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Mil ' T.lylP3»SW . ^V'V 


Keeping the Faith tells the story of a small, 
church-tfelated college in Athens, Tennessee, 
and follows its trials and triumphs through 
150 years. Known since 1925 as Tennessee 
Wesleyan College, the school has operated 
under seven different titles and has been led 
by twenty different presidents. Beginning 
with one college building, a faculty of five, 
and seventy students, its campus now has 
twenty-one buildings, and its studait enrollment 
approaches 1,000. 

Tennessee Wesleyan's journey from 1857 
to 2007 has not been on a smooth road. From 
its beginning, it has struggled to maintain 
a viable student enrollment in competition 
with larger, more prosperous institutions 
and has faced financial problems that, at 
times, seemed insurmountable. Yet it has 
survived wars, the Great Depression, various 
icconomic challenges, and the proliferation 
of state-sponsored institutions. 

During its 150 years, the college has seen 
many changes. Where buggy rides away 
from the campus were once forbidden, 
there is a growing need for more parking 
lots to accommodate students' automobiles. 
Where "play-acting" was once suspect and 
dancing frowned upon, an annual musical 
production with Uvely song and dance 
became the highlight of the school year. 
Where the study of Latin and Greek once 
formed an important part of the curriculum, 
students now must be computer Uterate and 
prepare themselves; for the <, challenges of a 
global economy. 

Tennessee Wesleyan has seen many 
changes, but one thing has never changed, 
its mission to achieve the best in Christian 
higher education. Carrying out |his| mission 
were a long line of dedicated educators 
who indeed kept the faith and students who 
profited from their example. 'This book i 
their story. 


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Printed in the United States of America. 

For additional copies of the book, or for information 
about Tennessee Wesleyan College, contact: 

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Tennessee Wesleyan College 

204 East CoUege Street, PO. Box 40 

Athens, Tennessee 37371-0040 


Fay Akins who helped in many ways and gave support and encouragement 

Dr. B. James Dawson who first suggested tliat we write this book and 
Dr. Stephen Condon who gave further encouragement 

All the alumni, faculty; and staff members who graciously shared their memories 

The talented and creative Nicole Gibbs for the layout and jacket design 

The staff of the Merner-Pfeiffer Library, Brandi Armstrong, Carol Bates, 

Dr. Jack Bowling, Susan Buttram, Dr. Durwood Dunn, Dwain and Sally Ealy, 
Linda Elrod, Robbie Ensminger, Joy Futrell, Blake McCaslin, Mathew Pinson, 
Cindy Runyan, Louie LInderwood, and Traci Williams for assistance 
with research 

Darlene Bernhard, Patsv Duckworth, Tina Jenkins, Alex TuUock, and 
Brandon Tullock for clerical assistance 


All those who are not mentioned in this book and may feel that they should have 
been. References to all those who helped to make T W. C. what it was and is today 
would result in a volume of unmanageable size. 

Quotations from John and Charles Wesley used as chapter headings are from the 
1878 edition of Hjmia/ of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

To the students of Tennessee Wesleyan College, 

past, present, and future, 

that they may appreciate their great heritage. 


Foreword vii 

Chapter 1 1 

/// The Beoininim 1 857- 1 866 

Chapter 2 9 

The Winds of Change: 1867-1886 

Chapter 3 21 

A Living Moiui went: 1886-1898 

Chapter 4 37 

A Bitter Conflict: 1898-1906 

Chapter 5 / -I-^ 

Striiooles at Home and Abroad: 1907-1919 


Chapter 6 ^ 

Triumph and Transition: 1920-1929 

Chapter 7 68 

Surviving the Great Depression: 1950-1959 

Chapter 8 '^ 

\\"arand?eace: 1940-1950 

Chapter 9 '^*' 

Expansion and Celebration: 1950-1959 

Chapter 10 "*^ 

Onward and Ipirard: 1959-1965 


Chapter 11 118 

Chaims and Chal/erwes: 1966-1974 

Chapter 12 129 

Faith andReiwra/: 1975-1984 

Chapter 13 141 

Drea^m and Difficulties: 1984-1993 

Chapter 14 153 

Difficult Decisions and Daring Actions: 1993-1995 

Chapter 15 164 

On the Rebonnd: 1995-2002 

Chapter 16 175 

LookinP to the Fiitnre: 2002-2007 

Appendix A 1 946 Football Team Roster. 184 

Appendix B Honorary Degree Recipients 186 

Appendix C /. Neal Fnswinger Distinguished Al/iwniis An'ard Wiiniers 191 

Appendix D Fockmiller Teacher of the Year Award Winners 192 

Appendix E Hall of Fame Fist 193 

Notes 195 

Index 218 


There is a small college in Athens, Tennessee, which has never made national 
headlines, has never reached an enrollment bevond 9()(), and is probabh- unknown 
to the majority of the citizens of the United States. \'et this college has among its 
graduates distinguished physicians, lawyers, teachers, ministers, entrepreneurs, and 
government leaders. In an area of Appalachia not noted for intellectual achie\ement, 
it has stood for 150 years as a beacon lighting the wav to knowledge and to a taith that 
goes bevond human knowledge. Guided bv that faith, it has survi\-ed wars, hnancial 
hardships, and social upheavals. It has seen many changes, but its mission to acliieve 
the best in Christian hiy;her education has ne\'er changed. 

Daniel Webster, speaking in 1818 to the Supreme Court regarding Dartmouth 
College, said, "It is a small college, yet there are those who lo\-e it."* Tlie same ma\- 
be said of Tennessee Wesleyan. The authors are among that group and lo\ ingl\ otter 
this historical account to the many others who cherish the "teeny weenv" college 
known as Tennessee Wesleyan. 

0/ioh'd ill John Ijmgmtb, 1 jphf Upoini 11//L ['iiircrs//y of Tc/zz/csscc at Clui//<iiioosti, 2000. 


IN THE BEGINNING: 1857-1866 

"Let all who owe to thee their birth 
in praises every hour employ." 

-John Wesley 

In 185"^ an unhnished brick building stood on two acres of land in Athens, Ten- 
nessee, a small, primarily agricultural community- with a population of about 1,200. 
After its completion, this three-story building would become the core of a college 
ultimatelv to be known as Tennessee W'eslevan College. 

The school had a troubled beginning during uncertain times, for alread\" political 
and social agitation existed which would lead, four years later, to the devastation of 
the War Between the States. 

The idea of establishing an institution of higher learning in Athens originated 
with members of a fraternal organization, McAIinn Lodge 54 of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. This organization had, in January 1854, obtained a charter 
from the State of Tennessee authorizing the establishment ot a school to be called 
Odd Fellows Female College. In sponsoring such an institution, the McMinn lodge 
was following the example of lodges in other locations which fostered educational 
institutions. At the time the McMinn lodge announced its plan, a college with more 
than two hundred female students was based in Rogersxille, Tennessee, haxing been 
established by the Hawkins Count}- Odd Fellows. Several similar institutions founded 
by the Odd Fellows were operating elsewhere. However, Odd Fellows Female Col- 
lege in Athens never opened, not because of its somewhat amusing name but because 
of financial difficulties.' 

The Athens Post oi May 19, 1854, praised the intention of the ( )dd Icllows, and 
Sam Ivins, editor, expressed confidence that the institution would flourish. A site 
having been acquired, bids were solicited for the construction of a three-story brick 
building approximately sevent}-five feet long and fort\-four feet witle. Members of 
the building committee included: J. B. Taylor, II. II. Riden, J. B. Shipman, J. W. G\\- 
lespie, A. H. Keith, Thomas Cleage, and L. Gamble. On Jul v 20, 1855, the Pw/repcm- 
ed that the walls were nearh' all up, and completion of the building was anticipatctl 

TWC: 1857-2007 1 

within "a matter of days." Editor Ivins wrote enthusiastically of the project, noting 
that while other towns and villages were "using their energies to erect manufacturing," 
if Athens could "succeed in building up such an institution of learning as is desired 
and conteniplated by the Odd Fellows . . . we should accomplish a much greater good 
for societ}' and for posterit}' than we could hope for bv the achievement of any en- 
terprise which promised a mere accumulation of dollars and cents." Individuals who 
had pledged funds in support of the building project were urged to pay the amounts 
pledged immediately. 

The greatest deterrent to the building's completion came with the discovery that 
the land purchased from William Lowry was tied up in litigation between the Lowry 
family and the family of John McGlen. The Odd Fellows were reluctant to continue 
construction on a plot of land the ownership of which was in question. Moreover, 
the "mere accumulation of dollars and cents" which Editor Sam Ivins had denigrated 
became a crucial factor. BiUs owed to workers and to suppliers of materials were in 
arrears. Having decided that they had underestimated the cost of the project, lodge 
members mrned their attention to finding a buyer.- 

In October 1857, trustees approached the Holston Conference of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, South, meeting in Marion, Virginia. Apparently, these trustees 
were a group of Athens citizens who had bought the property' from the Odd Fellows 
for $3,500. They offered to transfer this propert}^ to the Holston Conference, ask- 
ing that a president be appointed and that $2,000 be raised for the completion of the 
building. They further recommended the purchase of two additional acres to accom- 
modate the construction of a boarding house. The acceptance of this offer began 
the church affiliation of an institution which has existed under one of the branches 
of the Methodist Church from 1 857 to the present.-^ 

The charter granted by the Tennessee General Assembly in 1857 provided for an 
educational institution for young women to be known as Athens Female College. The 
college was to be operated by the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

An explanation of the Southern branch of the Methodist Church seems in order. 
Methodism in the United States had split over the issue of slavery in 1844 and did 
not reunite until 1939. Northern Methodism attempted, agressively but unsuccess- 
fully, to squelch Southern Methodist churches and their rebel preachers. Leading the 
battle in East Tennessee was William G. Brownlow ("Fighting Parson Brownlow"), 
once a Methodist circuit rider who later became editor of the Knowi/k Whig and, still 
later. Governor of Tennessee. Brownlow vehemently attacked not only the Devil but 
Democrats, Rebels, and Southern Methodists. Some inhabitants of East Tennessee, 
where Union sympathy was strong, shared his opinions, but others resented his au- 
thoritarian tactics. The result was a divided church with branches colloquially known 
as "Methodists North of God and Methodists South of God." As has been noted, 
Athens Female College was established by those "South of God."*^ 

The charter named the following as trustees of the college: John F. Slover, 


William M. Sehorn, R. M. Fisher, William H. Ballew, Alexander H. Keith, R. C. jack- 
son, George W. Bridges, M. L. Phelps, T. SulHns, Thomas Hoyle, W. E. Hall, S. K. 
Reeder, Willie Lowry, Andrew Hutsell, John L. Bridges, and Samuel P. Ivms. The 
Reverend Sewell Phillips was appointed to solicit funds, and the Reverend Erastus 
Rowley was named president.^ 

President Erastus Rowley, a nadve of Massachusetts, was a graduate of Union 
College in Schenectady, New York, and had experience as a faculty member and ad- 
ministrator in schools in New York, North Carolina, and South Carolina. He was the 
first of a succession of college presidents to come to Athens after being born and 
educated in the North. 

Following his appointment. President Rowley moved to Athens and began to 
prepare for the opening of Athens Female College. He also found time to direct a 
half session of classes for young women in a room in the Forest Hill Academy, the 
college building being still uncompleted. According to the Athens Post, these classes 
were intended as a preparatory school for a group of young women "now idle." It 
was anticipated that several of these pupils would continue their education at the new 

Athens Female College opened on September K), 1858, with a taculty of h\e, 
including President Rowley who followed the custom of earh' college presidents by 
serving as teacher as well as administrator. The 1858 faculty consisted ot: 

Erasms Rowley, M.A., President and Professor of Ancient Languages, 
Higher Mathematics, and Mental and Moral Science, 

Mr. L. T. Schultz, Professor of Instruments and Music, and 
Teacher of the German language. 

Miss Amelia M. Tompkins, Teacher of Belles-lettres, composiuon, 
drawing and painting, and the French language, 

Miss Ben M. Carey, Teacher of mathematics, natural science and cmbroidcr\-. 

Miss Elizabeth Tompkins, Assistant teacher of music and teacher 
in the Primary Department. 

Seventy \oung women were the first cnrollees. Local citizens were gratified that a 
cherished dream was at last realized, that the college promised communii\ disiiiietion 
and increased local revenue, and that parents no longer needed to send their daugh- 
ters away from home to be educated. Also, Athenians, who, after all, had nametl then- 
town for the cultural center of Ancient Greece, had a special interest in learning and 
the arts and rightly regarded the college as a cultural asset. In 185"^ this small town 
was home to t\y() academies, a bookstore, a newspaper, a literary society (Athens 

TWC: 1857-2007 ^ 

Literary Association), and a musical academy. The latter offered instruction in piano, 
violin, guitar, flute, clarinet, saxophone, and harmonica as well as lessons in French 
and German. 

The Athens Pac/ described the college building, completed in 1858, as follows: 

The building stands on an eminence in the northern part of the town. It is of 
brick, forty-three feet wide and sixty-six in length, three stories high— first 
and second stories twelve feet each, third fifteen feet. There are eight rooms in 
the first and second stories, with four large rooms in each and an ample 
fireplace. Each room would comfortably seat fort}-^. The Lecture Room, or 
Hall, is on the third story and is the whole extent of the building, furnishing 
a room fort\'-three by sixt)--six feet in width and length. Below there is a hall 
or passage, and the stairs are constructed so as to be of easy ascent. 
Fronting South, there is a portico fort}' feet long and thirteen feet wide, and 
rising to the second story. The rooms are plastered and painted throughout.^ 

Although not elaborate or ornamental, this building, now known as Old College, 
was then and is now one of the most beautiful structures in the area and a fine ex- 
ample of the Federal stvle of architecture. 

Few records exist of the early years of Athens Female College, but a catalog of 
1860 offers considerable information. The academic year was divided into two ses- 
sions. Fall (early September to December 23) and Spring (early February to late June). 
The degree of Mistress of Arts was awarded to students completing the Scientific 
course and Mistress of Arts and Classical Literature to those completing the Classical 
course. Primary and preparatory departments were available to students not yet eli- 
gible tor college entrance. The academic programs reflected the traditional emphases 
of American colleges before programs were altered by trends toward career prepara- 
tion, elective courses, and the proliferation of extracurricular activities. Although 
young women attending Athens Female College received a traditional and demanding 
liberal arts education, the curriculum also included subjects considered particularly 
feminine— drawing, painting, embroidery, and vocal and instrumental music. 

The 1 860 catalog outlines the following courses of study: 

Orthography English Grammar 

Reading History of the United States 

Penmanship Primary Natural Philosophy 

Geography Composition 




Scientific Course 

Ancient history 
Namral Philosophy 






Mental philosophy 

Moral science 

Classical Course 


Bullion's Latin Grammar 
Bullion's Latin Reader 
Caesar's Commentaries 
Virgil's Aeneid 
Cicero's Select Orations 



Bullion's Greek Grammar 
Bullion's Greek Reader 
Greek Testament 

Pasquelle's Course 


Charles XII 

Life of Washington 


Political economy 
Eyidences of Christianity' 

Religious training receiyed strong emphasis. Dail\- opening exercises included 
Bible reading and prayer. Students were required to attend public worship at least 
once every Sunday at the church designated b\- parents or guardians. 

To protect the morals of its young charges, the college decreed that boarding 
students not be allowed to leave the campus for \'isiting with the exception of \isirs 
paid to close relatives. These xoung ladies were forbidden lo correspond with gentle- 
men unless authorized to do so b\- parents or guardians. Thex were not allowed to 

TWC: 1857-2007 

enter stores, necessary purchases being made for them bv someone designated by the 

Parents were advised to send their daughters to college outfitted with plain, prac- 
tical clothing without "gaudy and costly decorations and jewelry." Each article of 
clothing was to be distinctly labeled and should include "an umbrella, rubber over- 
shoes, and a thick shawl or cloak." 

Students who were not Athens residents could obtain room and board, including 
laundry, in the home of the president for $2.50 per week or in the homes of local 
residents who accepted boarders.'^ 

Enrollment figures for 1859 indicate 101 students, 66 in the college department, 
17 in the preparatory, and 15 in the primary. Three other students were studying only 
music. Tennessee students predominated, with thirt}'-three college enroUees from 
McMinn Count}^, twent}'-nine from other Tennessee counties, and only four from 
other Southern states. The preparatory department had only one student living out- 
side McMinn Count); and the same was true of the primarv school."' 

Community support has been a major factor in the college's survival through 
difficult challenges, and such support was evident in the institution's early days. For 
example, in December 1858, a group of Athens women sponsored a supper and eve- 
ning of musical entertainment in the Lecture Room of the college building. Tickets 
were sold for one dollar each, and after the meal and entertainment, home-baked 
cakes were auctioned. All proceeds were used for the purchase of seats for the Lec- 
ture Room.'^ 

Editor Sam Ivins, in 1859, reported the college to be in a "flourishing condition" 
and the town to be "infested with the spirit of improvement." However, w^ar was 
eminent and would have enormous consequences for both Athens and Athens Fe- 
male College. When war came, in April 1861, Tennessee reluctandv joined the Con- 
federacy, but many Athens and McMinn County residents agreed with the majorit}' of 
East Tennesseeans in opposing secession. '- 

College records for the war period are extremelv limited. An article appearing 
in the Athens Post of August 30, 1861, stated that the college would open for the Fall 
Session on September 9 and that every department would be led by "competent and 
experienced teachers." The president's home could accommodate as many as thirt)" 
young ladies who would be charged $2.25 per week for room and board. Fees could 
be paid in money or "its equivalent."^' 

Enrollment in 1861 was approximately eight}'-five but dropped to about fort}" 
in 1 862. Emory and Henry College, another Methodist institution sponsored by the 
Holston Conference, suspended operation in 1862 due to the number of students 
joining the armv. Obviously, Athens Female College did not have this problem and 
continued to operate at least until 1863. The Athens newspaper of April 10, 1863, re- 
ported the college to be "nearly full to its capacity." Editor Ivins noted that although 
the majorit\' of young men were awav fighting for freedom and independence, par- 
ents should not neglect the education of their daughters. This article contains the last 


reference to the college found in an extant issue of the Pox/.'"^ 

With the absence of a newspaper or other records, one cannot know posirivelv 
just what happened to Athens Female College during the later war years. R. N. Price, 
in his history of Holston Conference Methodism, states that the school's operation 
was suspended and the building used as a military hospital. Isaac Patton Martin, using 
Price as his source, notes that the college was closed during the war and the building 
used for "military purposes." ^^ 

It seems likely that the college did close in the fall of 1863. After the invasion of 
the area by Union forces, parents would have hesitated to send their daughters away 
from home. As to the claim that the college building was used as a hospital, this claim 
is a part of oral tradition, but no supporting documentation has been discoxcrcd 
other than the brief statement of Price, repeated bv Martin. 

College classes were still in session during the spring of 1863 while (Confeder- 
ates controlled the area. According to the Athens Post, a Confederate hospital was 
established "in the building on Academy Hill belonging to Col. Jo. McCalle\- which 
was tendered by that gentieman." This was the location of the Forest Hill Academy, 
not the college. When Union forces moved into the countv, it seems plausible that 
they would have taken over the alreadv-existing hospital. That the college building did 
serve as a hospital certainly remains a possibility, for large vacant buildings were often 
so used; if such were the case, the likelihood is that the hospital housed wounded 
Union soldiers rather than Confederates.^'' 

More trouble came for i\thens Female College near the end of the war when 
President Erasms Rowlev tijed a civil suit in the Chancery Court of iMcMinn (Ccuinty, 
claimina; that the college owed him a substantial sum of monev. Disillusioned with 
Southern Methodism, Rowlev had shifted his allegiance to the Northern branch ot 
the church and determined to leave the college after securing funds he alleged were 
owed to him. 

According to Rowlev, there were outstanding debts against the college when he 
took charge, and he had used his own means to settie the liability. He had b( )ughr with 
personal funds additional acreage and had financed building, repairs, and ec|uipment 
for which he had not been reimbursed. Rowley requested that the court order college 
assets to be sold at public auction to satisfy- his claims. 

At its 1865 meeting, the Holston Conference of the Methodist l^i^ Church, 
South asked that the college's trustees investigate Rowleys claims and appointed the 
Reverend C. Long and the Reverend James Atkins as representati\'cs of the conter- 
ence in the legal dispute. ' 

Testifying in court, spokesmen for the trustees acknowledged that the college hatl 
indebtedness when Rowley became president and that Rowley had spoken ot |-.n)\ id- 
ing some personal financing. They contended, however, that there was no written 
legal lien. Building, repairs, and equipment purchases, rhev said, were initiaieti by 
Rowley at his own insistence and without the sanction ot the trustees. 

The trustees were on the defensi\e as rhe\ admitted that thev were aware ot 

TWC: 1857-2007 "^ 

certain "improvements" made to the campus but made no effort to stop Rowley's 
actions. They went on the offensive as they claimed that Rowley had lived rent-free 
in college housing for some eight years and had used his residence as a student board- 
ing house without official trustee approval. Fees collected by Rowley from student 
boarders, they argued, would have more than paid for his expenditures. They then 
put forth the rather weak conclusion that instead of Rowley being the financial loser, 
he, in fact, owed money to the college. 

Chancellor D. C. Trewhitt ruled in favor of Rowley and awarded him the sum of 
$5,755.92. In order to raise this money, all college assets, including buildings, twelve 
acres of land, and furniture, were to be sold at public auction. The college was sold 
on September 6, 1 866, to the Reverend Edwin A. Atlee, acting as agent for Rowley, 
for $7,150, less than half its estimated value. ^''^ 

Although some allowance must be made for the confusion of the Civil War pe- 
riod, it would seem that both President Rowley and the trustees were at fault in their 
management of college affairs. Rowley assumed too much individual authority' with- 
out the specific approval of the trustees, but the trustees seem to have been well 
aware of the president's actions and did nothing to deter him. 

It is interesting to note that President Rowley, a northerner, owned nine slaves, 
six females and three males (all mulattoes) while in Athens. Presumably, the slaves 
were used to perform manual and domestic work on campus. The female slaves were 
used as domestic servants in the president's home where as many as thirt}' students 
were provided room and board. Rowley left Athens to become president of DePaul 
College in New Albany, Indiana, in 1865. 

Thus Athens Female College came to an ignoble end after only a few years of 
existence. But Erastus Rowley had plans for the sale of the property, and the story 



"Encircled from our second birth 
with all the heavenly powers." 

- Charles Wi'slf 

As Union forces triumphed. East Tennessee Methodists who supported the 
Union reorganized to establish the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, a branch of northern Methodism. Meeting in 1866, this group expressed 
strong interest in the establishment of an educational institution. Erastus Rowlev 
seized this opportunit}' to unload the property acquired through his lawsuit and of- 
fered to sell this property- to the newlv formed Holston Conference. His asking price 
was the sum he had received in settlement of the suit, approximately six thousand 
dollars. The Conference eagerly accepted his ofter and thus acquired assets worth at 
least twenty- thousand dollars. The property was transferred in 1 867 and designated 
"for the use and behalf of the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist I Episco- 
pal Church."^ 

During an interim period, the earh' months of 1867, a school with mostl\- pre- 
paratory students operated under the principalship of Professor Perci\al C. \\ ilson. 
Although this school eventually enrolled eighty-five students, it apparcnrK had a slow 
beginning since during the first week Professor Wilson gaye instruction to onl\ one 
student, a Miss Cornelia Adee.- 

When the new institution w^as chartered by the Tennessee General Assembly, in 
March 1867, it was described as "a first class college for males" and giyen the name 
East Tennessee Wesleyan College, in honor of the Founder of Methodism. Alter 
operating for one year as a college for males, the institution became co-edue.itional 
in 1868 and changed its name to East Tennessee Wesleyan Inixersiix. It should be 
noted that East Tennessee Wesleyan was a pioneer in co-cdiicaiion, tor at this time 
very few^ colleges accepted as students both women and men. 

Serving as president from 1867 to 1872 was the Reyerend Nelson I '.. Cobleigh, a 
native of New Hampshire. I'xlucated at Wesleyan Uniyersity in Midtlletown, 

TWC: 1857-2007 

Connecticut, Cobleigh had served as Professor of Ancient Languages in two colleges, 
as the president of McKendree College in Illinois, and as editor of Zion's Herald \n 
Boston. He resigned his editorial position to become president of East Tennessee 

President Cobleigh received the strong support of the Holston Conference, the 
members of which passed a resolution pledging themselves "individually and col- 
lectively" to the task of "building up, sustaining and endowing" the school thev had 
established. They also agreed to oppose the opening of any similar school within the 
bounds of the Holston Conference. ■■ 

Enrollment in 1867 reached 120; and the school year was described as "prosper- 
ous and successful." In September 1868, only seventy students appeared when class- 
es began, but some fifty-five others straggled in during the next two months, several 
having been delayed due to their teaching duties in their neighborhood schools."^ 

The only admission requirement listed in the 1869-70 catalog was that the stu- 
dent present "evidence of good moral character." Examinations determined each 
student's placement in either the preparatory department, which had the larger enroll- 
ment, or in the advanced university classes. 

Two members of the 1869 faculty held the title of Professor, President Cobleigh, 
teacher of moral and intellectual science, and Professor James C. Barb, teacher of 
natural science and Librarian. Other faculty members included: 

Rev. John ]. Manker 
Tutor and Instructor in Greek Lang;uaa;e and Literature 

W. E. E Milburn 
Tutor in Mathematics 

Miss Margarita M. Hauschild 
Preceptress and Teacher in Academic Department 

Miss Helen Bosworth 
Teacher of Instrumental Music 

Miss M. E Bosworth 
Teacher in Preparatory Department 

John H. Moore 
Assistant Librarian 

L^niversity students, receiving the liberal arts education typical of nineteenth-cen- 
tur\' colleges, could elect to pursue either the Classical course of study or the Scientif- 
ic. The Classical course placed hea^T emphasis on Latin and Greek but also included 


mathematics, rhetoric, logic, botany, and natural science. The Scientific course did 
not require Latin and Greek and gave greater attention to the sciences and mathemat- 
ics. Both courses required four years of study which was unusual at that time. As 
late as 1913, only seven colleges or universities in the South required four years of 
residence. While characteristic of the college's tradition of thoroughness in educa- 
tion, this requirement placed East Tennessee W esleyan at some disadvantage in terms 
of enrollment since students could graduate from a number of other area schools in 
fewer than four years. ^ 

Tuition for university- students was twent}'-one dollars or t\vent\'-three dollars per 
term, depending upon the curriculum chosen, while preparatory smdents paid onlv 
eight dollars per term. All students were charged two dollars for "incidental fees." 
Lodging and board were available in several Athens homes, usually for three dollars 
per week. 

All classes were held in the Alain College Building which also housed a chapel, a 
library, the president s office, and a meeting room used by the literary societies and for 
other gatherings. 

Three literary societies had been formed by 1869, the Athenian and the 
Philomathean for men and the Adelphian for women. The weekly meetings of these 
societies were devoted to programs including such activities as debates, poetry reci- 
tations, musical performances, and the reading of original essays. There was also a 
theological society" with its own library of over three hundred volumes. 

Social contacts were largely limited to the meetings of these societies, and stu- 
dents probably looked forward to the fall revival meeting, held by local pastors, as 
another social outiet. 

Financial difficulties, the college's perennial bugaboo, were exidcnt as early as 
1869. Indebtedness had reached S2,778, most of this owed to the faculty At its fall 
meeting, the Holston Conference passed a resolution urging ministers to present the 
plight of the university- to their congregations. Each minister was asked to raise a 
minimum of ten dollars, to be forwarded to the uniyersit}'s treasurer, James II. 1 lorn- 
sby, and to recruit at least one additional student.^^ 

In 1870, the Holston Conference Educational Committee, chaired by President 
Cobleigh, again called attention to the university's financial needs. The committee's 
report highlighted the institution's success dunng 1869-70, stating that enrollment 
was up, the "standard of scholarship" as high and as thorough as that of an\- insti- 
tution in the land, and the general deportment and moral character of the students 
"surpassed by none in this country." Ho\\'ever, the report stated, financial conditions 
were such that, if allowed to continue, in a short time the uni\ersiry would become 
extinct. Expenses for the current academic year were estimated to be S4,()5() while 
anticipated income from tuition was only S3,0()0. This deficit of oxer a thousand dol- 
lars must be added to previous indebtedness of S2,748, swelling the total to almost 
$4,000. The urgency of the financial situation resulted in the conference's appoint- 
ment of a special committee to recommend a plan by which the school could remain 

TWC: 1857-2007 " 

solvent. The committee's reported plan required each Holston Conference minister 
to hold one service per year focusing on support of the institution both through fi- 
nancial contributions and through enrolling of sons and daughters and other young 
church members. Each district of the conference was assigned a sum to be raised. 

Despite these efforts and a slight increase in tuition, the financial situation showed 
no improvement. Total indebtedness at the end of the 1871-72 academic year was 
esdmated at $4,5()(). The conterence appointed R. D. Black to act as an agent respon- 
sible for soliciting funds throughout the Holston Conference. 

In spite of the growing indebtedness, the trustees authorized the addition of a 
new department of theology and asked President Cobleigh to devote most of his 
attention to building this department which had as its chief aim the preparation of 
young men for the ministry. In the same year the conference's education committee 
authorized still another department, law, which was to be directed by the Honorable 
N. A. Patterson.'*^ 

The first graduating class, in 1871, had ten members: Edwin Augustus Atlee, 
John Henry Clay Foster, Joseph Leander Gaston, Wiley S. Gaston, Josephine Gaston 
Hale, Cornelia Adee Hutsell, John Jenkins Manker, William Elbert Franklin iVhlburn, 
Susan Lizzie Moore, and Mary J. Mason Presnell. 

The fall of 1871 marked the entrance of a student who was to acquire a promi- 
nent place in Tennessee history. The father of Robert Love Taylor had become the 
minister of the Athens Station of the Methodist Episcopal Church and had moved 
his family to Athens. Robert ("Bob") Taylor, a student from 1871 to 1873, went 
on to serve two terms as United States congressman and three terms as Tennessee 
governor. He is particularly remembered for his role in perhaps the most colorful 
political race in United States history. In this 1886 contest, which gained national at- 
tention and became known as Tennessee's War ot the Roses, Bob ran for governor 
as a Democrat against his brother Alf, a Republican. The two traveled together and 
staged forty-one debates all over the state of Tennessee, occasions marked not only 
by eloquent orator\' but by abundant wisecracking and lively fiddle playing by both 
brothers. Bob won the race and was twice re-elected, and Alt later attained the gov- 
ernorship for one term. 

While at East Tennessee Wesleyan, Bob was a member of the Philomathean lit- 
erary society and their star debater. He also was the author ot a short comic play 
"Horatio Spriggins" in which he played the tide role. His classmates delighted in his 
wit and in his oratorical and dramatic sldlls which were to enthrall a much wider audi- 
ence in years to come. 

In the \"ear following Bob Taylor's matriculation, 1872, the trustees approved the 
provision of free tuition for any ministerial student in need of assistance. Doubtless 
such generosit}? gained approval from conference ministers and their congregations 
and was a positive action in terms of public relations. However, it further aggravated 
financial problems already in existence.'-* 

A graduate of 1872, David Bolton, became a leading figure in the school's history. 


The date of his graduation was also the date of his marriage to Ann Elizabeth Horn- 
sby, and he settied in Athens to become a facult\' member and administrator, serving 
his alma mater for fifty-two years. 

President Cobleigh, in 1872, accepted the editorship of the Methodist Advocate, 
published in Atlanta. He had served East Tennessee Weslevan for five years and had 
been diligent in his desire to strengthen its academic program. In addition to his 
administrative duties, Cobleigh also taught classes in Greek, Latin, history, rhetoric, 
ethics and psychology. David Bolton wrote in appreciation of Cobleigh as a "great 
teacher and ripe scholar." Cobleigh was noted for his demanding assignments and 
told his students, "Young men, if you can endure the pressure now vou need not fear 
work that may come to you later." Widely praised as an outstanding minister, teacher, 
and scholar, Cobleigh died in 1874, two years after his departure from Athens.'" 

Trustees selected the Reverend James A. Dean as Cobleigh 's successor. A native 
of Vermont and educated at Wesleyan Universit\- in Connecticut, Dean began his 
presidency of East Tennessee Wesleyan in 1873. In 1875, he resigned to return to 
the pastoral ministry in New York and was later elected president of New Orleans 

Probably a strong factor in Dean's short tenure was the universit\''s continuing 
and growing indebtedness. Isjnown for his "accurate scholarship and habits of study," 
Dean was perhaps ill prepared to deal with the institution's financial problems which 
had been exacerbated by the nation's economic panic of 1873. Although his presi- 
dency was brief, Dean left behind a weight)' and lasting memento. In 1 872, a college 
bell, weighing 321 pounds, was acquired from the IMcNeely Bell Company of New 
York and placed atop the Main College Building. 

Although student enrollment increased in 1873, a debt of nearly S4,0(J() stubborn- 
ly remained. Anticipated expenditures for needed improvements and repairs would 
increase the amount to $5,000. A generous donor offered to contribute half the 
sum if the remainder could be supplied by the conference. Once again the Holston 
Conference turned to its ministers, asking them to raise about S2,000 which, added to 
the donation, would place the university on "a footing where it probably would need 
no pecuniary aid." Apparentiy this plea was unsuccessful since, in September 1875, 
the Holston Conference reported that East Tennessee Wesleyan had been required 
to execute a Deed of Trust in the amount of S5,00(). During this pcnod, times were 
hard throughout the nation but especially in the South which still suftcrcd from the 
economic devastation of the Civil War. Resources from outside the Sf)uth were ur- 
gentiy needed but were not yet forthcoming." 

The Reverend John ]. Manker was appointed, in June 1875, to succeed James 
Dean as president. Manker had graduated from East Tennessee Wesleyan in its first 
graduating class of 1871 and had received the Master of Arts degree from Ohio 
Wesleyan in 1874. He served as president from June to October, but announced at 
the October session of the Holston Conference that he preferred to remain m ihe 
pastoral ministry and in teaching. Although his term as president was \erv hnet, John 

TWC: 1857-2007 ^^ 

|. Manker continued a connection with the institution. During his distinguished ca- 
reer he served as minister of several large churches, as a professor at East Tennessee 
Weslevan, Chattanooga Universit}', and Grant Universit}^ and as editor of the Methodist 
Advocate ]o!irnaI. In recognition of his accomplishments, the Universit}' of Tennessee 
awarded him the honorary degree of Doctor of DivinitA^ in 1883. 

The years 1872-1875 saw two presidents come and go, but the next appointee, the 
Reverend John Fletcher Spence, was to be a strong and stabilizing influence for eigh- 
teen years. After serving as a minister in Ohio and as an army chaplain, Spence settled 
in Knoxville, became secretary of the newly organized Holston Conference, held the 
presidency of Ivnoxville Female Institute for three years, and served for three years as 
presiding elder of the Ivnoxville District of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Before 
his appointment to the presidency in 1875, Spence had already devoted consider- 
able time and effort to the support of East Tennessee Wesleyan, serving as trustee, 
financial secretary, and field agent. In the latter position, he had traveled to the North 
where he had contacts and where he secured contributions for the university-. 

The selection of Spence as president was indeed a wise move. During the first 
few years of his tenure, odds were heavily against him because of the institution's low 
enrollment and financial indebtedness. Spence increased enrollment by traveling into 
mountainous regions of the South, urging the importance of education, and was a 
successful fundraiser, particularly in the North. In a speech given in Troy, New York, 
he solicited aid with the plea, "The close of the Civil War saw such poverties as never 
before known. The poor became poorer and the ignorant more ignorant. We are 
training the illiterate, non-slave holding portion of the South for the leaders of the 
future." Such stress on the poverty" and ignorance found among young people of the 
South mav have seemed condescending and demeaning to those voung people and 
their families, but the strategy worked. In October 1876, it was announced that the 
school's entire indebtedness had been liquidated with additional funds remaining for 
repairs and equipment. A report from the conference's education committee waxed 
eloquent on the subject: 

The East Tennessee Wesleyan Universit\- is the child of the Conference; 

born in 1867. Scarcely ten years of age; has been feeble most of her Hfe; 

came nigh unto death one year ago, has recovered; is now convalescent, has 

received a new suit of clothes from her friends in the North — in this new 

dress and heart)' state she presents herself before her mother this day, 

claiming recognition, love, and attention." 

An 1880 report of the Holston Conference Education Committee stated that 
although income from tuition remained inadequate to support the university, supple- 
mentary income had been received from "donations and collections from churches 
and friends in the North." '- 

An unexpected windfall of 1878 promised additional financial support, but the 
promise was unfulfilled. Colonel H. G. Bixby of California offered the university an 


interest in eight silver mines near Globe Cm, Arizona. An excited President Spence 
arranged for the construction of a mill for mine operation at the cost of 540,000. 
The Holston Conference expressed gratitude to Colonel Bixbv for his "munihcent 
gift" and expected sizeable annual dividends. A year later, conference minutes re- 
ported that "the trustees are not realizing on the Arizona mineral interest as soon as 
was anticipated; nevertheless, it is full of promise, and all are confident of success in 
the future." Such optimism proved unjustified, for records show no further refer- 
ence to Colonel Bixby's gift or to any income received from the silver mines. Presi- 
dent Spence, remarkably resilient, apparentiy accepted this disappointment with good 
grace and continued his efforts toward financial securitv and student recruitment.'-^ 

When Spence took office, eighty-six students were enrolled. A serious hindrance 
to recruitment was the postwar economic plight of the South. Many families simply 
lacked the funds required to educate their sons and daughters. Recognizing this prob- 
lem, Spence persuaded the trustees to eliminate tuition completely in 1880, charging 
each student only an incidental fee of five dollars per term. This free tuition system 
continued at least until 1884. As has been noted, Spence traveled throughout the 
region, urging the importance of education tor the betterment of the area's youth, 
and continued to seek financial support for his cause from churches and indi\iduals. 
Due largely to Spence's hard work and persistence, enrollment rose to 330 during his 

As enrollment increased, the one college building proved inadequate. This build- 
ing was used for classrooms, offices, and library, as the meeting place for the literary 
societies and, during the early part of President Spence's tenure, as the president's 
sleeping quarters. During this period, Spence wrote, planned, taught classes, and 
slept in the same northwest room on the building's second floor. The college building 
also served as the place of worship for the congregation of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. This congregation, in 1867, had taken over the building of the Athens Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, but lost in their bid to claim ownership in 1 871 when 
the Circuit Court of McMinn County ruled that the "church building and pn)pert\- be 
surrendered immediately to the Methodist Church, South." President Spence inxited 
the congregation to conduct services on the third floor of the college building. \\ hen 
a college chapel was constructed, through a cooperative agreement between college 
and church, the congregation met in this chapel until l')()9. At that time a newly 
constructed church building on the corner of Jackson and College Streets proxided a 
meeting place. The church, renamed Trinity- Methodist Episcopal C^hurch, then sold 
its interest in the chapel to the college but, in its new location, remainetl the campus 

The college chapel, erected in 1882, on the present site of Townsend Hall, pro- 
vided not only a place for the required daily worship of students and facult\- but 
furnished another venue for recitals, lectures, commencement exercises, and litenu-y 
societ\' programs. 

In the same year as the chapel's construction, 1882, intlebtedness again reared its 

TWC: 1857-2007 ^^ 

ugly head. In response to an accumulated debt of $3,000, President Spence gener- 
ously offered to donate $2,500 if the trustees could provide $500. Not surprisingly, 
his offer was accepted, and the trustees reported "with gladness" that the institution 
was again entirely free of debt.''^' 

As enrollment increased, the need for adequate student housing was recognized, 
and Hatfield Hall, a dormitory for men, was built in 1884. Prior to this time, students 
were responsible for finding their own living quarters, and this necessit}- continued 
for many students since Hatfield Hall accommodated only fort}' males. The school 
provided a few sparsely furnished cottages in which students could share a room by 
paying $1.50 per term and where they could prepare their own meals. Several private 
homes accepted students, some furnishing both room and board and others offering 
rooms where students either did their own cooking or took their meals elsewhere. 
Students who lived close enough to the universit}' could go home on weekends and 
often broutz;ht back enouo-h food to sustain them for the followine: week. 

James A. Fowler, an 1884 graduate, gives a glimpse of how students dealt with 
the housing situation. He arrived by train on a Saturday in late August 1882 and was 
met at the Athens depot by Professor David Bolton who invited him to stay at the 
Bolton home until he could seek housing on the following Monday. Fowler and live 
other boys were able to rent an unoccupied house near the campus. The young men 
consolidated expenses, hired a "colored" woman to serve as cook and housekeeper, 
and elected a member of their group to act as purchasing agent for groceries and 
other needed supplies. This arrangement worked well for a while, but when two more 
students joined the six, conditions became overcrowded, and Fowler and his friend 
Charlie Jennings sought other housing, renting a room downtown over Robinson's 
Store. Here the upstairs area had been partitioned into small, unfurnished rooms 
for students. Fowler and Jennings purchased minimal used furniture consisting of 
a bedstead, a straw tick mattress, two pillows, two chairs, and a small wood stove, all 
obtained for approximately eight dollars. They took their meals with a Mrs. Cook, a 
widow who supported herself and daughter by renting rooms and supplying meals 
both for her roomers and for other students. Boarders paid Mrs. Cook six doUars per 
month. Fowler estimated his total expenses for his first universitv vear to be about 

Professor David Bolton had arrived at the university as a student in 1869 and 
found lodging in the home of William Howard, a house adjacent to the Cedar Grove 
Cemetery. He and his two roommates also took their meals with the Howard family 
Bolton later obtained room and board in the home of Mrs. Edwin A. Atiee. After 
his graduation and marriage, Bolton and his "good and faithful wife" furnished board 
and lodging to students and teachers."^ 

While administrators and trustees struggled with financial problems, what were 
students doing other than seeking room and board? Thev were expected to be study- 
ing, and indeed they were. Under the leadership of President Spence, the curriculum 
had been strengthened to provide three courses of study: Classical, Latin Scientific, 


and Scientilic. The chief distinction between Classical and Latin Scientitic was tiiat 
the former included the study of Greek. To ensure that students gave proper con- 
centration to a demanding curriculum, three evening hours were designated as a study 
period, and all students, whether residing on campus or in town, were required to be 
studying in their rooms during this time. Faculty- members periodically made unan- 
nounced visits to ensure that the rule was followed. 

In general, students seem to have been serious scholars, assiduously pursuing 
their studies. James A. Fowler describes the student body of his time as follows: "If 
judged by their dress and personal appearance, they would not have been regarded 
very highly, but if those students were judged by their zeal in apph'ing to their studies 
and their abiiit)^ to master them, and their ambition to qualify themselves for a suc- 
cessful and useful life, they would rank very high." Fowler's own financial situation 
was such that he determined to complete degree requirements within two years. Car- 
rying a heavy class load, he rose at 4:00 a.m., attended a full day of classes, and studied 
during the evening until the required "lights out" at 10:00 p.m.'*'' 

Obviously, extracurricular activities were Limited, but literary societies afforded 
some opportunity for students to gather in a setting other than the classroom. The 
Athenian and Philomathean societies for men had been oro-anized in 186"^ and lcS68. 
The Adelphian for women is mentioned in early catalogs but must have met its de- 
mise about 1874. Records show that a new society; the Sapphonian, was organized in 
the winter of 1878-79, on the request of "ladies who felt that they were without tlie 
literar\' advantages which the existing societies turnish to the young gentiemen."-" 

The literary societies met weekly, and each had a small library. Since their purpose 
was to develop literary taste as well as ease and grace of expression, at their regular 
meetings members engaged in debate, declamation, and the reading of essays, usually 
on literary subjects. An annual public entertainment by each societ\' required carctul 
preparation and consisted of music, recitations, and sometimes a short play. 

Literary societies were supervised closely by the faculty- and were requirctl to 
follow a rather rigid set of rules. Almost every faculty meeting inxoKed ruling on a 
request from one or more of the societies. For example, in 1869, the Athenian group 
asked permission to arrange a debate with students of the Riceville Academy, a re- 
quest denied by the faculty. Always mindful that study should be e\ery student's pri- 
mary concern, the faculty was careful to emphasize that other actix ities were secoiul- 
ary A resolution by the facult}' in 1869 read: "Resolved: In order to properly guard 
the scholarship and standing of the students of this institution, we deem it improper 
to excuse anyone from the regular college duties for the purpose ot preparing tor any 
duty connected with the literary societies."-' 

Several faculty members were ministers, and all were conscious ot the need tor 
church approval. When the Athenians asked permission to hold a public the.itrical 
performance to raise funds tf) supply furnishings for their meeting place, permission 
was denied. The facultx-'s explanation stated: "In \ iew of the moral aspect ot the 
case as viewed not only b\- the Methodist I'.piscopai Church but bv almost all religious 

TWC: 1857-2007 


denominations, it would not, in our judgement, be considered within the character 
and intent of the institution to permit a public performance of the character in- 
tended." In time the distrust of "playacting" diminished, for nine years later, in 1879, 
the literary societies were allowed to give a theatrical performance to raise funds for 
recarpeting the Literary Hall and the stage of the chapel, both located on the third 
floor of the college building.-- 

A literary societ}' meeting was not open to members of other societies, doubt- 
less a rule at least partially motivated by the fear of allowing unsupervised contact 
between men and women. When it was learned that some societies had permitted 
such visitation. Professor Bolton was instructed to review rules applicable to literary 
societies by reading them aloud during a chapel service. Violation of the no-visitation 
rule resulted in each offender receiving ten demerits. Faculty" members were assigned 
to visit literary societ}' meetings to detect and report violators.--^ 

Literary societies had their own rules governing their members who were expect- 
ed to "perform their duties." The Athenian societ); in 1882, apparently had a problem 
with one member, George Gaines. The societ\''s minutes record the fining of George 
for "nonperformance of dut)'^," the fine being ten cents. On several other occasions 
this same George was absent (fine ten cents) or tardy (fine five cents). Always there 
are the nonconformers who tend to enliven the academic routine!-"^ 

In addition to rules governing literary societies, rules concerning individual stu- 
dent behavior were devised and monitored by the facult}^ Such rules existed from the 
college's beginnings and included bans on consumption of alcoholic beverages, card 
playing, and attendance at "dancing parties, circuses, and operatic shows." Shortiy 
after Spence assumed the presidency, he advocated the adoption of a more elaborate 




Every student is required to give satisfactory evidence of good moral character 
before being admitted. 

It shall be the duty of each student to attend Sabbath School and morning 
service of public worship each Sabbath at such place as student may select or 
as faculty understand preference of parent or guardian. 

All students are required to study during such hours and in such places as the 
faculty may announce for that purpose. 


Students are not to absent selves from the University except by permission 
from faculty, nor absent selves from recitation or study rooms assigned except 
by permission of teachers of recitation. 

All delinquencies are registered and those absent from chapel services wiU 
render excuses to Secretary of faculty in writing, and for all other delinquencies 
students will render either written or verbal excuses to the faculty or respective 
teacher within ten days. 

Students are not to absent selves from exams. 

No student is allowed to carry about his person deadly weapons of any kind, 
and anyone doing so, or attempting to use the same upon another, shall be 
liable to suspension or expulsion. 

The use or the causing to use of intoxicating drinks as a beverage is forbidden 
upon pain of expulsion. 

Boisterousness or unnecessary noise or the use of tobacco anywhere or in 
any way, in or about the college building, or the carrying about the person of 
explosives of any kind or their use is forbidden. 

Use of profane or indecent language either spoken or written is forbidden. 

Abuse of any other person or property is forbidden. 

Loitering about the streets or any place of public business; contracting debts 
except by permission from parent or guardian; visiting saloons; attending 
parties which directly or indirectly have a tendency to disturb habits of study; 
or keeping late hours at night — are strictly forbidden and any pupil violating 
these rules shall be hable to such penalty as faculty may attach. 

Courting, or escorting to and from any of the regular exercises of the school or 
written communications between the male and female members of the school 
are each and all strictly forbidden.-^' 

Not surprisinglv, this last rule mandarinu; separation of males from females was 
difficult to enforce, and occasional exceptions were made for lectures, entertainments 
by literary societies, and commencement exercises. James A. I'"o\\ler atlmirs unasham- 
edly that he "habitually" violated this rule but was not discoxered until his last vear 
when he was caught three dmes. "I never had any idea who the Professor was who so 
diligently kept watch upon me," he wrote. Tor each offense fi\e demerits were given. 

TWC: 1857-2007 ^9 

Some other violations earning five demerits were absence from recitation, absence 
from chapel, and absence from church. Greater offenses, receiving ten demerits, 
included smoking and leaving town without permission. A student was called before 
the dean for fifteen demerits and must appear before the entire faculty' for twent^'-five 
demerits. A student's parent or guardian was notified of thirt}'-five demerits, and fift}^ 
demerits resulted in suspension or dismissal.-^ 

Students were given demerits for such violations as attending a party without 
permission, buggy-riding, and a host of other sins. The annual fair in Sweetwater pre- 
sented a huge temptation to which even President Spence's son succumbed, thereby 
receiving; ten demerits.-'^ 

The no-drinking rule also produced a number of offenders. A consumer of al- 
cohol was either dismissed from the universit}', especially if he had previouslv violated 
the rule, or was allowed to remain after signing a confession of guilt and expression 
of remorse which was read to the student body assembled in chapel. Drinking often 
led to the breaking of other rules as was the case of three students appearing before 
the facult}^ in 1872. These offenders confessed to being absent from their rooms 
without permission, indeed being out after midnight. Their revelry had included vis- 
iting the vicinit}' of the depot and "one or two saloons." Their plea for forgiveness 
and promise of reformation resulted in the faculty's decision, after due deliberation, 
to "bear with the delinquents at this time."-'^ 

Violation of the rule against alcohol rarely received such lenient treatment. The 
notation "suspended for drunkenness, his father notified" appears periodically in fac- 
ult\' minutes. Sometimes a student left voluntarily, refusing to sign the required con- 
fession to be read to his fellow students. Since facult}' members had strong principles 
but not hearts of stone, they sometimes readmitted an expelled offender, often in re- 
sponse to the plea of a concerned parent. A promise of appropriate future behavior 
was, of course, required. 

In 1885, the Holston Conference reported another year of universit^' prosperity, 
a five-year average enrollment of 250, and the purchase of "the Wilson propert}'" 
which consisted of two acres and an eight-room building to be used as a board- 
ing house for young ladies. According to the report, the campus now consisted of 
eighteen acres and six buildings and had the capacity to accommodate four hundred 

With an expanding campus and a strong academic program and with a student 
body which was studious but not without youthful high spirits, East Tennessee Wes- 
leyan Universit^^ was moving forward in 1886. In this same year. President Spence 
saw an opportunit}' to honor a man whom he admired and, perhaps more impor- 
tantly, to increase support from the North. The school was renamed Grant Memorial 
University; which brings us to a new era — and another chapter. 



'O for a faith like his that we the 
bright example may pursue!" 

- Charles Wesley 

A connection of East Tennessee Wesleyan with Ulysses S. Grant had been es- 
tablished in 1867, shordy before the Union general became President of the United 
States. At this time, Grant had been solicited bv John F. Spence to make a contribu- 
tion toward the establishment of a school to be operated by the Holston Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Grant responded with a cash donation accom- 
panied by the statement, "I want to help the class of people for which the school is 
being established, for I believe a Christian education among the masses in the Central 
South is now a necessit}'." Spence was thus able to designate Grant as the first con- 
tributor to East Tennessee Weslevan.' 

Grant died in 1885, and Spence claimed to have had a dream in which Grant ap- 
peared to him, presented him with a razor, and urged him to cut his way through aU 
difficulties. Seeing Grant's popularit\' in the North as a source of support, Spence an- 
nounced his plan to make the Athens institution a "living monument" to "the great- 
est of Generals." In promotional material sent to prospective supporters, Spence 
eulogized Grant as a man of "exalted character" and appealed for donations "in the 
name of 750,000 white men living South of Mason and Dixon's line that cannot read 
the ballots they cast, and on behalf of 3,000,000 more of whites in the same terri- 
tory, over ten years of age, groping in the darkness of intellectual illiteracy." Spence's 
emphasis on the school's mission to wh/te students would later be significant.- 

The Neil' York Christian .Xdrocate approx'cd the name change, stating that numer- 
ous institutions had "Wesleyan" as part of their title, that others were named for 
presidents, but that none was named for Grant who "died in such general esteem and 
love that the name has a national and not a sectional aspect."^ 

While Spence expected the strf)ngest support from the North, some publica- 
tions of the South also endorsed the name change. For cxam]^lc, the Kiioxr/lle Daily 

TWC: 1857-2007 


Cbronick wrote of the "fitting tribute" to a man "whose memory of valor and stain- 
less faith is the proud heritage of every American citizen." The KnoxviUe Daily Journal 
concurred and wrote glowingly of the Athens location as an appropriate site for a 
memorial to Grant stating: "For beauty of scenery and healthy location it cannot be 
surpassed." Chattanooga publications apparently were silent for a reason that will 
become evident.'^ 

Spence advised potential supporters that the university had assets valued at 
$50,000, that the average annual enrollment for the past five years had been 250, 
and that the school had enjoyed great success in the education of "young people in 
moderate circumstances." His hope was not only to strengthen present departments 
but to add an industrial school which would give training in such areas as agriculture, 
carpentry, and machinery. 

Spence's acquaintances in Washington, D.C., helped him to secure a congressio- 
nal endorsement, and twenty-three senators and representatives signed a document 
praising the institution. This endorsement noted that the school had "already accom- 
plished a great work in training thousands of the youths of the South for usefulness 
and leadership among the masses" and had now become "a living and durable monu- 
ment to the name of the greatest of American soldiers."^ 

Spence saw the sixty- fourth anniversary ot Grant's birth, April 27, 1886, as a spe- 
cial opportunity to publicize the university under the new name. At a celebration held 
at the Metropolitan Church in Washington, D.C., several prominent figures spoke in 
praise of both Grant and of the school which now bore his name. Speakers included 
John D. Long, former governor of Massachusetts; Senator Joseph E. Brown of Geor- 
gia; Senator William M. Evarts of New York; and Senator John Sherman of Ohio. 
S. S. Burdett, Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, unable to 
attend, sent a letter praising Grant's "great work for his country" and endorsing "the 
educational institudon which, planted in the South, has taken his loved name."^ 

Indefatigable in his efforts to build a successful university'. President Spence had 
succeeded in adding important names to his list of supporters and expected greater 
returns from fundraising in the North. Grant Memorial never attained the status 
of Harvard, Yale, Oberlin, or Cornell, mentioned by Commander Burdett as other 
great schools bearing honored names, but considerable progress was evident. The 
Holston Conference Education Committee, in 1888, reported the institution to be 
"mc^re prosperous than ever." All indebtedness had been eliminated, endowment 
had reached approximately $100,000, and library holdings had grown to over 4,000 
volumes. Enrollment was growing, with twentv-one states represented in the student 
body of 1 888, and the faculty had increased to nineteen members. -^ 

In 1889, Grant Memorial University merged with Chattanooga Universit}- to be- 
come a single institution with two campuses, and in 1 892, the name was changed to 
U. S. Grant Universit)'. This consolidation led to a series of conflicts which ultimately 
threatened the very existence of the Athens school. 

In order to trace the history of an uneasy alliance, it becomes necessary to break 


chronological order and go back to 1872. Even before diis date, Methodist church 
leaders had discussed the feasibilit)' of establishing in the Central South a single uni- 
versit}" which would serve as the official educational institution for the following con- 
ferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church: Holston, Central Tennessee, Alabama, 
Georgia, Blue Ridge, and \^irginia. Proponents of this idea were convinced that the 
channeling of students and funds from six conferences into one muti.ially supported 
institution would result in a stronger, more efficiently operated university- than could 
be achieved by a single conference. Representatives of these conferences met in 
Knoxville in September 1872 and recommended the establishment of a central uni- 

The Holston Conference, at its annual October meeting, approved the idea. 
In accordance with a recommendation comino- from the I-vnoxville meeting, three 
Holston Conference members were selected to meet with representatives from other 
conferences "to either agree upon an institution already founded, or locate, name, and 
procure a charter for a new one." John Spence, then president of IvnoxviUe Female 
College and trustee of East Tennessee Wesleyan, was one of the delegates chosen. 
Presumably Spence and other Holston Conference representatives hoped that the 
central university' would be located in Athens, thereby strengthening the institution 
already in existence. If such was their hope, they met with disappointment.^ 

After the assembled representatives chose a committee to recommend a loca- 
tion, committee members reported Knoxville, Chattanooga, and Athens as their top 
choices and asked these three cities to present indications of their interest. Citizens 
of Knoxville pledged 550,000 and 40 acres of land which topped amounts pledged 
by Chattanooga and Athens.'' 

Knoxville Universit}' was chartered in 1 873, land having been acquired and trust- 
ees elected. However, funds failed to meet amounts pledged, doubtless in part due 
to the economic panic of 1873. The presence in IvnoxviUe of the University of 
Tennessee also may have reduced the chance of another university- prospering there. 
After unsuccessful attempts by trustees to solicit additional funds, plans for IsjioxviUe 
Universit}- were abandoned.^" 

Spence became president of East Tennessee Wesleyan in 1875 and used his con- 
siderable influence to urge the Holston Conference to give support to the Athens 
school as the central universits'. Meeting in 1879, the Holston Conference apprcn-ed a 
resolution "to encourage no other institution of collegiate grade" and called on other 
conferences to unite in support "thus unifying our denominational educational work 
among the whites in this country."" 

Meanwhile, residents of Chattanooga had not given up hope ot the establishment 
of a central universit}' in that cit\'. Leading the advocates of the Chattanooga location 
was the Reverend John J. Manker, formerly a student and teacher at East Tennessee 
Wesleyan and, very briefly, its president. Manker had become the minister of the First 
Methodist Church in Chattanooga and urged its affluent members to support his ef- 
forts toward the establishment of a university in (Chattanooga. He also sought the 

TWC: 1857-2007 23 

assistance of Bishop Henry W. Warren of Atlanta and of Dr. Richard Rust, founder 
of the Freedmen's Aid Society as well as its secretary and chief operating officer. 

The Freedmen's Aid Societ}' of the Methodist Episcopal Church, headquartered 
in Cincinnati, had been formed in 1866 to promote education in the South. As its 
name suggests, the societ)' was founded for the primary purpose of providing edu- 
cational opportunities to blacks freed from slavery and to their descendants. During 
the first thirteen years of its existence, the society had given $893,918 to this cause. 
Concern arose within the church that white southerners were being neglected, and, 
in 1880, delegates to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church ap- 
proved the societ}' 's support of schools for whites while continuing to work toward 
the advancement of education for blacks. This decision prompted the Freedmen's 
Aid Societ}^ to consider more seriously the request for aid toward the establishment 
of Chattanooga Universit}'^. 

In the spring of 1882, President Spence called for an Educational Conference to 
meet at East Tennessee Wesleyan with representatives from each of the six Methodist 
conferences of the Central South. Delegates agreed on the establishment and main- 
tenance of preparatorv schools within the conferences. PubUc high schools were 
lacking, and preparatory schools were necessary to supplv qualified students to the 
universit}^. Use of the same textbooks in all preparatorv schools, assuring uniformit}' 
of instruction, was also approved. The delegates then unanimously approved sup- 
port of "one central universit)' for white work in the territory lying east of the IVIissis- 
sippi River." All was going smoothly, or so it seemed. 

Controversy erupted when John j. Manker requested the naming of a commit- 
tee to select three possible sites for the universit}^ with the Freedman's Aid Societ}^ to 
make the final decision on location. Immediately, President Spence was on his feet, 
objecting to giving the society the ultimate choice because it was "prejudiced in favor 
of Chattanooga." The committee of representatives from participating conferences, 
he argued, would be in a better position to make the selection. Delegates, however, 
favored Manker's proposal, and the Freedman's Aid Societ}- was authorized to make 
the final site selection.'- 

As the convention closed, Dr. Richard Rust, representing the Freedmen's Aid So- 
ciet}; attempted to calm troubled waters by urging all delegates to continue support of 
East Tennessee Wesleyan. The Universit}^ in Athens, he said, was still the central uni- 
versity and, quite possibh; would continue in that capacity at its present location.'-^ 

At its October meeting, the Holston Conference approved the decision concern- 
ing site selection, changing its previous position and adopting the following resolu- 

Resolved: That it is the desire of the Holston Conference that the question 

of location go to the committee on that subject altogether untrammeled and 

unembarrassed, and we do therefore hereby cancel and recall all former 

expression of preference made by the conference.'"^ 


Five representatives of the Holston Conference named to serve on the joint com- 
mittee for site selection were: J. W. Mann, John |. Manker, John F. Spence, T. S. 
\X alker, and R. N. Price. 

Actually anv committee recommendation seemed a mere formality. W hen the 
sixteen-member committee was convened in Februarv 1883, at the call of Bishop 
Warren, only eight were present. Not surprisingly, Chattanooga was named as first 
choice, followed by IsJioxviUe and Athens. When the committee's recommendation 
was forwarded to the Freedman's Aid Society, Chattanooga was unanimously ap- 
pro\'ed, again not surprisingly. 

Disappointment was keenly felt in Athens. East Tennessee Wesleyan had been 
in operation for sixteen years and was making progress. President Spence and oth- 
ers felt that they had been led to believe, both by the Holston Conference and by 
spokesmen for the Freedmen's Aid Societ); that Athens would remain the site of the 
central university Some loss of financial support from the church, as well as decrease 
in enrollment, was anticipated. }ust three years later, Spence recommended the name 
change to Grant Memorial in the hope of increasing support from another sector, the 
northern states. 

In Chattanooga, a location was chosen for the university and thirteen acres pur- 
chased by the Freedmen's j\id Society. Ground was broken early in 1884. Actual 
construction did not take place until more than a year later, but by the spring of 1886, 
a four-story structure was completed. This huge building contained offices, class- 
rooms, laboratories, library, dining hall and kitchen, along with thirt}'-nine dormitory 
rooms for students and apartments for faculty. The Freedman's Aid Societ\' accepted 
most of the responsibilit^' for building, furnishing, and equipping the hall although 
Chattanoogans contributed a sizeable amount. 

A board of trustees was elected to direct daily operations, but the universit}' was 
owned and operated by the Freedmen's Aid Societ}'. As representative of this orga- 
nization. Dr. Richard Rust undertook hiring; of faculty and administrators. Named as 
acting president was the Reverend Edward S. Lewis who had served as president of 
Littie Rock University, another school operated by the society. Six faculty members 
were appointed with John J. Manker to act as dean of theology, the most influential 
position other than that of president. 

Chattanooga Universit)^ opened in the fall of 1886 with an enrollment of 118 
which within five weeks grew to 175. Enrollment figures were encouraging, but the 
universit}' immediately encountered its first maif)r difficulty. Among students seeking 
admission were two young black men. 

Dean Manker explained to the prospecti\e black students that tlic school coukl 
not admit them in spite of its connection with the I-reedmcn's Aid Society. T]tc\- were 
encouraged to withdraw their applications and apply to the society tor scholarships to 
a school in Atianta. Quieti\' but firmly, they refused. A week later three black women 
applied for admission to Grant Memorial in Athens. Apparenth, thc\ were more eas- 

TWC: 1857-2007 25 

ily persuaded to withdraw since that school did not receive its major support from the 
Freedmen's Aid Societ}^. 

Chattanooga Universit}' hoped to keep private its policy of racial discrimination, 
but such was not the case. Adding to the problem was an episode involving Professor 
Wilford Caulkins. Caulkins had been a member of East Tennessee Wesleyan's facult}^ 
and was now Professor of Ancient Languages in Chattanooga. In the Chattanooga 
office of the Methodist Advocate, Professor Caulkins was introduced by the editor to 
a black minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Reverend B. H. Johnson. 
Caulkins verbally acknowledged the introduction with "Good evening" but did not 
shake the black minister's extended hand. The Reverend Johnson felt insulted and 
did not hesitate to make known his feelings. The Chattanooga Times published several 
articles about the incident which had "attracted wide attention and excited much in- 

The Freemen's Aid Societ}' investigated the matter and reported that a majorit)- 
of its executive committee felt that Professor Caulkins's action showed him to "en- 
tertain sentiments that unfit him for a position in a school with which our Freedmen's 
Aid Societ}^ is officially connected." The society called on the board of trustees to 
dismiss Caulkins.'^' 

The trustees were faced with a real dilemma. They knew the power of the society 
but also were convinced that any suggestion that the universit}^ might be open to racial 
integration would cause the loss of white smdents. They initially refused to dismiss 
Caulkins, but after mounting pressure from the societ)' and from northern ministers, 
they reluctantly consented to request Caulkins's resignation. 

The racial question had damaged Chattanooga Universit}^ seriously. Whites feared 
that the segregation policy would soon end. Two trustees resigned from the board, 
and six students from the fifteen-member senior class left Chattanooga to enroll at 
Grant Memorial in Athens. According to one student, they were advised to do so by 
President Spence.' ' 

In the fall of 1887, Chattanooga Universit)' opened with an enrollment of 104, a 
considerable loss from the 175 of the previous year. Another faculty member. Pro- 
fessor Mary Presnell, was asked to resign, presumably for expressing strong opposi- 
tion to biracial education. Richard Rust had sympathized with the trustees and lost 
his position as chief officer of the societ}^ which had been renamed the Freedmen's 
Aid and Southern Educational Society. Rust was named "honorary secretary" of the 
societ}^, a position of no real power. John |. Manker was demoted from his position 
as dean of theology to that of assistant to President Edward Lewis. 

The Chattanooga Tin/es reported, in 1887, that the university was "not flourishing 
as it should." The newspaper placed much of the blame on the officials ot Grant 
Universit}', President Spence in particular, accusing Spence of instigating a number of 
letters written to Chattanooga students indicating that Chattanooga might well admit 
black students while the Athens school definitely would not.'''' 


The new secretary of the Freedmen's Aid and Southern Educational Society; 
Doctor Joseph C. Hartzell, began a strong campaign for the merger of Chattanooga 
University- and Grant jVIemoriai. The situation at Chattanooga had become an em- 
barrassment to the Methodist Episcopal Church. Moreover, the church's financial 
support of two institutions in such close proximity- was difficult. 

At its annual meeting in the fall of 1888, the Holston Conference heard a recom- 
mendation from a committee, composed of representatives from the two institutions 
and from the Freedmen's Aid Society; that the universities be consolidated. After 
considerable debate, the conference approved the merger. Under this arrangement, 
the universit^' would maintain two campuses but would be governed by one president 
and a single board of trustees.'*^ 

Governor Robert L. Taylor, alumnus of East Tennessee Wesleyan, expressed ap- 
proval of the merger. Even the Chattanooga Times, a staunch supporter of Chatta- 
nooga Universit}-, was optimistic, predicting that Grant Memorial Universit^- would 
now become "the grandest university in the South and one of the grandest in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church."-" 

A new charter for Grant Memorial University' was issued in April 1889, and the 
board of trustees met in May to elect an administrative head. Dr. }ohn F. Spence 
received ten of the thirteen votes cast, an outcome not favored by many Chatta- 
noogans. A headline in the Chattanooga T/V/zfj^read "Spence Gobbled It," and the story 
under the headline made clear the paper's opinion: "Athens and President Spence 
now have possession of Chattanooga and the Chattanooga University- propert}'. The 
game has been remarkably well played. The men who built the university have been 
shoved aside.- ^ 

Shortly after Spence's election, the trustees changed the title of the universit}-'s 
head from president to chancellor. Since some Chattanoogans felt that continuation 
of Grant Memorial as the universit}''s name suggested that Chattanooga Universit}- 
had been completely swallowed by the Athens school, the charter was amended to 
give the consolidated school the name U. S. Grant Universit)-. 

The 1889 charter of consolidation called for the schools of medicine, law, and 
liberal arts to be located in Chattanooga with colleges of theology and technology in 
Athens. However, since liberal arts students were currentiy enrolled at Athens, these 
students would be allowed to continue their studies until graduation. The plan was to 
accept no new liberal arts students in Athens, but this plan was ignored. In the 1890 
fall term, twent}'-two freshmen enrolled in the liberal arts program, and in the follow- 
ing year, twent\'-one. As a result, enrollment in liberal arts decreased in Chattanooga, 
a condition justifiably resented in Chattanooga. The location of all administrative 
offices in Athens was another source of dissatisfaction to Chattanoogans. 

So unsuccessful was the liberal arts program in (Chattanooga that it was trans- 
ferred to Athens in 1892, as was the preparatory school. At the same rime, the theol- 
ogy school was mo\'ed to (Chattanooga. The Athens campus now consisted of the 

TWC: 1857-2007 27 

college of liberal arts, departments of music and fine arts, and the preparatory school. 
Chattanooga had the professional schools of theology, law, and medicine. 

It would seem that as soon as any hope for harmony appeared, that hope was 
squelched by another occasion for rivalry. The Freedman's Aid and Southern Edu- 
cational Societ}', represented by Dr. Hartzell, proposed the sale of an unused portion 
of the Chattanooga campus consisting of two cit)^ blocks bordered by Douglas, Oak, 
Baldwin, and Vine Streets. The motivation for the sale remains uncertain, one report 
being that the resulting funds would be used for additional building on the remaining 
campus, while another indicated the need for funds to liquidate some of the societ}^'s 
debt. Hearing of the proposed sale, John Spence assembled an investment group 
which offered $90,000 for the land. Outraged by the attempted purchase of a portion 
of the campus, a group of Chattanoogans brought legal action. The pending litiga- 
tion resulted in the propert\''s withdrawal from the market, but Spence's involvement 
in the attempted purchase increased antipathy toward him. At the annual meeting 
of the trustees, in 1891, Spence was replaced as chancellor by Bishop Isaac Joyce. 
Although he was given the title of president, Edward Lewis having resigned, Spence 
was relieved of aU administrative duties and was to act as financial and field agent for 
the university. 

