married, it shall fall on him and slay him." Having 
said so much, that voice also ceased, and the fourth said, " If he escape 
this also, when he enters that night into his private apartments, he shall 
sneeze a hundred times ; and if some one there does not a hundred times say 
to him, ' God bless you,' he shall fall into the grasp of death. And if the 
person, who has heard ail this, shall inform him of it in order to save his 
life, he also shall die," having said this, the voice ceased.* And the 
merchant's son having heard all this, terrible as a thunderstroke, being 
agitated on account of his affection for the prince, reflected " Beshrew 
this tale that was begun, and not finished, for divinities have come invisible 
to hear it, and are cursing him out of disappointed curiosity. And if this 
prince dies, what good will my life do to me ? So I must by some artifice 
deliver my friend whom I value as my life. And I must not tell him what 
has taken place, lest 1 too should suffer." Having thus reflected, the mer- 
chant's son got through the night with difficulty. 

And in the morning the prince set out with him on his journey, and 
he saw a necklace in front of him, and wished to lay hold of it. Then the 
merchant's son said, " Do not take the necklace, my friend, it is an illusion, 
else why do not these soldiers see it ?" When the prince heard that, he let 
the necklace alone, but going on further he saw a mango-tree, and he felt a 
desire to eat its fruit. But he was dissuaded by the merchant's son, as 
before. He felt much annoyed in his heart, and travelling on slowly he 
reached his father-in-law's palace. And he was about to enter a building 
there for the purpose of being married, but just as his friend had persuad- 
ed him not to do so, the house fell down. So he escaped this danger by a 
hair's breadth, and then he felt some confidence in his friend's prescience. 
Then the prince and his wife entered at night another building. But the 
merchant's son slipped in there unobserved. And the prince, when he 
went to bed, sneezed a hundred times, but the merchant's son underneath it 
said a hundred times " God bless you" and then the merchant's son, 
having accomplished his object, of his own accord left the house in high 
spirits. But the prince, who was with his wife, saw him going out, and 
through jealousy, forgetting his love for him, he flew into a passion and 
said to the sentinels at his gate : " This designing wretch has entered my 

* Cp. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, pp. 69 and 71, for the three dangers. The 
custom of saying " God bless you,'' or equivalent words, when a man sinvzos, is 
shewn by Tylor (Primitive Culture, Vol. I, pp. 88-94) to exist in many parts of the 
world. Ho quotes many passages from clas.-i.ul literature relating to it. " Even the 
emperoi Tiberius, that saddest oi nieu, exacted this observance." 


private apartments when I wished to be alone, so keep him in durance for 
the present, and he shall be executed in the morning." When the guards 
heard that, they put him under arrest, and he spent the night in confine- 
ment, but as he was being led off to execution in the morning, he said to 
them " First take me into the presence of the prince, in order that I 
may tell him a certain reason, which I had for my conduct ; and then put 
me to death." When he said this to the guards, they went and informed 
the prince, and on their information and the advice of his ministers, the 
prince ordered him to be brought before him. When he was brought, he 
told the prince the whole story, and he believed it to be true, for the fall of 
the house carried conviction to his mind. So the prince was satisfied, and 
countermanded the order for his friend's execution, and he returned with 
him to his own city, a married man. And there his friend the merchant's 
son married, and lived in happiness, his virtues being praised by all men. 

" Thus the children of kings break loose from restraint and slaying their 
guides, disregard benefits, like infuriated elephants And what friendship 
can there be with those Vetulas, who take people's lives by way of a joke. 
Therefore, my princess, never abandon your friendship with me." 

When Kalingasena heard this story in the palace from the mouth of 
Somaprabha, she answered her affectionate friend, " Those of whom you 
speak are considered Pisachas, not the children of kings, and I will tell 
you a story of the evil importunity of Pisachas, listen !" 

Story of the Brahman and the ^ong a g there was a Brahman 

Pisacha. dwelling on a royal grant, which was 

called Yajnasthala. He once upon a time, being poor, went to the forest to 
bring home wood. There, a piece of wood being clef t with the axe, fell, a- 
chance would have it, upon his leg, and piercing it, entered deep into it. And 
as the blood flowed from him, he fainted, and he was beheld in that condition 
by a man who recognised him, and taking him up carried him home. 
There his distracted wife washed off the blood, and consoling him, placed 
a plaster upon the wound. And then his wound, though tended day In- 
day, not only did not heal, but formed an ulcer. Then the man, afflicted 
with his ulcerated wound, poverty-stricken, and at the point of death, wa- 
thus advised in secret by a Brahman friend, who came to him; " A friend of 
mine, named Yajnadatta, -was long very poor, but he gained the aid of a 
Pisacha by a charm, and so, having obtained wealth, lived in happi: 
And he told me that charm, so do you gain, my friend, by means of it. the 
aid of a Pisacha ; he will heal your wound." Having said this, lie told him 
the form of words and described to him the ceremony as follows: " Ki- 
up in the last watch of the night, and with dishevelled hair and in. 
and without rinsing your mouth, take two handl'iils <>| rice as lar^c a.- 


can grasp with your two hands, and muttering the form of words go to a 
place where four roads meet, and there place the two handfuls of rice, and 
return in silence without looking behind you. Do so always until that 
Pisacha appears, and himself says to you, ' I will put an end to your 
ailment.' Then receive his aid gladly, and he will remove your complaint." 

When his friend had said this to him, the Brahman did as he had been 
directed. Then the Pisacha, being conciliated, brought heavenly herbs 
from a lofty peak of the Himalayas and healed his wound. And then he 
became obstinately persistent, and said to the Brahman, who was delighted 
at being healed, " Give rne a second wound to cure, but if you will not, I will 
do you an injury or destroy your body." When the Brahman heard that, 
he was terrified, and immediately said to him to get rid of him " I will 
give you another wound within seven days." Whereupon the Pisacha left 
him, but the Brahman felt hopeless about his life. But eventually he 
baffled the Pisacha by the help of his daughter, and having got over the 
disease, he lived in happiness.* 

"Such are Pisachas, and some young princes are just like them, and, 
though conciliated, produce misfortune, my friend, but they can be guard- 
ed against by counsel. But princesses of good family have never been 
heard to be such. So you must not expect any injury from associating 
with me." When Somaprabha heard from the mouth of Kalingasena in 
due course this sweet, entertaining, and amusing tale, she was delighted. 
And she said to her " My house is sixty yojanas distant hence, and the 
day is passing away ; I have remained long, so now I must depart, fail- 
one." Then, as the lord of day was slowly sinking to the eastern mountain, 
she took leave of her friend who was eager for a second interview, and in 
a moment flew up into the air, exciting the wonder of the spectators, 
and rapidly returned to her own house. And, after beholding that wonder- 
ful sight, Kalingasena entered into her house with much perplexity, and 
reflected, " I do not know, indeed, whether my friend is a Siddha female, 
or an Apsaras, or a Yidyadluiri. She is certainly a heavenly female that 
travels through the upper air. And heavenly females associate with mortal 
ones led by excessive love. Did not Arundhati live in friendship with the 
daughter of king Prithu ? Did not Prithu by means of her friendship 
bring Surahhi from heaven to earth. And did not he by consuming its 
milk return to heaven though he had fallen from it. And were not tin 
forth perfect cows horn upon earth ? So I am fortunate ; it is by 
luck that 1 have obtained this heavenl creature as a friend ; and when she 

* I have l)ocn ol)li^i-il 1" omit some portion of this story. " It \v:is," Wilson 
mnnrk.s, ":I<T( ] < i.iii"|" , :iiu.l i.-- lutri.-r'u liu- ^uin aa that >.'l I.- 

,i:ilil.- .1.- i'ajn li-il.-' "I K<i 


comes to-morrow I will dexterously ask her her descent and name." 
Thinking such thoughts in her heart, Kalingasena spent that night there, 
and Somaprabha spent the night in her own house being eager to behold 
her again. 


Then in the morning Somaprabha took with her a basket, in which she 
had placed many excellent mechanical dolls of wood with magic properties 
in order to amuse her friend, and travelling through the air she came again 
to Kalingasena. And when Kalingasena saw her, she was full of tears of 
joy, and rising up she threw her arms round her neck, and said to her, as 
she sat by her side " The dark night of three watches has this time 
seemed to me to be of a hundred watches without the sight of the full 
moon of your countenance. So, if you know, my friend, tell me of what 
kind may have been my union with you in a former birth, of which this 
present friendship is the result." When Somaprabha heard this, she said 
to that princess : " Such knowledge I do not possess, for I do not remember 
my former birth ; and hermits are not acquainted with this, but if any know, 
they are perfectly acquainted with the highest truth, and they are the 
original founders of the science by which it is attained." When she had 
spoken thus, Kalingasena, being full of curiosity, again asked her in 
private in a voice tender from love and confidence, " Tell me, friend, of 
what divine father you have adorned the race by your birth, since you are 
completely virtuous like a beautifully-rounded pearl.* And what, auspi- 
cious one, is your name, that is nectar to the ears of the world. What is the 
object of this basket ? And what thing is there in it ?" On hearing this 
affectionate speech from Kalingasena, Somaprabha began to tell the whole 
story in due course. 

" There is a mighty Asura of the name of Maya, famous in the three 
worlds. And he, abandoning the condition of an Asura, lied to S'iva as his 
protector. And S'iva having promised him security-, he built the palace of 
Indra. But the Daityas were, angry with him, allirming that he had be- 
come a partisan of the gods. Through fear of them ho made in the Vin- 
dhya mountains a very wonderful magic subterranean palace, which the 
Asuras could not reach. My sister and I are the two daughters of that 
Mava. My elder sister named Svayamprabha follows a vow of virginity, 
and lives as a maiden in my father's house. But I, the younger daughter, 

* Suvrittoyd means virtuous, and beautifully-round* tl. 


named Somaprabha, have been bestowed in marriage on a son of Kuvera 
named Nadakuvara, and my father has taught me innumerable magic 
artifices, and as for this basket, I have brought it here to please you." 
Having said this, Somaprabha opened the basket and shewed to her some very 
interesting mechanical dolls constructed by her magic, made of wood. One 
of them, on a pin in it being touched,* went through the air at her orders 
and fetched a garland of flowers and quickly returned. Another in the 
same way brought water at will ;f another danced, and another then con- 
versed. With such very wonderful contrivances Somaprabha amused Kalin- 
gasena for some time, and then she put that magic basket in a place of 
security, and taking leave of her regretful friend, she went, being obedient 
to her husband, through the air to her own palace. But Kalingasena was 
so delighted that the sight of these wonders took away her appetite, and 
she remained averse to all food. And when her mother perceived that, she 
feared she was ill ; however a physician named A'nanda having examined the 
child, told her mother that there was nothing the matter with her. He 
said, " She has lost her appetite through delight at something, not from 
disease ; for her countenance, which appears to be laughing, with eyes wide 
open, indicates this." When she heard this report from the physician, the 
girl's mother asked her the real cause of her joy ; and the girl told her. 
Then her mother believed that she was delighted with the society of an 
eligible friend, and congratulated her, and made her take her proper food. 

Then the next day Somaprabha arrived, and having found out what 
had taken place, she proceeded to say to Kalingasena in secret, " I told 
my husband, who possesses supernatural knowledge, that I had formed a 
friendship with you, and obtained from him, when he knew the facts, 
permission to visit you every day. So you must now obtain permission 
from your parents, in order that you may amuse yourself with me at will 
without fear." When she had said this, Kalingasena took her by the hand, 
and immediately went to her father and mother, and there introduced her 
friend to her father, king Kaliugadatta, proclaiming her descent and name, 
and in the same way she introduced her to her mother Taradatta, and they, 
on beholding her, received her politely in accordance with their daughter's 
account of her. And both those two, pleased with her appearance, 

Cp. Chaucer's Squire's Talc, line 316, " Ye moten trillo a pin, stant in his ore." 
t This may remind the reader of the story of the pestle in Lucian's Philopseudes, 
that was sent to fetch water. When the J'^yptian sorcerer was away, his pupil tried 
to perform the trick. But he did not know the charm for stopping the water-carrying 
process. Accordingly the house was flooded. In despair he chopped the pestle in two 
with an axe. That made matters worse, for both halves set to work to bring water. 
The story has boon versified 1>\ < i-ti" , and the author of the Ingoldsby Legends. 


hospitably received that beautiful wife of the distinguished Asura out of 
love for their daughter, and said to her " Dear girl, we entrust this 
Kalingasena to your care, so amuse yourselves together as much as you 
please." And Kalingasena and Somaprabha having gladly welcomed 
this speech of theirs, went out together. And they went, in order to amuse 
themselves, to a temple of Buddha built by the king. And they took there 
that basket of magic toys. Then Somaprabha took a magic Yaksha, and 
sent it on a commission from herself to bring the requisites for the wor- 
ship of Buddha. That Yaksha went a long distance through the sky, and 
brought a multitude of pearls, beautiful gems, and golden lotuses. Hav- 
ing performed worship with these, Somaprabha exhibiting all kinds of 
wonders, displayed the various Buddhas with their abodes. When the 
king Kalingadatta heard of that, he came with the queen and beheld it, 
and then asked Somaprabha about the magic performance. Then Soma- 
prabha said, " King, these contrivances of magic machines, and so on, 
were created in various ways by my father in old time. And even as this 
vast machine, called the world, consists of five elements, so do all these 
machines : I will describe them one by one. That machine, in which earth 
predominates, shuts doors and things of the kind. Not even Indra would 
be able to open what had been shut with it. The shapes produced by the 
water-machine appear to be alive. But the machine in which fire pre- 
dominates, pours forth flames. And the wind-machine performs actions, such 
as going and coming. And the machine produced from ether utters distinct 
language. All these I obtained from my father, but the wheel-machine, 
which guards the water of immortality, my father knows and no one else." 
While she was saying this, there arose the sound of conchs being blown in 
the middle of the day, that seemed to confirm her words. Then she 
entreated the king to give her the food that suited her, and taking Kalin- 
gasena as a companion, by permission of the king she set out through the 
air for her father's house in a magic chariot, to return to her elder sister. 
And quickly reaching that palace, which was situated in the Vindhya 
mountains, she conducted her to her sister Svayamprabha. There Kalinga- 
sena saw that Svayamprabha with her head encircled with matted lock*, 
with a long rosary, a nun clothed in a white garment, smiling like Parvati, 
in whom love, the highest joy of earth, had undertaken a severe vow of 
mortification. And Svayamprabha, when the princess, introduced by 
Somaprabha, kneeled before her, received her hospitably and entertained 
her with a meal of fruits. And Somaprabha said to the primvss : My 
friend, by eating these fruits, you will escape old age which otherwise 
would destroy this beauty, as the nipping cold docs the lotus : and it was 
with this object that I brought you here out of ailVrtiou.'' Tiu>n that 
Kalingasena ate those fruits, and immediately her limbs seemed to be 


bathed in the water of life. And roaming about there to amuse herself, she 
sa\v the garden of the city, with tanks filled with golden lotuses, and trees 
bearing fruit as sweet as nectar : the garden was full of birds of golden 
and variegated plumage, and seemed to have pillars of bright gems ; it 
conveyed the idea of walls where there was no partition, and where there 
were partitions, of unobstructed space. Where there was water, it presented 
the appearance of dry land, and where there was dry laud, it bore the 
semblance of water. It resembled another and a wonderful world, created 
by the delusive power of the Asura Maya. It had been entered formerly 
by the monkeys searching for Sita, which, after a long time, were allowed to 
come out by the favour of Svayamprabha. So Svayamprabha bade her 
adieu, after she had been astonished with a full sight of her wonderful city, 
and had obtained immunity from old age ; and Somaprabha making Kalinga- 
sena ascend the chariot again, took her through the air to her own palace 
in Takshasila. There Kalingasena told the whole story faithfully to her 
parents, and they were exceedingly pleased. 

And while those two friends spent their days in this way, Somaprabha 
once upon a time said to Kalingasena : " As long as you are not married, 
I can continue to be your friend, but after your marriage, how could I 
enter the house of your husband ? For a friend's husband ought never to 
be seen or recognised* ; ************** 
* * As for a mother-in-law she eats the flesh of a daughter-in-law as 
a she-wolf does of a sheep. And a propos of this, hear the story of 
Kirtisena which I am about to tell you." 

Mry of Kirtisend and her cruel Long ago there lived in the city 

mother-in-law,-^ o f Pataliputra a merchant named, 

not without cause, Dhanapalita,| for he was the richest of the rich. And 
there was born to him a daughter, named Kirtisena, who was incomparably 
beautiful, and dearer to him than life. And he took his daughter to 
Magadha and married her to a rich merchant, named Devasena. And 
though Devasena was himself very virtuous, he had a wicked mother as 
mistress in his house, for his father was dead. She, when she saw that her 
. daughter-in-law Kirtisena was beloved by her husband, being inflamed with 
anger, ill-treated her in her husband's absence. But Kirtisena was afraid 
to let her husband know it, for the position of a bride in the power of a 
treacherous mother-in-law is a difficult one. 

* Here Dr. Brockhaus supposes a lino to bo omitted. The transition is some- 
what abrupt. 

t Cp. with the story of Kirtiscna' the substance of two modern Greek songa 
given in Liebrcrht zur Volkskunde, p. 187. 

+ . e. Wealth-preserved. 


Once upon a time her husband Devasena, instigated by his relations, 
was preparing to go to the city of Vallabhi for the sake of trade. Then 
that Kii-tisuiKi said to her husband, " I have not told you for this long 
time what I am now going to say : your mother ill-treats me though you 
are here, but I do not know what she will do to me when you are in a 
foreign country." When Devasena heard that, he was perplexed, and being 
alarmed on account of his affection for his wife, he went and humbly said 
to his mother " Kirtisena is committed to your care, mother, now that 
I am going to a foreign land ; you must not treat her unkindly, for she is 
the daughter of a man of good family. When Devasena's mother heard 
that, she summoned Kirtisena, and elevating her eyes, said to him then 
and there, " What have I done ? ask her. This is the way in which she 
eggs you on, my son, trying to make mischief in the house, but both of 
you are the same in my eyes." When the good merchant heard that, he 
departed with his mind easy on her account. For who is not deceived by 
the hypocritically affectionate speeches of a mother ? But Kirtisena stood 
there silent, smiling in bewilderment, and the next day the merchant set 
out for Vallabhi. Then, when Kirtisena began to suffer torture at being 
separated from her husband, the merchant's mother gradually for- 
bade the female slaves to attend on her. And making an agreement 
witli a handmaid of her own, that worked in the house, she took Kirtisena 
inside and secretly stripped her. And saying to her, " Wicked woman, 
you rob me of my son," she pulled her hair, and with the help of her 
servant, mangled her with kicks, bites, and scratches. And she threw her 
into a cellar that was closed with a trap-door and strongly fastened, after first 
taking out all the things that were in it previously. And the wretch put in it 
every day half a plate of rice, in the evening, for the girl who was in such a 
state. And she thought, " I will say in a few days ' she died of herself 
during her husband's absence in a distant land, take her corpse away.' "* 
Thus Kirtisena, who deserved all happiness, was thrown into a cellar by 
that cruel mother-in-law, and while there she reflected with tears, " My 
husband is rich, I was born in a good family, I am fortunately endowed and 
virtuous, nevertheless I suffer such calamity, thanks to my mother-in-law. 
And this is why relations lament the birth of a daughter, exposed to the 
terrors of mother-in-law, and sister-in-law, marred with inauspiciousness 
of every kind." While thus lamenting, Kirtisena suddenly found a small 
shovel in that cellar, like a thorn extracted from her heart by the Creator. 
So she dug a passage underground with that iron instrument, until by good 
luck she rose up in her own private apartment. And she was able to see that 

* Bohtlingk and Roth in their Dictionary explain tho passage as follows : imam, 
ft. e., patimj vyutt/tdyya ijutd iti, she was unfaithful to her husband. 


room by the light of a lamp that had been left there before, as if she were 
lighted by her own undiminished virtue. And she took out of it her 
clothes and her gold, and leaving it secretly at the close of the night, she 
went out of the city. She reflected " It is not fitting that I should go 
to my father's house after acting thus ; what should I say there, and how 
would people believe me ? So I must manage to repair to my husband by 
means of my own ingenuity ; for a husband is the only refuge of virtuous 
women in this world and the next." Keflecting thus, she bathed in the 
water of a tank, and put on the splendid dress of a prince. Then she went 
into the bazar and after exchanging some gold for money, she sojourned 
that day in the house of a certain merchant. 

The next day she struck up a friendship with a merchant named 
Samudrasena who wished to go to Vallabhi. And wearing the splendid 
dress of a prince, she set out for Vallabhi with the merchant and his servants 
in order to catch up her husband who had set out beforehand. And she 
said to that merchant, " I am oppressed by my clansmen,* so I will go with 
you to my friends in Vallabhi." 

Having heard that, the merchant's son waited upon her on the journey, 
out of respect, thinking to himself that she was some distinguished prince 
or other ; and that caravan preferred for its march the forest road, which 
was much frequented by travellers, who avoided the other routes because of 
the heavy duties they had to pay. In a few days they reached the entrance 
of the forest, and while the caravan was encamped in the evening, a female 
jackal, like a messenger of death, uttered a terrific howl. Thereupon the 
merchants, who understood what that meant, became apprehensive of an 
attack by bandits, and the guards on every side took their arms in hand ; 
and the darkness began to advance like the vanguard of the bandits ; then 
Kirtisena, in man's dress, beholding that, reflected, " Alas ! the deeds of 
those who have sinned in a former life seem to propagate themselves with a 
brood of evils ! Lo ! the calamity which my mother-in-law brought upon 
me has borne fruit here also ! First I was engulphed by the wrath of my 
mother-in-law as if by the mouth of death, then I entered the cellar like 
a second prison of the womb. By good fortune, I escaped thence, being, as 
it were, born a second time, and having come here, I have again run a risk 
of my life. If I am slain here by bandits, my mother-in-law, who hairs 
me, will surely say to my husband, ' She ran off somewhere being attached 
to another man.' But if some one tears off my clothes and recognises me 

* Gotraja, nearly equivalent to the Gentile of Roman law, and applied to kindred 
of the same L' i in family connected by ofl'erings of food ami water; limn- oin 
to the Bandhu or cognate kindred. She represented that aho was a prince whose 
clansmen wore trying to disinherit him. 


for a woman, then again I run a risk of outrage, and death is better than 
that. So I must deliver myself, and disregard this merchant my friend. 
For good women must regard the duty of virtuous wives, not friends and 
things of that kind." Thus she determined, and searching about, found a 
hollow like a house in the middle of a tree, as it were, an opening made 
for her by the earth out of pity. There she entered and covered her 
body with leaves and such like things ; and remained supported by the hope 
of reunion with her husband. Then, in the dead of night, a large force of 
bandits suddenly fell upon the caravan with uplifted weapons, and surround- 
ed it on all sides. And there followed a storm of fight, with howling 
bandits for thunder-clouds, and the gleam of weapons for long-continued 
lightning-flashes, and a rain of blood. At last the bandits, being more 
powerful, slew the merchant-prince Samudrasena and his followers, and 
went off with all his wealth. 

In the meanwhile Kirtisena was listening to the tumult, and that she 
was not forcibly robbed of breath is to be ascribed to fate only. Then the 
night departed, and the keen-rayed sun arose, and she went out from that 
hollow in the middle of the tree. Surely the gods themselves preserve in 
misfortune good women exclusively devoted to their husbands, and of un- 
failing virtue ; for not only did a lion beholding her in the lonely wood 
spare her, but a hermit that had come from somewhere or other, when she 
asked him for information, comforted her and gave her a drink of water 
from his vessel, and then disappeared in some direction or other, after tell- 
ing her the road to take. Then satisfied as if with nectar, free from 
hunger and thirst, that woman, devoted to her husband, set out by the 
road indicated by the hermit. Then she saw the sun mounted on the 
western mountain, stretching forth his rays like fingers, as if saying " Wait 
patiently one night" and so she entered an opening in the root of a 
forest tree which looked like a house, and closed its mouth with 
another tree. And in the evening she saw through the opening of 
a chink in the door of her retreat a terrible Rakshasi approaching, accom- 
panied by her young sons. She was terrified, thinking to herself " Lo ! 
I shall be devoured by this llakshasi after escaping all my other mis- 
fortunes" and in the meanwhile the Utikshasi ascended that tree. And 
her sons ascended after her, and immediately said to that Uiikshusi,* 
" Mother, give us something to eat." Then the llakshasi said to her chil- 
dren, " To-day, my children, I went to a great cemetery, but I did not 
obtain any food, and though I entreated the congregation of witches. 

