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Full text of "Kelantan; a state of the Malay Peninsula; a handbook of information"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 



_ 1 



v*^ ( ^•'•-M^* y 



^ 



KELANTAN 



PUBLISHED BV 

JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS, GLASGOW 
{Inbliehtre to tht Bnibtrsitg. 



MACMILLAN ANIJ CO., LTD., LONDON. 



New York, 
Toronto, • 
London, • 
Cambridge, 

Edinburgh, 
Sydney, ■ 



The Macmillan Co. 

'Die Macmillan Co. o/Canadtt. 

Simpkin, Humiiton and Cc. 

Bowes and Bcnves. 

Dougias and pouln. 

Angus and Robertson. 



>r^,'^• 



PREFACE. 

Kelantan, the largest of the Malay States 
subordinate to Siam, and of an area about equal 
to half that of Belgium, is a country almost 
entirely unknown, not only in far-away Europe, 
but also in those parts, Siam, the Straits Settle- 
ments, and even the other States of the Malay 
Peninsula which lie nearest to it. 

Persons (if such there be) seeking knowledge 
concerning Kelantan in the neighbouring cities 
of Bangkok or Singapore will usually receive 
little information for their pains, and that of a 
kind which, should they thereafter be so hardy 
as to test the same by personal observation, they 
will find to have been misleading as regards the 
people, the resources, the government, and in 
fact almost every feature of the country as it 
is to-day. 

It is with a view to placing reliable information 
within the reach of such possible inquirers, and 



19G9483 



vi PREFACE 

in the hope of drawing some small share of the 
attention of the public to the incipient prosperity 
and commercial possibilities of the State, that 
this booklet has been prepared, and the writer 
trusts that, in spite of its many defects, it will 
not entirely fail in the achievement of its objects. 
For the photographs of Para Rubber and 
Rubber Plantations, the author has to thank 
the General Manager of the Duff Development 
Company Ltd. 

W. A. G. 

Kelant.\n, 
October ^t/t, 1907. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

CHAPTER I. 
Introductory, ------- i 

CHAPTER II. 
Geographical, 4 

CHAPTER III. 
Geological, 12 

CHAPTER IV. 
Climate, 14 

CHAPTER V. 
The People, 17 

CHAPTER VI. 
Towns and Villages, - - - . - 27 

CHAPTER VII. 
Religion, ^i 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Language, - - - ^. 



viii CONTENTS 

pa<;e 

CHAPTER IX. 
History, ^8 

CHAPTER X. 

COMMUNICAIIONS, ------ 55 

CHAPTER XI. 
Tr.\de, Commerce, and Industries, - - 59 

CHAPTER XII. 
Agriculture, - 70 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Live Stock, 83 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Land, - - - - 91 

CHAPTER XV. 
TiMCER AND Forest Produce, - . - 95 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Minerals and Mixing, ----- joi 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Government, - 109 

CHAl'TER XVIII. 
General, - - - 114 

Appendices, 126 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

His Majesty the King of Siam, . - - . Frontispiece 
Mail Steamer "Boribat"off Kelantan - - Til le page 

His Highness the Raja of Kelantan, . . . . 2 

The Lighthouse, Kuala Tumpat, 4 

Kota Bharu from the River, ------ 6 

The Kelantan River, Far Inland, ----- 8 

The Padang, Kota Bharu, 10 

The Balei, Inner Gateway, ----- . 12 

Outside the Raja Mudas House, . . - . . 14 

The Post Office, Kota Bharu, 16 

A Street in Kota Bharu, ------- 18 

Kelantan Peasants, 20 

Kelantan Peasant Women, 22 

Woman of Kelantan, 24 

The "Kelumbong" as Garment, 26 

The "Kelumbong" as Ornament, 28 

House of a Malay Noble, .-.--.. 30 

Entrance to the Musjid, Kota Bharu, - . - . 32 

The Old Musjid, Kampong Laut, 34 

Lauggar, the Sultan's Burial-Place, - . - - 36 

Chinese Joss-House, Kampong China, .... 38 



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

I'AUE 

Charity, a Wayside Rest House, - .... 40 

The New Market (under construction), - - - 42 

The Prison, Kota Bharu. 44 

A Country Road, 46 

A Country Lane, 48 

.\ Road near Kota Bharu, 50 

The Captain China's House, 52 

Kampong China, China Town, 54 

The Kelantan River at Kuala Lebik, - - - - 56 

On the Kelantan River, 58 

Fifty Miles up River, 60 

Landing Stage, Kota Bharu, 62 

The Pasir Putch Road, .-..--. 64 

Silk Weaving, 66 

A Fishing Boat, 68 

Paddi Fields, 70 

Para Rubber, 14 Months, Taku Estate, - - - - 72 

Coco-nut Trees on thk River-side, 74 

A RUBBER Clearing; Duff Company, .... 76 

A Coco-nut Plantation, 78 

On the Lebir River; The Duff Company Station, - 80 

Betel Palms, 82 

Coolie Lines at Taku, 84 

A Buffalo, 86 

Draught Oxen, 88 

A Kelantan Ram, 9© 

A Private Conveyance, 92 

A Mining Camp; Duff Company's Concession, - - 94 

A Gold Mining Shaft, Duff Company, - - - ■ 96 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

I'AGE 

A Gold Dredger on the Kelantan Rivek ; Duff Company, 98 

Constructing a Gold Dredger ; Duff Company, - - 100 

Shifting Ground; Duff Company, 102 

Civil Police, Kota Bharu, ------- 104 

Military Police, Kota Bharu, 106 

A District Police Station, io8 

Court House, Kota Bharu, no 

A Creek, 112 

A Creek, 114 

A Bull-Fight, 116 

A Champion, 118 

The Residency, 120 

Map of Kelantan, at end 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

In the month of December, 1902, an agreement 
was signed between the Government of H.M. 
the King of Siam and H.H. the Raja of 
Kelantan (one of the States of the Malay 
Peninsula subordinate to Siam), considerably 
modifying the arrangements which had formerly 
existed for the government of that Dependency. 
The Suzerain Government promised to appoint 
an official to reside in the State as His Majesty's 
representative and to act as Adviser to H.H. 
the Raja, and undertook to leave the internal 
administration of the State thereafter in the 
hands of its own ruler, provided that the said 
administration should be conducted with justice, 
moderation, and humanity, for the benefit of the 
people, and provided also that peace should be 
maintained. H.H. the Raja of Kelantan under- 



2 KELANTAN 

took for his part to follow the advice of the 
Adviser in all matters of administration other 
than those touching the Mohammedan religion. 

In July of the year 1903 the first Resident 
Commissioner and Adviser under this new 
arrangement was appointed, H.M.'s Government 
selecting for this purpose an Englishman who 
had been for some years in the Siamese service, 
and who had had considerable former experience 
in administrative work as an official of the 
Government of India. An Assistant Commis- 
sioner and Adviser was also appointed by His 
Majesty's Government in the person of a young 
officer borrowed, at first, from the Government 
of the Federated Malay States, and who has 
since severed his connection with the latter 
Government in order to take permanent service 
in the Siamese Malay States. At that moment, 
owing to several causes, but chiefly to the fact 
that, unable to stem the tide of intrigue which 
his relatives had set flowing from the day (in 
1 899) on which he became ruler, the Raja had 
lost all but the outward semblance of power, 
the Government of the State was in a state 
of sheer chaos ; law and order were scarcely 
existent, and the time-honoured customs of the 
country, and even the tenets of Mohammedan 




HIS HIGHNESS THE RAJA OF KEI.A: 



INTRODUCTORY 3 

law, were fast becoming subverted. Four years 
of administration under the new agreement have 
effected considerable alteration in the aspect of 
affairs. The intrigues of the nobility have been 
checked, and the State revenues have been 
rescued from their clutches and restored to the 
Treasury, numerous laws have been passed, 
justice has been brought within the reach of 
the populace, many works of public utility have 
been undertaken, and different departments of 
Government have been organised with the 
assistance of English and Siamese officers 
specially engaged by the State. 



CHAPTER II. 
GEOGRAPHICAL. 

Description. The State of Kelantan is situated 
on the eastern side of the Mala>' Peninsula and 
lies between latitudes 4.45" and 6.25 north and 
between longitudes 101.30 and 102.40° east. 
It is bounded on the west by the Siamese 
Monton of Patani and by the British protected 
Malay State of Perak, on the south by the 
British protected Malay State of Pahang, on 
the east by the Siamese Malay State of 
Tringganu, and on the north by the China 
Sea. Kelantan has a coast line of 60 miles, 
and her total land frontier is about 360 miles 
long. The area of the State has been estimated 
at 5500 square miles, the greatest length from 
north to south being i i 5 miles, and the greatest 
breadth from east to west 60 miles. 

Physical Geography. Roughly Kelantan may be 



GEOGRAPHICAL 5 

said to consist of the basin of the Kelantan 
river and its tributaries, with the valleys of the 
lower Golok and the Semarak rivers on the west 
and east respectively. All along the sea-shore 
the land is flat and low-lying, and is inter- 
sected by numerous tidal creeks which connect 
the different rivers and which penetrate to 
some distance inland. Back from the shore, 
to a distance of from ten to twenty-five 
miles, extends a great and fertile plain of a 
thousand square miles or more, about three 
quarters of which is under cultivation. Towards 
the south the level of the land rises and 
isolated hills appear, surrounded by stretches of 
more or less open country eminently suitable 
for grazing. Behind this again the hills run 
into chains of jungle-clad mountains, the summits 
of which rise higher and higher as they recede, 
always towards the south, until, near the southern 
border of the State, the country becomes a 
series of wild mountain masses culminating on 
the southern border in the heights of the far- 
famed, mysterious Gunong Tahan, the highest 
peak in the whole Malay Peninsula. 

Mountains. Gunong Tahan, or " The forbidden 
mountain," reputed, like the inaccessible heights 
of many lands, to be inhabited by demons and 



6 KELANTAN 

warlocks of a peculiar malevolence, has never been 
ascended by Malays, who, moreover tremble at 
the bare idea of invading its recesses. And, 
indeed, seeing that the immense distance of the 
ascent entails days of wandering amidst pathless 
jungle, the imminent risk of exhaustion and 
starvation and the certainty of malaria, this 
lack of enterprise on the part of the people 
of the country is scarcely a matter for surprise. 
Moreover the Malay, being in no sense addicted 
to scientific research, and also quite untroubled 
by the ambitions which inspire the Alpine Societ}-, 
there is really absolutely nothing to take him 
up the mountain, unless it be a vague wish, 
which at times may visit him, that he might 
become master of the fabulous gold and jewels 
which, according to tradition, lie upon the 
mountain-top protected by the fierce Spirits of 
the Summit. The ascent has, however, been 
made by Europeans, once in i 899 by a member 
of the Cambridge Scientific Expedition who went 
up from the Kelantan side, and who, much to 
the surprise of the Malays, reappeared alive after 
many days, though much shaken by fever and 
dysentery ; once in 1901, also from the Kelantan 
side, and again in 1906 by a party which 
made the ascent from Pahang. The report of 



GEOGRAPHICAL 7 

these explorers is silent concerning the presence 
of wealth on the summit, and the only treasure 
known to have been wrested from the Watchers 
of the Mountain on these occasions consisted of 
a few rare botanical specimens. Gunong Tahan 
is about 8000 feet high. Until the boundary 
between Kelantan and Pahang has been accurately 
delimited it remains uncertain to which of the 
two States the summit of this mountain actually 
belongs. 

Other mountain heights of importance in 
Kelantan are Gunong Blimbing, Gunong Sitong, 
Gunong Kemiri, and Gunong Noring, all between 
5000 and 6000 feet high, and situated in the 
south eastern part of the State, and which, 
though lofty and difficult of access, present to 
the Malay mind few of the terrors inspired by 
Gunong Tahan, There are also several lesser 
Gunongs and an infinity of hills or Bukits, 
remarkable amongst which are Bukit Yong, a 
considerable range near the Tringganu border, 
reported rich in tin ; Bukit Merbau, an isolated 
group standing upon the plain ; Bukit Temangan 
close to the main river about thirty miles inland, 
also said to be stanniferous ; Bukit Kamaheng 
on the Leggeh border ; Bukit Panau and others. 
" Gunong " means a mountain, and " Bukit " a 



8 KELANTAN 

hill, but exactly when a height is a " Bukit " 
and when it is a " Gunong " does not appear 
capable of accurate determination by the Malay 
mind. More than one of the " Bukit " of 
Kelantan would seem to possess all the attributes 
of " Gunong." 

Rivers. In the nomenclature of his rivers the 
Malay is peculiar. All the great rivers of the 
Peninsula, the Perak river, the Pahang river, 
the Kelantan river, and the Patani river are 
called after, or, as seems equally probable, ha^■e 
given their names to the State of which they 
are the main artery. The peculiarity consists in 
the fact that instead of tracing the rivers so 
named along the main channels and right up to 
their principal source, regarding all lesser con- 
fluent streams as tributaries thereto, the Malay 
runs them to earth in some small side creek 
near the mouth of the first big tributary, above 
the confluence of which the main streams take 
a new name, only to lose it again when the 
next big tributary is met. Thus the main 
river of Kelantan is known as the Betis for 
the first twenty miles of its course, then as the 
Ninggiri, then as the Galas, and ultimately as 
the Kelantan. It is a magnificent river, 120 
miles long, 400 yards broad at Kota Bharu eight 



GEOGRAPHICAL 9 

miles from the mouth, and navigable by shallow- 
draught launches and big country boats for 
78 or 80 miles. Sailing vessels of eight feet 
draught ascend as far as Kota Bharu. The 
principal tributaries are the Galas, the Lebir, 
the Nal, the Krah, and the Bagan on the right 
bank, and the Sitong, the Pergau, and the Kusial 
on the left. In the upper reaches the river 
and its tributaries flow for the most part through 
mountainous, densely wooded country, though 
here and there, as in the neighbourhood of Pulai, 
a village in the far south, broad open flats, 
apparently of ancient alluvial formation, are 
passed. Waterfalls, set amidst the wildest and 
most beautiful natural scenery, occur in the 
Ninggiri reach of the main river, in the Sitong 
and in the Kusial, while in the Lebir and the 
Pergau are many rapids. From Kuala Lebir 
downwards the river flows, a broad and ever- 
widening stream, between high banks covered 
at first with ever-green jungle and later with 
coconut and betel palms, banana trees, and 
bamboos, hiding the houses of the riparian 
population which clusters thick upon its banks. 
During the greater part of the year the river 
is studded with yellow sand-banks, but during 
the rainy season these are covered, and the 



lO KELANTAN 

water descends during six months of the year 
in a fair broad sheet running high and fast 
between the banks. About four miles from the 
sea the river divides and forms a small delta, 
the soil of which is extremely rich and is nearly- 
all under paddi cultivation. Beyond the mouths 
of the river there lies a broken semicircle of 
sand-banks some five miles long, enclosing a 
large shallow lagoon and forming a bar which 
precludes the entry into the river of any vessel 
having more than nine feet draught. At times, 
however, the great volume of water discharged 
during the floods, scours a deep channel through 
the bar, and, until the opening thus made 
becomes silted up again, the lagoon forms an 
ideal harbour. At other times the steamers 
which visit Kelantan are forced to lie outside 
the bar in the open sea, whereby the trade of 
the State is a good deal hampered. 

The Sungei^ Golok, coming from the State of 
Leggeh in Monton- Patani, crosses the western 
border of Kelantan, flows in a winding course 
through fifteen miles of open, cultivated land and 
falls into the sea at Tabar, about nine miles up 
the coast north-west from the mouth of the 

' Sungei = River. 

- Monton = A Siamese administrative division 



GEOGRAPHICAL ii 

Kelantan river. Near the confines of Tringganu 
the river Semarak runs almost parallel to the 
border line, rising in the Bukit Yong range and 
falling into the sea at Kuala Semarak, the last 
littoral village of Kelantan. 

The Littoral. Though the level of the land is 
low, near the sea there is an abrupt sandy beach, 
higher than the land behind it, all along the 
Kelantan coast-line. There is no sign of the 
low mud-banks and mangrove swamps which 
characterise the west coast of the Peninsula ; but 
all along the shore runs a bright double line of 
silver surf and golden beach, topped by the green 
of shimmering coconut palms or waving casuarina 
trees. 

The land is advancing seaward round about 
the mouth of Kelantan river, a fact which is 
proved by the presence of two well-defined sand 
beaches lying across the plain, one behind the 
other, at a distance of three and four miles respec- 
tively from the present sea-shore. There are no 
islands off the coast of Kelantan except the 
" Turtle-back " island near the north-east border, 
which belongs to the State of Tringganu. 



CHAPTER III. 

GEOLOGICAL. 

Not much is known of the geology of Kelantan, 
as no geologist has ever visited and examined 
the State. The highest mountains are largely 
composed of granite, which, moreover, forms many 
of the low isolated hills with which the northern 
plain is dotted. Limestone, also, occurs in many 
places, though the peculiarly shaped and precipi- 
tous limestone hills which are to be seen in the 
provinces of Ratburi and Lakon in the north of 
the Peninsula and in the Kinta valley of Perak 
are absent in Kelantan. The Printian and 
Turtle-back islands, off the coast of Tringganu, 
and the hill called Bukit Panau, some twenty-five 
miles up the Kelantan river, would appear to be 
outcrops of the same strata of quartzite, schistose 
rocks, and sandstone. The beds at both places 
are tilted towards the south west, and though 
they are separated by thirty miles of flat alluvial 











%■ /f=~ 



yij. 



GEOLOGICAL 13 

land, with several granite hills between them, 
it is conceivable that they are the remains of 
a once great mountain range formed by the 
upheaving, bending, and faulting action of granite 
violently intruded from below, and almost the 
whole of which has now been disintegrated and 
denuded away. No fossils have hitherto been 
found in the State. The alluvial deposits in 
Kelantan are very extensive. In the far south 
of the State there are several broad valleys the 
bottoms of which are formed of an ancient 
alluvium of fertile soil, which in some places is 
highly cultivated, and in others is, or has been, 
worked for minerals. The northern districts are 
almost solely alluvial, the great plain being 
entirely comprised of, probably, estuarine deposits 
of detritus carried down from mountains which 
have long since vanished altogether. The soil 
thus formed is mostly of very fine consistency, 
with here and there beds of coarse sand and 
gravel running through it. Near the sea the 
older beds have been in places overlaid with 
recent marine deposit, while inland they are 
covered, sometimes to the extent of several feet, 
with the fine and fertile sediment of which a thin 
layer is annually spread over the land by the 
regularly recurring floods. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CLIMATE. 