The trustees had hoped Spence's demotion would result in his voluntary resig- 
nation, but he held on for two years, presiding periodically over facult)' meetings in 
Athens. Feeling the need for bolder action, the trustees, in 1893, abolished the office 
of president and refused to reelect Spence to the board of trustees. In his response 
to the assembled board, Spence reminded trustees that during liis service as chancel- 
lor, the school had increased in enrollment both in Athens and in Chattanooga but 
that his "obligations to the U. S. Grant Universit\'" were now "at an end." After his 
departure from the universit); Spence used his considerable abilities to establish the 
American Temperance Universit}' in Harriman, Tennessee." 

The trustees attempted to placate Athenians by naming R. |. Cooke to the posi- 
tion of vice-chancellor. Dr. Cooke, later to become Bishop Cooke, was a graduate of 
East Tennessee Wesleyan and a resident of Athens. The people of Athens, however, 
were not reconciled to Spence's removal as indicated by a statement in the Athens Post 
declaring that Spence had been "roasted by the trustees without mercy." A protest 
meeting in Athens, attended by students, facult}', and townspeople, called for Spence's 
reinstatement but to no avail.-' 

Chattanoogans, on the other hand, were jubilant. The Chattanooga Times reported 
that the rivalry between the two campuses could now be "a thing of the past." The 
Times writer went on to hope that the university's chief location would now" be in 
Chattanooga "where every man of common sense knows it ought to be."-"^ 

During his tenure President Spence had worked diligentiy toward improving the 
Athens campus and strengthening its academic program. Paradoxically, his devotion 
was the root of both his success and his failure. Concerning himself with showing 
that Athens should be the site of the central university, he gave little attention to the 


development of the Chattanooga campus after he became chancellor of the com- 
bined institutions. His strong local interest aroused so much controversy that his 
ouster became inevitable. Unquestionably, Spence's deep lovaltv, combined with his 
administrative and fundraising abilities, had saved the Athens school when it was in 
danger of financial downfall. 

A part of Spence's expansion of the Athens campus was the addition of impor- 
tant buildings. As has been noted, the college chapel was erected in 1882. Two board- 
ing facilities for women, Bennett Hall and the Elizabeth Ritter Industrial Home, were 
constructed in 1890-91. Also acquired for college use, in 1889, was the Grandview 
Hotel on Woodward Avenue. 

Bennett Hall, a 33-room dormitory, provided housing for young women at an 
individual cost of $2.50 per week for room and board. Made possible by a donation 
from Mrs. P. L. Bennett of Pennsylvania, Bennett Hall occupied a site slightiy east of 
the main college building, the present location of Lawrence Hall. 

A significant achievement of President Spence's leadership was the establishment 
of Elizabeth Ritter Industrial Home which was supported by the Women's Home 
Missionary Societ\' of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The home missionary society' 
was enthusiastic about establishing a school to serve young women of the southern 
highlands. Encouraged by President Spence, the societ}' chose Athens as the location 
for the project for two principal reasons. An institution sponsored by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church already existed in Athens; moreover, the site was ideally located 
near the mountain areas of Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Mrs. 
Elizabeth Ritter of Napoleon, Ohio, gave $1,000 to the project, the largest single 
initial donation. Universit}^ trustees deeded a part of the campus, behind the main 
college building, to the Women's Home IMissionarv Society; and Elizabeth Ritter In- 
dustrial Home opened in September 1891. 

The stated object of Ritter Home w^as to train young women in "domestic econ- 
omy" which included cooking, sewing, marketing, and keeping household accounts. 
Members of the missionary societ}' vowed to "spare neither labor nor money" in the 
training of young ladies "to perform most skillfulh' all the duties that pertain to a 
woman as the head of a house or home." Each pupil was to perform chores involved 
in operating the hall and would attend regular university classes while also being in- 
structed in the "appUed sciences" of homemaking. The building accommodated 
about fift\- young women. The fee for room and board was two dollars per week but 
could be reduced by the performance of extra duties. The missionary socicn.- would 
provide further assistance in needy cases.-"^ 

Lack of harmonious progress seems to have been the keynote ot the 189()s at the 
universit}', and the opening of Ritter Hall was no exception. The first matron was a 
Mrs. F. V. Chapman from Ohio. After spending one year in Athens, Mrs. Chapman 
went home to Ohio for a summer vacation and gave a number of lectures describing 
her efforts to bring light to the darkness of the backward South. Although the girls 
she supervised were igntjrant and uncouth, she said, some impro\ement was already 

TWC: 1857-2007 29 

noticeable. Her remarks, published in northern newspapers and somehow finding 
their wav southward, were quoted in the Athens newspaper. Citizens of Athens did 
not take Idndly to her description of their home territory, and Mrs. Chapman received 
a letter advising her not to return to her post for she was in danger of being "egged." 
Mrs. Chapman chose not to heed the warning, declaring that she would return to 
Athens wearing a washable dress. Upon her return for the fall session, no eggs were 
thrown, but she found not a single young woman from Athens or the surrounding 
area living in Ritter. Fearful that local hostility might be directed not only toward her 
but toward her pupils, Mrs. Chapman decreed that she and her charges would march 
together in group formation whenever it was necessary to leave the campus.-*^' 

Another building was added to the university's facilities when, in 1889, the Grand- 
view Hotel was purchased from the Athens Manufacturing and Mining Company. 
This company, in spite of grandiose plans, soon became defunct and offered to sell 
the partially completed hotel for $15,000. Located in North Athens on Woodward 
Avenue, the building, on which the company hacl already spent $40,000, had five 
stories and occupied some 80,000 square feet. Because of the enormity of the red- 
brick structure, Athenians quickly dubbed it the "Red Elephant." Fundraising for the 
building's completion was given a significant boost by James Parker of Chicago who 
contributed $10,000. 

The original plan was to use the building for a new school of technology, but this 
plan did not materialize. With the official return of the liberal arts program to Ath- 
ens, Parker College opened in September 1897 as the site of the College of Liberal 
Arts of U. S. Grant University'. In addition to classrooms, laboratories, and dormitory 
rooms, the "Red Elephant" contained an auditorium with a seating capacit}^ of six 
hundred, a parlor, and meeting rooms for literary societies. A kitchen and dining hall 
were located in the basement.-^ 

Records for Parker College are sparse, but it probably was used as the liberal arts 
building until 1906. It may never have been completely finished or furnished. Its his- 
tory came to an end in July 1907 when it was struck by lightning and burned. 

The 1897-98 catalog which announced the opening of Parker College also men- 
tioned departments of music, art, elocution, and oratory and a commercial depart- 
ment offering instruction in shorthand and typewriting. The preparatory school, serv- 
ing the largest number of students, continued, and a "normal" department trained 
prospective teachers. 

While administrators and faculty members were concerned with the relationship 
of two campuses, Athens students continued to occupy their time with class atten- 
dance and study, with a slightly enhanced program of extracurricular activities, and 
with attempts, authorized and unauthorized, to add a bit of fun and excitement to a 
restricted environment. 

Literary societies, which were now four in number, remained the doniinant form 
of extracurricular involvement. In addition to the Athenian, Philomathean, and Sap- 
phonian societies, the Knightonian, for women, had been added, named for a re- 


spected professor, Mrs. A. C. Knight. Ministerial students had their own societ\', the 
Simpsonian. Almost all students belonged to a literary societ\-, and their involvement 
in composition, debating, and oratory was a valuable experience for future teachers, 
law}'ers, and ministers. James A. Fowler, a prominent attorney, wrote that many of 
the students derived as much benefit from the literary societies as from the class- 

The literary societies initiated the annual observance of Arbor Day. Following 
the first Arbor Day celebration, in 1887, the Sapphonian societ\' successfully peti- 
tioned the facult}' to approve the continuation of the observance. On Arbor Day in 
1896 and in 1897, the societies planted a number of maple trees which are still being 
appreciated, especially in their autumnal beaurv'.-*^ 

A student newspaper, the University Expoiieiii, made its first appearance during 
the fall term of 1895. Under close facult}' supervision, the paper was designed to be 
published monthly with eight issues during an academic year. Cost of publication was 
met by the sale of advertising space to local merchants.^" 

Another welcome addition to the college scene came with the addition to the 
facult}' of Professor Joel S. Barlow who organized a university band. From its be- 
ginning, the school had placed emphasis on music with strong enrollment in vocal 
and instrumental instruction, but Professor Barlow's fourteen-member band certainly 
enlivened the program. The report of the University Exponent that "the band is pro- 
gressing nicely and in short time we expect to hear some good music from it" seems 
an instance of damning with faint praise; the band evidently made sufficient progress 
since it performed for visiting dignitaries arri\ing at the Southern Raih\-a\- station and 
for commencement and class day.^^' 

Professor Barlow was well-qualified to lead the fledgling band since he had been 
a member of the Great Band of England (Queen Victoria's Band) and had later given 
music lessons in New York and in Chicago. His daughter Grace became an instructor 
in voice and piano at the universitv'. Professor Barlow also organized a ladies orches- 
tra and a musical societ}^, the Beethoven Music Club. '- 

Other campus organizations were religious groups, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W'.C.A., 
and the Epworth League. In addition to their religious programs and projects, these 
organizations at times sponsored social events such as ice cream suppers. 

A growing interest in athletics resulted, in 1897, in the organization of a baseball 
team and in the formation of the Grant University Athletic Association. The fitty- 
member association assumed as its first project the preparation of baseball and track 
fields. North of the main college building was a tennis court; both tennis and croquet 
were popular games, especially with female students. The faculty ruled on permissible 
playing times, firmly excluding Sundays. 

The facult}' tried to keep strict control of all student activities, but this, ot course, 
was impossible. Most student pranks were harmless attempts at amusement. In 1897, 
student Horton received twenty demerits for throwing; a dead bird through a window 

TWC: 1857-2007 31 

into a classroom. Student Oakes imitated this method of classroom disruption but 
threw gravel instead; his penalt)' was a mere ten demerits. -^"^ 

A particularly ingenious prank is described in the memoirs of Harry Caldwell. 
A member of the class of 1898, Caldwell was the son of a prominent Methodist 
minister and universit}' trustee. After his graduation, Caldwell gained considerable 
renown as a missionary to China, where he served for more than fort}" years, and 
as a naturalist, big game hunter, and author. The prank that was the triumph of his 
student days involved the Ritter Home, the college chapel, a gate, and a "Mrs. C," 
undoubtedly the same Ritter matron, Mrs. Chapman, who was earlier threatened with 
"egging." Caldwell and five friends had been accused by Mrs. C. of hanging around 
the windows of Ritter at night, a false accusation, or so thev maintained. Ritter was 
then enclosed by a picket fence with an entrance gate. Mrs. C. told the young men 
that if they were ever found inside Ritter's gate, she would see that they were arrested 
for trespassing. The boys held a conference at which they decided to remove the gate; 
if there were no gate, they reasoned, they could not possibly be found inside it. In 
the darkness of night, they took the gate and threw it into a gravel pit. A reward was 
offered for recovery of the gate or for evidence revealing the guilt}^ part\' or parties. 
The gate-stealers decided to return the gate to campus, but instead of placing it in 
its original position, they hung it from the ceiling of the chapel. This was a stealthy, 
nocturnal operation involving the use of a ladder and a long chain. The rest of the 
story is best told in the words of Dr. Caldwell: 

The following morning we were in our usual places for the morning 
chapel services. Not one of us so much as glanced upward as we sat in our 
junior and senior class seats, well forward. Everything seemed abnormally 
quiet as we waited for the facult}^ and staff to take their accustomed places 
on the rostrum. Finally one of the venerable teachers scurried up the aisle 
and onto the platform, hurrying to the speaker's desk where she placed her 
Bible and hymnbook. Mrs. Knight, sister of Bishop Warren of the 
Methodist church, was revered by all the students; it seemed unfortunate 
that it had to be she who was to lead chapel service that particular 
morning. She thumbed her Bible and then began to read the lesson of the 
morning. It happened to be the twent)^-fourth Psalm. There seemed to 
be the usual devotional spirit brooding over the place until the leader 
read the seventeenth verse. "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye 
lifted up, ye everlasting doors!" There was a disturbing giggle. The 
dear old lady characteristically looked over her glasses, and with hand to her 
mouth said, "Well!" She looked a while at the assembly, and proceeded to 
continue reading. When again there was, "Lift up your heads, O )'e 
gates, and be ye lifted up. . ." the hundreds of pious students could 
contain themselves no longer. There was first a suppressed, and then an 
uproarious burst of laughter. The old saint paused, put her hand to 
her mouth, hacked three coughs, and then exploded with, "Well, 


something seems to amuse you much!" Bv this time every eve was looking 
upward. Facult)' members who had not noticed what was hanging 
heavily over their heads, looked up and broke into broad grins. The leader 
of the devotions sidled off a distance and looked above her. There was the 
lost gate hanging exacdy over the pulpit! Chapel service was abrupdy 
terminated for that day. It did appear to six students that it was more 
than mere accident that of the whole book of Psalms that particular Psalm 
should have been selected for that particular morning. Those devout sons 
of parsonage homes could but wonder whether God was not on their side, 
even in a college prank. ■'"^ 

Whether or not the identit)' of the gate-stealers was discovered is not recorded 
nor is there any record of punishment. The incident makes clear that facult)' mem- 
bers were not without a sense of humor, and bv the 1 890s, they appear to be more 
tolerant and to allow greater student freedom. Bv 1 892, gentlemen were allowed to 
call on voung ladies in the dormitory parlors between the hours of 2:00 and 4:00 p.m. 
on Saturdays. By 1899, visiting hours had been extended to "out of studv hours on 
anv school dav," but the gentieman caller must have obtained permission from the 

Students of the 1890s were more apt to question facult)' decisions than were their 
predecessors. Reflecting a somewhat more lenient attitude, the facult)' responded 
more favorably to student requests and were less likely to summarily expel trespassers 
against college rules. A case in point is the lengthening of the Christmas holidays, 
by student request, in 1 892. Previously the Christmas break was limited to two days 
before the holiday and two or three days afterward. This schedule was adequate for 
students living near the campus, but the increasing enrollment ot students trom other 
areas presented a problem. When 120 students petitioned the faculty tor a longer 
recess, the holidays were extended to a period from December 22 to January 3.-^^' 

Students also made their opinions heard, in 1 894, when two brothers were expelled 
for participation in a disturbance "very unbecoming the occasion and the church" and 
for "showing great disrespect to a chief officer of the Universit}'." Given a chance 
f)f avoiding expulsions by signing a confession of guilt and apologizing for their 
l^ehavior, the students refused. Evidentiv the two culprits were popular with their 
peers, for several students protested the expulsion and requested an explanation. .\ 
facult^' committee met with the protestors to explain faculty action. The incident had 
a satisfactory conclusion, for the expulsion was revoked when the brothers agreeti to 
accept responsibility for their behaxior and to obey universit)- rules in the iuture.- ' 

The facult)^ also became a bit less rigid in demands concerning class attendance, 
especially for seniors preparing commencement speeches. A requirement for gradu- 
ation was the composition and delivery of an oration, eight to ten minutes in length. 
Near the beginning of the tinal term, each prospective graduate chose a topic and 
submitted it to the facult\- for appro\-al. As commcnccmenr approached, the student 

TWC: 1857-2007 33 

was assigned a faculty advisor who would determine whether the oration was suffi- 
ciently refined in language and appropriate in content for public delivery. Students of 
the nineteenth century had the same tendency toward procrastination found among 
their successors in later centuries, and as the deadline approached, frequently asked 
to be excused from classes in order to work on their orations. The facult^^ usually 
agreed to allow absence from classes, for a few days and often for a full week, with the 
stipulation that all class assignments be completed before graduation. 

Some oration topics from the 1888 commencement included: "Political Party 
Power" by A. D. Collier; "The New South" by W. M. Thomas; "Was Gray Mistaken?" 
by M. G. Rambow; and "Character and Tendency of American Thought" by Mary 
Hager Matney.-^*^ 

An alumni association had been formed by the first graduating class of East 
Tennessee Weslevan in 1871 and planned to meet annually during commencement 
week. During its early years, the association selected an alumnus as speaker at its 
annual meeting which was open to the public. Since graduating classes were small, 
alumni membership grew slowly, and attendance at meetings was low. In 1 874, when 
ten members were present, David Bolton was elected president and served in that 
capacity at various times over a span of several years. In an effort to stimulate interest 
and increase attendance, the association planned to hold a banquet in 1885 but had 
to abandon the plan for lack of financial support. Another attempt in 1888 had the 
same result. The first alumni banquet did not occur until 1901. 

No records of the alumni association's business meetings exist for the years 1888- 
1892. In 1893, the association had received a gift of twenty-five dollars from S. M. 
Broyles and approved the donation of this amount to the university to be used toward 
the furnishing of a room in the "new university building," presumably Parker College. 
Also in 1 893, faculty members were admitted as associate members which increased 
both attendance and interest in giving assistance to the school. In 1894, President 
Bolton urged the association to "do something" toward establishing a fund for needy 
students, but no record exists as to what, if anything, was done.^*^ 

Twent\' members appeared for the 1895 meeting where Colonel H. B. Case spoke 
in favor of an annual alumni fund. A five-member committee was appointed to de- 
vise "a method of raising funds among the alumni and to provide for the application 
of the monev raised." The following year's report announced donations amounting 
to sixty'- five dollars."^" 

An important accomplishment of the association was the publication of an 
alumni directory which gave a short biographical sketch of each alumnus and alunina 
who graduated between 1871 and 1896. The association approved the publication at 
its 1895 meeting and appointed a committee to compile information and prepare the 
directory. David Bolton, editor, was assisted by committee members J. W. Bayless, 
H. B. Case, W. F. McCarron, and W. A. Wright. When the project was completed, in 


August 1896, one thousand copies were printed and sold for t\vent\'-hve cents each. 
A few of the distinguished names appearing are: 

• Harry S. Caldwell, 1 898, minister, missionary to China, author, scientist. 

• Richard J. Cooke, 1 880, miinister, bishop, author, educator, editor of the 

Methodist Advocate ]oiinial. 

• Samuel Silas Curry, 1 872, minister, author, professor at Harvard, Yale, and 
Boston Universities, founder of School of Expression in Boston. 

•James A. Fowler, 1884, prominent attorney. Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. 

• Xenophon Zenas Hicks, 1891, lawyer, judge of U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. 

• John |. Manker, 1871, minister, editor of the Methodist Advocate ]oitnial. 

• Robert L. ("Bob") Taylor, Congressman, U.S. Senator, Governor. 

Bishop Isaac Joyce resigned as chancellor of U. S. Grant Universit)' in 1896. The 
ofhce of vice-chancellor was abolished although Dr. R. |. Cooke continued to teach 
in the theology department. During the 1896-97 term, the universit\', left without a 
real administrative head, was directed by Dean W. A. Wright in Athens and the deans 
of the professional schools in Chattanooga. 

Inadequate finances continued to present a serious problem. Better building 
maintenance was needed, and faculty salaries not only were woefully low, but in 1 897 
were again in arrears. Professor Bolton, who began to teach in 1873 for an annual 
salary of S600, was earning $1,100 in 1897. Other faculty salaries included: Dean 
Wright, $1,300; Professor Hooper, $1,100; Professor Ferguson, S900; Professor Burke 
(preparatory school principal), S700; and Professor Knight, S70() plus lodging. For 
such wages, facult}' members were expected not only to teach classes but to cniorce 
college rules, check dorms and cottages to ensure observance of study and curfew 
hours, aid in student recruitment and fundraising, and attend daily chapel scr\iccs and 
Sunday worship. In spite of the faculty's heav\" duties coupled with meager wages, the 
school continued to attract teachers of high quality who were both academical!) and 
morally strong. "^- 

Not only were faculty salaries low, but teachers had little assurance oi rccei\ing 
rhcir pittances (^n time. In 1893, (Chancellor joxcc informed rhe Athens hiculry that 
the uniyersity's deticit of about $1,600 represented an ele\en percent deficit in each 
teacher's salary. The facult\' was given the option of either closing the academic \ear 
at the end of the second term, March 3, when teachers would be |")aid in full, or of 
continuing classes until the end of the \ear with an elexen percent salary reduction. 

TWC: 1857-2007 35 

The faculty chose the second alternative and continued to teach at reduced salaries for 
the full year.**-^ 

In 1897, the faculty" seems more aggressive. Thev were aware that the Freedmen's 
Aid and Southern Educational Societ}^ had tailed to pay §600 of the amount desig- 
nated for the Athens campus, and they complained that local income had suffered 
because of improvements made on the societ\^'s propert}'^, an obvious reference to the 
Chattanooga campus. Stating that they were "in need of money for living expenses 
and for the purpose of traveling in the interest of the school," facultA' members urged 
Dean Wright to apply to teacher's salaries funds "accrued from the sale of the ma- 
chinery in the college building in North Athens.""^"^ 

A challenging situation faced the next leader of U. S. Grant Universit)^ John H. 
Race assumed his role as president in 1898, and a new era began. 



"The day of battle is at hand - 
go forth to glorious war." 

- Charles Wesley 

In the fall of 1897, John H. Race, a young minister in Binghamton, New York, 
was surprised by a telegram from John VC. Hamilton, the new secretary of the Freed- 
men's Aid and Southern Education Society'. The telegram asked Race to consider the 
chancellorship of Grant University; a school which he had "scarcely heard of" He 
replied that he needed time to investigate such an unexpected offer. ' 

Encouraged by Hamilton to make an expense-paid visit to the university. Race 
and liis wife arrived in November 1 897 to inspect the t\^'o campuses and met with a 
discouraging sight. Buildings were in need of repair, teachers were poorly paid and 
dispirited, enrollment was dwindling, and trustees and other supporters were torn by 
the rivalry between Athens and Chattanooga. The universit}''s financial plight made 
it difficult to meet minimal operating costs. Race reported to a friend that it would 
be easier to build a completely new school than to rescue Grant Universit^' trom its 
desperate condition. Apparently feeling intrigued and inspired by the enormity of the 
challenge. Race accepted the leadership of Grant at a salary amounting to one-third 
of what he was earning as a minister in New York. He chose to assume the tide of 
president rather than that of chancellor.- 

John H. Race, a native of Pennsylvania, held both a Bachelor of Arts and a Mas- 
ter of Arts from Princeton University. Originally interested in a career in business, 
he turned to the ministry after the loss of his left hand in a sawmill accident, an event 
which he described as a "turning point" in his life. Race was ordained to the ministry 
at the age of 28, and Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church in Binghamton, New 
York, was his first pastorate. "^ 

Although Race visited the campuses in the fall of 189'^, he continued his ministe- 
rial duties in New York until y\ugust 1898. He and his wife then moved to Athens 
and lived in Bennett Hall for three months before deciding to make (Chattanooga their 

TWC: 1857-2007 


place of residence. This decision effectively moved the university's headquarters to 
Chattanooga, where Race believed it belonged, and was viewed by Athenians as an act 
of hostility toward the Athens campus. 

Race saw himself as an objective outsider who could form an unprejudiced 
opinion of the university's problems. One unfortunate mistake, he believed, was the 
school's name. An institution founded by the Northern Methodist Church was locat- 
ed in the South and given the name of a Northern general. The situation, he felt, was 
comparable to that of a school being established in New England by the Southern 
Methodist Church and named for Robert E. Lee. The name, he determined, must be 

There were, however, more pressing problems than a name change to be ad- 
dressed. The collegiate liberal arts department at Athens was in a state of decline 
both from the standpoint of enrollment and of academics. Enrollment had fall- 
en from 114 in 1880 to 39 in 1898. The university' 's total enrollment included 227 
students in professional or postgraduate courses and 542 in the preparatory school. 
Meeting with university trustees. Race pointed out that the liberal arts college which 
should be the strongest component was, in fact, the weakest. Moreover, the Univer- 
sity Senate, accrediting agency of the Methodist Episcopal Church, had put the insti- 
tution on notice that work in English must be strengthened if its status as a university' 
was to be maintained. Instruction in the modern languages and in the sciences also 
caused concern. Professional departments. Race stated, were stronger than the liberal 
arts, resulting in a "top hea\T" situation. Race also believed that Athens professors 
devoted too much time to the collegiate curriculum to the detriment of preparatory 
students, a much larger group. His proposed remedy for this undesirable situation 
was the transfer of the liberal arts college to Chattanooga with the preparatory school 
to remain in Athens where it could be strengthened and developed into a "first class" 
secondary school. This alteration, Race insisted, would result in improved facilities 
and resources in Athens where "attention would be directed to the fundamentals in a 
liberal education."'^ 

Race estimated that the relocation of the liberal arts college and the upgrading 
of its program would cost $10,000 annually for five years. Chattanooga trustees were 
unreceptive to another fundraising campaign, and the Freedmen's Aid Society was so 
heavilv in debt that it could not make this financial commitment. Realizing that his 
plan was not immediately feasible. Race focused on strengthening academic standards 
in the university's present structure. New students arriving in 1899 were examined in 
English, reading, and spelling, and those found deficient were required to enroll in re- 
medial classes. Students having difficulty with any subject were assigned to a required 
study hall.-^ 

A further enhancement of instruction came by the addition of several new fac- 
ulty members with strong academic credentials. Added to the English department 
was Mary D. Karr, M.A., Wellesley, and to the science faculty, W. Newton Holmes 
who held an M.A. from Syracuse. W. W. Phelon, with a Ph.D. from Columbia, was to 


teach political and social science, and Jennie M. Roberts, an IM. A. graduate of Illinois 
Wesleyan, joined the Latin department. A new music teacher, Edna Ames Arnold, 
had studied at the renowned Leschetizkv School in \^ienna. 

President Race also recognized the need to improve library and science facilities. 
The limited library collection was still confined to a single room in Old College, and 
laboratories lacked the latest scientific equipment. Financial problems had prevented 
needed improvements in these areas, j. W". Fisher, a trustee who enrolled two of 
his children in 1898, reported to his fellow trustees on deficiencies which he had 
observed. Not only was the inadequacy of library and laborator\' facilities evident, 
he said, but he was particularly unhappy with the condition of the men's dormitory, 
Hatfield HaU, which he felt was "not a credit to our Methodists." Speaking to the 
trustees in June 1900, President Race stressed the need for improved laboratories and 
an adequate dormitory for men.^' 

NX/Tiile Race undertook a campaign to raise funds in the North, Dean W. A. Wright 
was assigned the task of soliciting funds for a science building. A contract was ne- 
gotiated to make 400,000 bricks for the new structure. Wright secured the support 
of William Banfield, an industrialist of Beaver, Pennsylvania, who agreed to donate 
SI 6,400 for the building's construction as a memorial to his deceased son. Trustee 
James W. Fisher, of Newport, Tennessee, gave $6,000 for laboratories, and Mrs. A. C. 
Knight, a longtime facult}' member, provided $1,000.'' 

Banfield Hall, a four-story brick building in the Victorian Gothic style, was for- 
mally opened in October 1902, with speeches by Bishop John M. W'alden and Dr. 
W'. P. Thirkield, secretary of, the Freedmen's Aid Society. Since the principal donor, 
W'iUiam Banfield, could not attend the opening ceremony, the formal dedication was 
postponed until May 1903. At this time, Banfield, still unable to attend, sent a family 

Intended to serve primarily as a science building, Banfield Hall also answered the 
pressing need for additional library space. Funding for the library was provided by 
lohn W'. Foster of Athens. Two rooms on the second floor housed the book collec- 
tion and a reading room and were named the Foster Library. E. C. Ferguson added 
the duties of a librarian to his teaching responsibilities. 

Banfield Hall also became the meeting place for the female literary societies, the 
Sapphonians and the Ivnightonians. Each group was assigned a room on the second 
floor for weekly meetings. Although literary societies had begun to vanish from many 
colleges by the beginning of the twentieth century, giving way to fraternities and so- 
rorities, those on the Athens campus continued to exert a powerful influence on the 
lives of students. 

The year 1902 saw not only the opening of Banfield Hall but the addition of 
Blakeslee Hall as a dormitory for men. A gift from Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Blakeslcc of 
Macksburg, Ohio, made possible the purchase of a two-st()r\ brick building on rhe 
corner of North Jackson and Robeson Streets, the former residence ot W. M. Nixon, 
a prominent businessman. The donors were particularly anxious that rhe building not 

TWC: 1857-2007 39 

only furnish living quarters for young men but that the occupants be given training in 
courtesv The college administration agreed that students should receive "the refin- 
ing influences, such as prevail in a well-regulated home." Cost for room and board, 
including lights and fuel, was three dollars per week with two occupants per room. 
Blakeslee Hall functioned as a dormitory until 1909 when it became the dean's resi- 
dence and later, since 1925, the home of the college president.^ 

After the acquisition of Blakeslee Hall, a male student could choose between two 
dormitories, could occupy one of the several campus cottages, or could live off-cam- 
pus in a private home. The latter two options were not available to female students 
who were required to live in either Bennett Hall or Ritter Home. 

President Race remained determined to change the location of the liberal arts 
college from Athens to Chattanooga. Speaking to trustees in March 1902, he noted 
progress on the Athens campus and anticipated that Athens would be the site of a 
strong secondary school, announcing that the collegiate department was to be estab- 
lished in Chattanooga. Friction again arose, but trustees loyal to Athens apparently 
succeeded, at least temporarily, in effecting an agreement that would allow a liberal 
arts department in each of the two places. School records state: "Not finding it 
easy to remove the College of Liberal Arts from Athens to Chattanooga, a so-called 
compromise was made ... by wliich a college of liberal arts was to be opened in the 
aummn of 1904 and the one in Athens left undisturbed."*^ 

Plans for the opening of a liberal arts college in Chattanooga, in the fall of 1904, 
was a victory for President Race, but not an uncontested one, for old suspicions and 
rivalries were revived. When two vacancies in facult}^ positions at Athens were not 
filled, ostensibly in order to balance the budget, Athens officials viewed this decision 
as an effort to weaken their program in order to promote the one in Chattanooga. 
President Race was accused of advertising the college of liberal arts in Chattanoo- 
ga without mentioning the school in Athens. Critics argued that such an omission 
violated an 1889 agreement that all advertising be joint and each branch given equal 
emphasis. Athenians felt that their counterparts in Chattanooga sought to create the 
impression that the collegiate liberal arts program in Athens had been discontinued 
and transferred to Chattanooga when no such official decision had been made by the 
trustees. They were alarmed by the thought that the older school might be abolished 
and all university programs be located in Chattanooga, a prospect they deemed a "co- 
lossal folly." Since Athens loyalists were in the minorit)' on the board of trustees, the 
Athens group resorted to the courts in an attempt to strengthen their position.^" 

A suit was filed in the Chancery Court of McMinn Count)^ on August 4, 1904, by 
(ohn W. Bavless, Athens businessman and trustee, and Robert }. Fisher, industrialist 
and former trustee. Defendants in the case were trustees of U. S. Grant Universit}'^, 
President John H. Race, and seventeen trustees of Grant Memorial University who 
had supported the merger with Chattanooga Universit}" in 1889. Fifteen years had 
brouirht no forgiveness! 


The central argument of the suit was that the original plan of unification had 
been violated since that plan "provided that both schools be kept intact and that both 
should be equally developed." The plaintiffs also alleged that President Race had di- 
rected his major efforts toward building the Chattanooga branch to the detriment of 
the Athens campus. The court was asked for a three-part ruling: a complete separa- 
tion of the two schools; an injunction prohibiting President Race from anv part in 
the management of the Athens school until final disposition of the case; and a ruling 
against the establishment of a liberal arts college in Chattanooga.^' 

The plaintiffs, at least initially, claimed to be acting without hostility but from a 
sincere desire to settie a troublesome issue. After filing the suit, John W. Bavless wrote 
to President Race, addressing him as "Dear Friend," and explained the motive for the 
litigation. The location of the liberal arts school, Bayless wrote, had been a "bone of 
contention" for vears, and it was now time for the issue to be settied "once and for 
al] time." His view was that the matter could be settled only by one of two methods. 
The liberal arts department could be totally absorbed by Chattanooga which would 
mean, he wrote, "a complete surrender of all that is best and dearest to us." The sec- 
ond option would be "a last ditch fight for our rights and the complete divorcement 
of the two schools." His choice of the latter option, said Bayless, was done without 
ill will as a friendh* but determined effort to defend the rights of the Athens institu- 

W riting in response to Bayless, Race stated, "There is not now, and there never 
has been, as far as I am able to judge, any disposition on the part of the Board of 
Trustees to plan for anything else than what seems to be the highest and best good 
of the entire institution." Aware that he had been accused ot prejudice toward Chat- 
tanooga, Race declared, "I know no difference in my loyalt}' and love bet\yeen the 
department at Athens and the department at Chattanooga. Personally, I have not had 
any other motive than to de\'Ote my energ\' toward the development of a bigger and 
better institution at Athens than we have ever known."' '' 

In late August, Chancellor T M. McConnell ruled in favor of the plaintitts on 
t\yo of their three requests. The court's decision allowed tor the separation ot the 
tU'O schools and for the absence of any participation by Race in the management of 
the Athens institution. However, the third request, prohibiting the establishment of 
a liberal arts college in Chattanooga, was denied. The court reasoned, quite logically, 
that h\ their insistence upon complete separation of the two schools, Athens officials 
ga\'e up any right to control what happened in Chattanooga. 

While plans went forward in Chattanooga for the opening of a liberal arts college, 
the Athens complainants appealed the Chancery Court decision to the Tennessee Ap- 
pellate Court. When that court overruled the preyious decision, the case was brought 
to the Tennessee Supreme C'ourt where it remained for more than a year betorc a final 

In the meantime. President Race had persuaded the I'reedmen's Aid Society to 
discontinue an\- financial support of the Athens campus. I le also rctusetl to sign the 

TWC: 1857-2007 -^1 

diplomas of the 1 905 graduates or to participate in commencement exercises. 

During the 1904-1905 litigation period, the administration of the Athens school 
rested with a local executive committee consisting of Dean W. A. Wright, Professor 
David Bolton, and trustees John Foster, John Bavless, and William Banfield. The 
latter was unable to attend meetings regularly since he lived in Pennsylvania. In May 
1905, John F. Spence, former president, joined the committee. His loyalt}^ to the 
Athens school had led to his departure in 1893; now he was home again and readv to 
work on behalf of the school he loved. 

The executive committee met in May 1905 to approve the granting of degrees 
to five candidates for Bachelor of Arts and three for Master of Arts. Dean Wright 
informed the group of President Race's refusal to sign diplomas and updated them 
on the state of the appeal still before the Tennessee Supreme Court. He also brought 
the unwelcome news that the liberal arts college showed a $2,400 deficit for the past 
year, partly due to the loss of expected funds from the Freedmen's Aid Societ}?^. After 
William Banfield offered to donate $1,000, Spence agreed to sign a note for $1,000 if 
Chairman John Foster would provide the additional $200.^'^ 

The committee also adopted a resolution in appreciation of Mrs. A. C. Knight 
who had resigned in May due to ill health. Mrs. Ivnight had served the universit}' for 
t\vent}'-five years and had won the affection and esteem of trustees, faculty; students, 
and the entire Athens communit}-. In appreciation of her devotion and service, the 
committee invited her to remain in her apartment in Bennett HaU, free of expense for 
rent and meals, for "so long as it mav be her pleasure to remain with us."^"* 

Mrs. Knight was unable to attend the commencement exercises at which the 
speaker was her brother. Dr. William F. Warren, Dean of the School of Theologv of 
Boston University. During the summer she moved to her brother's home in Massa- 
chusetts where she died in September at the age of 79. 

Enrollment for the school year 1904-05 was 283 with 3 graduate students, 36 lib- 
eral arts undergraduates, and the remainder in the preparatorv department or enrolled 
as special students. 

At a meeting during commencement week, the Alumni Association adopted a 
paper entitled 'A Fair Statement of Facts" which deplored "the effort being made to 
destroy the college of liberal arts in Athens by securing its removal to Chattanooga, 
with the purpose of converting the school at Athens into an academv or preparatory 
department." The document stated that alumni were not opposed to "another school 
of liberal arts in Chattanooga or any other cit\' of the South" but were protesting "the 
unfair treatment of the work of Athens both from a legal and Christian standpoint." 
The paper, along with a petition signed by sixteen leaders, including Dean Wright and 
Professor Bolton, was presented to the trustees as a protest against the plan to reduce 
the Athens branch to academy status.'^' 

Controversy between the two campuses was a matter of public knowledge. News- 
papers and church publications, not always unbiased, gave considerable attention to 


viewpoints expressed by the opposing factions and probably affected adversely en- 
rollment and financial contributions. 

The long-awaited Supreme Court decision came in November 1905. The court 
ruled against the Athens plaintiffs, upholding the decision of the appellate court and 
restoring administrative power to President Race and the board of trustees. Follow- 
ing this decision, Race and the trustees' \dce-president, |. E. Annis, came to Athens 
to meet in Banfield Hall with Wright, Bolton, Bavless, and Foster. Race assurecl the 
group that all financial obligations incurred by the Athens branch would be paid in 

Questions arose relative to the restoration of funds from the Freedmen's Aid 
Societv Annis gave his opinion that payment would be resumed if authorities at the 
Athens branch would agree to work in harmon\' with the societ^''s policies. At this 
point, John Foster made his position abundantly clear. As long as he was a trustee, 
Foster said, he would not comply with any policy or condition that meant the removal 
of the liberal arts college from Athens. "If I am a member of the board," declared 
Foster, "and an organized effort is made to remove the College of Liberal Arts to 
Chattanooga, I will enjoin the action, and I'll spend money — I'll spend stacks of 
it — to defeat the action." John W. Bayless stated his concurrence with Foster's posi- 
tion. The group finally agreed that the question of removal was not the subject of 
this meeting and that work at Athens should proceed as usual for the remainder of 
the school year.^^'' 

At the meeting's conclusion, President Race announced that in view of his pres- 
ent commitment to acquiring ^200,000 toward universit)^ endowment, he was unable 
to serve in any other capacity' until April 1906, the deadline for meeting the endow- 
ment challenge. The endowment campaign was successful and the goal reached in 
April, at which time the Athens faculty voted to extend "congratulations and rejoic- 
ings" to President Race for his accomplishment.''^' 

During the financial campaign. President Race visited Athens infrequentiy but 
did agree to officiate at the 1906 commencement exercises and to be present during 
commencement week. During this time, he met with Dean Wright to discuss the 
budget and to approve facult)' appointments. Friendly relations were maintained, at 
least on the surface, but the furor was not over. A month later, when trustees met in 
Chattanooga, fuel was added to the smoldering resentment felt by Athenians. 

At the Chattanooga meeting. Bishop j. M. Waldcn reported on faculty staffing 
and declared vacancies in the position of academic dean and of chairman of the 
mathematics department, posts currendy held by Dean Wright and Professor Bolton. 
The report was adopted with only |ohn W. Bayless and James A. bowler, Athens sup- 
porters, abstaining. Clearly the vote was in retaliation for the strong support given 
by Wright and Bolton to the litigation against university officials. Although ousted as 
dean, Wright was offered the position of Latin professor, at a reduced salaiy, which 
he refused to accept.-" 

TWC: 1857-2007 43 

The action against the two facult}' members was met with strong opposition from 
trustees loyal to Athens and from the many friends of Wright and Bolton. Both were 
alumni, and both had devoted their most productive years to the Athens institution. 
Both were highly respected by students, alumni, townspeople, and members of the 
Holston Conference. 

Two days after the Chattanooga meeting, James A. Fowler, alumnus, trustee, and 
prominent KnoxviUe attorney, wrote to President Race and the board's executive com- 
mittee, protesting the punitive action taken against Wright and Bolton. He explained 
his failure to speak up at the meeting by stating that he was "fearful that something 
might be said that would mar the good feeling that appeared to prevail among the 
board members." Fowler conceded that the litigation may have been "ill-advised" but 
contended that support of the lawsuit by Wright and Bolton had been motivated onlv 
bv their sincere belief in the tightness of the cause. Furthermore, wrote Fowler: 
the character and the efficiency of the two men had never been questioned. 
The Athens school was their alma mater. Thev had witnessed its early years of 
struggle, and had given the best years of their lives to uplifting it from obscurity- 
to a position of respectabilit\', and naturally they resented what they 
conceived to be an effort to cripple its iniiuence. You who were opposed to 
their views . . . believed you had a broader view than they and had no such 
purpose as they supposed, but you ought to be kind enough to overlook 
the words and acts of us who adhere to Athens when they are the outgrowth, 
not only of our best judgment, but also of the memories that survive the love 
that binds us to that institution.-^ 

Another trustee added a letter of vigorous protest. William Banfield, a personal 
friend of Wright and a major donor to the institution, had not been present at the 
board meeting. When he learned of the dismissal of Wright and Bolton, Bantield 
wrote to President Race: 

1 find that Dr. Bolton was dropped and that the deanship was taken from 
William Wright. I infer that this is a punishment for the part they took in 
the litigation. If this is so, I sincerely protest against the course taken by 
the trustees. 

Banfield explained that he previously had tried not to take sides in the unpleasant 
controversy, feeling not sufficientiy knowledgeable of the institution's history and of 
the original agreement between the two branches. Now, however, he felt compelled 
to drop his attitude of impartialit}' to defend Wright and Bolton in their right to insist 
on the original agreement. No one should question their loyalty to the institution. 
Both sides, Banfield contended, had made mistakes, and these two dedicated educa- 
tors should not be penalized.-- 

Fowler and Banfield were influential voices which could not be ignored. In June, 
Race invited Wright to lunch with him in Chattanooga. They were joined by J. E. 
Annis and John A. Patten, and some smoothing of troubled waters occurred. The re- 


instatement of Wright and Bolton, however, was contingent on their promise to work 
in harmony with the administrative authorit}- of the universir\-, and thev were asked to 
write letters agreeing to this condition. Having the wisdom to know \\-hen thev were 
beaten, the two men complied.--' 

At a July meeting in Athens, recommendations concerning the Athens depart- 
ments were finalized in preparation for their presentation to the Freedmen's Aid So- 
ciety; Coming from Chattanooga to meet with Dean Wright and Professor Bolton 
were Race, Annis, and Patten. Race presented his plan to move the liberal arts college 
to Chattanooga. Athens was to be the site of a four-year preparatorv school but also 
of a two-vear collegiate program with a diploma, not a degree, to be awarded at its 
completion. This design, along with the recommendation for the reinstatement of 
Wright and Bolton, was taken to Cincinnati by John A. Patten, and approval was given 
bv the Freedmen's Aid and Southern Education Societ}'. 

Now it was time for President Race to return to his belief that a name change was 
in order. In 1907, U. S. Grant University- became the University of Chattanooga with 
a branch in Athens known as the Athens School of the Universit}- of Chattanooga. 
At the last commencement exercises of U S. Grant University' in Athens, degrees 
were awarded to: Ellis E. Crabtree, John Jennings, Walter F. Williams, Isabelle Gett}'s, 
and |. Howard farvis. 

Tension existing among their elders must have been felt bv students on the Ath- 
ens campus, but school records have few indications of the effects of such tension 
on the student body. They continued their limited social C(jntacts by holding ice 
cream parties, candv pulls, literary society entertainments, and various events spon- 
sored bv the Epworth League, Y.M.C.A., and Y.W'.C.A. The Athenian Literary Societ)- 
sponsored an annual chestnut hunt, this being before the chestnut blight hit the area. 
Regulations regarding the chestnut hunt, as well as similar activities, included: (1) no 
pairing off of boys with girls, (2) the presence of a chaperone, and (3) remrning to 
the campus before dark. Ingenious smdents often found ways of avoiding at least the 
first regulation.-"^ 

The popularity' of "tacky parties" may need some explanation for later genera- 
tions. At a tacky part}', each participant came dressed in outiandish garb, "tacky" 
meaning "lacking in sU'le or shabby." A prize was awarded to the person judged to be 

Rules governing student life were still strict, forbidding drinking of alcohol, danc- 
ing, playing cards, using profanit}', visiting saloons, and leaving town without the per- 
mission of the dean. Since few, if any, rules go unbroken, a number of students were 
given demerits or denied social privileges for infractions. 

Some students even transgressed by engaging in activities which the facult}' had 
lacked the foresight to rule against. In February 1902, ten demerits were given to 
James F. Cooke and to R. Lim Henderson for making a nocturnal visit to Bennett 
Hall for the purpose of obtaining an organ and several benches. These objects were 

TWC: 1857-2007 45 

placed as an obstruction outside the chapel door. Inside the chapel, Dr. C. M. Hall of 
KnoxviUe was lecturing on Abraham Lincoln!-^ 

A student baseball team held afternoon practices on a field originally intended 
for croquet. In the spring of 1904, the team played against Jefferson Cit}-, Fountain 
Cit}?, Mar^'^dlle, and IsjioxviUe. Members of the 1904 team were James F. Cooke, 
Maynard Ellis, W. W. Durand, O. F. Whittie, J. L. Robb, Curtis George, Frank Shelton, 
W. R. Miller, and Charles F. Heastiy. In 1906, restrictions placed on the baseball team 
required all games to be played on the home field. Even a trip to play nearby Sweet- 
water was denied, the faculty judging such an excursion "unwise."-^' 

A comment in an issue of the 1 898 student newspaper stated that the "brutal foot- 
ball game does not disturb our peace, nor check our intellectual and moral growth." 
Just five years later, football appeared, and "intellectual and moral growth" apparently 
succumbed to enthusiasm for the popular sport. In 1903, the football team played 
against Sweetwater, Lincoln Memorial Law School, and the team of Chattanooga's 
professional schools. Only against Sweetwater was the team victorious, by a score of 

Development of skill in music and in elocution was strongly encouraged by the 
facult}'. In the spring of the 1906-07 term a recital given by the Department of Music 
and Ek:)cution featured among the performers: Catherine Keith, Lena Boggess, Joy 
Bayless, Margaret Farrell, Phoebe Horton, and Louise Keith. Some of these partici- 
pants were local children enrolled as special students for instruction in music and/or 

To encourage skill in public speaking two contests were instituted in 1900. The 
Patten Oratorical Contest, sponsored by John A. Patten of Chattanooga, was held 
annually on Washington's Birthday and offered a first prize of fifteen dollars and a 
second prize of ten dollars. Another yearly competition, with similar prizes, was the 
Annis Debate Contest.-'' 

A number of changes were to come about when the Athens campus lost univer- 
sit}^ status and became the Athens School of the Universit)' of Chattanooga. 



"Soldiers of Christ, arise, 
And put your armor on." 

- Charles Wesley 

Loss of degree-granting status as the Athens school became an adjunct of Chat- 
tanooga Universit)' keenly disappointed its staff and supporters. In an attempt to 
lessen discontent felt by Athenians at the prospect of being only a high school, Presi- 
dent Race agreed to permit three different two-year courses beyond the preparatc^rv 

In conference with Dean Wright and Professor Bolton, Race accepted plans for 
these curricula which awarded diplomas rather than degrees at their completion. A 
Classical Diploma Course stressed Latin and Greek along with classes in English lit- 
erature, German or French, science, mathematics, and social studies. The Scientific 
Course gave heavier attention to mathematics, science, and modern languages. The 
Normal Course, designed to prepare public school teachers, added classes in psychol- 
ogy and education to a basic liberal arts curriculum. 

Although collegiate degree programs had been removed from the Athens School, 
the facult^' remained academically strong. The teaching staff of 1908 included three 
members with the Doctor of Philosophy degree and five with the Master of Arts. 
While receiving low wages, faculty members exhibited willingness to perform duties 
beyond those of the classroom. Professor E. C. Ferguson continued to serve as both 
teacher and librarian. Because of Ferguson's classroom duties, access to the library 
was originally limited to a few hours daily. Concerned that student use of the library 
needed enhancement, the faculty ruled that hours be extended to allow librar\- use 
from 8:15 a.m. to noon and from 1:45 to 4:00 p.m. \^olunteers were recruited to su- 
pervise the library when Ferguson was in the classroom. 

An issue of the student newspaper paid tribute to I'rotessor I'ergnson, Ph.D., 
describing him as a "model Christian scholar." /\ native (jf X'ermont, I'erguson held 
degrees from both the Universit}' of Vermont and Boston University, had served as 

TWC: 1857-2007 


a minister in New England, and was the author of two books on Latin and Greek 
literature. Serving in Athens as chairman of the departments of Greek and history, 
he was described by a colleague as "the best informed man connected with the uni- 
versity, either here or at Chattanooga." Modest and unassuming, Dr. Ferguson once 
preached to a country congregation in his usual simple and straightforward language. 
After the sermon, a member of the congregation, mistaking Ferguson's modesty and 
simplicit^' for ignorance, remarked, "What a pity that young feller ain't got an educa- 

In the fall of 1909, a popular teacher, Frances Cullen Moftitt, returned to the 
campus after a year of study in Europe. Miss Moffitt, according to LeRoy A. Martin, 
"undertook singlehandedly the challenge of providing CULTURE for the students." 
An accomplished pianist. Miss Moffitt studied at the Metropolitan School of Music, 
at the Boston Conservatory, and at the Universit}^ of Chicago, as well as in Vienna. 
She received an honorary degree from the New York Conservatory in recognition of 
her contribution to the arts in the South. Often at her own expense, she arranged 
for performances by visiting musicians which enriched the experience not only of 
students but of members of the community'. She won national recognition as the 
originator of what she called "sterioptics" which involved the simultaneous viewing 
of slides and listening to music. Students in Athens were the first on any campus to 
participate in sterioptics, said by the Victor Company to be "the cleverest of anything 
of the kind."- 

The fall of 1909 brought the welcome return of Miss Moffitt from her study 
abroad but was also the first occasion in several years of the unwelcome absence of 
Dean W. A. Wright. Wright had announced his resignation the previous July, having 
accepted the presidency of Grayson College in Waitright, Texas. Wright was an alum- 
nus who had served the Athens school as Latin professor tor twenty-five years and as 
dean for twenty of those years. Although no record has been found of the impetus 
for Wright's decision, the failure of his valiant struggle to maintain universit)' status 
for the Athens school doubtless played a role in his departure. 

Wright was replaced by Dr. William S. Bovard, dean of the school of theology 
at Chattanooga, who was named vice-president of the universit}" and administrator 
of the Athens branch. He and his family moved to Athens, residing in the recendy- 
refurbished Blakeslee Hall.-^ 

The combination of a small endowment income with low tuition fees resulted 
in constant financial problems. President Race was particularly concerned with in- 
creasing endowment. He secured the promise of $150,000 from the General Board 
of Education based in New York and endowed by John D. Rockefeller. This gift 
was contingent on the universit^"'s raising $350,000. Race determined to secure this 
amount by November 1912 and relieved Bovard of his duties in Athens, preferring 
to have the vice-president's help with the financial campaign. Bovard was replaced, 
in 1911, bv Robert B. Stansell, an alumnus who had joined the facult^' as professor of 
political science and English and who was named dean. 


In September 1912, at a reception held in his honor in the University- Chapel, 
Dean StanseU spoke optimistically of the school's future: "The enrollment is fift}' 
percent larger now than it was at this time last year, and next vear, wlien the new dor- 
mitory is built and we can take care of all who come to Athens, the enrollment will be 

The new dormitory of which Stansell spoke was Pettv-Manker Hall, a men's dor- 
mitory built during the summer of 1913. Construction of the four-storv, brick build- 
ing was made possible by a generous offer from |ohn A. Patten of Chattanooga 
to give SI 0,000 toward building costs if the citizens of Athens would contribute an 
equal amount. A campaign led by Bishop R. }. Cooke, an 1880 graduate, successfully 
secured necessary funding. 

Bricks for the dormitory's exterior walls were hauled to the campus from the site 
of the Grandview Hotel, purchased by the college in 1889 from the defunct Athens 
Mining and Manufacturing Company. This large structure burned in 1907, but a large 
number of bricks were salvageable. The new building, dedicated in November 1913, 
was named in honor of Dr. J. S. Petty and Dr. J. J. Manker, distinguished Methodist 
ministers and leaders in the Holston Conference. 

In addition to bedrooms, Pett}--Manker contained a kitchen and a dining room 
capable of seating 100 students. Female students from Bennett Hall and male stu- 
dents from Hatfield Hall joined Pett}'-Manker residents for meals. The women of 
Ritter Home had their own dining facilities. In 1913, room rates at Pett\--Manker were 
S3. 50 monthly, and monthly board cost was S8.00. 

Mention of aU loyal members of the facult}' and staff who made outstanding 
contributions to the school's survival and progress would fill several volumes and, 
unfortunately, is beyond the scope of this study. However, one such person, who 
died in the fall of 1911, merits special attention. Mrs. F. V. Chapman had been the su- 
perintendent of Ritter Home since its opening in 1891. Readers will remember her as 
the brave figure who faced hostilit)' because of her remarks about the low educational 
level of her charges and as the strict guardian of those charges against male intruders 
inside the dormitory's fence. Her dedication to dur\- won for her not only the respect 
but the affection of students, facult}' and townspeople. She was active in her church 
and in the local women's organization, the Browning Circle. Her Christian charit)' 
found expression in assistance to the sick, the poor, and the prisoners in the local jail. 
She was buried in her native Ohio, but memorial services were held in Athens both in 
the Universit}' Chapel and in the Methodist Episcopal Church, North (Trinity). Miss 
Caroline Jenkins became the new matron of Ritter which, in 1912, housed more than 
eightv' young women.'' 

A gift from the class of 1914 added to the campus a concrete arch containing the 
names of the 1914 graduates. Placed at the campus's southeastern entrance, the arch 
became a favorite meeting place for generations of students who told their classmates, 
"Meet me at the arch." At the 1914 commcnccnienr exercises, the seniors marched 
through the arch to the chapel where they receixed their diplomas. 'I'he class ot 1915 

TWC: 1857-2007 49 

contributed to the construction of a wall extending from the arch. Another arch was 
constructed at the northern end of the campus as a gift of the class of 1918. 

In 1913, President Race, after sixteen years of service, announced his resignation. 
He had accepted a position as co-director of the Church North's publishing company. 
His tenure had been a challenging one, filled with conflict with Athens officials and 
supporters, but even opponents recognized that he strengthened the universit)^ both 
financially and academically. Formerly one of the most outspoken of Race's critics. 
Trustee J. W. Fisher wrote to him: "I shall miss you. The University will miss you. 
Many will miss you who would have stoned you a few years ago. You will pardon me 
if I say you are the University to me."*^ 

After a search lasting almost a year, a new president. Fred Whitlo Hixson, was 
elected early in 1914. His inauguration in Chattanooga, in October 1914, was at- 
tended by the entire faculty" and student body of the Athens School. This show of 
support indicated some reduction of the animosit}' between the two campuses. 

Fred Whitlo Hixson was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of DePauw Universit}' with a 
Doctor of Divinit}' degree and had served for fifteen years as a minister of churches 
in Indiana. He was a small man but quite dignified in appearance. While other school 
officials wore standard business suits. President Hixson preferred frockcoats, striped 
trousers, and standup collars. His manner was formal and austere, and he took quite 
seriously his first experience as a college executive. Some students and faculty mem- 
bers found his manner forbidding while others recognized his basic kindness and the 
sense of humor underlying his stern appearance.^ 

During his tenure as president, Hixson made infrequent visits to Athens, mostly 
leaving management of the school to the dean and facult^'. That this was a source of 
dissatisfaction to the Athens facult}^ is indicated by a note in the minutes by the facult}' 
secretary: "President Fred W. Hixson did not appear a single time during the term 
before the student body in chapel."^ 

The student newspaper, neglected for several years during the Athens-Chatta- 
nooga controversy, resumed publication in 1911 as The Exponent. Examination of 
extant issues gives a picture of student activities during the 3'ears preceding World War 
I. The picture is probably incomplete, for, with the positions of editor and treasurer 
filled by facult)' members, contributions by student writers were carefully monitored. 

The four literary societies continued to dominate extracurricular activities. An 
editorial in a 1911 issue of the Expo^^e/it urged every student to join one of the societ- 
ies in order to "become accustomed to speaking before people." A society meeting 
often included a debate, some of the topics being: "Resolved: That the Negroes of 
the United States should be colonized"; "Resolved: That the Panama Canal should be 
fortified"; and "Resolved: That moving picture shows should be owned and operated 
by the church." 

The literary societies held regular meetings on Friday evenings, and each gave an 
annual performance. A presentation by the Ivnightonians, in February 1911, was a 
typical program, consisting of: a reading, "Bud's Fairy Tale," by Emma Sue Mayfield; 


a duet by Trula Long and Margaret Farrell; an oration by Gladys jMoodv; a vocal solo 
by Miss Nankivell; an original essay by Bett}' Montgomery; a song bv the Knightonian 
Glee Club; and a comic play, "Lucia's Lover."^ 

At the close of the 1910-11 school year, the faculty ruled that the women's liter- 
ary societies should meet at 3:30 in the afternoon rather than at 7:00 in the eyening. 
Probably too much after-dark contact with male societ)' members was suspected. 
The students, however, petitioned against the change, and the facultx' withdrew the 

Miss Frances Moffitt had organized the Moffitt Music Club. In 191 1, members 
were studying an opera at each meeting. In the same year, the Exponent announced 
Miss Moffit's plan to purchase a victrola for the benefit of the music students. Proba- 
bly this purchase would be a "Victor talking machine" advertised by Bayless Hardware 
Company, a store which also dealt in hardware, furniture, wagons, and buggies with 
rubber or steel tires. The school's music program was further enhanced by a school 
orchestra which performed at recitals and on other occasions. 

J\'Iiss Eda Selby, professor of modern languages, organized a French club, "Circle 
Francais," and a German club, "Der Deutshe Bund." The Y.M.C.A. held Sunday 
afternoon services at the count^' jail. Women residents at Ritter Home, in 1912, gave 
an evening social and candy sale with a net profit of ten doUars. Reporting on a mock 
election held in Banfield Hall, in October 1912, an Exponent reporter stated, "All 
smdents were allowed to vote, regardless of sex or other disadvantages." Students 
supported Theordore Roosevelt over Woodrow Wilson and voted for Ben Hooper as 
Tennessee governor. ' ^ 

By 1911, the facult\' had retracted its rule against baseball games being played 
away from home. The baseball team played against the Deaf and Dumb School of 
Knoxville, MilUgan College, Mar\wille College, Washington College, Carson New- 
man CoUege, Ivnox County High School, and Tennessee Military Institute, as well as 
against three Chattanooga schools, Baylor, Cit}' High, and Central High. 

In these days before emphasis on political correctness, the student sports re- 
porter referred to members of the Deaf and Dumb School's team as the "dummies." 
The Athens team of 1911 won seven of its ten games. '- 

Football remained a popular sport with outstanding players such as: Roy Martin, 
Lon Badgett, DeWitt Hampton, Russell Haskew, W P. Bales, Burton Bovard, A. G. 
Nelson, and A. H. Keith. Both men and women participated in basketball Init were 
handicapped by the lack of an indoor court. In February 1911, the basketball sched- 
ule included a home game against the Universit^' of Tennessee's second team. When 
a heavy storm of snow and rain made an outdoor game impossible, the L .T. team letr 
on the evening train for Sweetwater to play against T.M.I. '■'' 

TWC: 1857-2007 51 

The February 1911 issue of the £:>cpo/7f/7/ includes a school song, written by Rus- 
sell Haskew. These words presumably were sung at sports events and at other public 

Here's to old Athens, 

The pride of Tennessee. 

May she stand forever, 

In mv sacred memory. 

She has been here ages, 

She has stood the test. 

Many who have dwelt here 

Are quietly at rest. 

Of all the schools of Tennessee 

The one that is most dear to me 

Goes bv the name of U. of C. 

Although I know there's Central High, 

And also Dear old T.M.I. 

But in Athens we wish to die. 

For a spirit song, the verse seems to come to a somewhat morbid conclusion, but 
probably Mr. Haskew was merely struggling for a rhyme! 

The legend of Nocatula has long been a part of college tradition. An article in a 
1911 issue of the Exponent gwa credit to Professor Alvis Craig for locating and iden-- 
tifying the site of the grave of the Indian maiden Nocatula and her lover Conestoga. 
According to the legend,. Nocatula died bv her own hand when Conestoga was as- 
sassinated by a rival. At their burial, an acorn was placed in the dead hand of Cones- 
toga and a hackberry seed in that of Nocatula. From these seeds grew an oak and a 
hackberry tree with their roots entwined. The trees identified by Professor Craig were 
located on the western side of the campus, just north of Blakeslee Hall.'"^ 

Advertisers in the Exponent, in addition to the previously mentioned Bayless Hard- 
ware, include: Force's Drua; Store; Horton Brothers, Drug-aists; GettA's and Hug-hes, 
Fine MilUnery; G. F. Lockmiller, Grocer; and H. A. Vestal and Brothers Clothino-. The 
first advertisement of a movie theater appears in a 1913 issue where the Picto Theater 
announces the showing of "high-class motion pictures that are instructive as well as 
entertaining." Admission was five cents for children and ten cents for adults. ^^ 

An event not mentioned in the Exponent, but of concern to the facultA; was a con- 
flict between the male literary societies. The Athenians were accused of sabotaging a 
Philomathean meeting by throwing stones and cutting wires, leaving the Philo Hall in 
darkness. Athenians seen lurking in the vicinity' of the disturbance included Thomas 
Hunt, RoUo Emert, Roy Johnson, Paul Norton, and Dick Bayless. Lacking proof, the 
facult}' took no punitive action, but the Philos vowed revenge."^ 

A memorial service on April 4, 1912, honored Robert Love Taylor who had died 
in March at the age of sixt\'-one. One of the East Tennessee Weslevan's most distin- 


guished alumni, Taylor went on to become a congressman, senator, and Tennessee's 
governor. He had attended East Tennessee Weslevan from 1871 to 1874 while his 
father, Nathaniel G. Taylor, pastured the Methodist Episcopal Church, North (Trin- 
ity). Robert L. Taylor was a classmate of Professor David Bolton who, by 1912, had 
taught at his alma mater for almost fort}^ years. 

The need for a gymnasium is mentioned in almost every issue of the student 
newspaper and trequendy in the faculty- minutes. In 1915, the faculty made an urgent 
request to the trustees for the building of a gymnasium. When the response was not 
favorable, the facult)' voted to discontinue the women's basketball program until a 
suitable place for games was obtained. ' 

The rumbling of European guns of war may have seemed far away to students 
and facult}' on this largely peaceful, rural campus, but when the United States declared 
war, in April 1917, drastic changes were inevitable. 

Speaking at the school's lift)'-hrst commencement exercises, in May 1917, Presi- 
dent Hixson took as the text for his baccalaureate address "Deep calleth unto deep." 
Noting that calls come to the individual from the worlds of finance, business and 
politics, he added, "Today the country is calling the young men to arms. Some seem 
to heed it not, but the flower of our youth will answer." Dr. Hixson announced with 
pride that eightA' percent of the eligible student body at Athens and at Chattanooga 
already had responded to the call of the colors. At this commencement of the Ath- 
ens School, only nine students received college diplomas, four or whom were boys. 
Of the seven graduating from the preparatory school, two were boys. '^ 

A large flagpole was erected on the campus by the graduating class of 1917, and 
its base was used as a platform for speakers on Registration Day, June 5, 1917, when 
a crowd from the communit\' gathered for patriotic exercises. During the summer ot 
19n, 250 members of the National Guard used the campus as a campground with 
the bathing facilities at Pett}'-Manker Hall made available to them. In recognition of 
the need for food conservation, the school offered a short summer course in canning 
and drying which enrolled about fift)- participants. The sewing room at Hitter Home 
was opened to women of the communit\- who were making garments for the Red 

A department of agriculture was established for the training ot students in ct- 
hcicnt farming practices. A sevent^•-acre farm near the school was made available tor 
this training and was stocked with horses, dairy cattie, hogs, and poultry. The agri- 
culture professor, Frank C. Grannis, writing in July 1917, pointed our the timeliness 
of the new program since, he said, "Food, not ammunition will win the war." He 
explained that special wartime courses would be offered to young women as well as 
voung men, for many women "will be called upon to assume a mans burden on the 
tarm. -" 

School officials concentrated on keeping enrollmcnl as high as ]-»()Ssible, stressing 
to parents and prospecti\'e students the increased need tor training lo meet the chal- 
lenges of the times. Writing in a church publication, in August 1*)1~, Dean Richard 

TWC: 1857-2007 53 

M. Millard made this plea: 

Now approaches the new academic year when college doors reopen. 
Some young men are doubtful whether to enter under present conditions. 
There should be no hesitation. Never was the call to self-improvement 
more compelling. Those who are in their teens now are to have the 
making over of the world after the war. They must have knowledge, 
they must have character, and thev must have the spirit of Jesus Christ. 
And the Christian college is the place where all these virtues thrive.-' 

In spite of such pleas, a drastic drop in enrollment was inevitable. In 1916-17, 
the school's net enrollment was 325 which included students in both the college and 
the preparatory departments, as well as those in special courses in home economics, 
business, and music. In 1917-18, the war had not made its strongest impact on enroll- 
ment which stood at 312. In 1918-19, the blow came, and the student body dropped 
to 180, with only 15 students in collegiate courses. 

Since aU American colleges were experiencing an enrollment crisis, the War De- 
partment established a Student Army Training Corps (SATC) for college campuses 
so that young men might receive both miUtarv and academic training. The Athens 
School applied to be the site of such a corps and expected the application to be ac- 
cepted, but the arrangement was never completed. During the fall of 1918, an officer 
of the National Guard was detailed to give miUtary instruction and training on the 
campus, a program which began on September 23. This arrangement was a tem- 
porary one designed to accommodate young men of draft age until the SATC unit 
was established. With the war ending in November, the SATC program of the War 
Department was discontinued in December.— 

In spite of the proposed emphasis on agriculture, the use of the seventy-acre 
farm apparently was of short duration. President Hixson wrote in July 1918: 'As 
soon as the sum of money is in hand which has been promised by a gentieman in the 
East, a demonstration farm will be purchased." The farm, which was being used in 
the summer of 1917, must have been acquired temporarily on the basis of an initial 
payment with the expected final acquisition never accomplished. There is no mention 
of a farm in school catalogues after 1918, and the number of agriculture courses v/as 
reduced by more than half by 1919.-^-' 

During the war years, students were involved extensively in the work of the Red 
Cross, under the direction of Miss Frances Moffitt who added to her duties as music 
teacher the organization and chairmanship of the local Red Cross chapter. Other 
student activities were at a low ebb. The four literary societies continued to meet 
weekly for programs of debate, oratory, musical performances, and extemporaneous 
speaking, but these sessions frequentiy were dismissed early so that members might 
attend a Red Cross meeting. In the men's societies, elections for replacement of of- 
ficers occurred often as members left school for military service.-"^ 

The onh' other official student organizations were the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.WC.A. 