* Cp. Thorpe's Yuletido Stories, p. 341, cited before on p. 25, also Sagas from the 
Far East, p. 162. Tho Mongolian version supplies the connecting link between India 
and Europe. In the Sagas from the Far East, the Eakshasas are replaced by crows. 


gave me no portion ; then grieved thereat I appealed to S'iva in his terrific 
form and asked him for food. And the god asked me my name and line- 
age, and then said to me ' Terrible one, thou art of high birth as belong- 
ing to the race of Khara and Diishana ;* so go to the city of Vasudatta, 
not far from here. In that city there lives a great king named Vasudatta 
addicted to virtue ; he defends this whole forest, dwelling on its border, and 
himself takes duties and chastises robbers. Now, one day, while the king was 
sleeping in the forest, fatigued with hunting, a centipede quickly entered 
his ear unobserved. And in course of time it gave birth to many others in- 
side his head. That produced an illness which now dries up all his sinews. 
And the physicians do not know what is the cause of his disease, but if 
some one does not find out, he will die in a few days. When he is dead, 
oat his flesh ; for by eating it, you will, thanks to your magic power, 
remain satiated for six months !' In these words S'iva promised me a meal, 
that is attended with uncertainty, and cannot be obtained for a long time, 
so what must I do, my children ?" When the Rakshasi said this to her chil- 
dren, they asked her, If the disease is discovered and removed, will that 
king live, mother ? And tell us how such a disease can be cured in him ?" 
When the children said this, the Rakshasi solemnly said to them, " If 
the disease is discovered and removed, the king will certainly live. And 
hear how his great disease may be taken away. First his head must be 
anointed by rubbing warm butter on it, and then it must be placed for a 
long time in the heat of the sun intensified by noonday. And a hollow 
cane-tube must be inserted into the aperture of his ear, which must com- 
municate with a hole in a plate, and this plate must be placed above a 
pitcher of cool water. Accordingly the centipedes will be annoyed by heat 
and perspiration, and will come out of his head, and will enter that cane- 
tube from the aperture of the ear, and desiring coolness will fall into the 
pitcher. In this way the king may be freed from that great disease." 
Thus spake the Kakshasi to her sons on the tree, and then ceased ; and 
Kirtisena, who was in the trunk of the tree, heard it. And hearing it, she 
said to herself, " If ever I get safe away from here, I will go and employ 
this artifice to save the life of that king. For he takes but small duties, 
and dwells on the outskirts of this forest ; and so all the merchants come 
this way because it is more convenient. This is what the merchant, Saniu- 
(Irasfiia, who is gone to heaven, told me ; accordingly that husband of mine 
will be sure to return by this very path. So I will go to the city of Vasu- 
datta, which is on the borders of the forest, and I will deliver the king 
from his sickness, and there await the arrival of my husband." Thus 
reflecting, she managed, though with dillieulty. to get through the night: 

* Names of Kakshasas mentioned in the Rdmdyana. 


in the morning, the Rakshasas having disappeared, she went out from the 
trunk of the tree. 

Then she travelled along slowly in the dress of a man, and in the 
afternoon she saw a good cowherd. He was moved to compassion by 
seeing her delicate beauty, and that she had accomplished a long journey, 
and then she approached him, and said " What country is this, pi 
tell me ?" The cowherd said " This city in front of you is the city of 
Vasudatta, belonging to the king Vasudatta : as for the king, he lies there 
at the point of death with illness." When Kirtisena heard that, she said 
to the cowherd, " If any one will conduct me into the presence of that 
king, I know how to remove his disease." When the cowherd heard that, 
he said, " I am going to that very city, so come with me, that I may 
point it out to you." Kirtisena answered " So be it," and immediately 
that herdsman conducted her to the city of Vasudatta, wearing her male dress. 
And telling the circumstances exactly as they were, he immediately com- 
mended that lady with auspicious marks to the afflicted warder. And the 
warder, having informed the king, by his orders introduced the blameless 
lady into his presence. The king Vasudatta, though tortured with his 
disease, was comforted the moment he beheld that lady of wonderful 
beauty ; the soul is able to distinguish friends from enemies. And he said 
to the lady who was disguised as a man, " Auspicious sir, if you remove 
this disease, I will give you half my kingdom ; I remember a lady stripped 
off from me in my dream a black blanket, so you will certainly remove 
this my disease." When Kirtisena heard that, she said " This day is 
at an end, king ; to-morrow I will take away your disease ; do not be 
impatient." Having said this, she rubbed cow's butter on the king's head ; 
that made sleep come to him, and the excessive pain disappeared. And 
then all there praised Kirtisena, saying " This is some god come to us 
in the disguise of a physician, thanks to our merits in a previous state of 
existence." And the queen waited on her with various attentions, and 
appointed for her a house in which to rest at night, with female attendants. 
Then on the next day, at noon, before the eyes of the ministers and ladies 
of the harem, Kirtisena extracted from the head of that king, through, 
the aperture of the ear, one hundred and fifty centipedes, by employing 
the wonderful artifice previously described by the Eakshasi. And after 
getting the centipedes into the pitcher, she comforted the king by foment- 
ing him with milk and melted butter. The king having gradually recover- 
ed, and being free from disease, everybody there was astonished at behold- 
ing those creatures in the pitcher. And the king, on beholding these 
harmful insects that had been extracted fro,iu his head, was terrified, pu/x.lod 
and delighted, and considered himself born again. And IK- mado high 
feast, and honoured Kirtisena, who did not caiv lor half tho kingdom, 


with villages, elephants, horses, and gold. And the queens and the minis- 
ters loaded her with gold and garments, saying that they ought to honour 
the physician who had saved the life of their sovereign. But she deposited 
for the present that wealth in the hand of the king, waiting for her 
husband, and saying " I am under a vow for a certain time." 

So Kirtisena remained there some days in man's clothes, honoured by 
all men, and in the meanwhile she heard from the people that her own 
husband, the great merchant Devasena, had come that way from Vallabhi. 
Then, as soon as she knew that that caravan had arrived in the city, she 
went to it, and saw that husband of hers as a peahen beholds the new 
cloud. And she fell at his feet, and her heart, weeping from the pain of 
long separation, made her bestow on him the argha* with her tears of joy. 
Her husband, for his part, after he had examined her, who was concealed by 
her disguise, like the form of the moon invisible in the day on account of the 
rays of the sun, recognised her. It was wonderful that the heart of 
Devasena, who was handsome as the moon, did not dissolve like the moon- 
stone, f on beholding the moon of her countenance. 

Then, Kirtisena having thus revealed herself, and her husband remain- 
ing in a state of wonder, marvelling what it could mean, and the company 
of merchants being astonished, the king Vasudatta, hearing of it, came 
there full of amazement. And Kirtisena, being questioned by him, told 
in the presence of her husband her whole adventure, that was due to the 
wickedness of her mother-in-law. And her husband Devasena, hearing it, 
conceived an aversion to his mother, and was affected at the same time by 
anger, forbearance, astonishment, and joy. And all the people present there, 
having heard that wonderful adventure of Kirtisena, exclaimed joyfully 
" Chaste women, mounted on the chariot of conjugal affection, protected by 
the armour of modesty, and armed with the weapon of intellect, are victorious 
in the struggle." The king too said " This lady, who has endured aflliction 
for the sake of her husband, has surpassed even queen Sita, who shared the 
hardships of J Jama. So she is henceforth my sister in the faith, as well as 
the saviour of my life." When the king said that, KirtiseiKi answered 
him " O king, let your gift of affection which I deposited in your care, 
consisting of villages, elephants, and horses, be made over to my husband." 
"When she said this to the king, he bestowed on her husband l)evaseiia the 
villages and other presents, and being pleased gave him a turban of honour. 
Then Devasena, having his purse suddenly tilled with stores of wealth, part 
of which was given by the king, and part acquired by his own trading, avoid- 

* "Water is the principal ingredient of the offering called argha or ary/iya. 
t This gem is formed l'n>m the nun^rLition of tin- rays nt the IIKKHI, and di- 

the inlluence of ita light. There is of course ail elaborate pun in Cliandra- 


ing his mother, and praising Kirtisena, remained dwelling in that town. And 
Kirtisena having found a happy lot, from which her wicked mother-in-law 
was removed, and having obtained glory by her unparalleled adventures, 
dwelt there in the enjoyment of all luxury and power, like all the rich fruit of 
her husband's good deeds incarnate in a body. 

" Thus chaste women, enduring the dispensations of hostile fate, but pre- 
serving in misfortunes the treasure of their virtue, and protected by the great 
power of their goodness, procure good fortune for their husbands and them- 
selves. And thus, O daughter of a king, many misfortunes befall wives, 
inflicted by mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law, therefore I desire for you a 
husband's house of such a kind, that in it there shall be no mother-in-law 
and no cruel sister-in-law." 

Hearing this delightful and marvellous story from the mouth of the 
A sura princess Somaprabha, the mortal princess Kalingasena was highly 
delighted Then the sun, seeing that these tales, the matter of which was 
so various, had come to an end, proceeded to set, and Somaprabha, having 
embraced the regretful Kalingasena, went to her own palace. 


Then Kalingasena out of love went to the top of a palace on the high 
road, to follow with her eyes the course of Somaprabha, who had set out for 
her own home, and by chance a young king of the Vidyadharas, named 
]\I adanavega, travelling through the air, had a near view of her. The youth 
beholding her, bewildering the three worlds with her beauty, like the bunch 
of peacock feathers of the conjuror Cupid, was much troubled. He reflec- 
ted " Away with the Vidyadhara beauties ! Not even the Apsarases 
deserve to be mentioned in presence of the surpassing loveliness of this 
mortal lady. So if she will not consent to become my wife, what is the 
proQt of my life ? But how can 1 associate with a mortal lad\>, being a 
Vidyadhara r"' Thereupon he called to mind the science named Prujnupti, 
and that science, appealing in bodily form, thus addressed him, " She is 
not really a mortal woman, she is an Apsaras, degraded in consequence of a 
curse, and born in the house of the august king Kalingadatta." When the 
Vidyadhara had been thus informed by the science, he went oil' delighted 
and distracted with love ; and averse from all other things, rdlected in liis 
palace ; " It is not fitting for me to carry her off by force ; for the pt> 
sion of women by force is, according to a curse, fa led to bring me death. 
So in order to obtain her, 1 must propitiate S'iva by asceticism, for happi- 
ness is procurable by asceticism, and no other expedient presents itself." 


Thus he resolved, and the next day he went to the Rishabha mountain, and 
standing on one foot, performed penance without taking food. Then the 
husband of Ambika was soon won over by Madanavega's severe asceticism, 
and appearing to him, thus enjoined him, " This maiden, named Kalinga- 
sena, is famous for beauty on the earth, and she cannot find any husband 
equal to her in the gift of loveliness. Only the king of Vatsa is a fitting 
match for her, and he longs to possess her, but through fear of Vasava- 
datta, does not dare to court her openly. And this princess, who is longing for 
a handsome husband, will hear of the king of Vatsa from the mouth of Soma- 
prabhd, and repair to him to choose him as her husband. So, before her 
marriage takes place, assume the form of the impatient king of Vatsa, and 
go and make her your wife by the Gandbarva ceremony. In this way, fair 
sir, you will obtain Kalingasena." Having received this command from 
S'iva, Mudanavega prostrated himself before him, and returned to his home 
on the slope of the Kalakuta mountain. 

Then Kalingasena went on enjoying herself in the city of Takshasila, 
in the society of Somaprabha, who went every night to her own home, and 
came back every morning to her friend, in her chariot that travelled through 
the air : and one day she said to Somaprabha in private ; " My friend, you 
must not tell any one what I tell you. Listen, and I will give you a reason 
that makes me think the time of my marriage has arrived. Ambassadors 
have been sent here by many kings to ask me in marriage. And they, 
after an interview with my father, have always hitherto been dismissed by 
him as they came. But now the king of the name of Prasenajit, who 
lives in S'ravasti, has sent a messenger, and he alone has been received with 
honourable distinction by my father And that course has been recom- 
mended by my mother, so I conjecture, the king, my suitor, has been approv- 
ed of by my father and mother, as of sufficiently noble lineage. For he 
is born in that family, in which were born Amba and Ambalikii, the paternal 
grandmothers of the Kurus and Pandus. So, my friend, it is clear that 
they have now determined to bestow me in marriage on this king Prasena- 
jit in the city of S'ravasti." When Somaprabha heard this f roui Kalinga- 
sena, she suddenly shed from grief a copious shower of tears, creating, as 
it were, a second necklace. And when her friend asked her the cause of 
her tears, that daughter of the Asura Maya, who had seen all the terrestrial 
world, said to her " Of the desirable requisites in a suitor, youth, good 
looks, noble birth, good disposition, and wealth, youth is of the greatest 
importance ; high birth, and so on, are of subordinate importance. But 
I have seen that king Prasenajit, and lie is an old man ; who eaves about 
his high lineage, as ho is old, any more than about the birth of the jasmine- 
flower ? You will be to be pitied when linked to him who is white as snow, as 
the lotus-bed, when linked to the winter, and your face will be a withered 


lotus. For this reason despondency has arisen in me, but I should be 
delighted if 'Udayana, the king of Vatsa, were to become your husband, 
O auspicious lady. For there is no king upon the earth equal to him 
in form, beauty, lineage, daring and riches. If, fair one, you should be 
married to that fitting mate, the display which the Creator has made in 
your case of his power to create beauty, would have brought forth fruit." 
By means of these speeches, artfully framed by Somaprabha, the mind of 
Kalingasent'i was impelled as if by engines, and flew towards the king of 
Vatsa. And then the princess asked the daughter of Maya, " Friend, how 
is it that he is called the king of Vatsa ? In what race was he born ? 
And whence was he named Udayana ? Tell me." Then Somaprabha said 
" Listen, friend, I will tell you that. There is a land, the ornament of the 
earth, named Vatsa. In it there is a city named Kausambi, like a second 
Amaravati ; and he is called the king of Vatsa because he rules there. 
And hear his lineage, my friend, related by me. Arjuna of the Pandava 
race had a son named Abhimanyu, and he, skilled in breaking the close rings 
of the hostile army, destroyed the force of the Kauravas. From him there 
sprang a king named Parikshit, the head of the race of Bharata, and from 
him sprang Janamejaya, who performed the snake-sacrifice. His son was 
S'atanika who settled in Kausambi, and he was slain in a war between 
the gods and Asuras after slaying many giants. His son was king Sahasra- 
nika, an object of praise to the world, to whom Indra sent his chariot, and 
he went to heaven and returned thence. To him was born this Udayana 
by the queen Mrigavati, the ornament of the race of the Moon, a king 
that is a feast to the eyes of the world. Hear too the reason of his name. 
That Mrigavati, the mother of this high-born king, being pregnant, felt a 
desire to bathe in a lake of blood, and her husband, afraid of committing 
sin, had a lake made of liquid lac and other coloured fluids in which she 
plunged. Then a bird of the race of Garuda pounced upon her, thinking 
she was raw flesh, and carried her off, and, as fate would have it, left her 
alive on the mountain of the sunrise. And there the hermit Jamadagni 
saw her, and comforted her, promising her reunion with her husband, and 
she remained there in his hermitage. For such was the curse inflicted 
upon her husband by Tilottama jealous on account of his neglecting her, 
which caused him separation from his wife for a season. And in some days 
she brought forth a son in the hermitage of Jamadagni on that very 
mountain of the sunrise, as the sky brings forth the new moon. And 
because he was born on the mountain of the sunrise, the gods then and 
there gave him the name of Udayana, uttering from heaven this bo>! 
voice ' This Udayana, who is now born, shall be sovereign of the whole 
earth, and there shall be born to him a son, who shall be emperor of all the 


" Sahasramka, for his part, who had been informed of the real state of 
the case by Matali, and had Hxed his hope on the termination of his curse, 
with difficulty got through the time without that Mrigavati. But when 
the curse had expired, the king obtained his token from a S'avara who, as 
fate would have it, had come from the mountain of the sunrise. And 
then he was informed of the truth by a voice that came from heaven, 
and making that S'avara his guide, he went to the mountain of the sunrise. 
There he found his wife Mrigavati like the success of his wishes, and her 
son Udayana like the realm of fancy. With them he returned to Kau- 
sambi, and appointed his son crown-prince, pleased with the excellence of 
his qualities ; and he gave him the sons of his ministers, Yaugandharayaua 
and others. When his son took the burden of the kingdom off his shoulders, 
he enjoyed pleasures for a long time in the society of Mrigavati. And in time 
the king established his son, that very Udayana, on the throne, and being old, 
went with his wife and ministers on the long journey. So, Udayana has 
obtained that kingdom that belonged to his father, and having conquered 
all his enemies, rules the earth with the help of Yaugandharayana." 

Having in these words quickly told her in confidence the story of Uda- 
yana, she again said to her friend Kalingasena" Thus that king is called 
the king of Vatsa, fair one, because he rules in Vatsa, and since he comes of 
the Pandava lineage, he is also descended from the race of the sun. And 
the gods gave him the name of Udayana, because he was born on the mountain 
of the sunrise, and in this world even the god of love is not a match 
for him in beauty. He alone is a husband fit for you, most beautiful lady 
of the three worlds, and he, being a lover of beauty, no doubt longs for 
you, who are famous for it. But, my friend, his head-wife is Vtisavadatta, 
the daughter of Chandamahasena. And she selected him herself, deserting her 
relations in the ardour of her passion, and so sparing the blushes of Uslui, 
S'akuntala and other maidens. And a son has been born to him by her, 
called Naravahanadatta, who is appointed by the gods as the future emperor 
of the Vidyadharas. So it is through fear of her that the king of Vatsa 
does not send here to ask for your hand, but she has been seen by me, and 
she does not vie with you in the gift of beauty." When her friend Soma- 
prabha said this, Kalingasena, being in love with the king of Vatsa, answer. 
ed her " I know all this, but what can I do, as I am under the power of 
my parents? But in this, you, who know all things and po^/ss ma^ic 
power, are my refuge." So.'naprabha. then said to her " Tlie whole ma 
depends on destiny ; in proof of it hear the following tale." 

Once on a time there lived in 
Story of Tejasvati. T ,.. . , . . , .,., 

Ujjaynu a king named \ ikramasena, 

and he had a daughter named Tcjusvah, matchless in beauty. And sln 
disapproved of every king who sued for her haud. But one day, while she 


was on the roof of her palace, she saw a man, and as fate would have it, 
she felt a desire to meet him as he was very handsome, and she sent her 
confidante to him, to communicate to him her desire. The confidante went 
and entreated the man, who shrank from such an audacious step, and at last 
with much difficulty she made him against his will agree to an assignation, 
saying, " Await, good sir, the arrival of the princess at night in tlii.s 
retired temple which you see here." After saying this, she took leave of 
him, and went and told the princess Tejasvati, who for her part remained 
watching the sun. But that man, though he had consented, fled some- 
where else out of fear ; a frog is not capable of relishing the fibres of a 
bed of red lotuses. 

In the meanwhile a certain prince of high lineage came, as his father 
was dead, to visit the king who had been his father's friend. And that 
handsome young prince, named Somadatta, whose kingdom and wealth had 
been taken by pretenders, arriving at night, entered by accident, to pass 
the night there, that very temple in which the confidante of the princess 
had arranged a meeting with the man. While he was there, the princess, 
blind with passion, approached him, without distinguishing who he was, 
and made him her self-chosen husband. The wise prince gladly received in 
silence the bride offered him by fate, who foreshadowed his union with the 
future Fortune of Royalty. And the princess soon perceived that he was 
very charming, and considered that she had not been deceived by the Creator. 
Immediately they conversed together, and the two separated according to 
agreement ; the princess went to her own palace, while the king spent the 
rest of the night there. In the morning the prince went and announced his 
name by the mouth of the warder, and being recognised, entered into the pre- 
sence of the king. There he told his sorrow on account of his kingdom hav- 
ing been taken away, and other insults, and the king agreed to assist him in 
overthrowing his enemies. And he determined to give him the daughter 
he had long desired to give away, and then and there told his intention to 
the ministers. Then the queen told the king his daughter's adventure, 
having been informed of it before by herself, through the mouths of trusty 
confidantes. Then the king was astonished at finding that calamity had 
been averted and his desire attained by mere chance, as in the {'able of the 
crow and the palm,* and thereupon one of the ministers said to the king, 
" Fate watches to ensure the objects of auspicious persons, as good servants 
of their masters, when the latter are not on the look-out. And to illustrate 
this, I will tell you the following tale : listen !" 

This is well known in India now. A crow alighted on a palm-tree when just 
about to fall, and so it appeared that his weight niailc it fall. For this and many other 
hints I ain indebted to Pandit S. C. Mookerjea, of the Iliudu School. 


There was a certain Brahman 
Story of the Brahman Hartsarman. 

in a certain village, named Harisar- 
man.* He was poor and foolish and in evil case for want of employment, 
and he had very many children, that he might reap the fruit of his mis- 
deeds in a former life. He wandered about begging with his family, and 
at last he reached a certain city, and entered the service of a rich house- 
holder called Sthuladatta. He made his sons keepers of this householder's 
cows and other possessions, and his wife a servant to him, and he himself 
lived near his house, performing the duty of an attendant. One day there 
was a feast on account of the marriage of the daughter of Sthuladatta, 
largely attended by many friends of the bridegroom, and merry-makers. 
And then Harisarman entertained a hope that he would be able to fill himself 
up to' the throat with ghee and flesh and other dainties, together with his 
family, in the house of his patron. While he was anxiously expecting that 
occasion, no one thought of him. Then he was distressed at getting 
nothing to eat, and he said to his wife at night ; " It is owing to my pover- 
ty and stupidity that I am treated with such disrespect here : so I will dis- 
play by means of an artifice an assumed knowledge, in order that I may 
become an object of respect to this Sthuladatta, and when you get an oppor- 
tunity, tell him that I possess supernatural knowledge." He said this to 
her, and after turning the matter over in his mind, while people were asleep 
he took away from the house of Sthuladatta a horse on which his son-in- 
law rode. He placed it in concealment at some distance, and in the morn- 
ing the friends of the bridegroom could not find the horse, though they 
searched in every direction. Then, while Sthuladatta was distressed at the 
evil omen, and searching for the thieves who had carried oft' the horse, the 
wife of Harisarman came and said to him " My husband is a wise man, skil- 
led in astrology and sciences of that kind ; and he will procure for you 
the horse ; why do you not ask him ?" When Sthuladatta heard that, he 
called that Harisarman, who said, " Yesterday I was forgotten, but to-day, 
now the horse is stolen, I am called to mind," and Sthuladatta then propi- 
tiated the Brahman with these words " I forgot you, forgive me" and 
asked him to tell him who had taken away their horss P Then Harisarmaii 
drew all kinds of pretended diagrams and said, " The horse has been 
placed by thieves on the boundary line south from this place. It is con- 
cealed there, and before it is carried off to a distance, as it will be at close 
of day, quickly go and bring it." When they heard that, many men ran 
and brought the horse quickly, praising the discernment of Harisarman. 
Then Harisarman was honoured by all men as a sage, and dwelt there 
in happiness, honoured by Sthuladatta. Then, as days went on, much 

* I'M ni'.'y cdiisidcrs that this, as well ua " Iluripriyu," uicans " blockhead," Orient 
und Occident, Vol. I, p. oj-i. 


point him out to me among them, in order that I may bring him," Thus 
spoke Chitralekha, and when Usha answered " By all means !" she painted 
for her with coloured pencils the whole world in order. Thereupon Usha 
exclaimed joyfully, " There he is," and pointed out with trembling finger 
Aniruddha in Dvaravati of the race of Yadu. Then Chitralekha said " My 
friend, you are fortunate, in that you have obtained for a husband Anirud- 
dha the grandson of the adorable Vishnu. But he lives sixty thousand 
yojanas from here." When Usha heard that, she said to her, overpowered 
by excessive longing, " Friend, if I cannot to-day repair to his bosom cool 
as sandal wood, know that I am already dead, being burnt up with the 
uncontrollable fire of love." When Chitralekha heard this, she consoled her 
dear friend, and immediately flew up and went through the air to the city 
of Dvaravati ; and she beheld it in the middle of the sea, producing with its 
vast and lofty palaces an appearance as if the peaks of the churning moun- 
tain* had again been flung into the ocean She found Aniruddha asleep 
in that city at night, and woke him up, and told him that Usha had fallen 
in love with him on account of having seen him in a dream. And she took 
the prince, who was eager for the interview, looking exactly as he had 
before appeared in Usha's dream, and returned from Dvaravati in a moment 
by the might of her magic. And flying with him through the air, she 
introduced that lover secretly into the private apartments of Usha, who 
was awaiting him. When Usha beheld that Aniruddha arrived in bodily 
form, resembling the moon, there was a movement in her limbs resembling 
the tide of the sea.f Then she remained there with that sweet-heart who 
had been given her by her friend, in perfect happiness, as if with Life 
embodied in visible form. But her father Bana, when he heard it, was 
angry ; however Aniruddha conquered him by his own valour and the might 
of his grandfather. Then Usha and Aniruddha returned to Dvaravati 
and became inseparable like Siva and Parvati.l 

" Thus Chitralekha united Usha with her lover in one day, but I con- 
sider you, my friend, far more powerful than her. So bring me the king 
of Vatsa here, do not delay." When Somaprabha heard this from Kalinga- 
sena, she said " Chitralekha, a nymph of heaven, might take up a strange 
man and bring him, but what can one like myself do in the matter, who 
never touch any man but my husband ? So I will take you, my friend, to 
the place where the king of Vatsa is, having first shewn you your suitor 

* The mountain Mandara which served as a churning-stick at the churning of tne 
ocean of milk. 

f Vddta is evidently corrupt. 

\ This is to bo understood literally of Sftva and Parvati, but metaphorically of 
Usha and Auiruddha. 


Prasenajit." When Somaprabha made this proposal to Kalingasena, she 
consented, and immediately ascended with her the magic chariot prepared 
by her, and setting out through the air with her treasures and her retinue, 
she went off unknown to her parents. For women impelled by love regard 
neither height nor depth in front of them, as a horse urged on by his rider 
does not fear the keenest sword-edge. 