The climate of Kelantan is mild and equable. 
In the plains it is strongly affected by the sea, 
the morning land breeze and the afternoon sea 
breeze blowing with peculiar regularity during 
the greater part of the year. Here the tempera- 
ture, while rarely falling below 69"^ F., never rises, 
even at the hottest time of the year, beyond 
93'' F., and the average daily range of temperature 
is about 14 F. Among the hills, fifty and more 
miles from the .sea, the heat is greater during 
the day and less during the night. There the 
thermometer falls as low as 62 F. and occasionally 
rises to 96" F., and the average range is about 
1 8°. The oppressive night heat, one of the 
trials of so many tropical countries, is never 
felt in Kelantan. 

Rainfall. The rainfall is fairly equal through- 



CLIMATE IS 

out the State, being generally, but not always, 
slightly greater in the far interior than on the 
coast. The records for the last three years, in 
fact, show an average of about 102 inches in the 
hills and about 104 inches in the plains. 
The months of February, March, and April 
are the driest of the year, the rainfall during 
that period being seldom over two inches per 
month. In October, November, and December 
a strong wind blows from the north east, bringing 
with it dense masses of cloud, which frequently 
hide the sun for several days together, and which 
deluge the land with heavy rains. Twenty inches 
in a month is no unusual record during this 
season. The remaining six months of the year 
have an equal rainfall averaging from seven to 
eight inches a month (see Appendix B). In May 
and June sudden squalls of wind from the south- 
west are to be expected. These blow with much 
violence but are of brief duration, and are seldom 
of sufficient strength to cause any considerable 
damage. Some thirty years ago the State was 
practically reduced to ruin by a cyclone which 
swept down the Kelantan river, uprooted many 
thousands of coconut trees, destroyed nearly 
all the houses, and laid waste broad belts of 
jungle. It was followed by immense forest 



i6 KELANTAN 

fires, which left the country a charred and 
blackened desert 

Such is the fertility of the soil, however, that 
no trace of the catastrophe now exists except 
the presence, amid the jungle which has reclothed 
the hill-sides, of tall dead trunks of the "changal" 
trees which withstood the wind but were killed 
by the fire, and which now supply an excellent 
building material. 



5r # 




CHAPTER V. 
THE PEOPLE. 

No complete census of the population has ever 
been taken. The number of people in the State 
has hitherto been merely guessed at without 
any particular data, and the total has been placed 
at anything between 100,000 (Pallegoix) and 
600,000 (Swettenham), but it is now possible 
to arrive at an estimate of greater accuracy 
than was obtainable by former writers. The 
recently introduced system of annual returns, 
from which the poll-tax lists are compiled, shows 
close upon 60,000 adult males, which gives, 
allowing for 60,000 adult females and 1 80,000 
children, or three to each adult female, a total 
of about 300,000. The average of three living 
children to each family is perhaps rather low, 
though the census of Burma and of Siam works 
out at about that figure ; for owing to the com- 



1 8 KELANTAN 

parative absence of epidemic diseases, the infant 
mortality of Kelantan is probably rather less 
than in those countries, and the actual population 
may therefore be considered to be rather over 
than under 300,000. To this figure may be 
added some 10,000 Sakeis and Jakuns, wild 
tribes inhabiting the mountains, and of whom 
little was known beyond the fact that they 
existed in considerable numbers, until the recent 
issue of the work of Skeat and Blagden on 
the pagan races of the Malay Peninsula, gave 
to the world a mass of valuable information 
concerning these and other Malaj'an hill 
tribes. 

The bulk of the population is Malay, or rather 
that peculiar product of the fusion of Malay, 
Siamese, and other races which in Kelantan 
passes for Malay. The Kelantan man is taller, 
better built, and stronger than the true Malay. 
He is probably also of a temperament more easy- 
going, more open and less excitable than his 
cousins in the south. Gay, debonair, a good 
sportsman and a humorist, easily moved alike 
to brief anger and to affection, and endowed by 
nature with extraordinarily good manners, the 
man of Kelantan makes, as a casual acquaintance, 
the best of good company, whether he be a Raja 



THE PEOPLE 19 

at a bull-fight or a peasant engaged as a jungle 
guide. Below the surface, however, he is a 
natural born intriguer, and for that reason is 
also a slave to continual suspicion of the motives 
of his neighbours. He is consequently an in- 
veterate liar ; but his deceits are far from skilful 
and his soul is entirely free from shame whenever 
his prevarications are exposed. That the Malay 
is lazy and will not work is a common saying 
in the mouths of Europeans in Malaya. True, 
the Malay will often decline to work in the 
particular manner in which the European desires 
him to do so, that is as a mining cooly or plan- 
tation hand in the service of the said European, 
but the Malay is by no means an idle person. 
In Kelantan he grows the seventy thousand odd 
tons of rice which feed the population, he catches 
and dries fish enough for home consumption and 
for considerable export, he makes some forty 
thousand pikuls of kopra every year, he works 
boats on the river, and, in fact, he makes a very 
comfortable living, supplies all his wants, and is 
contented. It is not probable that any European 
who condemns him would himself continue to 
work at tin mine or rubber estate after he had 
made enough to satisfy all his wants and to 
be able to realise all his ideals in order merely 



20 KELANTAN 

to satisfy the demand of some stranger for labour. 
The Siamese in the State number about 15,000. 
They live chiefly in the coast districts, in villages 
apart from the Malays, where they follow their 
own religion and customs unmolested. They 
are well behaved and prosperous. The Siamese 
of Kelantan are chiefly the descendants of 
settlers from the northern parts of the Penin- 
sula, but there are also several villages near 
the coast the forebears of the inhabitants of 
which came from Siam proper, accompanying 
the Siamese general, Phaya Pitsnulok, on a 
military expedition some sixty years ago, and 
afterwards being left behind to keep the peace 
between Kelantan and the neighbouring state of 
Sai. Of foreigners in the State the Chinese 
number about 8000. In former years the 
Chinese element was purely Hokien, individuals 
of which family settled in Kelantan long years 
ago, and, in spite of various kinds and degrees 
of oppression, persisted there, joining with the 
Malays in rigid exclusion of all other Chinese. 
Within the last two or three years, however, 
many Singapore Chinese and Hailams have come 
in, either as shopkeepers or as labourers, and 
the Chinese population is now rapidly increasing. 
Of natives of various parts of India there is 




"J»fJ^ 



THE PEOPLE 2 1 

a small number, upwards of a hundred Moham- 
medan Klings, natives of the west coast of India, 
cattle-traders and cloth-sellers, and, in addition 
to the company of Sikh Police, a few Punjabi 
and Afghan money-lenders, pedlars, etc. A 
certain number of Arabs reside in Kota Bharu, 
where they carry on trade on principles which, 
but for the odour of sanctity which surrounds 
them, would infallibly have caused their undoing 
long ago. A floating population of some forty 
Europeans, employed in the Government service 
and in various mining and planting enterprises, 
makes up the sum of the foreign population. 
This last element, which is probably destined 
to grow and greatly to influence the destiny of 
all the rest in the not remote future, was entirel}' 
absent until about eight years ago, at which 
date the concession-hunter first obtained a footing 
in the country. Before that time Kelantan was 
to the European a dark and mysterious land, 
concerning which almost nothing was known, 
but of which, owing to the som.ewhat lurid light 
thrown upon it by the tales of very occasional 
travellers, the worst was readily believed. Now, 
however, the evil reputation of former days is 
being contradicted, and, indeed, it would almost 
appear at this day that Kelantan is one of the 



2 2 KELANTAN 

most delectable of lands to live in, for those few 
foreigners who have made their abode there 
cease not from sounding its praises, one result 
of which is becoming apparent in the increasing 
contemplation of the State as a field for enter- 
prise and investment by the people of the 
neighbouring centres of commercial activit)-. 

Costume. The costume of the Kelantan 
peasant is of a simple nature. A square of 
cotton cloth called '' Kain Lepas," hitched round 
the waist, and falling to his knees, a wisp of 
painted calico artistically bound round his shaven 
poll, and a third cloth wrapped about his middle, 
forming a belt in which arms, money, betel-nut, 
and tobacco can be carried, complete his outfit. 
Thus attired he is prepared for any of the 
occupations which his daily life may bring him. 
Is it a long journey to perform, he thrusts his 
kriss into his cloth belt, hides a parcel of rice 
and a little extra tobacco in the folds of the 
latter, takes his spear in hand, and is ready for 
the road. Does the season of the year call him 
to the ploughing, he goes forth without sartorial 
preparation of any kind, and takes his buffalo 
to the field. Wet or fine, his costume is the 
same. He has no boots to be spoilt by mud, 
and no coat to be injured by rain ; with shirts 




KELANTAN PEASANT WOMEN. 



u 



THE PEOPLE 23 

and collars he is unacquainted, though he some- 
times wears a calico vest, and trousers he recog- 
nises only as the garments of his betters. He 
has a silk "sarong" or skirt for marriages, funerals, 
and Friday's church-going, and, perhaps, if a 
Haji, a long Arab coat, brought back long since 
from Mecca, and now old, worn, and musty, but 
still honourable. Far different from the peasant, 
the nobility, or " Anak Raja," the official class, 
and the well-to-do traders are nothing if not 
dressy. They flaunt it in silks and satins of 
striking design ; gay velvet caps cover their heads, 
striped with gold if the wearer be " Raja " ; neat 
white coats with astonishing buttons are the 
correct thing, and white pipe-clayed, or sometimes 
patent-leather shoes, with stockings, often, alas, 
open-work, complete their costume. On the 
smallest provocation, moreover, they appear in 
the most beautiful raiment of European cut, 
though their efforts in this last direction are 
not always crowned with success. Such, at least, 
is the costume of the better-class youth of the 
capital. The older men have usually a more 
subdued appearance, affecting dark-coloured coat, 
sarong, rich in material but of modest colour 
and design, and heelless Malay shoes without 
stockings. On occasions of state the full dress 



24 KELANTAN 

Malay costume is frequently worn with remark- 
ably pleasing effect. 

The usual costume of the Malay woman 
consists, like that of the peasant man, of three 
cloths. The first (Sarong) is fastened round 
the waist and falls to the ankles ; the second 
(Kembau) is hitched round the body under the 
arms and over the bust and falls over the sarong 
to a few inches below the hips, being usually 
adjusted to reveal the lines of the figure as 
clearly as possible ; and the third (Kelumbong) is 
a loose shawl which is supposed to be used to 
conceal the head, face, and shoulders, but which 
is generally so arranged as to leave those parts 
uncovered. All classes wear the same costume, 
that of the ladies of high degree differing from 
the dress of their lowly sisters in quality, perhaps, 
but not in form or quantity. 

This being a Mohammedan country one might 
expect to find the female part of the population 
confined to the houses or allowed to go abroad 
only on rare occasions and when carefully veiled 
from the vulgar eye. Custom, however, has 
decreed quite otherwise, and, as regards the 
position of women, the Kelantanese follow the 
customs of their Siame.se, Burmese, Cambodian 
and other Mongolian neighbours rather than 




WOMAN OF KELANTAN. 



THE PEOPLE 25 

the sterner precepts of their adopted religion. 
The women move about with perfect freedom, 
buying and selling in the markets and in the 
shops, visiting their friends and assisting their 
husbands in their agricultural pursuits, and except 
for the wearing of the Kelumbong, which burlesque 
is the only concession to Islam, their habits 
and manners are scarcely to be distinguished 
from the usually modest behaviour of the females 
of other Indo-Chinese races. The better class 
very occasionally wear the " Kebaya " or long 
sacque coat, commonly seen in Singapore and 
in the southern States, and on festive occasions 
display much jewellery of quaint design. The 
cotton clothing of the people is partly woven by 
the women and partly imported ready-made. 
Value of imports of cotton yarn amount to 
$100,000, of cotton cloth to $150,000 a 
year. 

Physique. The average height of the Kelantan 
men is about 5 feet 3 inches ; that of the women 
three or four inches less. The men are usuall}^ 
slight but strong in build and of good muscular 
development. Beard and moustache are rudi- 
mentary or entirely absent, the head is generally 
kept shaved, the complexion varies from olive 
in the upper class to dark brown in the peasantry ; 



26 KELANTAN 

the head is brachycephalic in shape, and the 
facial angle usually rather low. 

The women, when young, are well-formed 
little creatures, to whose plump figures the habit 
of carrying heavy weights balanced on the head 
imparts erectness and grace of outline. Their 
straight black hair is worn long, is drawn away 
from the face, and knotted at the back of the 
head and is usually embellished with flowers. 
In complexion they are slightly fairer than the 
men, while their modest, vivacious deportment 
is by no means without charm. Their period 
of bloom, however, is but short. Early marriage, 
prolific child-bearing, and hard work soon steal 
all their charms away, and, at an age when 
western women are entering upon their prime, 
they are already sinking into the decrepitude 
of old age. 




TH1-: 'kelumbong' as garment. 



CHAPTER VI. 
TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

KOTA Bharu, the capital, is the only town in 
the State. It is situated on the right bank of 
the river about six miles from the sea, and may 
be said to comprise a semicircle of a mile radius, 
the Musjid, or Mosque, standing on the middle 
of the arc. The population is now close on 
10,000 and is increasing, chiefly owing to immi- 
gration of Straits Chinese, of Mohammedan 
Klings, and of Malays from other parts of the 
Peninsula. The town is well laid out with metalled 
roads which divide the area into many rectangular 
blocks. The principal building is the Palace of 
H.H. the Raja, standing in an enclosure of from 
five to six acres, which opens through a massive old 
gateway of quaint construction, on to a turf-covered 
oval of some two acres in extent, surrounded by 
a road and by the Court House, the Revenue 



28 KELANTAN 

Office, the Post and Telegraph Office, the School 
House and the dwellings of some of the nobility. 
Other buildings are the Palace of H.H. the Raja 
Muda, the Post Office, the Customs House, and the 
new Market. There is also a small furnished Rest 
House. The principal streets have paved side 
walks, are lighted by lamps at night, and are 
swept clean every morning. Thatch, the use 
of which was universal a short while ago, is 
giving place to tiles, and a great deal of unsightly 
but useful corrugated iron is used in the con- 
struction of houses. Within the last three years 
upwards of 150 substantial houses have been 
built mostly for use as shops. The market is 
a large and commodious building, is densely 
thronged every day, and here excellent fish and 
provisions of all kinds are plentiful and cheap, 
and beef and mutton are sold twice a week. The 
Central Jail, built to contain 200 convicts, and 
just completed, is situated ontside the town in 
a wide open space and near the Military Police 
barracks. 

Upon an island separated from the west of 
the town by a narrow creek is situated the 
Chinese quarter or Kampong China. Here 
beneath the benevolent sway of the Captain 
China some 1000 Chinese live, and here they 




Till: '■ kelumbong" as ornament. 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES 29 

are allowed to keep pigs, gamble, and drink, 
as their manner is, all unmolested. Certain 
trades, such as the blacksmiths, the pork butchers, 
and the dyers are confined to Kampong China, 
but many Chinese watch-menders, tailors, car- 
penters, and general dealers have recently taken 
to living in the main town. 

The most important villages in the State 
are Tumpat (population 4000), Tabar (population 
3000), Bacho (population 2000) and Semarak 
(population 500), on the coast, and Kampong Laut 
on the river, the latter some fifteen miles inland, 
Pasir Putteh (population 1000) near the 
Tringganu border, and Wachap Nau (population 
1000), seven miles west of Kota Bharu. 

Each of these villages is provided with a 
Police Station and a market, and each is the 
head-quarters of a Government Official, a 
Datch or a Toh Kweng. Wachap Nau is a 
Chinese centre. The sweeping statement which 
has sometimes been made, that the greater 
part of the east coast of the Peninsula is 
an almost uninhabited forest, is singularly 
misleading so far as the Kelantan coast, where 
the population is dense. 

The only village of any size in the far interior 
is Pulai, about 100 miles from the sea, with 



30 KELANTAN 

a population of some 500 people, mostly Chinese, 
engaged in gold washing. 

Besides the above there is an almost infinite 
number of small villages, varying from half 
a dozen to fifty houses, dotted all over the 
plain and extending far up the main river. 



CHAPTER VII. 

RELIGION. 

The prevailing religion is Shaffi Mohammedan- 
ism. The State is divided into 250 " mukim " 
or parishes, each of which has its Imam (vicar) 
and Toh Bilal (curate), who conduct services 
in the " Surao " or praying house, who officiate 
at marriages and deaths, and in whose charge 
is the general moral and spiritual welfare of 
the community. There are three musjids, or 
mosques, in and near the capital. The religious 
system is mainly supported on the " zakkat " 
and *' pettra " offerings, which are a sort of 
tithes contributed by the whole population, 
the Government providing salary for the " Mufti " 
or chief religious authority, for the " Sherria " 
Court, where matrimonial disputes and questions 
of inheritance are settled, and a small grant 
in aid of repairs to the Musjids. The people 



32 KELANTAN 

are naturally prone to neglect the observances 
of religion, but are kept up to the mark by 
the periodical infliction of penance for absence 
from the Friday service. It is no uncommon 
thing to see a well-to-do citizen carrying a 
load of sand from the river to the Musjid 
compound in compulsory atonement for back- 
sliding. The religion of Islam is not more 
than seven hundred years old in any part of 
the Malay Peninsula, and it is less than 400 
years since it obtained a firm footing in Kelantan. 
Much of the animistic superstition which formerly 
constituted the religion of the people persists 
to this day, thinly covered by a veneer of 
Mohammedanism and ready to crop up at any 
moment of stress, not only amongst the peasantry 
but in the highest quarters. It needs but an 
obstinate ailment in the family of the Raja, 
for instance, for little trays containing eggs, 
rice, etc., as offerings to this, that, and the 
other air spirit, to appear hanging from the 
boughs of trees near the Palace or placed beside 
some object which is " Kramat," or the abode 
of an, usually evil-disposed, essence. An old 
iron ship's gun, lying rusting in Kota Bharu, 
is the reputed abode of a peculiarly powerful 
spirit, and not all the threats and exhortations 



RELIGION 33 

of the Imam can prevent the continual crudescence 
around it of little flags, jos-sticks, tiny cups 
of rice and other offerings. Indeed, the Malay 
of Kelantan, whose professed religion sternly 
forbids it, persists in surrounding himself with 
a host of invisible beings of earth, air, and 
water, quite as numerous as that of the Burman 
or the Siamese, whose capacious belief accepts 
them all, and though bird-cage-like little temples 
" Nat Sin " or " San Phra Poom " are not found 
under trees or in rocky clefts as in Burma or 
Siam, yet the hills, woods, and streams of 
Kelantan all have their Dryads. 