The student newspaper, which had been renamed the Gold and the Blue, apparendy 
discontinued publication during the war years. Athletic programs for men were sus- 
pended. The basketball team was reestablished in 1919, but the football team did not 
play again until 1920. The annual May Day observance, initiated in 1910, continued, 
featuring games, races, and the traditional winding of the Ma\'pole. Girls learned 
"folk games," which must under no circumstances be called "folk dances," under the 
direction of Miss }ov Bavless, in a small laundry building behind Ritter — there was no 
gymnasium-to the accompaniment of a small pump organ.--^ 

Under the watchful eyes of the facult}'^, students attended classes and, when not 
in class, observed smdy hours scheduled for 8:15-11:45 a.m., 1:15-3:30 p.m., and 7:00- 
9:30 p.m. dailv. Students were not allowed to leave the campus during study hours 
or after 9:30 p.m., except by special permission. Daily attendance at chapel services, 
held at 8:15, was required of all students and facult}'. Church attendance on Sunday 
was also a requirement. The girls of Ritter Home, wearing their uniforms of dark 
blue coats and skirts, white blouses, and mortarboard hats, sat together on the left 
side of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Some social occasions such as taffy pulls, 
picnics, and hikes were permitted if properly chaperoned. In January 1918, the fac- 
xAtx decided to allow the showing of "moving pictures" each Saturday evening. Card 
playing, dancing, alcohol, and use of tobacco were strictly prohibited.-*^ 

Songfests in the dormitories were popular, but even they were restricted. In 
1917, the faculty' ruled that the singing and use of pianos be confined to the hours 
between 4 and 7 p.m. on Sundays and that only sacred or "retined or classic" music 
be performed. Had the Athens School students been trying a bit of the new jazz 
which had taken the place of ragtime as the dominant musical force on college cam- 

Students, of course, found their own means of entertainment as they always have 
and always will. One mischievous young man tied to his toe a cord attached to the 
rope of the chapel bell and, from his dormitory bed, caused a mysterious tolling of 
that bell throughout one night. Smdents were not infrequendy called before the fac- 
ult\- to answer such charges as card playing, smoking, or practical jokes. One group 
of young men caused considerable facult)' discussion in 1917. The boys had formed 
a secret society, known as "Ace of Diamonds," which had as its purpose making dis- 
turbances in Pett\-Manker Hall. They were under oath not to tell on each other, the 
group's password being, "I don't know." They engaged in such activities as throwing 
bottles, blowing whistles, shooting firecrackers, and throwing stale biscuits, activities 
which eventually resulted in their suspension. -'"* 

Just as the Athens School seemed to have achie\cd some degree ot harmony with 
the Chattanooga Universit}-, another blow to Athenian pnde came. In a session of 
the Board of Trustees of the Universit}- of Chattanooga, meeting in Chattanooga in 
June 1918, action was taken removing the two-year collegiate diploma courses from 
the Athens School, leaxing onh' the preparatorx courses. Professor Bolton expressed 

TWC: 1857-2007 55 

the consternation felt by the facult}^ of the school and its patrons as he wrote, "Many 
students went to other degree-granting schools. Nothing was left at Athens except 
preparatory courses, music, expression, and a short business course — as many said, 
'only a high school.' Some parents said, 'You have at Athens only a high school — I 
can send my children to a high school nearer home.'"-'' 

In announcing the action of the trustees, President Hixson stressed that the Ath- 
ens School would have the curriculum of "a high grade academy" with special em- 
phasis placed upon pedagogy and agriculture. He stated that the majorit)' of Athens 
students came from rural communities and that the trustees were guiding the school 
into ministering to its constituency in the best possible manner.-^" 

Dean Richard Millard resigned due to the conflict of his opinions with those 
of the trustees. In announcing his resignation, Millard wrote, "I felt, and still feel, 
that from the standpoints of equit)', justice, service, and success, the Athens School 
should have been enlarged in every way and in every department of work instead of 
reduced to a school of the grade of an academy and all the college work placed in 

Dean Millard's replacement was James L. Robb who proved to be an exception- 
ally able administrator. Anxious that the school retain some post-preparatory offer- 
ings, Robb sought and obtained the trustees' support for a one-year "normal" course 
designed for teacher preparation and for a two-year pre-medical curriculum. The 
program for teachers was given official recognition in 1918 by the Tennessee Board 
of Education. Its graduates would receive, along with a diploma, a license to teach in 
the public schools of Tennessee without the requirement of an examination. -^- 

The course for teachers immediately met with problems connected with the na- 
tionwide epidemic of "Spanish influenza." Classes in Athens were suspended for 
three weeks in the fall of 1918 because of the illness. Professor A. C. Fleshman, 
Ph.D., had been elected to take charge of the normal program. Fleshman, accord- 
ing to Professor Bolton, was "a man of abilit}' and long experience in education and 
normal work." He entered upon his work in the faU but was stricken with the flu just 
before the beginning of the Christmas holidays, returned to his home in Kentucky, 
and was never able to resume his work. Other facult}^ members took over the classes 
of the normal school for the remainder of the academic year. ''■' 

Very little seemed to be going well at the Athens School in 1918 and 1919, what 
with the reduction of post-preparatory courses, the flu epidemic, staffing problems, 
and the ever-present financial difficulties. The tenacity of Dean Robb is indeed re- 
markable. Reba Bayless Boyer has recalled that Robb was at least once tempted to 
give up in despair, but that her grandfather, |. W. Bayless, encouraged him to "hang 
on just a little bit longer." Robb did hang on and led the school forward to greater 



And from a land of wars and pain, 

land me where peace 

and safety reign." 

- ]oh)i Wes/ej 

During the decade of the twenties, the Atliens institution made progress under the 
leadership of two presidents, added two buildings, and made a relatively peaceful transi- 
tion from a branch ot the Universit)' of Chattanooga to an independent junior college. 

President Fred Hixson resigned, in June 1920, to become the president of Al- 
legheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania. Frank Hooper, dean of the College of 
Liberal Arts in Chattanooga, §erved as acting president until the election, in the spring 
of 1921, of Dr. Arlo A. Brown. A native of Illinois, Brown was educated at North- 
western Universit\' and at Drew Theological Seminarv. He had held several pasto- 
ral charges, had been to Jerusalem as agent of the Board of Foreign JV'Iissions, had 
headed the Teacher Training Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and, during 
the war years, had served as a chaplain in the American Expeditionary Forces. Al- 
though President Brown took a more active interest in the Athens campus than had 
his predecessor, the chief administrative leadership of the Athens School came from 
its dean, James L. Robb. 

The establishment, in 1920, of the Department of Religious Education and Rural 
Leadership was a further attempt by Dean Robb and his faculty to strengthen col- 
legiate offerings and to serve the school's constituency. The two-year course had as 
its object the training of young people, especially those aspiring to the ministry, for 
religious leadership in rural areas. 

Teacher training continued to receive strong emphasis. In order to give prospec- 
tive teachers classroom experience, a building known as the Observation and Practice 
Schfjol was constructed in 1922. This white frame structure, erected at a cost of 
about S6,()00, was built in accordance with plans recommended by the state for r\vo- 
teacher rural schools. It contained two classrooms tor pupils in grades one through 
eight, a room for domestic science, and a basement room for manual training. I leat 

TWC: 1857-2007 


was furnished by pot-bellied stoves. Four grades were taught in each of the two class- 

The onlv graduate of the teacher-training course in 1922 was Themis Hutsell, 
later Themis Hutsell Ware, who became a teacher in the practice school and who is 
remembered as an outstanding Athens educator. In 1922-23, fort}^-six students were 
enrolled in the teacher-training program. 

Two experienced teachers handled the eight grades with assistance from student 
teachers. A number of Athens residents can recall their elementary education in the 
practice school, among them Margaret Hoback Jones who graduated from the eighth 
grade in 1928 along with one other pupil, Robert Miller. One of Mrs. Jones' fondest 
memories concerned her graduation dress of white voile and her first pair of high- 
heeled shoes.' 

The building of the practice school was made possible by a successful campaign 
of 1922 which raised $750,000. In this report to the trustees, in July 1922, President 
Brown spoke of the excellent response of the Athens community to this campaign 
and promised that a sizeable portion of the funds would be used for the improvement 
of the Athens campus. He kept his promise, for, in addition to the practice school, 
an auditorium-gymnasium was completed at a cost of $75,619." 

The need for a gymnasium had long been felt, and the basement of the new 
building, completed in 1924, provided a playing area for basketball and seating for 
500 spectators. For the sake of economy, the original plan for a swimming pool in 
the gymnasium area was abandoned. The ground floor was the site of an auditorium 
with a seating capacity of 800. Administrative offices of the dean and registrar were 
on the second floor. The present name, Townsend Hall, was not given the building 
until 1951. 

The construction of the auditorium-gymnasium filled a long-standing need and 
was a source of pride to students and faculty, but there was an element of sadness 
connected with the event. The new structure was erected on the site of the college 
chapel which was razed and some of its materials used in its replacement. The chapel 
had served the school since 1882; its bell had tolled to mark the scheduled times for 
rising, room inspection, chapel services, classes, and study halls; many memories were 
attached to the historic building. Its bell was placed in the Old College building when 
the chapel was razed. The 1 924 yearbook contains a poem which expresses some of 
the feelings attached to the old chapel: 

While shadows are stealing far out to the West, 

And voices and fond hearts sink sweetiy to rest. 

We'll breathe soft farewell, while birds wing their flight. 

And whisper it gently, "Old Chapel, Good Night!" 

O, the glory of old days! The memories that throng! 

These shall live in our hearts all the glad years along. 

And now in the grayness while soft fades the light, 

We'U echo thy blessings, "Dear Chapel, Good Night!"^"^ 


During Arlo Brown's tenure, the relationship between the Chattanooga and Ath- 
ens branches became more amiable. Recognizing that the Athens School wished to 
have more attention given to its needs, Brown recommended to the trustees that Ath- 
ens citizens be given greater autonomy in administering the affairs of their school. 
In 1921, the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Universit\^ of 
Chattanooga approved a resolution that members of the committee residing in Chat- 
tanooga should be involved with matters concerning the operation of the school 
there and that a subcommittee of Athens citizens be concerned with the daily opera- 
tion of the Athens School. Matters pertaining to general policy and government of 
the two institutions would remain the responsibiiit}^ of the entire committee. Named 
to the Athens School subcommittee were President Arlo A. Brown (ex officio), |. W. 
Fisher, G. F. LockmiUer, and J. W. Bayless. This decision was a step toward the ami- 
able decision to separate the two schools which came in 1925. 

The weakening of the tie between the Athens School and the Universitv of Chat- 
tanooga had been in progress for several years as the Athens institution developed its 
distinctive curriculum and its own leadership. Bishop Wilbur P. Thirkield became the 
leader in a plan, which was already in the minds of manv, for the complete separation 
of the two institutions. Thirkield, resident bishop of the Chattanooga area and a 
trustee of the Universit}' of Chattanooga, became convinced that the time had come 
for such action, feeling that each educational unit had a function to perform for a 
different group of constiments. At a meeting of the Athens subcommittee in May 
1925, Thirkield suggested the separation. The matter was referred to the Executive 
Committee which appointed a special group, consisting of representatives from both 
Athens and Chattanooga, to present to the trustees a plan for severance. The trustees, 
at their June meeting, accepted the plan for a new and independent institution to be 
established in Athens. On |une 26, 1925, a charter was issued bv the State of Ten- 
nessee to a college to be known as Tennessee Wesleyan College. Applying for this 
charter were G. F. LockmiUer, S. C. Brown, |. M. Melear, |. W. Fisher, W. B. Townsend, 
C. N. Woodworth, and Mrs. John A. Patten, all of them trustees of the University' of 
Chattanooga who were to serve as trustees of Tennessee W'eslevan. The separation 
was achieved harmoniously with the realization bv the trustees that each of the two 
schools, in order to fulfill its mission, must be allowed to take its own direction."^ 

When the campaign for endowment was made in 1922, the possibility of such a 
separation was already being contemplated. A stipulation was then made that should 
the two institutions cease connection at any time in the future, funds raised by those 
persons associated with the Athens School should go to the institution in Athens 
along with a generous portion of the general fund. In accordance with this agree- 
ment, the Universit\- of Chattanooga turned over to Tennessee Wesleyan $50,000 of 
the endowment raised for both institutions along with all the pledges made to the 
1922 campaign bv members of the Holston and Blue Ridge-Atiantic conferences, 
these pledges amounting to approximateh' S 1 44, ( )(>(). "^ 

Dean fames L. Robb was named acting president of the new college and in the 

TWC: 1857-2007 59 

following year, was elected president, his inauguration taking place on October 25, 
1926. Robb had served as administrative head of the Athens School since 1918, had 
successfully led the school through problems connected with curriculum and enroll- 
ment, and had promoted a harmonious relationship between the Athens School and 
the Chattanooga university. As a 1906 graduate of Grant Universit}; a predecessor 
of Tennessee Wesleyan, he was also an alumnus. He had continued his education by 
graduate study at Northwestern Universit}' and at the Universit}' of Georgia and had 
served as a government supervisor of schools in the Philippines. Robb continued as 
president of Tennessee Wesleyan for twent}^-five years, his career exhibiting complete 
devotion to the school and to its mission, combined with an unusual talent for raising 
funds. The latter abilitv was vital during the twenties and became even more impor- 
tant during the following decade of the Great Depression.'^' 

Despite the strong desire of Professor D. A. Boltcjn and others that Tennessee 
Wesleyan return to its earlier status as a senior liberal arts college, President Robb 
wished to take a different direction. Under his leadership, a junior college was insti- 
tuted with a two-year "diploma course" in the liberal arts. The two-year normal course 
was retained as was the four-year preparatory school. Preengineering, prelaw, pre- 
medical, and preministerial programs were other options available as two-vear courses 
of study. The special departments of piano, voice, violin, art, expression, commerce, 
and home economics, all of which had successful records, were retained. Tennessee 
Wesleyan was given full accreditation by the Southern Association of Junior Colleges 
in 1926 and, in the same year, received official recognition as a standard junior college 
from the University Senate of the Methodist Episcopal Church. A 1928 publication 
notes that Tennessee Wesleyan was one of only thirteen junior colleges in the entire 
South to be fully accredited by the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of 
the Southern States.^ 

Dr. Robb's thoughtful leadership included the opinion that the college should not 
attempt to duplicate the program offered by its sister institution in Chattanooga. He 
believed that success in its new status would depend upon its retaining the fields in 
which it was already strong, most notablv teacher education, maisic, home economics, 
and commercial courses, while adding a liberal arts emphasis especially designed for 
those students planning to complete their education at a senior college. The 1926-27 
catalog was the first to offer justification for such a college: 

The junior college offers many special advantages. Perhaps its chief work is 
in helping every student to find himself before he enters into the large and 
often confusing life of the universit}^. It bridges the gap between high school 
and university. The smaller classes, closer supervision, greater contact with 
the professors, and larger opportunity for self-expression are some of the 
special advantages offered by the junior college. 

Tennessee Wesleyan became a strong and highly regarded junior college, continu- 
ing as such until 1 954 when it again became a four-year institution. 


During the period 1925-1929, the school increased the number of activities avail- 
able to students, reflected some of the greater freedom demanded bv voung people 
in the twenties, boosted its enrollment, began to phase out its preparatorv program, 
increased fees in accordance with the higher cost of living, and continued to experi- 
ence financial problems. 

The number of extra-curricular activities had been sparse during the war years 
but increased rapidlv during the twenties. The Literary societies still plaved an impor- 
tant role in campus life, and members were generally quite serious about their Friday 
evening programs. Former student Ruth Mae Long Dennis reports, however, that 
the women's literary societies spent considerable time listening for indications that the 
men's societies had dismissed so that women and men might meet and walk across the 
campus together.^ 

The four literary societies were supplemented by other organizations. By 1926, 
official student groups included the Wesleyan Brotherhood, a club for male students 
planning to enter the ministry; Latin, Spanish, and French Clubs; the Moffitt Music 
Club; a Queen Esther Societ)^; and a Mandolin Club, the latter reflecting the great 
popularity- of this instrument during the twenties. Other musical groups were men's 
and women's glee clubs and the school orchestra. Student publications were the year- 
book, the Kocatula, and the student newspaper, the New Exponent. By 1928, the \X'es- 
levan Service Club, for girls interested in church-related vocations, and the Ink Pot, an 
honorary literary societ}', had been added. Debating remained a popular activity.^ 

The senior class gave a spring play and, in 1928, a Negro minstrel show. Such 
activities as picnics, chestnut hunts, taffy puUs, and movie parties were favorite amuse- 
ments, the facult}' insisting that all be properly chaperoned. The tradition of an 
all-school outing to Tellico Plains for a full day in May was established in 1 928 and 
remained a custom for several years. Rules remained strict; the Universit\' of Chat- 
tanooga permitted dancing parties, if supervised by faculty members, as early as 1920, 
but Tennessee Wesleyan continued to frown on such frivolous and morally question- 
able activities.'" 

Students began to request clubs of a more social nature than the literary societ- 
ies, and sororities and fraternities came into being in the late twenties. Whether such 
societies should be permitted was the subject of considerable facult\' discussion, but, 
in 1929, the faculty voted to recognize such groups if they had taculty sponsors and 
tacult\'-approved constitutions. Four sororities. Gamma Gamma, Signa Tau Sigma, Pi 
Xu Lambda, and E.T.C., and one fraternity Phi Pi Phi, began to operate as local so- 
cieties, with all working toward national affiliation. College fraternities and sororities 
were in their heyday in the twenties, and Tennessee Wesleyan reflected this trend.' ' 

The athletic program was revived after the war with strong teams in football, 
baseball, and basketball. According to Colonel Robert C Hornsby, a member of the 
baseball team, little emphasis was placed on eligibility of players in the selection of 
these early teams. "If they were enrolled in school, they were eligible to play, regard- 

TWC: 1857-2007 61 

less of previous education, class attendance or minimum grades." Hornsby recalled 
the recruitment of "Happy" Maxwell from the textile mill baseballers. Happv had 
finished only a few years of elementary school but was enrolled in a t}'ping class at the 
college because he was a good pitcher. When the team went to Chattanooga for a se- 
ries of games with McCallie School, Happy's teammates attempted to keep him in the 
background, fearing that his lack of social graces and his homespun grammar would 
not blend well with the McCallie students and faculty. Happy kept a low profile until, 
at about 2 a.m. on the second night of their sojourn in Chattanooga, he complained 
in salt}' language that the cit)^ streetcars were keeping him awake and giving him a 
headache. To his awakened teammates he announced loudly, "I'm gonna git out and 
find me a drug store so I kin git me a dose of bruno excelsior," the remedy required 
being Happy's version of bromoseltzer. Happy seems to have become something of 
a legend. Reba Bavless Boyer recalled another occasion when the team was on tour 
and its members bought and were reading copies of the local newspaper. Happy fol- 
lowed suit, but his fellow players discovered that the paper he was "reading" was held 
upside down!'- 

The faculty and administration, usually quite serious about academic and social 
standards, must have relaxed their normal vigilance so that the athletic program could 
get underway again in the earh' twenties. Later in the decade, however, athletes were 
required to have a passing record in at least twelve hours of college work or in three 
preparatory school courses. ^^^ 

Swann Burnett Boyer was one of the football team's most valuable plavers but 
earned his lasting nickname of "Bullet" because of his speed on the baseball team. 
Another outstanding football player of the late twenties was Rube McCray who was 
to serve as a memorable football coach at Tennessee Wesleyan during the following 
decade. With these and other strong players, the baseball team, the football team, and 
the men's and women's basketball squads achieved notable records. In 1927 the foot- 
ball team was undefeated, and in 1929 the men's basketball squad was the runner-up 
for the championship of the Southeastern Athletic Association of junior Colleges. 
The fledgling track team's record, however, was less distinguished. In a meet in Chat- 
tanooga, the team placed third out of three entrants, and the next day a headUne by a 
Chattanooga sportswriter read, "Athens Also Ran."'"^ 

At the athletic contests, students lined up on the field for the popular "snake 
dance" of the tu'enties and rooted for the school team with a college yell which, how- 
ever lacking in literary distinction, was certainly spirited. 

Boom-a-lack-a Chick-a-lack-a 

Boom-a-lack-a Chick-a-lack-a 

Bow- Wow- Wow! Chow-Chow-Chow! 

Boom-a-lack-a, Chick-a-lack-a 
Gold and Blue! 

Athens, Athens, Rip-Rah-Zoo! 


Sung at the games was "Our Dear Old College" with words by Eda Selby, the 
modern languages teacher, and set to the tune of "Stein Song." Rudy Vallee popular- 
ized the Universit}' of Maine's "Stein Song," and it became a favorite tune on college 
campuses throughout the nation. ^ "" 

Attending a conservative school in a conservative community-, Tennessee Wes- 
levan students were litde affected by behavior trends which caused the decade to be 
called the "Roaring Twenties." Perhaps one might sav that the twenties did not "roar" 
on the Athens campus but did "rumble" faintly. Records of the period show some 
indication that students were beginning to be bit less docile, to question authority, 
and even, in very mild ways, to rebel against the rules set down by their elders. They 
began, in 1926, to elect representatives to a Student Council which, although given 
ver\' limited power, was a beginning in student government. A student writing in the 
Nen' Exponent asked: 

Why can't an organization or a class invite people to their socials if they 
deem it wise? Of course, it is taken tor granted that we have plenty of 
chaperones. We always do. Is that a fair proposition? I think more 
complete cooperation between the students and the faculty could be secured 
if they were to give us a Little more libert\^ or at least trust us and give us a 
chance to prove to them that we are trustworthy. 

In 1927, seniors petitioned for more privileges, and the faculty' agreed that senior 
men with grades of 85 or above in all subjects should be allowed to arrange their own 
study hours between 8 a.m. acid 10 p.m. and be permitted to leave the campus during 
these hours without special permission. Senior women with the required grades were 
given similar privileges except that the hours to be at their command were from 8 a.m. 
until the evening dinner hour.^'^ 

The faculty' had always experienced some difficult}' in the maintenance of the 
school's strict discipline, and problems connected with chapel attendance became 
particularly prevalent during the late twenties. Stringent rules were formalized to deal 
with this mounting problem. When a student had accumulated three unexcused cha- 
pel absences, his or her parents would be notified by the dean; five absences resulted 
in the loss of one term hour of college credit or one-fourth high school unit; eleven 
absences meant the suspension of the student for the remainder of the term.' 

Some students absented themselves from study halls as well as from chapel and 
seemed more daring in their participation in unorthodox activities. A number were 
reported to be "loitering" on the campus and in the town during evening study hours, 
and, because of some Sunday tennis games, Dean Wallace Miller reminded the stu- 
dent body that it was "against the policy of the institution to participate in Sunday 
sports." Dean Miller also reported to the faculty that he had called the attention of 
the Athens Police Department to the fact that some students were \isiting the pool 
room and that he had asked for police assistance in stopping this unapproxed acti\- 

TWC: 1857-2007 63 

The students of the twenties were becoming less docile and less in awe of their 
elders, in their own small wa}' reflecting a national trend. On April 1, 1924, about one- 
half the student body simply walked off the campus to pursue their own pleasures 
and were ''campused" for three days as a result. When Dean Miller went to a men's 
dormitory for an inspection, he received a wet recepdon, a bucket of water having 
been placed over the door. Students engaged in "mock facult}^" programs in which 
they satirized their elders. Members of the Philomathean Literary Societ)', in 1926, 
issued a declaration of independence, stating their right to participate or not to par- 
ticipate in any school-sponsored debating, oratorical, or declamatory contests. ^'^ 

The facult)' felt compelled to tighten its censorship of public performances and 
school publications. A play, "The Patsy," provoked much discussion in 1928, and a 
rule was made that all public performances were to be viewed in advance by a special 
committee of the faculty'. All material for the yearbook and the student newspaper 
was to be submitted for approval before publication, but, in 1929, the facult}' sponsor 
reported that students were not complying with this rule.-" 

Student publications indicate that the young people of this era were less pious 
and didactic than their predecessors and more inclined to voice complaints. Although 
the faculty feared that the growth of extracurricular activities was detrimental to the 
academic program, students deplored the scarcit}^ of such activities. Another favor- 
ite complaint was directed at the food served in the dining halls. The ever-present 
applesauce at the tables of Pett}'-Manker was the subject of derision, but, in 1928, the 
cereal Post Toasties (dubbed "elephant dandruff") was said to be running the apple- 
sauce a close race. Students suggested that a sign be placed over the Petty-Manker 
dining room door, reading, "Blessed is he that expects nothing for he shall not be 

The popularity of practical jokes can hardly be used as an indication of unusual 
student daring, for such pranks had always been prevalent in this school where ex- 
tremely strict rules seemed to provoke them. An outlet for youthful energy and high 
spirits must be found somewhere. Pickets often disappeared mysteriously from the 
fence surrounding Ritter Hall. Dean JMiller, again checking a men's dormitory, was 
horrified to find a pint liquor bottle which had been planted there in anticipation of 
his visit, but the contents proved to be kerosene. References in the school paper to 
"pie hunts" are puzzling to the uninformed reader but have been explained by the late 
Howard Dennis. A new boy on campus was taken on a pie hunt as an initiation rite. 
He would be told that the girls at Ritter had baked a batch of pies and had invited 
young men to come and partake. One of the jokesters was stationed in the evening 
near the door of the Ritter furnace room, and the other pranksters led the greenhorn 
toward the hall. When they approached the dormitory, the "guard" gave chase and 
all took flight, the new student believing he was about to be apprehended by some 
official watchman. After a merry chase all over the campus, the pranksters explained 
the trick.-- 


Halloween was a favorite time for pranks, and Howard Dennis shared a story of a 
memorable Halloween. The college authorities knew that pranks were likely to occur 
and had provided tor shifts of student guards. One of these guards was persuaded 
to leave his post earlier than his assigned hour of departure, and at 2 a.m., Dennis 
and three other boys began to shift props. A hay rake was placed on the auditorium 
steps, benches from the football field on the auditorium stage, the bell of Old College 
in Professor Douglass' classroom, and a buggv on the porch of Bennett Hall. While 
onlv four boys moved the bell, seven men were required to replace it in its rightful 
position, a fact remembered with pride bv Dennis more than sixt}^ years later!-^ 

The faculty" was generally tolerant of occasional bursts of high spirits, but some 
offenses called for retribution. The most common punishment was the imposition of 
a "campus," meaning that the student could not leave the campus for a specified pe- 
riod. Since a number of students were local and lived at home, a campus was difficult 
to enforce in their cases, but these students, in theory at least, were not to leave their 
homes except to attend classes. Emma Sue (Susie) Williams recalled being campused 
for being one of a group riding in an automobile down the central walk of the cam- 
pus, and Reba Bayless Boyer was penalized for "matching pennies," a clear violation 
of the school's rule aa:ainst samblina-'^ 

The era of the twenties saw a steady growth in enrollment. Such growth may 
be attributed in part to the increased interest in high school and college education 
after World War I, in part to the general prosperity' of the period, and, in large part, 
to the efforts of President Robb and his faculty in recruitment and in the building of 
the school's justifiably fine reputation. Average enrollment from 1906 to 1925 was 
292; from 1925 to 1928, it was 397. Growth is particularly evident in the last half of 
the decade as the following enrollment figures indicate: 1925-26, 287; 1926-27, 396; 
1927-28, 519; 1928-29, 498. The percentage of students in the preparatory school 
declined, for emphasis was being placed on building an outstanding junior college. In 
1920-21, 61 percent of those enrolled were in pre-college courses. By 1925-26 the 
percentage had dropped to fort)'-six, by 1926-27 to thirt}'^, and by 1927-28 to twenty- 
four. In 1928-29, the school began to phase out the preparatory program which was 
eliminated in 1933.-'' 

Fees were gradually increased. In 1917-18, the average cost per student tor tu- 
ition, room, and board was $101; by 1928-29, this cost had mounted to $350. Such a 
change may reflect, to some degree, the increased prosperity of the American people 
during the twenties. It should be remembered, however, that Tennessee Wesleyan 
still drew many of its students from rural areas where farmers had little, if any, share 
in such prosperity. For this reason, fees remained low in comparison with those of 
the average private school, and financial aid for students received increasing attention. 
A few scholarships were available before 1925 but no work programs. In 1925, Mrs. 
John A. Patten of Chattanooga contributed funds to be used for providing employ- 
ment for deserving students, and, in 1926, the W. B. Townsend Workships began to 
give jobs to selected students who might earn up to S20(> each.-*^' 

TWC: 1857-2007 65 

Among its various problems, Tennessee Wesle^'an could not list the perils of pros- 
perity'. Fees paid by students covered about fort}' percent of the actual cost of their 
education. The Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church contributed 
toward the remainder, and there was some income from a $50,000 endowment, but 
the school was operating in the late twenties under a deficit of approximately $10,000 
annually. A committee of the board of trustees studied the situation and announced 
that $32,000 would be needed before the end of the 1927-28 term to pay existing 
obligations and to cover the anticipated deficit. A Forward Movement fundraising 
drive was launched in 1928 with a goal of $500,000. The campaign received an 
initial gift of $25,000 from Mrs. John A. Patten and a like amount from Colonel W. 
B. Townsend; both of these donors had served as trustees and were generous and 
devoted friends of the institution. Students helped in mailing requests for gifts and, 
organized by classes, personally visited homes throughout the area to solicit funds. 
The men's glee club performed at churches and campaign meetings as well as on radio 
programs broadcast from Chattanooga and Knoxville. Interested supporters came 
from as far away as Pittsburgh, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Iowa and Nebraska to as- 
sist in fundraising. The committee heading solicitation of funds in Athens was made 
up of J. B. Elliott, Rhea Hammer, and Tom Sherman. By December 1928, a total of 
$297,062 had been subscribed, but the nation soon afterward entered an economic 
depression, and only a small portion of the amount pledged was ever received. Ten- 
nessee Wesleyan, Like other schools throughout the country, was to face truly hard 

It was during the twenties that the college adopted its official seal. In 1926, a 
competition invited students to submit designs for a school seal. In the following 
year, the facult}' selected a design featuring a torch and wreath with the motto "lux 
et Veritas" (Hght and truth). At the base of the seal are oak and hackberrv leaves, a 
reference to the Indian maiden Nocatula who died beside her white lover. According 
to the legend, an oak tree on the campus grew from the heart of the slain lover and a 
nearby hackberrv tree from the heart of Nocatula.-^ 

To mention individually the many competent and dedicated teachers who con- 
tributed to the Ufe of the college would extend this study beyond a reasonable length. 
Anyone interested in the preservation of the college's rich history, however, owes 
tremendous gratitude to Professor David A. Bolton, and it seems appropriate to give 
him special attention. Bolton was a member of the class of 1872, the second class to 
graduate from East Tennessee Weslevan. He served as a teacher of mathematics from 
the time of his graduation until 1920, a total of 47 years. Even then his active service 
did not end, for he continued to serve as one of the most dedicated of the trustees. 
Bolton was the faculty secretary for several years, faithfully recording the discussions 
and transactions of the faculty. Far from being an objective reporter, he frequentiy 
enlivened these records by the expression of his own strong opinions. Bolton was in- 
terested in preserving the past of the school he loved as well as in promoting its pres- 
ent and future development. His unpublished memoirs, as well as many handwritten 


notes on people and events connected with the school, are preserved in the college's 
archives and are invaluable sources for the historian. 

In October, 1928, the college paid special tribute to Professor Bolton and to 
another distinguished retired professor, W. A. Wright. Wright, a member of the class 
of 1878, served the school for 21 years as the academic dean and subsequentiy as a 
trustee. A portion of a statement written by Wright for a special bulletin of 1928 
seems an appropriate closing for this chapter. Professor Wright wrote: 

This institution from its very founding has held a unique place in the 
educational history of this section of the South. I do not say that its faculty 
was the best nor its physical equipment the most complete, but I do say 
that the teachers were devoted to their work and that they gave not only 
their time, but themselves, as an investment in human life and character. 
Its work must continue! O friends, its work MUST continue!-^ 

These seemingly prophetic words were written on the eve of the Great Depres- 
sion which brought to the institution one of its most difficult periods, a period when 
it often seemed likely that the school's important work might not continue. 

TWC: 1857-2007 67 


"Lord of the harvest, hear 

Thy needy servants' cry. 

Hear our faith's effectual prayer, 

And all our needs supply." 

- Charles IVes/ej 

At the time of the 1929 stock market crash, Tennessee Wesleyan was in its fifth 
year of operation as a junior college independent of the Universit}^ of Chattanooga. 
Still in a transition period, the college found itself ill-prepared for an additional blow 
to its weak financial condition. Unfortunately, many of tliose pledging support dur- 
ing the 1928-29 campaign found themselves unable to meet their commitments. A 
number of small colleges were forced to close during this time of crisis, but Tennes- 
see Wesleyan managed to weather the storm. Its survival in spite of problems arising 
during the Great Depression seems nothing short of a miracle. But faith brings about 
miracles, and President Robb and the dedicated men and women of his facult}' were 
persons of faith. 

The college's shaky financial condition became even weaker when enrollment 
began to decline. The cost of a college education was beyond the means of a sizeable 
number of young people who might have enrolled during more affluent times. There 
were 485 students in attendance during the 1929-30 academic ^'Car with a slight de- 
crease to 457 in 1930-31, but enrollment dropped to 302 in 1931-32, a loss of almost 
one-third ot the student body in only one year. By 1934-35, enrollment had reached 
its lowest figure, 283, and during the thirties never grew beyond 345.' 

A further indication of the need for families to curtail expenses is the sharp 
decline in the number of special students enrolled at the college for private lessons 
in music and elocution. Such instruction was available not only to regular college 
students but to others in the area, particularly to children of elementary school age. 
In 1929-30, students receiving music lessons numbered fift)'-two with fort\'-one being 
instructed in elocution or "expression," as it was then called. In 1930-31, the number 
of special music students had declined to thirt)'-six and the number of expression 
students to fourteen. In a period when parents were finding it difficult to supply their 



children with food and clothing, lessons in music and expression were frills which had 
to be cut from the family budget.- 

In an attempt to accommodate students struggling with unprecedented financial 
problems, the college adjusted its rates. Tuition remained at $35 per quarter until 1939 
when it was raised to $40 quarterly. Fairly sizeable reductions, however, were made in 
charges for housing and meals. The average cost per student for tuition, room, and 
board totaled $363 for the school year 1930-31. The 1931-32 year saw this amount 
reduced to $315. President Robb announced a further reduction for the 1932-33 
term, describing this action as "an effort to adjust to present conditions and to do all 
within our power to enable young men and women to attend college." Rates at Ritter 
Hall were lowered by 18.7 percent and by 12 percent at other dormitories. President 
Robb stressed that lowering of rates did not mean lowering of academic standards. 
These, he said, were to be preserved at a high level "in spite of all obstacles."'' 

The preparatory schocjl experienced a drastic decline in enrollment and was 
closed in 1933. This decision came as part of the effort not only to economize but to 
focus on a strong junior college program. 

Hatfield Hall, the men's dormitory built in 1884, was another casualty- of the De- 
pression. In need of extensive repairs which the budget would not permit, the build- 
ing was razed in 1932 and the materials sold for $100. A smaller dormitory, Robeson 
Hall, was closed during the Depression years. This two-story frame building, located 
on North Jackson Street adjacent to Blakeslee Hall, had been purchased from the 
Robeson estate and used as a residence hall from 1926 until its closing. Original- 
1\' housing women students, Robeson accommodated men trom 1933 to 1936, this 
change doubtless necessitated by the demolition of Hatfield.'^ 

At a faculty meeting held early in 1932, a special committee reported on possible 
means of balancing the budget. According to the report, the average annual salary 
of full-time instructors was $1,718, approximately $330 lower than the average salary 
at seventeen other junior colleges surveyed. Nevertheless, the committee recom- 
mended the contribution to the college by each employee of ten percent of the last 
four salary checks received in 1 932. Those receiving other benefits, such as housing 
and board, as a part of compensation were to donate ten percent of the value of such 
benefits. The committee noted that such contributions were proposed as "a means 
of doing our share in meeting the extraordinary situation" faced by the college. When 
brought to a vote the proposal was adopted b\' the faculty with only one abstention 
but was amended to exempt employees receiving annually less than S500 in cash or 
other benefits.'^ 

At a later 1932 facult\- meeting, the business manager reported that funds had not 
arrived from the Board of Education of the Holston Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and that m(jnthly checks would be issued late. A few checks, he 
said, might be issued to those to whom the immediate receipt of salary was "abso- 
lutely necessary."''' 

Since not onl\- cf)llcge cmplo\ces bur also business ami professional townspeople 

TWC: 1857-2007 69 

were in financial straits, the college offered a barter system in 1933. Persons owing 
money to the college for tuition, for other benefits, or in endowment pledges could 
make credit available to college employees. The value of the goods or services re- 
ceived by the employee would be deducted from his or her salary, and the cooperat- 
ing business or professional person would receive an appropriate deduction in his 
account with the college. For example, a college teacher could buy a shirt, valued at 
$1.95 at Thomas Clothing Company. The merchant would have $1.95 deducted from 
his debt to the college, and the teacher's salary would be reduced bv the same amount. 
No money changed hands, a satisfactory arrangement since little money was available. 
In 1933, the facult}' agreed to contribute one-half of a month's salary to operating ex- 
penses. In the same year, trustees ruled that if receipts fell below expenditures, sala- 
ries of all employees were to be reduced in an amount ranging from ten to twent}'-five 
percent, with the percentage to be determined on the basis of job classification.^ 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Myers arrived at Tennessee Wesleyan in August 1934 to 
serve respectively as professor of religion and as library assistant. Mrs. Myers recalled 
that their move to Athens came as the result of the closing of a Methodist junior 
college in Chicago where they had taught since 1927. Mr. and Mrs. Myers had been 
promised housing in a small college bungalow. Upon their arrival, they discovered 
that their prospective home was being used for the storage of potatoes; thev stored 
their furniture and lived in Ritter Hall until the little house was ready for occupancy.^ 

Mrs. Myers described their "rudest awakening" as being the discovery that pay- 
ment of salaries was four months in arrears. Before thev knew of this siti.iation, the 
couple had spent most of their meager savings on a cooking stove, water heater, 
refrigerator, and coal-burning heater. By practicing rigid economy, they were able 
to survive until Thanksgiving when they received one-half of their stipulated salary 
with another half-check coming at Christmas. Mrs. Myers sewed dresses and suits 
for townspeople and for a few facult}' wives to provide money for groceries and utili- 

By the spring of 1935, conditions were apparently improving somewhat, for the 
faculty was assured that salaries for the year would be paid in full. However, the 
facult}' again voted to return a portion of their wages to the college, in this case, ten 
percent of one month's salary.'" 

Representatives of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools had visited 
the campus in 1931. Accreditation by this body was renewed, but the association 
urged that several deficiencies be addressed. These included: the need for a larger 
library, strengthening of the religious education department, adjustment of teaching 
loads, increase in facult\' salaries, a facult)' retirement plan, increased income, and the 
employment of a full-time superintendent of grounds. The addressing of most of 
these needs had to be put on hold due to lack of finances. The need for a library was 
felt to be paramount, and continuing efforts were made toward this goal. ' ' 

In 1931, President Robb spoke to the trustees concerning the inadequate library 
facilities, urging them to make a library building a priorit}' in their solicitation and 


dispersal of funds. Colonel W B. Townsend responded bv pledging 525,000 toward 
construction of the building if an additional 520,000 could be obtained. The trust- 
ees promptiy accepted his offer and voted to name the proposed building the W 
B. Townsend Library. A worsening economic situation, however, caused the trust- 
ees to abandon the attempt to raise additional funds, and, in October 1934, Colonel 
Townsend announced that plans for the proposed building were postponed. ^- 

President Robb was exceptionally active and adept in fundraising and traveled 
extensively seeking support. His travels in 1934 included a few davs in Cincinnati and 
ten days in New Jersey and New York. From the Cincinnati trip he acquired $300 in 
donations. In New York he met with Air. and Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer who had gained 
considerable wealth through their cosmetic manufacturing industry and were sharing 
their good fortune with educational institutions. Robb's first contact resulted in a gift 
of only S200 but was the beginning of greater munificence. The Pfeiffers' interest in 
the college grew to the extent that, in 1935, they agreed to supply funds both toward 
current operating expenses and toward the reduction of the deficit. After the death 
of her husband in 1939, Mrs. Pfeiffers benevolence increased to the point that she 
eventually contributed 5441,666 toward college needs. A generous gift in 1939 made 
possible the construction of the long-awaited new library which would be completed 
in 1941 and named the Merner-Pfeiffer Library in honor of Annie Merner (Mrs. 
Henry) Pfeiffer. '-^ 

During the thirties other sizeable donations improved the college's financial sta- 
tus. Among these were 1,260 acres in Scott County deeded to the college by E. B. 
Buskirk of Huntington, West Virginia. This land had an assessed value of $8,500. 
Nineteen acres received from the estate of John W. Bayless were sold to J. N. Moore 
for $1,250. Some assistance also came from the Carnegie Foundation, chiefly in the 
form of a grant for the purchase of library books. This grant was certainly welcome 
since the library's total budget for 1933-34 amounted to fifteen dollars!'"^ 

Beginning in 1934, some federal assistance for needy students came from the 
National Youth Administration and from the Federal ReUef Administration, both 
agencies of the New Deal. In a 1935 faculty meeting. President Robb asked for sug- 
gestions for projects to be undertaken by students holding federal work grants. In 
September 1936, it was announced that federal funds had been provided for seven 
additional NYA workships to assist "those affected by the drought." The severe 
droughts coming in the middle of the decade had affected not onh' the Dust Bowl 
states but virmallv the entire country, a particularly disastrous drought occurring in 
1936. A local farm agent recalled not being able to see the sun at midday because of 
the dust and an absence of rainfall from planting time to harvest. Since most students 
at Tennessee Wesleyan came from rural families, the unusual weather conditions had 
added still another obstacle to providing income for a college education.'"' 

Small economies and fund-raising projects were customary during these lean 
years. In 1930, there was considerable discussion b\- the faculty ot the need tor new- 
hymnals for chapel services, but with no extra funds available, mimeographed copies 

TWC: 1857-2007 71 

of songs were provided in lieu of new hymnals. The faculty was encouraged to read 
t\\& Junior College ]oiirnal, but the budget could not cover the cost of a library subscrip- 
tion; each facult}' member was asked to contribute twenr\'-five cents toward this sub- 

Outsiders were, in 1934, asked to pay ten cents for the use of the college tennis 
courts, a sign being posted on each court indicating that playing tennis on Sunday was 
not permitted. Sigma Iota Chi sororit}' raised money for a sixt}^-dollar scholarship by 
making a quilt and selling spaces for names embroidered on the quilt for ten cents per 
space. ^^ 

Tennessee Wesleyan students had little freedom to spend money in the unlikely 
event that they had any to spend. Stringent rules forbade card playing, dancing, 
smoking, or visiting pool rooms. A young man might sit with a young lady in her 
dormitory's parlor during a designated period on Sunday afternoon. Male and female 
students could not sit together at the required chapel services. College women could 
not leave the campus without permission, and men must sign out before leaving the 
residence hall. In 1936, the faculty voted that "boys who had not abused the social 
privileges be permitted to call for the girls and take them to church and prayer meeting 
on Sunday and Wednesday evenings," but this privilege was to be enjoyed in groups, 
not by individual couples. Not until 1939 did the faculty approve unchaperoned 
dates to campus affairs, "picture shows," and football games on the McMinn County 
High School athletic field. In 1939, young women still could not go to town without 
special permission, but couples might leave the campus unchaperoned during the 
period from 3 to 5 p.m. on Sunday afternoon, provided they checked out and stated 
where they planned to go. AlcohoHc beverages were, of course, absolutely taboo. In 
a student newspaper of 1 930, student columnist Neal Ensminger wrote: "Wesleyan is 
surely for the Eighteenth Amendment. Even the fountain at Banfield is bone dry!^^ 

In spite of the college's efforts to prevent unauthorized student activities, one 
trustee was quite outspoken on the subject in 1934. According to this critic, all sorts 
of "sins" were rampant, including dancing, smoking, drinking and cursing. In re- 
sponse. President Robb assured the trustees that the student body consisted of an 
exemplary group of high-minded young people. Only one student had been reported 
to be under the influence of alcohol, a ministerial student who did not live on cam- 
pus and who had been denied readmission. In regard to dancing, Robb explained 
that most colleges, even Methodist colleges, permitted campus dances, but Tennessee 
Wesleyan still stood firm against this practice. "We do not have a dancing problem 
except as it relates to students living at home in the town or count^;" said Robb. "No 
request has come from students for a dance on the campus nor has any dance been 
held. We do not feel that it is our right to dictate what parents should allow in their 
own homes."'''' 

No longer were the literary societies the focus of student activities, for interest 
in these societies declined during the thirties as students became more interested in 
sororities and fraternities with activities of a less pedantic and more social nature. 


The Sappho-Athenian Literary Societ}; a coed group composed of the combined 
Sapphonians and Athenians, agreed to forfeit its charter in 1936, and the life of the 
one remaining societ}' was reported to be at "very low ebb" in 1938. The three sorori- 
ties and two fraternities were local organizations with the exception of Sigma Iota Chi 
Sororit}', established at T.W.C. in 1931, and Phi Sigma Nu Fraternit\' which became a 
chapter of a national junior college fraternit}' in 1932. 

Most of the other student organizations were of a religious nature — the Wes- 
levan Brotherhood for ministerial students, the Wesleyan Service Club for men and 
women preparing for full-time Christian service, the Queen Esther Circle for pro- 
spective women missionaries, the Y.M.C.A., and the Y.W'.C.A. 

Musical organizations were also prominent. The glee club, directed bv Mrs. 
Robb, and the orchestra, directed by Miss Catherine Colston, gave a number of per- 
formances including a radio broadcast. The Tennessee Weslevan Girls' Chorus was 
invited to sing for the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church held 
in Columbus, Ohio, in Mav 1936.^*^ 

Another popular activit\' was debate, and the college's debate team, coached bv 
Miss Lillian Donelson, had an outstanding record. In 1931, the team won the }u- 
nior College Championship of Tennessee and North Carolina, and, in the sanie year, 
placed second in the Southern Tournament of the Southern Association of Colleges, 
defeating such formidable opponents as Louisiana State University, the Universit)' of 
Florida, and the Universit}- of South Carolina. Star debaters were Sam Adkins and 
Neal Ensminger.-" 

Some trustees felt that intercollegiate athletics should be discontinued in order 
to conserve funds during the Depression vears. Their suggestion was rejected, and 
athletic teams of the thirties were among the most outstanding in the school's his- 
tory. Strong school spirit supported the basketball teams (men and women), the 
tennis team, and the football team, the "Bulldogs." In 1935, the Bulldogs, coached 
by Rube McCrav, were defeated only by the Universit\' of the South and by Middle 
Georgia and in 1938 won the Southeastern Junior College championship for the sixth 
consecutive year. Also in 1935, the mens' basketball team took home the tirst-place 
trophy from the Southeastern Junior College tournament.-^ 

Although college authorities frowned on dancing and card playing, movies, called 
"picmre shows," apparently did not come under censure. On January 14, 1935, the 
faculty ruled that students who did not have classes on Wednesday at 10 a.m. might at- 
tend the morning showing of "Great Expectations" at the Strand Theater, admission 
ten cents. An especially popular film of 1930 was "Sunny Side Up," advertised by the 
Strand in the student publication, the Xoait/i/a, as "the screen's first original all-talking, 
singing, dancing musical comedy with Charles Farrell and Janet Gaynor."-- 

The pleasures of smdents of the Depression years may seem quite unsophisticat- 
ed to modern young people, but that generation found amusement in simple things. 
The big social event of the year was the school picnic held each May in the mountains 
near Tcllico Plains for which the school rented a railroad car for transportation. 

TWC: 1857-2007 73 

In the summer of 1930, students made an afternoon trip to Craighead Cavern 
near Sweetwater and also traveled by school bus to view a performance of Macbeth at 
the Universit}' of Chattanooga auditorium. This latter event was a momentous oc- 
casion since students were allowed to be out until 2 a.m.! On the bus they sang such 
popular favorites as "Keep Your Sunny Side Up" and "Carolina Moon."-^ 

Judge Fred Puett recalled an amusing incident connected with the 1932 May Day 
excursion to the Tellico mountains. When the group arrived by train at Tellico, they 
dispersed to enjoy themselves in the mountain scenery, it being firmly understood 
that when the whistle blew, everyone was to return promptly to the train. One group 
of bovs heard the whistle and realized that they had wandered such a distance away 
that they would hnd it difficult to return on time. Attempting to use a shortcut, they 
found themselves at the edge of a deep ravine which they could not jump across. 
They solved the problem by swinging across on a tree branch. As they hurried toward 
their destination, they happened upon two facult}- members, a male historv teacher 
and a female religion teacher, who were behaving toward each other in a very friendly 
manner — "smooching" was Judge Puett's term. When the history professor later 
heard of the tree-swinging episode, he said caustically, "Now at last I feel that I can 
believe in evolution." One of the tree-swinging students quicklv retorted, "And now 
at last I feel that I can pass history."-^'^ 

Not all entertainment was scheduled or facult)^-approved, for amusement was 
sometimes sought in unconventional ways. On one Halloween night in the early thir- 
ties, a cow was led up the stairs to the third floor of Old College Hall. Since a cow 
by nature may ascend steps but consistently refuses to descend, it was subsequentiy 
necessary to lower the imprisoned animal from the third-floor window by means of a 
crane. At a faculty meeting in 1937, some male students confessed to having broken 
light bulbs and a window pane at a women's dormitory. Another student pleaded 
guilt}' to having "left the tacks in President Robb's chair on the stage while working 
on scenery." In 1938, a male student was asked to leave school for throwing water in 
Pett\'-Manker Hall. The above incidents constitute only a few examples of the fact 
that the difficult task of getting a college education was not always approached grimly 
or with sober countenances.-'' 

As one reads through the school records of the hard years of the Great Depres- 
sion, one is certainly made aware of the serious economic problems faced bv the 
college. However, coming through even more strongly is an awareness of a vivacious 
and talented student body guided bv a well-trained, dedicated facultv under the leader- 
ship of a remarkable president. 

President Robb's outstanding leadership was recognized not only locally but in a 
wider area. He traveled to St. Louis in 1934 to be installed as president of the Meth- 
odist Educational Association, and after serving as vice-president of the Tennessee 
College Association, in 1934, was elected president in 1935.-^' 

The school lost one of its most dedicated facult)' menibers in 1932 with the death 
of Professor David Bolton. A member of the class of 1872, the school's second 


graduating class, Bolton served the college for fitty-two years, the longest tenure of 
any facult}' member in the school's history. His principal role was as professor of 
mathematics, but he had also, at times, temporarily assumed the duties of vice-presi- 
dent and of dean of instruction as well as serving for manv vears as faculty secretary. 
During his lengthy tenure, he witnessed live name changes at the institution. Because 
of Bolton's deep sense of history, he left behind carefully recorded minutes and per- 
sonal papers which give invaluable insight into the college's history which could not 
otherwise be attained.- 

In spite of financial problems, the school continued to attract well-qualified fac- 
ulty- members. Particularly notable was the addition to the music faculty; in 1939, of 
Dr. Werner Wolff and Mrs. Emmy Land Wblff Natives of Germany, the Wolffs had 
distinguished themselves in concert halls of Germany, Spain, and Italy. They were 
continuing their careers in New York when they were recruited by President Robb 
during his travels there. The Wolffs brought new vitalit}' to an already strong music 
department, and their development of a community choir was an important addition 
to the musical life of Athens.-'^ 

In Professor Bolton's minutes of facult}' meetings during the Depression years, 
the reader finds, as would be expected, considerable discussion of financial problems. 
However, these weekly meetings more often gave prominence to the improvement 
of instruction and service to students, communit); and church. Emphasis on these 
priorities by a staff characterized by determination and self-sacrifice enabled the col- 
lege to survive the Great Depression and to maintain its standards of excellence until 
the present day. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 75 

WARAND PEACE: 1940-1950 

"What troubles have we seen, 

What conflicts have we passed, 

Fightings withovit and fears within. 

Since we assembled last." 

- Charles Wesley 

When war broke out in Europe in 1939, Tennessee Wesleyan was beginning to 
show signs of recovery from the effects of the Great Depression with some improve- 
ment both in enrollment and in financial resources. The school would enjoy only a 
short pe riod of relative prosperit}' before NKbrld War II brought new challenges. 

/ A notable addition to the campus was the new library building completed and 
dedicated in 1941. As has been previously noted, the fairy godmother who made 
this longtime wish come true was Mrs. Annie Merner Pfeiffer of New York. When 
she was apprised by President Robb of the urgent need for a library, Mrs. Pfeitfer 
expressed willingness to give $100,000 for a $75,000 library, the reduction of indebt- 
edness, and the supplementing of endowment funds. She stipulated that the college 
match her gift in order further to decrease indebtedness and to increase endowment, 
a requirement met by a fundraising campaign. 

After Mrs. Pfeiffer's generous gift made a library building possible, the site chosen 
was the former location of Hatfield Hall which had been razed in 1932. Mrs. Pfeiffer 
chose Otis Clay Poundstone of Atlanta as architect and Southeastern Construction 
Company as contractor. Ground w^as broken on August 2, 1940, and a cornerstone- 
laying ceremony, presided over by Bishop Paul S. Kern followed in November. Upon 
the building's completion in 1941, the dedication ceremony on November 5 had as 
honored guests Mrs. Pfeiffer, Bishop Kern, and Governor Prentiss Cooper and for- 
mally named the building the Merner-Pfeiffer Library. 

The exterior of the brick building blended harmoniously with other campus 
structures, and the spacious interior was aesthetically pleasing with especially beautiful 
woodwork. The new library was a far cry from the cramped quarters of Old CoUege 
and of Banfield Hall, previous locations of the library collection. It contained space 
for 30,000 volumes, furnished offices and workrooms, and had a seating capacit}' of 



1 50. A special room was designated for the Richard J. Cooke Collection of some 
2,500 volumes which had been willed to the college by its distinguished alumnus who 
died in 1931. Lacking space to house the collection, the college could not bring this 
bequest to the campus until the completion of the new building. 

While the library building was completely modern, at least bv 1941 standards, one 
item from the past was added, the college bell which was hung in the cupola atop the 
structure. Cast in 1 872 bv the McNeely Bell Company of New York, the bell weighed 
321 pounds and was shipped to the college in December of that vear. First placed in 
Old College and later in the college chapel, the bell, for more than six decades, had 
summoned scholars to chapel services and to classes and had announced studv hours. 
Today it hangs near the eastern entrance to the campus on College Street^^J / 

Mrs. Pfeiffer's visits to the campus during planning for the librar\' resulted in her 
financing another building, a residence hall for women. The late Howard Bales re- 
called that he was working at Miles Riddle Drug Store when Mrs. Pfeiffer lirst visited 
Athens. When Dr. Robb came to the drug store. Bales asked him where he planned 
to lodge the affluent New Yorker. As shrewd as he was personable, Robb had a 
twinkle in his eve as he replied, "I plan to have her stay on campus." Apparently, Mrs. 
Pfeiffer's sojourn in Bennett Hall contributed to her decision to donate funds for a 
new women's dormitory which was exactly what the astute president had in mind.- 

Bennett Hall and Ritter Hall, both wooden structures built in 1891, required con- 
siderable maintenance and were potential fire hazards. The need for better housing 
for female students had been a concern of college officials for some time. Mrs. Pfei- 
ffer agreed to contribute $75,000 for the construction of a new dormitory, but since 
she was a practical businesswoman as well as a generous one, she insisted that college 
trustees raise another S25,000 for the endowment fund. Her offer was accepted 
enthusiastically bv the trustees, but Bishop Kern cautioned that, given the economic 
impact of the Depression, raising more funds would be practically impossible. When 
President Robb explained the difficult}' to Mrs. Pfeiffer, she agreed to an additional 
gift of 525,000 but still insisted that the trustees concentrate on increasing endow- 

The new residence hall, funded entirely by Mrs. Pfeiffer, was named Sarah Mern- 
er Lawrence Hall in honor of her sister. A handsome, three-story, brick building, it 
(Kcupied the site of Bennett Hall which was razed by local contractor James Webb 
who bought the materials. During the new hall's construction, Robeson Hall was 
reopened to house Bennett residents. Lawrence Hall was completed in 1942 at a cost 
of approximately $77,000 including furnishings. Remembering her earlier sojourn in 
Bennett, Mrs. Pfeiffer included a comfortable suite for visitors in plans for the hall. 

While constructicm of Lawrence Hall proceeded, war was ha\ing an impact on 
campus life. Hven before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, young men were 
leaving college for military service or to work in war industries. In the tail of 1941, 
full-rime enrollment of 187 indicated a 13 percent reduction from the prexious year. 
The Selecri\e Training and Ser\ice /\ct of 194(1, whicli rec]Liired the registration of 

TWC: 1857-2007 77 

men from 21 to 35 years of age, did not have a tremendous impact on college stu- 
dents, but when, in 1 942, the draft age was lowered to eighteen, male students left in 
droves. In 1942-43, a student body of 145 had 45 males; in 1943-44, only 14 of 120 
students enrolled were males. Prior to the war, Pett}-Manker Hall housed three young 
men in each room. In 1942, twelve rooms were empt); and in 1944, onlv one male 
student was living in the dormitory."* 

Coeds keenly felt the reduction of eligible males. One voung lady placed a plea 
in the campus newspaper for remaining men to resist going steady and to spread their 
attention around. "Some of the school's prettiest and most charming young ladies are 
being neglected by the campus swains who date a certain few or go steady," she wrote. 
"This is an unfortunate situation for both sexes. Variet}' is the spice of life. Boys, give 
your attention to as many girls as possible, and watch ^^our popularity star rise."^ 

Due to the shortage of males, football was discontinued in 1942 but prior to that 
date was a highly successful program. Coached by Rube McCrav, President Robb's 
son-in-law, the Bulldogs won the Southeastern Junior College Championship for the 
ninth consecutive year in 1940. In the same year, the basketball team, coached bv 
Robert Hooper Eblen, likewise was outstanding, winning the conference champion- 
ship with seven wins and no losses. 

The music program was enriched bv the presence of Dr. and Mrs. Werner Wolff 
who had fled their native Germany to escape political oppression and had joined the 
college facult}^ in 1939. The College Chorus, directed by Dr. Wolff, in 1940 included: 
Gladys Andes, jean Douglass, Virginia Swanson, Marv Fay Kennedy, Virginia Quinn, 
Louise Fritts, Bertha Chastain, Norma Stonecipher, Irene Hall, Ernestine Grant, Car- 
olyn Bishop, Fred Jenkins, Felix Harrod, BiU Selden, and Bill Scott. President Robb 
hoped to build a conservatory of music with the illustrious Dr. and Mrs. Wolff as its 
nucleus. However, the proposed conservatory was an early casualty- of World War II. 
In fact, due to financial difficulties, the Wolffs were given leaves of absence for the 
duration of the war at the end of the 1941-42 term. They subsequentiy resigned and 
moved to Chattanooga. There thev had a great impact on the musical life of the area 
through their connection with the University of Chattanooga, the Cadek Conserva- 
tory, and the Chattanooga Opera Association.*^ 

The early forties were dominated bv the war effort, its most notable effect be- 
ing, of course, the steady decline of male students. President Robb fully supported 
American involvement in the war but urged students to stav in school until drafted, 
pointing out that after the war unskilled, uneducated workers would be at a disad- 
vantage. He noted that President Roosevelt repeatedly advised students to stay in 
coUege and prepare themselves for efficient military service if their country called. 
Robb asked students to consider various deferment programs offered by the military. 
However, as war continued, male enrollment inevitably declined. ^ 

The college participated in an army, na\% and marine corps recruiting program 
which allowed potential officers to remain in college until graduation if satisfactory 
grades were maintained. In addition, an accelerated program was adopted which 


made graduation from the junior college possible in one-and-one-half years rather 
than the normal two years. 

Curriculum changes were instigated to accommodate the war effort. The physics 
department offered courses in radio technology and mechanics. A study of military 
camouflage was added to the art department's classes. The physical education pro- 
gram placed emphasis on physical fitness in preparation for military service and in- 
corporated training in boxing and self-defense into its classes. The physical education 
requirement for graduation was raised from four courses to six. In recognition of 
increased demand for trained secretaries and office workers, the commercial depart- 
ment supplemented its offerings in secretarial science and office practices. 

President Robb traveled to Washington, D.C., to apply for the establishment on 
campus of an army-na\T training unit. His attempt, however, was unsuccessful since 
campus facilities were deemed inadequate for such a unit.^ 

A Campus Defense Council, with both faculty- and student representatives, was 
organized under the direction of Professor T W. Whitehead. This council imple- 
mented a system of air raid warning signals and designated shelter areas. The science 
facult^- offered sessions on protection against poisonous gases. Red Cross courses in 
first aid, nutrition, and home nursing were attended by both faculty members and stu- 
dents. Many of the facultv were involved in volunteer work for the Red Cross and for 
the Citizens Service Corps. The latter group was a part of the Defense Organization 
for the State of Tennessee and consisted of civilian workers organized to coordinate 
the activities of the war effort. 

Like citizens all over the United States, members of the college community re- 
sponded to the call to buy war bonds and to collect scrap metal and rubber. Stu- 
dents sacrificed soft drinks and Christmas money to purchase war bonds. During 
ten months of 1942, students and staff collected about 6,000 pounds of metal and 
rubber, much of this coming from old lockers and a gas machine from the science 
department. Silk hosiery was, for female students and facult}', another sacrifice neces- 
sitated by the war.^ 

Rural iMcMinn Count}' suffered from the loss of farm labor, and twent^•-four 
male students, supervised by Coach Frank Chaney, volunteered to work on area farms. 
Such service was an important part of the war effort since the Agricultural Adjust- 
ment Agency had called on farmers to increase food production.^" 

In addition to his demanding duties at the college, President Robb played a prom- 
inent role in the communit\'. He served as chairman of the MclVIinn Count}' Red 
Cross, headed the War Emergency Relief Drive, and frequentiy promoted the war 
effort through speeches to school and civic groups. 

Robb was extremely generous in his communit}' involvement considering the se- 
rious problems facing him on campus. Endowment remained inadequate, enrollment 
was dwindling, and expenses for heating, lighting, and supplies were rising rapidl}'. 
Necessary cuts in staff were made with regret. During the 1941-42 school \'car, the 
positions of business manager and field representatiye were eliminated temporarih*. 

TWC: 1857-2007 79 

The matron of Petty-Manker Hall was replaced by a professor who agreed to accept 
housing as part of his salary. The library was closed at night to reduce lighting and 
heating costs, a move unpopular with students. In spite of these stringent economies, 
Robb was forced to announce, in June 1942, that faculty salaries for June and July 
could not be paid. 

President Robb was doina; his best, but the trustees insisted on a balanced budget 
in 1943. Working toward this goal, Robb combined the departments of history and 
education and gave leaves of absence to four professors. Another reduction of ex- 
pense was accomplished by Robb's persuading the count}' board of education to pay 
the salary of one of the two teachers at the Observation and Practice School. 

These economies resulted in a bare-bones budget of $53,000 for 1943. Always 
mindful of the need to increase faculty salaries, Robb urged trustees to improve com- 
pensation, but the request was denied due to the tight financial situation. 

In 1943, Robb completed twent}'-five years of college leadership, first as dean and 
then as president. In speaking to the trustees of a difficult but rewarding period, he 
modestly paid tribute to the contributions of others than himself He lauded indi- 
viduals making large financial donations, including Mrs. J. A. Patten of Chattanooga, 
Colonel W. B. Townsend of Townsend, and Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer of New York. While 
not minimizing the importance of those able to make sizeable gifts, Robb stressed the 
value of the support of others less affluent but no less devoted. Professor E. C. Per- - 
guson, professor of Greek and history for 34 years, willed $2,000 to the college, this 
amount being the bulk of his estate. Robb spoke movingly of an early graduate who, - 
while spending the closing years of her Life in an "old age home" sent one dollar each 
year to the college as evidence of her gratitude and devotion to her alma mater.'- 

But the success of the college, Robb asserted, was not due only to financial dona- 
tions. Every student diligently seeking to further his or her education was the heart of 
the college's success. The president cited the example of a young man from a poor, 
mountain family, seemingly unpromising material, who plugged away until graduation 
from Tennessee Wesleyan, worked his way through two more years at the Univer- 
sity of Chattanooga, and now pursued a graduate divinit)' degree while pastoring a 
church.' ' 

Also, Robb continued, contributions of faculty members should not be ignored. 
He paid special tribute to the dedication of Frances C. Moffitt who had served the 
music department for forty-two years and of Eda Selby Melear, a teacher of foreign 
languages, who was completing thirt}^-six years of service in spite of the complica- 
tions of illness during the last two years. Despite reduction in enrollment, finances, 
and a number of facult)' positions, the faculty had maintained high academic stan- 
dards. Robb took particular pride in the fact that Tennessee Wesleyan graduates who 
continued their education at senior colleges were found to be weU prepared. For 
example, of the twent^•-two students attending the Universit}- of Tennessee in 1943, 
eleven were listed on the honor roll.''^ 


Keeping qualified facult}' during the war years presented a problem. Several 
younger men left for military service. Some of those hired to replace them stayed 
only one year or, in a few cases, left during the school year. A particularly severe blow 
was the resignation of Dean M. F. Stubbs in 1942. Dr. Stubbs was an outstanding 
teacher of chemistry and physics as well as an able administrator. He left to accept a 
higher-salaried position at Carthage College, an example of the need to improve sala- 
ries for the retention of qualified faculty. M. R. Richmond, chairman of the biology 
department, replaced Stubbs as dean. The principal librarian, Frances Mackey, left to 
serve in the \\"ANC. Clarvse Myers was promoted to fill Mackey 's position. ^^ 

Smdent activities were drastically affected by the declining numbers of male stu- 
dents. The football program was discontinued in 1 942, but the men's basketball team 
struggled on. After Coach Fred Hutsell left for the air force in 1942, the team captain 
served as coach for the remainder of the year. For the 1943-44 term, C. O. Douglass, 
education professor, agreed to add the coaching of basketball to his duties. Since the 
student body included only fourteen males, anyone even mildly interested in the sport 
could make the team. In spite of being hampered by "no cars, no tires, and no gas," 
the professor turned coach managed to schedule a few games with nearby colleges, 
but, not surprisingly, the team's record was less than stellar. A writer in the Nocatn/a 
gave words of encouragement: "We had a swell coach. Our scores didn't sound like 
we had a coach, but we really did. Professor C. O. Douglass did a fine job. He gave 
untiringly of his time and ability' in tutoring the lads. He gave the boys much encour- 
agement and made the Bulldogs feel it was not all in vain even if the ole ball wouldn't 
go in the basket." Of his abiUty as basketball coach Professor Douglass commented, 
"There may be worse, but I have never seen or heard of such.""^^ 

The women's basketball team, with more experienced players, greatiy surpassed 
their male counterparts. Coached by Dean Richmond, the women lost only three 
games in 1943-44, scoring a season's total of 480 points. In 1944-45, the team was 
undefeated with outstanding performances by "Izzie" Crowder, Fannie Kate Vaughn, 
Margaret Beaty, and Captain Jeanne Elliott. ' 

i Campus organizations had to adjust to the shortage of males. In the student 
newspaper, a female staff member wrote: "Wesleyan femininit}' has managed to settle 
down and grin and bear it. Men (mostly) are gone but (definitely) not forgotten." The 
two fraternities. Eta Iota Tau and Phi Pi Delta, suspended operation during the war, 
but three sororities, Eta Upsilon Gamma, Zeta Mu Epsilon, and Kappa Delta Phi, 
cfjntinued to flourish. The college band, directed by Osmond L. Spradling, sought to 
compensate for its decline in members by recruiting communit)' musicians. The choir 
also sutfered from the lack ol male voices."^ 

The last remaining literary society disbanded in September 1941, not because of 
the war but because such organizations had outiiyed their usefulness. C )nce the core 
of student activity, the literary societies were replaced by fraternities and sororities 
and b\- clubs for those interested in debating, drama, and music and in other extracur- 
ricular pursuits. 

TWC: 1857-2007 81 

The campus Religious Council coordinated the activities of such groups as the 
Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Wesleyan Student Fellowship, Christian Service Club, and Life 
Service Volunteers. Perhaps the war had increased the seriousness and Christian com- 
mitment of students, for these organizations grew stronger. The Y.M.C.A.-Y.W.C.A. 
sent to Congress a student petition requesting the prohibition of the sale of alcohol 
near army camps. The Christian Service Club promoted dormitory prayer meetings 
and encouraged student use of a Methodist devotional booklet. The Upper Koom, for 
private devotions. 

In June 1943, the campus was saddened by the death of Frances Moftitt just one 
month after President Robb's speech to trustees had praised her fort^"-two years of 
service to the music department. 

A notable event of 1943 was the awarding of degrees rather than diplomas to 
graduates. After the liberal arts program was discontinued at the Athens School of 
the Universit}' of Chattanooga, completion of two years of college-level work had 
been recognized by a diploma, and this practice continued after the school had be- 
come an independent junior college. Acting upon a recommendation by the faculty, 
trustees agreed to the awarding of the Associate of Arts degree, with requirements 
remaining virtually the same as those for a diploma.^*^ 

The division between Northern and Southern Methodists had ended in 1939 as 
the two branches united into one national church. This agreement resulted in a single 
Holston Conference now responsible for three colleges: Tennessee Wesleyan, Hiwas- 
see College in nearby Madisonville, Tennessee, and Emory and Henry in \^irginia. 
Hiwassee and Emory and Henry previously had been sponsored by the Southern 
church and Tennessee Wesleyan by the Northern branch. 

At their 1942 Annual Conference, Holston Methodists asked the Methodist Board 
of Education to appoint a committee to survey the strengths and needs of each of 
the three institutions. Three members of the committee visited Tennessee Wesleyan 
in the spring of 1943. The committee's Julv report commended the college for the 
beauty of its campus, the addition of the Merner-Pfeiffer Library and Lawrence Hall, 
the satisfactory equipment of the science building, and the overall financial condi- 
tion despite a debt of $51,000. Improvements recommended included: liquidation 
of debt, renovation of older buildines, an enlarged curriculum for the music and art 
departments, and the addition of a student activities center. The committee's report 
further recommended a conference-wide program to impress church members with 
the need adequately to support their church-related colleges.-" 

This survey marked the beginning of renewed interest bv the Holston Conference 
in its colleges. President Robb reported that the conference had contributed $3,600 
to Tennessee Wesleyan in 1934 but only $1,634 in 1937. He asked for increased sup- 
port, at least $10,000. He continued to urge better compensation for facult}".-' 

For a short period in 1943, the idea that Tennessee Wesleyan should become an 
all-female institution received some consideration. This proposal was first suggested 
by a special commission on education working with the Holston Conference Board 


of Education. Records seem to indicate that this commission differed from the com- 
mittee making the survey previously discussed in that the commission was composed 
of conference members. Members of the committee making the July 1943 report 
were selected from the Methodist Church at large. The report of the special commis- 
sion made three recommendations: (1) the establishment of a single board of trust- 
ees and one administrative coordinator for the three Holston colleges; (2) the forma- 
tion of a unified budget request to be submitted annually for conference approval; 
(3) consideration by the trustees of Tennessee Wesleyan's becoming a college for 
women. Commission members doubtiessly reasoned that Hiwassee College, located 
some thirt}" miles from Athens, was a coeducational junior college; that Emory and 
Henry was a coeducational senior college; and that Tennessee Wesleyan could have 
its own distinctive role by becoming a women's college. Whatever the commission's 
reasoning, their recommendation was rejected by Wesleyan's trustees. 

When trustees met in the spring of 1943, Chairman James Fowler read a letter 
from the Reverend William M. Dye, a benefactor and former trustee. Dye expressed 
the opinion that turning Wesleyan into a women's college would be the "death" of 
the institution. Reasons cited included: decline in enrollment at female colleges; a 
preference by women to attend coed colleges; and the possible alienation of T.W'C. 
supporters. After also hearing a petition from the facult)-, read by Dean Richmond, 
expressing preference for a coeducational institution, the trustees voted to delay ac- 
tion until a closer study of the commission's report had been made.-- 

^•Mumni added their opposing voices. The alumni association, led by its president, 
L. D Miller of Chattanooga, launched a letter-writing campaign against the idea of 
a women's college. Trustees received numerous statements from alumni that their 
monetary contributions would cease if such a change were made. 

