(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Kentucky fossil corals : a monograph of the fossil corals of the Silurian and Devonian rocks of Kentucky"

%^ 









1 


^ai^i^nia S^cadeniu cl ^ycience^ 


RECEIVED BY PURCHASE 
JULY 29, 1909 

FROM 

DR. GUSTAV HAMBACH 




\ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

California Academy of Sciences Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/kentuckyfossilcoOOdavi 



\ 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, J. R. PROCTER, Director. 

_ ^ ^ _ 

Kentucky Fossil Corals 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE FOSSIL CORALS 



OF THE 



^iluiiflii qM Devonidii h± of {mMs 



BY WILLIAM J. DAVIS 






[In Two Parts Part II] 



FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY 

Ei.ECTROTYPED AND PRINTED BY JoHN D. WoODS, PUCLIC PRINTER 

1885 



COPYRIGHT, 1887, 

BY KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

[right of translation reserved by the author] 



Ir 



LETTER FROM THE AUTHOR. 



Mr. John R. Procter, 

Director Kentucky Geolof/ical Survey: 

Dear Sir: As you know, several years have passed since I began the 
work of describing and illustrating the fossil corals of Kentucky. The 
delays incident to preparing such a work for the press, occupied as I am 
most of the time with engrossing public duties, have suggested that now, 
since the plates and the explanations of the plates have been completed, it 
is best to publish these as Part II., simply prefacing them with an alpha- 
betical index. 

The text of Part I. will be finished in a few months. Part I. consists 
of 1. An Introduction, which treats of the growth and habits of coral- 
making animals, their place in nature, etc.; 2. A Descriptive Text, 
which classifies the fossil corals found in the Silurian and Devonian Rocks 
of Kentucky, showing the relations of families, genera, and species, and 
describing them ; 3. A chapter of Popular Notes, which, following the 
technical descriptions, presents the salient traits of structure or function 
characterizing the skeletons of species of the same genus, on the modifica- 
tions of which the differentiation is based, and collates comprehensively 
the resemblances and differences of related genera and the more widely 
divergent family peculiarities ; 4. A Glossary, in which are given the 
meanings and, in most cases, the etymologies of the technical terms used 
in the text ; 5. An Index, systematically arranged. 

The literature of this subject is difi'used through many volumes of State 
and Government reports and society periodical or casual publications. 
Many zealous students of palseontology, confused by synonymy or per- 



l)lexcd by descri[)tions and iigures of badly-preserved fossils, have aban- 
doned research among these interesting and beautiful forms for the easier 
study of mollusks, crinoids, worms, or crustaceans. May I express the 
hope that the present work will prove a useful manual to the student ? 

As will be seen, the number of plates is one hundred and thirty-nine, 
the number of specimens figured about one thousand. The number of 
species described is more than three hundred; of these about one hundred 
and seventy are new and heretofore undescribed. The beautiful condition 
in which these fossils occur in Kentucky and the care with which they 
have been freed from their matrix have permitted a satisfactory photo- 
graphic delineation by the "artotype" process. Mr. E. Klauber, of 
Louisville, has done this part of the work under my supervision in the 
most artistic style. My thanks are due to this gentleman for the assist- 
ance he rendered me in " setting up" the fossils before the camera, and for 
his amiable co-operation during the several years we have been engaged 
together in plate-making. 

Permit me also to thank you, sir, the Director of the Survey, and the 
other officers of the State of Kentucky, whose generous consideration has 
given me the opportunity to publish this contribution to the geology of the 
country in so handsome a volume. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM J. DAVIS. 

Louisville, 1885, 



POLYPI. 



ZOANTHARIA TABULATA. 



HELIOLITIDiE. 

COLUMNOPORA Plates. 

cribriformis , 5, 6 

rayi 5,6 

Heliolites 

interstinctus 1 

megastoma 1 

pyriformis 1 

subtubulatus 1 

Lyellia 

americana 3 

discoidea 4 

glabra 2 

papillata 2, 3, 4 

puella 2, 51 

Plasmopora 

elegans 1 

fbllis 1 



{[ ^ INDEX TO PLATES. 