First she came to SVavasti, and beheld from a distance the king Pra- 
senajit white with age, who had gone out to hunt, distinguished by a 
clwuri frequently waved, which seemed at a distance to repel her as 
if saying " Leave this old man." And Somaprabha pointed him out 
with a scornful laugh, saying " Look ! this is the man to whom 
your father wishes to give you." Then she said to Somaprabha " Old 
age has chosen him for her own, what other female will choose him?" 
" So take me away from here quickly, my friend, to the king of 
Vatsa." Immediately Kalingasena went with her to the city of Kausambi 
through the air. Then she beheld from a distance with eagerness that king 
of Vatsa, pointed out by her friend in a garden, as the female partridge 
beholds the nectar-rayed moon. With dilated eye, and hand placed on the 
heart, she seemed to say " He has entered my soul by this path." Then she 
exclaimed, " Friend, procure me a meeting here with the king of Vatsa this 
very day ; for having seen him I am not able to wait a moment." But 
when she said this, her friend Somaprabha answered her " I have seen to- 
day an unfavourable omen, so remain, my friend, this day quiet and unobser- 
ved in this garden, do not, my friend, send go-betweens backwards and for- 
wards. To-morrow I will come and devise some expedient for your meet- 
ing : at present, O thou whose home is in my heart, I desire to return to the 
home of my husband." Having said this, Somaprabha departed thence 
alter leaving her there ; and the king of Vatsa, leaving the garden, entered 
his palace. Then Kalingasena, remaining there, sent her chamberlain, 
giving him her message explicitly, to the king of Vatsa ; and this she did, 
though previously forbidden by her friend, who understood omens. Love, 
when recently enthroned in the breasts of young women, is impatient of 
all restraint. And the chamberlain went and announced himself by the 
mouth of the warder, and immediately entering, thus addressed the king of 
Vatsa "O king, the daughter of Kalingadatta the king who rules over 
Takshasila, Kalioga8en& by name, having heard that you an: most hand- 
some, has come here to choose you for a husband, abandoning her relatives, 
having accomplished the journey in a magic car that travels through the 
air, together with her attendants; and she has been conducted here by her 
confidante named Somaprabha, who travels invisible, the daughter of 
the Asura Ma\a, the wife of Xadakuvara. 1 have been sent by her to 
inform you j do you receive her ; let there be union of you two 


as of the moonlight and the moon." When the king heard this from the 
chamberlain, he welcomed him, saying " I consent," and being delighted, 
he honoured him with gold and garments. And summoning his chief minis- 
ter Yaugandharayana, he said to him, " The daughter of king Kalinga- 
datta, who is called Kalingasena, and whose beauty is famed on the earth, 
has come of her own accord to choose me as a husband ; so tell me quickly, 
when shall I marry her, for she is not to be rejected ?" The minister 
Yaugandharayana, when the king of Vatsa said this to him, regarding 
what would be best for his master in the long run, reflected for a moment 
as follows :* " Kalingasena is certainly famed for beauty in the three worlds, 
there is no other like her ; even the gods are in love with her. If this 
king of Vatsa obtain her, he will abandon everything else, and then the 
queen Vasavadatta will lose her life, and then the prince Naravahanadatta 
will perish, and Padmavati out of love for him will find life hard to retain : 
and then Chandamahasena and Pradyota, the fathers of the two queens, will 
lose their lives or become hostile ; and thus utter ruin will follow. On the 
other hand it will not do to forbid the match, since the vicious passion of this 
king will increase if he is thwarted. So I will put off the time of his marriage 
in order to attain a favourable issue." Having thus reflected, Yaugandhara- 
yana said to the king of Vatsa, " king, you are fortunate in that this Kali- 
ngasena has of her own accord come to your house, and the king, her father, 
has become your servant. So you must consult the astrologers, and marry 
her in accordance with good custom at an auspicious time, for she is 
the daughter of a great king. To-day give her a suitable palace to dwell in 
by herself, and send her male and female slaves, and robes and ornaments." 
AYhen his chief minister gave him this advice, the king of Vatsa approved 
it, and with glad heart performed it all with special attention. Then 
Kalingasena entered the palace assigned her for residence, and considering 
her desire attained, was exceedingly delighted. 

The wise Yaugandharayana, for his part, immediately left the king's 
court, went to his own house, and reflected " Often procrastination serves 
to avert an inauspicious measure. For long ago, when Indra had fled on 
account of having caused the death of a Brahman, and Nahusha obtained 
the sovereignty over the gods, he fell in love with S'achi,t and she was 
saved by the preceptor of the godsj, to whom she had fled for refuge. 
For in order to gain time, he kept saying ' She will come to you to- 
day' or to-morrow,' until Nahusha was destroyed by the curse of a Brah- 
man, uttered with an angry roar, and Indra regained the sovereignty 

* I road /rnni for eva. 
t The wife of Indru. 
J '. e. Bfihaspati. 


of the gods. In the same way I must keep putting off my master." 
Having thus reflected, the minister secretly made an arrangement with 
the astrologers that they were to fix a distant date. 

Then the queen Vasavadatta found out what had taken place, and 
summoned the prime-minister to her palace. When he entered and 
bowed before her, the queen said to him, weeping " Noble sir, you 
said to me long ago, ' Queen, as long as I remain where I am, you 
shall have no other rival but Padmavati,' and observe now, this Kalingasena, 
is about to be married here : and she is beautiful, and my husband is 
attached to her, so you have proved a prophet of falsehood and I am now 
a dead woman." When the minister Yaugandharayana heard this, he said 
to her " Be composed, for how could this happen, queen, while I am alive ? 
However, you must not oppose the king in this matter, but must on the con- 
trary take refuge in self-restraint, and shew him all complaisance. The sick 
man is not induced to place himself in the physician's hands by disagreeable 
speeches, but he is by agreeable speeches, if the physician does his work 
by a conciliatory method. If a man is dragged against the current, he 
will never escape from the stream of a river, or from a vicious tendency, 
but if he is carried with the current, he will escape from both. So when 
the king comes into your presence, receive him with all attentions, without 
anger, concealing your real feelings. Approve at present of his marrying 
Kalingasena, saying that his kingdom will be made more powerful by her 
father also becoming his ally. And if you do this, the king will perceive 
that you possess in a high degree the virtue of magnanimity, and his love 
and courtesy towards you will increase, and thinking that Kalingasena is 
within his reach, he will not be impatient, for the desire of a man for any 
object increases if he is restrained. And you must teach this lesson to 
Padmavati also, blameless one, and so that king may submit to our putting 
him off in this matter. And after this, I ween, you will behold my skill 
in stratagem. For the wise are tested in difficulty, even as heroes are 
tested in fight. So, queen, do not be despondent." In these words Yaugan- 
dharayana admonished the queen, and, as she received his counsels with 
respect, he departed thence.* But the king of Vatsa, throughout that day, 
neither in light nor darkness entered the private apartments of either of 
the two queens, for his mind was eager for a new well-matched union with 
Kalingasena, who had approached him in such an ardour of spontaneous 
choice. And then the queen and the prime-minister and the king and 
Kalinguen6 spent the night in wakefulness like that of a great feast, apart 
in their respective houses, the second couple through impatience for a rare 
delight, and the first through very profound anxiety. 

For san I should prefer sa which is read in a MS. lent me by the Principal of 


wealth consisting of gold and jewels was carried off by a tliief from the 
palace of the king. As the thief was not known, the king quickly sum- 
moned Harisarman on account of his reputation for supernatural know- 
ledge. And he, when summoned, tried to gain time, and said " I will tell 
you to-morrow," and then he was placed in a chamber by the king, and care- 
fully guarded. And he was despondent about his pretended knowledge.* 
Now in that palace there was a maid named Jihva,f who, with the assis- 
tance of her brother had carried off that wealth from the interior of the 
palace : she, being alarmed at Harisarman's knowledge, went at night and 
applied her ear to the door of that chamber in order to find out what he was 
about. And Harisarman, who was alone inside, was at that very moment 
blaming his own tongue, that had made a vain assumption of knowledge. 
He said " O Tongue, what is this that you have done, through desire of 
enjoyment ? Ill-conducted one, endure now punishment in this place." 
When Jihva heard this, she thought in her terror, that she had been disco- 
vered by this wise man, and by an artifice she managed to get in where he was, 
and falling at his feet, she said to that supposed sage ; " Brahman, here 
I am, that Jihva whom you have discovered to be the thief of the wealth, 
and after I took it, I buried it in the earth in a garden behind the palace, 
under a pomegranate tree. So spare me, and receive the small quantity 
of gold which is in my possession. When Harisarman heard that, he said 
to her proudly, " Depart, I know all this ; I know the past, present and 
future : but I will not denounce you, being a miserable creature that has 
implored my protection. But whatever gold is in your possession you 
must give back to me." When he said this to the maid, she consented and 
departed quickly. But Harisarman reflected in his astonishment ; " Fate, 
if propitious, brings about, a& if in sport, a thing that cannot be accomplish- 
ed, for in this matter when calamity was near, success has unexpectedlv 
been attained by me. While I was blaming my tongue (jihvd), the thief 
Jihva suddenly flung herself at my feet. Secret crimes I see, manifest 
themselves by means of fear " In these reflections he passed the night 
happily in the chamber. And in the morning he brought the king 
by some skilful parade of pretended knowledge into the garden, and 
led him up to the treasure, which was buried there and he said 
that the thief had escaped with a part of it. Then the king was pleaded 
and proceeded to give him villages. But the minister, named Deva- 
jnanin, whispered in the king's ear, " How can a man possess such 
knowledge unattainable by men, without having studied treatises ; so 

* A MS. in the Sanskrit College roads jndnavijna, '. e., the knowing one, the 

f This word means tongue. 

you may be certain that this is a specimen of the way he makes a dishonest 
livelihood, by having a secret intelligence with thieves. So it will be better 
to test him by some new artifice." Then the king of his own accord 
brought a new covered pitcher into which he had thrown a frog, and said 
to that Harisarman " Brahman, if you can guess what there is in this 
pitcher, I will do you great honour to-day." When the Brahman Harisar- 
man heard that, he thought that his last hour had come, and he called to 
mind the pet name of frog which his father had given him in his childhood 
in sport, and impelled by the deity he apostrophized himself by it, lament- 
ing his hai'd fate, and suddenly exclaimed there " This is a fine pitcher for 
you, frog, since suddenly it has become the swift destroyer of your 
helpless self in this place."- The people there, when they heard that, made a 
tumult of applause, because his speech chimed in so well with the object 
presented to him, and murmured, " Ah ! a great sage, he knows even 
about the frog !" Then the king, thinking that this was all due to 
knowledge of divination, was highly delighted, and gave Harisarman vil- 
lages with gold, umbrella, and vehicles of all kinds. And immediately 
Harisarman became like a feudal chief. 

" Thus good objects are brought about by fate for those whose actions 
in a former life have been good. Accordingly fate made that daughter of 
yours, Tejasvati, approach Somadatta a man of equal birth, and kept away 
one who was unsuited to her." Hearing this from the mouth of his minis- 
ter, the king Vikramasena gave his daughter to that prince as if she were 
the goddess of fortune. Then the prince went and overcame his enemies 
by the help of his father-in-law's host, and being established in his own 
kingdom, lived happily in the company of his wife. 

" So true is it that all this happens by the special favour of fate ; who 
on earth would be able to join you, lovely as you are, with the king of 
Vatsa, though a suitable match for you, without the help of fate ? "What 
can I do in this matter, friend Kalingasena ?" Kalingasena, hearing this 
story in private from the mouth of Somaprabha, became eager in her soul 
for union with the king of Vatsa, and, in her aspirations after him, be^an 
to feel in a less degree the fear of her relations and the warnings of mod 
Then, the Ban, the great lamp of the three worlds, being about to set, Soma- 
prabha the daughter of the Asura Maya, having with difliculty taken leave, 
until her morning return, of her friend, whose mind was fixed upon her pro- 
posed attempt, went through the air to her own home. 

Note on tlie story of Ifarisannan. 

The story of Haris:irm;m resembles closely that of Doctor Allwissend in Grimm's 
Tales. It is shown l>y !'' nt'< -y 1<> rxi.4 in various (onus in TMMTIV countries. It is 
found in the Siddhikiir, the Mongolian form of the Sanskrit Wtuhipunckiviusati. In 


this form of the story the incident of the frog in the pot is omitted, and the other inci- 
dents are considerably altered. Instead of the king's treasure we find a magic gem, on 
which the prosperity of the country depends ; it is not stolen but lost by the king's 
daughter. Instead of the horse we have the cure of a sick Khan who had been driven mad 
by evil spirits. The folly of the man who represents the Brahman consists in his choos- 
ing worthless presents for his reward. (The story is the IVth in Sagas from the Far 
East.) Benfey considers the fullest form of the story to be that in Schleicher's Lithu- 
anian Legends. In this form of the story we have the stealing of the horse. In 
other points it resembles the Mongolian version. The Brahman is represented by a 
poor cottager, who puts up over his door a notice saying that he is a Doctor, who 
knows everything and can do everything. The third exploit of the cottager is the find- 
ing of a stolen treasure which is the second in the Indian story, but his second is a mi- 
raculous cure which is in accordance with the Siddikiir. The latter is probably a late 
work ; and we may presume that the Mongols brought the Indian story to Europe, in a 
form resembling that in the Katha Sarit Sagara more nearly than the form in the 
Siddikiir does. In the third exploit of the cottager in the Lithuanian talc, which 
coi responds to the second in the Indian, the treasure haa been stolen by three servants. 
They listen outside while the Doctor is alone in his room. When the clock strikes 
one, he says, " We have one." When it strikes two, he says " We have two." 
When it strikes three, he says, " We have now three." In their terror they go to 
the doctor and beg him not to betray them. He is richly rewarded. 

But after all, Grimm's form of the tale is nearest to the Sanskrit. The dish with 
crabs in it, the contents of which the Doctor has to guess, makes him exclaim " Ach 
ich armer Krebs." This might almost have been translated from the Sanskrit ; it is 
so similar in form. The guilty servants, who stole the gold are detected by the Doctor's 
saying to his wife " Margaret, that is the first" meaning the first who waited at 
table, and so on. 

The story is also found in the Facetiae of Henricus Bebelius, 1506. Here a poor 
charcoal-burner represents the Brahman. He asks three days to consider. The king 
gives him a good dinner, and while the first thief is standing at the window, he exclaims 
" Jam units accessit" meaning " one day is at an end." The next day the second thief 
comes to listen. The charcoal-burner exclaims " Secundus accessit" and so with the 
third, whereupon they all confess. 

Benfey conceives himself to have found the incident of the horse in Poggii Facotiio 
(LXXXYI ed. Cracov. 1592, p. 59). Here a doctor boasts a wonder-working pill. 
A man who has lost his ass takes one of these pills. It conducts him to a bed of reeds 
where he finds his ass. (The article from which I have taken those parallels is 
found in Benfey 's Orient und Occident, Vol. I, p. 371 and ff.) 



The next morning Somaprabha arrived, and Kalingasena said to her 
friend in her confidential conversation " My father certainly wishes to 
give me to Prasenajit, I heard this from my mother, and you have seen 
that he is an old man. But you have described the king of Vatsa in such 
a way in the course of conversation, that my mind has been captivated by 
him entering in through the gate of my ear. So first shew me Prasenajit, 
and then take me there, where the king of Vatsa is ; what do I care for 
my father, or my mother?" When the impatient girl said this, Somapra- 
bha answered her " If you must go, then let us go in the chariot that 
travels through the air. But you must take with you all your retinue, for, 
as soon as you have seen the king of Vatsa, you will find it impossible to 
return. And you will never see or think of your parents, and when you 
have obtained your beloved, you will forget even me, as I shall be at a dis- 
tance from you. For I shall never enter your husband's house, my friend." 
When the princess heard that, she wept and said to her, " Then bring that 
king of Vatsa here, my friend, for I shall not be able to exist there a mo- 
ment without you : was not Aniruddha brought to Usha by Chitralekha ? 
And though you know it, hear from my mouth that story." 

The Asura Bana had a daughter, 
Story of Ushd and Aniruddha. 

famous under the name of Usha. 

And she propitiated Gauri, who granted her a boon in order that she might 
obtain a husband, saying to her, " He to whom you shall be united in a 
dream, shall be your husband." Then she saw in a dream a certain man 
looking like a divine prince. She was married by him according to the 
Gandharvaformof marriage, and after obtaining the joy of union with him, 
she woke up at the close of night. When she did not see the husband she 
had seen in her dream, but beheld the traces of his presence, she remem- 
bered the boon of Gauri, and was full of disquietude, fear, and astonishment. 
And being miserable without the husband whom she had seen in her dream, 
she confessed all to her friend Chitralekh;i, who questioned her. And Chitra- 
lekha, being acquainted with magic, thus addressed that Usha, who knew 
not the name of her lover nor any sign whereby to recognise him, " My 
friend, this is the result of the boon of the goddess (Jauri, what doubt can 
we allege in this matter ? But how are you to search for your lover as ho 
is not to be recognised by any token? I will sketch for you the whole world, 
gods, Asuras, and men, in ease you may be able to recognise him ;* and 
* Cp. KuMun'h Ku^iau Folk-Talc*, p. 240. 



Then the artful minister Yaugandharayana came the next morning to 
the king of Vatsa, who was expecting him, and made the following repre- 
sentation " O king, why do you not immediately enquire about an auspi- 
cious moment for celebrating the happy marriage of your highness with 
Kalingasena, the daughter of Kalingadatta, the king of Takshasila ?"* 
When the king heard that, he said " The same desire is fixed in my 
heart, for my mind cannot endure to remain a moment without her " 
Having said this, the simple-hearted monarch gave orders to a warder, 
who stood before him, and summoned the astrologers. When he question- 
ed them, they, having had their cue previously given them by the prime 
minister, said, " For the king there will be a favourable moment in 
six months from this time." 

When Yaugandharayana heard this, he pretended to be angry, and the 
cunning fellow said to the king, " Out on these blockheads ! That astro- 
loger, whom your highness previously honoured on the ground of his 
cleverness, has not come to-day, ask him, and then do what is proper " 
When he heard this speech of his minister's, the king of Vatsa immediately 
summoned that very astrologer with mind in an agony of suspense. He 
also stuck to his agreement, and in order to put off the day of the marriage 
he named when asked, after some reflection, a moment six months off. Then 

* Takshafili has been identified by General Cunningham with the ruins of an 

ancient city ne;ir Shah-deri one mile to the north-east of Kala-ka-scrai. Mr. Grow-so has 
pointed out to me that I made a mistake in stating (after Wilson) in a note on p. 5 of this 
translation, that the precise site of Kausambi, the capital of the king of Vatsa, which Ka- 
lingasona reached in one day in the magic chariot, has not been ascertained. lie 
" It has been discovered by General Cunningham. The place is still called Kosam, and 
is on the Yamuna, about 30 miles above Allahabad. The ruins consist of an iminenso 
fortress, with earthen ramparts from 30 to 35 feet high, and bastions considerably higher, 
forming a circuit of 23,100 feet, or exactly four miles and 3 furlongs. The parapets were 
of brick and stone, some of the bricks measuring 19 in. x 12 \ x L', wliich is :i proof of 
their great antiquity. In tho midst of these ruins is a largo stone monolith, similar to 
those at Allahabad and Delhi, but without any inscription. Tho portion of the 
above ground is 14 feet in length, and ion mad > at the base for a depth of 

20 feet did not come to the end of it. Its total length probably exceeds -10 feet. There 
wa-\ I believe, some talk of removing it to Allahabad and setting it up ; it was 

found to be too expensive an undertaking." s'ravasti, which Kalinir ! on 

tin' way from Takshasihi, has IK" n identified by General Conning! - ,hot- 

Mahct on the south bank of tho Rapti in Oudh. 


Yaugandharayana pretending to be distracted, said to the king " Let your 
majesty command what is to be done iu this matter !" The king, being im- 
patient and longing for a favourable moment, said, after reflecting " You 
must ask Kalingasena, and see what she says." When Yaugandhara- 
yana heard this, he took with him two astrologers and went into the pre- 
sence of Kalingasena. She received him politely, and beholding her beauty, 
he reflected " If the king were to obtain her, he would abandon the whole 
kingdom in his reckless passion." And he said to her, " I am come with 
these astrologers to fix the moment of your marriage ; so let these servants 
inform me of the particular star in the lunar mansions under which you 
were born." When the astrologers heard the lunar mansion stated by her 
attendants, they pretended to investigate the matter, and kept saying in 
the course of their calculations, " It is not on this side, it must be after 
that." At last, in accordance with their agreement with the minis- 
ter, they named again that very moment at the end of six months. When 
Kalingasena heard that distant date fixed, she was cast down in spirit, 
but her chamberlain said, " You must first fix a favourable moment, so that 
this couple may be happy all their lives, what matters it whether it be 
near or far off ?" When they heard this speech of the chamberlain's, all 
there immediately exclaimed " Well said." And Yaugandharayana said, 
" Yes, and if an inauspicious moment is appointed for us, the king 
Kalingadatta, our proposed connexion, will be grieved." Then Kalingasen;i, 
being helpless, said to them all " Let it be as you appoint in your 
wisdom" and remained silent. And at once accepting that speech of 
hers, Yaugandharayana took leave of her, and went with the astrologers into 
the presence of the king. Then he told the proceedings to the king of 
Vatsa, exactly as they had happened, and so having settled his mind by an 
artifice, he went to his own house. 

So having attained his object of putting off the marriage, in order to 
complete the scheme he had in view, he called to mind his friend, the 
Brahman-Rakshasa, named Yogesvara. He, according to his previous pro- 
mise, when thought of, readily came to the minister, and bowed before him 
and said " Why am I called to mind ?" Then Yaugandharayana told him 
the whole incident of Kalingasena which was tempting his master to vice. 
and again said to him- " I have managed to gain tiuu 1 , my friend ; in that 
interval, do you, remaining concealed, observe by your skill the behaviour of 
Kalingasena. For the Vidyadh.iras and other spirits are without doubt 
secretly in love with her, since there is no other woman in the three worlds 
equal to her in beauty. So, if she were to have an intrigue with some Sid- 
dha or Yidyadhara, and you were to see it, it would be a fortunate thing. 
And you must observe the divine lover, though lie come disguised, when lie 
is asleep, for divine beings, when asleep, assume their own form. If in this 


way we are able to discover any offence in her by means of your eyes, the 
king will be disgusted with her, and will accomplish that object of ours." 
"When the minister said this to him, the Brahman- Rakshasa answered, 
" Why should I not by some artifice cause her to fall or slay her?" When 
the great minister Yaugandharayana heard that, he said to him " This 
must not be done, for it would be a very wicked deed. And whoever goes 
his own way without offending against the god of justice, finds that 
that god comes to his assistance to enable him to attain his objects. So 
you must discover in her, my friend, a fault self-caused, in order that 
through your friendship the king's objects may be accomplished by me." 
Having received this order from the excellent minister, the Brahman- 
Rakshasa departed, and disguised by magic entered the house of Kalingasena. 
In the meanwhile Somaprabha, her friend, the daughter of the Asura 
Maya, went again into the presence of Kalingasena. And the daughter of 
Maya, after asking her friend what had happened in the night, said to her 
who had abandoned her relations, 'in the hearing of that Rakshasa " I 
came here in the forenoon after searching for you, but I remained con- 
cealed at your side, seeing Yaugaudharayana. However I heard your con- 
versation, and I understood the whole state of affairs. So why did you make 
this attempt yesterday though you were forbidden to do so by me ? For 
any business which is undertaken, my friend, without first counteracting 
the evil omen, will end in calamity ; as a proof of this, hear the following 
tale :" 

Story of the Jirdhman's son Vishnudat- Long ago there lived in Antar- 

ta and his seven foolish companions. yedi a Brahman named Vasudatta. 

and he had a son born to him named Vishnudatta. That Vishnudatta, 
after he reached the age of sixteen years, set out for the city of Vallabhi 
in order to acquire learning. And there joined him seven other young 
Brahmans his fellows, but those seven were fools, while he was wise and 
sprung from a good family. After they had taken an oath not to desert 
one another, Vishnudatta set out with them at night without the know- 
ledge of his parents. And after he had set forth, he saw an evil omen pr - 
seating itself in front of him, and he said to those friends of his who were 
travelling with him, " Ha ! Here is a bad omen ! it is advisable to turn 
back now; we will set out again with good hope of success, when we have 
auspicious omens with us." WliL'n those seven foolish companions heard 
that, they said, " Do not entertain groundless fear, for we are not afraid of 
the omen. If you are afraid, do not go,, but we will start this moment ; 
to-morrow morning our relations will abandon us, when they hear of oui 
proceedings." When those ignorant creatures said that, Vishnudatta set 
out with them, urged on by his oath, but he first called to mind ILiri, the 

dispeller of sin. And at the end of the night he saw another evil omen, 
and again mentioned it, and he was rebuked by all those foolish friends 
of his in the following words ; " This is our evil omen, you coward afraid 
to travel, that you have been brought by us, since you shudder at a crow 
at every step you take ; we require no other evil omen." Having reviled 
him in these words, they continued their journey and Vishnudatta went 
with them, as he could not help it, but kept silence, reflecting " One ought 
not to give advice to a fool bent on going his own crooked way, for it only 
entails ridicule, being like the beautifying of ordure. A single wise man 
fallen among many fools, like a lotus in the path of the waves, is surely 
overwhelmed. So I must not henceforth give these men either good or 
bad advice, but I must go on in silence ; destiny will educe prosperity." 
Engaged in these reflections, Vishnudatta proceeded on the way with those 
fools, and at the end of the day he reached a S'avara village. There he 
wandered about in the night and reached a certain house inhabited by a 
young woman, and asked the woman for a lodging there. She gave him a 
room, and he entered it with his friends, and those seven in a moment went 
to sleep. He alone remained awake, as he had entered a house belong- 
ing to a savage. For the stupid sleep resolutely, how can the understand- 
ing sleep ? 