Meeting in the summer of 1944, trustees adopted the following resolutions: (1) 
that Tennessee Wesleyan continue as a coeducational institution; (2) that the Athens 
college retain its own separate identit}' with its own board of trustees and administra- 
tive officials; (3) that problems be solved by coordinating the programs of the three 
colleges rather than attempting unification.-^ 

At its annual meetins: in 1945, the Holston Conference voted that each of the 
three colleges remain coeducational and that each retain a separate entit)^ with its own 
resources of endowment and income. A board of thirt}'-two trustees was to oversee 
and cf)ordinate the programs of the three institutions.-"^ 

The annual conference meeting of the following year gave approval to a fundrais- 
ing campaign known as the United College Movement of the Holston Conference. A 
goal of S600,00f) was set for the two-\'ear drive, with each college to receive S2()0,()00. 
That the Holston Conference intended to take a more actiye interest in its higher 
education system was evident.-'' 

Due largely to the efforts of President Robb, a faculty pension program was in- 
troduced in 1945 through participation in the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Asso- 
ciation. Pa\mcnts by a facult\' member to a retirement fund would be sup|->lenu'nted 

TWC: 1857-2007 83 

by the college. Previously there had been no provision for facult}' members' retire- : 
ment, and the new program was a much-needed addition.-*^ 

By the end of the war in 1945, fourteen gold stars had been placed on Tennes- 
see Wesleyan's service flag to memorialize former students who sacrificed their lives. 
The exact number of those who left the classroom for military service is not known, 
but 350 alumni were still serving on V.E. Day in May 1945. One hesitates to men- 
tion a few when so many distinguished themselves, but a 1941 graduate, Leonard 
"Bud" Lomell gained national attention when his story was told in Tom Brokaw's The 
Greatest Generation, published in 1998. After graduation from T.W.C. where he was on 
the football team, Lomell became a part of the Army Rangers, took part in the Nor- 
mandy invasion and in the Battle of the Bulge, and received the Distinguished Service 
Cross, the Silver Star, the Victory Medal, and the Purple Heart.-^ 

The unusual incidence of military service by a father and son, both Wesleyan 
graduates, occurred in the case of E. W. and William Elrod. Lieutenant E. W. Elrod, a 
1919 graduate, held the post of chaplain on an air force base in Texas. Sergeant Wil- 
liam Elrod, class of 1940, was a ball turret gunner on the B-24 from which General 
MacArthur watched his paratroopers land behind the Japanese forces at Lea. The 
younger Elrod was the winner of four medals and a Presidential Citation. Many other 
Wesleyan alumni served honorably and with distinction; all were heroes.-''' 

When the G.I. Bill provided financial assistance for education to returning veter- 
ans. President Robb and his staff already had begun to plan for post-war growth in 
enrollment. However, they probably did not anticipate the presence, in 1946, of 220 
veterans on campus. 

In his planning for the arrival of veterans, Robb emphasized the need for more 
vocational courses. In May 1945, he told the trustees, "We have been warned by vari- 
ous leaders that higher education as we know it is a thing of the past... and that an 
institution which fails to adjust has little chance of survival." Since Robb believed 
that veterans would want training to prepare for jobs, seven new vocational courses, 
mostly in business and science, were added to the curriculum. While supporting an 
increase in vocational training, both Robb and his faculty felt that the emphasis on the 
liberal arts should be maintained.-''' 

A small number of veterans enrolled in 1945, but the fall ot 1946 brought an in- 
flux of 220, swelling total enrollment to 531. This sudden growth brought challenges 
concerning housing and faculty recruitment. 

The federal government offered assistance in housing by providing a converted 
barracks as a dormitory plus trailers for married veterans. Several Athenians opened 
their homes to veterans who could not be accommodated on campus. Mrs. George 
A. Cook, whose home was near the campus, provided housing tor twent}' young 

The trailer village was located on a hillside adjacent to the present Green Street. 
A 1946 issue of the student newspaper, then called The B/i/ldog, noted that wives in the 
trailers maintained a steady routine of washing, ironing, cooking, and housecleaning 


with some assistance from their student husbands. "Some of the men have mastered 
the art of dishwashing while others have specialized in rocking the baby while Mother 
goes about her chores." Such a division of labor was considered noteworthy in the 
decade of the forties.^'-' 

The Veteran's Dormitory, a prefabricated building supplied by the government, 
stood near the Practice School, facing Robeson Street, and contained sixty- four rooms. 
Veterans lodging there found their quarters less than luxurious; apparently, heating 
was a major problem. A writer in The Bulldog stated that the severit)' of winter could 
be predicted by "the supply of anti-freeze" found in the rooms. Also, Gene Brock 
was reported to have kept a popsicle on his desk for three days without its melting 
although Brock "lived on the side of the dorm with the southern exposure."-^^ 

Dining facilities at Pett)^-Manker were rearranged in 1946 to provide greater seat- 
ing capacity' and to allow food to be served cafeteria st\\t. This modification proved 
inadequate, and another prefabricated government building was brought to the cam- 
pus in 1947 as a dining hall, seating 250 and replacing the dining facilities at Pett}'- 
Manker. This building stood behind Lawrence and Ritter on a site previously used as 
a tennis court. Overcrowding was relieved further through the conversion of another 
prefab building into classrooms and a student center.-^- 

Additional facult\' were employed to accommodate the influx of new students. 
During the war years, new facult}' tended to have brief periods of service, but many 
of those coming after the war stayed for a number of years and left indelible prints 
on the pages of college history. Among these were: Jack Houts, Rankin Hudson, 
George Naff, Mary EUen Naff,- Fred Puett, E. G Rogers, Thelma Rucker Standridge, 
and J. Van Coe. They were joined by Paul Riviere who came as dean in 1948, replac- 
ing M. R. Richmond. Louie L^nderwood was employed, in 1945, as Superintendent 
of Buildings and Grounds, a position he held for thirt}'-four years, serving under five 
college presidents. 

With a large population of male students, Wesleyan revived its football program. 
C. Q. Smith, a former army captain who had played for Southern Methodist Universi- 
t}', was hired as football coach and athletic director. Smith, assisted by |. A. Brooks, set 
about recapturing Wesleyan's prominent place in the sports world of junior colleges. 
The 1946 season was a tough one as the Bulldogs' opponents were five senior and 
four junior colleges. Their co-captains were Charlie Burger of Englewood and Tom 
Pcmberton of Rockwood. Pemberton was a skillful and valiant player in spite of the 
amputation of his wounded arm during the war. The 1946 Bulldogs, most of them 
veterans, were undefeated and unscored upon by a junior college; they closed the sea- 
son with a spectacular win over Middle Georgia by a score of 44-0. This outstanding 
record resulted in an in\itation to the Peach Bowl, a game on December 13 in Macon, 
Georgia, where they would compete for the Southeastern junior C^ollege Champion- 
ship. According to The Bulldog, the Peach Bowl was "the same thing to junior colleges 
as the Rose Bowl to larger institutions" and woLild "determine the champion junior 
college of the South.""^-^ 

TWC: 1857-2007 85 

A large following of students, facult}^, and townspeople boarded the train in 
Etowah for the trip to Macon. There they saw the Bulldogs defeat Georgia Military 
College as Bill Eggert tossed two touchdown passes, one to J. B. "Ace" Adams and 
the other to Charlie Burger. Marion "Bertie" Smith added two field goals to give his 
team the winning score of 14 to 12.^^"^ 

Having led the Bulldogs to an outstanding record, Coach Smith resigned in the 
summer of 1949 to accept a coaching position at Georgetown College in Kentucky. 
Rankin Hudson, an alumnus and former football standout, was appointed as Smith's 
replacement. Graduating from Wesleyan in 1939, Hudson completed his education 
at Virginia Tech where he continued to excel on the football field. He returned to 
Wesleyan from }ackson High School in Jacksonville, Florida, where his team had won 
the state championship. Under Coach Hudson and his assistant, Bob Matthews, the 
Bulldogs continued their winning ways during the 1940s. 

As a result of its successful athletic program, Wesleyan became a fertile recruit- 
ing ground for four-year colleges. Hooper Eblen became head coach at Tennessee 
Tech; Ray Graves held the same position at the University of Florida. R. N. "Rube" 
McCray left Wesleyan to become coach at William and Mary where he was named 
Coach of the Year by the Southern Athletic Conference in 1947. |. B. "Ace" Adams 
continued his winning football career as a student at the Universits^ of Tennessee 
while Russ Godwin became an outstanding fullback for the Gators of the Universit}^ 
of Florida.^-^ 

During the postwar years, the college choir rivaled the football team in bringing 
acclaim to Tennessee Wesleyan. Under the direction of jack Houts, who joined the 
facult)^ in 1946, the choir became widely known as one of the finest coUege choirs 
in the South. Houts initiated the annual spring tour which took the musical group 
to churches throughout the Holston Conference and even beyond to outlying states. 
During 1947, the choir traveled for some 2,500 miles. The group, with about sixt}- 
five voices, sang at the 1948 Holston Annual Conference in Kingsport and joined the 
Athens Music Club for a presentation of Handel's Messiah in 1948 and again in 1949. 
In 1950, a presentation of Victor Herbert's The R^^ i'\//// marked the beginning of 
the tradition of a "spring show" bv the choir which would become a major campus 

A college orchestra was organized with Virginia Brasius as conductor, and Mary 
Ellen Naff directed the training in public school music of prospective teachers 

Membership in student organizations grew with the increase of the student body, 
and fraternities as well as sororities flourished. Mild hazing was permitted during 
initiation week, and pledges were assigned such tasks as directing downtown traffic, 
begging President Robb for ten dollars, and carrying an egg on a tennis racket. -^"^ 

Coeds enthusiastically welcomed the GIs to campus. A student writing in the 
school paper expressed gratification that "once again the campus rings with the deep, 
husky voices of men, much to the delight of the fairer lasses." Faculty and admin- 
istrators must have been uneasy about the situation, for Nancy Dooley Burn (nee 


Wilkins) recalls the installation of brighter lights all over the campus as an attempt to 
protect young women from intimate encounters with men who were somewhat older 
and detinitely more worldly wise. She also remembers that dancing was permitted in 
the late forties but with the dictum that a dancing couple must keep a distance of at 
least twelve inches between their bodies. One jokester brought a ruler to a dance and 
ostentatiously moved from couple to couple measuring the distance.-'^ 

School rules had eased considerably with the passage of time but were not readily 
accepted by veterans returning from the battlefield. Along with his duties as chaplain, 
George Naff, himself a veteran, was in charge of supervising the GI dormitory. Naff 
saw the irony of his situation as he later recalled, "Some of those men had won med- 
als for braverv in combat, some had flown numerous missions, most had traveled to 
foreign fields, and there I was trying to be sure they were in bed by midnight." Also, 
it would seem that some veterans did not accept enthusiastically the required chapel 
attendance. A 1947 issue of the school paper mentions the occurrence of "booing 
and bright remarks" during the assembly. The student writer advocated the discon- 
tinuance of separation of sexes in chapel seating, feeling that women mixed among 
the men would have a quietening influence. One wonders, of course, if this was the 
only reason students felt it desirable to let girls sit with boys!^^ 

An interesting addition to the history faculty in 1948 was Mary Shadow, a 1945 
T.W.C. graduate. Shadow replaced A. J. Peters who died in 1948 after heading the 
history department for seventeen years. Subsequently, Shadow was elected to the 
Tennessee Legislature as a representative of Meigs and Rhea counties. At age 23, she 
was the youngest legislator as well as the only woman. Other alumni working with 
Shadow in Nashville were Bill Haga of Rockwood and |. Carson Ridenour of Oak 

The graduating class of 1948, with 173 members, was the largest in the school's 
history. Sam Adkins, an alumnus on the editorial staff of the Louisville Courier was 
the commencement speaker. Adkins was introduced by his classmate, J. Neal Ens- 
minger, general manager of the Daily Post-Athenian. These two journalists had been 
part of Wesleyan's debating team which won the Southeastern Intercollegiate Debate 
Championship in 1930. 

President Robb, in June 1949, announced his plan to retire in 1950 saying to the 
trustees, "I have felt that you should be advised now of my desire to retire from the 
presidency after another year so that you might have ample time to locate a succes- 
sor." News of his imminent retirement brought a flood of tributes from a wide range 
of educators. Among these was a letter from Ralph W. Lloyd, president of Mar^'^^lle 
C>)l!cgc, which stated, "You personally have built an enviable reputation as an educa- 
tor and as a church college leader."^^'"* 

A notable event coinciding with Robb's retirement announcement was the laying 
of the cornerstone of a new gymnasium. Increase in enrollment and an expanded 
athletic program had made inadequate the g\mnasium in the basement of the audi- 
torium buikling. In 1947, the trustees approved a new g\mnasium at a cost not to 

TWC: 1857-2007 87 

exceed $175,000. Funds were to come from the Holston Conference United College 
Fund and from the Pfeiffer Trust Fund. Annie Pfeiffer had died the previous year, 
but her generosity lived on. 

Land purchased for the new gym was situated north of the main campus fac- 
ing the present Green Street. The architectural firm chosen was the same company 
which designed the Merner-Pfeiffer Library and Lawrence Hall. Plans provided for 
a regulation-size playing floor with spectator seating for 1,200 along with space for 
dressing rooms and offices. A contract awarded to F. E. Hicks Construction of 
Knoxville set cost at $208,000. The amount in excess of the originally estimated 
$175,000 was raised in a special campaign among alumni, friends of the college, and 
the conference's United College Fund. 

The cornerstone-laying ceremony on June 6, 1949, was presided over by Judge 
R. A. Davis, chairman of the trustees' executive board. A box placed inside the cor- 
nerstone contained: a Bible, a college catalog, three issues of the Dailj Post-Athenian, 
the yearbook for 1948-49, the 1949 commencement program, a copy of the freshman 
handbook and of the library handbook, current bulletins, information on the Holston 
Conference United College Movement, leaflets concerning college sports, and news- 
paper clippings describing recent campus events. 

President Robb had earlier recommended that the gymnasium be named in hon- 
or of the late Colonel W. B. Townsend, a former trustee and major benefactor whose 
will included a generous bequest to the college. Trustees, however, insisted that the 
building be designated the "James L. Robb Gymnasium." Colonel Townsend would 
be memorialized in 1951 when the auditorium would be rededicated as Townsend 

Upon completion of the gymnasium, in January 1950, a dedication ceremony 
sponsored by the Iviwanis Club paid tribute to President Robb. An active Iviwanian, 
Robb had served as president of the local club and as governor of the Kentucky- 
Tennessee district. Dean Paul Riviere presided at the ceremony attended by a large 
group of students, college personnel, Athens townspeople, and representatives of 
the Holston Conference. Harwell Proffitt, Iviwanis Club president, presented Robb 
with a gold watch in appreciation of his service to college, club, and community. The 
principal speaker, Paul J. Walker of the trustees' executive committee, paid tribute to 
President and Mrs. Robb. Leading the service of dedication was the Reverend L. E. 
Hoppe of Chattanooga who represented the Holston Conference. Robb concluded 
the occasion by expressing gratitude for the spirit of cooperation exhibited by the citi- 
zens of Athens and by ministers and laypersons of the Holston Conference. He pre- 
dicted continued growth and progress for the college. After the ceremony, the large 
assemblage witnessed the first basketball game played in the James L. Robb Gymna- 
sium in which, unfortunately, the Bulldogs were defeated bv Emory and Henry. "^^ 

Presiding at the 1950 commencement exercises was Robb's last public act as pres- 
ident. After the conimencement address by Governor Gordon Browning, degrees 
were granted to 135 graduates. In the evening, the Alumni Association honored 


President and Mrs. Robb at a dinner which included several expressions of apprecia- 
tion and the presentation to Robb of the kevs to a new car. 

On his last dav in the president's office, Robb wrote letters to contributors to a 
special fund for the purchase of an organ, announcing that the $9,000 goal was at- 
tained and complimenting Kenneth Higgins and his co-workers for their leadership. 
"It is such interest and such cooperation," he wrote, "that has enabled Tennessee 
Weslevan to make the progress it has made in the years past and will enable it to con- 
tinue to make in the years ahead.""^- 

Thus ended the longest period of administrative leadership in the college's his- 
tor\'. Robb served the school for thirt\'-two years, seven as dean and t\vent}"-five as 
president. He guided Tennessee Wesleyan through World War I, through the transi- 
tion to a junior college after separation from the Universit}' of Chattanooga, through 
the hard times of the Great Depression, and through World War II and its aftermath. 
His ability as a fundraiser brought a number of large contributions including those of 
Annie Pfeiffer which ultimately totaled approximately a half-million dollars. Under 
his leadership, the school was nationally recognized as one of the finest junior col- 
leges in the South, accredited since 1926 by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. The trustees granted him the title of Professor Emeritus, the first 
president to be so recognized and the first to continue in office until his retirement. 
James L. Robb met exceptional challenges with exceptional leadership. 

TWC: 1857-2007 89 


Faith, mighty faith, the promise sees. 
And looks to that alone. 
Laughs at impossibihties 
And cries, "It shall be done!" 

- Charles Wesley 

The decade of die fifties, for the nation as a whole, brings to mind the Korean 
War, the new popularit}' of television, McCarthyism, Brown vs. Board of Education, 
and "I like Ike." The small college in Athens was affected by these influences but 
added two special milestones of its own: the return to senior college status and the 
celebration of one hundred years of trials and triumphs. 

The person most responsible for the college's transition from junior to senior col- 
lege was its new president, LeRoy A. Martin. Since President Robb had announced 
his impending retirement a year in advance, the trustees were able to conduct a year- 
long search for an appropriate replacement. In their choice of Martin they found a 
person who combined a sound academic background and broad experience with a 
special knowledge of Athens and its college. Since Martin had spent his boyhood in 
Athens and had attended the Athens School of the Universit}' of Chattanooga, his 
appointment was, in a sense, a homecoming. 

At the time of his selection, LeRoy Martin was serving as superintendent of the 
Paterson District of the Newark (New jersey) Conference, one of the largest districts 
of the Methodist Church. He was born in Morristown, Tennessee, but spent most 
of his childhood in the parsonage of Trinity Methodist Church where his father was 
the minister. It was during the pastorate of the Reverend Burton Martin that the 
present church building was constructed. LeRoy Martin received a diploma from the 
Athens School and graduated from the Universit)' of Chattanooga in 1924. Follow- 
ing his ordination as a minister and his completion of advanced degrees from Boston 
Universit}' School of Theology and from Drew University; he served the Methodist 
Church in several appointments. In 1946, the Universit)^ of Chattanooga recognized 
his leadership by awarding him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. His name 
appeared in IF7;o'f Who in Keligioiis 'Leaders of America and Who's Who in America} 



President Martin, known to his many friends as "Cordy," arrived in Athens on 
July 6, 1950, after a two-dav drive from New Jersey "in the rain and with a dead radio." 
In the president's office he met his predecessor. Dr. Robb, who pointed out that he 
also had arrived on campus on July 6, thirt}'-two years earlier. Perhaps this coinci- 
dence can be viewed as a good omen.- 

President Martin immediately proved himself a tireless worker, "near kin to a 
whirlwind," according to one observer. During the summer of 1950, he attended 
conferences at the Universit}^ of North Carolina and at the Institute of Higher Ed- 
ucation in Nashville, held numerous meetings on campus, found time to become 
acquainted with summer students, and moved his family from New jersey to the 
president's residence, Blakeslee Hall.-' 

When Martin took office, the enrollment flush of the postwar years was virtually 
over. Enrollment peaked at 549 in 1947-48, declined to 321 in the fall of 1950, and 
by 1952 had fallen to 220. Contributing to the drop in enrollment was the Korean 
War which began a few days prior to Martin's arrival on campus. The new president 
immediately faced the problem of declining enrollment accompanied by the ever- 
present scarcity' of financial resources. 

President Martin was convinced that the college needed to obtain more support 
from the local communit}'. Before undertaking a major financial campaign, he sought 
to strengthen a cooperative spirit between town and gown and to emphasize the 
benefits offered by the college to townspeople. He conferred with members of the 
communiD,- as to how Tennessee Wesleyan could better serve Athens citizens. Acting 
on recommendations received, he announced that the facilities of the Ubrar}', includ- 
ing the privilege of borrowing books, were available free of charge and that college 
buildings could be used for public meetings without cost. The college also would 
offer business seminars, concerts, and plays with no admission charge. An expanded 
evening program with classes for working adults began in the fall of 1954 and was 
highly successful. 

A major factor in building a stronger tie between college and communit}' w^as 
Martin's creation of an advisory council, the Tennessee Wesleyan Advisory Board, 
C(;mposed of business and professional leaders who offered invaluable advice and 
support. This group ultimately would play a major role in solving the financial prob- 
lems accompanying the college's transition to senior college status. 

Citizens of the area were made more aware of the college's resources through a 
weekly radio program aired on local station WLAR. Directed by Joan T Walker of 
the drama department with William McGill of the English department as master of 
ceremonies, the thirty-minute program offered its listeners short talks by faculty and 
administrators on a yariet\' of topics and music furnished by students and faculty of 
the music department."* 

}'.arl\- in his presidency, Martin became conx'inccd that Tennessee Wesleyan 
should again become a four-year college. More students, he belic\'cd, now sought 
a four-year degree and preferred to enroll in a senior college tor their full residency 

TVVC: 1857-2007 91 

rather than transferring from a junior college. An even more compelling argument 
came when the Tennessee Board of Education ruled to change the requirement for 
permanent teacher certification from two years of college work to four. Wesleyan's 
teacher training program had long been its most successful component and necessary 
to its survival.^ 

Martin was strengthened in his conviction by a letter from James A. Fowler of 
Ivnoxville, distinguished alumnus of the class of 1884 and former chairman of the 
board of trustees who continued to serve as an honorary trustee. Fowler wrote: 
"Tennessee Wesleyan College occupies an unfavorable position with reference to in- 
creasing its smdent body. It is strictly a junior college, and, therefore, its curriculum is 
limited to the freshman and sophomore college years. As long as that condition exists 
it will be difficult to procure an attendance sufficient to maintain the school. I have 
given the matter considerable thought and have talked it over with a gentleman who, I 
think, has more experience with all grades of educational work than any other person 
in the State. My judgment is that the curriculum should be extended to a full four-year 
college course, and the sooner it is done the better the result for the school."'' 

Reporting to the trustees in May 1952, Martin gave a detailed argument for the 
return to senior college status. He quoted statistics to show the lack of growth in 
church-related junior colleges, especially those in the South. Statistics also indicated 
that financial support by foundations, government agencies, and individuals was more 
readily given to senior colleges. The new requirement for teacher certification was 
noted along with the explanation that the college had been approved by the Tennes- 
see Board of Education to offer a third year of teacher training with the stipulation 
that the school move quickly toward a four-year program leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Education. 

Martin also informed the trustees of increased requirements for entry into pro- 
fessional schools of medicine and law. The Universit}- of Tennessee Medical School 
had increased its entry requirement to three rather than two vears of pre-medical 
training. Moreover, as of September 1952, all reputable law schools would admit only 
students with three years of pre-law Wesleyan had successful two-year programs in 
both pre-medicine and pre-law which the new requirements would eliminate. 

Loss of the vital teacher-training and pre-professional programs, Martin empha- 
sized, would threaten the college's existence. Between 1929 and 1950, more than 
1,300 teachers earned certification at Tennessee Wesleyan. Of the 273 public school 
teachers working in McMinn Count}^ in 1952, 168 had been trained at T.W.C. Also, 
of the several students completing the pre-medicine program, none had been rejected 
by a medical school, and none had made failing grades. In fact, four T.W.C. graduates 
had received the Doctor of Medicine degree at the University of Tennessee's 1952 

Martin emphasized that the time was right for a change, not only because of the 
problems mentioned but also because of McMinn Count\''s industrial growth. A 
strong indication of the area's increasing prosperity' was the recent announcement 


of the plan for a multi-million dollar plant to be built bv Bowater Paper Corporation 
at Calhoun. "As the count}" moves forward," said Mardn, "so should the college it 

Following iViartin's detailed report, the trustees formally approved the third vear 
of teacher training. They took no action on the movement to a four-vear program 
but authorized further studv of the proposal." 

During the following months, the administration and faculty worked tirelessly to 
complete a study that would address the need for expansion and changes necessary 
to meet requirements for a senior college as set forth by the Southern Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. In October 1952, Martin reported study re- 
sults to the trustees' executive committee. Following his report, the committee voted 
unanimously to recommend to the full board that the college move to a four-year 

The executive committee presented its recommendation at the board's Novem- 
ber meeting, but board members still had questions. Feeling hesitant to endorse the 
plan without specific information concerning costs, the trustees appointed a study 
committee to compile data on what the necessary changes would cost; they insisted 
on talking dollars and cents. In response to this directive, the study committee en- 
listed the assistance of a financial consultant of the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools and arrived at an estimate of funds required for the first four 
years of operation as a senior college. The figure of $108,900 was reported to the 
trustees at their meeting in May 1953, with the explanation that this amount would be 
in addition to the usual support expected from the church and from donors.'-^ 

The financial report of the study committee resulted in further delay. The 
Holston Conference recently had launched a long-range campaign for support of its 
three colleges, but no part of the funds raised by the College Development Program 
could be used to change Tennessee Wesleyan's status as a junior college. The trustees 
feared that another fundraising campaign on behalf of \X esleyan alone might hamper 
the success of the conference campaign. They voted to delay further any recommen- 
dation of a four-year program. 

The plan for a senior college seemed likely to flounder for years as it was dis- 
cussed by various committees and subcommittees. It was the citizens of Athens who 
came to the rescue. The Tennessee Wesleyan Advisory Board, led by Chairman Harry 
L. Hawkins, not only agreed to underwrite the required $108,900 but also pledged 
continued support even beyond the program's first four years. Without this coura- 
geous move by the citizenry of Athens, the realization of a senior college would have 
taken years to accomplish and, indeed, might never have materialized.'" 

Not only did members of the advisory council offer support, but the ensuing 
fundraising drive became an expression of confidence by many residents of the area. 
Donations received were not limited to alumni, Methodists, the financially fortunate, 
or any other segment of the population. It became common talk among workers and 
contributors that Tennessee Wesleyan was "our college." 

TWC: 1857-2007 93 

When President Martin was informed by Harry Hawkins, in February 1954, that 
the financial goal had been attained. Martin commented, "The goal has been reached, 
and we stand at the top of a hill which was a hard one to climb." In an editorial in the 
local newspaper, J. Neal Ensminger wrote: "With the goal in hand, now people of 
the area can say to the Holston Conference of the Methodist Church, 'We have done 
our part; now you do yours.'"' ' 

When the college's trustees met two months later, the vote of approval came 
quickly. Three weeks later their decision was reported to the Holston Conference 
in presentations made by President Martin; F. B. Shelton, chairman of the board of 
trustees; and J. Neal Ensminger, editor of the Daily Vost-Athenian. Ensminger's force- 
ful five-minute address was particularly persuasive and left no doubt of communit}^ 
support of the plan. When Bishop Short asked if there were further discussion, none 
arose, and delegates quickly and unanimously voted in favor of the plan. As President 
Martin left the platform, the entire conference of some one thousand delegates gave 
him an unexpected and enthusiastic standing ovation. The Holston Conference now 
had done its part. As a writer in an alumni publication reported, "On a cloudy, rainy ^ 
day in Bristol, a new, brighter day dawned for Tennessee Wesleyan College."'- 

With approval from the trustees and from the conference combined with ex- 
ceptional community support, the plan for a senior college must now change from a 
future goal to a present realit)'. Tliis meant employing additional faculty, revamping 
the curriculum, expanding library holdings, and both renovating existing buildings 
and building new ones. President Martin was determined to make the institution as 
notable as a senior college as it had been as a junior college under the leadership of 
President Robb. 

A key element in success was the attraction and retention of well-qualified faculty; 
a difficult task considering the college's low salary scale. In an expression of dissat- 
isfaction, Martin noted that when he served as district superintendent in Newark, his 
twent}^-three-3^ear-old secretary "received more salary than fift)" percent of the pro- 
fessors on our facult}'." He worked diligently and with some success to bring facult)^ 
salaries to a competitive level which enabled him to make several valuable additions 
to the facult}'.'-' 

Dr. F. Heisse Johnson was chosen to supervise the academic program. Holding 
the Bachelor of Arts from Brothers College and both the Bachelor of Divinit}^ and 
Doctor of Philosophy from Drew Universit}', Dr. Johnson had joined the faculty in 
1953 as CO. Jones Professor of Religion. When the college adopted the senior col- 
lege program, Dr. Johnson was appointed academic dean. Dean Paul Riviere became 
dean of admissions and registrar, replacing C. O. Douglass. J. Van B. Coe served as 
dean of students and Elizabeth Brubaker as dean of women. 

Additions to the facult}- during Martin's tenure included: Frances J. Biddle, physi- 
cal education; Albert Bowman, history; Enid Bryan, English and classics; Harry Co- 
ble, speech and drama; Frances Graves, art; Mary Greenhoe, music; Carl B. Honaker, 
chemistry and physics; B. T Hutson, business administration; Richard M. Johnson, 



biologv; William McGill, English; Reva Puett, home economics; Fred Puett, business 
administration; E. G. Rogers, English; M. Clifton ("Tip") Smith, education and bas- 
ketball coach; and i^\lf W'alle, education. These joined such seasoned worthies as: |. 
Van Coe, economics and sociology; Martha Hale, art; Jack Houts, music; Rankin Hud- 
son, physical education and football coach; Claryse Myers, librarian; George Naff, 
religion; and G. A. Yates, mathematics. Longtime educators James W. Baldwin, C. O. 
Douglass, and Arthur Mvers retired during the Martin administration. 

Martin also reached into the communit}" to bring in part-time instructors includ- 
ing: Marvin Cunningham, John L. Foster, James C. Guffey, Dr. William Joubert, 
Harold Powers, Dr. Helen Richards, Eugene Sadler, and Bernard Zellner. Most of 
these taught in the evening college which, after its beginning in 1954, rapidly grew in 

Notable additions to the staff were Marv Nelle Jackson, administrative secretary, 
and Robbie J. Ensminger, secretary to the president. Jackson continued in her posi- 
tion for twent\'-iive years, serving ably and graciously. Ensminger, first working in 
the president's office as a student assistant, eventually became administrative secretary 
and director of alumni affairs in a career that spanned almost five decades. 

Not content with merely hiring competent facult\' members. President Martin 
was a firm believer in facult}' development, constantiy urging teachers to expand their 
knowledge and to improve teaching techniques. After acquiring a list of reputa- 
ble professional organizations, he encouraged membership in one or more of these 
groups by each facult\' member and asked to be informed of such membership. He 
also asked the librarian for a report of the number of books borrowed from the 
library by each facult^' member during an academic quarter. The general faculty- reac- 
tion to such supervision of reading habits is not known, but one suspects it to have 
been other than totally enthusiastic.'"^ 

The curriculum was adapted to the new four-year program, which required the 
completion of 192 quarter-hours leading to the degree of either Bachelor of Arts or 
Bachelor of Science. Each student chose a major from the fields of English, biol- 
ogy, chemistry, social science, history and government, religion, education, business 
administration, or economics. A minor could be chosen from any of the above fields 
or trom music, mathematics, physical education, or speech and drama. In the early 
fifties, a two-year program remained available by which a student might choose to 
complete 100 quarter-hours in general culture or to train as a medical secretary or in 
secretarial science. The two-year program, leading to an Associate ot Arts degree, 
was discontinued in 1958 when it had only seven graduates. 

Cjrowth in enrollment resulting from the movement to a four-year program ex- 
ceeded expectations, reaching 305 in 1954-55, the first school year under the new sys- 
tem. The following year saw a thirt\^-six percent increase, the second largest growth 
exhibited by any Methodist college in the nation. By 1957-58, enrollment included 
500 full-time and 200 part-time students. Such a dramatic increase placed a severe 
strain on facilities and led the trustees to the unprecedented action of limiting cnroll- 

TWC: 1857-2007 95 

ment. In October 1958, the board voted to restrict enrollment to 650 FTE (full-time 
equated) in order "to maintain qualit}- programs and remain within the economic pat- 
tern of the conference." ^^ 

Growing enrollment brought the need for expansion and improvement of fa- 
cilities. Martin's presidency saw an extensive program of renovation with almost 
$100,000 spent on improvements to Petty-Manker Hall. Included in the remodeled 
Pett}'-Manker were a television lounge and an infirmary. Banfield Hall received new 
lighting and additional equipment for the science department. 

The dining facilities in Ritter Hall were enlarged by the removal of the large 
porches on the east side and inclusion of this area in the dining room. The dining hall 
at Ritter now served the entire campus and accommodated 300 diners. The enlarged 
dining area was named Black Dining HaU in honor of Mrs. H. C. Black, who served 
for several years as a college trustee. Ritter was given an additional facelift by gray 
shingles applied to the exterior and by the removal of the long-familiar picket fence. 
One wing of the building was remodeled and equipped for use by the home econom- 
ics department. These changes in Ritter came after 1952 when the Woman's Division 
of Christian Service of the Methodist Church relinquished to the coUege ownership 
and administration ot the dormitory.'^ 

Also receiving extensive renovation was the auditorium-gymnasium, which was 
rededicated in 1951 and named in honor of Colonel W. B. Townsend, a dedicated 
trustee and generous benefactor. According to Louie Underwood, superintendent of 
buildings and grounds, President Martin exhibited a special talent for visualizing how 
every available space could be used beneficially. The gym on Townsend Hall's lower 
level became superfluous by the building of the Robb Gymnasium and was used onlv 
occasionally for parties or for elementary school basketball games. Renovation of 
the old gym resulted in new offices for the president and administrative secretary, a 
mimeographing room, a small auditorium with stage, a post office, a bookstore, and 
a student center with snack bar. The small auditorium was intended for use by com- 
munity groups and for meetings and performances not requiring a large space. The 
larger auditorium overhead, seating 800, received an improved lighting system, new 
stage curtains, and repainting. The exterior of Townsend Hall was enhanced by the 
addition of white columns to the front portico.' 

General growth plus returning Korean War veterans increased male enrollment 
beyond any previous level and necessitated more housing for men. In 1954, the col- 
lege purchased a building, formerly a motel, on the corner of Guille Street and Lynn 
Avenue. Used as apartments for married students, this building was named Fowler 
Hall in honor of General )ames Fowler, an 1884 graduate and longtime supporter. 
Two former residences acquired and named Wright Hall and Bolton Hall furnished 
additional dormitory space for men. 

Even with the above additions, the college needed more and better housing for 
male students. Ground was cleared in 1956 for a brick dormitory to be located at the 
corner of Green and Robeson Streets. Construction of this $300,000 building, which 


would provide quarters for more than one hundred students, began in the summer of 
1957. To clear the way for the new structure, the old Observation and Practice School 
was moved a short distance to the rear of its former location. The school building 
had served for thirt}^-one vears as a laboratorv for the training of elementary teach- 
ers, but its use was discontinued in 1953 when education students began to do their 
practice teaching in the public schools of the cit}" and count\'. 

Extensive renovation made the campus of the fifties quite different from its con- 
dition in earlier davs. Lucy Hornsbv Fowler, who lived near the college as a child, 
shared memories with President Martin in a letter of 1956: "Well do I remember 
when mv father, a trustee who kept the scant}' college funds in a large iron safe in his 
store, used to distribute them among the members of the tacultv And living so near 
the campus, on my father's orders we as children used to run the pigs off the campus 
and stop up holes in the fence."^^ 

President Martin and his colleagues felt the pressing need for yet another build- 
ing, a fine arts center. Alost of the music classes and choir rehearsals were held in 
a wooden prefab building called Moffitt Hall. Classes in art, speech, and drama oc- 
curred in scattered and inadequate settings. Late in 1955, the dream of a structure 
used for promotion of the hne arts came closer to realization when Tom Sherman, 
Athens businessman and honorary trustee, presented to the college a check for the 
purchase of propert\' on the corner of North Jackson and College Streets. It was 
Sherman's desire that this site, location of a home built by Professor David Bolton in 
1898, be used for the construction of a fine arts center to be called the Laura T. Sher- 
man Fine Arts Building. According to Martin, Sherman's gift was "the largest contri- 
bution which a citizen of Athens had ever made to the college." Although plans were 
drawn for the building, additional funds were needed, and construction did not occur 
until the earlv vears of the next decade.'*^ 

Part of the impetus for providing a fine arts center came from the growing 
strength of the music program which was particularly evidenced by the success of the 
college choir. The choir's director. Jack Houts, came to Wesleyan in 1 946 and began 
an exceptional choral group, which was in increasing demand bv churches wanting 
special programs of sacred music. Bv 1950, the choir was busy almost every weekend 
from February through Mav as it appeared in churches from West \^irginia to Florida. 
An indication of its reputation came when the choir received an invitation to sing 
before the Cieneral Conference of the Methodist Church, meeting in Minneapolis in 
1956. This august group consisted of church delegates from every state and from 
fort}' foreign countries, and it was a singular honor to appear before them.-" 

Sending thirt\-five singers to Minneapolis required funds beyond the college's 
budget. An appeal to Holston Conference churches resulted in support from fort}^- 
eight congregations. Additional donations came from 113 alumni, the largest number 
answering a financial appeal in the past six vears. Several Athens businesses also con- 
tributed, and the college trustees raised almost half of the neccssar}- funding.-" 

TWC: 1857-2007 97 

Seventeen choirs performed at the General Conference, but only the group from 
Tennessee Wesleyan received a ten-minute ovation. One delegate. Dr. Bachman G. 
Hodge, pastor of Chattanooga's Centenary Methodist Church, remarked to Martin, 
"You could not have bought this publicity for Wesleyan for $50,000." In Martin's 
introduction of the choir to assembled delegates, he dedicated the program of music 
to the memory of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Pfeiffer whose generosit}' had enriched im- 
measurably the facilities and resources of the college.— 

The trip to Minneapolis gave the young choir members a taste of big-cit}' life. 
Regenia Lawson Mayfield remembers the excitement of attending a burlesque show. 
Most students were not old enough to buy tickets legally, but one choir member, who 
was of the required age, purchased tickets for a group of his buddies and treated them 
to a novel experience.--^ 

In cooperation with the drama department. Jack Houts initiated the custom of 
a musical production each spring, beginning with The Red Mill in 1950. Other per- 
formances of the fifties included: The Desert Song, Rose Mane, Naughty Marietta, The 
Vagabond King, Oklahoma, The Three Musketeers, and Annie, Get Your Gun, as well as The 
Tegend of Nocatu/a which was a part of the college's centennial celebration. 

College officials continued to take seriously their duty to protect their charges 
froni demoralizing influences, but rules had eased considerably bv 1959. Use of in- 
toxicants and "gambling in any form" were still forbidden, either on or off campus. 
All students were required to Live in college residences unless living with relatives. 
Women's residence halls closed at 9:30 p.m. except on weekends when the closing 
hour was extended to 1 1:00 p.m. Women were required to sign out when leaving the 
campus, to sign in on their return, and to be in their dorms at the closing hour except 
by special permission. A female student could not spend the night off campus unless 
she had written authorization from her parents, her hostess, and the college registrar. 
Head residents, Reba Parsons at Ritter and Ida Ruth Lewis at Lawrence, diligently 
enforced these rules. 

Men had greater freedoni but were required to obtain permission before going 
out of town. They were even allowed to visit the parlors of women's residence halls 
after the evening meal until 7:30 on weekdays and until the closing hour on weekends. 
In the fifties, a citwide curfew of 1 1:00 p.m. was enforced bv the city of Athens. 

The era of blue jeans and sweatshirts had not yet arrived at T.W.C., for the student 
hancibook stated, "Street clothes are required for classes, the dining hall, the library, in 
administrative offices, and in the Student Center after dinner and on Sunday."-"^ 

Greek letter organizations dominated student social life and were regulated by a 
Panhellenic Council composed of the presidents and faculty sponsors of the fraterni- 
ties and sororities. Fraternities were Phi Sigma Nu and Eta Iota Tau; sororities were 
Eta Upsilon Gamma, Kappa Delta Phi, Sigma Iota Chi and Zeta Mu Epsilon. Mem- 
bership came through preferential bidding, but to avoid the t^^e of snobbish cruelt)' 
found on some campuses, the college ruled that "every student who goes through 
rushing and desires to pledge will be given a chance to do so."--"' 


Sororities and fraternities sponsored dances in the gymnasium and banquets at 
the Robert E. Lee Hotel as well as other social affairs such as havrides, wiener roasts, 
and excursions to drive-in movies. Keen rivalry existed among the groups with each 
striving to be able to boast of its membership including such honored positions as 
football captain, football queen, Student Council president. King or Queen of Hearts 
(elected annually on Valentine's Day) or recipients of academic awards. The Greek 
organizations also competed in intramural sports. In order to participate in intra- 
mural activities, students choosing not to belong to a sororit}- or fraternitv formed a 
group known as the Independents. 

Other student organizations of this era included a chapter of the Tennessee Po- 
etrv Society; the Art Club, the Laura T Sherman Music Fraternity; Future Business 
Leaders of America, and a discussion group called the Wesleyan Round Table. Since 
the college now attracted a growing number of foreign students, an International 
Club was formed in which students from the United States joined with those from 
other countries to promote understanding of diverse cultures. One of the strongest 
organizations was the Veterans' Club which had a membership of more than one 
hundred and engaged in service activities on campus and in the communit}; 

Religious organizations remained strong. The Student Christian Association, 
Wesleyan Fellowship, and Life Service Volunteers offered effective programs of study 
and worship. Chapel attendance remained a requirement for all students but was 
no longer a daily activit}'. Two sessions per week consisted of a religious service on 
W'ednesdav and assembly on Friday. A student organization usually presented the Fri- 
day assembly program. Church attendance on Sunday now was "encouraged" rather 
than required as in earlier years.-*^ 

Perhaps the individual remembered most fondly by students was Burkett Witt 
who presided over the eatery known as the "slop shop." Witt first set up his establish- 
ment in a building near the campus on North Jackson Street but moved to the student 
center in Townsend after that building's renovation. To students he became not only 
the purveyor of food and soft drinks but a friend and counselor. Those in need of 
ready cash could depend on Burkett for a small loan, and it is reported that he never 
failed to be repaid. Treating students with respect, understanding, and kindness, he 
was rewarded by their respect and affection. - 

When the college became a four-year institution, students became eligible for 
election to Who's Who Amouo Students in American Co/kses and Universities. The first 

o o 

group to receive this honor, in 1956, were: Bill Akins, Patricia DeLozier, Richard 
Gilbert, Billie Dean Haley, Dolores Mynatt, Barbara Pickel, Charles Seepe, and Paul 

Also growing out of the four-year program was the custom of freshman initia- 
tion directed by the Student Council. Before the faU of 1954, there was no fresh- 
man class, for the junior college designated its classes as juniors and seniors. In the 
new freshman orientation program, students okler than twenty and all \-eterans were 
excused frf)m participation. ( )ther freshmen were required to wear bkie and gold 

TWC: 1857-2007 99 

beanies, display a cardboard sign on their backs with name and home town, address 
upperclassmen as "sir" or "ma'am," and "render reasonable personal service" to up- 
perclassmen. They were to be able to sing the "Alma Mater" and the "Fight Song" 
bv the end of their third day on campus, were forbidden to walk on grass at any time, 
and were required to stay on campus until the end of the two-week initiation period. 
Those failing to comply were tried in "rat court" and appropriately penalized.-^ 

Sports continued to be an important element of student life. Football, coached 
by Rankin Hudson, remained the major sport in the early fifties. In 1952, the Bull- 
dogs fought their way to the co-championship of the Southeastern Junior College 
Conference with a 5-2 record. Hudson also coached men's basketball which made a 
somewhat less impressive showing. Women's basketball flourished briefly but ended 
soon after the school became a senior college. The Lady Bulldogs, coached by Jean 
Biddle, racked up thirteen wins against four losses in 1956, their last season of the 
decade. The 1956 team consisted of: Captain Peggy Shell, Alternate Captain Lois 
Ann Lance, and players Barbara Akers, Gerry Camp, Joanne Clayton, Grace Coates, 
Nancy French, Viola Huskev, Kathryn Justis, Bobbie lean Martin, Ann Owens, Bar- 
bara Pickel, Martha Walker, Jo Williams and Ph\'llis Williams. 

A powerful tennis team, coached by J. Van Coe, won the Southeastern junior 
College Conference championship in both 1952 and 1953. The accomplished players 
were Morris Beecroft, }oe Harris, Eugene McHaffey, John McKenzie, Billv Watts, and 
Pete Wilson. Businessman Jones Beene assisted in training the tennis team. 

Baseball returned to the Wesleyan campus in 1955 after an absence of more than 
twent}' years. During the 1955 season, the fledgling team, coached by George Wilson, 
achieved a 9-9 record. 

The Bulldogs made their football debut as a senior college team in 1956, with 
Coach Hudson being assisted by funius Graves and LeRoy Anderson. Co-captains 
Claude Catron and Hugh Reynolds led the team to a 5-3 record, a remarkable achieve- 
ment for a squad which had only fifteen days of practice before the season's opening. 
However, serious problems came to the popular sport with the college's senior stams. 
As newcomers, the team now must face schools with more established programs and 
with sufficient financial resources to offer attractive scholarships. Moreover, the col- 
lege, laclting a football field and a band of its own, depended on the McMinn High 
School field and the high school's band. Realizing the magnitude of these problems. 
Coach Hudson announced his resignation in the summer of 1957, planning to enter 
private business. During his nine-year tenure, Hudson compiled a 54-18-4 record, 
trained several outstanding athletes, and was an excellent role model for students. 

With the departure of Hudson and with the 1957 fall season approaching, the 
football squad faced a difficult situation. The season was salvaged by LeRoy Ander- 
son and Junius Graves, Athens businessmen who had worked as part-time assistants 
to Hudson. They stepped in to prepare the 1957 Bulldogs for a 4-4 record, a notable 
achievement in view of the circumstances. This was the last football season for the 
college until the 1980s. I 


Aware that building a competitive football program would require considerable 
funding, President Martin preferred to use the college's limited resources to build a 
strong academic program. He authorized a smdy of the situation to be conducted bv 
representatives of the trustees, advisory board, and facult^\ Results of the study con- 
vinced the trustees, meeting in February 1958, to vote for elimination of the football 
program, effective immediatelv The board's action included the recommendation 
to strengthen participation in less expensive intercollegiate sports such as basketball, 
baseball, tennis, and, perhaps, golf-'^ 

Students reacted quite negatively to this decision. Thev had enjoyed cheering 
their gridiron heroes, electing a football queen, and competing for the prize-win- 
ning float in the fall football parade. In March of 1958, more than one hundred 
students gathered to hang and burn an effigy of President Martin. Thev then moved 
to the librarv where the faculty- was meeting and raised the vigorous cry of "We want 
football!" Some disappointed alumni threatened to withdraw their financial support. 
Nevertheless, the decision remained firm, and the college suffered no serious loss of 
finances or of enrollment as a result.-'" 

Men's basketball now became the leading athletic program. M. C. ("Tip") Smith 
joined the staff in 1955 after achieving an outstanding coaching record at Tennessee 
Military Institute, Charleston High School and Bradley Count)' High School. Under 
his leadership, the basketball squad scored seventeen victories with only five defeats 
in 1955. Performing on the court were Eddie Cartwright, |oe Crabtree, Sammy Craig, 
Dwain Farmer, Doyle Fowler, Pat Gorman, Ronnie Ivnight, Dick Mendenhall, Junior 
Prewitt, Hugh Reynolds, Jimmy Shelby, and Boyd Woody. 

After a successful three-vear coaching career, "Tip" Smith was named Athletic 
Director and devoted most of his time to teaching. His replacement as basketball 
coach was William Boyd ("Buddy") Cate, a native of Cleveland who had been an 
outstanding player at Western Kentucky State College. 

In 1957, Tennessee Wesleyan celebrated one hundred years as a Methodist Col- 
lege. It seemed appropriate that the centennial coincided with the first occasion since 
1906 on which graduates received four- year bachelor degrees. 

During commencement week, aptly called Centennial Week, a number of distin- 
guished representatives of the church and of higher education visited the campus to 
participate in celebratory activities. President Martin's recenti\' published book went 
on sale at this time. -1 History of Tennessee Wh/eyan College: 1857-1957 \v2ls the first 
book-length account of the institution's rich history. 

A favorite campus legend was revived. The oak and hackberry trees which, ac- 
cording to folklore, marked the burial site of the Cherokee maiden and her lover, had 
died and been removed in 1952. In the spring of 1957, the Athens Senior Girl Scouts 
planted an oak and a hackberry sapling on the lawn of Rittcr Hal! shortly before the 
opening of the musical drama The lji%end of Nocatii/a. 

The musical dramatization of the romantic talc of Nocatula played to (werflow 
audiences f)n Thursdax' and h"rida\' ewnings during (x-ntennial Week. The entire 

TVVC: 1857-2007 101 

drama was the work of faculty members with script by Harry Coble, music by Mary 
Greenhoe and Jack Houts and lyrics by Charlotte Houts. Nancy Harrison starred as 
Nocatula and Charles Seepe as her lover, Conestoga. 

Program notes summarized the romantic story and asked "What has the legend 
to do with Tennessee Wesleyan College?" The answer was found in the words of 
Nocatula's father, Chief Atta-Kulla-KuUa, played by James Bowers. As the chief 
performed the burial rites, placing an acorn in the hand of the slain Conestoga and a 
hackberry seed in the hand of Nocatula, he said: "We will build a mound and con- 
secrate these grounds to the young, the vital — those that would build new worlds... 
Here ended a world, but here begins one, too."^^^ 

Commencement Day, the culmination of Centennial Week, saw the awarding of 
degrees to eighty-five graduates. At the close of the summer session, twenty addi- 
tional graduates joined the class of 1957, the first to receive four- year degrees in fifty- 
one years of the institution's history and the first ever to receive a bachelor's degree 
from a school named Tennessee W^esleyan College. 

James L. Robb, recognized as building a firm foundation for the college's prog- 
ress, received the honorary degree of Doctor of Pedagogy at the 1957 commence- 
ment. Also receiving honorary degrees were Bishop Roy Short, Muriel Dane, Myron 
F. Wicke, and the Reverends Mark Moore, Clyde F. Watkins, and Joseph H. Harding. 
Also being given special recognition were Tom Sherman and G. F. Lockmiller, gen- 
erous donors, and Mrs. Morgan Watkins, an honor graduate of the class of 1906. 

Shortly after the commencement exercises, a ground-breaking ceremony was held 
for the new men's dormitory to be named Centennial Hall. Plans for this $300,000 
structure began in 1956, and President Martin had hoped, unsuccessfully, to interest 
an affluent donor in financing the dormitory; instead, funds came primarily from 
a loan, amortized over forty years, from the Federal Housing and Home Finance 
Agency. Centennial Hall opened in the fall of 1958. 

The centennial activities brought praise from several sources. After attending 
commencement exercises at another college, Dr. Myron Wicke wrote to Martin: "I 
could not avoid comparison. There was a polish to your program which the other 
could not match at all." The size of the 105-member graduating class of 1957 par- 
ticularly pleased Martin who reported that when promoting his vision for a senior 
college, several skeptics had predicted that in the unlikely event of the program mate- 
rializing, no more than twenty-five members could be expected in the first graduating 

In spite of initial success, Martin told the faculty, much remained to be done. A 
major challenge was the achieving of accreditation from appropriate agencies. In 
March 1957, the Tennessee Department of Education had approved the four-year 
program for teacher training. Because of a change in accreditation rules, approval 
from the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools did not come until 
the winter of 1958. The University Senate of the Methodist Church gave its authori- 
zation in the summer of 1959. 


Realizing that an effective college comes only through effective teachers, Martin 
set as a major goal the improvement of facult}' salaries. At the beginning of the 1957- 
1958 term, he reminded the faculty- that salaries had increased by 86 percent during 
his administration. The salary scale for 1957-58 ranged from $6,000 for a full profes- 
sor to $3,400 for an instructor. Admitting that compensation was still inadequate, 
Martin assured faculty" members that their salaries now were, "as good as some of the 
state colleges and far in advance of several church-related ones."--'' 

An able administrator left the college in the summer of 1957 when Dr. F. Heisse 
Johnson was appointed Director of Higher Education of the Holston Conference. 
As academic dean, Johnson had directed the academic program and had shouldered 
much of the responsibiiit}' as the college worked toward senior status. His renown as 
a Biblical scholar had been exhibited not only in chapel services and in the classroom 
but in nationwide church services and conferences. On several occasions he repre- 
sented the Methodist Church on national radio. Even more memorable to students 
was his devotion to the cause of needv students who were grateful for his personal 
generosit}" and for his securing employment for them in jobs both on the campus and 
in the communit}'. Students often were invited to the Johnson home where Lydia 
Johnson presided as a warm and gracious hostess. Although his new position moved 
his office to Johnson Cit); Dr. Johnson remained closelv connected with the Athens 
college and continued to promote its welfare. ''"^ 

Dr. Alf Walle served as acting dean until the appointment of Dr. Robert C. Mil- 
dram in the spring of 1959. The new academic dean had impressive credentials with 
a Ph.B. from the Universit)" of Vermont, a B.S. from Andrew Newton Theological 
Universit}; and both an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Yale. 

Just one month before Dean Mildram's arrival, President Martin had announced 
his resignation and his acceptance of the presidencv of the Universit}' of Chattanoo- 
ga. As a graduate of both the Athens School and of the Universit^' of Chattanooga, 
Martin felt closely tied to both institutions. He had been concerned abc:»ut the ani- 
mosit}' still existing in Athens toward the universit}' that some viewed as having taken 
awav the Athens institution's position in the academic world as a respected senior 
college. After more than fift}' years, resentment had not died completelv. 

Earlv in his presidency, Martin invited the Chattanooga university's academic 
dean. Maxwell A. Smith, to speak at a facult}' dinner. He also filled two faculty vacan- 
cies with Universit}' of Chattanooga instructors. Concerning these appointments and 
his own visit. Smith wrote to Martin, "I believe you will find them (the instructors) 
helpful in your efforts to bring about closer relations between the two colleges. I 
hope my visit ma\' have contributed a little toward this end."-"^^ 

President Martin presided over his final Wesleyan commencement in the spring 
oi 1959, presenting degrees to ninet}'-seven graduates and awarding two honorary 
degrees. Gilbert F{. Govan, historian and University of Chattanooga librarian, re- 
cei\ed the honorary degree of Doctor of Literature. Russell Kramer, chairman of 
the college's board of trustees was awarded the honorarN- degree of Doctor ot Law. 

TWC: 1857-2007 103 

Then came an unannounced move as Kramer took over as presiding official and 
conferred upon a surprised LeRoy Martin the honorary Doctor of Law degree. This 
tribute recognized the outstanding progress made by the college during the Martin 
years, progress which one Methodist educator described as "incredible. "-^^ 

In the summer of 1959, the Reverend Ralph Wilson Mohney became the new 
president and continued to move the college forward. 

A fitting conclusion to the account of the college during the Martin years comes 
from an address made bv Martin himself on the occasion of the centennial celebra- 

One hundred years of struggle — povert}; debts, depressions, wars — all 
these facts made their impact, yet presidents held on, convinced that days 
of greater service would dawn — and now as a second century begins, it can 
be said that 1957 could be the dawn of a nobler and more creative day.^'' 



"When He first the work begun 

Small and feeble was His day; 

Now the word doth swiftly run 

Now it wins its widening way." 

- Charks Wesley 

President Ralph Wilson Mohnev was a worthy successor of LeRov Martin and 
shared Martin's vision of Tennessee W'eslevan as a small, church-related, liberal arts 
college of distinction. He committed his presidency to the fulfillment of that goal. 

At the time of his appointment, the Reverend Mohnev was serving as super- 
intendent of the Kingsport District of the Holston Conference. His educational 
background included a B.A.^ degree from Transylvania College, a B.D. from Vander- 
bilt University-, and the M.S.T from Boston Universit^^ He had completed additional 
graduate training at Garrett Biblical Institute and had been awarded the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinit}- by Emory and Henry College. 

Accompanying President Mohney to the Wesleyan campus were liis charming 
wife, the former Marie Nell Webb, and two young sons. Like her husband, Nell Moh- 
ney was recognized as an outstanding speaker and a strong church leader. 

President Mohney w^as inaugurated on October 3, 1959, with Bishop Roy Short 
presiding. Speaking before the large audience witnessing the ceremony, the new presi- 
dent stated that he was humbled by the responsibilit^' he had assumed and described 
his view of the college as "a lighthouse with its foundation of brick and stone running 
deep and its beacon providing light for life's voyage." The college had an important 
mission, he believed, for "education can become the solution to many of the world's 
complex problems, and taith is vital to the process ot a college fulfilling its obligation 
to societ}'."' 

Challenges facing the new president included the need for additional facilities to 
serve a growing student body, frequent changes in facult)-, the addition of faculty and 
staff positions, and the need to increase endowment. 

During Mohney's tenure, enrollment grew from 554 full-time students in 1959 to 
745 in 1965. Such an increase, in part, reflects a national trend but must also be at- 

TWC: 1857-2007 


tributed to the president's foresight in appointing the college's first full-time director 
of admissions. Previously, student recruitment had been the task of facult}^ members 
and administrators who had limited time for such an effort. The president turned to 
Charles J. ("Buddy") Liner, an alumnus and physical education instructor, appointing 
him admissions director and making him responsible for recruitment. Liner tack- 
led his assignment with enthusiasm, laying plans to carry the Wesleyan story to high 
schools in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Kenmckv. By spring, he had visited 
ninet}' high schools and arranged for frequent visits to the campus by high school 

Liner was also responsible for the creation of a student group known as the 
T.W.C. Ambassadors. These fourteen students, nominated by the facult}; served as 
official hosts for all college events related to development, recruitment, and alumni 
relations. In their attractive uniforms of dark skirts or trousers and blue and gold 
blazers, the Ambassadors welcomed visitors, conducted campus tours, and traveled to 
area high schools to aid in recruitment. 

Growth in enrollment, while certainly a welcome situation, brought with it the 
need for more facult}^ and for additional facilities. Early in 1960, President Mohnev 
reported to the trustees that the college could not possibly "meet the tremendous de- 
mands upon facilities for housing students unless plans are immediately made to pro- 
vide additional housing." A development program was launched to secure funds for 
plant expansion as well as to increase endowment. Designated "Decade of Destiny, 
1960-70," this program proposed to raise three million dollars during the ten-year 
period. The program was adopted officially by the trustees in May 1961 and launched 
at a kickoff dinner attended by a large group of college supporters. The initial phase 
of the campaign had as its goal the sum of 1.8 million dollars for immediate plant 
expansion. - 

For assistance in the development program. President Mohnev secured the ser- 
vices of Marvin Osborn and Roy Shilling. Osborn was a professional financial con- 
sultant who advised several other colleges and universities and who made periodic 
trips to Wesleyan to work with those involved in development. Roy Shilling was 
added to the administrative staff as director of development. Described by Mohney 
as "one of the finest young development officers in the field," Shilling was serving as 
development director at McMurray College in Texas at the time of his appointment. 
At Tennessee Wesleyan, he quickly established his abilit}" as a fund raiser, securing 
over $300,000 in excess of the usual donations during the first year of service. Shil- 
ling served until 1964 when Jack Iving assumed the duties of development director.-' 

Assistance in funding for buildings was made available by a new federal gov- 
ernment program which offered loans to colleges for construction of buildings to 
accommodate the increased student population of the early sixties. After a loan of 
$800,000 was approved, the construction of two buildings began in the fall of 1961. 

One of the buildings was the long-awaited fine arts center which had been ap- 
proved by the trustees in 1954 after Tom Sherman donated land for such a structure 


to be named in honor of Laura T. Sherman. Construction was delayed due to lack of 
sufficient funding, but Sherman continued to make substantial contributions toward 
the project. To honor both Tom and Laura Sherman, the trustees approved, in 1961, 
the naming of the building the Sherman Fine Arts College Center. 

Continued growth in enrollment soon made clear that the Sherman building could 
not be devoted exclusively to fine arts programs. Plans were revised to provide for a 
building which would house not only classrooms and offices for the fine arts depart- 
ments but also a student center with a dining hall, snack shop, bookstore, post office, 
student lounge, chaplain's office, and a small chapel. The groundbreaking ceremony 
was held in October 1961, with Tom Sherman as a major participant. 

A few days after the groundbreaking for the Sherman building, a similar cer- 
emony- was held for the Lucy Hornsby Fowler Residence Hall for Women, a dormi- 
tory made possible by a gift from the Fowler family. This ceremony was led by Lucy 
Fowler's son, Harley Fowler, a trustee whose family had been long associated with the 
college. Lucy Hornsby Fowler was the daughter of one of the college's founders and 
the wife of General James A. Fowler who was connected with the school as alumnus, 
professor, trustee, and loyal supporter. 

Genevieve Wiggins, who came to the college as English instructor in 1961, recalls 
that the early part of her tenure found facult}' members marching over uneven ter- 
ram in full academic regalia to participate in groundbreaking ceremonies. President 
Mohney's mastery of and insistence on proper protocol gave assurance that, under his 
leadership, all college events were conducted with dignity- and good taste. 

Fowler Hall, housing 128 students, replaced Ritter Hall as a women's dormitory. 
The older dormitory originally belonged to the Women's Division of the Board of 
Missions of the Methodist Church but was deeded to the college by the women's 
society- in 1963. After renovation, Ritter was used chiefly as the location for offices 
and classrooms of the business and education departments. It was also the site of the 
dining hall until that facility- was moved to Sherman. 

Plans were being made for a new science building, but this project was longer in 
reaching fulfillment. Banfield Hall had housed science classrooms and laboratories 
since 1902. Equipment had been upgraded periodically but badly needed modern- 
ization. Dr. M. Gilbert Beniford, a chemistry professor at Wesleyan L^niversity in 
Connecticut, visited the campus in the summer of 1960 as a participant in a visiting 
scientist program of the American Chemical Society. Asked to evaluate the science 
facilities, Beniford gave his assessment in a letter which President Mohney shared 
with the trustees and w^hich included the statement: 

I am sorry to say that the laboratories available for both chcmistr\' and physics 
are the pcx^rcst that I have seen in a g(K>d many vears ot tra\'el to other 
institutions in the countr)'. I strongly recommend the construction of a 
completeh" new building rather than the remodeling of Banfield. 

TWC: 1857-2007 107 

A further assessment by an engineering consultant reinforced the opinion that a new 
building was necessary for a properly equipped science facilit^'.'^ 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Fisher provided a gift of $150,000 toward a new science 
building. This generous donation was, at that time, the largest single gift ever made to 
the college. President Mohney was authorized by the trustees to proceed with plans 
for a structure of 300,000 square feet at an estimated cost of $471,600, including 
furnishings, and to be named Fisher Hall of Science.^ 

A campaign soliciting contributions from local industries and from foundations 
brought the Fisher fund to $243,000 by 1963. More assistance came after the passage 
of the Educational Facilities Act in 1964. 

In a newspaper column written more than forty years later, Nell jVIohnev recalled 
the prayerful concern of both her husband and herself for financing the science 
building. Among the grants sought was one from the Kresge Foundation in Detroit. 
"Hundreds of other small private colleges were making the same request," Mrs. Moh- 
ney wrote, "so the possibilities of receiving it quicklv were unlikely, but it was front 
and center of our prayer list." A request came from a friend in Johnson Cit}'^ for a 
performance there by the college choir and the presence of the IVfohneys at a dinner 
part}" afterwards. Was it coincidence or an answer to prayer that among the dinner 
guests were Stanley and Dorothy Ivresge? The college received the Kresge grant.*^ 

The science building fund had grown to $600,000 by the spring of 1965. Howev- 
er, the lowest contractor's bid and the architect's fee called for an additional $76,000, 
and Mohney 's tenure ended before the realization of his dream, for Fisher Hall did 
not open until 1967. The proposed building, planned and discussed tor some seven 
years, began to seem a pie-in-the-sky project. A 1964 April Fool's edition of Tbe Neip 
Yixponent, made up of stories of humorous improbabilities, reported the actual con- 
struction of a new science building and included a photograph of biology instructor 
Carolyn Bradley, hoe in hand, breaking ground for the long-awaited structure. 

Other projects were completed more readily. The Beene Tennis Center was fund- 
ed by industrialist Jones Beene III in honor of his father Jones Beene II who had been 
the college's first football coach. The younger Beene served as tennis coach, without 
pay, until the arrival of Van Coe who added tennis coaching to his duties as econom- 
ics professor. The Merner-Pfeiffer Library was renovated to provide additional shelv- 
ing space by removing classrooms of the art department to Moffitt Hall. 

Moffitt Hall, a wooden, army pre-fabricated building, painted dark green, also 
housed the offices of the English department. The English faculty referred affection- 
ately to their quarters as "the low green necessity." In 1963, the building became less 
utilitarian in appearance when modernistic art work, designed by instructor Martha 
Hale and painted by her students, was added to the shutters. 

Growing enrollment brought the necessit}' of adding and retaining well-quaUfied 
faculty members. A major frustration for President Mohney was the college's low sal- 
ary scale which made it difficult to keep teachers from leaving to seek more lucrative 
positions. On one occasion, Mohney reported to the trustees that "only an increase 


in Wesleyan's financial position so as to become competitive with more able institu- 
tions can assure us of the possibilit}' of completing our staff requirements." 

The faculty- problem was intensified in 1962 bv a new ruling by the Southern As- 
sociation of Colleges and Schools that increased the percentage of facult\^ members 
required to hold terminal degrees from twent}" percent to thirt\' percent. This require- 
ment, to be met bv 1964, meant that Tennessee Wesleyan must increase the number 
of faculty- with doctorates by sevent\'-five percent over the next two years. 

In 1960, the average annual salary for faculty members was $5,375. By 1965, the 
figure had increased to $6,414, still lower than the national average for private col- 
leges, S7,853, and considerably lower than the compensation offered by state institu- 
tions. In spite of the handicap of poor wages, some faculty members recruited by 
Mohney found the college's mission and its working conditions adequate reasons for 
continuing service to the institution until retirement. Among them were Dr. Floyd 
"Jack" BowHng, Alton Smith, Dr. Genevieve Wiggins, Courtney Senn, Dr. Herbert 
Neff, and Librarian Louise Harms. 

The early sixties brought the loss of some outstanding teachers and administra- 
tors. These included Dr. Richard Johnson (biology). Jack Houts (music). Dr. Albert 
Bowman (history), and Dean Robert Mildram. 

Dr. Richard Johnson, having served for nine years, resigned in 1960 to accept 
a position at West Georgia College. Jack Houts left in 1962 for Florida Southern. 
During his fifteen-year tenure, Houts had developed an outstanding choir and had 
directed, with the assistance of Harry Coble of the drama department, fifteen spring 
musicals, the last of these being South Pacific. 

In the spring of 1962, Dr. ^\lbert Bowman accepted a position as librarian at the 
University' of Chattanooga. Dean Robert JMildram resigned in 1962 to become the 
academic dean of Defiance College in Ohio. Others, including E. G Rogers, Fred 
Whitehead, and Claryse Myers, were lost through their retirement. 

President Mohney stated as a major goal of his administration "to identify future 
facult}' members who not only give evidence of highest academic ability but also of 
genuine spiritual devotion and concern." Emphasis on both the academic and the 
spirimal was much in evidence during the Mohney years.^ 

The value placed on both the academic and the spiritual was demonstrated by the 
appointment, in 1962, of Dr. Frank GuUey as academic dean. A graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky with a B.A. in history, Gulley held a Bachelor of Divinity degree 
from F!,mory Universit}- and a Ph.D. from Vanderbilt. He had been assistant pastor of 
a Methodist church in Atlanta, had served as assistant to the dean and as an instructor 
at X'anderbilt Divinity' School, and, at the time of his appointment, was Director oi 
the I'nited Protestant Education Board at the Universit}" of Illinois.'' 

Raising the college's academic standards was a major concern of both President 
Mohney and Dean Gulle^■. Acquisition of superior faculty members was viewed as 
ot primar\- importance, but curriculum rexisions also pla\cd a part. To assure that all 
students were adequately prepared in the basic fields oi I-'.nglish, foreign language, so- 

TVVC: 1857-2007 109 

cial sciences, mathematics, and speech, a Foundation Curriculum was adopted which 
all students were expected to complete successfully. The major in secondary educa- 
tion was eliminated and replaced by the requirement that a prospective high school 
teacher major in the subject field he or she expected to teach as well as complete 
education courses required for teacher certificadon. A foreign language was required 
in all curricula with the exception of business and elementary education. An English 
Proficiency Examination required all prospective graduates to demonstrate their abil- 
ity to write a 500-word essay containing no major grammatical errors. This was the 
dreaded "Junior English Exam," a stumbling block for manv. 

Rules for academic dismissal and probation were strengthened. At the 1961 fall 
meeting of the trustees. President Mohney reported that twent^^-eight students had 
been dismissed for academic reasons and that an even larger number had been placed 
on academic probation.^" 

In 1961, for the first time, each prospective student was required to submit a 
satisfactory score on the American College Test (ACT) or on a comparable entrance 
examination. Test scores confirmed that XX-esleyan was attracting more capable stu- 
dents. In 1962, the average ACT score of entering freshmen was 17.9, but by 1965 
the average had climbed to 20.4. However, admission records did not indicate that 
more students were being denied admission. School officials attributed this to the 
growing recognition of T.W.C. as an institution of academic excellence which led to 
fewer students with poor academic records seeking admission.'' 