There are forty " Wats " or Buddhist monas- 
teries in the State, the yellow-robed inmates of 
which minister to the spiritual needs of the 
Siamese portion of the population. The affairs 
of the " Wats " are managed by the ecclesiastical 
head of the province of Lakon (Chao Ka Na 
Nakon Sri Tammarat). The chief Buddhist monk 
of the State, an old man of eighty-four years, 
who had lived in Kelantan all his life, and 
whose memory was stored with highly interesting 
information regarding the history of the State, 
died a short while ago, much regretted by every- 
body, his superior sanctity having long been fully 
recognised alike by Mohammedans and Buddhists. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LANGUAGE. 

The universal language of the State is Malay. 
The Kelantan dialect is a fearsome-sounding jargon 
in the ear of the Malay of other parts, full of 
strange clippings and contortions, and sprinkled 
with words of local manufacture or of a Siamese 
origin, unknown in any other parts of Malaya. 
Yet, to the accustomed ear, this dialect is a 
musical one, for the Kelantan Malay delights in 
the use of vowels and inserts them freely in his 
words to avoid, wherever possible, the use of two 
consonants together. Final consonants also are 
more frequently dropped than in the dialects of 
the south, whereby the speech is much softened. 
The habit of pronouncing the final " a " as " aw " 
and the letter " g " very soft as " gh " or almost 
" h " is, at first, quite bewildering to strange ears. 
The visitor from other Malay countries is not 



LANGUAGE 35 

long, however, in discovering that these dialectical 
peculiarities indue the Kelantan dialect with 
many subtleties of expression not to be found 
elsewhere. The literature consists of the few 
books and writings common to the Malay States 
generally, but few people ever read anything 
except the Koran. The Siamese and most of 
the old-time Chinese use the Singora dialect 
of Siamese, but all know Malay as a second 
language. Very few Kelantan Malays have any 
acquaintance with Siamese, and though some of 
the nobility have a smattering of that language, 
picked up during former years of residence at 
Bangkok, H.H. the Raja himself knows no word 
of it. 

There has recently been introduced, for use 
in the Secretariat, a typewriter of the Arabic 
character in which Malay is written. It is made 
by the Remington Company and is probably the 
first machine of its kind in Malaya. Should it 
be found successful, it is probable that others will 
be procured for use in the Government Service 
generally. 

The ruling family does not claim descent, as 
is usual in the other Malay States, from the 
Royal houses of Sumatra and Malacca, but have 
traditions of an adventurer named Long Junus, a 



36 KELANTAN 

Malay who is supposed to have come " from the 
East," many hundreds of years ago, settled on 
the Kelantan coast and founded the clan. The 
Malay Annals, that jumble of fable and fact 
which constitutes the only history of the Malays, 
mentions Kelantan only in connection with the 
wars of Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of 
Malacca. This Prince, it appears, sent an army 
about the year 1490 A.D. to invade Kelantan 
because that State had declined to recognise 
him as its suzerain. The State was found to 
be very large and powerful ; but the inhabitants 
being without firearms (then newly introduced to 
Malacca) the country was soon laid waste and 
in spite of fierce battles in which the men of 
Malacca and the Kelantanese mutually amoked 
against each other with much fury, the Sultan of 
Kelantan, Mansur Shah, was slain, his son put 
to flight and his three daughters carried off to 
Malacca, where they were married to the Sultan 
Mahmud Shah. 

Whether any connection existed between Long 
Junus " from the East " and the Sultan Mansur 
Shah, it is impossible to surmise. The " Malay 
Annals" hint that the latter was descended from 
the Royal family found reigning in the Peninsula 
at the time of the invasion of the ancestors of 



LANGUAGE 37 

the Malacca Sultans, but that family was probably 
of Siamese or Khmer origin, which does not fit 
in with the " East " theory. It is to be noted 
that the names of the three Kelantan princesses 
who were carried off to Malacca were all distinctly 
Siamese. 



CHAPTER IX. 

HISTORY. 

The early history of Kelantan is lost in 
obscurity. Owing to the fact that no records 
have ever been kept, and no particular effort 
has, in the past, been made to keep alive the 
traditions of the State even by oral transmission, 
it is not known either whence the ancestors 
of the Kelantan Malays came, or what was the 
origin of the ruling family which has apparently 
held sway in the country with certain periods 
of interruption for several centuries. 

It seems probable, however, that the existence 
of Kelantan as a strong and united community 
has not been continuous in the past, but that 
the districts which are now comprised in the 
State have been, during long intervals, divided 
into a number of petty chiefdoms, subordinate 
alternately to Patani on the north and to Tring- 



HISTORY 39 

ganu on the south. That there was a town of 
some importance not far from the mouth of the 
Kelantan river at least 350 years ago is proved 
by the fact that the Portuguese and Dutch maps 
of the sixteenth century all show a capital city 
there, the name of which is variously given as 
Calantan, Calatam, and Calantao. Hardly any 
references are made to Kelantan in any of the 
annals of the early European traders in the Far 
East, though Patani, close by, was for many 
years one of the great centres of trade of the 
Portuguese, Dutch, and English. It is remark- 
able also that in the maps of the Malay Peninsula 
made by Father Placide and by Guendeville at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, no town 
of Kelantan is marked, though the river of that 
name is shown, while in Roberts' map of 1757 
the town reappears. It is quite possible that 
during the latter part of the seventeenth and 
the beginning of the eighteenth centuries, the 
statelet which had the town as its capital had 
been altogether broken up beneath the sway of 
Patani or Tringganu, and that it was not until 
well on in the eighteenth century that it began 
to emerge once more, owing probably to the 
weakening of its conqueror. 

It is definitely known, however, that about the 



40 KELANTAN 

year 1780 the chiefs who ruled in Kelantan had 
all been more or less subdued and brought into 
subjection by the Raja of Kubang Labu, a fortified 
place on the west side of the river opposite the 
present site of Kota Bharu. This prince had 
seized Kubang Labu on the death of his father, 
had killed or put to flight all his brothers, and, 
after years of intrigue and war, had made him- 
self master of an area almost equal to that of 
the State as it now is. He was not, however, 
left long in the peaceful enjoyment of his victories, 
for a brother named Jangut whom he had un- 
fortunately omitted to execute, appeared suddenly 
with a strong following and attacked him in 
the capital. The brother was with much trouble 
repulsed, was driven out of the State, and peace 
was restored. Jangut, however, was not to be 
beaten. He retired to Tringganu, where he 
obtained the services of a certain Wan Jafifar 
a commander in the Tringganu army, with whom 
he arranged for an attack in force upon Kelantan, 
promising to his ally the sovereignty of the 
eastern part of the State in the event of the 
invasion proving successful. The attack was 
made, and the unfortunate Rajah of Kubang 
Labu, finding his forces quite outnumbered, sur- 
rendered his throne and fled to Patani. The 



HISTORY 41 

victorious Jangut thereupon proceeded to subdue 
the whole State, which labour he accomplished 
with comparative ease with the guns and men 
brought from Tringganu by General Wan Jaffar, 
pushing his frontier a good way east and north- 
east into territory which was recognised as 
belonging to Patani. He then built a new 
capital on Pulau Saba, an island in the Kelantan 
river, which has since been entirely washed away 
by floods, established Wan Jaffar as feudatory Raja 
of the eastern part of the State with his capital 
at the village of Limbat, and lived as acknow- 
ledged ruler of Kelantan for seventeen years. A 
nominal subjection of Kelantan to Tringganu, 
which appears to have prevailed since the invasion 
of Jangut, disappeared at this time, the two States 
being henceforth recognised by Siam as on an 
equal footing though His Majesty Phra Pradiyut 
did not then confer upon the Raja titles equal 
to those enjoyed by the Sultan of Tringganu. 

The fortunes of Raja Wan Jaffar's sub-State 
are soon told. After a long reign he died and 
was succeeded by his son and grandson in turn, 
who both took the title of Rajah Limbat. The 
last Rajah Limbat was succeeded by his son 
Raja Slia, who found himself, on coming into 
power, in a position of practical independence, 



42 KELANTAN 

the suzerainty of Pulau Saba or Kota Bharu, 
as it had then become, having through intrigues 
at Court been so weakened as to be almost a 
dead letter. Raja Slia, however, soon got into 
trouble, for, following in the footsteps of his 
great-grandfather the general, he became involved 
in the politics of a foreign State. He extended 
hospitality to one Bahman, Orang Kaya of 
Semantan, a defeated rebel who had fled from 
Pahang in 1892, and proceeded to concoct 
schemes for the invasion of that State. In the 
year 1894 these plots came to a head, and 
Bahman, provided with a following of 150 of 
the men of Limbat, re-entered Pahang with the 
intention of defeating the British, who had 
established a protectorate there, and of dividing 
the State with Rajah Slia. Their hopes, how- 
ever, were short-lived. The Kelantan mercen- 
aries, practising the art of war as understood 
in Malaya, surprised a small police-station, robbed 
some boats, burnt a few houses, murdered a few 
men, outraged a few women, and then, fearing 
the appearance of a real enemy, fled into the 
jungle, where they took up a fortified position. 
Here they were found by a detachment of Sikhs 
of the Malay States Guides, who, entirely ignoring 
the rules of war, attacked them without any 



HISTORY 43 

beating of gongs or other warning, stormed their 
stockade in the most foolhardy manner, killed a 
third of their number, and sent Bahman, Rajah 
Slia, and the remainder flying back to Kelantan 
with their great ambitions shattered for ever. 
Shortly afterwards, as the result of negotiations 
between the British and Siamese Governments, 
Raja Slia and Bahman were arrested by the 
latter Power and were sent into perpetual exile 
in the far north of Siam. Limbat thereupon 
ceased to exist as a feudatory State, and was 
incorporated with Kelantan proper. 

On the death of Rajah Jangut, Raja Mahmat, 
his favourite son, became ruler. Things went 
fairly well for a time, though his three brothers, 
the Raja Muda, the Temangong, and the Rajah 
Banggor Bendahara, entered into several unsuc- 
cessful conspiracies against him. At length the 
State became involved in a war between Patani 
and Siam. Assistance in arms and men was 
lent to the former, and after his final defeat 
the Rajah of Patani and his family took refuge at 
Pulau Saba. Siam thereupon sent an expedition to 
demand the surrender of the rebel, which demand, 
after some demur, was complied with, Raja Mah- 
mat at the same time making overtures of submis- 
sion to Siam through the hereditary Governor of 



44 KELANTAN 

Ligor (Nakon Sri Tammarat), and agreeing to 
pay triennially a tribute of golden flowers to Siam. 
The peace thus obtained did not last long, 
the Temangong having gone upstream to Pulai, 
in the far south of the State, was murdered 
by the Chinese gold miners of that place, at 
the instigation, it was afterwards proved, of his 
brother, Raja Banggor Bendahara. The youthful 
Raja Snik, son of the Temangong, took the matter 
up, and after having exterminated the Chinese 
at Pulai, attacked his uncle, who was forced to 
fly to Menara, a village just across the Patani 
border, where he remained quiescent for a time. 
At length Raja Mahmat, having ruled for 
thirty years and feeling his end approaching, 
sent for Raja Banggor, for whom it appears 
he had retained affection, and, disregarding the 
claims of the Raja Muda, appointed him to be 
his successor. Raja Banggor took up his resi- 
dence at Pulau Saba and at once began to 
make himself unpopular by his evil practices, 
so that when Raja Mahmat shortly afterwards 
died (about the year 1837), the people declined 
to recognise his choice of a successor, but 
declared in favour of the Raja Muda. The 
latter, however, a man who had long enjoyed 
much popularity on account of his gentle dis- 



HISTORY 45 

position, declined the honour which was offered 
to him, and, to avoid further trouble, retired to 
the Court of Siam, whence he was shortly 
afterwards sent to found a new family as Raja 
of Patani. Raja Snik, however, and his brother. 
Raja Kota, sons of the late Temangong, were 
men of another kidney. On the flight of the 
Raja Muda they took up arms against their 
remaining uncle, Raja Banggor Bendahara, who 
had by this time seized the throne, and besieged 
him in the capital. The investment lasted for 
three months, by the end of which time Raja 
Banggor Bendahara, overcome by fear, deter- 
mined upon flight. He left the town by night 
with his followers, in a number of boats, and, 
though several of his men were killed or 
captured, got away himself to Menara, thus 
terminating a very perturbed reign of about 
one year. Awang Kichi and Abu Bakar, two 
of his leading men, on being brought captive 
before Raja Snik, explained that they were no 
more than dogs, and whereas they had hitherto 
barked to the order of Raja Banggor Bendahara, 
were now prepared to do the same for a new 
master. They were therefore pardoned and 
taken into favour, and as they represented most 
of the followers of Raja Banggor Bendahara, all 



46 KELANTAN 

opposition to Raja Snik ceased, and he and his 
brother estabhshed themselves as joint rulers of 
the country (1838). They had not, however, 
seen the last of Raja Banggor Bendahara, for 
a few years later, having gathered together a 
party of- adventurers, that warrior once more 
entered the country from Menara and made 
such head against the forces of his nephews 
that the latter were obliged to call for the inter- 
vention of Siam. One Phaya Chayah was 
dispatched from Ligor with a force which made 
short work of Raja Banggor Bendahara, driving 
him back to Menara and capturing many mem- 
bers of his family. Having been approached by 
the nobles and people of the State and requested 
to settle the question of the rulership, the Siamese 
Government now determined to appoint a Sultan 
of Kelantan, a rank to which no Raja had hitherto 
attained in that country. A difficulty, however, 
arose in the choice of a man to fill the proposed 
exalted position. Raja Snik was, without doubt, 
the most intelligent member of the ruling family, 
but Raja Kota had established a great reputation 
as a fighter, and it was feared that whichever was 
preferred, the other would in all probability rebel 
against him before long. The expedient was 
therefore adopted of making both the brothers 



HISTORY 47 

Sultans, Snik to be the actual ruler and Kota to 
receive the title of Sultan Dewa and to be Com- 
mander of the Army and the head of the execu- 
tive. This step, which was doubtless suggested 
by the custom obtaining at that time in Siam, of 
investing the eldest brother of the king with royal 
dignity, was carried into effect at Bangkok by order 
of His Majesty King Nang Klao ; but the result 
was not very happy, for, after a brief interval of 
peace, the brother Sultans fell to quarrelling and 
the intervention of Siam was again called for. 

The Sultan Dewa's party was dispersed and 
he and his family were deported to Siam, whence, 
after a time, he was appointed to the vacant 
Rajaship of Jering, one of the small States into 
which Patani had been divided after the last 
rebellion against Siam. Thereafter Sultan Snik, 
who was now universally known as Sultan Mulut 
Merah, or the " Sultan with the red mouth," ruled 
in Kelantan for many years, receiving the title of 
Phaya Phipit Phak Di from His Majesty the King 
of Siam, paying visits at intervals to Bangkok 
and submitting his triennial golden flowers, to 
the value of about $ii,ooo, to his suzerain. In 
his old age he grew very short-tempered and 
ruled his people with some harshness, inflicting 
capital punishment with frequency, and practising 



48 KELAXTAX 

mutilation as a penal tj* for theft. His t>Tanny, 
however, secured peace to the State, and, though 
he had two brothers besides the ex-Sultan £>ewa, 
one of whom was the Raja Muda, and a host 
of direct and collateral descendants, no noise of 
rebellion was heard in the land for a period of 
thirt}--five years. Under these changed circum- 
stances Kelantan grew in stroigth and prosperity, 
and when in the year 1877 the old man at last 
resigned the cares of government in order to 
make his soul, he left the State a strong, united, 
and populous community'. 

Comparatively early in his reign. Sultan Mulut 
Merah removed his capital from Pulau Saba 
to Kota Bhani, "the new Capital," a step lii-hich 
was rendered necessarj' by the rapid erosion of 
the banks of Pulau Saba by the waters of the 
river, and in the palace which he built then, 
his great grandson the present Raja now rules. 

Phaya Ratsada, the favourite son of Sultan 
Mulut Merah, and whom he had named as his suc- 
cessor upon abdicating, was now appointed Sultan 
by his Majest>- the present King at Bangkok. He 
was already a man past middle age, but he ruled 
for eleven years \*-ith wisdom and moderation, 
and kept together the State which his father 
had left him. The most notable events of his 



HISTORY 49 

reign were the devastating of the country by 
a cyclone which destroyed an immense amount 
of property, followed by a severe pestilence 
amongst the cattle, seriously checking the pros- 
perity which long years of peace had fostered, 
and the settlement, by a Siamese commission, of 
the western border of the State, the indefiniteness 
of which was becoming a grave cause of friction. 

The worst thing which Sultan Tenggah did for 
his country was the breeding of an inordinately 
large family, the members of which were destined 
to bring much trouble upon the State at a later 
date. When he died in 1888 he left a dozen 
sons, most of whom were just coming to man's 
estate, and eight or nine daughters. His death 
was the signal for an outburst of quarrelling 
amongst these, firstly as to who should succeed 
him, and secondly regarding the division of his 
property. The first point was settled by the 
appointment, by Siam, of Ahmat Bendahara to 
be Sultan, but the second matter, after causing 
endless disputes and intrigues, has not been 
brought to a final conclusion yet, and very 
probably never will be. 

Sultan Ahmat ruled for seven years and died 
worn out by the constant worries of his situation. 
His brothers plotted against him all through 



50 KELANTAN 

his reign, and the cause of his sudden death 
was never satisfactorily explained. The inter- 
vention of the Siamese Government was so 
frequently asked for to keep the young Rajas 
in subjection that His Majesty at length found 
it necessary to appoint a Resident Commissioner 
to Kota Bharu to keep the peace between the 
Sultan and his brothers. Furthermore, several 
of the young men were called to Bangkok, 
where they lived for varying periods, very well 
treated and unable to make mischief. The 
Resident Commissioner advised the Sultan on 
many points connected with the administration, 
and was instrumental in the introduction of 
several reforms, of which may be cited the 
building of a Court House and the appointment 
of Judges, the building of a jail, the assessment 
of land revenue on good principles, and the crea- 
tion of a Police force. His time was principally 
occupied, however, in keeping the peace between 
the different members of the ruling family, and 
not very much could be done in the way of 
reform so long as the disputes of these gentlemen 
absorbed almost the whole of his attention. 