And in the meanwhile a certain young man secretly entered the inner 
apartment of the house, and went into the presence of that woman. And 
she remained in confidential conversation with him, and as fate would have 
it, they both fell asleep. And Vishnudatta, perceiving it all through the 
half-open door by the light of a candle, reflected despondently, " Alas ! 
have we entered the house of a profligate woman ? Surely this is her 
paramour, and not the husband of her youth, for otherwise we should not 
have this timid secret proceeding ; I saw at the first that she was of a 
flighty disposition ; but we have entered here as mutual witnesses, for lack 
of others." While he was thinking he heard outside a noise of men, and 
he saw entering a young chief of the S'avaras with a sword, looking about 
him, while his attendants remained in the sleeping apartment. "When the 

said " Who are you ?" Vishnudatta, supposing him to be the n 
of the house, said in his terror " We are travellers." But the S'avara 
ed, and seeing his wife in such a position, he cut off with his sword 
the head of her sleeping paramour. But he did not punish or even wake 
his wife ; but placing his sword on the ground he went to sleep on another 
couch. Sc;cing that by the light of the candle, Vishnudatta reflected " lie 
did right not to kill his wife, but to kill the adulterer ; but that he should 

re in confidence, after performing such a deed, is an art of sur 
ing courage, characteristic of men of mighty minds." While Yishnudatta 
was thus reflecting, that wicked woman awoke and beheld her paramour 


slain, and that husband of hers asleep. So she rose up, and took on her 
shoulder the body of her lover, and carrying his head in one hand, she went 
out. And going outside quickly, she threw into an ash-heap the trunk 
with the head, and came secretly back. And Vishnudatta going out beheld 
it all from a distance, and again entering remained as he was, in the midst 
of his sleeping companions. But the wicked woman came back, and enter- 
ing the room, cut off with that very sword the head of her sleeping hus- 
band. And going out she raised a cry so as to make all the servants hear, 
" Alas ! I am ruined, my husband has been slain by these travellers." Then 
the servants, hearing the cry, rushed forward and beholding their master 
slain, ran upon Vishnudatta and his friends with uplifted weapons. And 
when those others, his companions, rose up in terror, as they were about to 
be slain, Vishnudatta said quickly " Cease your attempt to slay Brahmans ! 
We did not do this deed ; this wicked woman herself did it, being in love 
with another man. But I saw the whole affair from the very beginning, 
through a half-open door ; and I went out and observed what she did, and if 
you will have patience with me, I will tell you." Vishnudatta with these 
words restrained the S'avaras, and told them the whole affair from the 
beginning, and took them out and showed them the trunk with the head freshly 
severed and thrown by the woman on that heap of refuse. Then the woman 
confessed the truth by the paleness of her face, and all there reviled the 
wanton, and said " Whom will not a wicked woman kill, when won over by 
another man, like a sword in an enemy's hand, since enticed by love she 
commits reckless crime without being taught." Having said this, they 
thereupon let Vishnudatta and his companions go ; and then the 
seven companions praised Vishnudatta, saying, " You became to us, while we 
were asleep at night, a protecting jewel-lamp, through your kindness we 
escaped to-day from death produced by an evil omen." In these words they 
praised Vishnudatta, and ceased henceforth their reviling, and after bowing 
before him they set out in the morning on their errand, accompanied by 

Having told this story to Kalingasena in their mutual conversation, 
Somaprabha again said to that friend of hers in Kausambi. " Thus, my 
friend, an evil omen presenting itself to people engaged in any undertaking, 
if not counteracted by delay and other methods, produces misfortune. 
And so people of dull intelligence, neglecting the advice of the wise, and 
acting impetuously, are alllicted in the end. Accordingly you did not act 
wisely in sending a messenger to the king of Vatsa, asking him to r^ 
you, when there was an inauspicious omen. May Fate grant you to be 
married without any impediment, but you came from your house in an unlucky 
moment, therefore your marriage is far off. And the gods too are in lovo 
with you, so you must be on your guard against this. And you must think 


of the minister Yauganclharayana, who is expert in politic wiles ; he, fear- 
ing that the king may become engrossed in pleasure, may throw impedi- 
ments in your way in this business ; or he may even bring a charge against 
you after your marriage is celebrated : but no, being virtuous, he will not 
bring a false accusation ; nevertheless, my friend, you must at all events be 
on your guard against your rival wife, I will tell you a story illustrative of 
this, listen." 

There is in this land a city 
named Ikshumati, and by the side 

of it there runs a river called by the same name ; both were created by 
Visvamitra. And near it there is a great forest, and in it a hermit of the 
name of Mankanaka had made himself a hermitage and performed penance 
with his heels upwards. And while he was performing austerities, he saw 
an Apsaras of the name of Menaka coming through the air, with her 
clothes floating on the breeze. Then his mind was bewildered by Cupid, 
who had found his opportunity, and there was born to him a daughter 
named Kadaligarbha,* beautiful in every limb. And since she was born in 
the interior of a plantain, her father, the hermit Mankanaka, gave her the 
name of Kadaligarbha. She grew up in his hermitage like Kripi the wife 
of Drona, who was born to Gautama on his beholding Rambha. And once 
on a time Dridhavarman, a king born in Madhyadesa.t who in the excite- 
ment of the chase was carried away by his horse, entered that hermitage. 
He beheld Kadaligarbha clothed in garments of bark, having her beauty 
exceedingly set off by the dress appropriate to the daughter of an ascetic. 
And she, when seen, captivated the heart of that king so completely, 
that she left no room in it for the women of his harem. While thinking 
to himself " Shall I be able to obtain as a wife this daughter of some 
hermit or other, as Dushyanta obtained S'akuntala the daughter of the 
hermit Kanva ?" the king beheld that hermit Mankanaka coming with 
fuel and kusa-gr&ss. And leaving his horse, he approached him and wor- 
shipped at his feet, and when questioned, discovered himself to that hermit. 
Then the hermit gave the following order to Kadaligarbha " My dear 
child, prepare the ar(jliyu% for this king our guest." She said " I will do 
so" and bowing, prepared the hospitable offering, and then the king said 
to the hermit " Whence did you obtain this maiden who is so beauti- 
ful ?" Then the hermit told the king the story of her birth, and her name 

* Hero there is a slight omission in my translation. 

t The country lying between the Himalayas on the north, the Yindhya moun- 
tains on the south, Vina^um on the west and Prayaga (Allahabad) on the ea>t. 

\ A respectful offering to goda or venerable men of rice, diu-j/rt-grass, iluwcrs &c. 
with water. 


Kadaligarblui, which indicated the manner of it, Then the king, consider- 
ing the maiden born from the hermit's thinking on Menaka to be an 
Apsaras, earnestly craved her hand of her father. And the sage gave him 
that daughter named Kadaligarbha, for the actions of the sages of old 
time, guided by divine insight, were without hesitation. And the nymphs 
of heaven, discovering the fact by their divine power, came there out of 
love for Menaka, and adorned her for the wedding. And on that very 
occasion they put mustard-seeds into her hand and said to her, " As you 
are going along the path, sow them, in order that you may know it again. 
If, daughter, at any time your husband should scorn you, and you should 
wish to return here, then you will be able, as you c<5me along, to recognise 
the path by these, which will have sprung up." When they had said this 
to her, and her marriage had been celebrated, the king Dridhavarman 
placed Kadaligarbha on his horse, and departed thence. His army came 
up and escorted him, and in company with that bride of his, who sowed the 
mustard-seeds all along the path, he reached his own palace. There he 
became averse to the society of his other wives, and dwelt with that Kada- 
ligarbha, after telling her story to his ministers. 

Then his principal wife, being exceedingly afflicted, said to his minis- 
ter in secret, after reminding him of the benefits she had conferred upon 
him : " The king is now exclusively attached to his new wife and has de- 
serted me, so take steps to make this rival of mine depart." When that 
minister heard that, he said " Queen, it is not appropriate for people like 
me to destroy or banish their masters' wives. This is the business of the 
wives of wandering religious mendicants, addicted to jugglery and such 
practices, associating with men like themselves. For those hypocritical 
female ascetics, creeping unforbidden into houses, skilled in deception, will 
stick at no deed whatever." When he said this to her, the queen, as if 
abashed, said to him in affected shame " Then I will have nothing to do 
with this proceeding disapproved of by the virtuous." But she laid up 
his speech in her heart, and dismissing that minister, she summoned by the 
mouth of her maid a certain wandering female ascetic. And she told her 
all that desire of hers from the beginning, and promised to give her great 
wealth if the business were successfully accomplished. And the wicked 
female ascetic, from desire of gain, said to the afflicted queen " Queen, 
this is an easy matter, I will accomplish it for you, for I know very many 
expedients of various kinds." Having thus consoled the queen, that female 
ascetic departed ; and after reaching her house, she reflected as one afraid, 
" Alas ! whom will not excessive desire of gain delude, since I rashly mado 
such a promise before the queen ? But the fact is, I know no device of 
the kind, and it is not possible to carry on any deception in the palace, as 
I do in other places, for the authorities might perhaps find it out and 


punish me. There may be one resource in this difficulty, for I have a 
friend, a barber, and as be is skilled in devices of the kind, all may yet go 
well, if he exert himself in the matter." After thu s reflecting, she went to 
the barber, and told him all her plan that was to bring her prosperity. 
Then the barber, who was old and cunning, reflected " This is good luck, 
that an opportunity of making something has now presented itself to me. 
So we must not kill the king's new wife, but we must preserve her 
alive, for her father has divine insight, and would reveal the whole transac- 
tion. But by separating her from the king we will now batten upon the 
queen, for great people become servants to a servant who shares their 
criminal secrets. And in due time I will re-unite her to the king, and tell 
him the whole story, in order that he and the sage's daughter may become 
a source of subsistence to me. And thus I shall not have done anything 
very wrong, and I shall have a livelihood for a long time." Having thus 
reflected, the barber said to the hypocritical female ascetic " Mother, 
I will do all this, but it would not be proper to slay that new wife of the 
king's by means of magic, for the king might some day find it out, and 
then he would destroy us all : besides we should incur the sin of woman- 
murder, and her father the sage would curse us. Therefore it is far better 
that she should be separated from the king by means of our ingenuity, in 
order that the queen may be happy, and we may obtain wealth And this 
is an easy matter to me, for what can I not accomplish by force of intellect ? 
Hear my ingenuity, I will relate a story which illustrates it." 

Story of the Icing and the barlers This king Dridhavarman had 

wi f e ' an immoral father. And I was then 

his servant, being engaged in the duties which belong to me. He, one 
day, as he was roaming about here, cast eyes on my wife ; and as she was 
young and beautiful, his mind became attached to her. And when he ask- 
ed his attendants who she was, they said " The barber's wife." He 
thought " What can the barber do ?" So the wicked king entered my 
house, and after enjoying at will the society of my wife, departed. But, 
as it happened, I was away from my house that day, being absent some- 
where or other. And the next day, when I entered, I saw that my wife's 
manner had altered, and when I asked her the reason, she told me tho 
v.-holo story, being full of pride at what had occurred. And in that way tho 
king went on puffing up my wife by continual visits, which I was powerless 
to prevent. A prince distracted by unholy passion makes no distinction, 
between what is lawful and what is illicit. The forest is like straw to a 
sylvan fire fanned by the wind. So, not being in possession of any other 
expedient for restraining my sovereign, I reduced myself with spare diet, 
and took refuge in feigned sickness. And in this si ate I went into the 
presence of that king to perform my duties, sighing deeply, pale and 


emaciated. Then the king, seeing that I seemed to be ill, asked me mean- 
ingly the following question " Hola ! tell me why you have become thus ?' 
And after he had questioned me persistently, I answered the king in pri- 
vate, after imploring immunity from punishment " King, my wife is a 
witch. And when I am asleep she extracts my entrails and sucks them, 
and then replaces them as before This is how I have become lean. So how 
can continual refreshment and eating nourish me ?" When I said this to the 
king, he became anxious and reflected " Can she really be a witch ? Why 
was I captivated by her ? I wonder whether she will suck my entrails also, 
since I am well nourished with food. So I will myself contrive to test her 
this very night." Having thus reflected, the king caused food to be given, 
me on the spot. Then I went home and shed tears in the presence of my 
wife, and when she questioned me, I said to her " My beloved, you must 
not reveal to any one what I am about to tell you. Listen ! That king has 
teeth as sharp as the edge of a thunderbolt, where teeth are not usually 
found, and they broke my razor to-day while I was performing my duties. 
And in this way I shall break a razor every time. So how am I to be con- 
tinually procuring fresh razors ? This is why I weep, for the means of sup- 
porting myself in my home are destroyed." When I had said this to my 
wife, she made up her mind to investigate the marvel of the concealed 
teeth while the king was asleep, since he was to visit her at night. But 
she did not perceive that such a thing had never been seen since the world 
was, and could not be true. Even clever women are deceived by the tales 
of an impostor. 

So the king came at night and visited my wife at will, and as if fa- 
tigued, pretended to go to sleep, remembering what I had said. Then my 
wife, thinking he was asleep, slowly stretched out her hand to find his con- 
cealed teeth. And as soon as her hand reached him, the king exclaimed 
" A witch ! A witch !" and left the house in terror. Henceforth my wife, 
having been abandoned by the king out of fear, became satisfied with me 
and devoted to me exclusively. In this way I saved my wife on a former 
occasion from the king by my intelligence. 

Having told this story to the female ascetic, the barber went onto say 
" So, my good lady, this desire of yours must be accomplished by wisdom ; 
and I will tell you, mother, how it is to be done, listen to me. Some old 
servant of the harem must be won over to say to this king in secret every 
day, ' Your wife Kadaligarbha is a witch.' For she, being a forest maiden, 
has no attendants of her own, and what will not all alien servants do for gain, 
being easily corrupted? Accordingly, when the king becomes apprehensive 
on hearing what the old servant says, you must contrive to place at night 
hands and feet and other limbs in the chamber of Kadaligarbha. Then 
the king will see them in the morning, and concluding that what the old 


man says is true, will be afraid of Kadaligarbha and deseri ber of bis own 
accord. So the queen will be delighted at getting rid of a rival wife, and 
entertain a favourable opinion of you, and we shall gain some advantage." 
When the barber said this to the female ascetic, she consented and went 
and told the whole matter to the king's bead queen. And the queen 
carried out ber suggestions, and the king, who had been warned, saw the 
bands and feet in the morning with his own eyes, and abandoned Kadali- 
garbha, thinking ber to be wicked. So the female ascetic, together with 
tbe barber, enjoyed to the full the presents which the queen secretly gave 
to her, being pleased with her aid. 

So Kadaligarbba, being abandoned by Dridbavarman, went out from 
the palace, grieved because the king would be cursed. And sbe returned 
to the hermitage of ber father by the same path by wbicb she came, which 
sbe was able to recognise by the mustard-seeds she had sown, which had 
sprung up.* Her father, the hermit Mankanaka, when he saw her suddenly 
arrived there, remained for some time suspecting immorality on her part. 
And then he perceived the whole occurrence by the power of contemplation, 
and after lovingly comforting her, departed thence with her. And he went 
and told the king, who bowed before him, the whole treacherous drama, which 
the head queen had got up out of hatred for her rival. At that moment the 
barber himself arrived, and related the whole occurrence to the king, and 
then proceeded to say this to him ; " In this way, my sovereign, I sent 
away the lady Kadaligarbha, and so delivered her from the danger of the 
incantations which would have been practised against her, since I satisfied 
the head queen by an artifice." When the king heard that, he saw that 
the speech of the great hermit was certainly true, and he took back Kada- 
ligarbha, recovering his confidence in her. And after respectfully accom- 
panying the departing hermit, he rewarded the barber with wealth, 
thinking that he was attached to bis person : kings are the appointed 
prey of rogues. Then the king, being averse to the society of his queen, 
lived in great comfort with Kadaligarbha. 

" Many false accusations of this kind do rival wives bring, O Kalinga- 
sena of irreproachable beauty. And you are a maiden, the auspicious 
moment of whose marriage is fixed at a distant date, and even the gods, 
whose goings transcend our thought, are in love with you. So do you 
yourself preserve yourself now, as the one jewel of the world, dedi- 
cated to tbe king of Vatsa only, from all assaults, for your own 

* Cp. the 40th story in Grimm's Kinder-und Hausmiirchen, where the girl finds 
her way by the peas and lentiles which had sprung up. See also the 2nd story in 
Gonzenbach's SicilianiM-hi> .Mfadien. whore the girl scatters hran. The author of the 
notes to Grimm's ilim-hcn im ntinns u story from Hesse in which the heroine scatters 
ashes. See also the 49th of the Sieiluuiischu JMiuvheu. 


excellence brings you enmity. I indeed, my friend, shall never return 
to you, since you are now established in the palace of your husband : good 
women do not visit the house of a friend's husband, fair one ! besides 
I have been forbidden by my own lord. And it is not possible for me to 
come here secretly, induced by my affection for you, inasmuch as my 
husband possesses divine insight and would find it out ; with difficulty in 
truth did I obtain his permission to come here to-day. And since I can 
be of no use to you now, my friend, I will return home, but if my husband 
should give me permission, I will come here again, disregarding modesty." 
Thus Somaprabha, the daughter of the Asura king, spake weeping to 
Kalingasena, the daughter of the mortal king, whose face also was washed 
with tears, and after embracing her, departed swiftly to her own palace, as 
the day was passing away. 


Then the princess Kalingasena, who had deserted her own country and 
relations, remembering her dear friend Somaprabha who had left her, and 
finding the great festival of her marriage with the king of Vatsa delayed, 
remained in Kausambi like a doe that had strayed from the forest. 

And the king of Vatsa, feeling a little bitter against the astrologers, 
who were so dexterous in deferring the marriage of Kalingasena, being 
despondent with love-longing, went that day to divert his mind, to the 
private apartments of Vasavadatta. There the queen, who had been 
tutored beforehand by the excellent minister, let fall no sign of anger, but 
sin-wed especial sedulity in honouring her husband with her usual atten- 
tions. And the king, wondering how it was that, even though she knew 
the episode of Kalingasena, the queen was not angry, being desirous of 
knowing the cause, said to her ; "Do you know, queen, that a princess 
named Kalingasena has come here to choose me for her husband ?" The 
moment she heard it. she answered, without changing the hue of hi'r 

' 9 O O 

countenance, " I know it ; I am exceedingly delighted, for in her the 
goddess of Fortune has come to our house ; for by gaining her you will 
also get her father Kalingadatta under your influence, and the earth will 
be more completely in your power. Now I am delighted on account of 
his great power and your pleasure, and long ago did I know this circum- 
stance with regard to you. So am I not fortunate, since I have such a 
husband as you, whom princesses fall in love with, that are themselves sought 


by other kings ?" When thus addressed by queen Vasavadatta, who had 
been previously tutored by Yaugandharayana, the king rejoiced in his heart. 
And after enjoying a drinking-bout with her, he slept that night in her 
apartments, and waking up in the morning he reflected " What, does the 
magnanimous queen obey me so implicitly as even to acquiesce in having 
Kalingasena for a rival ? But how could this same proud woman endure 
her, since it was owing to the special favour of destiny that she did not 
yield her breath, even when I married Padmavati ? So, if anything were 
to happen to her, it would be utter ruin ; upon her hang the lives of my 
son, my brother-in-law, my father-in-law, and Padmavati, and the welfare of 
the kingdom ; what higher tribute can I pay her ? So how can I marry that 
Kalingasena ?" Thus reflecting the king of Vatsa left her chamber at the 
close of night, and the next day went to the palace of queen Padmavati. 
She too, having been taught her lesson by Vasavadatta, shewed him atten- 
tions after the very same fashion, and when questioned by him, gave a 
similar answer. The next day the king, thinking over the sentiments and 
speeches of the queens, which were completely in unison, commended them 
to Yaugandharayana. And the minister Yaugandharayana, who knew how 
to seize the right moment, seeing that the king was plunged in doubt, spake 
slowly to him as follows " I know well, the matter does not end where 
you think, there is a terrible resolve here. For the queens spoke thus, 
because they are steadfastly bent on surrendering their lives. Chaste 
women, when their beloved is attached to another, or has gone to heaven, 
become careless about all enjoyments, and determined to die, though their 
intentions are inscrutable on account of the haughtiness of their character. 
For matrons cannot endure the interruption of a deep affection ; and 
in proof of this hear now, O king, this story of Srutasena." 

There lived long ago in the 
Tite story of Knitasena. . , . 

Dekhan, in a city called Grokarua, 

a king named S'rutasena, who was the ornament of his race, and possessed of 
learning. And this king, though his prosperity was complete, had yet one 
source of sorrow, that he had not as yet obtained a wife who was a suitable 
match for him. And once on a time the king, while brooding over that 
sorrow, began to talk about it, and was thus addressed by a Brahman, named 
Agnisarman : " 1 have seen two wonders, king, I will describe them to 
vou : listen ! Having gone on a pilgrimage to all the sacred bathing-placed, 
I reached that Panchatirthi, in which five Apsarasos were reduced to the 
condition of crocodiles by the curse of a holy sage, and were rescued from 
it l>y Arjuna, who had come there while going round the holy spots. There 
I bathed in the blessed water, which possesses the power of enabling those 
men, who bathe in it and fast for five nights, to become followers of Nani- 
yuiia. And while 1 was departing, I beheld a cultivator in the middle of a 


field, who had furrowed the earth with his plough, singing. That cultivator 
was asked about the road by a certain wandering hermit, who had come that 
way, but did not hear what he said, being wholly occupied with his song. 
Then the hermit was angry with that cultivator, and began to talk in a 
distracted manner ; and the cultivator, stopping his song, said to him 
' Alas ! though you are a hermit, you will not learn even a fraction of 
virtue ; even I, though a fool, have discovered what is the highest essence of 
virtue.' When he heard that, the hermit asked him out of curiosity 
' What have you discovered ?' And the cultivator answered him ' Sit 
here in the shade, and listen, while I tell you a tale.' 

In this land there were three 
Story of the three Brahman brothers. 

Brahman brothers, Brahmadatta, 

Somadatta, and Visvadatta of holy deeds. Of these the two eldest possess- 
ed wives, but the youngest was unmarried ; he remained as their servant 
without being angry, obeying their orders along with me ; for I was their 
ploughman. And those elder brothers thought that he was soft, and devoid 
of intellect, good, not swerving from the light path, simple, and unenter- 
prising. Then, once on a time, the youngest brother Visvadatta was solicit- 
ed by his two brothers' wives who fell in love with him, but he rejected 
their advances as if each of them had been his mother. Then they both of 
them went and said falsely to their own husbands, " This younger brother 
of yours makes love to us in secret." This speech made those two elder 
brothers cherish anger against him in their hearts, for men bewildered by 
the speeches of wicked women, do not know the difference between truth 
and falsehood. Then those brothers said once on a time to Visvadatta 
" Go and level that ant-hill in the middle of the field !" He said" I 
will" and went and proceeded to dig up the ant-hill with his spade, 
though I said to him, " Do not do it, a venomous snake lives there." 
Though he heard what I said, he continued to dig at the ant-hill, exclaim- 
ing " Let what will happen, happen," for he would not disobey the order 
of his two elder brothers, though they wished him ill. Then, while he 
was digging it up, he got out of it a pitcher filled with gold, and not a veno- 
mous snake, for virtue is an auxiliary to the good. So he took that pitcher 
and gave it all to his elder brothers out of his constant affection for them, 
though I tried to dissuade him. But they sent assassins, luring them with 
a portion of that gold, and had his hands and feet cut off, in their desire 
to seize his wealth. But he was free from anger, and in spite of that 
treatment, did not wax wroth witli his brothers, and on account of that 
virtue of his, his hands and feet grew again. 

' After beholding that, I renounced from that time all anger, but you, 
though you are a hermit, have not even now renounced anger. The. man 
who is free from anger has gained heaven, behold now a proof of this.' 

After saying this, the husbandman left his body and ascended to heaven. 
" This is one wonder which I have seen, hear a second, O king ;" 

After saying this to king S'rutasena, the Brahman continued, " Then, 
as I was roaming about on the shore of the sea to visit sacred places, 
I reached the realm of king Vasantasena. There, as I was about to enter 
an almshouse where cooked food is distributed by the king, the Brah- 
mans said to me, ' Brahman, advance not in that direction, for there the 
king's daughter is present, she is called Vidyuddyota, and if even a hermit 
beholds her, he is pierced by the arrow of love, and becoming distracted 
ceases to live.' Then I answered them ' This is not wonderful to me, 
for I continually behold king S'rutasena, who is a second god of 
love. When he leaves his palace on an expedition, or for some other 
purpose, women of good family are removed by guards from any place 
whence they may possibly see him, for fear they should infringe chastity.' 
When I said this, they knew I was a subject of your Majesty's, and the 
superintendent of the house of entertainment and the king's chaplain 
took me into the presence of the king, that I might share the feast. There 
I saw that princess Vidyuddyota, looking like the incarnation of the magic 
art with which the god of love bewilders the world. After a long time 
I mastered my confusion at beholding her, and reflected ' If this lady 
were to become the wife of our sovereign, he would forget his kingdom. 
Nevertheless I must tell this tale to my master, otherwise there might 
take place the incident of Devasena and Unmadini.' 