The efforts of the president, dean, and facult)' brought the college to a position 
highly respected beyond the immediate area. Only one of many examples of this 
respect came when a student at the Universit}^ of the South wished to take a summer 
course at a school nearer her home. Her advisor at Sewanee recommended Tennessee 
Wesleyan as an institution where credits earned were accepted without question by the 
University of the South. 

The decade of the sixties brought with it the necessit\^ of dealing with integra- 
tion. In the late fifties, trustees had considered the subject but taken no action. In 
1961, Mrs. Henry Cade, wife of the pastor of First United Presbyterian Church, ap- 
plied for admission to take courses in education. The trustees allowed her admission 
but still were reluctant to institute a general policy on admission of African-American 
students. In May 1962, President Mohney received a letter from Harper Johnson, 
principal of ). L. Cook High School, requesting that faculty' members of this aU-black 
school be permitted to take education courses leading to certification or recertifica- 
tion. Johnson limited his request to evening and summer classes and stated his case 
with wisdom and sensitivity. He wrote: 

If for any reason you feel this request is not in keeping with good or logical 
conduct and that it transgresses the spiritual conviction of your institution, 
then I hereby withdraw my request. The ideal, of course, would be to let aU 
c|ualified persons enter and study, but I know that such a request might not 


go too well. I feel that college graduates in the teacliing field might not cause 
any undue alarm. '- 

The following October the trustees approved the admission of qualified black 
students to evening and summer classes. 

One vear later, in the fall of 1 963, the decision to admit African- American stu- 
dents to all college programs was announced. President Alohnev reported that this 
integration was "accomplished in such a manner as to reflect high honor for students, 
facult\-, townspeople, and trustees." The three students who broke the segregation 
barrier in 1 963 were Gatha Hardawav, a transfer from Knoxville College; Eddie Jack- 
son, a graduate of Medina High School in Ohio; and Melba Wilson, a special student 
in the evening school. i\ll three, Mohnev reported, ''exhibited an excellent spirit dur- 
ing the transition period." Mohnev also praised the local press and townspeople who 
had contributed to the calm transition. ^-^ 

Although the racial barrier to admission was now eliminated, there was no ensu- 
ing surge of black students. Only a small number came in the sixties, perhaps because 
the tuition cost of a private college was substantiallv greater than that of a state-sup- 
ported institution, an obstacle faced bv white students as well. 

The first black student to graduate from Tennessee Wesleyan was Gatha Hard- 
awav of Athens who received a B.S. in biologv in June 1967. In August of the same 
vear, Elaine Upton of Sweetwater was awarded a B.A. in English. Both Hardaway 
and Upton were honor students who continued their education to receive graduate 
degrees and who are rememb£red as sources of pride by their alma mater. 

Although the cost of attending Tennessee \X eslevan during the mid-sixties seems 
modest bv todav's standards, it was considered high for that period. During the 
mid-sixties, tuition was S45 for each three-quarter-hour course; lodging ranged from 
562.50 to S70.84 quarterly, depending upon the dormitory; meals were $145.84 per 
quarter. The average cost of textbooks for the full school vear was about S70, often 
the cost of one textbook for todav's college student. This brought the total annual 
cost to about 51,200.^"^ 

In the faU of 1963, a significant drop in enrollment occurred, attributed by Presi- 
dent Mohnev to rising tuition costs. The drop was especiallv noticeable among com- 
muting students. A local student could attend a state institution for a year at a to- 
tal cost of about S200 more than Wesleyan's tuition cost alone. President Mohney 
reported to the trustees that "our tuition is not exceeded by any area coUege and is 
equaled only by two other private institutions in East Tennessee, Marpille College 
and the Universit\' of Chattanooga." Operational costs coukl not tcasiblv be reduced, 
so the only solution was increased financial aid. The President's Advisory Board came 
to the rescue bv providing modest commuter scholarships amounting to a maximum 
of SI 45 per academic year for a student living within commuting distance. This aid 
resulted in sf)mc alle\iation of the problem, kail enrollment in 1965 reached 829 with 
745 fulltimc students as compared to "^14 in the prexious x-car.'-"* 

TWC: 1857-2007 111 

The period of the sixties was a lively time at the college with an increasing number 
of bright, energetic young people. National Greek-letter organizations prominent in 
student life included Phi Sigma Kappa, Pi Kappa Phi, and Sigma Phi fraternities and 
Alpha Xi Delta, Kappa Delta and Sigma Kappa sororities. (Phi Mu sororit}' was add- 
ed later.) A highlight of the college year was Greek Weekend during which fraternities 
and sororities competed for trophies in a series of events — Field Day, Skit Night, and 
Greek Bowl. Another popular event, initiated in 1965 by Pi Kappa Phi, was All Sing. 
Fraternities and sororities as well as other campus organizations diligently honed their 
vocal skills in the hope of presenting the winning musical number. 

Fraternities and sororities provided numerous social activities and established 
strong ties of friendship. When Dr. Shelley Griffith and his wife Judi (nee Cunning- 
ham) were asked to pinpoint their fondest memory of college days, they responded 
without hesitation that it was their participation in a fraternit}^ and sororit}; 

Not all was fun and games with the Greek-letter organizations, for they partici- 
pated in numerous service projects including support of such worthy causes as the 
Heart Association, March of Dimes, Toys for Tots, and the Lion's Club program of 
assistance to the visually-impaired. 

The governing organization of the Greek-letter societies was the Panhellenic 
Council consisting of the presidents of each organization, their facult}- sponsors, the 
Dean of Students (Floyd Bowling), and the Dean of Women (Mary Rogers Watkins 
and later Carolyn Staley). 

Students who did not join a fraternity or sororit}' could belong to the Indepen- 
dents, an organization formed chiefly for participation in intramural sports. Several 
other organizations were active in campus life. A new service organization for men 
made its appearance on campus in 1962. Circle K, sponsored bv the Athens Iviwanis 
Club, had a sizeable membership and encouraged leadership, citizenship, and personal 

Religious groups fostered spiritual growth among students. Voluntary worship 
services were held on Monday mornings at Trinity Methodist Church under the di- 
rection of the Student Christian Association. The S.C.A. also provided a Wednesday 
evening discussion and a coffee house known as En Garde. On Wednesday morn- 
ings, a compulsory chapel service in Townsend Auditorium was directed by Chaplain 
Howard Hinds (affectionately dubbed by students "Happy Chappy") assisted by the 
Religious Life Council. In 1965, Howard Hinds was replaced by Chaplain Douglas 

Chi Rlio, an organization for those planning or contemplating a church-related 
vocation, met monthly for fellowship and discussion. The student body contained 
several practicing Methodist ministers who formed a group named the Circuit Riders 
which was sponsored by Chaplain Hinds. In 1965 this group included Larry Caylor, 
Charles Dixon, Robert Ingram, jack Martin, Ken Myers, and jim Rutherford. Reli- 
gious Emphasis Week, an annual event, brought notable speakers to the campus. 

Clubs for those interested in particular fields were also available. These included 


Alpha Psi Omega (drama), Beta Beta Beta (biology), Delta Rho Mu (music), Pi Beta 
Lambda (business), Pi Kappa Phi (debate), and Pi Gamma Mu (social sciences). 

In keeping with the emphasis on academic excellence, a new organization known 
as Wesleyan Scholars was inaugurated in 1962. Membership consisted of a select 
student group, elected annually, who demonstrated high scholastic achievement and 
good character. The program offered superior students an opportunit\- to enrich 
their education through independent study which earned college credit. Under the di- 
rection of a faculty- committee, headed bv Professor Mildred Archer, the scholars read 
selected books, wrote and presented seminar papers, and attended cultural events in 
nearbv cities. The first students to be selected as VC'eslevan Scholars were Bill Albrit- 
ton, Arthur Bigham, Joe Burger, Allen Dennis, Bett}^ Douglas, Horace Maynard (Bud) 
EUis III, Jim Ellis, R. V. Jennings, Steve Kvker, June Moore, Kav Ravfield, Sandra 
Thompson, and Karen Treher.'^ 

The debate program which had been so strong earlier in the centur^' was revived 
and again brought honor to the college. The 1 963-64 debate team, coached bv speech 
instructor William Yates, consisted of varsit^' debaters Bill Albritton, Tommy Burnett, 
i\llen Dennis, and R. V.Jennings along with ten novice debaters. This team participat- 
ed in eight tournaments and claimed victory over such formidable opponents as Yan- 
derbilt, Duke, Universit}' of Tennessee, Universit}' of North Carolina, and Stetson. 
Tommy Burnett, also student body president, was named winner for extemporaneous 
speaking at the Appalachian Tournament, the state tournament, and the Phi Kappa 
Delta Regional Tournament. Another successful year for debaters came in 1964-65. 
The varsit^• squad captured first place in the Southeast Province Tournament while 
the novice team won in the Carson-Newman Invitational and placed second in the 
Middle Tennessee State Novice Tournament. Yarsitv debaters were Allen Dennis, 
Frances Freestone, Hanev Howell, Rick Myers, and Curtis Sims. The novice team 
was made up of Margaret Edds, Rachel Edds, Judy Johnson, Bill Ketchersid, Fred 
MacArthur, Charlotte McManus, Ann Pratt, and David Staplev.' 

The college choir continued to flourish under the direction of Andrew Harper 
who replaced Jack Houts in 1963. The traditions of the spring tour and the spring 
musical production were continued b}' a choir of over sevent)' voices. The Music Man, 
Pirates of Penzance, and My Fair Lady charmed large audiences. Who could forget Dar- 
nell Chance's rendition of "On the Street Where You Live," Sue Ella Hankins singing 
"I Could Have Danced AU Night," the combined voices of Harry Coble (drama pro- 
fessor) and Tom Gutridge in "I Think She's Got It," or Lundy Lovelace's rollicking 
performance of "Get Me to the Church on Time"? 

Professor Harper also organized a band of some twcnt\' members who per- 
formed at sports events and for assembly programs. 

A growing interest in publications drew a sizeable number of students to the 
staffs of the yearbook, Xoa/f/z/a, and the newspaper, i\V;r lixpoiieii/. Under the direc- 
tion of Ben H. McClarv, P^nglish instructor, quite creati\e issues of the \oca////a were 
produced. The campus newspaper had for a number of \cars been the B////rlo'^. Under 

TWC: 1857-2007 113 

the sponsorship of Genevieve Wiggins, the paper returned to its earlier title of New 
Exponent. Wiggins considered this title more dignified, less "high-schoolish," and 
more in keeping with the qualit}' of journalism which she hoped to foster. 

Intercollegiate sports were basketball, golf, tennis, and, until its discontinuance in 
1964, baseball. The 1959-60 basketball team, coached by Buddy Gate, posted twent}' 
wins and only seven losses as they placed first in the Eastern Division of The Volun- 
teer State Athletic Conference and in the Smoky Mountain Athletic Conference, jerry 
Edmonds was voted most valuable player in the VSAC tournament. Edmonds and 
Ronny Campbell were named to the VSAC All-Conference Team, and Ronnie Ely 
and Tommy Springfield made the Smoky Mountain Athletic All-Conference Team. 
The 1961-62 team posted fifteen wins and five losses while the 1962-63 Bulldogs 
had sixteen winning games and only three losses. One of the wins was over archrival 
Carson-Newman, a cause for great jubilation. 

The 1961-62 tennis season was one of the best ever. Led by Jackie Robinson and 
Dewey Davidson, the Bulldogs of Coach Van Coe placed first in the Eastern Divi- 
sion of the VSAC. After two initial losses, to Carson-Newman and the University of 
Tennessee, the tennis squad reeled off fifteen consecutive wins. 

It was during this period that Helen Ellis took a bold step toward equal opporm- 
nity for women athletes as she asked Coach Van Coe to be allowed to play on the ten- 
nis team. The coach replied that her request would be granted if she could win over 
a designated male player. She won the match and won an opening for women tennis 
players. Helen EUis Walker belongs to a family which figures large in the college's his- 
tory. Her grandfather, her father, and her siblings attended Wesleyan, and the family 
long has been among the college's strongest supporters. 

It has been said that all Americans alive on November 22, 1963, remember ex- 
actly where they were when they heard the news of President Kennedy's assassina- 
tion. Those on the campus of Tennessee Wesleyan were no exception. Their joyful 
anticipation of the Thanksgiving holidays turned to outrage and sadness. An impres- 
sive memorial service was held on November 25, and the campus U.S. flag was at half 
mast for the remainder of the calendar year. 

Reflecting a national trend, increased student interest in politics, both local and 
national, became apparent. Participation in student government elections brought 
the college recognition as the Southern college with the highest percent of students 
voting, ninety-four percent. 

In April 1964, students staged a mock Republican convention, a two-day affair 
held in Townsend Auditorium with all the fanfare and following the same procedures 
as the actual convention to be held in July. Senator Peter Dominick of Colorado ac- 
cepted an invitation to appear as keynote speaker. Also present was Congressman 
WiUiam Brock. When all the campaign speeches ended and the votes were counted, 
student delegates had nominated Senator Barry Goldwater as the presidential candi- 
date and Governor George Romney as his running mate. '^ 

The Vietnam War was of great concern to students, and their opinions were as 


divisive as those of the general public. An opinion survey b)^ the New Exponent con- 
ducted in 1965 revealed student reactions ranging from strong support of the war's 
fight against communism to ardent disapproval of the involvement of the U.S.^^ 

The student unrest and rebellion of the sixties barely touched the Athens campus. 
A few notes from "the Falcon, symbol of student concern" mysteriously appeared to 
alert those seen as threatening academic freedom and student rights. An occasional 
pantv raid was of little concern to anyone except Dean Bowling. There was at least 
one feeble attempt at "streaking," but in tjpical T\X'C fashion, the streakers chose to 
race down the street in their underwear rather than in the nude. 

Of greatest concern to President Mohney was open display of affection between 
male and female students. Such conduct was particularly evident at the entrance of 
Fowler Hall at curfew time as coeds bade a fond farewell to male escorts. At one fall 
facultv meeting. President jMohney urged teachers to remind their charges of proper 
conduct, closing with the question, "Ladies and gentiemen, if students are behaving 
thus in the fall, what will it be like in the spring?" 

Modern technology on the historic campus began in a small way in 1963. Student 
registration for classes, long considered a nightmare bv both students and facult)', was 
im.proved by the introduction ot IBM equipment, including the card punch, sorter, 
and accounting machine. 

Changes were occurring, and most were welcome, but one change caused student 
concern. With the construction of the Sherman building, students were fearful that 
thev might lose "Burkett's," long a highly popular student hangout. Affection felt for 
the "hole in the wall" was expressed in the 1963 NocaUila: "The only sad fact about 
the opening of the Sherman Fine Arts College Center was that it marked the passing 
of Burkett's, long a campus institution." Hamburgers and other tast}' food served by 
Burkett Witt actually were a small factor in the popularit}' of the eatery and gathering 
spot. Rather, it was the affable Burkett himself who attracted students to the shop. 
He first became associated with Wesleyan students with the opening of the Southern 
Soda Shop located across the street from Mars Hill Presbyterian Church in a building 
once headquarters for the East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia Railroad. The shop 
was owned by Bo Witt (no relation to Burkett) and Pete Wilson. Burkett worked 
there until 1956 when he moved to the campus and began operating "Burkett's," lo- 
cated behind the president's office in the rear of Townsend Hall. Here he continued 
to dish out both appetizing food and friendly conversation. His shop also offered 
student supplies such as pens, pencils, notebooks, art supplies, TWC pennants, and 
freshman beanies. When the dining hall and soda shop opened in the Sherman build- 
ing, Burkett's closed, but Witt went to work for Morrisc^n's Cafeteria which had been 
granted the contract to operate both the dining hall and the soda shop. He continued 
as a chef for Morrison's until 1971 when he took over the soda shop which he and 
his wife, Mildred, operated until the early 1980s. Included in the tribute to him in the 
1963 \()catiila were the words, "Burkett, with his pleasant manner and his intelligent 

TWC: 1857-2007 115 

and ready wit, has done much to educate many students to an appreciation of racial 

The 1963 edition of the Nocatula also contained a student tribute to Nell 

A more gracious first lady of Tennessee Wesleyan never lived in 
Blakeslee Hall. She is both an ornament and a support for activities of 
the college whether welcoming students and guests of the college or 
making one of her frequent talks to area civic and religious organizations. 
Mrs. Mohney is a representative of Tennessee Wesleyan at its 
charming best. 
A notable event of the summer of 1965 was the awarding of an honorary Doc- 
tor of Music to Ernest Jennings Ford, "Tennessee Ernie." Ford, a native of Bristol, 
Tennessee, and a lifelong Methodist, was one of America's most popular singers and 
television personalities. Since Ford's schedule prevented his presence at the regular 
spring commencement, a special ceremony was held in the summer. His appear- 
ance drew a large crowd which was excited by the opportunit)- to see him but a bit 
disappointed that he did not sing. Ford had previously stated his opinion that such a 
performance would detract from the dignity of the occasion. It is true that "Sixteen 
Tons" or "Mule Train" would hardly have been appropriate, but it was felt that he 
might have favored his host of admirers with one of the hymns for which he was also 

The Ford ceremony was Mohney's final appearance as president, for he had an- 
nounced his resignation the previous May, having accepted an appointment as minis- 
ter of Centenary United Methodist Church in Chattanooga. In commenting on this 
decision, he said: 

I consider Tennessee Wesleyan to be in the finest period of her long and 
illustrious history. Tremendously significant events are now taldng place on 
the campus. Our tenure has been one of great excitement and joy in the 
progress that has been achieved. My family and I reluctantly relinquish this 
significant position, and yet, at the same time, we are honored to be chosen 
for the opportunity to serve the appointment which will be ours.-" 

During President Mohney's six-year tenure, significant progress was made in en-' 
rollment, building construction, faculty' strength, and financial stability Enrollment 
had growm from 554 full-time students in 1959 to 745 in 1965. Additions to the 
campus included the Sherman Fine Arts Center, the Lucy Hornsbv Fow^ler Hall, and 
the Beene Tennis Center. The Fisher Hall of Science was planned and considerable 
funding acquired for its construction. The number of faculty niembers increased 
from twent)'-eight to fort}'-six, and faculty salaries were significantly improved. The 
annual budget grew from $466,900 to $1,024,000, and the endowment fund increased 
b\' fifty-two percent. 


At the fall meeting of the trustees' executive committee, Dr. W. D. Sullins, chair- 
man, submitted a resolution that appreciation be expressed for Mohnev's accomplish- 
ments on behalf of the college and of Christian higher education. Adoption of the 
resolution was unanimous and enthusiastic.-^ 

Dean Frank Gulley was appointed acting president, a position he filled admirably 
during a six-month period. A special committee, appointed by the trustees, began an 
immediate search for a new president. 

At the fall meeting of the trustees, Dr. Gulley reported that the college's finan- 
cial situation was encourao-ino-. The 1964-65 fiscal year not only ended in the black 

O O - - 

but with a balance of $32,000. He stated that the budget for 1965-66 had been set 
at 51,126,000 but that an additional $75,000 would be needed to cover salaries for 
new facult}' as well as modest pay increases for current faculty- and staff Echoing 
an appeal often expressed by President Mohney, Gulley emphasized that "financial 
resources must be identified which will permit the college to attract quality' academic 
leadership" and to retain well-qualified faculty- members who were "constantly lured 
by attractive offers elsewhere. "-- 

On November 11, 1965, R. R. Kramer, trustees' chairman, announced the ap- 
pointment of a new president. The college would see new accomplishments and face 
new challenges under the leadership of Charles Turner. 

TWC: 1857-2007 117 


"Unchangeable, almighty Lord 

Our souls upon thy truth to stay; 

Accomplish now thy faithful word, 

And give, O give us all one way." 

- Charles Wesley 

President Charles Turner received a warm welcome from Athenians, some 350 
of whom greeted him at a reception held in the Sherman Fine Arts Center. The 
general consensus seemed to be that the trustees had made a wise decision in their 
selection of a leader who demonstrated both strong credentials and a warm personal- 
ity. Joining Turner as new members of the T. W. C. family were his charming wife, 
Eli2abeth, and daughters, Beverly, a freshman at Birmingham Southern, and Diane, a 
high school sophomore. 

President Turner had the distinction of being the first president in T W. C.'s 
long history who was not a Methodist minister, a situation considered an advantage 
by some and a disadvantage by others. He was, however, the son of a minister and 
brought to his new appointment wide experience in fields related to Methodism and 
to higher education. As a member of the administrative staff of Huntingdon Col- 
lege in Montgomery, Alabama, since 1949, he had served as both dean of students 
and executive secretary. At the time of his selection as T W. C.'s new leader, he was 
acting president at Huntingdon, holding that position because ot the illness of the 
president. Moreover, he had served the Alabama Conference of the United Method- 
ist Church for two years as director of youth and for an additional two years as execu- 
tive secretary. As a staff member of the General Board of Education of the United 
Methodist Church, he had worked actively in the Crusade for Christ movement. His 
education included a B. A. from Birminp;ham Southern, an M. A. in higher education 
administration from George Peabody College, and additional postgraduate courses at 
Emory Universit)'. 

The first problem facing Turner when he assumed office in Januarv 1966 was the 
eminent departure of Dean Frank GuUey. GuUey, a particularly strong academic dean, 
had been a major force in raising academic standards and building a liighly qualified 
facult}'. As early as April 1965, he had accepted a position as librarian and professor 



of church history at the Vanderbilt School of Theology. Planning to assume his new 
position in the fall of 1965, Gulley had been persuaded by the trustees to remain as 
acting president until the position of president had been filled. He had then applied 
for and been granted a one-year extension by A^anderbilt. President Turner tried 
unsuccessfully to retain Gulley who left in March 1966. The position of acting dean 
was assumed bv faculty- member M. C. Smith until the appointment of Dr. Toombs 
H. Kay, Jr. two months later. 

As academic dean. Dr. Toombs Kav proved to be a competent administrator, 
and his warm and affable personalit\' endeared him to facult}' and students. His 
educational background included a B. A. from Duke University, a B. D. from Emory 
Universit}-, and a Ph.D. from New York Universit}^ He came to \Xesleyan from Re- 
inhardt, a Methodist college in Georgia, where he had served as academic dean. 

Early in his tenure, President Turner made a careful study of the state of the col- 
lege, and, at the February meeting of the trustees, reported on what he considered to 
be strengths and weaknesses. Strengths included a strong facult}^, an able administra- 
tive staff, and a student body of above-average abilit\: He perceived as a weakness 
the lack of administrative organization, resulting in "contusion, expense, and waste." 
An even more serious weakness was found in physical facilities, which failed to meet 
minimal requirements, especially in the area of student housing. Institutions with 
modern, attractive housing appealed to students, he said, and in order to be competi- 
tive, W'esleyan must expand and improve residential facilities. ' 

Turner challenged the trustees to "think big." He envisioned two possibilities for 
the college. It might maintain the status quo, making no major changes, but he feared 
that this path would lead, within ten years, to the school's being completely engulfed 
by the "swirling events" occurring in the field of higher education. The more desir- 
able possibilit}' was to move boldly forward to make W'esleyan "dynamic and effective 
enough to render noble service for another century and more."- 

As always, the question arose as to funding for proposed improvements. The 
president ruled out "going to the church right now" to ask for a fundraising cam- 
paign. He also cautioned against an increase in tuition lest the college "price itself out 
of the market" in student recruitment. He advocated an individual approach, urging 
trustees to identif\' and cultivate potential donors.' 

By May, Turner had worked out a more specific plan for raising six million dollars. 
At a joint meeting of the advisory board and the trustees' executive committee, he 
proposed the acquisition of two million dollars for the construction of two residence 
halls and an academic building along with the renovation of existing buildings, the 
purchase of additional land, and improvement of faculty salaries. Another tour mil- 
lion should be acquired for endowment."^ 

No formal fundraising campaign was planned. Instead, each member ot the 
executive committee and of the advisory board was to locate one prospective donor 
who would be able to giye at least §25,000 toward the proposed projects. Names of 
these indi\'iduals would be submitted to the president who would solicit their support. 

TWC: 1857-2007 119 

The president's plan for raising six million dollars was quickly approved by the execu- 
tive committee, the advisory board, and the board of trustees.^ 

Unfortunately, the plan fell short of expectations, and it soon became evident 
that professional help was needed. After a study of firms specializing in college finan- 
cial campaigns, the trustees awarded a contract to Ward, Dreham, and Rinehart, Inc., 
at a cost to the college of $102,000. Despite professional assistance, the campaign, 
labeled "Second Century Capital Crusade," failed to reach its goal. By October, only 
$600,000 had been pledged, almost half of which came from Athenians.^' 

One major accomplishment of the Turner era was the construction of the Fisher 
Hall of Science for which most of the funding had been secured during the tenure 
of President Mohney. Completed in the spring of 1967, the building was formally 
dedicated in October with Mohney, appropriately, as the principal speaker and with 
the Fisher family in attendance. 

Some revisions in the administrative staff occurred early in Turner's presidency. 
Walter Darby became business manager, replacing Tom Lotti who was named direc- 
tor of campus development. Charles "Buddy" Liner, director of admissions, left to 
accept a similar position at Tennessee Tech and was replaced by M. C. Smith. 

With enrollment reaching an all-time high in 1967, the need for additional dormi- 
tory housing became urgent, and construction began on a residence hall which would 
accommodate 168 women. This building, completed during the summer of 1968, 
was financed through borrowed funds. Since no major donor, for whom the building 
might be named, had come forward, the dormitory was simply called New Hall. 

Although the construction of New Hall seemed imperative due to increased en- 
rollment, borrowing led to heav)' indebtedness. Ironically, shortly after New Hall's 
completion, enrollment began to decline sharplv, leaving the college with surplus dor- 
mitory space and a burdensome debt. 

In spite of indebtedness, another building project was undertaken in 1968. Ban- 
field Hall, constructed in 1902 as the science building, was no longer needed in that 
capacity with the completion of the Fisher Hall of Science. The old building was 
renovated for use as space for classrooms and offices by the English and business 
departments. Modernization of the old building included air conditioning, new car- 
peting and lighting, an improved stairwell, and a fire escape. 

A sizeable gift toward the Banfield renovation came from Henry W Durham, a 
retired Memphis businessman who had attended Wesleyan early in the twentieth cen- 
tury. Feeling that the generosit}' of Durham merited the building being named in his 
honor. Turner contacted former president James Robb for guidance. Robb assured 
him that a name change should present no problem, since the original donor was 
deceased, and since the building was no longer used for the purpose for which the 
earlier donation had been made. Nevertheless, it was generally felt that the Banfield 
name should not be forgotten. An appropriate memorial was supplied by the removal 
from the entrance of the top step, a concrete slab deeply indented by the footsteps 
of students entering the building over a period of sixty-eight years. The heavily worn 


step was displayed near the front of the building x^'th ; ^morial plaque reading: 

C. H. Banfield Memorial HaU 

The trail that was, and is, and must be worn... 


Bv the late sixties, the W'eslevan landscape showed considerable change. Not only 
had two new buildings appeared and another been renovated, but other structures 
were being removed. The hrst such removal came when the arches on the eastern 
and western boundaries of the campus were taken down and discarded. This action 
brought expressions of disapproval from a number of alumni, especially from mem- 
bers of the classes ot 1914 and 1918 who had donated the arches as their departing 
gift to their alma niater. The arches, particularly the eastern one on College Street, 
had served as official entrances to the college grounds, as a popular meeting place for 
students, and as a picture frame for the campus. To the trustees. President Turner 
described the arches as "of poor cjualit}- and not in keeping with the buildings which 
have recentiy been erected around them." To the facult\', he added the explanation 
that he wanted the campus to have an open, welcoming atmosphere, and the arches 
gave the impression of exclusion. 

According to Louie Underwood, superintendent of buildings and grounds, the 
president directed that the arches be removed and hauled to a location near the en- 
trance to the Pikwatina subdivision on Highway 1 1 . This area was being filled with 
dirt, and the arches were eventually covered bv tons of soil.''^ 

Moffitt Hall also disappeared, and the English department moved offices from 
the "low, green necessit}^" to Durham Hall. However, the most noticeable change 
in the landscape was the razing of Ritter Hall and the creation of a parking lot in its 
stead. Ritter had been an important part of the landscape since 1891, but the large 
wooden structure was both expensive to maintain and a fire hazard. Its removal was 
practical but regretted by many alumnae who had resided there and who had fond 
memories of friendships made and good times shared. Some thirty- years later, Anne 
Hayes Longley, a member of the class of 1955, erected a standing memorial marker 
on the site of Ritter. 

Under the direction of Dean Kay, the faculty committee organization was re- 
vamped, and, for the first time, a student representative became a member of each 
faculty committee. 

Another change came in the fall of 1968 with the introduction of a convocation 
program to replace the often-criticized required chapel attendance. As true children 
of the sixties, students were beginning to rebel against prescribed participation in a 
religious observance. Under the new plan, twcnt\- con\-ocations were axailablc dur- 
ing each semester, some religious in nature and others offering educational lectures 

TWC: 1857-2007 121 

and dramatic or musical performiances. Smdents were required to attend a specified 
number of these but were given a choice as to which they would attend. Students 
welcomed the change, and Chaplain Robert Irwin felt that a boycott on chapel atten- 
dance had been avoided. Dean Kay called the new system a "tremendous improve- 
ment" which promised to enhance both the religious and educational background of 

Change was the spirit of the time and affected the academic program when, in 
the fall of 1970, the college moved from a traditional quarter system to a four-one- 
four calendar. The academic year was divided into two semesters of four months 
each, with an interim term of one month in January. During the interim, students 
concentrated on one course which met on five days weekly. Facult}- members used 
the interim as an opportunity to design new courses, often in areas of their special 
interests and expertise. Courses involving travel fit nicely into the interim term, and 
trips to England, to Mexico, to New York, and to historic Williamsburg, Virginia, had 
enthusiastic participants. 

The four-one-four program was a creative concept with many attractive features, 
but at T. W. C, it was not an unqualified success. Some college supporters failed to 
understand its purpose and were suspicious of the nontraditional approach. The av- 
erage T. W. C. student was less than affluent and found it difficult to meet the added 
expense of travel. Moreover, change in the calendar made transfer difficult since 
most nearby colleges remained on the quarter system. 

In contrast to many colleges and universities across the United States, Tennes- 
see Wesleyan maintained a relatively calm atmosphere with no major campus disrup- 
tions. Several factors contributed to the absence of a great deal of student agitation. 
President Turner respected the views of students and held periodic "rap sessions" to 
answer student questions and concerns. Students now had representation on facult}' 
committees and, beginning in the fall of 1973, on the board of trustees as well. More- 
over, most students came from conservative backgrounds and tended to accept the 
status quo. 

A mock presidential election held by students in October 1968 indicated the pre- 
vailing poUtical stance. The Republican nominee, Richard Nixon, received 189 of 
the 305 votes cast; Democrat Hubert Humphrey garnered 65; Independent George 
Wallace was given 51 votes. 

Some students were troubled by the general lack of student involvement in con- 
temporary issues. Tom Clark, vice-president of the Student Government Associa- 
tion, attended a national conference of student leaders in 1969 where he met students 
deeply involved in political and social issues. Upon his return, he lamented the lack 
of such involvement on the part of his fellow students stating, "There may be some 
here who think about relevant issues, but so many others do not."^" 

The absence of major disruptions does not mean, however, that students were 
passive. As already noted, the opposition to required chapel attendance brought 
about a change in that policy. In the spring of 1963, the Student Government sent 


President Turner a resolution calling for improved recreational facilities. The Ne2P 
Exponent editor, Stan Jones, expressed dissatisfaction with the college's orientation 
program for new students, calling it a weak and ineffective event "involving balloons 
and M&Ms." Jones conducted and published an opinion survey showing that a con- 
siderable number of students complained of the advisor-advisee program and called 
for a more thorough introduction to the library during orientation.'^ 

Inevitably, the war in Vietnam was of concern to students who observed a Mora- 
torium Day devoted to reflection on and discussion of the increasingly unpopular 
war. There were no demonstrations ot the t}pe occurring on some other campuses, 
but a petition calling for the war's end was sent to President Nixon and bore the 
names of numerous students. Black armbands were worn to mourn those killed in 
conflict, and the chapel was the scene of pra^^er vigils. 

T \X'. C. student Cun^^ood Witt was appointed by Tennessee Selective Service 
Director Arnold Malone to the Tennessee Youth Advisory Board, a group which 
recommended potential draftees. Witt also represented Tennessee in the draft lot- 
tery, held in Washington on December 1, 1969, wliich instituted a random method of 
determining the manner and sequence of military inductions. 

WTiile members of the T. W. C. community' were concerned with the situation 
in \^ietnam, a financial crisis was developing closer home. Student enrollment was 
declining at the same time that inflation brought increased expenses. Competition 
from state institutions with lower fees had long been a problem, but the opening of 
tvvo-year state community colleges proved devastating to the small private college in 
Athens. By the early 1970s, there were eight communit)' colleges within the Holston 
Conference, and four of these were within a fift}'-mile commuting distance of T W 
C. Also, the four-one-four calendar brouo-ht a decline in the number of transfer 
students, a considerable percentage of whom had come to Wesleyan from junior col- 
leges, especially from nearby Hiwassee College. Hiwassee remained on the quarter 
system, as did the majorit}' of similar instimtions, and transfer to a school with a dif- 
ferent arrangement was confusing. A year after the four-one-four system was imple- 
mented, the number of transfer students dropped by about fift}' percent.'- 

As has been noted, the financial campaign launched in 1966 had weak results. In 
the tall of 1969, President Turner reported to the trustees the existence of "a real 

Turner, forced to operate on a deficit budget by the end of the 1967-68 academic 
year, vented his trustration in a letter to the trustees' finance committee: 

1 took a strong stand in the beginning of this administration, in which vou 
and the other trustees concurred, that if we ran a good program with sound 
academic and good business management, our constitucnc\' woukl respect it 
tf) the point that money woukl be a\aihiblc for doing the job. 

All expenditures were justified, 7\irncr maintained, writing 'i ha\'c no apology ior 
these deficits."'"^ 

TWC: 1857-2007 123 

In an effort to stem the flow of red ink, budget items were slashed. Since instruc- 
tion was the largest area of operating expenses, the finance committee, in January 
1971, ordered a reduction of facult}^. Dean Kay carried out the directive "with deep 
regret," reducing faculty by seven members. This action affected the morale of both 
facult}' and students. A group calling themselves "Concerned Students" included 
Tom Clark, president of the Student Government Association, and Rick Harrington, 
editor of the Neiv Exponent. They were joined by Ray Neff, Ken Smith, and David 
Hambright. In an eight-page document sent by the group to the trustees' executive 
committee, these student leaders wrote: 

It is our hope that this will not be construed as an ultimatum, threat, or 
radical movement. It is with genuine concern for the institution and our 
feeling of responsibility to it that we express our thoughts as presented here. 

The document went on to state a variet}' of concerns. The failure of the Second 
Century Capital Crusade was questioned as to whether it resulted from flaws in plan- 
ning and execution or from "lack of fundraising efforts on the part of the president 
who was hired under the condition that he would not have to perform this function." 
Another concern was the "unethical distribution" of dismissal information in the fac- 
ulty' reduction, with many students knowing of personnel cuts before those dismissed 
were informed.'"^ 

The trustees' student affairs committee, consisting of S. B. Rvmer, David Ens- 
minger, Harold Bales, and W. D. Sullins, quickly responded to the document and held 
a two-day conference with students, hearing their concerns and attempting to lead 
them to an understanding of the necessity' of facult}^ reduction. Student Govern- 
ment President Tom Clark was then invited to speak before the trustees' executive 
committee where he stated that students now had a better knowledge of the situa- 
tion and were ready to act positively and constructively. President Turner added the 
comment, "We have to come out of this a better institution, and it will take trustees, 
faculty, administration and students to do it." David Ensminger stated that his group, 
the trustees, should accept a share ot the responsibility' for the college's plight. The 
committee called on President Turner to initiate a policy by which all interested in the 
college's welfare could act cooperatively to solve current problems. In a subsequent 
meeting with Turner, the Concerned Students offered to assist in raising money and 
in recruiting students, an offer graciously accepted by the president.'*^ 

A general spirit of goodwill prevailed for a time, but the financial situation con- 
tinued to have its impact. Walter Darby, business manager since 1 966, resigned to ac- 
cept a position at a local bank. Alton )ohnson was appointed as his replacement. The 
president notified the trustees that the college would end the 1971 fiscal year with a 
deficit of $160,000 which, when added to previous deficits, brought the total to about 

The college requested a moratorium on building payments for the 1971-72 fiscal 
year. The Department of Housing and Urban Development granted the request with 



the stipulation that an objective studv be made of the college's finances. Such a study, 
authorized bv Turner, was conducted by Douglas Trout Associates. Following the 
studv, the Holston Conference authorized a Crisis Campaign with a goal of $500,000 
to be raised. By May 1972, $315,000 had been pledged with receipts of $168,000. 

The early 1970s brought difficult days to President Turner who was besieged bv 
criticism of his administrative policies. He remarked that he gained comfort from 
reading LeRov Martin's History of Tennessee Wes/ejan College which chronicled the series 
of financial hardships survived by the college throughout its historv. 

Financial difficulties experienced by both Tennessee Wesleyan and nearby Hi- 
wassee College caused trustees to consider a merger of the two institutions, both 
supported bv the Holston Conference. Two campuses would be maintained, but the 
administrative staff could be reduced, a money-saving device, and the competition of 
the two schools for students and finances could be eliminated. The Tennessee Wes- 
levan staff was neither wildlv enthusiastic nor vehementiy opposed to the proposed 
merger. Hiwassee, however, made clear its strong opposition. 

The merger proposal, first voiced in 1971, occupied the attention of trustees 
of Holston Conference colleges until 1975. Various committees were appointed, 
and frequent meetings involved heated discussions. Eventually, early in 1975, the 
controversv was resolved. Dr. James Franks, chairman of the "Special Committee to 
Promote and Coordinate the Relationship between Tennessee Wesleyan and Hiwas- 
see," introduced to assembled trustees the resolution that the two colleges be merged 
into an institution to be known as Hiwassee Wesleyan College, a unification which 
the committee felt would maximize strengths and minimize weaknesses existing in 
the separate schools. Dr. Horace Barker, president of Hiwassee, quickly rose with 
a substitute resolution stating that the diversity' of the two schools brought about 
a desirable condition and moving that they remain separate. Dr. Barker's motion 
received, bv secret ballot, thirt\'-one affirmative votes and thirt}--nine negative. Dr. 
Franks' proposal was approved by thirt\'-nine and opposed by thirt}'-one, the affirma- 
tive vote falling short of the required two-thirds majorit); Thus, after four years of 
controversy, the merger proposal was dead.^ 

In the fall of 1973, 539 students were greeted by Michael O'Brien, the new dean 
of students appointed to replace Douglas Pearson who had resigned to accept a col- 
lege presidency. As the former chaplain, O'Brien already had gained the respect and 
confidence of students. Another popular appointment was that of the Reverend Ray 
Robinson as chaplain. A T. W. C. alumnus, Robinson was serving as pastor of Trin- 
ity United Methodist Church and offered to assume his additional duties as chaplain 
without pa\-. The trustees' student affairs committee attributed a "marked improve- 
ment" in student morale to the work of O'Brien and Robinson. 

Campus activities continued to center around Cireek letter societies, but other 
organizations contributed to campus life. In 1966, the debate team, directed by I^ng- 
lish professor [ohn Ixkman, achie\ed notable success. Inxited to participate in the 
Harvard rni\ersit\' Inxitational Debate Tournament, the T. W! (-. debaters defeated 

TWC: 1857-2007 125 

several formidable opponents, including Colgate Universit}"^, Ohio Wesleyan, and 
Trinit}' College. Debate team members were: Curtis Sims, Margaret Edds, Frances 
Freestone, Dan Shrader, Jerry O'Meara, Clyde McKay, Jim Hill, Dave Stapley, Jim 
Gillespie, Peggy Blair, Janie Duncan, Laura Killian, Don Moore, and Mary Moore.^^ 

Student athletes excelled in basketball and tennis. Alumnus Dwain Farmer re- 
turned to his alma mater in 1965 and led the basketball team on a winning streak. 
During the 1966-67 season, the team won twent}'-seven games and the Volunteer 
State Athletic Conference title while having only five losses. Champion hoopsters 
included Bobby Davis, Bobby Ferguson, Gilbert Dowell, John Saylor, Mike Olinger, 
Bobby Shorter, Ronnie Barry, Rex Whaley, Gene Raymer, Clyde Abernathy, Sam Hall, 
Bill Westmoreland, Hurman Shelton, Raymond Smith, and Larry Rliodes. The cham- 
pion tennis team included: Alan Cornelius, Raymond Barr, Mike Bowling, Wayne 
Pritchard, Jim Emery, and Wayne Penniman.'*^ 

Financial difficulties, declining enrollment, and the Vietnam War provided ample 
reasons for gloom, but there was always plenty to laugh about. A favorite boner of 
the period concerned a remark made b}' the student body president to Elizabeth 
Turner, the campus's gracious first lady. Shortly after the arrival of the Turner family, 
Mrs. Turner undertook to improve the grounds of Blakeslee Hall and was often seen, 
hoe and trowel in hand, planting flower beds. At a reception given by the Turners 
for student leaders, the rather shy SGA president (who shall remain anonymous) tried 
desperately to think of something nice to say to his hostess. What he came up with 
was, "Mrs. Turner, I understand that you're a champion hoer." Only when the last 
word left his lips did he realize that he had just called the president's wife a n>bore\ 

On a sadder note, the college lost two of its most faithful servants during the 
years of the Turner administration. Paul Riviere retired in 1967 after nineteen years 
of notable service. Always willing to serve where most needed. Riviere had held the 
positions of dean of students, academic dean, dean of admissions, registrar, and his- 
tory professor. In 1970, the entire campus mourned the sudden death of |. Van Coe. 
A professor of economics and sociology, Coe was also a popular and proficient tennis 

Alumni, under the strong leadership of Rebecca Owen Jaquish, helped to un- 
derwrite, in 1973, a new scholarship program aimed at attracting more Methodist 
students. In spite of such worthy efforts, by the fall of 1974, there was reason for 
serious alarm. The previous year had ended with another deficit. Enrollment had 
decUned to 438. Key personnel had resigned with Alton Johnson, business manager, 
leaving to accept a similar position at a community college and Dean Toombs Kay 
returning to the full-time ministry. 

President Turner announced to the advisory council, meeting in September 1974, 
that the college would operate in the red by about $55,000 and that the "substantial 
drop" in enrollment meant a loss in income of at least $100,000. He had recently 
appointed a faculty member, Melvin Reynolds, as dean of admissions, and Reynolds 
was diligently seeking a recruiting staff to address the desperate problem of declin- 


ing enrollment. Turner also informed council members of his recent meeting with a 
group of area bankers who had proposed a long-term loan to pay some short-term 
notes with no payment on the principal required for one year. This generous offer, 
he said, should give the college a "breathing spell."-*^^' 

When the trustees' executive committee met in October, President Turner was 
not present. After reviewing the financial situation, the trustees held a lengthy discus- 
sion which included the question of to what degree the administration was respon- 
sible for the college's current condition. A motion passed that committee officers 
should visit with the president to apprise him of the trustees' concerns. Before that 
meeting occurred, however. President Turner notified Chairman Robert Wilcox that 
he had accepted a position as executive vice-president of Alabama Independent Col- 
leges and that his resignation was to be effective on October 15. 

Human beings, by their nature, tend to seek a scapegoat, and many critics were 
quick to blame President Turner for the college's problems. No doubt some mistakes 
in iudraient were made, but consideration must be g-iven to the situation existing; 
at the time when Turner served. It seems that he accepted the position upon as- 
surance that no major fundraising efforts would be required of him, yet he almost 
immediately was faced with the need to solicit funds. Most private colleges suffered 
enrollment loss from the rise of state communit}' colleges, a problem which cannot be 
blamed upon the administration of such private colleges. Mounting costs within the 
national economy also contributed to the unfortunate situation. Moreover, the pos- 
sibility of merger with Hiwassee had not yet been resolved, and a lack of unanimit}' 
existed among trustees. To a large extent, the president was the victim of conditions 
over which he had littie or no control. Many who worked closely with Charles Turner 
remember him with great respect and affection. 

An editorial in the local newspaper commented on the "many ill-fated barrages" 
experienced by the college and concluded: 

Turner, in the eyes of some, may have made some inadvertent mistakes in 

the judgment of personnel and fiscal matters. However, his sincerit}" as an 

educator, his devotion as a churchman, and his effort to find solutions to a 

m\riad of problems never wavered.^' 

After Turner's resignation, the trustees appointed an administrati\'e committee to 
conduct the business of the college until a new president could be installed. Dr. Floyd 
Qack) Bowling, faculty representative to the board oi trustees, oversaw daily campus 
activities. Other committee members were: Dr. Sam McConnell, trustees' chairman 
and retired superintendent of Hamilton C>)unty Schools; Dr. Robert Wilcox, chair- 
man of the trustees' executive committee and district superintendent oi" the Ising- 
sport District of the United Methodist Church; and Dr. F. Heisse Johnson, former 
academic dean of T W. C. and executi\'e director of Holston Conference Colleges. 

At the October meeting of the executixe committee. Chairman Robert Wilcox 
reported a projected deficit of S16~',niHI, based on an equated tull-time enrollment 

TWC: 1857-2007 127 

of 386. While noting that the financial situation was a matter of "grave concern," 
Wilcox stated that the good will and cooperation of banking institutions of Athens 
gave encouragement that immediate cash flow problems could be controlled. In ap- 
preciation of President Turner, Wilcox said, "Tennessee Wesleyan and the Holston 
Conference owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Charles Turner who has guided Tennessee 
Wesleyan through most of the turbulent sixties. He is a completely dedicated Chris- 
tian gentleman and gave of his best during his nine-year term."— 

A presidential nominating committee was appointed and authorized to proceed 
with interviews of candidates. However, the matter of the merger with Hiwassee 
was still under discussion, and trustees were still uncertain as to whether they would 
be seeking a president for Tennessee Wesleyan alone or for a merged Hiwassee Wes- 

In November, students, college personnel, and communit}' members were invited 
to hear a panel discussion on the future of the college. Serving on the competent 
panel were Dr. Bowling, Dr. Wilcox, Rebecca Jaquish, Scott Mayfield, Dr. W. D Sul- 
lins, Richard Shivers, and David Ensminger. While seeking to alleviate fears that the 
college might soon close its doors, panel members stressed the urgency of church and 
communit}^ support. It was noted that "to the community of Athens, the college is 
its most vital industry." Dr. Bowling gave the assurance that a dedicated faculty* and 
staff were efficiently carrying on the daily business of the institution. 

Some thirt}' applications for the position of president were received, but the nomi- 
nating committee suspended interviews in January until a decision concerning the pro- 
posed merger could be reached. When the merger idea was defeated in February, the 
committee resumed work, and on April 4, 1975, the trustees announced the appoint- 
ment of Dr. George Naff as fifteenth president of Tennessee Wesleyan College. 



"A vessel fitted for thy use 

Into thy hands receive. 

Work in me both to will and do. 

And show them how believers true 

And real Christians live." 

- Charles Wesley 

Tennessee Weslevan trustees assembled at Ivnoxville's Second United Method- 
ist Church on April 4, 1975, to hear the nomination of the college's next president. 
Speaking for the nominating committee, Dr. Heisse Johnson presented the name of 
Dr. George Naff who was elected unanimously.' 

Following the vote, Dr. and Mrs. Naff were invited to enter the meeting room. 
After officially introducing the new president, Bishop L. Scott Allen presented him 
with a pair of shoe soles, one labeled "S" and the other "Students," indicating what 
was expected of the president. Dr. Naff acknowledged the gift with typical good 
humor, saying, "I don't suppose I have ever received a more ungentle hint." 

Gordon Sterchi, pastor of Fountain Cit}' United Methodist Church, presented 
Naff a check from his congregation, and Sam Neelv, representing Bond Memorial 
United Methodist Church, made a similar contribution. Such donations symbol- 
ized the confidence felt in the leadership of Naff bv churches and ministers of the 
Holston Conference. - 

A few days after his election, the new president met with the executive commit- 
tee and predicted "brighter days" ahead for Tennessee Wesleyan. He encouraged 
members of the committee to be frank and candid in a working relationship where he 
and committee members might "exercise real respect for each other." He concluded, 
"Count on me to give m\- best, and I will count on you to give your best, and wc will 
maintain that kind of cordial relationship.""" 

The selection of Naff brought to the presidency a person seen b\- his peers as a 
man of "bedrock" integrity and a strong spiritual leader committed to the mission of 
the United Methodist Church. In the minds of man\', he was the man to restore con- 
fidence in the institution among ministers and lait\ within the I lolston (^onferencC^ 

A front-page editorial in 'Vbe Daily Pos/-.-\/heiiiaii proclaimed that "a new era" had 

TWC: 1857-2007 


dawned for Wesleyan. The editor went on to assert that "Dr. Naff may be untested 
in the realm of college presidency, but he brings to the office the qualit}^ of mettle 
necessary for the post. His educational background is solid. His spiritual activit)' is 
irreproachable, and he has proven to be a capable administrator as superintendent of 
one of the church districts."^ 

President Naff also brought another valuable asset to the Wesleyan campus and 
to the city of Athens in the person of his lovely and talented wife, Mary Ellen. A 
warm, gracious, and generous lady, Mrs. Naff shared her outstanding musical talents, 
her cheerfulness, and her hospitalit)' with the entire college community. Other mem- 
bers of the Naff family included daughters Nancy and Ellen and son George. 

At the time of his election as president. Naff was serving as superintendent of 
the MarjwiUe District of the Holston Conference. A native of Cleveland, Tennessee, 
and a graduate of Emory and Henry College and of the Candler School of Theology 
of Emory Universit}', Naff also held the Honorary Doctor of Divinity' degree from 
Emory and Henrv. The new president was no stranger to Wesleyan, having served as 
chaplain from 1946 to 1951. In his ministerial career, he had held six pastorates in the 
Holston Conference. 

When Naff assumed the presidency in 1975, Tennessee Wesleyan had reached a 
low ebb and faced an uncertain future. The office had been vacant for six months; en- 
rollment was down sharply, having fallen to below 400; a large operational deficit had 
accumulated; financial resources were rapidly drying up; and morale of both faculty 
and students was suffering. Some were concerned that the 1 1 8-year-old institution 
might actually have to close its doors. As a former member of the board of trustees, 
President Naff was fully aware of Wesleyan's simation and the enormit}^ of his task. 
In view of the many problems that beset the institution, some wondered why Naff, 
in the middle of a successful career as a ciistrict superintendent, undertook such an 
awesome responsibility. When the question was put to him, he stated his conviction 
that Wesleyan had an important educational role to fulfill as a church-related institu- 
tion. "Ever since I was here in the 1950s as chaplain and professor of religion," he 
said, "this college has held a cherished place in my affection. I have been convinced 
of its usefulness as an arm of the church and as an effective focus for Christian higher 
education." In an interview published in Holston United Methodist, the president set 
forth his goals for the college: "We are especially dedicated to being of service to the 
constituency of the United Methodist Church of the Holston Conference and to the 
loyal, supportive community of Athens." To that end. Naff worked tirelessly to direct 
the college toward reaffirming its historic Christian commitment."^' 

President Naff had little time for reflection about his task, for numerous prob- 
lems needed a quick response. One of his first actions was to meet with faculty; staff, 
and smdent body to offer words of encouragement since a great deal of anxietv' ex- 
isted about the future of the college. At a called meeting of the faculty-, he stated that 
his aim was to minimize differences between facult}' and administration and that he 
hoped "friendships will be characteristic of a relationship of mutual respect," adding 



that he intended to maintain an "open door policy" to listen to faculty concerns. The 
facult}' responded bv assuring the president of their support. Professor Courtney 
Senn moved "that the facult)^ express its appreciation to Dr. Naff for his willingness 
to assume responsibilities of the president in these difticult times and that we as fac- 
ult\- pledge our wholehearted support of him and his efforts to revitalize T. \\^ C." 
Mike O'Brien added words of appreciation to Dr. Floyd ("jack") Bowling for pro- 
viding "much of the glue that had held the school together since President Turner's 

Another pressing problem faced by President Naff was the need to fill key staff 
vacancies. Within a month after assuming office, he had made appointments to the 
positions of academic dean, chaplain, and director of admissions and financial aid 
and had secured two admission counselors. 

Dr. Robert W. Evans, appointed as academic dean, came to the college from 
South Carolina where he had served as director of curriculum and instruction of the 
South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education. His expe- 
rience proved to be particularly valuable in developing programs for working adults 
wishing to continue their education. 

A husband and wife team joined the staff when James ("Rusty") Taylor was ap- 
pointed director of admissions and financial aid and Mary Virginia Taylor became 
chaplain. Both were graduates of Candler School of Theology of Emory Univer- 
sity-. New facult\- appointments included Durwood C. Dunn as instructor of history 
and political science and Wayne Norfleet as coach of women's basketball and men's 
baseball. These two intercollegiate sports were resurrected after several years of ab- 

By late }une. President Naff had sized up the college's plight and the course of 
action needed to prevent, in his words, "Tennessee Wesleyan's Waterloo." He out- 
lined his views in a document entitled "A T W. C. Battie Plan," which was distributed 
to staff, facult\; trustees, and advisory board members. Explaining the need for a 
"battle plan," he wrote, "We are fighting a battie against the understandable impa- 
tience of the Holston Conference and of a number of trustees over operating with 
deficit budgets and the projected budget deficit, plus the question — how long will 
you continue to do the same old things that have been unproductive?" He went on 
to describe a number of "enemies" the institution was "battling": low tuition and 
aggressive recruitment by state institutions, statistics projecting student population 
decline, dwindling sources of support from foundations and from government funds, 
opposition t(^ change, and negative criticism. "We are all in this together," the presi- 
dent said as he called upon those to whom the battle plan was addressed to cooperate 
in formulating new procedures in order to turn the college around and to "remove 
the disappearing ink from our inkwells and replace it with a washable, not permanent, 
writing fluid. "^ 

The president set December 1 as the deadline for tormulating new goals and 
objectives as well as a new "package" of credit and noncredit courses, seminars, and 

TWC: 1857-2007 131 

community projects. Such innovative offerings were needed, he felt, in order to inter- 
est foundations and government funding agents. During the summer. Dean Evans 
and the facult}' conducted an extensive review of college standards, committee struc- 
ture, and academic programs, an effort directed toward improving overall instruction 
and making T. W. C. more marketable. ^^ 

By the end of 1975, several calendar and curriculum changes were made. Among 
these was the discontinuance of the four-one-four program with a return to the tra- 
ditional quarter calendar in the fall of 1976. Although the four-one-four system had 
been viewed as a desirable educational innovation at the time of its adoption, it had its 
drawbacks, as has been seen. Chief among such problems was the confusion and dif- 
ficulty experienced by junior college graduates wishing to transfer to Wesleyan. The 
facult}^ also approved a new degree, bachelor of applied science, to be offered begin- 
ning in the fall of 1976. This degree was designed to attract an increasing number of 
working adults who were graduates of communit}^ colleges and had completed an as- 
sociate degree in a vocational program. The B. A. S. degree sought to "cap off" those 
programs by an interweaving of liberal arts and vocational education. The addition 
of the B. A. S. degree played a significant role in stimulating enrollment and led to the 
establishment of off-campus teaching centers in Chattanooga, Cleveland, Ivnoxville, 
and Oak Ridge."' 

An important goal of President Naff 's "battle plan" was that of providing more 
service to the community and to the church. Toward that end, he directed that a ques- 
tionnaire be sent to the business and industrial committee ot the Athens Chamber 
of Commerce, to churches in the Holston Conference, to alumni, and to other area 
residents, the chief question posed being, "What can T. W. C. do for you?" Responses 
resulted in the creation of business seminars, workshops, and church conferences as 
well as the establishment of non-credit courses and seminars for adults. In response 
to suggestions from public schools, T. \X'. C. students became more active as tutors 
and classroom aides. 

When Naff came to Wesleyan, the accumulated deficit for operating expenses 
had reached $700,000. Only the splendid cooperation of the Athens banking institu- 
tions had enabled the college to continue operation. Concerned about the financial 
picture, presidents of three Athens banks requested a meeting with the board of 
trustees and Bishop Ellis Finger to seek assurance that the Holston Conference stood 
firm in support of Wesleyan. "Bishop Finger stuck his neck out," reported Naff, 
"and told the bankers that the Holston Conference will stand behind any legitimate 
debt." Following the bishop's remarks, one banker rose, put his arm around President 
Naff, and said, "We are ffoine to sive this man anvthina; he needs."' ^ 

A deficit of $205,000 for the 1975-76 school year was approved by the board of 
trustees. Included in the budget were funds for the establishment of a development 
office. Maurice Gordon was hired as a part-time development consultant to assist in 
securing government and foundation grants and in setting up an annual fund drive. 
The budget included no salary increases for faculty and staff The president told the 


executive committee, "Faculty- members have been understanding, but the}- anticipate 
a ten percent increase when funds are received from the sale of the coal propert}'." 
While approving the sizable deficit for 1975-76, trustees ruled that the deficit for the 
following year could not exceed $100,000. In order to stay within the budget, drastic 
cuts were made in programs and facult}" and a more vigorous student recruitment 
effort was implemented along with an improved development program. Programs 
temporarily eliminated were secretarial science, foreign language, art education, and 
economics. ^- 

The operating budget received a boost from the sale of a painting entitied "An 
Afternoon Stroll." The painting had been purchased several years previously by art 
instructor Martha Hale and had been recognized as valuable by current art professor 
Robert Jolley. Placed in the hands of an art dealer, the painting sold for S50,000 with 
the dealer receiving 510,000. 

The 1975-76 fall term began on an encouraging note. Enrollment figures showed 
a slight increase in both the number of returning students and of new freshmen. Al- 
though the increase was small, it was viewed as significant and helped to lift the spirits 
of facult}- and administration. 

The addition of three new intercollegiate sports, soccer, baseball, and women's 
basketball, was a factor in the increase in student population and provided a boost to 
student morale. Under the leadership of Coaches Melvin ("Bucky") Reynolds and 
Wayne Norfleet, all three programs proved successful. 
'• Since returning to Wesleyan in 1965 as men's basketball coach, Dwain Farmer had 

coached one winning team after another and had established T. W C. as a basketball 
power. The 1975-76 season was no exception. The Bulldogs, led by John Morgan, 
Spencer Elder, and Ray Simmons, ended the season with a 28-3 record. They were 
named one of the co-champions of the Volunteer State Athletic Conference and 
gave Farmer his 300th college basketball victory, 180 of which had been at Wesleyan. 
John Morgan closed his successful career by being voted Most Valuable Player in the 
Eastern Division of the VSAC. 
[• At their 1976 spring meeting, trustees, accustomed to hearing negative reports, 

heard encouraging remarks from President Naff as he declared, "We have stopped 
the descent, have begun to turn around, and have a massive mountain to climb with 
a taith that will move mountains." However, he tempered his enthusiastic remarks by 
warning that future enrollment prospects were "not dramaticalh' encouraging."'"' 

The fall student enrollment revealed an increasing diversity in the student body. 
Students came from fifteen states and from seven foreign countries although the vast 
majority continued to come from the Appalachian region. 
I The 1976 Homecoming, held in November, proved to be one of the most exciting 
and successful eyer. Alumni and communit\' residents who had pleasant memories of 
the many fine productions presented on the T W. C. stage received a treat when the 
akimni association presented "T W. C. on Stage: A Nostalgic Musical Re\ue." This 
special musical pertormance, produced and directed b\- Mar\- I'.llen Naif, included 

TWC: 1857-2007 133 

selections from several of the spring shows of the past twent\'-five years along with 
some original numbers by Mrs. Naff A large number of alumni who had performed 
in the earlier productions returned to re-enact their former roles. The cast also in- 
cluded townspeople, current students, and children of alumni. Mrs. Naff conceived 
the idea for the production while talking to alumni who spoke of the importance 
the spring shows had played in their memories. This, along with the need for new 
curtains for the Townsend Hall stage and for other repairs, presented a particularly 
appropriate means of raising funds for renovation. The two evening performances 
were a huge success and resulted in two similar productions being held in 1977 and 
1978. |. Neal Ensminger served as master of ceremonies and delighted the audience 
with nostalgic comments on the previous shows.'"* 

The college lost to retirement the services of three dedicated and long-time 
employees in 1976: Mary Nell Jackson Graves, assistant to the president; Dr. Jack 
Bowling, professor of mathematics; and Dr. Herbert Neff, professor of education. 
Mrs. Graves had come to the campus in 1951 and had worked with four presidents 
during her tenure of twenty-six years. Neff, an author and an authorit}- on teaching 
exceptional children, had served the college well for twelve years. Through the years, 
Bowling distinguished himself in several capacities, as dean of students, as professor 
of mathematics and chairman of the mathematics department, as faculty representa- 
tive to the board of trustees, and as a member of the administrative committee which 
conducted the affairs of the college following the resignation of President Turner. 
Following his retirement. Bowling returned in the fall of 1978 on a part-time basis as 
director of adult and continuing education, a position he held until 1988. 

For the first time in a number of years, a balanced budget was approved by the 
trustees for the year 1977-78. The budget was based on progress in fund raising, 
careful fiscal management, and some increase in student enrollment. The facult)' and 
staff were partially responsible for the balanced budget, for they agreed to serve with- 
out salary increases. The following year saw another balanced budget which included 
a modest annual salary increase for each employee of $300 or $400 depending on 
whether the individual was employed on a nine or a tw^elve-month basis. '^ 

Low salaries were a major factor in faculty and staff turnover during the Naff 
years. In view of the high inflation rate of the 1970s, the already meager salaries 
became even smaller and were a constant source of frustration. The administration 
realized the inadequacy of salaries but was faced not only with scarcity of funds but 
also with a mandate, from both the trustees and the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, to balance the budget and to reduce outstandintj debts. 

Under Naff 's leadership, the college's religious life was reinforced and its relation- 
ship to the church's mission in higher education was reaffirmed. A deeply spiritual 
individual. Naff held strong convictions as to the place of religion on the campus. 
"Our mission is Christian higher education," he frequently said. Under Naff 's tutor- 
age, a "church-related college" became more than mere words printed in the college 
catalog. The president ordered that administrative offices, library, soda shop, stu- 


Jf)hn Fletcher Spcncc, chief atlminisrrator from 1875 to 1(S93 ot I^ast 

Tennessee Wesleyan Universit); Grant Memorial Universit)', and U.S. Grant 

Universirv, was one of the college's most clc\'otecl and cffectixc leaders. 

■ '^■c:-iX<i%': 

The College Chapel, built in 1882, stood on the present site of Townsend Hall. 

A sketch of the campus in 1885 bv Frances Graves. 
(Old College, Hatheld Hall, University- Chapel) 










The class of 1910 had seven graduates: D.R. Haney, Joseph Whitney Ellis, 
J.S. Grahl, Orin Mitchell, Nora Childress, \XT.. Hart, and Lulu Angel. 

The graduating class of 1914 gave the arch at the entrance to the campus. 

Da\id Bolton, Class ot 1872, retired in 1920 after serxint^; as 
mathematics professor tor fortv-seven years and as trustee i"or hve years. 

Annie Merner Pfeiffei' with President James L. Robb, 
Governor Prentiss Cooper, and 

Bishop Paul Kern (front row) at the dedication of the 
Merner-Pfeiffer Library in 1941. 
















The Tennessee Wesleyan Choir sang at the 
General Conference of the United Methodist Church in 1956. 

Jack Houts directed the choir and popular musical productions 
from 1946 to 1962. 

Claude Catron, football co-captain, cixnvns Lillian Nicklc, 
Homecoming Queen, at the Centennial Homecoming in 1957. 

Burkett Witt, beloved dispenser of food, advice, and friendship (1961). 

Harry Coble, popular drama protcssor, gave a 
one-man performance of Krapp's Lcisf Tape in 1961. 


Dr. David Lockmiller with President Ralph Mohnev in 1962 
when Lockmiller received an honorary degree. 










r^, ^ 







I — i 








1 ) 

































XJ 13 























i/^ td 


J. Ncal ii,nsmingcr, (Jass ot 1931, presents the Distinguished 
Alumna Award to /Mice W'eihe I.ockmiller in 1982. 

Dr. William D. Sullins, chairman of trustees, and Dean Toombs Kay 
present plans for the renovation of Banfield Hall in 1968. 

Bill I liitson, Inisincss aclministruiK m j^rotcssor, 

has his class pixpararinn inrcn'LijiiccI h\ a xisiior. 

I lurson had a lonij tenure ot thirl\-si\ \cars. 

Dr. George Naff, the college chaplain after World War II, 
returned as coUege president in 1975. 

dent center, and gymnasium be closed during regulariv scheduled chapel services and 
urged, though did not require, chapel attendance bv the entire college community; 
The number of worship services required of students increased, anci a fellowship of 
Christian Athletes was organized. The curriculum was revised to offer more required 
hours in religious, philosophical, and ethical studies.'^' 

A major in church vocations was initiated to attract students interested in church- 
related careers. The program offered students four options: church school educa- 
tion, church music, church camp and recreational leadership, and church business 
management. Student groups such as the W'eslevan Fellowship and the Baptist Stu- 
dent Union were quite active. The introduction of a new bachelor of music educa- 
tion degree in the fall of 197^ attracted students and increased choir membership 
from sixteen to htn'-six voices. 

President Naff's focus on service to the communit\- began to pa\" off bv 1977 
when the annual fund set a record of S'^5,()(I0 given bv Athens area donors. The 
following vear brought even greater success. Under the leadership of Bill Rodgers, 
mavor of Athens and chairman of the local drive, the community* exceeded the goal 
of 5100,000, the largest amount of communit^^ support for anv single vear in the his- 
tory of the college. Mavor Rodgers was assisted bv committee members joe Frve, 
Andv Walker, and Bill Akins. 

Progress made by the college under Naff's leadership prompted Chuck Redfern, 
astute observer and weekly columnist for The Daily Post Athenian, to write that \\ es- 
levan was "experiencing a revitalization of its programs anci a turnaround in its opera- 
tion" and that there had been ''more progress made in the past six months than at anv 
time in the past six vears."' 

While the college was indeed progressing in several areas, it continued to ha\'e dit- 
ticultv in retaining kev personnel. The resignation, in 197"^, of Mike O'Brien, popular 
dean (jf students and former chaplain, was keenly felt bv many students. O'Brien, who 
had spent six years at the college, was asked by the staff of The Xeir H.\po//e//t to recall 
some incidents occurring during his tenure. He told of an amusing episode that hap- 
pened in chapel during his time as chaplain. He had invited a distinguished theologian 
trom a nearby university to speak. During the guest lecturer's presentation, someone 
turned on the fan behind the curtain in Townsend Hall, causing the curtain to flow 
forward and engulf the speaker, 'i aged during that chapel program," said ( )'l^rien. 
Then, continued ( )'Brien, there was the "m\ster\"" ot ihe bell that disapjiearcd trom 
the bell tower of the Merncr-Pfeiffer Library one night and mysteriously reappeared 
quite some time later in an old house near the campus. "I low that thing was taken ott 
the roof ot the librar\- was an amazing engineering teat it nou think about it," he said. 
"No one except the fraternitx' that took it will e\er know!" ( )nce the whereabouts ot 
the bell was disco\ered, Louie Lnderwood reported, maintenance workers rerrie\ed 
it and returned it to the campus where it now occupies a prominent place b\ the sign 
on C^ollcge Street.'^ 

The resignation, also in 1*)~~, of Dr. ("arl I lonaker, chairman ot the chemistry 

TVVC: 1857-2007 135 

department, was another severe loss for the college. Honaker had served since 1951 
and was a brilliant professor who prepared students well, many of them going on to 
medical school or to other postgraduate study. In addition to providing wise counsel 
in committee and facult}' meetings, Honaker worked as acting dean during the 1974- 
75 school year. While at T. W. C, he was instrumental in the organization of the 
South Central Independent College Association of Chemists. He is remembered not 
only for his scholarship and teaching abilit}' but also as a talented performer in several 
college dramatic productions. Honaker resigned to join the staff of the Richland Oil 
Company in the state of Washington. 

Wesleyan's strong athletic tradition was recognized in 1979 bv the alumni associa- 
tion through the establishment of the Athletic Hall of Fame. The purpose of the 
Hall of Fame was to honor those who had achieved excellence in athletics at T. W. 
C. as well as others who had contributed to the athletic program through the invest- 
ment of time and/or money. A committee consisting of Dwain Farmer, Rankin 
Hudson, Buddy Liner, Scott Mayfield, and M. C. ("Tip") Smith made the initial selec- 
tion from alumni recommendations. The first inductees were: S. B. ("BuUet") Boyer, 
Miles ("Proud)'") Proudfoot, Rankin Hudson, R. N. ("Rube") McCray, and Forest H. 
("Whitie") Kendall. They were installed at Homecoming 1979. Induction of mem- 
bers into the Hall of Fame became an annual highlight of Homecoming activities. 

Dean Robert Evans resigned in January 1979 to accept a similar position at 
Southwest College in Kansas. Dr. Bowling, accustomed to wearing many hats, be- 
came acting dean until a replacement could be secured. Dr. Albert Dimmitt, a native 
of Kansas with a Ph.D. from the Universit}^ of Kansas, assumed the post of academic 
dean in July 1979. George P. Miller III became dean of student services in the fall, 
replacing James Cheek who assumed the position of director of admissions. 