Judging by such past history of Kelantan 
as is available, it would seem that it has 
always been a matter of course for the Sultan's 



IK^' 




HISTORY 51 

brothers to spend their time in plotting against 
him, and the young nobles of the time of 
Sultan Ahmat, in so doing, merely acted after 
their kind and in the manner sanctified by 
ancient usage. The Sultan was a hard and 
overbearing person who made it his object to 
maintain his power over the State and all in it, 
to the full as complete as that wielded by his 
father ; but the Rajas, or Tungkus, as they now 
began to be called, declined to accept from a 
brother the treatment to which they had perforce 
submitted at the hands of their father. Unwill- 
ing to acknowledge that their brother, by virtue 
of his accession to the rulership under sanction 
of His Siamese Majesty, had acquired any 
authority over them, they furiously resented 
his autocratic behaviour, and several of them, 
having banded themselves together to secure his 
overthrow, were prepared to go to any length 
and to invoke any aid to achieve their purpose. 
And it happens thus that history presents us 
with the spectacle of an embryo British Radical 
M.P. sitting on a sand-bank opposite Kota 
Bharu and listening, at midnight, to seditious 
whisperings, and to the applications of a lot 
of rebellious Malay youths for arms and other 
assistance, to enable them to assassinate their 



52 KELANTAN 

blood relation and to elect in his stead one of 
their number who would certainly be no whit 
better disposed towards them than he whose un- 
doing they sought. Sir Henry Norman, however, 
was proof against the temptation to organise a 
coup d'etat in Kelantan, and left the disaffected 
party to accomplish their ends in some other way. 
The Sultan died about a year later (1895). 

Sultan Ahmat was succeeded by his brother, 
one of the plotters, who became known as Sultan 
Mansoor, and who had no sooner received his 
appointment from the Court of Siam than he 
found all his brothers arrayed against him and 
already busy scheming to compass his downfall. 
The unfortunate gentleman led a most unhappy 
life for three years, during which he must often 
have devoutly wished his elder brother had 
remained alive, and at the end of that short 
period died with extraordinary suddenness (1898). 
At this time, and for some few years previously, 
there had been growing up in the British colony 
of Singapore a strong desire to secure to British 
interests the same facilities for trade and for 
commercial enterprise in all parts of the Malay 
Peninsula as were offered by the Malay States 
under British protection. It .seemed, at the time, 
quite clear to the colonists that they could not 



HISTORY 5 3 

expect such facilities in Kelantan unless the 
State were under British protection, and hence 
considerable efforts were made to demonstrate, 
in spite of the repeated admissions by British 
statesmen of her rights, and of the presence in 
Kelantan of a Siamese Resident Commissioner, 
that Siam had never by any act of sovereignty 
vindicated her rights over Kelantan, and had 
now, therefore, no business to interfere with the 
affairs of that State. This contention of the 
colonists soon became known in Kelantan, where, 
amongst the numerous amateurs of conspiracy, 
an anti-Siamese party was soon formed which 
hoped, by encouraging colonial desires, to bring 
about a change, or at least a condition of 
unrest, out of which it would go hard if its 
members could not reap advantage for them- 
selves. The insinuations of this party, which 
was sufficiently powerful even to force the ruler 
at times to act as its mouthpiece, gave rise to the 
idea, erroneous, but natural to those who judged 
by outside appearances, that Kelantan as a whole 
was anxious to exchange the suzerainty of Siam 
for the protection of England. 

When, therefore, the present Raja Snik (who 
has not assumed the rank of Sultan) became 
ruler, with the Siamese title of Phaya Phipit 



54 KELANTAN 

Pakdi, he found his position to be one of 
extreme difficulty. It is not necessary here to 
recapitulate the discussions which at this time 
took place in many quarters on the subject of 
Kelantan — discussions which were rendered the 
more difficult by the readiness of the Raja to 
utter, equally as his own, the sentiments of 
the majority of the inhabitants one day, and 
the diametrically opposed opinions of the revol- 
utionary minority the next, in his frantic desire 
to stand well with both sides. It is sufficient 
to state that, after several years of uncertainty, 
during which both Siam and England hung aloof, 
while even the very form of settled government 
was lost amid the bickerings and intrigues 
of the rival parties in the State, a modus 
Vivendi was at last arrived at, England formally 
recognising the suzerainty of Siam, and the 
two Powers agreeing to certain arrangements 
concerning future administration, the result of 
which has been the establishment, in the year 
1903, of the present regime, the silencing, for 
a time at least, of the intriguing element, the 
restoration of law and order, and the inception 
of what it is hoped may prove an era of 
prosperity, to which British trade, now cordially 
invited by Siam, will largely contribute. 




^"^^^H'44 



CHAPTER X. 

COMMUNICATIONS. 

Waterways supply the principal means of 
communication in the State. The rivers and 
their tributaries penetrate into most parts of 
the interior, and the districts near the coast are 
intersected by a system of creeks which connects 
all the rivers in their lower reaches, and which 
furnishes a ready means of communication 
between the villages situated a little way inland 
from the sea-shore. The Government registers 
of boat licenses show upwards of 6000 craft 
of various descriptions, from 60 to 70 tons — 
schooners to small open market boats. The 
river boats, chiefly used for carrying merchandise, 
are the " Prau Daud," a covered boat with a 
broad, square, upturned bow, and the " Kepala 
Belalang," or " Grasshopper Head," a covered 
boat of less beam than the " Prau Daud," and 



56 KELANTAN 

with a sharp prow. These boats carry some- 
times as much as five koyans (about twelve tons) 
of paddi. They are poled up-stream and are 
rowed down. They are able to ascend the 
main river as far as eighty miles from the 
capital. Ten miles a day up-stream is the usual 
rate of progress, and a fair-sized boat can be 
hired for $5 a day, complete with crew. In- 
numerable fishing boats daily put out to sea 
from the maritime villages, and, returning with 
their catches of fish, sail far up the rivers to 
the different inland markets. From the large 
" Payang," with a crew of twenty men, to the 
diminutive but graceful " Linchong," which two 
men can manage, all are excellent sailers ; and, 
with favouring breezes, can do their si.x miles 
an hour against a strong current. To meet a 
growing demand, numerous sailing lighters have 
recently been built for the carriage of cargo to 
and from the steamers at the mouth of the 
river. They are large and commodious, and have 
no difificulty in dealing with cargo of the most 
bulky nature. A stern-wheel steamer, the pro- 
perty of a private company and subsidised by the 
Government, carries the mails for fifty miles up 
and down the river every week, and at the 
same time accommodates passengers at reasonable 



COMMUNICATIONS 57 

fares. (See Appendix C.) A motor-launch can 
also be hired for use on the river. 

The making of roads has not yet progressed 
far beyond the capital. One road of eight miles 
on the left side of the river connects the capital 
with the village of Tumpat ; another runs for 
four miles down the right bank to Banggor and 
beyond ; a third runs out in south-easterly 
direction for six miles, and will ultimately be 
extended to Pasir Putteh, thirty miles, and to 
the Tringganu border. The last-mentioned road 
is now under construction at the seventh mile. 
Four years ago there was not, and apparently 
never had been, except for the carriages of 
H.H. the Raja, a single wheeled vehicle in 
Kelantan ; a fact which, in view of the great 
number of cattle bred there, and of the gener- 
ally open nature of the country, at least in the 
northern districts, seems almost unaccountable. 
True, no roads existed, but the paddi fields 
during the season between reaping and ploughing, 
and the sparsely wooded jungle lands at all 
times, present no serious obstacles to cart 
traffic. Before the annexation of Upper Burma 
no roads existed in that country, yet in every 
village carts were to be found which carried all 
the produce of the fields to market, and which 



58 KELANTAN 

found no difficulty in traversing the country 
during six months of the year. Again, in the 
great central plain, and in all the south-eastern 
part of Siam, bullock or buffalo carts are 
everywhere to be seen ; and it is strange that 
their use has never extended to Kelantan, where, 
in those large districts which are not within 
easy reach of any river or creek, the difficulties 
of transport are so great as to interfere seriously 
with the extension of agriculture. The Malay, 
moreover, takes kindly to the use of carts, as is 
plainly to be seen in Malacca, where almost every 
householder keeps at least one of these vehicles. 

It is to be hoped that the opening of roads 
through the State will be followed by a general 
adoption of wheel traffic. 

The steamers of the East Asiatic Company 
Ltd. carry regular weekly mails to and from 
Bangkok and Singapore, with which places 
parcel mail service has recently been estab- 
lished. A money order service with Singapore 
is being negotiated. Kelantan is in direct 
telegraph communication with Bangkok, and via 
Penang with the outside world. There is also 
a telephone system in the town, which extends 
to the harbour at Tumpat. Postal and tele- 
graph rates will be found in Appendix D. 



CHAPTER XI. 
TRADE, COMMERCE, AND INDUSTRIES. 

Trade and Commerce. The total value of com- 
merce for the twelve months ending February 
6th, 1907 (the end of the Mohammedan year), 
is shown by the Customs House returns as : 
Exports, - - - $1,153,948.00 

Imports, - - - 1,388,435.00 



$2,542,483.00 

an increase of $366,150 over the total for the 
preceding year. (See Appendix E.) 

Chief exports are kopra, gold, betel-nut, paddi 
and rice, cattle and dried fish ; while wild 
rubber and gutta-percha, hides, silk goods, and 
poultry are also exported in some quantity. 

Principal imports are cotton goods, specie, 
general provisions, kerosene oil, and timber. 
Mining and planting stores imported during 
1906-07 reached a total of $32,000. 



6o KELANTAN 

Owing to the recent abolition of various 
monopolies and revenue farms, the conditions of 
which were calculated to hamper trade, the 
total value of commerce for the year 1907-08 
should not fall far short of 83,000,000. 

All articles of export and import are subject 
to the payment of duty in accordance with a 
fixed tariff. 

The carrying trade to and from Kelantan, 
which was formerly all done by means of 
sailing vessels, has how passed in great measure 
to the coasting steamers which visit the State 
in increasing numbers every year. There is 
still, however, much trade with Tringganu and 
Patani in sailing ships, and the river, from the 
capital to the sea, is thronged with these at all 
times, except during the few months of each 
year when the north-east monsoon renders all 
sailinc: on the east coast of the Peninsula 
impossible. 

The total tonnage of steamers which visited 
the Port of Kelantan during the year ending 
February 6th, 1907, was: 

Entered inwards, - 52,481 tons. 

Entered outwards, - 52,830 „ 

Total, - - - 105,31 I tons. 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES 6i 

The commerce of the State is shared by 
Chinese, Malays, and Mohammedan Klings, the 
greater part being in the hands of the former. 
Depots for the collection of produce are annually 
established on a large sand-bank across the 
river from Kota Bharu, from which cargo boats 
are dispatched to meet every steamer. 

Currency. The unit of currency in Kelantan 
is the Straits Settlements dollar. Formerly 
Austrian, Spanish, Mexican, and British dollars 
were all current in the State and of equal value, 
but the first three of these have now been 
demonetised, and the last passes current only 
at 5% discount, the new Straits coin (exchange 
value 2s. 4d.) being the only dollar accepted 
at full value. The numerous recent changes 
in the Singapore currency have caused much 
confusion to the finance of the State, notwith- 
standing the invariable consideration of the Straits 
Government in relaxing the currency regulations 
in favour of Kelantan sufficiently to allow trade 
to continue ; and a saving would have been 
effected if the Siamese Tical could have been 
introduced in place of the dollar some years 
ago. Such a step was, however, impossible, in 
view of the close commercial connection with 
Singapore and the absence of any bank or 



62 KELANTAN 

other means of conducting exchange operations. 
If, at some future date, a banking agency is 
established at Kota Bharu it is possible that 
Siamese currency may then be introduced. 
Besides the Straits dollar, the currency notes 
of the Government of the Straits Settlements 
of value $1, $5, $io, $20, $50, and $100, are 
legal tender to any amount, vi^hile the subsidiary 
silver coin of the Straits Settlements, of value 
5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, is also in use. Siamese 
money is received in the State treasury in 
payment of revenue, but is very rarely tendered. 

The currency chiefly in use in the bazaars 
and markets is a locally minted coin made from 
an alloy of tin and lead and called " Pittis," a 
small circular coin pierced in the centre and carried 
in bundles threaded on a string. A bundle 
of fifteen coins is called a " Keneri," one of 
sixty a " Kupang," and four hundred and eighty 
" Pittis " equal one dollar. Not very long ago 
each State of the Peninsula had its own tin 
coinage, but this form of money has now gone 
out of use everywhere except in Patani, Kelantan, 
and Tringganu. There is at present about 
$60,000 worth of tin coin in circulation. The 
mint has been closed, and it is not proposed 
to issue any more money of this description, 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES 63 

as the alloy used is very soft and perishable, 
and the coin is easy to imitate, and has been 
frequently counterfeited. Arrangements have 
been made to replace the " Pittis " by a struck 
coin made of zinc, of equal value to the " Pittis," 
so soon as there is any indication that the coin 
now in circulation is becoming scarce. 

A small gold coin called " Mas Dinar " is 
found in many parts of the State upon the 
sites of ancient towns and forts and was evidently 
at one time current throughout the country. 
Similar coins have been found in most districts 
of the Peninsula, and they usually bear a sun, 
a moon, and a fabulous monster, supposed to 
be a lion, but more resembling a cow, on one 
face, with the words " Malik ul Hal," or simply 
" Malik," on the other. The coins were supposed 
to be of foreign (possibly Persian) origin until quite 
recently several were found on the site of the 
old fort at Kubang Labu bearing the word 
" Kelantan " upon them, which seems to point 
to some at least having been coined locally. At 
the present date the coins are not used as money, 
but are considered of much talismanic value 
against sickness and ill luck, being applied also 
to the tongue of the talking minah to assist 
that bird in mastering the intricacies of the 



64 KELANTAN 

Malay language. In fact, the "Mas Dinar" is 
the crooked sixpence of the Malay. 

Weights and Measures. The system of weights 
used in Kelantan is identical with that of 
Singapore. The standard of weight is the pikul 
(lbs. I33'0. which is divided into lOO katties, 
and the kattie again into i6 Tahils. Formerly 
no fixity of weight existed, and scales and weights 
were manufactured by individuals as desired, but 
lately a notification has been issued adopting 
the Straits Settlements standard, and balances and 
weights are all now inspected by Government 
and stamped with the Government mark. The 
unit of measurement of capacity is the " Gantang," 
which equals one gallon exactly. This is divided 
into four " Chupa." " Gantang " and " Chupa " 
measures are all inspected and stamped by 
Government. Eight hundred " Gantang " equal 
one " Koyan." The unit of measurement of 
length is the " Deppa," a standard of which, six 
feet in length, was marked a long time ago, 
on a brass canon kept in the Palace of H.H. 
the Raja. A new standard has recently been 
adopted, making the " Deppa " equal to the 
Siamese " Wah," that is, exactly two metres. 
Half a " Deppa " is called an " Ela," and a 
quarter " Deppa " is called a " Hasta." The unit 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES 65 

of square measurement is the " Penjuru," equal 
to 400 square " Deppas." This unit exactly 
corresponds with the " Rai," the unit adopted 
by the Siamese Royal Survey Department. One 
English acre equals 2.7 "Penjuru." 

Industries. The principal industries apart from 
all-absorbing agriculture are silk-weaving, boat- 
building, fishing and fish-drying, kopra-drying 
and brick-making. 

Weaving is chiefly confined to the capital. 
In almost every house there are one or more 
looms upon which the housewife and her daughters 
weave silk sarongs, the excellence of which is 
justly famed throughout the Peninsula. In these 
good times most of the people possess at least 
one silk sarong for holiday wear, and the value 
of the silk goods exported is over $20,000 per 
annum. The pattern of the Kelantan sarongs 
is all made in the weaving and is not painted 
on afterwards, as is the case with the sarongs 
of Java and to a certain extent with those of 
Tringganu. The best quality are made with 
checks of different colours something after the 
fashion of Highland tartan, very handsome 
effects being obtained by tasteful blending of 
colours. 

Since the greater part of the merchandise of 



66 KELANTAN 

the State became diverted to steamer carriage 
the boat-building industry has waned considerably, 
but a good deal is still done in the way of 
fishing-boat and river-boat building, and many 
fine lighters have recently been constructed for 
conveyance of cargo to the steamers. 

Some thirty thousand people live by sea- 
fishing and fish-drying. The nets used vary in 
size, the largest being that worked from a 
" Payang," a large seaworthy boat with a crew 
of twenty men. The fish are sought for by divers, 
one of whom accompanies each boat in a little 
canoe. On reaching a likely spot this person 
paddles off by himself and presently leaves his 
canoe and goes below. Down on the green 
depths he can, if fairly expert, both see and hear 
the fish if there is a shoal in the immediate 
neighbourhood, and when he has done so he at 
once rises to the surface and indicates by signs 
the presence and size of the shoal, and the 
direction in which it is travelling. No sooner 
are the signals perceived than every man bends 
to his paddle, and the great boat rushes through 
the water, describing a wide circle round the 
diver and paying out net as it goes. When 
the circle is complete the drawing begins, and, 
if a bin; shoal has been netted, the wildest 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES 67 

excitement prevails as the circle narrows. The 
men haul upon the net like fiends, shouting and 
yelling with delight as each large fish appears. 
When a big catch is safe on board, a short 
dance of triumph precedes the hoisting of the 
sails and a quick run for home, followed by- 
further ebullitions of joy when the women come 
down to unload the cargo. Such of the fish 
as is not eaten fresh, is cleaned, salted, and dried 
in the sun, thereafter being packed in large 
baskets for export. The value of dried fish 
exported amounts to some $120,000 in a year. 
All the salt used is imported from Patani, further 
up the Peninsula, the Kelantanese having hitherto 
neglected the art of salt evaporating. In 1906-7 
the salt supply fell off, owing to a cholera 
epidemic at Patani, and the export of fish from 
Kelantan consequently dropped to $70,000. The 
coast of Kelantan is not suited to the use 
of stakes for fishing, but these are employed 
with success in many of the creeks near the 
sea. 

The drying of kopra is a simple process which 
consists in no more than splitting the coconuts, 
extracting the two halves of the kernel and 
exposing the same to the sun. Recently a 
drying-shed was erected by some enterprising 



68 KELANTAN 

persons, wherein kopra might be made by means 
of artificial heat, but this has proved a very 
qualified success. 

The brick-making industry fluctuates with the 
demand for bricks. Last year about 400,000 
bricks were made, chiefly for the use of the 
Public Works Department of Government. It 
is to be noted that the badly shaped, half-baked 
bricks which were formerly made have now 
been supplanted by a thoroughly good and 
serviceable article. 