FAVOSITIDiE. 

1 Plates. 

Alveolites 

constans 43 

goldfussi 44 

fibrosiis 46 

loiiisvillensis ; 46 

minimiLS 43, 44 

iiiordax 45 

niagarensis 46 

scanclularis 44 

squamosiis 43 

Antholites 

speciosus 78 

Cladopora 

aculeata 48, 49 

acupicta 52, 58 

aleicornis 97 

alpcnensis 52, 59 

aspcra 50 

bifurea 52, 56 

billingsi 52 

coinplanata 49 

crassa 62 

cryptodens 52 

dcntata 51, 63 

desquamata 52, 76 

dispansa 61, 62 

equisetalis 48 

expatiata 50 

fibrata 57 

francisci 51, 74 



INDEX TO PLATES. • :•: 

ClADOPORA — Continued. Plates. 

gracilis 64 

gulielmi 97 

imbricata 53 

iowensis 64 

labiosa 4, 59 

laqueata 48 

menis 48 

ordinata 48 

pinguis 54, 55 

proboscidalis 48, 97 

pulchra 59 

radula 58 

reticulata 47 

ricta 63 

rimosa 59 

robusta 58 

roemeri 54, 55, 56 

striata 48 

tela 57 

CCENITES 

crassa 4 

laminata 4 

verticillata 46 

Dendropora 

alternans 65 

elegantula 65 

neglecta ^^ 

ornata 63, 65 

osculata 65, 66 

proboscidalis 63 



• INDEX TO PLATES. 

PeOCTERIA Plates. 

miclielinoidea 41 

papillosa 41 

Thecia 

major 34 

minor 34 

ramosa 35 

swindernana 34 

vetusta 34 

COLUMNAR! D^. 

Columnaria 

alveolata 6, 7 

stellata 7 

HALYSITIDiE. 

AULOPORA 

cornuta 73 

culmula 73 

edithana 73, 76 

precius 97 

procumbens 73 

pygmoea 73 

serpens 74 

DiORRYCHOPORA 

tenuis 74 

Drymopora 

auloporoidea 72 

commensalis 70 

fascicularis 70, 74 

frutectosa 72 

intermedia 72, 74 

nobilis 71 



INDEX TO PLATES. yjj 

HaLYSITES Plates. 

catenulatus 67 

nexus 67 

NiCHOLSONIA 

adnata 78 

angulata 80 

canadensis 51, 73, 80 

ROMIXGERIA 

fasciculata 75 

incrustans 73, 74, 75, 76 

umbellifera 75, 76 

uva 75 

vannula 75 

Striatopora 

alba 64 

huronensis 51, 64 

linnseana 64 

Syringopora 

bouchardi 68 

hisingeri 68, 76 

pcrelegans 69 

straminca 68, 76 

talndata 68 

tubiporoides 49, 69 



•" INDEX TO PLATES. 



ZOANTHARIA RUGOSA. 



CYATHOPHYLLID^. 

ACEOPHYLLUM Plates. 

clarki. 97, 102 

ellipticum , . . . . 94 

oneidaense 94 

Amplexus 

shumardi 132, 138 

AULACOPHYLLUM 

conigerum 97, 102 

insigne 95 

mutabile 96 

jiarvum 95, 101 

sulcatum , 95 

unguloideum 95 

Blothrophyllum 

approxiniatum 99 

cinctutum 99, 100, 101 

corium 81, 101 

decorticatum 98, 99 

liratum 97, 102 

louisvillcnse 99, 100, 101 

niagarense 99 

parvulum 100 

sessile 99, 100 

zaphrcntiforme 102 



Calceola 

profeus 101, 131 



IM L)EX TO TLATEti. [^ 

ChONOPHYLLUM Platks. 

magnificum ... 101, 103 

inultiplicatum , 78 

nanum 80 

Cyathaxonia 

gainesi 104 

CYATHOniYLLUM 

brevicorne 79 

c-olligatum 91, 92 

coralliferum 83 

cornieuluni 79 

davidsoni 93, 113 

detextuiii 88 

ethelaiiuin , 80 

exiguum 78, 133 

exiguuin, varietas elongatuin 133 

fimbriatum 82 

flos . 78, 83 

greeni 78, 80, 130 

halli 77, 92 

infoveatum 97 

insigne 78, 82 

jucvene 79, 80 

ligatum o . , 88 

multicrena 83 

multigemmatum 80, 87, 88, 89, 92 

oedipus 83, 84 

ovoideum 93 

pocillum 81, 101 

pumilus 83, 101 

pustulosum 78 

radicula 86 



^ INDEX TO PLATES. 