At the fall meeting of the trustees. President Naff reported that T. W C. was 
"making slow but steady progress toward the realization of our mutual dream for a 
Dream College." Such a college, he said, "could claim spiritual, academic, and athletic 
achievement and financial resourcefulness" and "could even be an institution gain- 
ing deserved renown in service to God, community and nation." He continued by 
describing the many achievements made in emphasizing spiritual life achievements, 
expanding the curriculum with new majors, instituting a cooperative program with 
Cleveland State Communit}' College, and increasing financial support. ^'^ 

Tragedy struck the campus in 1980. The entire college community was saddened 
when, on January 27, three members of the women's basketball team were killed 
and a fourth member injured in an automobile accident. The students, who had just 
had dinner with other team members at a local restaurant, were returning to campus 
when a drunken driver smashed into their car. Dead at the scene were Cathy Delaney, 
18, a freshman from Loudon, Tennessee; Beverly Beasley, 19, a sophomore from 
Danielsville, Georgia; and Andrea Higdon, 18, a freshman from Ducktown, Tennes- 
see. Injured was Kimberly Hamilton, 19, of Tellico Plains, Tennessee. A memorial 
service was held in the sanctuary of Trinit)' United Methodist Church with President 


Naff and Chaplain Chris Wilson as speakers. The campus mourned again when, two 
months later, David W'avne Dimmitt, hfteen-year-old son of Dean and jMrs. Dimmitt, 
also was killed in an automobile accident. 

Bv 1980, enrollment had reached slighth' over 500 in head count and 460 in FTE 
(full-time equated). The increase resulted from added emphasis to recruitment, the 
initiation of an adult e\"ening and extension program, and additions to the intercolle- 
giate sports program. Mowever, beginning in 1981 and for the next few years, enroll- 
ment began another decline. Although the head count remained at 500 in 1981, the 
FTE feU to 436. 

While enrollment remained a problem in the earl\- 1980s, the college showed 
significant progress in other areas. .A balanced budget was achieved which enabled 
\\esle\an to operate in the black tor three consecutive \'ears, and there was a rcduc- 
ticm in indebtedness. Moreover, alumni giving was up hhy percent with a twent\'-one 
percent increase in the number ot alumni donors. Total gitts trom alumni, triends, 
business and industry, foundations, and the Holston (Conference reached S'721,000, 
the highest total yet recorded. New programs were initiated in computer technology 
and church vocational training, and there was a substantial increase in number of 

.\ portion ot the gil:ts received came in the lorm ot a S 100, ('00 memorial to the 
late Humphries Reaves, a businessman and civic leader of Greene\ille, Tennessee 
who was an 1875 graduate. As a student. Reaves had achieved one of the highest 
scholastic records in the college's histor\' up to that date. This unrestricted gift came 
at an opportune time since the interest was used to imprcwe faculty salaries.-" 

Maggie linsminger, a cherished member of the library staff and of the campus 
communit\', retired in 1981 after twenty* years as the library's reference and circulation 
assistant. Maggie Beavers had come to T. W. C as a student trom l-^pworth, Cieorgia, 
in 1933 and had married fellow-graduate Ncal Hnsminger in 1937. Far more than a 
librar\- worker to students and faculty, Mrs. Fmsminger was their triend, confidante, 
and counselor. F>yen after her retirement, she returned to the library periodically to 
help when needed. 

Durin;^ the 1982 World's Fair in i\.nf«\-ille, Tennessee, Weskn'an was chosen to 
participate in a program atfiliated with the Tennessee \ aHcN' Authorirv F.aclT Saturtla\- 
during the Workl's I'air, Dr. lohn Woods, biolog\' professor ami water sports enthu- 
siast, led a group of srudenrs in the presentation of lectures and li\e demonstrations 
ot ka\'aking and sailboating. Demonstrations were hekl at T\AV "AtKenture The- 
ater" floating exhibit. Studetits participating inclntled |imnn Wootls, Thonias La\ - 
man, I'Aan Woods, Andrew I liinter, X'ictor W hititig. Rex Morrison, Willie I lartiis, Sue 
Springer, Da\id Corum, Sre\e Dodgeson, Kris (Cook, ami \iar\ Ann Mcl.endon. 

In l'^S2, new life was brought to ( )ld College, which had stood \acant for some 
tirne and was in nijud of maintenance. The building, listed on the National Register 
ot 1 lisroric I'laces, becatne the site of" the \ic\lintT i,i\itig I ieritage Museum, which 
had been establisheil through the leadership ot Muriel Shadow Ma\ field. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 137 

Tennessee Wesleyan leased the building to the museum association free of charge 
under an agreement by which the association would maintain the interior with the 
college remaining responsible for the exterior and grounds. 

President and Mrs. Naff visited Nagasaki Wesleyan College in Japan, at the invita- 
tion of its president, to join in a celebration of the institution's one-hundredth anni- 
versary. Nagasaki Wesleyan had been established by a Tennessee Wesleyan graduate, 
the Reverent Carroll Long, to train Christian leaders. A student exchange program 
between the two "sister" institutions was initiated and made possible through partial 
funding by Dr. Carroll Long of Johnson Cit)^, a descendant of the Reverend Long.-^^ 

Commencement exercises in 1982 saw the return of the time-honored baccalau- 
reate service which had been discontinued in 1968. J. Monroe Ball, former pastor 
of Keith United Methodist Church and senior minister of First United Methodist 
Church, Morristown, delivered the sermon. On the following day, Nell Webb Moh- 
ney, speaker, author, newspaper columnist and Wesleyan's former first lady, gave the 
commencement address to one hundred graduates. Honorary doctorates were pre- 
sented to the Reverend J. Monroe Ball; H. Maynard ("Brody") Ellis, civic leader and 
insurance executive; and A. B. Goddard, a Mar}^411e attorney.-" 

Following the celebration of his sixt}'-fifth birthday. President Naff began to 
think of retirement. He had worked tirelessly since 1975 and was ready to turn over 
the hea\'^' burdens of administration to someone "younger." In January 1982, he in- 
formed the executive committee of the trustees that, after the meeting of the Holston 
Annual Conference in June, he would be in consultation with the proper authorities 
about when to announce his retirement date. His time as president, he said, was 
"still an exciting one for Mrs. Naff and me, but we do not wish to outstay our wel- 

The following January, Naff informed the faculty of his plan to retire at the end 
of the 1983-84 school year. Citing his age and the need for change as reasons for the 
decision, he said, "Lm sixt\"-six now. I think a college needs a change every six to eight 
years, as a general rule. And I think a younger person would be desirable." That the 
institution was still struggling to secure adequate financial resources and was facing a 
decline in enrollment doubtless played a part in Naff 's decision that a younger leader 
was needed.-'^ 

As his last year began. Naff announced the launching of a major financial cam- 
paign called "Assure the Future" to raise $2,225,000 toward meeting operational, en- 
dowment, and capital needs. 

Enrollment, which had shown some improvement, was down again in the fall of 
1983 and dropped still farther in the spring of 1984. Declining enrollment and the 
accompanying financial shortfall resulted in the discontinuance of all new scholar- 
ships for baseball, soccer, and tennis. Commitments made to current athletes were 
honored through their remaining years as students. Basketball scholarships continued 
to be offered but "with a look toward the future at the possibility of (basketball's) be- 
ing a non-scholarship program."-^ 


The elimination of scholarships for three sports and the future uncertaint^' of 
basketball scholarships was a major disappointment to the coaching staff and viewed 
as seriously hampering the athletic program, lerrv Blevins, baseball coach, said that 
he was not sure of the impact but ''it won't help. All it can do is make our program 
less competitive." \ eteran basketball coach Dwain Farmer was disappointed but re- 
fused to comment on the change in policy.-^' 

The administration's decision partially to eliminate athletic scholarships prompted 
Richard Edwards of The Daily Posf-Atheniaii to call on college officials to "take another 
look at scholarships." Edwards pointed out that \\ esleyan had not only produced sev- 
eral professional athletes, but the quality of competition, he said, would surprise many 
people who had ne\"er bothered to watch a T. W. C basketball or baseball game. '"It is 
a misconception that every athlete at T \\". C. is receiving a full scholarship. Actually, 
only a little more than three full scholarships are available for baseball and the money 
is divided among twenty pla\'ers. The men's basketball team has onh' "^ '2 scholarships 
and the women's 2 2/3," Edwards wrote. - 

Rather ironically, during the time that Wesleyan was experiencing difticulty in 
balancing its budget and recruiting students, its sports program was achie\ing wide 
acclaim. L nder coaches Dwain Farmer, \\"a\'ne Norfleet, Alelvin ("'Buck\'") Reynolds, 
Brcnda Paul, L\"nn |arrett, Stan Harrison, and |err\- Ble\'ins, the T. \\". C. teams were 
feared competitors. These coaches produced some ot the best pla\"ers in Tennessee 
W'esleyan's history. 

Tom Browning, an outstanding baseball player, was drafted b\- the (Cincinnati 
Reds in 1982. As a senior. Browning, a pitcher, compiled an 8-4 record for the Bull- 
dogs during the 1982 season with victories over the L^niversir\' of Tennessee, Univer- 
sit\- of Kentucky, and David Lipscomb Universitw One of Browning's teammates, 
outlielder Michael Jordan, was named XAIA All-American atter hitting .493. I le set 
a school record in 1982 with 18 home runs and 89 RBls during the 44-game season. 

The sudden death of William |. Gribben, communications instructor, came as a 
shock to the college in April 1984. Ciribben was undergoing chemotherap\' in a (Chat- 
tanooga hospital when he died in his sleep trom an apparent heart attack. I Ic was 
a tormer NB(C news editor and news reporter for the network's "Today Show." A 
tribute to Ciribben appeared in the 1984 Noaif/ihi, describing him as an "irreplaceable 
teacher." In coining to 'I'ennessee \\esle\an, (Iribbcn had tullilled a long-time dream 
of teaching in a small college. During a short span oi onl\- three \ears, he had be- 
come, according to the Xocaliila^ "an outstanding and caring teacher wlio ne\er ceased 
to amaxe and inspire students with this knowledge and enthusiasm."-'"' 

The 1983-84 x-earbook was dedicatetl to ( icorge and .\lar\' IJlen Xaft, two j^eople 
who, according to Xocatiihi writers, had contrilniied greatk to "molding Tennessee 
\\eslL-\an (College into what it is today" Following his retirement. President Naif 
conmuiecl his close association with the college, serxing on a part-time basis as cam- 
pus minister, reaching religion and philosopln, antl working with the olf-campiis ]Tro- 

TWC: 1857-2007 139 

Joining President Naff in retirement was Dr. Heisse Johnson, former academic 
dean of Wesleyan, who had served for twent}^-seven years as Director of Christian 
Higher Education in the Holston Conference. Johnson himself had become some- 
thing of an institution in the field of education and in the ranks of Methodism and 
was known nationally and internationally as a renowned Biblical scholar. He had el- 
evated the financial support of the Holston Conference to its colleges to $1,000,000, 
a feat which put Holston in a select group of United Methodist conferences. Dr. 
Johnson, at the last meeting of the Holston colleges' Board of Governors before 
Naff 's retirement, spoke in praise of the outgoing president for turning Tennessee 
Wesleyan around "academically, spiritually, and financiallv.""'' 

George Naff had taken the reins of leadership at a time when the college was 
struggling with myriad problems and when many had lost faith in it. Although 
strained finances and declining student enrollment still plagued the institution at the 
time of his retirement, it can be said that Naff 's presidency brought stabilit}^, turned 
the college in a positive direction, and restored its historic position in the Holston 
Conference as a respected church-related college. 



"O ye of fearful hearts, be strong! 

Your downcast eyes and hands lift up! 

Ye shall not be forgotten long; 

Hope to the end, in Jesus hope!" 

- Char/es We s ley 

James E. Cheek became the sixteenth president of Tennessee Wesleyan in January 
1984 after a review of applicants lasting almost a year. In accepting the presidency, 
Cheek told trustees that he was a "dreamer" with "big dreams" for \X'esle\'an and that 
he wanted to "put legs on those dreams." He pledged to work hard, asked tor prayers, 
and sounded an optimistic theme that he would repeat often during his presidency: 
"T. W". C. is not only going to survive, but it will thri\-e."' 

.Vn impressive presidential inauguration was held in C)ct(jber and attended b\- rep- 
resentatives from fifty colleges and universities as well as b\' students, faculty, trustees, 
and townspeople. Participating in the ceremony were three former presidents, Ralph 
.\Iohney, Charles Turner, and George Natf, who were joined by Hix Boudurant, chair 
of Holston Conference Colleges Board ot Trustees; [ackson Kramer, chair T \\. C. 
Board of Go\'crnors; and Bishop R. F.tsler. The inaugural address was gi\'en by Dr. 
Cj. Douglas Lewis, president of Wesley Theological Seminar\- in Washington, D. C 
and former T. W. C. chaplain. 

[amcs C^heek ccrtainh' was no stranger to Tennessee Wesle\an. I lis firsthand 
knowledge of the college's operation and ot its strengths ands weaknesses probabh' 
exceeded that ot an\' ot his predecessors. Such knowledge had been gained during 
his series ot experiences as facult\- member, chairman ot the I'.nglish department, 
(.lean ot student serxices, director ot admission, assistant to the president, and \ice- 
president tor institutional adxancemcnt. Before coming to Wesle\an, he was a tacult\' 
member and baseball coach at I liwassee (College. A naii\e of (Chattanooga, he held a 
bachelors degree from I'!mor\' and I lenr\- and a master's degree trom the I 'ni\-ersit\' 
ot (Chattanoos^a; he had also completed course work tor a doctorate trom I lorida 
State. W bile serxinu; as 'I'. W. ( ^ s j^resident, he was awarded an honorar\ (.ioctorate 
b\ i.incoln Memorial I nixersiry A certified cluirch la\' speaker, he was a member ot 
Keith Memorial L'nited Methodist (Church where he laui-ht in the Sunda\ School and 

TVVC: 1857-200^ 


served as chairman of the Council of iVIinistries. He and his wife, Rosemary, had four 
children, James III ("Trip"), Caroline, Christopher, and Rachel. 

In his first report to the trustees at their fall meeting. Cheek expressed great con- 
cern over declining enrollment, describing the situation as "devastating" and quoting 
Thomas Paine's "These are the times that try men's souls." Compared to the previous 
fall, the student body was sixt}'-one fewer in number. The situation was made even 
worse, he said, in that the budget was based on a projected increase of thirt}"-eight 
which meant that, in terms of the budget, the shortfall was ninet}'-nine students. The 
president asked the trustees to be patient and indicated that changes in the personnel 
of the admissions department were expected to bring quick improvement.^ 

Cheek's presidency brought both new employees and changes in responsibili- 
ties for some of the existing staff The Reverend Gordon Sterchi, former pastor of 
Keith Memorial United Methodist Church, joined the staff as vice-president for de- 
velopment. A popular and respected church leader, Sterchi became a valuable liaison 
between the college and ministers of the Holston Conference. The appointment of 
James Harrison, an alumnus, as director of student recruitment brought stabilit)' to 
the admissions office that, for several years, had been hampered in its efforts by fre- 
quent changes in leadership. Robbie |. Ensminger continued in the president's office 
as executive assistant to the president and director of alumni affairs. Academic Dean 
Albert Dimmitt having resigned, his position was eventually fiUed by the appointment 
of Dr. Barry Chambers. Chambers, a native of England, had been a visiting professor 
at the Universit}' of Chattanooga while Cheek was a graduate student there. Before 
his appointment, both Professor James Thompson and Dr. Jack Bowling temporarily 
performed duties of the academic dean. 

Since the early 197()s, enrollment had resembled a roller coaster. Down dramati- 
cally in the early part of the decade, it had risen slightly only to plummet again in 
the early 1980s. Future prospects were not encouraging since national projections 
indicated that fewer students would be enrolling in college as the number of citizens 
aged 18-22 declined. Nevertheless, President Cheek assured trustees that Wesleyan 
would gain in enrollment and set a goal of a 650-member student body to be reached 
by 1990.-^^ 

While the population of young people of the traditional college age was decreas- 
ing, the number of older adults seeking education was increasing. Under the leader- 
ship of President Naff, the college sought to attract such potential students through 
the creation of the bachelor of applied science degree. Although more emphasis 
continued to be placed on recruitment of non-traditional students, many felt that 
Wesleyan had not been fully committed to the provision of resources and recruitment 
efforts needed to reach older adults. It continued to lag behind other institutions, 
both state and private, in this respect. 

President Cheek believed that more students could be attracted by increased at- 
tention to athletics. The college already had a successful sports program, particularly 
excelling in basketball, baseball, and soccer. On occasion, teams even went outside 


their own smaller conference to tackle Southeastern Conference opponents such as 
the Universm' of Tennessee. In 1984, Coach Farmer and his Bulldogs took on the 
Ole Miss Rebels and, although defeated ^""-SQ, made a good showing. In addidon to 
success in men's basketball, T. \\". C. had developed a powerhouse in women's basket- 
ball, coached bv Stan Harrison. Harrison had joined the staff in 1982 as both coach 
and dean of student services and had led the Ladv Bulldogs to a series of victories. 
With a view to attracting more student athletes, the college added, in 1985, the non- 
scholarship sports of women's softball, men's golf, and cross-country for both men 
and women. The latter achieved little success and was short-lived. 

Football was vet another sport enthusiasticallv recommended bv Check as a means 
of recruitment. During the 193()s, 194()s, and earlv 195()s, \\csle\'an had fielded a suc- 
cessful team, which attracted plavers from bevond the local area. Largely due to its 
cost, football was dropped atter the 1957 season. The president now proposed the 
return of the sport atter its absence tor t\yenty-cight years. Talking to presidents of 
other small colleges with \'iable non-scholarship tootball programs had con\-inced 
him that such a venture would increase enrollment. He persuaded the trustees to con- 
duct a feasibilit\- stud\" which led to their apprcn-al, in |anuary 1985, of non-scholar- 
ship football. The athletic budget was increased by S75,()00 with plans to held a team 
in the fall although no coach had been employed, no players recruited, and no field 
of regulation size was available on campus. Despite these handicaps and lateness in 
scheduling games. Athletic Director Farmer managed to put together an eight-game 
schedule for the 1985 season. The program was launched hastily and was questioned 
hv some members ot the taculty, staff, and trustees, but the president was eager to 
address speedih' the enrollment problem. 

According to the president, a T W". C football coach must be "someone willing 
to work hard for little mone\'...and who is interested in the concept ot non-scholar- 
ship football." After several applications were reviewed, Ken Henry, an alumnus, 
was emploxed. Henr\' had coaching experience at Sweetwater High School and at 
Bearden High School in Knowille. In his new position, he recruited nearly seventy 
plaxcrs, and, after onh' three weeks ot practice, the lledgling team launched the new 
program before a large and enthusiastic home crowd, .\tter the\" were trounced in 
the opening game with Rmory and Henr\- h\ a score of 62-12, one observer, either 
optimist or c\nic, remarked, ''I'.morx' and i lenr\' scorcti the points, but T. \\. (". won 
the cheers." V'.\cn though the Bulldogs won onl\- two of their eight games. President 
(^heek declared the first \'ear "a good season" in \iew of the circumstances.' 

In one of their two winning games, the Bulldogs defeated (iallaudet I ni\ersit\', 
a college for the deaf located in Washington, D. ( .. ( )ne facult\ member \\r\ly sug- 
gested that a school for riic blind be consitlcrcti as an opjioncnt tor the next season. 
Since such a team woliIcI be unable to see the ball, T. W. ( .. might possibK, but not 
certainh', achiexe another \ictor\-. 

In spite of its being the butt of sarcastic remarks, the new football ]Trogram tlid 
produce some posiri\e effects. Most importantK, entollment reached almost 5'H) in 

TVVC: 1857-2007 143 

the fall of 1985. Also, more smdents remained on campus during weekends, and 
their attendance at the games provided a social and recreational opportunit}^. Such 
an oudet for youthful energy was welcomed, for fraternity and sororit}' activities no 
longer flourished. This situation was due largely to the decline in enrollment but also 
reflected a nationwide lessening of the popularity of Greek-letter societies. In fact, at 
T. W. C. only Sigma Kappa sorority managed to retain its national affiliation. 

The positive aspects of the football program were, however, coupled with nega- 
tive factors. Some team members were interested only in the sport and lacked interest 
in academics. As a result, some left school even before the football season ended. Of 
the sixt}'-tv\^o who began the school year, fort\^-nine stayed through the season, but 
some of that number did not return after December. This lack of stabilit}^ continued 
to plague the program. It must be noted, however, that several of the football recruits 
were good students and remained in school to achieve academic success. 

Football games were not the only excitement of the fall of 1985. For a short 
time, all other events were overshadowed by a visit to Athens by President Ronald 
Reagan. A huge crowd gathered near the McjVIinn Count}" Courthouse where the 
president spoke from the portico to his enthusiastic audience, all of whom momen- 
tarily dismissed all political divisions to join in the excitement. The town and the col- 
lege enjoyed their moment of national publicit}'. Dr. Gordon Sterchi acted as T. W. 
C.'s liaison with the press. Assisted by Glenn Lowe, food services manager, Sterchi 
made Sherman Hall available as a communications center for the throng of national 
and local journalists, and the building became the backdrop for a number of newspa- 
per photographs and television clips. 

Homecoming 1985 was another exciting occasion. Among the events was the 
first induction of a woman athlete into the Hall of Fame. Winning this distinction 
was Grace Coates Keith, a 1959 graduate and basketball standout who for two years 
had coached the Lady Mocs of the Universit)' of Tennessee at Chattanooga. 

Another popular Hall of Fame inductee in 1985 was Dwain Farmer who was rec- 
ognized for both his skills as a basketball player for Wesleyan and for his subsequent 
career as a coach. A few days after the homecoming event, Farmer received another 
accolade when he was elected to the National Association of Intercollegiate Athlet- 
ics Hall of Fame with his induction to take place in Kansas Cit}^. Shortly before this 
induction. Farmer achieved his 503rd victory in a coUege basketball game and shortiy 
thereafter announced his retirement to be effective at the end of the 1985-86 school 

Replacing Farmer as basketball coach was Donald Dodgen, a former star player 
for Farmer's team who had been basketball coach for McMinn Count}- High School. 
Wayne Norfleet, who previously had left Wesleyan to coach at Cleveland State, re- 
turned to act as the college's athletic director. Norfleet's wife, Lydia, also joined the 
Wesleyan staff as registrar, a position she filled remarkably well until she was ap- 
pointed to a similar position at Vanderbilt Universit}^. 

Financial problems continued, but 1985 brought two encouraging developments. 


The fund drive launched bv President Naff reached its goal fourteen months ahead 
of schedule. Kenneth Higgins chaired this successful campaign assisted bv |oe Frve, 
\\. D. Sullins, Sam McConnell, Heisse Johnson, Jackson Kramer, and Carl Bennett. 
x\lso, a Faculty Incentive Endowment Fund was initiated b\- the Bowater Southern 
Paper Companw Income from the tund was to give monetar\' recognition to profes- 
sors making exceptional contributions to education through their superior teaching. 
Bowater President \\". C. Grater emphasized that the fund was not designed to be 
limited to contributions from Bowater but was initiated with the hope that "the gift 
would challenge other industries to add to the corpus to become a significant factor 
in facult\' compensation at T. W. C."^' 

The vear 1986 saw the college joining in the celebration of Tennessee Homecom- 
ing '86, a \ear-long observance decreed by Governor Lamar Alexander to encourage 
the people of Tennessee to honor their heritage. i-Vs part of T W. C.'s observance, the 
musical drama The Lj^gvnd of Xocaf/i/a, first performed in 195"', was revived with t\\-o 
public performances. Dr. Mar\- Greenhoe, composer with jack Houts ot the musi- 
cal score, assisted with the production as did Harrv Coble, author of the script, who 
returned to the campus from retirement tor this special occasion. For the college, 
the final e\'ent o\ Tennessee Homecoming '86 was the bur\'ing ot a time capsule on 
the campus near the site of the legendary oak and hackberrv trees. Some 1 15 orga- 
nizations and individuals contributed items related to the litest^ie of the college and 
communit\-. The capsule containing these items was to be opened in 2086. 

The enrollment picture improx'ed slighth' in 1986 with a student body of 54"^ 
representing an eight percent. increase over the previous year. Also encouraging was 
the fact that the average ACT scores of entering freshmen improved by two percent. 
In an ettort to recruit more students trom United Methodist churches, each church 
in the conference was offered a scholarship that could be awarded to one ot its mem- 
bers. The number of students coming from United Methodist churches had been 
showing a noticeable decline. 

Faculrv' members were anxious that the emphasis on recruitment not lead to the 
relaxation of academic standards. Passing the linglish Proficiency I^xamination, re- 
c|uircd for graduation, presented a major challenge to many students. To tultill this 
requirement, a student must prove competenc\' in written communication in com- 
posing an essa\' ot about 5n() words with acceptable content and organization and 
with the absence of major grammatical errors. I'he l.nglish tlepartment ]Tr()\ided 
a writing lab(jrator\" tor thcjse needing remedial instruction. A taxorite stor\ ot the 
I'^nglish prcjfessf^r super\ising the laboratory had to do with a student who exhibited 
oralh' his neetl tor such instruction. A studcnr apiieared in the lab who had not \et 
taken the proficicncx' exam btit had been sent b\- another j-.nglish teacher who telt 
that he needed more practice in writing. As the superx ising professor was looking 
tor a record of the new student's standing in regard to the proiicienc\ exam, another 
student solemnK' explaineii, "lie ain't ne\er took it \et." The abilit\ to make three 
grammatical errors while uttering onl\- six words exhibitetl both the speakers need tor 

TVVC: 1857-2007 145 

instruction and the enormity' of the task facing the English department! The same 
professor recalls the pessimistic remark of another student who had been attending 
the lab for quite some time with only slight improvement. Pointing out the window 
to the site of the time capsule's burial, the student predicted, "When they dig up that 
thing out there, I'll still be settin' here in this writin' lab." 

A major change in the school calendar was made in the fall of 1988 with the 
conversion from a quarter to a semester system, which provided for a fall and spring 
semester of fifteen weeks each. Such a change was in accord with the calendar used 
by most educational institutions and simplified transfer procedures. Another advan- 
tage. Dean Chambers noted, was that the longer term gave students time "to com.e to 
a better understanding of the subject matter."^ 

Several additions and improvements to buildings and grounds occurred during 
Cheek's presidency. Changes in the football field, in 1986, brought it into conformity' 
with the standards of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. The field 
was lengthened by inclusion of the former site of tennis courts, bleachers were in- 
creased to give a seating capacit}' of 2,000, and new goal posts and a new scoreboard 
were added. During halftime activities at the T. W. C. — Georgia Southwestern game 
in November 1986, the field was officially named in honor of Rankin Hudson, a for- 
mer player and coach. 

I Renovation of the Merner-Pfeiffer Library in 1986-87 was made possible by a 
grant from the Mabel Pew Mysin Trust. The project included the addition of a third 
level of stacks, shelving for over 100,000 volumes, an elevator, central heat and air, 
carpeting, computer lab equipment, and a microfilm collection. At a 1987 rededica- 
tion ceremony, two rooms were designated the Myers Reading Room and the Harms 
Reference Room, honoring Claryse Myers and Louise Harms, librarians who had 
given distinguished service.^^_J 

A new baseball field on Ivinser Hill became ready for play in 1988. One of the 
athletic department's fundraising efforts was a baseball card show attended by Tom 
Browning, pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds and former T. W. C. baseball star. Also in 
1988, the Student Government Association attempted to restore the arches, campus 
landmarks the absence of which was still mourned by alumni. However, the 
S. G. A.'s budget could not meet the expense, and the project was postponed. 

The women's dormitory known as New Hall was named Keith Hall in honor of 
the late Catherine Keith who had left a substantial bequest to the college. Another 
dormitor)', Lawrence Hall, was renovated to house the administrative offices formerly 
located on the lower level of Townsend Hall. Lawrence, one of the most attractive 
of the campus buildings, had been unoccupied for twelve years and used onlv for 
storage. Cleaning out the accumulation of stored items was a major task, which was 
completed largely through the efforts of Dr. W. David Lewis and his crew of church 
volunteers. Lewis, a Sevierville minister, was a member of the trustees' Committee 
on Buildings and Grounds. Renovation of Lawrence Hall's interior was financed 
primarily through memorial and honorary gifts by which a donor could have a room 


named in honor of a designated honoree. 

After administrative offices were moved to Lawrence, the vacated area in 
Townsend became a student center \\-ith a bookstore, a post office, and offices for 
the Student Government Association, for school publications, and for career plan- 
ning and placement services. The student center was financed bv Kenneth and Dana 
Higgins who requested that a conference room in the area be named for Christopher 
Cheek, son ot the president, who was an enthusiastic supporter of college activi- 
ties. Mr. and Mrs. Higgins were among the most generous of college supporters. In 
recognition of their many contributions, a program for selected students \\-as named 
the Higgins Honors Program in Leadership Development. This addition to the cur- 
riculum allowed outstanding students to stud\' leadership trom a liberal arts perspec- 

\\ hen the new student center in Townsend was completed, the area in Sherman 
occupied bv the bookstore and post otfice became part ot a dining room available for 
both campus and community use. Another improvement came with the addition of 
PU trees, 75 of which were Bradford pear trees, that were planted along Green and 
North Jackson streets, providing an attractive approach to the main campus. 

The number ot campus additions and reno\'ations might seem to indicate a pros- 
perous financial condition. Such was not the case. In 198", receipts from cionors to 
the annual fund were down by about 375,000, and a gift of S20,000 which had been 
pledged did not materialize. F^xpenditures made on the basis of this anticipateci do- 
nation increased the deficit. "\\"e cannot continue to run deficits," President Cheek 
declared, "but neither can we-die on the vine and lose ground."'^ 

An inccjme problem facing the institution since its founding was the small en- 
dcAvment which produced only about three percent of the annual income, hi an 
attempt to deal with the financial shortfall, the administration sought the aid ot a 
local accounting firm t(j establish a budget and cash tiow that would meet immediate 
needs. '- 

President C^heek challenged trustees to assist him and Dr. (ieorge Ahller, recenth' 
emplo\'ed as de\'elopmcnt official, in raising tunds. 1 le urged each trustee to be re- 
spfjnsible for adding S4,000 to college funds b\" the end of the fiscal year. This might 
be accomplished b\' a personal contribution, b\- solicitation, or hv both methotls. The 
president insisted that the condition of the college remained positixe, saxing that it 
was mo\ing closer "to becoming the kind ot college we want to hax'c."'"' 

(ji\en the paucit\' of funds in the 19(Sns, the news, in L)S9, ot a major bequest 
came as a godsend. Harriett Rea\es Neft ot (ireeinille, Tennessee, died at age 88 
and left to the college a sum in excess of 2.25 million dollars. Mrs. Nett s tather was 
a Wesleyan graduate anti her late husbantl, a state senator tor X'irs^inia, served on the 
I iolston C^onterence (Colleges Board ot Goxernors. I-.mor\' and I lenr\ and I liwassee 
also recei\ed i5et|uests from the Neff estate. 

Trustees earmarked most of the betjuest tor the college's highest jirioritx, debt 
retirement on three major buildings, (Centennial, lowJer, and Sherman. Some tuntls 

TVVC: 1857-2007 147 

were designated for scholarships and for endowment, and one million dollars was 
set aside to be used as an emergency fund by which the college, when a special need 
arose, could borrow from itself rather than seeking an outside lender and paying in- 

President Cheek called the Neff bequest "a landmark event in the history of 
the college" and "a prime example of the significant impact one person can have on 
the life of an institution." Debts on three buildings having been cancelled, a note- 
burning celebration was held in June 1, 1991. Former presidents Ralph Mohney and 
George Naff were among the one hundred invited guests, and Bishop Clay F. Lee, Jr. 
officiated at the ceremony. A reception followed in Old College, now available as an 
attractive meeting place since the museum had moved to a larger venue. '^ 

Facult}' salaries remained low in spite of financial improvement in other areas. 
Nevertheless, the college continued to maintain an exceptional facult}^. Some recog- 
nition of the importance of superior teaching came in 1988 with the establishment 
of the Lockmiller Teacher of the Year Award. Endowed by Dr. David Lockmiller 
and Dorothy Lockmiller Bright Thompson, the award promoted effective teaching in 
a Christian atmosphere. Dr. Edmond Cox of the biology department was the first 
recipient followed in subsequent years by Tom Oneal (1989), Sam Roberts (1990), 
David Duncan (1991), and David Duncan (1992). 

In 1988, Dr. Durwood Dunn of the history department received the Thomas 
Wolfe Memorial Award, sponsored by the Western Carolina Historical Association, 
for his authorship of a book on Cade's Cove. In the same year. Dr. David Duncan, 
also of the history department, was awarded the James Still Award for Exceptional 
Teaching in the Humanities, presented by the Appalachian Program of the Universit}' 
of Kentucky. Dr. Martha Maddox of the business department was invited to give the 
keynote speech at the International Conference for Conimunication at its meeting in 
Honolulu in 1991. 

Dr. jack BowUng was elected to the National Association of Intercollegiate Ath- 
letics Hall of Fame, joining Dwain Farmer in this distinction. Bowling was recog- 
nized for his meritorious leadership in promoting athletic achievement. "It is quite 
an honor," said Wayne Norfleet, Wesleyan's athletic director, "to have two such distin- 
guished members of the NAIA Hall of Fame."'^ 

A faculty development program made possible by a grant from the Pew Memorial 
Trust had a significant impact on the faculty's contribution to scholarsliip. The pro- 
gram, administered by the Faculty- Development Committee, offered funds for sab- 
batical leaves, research, and travel. As a result, facult^' publications increased substan- 
tially, and the number of academic papers presented at professional meetings grew. 
The Pew Grant enabled Dr. Genevieve Wiggins to spend tu^o months in Canada in 
preparation for authorship of a critical biography of L.M. Montgomery published as 
part of the Twavne World Authors Series. 

At a meeting of the trustees in 1987, President Cheek spoke glowingly of facult}' 
accomplishments, saying, "We have two Fulbright Scholars, and two have received 


Still Fellowships for summer studv at the University- of Kentucky/'' 

Librarian Louise Harms retired in 1987 after t\vent\'-three vears of notable ser- 
vice. Sandra Clarida\", a member ot the library staff since 1983, became director of 
the library. 

Another important member of the college community, Alton Smith, also retired 
in 1988. Smith had a long tenure in the mathematics department and was especially 
proficient as a student advisor. Characterized by both a quick temper and a kind 
heart, Smith was described by students as "tough but fair.'' Smith's wife, Mildred, a 
long-time member of the staff, also retired as registrar. 

Four professors whose combined ser\'ice totaled well o\er one-hundred years 
retired in 1991. These were: Dr. lack Bowling of the mathematics department, who 
joined the staff in 1959 and retired from full-time service in 1976; Dr. Mary Green- 
hoe who joined the music faculty in 1954; Courtney Senn, mathematics professor 
since 1963; and Dr. Genevieve Wiggins, English protessor since 1961. 

Efforts by the college to achieve improved enrollment and hnancial stabilit^• while 
maintaining high academic standards led, in 1991, to its reaccredidation by the South- 
ern Association ot Colleges and Schools. The L-niversity Senate of the United Meth- 
odist (Church also reaffirmed the college's relationship to the church. 

The college community mourned the sudden death of Dwain Farmer from a 
heart attack in January 1992 at age 59. Atter leaving his post at W'esleyan, Farmer 
continued his winning wa\"s as basketball coach at MadisonviUe High School, pushing 
his total \'ictories to over six hundred, which placed him among the top ten of all-time 
most successful coaches. As, a coach and teacher, Farmer had a lasting intluence on 
countless students. Not only did he teach athletic skills and strategy, but he imbued 
his smdents with the basic values of honest\-, integrity; hard work, and good sports- 
manship. As a tribute to an outstanding coach, teacher, and role model, the (^oach 
Dwain Farmer Ciolt Tournament was established in 1992 and became a regular part 
of fall homecoming acti\'ities."^ 

\\ hile prf)gress was being made in campus improxement and tacult\' scholarship, 
students, ot course, remained the college's most important component. Fjirollment 
showed greater di\'crsity during this period with more international students, more 
minorit\' students, and more non-traditional students, i.e. those over age 22. In par- 
ticular, ex'cning classes and classes at ott-campus sites brought in a significant number 
ot older adults. Ott-campus locations included (Chattanooga, (de\eland, knowille, 
and ( )ak Ridge. B\- the earlx l*i9(ls, the number of non-traditional students repre- 
sented fort\- percent of the srudenr bod\. Since the e\"ening program was cost ettec- 
ti\'e, it had a positi\e effect on the budget. 

Growing di\ersit\- in the stinlent l)od\ was rdlected b\' the api^earance of two 
new student organi/arions in l*)*-'2. The Atro American Lnion brought to the cam- 
pus speakers and entertainment which eniphasi/id black histor\- and black culture. 
Members ot the ititcrnational (Jub sharcti their cultures with the c )llegL' and with ihe 
communit\, and their annual hTternaiional Dinner inifotluceti their American coun- 

TVVC: 1857-2007 14^) 

terparts to foods of their respective countries. 

Sororities and fraternities no longer dominated student activities, but Stan Har- 
rison, dean of student services, and his staff provided many opportunities for student 
participation in cookouts, dorm parties, musical entertainment, sightseeing trips, and 
other events. The Fowler and Staley lectures brought notable speakers to the campus 
and furnished instruction, religious guidance, and entertainment. The drama depart- 
ment was active, and plays directed by Professor Lynn Whiting added much to cam- 
pus life, as did the choir under direction of Professor Darnell Chance. Chance also 
directed the popular "Consolidation," a smaller choral group. Recitals by students 
and faculty of the music department, chaired by Dr. Janice Ryberg, furnished further 
musical entertainment. 

One of the most popular campus events was Litfest, the brainchild of Dr. Jef- 
frey Folks and Dr. Genevieve Wiggins of the English department. Each semester 
students in English classes wrote and performed in original skits which humorously 
parodied literature studied in classes. Since a large percentage of the student body 
was enrolled in some English class, there was wide and enthusiastic participation. 
English teachers, and even President Cheek, cast off any semblance of classroom 
dignit}' to perform in the skits to the vast delight of students. 

Student representatives to the board of trustees brought student concerns to the 
attention of that group. For example, in 1988, Roger Higgins reported that students 
were pleased with faculty performance and with individual attention received in the 
classroom but saw the need for improvement of buildings and grounds, for repairs to 
the infirmary, and for increases in faculty salaries in order to retain good teachers. ^^ 

A student questionnaire was distributed as part of the self-study made by the 
college in preparation for the review by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools. Results from 249 responses indicated that 84'-A> of students were satisfied 
with their college experience. Slightly over 50% thought parking was inadequate, 
for by this time, many students owned automobiles and some even drove from their 
dorms to the dining hall, a distance of two or three blocks! While 93% were pleased 
with the size of their classes, 56^'/) were dissatisfied with food services, a perennial 
student complaint. Satisfaction with services provided by various administrative of- 
fices ranged from 84%) to 95%).-^* 

By the fall of 1992, several indicators pointed to serious problems. Although 
enrollment had reached 634, most of the increase came in non-traditional students 
enrolled in evening classes. The number of traditional students was declining, and 
dorms had many unfilled spaces. Moreover, an accumulated deficit amounted to 
more than $600,000.^1 

President Cheek assured trustees that progress was being made, reporting the 
reduction of capital indebtedness to less than $300,000, which, he believed, could be 
eliminated by 1993. Endowment had grown by four hundred percent, and alumni 
giving in 1991 totaled nearly $400,000 with the number of alumni donors increas- 
ing by twenty-five percent. He also noted several improvements in buildings and 



In the same report, the president stated his belief that it was time for the col- 
lege "to move to another level," proposing that consideration be given to offering a 
master's degree, to the establishment of a preparatory academy, to opening an educa- 
tional center in England, and to initiating day classes in Chattanooga, I-vnoxville, and 
Oak Ridge. He optimisdcally declared, "Make no mistake; we have made enormous, 
even spectacular strides. The tuture is bright because of these successes. We are not 
through yet, however."-- 

Trustees remained concerned about enrollment and authorized the president to 
secure the services of a professional recruidng firm. D.H. Dagle\' and Associates of 
Atlanta was employed at an annual cc^st ot approximateh' 5150,000. Pmiphasis was to 
be given to the recruitment ot full-time resident students with a goal of two hundred 
new day students by the fall of IQQS.-' 

At the April 1993 meeting of the trustees, further discouraging ne\\'S emerged. 
Freshman enrollment was down for the second consecuti^■e \'ear, loss ot resident 
students resulted in 130 empty dormitory beds, the operational debt was increasing, 
and cash flow was a serious problem. Facult\' salaries were in desperate need of at- 
tention, but requisite funds were not a\'ailable. lairther impro\'ements in facilities 
were needed, especially at Petty- Alanker Hall. Recent policy changes by the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Schools and by the Tennessee Department of Education 
introduced requirements which had severe budget implications. ( )n a positi\e note, 
President (dieek reported that annual gixing approached 5500,000 and that he still 
believed the situation would ."get better."-"^ 

Apprised of the escalating operational debt, trustees directed the reduction ot 
the 1993-94 proposed budget b\" 5150,000, the elimination ot three proposed new 
facult\' positions, and the reduction ot the recommended tacult\' salar\- increase trom 
eight percent to five percent. 

The trustees' executive committee held six called meetings between their regu- 
larl\- scheckiled spring and fall sessions and discussed at length how best to deal with 
the growing financial crisis. 

A Ixjmbshell exploded at the trustees' meeting in October 1993, with the an- 
nouncement that the one million dollars from the Neft estate which had been set 
aside as an in-house line ot credit trom which the college coukl borrow was "gone." 
FliucIs trom the accoLint had been used to pa\' bills. Moreo\er, the proposed budget 
for 1993-94 showed a deficit of 5~00,000. The se\ent\- ot' the financial crisis led 
President C^heek to ask the facult\- to consider a \-olLintar\' salar\ reduction "in the 
amount et|Lial to the raises last \ear." The retluction would not be retroacti\e to the 
beginning of the school \ear but would beuin in Noxember. 'ITe presitlent took a 
510,0(1(1 pa\- retluction in order to eticourai^e a similar action In tacult\ members.-'' 

I larr\ Sherman, who had joined the hoard of trustees in l')*)2, was elecletl chair- 
man with Don Reid to ser\-e as \-ice-chairman and Kenneth I liggins as secretary 
Sherman's chairmanship of the bourd l)l■oLl^hI to the position a businessman who 

TVVC: 1857-2007 ISl 

was a strong and resolute leader, not afraid to ask hard questions and to make tough 
decisions. His election meant the end of business as usual. Sherman told the trust- 
ees, "We have a real uphill battle to restore financial stabilit}' to this institution." He 
accepted that responsibilit}-, he said, and felt that his fellow trustees would do the 
same. As he answered the challenge, Sherman declared, "This board of trustees has 
got to get more involved in what's going on at this college than we have in the past. . 
. We need to know more about enrollment, recruitment, development, and finances." 
Although President Cheek had spoken of the mission of the college, Sherman said, 
"I don't think we have a good vision of who we are as a college and where we want 
to go and how we are going to get there." The new chairman closed his remarks by 
pledging his "best efforts."-^ 

President Cheek announced his resignation on November 17, 1993. "I've been 
dealing with this thought for some time," he said. "I've been at this job longer than 
most college presidents. . . I just want to sit back and take it a little easy and then go 
on to other things."-*^ 

Trustees planned to appoint a presidential search committee within a month. In 
the meantime, Harry Sherman agreed to assume the dudes of president until the ap- 
pointment of a replacement. 


DARING ACTIONS: 1993^1995 

"Through much distress and pain, 
Through many a conflict here, 
J^ Through blood, ye just the entrance gain, 
j^ Yet, O disdain to fear." 

- Cbark'S Wesley 

When trustees asked Harrv Sherman to act as interim president, the\' also ap- 
pointed a presidential search cc:)mmittee to be chaired by Dr. Lillian (]ook, trustee, 
alumna, and educator. During the 1993 Christmas holidays, Sherman receixed no- 
titication from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools that he could not 
simultaneoush" hold the positions ot trustees' chairman and interim president. Be- 
cause ot this ruling, the vice-chairman, Don Reid, an Athens attorney, assumed the 
duties ot chairman. Bill Ivilbride, trustee, alumnus and president of the American 
Rug (Company, became vice-chairman.' 

I larr\- Sherman quickly proved that he was a man of action rather than words. 
Property in Scott Count\' containing coal deposits had been acquired in 1934. The 
mining or sale of this acreage had been discussed for some fift\' years. At the lebru- 
ar\- 1994 meeting of the trustees, just three monUis after assuming the presidency, 
Sherman annoLinced that the Scott ( j)unt\' coal property was to be sold "within a few 
da\-s" for S35(),(H)(), a gain (jf o\er 4,n()()"(i of its assessed \alue in 1934.' 

Sherman, a 1959 graduate of Wesleyan, was a nati\e ot Alabama and a \eteran 
f)i" the Korean War. 1 le had li\ed in Athens while em]Tlo\etl in' Bowater Paper ( j)r- 
poration. At this time, he had attended WeslcNan and had graduated with a degree 
in business. After attending Stanford rni\'ersit\- tor postgraduate stuck, he cjuickly 
mowd up the corporate ladder to become highh' successful in the paper industry 
before retirement, he serxed as president of Boise-(/ascade (!anatla and was one of 
the owners of I loward Paper MilN in Oa\ion, ( )hio. In recognition ot his achiese- 
ments, the Tennessee \\esle\ an Akimni Association named him the PASS recipient of 
its Distinguished Alumnus Award. 

Sherman assumetl leadership ot' a struggling institution. The Inulgel was a mil- 
lion dollars in the red, enrollment was declining, faculi\ and studeni morale was low, 
and inhghting had broken out among faculty groups. As a former business executi\e, 

TVVC: 1857-2007 153 

Sherman brought the t}'pe of skills needed at this critical stage in the college's his- 

Hearing rumors of serious financial problems, members of the Athens com- 
munity' wondered if thev were about to lose their college. Sherman felt that one of 
his first duties was to dispel such fears. In an interview- published in The Daily Posf- 
Atbeuiau in December 1993, he acknowledged short-term financial difficulties but 
stated that already measures were being taken to correct deficiencies. It was true, he 
said, that one might take a cursory look at the college and say, "They're going broke; 
they've got a deficit." Actually, he explained, the institution was in relatively sound 
condition with all buildings free of debt. 'All the buildings, all the facilities, every- 
thing is paid for, and that is a little bit unusual."-' 

With operational expenses being the chief problem, Sherman moved quickly to 
reduce costs. A twent}-five percent reduction in staff was a decision not well received 
bv several employees. All adjunct and a few full-time facult}^ members were dismissed 
and their teaching loads distributed among remaining professors. The school nurse's 
position was eliminated and the maintenance crew reduced to two members. Sher- 
man believed that such drastic measures were necessary to "stop the bleeding" and 
put the school in a sound financial condition. 

Football was the next to go. The program had been in existence for nine years 
with only one winning season, in 1993 under the leadership of Coach David Bankston 
who resigned at the end of the 1993 season. Football was costly, and many of the 
players failed to share the same standards and goals held by the maiorit^' of the stu- 
dent body. "Obviously," said Sherman, "our small liberal arts college couldn't support 
a football program to the level it needed and deserved to be competitive." The sport 
was eliminated with the promise that the college would honor aU financial aid com- 
mitments to team members who wished to remain as students.'^ 

Sherman realized that T. W. C. needed more than a sound financial base and 
gave attention to academic standards. His stated goal was to move the school to- 
ward becoming a "college of distinction" by 2000 through implementing a strate- 
gic plan called "T W. C. 2000." The plan involved a six-year development process 
named "Continuous Improvement" with five goals to be reached: academic excel- 
lence; state-of-the-art facilities; financial stability'; enrollment growth bv fift\' percent; 
and increased service to church, community, and region. In order to achieve these 
ambitious goals, an estimated 511,000,000 above operating costs would be needed. 
Almost half of this sum would be used for additional scholarships and other forms 
of financial aid."* 

Teams composed of faculty, staff, and students undertook a review of programs 
and activities. These teams met regularly and, after reviewing their assigned areas, 
recommended changes to the president. Community- involvement was sought by 
the establishment of twelve advisory councils. Made up of community' leaders, each 
council was assigned an academic department to which the council would offer advice 
and assistance. Perhaps the most successful of these was the group working with the 


music department. Under the leadership of Harry Johnson, |r., this council raised 
S6( 1,000 for the renovation of the stage in Townsend Hall. Improvements included 
the installation of new sound and lighting s\'stems and the refurbishing of dressing 
rooms and the auditorium's fover. This council also sponsored a musical program 
called "Arts on Campus." Unfortunately, some councils accomplished little or noth- 
ing since some professors were reluctant to accept advice from non-educators whom 
they considered to be untamiliar with academic helds of studv. 

A change in administration came with the replacement of Dean Barry Cham- 
bers by Dr. Keith lenkins, a L'nited Methodist minister, \\-ho was given the title of 
executive vice-president, [enkins previously had held a similar position at Lon Morris 
(College, a United Methodist institution located in [acksonville, Texas. He had earned 
both M. A. and Ph. D. degrees from Rice Uni\ersit\- as well as a Master of Di\-inity 
from Duke Universir^'. 

Another |enkins, not related to the new \'ice-president, joined the administrati\-e 
staff After rwent^• years of distinguished ser\'ice, |can Arrants retired as yice-presi- 
dent for financial attairs and was replaced by Jackie Jenkins. 

Old College came alive again when the president's ofhce and the ofhce of alumni 
affairs moved from Townsend Hall into the historic building. The interior of Old 
(College and ot the student center in Tcnvnsend were enhanced b\' the addition ot 
attractive rugs donated b\- alumni Bill Kilbride, [ohn Thornton, Web Coe, Anthon\- 
McLin, and Jason Stuckey 

At the suggestion of Sherman, trustees and tacult\- tormulated the tollowing new 
mission statement, which was adopted in Februar\- 1994: 

The vision of Tennessee W'esleyan College is to pro\'ide a quality liberal arts 
education and to promote integrity and responsibilit\- in a Christian 
en\'ironment where students can mature intellectually and socialK' and acquire 
the conhdence tf) serve in an ever-changing global commLinity'' 

At the April 1944 meeting of the trustees. President Sherman recounted changes 
made and spoke of his "tough decisions" which "hadn't been a lot ot tun" bur which 
he deemed neccssar\-. 1 le optimistically reported that a renewal process was well un- 
derway which would result in a "solid foundation" on which to build tor the future. 
However, the immediate fmancial condition was troublesome, linance (j)mmittee 
(Chairman i^rod\ I -.His reported that a delicit of S4()II,(HHI existed at the enti of March 
and that banks had been asked to increase the college s line of credit. 

Dr. Lillian (!ook informed the group that the presidential search committee was 
ready to begin the process of ad\ertising and receix ing applications, which would 
continue until December. The committee charged with jTromoiing campus religious 
life expressed concern about the small number of students j-)lanning careers in the 
ministry or in other (Christian ser\ice. President Sherman agreed to atldress this sitLi- 
ation, suggesting the formation ot a communit\ religious lite council.'^ 

The tone of the meeting was generalK o|-»iimistic but became less so when the 

TVVC: 1857-2007 155 

student representative, Charles Ensminger, made his report. Ensminger read a let- 
ter from the Student Government Association which indicated that as the college 
focused on survival, students felt themselves pushed into the background. The let- 
ter stated, "It is the general opinion of students that the institution has become so 
obsessed with self-preservation at any cost that the immediate needs of smdents are 
being overlooked." Ensminger asserted that students were "tired of not knowing 
the future of this institution" and "tired of hearing of major decisions and cuts, that 
affect them personally, after the fact." However, said Ensminger, he found attitudes 
expressed at the board meeting encouraging and felt that the upcoming summer break 
might serve to relieve tension.'^ 

Several board members responded by assuring Ensminger that students were 
always the primary concern of trustees. The statement was also made that "students 
must understand that unless the college meets its financial obligations, there will be 
no school for students to attend." Chairman Reid agreed to respond by letter to the 
Student Government Association, expressing appreciation for student involvement 
and the willingness of trustees to work with students to address their concerns."' 

At the close of the April meeting, Sherman spoke appreciatively of the good 
work performed by Carl and Pamela Beck whose positions in the development office 
had been eliminated in the recent staff reduction.'^ 

Not only were students uneasy, but there was also a lack of harmony among 
the faculty. Disagreements among facult}' members were not new to Wesleyan, or, 
for that matter, to any institution. Airing of differences can, in son"ie cases, even be 
healthy. However, sharp and troubling divisions had become evident during the pre- 
vious administration and grew in intensity during this interim period of heightened 
tension. Some facult}' groups were pitted against the administration, individuals were 
hostile toward other individuals, and some departments were in contention with other 
departments. Facult}' meetings sometimes became battlegrounds. The most trou- 
bling aspect of the situation was that students often were drawn into the hostilities 
and encouraged to take sides. ^- 

Characteristically, President Sherman took a direct approach to this serious prob- 
lem, firing off a memo to all employees. The dut}' and responsibilit}' of every college 
employee, he wrote, "is to uphold and support the college administration and other 
colleagues." Discussions and debates of differences in opinion were permissible and 
even encouraged but were not to involve students. Mincing no words, the president 
warned, "Anyone, teacher or staff, who makes open statements to students that un- 
dermine the administration or another facult}^ or staff person will be subject to im- 
mediate dismissal." ^^ 

A major frustration for Sherman was the resistance of some facult}' members 
to his policies. Some felt that the president was too business-oriented and lacked 
understanding of how an educational institution differed from an industry. They 
feared that his position might be prolonged beyond an interim period. When Sher- 
man brought to the campus a business consulting team for a seminar in Total Quality 


Management, the program was not well received, and questions were raised as to how 
this approach applied to improving the qualir\' of education. However, when a group 
from Belmont College presented a seminar advocating a quite similar approach that 
had succeeded at Belmont, their program was received positively.'"^ 

Despite opposition, Sherman kept up a hectic pace during long work hours as 
he assiduously promoted the college to alumni and to other supporters, sought new 
contacts, and hammered home his plan tor "continuous impn^vement." Through his 
contacts in business and industry, he proved to be a successful fundraiser. His dili- 
gence and dedication were undeniable, and although some employees were less than 
supporti\-e, there were others who tound his straighttonvard approach and his total 
honest\' to be refreshing. 

At the college's 137th Commencement, Sherman presented degrees to 106 mem- 
bers of the Class of 1994. Delivering the commencement address was R. Wiley 
Bourne, jr., executive vice-president of E,astman Chemical C()mpan\" and a trustee. A 
degree in liberal arts. Bourne assured graduates, was becoming increasingly attracti\'e 
to employers in the current job market.'"" 

The tirst fall registration of Sherman's tenure brought encouraging enrollment 
tigures. In spite of the loss ot mc:)re than titty tootball pla\ers, students numbered 
over 630. Contributing to growth in the student body were 263 non-traditional stu- 
dents attending evening or off-campus classes. The number of these older adults 
increased by thirt\"- one percent in comparison to the previous fall, reflecting the 
diligent work of Nancy Brooks, Knowille coordinator; Da\-id Barker, Chattanooga 
coordinator; and Jay May, evening school director. Also encouraging was the tact that 
.\CT scores of entering freshmen averaged 21.5, well above the 18.5 a^•eragc ot the 
pre\'ious year."' 

The hnancial picture also looked brighter. The 1994 tundraising campaign, led by 
trustee Bill Kilbride and alumnus Tom Hamilton, added more than a million dollars to 
cf)llcgc coffers. The Teagle Foundation provided a grant of S50,000 toward the Facil- 
it\' Master Plan, a part of Sherman's T \\". C. 2000 strategy. The master plan called 
tor imprcnements to classrooms, librar\-, dormitories, and Townscnd Hall as well as 
the construction ot a student wellness center and enlarged parking lots. A gitt of 
S35,r)()0 established the General Warren B. Giles Fndowed Scholarship with prioritv 
in its awarding to be gi\en to \\esle\an students who were chiklren or grandchildren 
of militar\- veterans.' 

It Sherman and the trustees had hoped for a more contented student both' dur- 
ing the 1994-95 term, they were disappointed. Students became e\en more xocal in 
their complaints. fAits iti hicultx' and statf still bothered them, and the\' matle their 
teelings known. A major complaint was the elimination ot the j^osition ot scItooI 
nurse. A writer in the ,\(7/' I :xf>ouvii/ stateti that students were "growing impatient" 
and wanted actK )n ( m their rec|uest that a nursi.- be empli )\ ed. A s( )kiii( )n i< > this j^ri )b- 
lem e\entuall\- came, in the spring semester, with the enrollment ot a student who was 
a registered nurse and who could li\e on campus.''' 

TWC: 1857-2007 157 

Another proposed method of reducing costs, which met with strong student 
opposition, was the plan under consideration to close one floor in each of two dor- 
mitories. If the second floor of Fowler Hall and the third floor of Keith Hall were 
unoccupied and their previous occupants relocated, an estimated saving of $31,000 
could be effected. At a November "town meeting" where Sherman spoke of his 
T.WC. 2000 plan to students, facult}'^, and staff, a student rose to directly challenge 
the president with angrv remarks. Sherman explained that a decision regarding the 
dormitories had not been finalized. '^^ 

A large number of students signed a petition presented to the president in oppo- 
sition to closing dormitory floors. Stated reasons for opposition included: crowded 
rooms, each with two and perhaps three occupants; loss of jobs by some resident as- 
sistants; the presence of two sororit}^ meeting rooms on the third floor of Keith; and 
the inconvenience of relocation. Students indicated their willingness to participate in 
an energy conservation plan. President Sherman, rather uncharacteristically, bowed 
out of this situation bv saying that he would leave the decision to the executive vice- 
president, Keith Jenkins, and to the dean of students, Stan Harrison. Students were 
the winners in this conflict, for the dormitory arrangements remained the same.-" 

In 1993 and 1994, the college lost, through their retirement, three outstanding 
facult}' members whose long experience and proven abilit\' had made them strong 
assets during troubled times. All three retirees were given emeritus status. 

B.T. Hutson completed thirt}'-six years of service at the end of the 1992-93 term. 
An able teacher in the business administration and economics department, he chaired 
the department for more than twent)^ years and taught classes in at least twenty differ- 
ent areas of business. He also directed the evening program for nine years. 

Bett}' Keirn, associate professor of health and physical education, retired in 1994 
after twent}^-eight years at Wesleyan. A popular teacher, Keirn stressed the education 
element of physical education and held her students to high standards of achieve- 
ment. It would be interesting to know the number of those taught to swim and given 
proficiency in lifesaving techniques by Bett}^ Keirn. 

Also in 1994, Dr. Robert Ryberg retired from the education department after 
a T.W.C. career of twenty-two years. Ryberg had brought stabilit)' to a department 
which previously had seen frequent changes in directors. Through his sound prepa- 
ration of prospective teachers, he contributed greatly to public education in the area. 
Unfortunately, Dr. Ryberg's retirement 3'ears were cut short by his death in June 

Jane Miller Schultz retired from the library staff in 1993, and her name was added 
to a plaque in the library recognizing those giving twenty-five or more years of ser- 
vice. Her name joined the names of Claryse Myers and Vera Coe. During her long 
career, Schultz contributed ably to virtually every function of the library. 

Another long-time employee, James Sherman, was honored at Homecoming 
1994 by the alumni association which presented him with a plaque in recognition 
of fitty years of service. Sherman was a teenager when he began to work with the 


maintenance crew. A loval workman and quite a humorist, ''James," as he is known to 
everyone, is a popular figure on campus and, as of this writing, continues his service 
on a part-dme basis. 

Quality of the facult\' was again reflected in honors won. Dr. Robert Ryberg 
was selected for inclusion in the 1994 edition of W'bo's Who A/?/oiigAwenca's Teachers, 
a distinction awarded to only hve percent ot the nation's educators. Dr. Jeffrey Folks 
of the English department was named a Fulbright Scholar for 1994-95 during which 
time he was to be a senior lecturer on American literature at Sophia University in 
Bulgaria. Dr. Durwood Dunn, history professor, received notification that his book, 
Cade's Core: The Tife and Death of a Southern Appahichian Co/////j/init)\ was to be listed in 
the bibliography for National History Day, a compilation of selected works published 
in Magazine of Historj by the Organization of American Historians. Faculty- Incentive 
Awards recognized the superior teaching ot Dr. Joyce Baker, chemistrx'; |im Thomp- 
son, sociolog\"; Dr. (ean Stc\'enson, education; Linda Garza, sociol()g\"; Dr. Dick Pel- 
lew psychology; Tom Oneal, business; and Gary Long, mathematics. 

A distinct honor came to a staff member in 1994 when Edna Simpson, director 
of financial aid, received statewide recognition from the Tennessee Higher Fklucation 
Commission. The Tennessee Community Ser\-ice Award honors those who make 
unusually significant contributions to their communities through activities apart from 
their day-to-da\' job responsibilities. Simpson held varicnis leadership positions in the 
Athens Civitan Cdub, which assists the mcntalh' and ph\sicalh- handicapped, was a 
volunteer counsek^r tor Contact Teleministr\" Program, gave (T-'R instruction tor the 
Red Cross, and was an active participant in "Toys for Tots" and in the HAL (Help 
Adults Learn) tutorial program. President Sherman had the perception to recc^gnize 
an unusual, though modest, public servant and nominated Simpson for this award.-' 

President Sherman announced his resignation on |anuar\' 9, 1995. Although he 
had consistenth" declared his position to be temporary, the news came as a surprise 
to man\- at the college and in the communit\". According to an article in The Daily 
Post-.-\thenian, a news release trom the college indicated that Sherman had submitted 
his written resignation to the trustees at their December meeting, had then agreed to 
consider sta\ing until a new president was elected, but on |anuar\' 5, had informed 
the executi\-c committee ot his decision to step down immediately The news release 
c|uotcd Sherman as saying, "I ne\er intended to be at the college permanenth' when 
I accepted the interim position o\cr a year ago." I le ]iraised the i'>eo]Tk' ot Athens 
who, he said, "ha\'e been wondertui to m\' wite, Frankie, and me. We teel close ties to 
this communit\' and, tor a time, e\ en considered mo\ing back lo Athens permanenth-. 
The students and tacult\ at \\esle\an are also special, but an\ |^osili\e intluence 1 ma\' 
have ettected at the college is now pren\' well neutralized, and ii is time to l;o."-' 

The same newspaper article statetl that Don Held, irnstees' ch.urnian, reported 
that the trustees hatl known since earh December of Sherman's |'>robable resignation. 
Reid commented on Sherman s good work, stating that during his iittenm ]Tresidenc\', 
enrollment had increased, an executive \ice-]">i\-skleni h.iil been hiretl, a s\stem ot 

TVVC: 1857-2007 159 

planned growth had been developed, and the most successful annual fund drive in the 
school's history had been completed. "We're really fortunate to have had him for a 
year," said Reid, "and we're grateful for the year we got from him." The appointment 
of a new president should be announced by July, according to Chairman Reid.-'' 

In an editorial on January 10, The Daily Vost- Athenian noted that "Sherman faced 
having to make many tough decisions during his tenure; some were received well and 
others were difficult for some people to accept. But Sherman always acted with the 
best interests of T.W.C. in mind. . . We believe Harry Sherman did his job well, and he 
will be missed."-"^ 

Trustees, meeting in February, passed a resolution in commendation of Sherman, 
stating that the board "appreciates, congratulates, and is indebted to him for his ef- 
forts and deep personal sacrifice."-^ 

At this February meeting, trustees had to face some hard facts. The college was 
again without a president, spring enrollment showed a shortfall of hfty-nine students, 
and the 1994-95 budget needed an additional $400,000 in order to break even. More- 
over, Jackie Jenkins, chief financial officer, had resigned to accept a more lucrative 
position, and three board members, Brody Ellis, Bill Hawkins, and Lee Stewart, had 
tendered their resignations. 

Dr. Shelley Griffith and Regenia Mayfield were elected as new board members. 
Dr. Lillian Cook and Bill Hicks were named honorary trustees, and the board ap- 
proved Chairman Reid's suggestion that |ean Arrants be asked to return temporarily 
as interim vice-president for financial affairs. -^^ 

The question remained as to who would administer the college's daily operation 
until the election of a new president. Bill I-vilbride, executive committee chairman, 
brought to the floor the committee's recommendation that Dr. Keith Jenkins, execu- 
tive vice-president, assume that responsibilit}'. Dr. Jenkins expressed reluctance to 
accept the position in the absence of clarity concerning just what duties he would be 
assigned, what authority he would be given, and what his tide would be. After consid- 
erable discussion, IsJlbride withdrew the motion of the executive committee, and the 
question of interim leadership remained unresolved."^ 

John Head, newly appointed director of admissions, addressed the trustees with 
some cogent remarks. When he assumed his position in January, Head reported, he 
began to ask various people about their view of the college. What soon became ap- 
parent, he said, was that "two Tennessee Wesleyan Colleges existed" and that the col- 
lege of yesterday "sounded like a wonderful place." Yesterday's Tennessee Wesleyan, 
Head continued, was respected for its rigorous academic program, its outstanding 
facult}'^, its thorough preparation of students, and its role as the cultural center of the 
communit}^. In the viewpoint of the general public, today's Wesleyan is a coUege in 
"serious trouble," "constantly asking for money," no longer a "cultural center," and 
likely to close soon. His office's main difficulty. Head maintained, was to change 
the public's perception, to convince people that yesterday's Wesleyan survives, and 
to persuade students that "Tennessee Wesleyan is a place where they can get a good 


education, where thev can have interaction with the tacult\' in a small classroom envi- 

Trustees were forced to acknowledge three gigantic tasks: increasing the fall 
1995 enrollment bv 250 new students; raising approximately S500,000 in unrestricted 
contributions bv the end of the 1995 fiscal vear; and raising a total of 5875,000 dur- 
ing the calendar vear 1995. If these goals should not be met, the viabilitv of the 
institution would be severely aftected. Aware ot this possibility, the board approved 
a motion "to authorize its executive committee to explore all possible opportunities 
for the college to manage its own future, to include specific discussion and conversa- 
ti(jn with administrative authorities ot other academic institutions and authorities of 
higher education operating within the geographic concern ot Tennessee Wesleyan or 
having authorin," over institutions within that region." The word wcrger was not used 
but certainly lurked in the background. Trustees left the bebruar\- meeting with grave 
concerns about the tuture.-'^ 

Two weeks after the trustees' meeting the executive committee asked Bill Akins 
to assume temporary leadership of the college. Akins, an alumnus and former direc- 
tor of the evening program, had retired in 1993 but, earh- in 1994, had been asked by 
Harry Sherman to assist with administration. 

Some members of the executive committee, armed with the trustees' authoriza- 
tion to seek opportunities through contact with other educational institutions, entered 
into a preliminary discussion with otficials ot Cleveland State Communit\' College. 
The plan under consideration was a merger ot the rwo institutions with each retaining 
its own campus and its distinctive mission. 

Cle\'eland State officials favored the merger, as did some Tennessee Wesleyan 
trustees. When the idea became known to the campus communit\', some taculty 
and staff saw an opportunity for greater job security; others opposed the plan. The 
majority of alumni expressed opposition. Current students were aftorded little op- 
portunity to air their views, which would lead to a tuture complaint. The proposed 
plan would need approxal from the trustees, the Holston Conference, and the State 
ot Tennessee. State approval iiicluded acceptance b\- the Board ot Regents, the Ten- 
nessee i ligher i'.ducation (Commission, the go\ernor, and the state legislature. (Col- 
lege trustees were polled b\- mail, and the result was a firm rejection. ( )nce again, a 
proposed merger had tailed. 

I la\'ing rejected the merger, trustees arri\'ed on campus tor their April meeting 
prepared to focus their attention on the election ot a new president. The\ were 
greeted in an unexpected tashion. A large sign posteil on ( )ld (College read: "IT I.L 
US T( X.i.ri MR - D( )\'T IT, AR IS Al^ART." Copies of a two-page student 
publication entitled "The Hoard Dogger" awaited the attention ot trustees. "The 
lioard-Dogger" directed se\ere criticism toward the groLip tor its tailure to consider 
students in its planning. The ficf that ttListees remained somewhat di\ided on the 
merger issue added to the tension. 

At the beginning of the meetin^, hill Akins otteretl remarks on the necessit\' of 

TVVC: 1857-2007 161 

a cooperative and harmonious spirit. He reported that when he arrived at the college 
that morning, the staff was busily removing some signs posted by students. He had 
insisted that the Old College sign remain, supporting the right of students to express 
their views and noting that they had acted responsibly and with no destruction. "We 
desperately need harmony on this campus," said Akins, "and we as administrators, as 
faculty, as staff, as students, and as members of the board need to remember that."-^*^ 

At the request of trustees, Charles Ensminger, the board's student representative, 
spoke of student unrest. Students wanted their opinions to be respected, thev want- 
ed information about the college's future, they wanted recruitment of well-qualilied 
students, they wanted the retention of good facult}' members, and they wanted the 
academic reputation and the mission of the college to be remembered. Ensminger 
found it symbolic of the lack of student focus that, during his four years as a stu- 
dent, a dormitory had been closed but two administration buildings had been opened. 
Speaking of recruitment and of the college's mission, Ensminger continued, "Wes- 
leyan cannot continue to be all things to all people. . . A Christian institution needs to 
define itself as a Christian institution. Recently the letterhead and the envelopes have 
dropped the flame and the cross and replaced them with a picture of Old College. . 
. We worry about recruitment. We want good students who will stay here more than 
one or two years, who will take time to get involved. . . We are concerned about losing 
good faculty members who care about students."^^ 

Trustees discussed these remarks and agreed that a dinner meeting be scheduled, 
prior to the end of the school year, when students, trustees, faculty, and staff could 
come together to voice concerns and seek solutions. 