In the southern part of the State the village 
people weave mats of the fibre of the Pandanus 
or screw-pine. These are soft, smooth, and 
beautifully woven, and by dint of using blue 
and red dyes very pretty patterns are produced. 
The mats are used for sleeping upon, and 
are in great demand in the Kota Bharu 
market. Basket- weaving employs a certain 
portion of the leisure of many of the people, 
the results being frequently of no mean artistic 
beauty. 

At one time the silversmiths and goldsmiths 
of Kelantan were famous for the high excellence 
of their work, and there is still a good deal of 
old silver-ware to be seen in the houses of the 
nobility, judging by which the men who made 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES 69 

it must have been possessed of considerable skill. 
Unfortunately, however, this art is now almost 
extinct, and the work turned out by the few 
native jewellers who hang about the Court of 
H.H. the Raja is not to be compared with that 
of former generations. 



CHAPTER XII. 
AGRICULTURE. 

Kelantan is at present, and within the memory 
of man has always been, an agricultural country, 
and though the future may possibly see her 
mineral resources developed to equal those of 
the Malay States which subsist almost solely 
on their mines, the great plain, which at present 
supports practically the whole of her population, 
must always continue to contribute largely to 
her wealth. But it must not be considered that, 
because almost all her people practise agriculture, 
therefore anything approaching the full crop- 
bearing capacity of the land has been reached. 
The wants of the Kelantan peasant did not 
in the past extend much beyond a sufficiency 
of rice, tobacco, and betel, a house of a kind, 
and a few cotton sarongs for clothing. Indeed, 
the knowledge that any superfluous property 



AGRICULTURE 71 

of which he might become possessed would 
speedily be annexed by some member of the 
local aristocracy or by the satellites of the nobility 
— the latter a large class which subsisted mainly 
by robbing and cheating — was usually sufficient 
to quench all ambition for the amassing of wealth. 
Consequently little more land was cultivated than 
served to supply immediate wants, and the man 
was formerly thought a fool who expended his 
energy in cultivating more than sufficed for these. 
The coming of better times has indeed induced 
an extension of agriculture, but even now not 
more than 450,000 acres are under cultivation 
in the whole State. 

Rice. The chief product is rice, of which 
about 70,000 tons is now produced in a year, 
sufficient to feed the entire population and to 
provide 4000 to 5000 tons for export. The 
area of land under rice cultivation is capable 
of great extension, and it is probable that, given 
a succession of good seasons, the amount of 
rice available for export will increase rapidly. 

Rice lands in Kelantan are of three kinds, 
each of which demands a separate method of 
cultivation. The first is wet land (Tanah Che- 
dong), upon which standing water, supplied either 
by irrigation or by rainfall, is maintained within 



72 KELANTAN 

low embankments during the greater part of 
the time the crop is on the ground and which 
is planted annually ; the second is plough land 
(Tanah Tugalan), which is moistened by the 
rain, but which retains no water upon its surface, 
and which is planted triennially ; and the third 
is hill land or jungle (Ladang), which is simply 
a patch of fresh cut jungle, burnt, cleaned very 
roughly, planted up for one, or at most two 
seasons, and thereafter left to revert to its former 
condition. The area of Ladang annually brought 
under cultivation is small as compared with 
that of the other two classes. The implements 
used in connection with rice-growing are primitive 
in the extreme, the peasantry altogether declining 
to employ any but those the usage of which 
has been sanctified by the lapse of many centuries. 
The plough, which is used for both " Chedong " 
and " Tugalan " as soon as the rains of May 
and June have softened the earth, is a light 
wooden instrument shod with an iron share, 
drawn by a pair of bullocks or by a single 
buffalo, and turning up a furrow of some three 
inches depth. After the first ploughing the 
land is left for three or four months, by which 
time, if " Chedong," it is flooded, and can be 
churned up with the tooth-harrow and brought 



AGRICULTURE 73 

to a condition of very soft mud, into which 
the young rice plants, already germinated in 
a nursery near by, are transplanted. If " Tuga- 
lan," the ploughed land is treated much in 
the same manner as a corn-field in Europe, 
the soil is broken up by a harrow and weeded 
and cleaned until its red-brown surface is quite 
smooth. Grain is then sown broadcast upon 
it, the young plants are thinned out when a 
few inches high, and one or two subsequent 
weedings complete all the operations that are 
necessary before reaping. " Ladang " cultivation, 
entailing the felling and burning of jungle, can 
only be begun after elaborate precautions have 
been taken either to propitiate the spirits of 
the woods or to deceive them as to the identity 
of the proposed cultivator, so that when the 
trees are cut down the guardian spirits will 
not know upon whom to visit their resentment. 
Thereafter the patch is cleared, roughly hoed 
over, and the seed dibbled in. A fence is made 
round the field to keep out deer and pig, and 
the rest is left to nature. 

Reaping is a long and painful process whereby 
each head of grain is cut off singly with a 
small knife-blade, the whole of the straw being 
left. The use of the reaping hook is objected 



74 KELANTAN 

to because the action of reaping is apt to 
shake off, and so cause to be lost, a few of 
the grains from each ear. Winnowing is done 
by hand, and the grain is stored in the husk 
until it is wanted, when it is husked by pounding 
with a wooden pestle in a mortar made from 
a section of a log of timber. 

Though the quality and quantity of crops 
vary from year to year, absolute failure is 
unknown. On one occasion, however, some 
seventeen years ago, the death of many of the 
ploughing cattle from rinderpest greatly inter- 
fered with agriculture, and caused a scarcity 
of food which drove many people out of the 
State to seek a livelihood elsewhere. The last 
three years have seen a great rise in the value of 
rice-land, which has, however, been temporarily 
checked, in some degree, by the recent introduction 
of a graduated tax on such lands, the assessment 
of which, entailing land measurement, has caused 
some uneasiness in the peasant mind as to 
the future intentions of the Government. 

Coconuts. The coconut palm is the article 
of agriculture next in importance after rice. 
Every village is surrounded by plantations of 
these tall, graceful trees, which, moreover, in a 
thin belt, line the sea-shore throughout almost 



AGRICULTURE 75 

the whole of the Kelantan littoral, as well as 
the edges of all the streams, spreading out 
every here and there into great plantations. 
There are some 500,000 trees actually in bearing 
in the State, while quite as many again have 
been planted within the last few years, but 
are not yet yielding fruit. The export of kopra 
for the year 1906-07 was 41,150 pikuls, or 
10,287,000 nuts, to which must be added 
136,500 nuts exported whole. The kopra 
of Kelantan is of the best quality offered 
upon the Singapore market. Naturally the 
yield of coconuts will increase as the young 
trees come into bearing, and since the local 
consumption, which is probably about eight 
million nuts a year, is not likely to become 
much greater than it is at present, all increase 
will be available for export. Provided that no 
unexpected calamity occurs to destroy the young 
trees which are now coming on, the output of 
coconuts for the whole State should be nearly 
double what it is now by the end of another 
half dozen years. The soil of Kelantan is so 
peculiarly well adapted to the growth of coconuts 
that planters in the coast districts expect a 
return from their trees in six years from the 
date of planting, and it is not at all unusual 



y6 KELANTAN 

to find trees yielding lOO nuts, and more, in 
the twelvemonth at the age of eleven years. 
Most of the land best adapted to this purpose 
is already taken up, but it is probable that at 
least 5000 acres of land of the first quality 
for coconut cultivation could still be found if 
it were required. The price of coconuts, owing 
to the good price obtainable for kopra in 
Singapore, is at present $3.50 per lOO; but this 
is higher than the average, which is nearer $2.50 
per 100. 

The Kelantan kopra is all sun-dried, which is 
one of the reasons why it commands a high 
price abroad. The drying industry is largely 
in the hands of Chinese, but a good many 
nuts are dealt with by the growers since the 
Malay began to realise that the saving of carriage 
may have something to do with increase of 
profits. The coir fibre of the coconuts is neither 
used locally nor exported. The first big rise 
in the rivers in the autumn brings down tons 
of husk which have been left on the sand-banks 
where the kopra was dried. It is not at present 
worth collecting, but if a coir factory were 
started, would at once become a valuable 
product. 

Betel-Nut. The betel-nut is largely grown and 



AGRICULTURE 77 

exported from Kelantan, but its cultivation, un- 
like that of the coconuts, is not at present being 
largely extended. Nevertheless, the prevailing 
prices are good, from $3 to $4 per pikul is 
the present rate in Singapore, and as the tree 
usually begins to yield fruit at the age of three 
years, its cultivation should form a profitable 
investment. 

The betel palm grows best in the interior, 
away from the salt sea-breezes, and many 
thousands of acres are available for its cultivation. 

Other Agricultural Produce. The cultivation of 
pepper, gambier, tapioca, tobacco, sugar, and 
other valuable plants has hitherto been singularly 
neglected in Kelantan, though there is every 
reason to suppose that all these would do ex- 
tremely well there. Large quantities of gambier 
from the neighbouring State of Tringganu, and 
of tobacco from Singapore, are annually imported, 
both of which could without any difficulty be 
grown locally in sufficient quantities to supply 
the home market. A few small pepper planta- 
tions have been opened within the last three 
years, which are now just beginning to yield a 
small return. The plants have grown remarkably 
well, and their success is encouraging Chinese 
planters to the further extension of this form of 



78 KELANTAN 

agriculture. Tapioca and sugar-cane are grown 
in small quantities for home consumption only. 
The cultivation of rubber is at the present 
moment attracting a good deal of attention 
among Malay landholders. The great possi- 
bilities of this article have been much impressed 
upon the notice of the people by the Government 
during the last two years, and travellers to foreign 
parts have seen the great forests of plantation 
rubber which are growing up in the States of 
Perak, Selangor, and elsewhere. The result has 
been the importation into the State during the 
Mohammedan year 1324 (1906-07) of over 
$5000 worth of seeds and young plants by 
Malays alone, all of which were planted in small 
holdings of twenty acres and under. The success- 
ful growth of the young rubber, more particularly 
of the young plants imported, has encouraged 
others to take up the matter, so that rubber 
planting is becoming a craze, and cases of seeds 
or consignments of plants are now passing 
through the Customs almost every week. How 
long the craze will last, and how much of the 
rubber now being planted will ever come into 
bearing, are other questions. Misfortunes with a 
few small plantations before the actual profits 
on rubber have become visible, may easily bring 



AGRICULTURE 79 

about a reaction in the fickle mind of the people, 
and the continual care which young plantations 
demand is almost certain to prove too much for 
many planters ; but the Government is doing its 
best to foster the industry, and no effort will be 
spared to keep it alive whenever the critical 
period of failing interest and courage shall arrive. 

Vegetables and Fruits. Sugar-cane, maize, beans, 
pumpkins, melons and other vegetables are largely 
cultivated on the rich alluvial soil near the rivers, 
and find a ready and increasing market in Kota 
Bharu. Pine-apples, bananas, langsat, mango- 
steens, and durians are amongst the fruits culti- 
vated, the latter in enormous quantities. Oranges 
were at one time largely grown, and were ex- 
ported to Bangkok and to Singapore; but of late 
years the trees have been destroyed by a pest of 
beetles, and the orchards in which they formerly 
grew are now largely given up to the cultivation 
of " siri," the acrid leaf which is chewed together 
with betel-nut. 

Any description of Kelantan would be incom- 
plete were it to contain no dissertation on the 
durian. This fruit, a large oval the size of a 
pine-apple, with hard spiny skin, and from four 
to five compartments containing the edible pulp, 
is extremely abundant in all parts of the State. 



8o KELANTAN 

It can hardly be said to be cultivated. Seeding 
by accident in the " dusun " or orchards, which 
are frequently hardly distinguishable from patches 
of wild jungle, the durian tree grows to a height 
of from sixty to eighty feet, or even more. Its 
growth is slow, and nothing whatever is done for 
it in the way of cultivation during the whole of 
its existence. It begins to fruit when ten years 
old, and continues to do so yearly until it dies, 
perhaps 150 years later. Wherever man may 
go during the fruit season, durian seeds are 
cast about, and consequently the trees are found 
not only in the orchards, but on all the river 
banks, along jungle paths, and in all manner of 
places far away from human habitation. To the 
European the fruit is usually unpalatable at the 
first attempt to eat it, the very powerful smell 
which it gives off being highly offensive to un- 
accustomed nostrils. The peculiar odour, how- 
ever, pervading the whole atmosphere all through 
the durian season, generally becomes inoffensive 
to the foreigner after a time, then pleasant, and 
finally he will discover the delicious scent raising 
in him the same craving for the fruit which it 
does in the native. Description of the scent and 
taste of the durian is impossible. They must be 
experienced to be understood. At the height of 



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AGRICULTURE 8i 

the season durians are sold in Kota Bharu at 
75 for a dollar. The eating of the durian is a 
serious business. People take long journeys to 
the interior simply to arrive at places where it 
grows best ; the most pressing work must be put 
aside on the invitation of a friend to a feast in his 
durian orchard, and parties will frequently risk 
the displeasure of the Imam and stay away from 
church on Friday to indulge in an all-day orgie 
of this most wonderful fruit. 

Foreign Enterprise in Agriculture. Very little 
has up to the present time been done in Kelantan 
by foreigners in the way of agriculture, a fact 
which is scarcely surprising if it be borne in mind 
that only a very few years ago the few foreigners 
who knew of the existence of the State had heard 
of it only as a lawless and savage country, whose 
people were given over to all manner of wicked- 
ness, and where the life of any stranger, even in 
the capital, would not be considered worth many 
hours' purchase. When, at last, foreigners pene- 
trated into the country with some idea of turning 
its resources to account, it was not to planting 
but to mining that their attention became directed, 
and it was not until towards the end of the year 
1905 that the great agricultural possibilities of 
the State first began to be appreciated. Early 



82 KELANTAN 

in 1906 the Duff Development Company, the 
holders of a very large mining, planting, and 
general trading concession in the State, began to 
advertise their concession by various means for 
planting purposes, and the Government, about the 
same time, took measures to make widely known 
the terms and conditions on which planting land 
could be obtained in the State. These efforts 
resulted in the receipt of numerous inquiries, in 
many cases followed by actual selection of land. 
Active negotiations are being conducted, and 
estates comprising 21,700 acres of land are now 
being opened up and planted with coconuts and 
with rubber. (See Appendix F.) It is expected 
that further areas will be opened up shortly. 

Very favourable reports upon the soil of 
Kelantan have been made by planting experts. 
It is certain that pepper, gambler, and tobacco 
would all do exceedingly well in many parts 
of the State, while the interior is eminently 
suitable for rubber and the coast districts for 
coconuts. The local demand alone for gambler 
and tobacco should ensure the pecuniary success 
of any venture based upon the scientific cultiva- 
tion of these. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
LIVE STOCK. 

It has already been said that there is much 
land in Kelantan well adapted for grazing 
purposes. The inhabitants have long ago taken 
full advantage of this fact, with the result that 
the State is rich in live stock. No census 
of cattle, sheep, or goats has, however, been 
attempted, and it is therefore impossible to say 
with complete accuracy how many of these 
animals there are in the State. 

Buffaloes. The buffalo, common to the plains 
of India and to all the Indo-Chinese Peninsula, 
is bred in Kelantan in considerable numbers. 
There are probably not fewer than 20,000 in the 
State, most of them being kept in the plains, 
where they are used for ploughing. Occasionally 
a few are exported overland to the neighbouring 
States of Pahang and Perak ; but about the 



84 KELANTAN 

year 1890 a severe epidemic of rinderpest carried 
off large numbers of these animals and rendered 
ploughing a matter of great difficulty for several 
seasons, and the fear of serious recurrence of 
shortage deters people from exporting to any 
great extent. The price of an average buffalo 
is $40. 

Bullocks. The number of ordinar\- cattle main- 
tained in the State is very large, the total in 
all probability not falling short of 90,000 head. 
The breed is the small humped variety common 
throughout all the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. A 
good deal of attention has been paid to cattle- 
breeding in the past, the chief object being to 
encourage and accentuate the qualities of strength, 
courage, and pugnacity, for Kelantan has for long 
been the home of a form of the sport of bull- 
fighting. The animals are also used for plough- 
ing, and between three and four thousand head 
of bullocks are annually exported to Singapore, 
where the best are sold as draught cattle and 
the rest are slaughtered. The use of cow's milk 
for dairy purposes is not practised. The cost 
of keep for cattle is practically nothing, unless 
the keep include preparation for the fighting-ring, 
for which special care, attention, and diet are 
necessary. The common herd is simply driven 



LIVE STOCK 85 

out in the morning to graze in the open, and 
at night is driven home again. Sometimes 
children go out as cow-herds, but usually the 
cattle are allowed to wander without any watcher, 
and hence, as a natural sequence, cattle theft is 
of common occurrence. A considerable number 
of bullocks are slaughtered for food, no wedding 
or funeral being considered quite correct without 
a generous supply of beef, while at the end of 
the fasting month (Ramadan) everybody in the 
State manages to get a piece of butchers-meat 
wherewith to celebrate his return to normal living 
after the painful period of self-denial decreed 
by the Prophet for the ninth month of the year. 
The hides of locally slaughtered cattle are ex- 
ported, the value of these same last year amount- 
ing to $46,507. The price of a good bullock 
is $30 ; of a cow, about $20. 

Rinderpest and anthrax are of only too 
common occurrence, and in fact it is rarely that 
the State is entirely free from both. It is not 
very often, however, that these diseases become 
violently epidemic, but when they do so the 
entire absence of any attempt at treatment or 
effective segregation causes heavy loss. 

Sheep. The sheep of Kelantan are worthy of 
peculiar notice. There are two distinct breeds, 



86 KELANTAN 

one of which has fine soft wool and only the 
rudiments of ears, while the other has a stiffer 
fleece, in which the wool is mixed with hair, 
and normal ears. The sheep are small and are 
quite unlike those imported from Hongkong to 
Singapore and Bangkok, neither do they resemble 
the animals to be seen in Burma and in India. 
It is not known who first brought sheep to 
Kelantan and from what part of the world they 
came; but whatever their origin, they are now 
thoroughly acclimatised in this part of Malaya, 
and are bred in Kelantan, in Patani, and to a 
less extent in Tringganu. Strangely enough, 
they are not found in the other States or 
Provinces of the Peninsula. 