, ,, . . , ,. . Once on a time, in the realm of 

Ihe story oj Devasena and Unmadini. 

king Devasena, there was a mer- 
chant's daughter, a maiden that bewildered the world with her beauty. 
Her father told the king about her, but the king did not take her in 
marriage, for the Brahmans, who wished to prevent his neglecting his 
duties, told him she had inauspicious marks. So she was married to his 
prime minister.* And once on a time she showed herself to the king at a 
window. And the king, struck by her with a poisonous look from a distance, 
as if she had been a female snake,f fainted again and again, enjoyed no 
pleasure, and took no food. And the righteous king, though entreated 
over and over again to marry her by the ministers, with her husband at 
their head, refused to do so, and devoted to her, yielded up his breath. 

" Accordingly I have come to-day and told you this wonderful tale, 
thinking that if a similar distraction were to come upon you, I should be 
guilty of conspiring against your life." 

* This ia a reproduction of the story of Devasena and Unm&dini in the 3rd 

t Compare tho " death-darting eye of cockatrice" in Romeo and Juliet. See also 
Schmidt's Shakespeare Dictionary under the word " basilisk." 


When king S'rutasena heard from that Brahman this speech, which 
was like the command of the god of love, he became ardently attached to 
Vidyuddyota, so he immediately sent off the Brahman and took steps to 
have her brought quickly and married her. Then the princess Vidyuddyota 
became inseparable from the person of that king, as the daylight from the 
orb of the sun. 

Then a maiden of the name of Matridatta, the daughter of a very rich 
merchant, intoxicated with the pride of her beauty, came to select that 
king for her husband. Through fear of committing unrighteousness, 
the king married that merchant's daughter ; then Vidyuddyota, coming to 
hear of it, died of a broken heart. And the king came and beheld that 
dearly loved wife lying dead, and took her up in his arms, and lamenting, 
died on the spot. Thereupon Matridatta, the merchant's daughter, entered 
the fire. And so the whole kingdom perished with the king. 

" So you see, king, that the breaking off of long love is difficult to bear, 
especially would it be so to the proud queen Vasavadatta. Accordingly, if 
you were to marry this Kalingasena, the queen Vasavadatta would indubi- 
tably quit her life, and queen Padmavati would do the same, for their life 
is one. And then how would your son Naravahanadatta live ? And, I 
know, the king's heart would not be able to bear any misfortune happening 
to him. And so all this happiness would perish in a moment, king. 
But as for the dignified reserve, which the queens displayed in their speeches, 
that sufficiently shews that their hearts are indifferent to all things, being 
firmly resolved on suicide. So you must guard your own interests, for 
even animals understand self-protection, much more wise men like yourself, 
king." The king of Vatsa, when he heard this at length from the excel- 
lent minister Yaugandharayana, having now become quite capable of wise 
discrimination, said " It is so ; there can be no doubt about it ; all this 
fabric of my happiness would be overthrown. So what is the use of my 
marrying Kalingasena ? Accordingly the astrologers did well in mentioning a 
distant hour as auspicious for the marriage : and there cannot after all be 
muc'h sin in abandoning one who had come to select me as her husband." 
When Yaugandharayana heard this, he reflected with joy, " Our business haa 
almost turned out according to our wishes. Will not that same great 
plant of policy, watered with the streams of expedient, and nourished with 
due time and place, truly bring forth fruit ?" Thus reflecting, and medi- 
tating upon fitting time and place, the minister Yaugandharayana went 
to his house, after taking a ceremonious farewell of the king. 

The king too went to the queen NYisavadatta, who had assumed to 
welcome him a manner which concealed her real feelings, and thus spoke to 
her to console her : " Why do I speak ? you know well, gazelle-eyed 


one, that your love is my life, even as the water is of the lotus. Could I 
bear even to mention the name of another woman ? But Kalingasena came 
to my house of her own impetuous motion. And this is well known, that 
llambha, who came to visit Arjuna of her own impetuous will, having been 
rejected by him, as he was engaged in austerities, inflicted on him a curse which 
made him a eunuch. That curse was endured by him to the end, living in 
the house of the king of Virata in the garb of a eunuch, though he dis- 
played miraculous valour. So I did not reject this Kalingasena when she 
came, but I cannot bring myself to do anything without your wish." Having 
comforted her in these words, and having perceived by the flush of wine which 
rose to her cheek, as if it were her glowing passionate heart, that her cruel 
design was a reality, the king of Vatsa spent that night with the queen 
Vasavadatta, delighted at the transcendent ability of his prime minister. 

And in the meanwhile that Brahman-Kakshasa, named Yogesvara, who 
was a friend of Yaugandharayana's, and whom he had commissioned 
beforehand to watch day and night the proceedings of Kalingasena, came 
that very night of his own accord and said to the prime minister : " I 
remain ever at Kalingasena' s house, either without it or within it, and I have 
never seen man or god come there. But to-day I suddenly heard an indis- 
tinct noise in the air, at the commencement of the night, as I was lying 
hid near the roof of the palace. Then my magic science was set in motion 
to ascertain the cause of the sound, but prevailed not ; so I pondered over 
it, and came to this conclusion : ' This must certainly be the voice of some 
being of divine power, enamoured of Kalingasena, who is roaming in the 
sky. Since my science does not succeed, 1 must look for some opening, 
for clever people who remain vigilant, find little difficulty in discovering 
holes in their opponents' armour. And I know that the prime minister 
said " Divine beings are in love with her" moreover I overheard her 
friend Somaprabha saying the same. After arriving at this conclusion 
I came here to make my report to you. This I have to ask you 
by the way, so tell me so much I pray you. By my magic power I heard, 
without being seen, what you said to the king, 'Even animals understand 
self-protection.' Now tell me, sagacious man, if there is any instance of 
this." When Yogesvara asked him this question, Yaugandhaniyuna an- 
swered. "There is, my friend, and to prove it, I will tell you this tale. 
Listen !" 

The tale of tlie ichneumon, the owl, the Once on a time there was a 

cat, and the inouse. l a ,.g e banyan tree outside the city of 

Yidisa. In that vast tree dwelt four creatures, an ichneumon, an owl, a 
cat, and a mouse,* and their habitations were apart. The ichneumon and 

* Benfey found this story in the Arabic Version of the Panchatantra and in all 
the translations and reproductions of it. He finds it also in the Mahabharata, XII (III, 


Ilie mouse dwelt in separate' holes in the root, tin. 1 rat in a great hollow in 
the middle of the tree: but the owl dwelt in a bower of creepers on the 
top of it, wliieb was inaccessible to the others. Among these the mouse 
was the natural prey of all three, three out of the four of the cat. The 
mouse, the ichneumon, and the owl ranged for food during the night, tin- 
two first through fear of the cat only, the owl partly because it was his 
nature to do so. But the cat fearlessly wandered night and day through 
the neighbouring barley-field, in order to catch the mouse, while the others 
went there by stealth at a suitable time out of desire for food. One day 
a certain hunter of the Chandala caste came there. He saw the track 
of the cat entering that field, and having set nooses all round the Held in 
order to compass its death, departed. So the cat came there at night to 
slay the mouse, and entering the field was caught in one of the hunt t-r's 
nooses. The mouse, for his part, came there secretly in search of food, 
and seeing the cat caught in the noose, danced for joy. While it was 
entering the field, the owl and ichneumon came from afar by the same 
path, and seeing the cat fast in the noose, desired to capture the mouse. 
And the mouse, beholding them afar off, was terrified and reflected " It' 1 
lly to the cat, which the owl and the ichneumon are afraid of, that enemy, 
though fast in the noose, may slay me with one blow, but if I keep at a 
distance from the cat, the owl and the ichneumon will be the death of me. 
So being compassed about with enemies, where shall I go, what shall 1 do ? 
Ah ! I will take refuge with the cat here, for it is in trouble, and may save 
me to preserve its own life, as I shall be of use to gnaw through the 
noose." Thus reflecting the mouse slowly approached the cat, and said to 
it, " I am exceedingly grieved at your being caught, so I will gnaw 
through your noose ; the upright come to love even their enemies by 
dwelling in their neighbourhood. But I do not feel confidence in you, as 
I do not know your intentions." When the cat heard that, he said 
" Worthy mouse, be at rest, from this day forth you are my friend as 
giving me life." The moment he heard this from the cat, he crept into 
his bosom; when the owl and ichneumon saw that, they went away hope- 
less. Then the cat, galled with the noose, said to the mouse, ' My friend, 
the night is almost gone, so quickly gnaw through my bonds " The mouse 
for its part, waiting for the arrival of the hunter, slowly nibbled the noose. 
and protracted the business, making a continual munching with its teeth, 
which was all pretence. Soon the night came to an end, and the hunter 
came near ; then the mouse, at the request of the cat, quickly gnawed 

oSO) si. 4930 and 11'. 1I< . xpivssrs his opinion that it formed a portion of the ori^nril 
ranchatantia. Stv I'.rni'ey's I'unrhatantra, |>p. ."> 1 l-.MiO, (hunt mi'i ( trrnl, nt. Vol. 
I. p. bbtf. The account in tin: iUalniltluuaia is vi y prolix. 



through the noose which held it. So the cat's noose wan severed, and it 
ran away, afraid of the hunter ; and the mouse, delivered from death, fled 
into its hole. But when called again by the cat, it reposed no confidence 
in him, but remarked, " The truth is, an enemy is occasionally made a 
friend by circumstances, but does not remain such for ever." 

" Thus the mouse, though an animal, saved its life from many foes, much 
more ought the same thing to take place among men. You heard that 
speech which I uttered to the king on that occasion, to the effect that by 
wisdom he should guard his own interests by preserving the life of the 
queen. And wisdom is in every exigency the best friend, not valour, 
Yogesvara ; in illustration of this hear the following story." 

The story of king Prasenajit and the There is a city named S'ra vasti, 

Vrdhman who lost his treasure. an( J J n ifc there ] ive(1 j n ol( j time ft 

king of the name of Prasenajit, and one day a strange Brahman arrived in 
that city. A merchant, thinking he was virtuous, because he lived on rice 
in the husk, provided him a lodging there in the house of a Brahman. 
There he was loaded by him every day with presents of unhusked rice and 
other gifts, and gradually by other great merchants also, who came to hear his 
etory. In this way the miserly fellow gradually accumulated a thousand 
dinars, and, going to the forest, he dug a hole and buried it in the ground,* and 
he went every day and examined the spot. Now one day he saw that the 
hole, in which he had hidden his gold, had been re-opened, and that all the 
gold had gone. When he saw that hole empty, his soul was smitten, and 
not only was there a void in his heart, but the whole universe seemed to 
him to be void also. And then he came crying to the Brahman, in whose 
house he lived, and when questioned, he told him his whole story : and he 
made up his mind to go to a holy bathing-place, and starve himself to 
death. Then the merchant, who supplied him with food, hearing of it, 
came there with others, and said to him, " Brahman, why do you long to 
die for the loss of your wealth ? Wealth, like an unseasonable cloud, 
suddenly comes and goes." Though plied by him with these and similar 
arguments, he would not abandon his fixed determination to commit suicide, 
for wealth is dearer to the miser than life itself. But when the Br&hman 
was going to the holy place to commit suicide, the king Prasenajit himself, 
having heard of it, came to him and asked him, " Brahman, do you know of 
anymark by which you can recognize the place where you buried your dinars /"' 
When the Brahman heard that, he said : " There is a small tree in the wood 
there, I buried that wealth at its foot." When the king heard that, he 
said, " I will find that wealth and give it back to you, or I will give it you 
from my own treasury, do not commit suicide, Brahman." After saying 
this, and so diverting the Br&hman from his intention of committing suicide, 
* For iiihatya 1 conjecture nikhanya. 


the king entrusted him to the care of the merchant, and retired to his 
palace. There he pretended to have a headache, and sending out the door- 
keeper, he summoned all the physicians in the city by proclamation with 
beat of drum. And he took aside every single one of them and questioned 
him privately in the following words : " What patients have you here, and 
how many, and what medicine have you prescribed for each ?" And they 
thereupon, one by one, answered all the king's questions. Then one among 
the physicians, when his turn came to be questioned, said this, " The 
merchant Matridatta has been out of sorts, O king, and this is the 
second day, that I have prescribed for him nagabald* When the king 
heard that, he sent for the merchant, and said to him " Tell me, 
who fetched you the nagabald ?" The merchant said " My servant, 
your highness." When the king got this answer from the merchant, 
he quickly summoned the servant and said to him " Give up that treasure 
belonging to a Brahman, consisting of a store of dinars, which you found 
when you were digging at the foot of a tree for ndgabald" When the 
king said this to him, the servant was frightened and confessed immediate- 
ly, and bringing those dinars left them there. So the king for his part 
summoned the Brahman and gave him, who had been fasting in the mean- 
while, his dinars, lost and found again, like a second soul external to his 

" Thus that king by his wisdom recovered for the Brahman his wealth, 
which had been taken away from the root of the tree, knowing that that simple 
grew iu such spots. So true is it, that intellect always obtains the supremacy, 
triumphing over valour, indeed in such cases what could courage accom- 
plish ? Accordingly, Yogesvara, you ought to bring it to pass by your 
wisdom, that some peccadillo be discovered in Kalingasena. And it is true 
that the gods and Asuras are in love with her. This explains your bearing 
at night the sound of some being in the air. And if we could only obtain 
some pretext, calamity would fall upon her, not on us ; the king would not 
marry her, and yet we should not have dealt unrighteously with her." 
When the Brahman-Rakshasa Yogesvara heard all this from the sagacious 
Yaugandharayana, he was delighted and said to him " Who except the 
god Vrihaspati can match thee in policy ? This counsel of thine waters 
with ambrosia the tree of empire. I, even I, will investigate with wisdom 
and might the proceedings of Kalingasena." Having said this, Yogesvara 
departed thence. 

And at this time Kalingasena, while in her palace, was continually 
afflicted by beholding the king of Vatsa roaming about in his palace and 
its grounds. Thinking on him, she was inflamed with love, and though she 

* The plant Uraria Lagopodioidea (Monier WilliamsJ. 


wore a bracelet and necklace of lotus tibres, she never obtained relief there- 
by, nor from sandal-ointment, or other remedies. 

In the meanwhile the king of the Vidyadharas, named Madanavega, 
who had seen her before, remained wounded by the arrow of ardent love. 
Though he had performed a vow to obtain her, and had been granted a 
boon by S'iva, still she was not easy to gain, because she was living in the 
land of another, and attached to another, so the Vidyadhara prince was 
wandering about at night in the air over her palace, in order to obtain an 
opportunity. But, remembering the order of S'iva pleased with his asceti- 
cism, he assumed one night by his skill the form of the king of Vatsa. 
And in his shape he entered her palace, saluted with praises by the door-keep- 
ers, who said " Unable to bear delay, the king has come here without 
the knowledge of his ministers." And Kalingasena, on beholding him, rose 
up bewildered with agitation, though she was, so to speak, warned by her 
ornaments which jingled out the sounds " This is not the man." Then 
she by degrees gained confidence in him, and Madanavega, wearing the 
form of the king of Vatsa, made her his wife by the Gandharva rite. At 
that moment Yogesvara entered, invisible by his magic, and, beholding the 
incident, was cast down, supposing that he saw the king of Vatsa before 
him. He went and told Yaugandharayana, who, on receiving his report, saw 
by his skill that the king was in the society of Vasavadatta. So by the order 
of the prime minister he returned delighted, to observe the shape of that 
secret paramour of Kalingasena, when asleep. And so he went and beheld 
that Madanavega asleep in his own form on the bed of the sleeping 
Kalingasena, a heavenly being, the dustless lotus of whose foot was marked 
with the umbrella and the banner ; and who had lost his power of chang- 
ing his form, because his science was suspended during sleep. Then Yoges- 
vara, full of delight, went and told what he had seen in a joyful mood to 
Yangandharayana. He said " One like me knows nothing, you know 
everything by the eye of policy ; by your counsel this difficult result has 
been attained for your king. What is the sky without the sun ? "What 
is a tank without water ? What is a realm without counsel ? What is 
speech without truth ?" When Yogesvara said this, Yaugandharayana 
took leave of him, much pleased, and went in the morning to visit the 
king of Vatsa. He approached him with the usual reverence, and in course 
of conversation said to the king, who asked him what was to be done 
about Kalingasena "She is unchaste, king, and does nut deserve U> 
touch your hand. For she went of her own accord to visit Prasenajit. 
When she saw that he was old, she was disgusted, and came to visit you 
out of desire for your beauty, and now she even enjoys at her pleasure the 
society of another person." When the king heard this, he said " How 
could a lady of birth and rank do such a deed ? Or who has power to 


enter ray hurem r" When the king said this, the wise Yau^indhaniyaim 
answered him, " 1 will prove it to you by ocular testimony this very nii^ht, 
my sovereign. For the divine Siddhas and other beings of the kind are in 
love with her. What can a man do against them ? And who here can 
interfere with the movements of gods ? So come and see it with your own 
eyes." When the minister said this, the king determined to go there with 
him at night. 

Then Yaugandhanivana came to the queen, and said " To-day, O queen, 
I have carried out what I promised, that the king should marry no other 
wife except queen Padnuivati, and thereupon he told her the whole story of 
Kalingasewi. And the queen Yasavadatta congratulated him, bowing low 
and saying " This is the fruit which I have reaped from following your 

Then, at night, when folk were asleep, the king of Vatsa went with 
Yaugaiulhar.-iyana to the palace of Kalingasena. And entering unperceiv- 
ed, he beljeld Madanavega in his proper form, sleeping by the side of the 
sleeping Kalingasena. And when the king was minded to slay that au- 
dacious one, the Vidyadhara prince was roused by his own magic know- 
ledge, and when awake, he went out, and immediately flew up into the 
heaven. And then Kalingasena awoke immediately. And seeing the bed 
empty, she said, " How is this, that the king of Vatsa wakes up before me, 
and departs, leaving me asleep ?" When Yaugandharayana heard that, he 
said to the king of Vatsa " Listen, she has been beguiled by that Vidya- 
dhara wearing your form. He was found out by me by means of my magic 
power, and now I have exhibited him before your eyes, but you cannot kill 
him on account of his heavenly might." After saying this, he and the 
king approached her, and Kalingasena, for her part, seeing them, stood in 
a respectful attitude. But when she began to say to the king " Where, O 
king, did you go only a moment ago, so as to return with your minis- 
ter r"" Yaugandharayana said to her " Kalingasena, you have been mar- 
ried by some being, who beguiled you by assuming the shape of the king of 
Vatsa, and not by this lord of mine." 

When Kalingasena heard this, she was bewildered, and as if pierced 
through the heart by an arrow, she said to the king of Vatsa with tear- 
streaming eyes, " Have you forgotten me, O king, after marrying me by 
the Gandharva rite, as S'likuntala long ago was forgotten by Dushyanta?"* 
When the king was thus addressed by her, he said with downcast t'aee, " I 
truth you were not married by me, for I never came here till this moment." 

* For similar instances of fonjvttinj* in European stories, see No* 13. 14. ~>i. .">."> 
in the Sirilianisclie Marrhuii with Kuhler's notes, and his article in Orient uiul i Veidmt, 
Vol. II, p. 103. 


When the king of Vatsa had said this, the minister said to him " Come 
along" and conducted him at will to the palace. 

When the king had departed thence with his minister, that lady 
Kalingasena, sojourning in a foreign country, like a doe that had strayed 
from the herd, having deserted her relations, with her face robbed of its 
painting by kissing, as a lotus is robbed of its leaves by cropping, having her 
braided tresses disordered, even as a bed of lotuses trampled by an elephant 
has its cluster of black bees dispersed ; now that her maidenhood was gone 
for ever, not knowing what expedient to adopt or what course to pursue, 
looked up to heaven and spake as follows " Whoever that was that assumed 
the shape of the king of Vatsa and married me, let him appear, for he is 
the husband of my youth." When invoked in these words, that king of the 
Vidyadharas descended from heaven, of divine shape, adorned with neck- 
lace and bracelet. And when she asked him who he was, he answered 
her ; " I, fair one, am a prince of the Vidyadharas, named Madanavega. 
And long ago I beheld you in your father's house, and by performing pen- 
ance obtained a boon from S'iva, which conferred on me the attainment of 
you. So, as you were in love with the king of Vatsa, I assumed his form, 
and quickly married you by stealth, before your contract with him had 
been celebrated." By the nectar of this speech of his, entering her ears, 
the lotus of her heart was a little revived. Then Madanavega comforted 
that fair one, and made her recover her composure, and bestowed on her a 
heap of gold, and when she had conceived in her heart affection for her ex- 
cellent husband, as being well suited to her, he flew up into the 
heaven to return again. And Kalingasena, after obtaining permission 
from Madanavega, consented to dwell patiently where she was, reflecting 
that the heavenly home, the abode of her husband, could not be approached 
by a mortal, and that through passion she had left her father's house. 


Then the king of Vatsa, thinking on the peerless beauty of Kalinga- 
a, was one night seized with love, so he rose up and went sword in hand, 
and entered her palace alone ; and she welcomed him and received him 
politely. Then the king asked her to become his wife, but she re- 
jected his addresses, saying, " You should regard me as the wife 
of another." Whereupon he answered " Since you are unchaste as having 
resorted to three men, I shall not by approaching you incur the guilt of 
adultery." When the king said this to Kalingasenn, she answered him, 


" I came to marry you, king, but I was married by the Vidyadbara 
Madanavega at bis will, for he assumed your shape. And he is my only 
husband, so why am I unchaste ? But such are the misfortunes even of or- 
dinary women who desert their relations, having their minds bewildered with 
the love of lawless roaming, much more of princesses ? And this is the fruit 
of my own folly in sending a messenger to you, though I had been warned 
not to do so by my friend, who had seen an evil omen. So if you touch 
me by force, I will abandon life, for what woman of good family will 
injure her husband ? And to prove this I will tell you a tale listen O 

There lived in old time in the 
land of Ghedi a great king called 

Indradatta, he founded for his glory a great temple at the holy bathing, 
place of Papasodhana, desiring the body of good reputation, as he saw that 
our mortal body is perishable. And the king in the ardour of his devo- 
tion was continually going to visit it, and all kinds of people were continu- 
ally coming there to bathe in the holy water. Now, one day the king 
saw a merchant's wife, whose husband was travelling in foreign parts, who 
had come there to bathe in the holy water ; she was steeped in the nectar 
of pure beauty, and adorned with various charms, like a splendid moving 
palace of the god of Love. She was embraced on both her feet by the 
radiance of the two quivers of the five-arrowed god,* as if out of love, 
believing that with her he would conquer the world, f The moment the 
king saw her, she captivated his soul so entirely that, unable to restrain 
himself, he found out her house and went there at night. And when he 
solicited her, she said to him " You are a protector of the helpless, you 
ought not to touch another man's wife. And if you lay violent hands 
on me, you will commit a great sin ; and I will die immediately, I will not 
endure disgrace." Though she said this to him, the king still endeavoured 
to use force to her, whereupon her heart broke in a moment through fear 
of losing her chastity. When the king saw that, he was at once abashed, 
and went back by the way that he came, and in a few days died out of 
remorse for that crime. 

Having told this tale, Kalingasena bowed in timid modesty, and 
again said to the king of Vatsa " Therefore, king, set not your heart 
on wickedness that would rob me of breath ; since I have come here, 
allow me to dwell here ; if not, I will depart to some other place." Then 
the king of Vatsa, who knew what was right, hearing this from Kalinga- 
sena, after reflecting, desisted from his intention, and said to her " Princess, 

* t. c. Kama the Hindu Cupid. 

t This prob ubly menus in plain English that she wore glittering anklets, 

here at will witli this husband of yours; I will not sav anything 
to you, henceforth fear not." When the king had said this, he returned 
of his own accord to his house, and Madanaveg a, having heard the conver- 
sation, descended from heaven, and said " My beloved, you have done well, 
if you had not acted thus, fortunate one, good fortune would not have 
resulted, for I should not have tolerated your conduct." When the Viclya- 
dhara had said this, he comforted her, and passed the night there, and 
continued going to her house and returning again. And Kalingasena, 
having a king of the Vidyadharas for her husband, remained there, blessed 
even in her mortal state with the enjoyment of heavenly pleasures. As 
for the king of Vatsa, he ceased to think about her, and remembering the 
speech of his minister, he rejoiced, considering that he had saved his queens 
and kingdom and also his son. And the queen Vasavadatta and the minis- 
ter Yaugandharayana were at ease, having reaped the fruit of the wishing- 
tree of policy. 