Reporting for the presidential search committee. Dr. Lillian Cook stated that, af- 
ter reviewing some eight}" applications, the committee had narrowed the field to there 
candidates. Only one round of voting was needed to reach a unanimous choice. The 
committee recommended the election of Dr. B. James Dawson, currently serving as 
vice-president for student and institutional development at Fort Hays State Universit}' 
in Kansas. Trustees voted unanimously to accept the recommendation.^^ 

Students clearly were paying attention to institutional matters but not to the ne- 
glect of other interests. Football was gone, but other sports thrived. The women's 
basketball team, in 1993-94, won twelve of their fourteen games, captured the trophy 
at the district tournament, and earned a trip to the N.A.I.A. national tournament in 
Oregon. The trip's estimated cost was $1,500, a sum the college could ill afford. Ken 
Higgins, in characteristic fashion, offered a generous contribution and assumed the 
responsibilit}' for raising the remainder. In 1995, the Lady Bulldogs again played in 
the national tournament. Although the national crown evaded Coach Stan Harrison 
and his competent team, their two appearances in the tournament constituted a high 

In the 1993-94 baseball season, the Bulldogs achieved a 35-8 record, and Coach 
Wayne Norfleet was named Coach of the Year by the Tennessee-Virginia Athletic 
Conference. The 1994-95 team won the T.V.y\.C. title for the fourth consecutive year. 


Both the golf team and the women's soccer team won district championships. With 
sixteen victories in 1993-94, Coach Travis Hart and his women's Softball team had 
their first winning season since the inception ot the sottball prograni in 1985. 

The spring tour of the T.W'.C. Choir and Consolidation took the performers 
to Tennessee churches in Greene\'ille, Chattanooga, Cleveland, and Clinton and to 
Smvrna, Georgia. The annual dinner of the International Club featured dishes popu- 
lar in a variers' of countries including japan, Russia, \enezuela, and the Dominican 
Republic. Students in the English department held a poetry reading at the Backstage 
Coffeehouse on North White Street. The Atrican-American Student Union spon- 
sored a convocation as part of the celebration ot Black History Month. 

As the 1996 spring semester drew to a close, students crammed tor exams, and 
seniors looked forward to graduation. A calmer atmosphere prevailed. Students had 
been included in interviews of the finalists among candidates for the presidency and 
were pleased with the selection ot Dr. B. fames Dawson as Tennessee Wesleyan's 
eighteenth president. 

fVVC: 1857-2007 163 

ON THE REBOUND: 1995-2002 

"How beauteous nature now! 

How dark and sad before! 

With joy we view the pleasing change, 

And nature's God adore!" 

-John Wesley 

Dr. B. James Dawson brought to the presidency sound academic credentials and 
valuable professional experience. He held both a bachelor's and a master's degree 
from the Universit)^ of Evansville as well as a doctoral degree in higher education ad- 
ministration from Indiana University. His administrative experience included fifteen 
years at the University of Evansville and seven years at Fort Hays State Universit}'. He 
was also a dedicated churchman who, at the time of his appointment, served on the 
finance committee and taught a Sunday school class at the First Methodist Church of 
Hays, Kansas. 

Along with his academic and professional credentials, Dawson possessed assets 
not so easily measured but vital to his position. His readiness to laugh, his winning 
smile, and the warmth of his personalit}^ were attractive to faculty, smdents, alumni, 
and townspeople. From the beginning of his presidency, he made a point of estab- 
lishing a strong relationship with students, sitting with them at lunch in the college 
dining room, welcoming them to his office, and listening attentively to their opinions 
and concerns. Another asset was his gracious wife, Karen, who immediately became 
a liked and respected member of the community. The Dawsons were the parents of a 
son, Gene, and a daughter, Jamie. Their second grandchild was born while they were 
at Wesleyan. 

The spirit of optimism and commitment which characterized Dawson's presi- 
dency appears in his acceptance letter addressed to the trustees: "The opportunit}^ to 
serve this fine institution will provide for me a rewarding challenge. I am confident 
that with the help and support of the trustees we can renew the glimmer of this gem 
of Athens, East Tennessee, and the Holston Conference. I certainly look forward to 
being a part of such a splendid learning communir\'. The rich heritage of the college 
speaks to the fine leadership it has enjoyed over the course of the past century and 



more. Together we will make a tremendous difference in the future of the institu- 

Because of the terms of his contract with Fort Ha\"S, Dawson did not officially 
assume the presidency until |uh- 1995. Me did, howe\'er, yisit the campus on seyeral 
occasions and was present at the Ala\' commencement exercises where he introduced 
the speaker, Congressman John f. Duncan, fr., and presented diplomas to graduates. 

At the commencement, nobody had more fun with his inadvertent slip of the 
tongue than did Dawson himselt. With all proper dignit\', he began the presentation 
of degrees with the words, "B\" the power vested in me by the State of Kansas. . ." 
This gave the dean, a bit later, an opportunitx' tor the appropriate quotation from The 
\\'i::^ard of ();;;, "I don't think we're in Kansas any more." 

During his preliminar\- \'isits to the campus. Dr. Dawson had an opportunity 
to assess the college's condition. He concluded that, although the institution faced 
challenges, its strengths recei\-ed insufficient emphasis. Its location, midwa\' between 
Knoxville and Chattanooga, combined a pleasant small-town atmosphere with easy 
access to the shopping, entertainment, and dining opportunities of larger cities. W ith 
its facilities debt-free, it had only short-term indebtedness. Its academic excellence 
was far greater than he had at first realized, an achievement due largeh' to the untiring 
efforts and faithfulness of an exceptional core faculty. Dawson stated his belief that 
Tennessee W'esleyan suffered from an unjustified "inferiority complex" and that it was 
time to take pride in and to proclaim to the public its superior qualities. 

Dr. Dawson's formal inauguration as Tennessee W'esleyan's eighteenth president 
occurred on March 28, 1996, nine months after he assumed the position. The inau- 
gural address was given by Edward H. Hammond, president of Fort Hays State Uni- 
\-ersit\', and Bishop Clay F. Lee conducted the installation ceremony. ( )ther partici- 
pants included: George Xaff and |im C'heek, former presidents; Bill Kilbride, Shelly 
(iriffith, and Cary Da\'is, trustees; josh Mother, Student Government y\ssociation 
president; the Re\-erend Gary Grogg, superintendent ot the Holston Conference's 
CJc\ eland District; Fawrence Roseberry, mayor ot ;\thens; and Ron Banks, McMinn 
Countv executive. Representati\cs trom thirt\-one colleges and Linixersities joined 
the academic procession. 

CdTaiienges which the new president needed to address were essentialK' the same 
issues which e\'er\' president in the school's long histor\- has iaced. The i^rimarx' needs 
as always, were to increase enrollment, to erase indebtedness, and to build endow- 
tiient. Well aware ot these e\er-present concerns, Dawson first turned his attention 
ro the immediate prf)blem of the depleted facultx' and statt. Among those emplo\ed 
to till \acancies were: Martha II. (Chambers, a 19S1 gratluate, who was appoinietl 
xice-president ot tmance; Dr. Dianne Pfeit'ter, tlirector ot financial aiti; Diana W. 
kilb\', registrar; Dr. Stephen R. I krr, assist:tni j^rotessor ot education; and Paul D. 
Reneau, assistant professor ot health, jTlnsical education, and recreation. 

\\ irh the resignation of Dr. Keifh |enkins, the otiice of academic dean also be- 
came \acant but was soon and abl\ tilled In' the aj-ipoinimeni ot Dr. iMiili|") \\. ( )tt. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 165 

Dr. Ott was a friend of Dawson, and the two had worked together at the University 
of EvansviUe where, at the time of his appointment, Ott was chairman of the depart- 
ment of religion and philosophy. A graduate of Asbury College, Ott held a master's 
degree from Princeton Theological seminary and a Ph. D. from the Universit}- of 
Pennsylvania. Additionally, he had done postdoctoral study in micro-medical ethics at 
Texas Medical Center and had been awarded a fellowship for research at the Kennedy 
Insdtute of Ethics Center for Bioethics at Georgetown Universit}^ In announcing 
the appointment, Dawson said that Ott had "devoted his entire career to education 
in the United Methodist tradition and clearly understands the mission of Tennessee 
Wesleyan." Dr. Ott was given the title of provost and academic dean.- 

With the appointment of Dr. Philip Ott, the college also acquired a well-qualified 
professor for the biology department. The new dean's wife. Dr. Karen Ott, received 
a B. A. degree from Asbury College, an M. S. from the Universit}^ of Kentucky, and 
a Ph. D. from Rutgers. A member of the facult)^ of the Universit}' of EvansviUe for 
twent\^-five years, she also had taught at the EvansviUe Center of Medical Education 
of the Indiana School of Medicine. In 1995, she received the Outstanding Teacher 
Award, a national honor awarded by the United Methodist Church.-^ 

FaU enroUment in 1995 exceeded expectations. The Athens campus welcomed 
214 new students including 100 freshmen. The evening program saw an increase of 
sixt}'-seven new students. Since competition with state, tax-supported institutions 
presented a major difficult)' in recruitment, a 13.7% reduction in the tuition fee was 
announced in the spring of 1995. This reduction, along with the effective work of 
admissions personnel, brought continuing growth in the student body. Students on 
the main campus numbered 340 in 1994; in 2000, the number was close to 700. En- 
roUment continued to cUmb during Dawson's tenure and reached the highest number 
since the late 1960s. Admission standards were not lowered but raised, and the aver- 
age ACT score of freshmen entering in 1996 was 22, a quite respectable rating.^ 

Convinced that making the campus more attractive would aid in student recruit- 
ment. President Dawson directed growing financial resources toward the improve- 
ment of buildings and grounds. One of the first buildings to receive attention was 
Durham HaU which had been renovated in 1968 but needed further improvement. 
The weatherworn bricks of the structure, buUt in 1902, showed deterioration, and the 
interior needed a faceUft. Over a period of three summers, the bricks were painstak- 
ingly secured, new carpeting was installed, and a paint job brightened the interior. A 
decision welcomed by alumni was the renaming of the building to memoriaUze the 
original donor. Durham HaU became, appropriately, Banfield-Durham HaU. 

Another old building, Pett}'-Manker HaU, was less fortunate. The former men's 
dormitory and dining haU was erected in 1913. The addition of more modern dor- 
mitories along with decHning enrollment in the 1970s brought about its closing as a 
residence haU. Petty-Manker since had been used for a variet}' of purposes, including 
a site for genetic research on mice (for which it was nicknamed ""mouse house"), an 
education research lab, offices and classrooms for the art and behavioral sciences de- 


partments, and finallv as the site for ESL (English as a Second Language) instruction. 
Because few improvements had been made and repair was judged to be too expen- 
sive, Pett\'-Manker was razed in the summer ot 2000 and replaced b\' a much-needed 
student parking area. 

x-\t Pettv-Manker's cornerstone laying in 191 3, a time capsule containing appropri- 
ate items was placed in the cornerstone. This container was opened during Home- 
coming 2000 and the tollowing contents revealed: 

a list of alumni of U. S. Grant Universit\', 1866-96 

two copies ot The Exponent, 1913 

\earbook of U. S. Grant Universitv, 1893-94 

yearbook of East Tennessee W'esleyan Uni\-ersitv, 1884-85 

f ieu'S of Athens, Tennessee 

L'niversit]' Tookont, student newspaper ot Grant Uni\-ersitv, 1904 

catalogs of The Athens School of the Universitv of (Chattanooga, 1908-09 

and 1911-12 
commencement program, 1913 

Doct lines and Discipline of the United Methodist CInirch, 1912 
program ot cornerstone laving ot Pettv-Manker Hall, 1913 
Methodist Advocate jomiiaf 1 9(J5 
The Athens Post, Max 1913 
The .'Ithenian, April 1913 

These items are now in the archives room of the Merner-Pteitter 1 Jbrarv.'" 

The baseball lield complex received improvement and enlargement and was 
named |ack Bowling Field in honor of the long-time facult\- member and sports sup- 
porter. Bowling gave generously of his own resources and worked tirelessly to raise 
additional funds for the field. ~' -^ ' - "■ 

Se\-eral changes (^curred in the Merner-Pfeiffer Library. The familiar card cata- 
logs were replaced b\' an automated system, call numbers changed trom the Dewey 
Decimal System to the Library ot Congress System, and the library went online. Li- 
brary automation was funded by a grant from the Benwood Foundadon, b\' matching 
funds, and In technologx' fees paid h\ students. 

One room in the librar\- became a repositor\" tor rare books and tor historical 
documents of the college and of the Methodist (Church. The reno\'ation ot this 
room was funded b\' Mr. and Mrs. \\ ilex Bourne. Dedicated at Homecoming 2001, 
it was named Thomas (jlenn heading ami \rchi\al Room in honor ot Mrs. Bournes 
father. )Jv hile the lihrar\- staff has tjone an admirable job in organizing materials, 
more attention to the collection is needed, and \aluable historical tlocumenis are still 
iocatetl in \arious places on campus with some \er to be unearthed. I he authors ot 
this histor\' srrongh recommeinl emj^lo\ment ot a part time archi\ist to assist in the 
location, organization, and preser\ation ot documents related to the college's rich 

TWC: 1857-2007 167 

history and to the history of the United Methodist Church. 
r Another library room became, in 1996, the Genevieve Wiggins Children's Litera- 
ture Room. ! A group of more than one hundred persons assembled for the dedica- 
tion of the room honoring Wiggins who had retired after thirt}' years of service. In 
his dedication remarks, President Dawson noted that the college was not "simply 
dedicating a room to be used by children but dedicating a room that will become a 
learning laboratory, a facilit}- for all who choose to enjoy its pleasant surroundings. It 
is a foundation for learning, and the collection of books is a very definable category 
of Literature." In addition to a fine collection of books for children, the room is at- 
tractively furnished with low tables and chairs, colorful pictures and posters, and doUs, 
figurines and stuffed animals depicting tavorite storybook characters. Its renovation 
was funded by Irene Neal Martin, a long-time friend of Dr. Wiggins and a generous 
supporter of the coUege.*^ 1 

Two new buildingsirppeared on campus in 1998-99. In 1998, the college signed 
an agreement with Head Start for the construction of a building on Green Street. 
According to the contract, should Head Start cease use of the facilit}', the building 
would revert to the college. A new student residence, the Nocatula Apartments, was 
ready for occupation in 1999. The apartment building, located on Coach Dwain 
Farmer Drive adjacent to Centennial Hall, was built by private owners and leased for 
twent}'-five years with a buyout clause by which the college could purchase the build- 
ing within that period. 

The addition of rocking chairs to the porch of Old College may seem insignifi- 
cant in comparison to other changes. However, the appearance of these chairs dur- 
ing Dawson's tenure may be viewed as symbolic. With some of the problems of the 
past being solved, tensions eased, and the campus atmosphere became more relaxed. 
President Dawson recalled standing on Old College's porch on a sunny day in spring 
while discussing with Regenia Mayfield changes being made to enhance the coUege 
landscape. As their discussion continued, Dawson remarked that on such a pleasant 
day, it seemed regrettable to go inside to his office. Wouldn't it be nice if they could 
sit on the porch in rocking chairs? The next day, he said, rocking chairs "miraculously 
appeared." Since that time, Dawson said, the chairs have become an integral part of 
the college scene. "We have solved problems from those rocking chairs, entertained 
guests, provided space for students to study and relax; but perhaps of greatest im- 
portance is the statement which those chairs make to all who visit on campus. They 
say that we are an institution which enjoys discussion in a comfortable setting. They 
say, from time to time, let us stop and contemplate what we are about here." All 
problems, said Dawson, seem smaller when viewed from a rocking chair on a front 
porch, and the slow, relaxing movement of a rocking chair can bring the comfortable 
assurance that the unchanging mission of the college will keep it strong and aUve. 

A major addition to the curriculum came in 1999 with the implementation of a 
nursing program. The desirability of such a program had been discussed since the 
1970s, but financial constraints prevented its realization. In 1999, an agreement was 


reached with Fort Sanders Regional Medical Center in Knoxville to form a partner- 
ship which would make possible a baccalaureate degree in nursing. Core curriculum 
courses ottered on the Athens campus were to be supplemented bv professional edu- 
cation and clinical experience at Fort Sanders tacilities in Knowille. In addition to 
training at Fort Sanders, further clinical experience could be obtained at nearb\" sites 
such as East Tennessee Children's Hospital, Pennisula Mental Health Center, Ivnox 
CountA- Health Department, and nursing homes in Oak Ridge and Sevierville. 

After approval was awarded by the Tennessee Board of Nursing, the first nursing 
class of eighteen students began their training. Core faculty for professional nursing 
consisted of Dr. Margaret Heins, nursing chairman; Dr. Carolyn Huff Robinson, 
assistant professor; [can S. Bernard, instructor; Alice T CiradN; instructor; and /Vnn 
Walker, instructor. Staff personnel included Gail Eubanks, student ser\ices coordi- 
nator, and \anc\' Ferguson, administrative assistant.*^ 

The nursing program received full accreditation from the Commission on Col- 
lege Nursing Education in November 2(H)1. In Ma\' 2(1(11, the Tennessee \\"esle\'- 
an-Fort Sanders Nursing Program held its first pinning ceremon\- at (]hurch Street 
United Methodist Church in Ivnoxx'ille, and, in Athens, seventeen students receix'ed 
the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (T3SN) at Tennessee W'eslevan's commencement 
exercises. The nursing program experienced rapid growth evidenced b\- the tact that 
in April 2(J02 approximately fifty new students were admitted to the program.'' 

Changes in the physical education department included the addition of a major 
in sports and fitness management and in exercise science. A well-equipped exercise 
center was funded by a gift fn)m John ("Thunder") Thornton, a 1975 graduate.'" 

The religion and philosophy department sponsored its first Wesley Study Tour 
in the summer of 1998, a popular opportunity for students and other participants to 
\-isit sites in F^ngland associated with )ohn and (Charles Wesley According to Dr. Sam 
Roberts, department chairman, "A United Methodist church-related college should 
expose its students to their school's ecclesiastical tradition and to the li\es of the Wes- 
levs, whose efforts to bring knowledge and vital piety into dialogue not onh represent 
Methodism, but Cdiristianit\' at its best." The stud\' tour was repeated, with some 
x'ariations, in subsequent \'ears." 

Tennessee Weslex'an's mission statement was re\ ised during President Dawson's 
tenure to read as tollf)ws: 

In keeping with the spirit of tiie liberal arts, Tennessee \\esle\an seeks within 
the framework of the )udeo-( Trisrian tradition to j-)ro\ ide tor studetits the 
highest c]Lialit\' ot educational experience, to promote a j^etsonal life-st\ie 
founded on intc.!j;rit\-, resj-)onsibilit\-, meaning, ami purpose, and to prepare 
students for a lite of k-adershijT and scr\ ice in an e\er-changing global 

The problem of faculr\- salaries was as okl as the college itselt am.! made difticult 
both the recruitment and retention of' sLijiefior teachers. At the tall meeting ot the 

TWC: 1857-2007 169 

trustees in 1997, Tim Carpenter, a 1967 graduate who chaired the academic affairs 
and religious life committee, voiced his committee's strong concern about this issue. 
"We are genuinely concerned, if not alarmed," said Carpenter, "and believe that this 
needs to be addressed immediately." Modest annual salary increments were insti- 
gated, but the facult}' continued to be paid well below the national average. In the 
spring of 2000, Dawson informed trustees that The Chronicle of Higher Education listed 
Tennessee Wesleyan third from the bottom in terms of salaries paid to full professors 
in colleges of the United States. "This is an issue we must address," he declared. "We 
will continue to address it in increments as resources become available." As he spoke 
of the problem, Dawson emphasized that the low salary scale was not an indication 
of the faculty's qualit}-.^- 

In spite of low salaries, a number of faculty' members chose to come and to 
stay, finding attractions that outweighed monetary compensation. Free tuition for 
the family of an employee, including tuition to the two other Holston Conference 
colleges, was appealing to some. The "friendly cit\'" of Athens was a good place to 
live. Classes smaller than those of a larger institution afforded the opportunit}^ to 
work with students individually. The vast majority of these students came from back- 
grounds which encouraged both scholarship and sound moral values. Many facult}^ 
members found that the college's mission corresponded with their own career goals. 
Academic freedom was respected. Thus it was not unusual to find facult}' and staff 
employed during this period who had tenures of more than twent}' years. Among this 
group were: Robbie Ensminger (Assistant to the President and Director of Alumni 
Affairs); Dr. Janice Ryberg (Music); Carol Bates (Bursar); Dr. Edmond Cox (Biology); 
Dr. Durwood Dunn (History); Jim Thompson (Sociology); Dr. David Duncan (His- 
tory); Holland Vibbert (Student Services); Dr. Joyce Baker (Chemistry); Stan Harrison 
(Dean of Students and Athletics); Darnell Chance (Music); Sandra Clariday (Librar- 
ian); Thomas Oneal (Business); Dr. Sam Roberts (Religion and Philosophy); and Julie 
Adams (Librarian). 

To recognize employees who completed twenty-five or more years of service, the 
Nocatula Award was established in 1999 and first awarded to Dr. Edmond Cox, Dr. 
Janice Ryberg, Jim Thompson, and Robbie Ensminger.'-'' 

Dr. Edmond Cox retired in 1999. Cox headed the biology department and was 
the highly respected mentor to many students who became successful physicians. 

A major change in the campus scene came with the retirement of Robbie Ens- 
minger in 2000. During her almost half-century of service, she had been the assistant 
to six presidents and two interim presidents and was also the popular director of 
alumni affairs. For many alumni, "Robbie" was their principal contact with the col- 
lege, and newly arrived presidents found her to be a reservoir of knowledge and an 
invaluable aid in their adjustment to a new position. In 1989, the Robbie J. Ensminger 
Endowed Scholarship was established in honor of her thirt}'-five years of service. 
Ensminger continues her connection with the college as a member of the board of 


The year 2000 also saw the retirement of Glenn Lowe, director of food services 
for eighteen years. Before coming to W'esleyan, Lowe had spent t\yent\--one years in 
the U. S. Marine Corps, serving in Korea and in \'ietnam. Known affectionately as 
"the Chief," Lowe was much loved b\- taculty and staff and bv students who often 
sought his wise counsel. L pon his retirement, the Sherman dining hall was named in 
his honor. The death of the Chiet, in February 2006, was a sad loss to many'"" 

Also retiring from the earthly scene, but not trom the hearts of his many friends 
and admirers, was George Naff, former president, who died on April 23, 1998. A 
gentle, caring man of faith, he was an inspiration to countless indiyiduals who were 
blessed b\" knowing him. George and Mary Ellen Naff worked as a team in their 
tireless efforts for the betterment ot the college. The\' had moved in 1992 to Asbury 
Acres Retirement Home in Mam'ille where he served as chaplain until a year before 
his death and where she continues to produce musical shows with retirees as perform- 

While the main focus of the facult\' has always been on teaching and the school 
has never had a "publish or perish'" polic\', a number of protessors have published 
books and/or articles in scholarly journals. The years 1990-2000 were a particularly 
producti\'e period for such publications. Dr. Dun\-o()d Dunn, histor\' professor, fol- 
lowed his popular book on Cade's Cove with another book published bv the L'niver- 
sir\' of Tennessee Press and entitled A;/ Abolitionist in the Appalachian So/ith: H.-::^ekiel 
Bi/r/styt o// Slaren, Capitalism, and Statehood in Hast Tennessee. Dunn also contributed 
articles and book re\'iews to historical journals. Dr. \\ illiam Ruleman, 1 English pro- 
fessor, recci\ed recognition in Orhis, a British literar\- journal, which listed him as 
one of the "100 major modern poets." Ruleman's poems hax'c appeared in numer- 
ous litcrar\- publicadons. Dr. Nancy Fisher, English professor, published her second 
book of poetry, 1 ision at Delphi. Dr. Paul Reneau, ph\'sical education chairman, was 
the co-author of an article appearing in jo/irnal of Iz.xc/rise Physiology. Dr. )ean Steven- 
son, education professor, co-authored an ardclc published in a national journal tor 
teachers. Dr. Stephen Herr, education professor, conducted research in the held ot 
coopcrari\e education which led to the publication of a book, journal articles, and 
a conference paper. Dr. \\ illiam McDonald, chaplain antl religion protessor, wrote 
se\'eral book re\'iews appearing in journals concerned with church histor\'. Dr. Ann 
Cjowdy, Finglish prrjfessor, produced I Shvni'ood Sa///plvi\ I H69-I SS4. Published In 
the L'ni\-ersit\' of Tennessee Press, the xolume contained a collection oi writings h\ 
Karherine Sherwood, a pioneer in dialect fiction. Dr. (iene\ie\e Wiggins, I'.nglish 
professor, authored the first full-length critical biograph\ ot (Canadian author !,. M. 
\Iontgomer\- which was published b\' Macmillan as part oi the 'I'waxne World Au 
rhors series. W iggins was also a book rexiewer for The .\n/erica)i Rericir o/ Canadian 
St/idies. This listing is probabK incom]ilete bui gi\es an intlicaiion ot the facult\'s 
scholarh- achie\'emenrs in ;Kldiiion to classroom teaching.''' 

President Dawson was in\ited, in I "^')~, to ser\e on iht PresicJeniial Leadership 
CiroLip to address the issue ot alcohol and drugs on college campuses. The l-*resi- 

TWC: 1857-2007 171 

dendal Leadership Group was created under the auspices of the U. S. Department 
of Education's Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Dawson's selection was 
a signal honor since representatives from only six colleges were included. The other 
institutions, all larger than T.W.C., were the Universit}' of Rhode Island, the University 
of Iowa, Ohio State Universit}'^, the University of Arizona, and Prairie View A&M. 
Dawson continued his involvement in this group and has become nationally known 
for his efforts to involve the leadership of colleges and universities in prevention of 
alcohol and drug abuse. 

Another honor bestowed on the college was its first listing, in 1999, in U. S. News 
and World Keport as one of 'America's Best Colleges," a distinction repeated in subse- 
quent years. 

Tennessee Wesleyan's accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools was reaffirmed in 2000. The visiting SACS committee applauded the 
college's rich heritage, its dedicated faculty, and its progress toward a sound financial 
base while expressing some concern about the extensive use of adjunct facult}' at off- 
campus sites. The committee recommended broader use of information technology 
and the establishment of clearly defined links between strategic planning, assessment, 
and budget.'^ 

One of the most ambitious fundraising campaigns ever undertaken was launched 
in 1997, a three-year effort with a goal of ten million dollars. Regenia Mayfield, 
trustee and 1959 graduate, chaired the campaign and was assisted by five committees 
seeking support from five groups of potential donors. Dr. Ralph Mohney, Nell Moh- 
ney, and George OUphant led the committee working with churches of the Holston 
Conference, Tim Carpenter and Leon Anziano headed the industrial committee, and 
Bill Ivilbride and Dr. William Sullins co-chaired the major gifts committee. The alum- 
ni committee was under the leadership of Charles ("Buddy") Liner, and John Perdue 
directed the local communit}' effort. ^'^ 

The campaign had as its theme "Together There Are No Limits" and was pre- 
sented to the public at a dinner in 1998 which had Governor Don Sundquist as its 
keynote speaker. The governor spoke in appreciation of the importance of Tennes- 
see's thirt}'-five private colleges which produce more than thirty percent of the state's 

At the dinner. President Dawson informed his audience that campaign workers 
had, during the past year, generated three-fourths of the ten-milkon goal. He remind- 
ed Listeners that the year 2000 was drawing near which would mean that Tennessee 
Wesleyan's work would then span a period covering three centuries. "No mean feat 
for a small church-related institution," said Dawson, "but it's no surprise to me. We 
are a good place, and we're good at what we do."-" 

Dawson's remarks were followed by those of Regenia Mayfield who spoke ap- 
propriately of the strong connection between town and gown. "There is no doubt," 
she said, "that Wesleyan could never have survived without support from Athens." 
However, she stressed, Athens also benefited in many ways from the partnership. 


The dinner closed with an inspiring performance of "Here I Am, Lord" bv Keith 
Memorial United Methodist Church's chancel choir under the direction of Linda Mc- 

The funding campaign received a major boost with a 5487,000 grant from the 
Teagle Foundation, a New York Cit}' foundation with which President Harry Sher- 
man had made the initial contact. This grant brought total gifts received to 8.5 million 
which enabled the college to renovate the dining room, make major improvements in 
Townsend Hall, supply each tacult}' member with a computer, improve equipment in 
computer labs, and signihcanth' increase endowment. At Homecoming 2001, alumni 
celebrated the announcement that the campaign had exceeded its goal bv raising over 
ten million dollars.-- 

The graduating class of 1999 received a special treat when Leonard ("Bud") 
Lomell of the class of 1941 returned to his alma mater to give the commencement 
address. Lomell's career in World War II was chronicled in Tom Brokaw's The Greatest 
Generation, and he had received the college's Distinguished Alumnus Award in 1998. 
In his address to the 186 graduates, Lomell credited Tennessee Weslevan with a large 
measure of his success. "Tennessee Weslevan made me a better man, and World War 
11 matured me," he said. A native ot Brookhn, Lomell came to \X'esle\'an to plav foot- 
ball and described the two vears he spent in Athens as one ot the happiest times of 
his life. After his graduation from Weslevan, then a junior college, he joined the U. S. 
Armv Rangers and was decorated for his heroism during the invasion of Normandv. 
After the war, he used the G. I. bill to resume his education and then built a success- 
ful law practice in New [ersev .where he now resides. In his commencement address, 
Lcjmell advised graduates to continue their education and to give something back to 
their college and to their communities. "The best ot times lie ahead tor all ot vou," 
he said. "Go tor it!" Lomell returned to Athens in Ma\- 2001 to receive the honorar\' 
degree of Doctor of Law .\t the same commencement, the Reverend Mahon Archer 
was awarded an honorarN' Doctor ot Dix'initv 

The voungest person e\'er to recei\'e a degree at the college's commencement 
exercises is not known, but it is likelv that \oncile Miller is the oldest. At the 2001 
commencement. Miller, at age "73, realized a litelong dream. As a teenager, she had 
been forced to lea\'e school after junior high because of her tamilv's inabi!it\- to pa\- 
tor her books. Some hft\' vears later, she used fuiuls trom her deceasetl husband's 
veteran's benefits to hnance two \ears at 1 iiwassee (College. \\ ith an associate degree 
from i Iiwassee, she enrolled at Weslevan in 1997 and, in spite ot a bout with cancer, 
successtulh' completed requirements for the B. S. degree. Miller luimbK credits oth- 
ers tor much ot her ci )ura!j;eoLis acc( implishment. "I am \ er\- thanklLiI i< > I .iiiila C iarza 
and |im Thompson tor all their support," she said. "1 especialK' want lo thank Diana 
Kichesin, 'i'.W.C!. registrar, tor all of her hel|T o\er the past tew \ears. 1)|-. l)urwc)ocl 
Dunn was also \er\' ^ood about workinu around m\ chemo schedule with his class. . . 
I'll always remember how nice and accepting exervone was ot me at Tennessee Wes- 
levan." After her irradualK )n, \ oncile Millei' i in medial el \ began sUuK tor ihi- I ..S. A.T., 

TVVC: 1857-2007 173 

the preliminary test required for admittance to law school.--' 

While his responsibilities at the college occupied a major portion of his time, 
President Dawson was also active in the community' and in his church. He was a 
member of the board of the Y.M.C.A. and of United Way, performed a variet}' of du- 
ties for the Athens Area Chamber of Commerce, and held membership in the Athens 
Kiwanis Club. As a member of Keith Memorial United Methodist Church, he served 
on the administrative board. His leadership at the college and in the communit}' was 
recognized by his being presented the J. Neal Ensminger Man of the Year Award by 
the Athens Area Chamber of Commerce in 2002. 

Not long after Dawson's being named "Man of the Year," rumors began to cir- 
culate that he was leaving the college. At the spring meeting of the trustees, he 
confirmed the rumors by announcing that he had accepted the presidency of Coker 
College in South Carolina but would remain at T. W C. until June 30, the end of the 
academic year. In an interview with Richard Edwards of Tbe Daily Post-Athenian, 
Dawson explained his decision. "You come to a point in your career when you have 
to make difficult decisions about your future. Mine was driven by age more than any- 
thing else." Noting that the average term of a college president was less than seven 
years, he believed that it was time, at age fift)'-seven, for him to move to another posi- 
tion. T he newspaper interview was followed by an editorial headed "Dawson Served 
T.W.C. and Community Well," which praised Dawson's accomplishments during his 
seven-year tenure.-"^ 

Following the news of Dawson's resignation. Dr. Shellev Griffith, trustees' chair- 
man, stated that board members were "extremely proud of the service that Dr. Daw- 
son and his wife, Karen, have brought to Tennessee Wesleyan and our community 
and certainly wish them all the best in their transition and in Dr. Dawson's next as- 
signment." Search for Dawson's successor would begin immediately said Griffith, 
with Rebecca Jaquish chairing the search committee.-'' 

At his final report to the trustees, in April 2000, Dawson urged the board to con- 
tinue to focus on a balanced budget, alumni donations, and raising both the number 
of students enrolled and the graduation rate. He also recommended another fund- 
raising campaign near the end of 2007-08 with emphasis on strengthening endow- 

President Dawson presided over his eighth and last commencement exercises 
in May 2002. Returning to the campus to give the baccalaureate sermon was Dr. 
Philip Ott, former dean. The Reverend Joe Eldridge, a 1967 graduate and chaplain 
of American University in Washington, D C, gave the commencement address. 

The numerous achievements of the Dawson presidency included: a more attrac- 
tive campus, a nursing program and other curriculum additions, growth in enrollment, 
increased gifts and grants, growth in endowment from four million to twelve million, 
SACS reaccredidation, and the successful completion of the college's largest capital 
funds campaign. His successor would find it a challenge to match these achieve- 



"Thou who has kept us to this hour 
O keep us faithful to the end." 

- Chiir/es Wesley 

Attcr the departure of Dr. fames Dawson in June 2002, trustees sought leader- 
ship for the college during the interim period before the election of a new president. 
Such leadership was provided bv Dr. Flovd Falan\-, former president of Reinhardt 
College, another United Methodist institution in northern Georgia. Since Falanv's 
tenure was expected to be ot short duration, he was not assigned tull presidential 
authorit\- but was asked to provide stability- and to supervise the college's daih' opera- 
tion. The choice of Falan\' proved to be a fortunate selection. 

When Dr. Falan\- arri\-ed, the 2002 tall semester was beginning with some ke\' po- 
sitions unhlled, among them a dean of academic attairs and a leader tor institutional 
ad\'ancement. Dr. William Ruleman, chairman of the English department, agreed 
to act temporarih as academic dean. Falanv urged quick attention to tilling the posi- 
tion ot \ice-president tor institutional adx'ancement since tundraising seemed to be 
at a standstill without a single grant proposal filed with a toundation or corporation. 
While tundraising efforts were stagnant, the enrollment picture was encouraging with 
the 2002 fall enrollment at its second highest le\el since 1968. The position ot \ ice- 
jifeMdcnt tor institutional acKancement was e\entuall\ tilled b\' the a]"^p()intmeni ot 
W intord Cjordon and later ot Alan Deusterhaiis. Both dordon ami Deusterhaus 
held the position tor a rclati\el\' short rime. SubsecjuentK', Mathew Pinson was em- 
plo\ed to assist the jTresident in tundraising ami cie\ elopment.' 

.An experienced tundraiser, lalan\ saw the u^i^d to increase alumni contributions 
since toundations aiul corporations of tering grants \"ie\\ the le\el of alumni su]"i]^ort 
as a major criterion in considering their response to a grant proposal. The reasoning 
is that graduates ot an institution are those most able to judge whether it is \\( )i"th\- ot 
suppi >n. During his brief tenure, lalanx made a strong apjieal to alumni to contribute 
to rlie college, noting that, on the national a\erage, alumni gifts comprise twent\ eight 

TWC: 1857-2007 


percent of donations to a college or universit}'. In his appeal, Falany said, "If America 
needed Tennessee Wesleyan in 1857, 1 propose that we need it even more today." 

At the November 8 meeting of the trustees, Rebecca Jaquish reported for the 
presidential search committee, and the nomination of Dr. Thomas Armstrong re- 
ceived board approval. At the same meeting. Dr. Falany announced that he and his 
wife, Fay, would be leaving in January. Trustees expressed appreciation for Falany's 
able leadership during the past six months.^ 

As an expression of gratitude and esteem, a 2003 issue of the alumni magazine 
was dedicated to Floyd and Fay Falany who, according to the dedicatory statement, 
"have brought honor, wisdom, gracious hospitalit}; and a sense of stability and weU 
being to our campus community." In an article in the same issue, Falany wrote, "I 
will never forget that six of the best months of my life were spent on the campus of 
Tennessee Wesleyan College in Athens, Tennessee.'"^ 

Dr. Thomas F Armstrong assumed the presidency in January 2003, arriving from 
Texas Wesleyan Universit}' where he had served as provost, senior vice-president, as- 
sistant to the president, and history professor. He earned his B. A. and M. A. degrees 
from the University of Colorado and his Ph.D. from the University of Virginia. His 
spouse. Dr. Janice Fennell Armstrong, held B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in library 
science and had extensive experience as an academic librarian. 

Dr. Armstrong was formally inaugurated as Tennessee Wesleyan's nineteenth 
president in October 2003. Bishop Ray M. Chamberlain, Jr. conducted the installa- 
tion ceremony, and the inaugural address was given by the Honorable Kay Granger, 
Texas congresswoman. Representatives from thirty-two colleges and universities in- 
cluded Dr. James Dawson, representing Coker College. 

At the April 2004 meeting of the trustees. Dr. Armstrong challenged each board 
member to donate at least $1,000 to the annual fund and supplemented his appeal by 
presenting two $1,000 checks as his own contribution and that of his wife.^ 

A new program was added to the curriculum when Larry Wallace, former direc- 
tor of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation, joined the faculty. A native of Athens, 
Wallace's distinguished career in law enforcement covered a period of thirt}'-nine 
years. At Wesleyan, he began as an adjunct instructor of criminal justice, but his 
popular courses and student interest in the subject eventually led to the establishment 
of a major in criminal justice. In addition to his classroom work, Wallace became the 
college's vice president for external affairs in 2005. 

Three days after the college's 147th commencement in May 2004, President Arm- 
strong stated in an interview published in The Daily Post-Afheiiian that he would soon 
be leaving his position. "There is an ongoing discussion with the executive committee 
of the board of trustees," he said, "which indicates that my service to Tennessee Wes- 
leyan may end on June 30, 2004." Neither Armstrong nor the trustees' chairperson. 
Dr. Lillian Cook, offered specifics about the "ongoing discussion."*^' 

On May 13, a news release from the executive committee announced the resig- 
nation ot President Armstrong to be effective on June 30. The release quoted Dr. 


Lillian Cook as saying, "We appreciate the service Dr. Armstrong has given to 
T.W'.C. and the community'. We wish Dr. Armstrong and his wife, |an, all the best in 
their new endeavor." Cook also stated that a presidential search committee would 
begin work immediately. 

In a separate statement provided to the newspaper. Dr. Armstrong explained his 
resisJTiation as bein<j due to a ditference in his vision of the colleo;e's future from that 
of some trustees. His vision, he said, ''was endorsed b\" the full board of trustees 
through their approval of the school's planning premises at its April meeting," but his 
ideas "differed from (those of) members of the executive committee of the board of 
trustees." He did not offer details about the two differing viewpoints.'"^ 

The executive committee again turned to Dr. Flovd Falanv who agreed to serve as 
interim president, this time for one vear with full presidendal authorit); Even before 
he assumed this office, Falanv was asked by Bishop Chamberlain to represent Ten- 
nessee Wesle\an at the Holston Annual Conference. Upon their return to T.W'.C., the 
Falanvs received a warm welcome from the college community because of strong ties 
formed during his previous brief tenure.'' 

Another cause for rejoicing was the announcement of a S1.5 million gift from 
the estate of Dr. Paul F. Dishner. The large donation was somewhat surprising since 
neither Dishner nor anv member ot his famih' had attended the college. Dr. Sam 
Xeelev, a trustee and Dishner's cousin, earlier had arranged a meeting of his cousin 
with President Dawson. Dishner apparently was impressed with Dawson's presenta- 
tion ot the college's needs and its potential tor greater service.'" 

Anna Gambel, sister of Dr. Dishner, attended the formal presentation and spoke 
of the gift as "a demonstration of his love of education and the belief that everyone 
should have the benefit of higher learning." Born into a poor but harciworking fam- 
il\-, Dishner had obtained his education in spite (A limited funds, graduating from the 
University- ot Tennessee Medical School and later both practicing medicine and teach- 
ing aspiring phxsicians. In addition to his final generous donation, Dishner pre\iously 
had gi\ en T. W'. C. an apartment complex in Ivingsport and other monetary contribu- 

W"esle\'an discovered another friend and generous dcmor upon the graduation ot 
its student go\ernmenr president in 21 H l3. After the graduation of Will Purushotham, 
his grandfather. Dr. W illiam R. Bennett, gave 310,000 to the college in appreciation 
ot its role in Will's education and in his leatlershi|T de\elo|')ment. A distinguished 
educator with a Ph. D. in economics, Bennett hatl retired from the rni\ersit\ ot 
Alabama after thirt\-three \ears of serxice. lie asked that his gift be usetl to fund 
leadership opportunities for fjther students. The proud grandfather said, "W ill had 
tlone so much and lo\ed the school. 1 wanted ro thank the school. Also I woultl be 
delighted to be a professor at a school like Tennessee Wesle\an."' After gratluation, 
W ill Purushotham worked as a youth minister in /Mabama before returning to T. W. 
C. as an admissions counselor.'- 

Another unexpected gift came from the estate of Irene Wilson. Pete and Irene 

TWC: 1857-2007 177 

Wilson owned Wilson's Jewelry in downtown Athens near the college. Over a num- 
ber of years, faculty, staff, and students frequently shopped there. Students often 
sought the Wilsons' advice when looking for a special gift for a special person and 
sometimes even bought engagement and wedding rings. Members of the college 
communit}' became an extended family for the Wilsons. Irene Wilson survived her 
husband and upon her death in 2003, left a bequest of approximately $500,000 to the 

Interim President Falany was pleased to be on the campus when Tennessee Wes- 
leyan was recognized as one of "America's Best Small Colleges" by Institutional Re- 
search and Evaluation, Inc., an independent consulting organization specializing in 
higher education research. Commenting on the distinction, Falany said, "Everyone 
on this campus is dedicated to excellence, so we know what a great college it is. With 
this recognition, people across the nation will have a chance to hear about the college 
and the unique experience it gives to students." 

National recognition also came to Stan Harrison when he was named the 2003- 
04 NAIA National Athletics Director of the Year. After coming to T. W C. in 1982 
as women's basketball coach, Harrison had led teams of Lady Bulldogs to more than 
four hundred wins, six conference championships, and competition in five national 
tournaments. As the college's athletics director, he added three women's and two 
men's varsit}' sports. His concern for academics as well as athletics has played a large 
part in the remarkable graduation rate for student athletes of more than eight}^-five 
percent. ^"^ 

Several well-deserved awards were presented at Homecoming 2004, but one was 
particularly appropriate. Rachel Cochran received the Robbie J. Ensminger Friend 
of Wesleyan Award in recognition of her many years of dedicated service. Cochran 
has been a tireless and generous supporter of the college since 1979 when she first 
joined the board of trustees. In 1984, her support had been recognized when she was 
awarded the honorary Doctor of Humanities degree.'-'' 

A highlight of the 2004-05 school year for the college choir was a trip to Ger- 
many to perform for soldiers based there. The fift}'- voice group, under the leadership 
of Director Keith Wheeler, traveled to Ramstein, Germany, where the Ramstein Air 
Base contains the largest community of Americans outside the United States. The 
base's hospital houses most of the injured soldiers evacuated from war zones in the 
Middle East and other areas. The choir's "Yellow Ribbon Tour," in May 2005, gave 
Wesleyan students not only an exciting travel experience but an opportunity^ to display 
support for the brave men and women who defend our country and the cause of 

Susan Buttram, director of alumni affairs, retired in the spring of 2005 after sev- 
enteen years of service. A 1967 graduate, Buttram ably performed the many duties of 
her office, one of her greatest accomplishments being the production of an extremely 
attractive magazine. During Buttram's tenure the publication was called The Tennes- 
see Wesleyan College Alumni Maga::^jne^ but shorth' before her retirement, she offered to 


alumni a contest to select a new title. The contest's winner was James E. Heath of 
the Class of 1949 who suggested the name .-iirhts. According to Heath, the campus 
arches are "a part of our past, present, and tuture." He recalled his student days when 
the arches were "a favorite spot to meet and gossip." The arches recenth' had been 
restored bv the class of 1950 and were dedicated at Homecoming 2005.^ 

Following Susan Buttram's retirement, Cindv Runvan of the class of 1994 was 
appointed director ot alumni and tamilv relations. Recenth' Run\-an has added to her 
other responsibilides work with the 15Uth anni\'ersarv committee which is planning 
the sesquicentennial celebration.''"^ 

Retiring at the end of the spring 2004 semester was Gary Long, an able and 
popular professor of mathematics. 

Dr. William Ruleman, returned to the classroom in 2005, haxing served as aca- 
demic dean since 2002. Dr. Suzanne Hine, chair of the educadon department, was 
appointed to the dean's position. Hine holds a master ot arts degree and doctoral de- 
gree in education trom L'. T. Ivnoxxille. Prior to coming to W'eslevan, she had ser\-ed 
as vice-president and dean at Tusculum College. 

Tennessee W'eslevan's twentieth president. Dr. Stephen (London, did not just "ar- 
ri\e" in )une 2005; he zoomed in and "hit the ground running." His suppK' of seem- 
ingly inexhaustible energy has led to such descriptions as ''human d\'namo" and ''a 
jolt of electricitA"." All signs point to his being an administrator who can lead Tennes- 
see W'esleyan to new heights of achievement. 

Dr. Condon gi\'es credit to his wite, Beckv, and to Dr. hlo\d balanx; a person he 
looked up to at Reinhardt College, as the persons who encouraged him to assume 
his present position. During his last year at Reinhardt, he had decided to seek a new- 
career path and had two options, either to work as vice-chancellor at a large iini\ er- 
sitv or as the president of a small college. Dr. Falan\' spoke glowingly ot Tennessee 
Weslex'an, and when the Condons \-isited Athens, Mrs. (London liked the campus at- 
mosphere. After an interview with the presidential search committee, chaired b\- bred 
Womack, the Cjjndons returned to Georgia and "left it in Ciod's hands." In April, 
C^mdon recei\'ed the call he had hoped tor, a call trom rhe trustees ottering him the 

President C^ondon's educational background includes a bachelor's degree trom 
boston Teachers C^ollege, a master's degree from llorida State L'nixersitw an educa- 
tion specialist degree from the I 'ni\ersir\- of Alabama, and a Ph. D. trom the I ni\er- 
sit\ of Mississippi, lie continued his studies at I larxani tor post-docioral work in 
educational management. I lis \aluable emplo\nient experience consists ot sexenteen 
\'ears ot administratixe positions at L'nited Methodist colleges in the soLitheasi, in- 
clmiinL' Ihintington (^ollei^e, l.amlnitii bnixersitx, and Keinhardi (College. I lis wite, 
Heck\-, IS a protessional librarian currenth' empio\ed at \onore b,lementar\ School. 
I he (Condons are the parents of (Curtis, who works in computer sales, and Alexis, a 
college senior. 

At his tirsr meeting with trustees in ( )ciober 2005, I'resiclenr ('ondon stated that 

TWC: 1857-2007 179 

he did not wish a formal inauguration. Perhaps the energetic administrator felt that 
he could not spare the time! He also informed the trustees that Dr. Jack Bowling 
had given his house in the Pikwatina subdivision to the college. Since that time, the 
college has received another gift of a residence on Highland Avenue from Dr. Milnor 
and Miriam Jones.-" 

Since becoming president, Dr. Condon has focused his attention on three areas: 
fundraising, which he sees as his primary task; increased enrollment; and renovation 
and construction projects. In order to concentrate on these three areas, he entrusted 
responsibilitv for the college's daily operation to the senior staff Senior staff mem- 
bers include: Dr. Suzanne Hine, vice-president for academic affairs; Stan Harrison, 
vice-president for enrollment management; Larry Wallace, vice-president for external 
affairs; Martha Chambers, vice-president for financial affairs; and Scott Mashburn, 
vice-president for student life. 

President Condon has taken the Wesleyan story on the road as he has talked 
with alumni, business leaders, and foundation officials. During his first full year as 
president, gifts increased from $500,000 during the previous year to 1.3 million in 
2005-06. The 2006-2007 campaign for communit}^ funding also hit a new high as 
contributions from area businesses nearly doubled as compared to the 2005-06 fis- 
cal period. Leading this successful campaign were Shirley Woodcock of Sweetwater 
Oil Company, jack Allen of Citizens National Bank, Carter Runyan of Jackson and 
Runyan Accountants, and Ross Dodson of Athens Housing Authority."^ 

Condon's second area of concern, enrollment, also peaked. The 2006 fall enroll- 
ment reached 881, the highest level in the history of the college and topping the 879 
record set in 1966. Condon anticipates that enrollment will reach 900 in the fall of 
2007, moving close to the goal of 1 ,000." 

No one passing by the campus today can be unaware that something is happen- 
ing at Tennessee Weslevan, for major physical changes are quite evident. Shortly 
after Condon's arrival, a million-dollar renovation of Centennial Hall was undertaken. 
Built in 1957 as a residence hall for men. Centennial had fallen into disrepair and, for 
safet}' reasons, the building was closed and blocked off bv a fence. The renovated 
building, completed in 2006 was renamed Elliott Hall in January 2007 in honor of the 
Elliott Family- Colonel John B. and Mary Ada Adams Elliott, and their sons Drannon 
Z. ("Zig"), Hershel A., Kenneth M. and John B. ("Buck"). The facility houses the art 
and business departments. The Elliott brothers had grown up in Athens and attended 
Wesleyan during the time of the great depression, studying chemical engineering. 
Kenneth subsequently worked in Dallas as a research engineer for Mobil Oil. As an 
alumnus and a former long term member of the board of trustees, Kenneth Elliott 
has been a generous supporter of Wesleyan. 

Elliott Hall was further enhanced by the addition of the Thomas B. Mavfield 
Loggia and Courtyard located in front of the building. The Mayfield name has been 
long assfjciated with Tennessee Wesleyan. Thomas Mayfield and his brother, Scott, 
took a small milk and ice cream processing plant, started bv their father, and devel- 


oped it into one of the leading dairy businesses of the southeastern United States. 
Both Tom and Scott attended W'eslevan, as did their mother, Goldie Denton Mavfield, 
as did Tom's wife, Regenia, and as did Tom and Regenia's son. Bill. Bill's daughter, 
Lindsev, will enter as a freshman in the fall of 200". Tom Mavtield received an hon- 
orary doctorate in 1983, and Regenia was awarded an honorar\' doctorate in music in 
May 2006. Landscaping of the court}'ard is to be completed by the date of the 150th 
anniversary celebration. 

Construction of Wesley Commons is in progress and is to contain one hundred 
smdent apartments. The apartment complex, a six-million-dollar project, is located 
behind Banfield-Durham Mall, the Mcrner-Pfeiffer Library, and Fisher Hall of Sci- 
ence in the northwestern area ot the former athletic field. It is expected to be ready 
for occupancy at the beginning of the 200"'-08 school year.--^ 

In addition to the new building and the renovation of Klliott Hall, major im- 
provements recently have been made in the Sherman dining hall, the Merner-Pfeiffer 
1 .ibrary. Fowler Hall and Keith Hall. 

An aesthetic contribution to the campus grounds, the Nocatula Garden, was in 
progress before President Condon's arrival. The class of 1953 planned and partially 
funded the project, soliciting additicMial tunds trom other alumni and triends. Lo- 
cated in front of the library, the garden contains an arrangement of plants natix'e to 
Fast Tennessee, symbolizing Nocatula and her Cherokee heritage. Another portion 
of the area is devoted to a formal Fnglish garden, representing the British soldier 
who was Nocatula's lo\'er and who was given the Cherokee name (^onestoga. Ailene 
l'.\erett (Chambers, class of 19,65, commissioned the bronze statue of Nocatula which 
IS the centerpiece of the garden. The statue and the garden were dedicated during 
I lomecoming 2006.-"^ 

Six new tennis courts with modern lighting, a ke\'-card entry system, and a pro- 
tecrixe fence will be read\- for use b\- the fall semester of 2llO~'-08. Fall 2(H)~ will 
also sec the addition ot a new college sport, lacrosse. A student parking lot is under 
construction on the site ot the old practice school which has been ra/ed. ( )ther con- 
struction projects are in the planning stage. 

While noung the exciting changes taking place on the campus, one's thoughts 
rurn to those good friends ot the college who are no longei" here to \iew, at least trom 
;in earthK' position, signs ot progress which woukl be tor them a source ot pride and 

Ma\-nard (''Brody"j F.llis died in March 2fl(l3. I'ollowing the example of his fa- 
ther, i'.llis attended Wcsle\an in the 1940s and ne\er lost his interest in or lo\e ot the 
colle'je. I le ser\ed on the president's ad\isor\- council, on the alumni board, and as a 
\-aluable trustee who oftered wise counsel, especialK' on tinancial matters. \ member 
of Keith Memorial Fnitetl Methodist (Church, he ne\er let his te-llow iiiemiiers torget 
their responsibilii\ to the college, encouraging scholarships and generous donations 
trom the church. In recognition ot his \ears ot staunch suj'ipott, the college had 
honored him with an honorar\- tlegree and with a Irieiui ot \\esje\.m Award. -^ 

TVVC: 1857-2007 181 

Ed Eldridge died in March 2006. His love of Wesleyan began in 1935 when he 
enrolled as a freshman and earned his tuition by working in the kitchen and dining 
room at Pett^'-Manker. A United Methodist minister, he served on the board of 
trustees from 1954 to 2006 and established a scholarship to assist deserving students. 
According to his son, Eldridge never missed a trustees' meeting. At the May 2006 
commencement exercises, son John Eldridge accepted the Harry Steadman Award, 
given for outstanding service to the college and to the United Methodist Church, on 
behalf of his late father. 

WiUiam ("BiU") Sullins died in November 2006. A local optometrist and civic 
leader, SuUins served as a college trustee almost continuously from 1953 until the time 
of his death. He was active in fundraising, a generous donor, and a thoughtful advi- 
sor. In recognition of his long and devoted service, he had been granted the honor- 
ary degree Doctor of Humane Letters, and the trustees' boardroom is named in his 

Another long-time trustee, Hugh M. Willson died in the spring of 2007. Chair- 
man of Citizens National Bank, Willson was an active, loyal, and generous supporter 
of the college and of civic causes. In 2006, a luncheon was hosted by Willson and 
son Paul in honor of the more than fort}' Tennessee Wesleyan graduates employed by 
Citizens National Bank. At the luncheon, President Condon was given a check which 
represented the largest single gift received during the 2005-06 fund campaign.-^ 

Two other recently deceased friends of the college must be mentioned, Kenneth 
Higgins and Chancellor Earl Henley. Higgins was an alumnus, long served as secre- 
tary of the trustees, and was one of his alma mater's strongest supporters. Henley 
promoted the cause of higher education through liis chairmanship of the Holston 
Conference Colleges Board of Governors and through his faithful support of Ten- 
nessee Wesleyan. Higgins received the honorarv degree Doctor of Laws in 1981, and 
Henley also was named Doctor of Laws in 1984. 

The end of the 2005-06 school year saw the retirement of Jim ("Mr. T") Thomp- 
son, associate professor of sociology, after thirty-five years of service. Praised by 
his colleagues and by his students for his kindness, his concern tor others, and for 
his willingness to listen, as well as for his sound scholarship, Thompson has been 
involved with academics, athletics, the United Methodist Church, and the communit}'. 
As a volunteer to the athletic department, he ensured that all student athletes met eli- 
gibility requirements. In recognition of his service to coUege and community, Athens 
Mayor John Profitt, Jr., proclaimed April 27, 2006, "Jim Thompson Dav.""^ 

As this history comes to a close, the college is already celebrating its 1 50th anni- 
versary, a celebration to be climaxed by a number of events planned for Homecoming 
2007. The first commemorative event came in April 2007 with the appearance of the 
T.W.C. logo on Mayfield Dairy's half-gallon cartons of classic vanilla ice cream. Since 
seven million such cartons will be marketed in nine states between April and October, 
Wesleyan's sesquicentennial will be widely publicized. Mayfield's general manager, 
Mary Farmer Williams, daughter of Coach Farmer, said of this action, "We're proud 


of Tennessee W'eslevan, and we believe the college is doing some amazing things 
these days."-^^ 

At the Mav UK)" commencement exercises, held in the Xcjcatula Cjarden area, 
members ot the centennial class ot 195^ joined the class of 200'" in the academic 
procession, and each received a golden anniversary certificate and a medallion. 

Listed below are members ot the anniversary committee who are working hard 
to make 200"^ an excitine \"ear. 

t) . 

Beckv [aquish, dn/zr 

Bill Akins, Brandi Armstrong, Matt Brookshire, Susan Buttram, John Carroll, 

Elaine Cathcart, Anne Catron, Da^"id Duncan, Ashlev Edwards, 

Robbie Ensminger, jov Futrell, Nicole Gibbs, Katie Goins, Dannv Havs, 

the Reverend Ahke Hubble, Diane Hutsell, Amv Jackson, Anna Lee, |o Lundv, 

Blake McCaslin, fane Moore, Dick Pellev, Bo Perkinson, Mat Pinson, 

Derek Pirtle, Rob Preston, Don Reid, Cind\' Run\an, Angle W ilcox, 

Larrv Wallace, Cien. Fred W'omack. 

Thousands of alumni and visitors arc expected to c()n\erge on the campus in ( )c- 
tcjber. Among the events planned are: The Alumni Cjolt Tournament, a country mu- 
sic concert featuring Phil X'assar, The Grascals and (ust Us, an alumni/student choir 
pertc;rmance, dedication ceremonies for Elliott Hall and W'eslev Commons, a Hall ot" 
Fame reunion, a contemporar\' (diristian concert, Greek reunion, and a concert in late 
( )ctober by renowned vocalist Amv Grant, and much more. Could the 185'^ founders 
ui Athens Female College ever have imagined such a celebration? 

One e\"ent, a drama on the Nocatula stor\', directed bv Pat Sutherland, drama 
professor, has been postponed due to her untimeh' death in September 200^. I leld in 
high esteem bv colleagues and students alike, her passing grcatlv impacted the entire 
college communitv. 

Tennessee \\esle\'an (College has come a long wa\- since its humble beginning 
in 185~. From an initial enrollment of se\ent\- students, a threc-stor\- building, h\-e 
facult)' members, including the president, and a campus consisting of two acres, it 
has grown to nearlv 900 students, around 200 facult\' and staff personnel, 21 build- 
ings, and a campus consisting of fortv acres. 1 iowexer, the greatest test of its success 
is not in enrollment figures, buildings or size of campus; but rather the measure of 
its success is in the lnli-\ear recortl of its alumni. Therein lie thousands of success 
stories. As an institution of CHiristian higher education, Tennessee \\esle\an has both 
suffered much and achie\ed much. Foni: ma\ it li\el 

TWC; 1857-2007 183 


Tennessee Wesleyan College 

C.Q. Smith, Head Coach 

J. A. Brooks, Line Coach 






J. B. Adams 





Cecil Sparkman 

Gate City, Va. 




Matt Marion 





Jack Pemberton 





Jason Baker 

Lenoir Cit}^ 




Harry Fetzinger 

Jacksonville, Fla. 




Jack Carr 





Charles Hood 






Bob Allen 





Ken Kuhnert 

Bergen Field, NJ. 




F. A. Bishop 





Harry Coins 

Gadsden, Ala. 




John McMilliam 





Ken Colston 





C. Scott Mayfield 






Tom Pemberton 





Harold Anderson 

Jacksonville, Fla. 




Ed West 





C W. Pemberton 





Charles Davis 

Jacksonville, Fla. 




A. E. Bureer 







Centers Hometown 

Harold Hall Rossvillc, Ga. 

Raymond McCombs )acksonvillc, Ga. 

C;cnc Williams Chattanooga 

Gene Montgomery Chattanooga 

















Bill Hggart 

Westheld, WY. 

5 '9" 



less Barcla\- 

I Etowah 




[ohn Allen 

lacksonville, Fla. 






Bohb\- lumper 





Bill Rogers 

Chester, \ a. 




(Charles Burger 





Birdie Smith 





Bill Aiken 






Blackie Blacklev 

Chester, \'a. 




Bill Long 





']'. N. |ones 





Wess Barker 





Russ Godwin 

1 lasrings, I 'la. 




Full Backs 

Burleigh Da\is 

.VI (C 


I reshman 

Ken Brakehill 




1 reshman 

Lero\ Anelerson 




1 reshman 

TVVC: 1857-2007 



Honorary Degrees Awarded By Tennessee Wesleyan 


Joseph A. Hardin 
Mark Malcolm Moore 
Clyde Fristoe Watkins 
Muriel Day 
Myron Forrest Wicke 
Roy Hunter Short 
James Lindsay Robb 
Zeboim Lupton Patten 

Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Divinit)' 
Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Literature 
Doctor of Literature 
Doctor of Pedagogy 
Doctor of Laws 


Ben B. St. Clair 
Edward W. Seay 

Doctor of Divinit)^ 
Doctor of Laws 


R. R. Ivramer 
LeRoy A. Martin 
Gilbert Govan 

Doctor of Laws 
Doctor of Laws 
Doctor of Literature 


C.L. Hardwick 
Farris Farmer Moore 
Gunnar Johan Teilmann, Jr. 

Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Divinit\^ 


R. Frank Porter 
Marquis J. Triplett 
Henry W. Durham 
Stanley F. Bretske 

Doctor of Divinit}" 
Doctor of Divinit}^ 
Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Humane Letters 


Edear A. Eldrid^e 

o o 

John C. Hodges 

David Alexander Lockmiller 

Doctor of Divinit}" 
Doctor of Literature 
Doctor of Humanities 


Mrs. H.C. (Ethel Fellows) Black Doctor of Humane Letters 
Arthur H. Jones Doctor of Divinity 




Samuel Robinette Dodson, )r. 
Newell Dindom P^llis(^n 
Robert L\nd()n Wilcox 

Doctor of Dixinitv 
Doctor ot lurispnidence 
Doctcn- of Di\init\- 


Ernest lennings Ford 

Leon Fxlward Hickman 
Alfred Dudle\- Ward 

Doctor of Music 

Doctor of Business Administration 
Doctor of Di\'init\' 

9-n-65 Homer Ellis Innger, |r. 

1970 lames Stevenson Franks 

1972 Grover Cleveland Ciraves 

Walter Luke Pickering 
Hendrix Atkinson T()wnsle\' 
Ra\mon Idbert White 

Doctor ot Sacred Theology 

Doctor oi" Humane 1 .etters 
Doctor of Laws 
Doctor of Di\initv 
Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Di\init\- 


lames Neal Ensminger 
lames Spurgeon AlcC^artt 
Maurice Clifton Smith 
William Da\id SuHins 

Doctor ot" lournalism 
Doctor of Divinitv 
Doctor ot" Lxlucation 
Doctor ot I lumanities 


Richard Iwle 'Ibmlinson 
N\"les C>)nwa\" Axers 

Doctor of Di\init\- 
Doctor ot I himanities 


Carl Millnn Bennett 
Iln\"d I'.dgar Bowling 
(ackson (Carlisle Kramer 

Doctor ot ikisiness Administration 
Doctor ot Science 
Doctor ot I .aws 


|oseph I. I r\ e, |r. 
D( )nali.l H. TraLiger 
I . 1 leisse lohnson 

Doctor ot l^iblic Ser\ ice 
Doctor ot Science 
Di )Ctor ( >l I lumanities 

rWC: 1857-2007 



N. Allen Birtwhistle 
James Rollin Green 
Carl Boggess Honaker 
Joe W. Wimberly 

Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Divinit}' 
Doctor of Science 
Doctor of Public Service 


Samuel Henry Neeley, Jr. 

Fred Puett 

lames Bright Wilson 

Doctor of Public Service 

Doctor of Laws 

Doctor of Humane Letters 


Wilma Dykeman Stokely 
Jean Hawk Troy 
John Norman Tyler 

Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Humanities 
Doctor of Science 


Kenneth D. Higgins 
Wilmer B. Robbins 
Paul M. Starnes 

Doctor of Laws 
Doctor of Divinity' 
Doctor of Humane Letters 


Gary M. Burchett 
James Monroe Ball, jr. 
H. Maynard "Brody" Ellis 
A. B. Goddard 

Doctor of Public Service 
Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Public Service 
Doctor of Laws 


Marvin Bishop Gass 
Jack Donald Iving, Sr. 
Thomas Brient Mayfield 
Nell Webb Mohney 

Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Divinity- 
Doctor of Commercial Science 
Doctor of Humane Letters 


Rachel Nail Cochran 
William C. Grater 
Earl Hornsbv Henley 

Doctor of Humanities 
Doctor of Humanities 
Doctor of Laws 









S.B. Rvmcr, Jr. 
Lawrence A. Roseberrv 
Richard H. Timberlake 

Ronald |. Garst 
C. Scott Mavtield 
Rav E. Robinson 
W.E. Nash 

Toombs Hodges Kav, |r. 
John James Duncan 
Morris Da\'id Cioodtriend 
John Martin lones 
Washington Irx'ing Farmer 

)ohnnie Dodson Guthrie 
Wallace Wayne Shirlev 
Carroll Hardv Long 
Dan Buford Kelh' 

Billv L. Akins 

Mar\- I'.dwards Kirbv 

Robert Wade Walker 

CAirtis Allen 

Alice Weihe l.ockmiller 

Clav 1-. Lee 

Cdvarles A. -/;' Buda^Jr. 
II. I.ddie 1-ox 
W. l)a\ id Lewis 

Doctor of Business Administration 

Doctor o 

: Public Service 

Doctor o 

t Di\-initv 

Doctor o 

f Humane Letters 

Doctor o 

: Public Service 

Doctor o 

f Divinit\- 

Doctor o 

f } kimane Letters 

Doctor o 

f Divinit^■ 

Doctor o 

f Laws 

Doctor o 

f Public Ser\'ice 

Doctor o 

f Humane Letters 

Doctor o 

f Di\'init\- 

Doctor o 

f Letters 

Doctor o 

f Public Ser\ice 

Doctor o 

t 1 iumanities 

Doctor o 

f Di\init\' 

Doctor o 

f I lumane Letters 

Doctor o 

F 1 Iumanities 

Doctor o 

t Di\init\ 

Doctor () 

t' l^Liblic Serxice 

Doctor o 

f 1 lumatiiries 

Doctor o 

f 1 .etters 

Doctor ( ) 

t" Public Ser\ice 

Doctor o 

f Di\ initx 

Doctor o 

f Di\ initx 

TVVC: 1857-2007 






C. Gilbert Wrenn 
John W. Litton 
Ronald E. Ingram 

Martha Callahan 
Paul Y. Marchbanks 
Charles C. Redfern 

Freeman S. Deutsch 

Mahan Archer 
Leonard G. Lomell 

Charles Neal 

Doctor of Letters 
Doctor of Public Service 
Doctor of Divinit}^ 

Doctor of Humane Letters 
Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Public Service 

Doctor of Humane Letters 

Doctor of Divinity 
Doctor of Laws 

Doctor of Divinit\'^ 

Congresswoman Kay Granger Doctor of Humane Letters 
Regenia L. Mayfield Doctor of Music 




J. Neal Ensminger 
Distinguished Alumnus Award Winners 

196"'/ 68 |. Xeal Ensminger '31 
1969/^0 James L. Robb '04 

19^4 Russell j. Godwin '48 

19-5 Maude Smith '14 

19"6 C. Scott Mavheld '48 

19~~ James S. Franks '32 

ig'^S Hester Robb McCray '28 

19^9 Astor L. lenkins '35 

1980 Paul M. Starnes '5^ 

I'^S] Evelvn Br\"an [ohnson '29 

1 982 Alice W eihe Lock-miller '30 

1983 Joseph A. Brake, Sr. '43 

1983 Cieorge W". ( )liphant '43 

1984 Ixiward I-. Baker '35 

1985 C:urtis R. Schoheld '59 

1986 R. Marion Robb '35 
198" James H. Flciskeir37 

1988 Harrv W: Sherman '59 

1989 Chxle B.Webb Y)(i 

1990 Annabell S. Hartman '35 

1991 Chades E. Peavyhouse '49 

1992 Fred D. Womack '63 

1993 C. Stephen Bvrum '69 

1994 John C. Thornton '75 

1995 FA'elvn Meadows La\-cock '45 

1996 Harold N. Powers '48 

1 997 Edgar A. Eldridge '37 

1997 Joseph T. I-ldridge Y)7 

1998 Leonardo. Lomeir41 

1999 William B. Kilbride '^2 

2000 Kenneth M. Idliott '40 

2001 Robert C.Joines '61 

2002 John M. Withers '5~ 

2003 Carl l-. "S()nn\" Tarpley Jr. '64 

2004 James li. Davis '57 

2005 E\-nn Banner Nicholas "^6 

2006 Sara |o Bardslev '49 

TVVC: 1857-2007 



Lockmiller Teacher of the Year Award Recipients 

1987-1988 Ed Cox 

1988-1989 TomOneal 

1989-1990 Sam Roberts 

1990-1991 David Duncan 

1991-1992 David Duncan 

1992-1993 Sam Roberts 

1993-1994 BobBarnett 

1994-1995 BobBarnett 

1995-1996 DurwoodDunn 

1996-1997 Sandra Clariday 

1997-1998 Jean Stevenson 

1998-1999 Stephen Herr 

1999-2000 Travis Hayes 

2000-2001 Gary Long 

2001-2002 DurwoodDunn 

2002-2003 William McDonald 

2003-2004 Grant Willhite 

2004-2005 Suzanne Hine 

2005-2006 Lynne Gylani 

2006-2007 Men Moore 



Hall of Fame List 


Miles W". Proudfoot 
Reuben \. McCrav 
Rankin M. Hudson 
Forest H. Kendall 
Swann B. Bover 


Kenneth D. Higgins 
Ronnie Isjiight 
A.H. ^^Buck" Hatcher 
Warren McGhee 
Gene MehatYev 


William B. Gate 
\\. Weslev Barker 
Charles |. Liner 
F. jean Biddle 
\'ictor W. Maddox 


Frank M. Ditmore 
.\F C. "Tip" Smith 
Ra\" Graves 
W'illard "Easv" Eaves 
[ones C. Beene III 


M. Rav Lamb 
Ronald T. Campbell 
|ohn C). Saviors 
William L. AFirks 
Bobbv A. T'ereuson 


(diaries C. Pangle 
George Wilson 
Robbie Ensminger 
J. LeBron Bell 
Donald B. Reid 


(.'. Scott Mavheld 
W. Glen Michaels 
1 looper F>blen 
J. \'an B. Coc 
Rf^bert C^. Davis 


Fat Kerr Sharp 
William f 1. i^rowder 
|. B. "Ace" Adams 
Glenn (I. "Mutt" Knox 
C.Q. Smith 


)errv FAlmonds 
Dwain Farmer 
Grace Coates Keith 
Dick LaFrance 
Pete Wilson 


Tom Pemberton 
Rand\" X'ernon 
Donald Dodgen 


Tro\- (jiles 

Genexa W. Rutherford 

llox'd "jack" Bowling 

|ohnn\ .\F)rgan 

MeKm "Buck\" Re\nolcb 


Fxlwin F. Saxman, |r. 
Regenia Lawson Mavheld 
B. James Hoggatt 
Charles E. McBroom 


Don F". Patrick 

Bob F. Stephenson 

lack A. Prince 

11. F. "Stickv" Davis, Ir 


Stan I larnson 
(Charles W. Smith 
D.A. lack I ienderson 

TVVC: 1857-2007 



Aaron Thomas Grant 
Marietta Blackburn 

Michael B. Ridley 
Paul H. Williams 


W. Raymond Barr 
H. Alex Williams 
Buster E. "Buck" Brown 


Kelley E. Aldridge 
Gene E. Rudedge 
Jane Blair "Dana" Higgins 
Debbie Park Corley 
W Elmer Raper 


Art D. Goon 
Jack A. Carr 
Lee "Doak" WiUett 
Joe Crabtree 
Tim Rader 


Mildred Stephenson 

Wayne Norfleet 
Randy Reed 
John R. Mitchell 
Jack Garner 


Wayne C. Penniman 
Joe L. McKenry, Jr. 
James W Thompson 


Michael Jordan 
Diane Jack Freeman 
Pepe Fernandez 
Amy Lackey Oliver 


Jim Davis 

Teresa SherriU Duncan 
John "Buck" Mitchell 
Beth Parham Ricker 
Ralph White 


Mike Policastro 
Ezell Scruggs 
Karen Campbell Wild 
Jim Dodson 


Troy Fugatt 
Dick Anderson 
Boyd Woody 
Boyd Reynolds 
Neale C. Hoskins 


Lewis C. "Pee Wee" Bivens 
Michael Bowling 
Anthony F. Lotti 
Burkett L. Witt 
Ronald R. Woods 


Jason Powell 
Becky Bass Stone 
Paul Barnett Webb 


Mike A. Poe 
Missy Elrod Murphy 
Russell J. Godwin 
Chris R. Cattaneo 
Carl E. Shivers 


Stacy Hutsell 
Jeff Geeter 
Gilbert McDowell 
Mike Olinger 
Conn Comerford 




Chapter 1 

1. Odd Fellows originated in eighteenth century England among industrial workers and 
was designed to pnnide financial reliet to members in dire circumstances and to 
furnish them with a proper burial. The first Odd I'ellows lodge in the United 

States was established in Baltimore, Maryland, which became the national headquarters 
for lodges throughout the country. According to the .{theiis Post oi March 9, 1855, 
the McMinn lodge was established in 1850 and was one of mc:)re than 3(K)(I lodges in 
the United States with some 204,(100 members. 