The rams are trained for fighting, and when 
in full fettle are the most pugnacious little 
animals conceivable. The majority of them, as 
soon as they meet with a reverse in the arena, 
are sold either to the local butchers or to natives 
of India, who send them to Singapore. Between 
seven and eight hundred head are annually 
exported from the State. No females are ever 
exported except under special permission of the 
Raja. A young ram in good condition can be 
bought in Kota Bharu at from $4 to $7 ; the 
price of an average ewe is about $2. In 1906 a 





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LIVE STOCK 87 

flock of eighteen head of specially selected sheep, 
both long and short-eared, were supplied to the 
Government of French Indo-China at the request 
of H.E. the Governor-General, in the hope that 
they might become acclimatised and breed there. 

Goats. The Kelantan goat is a mixture of 
various breeds. All sorts of fancy kinds have 
been, and occasionally are still, imported from 
Java, India, Mecca, and elsewhere. In the streets 
of Kota Bharu they take the place occupied 
by pigs and pariah dogs in other eastern towns, 
and to some extent perform the scavenging 
functions of the latter. They wander in the 
market, graze on the " Padang," as the village 
green is called, sleep in the streets, and gambol 
in and out of the houses, entirely of their own 
free will. 

The Malays of Kelantan prefer goats' flesh 
to mutton, and a large number of goats are 
slaughtered to grace their feasts. The export 
of these animals has for many years been for- 
bidden, a measure which has resulted in a large 
increase in their number. The price of an 
average goat in Kota Bharu is from $2 to $5. 
In the interior they can be bought for rather less. 

Poultry. Ducks and fowls are bred in 
Kelantan, but no other form of poultry. The 



88 KELANTAN 

export of ducks was forbidden some years ago, 
the authorities being under the impression that 
the country was becoming depleted of these 
birds. Whatever may have been the case in 
the past, there can be no doubt that ducks are 
very plentiful now, and though the prohibition 
of export has never been withdrawn, it has 
become practically a dead letter. Of fowls there 
is a very large and an increasing number in 
the State. There are no large poultry farms, 
but every household possesses a certain number 
of hens, which wander freely about all day and 
at night roost in the house. No fewer than 
88,503 fowls were exported from the State 
during the year 1324 (1906-7), all of which 
were sent to Singapore to supply the market 
there. The price of fowls and ducks in Kota 
Bharu is at present twenty-five cents each, or, 
if bought in large numbers, twenty cents. They 
are sold in Singapore at about forty cents each. 
Fresh eggs can usually be bought at from fifty 
to seventy-five for a dollar. With a practically 
unlimited demand in Singapore, a fowl-run 
conducted on a scientific basis would pay well 
in Kelantan, the only danger being from 
epidemics, fortunately rare, which occasionally 
carry off large numbers. 



LIVE STOCK 89 

Elephants. There are a few tame elephants 
in the State, which are used as a means of 
transport. They belong chiefly to the aristocracy, 
and are about 100 in number. Their owners 
are not too proud to hire them out at 50 cents 
a day, but, even at that low rate, they are not 
an attractive form of conveyance. They carry 
absurdly small loads, frequently fall ill, and 
sometimes become dangerous and unmanageable. 
They are likely to continue in use so long as 
the roads are not sufficiently numerous as to 
permit the regular employment of other means 
of transport, but it is difficult to believe that 
anyone will continue to use them thereafter. 
It is possible, however, that elephants may 
some day be found useful for the working of 
timber if that industry undergoes the development 
which is hoped for it in the future. 

Numerous herds of wild elephants are known 
to exist in the State. They are rounded up 
periodically, and young animals are captured by 
methods very similar to those employed in India 
and elsewhere. At the last drive seventeen 
were taken. 

Horses. The only horses in the State are 
imported. The Siam pony, the Deli pony, and 
the Australian cob all thrive in the country ; 



90 KELANTAN 

but there are very few of them, and they are 
not much in request except for the stables of 
H.H. the Raja and amongst the small European 
population. 

Pigs. Pigs are of course kept by the Chinese. 
There is a pork butcher at Kota Bahru and 
another at Tumpat, and from two to three pigs 
are killed every day. About looo head are 
exported in a year, chiefly to Singapore. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
LAND. 

It has been said above that the area of land 
under cultivation by Malays in Kelantan is about 
450,000 acres, and it has also been mentioned 
that some 21,700 acres have been taken up 
for rubber planting purposes. There thus remain 
rather over three million acres of waste land, of 
which it is probable that about one million acres 
are cultivable ; and from this it may be seen 
how, the large rural population notwithstanding, 
the agricultural resources of the country have as 
yet been only partially developed. 

The following extract from a report, published 
in 1904, sets forth the situation with regard to 
the ownership of land in the State : 

" The axiom that all land fundamentally 
belongs to the ruler obtains in Kelantan, and 
though, at present, fallow land is not assessed 



92 KELANTAN 

to revenue of any kind, there is in reality no 
such thing as freehold landed property there. 
In the plains, however, where land is of high 
value, it is almost all held by persons who have 
acquired the status of landholders, that is, who 
have acquired heritable and alienable rights by 
grant or purchase from the ruler at some more 
or less remote period. 

"Previous to the year 1299 of the Moham- 
medan era (1881), the State kept no sort of 
land registers, and consequently little or nothing 
was known of the condition of land tenure in 
different districts, except to the local Headman, 
in whose hands lay the disposal of waste lands 
on behalf of the ruler. A person desiring 
to take up land had to apply, in accordance 
with a very old-established custom, to the 
Headman of the district in which land in 
question was situated, and from him to obtain 
permission to occupy, on payment of a fee 
which varied according to the nature of the 
land. The fee was supposed to be paid in to 
the ruler, but was usually retained by the 
Headman. Having paid the fee and taken 
possession, the holder had done all that was 
considered necessary ; but as title granted by 
the rural officials was not considered as con- 



LAND 93 

stituting an indisputable right, he could never 
be certain that his land would not at some 
future date be taken from him and given away 
elsewhere. 

"In the year 1299 (1881), however, the Sultan 
Mulut Merah (Phaya Pak Deng) introduced a 
system of registration of all changes of tenure, by 
which means land purchased or inherited was 
definitely recognised as the property of the 
registering party, and later on, in the year 13 14 
(1896), the Sultan Mansoor inaugurated a Land 
Office, for the keeping of such registers and for 
the issue of proper title deeds. A person who 
had acquired land by application to the local 
authorities was thus enabled to secure his title 
beyond the possibility of dispute by registering 
at the Land Office, and there receiving a title 
deed or " Grant," as it was called, the name whence 
Sultan Mansoor got his idea. Not content with 
the issue of deeds to voluntary applicants, the 
Sultan, in 13 17 (1899), sent out a commission to 
inquire into the tenure of land already alienated 
by the State, with a view to the compulsory 
issue of deeds to all landholders." 

That commission is still at work, and during 
the eight years of its existence has examined into 
the tenure of the lands of eighteen of the most 



94 KELANTAN 

densely settled parishes, and issued thirty 
thousand permanent title deeds. This work, 
though highly creditable to the rulers who 
conceived and set it going, was at first very 
perfunctorily carried out, was only too often 
made use of by persons whose high position 
enabled them to browbeat mere officials, in order 
to secure to themselves lands to which their 
right was defective. It now devolves upon a re- 
organised Land Office to adjust, as far as may 
be possible, the errors of former da}'s, and at 
the same time to continue, in accordance 
with the original method, but without the 
accompanying corruption, the issue of deeds to 
cover the remainder of the occupied land in 
the State. The system of land registration 
formerly in force has already been satisfactorily 
reformed. Uncleared waste land, if taken up 
for rubber or other planting, is held under 
special planting lease, issued under the easiest 
possible conditions. 



CHAPTER XV. 
TIMBER AND FOREST PRODUCE. 

Timber. The jungles of Kelantan contain 
many different kinds of timber, some of which 
are of considerable value. In the southern 
part of the State there are upwards of 3000 
square miles of forest where Merbau, Giam, 
Meranti, Kulim, Balau, Klat, and many other ex- 
cellent kinds of timber-trees flourish exceedingly. 
In the jungles farther north, more especially about 
the Bukit Merbau and Bukit Yong hills, the 
Changal tree and the T'mbusu grow, while 
on the low-lying lands near the sea, and 
subject to occasional inundations of brackish 
water, the Glam grows in profusion. 

The Changal is the most important timber 
tree found in the Malay Peninsula. It is hard, 
heavier than water, close-grained, and withal 
easy to work. Moreover, it resists the action 



96 KELAXTAN 

of weather and is impervious to the attacks of 
white ants. The surface of the wood, when 
first exposed to the air, is of a pale yellow 
colour, which, however, soon turns brown and 
ultimately almost black. Three kinds of Changal 
are found in Kelantan, namely-, Changal Batu, 
Changal Resak Batu, and Changal Pasir, the 
last being the least valuable. The wood is 
used for the posts and outer walls of the better 
class of dwellings, and, when available, for all 
purposes where the action of the weather is to 
be withstood. It is, however, an expensive 
timber, running about 1 5 cents per cubic foot, 
and is consequently not within the reach of 
everybody. Merbau, T'mbusu, and Glam are all 
good hard woods, but have not the imperishable 
qualities of Changal, and are more difficult to 
work. Glam is largely used as fuel in Kota 
Bahru. The timber of Kelantan was, until 
quite lately, worked very little, the greater part 
of the Changal used being imported from the 
Pahang State and the cheap timber from 
Singapore. Lately, however, the consumption 
of home-grown timber has increased considerably, 
a steam saw-mill started by the Duff Develop- 
ment Company during the last year has brought 
a lot of the better-class soft woods on to the 




:ir 



FOREST PRODUCE 97 

market, while the Changal forests in the south- 
east of the State are now producing most of 
the hard timber required in the capital and 
elsewhere for bridges, house-building, boat- 
building, etc. There is so much good second- 
class timber available in the State as to warrant 
the hope that before long timber will become 
an important article of export. 

Forest Produce. The jungles in which the 
timber grows are also rich in various other 
produce, of which wild rubber and gutta, resin 
and gharu, rattan and bamboo are the most 
important. The extraction of these articles has 
not, however, except in the case of wild rubber 
and gutta, been developed to any great extent, 
for the reasons that the Kelantan Malay, being 
already well off in the open plains, is not much 
given to roaming the jungles for a living ; while 
the crushing royalties formerly demanded by 
the ruler of the State, on all such produce as 
was extracted, usually reduced the profits on 
the same to vanishing point. The extraction 
of wild rubber and gutta, however, was farmed 
by the State to persons who induced a con- 
siderable number of Dyaks to come in and 
collect the same for them. Their methods being 
crude and highly wasteful, the output of rubber 



98 KELANTAN 

and gutta has diminished very much of late 
years, and for the year 1324 (1906-07) the 
value of the produce exported was little more 
than $25,000. Wild rubber is procured from 
the Rambong {Ficus elastica) and closely allied 
species, most of which grow into very large 
forest trees. 

Gutta-Percha. Gutta, known in commerce as 
" Gutta-percha," or the sap of the Percha tree, 
is obtained from the Percha, and from several 
other trees and vines which flourish in the same 
localities. Of these the Taban {Diclwpsis Gutteri) 
produces the finest and most valuable gutta, 
while from the Gutta Puteh tree, the Gutta Merah 
tree, the Palan, the Jcletong, and many others 
a poorer quality is obtained. The world's supply 
of gutta — a substance for which the demand, 
largely in connection with the manufacture of 
electrical appliances, is rapidly increasing — is all 
obtained from the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and 
Sumatra, in which localities only the gutta- 
bearing trees are found. The varieties produced 
vary greatly in value. Good Gutta Taban 
realises sometimes as much as $500 per pikul 
of 133^ lbs., while other qualities range from 
$250 down to $80. The supply, more especially 
of Gutta Taban, is very limited, and, for reasons 



FOREST PRODUCE 99 

already stated, tends to become more so. The 
Taban tree is said to yield from 2^ to 3 lbs. of 
gutta when it has reached the age of thirty years, 
but the great demand has caused the felling of 
countless young trees for the sake of the few 
ounces which can be obtained from each, and 
thus even the richest forests have become 
practically exhausted after a comparatively short 
period of working. Sixty-three years have passed 
since gutta-percha was first employed in the 
arts and manufactures of Europe. During that 
time many millions of Taban trees have been 
felled to supply the market, and, though con- 
servation has recently been adopted in some 
States, it is probable that the measure has come 
too late to prevent the total extermination of 
the best kinds of gutta-producing trees in many 
great forest areas. It is probable that the 
cultivation of some of the fast-growing gutta 
plants, several of which can be tapped successfully 
after from six to ten years' growth, would be 
found almost as highly profitable in the future 
as is the cultivation of Para rubber at the present 
moment. For this purpose the soil and climate 
of Kelantan are entirely suitable and large areas 
of land, at present of small value, are available. 
Various Produce. Large quantities of bamboo 



lOO KELANTAN 

are annually cut in the forests of the far interior, 
and are floated down river to Kota Bharu for 
sale. The price varies from $3 to $5 per 
hundred according to the season of the year. 

Various kinds of resin, known collectively as 
" Dannar," are obtained for making torches and 
caulking for boats ; but though the material 
available in the jungle is practically without 
limit, the amount got out does not come within 
reasonable distance of supplying local wants, and 
a considerable quantity is therefore imported 
from Tringganu. The " Damar " is undoubtedly 
among the undeveloped riches of Kelantan. Its 
extraction in the forests leased to the Duff 
Development Company is now receiving the 
serious consideration of that corporation, and it 
is to be hoped that before long the " Damar " 
required for use in the State will be all of home 
production. 

The Rattan cane plant has suffered from 
reckless and wasteful exploitation to the same 
extent as the gutta. The best quality of cane, 
" Rotan Sega Mas," never very abundant, has 
been worked out, and is now found only in very 
small quantities. Of the less valuable kinds 
a good deal is still worked to supply local 
demands, but little or none is exported. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
MINERALS AND MINING. 

The fame of Kelantan as a mineral- bearing 
country extends throughout all the neighbouring 
Malay States, to Siam proper, and to other 
contiguous lands, and once upon a time, when 
all parts of the Malay Peninsula were in an 
equally undeveloped condition, the mineral pro- 
ducts of Kelantan considerably exceeded in value 
those of any other State. At the present day, 
however, the enormous development of tin mining 
in the eastern States and the practical cessation 
of gold mining in the western has entirely 
changed the situation, and Kelantan, at this 
moment, is actually producing less mineral 
wealth than any State of the Peninsula. The 
causes which have led to this altered state of 
things have nothing to do with the quantity or 
quality of the minerals available, recent prospecting 



102 KELANTAN 

work having shown that Kelantan is possessed of 
extensive mineral resources which were unknown 
to the gold workers of the past, but are solely 
the outcome of administrative conditions. Some 
fifty years ago (long before the beginning of that 
development of the western Malay States under 
British guidance which has been one of the 
phenomena of recent tropical administration), the 
gold mining of Kelantan could more than vie 
with the tin mining of the western States ; but 
while the latter, under able and judicious govern- 
ment, has of late advanced enormously, years 
of misrule and neglect have hampered and 
finally all but annihilated the former. 

Gold. Gold has been mined in Kelantan from 
a very remote period, a fact which is attested 
by the presence of traces of old workings in 
many parts of the State, the history of which 
has been entirely lost. Apparently the industry 
has always been entirely in the hands of 
Chinese, who must have settled in the gold- 
producing districts in considerable numbers, 
and a few of whose descendants persist, to this 
day, at Pulai and elsewhere. During ancient 
days, when there was no Raja in Kelantan of 
any far-reaching power, the Pulai settlement 
grew into a rich and powerful community 



MINERALS AND MINING 103 

regarding with very scant respect the orders 
of the Malays sent by the Rajas to make demands 
for royalties on the gold resulting from their 
mining, and frequently sending such messengers 
back to the capital with scant politeness. At 
length, however, during the time of Raja Mahmat 
they fell upon evil days. A monopoly for the 
sale of rice having been given by the Raja 
to his son the Temangong, the latter proceeded 
to Pulai to enforce his rights there. The Chinese 
miners, who lived entirely on rice which was 
brought up the river from the plains, refused 
to comply with the extortionate demands of 
the monopolist. The traffic of rice-boats on the 
river was stopped, famine supervened, and the 
starving miners, excited and exhorted thereto 
by a brother of the Temangong, attacked and 
killed the princeling monopolist. Thereupon with 
all haste an expedition was organised from 
Kota Bharu by the son of the murdered 
Temangong, who ascended the river, overcame 
the Chinese, and put the whole community to 
the sword. The river ran red with blood, 
decaying corpses polluted the air for miles, 
the gold amassed by years of labour became 
the spoil of the avengers, and the gold mining 
industry of Kelantan came to a sudden end. 



104 KELANTAN 

Gradually, however, in after years, the village 
of Pulai grew again, a few survivors of the 
massacre being induced to return and to under- 
take gold-washing in the river. Here they 
were ultimately found by the first Europeans 
who explored the country, and the lands which 
they and their ancestors worked are now 
incorporated in the numerous mining concessions 
which were recklessly granted by H.H. the 
Raja a few years ago. 

As mentioned above, prospecting operations 
have recently shown that the country still 
holds rich deposits of gold, but, for reasons 
quite other than those which caused the waning 
of the ancient Chinese industry, the efforts of 
Europeans to convert it into money have not 
hitherto been crowned with success, and even 
as the Chinese, with their primitive implements 
and methods, were ruined by oppression and 
misrule, so workers with the costly scientific 
appliances of modern mining have, even while 
winning fair quantities of gold, seen their 
labours stultified by over capitalization and 
business ineptitude. It is a melancholy fact 
that while the value of gold exported from the 
State during the year 1906-07 was $212,984.00, 
or about ;{^2 5,000, the company which produced 



MINERALS AND MINING 105 

the greater part of it was recently forced to 
go into liquidation. 

Tin. Indications of the presence of tin abound 
in Kelantan, The geological formation is very 
similar to that of the other States where most 
tin is found, and in many parts of the country 
rich samples of ore have been obtained from 
time to time. Some fifteen years ago the Sultan 
Ahmad, hearing of the development of tin 
mining which was proceeding in the other 
States, made arrangements with a Chinese 
expert to have prospecting work done. The 
expert duly visited the State and sent agents 
to travel through the interior. After some 
months spent in making inquiries and in obtaining 
samples, the Chinaman announced that though 
there was clearly a certain amount of tin in 
the State, the general conditions of the country 
were such that it could not be worked at a 
profit. He then withdrew to Patani, where he 
is still residing. 