CyATHOPHYLLUM — Continued. Plates. 

robustuin "'^ 

rugosum *^0, 9o 

scyphus "^ 

tornatiiin 80, 86 

traiithanuin 80 

winchelli 83 

Cystiphyllum 

americaniim 124 

cicatriciferum 125 

cuyagaense 80 

edwinanum 128 

grande 126 

hispidum 127, 129 

incurvum 124 

limbatum 126 

lineatum 128 

nettelrothi 125 

niagarense 124 

oliioense 125 

OS 130 

plicatum 100, 128, 129, 130 

squamosum 125 

sulcatum 125 

theissi 128 

tumidosum 128 

vesiculosum 129 

DiPHYPHYLLUM 

archiaci 108, 112, 113 

bellis 108, 116 

coagulatum 117 

coalesccns 117 



INDEX TO PLATES. ' ^i 

DiPHYPHYLLUM — Continued. Plates. 

conjimctum 116 

gigas 115 

panicum 115 

strictum 114 

verneuilanum 89, 113 

Eridophyllum 

arundinaceum 112 

clividiium 109 

liuroniciim 109, 111 

eruciforine 107 

rugosum 109, 110 

sentum 51, 108 

simcoense 112 

Hadrophyllum 

d'Orbignyi 103 

Omphyma 

verrucosa , 104, 105 

Phillipsastrea 

gigas 118 

ingens , • 118, 119 

Ptychophyllum 

coniferum 106 

diaphragma 106 

invaginatum 105 

ipomoea 104, 105 

stokesi 105 

tropoeum 106 

typicum 106 



^jj INUEX TO i'LATES. 

STKOMBODES Plates. 

incertus 123 

knotti 120 

mammillaris 123 

pontagonus 121 

pygmoous 123 

quadrangularis 122 

sinemurus 121, 122, 123 

striatus 121, 122 

unicua . • 122 

Zaphrentis 

compressa 134, 138 

conigera 134, 138 

conulus 133 

cornalba 97 

corniculum 132, 138 

exilis 134, 138 

cxplanata 134 

gallicalcar 97 

gigantea 137, 138 

greonana 78 

immanis 80, 138, 139 

linneyi 133, 138 

maconathi 136 

nettelrothi 97 

nodulosa 130, 134, 138 

obliqiia 133 

patens 133 

patula 133 

prolifica 135, 138 

radieans 132 

rafincsc|ui 135, 138 



» 

INDEX TO PLATES. ^^^jj 

ZaPHRENTIS — Continued. Plates. 

reynoldsi 133 

romingeri 78, 135 

scutella 133 

socialis 133 

spongiaxis 132 

trigemma 130 

torquata 134 

ungula .« 133, 138 

•unica 132 

yandelli 135, 138 



PLATE 1. 

Heliolites megastoma. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niaffiira, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper surface of a fragment from the stratum of white clay ten feet 

below the passage-beds separating the Niagara and Devonian, 
near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Heliolites interstinctus. Niar/nra. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the stratum of white clay seven 

feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of the author. 

4. Under surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay, neor Louis- 

ville. Collection of the author. 

Heliolites pyriformis. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay, near Louis- 

ville. Collection of the author. 

6. Lateral view of a small corallum from the white clay seven feet 

below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Heliolites subtubulatus. Niagara. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum invested by Stromatopora concentrica, 

from the white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

8. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville, 

Collection of the author. 

Plasmopora follis. • Niagara. 

9. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Corallets of smaller size than those of typical examples. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Nettelroth. 