2. Rowley i: .-{thens Female College^ 25 August 1865, in McMinn (^ountv Chancellor (^ourt 
Records, Athens, Tennessee. 

3. UeRoy A. Martin, .1 History of Tennessee W'esleyaii College: 1H57-1957 (U. S. A., 1957), 6. 

4. John Long\yith, Ugbt Vpoii a Hill: The Viiirersit)' of Chattanooga, 1 886-1996 
(Chattanooga, 2000), 5-6. 

5. Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, 'Vhirty-Second Ceneral .-Issen/bly, I857-185S 
(Nashville, 1858), 210-211. ' 

6. Athens Post, 14 May 1858. 

7. IhicL, 10 September 1858. 

8. //w/., 13 August 1858. 

9. .-Xthens Ternale College Catalogue, 1860. 
in. I hid. 

W. Athens Post, 3 December 1858. 

12. //W., 25 March 1858. 

13. //w/.,3li August 1861. 

1 4. ,\ liiiiites of the I lolston . \nnual Conference of the Methodist I '.piscofal Church, South, 1 '^-23 
October \'t^()2\ .Ithens Post, in April 1863; Bill Akins and Kennel h l.angley, lorn .If art: 
McMinn County, Tennessee During the Cii-il Wdr fl ■'.lowali, 2nn('i:i, 84. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 195 

15. R. N. Price, Holston Methodism from Its Origin to the Present, (Nashville, 1913), IV 348; 
Isaac Patton Martin; History of Methodism in Holston Conference (Nashville, 1944), 95; 
Minutes of the Circuit Court of McMinn Count)', December 11, 1871, in Sally 
DeWitt Ealy, Fred William Saceman, and Marynell Royal Graves, A History of Keith 
Memorial United Methodist Church, 1824-1984 (Athens, 1985), 13. 

16. Athens Post, 22 August 1862; Akins and Langley, Torn Apart, 78. 

17. Journal of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, October 3, 1867, contains 
reference to action tals;en by the 1866 Conference, which is missing from the TWC 

1 8. Kowlej V. Athens Female College. 

Chapter 2 

1. M. R. M. Burke, 'A Brief History of Grant Memorial Universit)'," in the Athens Post, 
11 May \9QA; Journal of the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

3 October 1867. 

2. John McClure Sharp, Kecollections and Hearsays of Athens: Fifty Years and Beyond 
(Athens, 1933), 26. 

3. Journal of Holston Conference, 3 October 1867. 

4. //;/«'., 8 October 1868. 

5. LeRoy A. Martin, A History of Tennessee W'esleyan College, 1857-1957 (U. S. A., 1957), 43. 

6. Journal of Holston Conference, 7 October 1869. 

7. //;/>/., 3 October 1870. 

8. /fo'rt'., 11 October 1871. 

9. 7/;/W., 2 October 1872. 

10. David A. Bolton, "An Autobiography" in Martin, History, 248-280. 

11. Ibid., 37; Journal of Holston Conference, 1 October 1873. 

12. Quoted in Martin, History, 40,41; Journal of Holston Conference, 20-24 October 1880. 

13. Martin, History, 41-42. 


14. David A. Bolton unpublished manuscript, Glenn Archival Room, 
Merner-Pfeifter Librarv. 

15. History of Trinity United Methodist Church, 1824-1983 (n. a.), 2-2>\ Jo/inial of Ho/stoii 
Conference, 19-23 October 1882; Sallv DeW'itt Ealv, Fred Sauceman, and Marvnelle 
Ro\'al Gra\'es, --1 History of Keith Memoricd Vnited Methodist Ch/irch, 1 824-1984 
(Athens, 1985), 13. 

1 6. Martin, History, 4 1 . 

1~. fzast Tennessee W'esleyan Catalo;^!ie, 1881 -82\ Memoirs ot James Alexander Fowler, 
Book 2, 32, Glenn Archival Room. 

18. Fowler Memoirs, Book 2, 32; Bolton Autobiography. 

19. Fowler Memoirs, Book 2, 34, 39-40. 

20. Marnn, History, 181. 

21. Faculty Minutes, 1 March 1869, 8 March 1869. 

22. Und, 8 March 1869, 24 November 18^9. 

23. Ibid, 2" November 1886. 

24. .\thcnian Literary Socien' Minutes, 1882. 

25. Martin, History, 46. 

26. I'acult\- Minutes, N()\-ember 18^6. 

2~. I'owler .Memrjirs, Book 2, 45; I'acult}' Minutes, 5 April 18'^2, Id September 1893. 

28. Faculty .Minutes, 1 December 1880. 

29. I hid, 5 April 18-2. 

30. Martin, History, 4'". 

CliaptcT 3 

1 . FeRf )\- A. Martin, . I / liston of Tennessee IVes/eyan Co//es,e, 18S7-19S7 (V. S. ,\., 1 95^), 49. 

2. |i)hn McCJure Sliarp, Wecolhctions and Hedruiys of .■\thens: hifty )ei/rs n//d liiyond 
(Athens, 193,3j, 26; (jrant Memorial Inixersitv promotional material in (ilenn 
Archival Room, .Merner-Pfeifter Fibrar\; .Nhntm, History, 49. 

TWC: 1857-2007 197 

3. Promotional material. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid. 

6. Martin, History, 51-57. 

7. Jo/mial of the Holston Conference of the Aletbodist Episcopal Church, 10-16 October 1888. 

8. 7/;/^., 2 October 1872. 

9. ]ohn Longwith, l^ight Upon a Hill; The University of Chattanooga, 1886-1996 
(Chattanooga, 2000), 8. 

10. Ibid,8-9. 

1 1. Jo//rnal of Holston Conference, 15 October 1879. 

12. Methodist Ad/'ocate, 1 ]une 1882. 

13. Ibid. 

14. ]o/irnal of Holston Conference, 19-23 October 1882. 

15. Chattanooga Tiwes, 2 ]unQ 1886. 

16. Ibid. 

17. Longu'ith, Light Upon a Hill, 36. 

18. Quoted in Martin, H/J-/WJ, 69. 

19. ]oiirnal of Holston Conference, 10-16 October 1888. 

20. Chattanooga Times, 20 October 1888. 

21. Quoted in Martin, History, 75. 

22. Chattanooga Times, 24 May 1893. 

23. Athens Post, 4 May 1893. 

24. Chattanooga Times, 24 May 1893. 

25. U S. Grant Unirersit)' Catalogue, 1891-92. 


26. John McClure Sharp, Kecollectioiis and Hearsays of Athens: Fift)' Years and Beyond 
(Athens, 1933), 49-50. 

2^. Parker College of U. S. Grant Un/rers/t\\ Announcement, 1 89^-98. 

28. Memoirs of James Alexander Fowler, Book 2, 38. 

29. Faculty Minutes, 11 November 1895. 

30. Ihid, r August 1895. 

3 1 . Martin, H/s/orr, 1 84. 

32. Faculrv Minutes, 11 November 1895 

33. Ihld., 12 April 189^. 

34. Unpublished autobiography ot Harr\" Russell (Caldwell, 38-42, in pc^ssession of 
his daughter, Mrs. Muriel C. Pilley Nashville, Tennessee. Caldwell was a 1898 
graduate of Grant Memorial University, and his father, U. B. Caldwell, had served 
both as a facult\' member and as a trustee in the 1880's. 

35. Faculty Minutes, 6 March 1899. 

36. 7/;/^., 19 December 1892. 
3"^. 1 bid., 3i) April 1894. 

38. Ibid, 21 May 1888. 

39. Record of Aln»ini Association, 1 8" 1 - 1 9( 16, 95-97. 

40. //w/., 98-1(111, 102. 

41. Ibtd., 100. 

42. \ '. S. Grant L'nirersity Catalogue, 1896-9"^; see Prof Bolton's handwritten notes 
in catalogue. 

43. I-'aculty .Minutes, 22 I'eliruarv 1893. 

44. //w/., 23 lune 189-. 

TWC: 1857-2007 199 

Chapter 4 

1. John Longvvith, l^ight Upon a Hill: The University of Chattanooga, 1886-1996 
(Chattanooga, 2000), 49. 

2. Ibid., 50. 

3. Ibid. 

4. Minutes of Board of Trustees, 1 6 May 1 899, 7 June 1 900. 

5. Longwith, Light Upon a Hill, 54; Faculty Minutes, 10 September 1899. 

6. Methodist Advocate Journal, dOctdbttX^'^'^. 

7. //W., 31 May 1900. 

8. LeRoy A. Martin A History of Tennessee W'eskyan College, 1857-1957 (U. S. A., 1957), 
92; ]oiirnal of Holston Conference of the Methodist episcopal Church, 8 October 1898. 

9. Minutes of Board of Trustees, 24 May 1902; Red Book: Universit}' at Athens, 
Tennessee During Injunction Period, 1904-1905, unpublished manuscript, 
Glenn Archival Room, Merner-Pfeiffer Library. 

10. Red Book, 14-15; Gilbert Govan and James Livinggood, University of Chattanooga, 
Sixty Years (Chattanooga, 1947), 108-109. 

1 1. McMinn Count)- Chancery Court Records, 4 August 1904. 

12. John W. Bayless to John H. Race, 18 August 1904. 

13. John H. Race to John W. Bayless, 20 August 1904. 

14. Red Book, 15-23. 

15. //;/^., 21. 

16. Resolution of Alumni Association, 16 May 1905. 

17. Red Book, 52-53. 

18. //W., 52-54. 

19. Ibid., 54; Facult}' Minutes, 3 April 1906. 

20. Red Book, 57. 


21. James A. F(nvler to John H. Race, 10 June 1906. 

22. William Banheld to John H. Race, 2" June 1906. 

23. Red Book, 68-69. 

24. Martin, H/.f/r./T, 189. 

25. IhicL, 190. 

26. Ibid., 191-192. 
2". Ihid., 191. 

28. //W., 194. 

29. Ibid., 189. 

Chapter 5 

1 . Tbt Exponent, October 1912. 

2. LeRo\- A. Martin, A History of Tojnessee IV'es/eyaj/ Co/feoe, 1H57-195'^ (l'.S..\., 195'^), 
196. The hxpoiioit, Februajv 1913. 

3. I-aculr\- Minutes, 8 September 1909. 

4. 7 be Hxponent, September 1912. 

5. Ibid 

6. |ohn LonuA\-ith, IJ^bt I'poii a lli/l: I'be I 'iiirersity of CJ.kifttiiioo'^n, 1SS6-I996 
(Chattanooga, 2000), "6-77. 

7. Ibid., 78. 

8. I'acult\- .Minutes, 16 November 1919. 

9. Tbe \:xpoiieiit, lebruar\- 1911. 

10. //w/., September 1912. 

11. //W., October 1912. 

12. //W., April 1911. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 201 

13. Ibid., March 1911, February 1911. 

14. Ibid., A^pn\ 1911. 

15. //;/^., February 1913. 

16. Martin, History, 199-200. 

17. Faculty Minutes, 13 September 1916. 

18. A'let/jodisf Advocate Jo/zn/af, 3\ May \9 17. 

19. Ibid., 21 June 1919, 6 September 1917, 20 December 1917. 

20. I/W., 19 July 1917. 

21. //W., 23 August 1917. 

22. Ibid., 19 September 1918. 

23. //W., 18 July 1918. 

24. Minutes of Philomathean Literary Society, unpublished manuscript, 
Glenn Archival Room, Merner-Pfeiffer Library. 

25. Catalogm of The Athens School, 1918-1919; Dr. Joy Bayless interview, 15 July 1985. 

26. Catalogue of The Athens School 1918-1919; Faculty Minutes, 14 January 1918. 

27. Faculty Minutes, 8 January 1917. 

28. Ibid., December 1917; Bayless interview. 

29. D.A. Bolton, Historic Facts, unpublished manuscript, Glenn Archival Room. 

30. Methodist Advocate Journal, \^]u\\A9\^. 

31. Ibid., 11 July 1918. 

32. Catalooiw of The Athens School 191 8-1 91 9. 

33. Alethodist Advocate, 7 November 1918; Bolton, "Historic Facts." 

34. Reba Bayless Boyer interview, 22 August 1985. 


Chapter 6 

1. Margaret Hoback |ones, personal interview, 12 julv 1985. 

2. LeRoy A. Martin, A Histoij of Te/wessee IV'es/gwi College, 1857-1957 (L'.S.A., 1957), 118. 

3. :\occit!ihi, 1924. 

4. Gilbert Govan and |ames Livingood, Uii/rersit]' of Cbattaiioogiu Sixt\ Years 
(Chattanooga, 194"), 142. 

5. Tennessee W'esleyau College Catalogue, 1925-26. 

6. Ihld. 

7. Martin, History 133; Catalogue, 1925-26\ Questionnaire of Tennessee W'eslevan College, 

8. Mr. and Mrs. Howard Dennis, personal interview, 13 August 1985. 

9. Xocatiila, 1926-28 

10. Facult\- Minutes, 3(1 .\pril 1928; Govan and Livingood, 132. 

11. Faculty Minutes, 2(1 Mav 1929 

12. (Colonel Robert C^ 1 lornsbv, "Academics Weren't Stressed for T.W'.G .Vthletes in 
1920," The Daily Post-Athenian, 8 October 1982; Reba Ba\-less Bo\er, personal 
inter\-iew, 22 August 1985. 

13. lacultv Minutes, 20 Mav 1929. 

14. Bo\er inter\iew; Memf)r\' Book of Flora Lillian Bible (C^ourtesv of Mrs. I loward Bales). 

15. Xocatiila, 1926; Xew iixponent, December 192~; (^akin B.T. Fee, The Caiupns Scene, 
1900-1970 (Ncu- ^'ork, 19~()j, 2. 

16. Tennessee U'esleyan College Catalogue, 1926-27; Xen' I :.\fo)ient, December 1928; 
I'acult\- .Minutes, 28 November 192"^. 

1~. 1 acuU\ .Minutes, 4 lebruar\- 1929. 

18. ibid, 19 September 1 92"; 4 April 1929; 26 January 1928. 

1'^. Hibk-, Memory Book; \eir I ixponent, lebruar\ -March l')2S; Mariin, I listory, 212. 

2(1. I acuity .Minutes, .3(1 .\pril 1928; 18 Novemixr 1928. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 203 

21. Martin, History, 216; Neiv Expoi!ent,]'Ann2iry 1928, March 1928. 

22. Nocatii/a, 1928; New Exponent, March 1928; Dennis interview. 

23. Dennis interview. 

24. Emma Sue Williams, personal interview, 22 August 1985; Bover interview. 

25. Tennessee Weskyan College Catalogue, 1917-1933. 

26. //W., 1917-1929. 

27. Martin, H/j/s/j 136-38. 

28. Faculty Minutes, 15 February 1926; 21 February 1927. 

29. Bulletin (Special Edition), Tennessee W'eslejan College, October 1928. 

Chaptef 7 

1. 'Tennessee Weskyan College Catalog, 1929-39. 

2. Ihici., 1929-1931 

3. The Daily Post-Athenian, 8 July 1 932. 

4. Catalog, 1930-36. 

5. Facult)' Minutes, 8 February 1932. 

6. Ibid., 23 February 1932. 

7. Ibid., 9 March 1933; Nocatnla, Summer 1930; Board of Trustees Minutes, 29 May 1933. 

8. Claryse D. Myers, personal letter, 1 May 1983. 

9. Ibid 

10. Faculty Minutes, 1 April 1935. 

11. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 )une 1931. 

12. Tennessee Wesleyan College Bulletin, March 1931; Executive Committee JVIinutes, 
23 October 1931. 


13. Board of Trustee Minutes, 1934; I.eRcn- A. Martin, A History of Teiiutssee Whleyaii, 
1857-1957 (yS.A., 195^), 134. 

14. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1934; Executive Committee Minutes, 13 February 1936; 
Faculty Minutes, 4 October 193"". 

15. Facult\' Minutes, 9 September 1935, 21 September 1936; ]. Muse Martin interview, 
24 June 1983. 

16. Faculn>- Minutes, 20 September 1930, 15 Mav 1933, 15 January 1934, 16 April 1934. 
r. Faculty Minutes, 13 April 1936, 2 October 1939; G?A/% 1929-32, Xocatiihi, 1930. 

18. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1934. 

19. Faculty Minutes, 3 February 1936. 

20. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 )une 1931; Mardn, History 218. 

21. Xoaitula. 1935-193". 

22. Ibid., 1930; Faculty .Minutes, 14 January 1935. 

23. Catciloo, 1929-30; AV,u7////./, 1930 

24. Judge Fred Puett interview, 5 December 1981. 

25. IhicL; Faculty Minutes, 26 January 193^, 1" Mav 1938. 

26. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1934, 1935. 
2~. Martin, History, 2~5-2~6. 

28. J'e/i/iessee ll'h/eya// Colkge li/i/h'tiii, December 1939. 

Chapter 8 

1. [.etter, McNeeK' Ikll 0)mpany, 15 .March 1938; Cdar\se .Nhers, "I iisrorx of Tennessee 
\\esle\an College l.ibrar\," unpublished manuscript, 45. 

2. I loward Bales, personal inter\iew, 6 |ul\' 1983. 

3. BoartI of Trustees Minutes, l'Ml-42; JAecutive (Committee Minutes, I June I'UI. 

4. Xouitiihi, r December 1942. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 205 

5. Ihid. 

6. LeRoy A. Martin, A Historj of Tennessee Weskjan College: 1857-1957 (U.S.A., 1957), 231. 

7. Tennessee W'esleyan College Bit lletin, 1942. 

8. 7/;/^., February 1943. 

9. Gary Cole unpublished manuscript, (no date), 15. 

10. IhicL 

11. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 |une 1942; Executive Committee Minutes, 5 June 1942. 

12. Board of Trustees Minutes, 24 May 1943. 

13. Ihid. 

14. Ihid. 

15. Executive Committee Minutes, 7 September 1942, 14 September 1942, 25 
November 1942. 

16. i\W^////^, 11 April 1944. 

17. Tennessee Weslejan College Bulletin, February 1945. 

18. Nocatnla, 30 October 1944. 

19. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 )une 1942. 

20. Martin, H/j-/or>', 147-151. 

21. //;/W., 151-152. 

22. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 April 1943. 

23. 7/;/^, 22 August 1944. 

24. journal of the Holston Annual Conference, 10 October 1945. 

25. 7/W., 3-6 October 1946. 

26. Martin, Ti/x/o/j, 1 52. 

27. Tom Brokaw, The Greatest Generation (New York, 1999), 125-133. 


28. Garv Cole, unpublished manuscript, (no date). 

29. Board of Trustees Minutes, 28 Mav 1945. 

30. Bulldog, 9 December 1946. 

31. Ibid. 

32. Te/i/iessee U"es/eyan College Bulletin, Februar\- 194~. 

33. Bulldog, 9 December 1 948. 

34. Tennessee W'esleyan College Bulletin, Februar\' 1 94". 

35. Ibid. 

36. B///%', 26 January 1948. 

3"^. Ibid.; Xancv W'ilkins Doolev Burn, personal interview, 22 Ma\- 2004. 

38. Gecjrgc Xaff, interview, August 1998; Bulldog, 1(1 Februarv 194"". 

39. Board of Trustees Minutes, 6 )une 1949; Ralph W. Lloyd to James L. Robb, 
5 januarv 1950. 

4lJ. Bcjard of Trustees Minutes, 24 March 1950. 

41. Tennessee Wesleyan College Bulletin, March 1950. 

42. //;/>/., August 195(1. 

Chapter 9 

1. I.eRoy A. .Martin, .4 History of 'Tennessee Wesleymi College, 1857-195'^ (U.S..\., \^)b'^), 
155-56; Tennessee W'esleyan (College Bulletin 1950. 

2. .Martin to Trustees, 1" lebruar\ 1959. 

3. Tennessee U'esleyan Bulletin, August 1950. 

4. Bulldog, M) March 1950. 

5. .Martin, 1 1 /story, 158. 

6. Ibid 

TWC: 1857-2007 207 

7. Board of Trustees Minutes, 28 May 1952. 

8. Executive Committee Minutes, 7 October 1952. 

9. Board of Trustees Minutes, 12 May 1952. 
If). /3///%, 30 March 1953. 

1 1 . The Daily Posf-Athetuan, 26 February 1 954. 

1 2. T. If". C. Ahimni News, Winter 1955. 

1 3. LeRoy Martin to John M. Walker, 23 November 1 950. 

14. Martin to Claryse Myers, 4 April 1955. 

15. Advisory Board letter to Contributors, 30 November 1955, Board of Trustees 
Minutes, 28 October 1958. 

16. Martin, H/sfoiy, 164-165; Martin to John L. Seaton, 6 November 1951. 

17. Louie Underwood interview, 10 March 2004. 

18. Lucv Fowler to LeRoy Martin, 12 February 1956. 

19. T. 11". C. Alumni News, Winter 1956. 

20. Martin, H/x/o/7, 171. 

21. Board of Trustees Minutes, 15 May 1956. 

22. Ibid. 

23. Regenia Lawson Maytield, personal interview, 13 July 2004. 

24. T.W.C. Student Handbook, 1958-59 

25. Ibid 

26. Ibid 

27. Mayfield, personal interview. 

28. T.W.C. Handbook, \')^')-a). 

29. Board of Trustees Minutes, 25 February 1958. 


30. The Daily Post-Athenicvi, 4 March 1958; Board of Trustees, IH October 1959. 

31. Program Notes, The legend of Kocat/i/a. 

32. Faculty- Minutes, 13 September 195". 

33. [hid. 

34. Tht Dciih Post-.-\tht'niaii, " June 1957. 

35. Maxwell Smith to LcRov Martin, 1 1 September 1951. 

36. Board of Trustees Ahnutes, n February 1959. 
3". Marun, f//.rA>n; r2-l"'3. 

Chapter 10 

1. Chattciiiooga Tiwes, 4 October 1959. 

2. Board of Trustees Minutes, 16 February 1960. 

3. //W., 31 October 1961. 

4. //W., 4 October 1960. 

5. I hid. 

6. Chattanooga 'Viwcs, 8 |anuary 20(15. 

B(jard (jt Trustees .Minutes, 31 Octcjber 1961. 

8. Ihid 

9. //W., 15.\Iav 1962. 

10. //W., 31 Octfjbcr 1961. 

11. //w/., 2~ October 1965. 

12. Harper Johnson \i^ Ralph Mnhncv, I" Ma\ 1962. 

13. lioard of Trustees Minutes, 29 ( )ctol)er 1963. 

14. IciiihSSfc \V I'shyan (.o/lrgc (.atalog, 1965. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 209 

15. Board of Trustees, 18 February 1964. 

16. Neil' Exponent, 11 December 1963. 

17. Board of Trustees Minutes, 27 October 1964; Nocatida, 1964, 1965. 

18. New Exponent 28 April 1964. 

19. //W., 1 May 1965. 

20. Ibid. 

21. Board of Trustees Minutes, 26-27 October 1965. 

22. md. 

Chapter 11 

1. Executive Committee Minutes, 10 February 1966. 

2. Wid 

3. Ibid 

4. Ibid 

5. 7/;/^. 

6. //W., 28 October 1966. 

7. JZ'/^., 26 August 1966. 

8. Louie Underwood, personal interview, 16 March 2002. 

9. Administrative Affairs Committee Minutes, 27 February 1969. 

10. New Exponent, 8 December 1969. 

11. Ibid, 14 May 1968, 24 October 1968. 

12. Report of Douglas Trout Associates, 20 September 1972. 

13. Board of Trustees Minutes, 28 October 1969. 

14. Charles Turner to Finance Committee, 14 December 1967. 


15. "Concerned Students" to Executive Committee, January IQ"!. 

16. Executive Committee Minutes, 4 February 19"^!. 
1". Board of Trustees Minutes, 8 February 19'"5. 

18. Xocatnlcu 1966. 

19. Jhid. 

21). President's Advisory Council Minutes, 26 September 19~'4. 

21. The Daily Post-Atbennm, " ( )ct()ber 19^4. 

22. Board of Trustees Minutes, 3(1-31 October 19"'4. 

Chapter 12 

1. Board of Trustees Minutes, 4 .Vpril 1975. 

2. Ibid. 

3. Execudve Committee Minutes, 14 April 19"'5. 

4. Neal Flnsminger, personal interview. 

5. TI.H' Daily Post-.-\tln'iii(V!,^ XprW 19''5. 

6. Ibid. 11 April 19^5. 

Facult\' .Minutes, 9 .\pril 19^5. 

8. Geori^rc Naff, "Batde Plan," 24 June 19^5. 

9. Facult\ Minutes, 25 June 19~5. 

10. }ixecuti\e Oimmittee Minutes, 1 April 19"'6. 

1 1. Cieorge Naff, personal infer\ie\v, .\uu;ust 1998. 

12. f^xecutive C.ommitree Minutes, 21 ( )crolur 19'"5. 

13. Board of Trustees Minutes, 18 .Ma\' 19''6. 

14. The C,radiiati\ October 1976. 

TWC: 1857-2007 21 I 

15. Board of Trustees Minutes, 3 May 1977, 2 May 1978. 

16. George Naff, "Memo to Facult}^ and Staff," 28 September 1979. 

17. The Dailj Post-Athemaii, 1 February 1978. 

18. Neiv Exponent, 10 June 1977; Louie Underwood, personal interview. 

19. Board of Trustees Minutes, 19 October 1979. 

20. The Gm^mfe, Dccemhet 1981. 

21. Executive Committee Minutes, 9 October 1981. 

22. Tl>e Daily Post-Afbe/my/!, 6 June 1982. 

23. Executive Committee Minutes, 22 January 1982. 

24. Neil- Exponent, 30 March 1984. 

25. T/je Daify Post-Athenian, 23 March 1984. 

26. Ibid. 

27. 7/W., 28 March 1984. 

28. Nocatiila, 1984, 110. 

29. Board of Governors jVIinutes, 6 April 1984. 

Chapter 13 

1. Board of Governors Minutes, 20 January 1984. 

2. //w/., 5 October 1984. 

3. 7/;/^., 27 November 1984. 

4. The Daily Post-Athenian, 1 1 March 1985, 13 September 1985. 

5. //;/fl'., 27 March 1986. 

6. 7/W., 23 May 1985. 

7. Ibid., 3 November 1986. 

8. Tl)e Graduate, March 1 988. 


9. 7/W., Fall 1986. 

10. Ibid. February 1993. 

I 1. Board of Governors Minutes, 9 October 1987. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Ibid 

14. TA^ G/v/rf'/w/^, November 1989 

15. //w/.. Spring 1990. 

16. The Daily Post-Atheiiicin, 25 May 1990. 

1~. Board of Governors Minutes, 5 Ma\' 1987. 

18. The Graduate, yUrch 1992. 

19. Board of Governors Minutes, 9 October 1988. 
2(). The Xeir Exponent, December 1988. 

21. Board of Trustees, 9 ( )ctober 1992. 

22. Ibid 

23. Ibid., 5 Februar\- 1 993. 

24. //w/., 23 April 1993. 

25. //w/., 22 ( )ctobcr 1993. 

26. Ibid 
T. Ibid 

28. I'he Daily Po.<:t-Atheiiiaii, P November 1993. 

Chapter 14 

1. Board ot TrustLes .Minutes, 4 Iebruar\ 1994. 

2. Ibid 

TVVC: 1857-2007 213 

3. The Daily Post-Athenian, 3 December 1993. 

4. //^/V., 11 February 1994. 

5. Board of Trustees Minutes, 4 February 1994; The Graduate, February 1994. 

6. "The New Vision," in board of Trustees Minutes, 4 February 1994. 

7. Board of Trustees Minutes, 22 April 1994. 

8. Ibid. 

9. llnd 

10. Ibid 

11. Ibid 

12. Consultant's Report by Tennessee Associates International, 21 June 1994. 

13. Sherman's memo to staff and faculty, 8 June 1994. 

14. Consultant's Report, 21 June 1994. 

1 5 . The Graduate, June 1 994. 

1 6. Giurent Interest, 25 Juh' 1 994. 

17. Ibid., 26 September 1994; 1994 Annual Giving Report; The Graduate, December 1994. 

18. The New Exponent, December 1994. 

19. Ibid 

20. Ibid 

2 1 . Current Interest, Spring 1994. 

22. The Daily Post-Athenian, 9 January- 1 995. 

23. Ibid 

24. Ibid., 10 January 1995. 

25. Board of Trustees Minutes, 3 February 1995. 

26. Ibid 


27. Ibid. 

28. Ibid. 

29. Ibid 

30. Ibid,2\ April 1995. 

31. Ibid 

32. //W. 

Chapter 15 

1. Board of Trustees Minutes, 22 April 1995. 

2. Tbt Graduate, December 1995. 

3. Ibid 

4. Te/i/iesset U"es/eya// Colhge ¥act }^ooV, 2003-04. 

5. Tf/inessee W'es/eya/i Co/fegt .Af/iw/ii .\[aga-:;^i/n\ Winter 2000. 

6. Tbe Grad/n!/e,\\"nucr 1999. 

7. Retina Lawson Ma\ held, personal interview. 

8 . . - 1 ////;/;// . \ laga^i/zt, \\ ' i n t e r 2 1 1 n 1 1 . 

9. Board of Trustees .Minutes, 5 December 2001. 

10. I 'be Crad/ia/c, Summvv 1998. 

1 1 . .Ib/w/zi .\laga-:^iik\ Winter 2i N H ). 

12. Board of Trustees .Minutes, 3 October 199", 14 ;\pril 2(l(HI. 

13. Tbc(,radiiah'A-^\\ 1999. 

14. Bfiard of Trusrees Minutes, 14 April 2(H)(l. 

15. Ibid., 19 .SLptembcr; Ibc Cradna/c, Summer 2(11)0. 

16. The Graduate, lebruary 1983, I'all 199^, Winter 19'r, Summer I')')8. Winter 20(10. 

TVVC: 1857-2007 215 

17. TheGradmte,Wmtcv2mO. 

18. Board of Trustees, 7 February 1997. 

19. The Graduate, Summer 1998. 

20. Ibid. 

21. Ibid. 

22. Ahi///uj Maga:;^h!e, Winter 2002. 

23. T/;f G/Wz/ci-A', Spring 2001. 

24. Tbt Daily Posf-Athtniau, 12 April 2002. 

25. //W. 

26. Board of Trustees Minutes, 19 April 2002. 

Chapter 16 

1. Board of Trustees Minutes, 8 November 2002. 

2. Tennessee Wesleyan College Alumni Magazine, Winter 2003. 

3. Board of Trustees Minutes, 8 November 2002. 

4. Al/i///ni Maga~:iine, Winter 2003. 

5. Board of Trustees Minutes, 1 1 April 2003. 

6. The Daily Post-Athenian, 1 1 May 2004. 

7. //W., 13 May 2004. 

8. Ibid. 

9. Board of Trustees Minutes, 18 June 2004. 

10. The Daily Post-At/jenian, 5 May 2004. 

11. Ibid 

12. "From the Advancement Office," undated bulletin; Annual Report, 2001-2003. 


13. Abimm }^laga:iuie. Winter 2005. 

14. Ibid. 

15. Ibid. 

16. Arches, Tennessee W'esleyaii College Alnmiii \lagai:^ine. Summer 2005. 
n. //W., Spring 2005. 

18. Ibid 

19. The Daily Post Athenian, 18 Jul\- 2005. 

20. Board of Trustees Minutes, 21 October 2005. 

21 . The Daily Post .Athenian, 28 June 2( )06. 

22. Ibid, 5 September 2006. 

23. Board of Trustees, 13 julv 2006. 

24. The \ocat/ila Garden Broch/ire, prepared bv the Class ot 1953 Reunion Committee. 

25. Board of Trustees Minutes, "^ November 2003. 

26. Board ot Trustees Minutes, 11 .\pri] 2003. 
2~. .l/v^'.f. Fall 2006. 

28. Ibid 

29. //w/., Sprin^ 200". 

TWC: 1857-2007 217 


Abernathy, Clyde, 126 

Adams,j. B. "Ace,"86 

Adams, Julie, 170 

Adkins, Sam, 73, 87 

Akers, Barbara, 100 

Akins, Bill, 99, 135, 161, 162, 183 

Albritton, Bill, 113 

Alexander, Lamar, 145 

Allen, Jack, 180 

Allen, L. Scott, 129 

Anderson, Leroy, 100 

Andes, Gladys, 778 

Annis,J. E., 43, 45 

Anziano, Leon, 172 

Archer, Mahan, 173 

Archer, Mildred, 113 

Armstrong, Brandi, 183 

Armstrong, Janice Fennell, 176, 177 

Armstrong, Thomas F., 176, 177 

Arnold, Edna Ames, 39 

Arrants, |ean, 155, 160 

Arterburn, Helen Richards, 95 

Atkins, James, 7 

Atlee, Edwin A., 8, 12 

Atiee, Mrs. Edwin A., 1 6 

Badgett, Lon, 51 

Baker,Joyce, 159, 170 

Baldwin, James W., 95 

Bales, Harold, 124 

Bales, Howard, 77 

Bales, W. P., 51 

Ball,}. iMonroe, 138 

Ballew, William H., 3 

Bantield Hall, 39, 76, 96, 107, 120, 121, 166 

Banheld, William, 39, 42, 44 

Banheld-Durham Hall 180 

Banks, Ron, 165 
Bankston, David, 1 54 
Barb, James C, 10 
Barker, David, 159 
Barker, Horace, 125 
Barlow, Grace, 31 
Barlow, Joseph S., 31 
Barr, Raymond, 126 
Barry, Ronnie, 126 
Bates, Carol, 170 
Bayless, Dick, 52 

Bayless, John W., 34, 40-43, 59, 71 
Bayless, Joy, 46, 55 
Beasley, Beverly, 1 36 
Beat)', Margaret, 81 
Beck, Cari, 145 
Beck, Pamela, 156 
Beecroft, Morris, 100 
Beene, Jones, 100,108 
Beniford, M. Gilbert, 107 
Bennett Hall, 29, 37, 40, 42, 45, 49, 51, 65, 77 
Bennett, Carl, 145 
Bennett, William R., 177 
Bernard, jean S., 169 
Biddle, Frances Jean, 94, 100 
Bigham, Arthur, 1 1 3 
Bishop, Carolvn, 78 
Bixby, H. G, 14, 15 
Black, Mrs. H. C, 96 
Black, R. D, 12 
Blair, Peggy, 126 

Blakeslee Hall, 39, 52, 69, 91, 116, 126 
Blakeslee, C. S., 39, 40 
Blevins, Jerrv, 139 
Boggess, Lena, 46 
Bolton Hall, 96 

Bolton, David, 12, 13, 16, 18, 34, 42-45, 53, 
55, 56, 60, 66, 67, 74, 75, 97 



Bosworth, Helen, 10 

Bosworth, M. F, 10 

Boudumnt, Hix, 141 

Bourne, Mrs. R.Wiley, 16^ 

Bourne, R. Wile V, 15^ 16"^ 

Bovard, Burton, 5 1 

Bovard, William S., 48 

Bowers, James, 102 

Bowling, Flovd -Jack;' 108,1 12, 115, 
12^-28, 131, 134. 136, 142, 
148, 149, 16", r9 

Bowling, Mike, 126 

Bowman Albert, 94, 109 

Bover, Reba Bavless, 56, 62, 65 

Boyer, S. B., 136 

Boxer, Swann Burnett, 62 

Bradlev, Carolyn, 108 

Brasius, N'irginia, 86 

Bridges, George W., 3 

Bridges, John L., 3 

Brock, Gene, 85 

Brock, William, 114, 

Brokaw, Tom, 84, 1~3 

Brooks,). A., 85 

Brooks, Xancv, 15^ 

Brookshire, Matt, 183 

Brown, .\rlo A., 5"', 58, 59 

Brown, [oseph F., 22 

Brown, S. C, 59 

Browning, (iordon, 88 

Browning, Tom, 139, 146 

Brownlow, William G., 2 

Broyles, S. .\I., 34 

Brubaker, IJizabeth, 94 

Brvan, l-.nid, 94 

Burdett, S. S., 22 

Burger, (Charlie, 85 

Burger, [oe, 1 1 3 

Burn, Nanc\ W ilkins Doolcv, 86, 87 

Burnett, Tomm\-, 1 13 

Buskirk, i:. B., "1 

Buttram, Susan, 1~8, 1~9, 183 

C:adc, Mrs. I knr\, I Hi 
C^aidwell, I larr\-, 32, 35 

Camp, Gerrv, 1 00 

Campbell, Ronnv, 1 14 

Carey, Ben M., 3 

Carpenter, Tim, PO, ^2 

Carroll, fohn, 183 

Cartwright, Fddie, 101 

Cate, William Bovd "'Buddv," 10 1, 113 

Cathcart, Flaine, 183 

Catron, Anne, 183 

Catron, Claude, lOO 

Caukins, W"ilff)rd, 26 

Cavlor, Farr\-, 1 12 

Centennial Hall, 102, 14^ 

Chamberlain, Ra\- M. |r., 1~'6 

Chambers, Barrv, 142, 146, 155 

Chambers, Martha, 165, 180 

Chance, Darnell, 113, 150, HO 

Chanex', h^rank, "^9 

Chapman, Mrs. F. \'., 29, 30, 32, 49 

Chastain, Bertha, 78 

Cheek, "Trip," 142 

Cheek, (Caroline, 142 

Cheek, Christopher, 142, 14" 

Cheek, James, 136, 141-143, 146, 148, 

150-152, 165 
Cheek, Rachel, 142 
Cheek, Rosemarv, 142 
Clariday, Sandra, 14*), PO 
Clark, Tom, 122, 124 
Clavton, loanne. Oil I 
Cleage, Thomas, 1 

~oates, Grace, 1 01 1 

:oble, Harrv, 94, l(i2, 109, 113, 145 

:obleigh. Nelson I'.., 9, 10 

Cochran, Rachel, 1~8 

:oe, J. \an B., 85, 94, 95, 101 1, 1(18, 11-1, 126 

^oe, \ era, 1 58 

'oe, Web, 155 

lollege Chapel, 15, 29, 32, 49, 58 

:ollier, A. Q, 34 

!!olston, C^aiherine, ~3 

lontlon, Alexis, l~') 

^)ndnn, Beck\, 1~') 

London, ( AU'tis, 1 "'' 

iondon, Stephen, 1"'), ISli, I S2 

^ook, Kris, 1 3~ 

TWC: 1857-2007 


Cook, Lillian, 153, 155, 160, 176, 177 

Cook, Mrs. George A., 84 

Cooke, James F, 45, 46 

Cooke,R.J., 28, 35,49, 77 

Cooper, Prentiss, 76 

Cornelius, Alan, 126 

Corum, David, 137 

Cox, Edmond, 148, 170 

Crabtree, EUis E., 45 

Crab tree, Joe, 101 

Craig, Alvis, 52 

Craig, Sammy, 101 

Crowder, Izzie, 81 

Cunningham, Marvin, 95 

Dane, Muriel, 102 

Darby, Walter, 120, 124 

Davidson, Dewey, 1 1 4 

Davis, Bobby, 126 

Davis, Carv, 165 

Davis, R. A., 88 

Dawson, B. James, 162-65, 168, 171-76 

Dawson, Gene, 164 

Dawson, Jamie, 164 

Dawson, Karen, 164, 174 

Dean, James A., 13 

Delanev, Cathy, 136 

DeLozier, Patricia, 99 

Dennis, AUen, 113 

Dennis, Howard, 64, ,65 

Deusterhaus, Alan, 175 

Dimmitt, Albert, 136, 142 

Dimmitt, David Wayne, 137 

Dishner, Paul E, 177 

Dixon, Charles, 1 12 

Dodgen, Donald, 144 

Dodson, Ross, 180 

Dominick, Peter, 114 

Donelson, Lillian, 73 

Douglas, Bett)-, 1 1 3 

Douglass, C. a, 65, 81, 94, 95 

Douglass, Jean, 78 

Dowell, Gilbert, 126 

Duncan, David, 148, 170, 183 

Duncan, janie, 126 

Duncan, John J. Jr., 165 

Dunn, Durwood C, 131, 148, 159, 170, 171 

Durand, W W, 46 

Durham Hall, 121, 166 

Durham, Henry W, 120 

Dye, WilHam M., 83 

Eblen, 78, 86 

Eckman,John, 125 

Edds, Margaret, 113, 126 

Edds, Rachel, 113 

Edmonds, Jerry, 114 

Edwards, Ashley, 1 83 

Edwards, Richard, 139, 174 

Eggert, Bill, 86 

Elder, Spencer, 133 

Eldridge, Ed, 182 

Eldridge, Joe, 174 

Eldridge, John, 182 

ElHottHaU, 180, 181 

EUiott, Drannon, 1 80 

EUiott, Hershel, 180 

EUiott, John, 180 

Elliott, Ken, 180 

Emott,J. B., 66, 180 

Elliott, Jeanne, 81 

EUis, H. Maynard "Brodv," 138, 155, 181 

EUis, Horace Maynard "Bud," 133 

EUis, Jim, 113 

EUis, Maynard, Sr., 46 

Elrod, E. W, 84 

Elrod, WiUiam, 84 

Ely, Ronnie, 114 

Emert, RoUo, 52 

Emery, Jim, 126 

Ensminger, Charles, 156, 162 

Ensminger, David, 1 24, 1 28 

Ensminger, J. Neal, 72, 73, 87, 94, 134 

Ensminger, Maggie Beavers, 137 

Ensminger, Roblsie J., 95, 142, 178, 183 

Etsler, Bishop R., 141 

Eubanks, Gail, 169 

Evans, Robert W, 131, 132, 136 

Evarts, William D, 22 

Falan}', Fay, 176 
Falanv, Floyd, 175-179 



Farmer, Dwain, 101, 126, 133, 136, 139, 

143, 144, 149 
Farrell, Margaret, 46, 5 1 
Ferguson, Bobbv, 126 
Ferguson, E. C. 39, 4", 80 
Ferguson, Nancv, 169 
Finger, Ellis, 1 32 

Fisher Hall ot Science, 108, 1 16, 120 
Fisher, Harvev, 107 
Fisher,]. W:, 39, 50, 59 
Fisher, Mrs. Robert J., 108 
Fisher, Xanc\', 1~1 
Fisher, R. j., 40 
Fisher, R. M., 3 
1-ishcr, Robert j., 108 
Fleshman, A. C, 56 
Folks, Jeffrey, 150, 159 
Ford, Ernest Jennings, 1 16 
Foster, John Henry, 12 
Foster, |ohn L., 95 
Foster, |ohn \\"., 39, 42, 43 
Fowler Hall, 96, 10", 116, 14", 181 
Fowler, Doyle, 101 
Fowler, Harvev, 107 
Fowler, James A., 16, 1", 19, 31, 35, 43, 44, 

83,91,96, 10~ 
Ftjwler, Lucv, 9^ 
Franks, James, 125 
Freestone, Frances, 113, 118, 126 
French, Xancv, 100 
Fritts, Lcjuise, "^8 
Fr\e, |oe, 135, 145 
Futrell, )ov, 183 

(jaines, (jcorge, 1"^ 
(iambic, !.., 1 
(jambe!, Anna, 1 
(,ar/a, l.inda, 159, n3 
Cjasttm, Joseph Leancler, 12 
(iasff)n, W'ilev S., 5, 12 
(reorge, Curtis, 46 
(jettys, Isabelle, 45 
(iiblis, Nicole, 183 
(iilbert, Richard, 99 
( iiles, Warren H., I 5" 

Gillespie, J. W:, 1 

Gillespie, jim, 126 

Goddard, A. B., 138 

Godwin, Russ, 86 

Goins, Katie, 183 

Goldwater, Barrv, 1 14 

Gordon, Maurice, 132 

Gordon, W'enford, n5 

Gorman, Pat, KU 

Govan, Gilbert E., 103 

Grandview Hotel, 30, 49 

Granger, Kav, 176 

Cirannis, Frank C, 53 

Grant, Amv, 183 

Grant, Ernestine, 78 

Grant, L'lvsses S., 21, 22 

Grater, William C, 145 

Graves, Frances, 94 

Graves, Junius, 101) 

Graves, Marv Xelle )acks(jn, 95, 134 

Gribben, William J., 139 

Griftith, ludi Cunningham, 112 

Grifrtth, Shellev, 160, 165, 174 

Grogg, Gar\; 165 

Guffev, lames C, 95 

Gulley, Frank, 109, IP- 19 

Gutridge, Tom, 1 13 

Hagan, Bill, 8" 
Hale, Josephine Gaston, 12 
Hale, Martha, 95, 108, 133 
Halev, Billie Dean, 99 

lall.C. M.,46 

lall, Irene, "8 

lalkSam, 126 

lall.W. !,., 3 

lambnght, Davul, 124 

lamilton, j. W., 3~ 

iamilton, KimberK, 136 

iamilron, 'lorn, 1 5~ 

lammer, Rhea, 66 

lanmii xkI, ixlw anl II., 1 65 

lamjiton, DeW in, 51 
Hankins, Sue b.lla, I 13 
I lartlawav Gaiha, 1 1 I 

TWC: 1857-2007 


Harding, Joseph H., 102 

Harms, Louise, 109, 146, 149 

Harms, WiUie, 137 

Harper, Andrew, 1 13 

Harrington, Rick, 124 

Harris, Joe, 100 

Harrison, James, 142 

Harrison, Nancy, 102 

Harrison, Stan, 139, 143, 150, 158, 162, 

170, 178, 180 
Harrod, Felix, 78 
Hart, Travis, 1 63 
Hartzell,JosephC., 27, 28 
Haskew, Russell, 51 
Hatfield Hall, 16, 39, 49, 69, 76 
Hauchild, Margarita M., 10 
Hawkins, Bill, 160 
Hawkins, Harry L., 93 
Hays, Danny, 1 83 
Head, John, 160 
Heasdy, Charles R, 46 
Heath, James, 179 
Heins, Margaret, 169 
Henderson, R. Lem, 45 
Henley, Earl, 182 
Henrv, Ken, 143 
Herr, Stephen, 165, 171 
Hicks, Bill, 160 
Hicks, Xenophon Zenas, 35 
Higdon, Andrea, 136 
Higgins, Kenneth, 89, 145, 147, 151, 

162, 182 
Higgins, Roger, 1 50 
Hill, Jim, 126 
Hinds, Howard, 112 
Hine, Suzanne, 179 

Hixson, Fred Whidow, 50, 53, 54, 56, 57 
Hodge, Bachman G., 98 
Holmes, W. Newton, 38 
Honaker, Carl B., 94, 135, 136 
Hooper, Frank, 57 
Hoppe, L. E., 88 
Hornsby, Ann FUizabeth, 13 
Hornsbv, James H., 1 1 
Hornsbv, Robert C, 61 
Horton, Phoebe, 46 

Houts, Charolotte, 102 

Houts, Jack, 85, 86, 95, 97, 98, 102, 109, 145 

Howard, William, 1 6 

Howell, Haney, 113 

Hoyle, Thomas, 3 

Hubble, Mike, 183 

Hudson, Rankin, 85, 86, 95, 100, 136, 146 

Hunt, Thomas, 52 

Hunter, Andrew, 1 37 

Huskey, Viola, 100 

Hutsell, Andrew, 3 

Hutsell, Cornelia Atdee, 12 

Hutsell, Diane, 183 

Hutsell, Fred, 81 

Hutson, Bill T, 94 

Ingram, Robert, 112 
Irwin, Robert, 122 
Ivins, Samuel P., 2, 3, 6 

Jackson, Amy, 1 83 

Jackson, Eddie, 111 

Jackson, R. C, 3 

James L. Robb Gymnasium, 88, 96 

Jaquish, Rebecca Owen, 126, 128, 174, 

176, 183 
Jarrett, Lynn, 139 
Jarvis, J. Howard, 45 
Jenkins, Caroline, 49 
Jenkins, Fred, 78 
Jenkins, Jackie, 155, 160 
Jenkins, Keith, 155, 158, 160, 165 
Jennings, Charlie, 16 
Jennings, John, 45 
Jennings, R. V., 1 13 
Johnson, Alton, 124, 126 
Johnson, B. H., 26 
Johnson, F Heisse, 94, 103, 127, 129, 

140, 145 
Johnson, Harper, 110 
Johnson, Harry Jr., 155 
Johnson, Judy, 113 
Johnson, Lydia, 103 
Johnson, Ray, 52 



Johnson, Richard M., 94, 109 

jolley, Robert, 1 33 

Jones, Margaret Hoback, 58 

Jones, Milnor, 1 80 

lones, Miriam C, 180 

Jones, Stan, 123 

Jordan, Michael, 139 

joubert, William, 95 

jovce, Isaac, 28, 35 

justis, Kathrvn, 100 

Uner, Charles j. "Buddv," 106, 120, 136, 172 

Lloyd, Ralph W"., 8~ 

Lockmiller, Da\'id, 1 48 

LockmiUer, G. F, 59, 102 

Lomell, Leonard, 84, 1"^3 

Long, Carroll, "" 

Long, John D., 22 

Lowe, Glenn, 144, l"! 

Lo\vr\-, William, 2, 3 

Lundv, [o, 183 

Karr, Marv D., 38 

Kav, Toombs H.Jr., 119, 121, 122, 124, 126 

Kcirn, Bettv, 158 

Keith Hall, 146, 181 

Keith, Alexander H., 1, 3, 51 

Keith, Catherine, 46, 146 

Keith, Grace Coates, 144 

Keith, Louise, 46 

Kendall, Forest H., 136 

Kennedy, John F, 114 

Kennedy, Mar\- Kav, ~8 

Kern, Paul S., "6, ~~ 

Ketchersid, Bill, 113 

Kilbride, Bill, 15~, 160, 165, 172 

Kilby, Diana B., 165 

Killian, Laura, 126 

King, Jack, 106 

Knighr, Mrs. A. C., 31, 32, 39, 42 

Knight, Ronnie, Ud 

Kramer, Jackson, 141, 145 

Kramer, Russell, 103, 104, IH 

Kresgc, Dorothv, 108 

Kresge, Stanley, 108 

K\ ker, Steve, 1 1 3 

Lance, Lois Ann, 10(1 

Lawrence Hall, 29, "7, S2, 85, 88 

Lee, Anna, 183 

Lee, Clav I'. Jr., 148, 165 

Lewis, I'xiward S., 25, 26, 28, 146, 14" 

Lewis, Ida Ruth, 98 

Lewis, W. David, 146 

MacArthur, Douglas, 84 

MacArthur, Fred, 1 13 

Mackev, Frances, 81 

Maddox, Martha, 148 

Manker, John Jenkins, 10, 12-14,23-26,35,49 

Mann,J. W., 25 

Mardn, Bobbie Jean, 100 

Martin, Burton, 90 

Martin, Irene Xeal, 168 

Martin, Issac Patton, " 

Martin, LeRov A., 48, 90-98, 101-105, 125 

Martin, Rov, 51 

Mashburn, Scott, 180 

Matney, Mar\' Hager, 34 

Matthews, Bob, 86 

May, [ay, 15'' 

Mayheld, Bill, 181 

Mavheld, P^mma Sue, 50 

Mavheld, Goldie Denton, 181 

Mayheld, Lindsev, 181 

Mayheld, Muriel Shadow, 13^^ 

Mavheld, Regenia Lawson, 98, 160, 168, 

r2, 180 
.Mavheld, Scott, 128, 136, 180 
Mayheld, Thomas, 180 
.McC^allev, Joseph, i 
.\IcCarron,\\. i., 34 
McC:aslin, Blake, 183 
McClarv, Ben H., 113 
McConnell, Sam, 12", 145 
McConnell, T. M., 41 
McCray, Rube, 62, ~3, "S, ,S6, 136 
.McDonald, William, Kl 
McCiill, Lintla, r3 

TWC: 1857-2007 


McGill, William, 91,95 

McGlen,John, 2 

McHaffey, Eugene, 100 

McKay, Clyde, 126 

McKenzie, John, 100 

McLendon, Mary Ann, 1 37 

McLin, Anthony, 155 

McManus, Charlotte, 113 

Melear, Eda Selby, 80 

Melear, James M., 59 

Mendenhall, Dick, 101 

Merner-Pfeiffer Library, 76, 77, 82, 88, 

108, 146, 167, 181 
Milburn, W.E. E, 10, 12 
Mildram, Robert C, 103, 109 
Millard, Richard, 54, 56 
Miller, George, P. Ill, 136, 147 
Miller, L. D., 82 
Miller, Robert, 58 
Miller, Voncile, 173 
Miller, W. R., 46 
Miller, WaUace, 63, 64 
MoffittHaU, 97, 108, 121 
Moffitt, Frances Cullen, 48, 51, 54, 80, 82 
Mohney, Nell Webb, 105, 108, 116, 138, 172 
Mohney, Ralph W, 1 04- 1 1 1 , 1 1 5- 1 1 7, 1 20, 

141,148, 172 
Montgomery, Betty, 51 
Moodv, Gladys, 51 
Moore, Dan, 126 
Moore, J. W, 71 
Moore, Jane, 183 
Moore, John H., 10 
Moore, June, 113 
Moore, Mark, 102 
Moore, Mary, 126 
Moore, Susan Lizzie, 12 
Morgan, John, 133 
Myers, Arthur, 70, 95 
Myers, Claryse, 70, 81, 95, 109, 146, 158 
Myers, Rick 
Mvnatt, Delores, 99 

Naff, Ellen, 130, 133, 134 
Naff, George ]r., 130 

Naff, George, 85, 87, 95, 128-133, 135-141, 

148, 165, 171 
Naff, Mary Ellen, 85, 86, 129, 130, 138, 

139, 171 
Naff, Nancy, 130 
Neeley, Sam, 129,177 
Neff, Harriett Reaves, 147 
Neff, Herbert, 109, 134 
Neff, Ra3^, 124 
Nelson,A. G., 51 
New Hall, 120 
Nixon, W M., 39 
Nocatula Apartments, 168 
Nocatula Garden, 181,183 
Norfleet, Lydia, 144 

Norfleet, Wayne, 131, 133, 139, 144, 162 
Norton, Paul, 52 

O'Brien, Michael, 125, 131, 135 

O'Meara, Jerry, 126 

Observation and Practice School, 57, 85, 97 

Old College, 4, 65, 76, 137, 148 

Olinger, Mike, 126 

Oliphant, George, 172 

Oneal,Tom, 148, 159, 170 

Osborn, Marvin, 106 

Ott, Karen, 166 

Ott, Philip, 165, 166, 174 

Owens, Ann, 100 

Parker, James, 30 

Parsons, Reba, 98 

Patten, John A., 44-46, 49 

Patten, Mrs. John A., 59, 65, 66, 80 

Patterson, N. A., 12 

Paul, Brenda, 139 

Pearson, Douglas, 125 

Pelley, Dick, 159, 183 

Pemberton, Tom, 85 

Penniman, Wa^^ne, 126 

Perdue, John 172 

Perkinson, Bo, 183 

Peters, A. J., 87 

Pett);J. S., 49 



Pem-Manker HaU, 49, 53, 55, 64, ^4, 80, 
85,96,151, 166, 16^ 182 

Pfeiffer, .\nnie Merner, ""1, "^6, '''', 80, 88, 

Pfeiffer, Dianne, 165 

Pfeiffer, Henry, ^1,98 

Phelon, W". W:, 38 

Phelps, xM. S., 3 

Phillips, Sewell, 3, ^ 

Pickle, Barbara, 99, 100 

Pinson, Mathew; 1~5, 183 

Pirtle, Derek, 183 

Powers, Harold, 95 

Pratt, Ann, 1 13 

Presnell, Marv j. Mason, 12, 26 

Preston, Rob, 1 83 

Prewitt, lunior, 101 

Price, R. X., ^, 25 

Pritchard, Wavne, 126 

Profhtt, Harwell, 88 

Proudfoot, Miles, 136 

Puett, Fred, ^4, 85, 95 

Puett, Reva, 95 

Purushotham, \\ ill, 1~" 

Quinn, \'ire;inia, 78 

Ritter Hall, 29, 32, 40, 49, 51, 53, 55, 64, 69, 
^0,^^,85,96, 101, Hr, 121 

Ritter, Elizabeth, 29 

Riviere, Paul, 85, 88, 94, 126 

Robb, James L., 46, 56, 5^, 59, 60, 65, 68- 
^2, ~4, "6-80, 82-84, 86-91, 94, 
102, 120 

Robb, Mrs. James L., 73, 88, 89 

Roberts, )ennie M., 39 

Roberts, Sam, 148, 169, 170 

Robeson Hall, 69, 77 

Robinson, Carolvn Huff, 169 

Robinson, Jackie, 114 

Robinson, Rav, 125 

Rodgers, Bill, 135 

Rogers, E. G., 85, 95, in9 

Romney, George, 1 14 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 78 

Roseberry, Lawrence, 165 

Rowley, Erastus, 3, '^, 8 

Ruleman, William, HI, U5 

Runyan, (barter, 180 

Runvan, (jndv, 1~'9, 183 

Rust, Richard, 24-26 

Ruthertord, |im, 112 

Rvberg, Janice, 150, l~(l 

Ryberg, Robert, 158, 159 

Rvmer, S. B., 124 

Race, John W., 36-41, 43, 45, 48, 50 

Ragtield, Kay, 1 13 

Rambo, M. G., 34 

Ra\mer, Gene, 1 26 

Reagan, Rcmald, 144 

Reaves, Humphries, 137 

Redfern, C^huck, 135 

Reeder, S. K., 3 

Reid, Don, 151, 153, 156, 159, 160, 183 

Revnolds, lluuh, 100, loj 

Reynolds, Melvin "Bucky," 126, 133, 139 

Rhodes, Larrv, 126 

Richesin, Diana, P3 

Richmond, M. R.. 81,83, 86 

Riden, II. II.. 1 

Ritlenour, |. Tarson, 87 


Sadler, Eugene, 95 
Savior, |ohn, 126 
Schultz, lane Miller, 158 
Schultz, L. T, 3 
Scott, Bill, "8 
Seaborn, William M., 3 
Seepe, Charles, 99, 
Selby, I 'da, 51,62 
Selden, Bill, "8 
Senn, C j)urine\, lO'), 1 
Shadow, Mar\, S~ 
Shelln, |inim\, lol 
Shell, I\-u\, 100 
Shehon, I. 11, 'M 
Shelton, Irank, '>■] 
Sheh'in, I lurman, 1 26 


TVVC: 1857-2007 


Sherman Fine Arts Center, 107, 115, 116, 

Sherman, Frankie, 159 
Sherman, Harry, 151-154, 156, 158, 159, 

161, 173 
Sherman, James, 158, 159 
Sherman, John, 22 
Sherman, Laura T, 97, 99, 107 
Sherman, Tom, 66, 97, 102, 107 
Shilling, Roy, 106 
Shipman,J. B., 1 
Shivers, Richard, 1 28 
Short, Roy, 94, 102, 105 
Shorter, Bobby, 126 
Shrader, Dan, 126 
Simmons, Ray, 133 
Simpson, Edna, 159 
Sims, Curtis, 113, 126 
Slover, John, 2 
Smith, Alton, 109, 149 
Smith, C. Q., 85 
Smith, Ken, 124 

Smith, M. C. "Tip," 95, 101, 1 19, 120, 136 
Smith, Marion, 86 
Smith, Maxwell A., 103 
Smith, Mildred, 149 
Smith, Raymond, 126 
Spence, John Fletcher, 14-16, 20-29, 42 
Spradling, Osmond, 81 
Springer, Sue, 137 
Springfield, Tommy, 114 
Staley, Carolyn, 112 
Standridge, Thelma Rucker, 85 
Stansell, Robert B., 48, 49 
Stapley, David, 113, 126 
Starnes, Paul, 99 
Sterchi, Gordon, 129, 142, 144 
Stevenson, Jean, 159, 171 
Stewart, Lee, 160 
Stonecipher, Norma, 78 
Stubbs, M. F, 81 
Stuckey, Jason, 155 
Sullins, Timothy, 3 

SulUns, W. D, 117, 124, 128, 145, 172, 182 
Sundquist, Don, 172 
Sutheriand, Pat, 183 

Swanson, Virginia, 78 

Taylor, Alf, 12 

Taylor,J. B., 1 

Taylor, James "Rust}'," 131 

Taylor, Mary Virginia, 131 

Taylor, Nathaniel G., 53 

Taylor, Robert Love, 12, 27, 35, 52, 53 

Thirkield, W. A., 39, 59 

Thomas, W M., 34 

Thompson, Dorothy LockmiUer Bright, 148 

Thompson, James, 142, 159, 170, 173, 182 

Thompson, Sandra, 113 

Thornton, John, 155, 169 

Tompkins, Amelia M., 3 

Tompkins, Elizabeth, 3 

Townsend Hall, 15, 58, 96, 114, 115, 147 

Townsend, W B., 59, 65, 66, 71, 80, 88, 96 

Treher, Karen, 113 

Trewhitt, D. C, 8 

Turner, Beverly, 118 

Turner, Charles, 117-119, 121-127, 128, 

134, 141 
Turner, Diane, 118 
Turner, Elizabeth, 118, 126 

Underwood, Louie, 85, 96, 121, 135 
Upton, Elaine, 111 

Vassar, Phil, 183 
Vaughn, Fannie Kate, 81 
Veteran's Dormitory, 85 
Vibbert, Holland, 170 

Walden,JohnM., 39, 43 
Walker, Andy, 35 
Walker, Ann, 169 
Walker, Helen Ellis, 114 
Walker,JoanT., 91 
Walker, Martha, 100 
Walker, Paul]., 88 
Walker, T. S., 25 



Wallace, Larrv, n6, 180, 183 

Walk, -\lt, 95, 103 

Ware, Themis Hutsell, 58 

Warren, Henrv W., 24, 25, 32 

Warren, William H., 42 

Watkins, Clyde F, 102 

Watkins, Marv Rogers, 1 12 

Watkins, Morgan, 102 

Watt, Billy, II II I 

Webb, James, ~~ 

Westmoreland, Bill, 126 

Whaley, Rex, 126 

Wheeler, Keith, {"H 

WTiitehead, T. W., ^9 

Whiting, Lvnn, 150 

Whiting, \'ict()r, 137 

Whitde, O. F., 46 

Wicke, Mvron F, 1(I2 

Wiggins, Genevieve, Ur. 109, 1 14, 

148-150, 168, 1~1 
Wilcox, Angle, 183 
Wilcox, Robert, 127 
Williams W. F, 45 
Williams, Elmma Sue, 65 
Williams, jo, lOO 
Williams, Marv Farmer, 182 
Williams, Phyllis, HID 
Willson, Hugh, 182 
Willson, Paul, 182 
Wilson, Cdiris, 13" 
Wilson, Ge(jrgc, HH) 
Wilson, Irene, P", r8 
Wilson, Mdba, 111 
Wilson, Percival C, 9 
Wilson, Pete, HiD, 115 
Witt, Bo, 115 
Witt, Burkett, 99, 115 
Witt, CAirwTjod, 123 
Witt, Mildred, 115 
WoltT, i'mm\- Land, "^5, "^8 
WoUY, Werner, ~5, "8 
Womack, IVed, r9, 183 
Woodcock, Shirlev, 1811 
Woods, 1a an, 1 3~ 
Woods, |imm\, 13"^ 
Woods, |ohn, 137 

Woodward, C. N., 59 

Woody, Boyd, 101 

Wright Hall, 96 

W riyht, W. R., 34-36, 39, 42-45, 6' 

Yates, G. A., 95 

Yates, William, 1 13 
Yother, losh, 165 

Zeller, Bernard, 95 

TVVC: 1857-2007 



Bill Akins is a 1957 graduate of Tennessee 

Wesleyan College, and later earned a master's 

degree from Georgia Southern University. 

In 1989, TWC conferred on him an honorary 

doctorate degree^, tte is retired from Mayfield 

Dairy Farms, Inc., where he served as 

personnel manager, and from Tennessee 

Wesleyan College as director of the evening 

program. He has authored, co-authored and 

co-edited several books and publications on 

local history. The most recent is Torn Apart: 

McMinn County, Tennessee During the Civil 

War, published in 2006, which he co-authored. 

The East Tennessee Historical Society selected 

' the book for an Award of Distinction in 2007. 

: Genevieve Wiggins, Professor Emerita 
of Tennessee Wesleyan, continues part- 
time teaching as an adjunct professor of 
English at Cleveland State Community 
College. Her educational background 

• includes a B.A. from the University of 
Chattanooga, an M.A. from Vanderbilt 
.yniversity, and a Ph.D. from the University 
of Tennessee. She is the author of a critical 
s biography of L.M. Montgomery, published 
las part of the Twayne World Authors 
iSeries,' and contributed to and co-edited 

^two books of local history, Over Here and 
After and Hard Times Remembered. 


/ ^..fe^^>* ' ''