It is a well-known fact that in the first 
place the Chinese expert and his men made 
no thorough examination of any part of the 
State, and that the difficulties of transport, 
the insecurity of property and of life, and the 
rapacity of the nobility, which then obtained. 



io6 KELANTAN 

were the principal reasons for his conclusion 
that tin mining would not pay in Kelantan. 
These obstacles having now been removed, 
the accounts of rich deposits of tin, still, as 
ever, current amongst the inhabitants, are again 
attracting attention. Careful prospecting has 
been undertaken in more than one district, 
and the results obtained permit the hope that 
the State will ultimately prove as rich in this 
metal as the other States which lie round it. 

Other Minerals. Galena, containing both gold 
and silver with the lead, is known in various 
parts of the State, and this ore to the value 
of $8000 was exported during the year 1906-07. 
Rich deposits of it have been discovered in 
the concession of the Duff Development Company, 
but it seems probable that the difficulty in 
treating the ore will make the successful working 
of a galena mine impossible until means of 
communication are available better than those 
now existing. Iron pyrites has also been found, 
and hot springs containing sulphur salts occur 
in several places, the properties of which may 
be of medicinal value. 

Mining Concessions. H.H. the present Raja, 
shortly after his accession, gave away amongst 
his friends and relatives the mining rights over 



MINERALS AND MINING 107 

almost the whole mineral-bearing area of the 
State. These gifts took the form of concessions, 
good for thirty years and upwards, conveying 
to the recipients the maximum of privileges 
while imposing the minimum of liabilities, so 
that when, four years ago, the reorganisation 
of the State was seriously undertaken by His 
Siamese Majesty's Government, it was found 
that the control of affairs, so far as mining 
was concerned, had passed in a great measure 
beyond the reach of the Government. Attempts 
were being made to develop one enormous 
concession, attempts which, owing to want of 
sufficient working capital proved for a long 
time abortive, while in the seven other con- 
cessions, which covered the remainder of the 
mineral area, absolutely no effort had been made 
to start work of any kind. Fortunately, however, 
there existed, in all the concession documents, 
a time clause, and under the provisions of this, 
the Government has been able to recover a 
fair interest in the development of many of 
them, and at the same time to assist the holders 
in exploiting their remaining rights. The majority 
of the concessionaires being persons quite unable 
to develop their rights themselves, and altogether 
ignorant of the methods by which capital and 



io8 KELANTAN 

expert knowledge may be brought to their assist- 
ance, the Government has stepped in to their 
aid, and has spared no efifort to bring them 
into communication with persons of repute in 
the mining world. Many difficulties have been 
encountered owing to the bad reputation which 
the failure of early efforts has earned for the 
State, but these are being slowly overcome. Two 
concessions have been taken up by syndicates, 
comprising well-known tin and gold mining 
experts, and active negotiations are now in 
progress with regard to two others. Furthermore, 
the company whose non-success has hitherto so 
much hindered progress is now apparently enter- 
ing upon a period of comparative prosperity, 
having, in fact, recently reached a total of lOOO 
ounces of gold for one month's work, so that 
there seems at last good prospect of an early 
and a steady development of the mineral resources 
of the State. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
GOVERNMENT. 

Kelantan is governed by a Raja, whose office, 
subject to the will of His Majesty the King 
of Siam, is hereditary, assisted by a Council 
composed of the most influential persons in the 
State, and in accordance with the advice of 
His Siamese Majesty's representative (an English- 
man). Since the beginning of the year 1904 
laws have been passed by His Highness in 
Council providing for the administration of justice, 
for the control of the police, for the collection 
of revenue, and for various other matters, while 
departments embracing all branches of govern- 
ment have been created and organised. At 
the head of each department is one of the 
principal nobles, assisted in the management 
of the affairs entrusted to him by one of the 
Siamese or English officers already alluded to 



no KELANTAN 

as having been specially engaged for the service 
of the State. The ancient customs of the country 
are adhered to as far as is compatible with 
government in the interests of the people, and 
not solely for the benefit of the upper class. 

Police. The Police force of the State consists 
of 250 men, of whom fifty are Sikhs and Punjabi 
Mohammedans and the remainder Malays. There 
is one English officer in the force. The uniform 
is khaki, and about half the men are armed 
with rifles. There is no other armed force of 
any kind in the State. The strength of the 
Police will probably be increased in the near 
future. 

Justice. The Court of H.H. the Raja is 
the High Court for the State, and also the 
only Court of Appeal. With His Highness 
sit a Malay nobleman and a Siamese officer 
of considerable local experience as Assistant 
Judges. His Majesty's representative sits as a 
Court of Revision. There is a Central Court at 
Kota Bharu, and there are three Courts of Small 
Causes in different parts of the State. The 
general manager of the Duff Development 
Company also is empowered to try certain 
offences. 

Eevenue. The total annual revenue of the 



GOVERNMENT iii 

State since the year 1322 (1904-05) is as 
follows : 

1322 - - $168,108.7.11. 

1323 - - $207,979-4.59- 

1324 - - $ 

1325 (estimated) $319,700.0.00. 

The principal heads of collection are land 
revenue, customs, and excise. 

The principal revenues of the country are 
collected by a Land Revenue Department and 
by a Customs Department. The former controls 
the land taxes, royalties on minerals and timber, 
boat registration, trading licenses, and other 
branches. The Customs Department collects 
all import and export duties and port dues. 
The majority of these items of revenue were 
formerly farmed from the Government by individ- 
uals, whose rights have recently been relinquished 
to the State on payment of compensation, which 
in some instances have been considerable. 

Treasury. The State Treasury receives and 
accounts for all revenue and public moneys, and 
disburses all pensions, salaries, and other charges 
on the Government. This office was organised, 
with the other Government departments, in 1 904, 
and the following extract from a report on 



112 KELANTAN 

the State, published in that year, will convey 
some idea of the manner in which the finances 
of the State were administered prior to that date. 
" A difficult problem involved in the initiation 
of reform was the creation of a State Treasury, 
into which it would be wrong for any one, 
even His Highness himself, to dip when in 
need of cash for purposes other than those of 
State. Hitherto the Treasury consisted of two 
or three clerks at His Highness' Palace, who 
received the revenue, made a — usually inaccurate 
— note of it, and passed it on into the interior 
of the Palace, whence it never again emerged 
unless, at uncertain intervals, grudgingly, to pay 
long-standing accounts for jewelry and similar 
luxuries. Coin once received in the coffers of 
His Highness was no longer available for State 
purposes, salaries, such as they were, being payable 
only when there happened to be money in the 
hands of the Treasury clerks and not yet remitted 
inside. If the Government was suddenly called 
upon to make quite unavoidable payments, 
recourse was had to the opium or export farmers, 
who were invited to advance the sum required, 
against the revenue payable by them, and 
running accounts were kept with the farmers, 
for this purpose, which, it is needless to say 



GOVERNMENT 113 

were usually to the disadvantage of the State. 
His Highness' bank consisted of a cache in the 
hills a few miles distant from the capital, and 
thither mysterious convoys of elephants were peri- 
odically escorted, laden presumably with wealth." 

At the present day the State Treasury is a 
fixed institution. H.H. the Raja has his privy 
purse, and the nobility their State pensions, all 
of which are paid from the Treasury, and 
order has been taken that the revenues, without 
exception, pass under the care of the State 
Treasury officer. 

Eural Government. The interior of the State 
is administered by means of a village system 
resembling that in force in Siam. Each village 
has its own Headman or " Toh Kampong," 
who is responsible to a Circle Headman or 
" Toh Kweng," appointed by the Government 
usually after selection by the people, to the 
charge of a group of villages. The circles 
again are grouped to form districts, each under 
the charge of a District Officer, who is Magis- 
trate, Land Officer, and Revenue Officer for his 
charge. At the capital there is a Central 
Office, where all reports from the interior are 
received, and whence issue all orders concerning 

rural administration. 

p 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
GENERAL. 

Sanitary. The plain of Kelantan is probably 
as healthy a spot as any in the Far East. 
The sandy, well-drained soil, the open nature 
of the country, the sea breezes, the mildness of 
the tropical heat, and the absence of sudden 
changes of temperature, render all serious forms 
of fever very rare ; dysenter)' and smallpox, 
though usually present in the interior, rarely 
assume epidemic form, cholera and beri beri 
hardly ever appear, and plague is hitherto 
unknown. 

In the southern, mountainous districts, where 
the country is covered with jungle, and where 
the temperature is subject to a wider range, 
fevers are more common, but even there they 
are not usually of a malignant nature, and may 
be avoided by Europeans by attention to food, 



GENERAL 115 

clothing, and personal hygiene generally. Beri 
beri has also occurred amongst estate coolies 
and miners who, with the conservative obstinacy 
of Chinamen, insist upon eating stale and often 
mouldy rice imported from Singapore rather 
than the freshly husked but unmilled local 
produce. Where Kelantan rice has been sub- 
stituted for imported grain the ravages of beri 
beri have invariably been checked. A highly 
experienced and able English medical officer 
is attached to the Duff Development Company, 
Limited, whose services can usually be obtained 
on application to the company, and a duly 
qualified Siamese medical officer is in charge 
of the Kota Bharu Hospital and of the State 
Medical Department. Upwards of ten thousand 
persons have been vaccinated during the course 
of the last four years, to which number the 
Duff Company's doctor has largely contributed. 
Vaccination is voluntary, and is given free of 
charge ; but the people are never very anxious 
to avail themselves of it, except when in dread 
of an epidemic of smallpox. 

Skin diseases are very prevalent amongst the 
peasantry, and are of many different kinds. 
Dr. J. D. Ginlette, the Duff Company's medical 
officer, has made an exhaustive study of these. 



ii6 KELANTAN 

and has embodied the results of his researches 
in more than one extremely valuable brochure 
on the subject. 

To the European the climate and general 
conditions of life in Kelantan are very healthy, 
provided that the common precautions necessary 
in all tropical countries are reasonably observed. 

Education. Up to the year 1904 nothing 
had been done to provide education for the 
youth of Kelantan. The boys of the upper 
class were generally taught to read and write 
by private tuition, and numerous Hajis gave 
instruction in reciting the Koran. At the end 
of that year, however, a small school was 
started at Kota Bharu by the Government, 
where education in reading, writing, and arith- 
metic, and in the elements of geography, were 
provided free. This venture has prospered ; the 
school now contains eighty-three pupils, and, 
after four years of existence, is turning out 
boys with sufficient education to fit them for 
clerkships in the Government offices. A school 
with a Government grant-in-aid has also been 
started in connection with the central Musjid, 
where mixed secular and religious education is 
provided, and the Chinese merchants have 
subscribed to form a school for their sons, 



GENERAL 117 

where English is taught in addition to the 
elements. 

There is a good demand for education among 
the townspeople of Kota Bharu, but little or 
none amongst the country folk. The experiment 
of Government village schools has not yet been 
tried. 

Sports and Pastimes. Sir Frank Swettenham, 
in his recent monumental work on the States 
of the Malay Peninsula, very truly observes 
that a striking peculiarity about Kelantan is 
that the capital is given up to various forms 
of relaxation in a way unknown to any other 
State in the Peninsula. 

The Malay is a thorough sportsman, and 
would doubtless devote a great part of his 
time to games everywhere did the same facili- 
ties, or rather encouragements, prevail as in 
Kelantan. The fact is that bull-fighting, buffalo- 
fighting, ram-fighting, cock-fighting, fish-fighting, 
and boat-racing, are the delight of the Raja 
and the nobility, and are freely encouraged and 
supported by them. One of the uncles of the 
Raja is the official organiser of these sports, 
and in his office are maintained registers of all 
the fighting bulls, buffaloes, and rams in the 
State. He is constantly kept informed of the 



Il8 KELANTAN 

training and condition of the animals, and 
arranges, in their due season, the matches which 
are fought at the tournaments held both at the 
capital and at various places in the interior. 

At the present time bull-fighting is the most 
popular sport, that being the favourite form 
of amusement of the Raja. Since gambling 
by Malays, with cards or dice, is strictly 
forbidden, the people find an outlet for their 
gaming proclivities in staking money on the 
issue of bull-fights, and very large sums are 
frequently laid on these events. The conduct 
of a bull-fight is surrounded by considerable 
etiquette. The animals which are about to 
engage are paraded, snorting and pawing, round 
the ring, and the sportsmen outside the ropes 
are invited to back their fancy. All bets must 
be supported with ready money, the stakes 
are entered in a book, and are laid before the 
highest noble present, who acts as President of 
the games, and also as umpire. When all the 
bets have been satisfactorily arranged a small 
green tree-branch is stuck into the ground in 
the middle of the ring, the bulls are led forward 
and are released, when they immediately engage 
with much fury. The contest which ensues 
consists in steady, determined pushing, head to 



GENERAL 119 

head, alternating with sudden butts, by which 
the bulls try to get inside each other's guard 
with the sharp points of their horns. Every 
movement is watched with the most intense 
interest by the crowd, which by now is densely 
packed, sitting and standing round the ring, 
and who hail each thrust or turn of a horn 
with shouts of delight or groans of dismay. 
At length one of the animals, feeling itself 
no match for the other, suddenly turns tail 
and makes off, breaking wildly through the 
ring and flying in any direction, closely pursued 
by the victor. This is the signal for an 
outburst of enthusiasm from the onlookers, 
which expresses itself by leaping and dancing, 
singing and shouting, His Highness himself, if 
backing the right animal, not disdaining a few 
steps of fantastic dance. Meanwhile a brass cup 
with a small hole in the bottom has been set 
floating in a jar of water beside the umpire, 
and the trainers of the bulls have gone to 
retrieve their animals. In former days, when 
the fights were held on the village green, the 
bulls frequently chased each other through the 
streets, to the complete demoralisation of 
traffic, before they were recaptured. Now the 
arena is outside the town and surrounded by 



I20 KELANTAN 

open country. If the worsted bull can be 
induced to come up to the green branch before 
the brass cup has filled with water and sunk, 
the fight is continued ; if not, then that animal 
is declared to have been beaten and the stakes 
are handed over. Bullock-fighting is not in- 
dulged in all the year round, but is mainly 
confined to the months of May, June, July, and 
August. 

Buffalo-fights are similar to bull-fights except 
that the buffalo is a much heavier and stronger 
animal than the bull, whence it often happens 
that combats terminate fatally, to the huge 
delight of the audience. 

Careful breeding for many generations, and 
generous feeding, have made of the fighting 
ram an animal from whose rudimentary mind 
the overmastering desire to butt something is 
never absent. Consequently his chief delight 
consists in a nice level pitch with a line across 
the middle and his enemy at the far end of it, 
straining to get loose and to charge, with an 
impatience equal to his own. A ram-fight 
consists of a series of astonishing charges with 
crashing impact of horn on horn, repeated until 
one or other combatant is too weak and dazed 
to continue. 




^►tVp« 



-^ >^- mei ! 




GENERAL 121 

Cock-fighting is conducted on lines similar 
to those customary in other lands, the mains 
being fought without steel spurs or other adven- 
titious arms. 

Fish-fighting consists of the absurd struggles 
and contortions of two flushed and angry little 
red fish in a bottle full of water, a contest 
seemingly of entirely uninteresting nature, but 
which for hours on end commands the absorbed 
attention of true votaries of the sport. 

The daily occupation of many thousands of 
Kelantan Malays calls for skill in the use of 
the paddle. Consequently when the boat-racing 
season comes round, after the floods are over, 
there is no lack of men, many of whom are 
among the finest paddlers in the world, to man 
the boats. The racing craft of Kelantan are 
long graceful canoes with sharp-pointed prow 
and stern, built to seat, usually, a dozen men. 
The crew faces the prow and the bow-man sets 
the stroke and keeps the time. The stern-man 
steers with his paddle. The boats and the 
broad blades of the paddles are gaily painted, 
and the sight of the latter flashing together to 
the stroke in perfect unison is a stirring one. 
There are three strokes, the slow, the fast, and 
a compound of three rapid strokes and a wait. 

Q 



122 KELANTAN 

The slow stroke is used at the beginning of a 
race, the compound stroke as the pace warms 
up, and the fast stroke towards the end. Very 
frequently there is no winning post, a race 
continuing until the rhythnnical swing of the 
crew and the force of the fast stroke force one 
or other boat under water amidst the wildest 
excitment of both spectators and performers. 
The great occasion for boat-racing is the annual 
opening of the fishing season by the Raja, 
when His Highness, accompanied by a large 
following, goes down to the mouth of the river 
and camps out for a fortnight on one of the 
sand-banks of the lagoon, holding high revel 
all the time and on a propitious day putting 
out to sea in a fishing boat and catching the 
first fish of the season. 

The kite-flying season begins in December 
and continues until March, when the north-west 
wind drops and the land and sea breezes begin. 
At this season large numbers of kites are to 
be seen flying above the capital on every after- 
noon, filling the air with a loud humming pro- 
duced by a bow-like arrangement which is 
fastened to each kite. The kites are flown late 
into the night, and rows of little lights are then 
suspended from the kite strings with pretty effect. 



GENERAL 123 

The game of " Raga," the kicking of a cane 
ball into the air, is played by almost every 
young man in the State. The best exhibitions 
are to be seen on the Kota Bharu " Padang" ; 
but the players do not show as much dexterity 
at the game as the Siamese and Burmese, 
who are also much addicted to this form of 
amusement. 

There is a sporting club outside the town 
of Kota Bharu, whither the young men of the 
better class, chiefly Government officials, proceed 
on their bicycles in the evenings to play tennis, 
badminton, or cricket, where clay-pigeon-shooting 
meetings are held on Friday afternoons, and 
where football matches are played. There is 
also a sporting club at Kuala Lebir, the head- 
quarters of the Duff Development Company. 

Snipe are the only form of game to be found 
in the neighbourhood of Kota Bharu. They are 
fairly plentiful, and the snipe-shooting season 
lasts from September to February. In the 
interior of the State game of all kinds is very 
abundant. Elephant, tiger, bear, leopard, sladang 
(Burmese Tsine), rusa (Hindi Sambhur), pig, and 
barking deer are all fairly common, while rhino 
and tapir are occasionally met with. A wild 
goat of the species known in India as " Serao" 



124 KELANTAN 

was obtained a short while ago near Kuala Lebir, 
this being in all probability the only specimen 
e\*er secured in the Malay Peninsula. 

Of birds, jungle-fowl, peacock, the argus, fire- 
back, red-head and other pheasants, the lesser 
francolin, quail, and many kinds of pigeon are 
fairly common. 

Ver>- little game shooting has been done in 
Kelantan. The Sakeis and the few Malays who 
live in the jungle are accomplished trappers, 
but none of the former, and but few of the latter, 
possess firearms of much value for sporting 
purposesw The sporting proclivities of the Malay, 
which makes him an excellent shikari, and the 
abundance of game, would ensure good sport 
to the European sportsman who should visit the 
State with plenty of time at his command to 
penetrate far into the interior. 