Then, as days went on, Kalingasena had the lotus of her face a little 
pale, and was pregnant, having longing produced in her. Her lofty breasts, 
with extremities a little dark, appeared like the treasure-vessels of Love, 
marked with his seal of joy. Then her husband Madanavega came to her 
and said, " Kalingasena, we heavenly beings are subject to this law, that, 
when a mortal child is conceived we must abandon it, and go afar. Did not 
Menaka leave S'akuntala in the hermitage of Kanva ? And though you 
were formerly an Apsaras, you have now, goddess, become a mortal by the 
curse of S^iva, inflicted on account of your disobedience. Thus it has come 
to pass that, though chaste, you have incurred the reproach of unchastity ; 
so guard your offspring, I will go to my own place. And whenever you 
think upon me, I will appear to you." Thus the prince of the Vidyadharas 
spake to the weeping Kalingasena, and consoled her, and gave her a heap 
of valuable jewels, and departed with his mind fixed on her, drawn away 
by the law. Kalingasena, for her part, remained there ; supported by the 
hope of offspring as by a friend, protected by the shade of the king of Vatsa's 

In the meanwhile the husband of Ambika* gave the following order 
to Rati, the wife of the god of Love, who had performed penance in order 
to get back her husband with his body restored: " That husband of thine 
who was formerly consumed, has been born in the palace of the king of 
Vatsa, under the name of Naravahanadatta, conceived in a mortal womb on 
account of disrespect shewn to me. Hut because thou hast propitiated me, 
thtui slialt also be born in the world of mortals, without being conceived in a 
mortal womb ; and then thou shalt be reunited to thy husband, otiee more 
possessing a body.'' Having said this to Rat i, S'iva then L,;I\V t iiis cuiu- 


mand to the Creator;* '' Kalingasena shall give birth to a son of divine 
origin. By thy power of illusion thou shalt remove her son, and substitute 
in his place this very Kati, who shall abandon her heavenly body, and IK; 
moulded by thee in the form of a mortal maiden." The Creator, in obe- 
dience to the order of S f iva,f went down to earth, and when the appointed 
time came, Kalingasena gave birth to a son. The Creator abstracted, by 
his divine power of illusion, her son, the moment he was born, and sub- 
stituted Rati, whom he had turned into a girl, in his place, without the 
change being detected. And all present there saw that girl born, and she 
seemed like the streak of the new moon suddenly rising in broad daylight, 
for she illuminated with her splendour the lying-in chamber, and eclipsing 
the long row of flames of the jewel-lamps robbed them of lustre, and made 
them, as it were, abashed. Kalingasena, when she saw that incomparable 
daughter born, in her delight made greater rejoicing, than she would have 
made at the birth of a son. 

Then the king of Vatsa, with his queen and his ministers, heard that 
such a lovely daughter had been born to Kalingasena. And when the king 
heard of it, he suddenly, under the impulsion of the god S'iva, said to the 
queen Vasavadatta, in the presence of Yaugandharayana ; " I know, this 
Kalingasena, is a heavenly nymph, who has fallen down to earth in con- 
sequence of a curse, and this daughter born to her will also be heavenly, 
and of wonderful beauty. So this girl, being equal in beauty to my son 
Naravahanadatta, ought to be his head-queen." When the queen Vasava- 
datta heard that, she said to the king " Great king, why do you suddenly 
say this now ? What similarity can there possibly be between this son of 
yours, of pure descent by both lines, and the daughter of Kalingasena, 
a girl whose mother is unchaste." When the king heard that, he reflected, 
and said, " Truly, I do not say this of myself, but some god seems to have 

* Prajapati. 

t laterally placing it upon his head. 

| The superstitious custom of lighting ihvs, lamps &c., to protect children against 
evil spirits is found in many countries. Liubrecht (Zur Volkskunde, p. 31,) refers 
us to Brand's Popular Antiquities, edited by Hazlitt, Vol. II, p. 144, for the piwalciiro 
of the practice in England. " Gregory mentions ' an ordinary superstition of the old 
wives who dare not, trust a child in a cradle by itself alone without a candle. ' This 
he attributes to their fear of the night-hag ;" (cp. Milton, P. L. II, 662 66.5). lie 
cites authorities to prove that it exists in Germany, Scotland, and Sweden. In 
latter country, it is considered dangerous to let the fire go out until the child is baptized, 
for fear that the Trolls may sul istit ute a changeling in its place. The custom oxi-!> 
also in the Malay Peninsula, and among the Tajiks in Bokhara. The Roman custom 
of lighting a candle in the room of a lying-in woman, from which the go'lu< >* < ' .m- 
delifera derived her name (IVrtullian Adv. nation, 2, 11) is to be amounted for in fxu 
same way. See also "Weckenstedt, Wendischc Sagcn, p. 140. 



entered into me, and to be forcing me to speak. And I seem to hear a 
voice uttering these words from heaven ' This daughter of Kalingasena 
is the appointed wife of Naravahanadatta.' Moreover, that Kalingasena 
is a faithful wife, of good family ; and her reproach of unchastitv has 
arisen from the influence of her actions in a former birth." When the 
king had said this, the minister Yaugandharayana spoke " We hear, king, 
that when the god of Lovo was consumed, Kati performed asceticism. 
And S'iva granted to Kati, who wished to recover her husband, the follow- 
ing boon : ' Thou shalt assume the condition of a mortal, and be reunited 
to thy husband, who has been born with a body in the world of mortals.' 
Now, your son has long ago been declared by a heavenly voice to be an 
incarnation of Kama, and Kati by the order of S'iva has to become incarnate 
in mortal form. And the midwife said to me to-day ' I inspected previ- 
ously the fetus when contained in the uterus, and then I saw one quite 
different from what has now appeared. Having beheld this marvel I have 
come here to tell you.' This is what that woman told me, and now this 
inspiration has come to you. So I am persuaded that the gods have stolen 
the real child of Kalingasena and substituted this daughter not born in the 
ordinary way, who is no other than Kati, ordained beforehand to be the 
wife of your son, who is an incarnation of Kama, O king. To illustrate 
this, hear the following story concerning a Yaksha." 

The god of wealth had for ser- 

Storii of the TaJcsha Virupaksha. -\- i \_ i -IT- ' 'i i 

vant a laksha, named Virupaksha, 

who had been appointed chief guardian of lacs of treasure.* And he 
delegated a certain Yaksha to guard a treasure lying outside the town of 
Mathura, posted there like an immovable pillar of marble. And once on a 
time a certain Brahman, a votary of Pasupati, who made it his business 
to exhume treasures, went there in search of hidden wealth. While he 
was examining that place, with a candle made of human fat in his hand, 
the candle fell from his grasp. By that sign he knew that treasure v, as 
concealed there ; and he attempted to dig it up with the help of some 
other Brahmans his friends. Then the Yaksha, who was told off to guard 
that treasure, beholding that, came and related the whole circumstance to 
Virupaksha. And Virupaksha in his wrath gave the following command 
to the Yaksha " Go and slay immediately those mean treasure-hum 
Then the Yaksha went and slow by his power those Brahmans, who were 
digging for treasure, before they had attained their object. Then the god 
of wealth came to hear of it, and being angry he said to Yiriipaksha, 

* For treasures and thr-ir guardians SOP VeckrnstrdtV W< n, pp. 006 

874 and p. 394. For the candle of human ; y in ( >i i, ni und Oa-iduit, \ 

p. 383. 

Add to note on page 306. 

It appears from Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, that in Europe 
a candle of human fat is used with the Hand of Glory by robbers for the purpose of 
preventing the inmates of a house from awaking. He gives several instances of its 
use. The following will serve as a specimen : " On the night of the 3rd of January 
1831, some Irish thieves attempted to commit a robbery on the estate of Mr. Napier of 
Loughcrew, county Meath. They^entercd the house armed with a dead man's hand 
with a lighted candle in it, believing in the superstitious notion that a candle placed 
in a dead man's hand will not bo seen by any but those by whom ic is used, and also 
that if a candle in a dead hand be introduced into a house, it will prevent those who 
may be aske.p from awaking. The inmates however, were alarmed, and the robbera 
fled, leaving the hand behind them." The composition of the candle ia evident from 
the following extract from the Dictionnaire Infernal of Colin do Planey. " The Hand of 
Glory is the hand of a man who has been hanged, and is prepared in the following 
manner. "Wrap the hand in a piece of winding-sheet, drawing it tight to squeeze out 
the little blood which may remain ; then place it in an earthen- ware vessel with 
saltpetre, salt and long pepper all carefully and thoroughly powdered. Let it remain 
a fortnight in this pickle till it is well dried, then expose it to the sun in the dog-days 
till it is completely parched, or if the sun be not powerful enough, dry it in an oven 
heated with vervain and fern. Next make a candle with the fat of a hanged man, 
virgin wax, and Lapland sesame. The Hand of Glory is used to hold this candle 
when it is lighted. Wherever one goes with this contrivance, those it approaches are 
rendered as incapable of motion as though they were dead." Southey in Book V of 
his Thalaba the Destroyer represents a hand and taper of this kind as used to lull 
to sleep Zohak, the giant keeper of the caves of Babylon. (See the extracts from 
Grose and Torquemada in the notes to Southey's poem. Dousterswivel in Sir Walter 
Scott's Antiquary tells us that the monks used the Hand of Glory to conceal their 
treasures. (Henderson's Folk-lore of the Northern Counties of England and the 
Borders, p. 200 and ff.) 


"Why did you, evil one, recklessly order the slaughter of a Br&hman ? 
What will not poor people, who are struggling for a livelihood,* do out of 
desire for gain ? But they must be prevented by being terrified with 
various bug-bears, they must not be slain." When the god of Wealth had 
said this, he cursed that Virupaksha as follows " Be born as a mortal on 
account of your wicked conduct." Then that Virupaksha, smitten with 
the curse, was born on the earth as the son of a certain Brahman who lived 
on a royal grant. Then the Yakshini his wife implored the lord of wealth, 
" god, send me whither my husband has gone ; be merciful to me, for I 
cannot live without him." When the virtuous lady addressed this prayer 
to him, Vaisravana said " Thou shalt descend, without being born, into 
the house of a female slave of that very Brahman, in whose house thy 
husband is born. There thou shalt be united to that husband of thine, 
and by thy power he shall surmount his curse and return to my service." 
In accordance with this decree of Vaisravana, that \irtuous wife became a 
mortal maiden, and fell at the door of that Brahman's female slave's house. 
And the slave suddenly saw that maiden of marvellous beauty, and took her 
and exhibited her to her master the Brahman. And the Brahman rejoiced, 
and said to the female slave " This is without doubt some heavenly maiden 
not born in the ordinary way ; so my soul tells me. Bring here this girl 
who has entered your house, for, I think, she deserves to be my son's wife." 
Then in course of time that girl and the son of the Brahman, having grown 
up, were smitten with ardent reciprocal affection at the sight of one 
another. Then they were married by the Brahman ; and the couple, 
though they did not remember their previous births, felt as if a long sepa- 
ration had been brought to an end. Then at last the Yaksha died, and as 
his wife burnt herself with his mortal body, his sins were wiped away by 
her sufferings, and he regained his former rank. 

" Thus, you see, heavenly beings, on account of certain causes, descend 
from heaven to the earth, by the appointment of fate, and, because they are 
free from sin, they are not born in the usual way. What does this girl's family 
matter to you ? So this daughter of Kalingasena is, as I said, the wife 
appointed for your son by destiny." When Yaugandharayana had said 
this to the king of Vatsa and the queen Va savadatta, they both consented 
in their hearts that it should be so. Then the prime minister returned to 
his house, and the king, in the company of his wife, spent the day happily, 
in drinking and other enjoyments. 

Then, as time went on, that daughter of Kalingasena, who had lost her 

recollection of her former state through illusion, gradually grew up, and 

her dower of beauty grew with her ; and her mother and her attendants 

gave her the name of Madanumauclmka, because she was the daughter of 

* Thuro is probably a pun too oil varti, the wick of a lamp. 


Madaoavega, saying, " Surely the beauty of all other lovely women has 
fled to her ; else how could they have become ugly before her ?" And the 
queen Vasavadatta, hearing she was beautiful, one day had her brought 
into her presence out of curiosity. Then the king and Yaugandharayana 
and his fellows beheld her clinging to the face of her nurse, as the candle- 
flame clings to the wick. And there was no one present, who did not 
think that she was an incarnation of Rati, when they beheld her matchless 
body, which was like nectar to their eyes. And then the queen Vasavadatta 
brought there her son Naravahanadatta, who was a feast to the eyes of 
the world. He beheld, with the lotus of his face expanded, the gleaming 
Madanamanchuka, as the bed of water-lilies beholds the young splendour 
of the sun. The girl gazed with dilated countenance upon that gladdener 
of the eyes, and could not gaze enough, as the female partridge can never 
be sated with gazing on the moon. Henceforth these two children could 
not remain apart even for a moment, being, as it were, fastened together 
with the nooses of glances. 

But, in course of time, the king of Vatsa came to the conclusion that 
that marriage was made in heaven,* and turned his mind to the solemniza- 
tion of the nuptials. When Kalingasena heard that, she rejoiced, and 
fixed her affection upon Naravahanadatta out of love for her daughter's 
future husband. And then the king of Vatsa, after deliberating with his 
ministers, had made for his son a separate palace like his own. Then that 
king, who could discern times and seasons, collected the necessary uten- 
sils, and anointed his son as crown-prince, since it was apparent that he 
possessed all praiseworthy qualities. First there fell on his head the water 
of his father's tears, and then the water of holy bathing-places, purified 
by Vaidik spells of mickle might. When the lotus of his face was washed 
with the water of inauguration, wonderful to say, the faces of the cardinal 
points became also clear. When his mothers threw on him the flowers of 
the auspicious garlands, the heaven immediately shed a rain of many celes- 
tial wreaths. As if in emulation of the thunder of the drums of the gods, 
the echoes of the sound of the cymbals of rejoicing floated in the air. 
Every one there bowed before him, as soon as he was inaugurated as crown- 
prince ; then by that alone he was exalted, without his own power. 

Then the king of Vatsa summoned the good sons of the ministers, 
who were the playfellows of his son, and appointed them to their offices 
as servants to the crown-prince. He appointed to the office of prime 
minister Marubhiiti the son of Yaugandharayana, and then Harisikha the 
son of Human vat to the office of commander-in- chief, and he appointed 
Tapantaka the son of Vasantaka as the companion of his lighter hours, 
and Gomukha the son of Ityaka to the duty of chamberlain and warder, 
* Literally " made by the gods." 


and to the office of domestic chaplains the two sons of Pingalika, Vaisva- 
nara and S'antisoma, the nephews of the king's family priest. When these 
men had been appointed by the king servants to his son, there was heard 
from heaven a voice preceded by a rain of flowers : " These ministers shall 
accomplish all things prosperously for the prince, and Gomukha shall be 
his inseparable companion." When the heavenly voice had said this, the 
delighted king of Vatsa honoured them all with clothes and ornaments ; 
and while that king was showering wealth upon his dependents, none of 
them could claim the title of poor on account of the accumulation of riches. 
And the city was filled with dancing girls and minstrels, who seemed to be 
invited by the rows of silken streamers fanned and agitated by the wind. 

Then Kalingasena came to the feast of her future son-in-law, looking 
like the Fortune of the Vidyadhara race which was to attend him, present 
in bodily form. Then Vasavadatta and Padmavati and she danced, all three 
of them, for joy, like the three powers* of a king united together. And 
all the trees there seemed to dance, as their creepers waved in the wind, much 
more did the creatures possessing sense. 

Then the crown-prince Naravahanadatta, having been inaugurated in 
his office, ascended an elephant of victory, and went forth. And he was 
sprinkled by the city wives with their upcast eyes, blue, white and red, re- 
sembling offerings of blue lotuses, parched grain and water-lilies. And 
after visiting the gods worshipped in that city, being praised by heralds 
and minstrels, he entered his palace with his ministers. Then Kalinga- 
sena gave him, to begin with, celestial viands and drinks far exceeding what 
his own magnificence could supply, and she presented to him and his minis- 
ters, friends and servants, beautiful robes and heavenly ornaments, for she 
was overpowered with love for her son-in-law. So the day passed in high 
festivity for all these, the king of Vatsa and the others, charming as the 
taste of nectar. 

Then the night arrived, and Kalingasena pondering over her daughter's 
marriage, called to mind her friend Somaprabha. No sooner had she called 
to mind the daughter of the Asura Maya, than her husband, the much-know- 
ing Nadakiivara, thus addressed that noble lady, his wife " Dear one, Ka- 
lingasena is now thinking on thee with longing, therefore go and make a 
heavenly garden for her daughter." Having said this, and revealed the 
future and the past history of that maiden, her husband dismissed that in- 
stant his wife Somaprabha. And when she arrived, her friend Kalingasena 
threw her arms around her neck, having missed her so long, and Sorea- 
prabha, after asking after her health, said to her " You have been married 

* i. e. prabhutva, the majesty or pre-eminence of the king himself : mantra, the 
power of good counsel ; utsdha energy. 


by a Vidyadhara of great power, and your daughter is an incarnation of 
i'ati by the favour of SI va, and she has been brought into the world as the 
wife, in a previous state of existence, of an incarnation of Love, that has 
taken his birth from the king of Vatsa. He shall be emperor of the 
Vidyadharas for a kalpa of the gods ; and she shall be honoured above his 
other wives. But you have descended into this world, being an Apsaras 
degraded by the curse of Indra, and after you have brought your duties to 
completion, you shall obtain deliverance from your curse. All this \vas 
told me, my friend, by my wise husband, so you must not be anxious ; you 
will enjoy every prosperity. And I will now mate here for your daughter 
a heavenly garden, the like of which does not exist on earth, in heaven, 
or in the nether regions." Having said this, Somaprabha made a heavenly 
garden by her magic power, and taking leave of the regretful Kalingasena, 
she departed. Then, at the dawn of day, people beheld that garden, look- 
ing like the garden of Nandana suddenly fallen down from heaven to 
earth. Then the king of Vatsa heard of it, and came there with his wives 
and his ministers, and Naravahanadatta with his companions. And they 
beheld that garden, the trees of which bore both flowers and fruits all the 
year round,* with many jewelled pillars, walls, lawns, and tanks ; with birds 
of the colour of gold, with heavenly perfumed breezes, like a second 
Svarga descended to earth from the region of the gods. The lord of 
Vatsa, when he saw that wonderful sight, asked Kalingasena, who was 
intent on hospitality, what it was. And she thus answered the king in the 
hearing of all : " There is a great Asura, Maya by name, an incarnation 
of Visvakarman, who made the assembly-hall of Yudhisthira, and the city 
of Indra : he lias a daughter, Somaprabha by name, who is a friend of mine. 
She came here at night to visit me, and out of love made this heavenly 
garden by her magic power, for the sake of my daughter." After saying 
this, she told all the past and future fortunes of her daughter, which 
Somaprabha had revealed to her, letting the king know that she had heard 
them from her friend. Then all there, perceiving that the speech of Kalinga- 
sena tallied with what they previously knew, dismissed their doubts and 
were exceedingly delighted. And the king of Vatsa, with his wives and 
his son, spent that day in the garden, being hospitably entertained by 

The next day, the king went to visit a god in a temple, and he saw 
many women well-clothed and with beautiful ornaments. And when he 
asked them who they were, they said to him " We are the sciences, and 
these are the accomplishments ; and we are come here on account of y<>ur 
son : we shall now go and enter into him." Having said this they disap- 

1, and the king of Vatsa entered his house astonished. There he told 
Op. Udy. v. VIL. 116; Spensur'a l-aery Qiivxur, 11J, 0, 4-'. 


it to the queen Vasavadatt;i and to the circle of his ministers, and they 
rejoiced at that favour of the deity. Then Vasavadatta, hy the direction 
of the king, took up a lyre as soon as Naravahanadatta entered the room. 
And while his mother was playing, Naravahanadatta said modestly to her, 
" This lyre is out of tune." His father said, " Take it, and play on it," where- 
upon he played upon the lyre so as to astonish even the Gandharvas. When 
he was thus tested by his father in all the sciences and the accomplishments, 
he became endowed with them all, and of himself knew all-knowledge. When 
the king of Vatsa beheld his son endowed with all talents, he taught Mada- 
namanchuka, the daughter of Kalingasena, dancing. As fast as she became 
perfect in accomplishments,* the heart of the prince Naravahanadatta was 
disturbed. So the sea is disturbed, as fast as the orb of the moon rounds 
off its digits. And he delighted in beholding her singing and dancing, 
accomplished in all the gestures of the body, so that she seemed to be re- 
citing the decrees of Love. As for her, if she did not see for a moment that 
nectar-like lover, the tears rose to her eyes, and she was like a bed of white 
lotuses, wet with dew at the hour of dawn.f And Naravahanadatta, being 
unable to live without continually beholding her face, came to that garden 
of hers. There he remained, and Kalingasena out of affection did all she 
could to please him, bringing her daughter to him. And Gomukha, who 
saw into his master's heart, and wished to bring about his long stay there, 
used to tell various tales to Kalingasena. The king was delighted by his 
friend's penetrating his intentions, for seeing into one's lord's soul is the 
surest way of winning him. And Naravahanadatta himself perfected Ma- 
danamanchuka in dancing and other accomplishments, giving her lessons 
in a concert-hall that stood in the garden, and while his beloved danced, 
he played on all instruments so as to put to the blush the most skilful 
minstrels. And he conquered also various professors that came from all 
quarters, and were skilful in managing elephants, horses, and chariots, in the 
use of hand-to-hand and missile weapons, in painting and modelling. In 
these amusements passed during childhood the days of Naraviihnnadatta, 
who was the chosen bridegroom of Science. 

Now, once on a time the prince, with his ministers, and accompanied 
by his beloved, went on a pilgrimage to a garden called Nagavana. There 
a certain merchant's wife fell in love with Gomukha, and being repulsed, 
tried to kill him by offering to him a poisoned drink. But Goihuklui came 
to hear of it from the lips of her confidante, and did not take that drink, 
but broke out into the following denunciation of women: "Alas! the 

* The pun here lies in the word A-a/a, which means ''accompli.- ,.1 ;il.-.. 

a sixteenth of the moon's <li;iimtrr. 

f This lotus is a friend of th<' moon's and bewails its absence. 
J Or perhaps books. 


Creator first created recklessness, and then women in imitation of it ; by 
nature nothing is too bad for them to do. Surely this being, they call 
woman, is created of nectar and poison, for, when she is attached to one, she 
is nectar, and when estranged she is indeed poison. Who can see through 
a woman, with loving face secretly planning crime ? A wicked woman is 
like a lotus-bed with its flowers expanded, and an alligator concealed in it. 
But now and then there falls from heaven, urging on a host of virtues, a 
good woman that brings praise to her husband, like the pure light of the 
sun. But another, of evil augury, attached to strangers, not free from 
inordinate desires, wicked, bearing the poison of aversion,* slays her husband 
like a female snake." 

Story of 8'utmykna and his wicked, For instance, in a certain village 

wi f e - there was a certain man named 

S'atrughna, and his wife was unchaste. He once saw in the evening his 
wife in the society of her lover, and he slew that lover of hers, when he 
was in the house, with the sword. And he remained at the door waiting 
for the night, keeping his wife inside, and at night-fall a traveller came 
there to ask for a lodging. He gave him refuge, and artfully carried away 
with his help the corpse of that adulterer at night, and went with it to the 
forest. And there, while he was throwing that corpse into a well, the mouth 
of which was overgrown with plants, his wife came behind him, and pushed 
him in also. 

" What reckless crime of this kind will not a wicked wife commit ?" 
In these words Gomukha, though still a boy, denounced the conduct of 

Then Naravahanadatta himself worshipped the snakes in that grove 
of snakes,f and went back to his palace with his retinue. 

While he was there, he desired one day to prove his ministers, Gomu- 
kha and the others, so he asked them, though he himself knew it well, for a 
summary of the policy of princes. They consulted among themselves, and 
said " You know all things, nevertheless we will tell you this, now that 
you ask us," and so they proceeded to relate the cream of political science. 

"A king should first tame and mount the horses of the senses, and 
should conquer those internal foes, love, anger, avarice and delusion, and 
should subdue himself as a preparation tor subduing other enemies, for how 
cnn a man, who has not conquered himself, being helpless, conquer others r 1 
Then he should procure ministers, who, among other good qu;iliti< - 
that of being natives of his own country, and a skilful family priest, knowing 
the Atharva Veda, gifted with asceticism. He should test his ministers 

* I read virdga-vishabJirid. 

t i.<. N;'i-;i\an;i. l-'cr M ipcnt-\voi>hii) see Tylor's 1'iluiitive Cultmv, Vol. II, 
1>1>. 'J 17 -220. 


with respect to fear, avarice, virtue and passion, by ingenious artifices, and 
then lie should appoint them to appropriate duties, discerning their hearts. 
He should try their speech, when they are deliberating with one another on 
affairs, to see if it is truthful, or inspired by malice, spoken out of affection, 
or connected with selfish objects. He should be pleased with truth, but 
should punish untruth as it deserves,, and he should continually inquire in- 
to the conduct of each of them by means of spies. Thus he should look at 
business with unhooded eye, and by rooting up opponents,* and acquiring 
a treasure, a force, and the other means of success, should establish himself 
firmly on the throne. Then, equipped with the three powers of courage, 
kingly authority, and counsel, he should be eager to conquer the territory 
of others, considering the difference between the power of himself and his 
foe. He should continually take counsel with advisers, who should be 
trusty, learned and wise, and should correct with his own intellect the , 
policy determined on by them, in all its details. Being versed in the 
means of success, f (conciliation, bribery and the others,) he should attain for 
himself security, and he should then employ the six proper courses, of which 
alliance and war are the chief. J Thus a king acquires prosperity, and as 
long as he carefully considers his own realm and that of his rival, he is vic- 
torious but never vanquished. But an ignorant monarch, blind with pas- 
sion and avarice, is plundered by wicked servants, who shew him the wrong 
path, and leading him astray, fling him into pits. On account of these 
rogues a servant of another kind is never admitted into the presence of the 
king, as a husbandman cannot get at a crop of rice enclosed with a pali- 
sade. For he is enslaved by those faithless servants, who penetrate into 
his secrets ; and consequently Fortune in disgust flies from him, because 
he does not know the difference between man and man. Therefore a king 
should conquer himself, should inflict due chastisement, and know the dif- 
ference of men's characters, for in this way he will acquire his subjects' love 
and become thereby a vessel of prosperity." 

Story of king S'urasena and his mini- I n <> ld time a king named S'ura- 

sters ' sena, who relied implicitly upon his 

servants, was enslaved and plundered by his ministers, who had formed a 
coalition. Whoever was a faithful servant to the king, the ministers would 
not give even a straw to, though the king wished to bestow a reward upon 
him ; but if any man was a faithful servant to them, they themselves gave 

* Literally thorns. 

t The upciyas which are usually enumerated are four, viz. sowing dissension, iv 
tion, bribery and open attack. 

t The six gunas peace, war, march, halt, stratagem and recourse to the protec- 
tion of a mightier king. 


him presents, and by their representations induced the king to give to him, 
though he was undeserving. When the king saw that, he gradually came 
to be aware of that coalition of rogues, and set those ministers at variance 
with one another by a clever artifice. When they were estranged, and the 
clique was broken up, and they began to inform against one another, the 
king ruled the realm successfully, without being deceived by others. 

And there was a king named 
Story of Hansmha. . , 

Hansmha, or ordinary power but 

versed in the true science of policy, who had surrounded himself with 
devoted and wise ministers, possessed forts, and stores of wealth ; he made 
his subjects devoted to him and conducted himself in such a way that, 
though attacked by an emperor, he was not defeated. 

" Thus discernment and reflection are the main things in governing a 
kingdom ; what is of more importance ?" Having said this, each taking his 
part, Gomukha p.nd his fellows ceased. Naravahanadatta, approving that 
speech of theirs, though he knew that heroic action is to be thought upon,* 
still placed his reliance upon destiny whose power surpasses all thought. 

Then he rose up, and his ardour being kindled by delay, he went 
with them to visit his beloved. Madanamanchuka ; when he had reach- 
ed her palace and was seated on a throne, Kalingasena, after per- 
forming the usual courtesies, said with astonishment to Gomukha,f 
" Before the prince Naravahauadatta arrived, Madanamanchuka, being 
impatient, went up to the top of the palace to watch him coming, 
accompanied by me, and while we were there, a man descended from 
heaven upon it, he was of divine appearance, wore a tiara, and a sword, 
and said to me 'I am a king, a lord of the Vidyadharas named 
Manasavega, and you are a heavenly nymph named Surabhidatta who by a 
curse have fallen down to earth, and this your daughter is of heavenly ori- 
gin, this is known to me well. So give me this daughter of yours in mar- 
riage, for the connexion is a suitable one.' When he said this, I suddenly 
burst out laughing, and said to him, ' Naravahanadatta has been appoint- 
ed her husband by the gods, and he is to be the emperor of all you Vidya- 
dharas.' When I said this to him, the Vidyadhara flew up into the sky, 
like a sudden streak of lightning dazzling the eyes of my daughter." 
When Gomukha heard that, he said, " The Vidyadharas found out that 
the prince was to be their future lord, from a speech in the air, by which 
the future birth of the prince was made known to the king in private, and 
they immediately desired to do him a mischief. What self-willed one 
would desire a mighty lord as his ruler and restrainer ? For which reason 

I read dbhyagat with a MS. in the Sanskrit College, 
f I read vismitd with a .MS. in the Sanskrit College. 


S'iva has made arrangements to ensure the safety of this prince, by commis- 
sioning his attendants to wait on him in actual presence. I heard this 
speech of Narada's being related by my father. So it comes to pass 
that the Vidyadharas are now hostile to us." When Kalingasena heard 
this, she was terrified at the thought of what had happened to herself, 
and said, " Why does not the prince marry Madanamanchuka now, before 
she is deceived, like me, by delusion ?" When Gomukha and the others 
heard this from Kalingasena, they said, " Do you stir up the king of 
Vatsa to this business." Then Naravahanadatta, with his heart lixed 
on Madanamanchuka only, amused himself by looking at her in the garden 
all that day, with her face like a full-blown lotus, with her eyes like 
opening blue water-lilies, with lips lovely as the bandhuka, with breasts 
like clusters of manddras, with body delicate as the s'irisha, like a match- 
less arrow, composed of five flowers, appointed by the god of love for the 
conquest of the world. 

The next day Kalingasena went in person, and preferred her petition 
to the king for the marriage of her daughter. The king of Vatsa dis- 
missed her, and summoning his ministers, said to them in the presence of 
the queen Vasavadatta, " Kalingasena is impatient for the marriage of her 
daughter: so how are we to manage it, for the people think that that excel- 
lent woman is unchaste ? And we must certainly consider the people : did 
not Bamabhadra long ago desert queen Sita, though she was chaste, on 
account of the sknder of the multitude ? Was not Arnba, though carried 
off with great effort by Bhishma for the sake of his brother, reluctantly 
abandoned, because she had previously chosen another husband ? In the 
same way this Kalingasena, after spontaneously choosing me, was married by 
Madanavega ; for this reason the people blame her. Therefore let this 
Naravahanadatta himself marry by the Gandharva ceremony her daughter, 
who will be a suitable wife for him." When the king of Vatsa said this, 
Yaugandharayana answered, " My lord, how could Kalingasena consent to 
this impropriety ? For I have often observed that she, as well as her 
daughter, is a divine being, no ordinary woman, and this was told me by 
my wise friend the Brahman-Riikshasa." While they were debating with 
one another in this style, the voice of S'iva was heard from heaven to the 
following effect : " The god of love, after having been consumed by the 
fire of my eye, has been created again in the form of Naravahanadatta, and 
having been pleased with the asceticism of Rati I have created her as his 
wife in the form of Madanamanchuka. And dwelling with her, as his 
head-wife, he shall exercise supreme sovereignty over the Vidyadharas for 
a Tcalpa of the gods, after conquering his enemies by my favour." After 
saying this the voice ceased. 

When he heard this speech of the adorable S'iva, the king of 


with bis retinue, worshipped him, and joyfully made up his mind to celebrate 
the marriage of his son. Then the king congratulated bis prime minister, 
who had before discerned the truth, and summoned the astrologers, and 

* O f 

asked them what would be a favourable moment, and they, after being 
honoured with presents, told him that a favourable moment would arrive 
within a few days. Again those astrologers said to him " Your son will 
have to endure some separation for a short season from this wife of his ; 
this we know, lord of Vatsa, by our own scientific foresight." Then 
the king proceeded to make the requisite preparations for the marriage of 
his son, in a style suited to his own magnificence, so that not only his own 
city, but the whole earth was made to tremble with the effort of it. Then, 
the day of marriage having arrived, Kalingasena adorned her daughter, to 
whom her father had sent his own heavenly ornaments, and Somaprabha 
came in obedience to her husband's order. Then Madanamanchuka, adorn- 
ed with a heavenly marriage thread, looked still more lovely ; is not 
the moon truly beautiful, when accompanied by Kartika ? And 
heavenly nymphs, by the order of S'iva, sang auspicious strains in her 
honour : they were eclipsed by her beauty and remained hidden as if 
ashamed, but the sound of their songs was heard. They sang the follow- 
ing hymn in honour of Gauri, blended with the minstrelsy of the match- 
less musicians of heaven, so as to make unequalled harmony " Victory to 
thee, O daughter of the mountain, that hast mercy on thy faithful votaries, 
for thou hast thyself come to-day and blessed with success the asceticism 
of Eati." Then Narav&hanadatta, resplendent with excellent marriage- 
thread, entered the wedding-pavilion full of various musical instruments. 
And the bride and bridegroom, after accomplishing the auspicious ceremony 
of marriage, with intent care, so that no rite was left out, ascended the 
altar-platform where a fire was burning, as if ascending the pure 
flame of jewels on the heads of kings. If the moon and the sun were 
to revolve at the same time round the mountain of gold,* there would be 
an exact representation in the world of the appearance of those two, the 
bride and the bridegroom, when circumambulating the fire, keeping it on 
their right. Not only did the drums of the gods in the air drown the 
cymbal-clang in honour of the marriage festival, but the rain of flowers 
sent down by the gods overwhelmed the gilt grain thrown by the women. 
Then also the generous Kalingasena honoured her son-in-law with heaps of 
gold studded with jewels, so that the lord of Alaka was considered very 
poor compared with him, and much more so all miserable earthly monarch*;. 

* i. e. mount Sumeru. The moon being masculine in Sanskrit, th' words " form 
of the moon" arc used in tin original, to satisfy the rrqiiin 'incuts of classical Hindu 
Ulii.toric, according to which feminine things, cannot i 1 to masculine. 


And then the bride and bridegroom, now that the delightful ceremony of 
marriage was accomplished in accordance with their long-cherished wishes, 
entered the inner apartments crowded with women, adorned with pure and 
variegated decoration, even as they penetrated the heart of the people full 
of pure and various loyalty. Moreover, the city of the king of Vatsa was 
quickly filled with kings, surrounded with splendid armies, who, though 
their valour was worthy of the world's admiration, had bent in submission, 
bringing in their hands valuable jewels by way of presents, as if with sub- 
ject seas.* On that high day of festival, the king distributed gold with 
such magnificence to his dependants, that the children in their mothers' 
wombs were at any rate the only beings in his kingdom not made of gold.f 
Then on account of the troops of excellent minstrels and dancing girls, 
that came from all quarters of the world, with hymns, music, dances and 
songs on all sides, the world seemed full of harmony. And at that festival 
the city of Kausambi seemed itself to be dancing, for the pennons agitated 
by the wind seemed like twining arms, and it was beautified with the 
toilettes of the city matrons, as if with ornaments. And thus waxing in 
mirth every day, that great festival continued for a long time, and all 
friends, relations and people generally were delighted by it, and had their 
wishes marvellously fulfilled. And that crown-prince Naravahanadatta, 
accompanied by Madanamanchuka, enjoyed, though intent on glory, the 
long-desired pleasures of this world. 

* The sea is always spoken of as full of " inestimable stones, unvalued jewels." 
There is a double meaning throughout. Sadvdhini, when applied to the sea, may mean 
"beautiful rivers." 

f Jdtarupd also means "having assumed a form," so that there is another pun 
here. I read abhavan for abhavad, in accordance with a MS. lent mo from the Sanskrit 



May tbe head of Siva, studded with the nails of Gauri engaged in 
playfully pulling his hair, and so appearing rich in many moons,* procure 
you prosperity. 

May the god of the elephant face,f who, stretching forth his trunk 
wet with streaming ichor, curved at the extremity, seems to be bestowing 
successes, protect you. 

Thus the young son of the king of Vatsa, having married in Kau- 
sambi Madanamanchuka, whom he loved as his life, remained living as he 
chose, with his ministers Gomukha and others, having obtained his wish. 

And once on a time, when the feast of spring had arrived, adorned 
with the gushing notes of love-intoxicated cuckoos, in which the wind 
from the Malaya mountain set in motion by force the dance of the creepers, 
the feast of spring delightful with the hum of bees, the prince went to 
the garden with his ministers to amuse himself. After roaming about 
there, his friend Tapantaka suddenly came with his eyes expanded with 
delight, and stepping up to him, said " Prince, I have seen not far from 
here a wonderful maiden, who has descended from heaven and is standing 
tinder an aoka-iree, and that very maiden, who illumines the regions 
with her beauty, advancing towards me with her friends, sent me here to 
summon you." When Naravahana heard that, being eager to see her, he 
went quickly with his ministers to the foot of the tree. He beheld there 
that fair one, with her rolling eyes like bees, with her lips red like shoots, 
beautiful with breasts firm as clusters, having her body yellow with the 

* The cedille under the c of candra should be erased in Dr. Brockhaus's text, 
t Ganesa, who bestows success or the reverse, and is invoked in all undertakings. 
I read karan dundmbhasd. 


dust of flowers, removing fatigue by her loveliness,* like the goddess of 
the garden appearing in a visible shape suited to her deity. And the 
prince approached the heavenly maiden, who bowed before him, and wel- 
comed her, for his eyes were ravished with her beauty. Then his minister 
Gomukha, after all had sat down, asked her, " Who are you, auspicious 
one, and for what reason have you come here ?" "When she heard that, 
she laid aside her modesty in obedience to the irresistible decree of Love, 
and frequently stealing sidelong glances at the lotus of Naravahanadatta's 
face with an eye that shed matchless affection, she began thus at length to 
relate her own history. 

There is a mountain-chain called 
Story of Ratnaprabha. 

Himavat, famous in the three worlds ; 

it has many peaks, but one of its peaks is the mount of Siva which 
is garlanded with the brightness of glittering jewels, and flashes with 
gleaming snow, and like the expanse of the heaven, cannot be measured. 
Its plateaux are the home of magic powers and of magic herbs, which dispel 
old age, death, and fear, and are to be obtained by the favour of Siva. 
With its peaks yellow with the brightness of the bodies of many Vidyadha- 
ras, it transcends the glory of the peaks of Sumeru itself, the mighty hill 
of the immortals. 

On it there is a golden city called Kanchanasringa, which gleams re- 
fulgent with brightness, like the palace of the Sun. It extends many 
yojanas, and in it there lives a king of the Yidyadharas named Hemapra- 
bha, who is a firm votary of the husband of Uma. And though he has 
many wives, he has only one queen, whom he loves dearlj', named Alankarapra- 
bha, as dear to him as liohini to the moon. With her the virtuous king 
used to rise up in the morning and bathe, and worship duly Siva and his 
wife Gauri, and then he would descend to the world of men, and give to 
poor Brahmans every day a thousand gold-pieces mixed with jewels. And 
then he returned from earth and attended to his kingly duties justly, and 
then he ate and drank, abiding by his vow like a hermit. While days 
elapsed in this way, melancholy arose once in the bosom of the king, caused 
by his childlessness, but suggested by a passing occasion. And his beloved 
queen Alankaraprabha, seeing that he was in very low spirits, asked him 
the cause of his sadness. Then the king said to her " I have all prosperi- 
ty, but the one grief of childlessness afflicts me, O queen. And this melan- 
choly has arisen in my breast on the occasion of calling to mind a tale, 
which I heard long ago, of a virtuous man who had no son." Then the 
queen said to him, " Of what nature was that tale ?" When asked this 
question, the king told her the tale briefly in the following words ; 

* The word also means " shade." 

Story of SatlcaMla and the tico !,;.<- In tlie town of Chitrakuta there 

* ttre * t was a king named Brahmanavara, 

rightly named, for he was devoted to honouring Brahmans. He had a 
victorious servant named Sattvasila who devoted himself exclusively to war, 
and every month Sattvasila received a hundred gold-pieces from that king. 
But as he was munificent, that gold was not enough for him, especially as 
his childlessness made the pleasure of giving the sole pleasure to which he 
was addicted. Sattvasila was continually reflecting " The Disposer has 
not given me a son to gladden me, but he has given me the vice of genero- 
sity, and that too without wealth. It is better to be produced in the world 
as an old barren tree or a stone, than as a poor man altogether abandoned 
to the vice of giving away money. But once on a time Sattvasila, while 
wandering in a garden, happened by luck to find a treasure : and with the 
help of his servants he quickly brought home that hoard, which gleamed 
with much gold and glittered with priceless stones. Out of that he pro- 
vided himself with pleasures, and gave wealth to Brahmans, slaves, and 
friends, and thus the virtuous man spent his life. Meanwhile his relations, 
beholding this, guessed the secret, and went to the king's palace, and of 
their own accord informed the king that Sattvasila had found a treasure. 
Then Sattvasila was summoned by the king, and by order of the door-keeper 
remained standing for a moment in a lonely part of the king's courtyard. 
There, as he was scratching the earth with the hilt of a lildvajra* that was in 
his hand, he found another large treasure in a copper vessel. It appeared like 
his own heart, displayed openly for him by Destiny pleased with his virtue, in 
order that he might propitiate the king with it. So he covered it up again 
with earth as it was before, and when summoned by the door-keeper, enter- 
ed the king's presence. When he had made his bow there, the king him- 
self said, " I have come to learn that you have obtained a treasure, so 
surrender it to me." And Sattvasila for his part answered him then and 
there, " O king, tell me : shall I give you the first treasure I found, or 
the one I found to-day." The king said to him " Give the one recently 
found." And thereupon Sattvasila went to a corner of the king's court- 
yard, and gave him up the treasure. Then the king, being pleased with 
the treasure, dismissed Sattvasila with these words " Enjoy the first-found 
treasure as you please." So Sattvasila returned to his house. There he 
remained increasing the propriety of his name with gifts and enjoyments, 
and so managing to dispel somehow or other the melancholy caused bv the 
allUction of childlessness. 

" Such is the story of Sattvasila, which I heard long ago, and because 
I have recalled it to mind, I remain sorrowful through thinking over the 

* I have no idea what this word lilurujnt means. Jt is Irunslatrd l>y 
and Roth tin fit- tin Dvitnirkcil 9Utektnd*t ll'trkztmj. 


fact that I have no son." When the queen Alankaraprabha was thus ad- 
dressed by her husband Hemaprabha, the king of the Vidyadharaa, she 
answered him, " It is true : Fortune does assist the brave in this way ; did 
not Sattvasila, when in difficulties, obtain a second treasure ? So you too 
will obtain your desire by the power of your courage, as an example of the 
truth of this, hear the story of Vikramatunga." 

There is a city called Patali- 

Story of the brave Jcinci Vikramatunga. . , ,. . , . , 

putra, the ornament of the earth, 

filled with various beautiful jewels, the colours of which are so disposed as 
to form a perfect scale of colour. In that city there dwelt long ago a 
brave king, named Vikramatunga, who in giving* never turned his back on 
a suppliant, nor in fighting on an enemy. That king one day entered the 
forest to hunt, and saw there a Brahman offering a sacrifice with vilwt 
fruits. When he saw him, he was desirous to question him, but avoided 
going near him, and went off to a great distance with his army in his ardour 
for the chase. For a long time he sported with deer and lions, that rose up 
and fell slain by his hand, as if with foes, and then he returned and beheld 
the Brahman still intent on his sacrifice as before, and going up to him he 
bowed before him, and asked him his name and the advantage he hoped to 
derive from offering the vilva fruits. Then the Brahman blessed the king 
and said to him, " I am a Brahman named Nagasarman, and hear the fruit 
I hope from my sacrifice. When the god of Fire is pleased with this vilva 
sacrifice, then vilva fruits of gold will come out of the fire-cavity. Then 
the god of Fire will appear in bodily form and grant me a boon ; and so I 
have spent much time in offering vilva fruits. But so little is my merit 
that even now the god of Fire is not propitiated." When he said this, that 
king of resolute valour answered him " Then give me one vilva fruit that 
I may offer it, and I will to-day, Brahman, render the god of Fire propi- 
tious to you." Then the Brahman said to the king, " How will you, 
unchastened and impure, propitiate that god of Fire, who is not satisfied 
with me, who remain thus faithful to my vow, and am chastened ?" When 
the Brahman said this to him, the king said to him again, " Never mind, give 
me a vilva fruit, and in a moment you shall behold a wonder." Then the 
Brahman, full of curiosity, gave a vilva fruit to the king, and he then and 
there meditated with soul of firm valour " If thou art not satisiied with this 
rilrn fruit, god of Fire, then 1 will offer thee my own head," and thereupon 
offered the fruit. And the seven-rayed god appeared from the sacrilieial 
eavity, bringing the king a golden rilra fruit as the fruit of his tree of valour. 
And the Fire-god, present in visible form, said to that king " I am pleased 

* Possibly there is a pun hc-ro : riant*, -iviiiu. :<ls.. m.- ;t n> rutting. 
f The fruit of the J5el, well-known to A n-1"- Indians. 

with thy courage, so receive a boon, king." When the magnanimous 
king heard that, he bowed before him and said " Grant this Brahman his 
wish. What other boon do I require?" On hearing this speech of the 
king's, the Fire-god was much pleased and said to him " O king, this Brah- 
man shall become a great lord of wealth, and thou also by my favour 
shalt have the prosperity of thy treasury ever undiminished." When the 
Fire-god had, in these words, bestowed the boon, the Brahman asked him 
this question ; " Thou hast appeared swiftly to a king that acts according 
to his own will, but not to me that am under vows : why is this, O revered 
one ?" Then the Fire-god, the giver of boons, answered " If I had not 
granted him an interview, this king of fierce courage would have offered 
his head in sacrifice to me. In this world successes quickly befall those of 
fierce spirit, but they come slowly, Brahman, to those of dull spirit like 
thee." Thus spake the god of Fire, and vanished, and the Brahman N;iga- 
sarman took leave of the king and in course of time became very rich. 
But the king Vikramatunga, whose courage had been thus seen by his 
dependents, returned amid their plaudits to his town of Pataliputra. 

When the king was dwelling there, the warder S'atrunjaya entered 
suddenly one day, and said secretly to him ; " There is standing at the door, 
O king, a Brahman lad, who says his name is Dattasarman, he wishes to 
make a representation to you in private." The king gave the order to intro- 
duce him, and the lad was introduced, and after blessing the king, he 
bowed before him, and sat down. And he made this representation " King, 
by a certain device of powder I know how to make always excellent gold 
out of copper. For that device was shewn me by my spiritual teacher, 
and I saw with my own eyes that he made gold by that device." When 
the lad said this, the king ordered copper to be brought, and when it was 
melted, the lad threw the powder upon it. But while the powder was 
being thrown, an invisible Yaksha carried it off, and the king alone saw him, 
having propitiated the god of Fire. And that copper did not turn into 
gold, as the powder did not reach it ; thrice did the lad make the attempt 
and thrice his labour was in vain. Then the king, first of brave men, took 
the powder from the desponding lad, and himself threw it on the melted 
copper ; when he threw the powder, the Yaksha did not intercept it, but 
went away smiling. Accordingly the copper became gold by contact with 
that powder. Then the boy, astonished, asked the king for an explanation, 
and the king told him the incident of the Yaksha, just as he had seen it. 
And having learned in this way the device of the powder from that lad, 
the king made him marry a wife, and gave him all he wished, and having 
his treasury prosperously filled by means of the gold prodm-i-d by that 
device, he himself enjoyed great happiness together with his wives, and made 
Br&hmans rich. 

:J:i I 

" Thus you see that the Lord grants their desires to men of fierce 
courage, seeming to be either terrified or pleased by them. And who, 
O king, is of more firm valour or more generous than you ? So S'iva, when 
propitiated by you, will certainly give you a son ; do not sorrow." The 
king Hemaprabha, when he heard this noble speech from the mouth of 
queen Alankaraprabha, believed it and was pleased. And he considered 
that his own heart, radiant with cheerfulness, indicated that he would 
certainly obtain a son by propitiating S'iva. The next day after this, 
he and his wife bathed and worshipped S'iva, and he gave 90 millions of 
gold-pieces to the Brahmans, and without taking food he went through 
ascetic practices in front of S'iva, determined that he would either leave the 
body or propitiate the god, and continuing in asceticism, he praised the 
giver of boons, the husband of the daughter of the mountain,* that 
lightly gave away the sea of milk to his votary TJpamanyu, saying, 
" Honour to thee, O husband of Gauri, who art the cause of the creation, 
preservation, and destruction of the world, who dost assume the eight 
special forms of ether and the rest.f Honour to thee, who sleepest on 
the ever-expanded lotus of the heart, that art S'ambhu, the swan dwelling 
in the pure Manasa lake.J Honour to thee, the exceeding marvellous 
Moon, of divine brightness, pure, of watery substance, to be beheld by 
those whose sins are put away ; to thee whose beloved is half thy body, 
and who nevertheless art supremely chaste. Honour to thee who didsfc 
create the world by a wish, and art thyself the world." 

When the king had praised S'iva in these words and fasted for three 
nights, the god appeared to him in a dream, and spake as follows : " Rise 
up, king, there shall be born to thee a heroic son that shall uphold thy 
race. And thou shalt also obtain by the favour of Gauri, a glorious 
daughter who is destined to be the queen of that treasure-house of glory, 
Naraviihanadatta, your future emperor." When S'iva had said this, he 
disappeared, and Hemaprabha woke up, delighted, at the close of night. 
And by telling his dream he gladdened his wife Alankaraprabha, who had 
been told the same by Gauri in a dream, and dwelt on the agreement of 
the two visions. And then the king rose up and bathed and worshipped 
S'iva, and after giving gifts, broke his fast, and kept high festival. 

Then, after some days had passed, the queen Alankaraprablm became 
pregnant by that king, and delighted her beloved by her face redolent of 

* Parvati or Durga, the wife of Siva. 

t The others are the Sun, Fire, Water, Earth, Air, the Moon and the officiating 
Brahman. For the latter is sometimes substituted pasfupati or lord of animals. 
I Possibly it also means "the swan of the temple of the mind." 
{ An allusion to the Arddhanansu form of S'iva. 

t'y, with wildly rolling eyes, so that it resembled a pale lotus with bees 
hovering round it. Then she gave birth in due time to a son, (whose noble 
lineage was proclaimed by the elevated longings of her pregnancy,) as the 
sky gives birth to the orb of day. As soon as he was born, the lying-in 
chamber was illuminated by his might, and so was made red as vermilion. 
And his father gave to that infant, that brought terror to the families of 
his enemies, the name of Vajraprabha, that had been appointed for him by 
a divine voice. Then the boy grew by degrees, being filled with accom- 
plishments, and causing the exultation of his family, as the new moon fills 
out with digits,* and causes the sea to rise. 