Cost of Uvins. The cost of living in Kelantan 
is now alike for Asiatics and Europeans ; good 
rice, fish, meat, and supplies of all kinds are 
abundant and cheap at Kota Bharu, where almost 
anj-thing in the way of stores can also be 
obtained. The wages of Chinese servants are 
20% higher than in Singapore, but are lower 
than in Bangkok. 

Opmiiicn for BBplojmeBt. Neither Europeans 



GENERAL i->5 

nor educated Asiatics are advised to seek eti\- 
ployment in Kelatitan. The employees of the 
different companies are usually engagjed by their 
agents in Sinerapore and elsewhere, and it very 
seldom happens that they are able to give 
employment to chance comers. There is, how- 
ever, a constant and growing demand for un- 
skilled manual labour, ami coolies coming to 
Kelantan in search of labour arc pretty sure 
to obtain work. 



126 KELANTAN 



APPENDIX (A). 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF KELANTAN. 

Ruler — His Highness the Raja Snik bin Almorhom Sultan 
Ahmat (Phaya Phi Pit Pakdi). 

His Siamese Majesty's Resident Commissioner and 
Adviser to H.H. the Raja, - W. A. Graham. 

Assistant do. do., - H. W. Thomson, B.A. 



THE COUNCIL OF STATE. 
President, . - . . His Highness the Raja. 
The Resident Commissioner and Adviser. 
His Highness the Raja Muda (Phra Yudi Pradiyut). 
The Assistant Resident Commissioner and Adviser. 
The Tungku Sri Indra (Phra Ratsada Tibodi But). 

The Tungku Petra Dalam Kabun (Phra Phitak Detcha 
Rat). 

The Tungku Chik Penambang (Phra Amnat Amnoe Kit). 

The Tungku Sri Maha Raja (Phra Phichai Rat Riticharn). 

The Tungku Petra Semarak (Phra Nakaret Noraraks). 

The Tungku Sri Perkurma Raja (Phra Rachanukorn 
Prasit). 



APPENDIX 



127 



The Tungku Temanggong. 

The Tungku Besar Tuan Yusof. 

The Tangku Chik Tuan Lah. 

The Datoh Mintri (Luang Rachanumat Boribun). 

The Mufti. 



OFFICERS ENGAGED FROM ABROAD BY THE 
STATE. 



H. E, Pennington, B.A., 

Luang Tammarat Toraton, 
C. A. H Keenlyside, 
P. S. Nairn, - 
Khun Saman Tat Wicharn, 



- Secretary to the Resident 

Commissioner. 

- Judge of the High Court. 

- Superintendent of Lands. 

- Superintendent of Police. 

- State Medical Officer. 



128 



KELANTAN 



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October, 
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Decembei 


3" 






o 



APPENDIX 129 

APPENDIX (C). 

STEAMER COMMUNICATION ON THE KELANTAN 
RIVER. 

The Duff Development river steamers (under contract 
with the Government). 

PVequent communication between Tumpat (Kuala 
Kelantan) and Kota Bharu. 

Fares, ist Class, - - . . $3.00. 
,, Deck, ----- 0.50. 

Weekly service between Kota Bharu and Batu 

Mengkebang (40 miles), calling at Pasir Mas and Tanah 

Merah, and vice versa : * 

Fares. 
ist Class. Deck. 

Kota Bharu to Pasir Mas, - - $10 $0.50 

Kota Bharu to Tanah Merah, - $10 $1.50 

Kota Bharu to Batu Mengkebang, $18 S2.0 

Goods freight on application. No return tickets issued. 

The East Asiatic Company, Ltd. 

A steamer arrives from Bangkok and ports every 
Friday, and leaves for Singapore at midnight on every 
Saturday. 

A steamer arrives from Singapore at midnight on every 

Monday, and leaves for Bangkok and ports on every 

Tuesday afternoon. 

Fares. 
ist Class. Deck. 

Kelantan-Singapore, 2^ days, - $30 $3- 5° 

Kelantan-Bangkok, 7 days, - $65 $7.00 

Deck passengers pay 50 cents a day each for food, 

extra. 

* This steamer carries the Government mails. 
R 



130 



KELANTAN 



APPENDIX (D). 

KELANTAN POSTAL AND TELEGRAPH TARIFF, 
STEAMER FARES, ETC. 



Postal Tariff. 



Local letter postage, 



Letter postage to any 
other part of Siam. 

Foreign letter postage, 



Inland post-cards, - 
Foreign post-cards, - 



- 19 Kepings (equal to 4 atts 

Siamese) forevery 15 grammes 
or part of 1 5 grammes. 

- 39 Kepings (equal to 8 atts) 

for every 15 grammes or 
part of 15 grammes. 

- 44 Kepings (equal to 9 atts) 

for every 15 grammes or 
part of 15 grammes. 

- 10 Kepings (equal to 2 atts) 

each. 

- 19 Kepings (equal to 4 atts) 

each. 



Note. — Postage stamps and post-cards in use are the ordinary 
stamps and post-cards of Siam, but must be bought in Kelantan, 
the import of postage stamps and post-cards from other parts of 
Siam being forbidden. 



APPENDIX 131 

Telegraphs Tariff. 

To any part of Siam, - First ten words or less, 5 

Kupangs and 12 Kepings. 
Every additional word after 
ten, 39 Kepings. 

To Singapore, - - 3 Kupangs per word. 

To any part of the Feder- 44 Kepings per word, 
ated Malay States. 

To Penang, - - - 44 Kepings per word. 

To the British Isles, - $2.3 Kupangs, 45 Kepings 

per word. 

Note. — A charge of 10 Kepings is made on every message on 
account of receipt for the same issued by the dispatching office. 

Kelantan Currency, - 60 Kepings equal to one Kupang. 
8 Kupangs equal to one Dollar. 

The Dollar in use is the Straits Dollar. 



K 2 



132 



k?:lantan 



APPENDIX (E) 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF THE STATE OF 
KELANTAN FOR THE YEAR 1324. 



Imports. 


Quantities. 


Value in Dollars. 


Remarks. 


Aerated Waters, - 


72 cases 


763.0.00 





Ammunition and Ex- 








plosives, - 


13 .. 


449.0.00 


— 


Arms, - - - - 


— 


— 


— 


Animals — 








Horses, 


— 


— 


— 


Elephants, 


— 


— 


— 


Sheep and Goats, 


— 


— 


— 


Cattle, 


— 


— 


— 


Poultry, - 


2 dozen 


5.0.00 


— 


Others, - 


195 


585.0.00 


Monkeys 


Books & Printed Matter, 




— 


— 


Bricks and Tiles, - 


409,595 


3,615.0.00 


— 


Cement, 


3,361 casks 


7,717.0.00 


Includes 
Lime 


Chemical Products and 








Drugs, 


236 cases 


4,410.0.00 


— 


China and Earthenware 








(Coarse^ - 


134,892 pieces 


2,663.0.00 


— 


China and Earthenware 








(Fine), - 


3,588 pges. 


18,458.0.00 


Includes 
Glass 


Clothing (Ready-made, 








Foreign), - 




— 


— 


Cotton tjoods. 


1,843 cases 


158,761.0.00 


— 


Cotton (Raw), 


7,610 btiles. 


99,068.0.00 


— 


Coals, - - - - 


13 bags 


42.0.00 


— 


Charcoal, 


— 


— 


— 


Cycles and Accessories, 


I case 


195.0.00 


— 


Damar, 


— 


12,023.0.00 


— 


Fireworks, including 








Joss Sticks & Crackers, 


6,830 pges. 


12,360.0.00 


— 


Gambier, 


12,690 baskets 


31,125.0.00 


— 


Glassware, - 


— 


— 


— 


Gunny Bags and Tin-ore 








Bags, 


— 


— 


— 


Hardware and Cutlery, 


1,814 cases 


31,362.0.00 


Includes 
Lamps 



APPENDIX 

APPENDIX {^).— Continued. 



133 



Imports. 



Household Furniture, - 
Jewellery — 

Gold and Silverware, 
Precious Stones, 
Lamps and Parts, 
Leather and Leather 

Goods, 
Lime, - - - . 
Linen Goods, 
Machinery and Parts, - 
Matches, 

Matting, Rotan, Bam- 
boo and Straw Goods, 
Metals- 
Brass and Brassware, 
Copper and Copper- 
ware, - 
Iron (Bar, Angle, 

Bolt, or Rod), 
Iron (Sheets & Plates), 
Iron (Wire and Cable), 
Iron (Cast), 
Iron (Wrought), 
Lead and Lead Goods, 
Steel and Steel Manu- 
factures, 
Other Metals and 
Manufactures, 
Oil (Kerosene), - 
Oils other than Kero- 
sene, 
Paint, Colours and Dyes, 
Paper (Writing and 

Printing), - 
Paper (other sorts), 
Provisions (Salt), - 
Rope, Cable, Twine, 

and Hemp Yarn, 
Salt, - - - . 
Silk Goods, - 
Soap, - - - . 



Quantities. 



1.354 pes. 



55 cases 

362 pges. 
1,318 cases 

4, 104 pges. 

963 cases 



304 Pgs. 
7,614 pes. 
355 rolls 



Value in Dollars. 



168 tins 
144 tins 



14,834 

174 balls 

469,275 

535 pges. 

161 



Remarks. 



4,447.0.00 — 

511. 0.00 

1,757-0.00 



15,740.0.00 
11,842.0.00 

1,305.0.00 

26,183.0.00 



1,713.0.00 
12,370.0.00 
2,525.0.00 



897 cases 14,684.0.00 

62,077 tins 71,470.0.00 



009. 0.00 
950.0.00 



14,294.0.00 

1,434.0.00 

18,199.0.00 

48,463,0.00 

790.0.00 



Nails 



134 KELANTAN 

APPENDIX {E).— Continued. 



Imports. 


Quantities. 


Value in Dollars. 


Remarks. 


Stationery, • 


14 cases 


918.0.00 




Sugar (Refined), - 


4,309 pkls. 


40,810.0.00 


— 


Sugar (Unrefined), 




_ 


— 


Sundries, 


6,121 pges. 


186,394.0.00 


— 


Tobacco — 








Raw, 


1,411 pkls. 


61,261.0.00 


— 


Manufactured, - 


"4 ,. 


3,661.0.00 


— 


Cigarettes, - \ 
Cigars, - - J 


363 cases 


3,409.0.00 


— 


Wood- 








Planks, - 








Rafters. - 








Scantlings, • j- 


69,231 


42,653.0.00 


_ 


Chan gal Logs, - 








Other kinds, 








Articles of Manufactured 








Wood other than 








Furniture, 










Woollen Goods — 








Piece, 


— 





— 


Other than PieceGoods, 











Beer, - - - . 











Wine, .... 










Spirits, 


458 cases 


I 1,821.0.00 


Includes 

Wine and 

Beer 


Samshop, 


718 cases 


5,281.0.00 


— 


Gold Leaf, - 


— 








Opium, 


35 cases 


29,643.0.00 


— 


Treasure (Gold and Sil- 








ver Coin),- 


— 


228,770.0.00 


— 


Treasure (Copper Coin), 


— 


— 


— 


Boats, .... 


14 


778.0.00 


— 


Rubber Plants, - 


134 l)dles. 


2,180.0.00 





Rubber Seeds, 


114 cases 


6,798.0.00 


— 


Tools, - - - - 


896 pes. 


14,683.0.00 


— 


Motor Launch, 


I 


4,000.0.00 


— 


Carts and Carriages, 


•5 


843.0.00 


— 


Fruit, - - - - 


Grand Toul, 


37.0.00 


— 




1.388,4350.00 





APPENDIX 



135 



APPENDIX {^).— Continued. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF THE STATE OF 
KELANTAN FOR THE YEAR 1324. 



EXPORTS. 



Articles Expokted. 


Quantities. 


Value. 


1. Agricultural Produce — 






Cardamums, 


— 


— 


Pepper, - - - - 


72.46 pkls. 


1,528 


Rice, - - - - 


118,077 gantangs. 


I9.4S9 


Paddi, - - - - 


1 = 274,313 


89,702 


Cotton, - - - - 




— 


Durien Cake, - 


— 


— 


Betel-nuts (Jeroh), - 


65,563,600 nuts. 


33.000 


Betel-nuts (dried). 


26,434 pkls. 


120,691 


Kopra, . - - - 


41,150 ,, 


298,458 


Coconuts, 


136,500 nuts. 


3,704 


Coconut Oil, - 


384 pkls. 


4,534 


Sago, . - . . 


— 


— 


Beans, - - . - 





. 


Molasses, 


— 


— 


Fruit, . - . . 


— 


1,701 


Other kinds, 


— 


40 


2. Jungle Produce — 






Gettah, - - - . 


210.16 pkls. 


25,288 


Ivory, - - - . 


— 


— 


Tree Cotton, - 


— 


— 


Palm Sago, 


2,530 pkls. 


4,960 


Wax, .... 


— 


— 


Eagle Wood, - 


9.33 pkls. 


3,005 


Rhino Horns, - 






Armadillo Skins, 








Rotans, . . - . 


— 


752 


Damar Mata Kuching, 


— 




Damar Batu, - 








Other kinds, - 


— 


137 



136 



KELANTAN 



APPENDIX {¥).— Concluded. 
EXPORTS. 



Articles Exported. | Quantities. 


Value. 


3. Live Slock, etc. — j 




Buffaloes, 


— 


— 


Bullocks, - 


3.762 


83,922 


Hides, ... - 


1,717 pkls. 


46,507 


•Horns, . - - - 


142.25 .. 


2,026 


Tallow, ... - I 323.77 ,. 


3.497 


Sheep, - - - 1 705 


2,530 


Hgs, .... 


967 


14,466 


Fowls, .... 


88,503 


20,074 


Other kinds, - 


— 


— 


4. Fish, etc. — 






Sharks' Fins, - 


8.90 pkls. 


387 


Small Dried Fish, . 


— 


— 


Ikan Kicheh, - - - — 


— 


Ordinary Dried Fish, - 11,507 pkls. 


62,104 


Blachan, - - . - | 853 pkls. 


3.990 


Shrimps, " ' " ' — 


— 


Budu and Ikan Budu, - — 


— 


Bras Hudang, - 


599 pkls. 


2,061 


Other kinds, - 


— 


— 


5. Minerals — 






Gold, - - 6,461 oz. 


212,984 


Tin Ore, - - - 7.50 pkls. 


500 


Iron and Manufactures, — 


— 


Brass and Manufactures, - — 


— 


Copper and Manufactures, 


— 


— 


Other Minerals, 


71 tons. 


9,732 (galena) 


6. Sundries — 






Earthenware, - 




9,170 pes. 


391 


Silk Goods, 






7,201 ,, 


22,210 


Kain Benan, . 






6,827 „ 


15.149 


Treasure, 






— 


24,845 


Timber, - 






— 


— 


Provisions, 






1,986 cases. 


14.973 


Boats, 






4 


931 


Other Sundries, 


Total Exports, 


3.709 








»i, 153.948 



APPENDIX 137 



APPENDIX (F). 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL COMMERCIAL, MINING, 
AND PLANTING ENTERPRISES IN KELANTAN. 



The Duff Development Company, Limited. 
Offices, 15 George Street, London, E.G. 
Agents in Singapore, Messrs. Patterson, Simons and 

Co., Ltd. 
General Manager, J. T. Marriner, Esq. 
General Trading, Mining, Planting, etc. 

The Kelantan Rubber Syndicate (Subsidiary to the 
D.D.C.L.). 

Manager, F. H. Staples, Esq. 
Area, 4000 acres. 

The Pasir Jingi Rubber Estate (Subsidiary to the 
D.D.C.L.). 

Lessees and Managers, Messrs. W. G. Anderson 

and L. Tait Bowie. 
Area, 2000 acres. 

The Taku Rubber Estate (The D.D.C.L.). 
Manager, J. Anderson, Esq. 
Area, 2000 acres. 

The Kluat Rubber Estate (Subsidiary to the D.D.C.L.). 
Lessee, J. T. Marriner, Esq. 
Area, 600 acres. 



138 KELANTAN 

The Bagan Rubber Company, Ltd. 

Head Offices, lo Collyer Quay, Singapore. 
Manager, Hilton M'Gill, Esq. 
Area, looo acres. 

The Bagan Rubber Estate. 

Lessees, Messrs. Tilleke and Mackay, Bangkok. 
Manager, Hilton M'Oill, Esq. 
Area, 4000 acres. 

The Bukit Marah Planting Estate. 

Lessee, The Tuniiku Petra Dalam Kabun. 
Area, 200 acres (approximately). 

The Batu Mengkebang Planting Estate. 

Lessees, The Tungku Petri. 
Manager, Haji Yusof. 
Area, 5000 acres. 

The Kubang Yu Coconut Estate. 

Lessees, Messrs. Agar, Agar and Paxon. 
Manager, C W. Agar, Esq. 
Area, 1000 acres. 

The Bukit Ator Estate. 

Lessee, Hilton M'Gill, Esq. 
Area, 1900 acres. 

The Pasir Putteh Coconut Estate. 

Lessee, F. O. Rasmussen, Esq. 
Area, 500 acres. 

The Kelantan Exploration Syndicate, Ltd. 

Head Offices, 10 Neville St., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
General Manager, N. Stoltz, Esq. 
General Mining and Planting. 



OF Kelantan 



Planl-ing Estates. 
Boundaries oPConcessions. 



APPENDIX 139 

The Galas River Syndicate, Ltd. (Mining). 
Head Ofifices, London. 

Agents in Singapore, Messrs. Guthrie and Co., Ltd. 
Chief Engineer in Kelantan, F. Bramwell, Esq. 

The Nenggiri Prospecting and Mining Concession. 
Concessionary, P. F. Wise, Esq. 

The Bukit Merbau Mining Syndicate, Ltd. 

Office, Kuala Lumpor, Selangor, F.M.S. 
Manager, W. de L. Brooke, Esq. 

The Singapore Cattle Trading Company, Ltd. 
Kelantan Agent, Inche Ali. 

Teo Eng Hock Co., Singapore. 

Kelantan Agent, Sheik Abdollah. 



Glasgow : Printed at the University Press by Robert MacLehose & Co. Ltd. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
Los Angeles 

This book is DL'E on the last date stamped below. 



'5"? 



DEC J 3 198b 



APR ^"^Jh 
MOV 6)924 



QL OCT 021^^^ 



JAN 151 



IQI 



JAN 3 









FEB 5 1987 

Form L9-Series 4939 



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