Then, not long after, the queen of that king Hemaprabha again 
became pregnant. And when she was pregnant, she sat upon a golden 
throne, and became truly the jewel of the harem, adding special lustre to 
her settings. And in a chariot, in the shape of a beautiful lotus, manu- 
factured by help of magic science, she roamed about in the sky, since her 
pregnant longings assumed that form. But when the due time came, a 
daughter was born to that queen, whose birth by the favour of Gauri was 
a sufficient guarantee of her loveliness. And this voice was then heard 
from heaven " She shall be the wife of Naravahanadatta" which agreed 
with the words of Siva's revelation. And the king was just as much 
delighted at her birth as he was at that of his son, and gave her the name 
of Ratnaprabha. And Ratnaprabha, adorned with her own science, grew 
up in the house of her father, producing illumination in all the quarters of 
the sky. Then the king made his son Vajraprabha, who had begun to 
wear armour, take a wife, and appointed him crown-prince. And he devolved 
on him the burden of the kingdom and remained at ease ; but still one 
anxiety lingered in his heart, anxiety about the marriage of his daughter. 

One day the king beheld that daughter, who was fit to be given away 
in marriage, sitting near him, and said to the queen Alankaraprabha, who 
was in his presence ; " Observe, queen, a daughter is a great misery in the 
three worlds, even though she is the ornament of her family, a misery, alas ! 
even to the great. For this Ratnaprabha, though modest, learned, young 
and beautiful, afflicts me because she has not obtained a husband." The 
queen said to him " She was proclaimed by the gods as the destined wife 
of Naravahanadatta, our future emperor, why is she not given to him ?" 
When the queen said this to him, the king answered : " In truth the 
maiden is fortunate, that shall obtain him for a bridegroom. For he is an 
incarnation of Kama upon earth, but he has not as yet attained his divine 
nature : therefore I am now waiting for his attainment of superhuman 
knowledge. "f While he was thus speaking, Ratnaprabha, by means of those 

* Kola = digit of the moon and also accomplishment, 
t The vidyd of the Vidyadhanis. 1 mid pratikshyate. 


accents of her father, which entered her ear like the words of the bewilder- 
ing spell of the god of love, became as if bewildered, as if possessed, as if 
asleep, as if in a picture, and her heart was captivated by that bridegroom. 
Then with difficulty she took a respectful leave of her parents, and went to 
her own private apartments, and managed at length to get to sleep at the 
end of the night. Then the goddess Gauri, being full of pity for her, gave 
her this command in a dream ; " To-morrow, my daughter, is an auspicious 
day ; so thou must go to the city of Kausambi and see thy future husband, 
and thence thy father, auspicious one, will himself bring thee and him 
into this his city, and celebrate your marriage." So in the morning, when 
she woke up, she told that dream to her mother. Then her mother gave 
her leave to go, and she, knowing by her superhuman knowledge that her 
bridegroom was in the garden, set out from her own city to visit him. 

" Thou knowest, my husband, that I am that Ratnaprabha, arrived 
to-day in a moment, full of impatience, and you all know the sequel." 
When he heard this speech of hers, that in sweetness exceeded nectar, and 
beheld the body of the Vidyadhari that was ambrosia to the eyes, Narava- 
hanadatta in his heart blamed the Creator, saying to himself " Why did 
he not make me all eye and ear ?" And he said to her " Fortunate am I ; 
my birth and life has obtained its fruit, in that I, beautiful one, have 
been thus visited by thee out of affection !" When they had thus exchanged 
the protestations of new love, suddenly the army of the Vidyadharas was 
beheld there in the heaven. Ratnaprabha said immediately, " Here is my 
father come," and the king Hemaprabha descended from heaven with his 
son. And with his son Vajraprabha he approached that Naravahanadatta, 
who gave him a courteous welcome. And while they stood for a moment 
paying one another the customary compliments, the king of Vatsa, who 
had heard of it, came with his ministers. Aud then that Hemaprabha 
told the king, after he had performed towards him the rites of hospitality, 
the whole story exactly as it had been related by Ratnaprabha, and said, 
" I knew by the power of my supernatural knowledge that my daughter 
had come here, and I am aware of all that has happened in this place.* 
* * # * # 

For he will afterwards possess such an imperial chariot. Pray consent, and 
then thou shalt behold in a short time thy son, the prince, returned here, 
united to his wife Ratnaprabha." After he had addressed this prayer to the 
king of Vatsa, and he had consented to his wish, that Hemaprabha, with 
his son, prepared that chariot by his own magic skill, and made Naravahana- 
datta ascend it, together with Ratnaprabha, whose face was cast down from 
modesty, followed by Gomukha and the others, and Yaugandharu yaua, who 

Here Professor Brockhaus supposes a hiatus. 

was also deputed to accompany him by his father, and thus Hemaprabha 
took him to his own capital, Kanchanas'ringaka. 

And Naravahanadatta, when he reached that city of his father-in-law, 
saw that it was all of gold, gleaming with golden ramparts, embraced, as it 
were, on all sides with rays issuing out like shoots, and so stretching forth 
innumerable arms in eagerness of love for that son-in-law. There the king 
Hemaprabha, of high emprise, gave Ratnaprabha with due ceremonies to 
him, as the sea gave Lakshmi to Vishnu. And he gave him glittering 
heaps of jewels, gleaming like innumerable wedding fires lighted.* And in 
the city of that festive prince, who was showering wealth, even the houses, 
being draped with flags, appeared as if they had received changes of raiment. 
And Naravahanadatta, having performed the auspicious ceremony of mar- 
riage, remained there enjoying heavenly pleasures with Ratnaprabha. And he 
amused himself by looking in her company at beautiful temples of the gods 
in gardens and lakes, having ascended with her the heaven by the might of 
her science. 

So, after he had lived some days with his wife in the city of the king 
of the Vidyadharas, the son of the king of Vatsa determined, in accordance 
with the advice of Yaugandharayana, to return to his own city. Then his 
mother-in-law performed for him the auspicious ceremonies previous to 
starting, and his father-in-law again honoured him and his minister, and 
then he set out with Hemaprabha and his son, accompanied by his beloved, 
having again ascended that chariot. He soon arrived, like a stream of 
nectar to the eyes of his mother, and entered his city with Hemaprabba 
and his son and his own followers, bringing with him his wife, who made 
the king of Vatsa rejoice exceedingly with delight at beholding her. The 
king of Vatsa of exalted fortune, with Vasavadatta, welcomed that son, 
who bowed at his feet with his wife, and honoured Hemaprabha his new 
connexion, as well as his son, in a manner conformable to his own dignity. 
Then, after that king of the Vidyadharas, Hemaprabha, had taken leave 
of the lord of Vatsa and his family, and had flown up into the heaven and 
gone to his own city, that Naravahanadatta, together with Ratnaprabha 
;ind Madanamanchuka, spent that day in happiness surrounded by his 

Cp. this with the "jewel-lamps" on pp. 189 and 305, and the luminous car- 
buncle in Gesta Romanorum, CVII. Sir Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar En IT.-, 
Book II, chapter 5, says, " Whether a carbuncle doth flame in the dark, or shine like 
a coal in the night, though generally agreed on by common believers, i* very much 
questioned by many." 



When that Naravahanadatta had thus obtained a new and lovely bride 
of the Vidyadhara race, and was the next day with her in her house, there 
came in the morning to the door, to visit him, his ministers Gomukha and 
others. They were stopped for a moment at the door by the female 
warder, and announced within ; then they entered and were courteously re- 
ceived, and Katnaprabha said to the warder, " The door must not again be 
closed against the entrance of my husband's friends, for they are as dear to me 
as my own body. And I do not think that this is the way to guard female 
apartments." After she had addressed the female warder in these words, 
she said in turn to her husband, " My husband, I am going to say some- 
thing which occurs to me, so listen. I consider that the strict seclusion of 
women is a mere social custom, or rather folly produced by jealousy. It is 
of no use whatever. Women of good family are guarded by their own 
virtue, as their only chamberlain. But even God himself can scarcely 
guard the unchaste. Who can restrain a furious river and a passionate 
woman ? And now listen, I will tell you a story." 

Story of king Rahiddhipati and the There is here a great island in 

white elephant S'vetaras'mi. the midst of the sea, named Itatna- 

kuta. In it there lived in old times a king of great courage, a devoted 
worshipper of Vishnu, rightly named Ratmidhipati.* That king, in order 
to obtain the conquest of the earth, and all kings' daughters as his wives, 
went through a severe penance, to propitiate Vishnu. The adorable one, 
pleased with his penance, appeared in bodily form, and thus commanded 
him " Rise up, king, I am pleased with thee, so I tell thee this listen ! 
There is in the land of Kalinga a Gandharva, who has become a white 
elephant bj r the curse of a hermit, and is known by the name of SVeta- 
rasmi. On account of the asceticism he performed in a former life, and on 
account of his devotion to me, that elephant is supernaturally wise, and 
possesses the power of flying through the sky, and of remembering his 
former birth. And I have ^iven an order to that great elephant, in 
accordance with which lie will come of himself through the air. and }(< 
thy beast of burden. That white elephant thou must mount, as the 
vvielder of the thunderbolt mounts the elephant of the gods.f and whatever 
king thou shalt travel through the air to visit, in fear shall bestow on thee, 
who art of god-like presence, tribute in the form of a daughter, for I will 

i. e. supreme lord of jewels. 
i. /. a.s Indni mounts Aimviita. 


myself command him to do so in a dream. Thus thou shalfc conquer the 
whole earth, and all zenanas, and thou shalt obtain eighty thousand 
princesses." When Vishnu had said this, he disappeared, and the king 
broke his fast, and the next day he beheld that elephant, which had coma 
to him through the air. And when the elephant had thus placed himself 
at the king's disposal, he mounted him, as he had been bidden to do by 
Vishnu, and in this manner he conquered the earth, and carried off the daugh- 
ters of kings. And then the king dwelt there in Ratnakuta with those 
wives, eighty thousand in number, amusing himself as he pleased. And in 
order to propitiate SVetarasmi, that celestial elephant, he fed every day five 
hundred Brahmans. 

Now once on a time the king Ratnadhipati mounted that elephant, 
and, after roaming through the other islands, returned to his own island. 
And as he was descending from the sky, it came to pass that a bird of the 
race of Garuda struck that excellent elephant with his beak. And the bird 
fled, when the king struck him with the sharp elephant-hook, but the ele- 
phant fell on the ground stunned by the blow of the bird's beak. The 
king got off his back, but the elephant, though he recovered his senses, 
was not able to rise up in spite of the efforts made to raise him, and ceased eat- 
ing. For five days the elephant remained in the same place, where it had 
fallen, and the king was grieved and took no food, and prayed as follows : 
" Oh guardians of the world, teach me some remedy in this difficulty ; 
otherwise I will cut off my own head and offer it to you." When he had said 
this, he drew his sword and was preparing to cut off his head, when imme- 
diately a bodiless voice thus addressed him from the sky " king do 
nothing rash ; if some chaste woman touches this elephant with her hand, it 
will rise up, but not otherwise." When the king heard that, he was glad, 
and summoned his own carefully guarded chief queen, Amritalata. Wlien 
the elephant did not rise up, though she touched it with her hand, the 
king had all his other wives summoned. But though they all touched the 
elephant in succession, he did not rise up ; the fact was, not one among 
them was chaste. Then the king, having beheld all those eighty thousand 
wives openly humiliated in the presence of men, being himself abaslvd, 
summoned all the women of his capital, and made them touch the ele- 
phant one after another. And when in spite of it the elephant did not 
rise up, the king was ashamed, because there was not a single chaste 
woman in his city. 

And in the meanwhile a merchant named Harshagupta, who had 
arrived from Tamralipti,* having heard of that event, came there full of 

* The modern Tamluk. The district probably comprised the small but fertile 
tract of country lying to the westward of tho llughli rivw, from Durdwan and Kulu.'t 


curiosity. And in his train there came a servant of the name of S'ilavati, 
who was devoted to her husband ; when she saw what had taken place, she 
said to him " I will touch this elephant with my hand : and if I have not 
even thought in my mind of any other man than my hushand, may it rise 
up." No sooner had she said this, than she came up and touched the 
elephant with her hand, whereupon it rose up in sound health and began 
to eat.* But when the people saw the elephant SVetarasmi rise up, they 
raised a shout and praised S'ilavati, saying " Such are these chaste women, 
few and far between, who, like Siva, are able to create, preserve and destroy 
this world." The king Ratnadhipati also was pleased, and congratulated 
the chaste S'ilavati, and loaded her with innumerable jewels, and he also 
honoured her master, the merchant Harshagupta, and gave him a house 
near his own palace. And he determined to avoid all communication 
with his own wives, and ordered that henceforth they should have nothing 
but food and raiment. 

Then the king, after he had taken his food, sent for the chaste S'ila- 
vati, and said to her at a private interview in the presence of Harshagupta, 
" S'ilavati, if you have any maiden of your father's family, give her to me, 
for I know she will certainly be like you." When the king said this to 
her, S'ilavati answered " I have a sister in Tamralipti narnqd Eajadatta ; 
marry her, O king, if you wish, for she is of distinguished beauty." When 
she said this to the king, he consented and said, " So be it," and having 
determined on taking this step, he mounted, with S'ilavati and Harshagupta, 
the elephant S'vetarasmi, that could fly though the air, and going in person 
to Tamralipti, entered the house of that merchant Harshagupta. There he 
asked the astrologers that very day, what would be a favourable time 
for him to be married to Eajadatta, the sister of S'ilavati. And the 
astrologers, having enquired under what stars both of them were born, 
said, " A favourable conjuncture will come for you, king, in three 
months from this time. But if you marry Rajadatta in the present 
position of the constellations, she will without fail prove unchaste." 
Though the astrologers gave him this response, the king, being eager for 
a charming wife, and impatient of dwelling long alone, thus reflected 
" Away with scruples ! I will marry Rajadatta here this very day. For 
she is the sister of the blameless S'ilavati and will never prove unchaste. 
And I will place her in that uninhabited island in the middle of thr 
sea, where there is one empty palace, and in that inaccessible spot I will 

on the north, to the banks of the Kosai river on the south. (Cunningham's Ancient 
Geography of India, p. 604.) 

* In the 115th tale of the Gesta Romanorum we read that two dusti 
were able to lull to sleep and kill an elephant, that no one else eould approach. 


surround her with a guard of women ; so bow can she become unchaste, 
as she can never see men ?" Having formed this determination, the king 
that very day rashly married that Rajadatta, whom S'ilavati bestowed upon, 
him. And after he had married her, and had been received with the cus- 
tomary rites by Harshagupta, he took that wife, and with her and S'ilavati, 
he mounted SVetarasmi, and then in a moment went through the air to the 
land of Ratnakuta, where the people were anxiously expecting him. And 
he rewarded S'ilavati again so munificently, that she attained all her wishes, 
having reaped the fruit of her vow of chastity. Then he mounted his new 
wife Rajadatta on that same air-travelling elephant SVetarasmi, and con- 
veyed her carefully, and placed her in the empty palace in the island in the 
midst of the sea, inaccessible to man, with a retinue of women only. And 
whatever article she required, he conveyed there through the air on that 
elephant, so great was his distrust. And being devotedly attached to her, 
he always spent the night there, but came to Ratnakiita in the day to trans- 
act his regal duties. Now one morning the king, in order to counteract 
an inauspicious dream, indulged with that Rajadatta in a drinking-bout 
for good luck. And though his wife, being intoxicated with that banquet, 
did not wish to let him go, he left her, and departed to Ratnakiita to trans- 
act his business, for the royal dignity is an ever-exacting wife. There he 
remained performing his duties with anxious mind, which seemed ever to 
ask him, why he left his wife there in a state of intoxication ? And in the 
meanwhile Rajadatta, remaining alone in that inaccessible place, the female 
servants being occupied in culinary and other duties, saw a certain man 
come in at the door, like Fate determined to baffle all expedients for guard- 
ing her, and his arrival filled her with astonishment. And that intoxicated 
woman asked him when he approached her, " Who are you, and how have 
you come to this inaccessible place ?" Then that man, who had endured 
many hardships, answered her 

Fair one, I am a merchant's 
Story of Yavanasena. < -*- .1 ' -, ir 

son or Mathura named xavanasena. 

And when my father died, I was left helpless, and my relations took from 
me my property, so I went to a foreign country, and resorted to the miser- 
able condition of being servant to another man. Then I with difficulty 
scraped together a little wealth by trading, and as I was going to another 
land, I was plundered by robbers who met me on the way. Then I wander- 
ed about as a beggar, and, with some other men like myself, I went to a 
mine of jewels called Kanakakshetra. There I engaged to pay the king his 
share, and after digging up the earth in a trench for a whole year, I did 
not find a single jewel. So, while the other men my fellows were rejoicing 
over the jewels they had found, smitten with grief I retired to the shore of 
the sea, and began to collect fuel. 


And while I was constructing with the fuel a funeral pyre, in order 
that I might enter the flame, a certain merchant named Jivadatta happened 
to come there ; that merciful man dissuaded me from suicide, and gave me 
food, and as he was preparing to go in a ship to Svarnadvipa he took me 
on board with him. Then, as we were sailing along in the midst of the 
ocean, after five days had passed, we suddenly beheld a cloud. The cloud 
discharged its rain in large drops, and that vessel was whirled round by 
the wind like the head of a mast elephant. Immediately the ship sank, 
but as fate would have it, I caught hold of a plank, just as I was sinking. 
I mounted on it, and thereupon the thunder-cloud relaxed its fury, and, 
conducted by destiny, I reached this country ; and have just landed in the 
forest. And seeing this palace, I entered, and I beheld here thee, auspi- 
cious one, a rain of nectar to my eyes, dispelling pain. 

When he had said this, Kajadatta maddened with love and wine, placed 
him on a couch and embraced him. Where there are these five fires, femi- 
nine nature, intoxication, privacy, the obtaining of a man, and absence of 
restraint, what chance for the stubble of character ? So true is it, that a 
woman maddened by the god of Love is incapable of discrimination ; since 
this queen became enamoured of that loathsome castaway. In the mean- 
\vliile the king Katnadhipati, being anxious, came swiftly from Batnakiita, 
borne along on the sky-going elephant ; and entering his palace he beheld 
his wife Rajadatta in the arms of that creature. When the king saw the 
man, though he felt tempted to slay him, he slew him not, because he fell at 
his feet, and uttered piteous supplications. And beholding his wife terri- 
fied, and at the same time intoxicated, he reflected, " How can a woman 
that is addicted to wine, the chief ally of lust, be chaste ? A lascivious 
woQian cannot be restrained even by being guarded. Can one fetter a 
whirlwind with one's arms ? This is the fruit of my not heeding the pre- 
diction of the astrologers. To whom is not the scorning of wise words bitter 
in its after-taste ? When I thought that she was the sister of Silavati, I 
forgot that the Kalakuta poison was twin-born with the amrita* Or 
rather who is able, even by doing the utmost of a man, to overcome the in- 
calculable freaks of marvellously working Destiny." Thus reflecting, the 
king was not wroth with any one, and spared the merchant's son, her para- 
mour, after asking him the story of his life. The merchant's son, when 
dismissed thence, seeing no other expedient, went out and beheld a ship 
coming, far off in the sea. Then he again mounted that plank, and drift- 
ing about in the sea, cried out, puffing and blowing, " Save me ! Save me !' 
So a merchant, of the name of Krodhavarman, who was on that ship, drew 
that merchant's son out of the water, and made him his companion. 
Whatever deed is appointed by the Disposer to be the destruction of any 
Both were produced at the churning of the ocean. 


man, dogs his stops whithersoever he runneth. For this fool, when on the 
ship, was discovered by his deliverer secretly associating with his wife, and 
thereupon was cast by him into the sea and perished. 

In the meanwhile the king llatnadhipati caused the queen Rajadatta 
with her retinue to mount SVetaras*mi, without allowing himself to be 
an^ry, and he carried her to liatnakuta, and delivered her to S'ilavati, and 
related that occurrence to her and his ministers. And he exclaimed, 
" Alas ! How much pain have I endured, whose mind has been devoted to 
these unsubstantial insipid enjoyments. Therefore I will go to the for- 
est, and take Hari as my refuge, in order that I may never again be a 
vessel of such woes." Thus he spake, and though his sorrowing ministers 
and S'ilavati endeavoured to prevent him, he, being disgusted with the world, 
would not abandon his intention. Then, being indifferent to enjoy- 
ments, he first gave half of his treasure to the virtuous S'ilavati, and the 
other half to the Brahmans, and then that king made over in the prescribed 
form his kingdom to a Brahman of great excellence, named Papabhanjana. 
And after he had given away his kingdom, he ordered S'vetarasmi to be 
brought, with the object of retiring to a grove of asceticism, his subjects 
looking on with tearful eyes. No sooner was the elephant brought, than it 
left the body, and became a man of god-like appearance, adorned with 
necklace and bracelet. When the king asked him who he was, and what 
was the meaning of all this, he answered : 

" We were two Gandharva brothers, living on the Malaya mountain : 
I was called Somaprabha, and the eldest was Devaprabha. And my brother 
had but one wife, but she was very dear to him. Her name was Kajavati. 
One day he was wandering about with her in his arms, and happened to 
arrive, with me in his company, at a place called the dwelling of the Siddhas. 
There we both worshipped Vishnu in his temple, and began all of us to sing 
before the adorable one. In the meanwhile a Siddha came there, and 
stood regarding with fixed gaze llajavati, who was singing songs well worth 
hearing. And my brother, who was jealous, said in his wrath to that 
Siddha ; ' Why dost thou, although a Siddha, cast a longing look at 
another's wife ?' Then the Siddha was moved with anger, and said to him 
by way of a curse ' Fool, I was looking at her out of interest in her 
song, not out of desire. So fall thou, jealous one, into a mortal womb 
together with her ; and then behold with thy own eyes thy wife in the 
embraces of another.' When he had said this, I, being enraged at the 
curse, struck him, out of childish recklessness, with a white toy elephant of 
clay, that I had in my hand. Then he cursed me in the following words 
" Be born again on the earth as an elephant, like that with which you have 
just struck me." Then being merciful, that Siddha allowed himself to be 
propitiated by that brother of mine Devaprabha, and appointed for us both 

38 1 

the following termination of the curse ; " Though a mortal thou shalt 
become, by the favour of Vishnu, the lord of an island, and shalt obtain 
as thy servant this thy younger brother, who will have become an elephant, 
a beast of burden fit for gods. Thou shalt obtain eighty thousand wives, 
and thou shalt come to learn the unchastity of them all in the presence of 
men. Then thou shalt marry this thy present wife, who will have become 
a woman, and shalt see her with thy own eyes embracing another. Then 
thou shalt become sick in thy heart of the world, and shalt bestow thy 
realm on a Brahman, but when after doing this thou shalt set out to go to 
a forest of ascetics, thy younger brother shall first be released from 
his elephant nature, and thou also with thy wife shalt be delivered from 
thy curse.' This was the termination of the curse appointed for us by 
the Siddha, and we were accordingly born with different lots, on account 
of the difference of our actions in that previous state, and lo ! the end of 
our curse has now arrived." When Somaprabha had said this, that king 
Eatnadhipati remembered his former birth, and said " True ! I am that 
very Devaprabha; and this Rajadatta, is my former wife Rajavati." 
Having said this, he, together with his wife, abandoned the body. In a 
moment they all became Gandharvas, and, in the sight of men, flew up 
into the air, and went to their own home, the Malaya mountain. S'ilavati 
too, through the nobleness of her character, obtained prosperity, and going 
to the city of Tamralipti, remained in the practice of virtue. 

" So true is it, that in no case can any one guard a woman by force in 
this world, but the young woman of good family is ever protected by the 
pure restraint of her own chastity. And thus the passion of jealousy is 
merely a purposeless cause of suffering, annoying others, and so far from 
being a protection to women, it rather excites in them excessive longing." 
"When Naravahanadatta had heard this tale full of good sense related by 
his wife, he and his ministers were highly pleased. 


Then Naravahanadatta's minister Gomukha said to him, by way of 
capping the tale, which had been told by Ratnaprabha : " It is true that 
chaste women are few and far between, but unchaste women are never to 
be trusted j in illustration of this, hear the following story." 

There is in this land a town of 

tta ' the name of Ujjayim, famous 

throughout the world : in it there lived of old time a merchant's son, named 


Nischayadatta. He was a gambler and had acquired money by gambling, 
and every day tbe generous man used to batbe in the water of the Sipra, 
and worship Mahakala:* his custom was first to give money to the Er;ih- 
mans, the poor, and the helpless, and then to anoint himself and indulge 
in food and betel. 

Every day, when he had finished his bathing and his worship, he used to go 
and anoint himself in a cemetery near the temple of Mahakala, with sandal- 
wood and other things. And the young man placed the unguent on a stone 
pillar that stood there, and so anointed himself every day alone, rubbin" 1 his 
back against it. In that way the pillar eventually became very smooth and 
polished. Then there came that way a draughtsman with a sculptor ; the first, 
seeing that the pillar was very smooth, drew on it a figure of Gauri, and the 
sculptor with his chisel in pure sport carved it on the stone. Then, after 
they had departed, a certain daughter of the Vidyadharas came there to 
worship Mahakala, and saw that image of Gauri on the stone. From the 
clearness of the image she inferred the proximity of the goddess, and, 
after worshipping, she entered that stone pillar to rest. In the mean- 
while Nischayadatta, the merchant's son, came there, and to his astonish- 
ment beheld that figure of UmS carved on the stone. He first anointed his