10. Lateral view of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Plasmopora elegans. Niaqara. 

11. 13. Lateral views of coralla from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

12. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near L(juisville. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 1. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 2. 



1 




^^-.r^ 




PLATE 2. 

Lyellia glabra, Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay nine feet beh)w the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Lyellia papillata. Niagara. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay seven feet below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Lyellli puella, Nova Species. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a weathered corallum from the limestone twelve feet 

below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 3. 

Lyellia papillata. , Niagara. 

1. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay 

just below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of the author. 

Lyellia Americana. Niagara. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay ten feet below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 3. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 4. 




PLATE 4. 

Cladopora labiosa. Middle Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of the upper fronds of a corallum imbedded in 

rock matrix, from the Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Lyellia discoidea, Nova Species. Niagara. 

2. Convex upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Lou- 

isville. Collection of the author. [The example figured is ex- 
quisitely preserved, but its color seems to have prevented good 
photographic delineation.] 

3. Plane upper surface of a corallum, found near Louisville. Collection 

of Dr. J. Knapp, 

Lyellia papillata. Niagara. 

4. Lateral view of a weathered corallum showing the vesiculose coenen- 

chyma, found near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Ccenites laminata. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a weathered corallum from the white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

CoENiTES CRASSA. Niagara. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay just below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 



PLATE 5. 

CoLUMNOPORA RAYi, Nov. Spec. Hudson River Group. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum found in Nelson county. Collection of 

the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the same locality. Collection of the 

author. 

CoLUMNOPORA CRiBRiFORMis. HudsoYi Rivev Group. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum found in Nelson county. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum from the same locality. Collection of 

the author. 

5. View of the under surface of a corallum from which the epitheca has 

been removed, showing diaphragms and mural pores; from Nelson 
county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE S. 




h 




it'"" „ ' 






,:i,«r-i 



ii'r^J^^^Cj 



■r < ■^'••> -■'L*^ ••"-is. .'.r 




,^ 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 6. 




PLATE 6. 
CoLUMNOPORA RAYi, Nov. Spec. Hudson Biver Group. 

1. Lateral view of the corallum figured in Plate 5, Fig. 1. 

CoLUMNOPORA CRiBRiFORMis. Hudson River Group. 

2. Lateral view of a pyriform corallum found in Nelson county. Collec- 

tion of the author. 

CoLUMNARiA ALVEOLATA. Hudsou River Group. 

3. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum found in Nelson county. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 7. 

CoLUMNARiA STELLATA, Hudson Rivev Group. 

1. Vertical section of a corallum found in Trimble county. Collection 

of the author. 

CoLUMNARIA ALVEOLATA. HudsOfl BiveV Gvoup. 

2. Longitudinal section of a corallum found near Fisherville, Jefferson 

county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 7. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 8. 



'A 





l^-^«^.w.'^:5?*r 




PLATE 8. 

Favosites favosus. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous elay, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
2." Longitudinal section of an example wlioso corallets are smaller, found 
in the same horizon and locality. Collection of the author. 

Favosites niagarensis. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum, composed of very small corallets, show- 

ing spinulous walls ; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

4. U^jper surface of an example, composed of the largest sized corallets, 

with smooth walls; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites Forbesi. ' Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a large corallum found near Louisville. Collection 

of Mr. McConathy. 

6. View of epithecatcd under surfiice of a corallum of average size; near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites spongilla. Niagara. 

7. 8. 9. Lateral views of coralla found near Louisville. Collection of 

the author. 



PLATE 9. 

Favosites cristatus. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered corallum from the ferruginous clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. 3. 4. 5. Lateral views of several coralla from the white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites louisvillensis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum found near Louisville. Collection of 
the author. 

Favosites venustus. Niagara. 

1. Epithecated under surface of a corallum from the white clay, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 
10. Upper surface of a fragment, showing spinulous walls; from the 
same locality. Collection of the author. 

Favosites discus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Upper surface of a fragment from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of tlie author. 

9. Under surface of a corallum, from which the epitheca has been. 

eroded ; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 9. 








Jy ::)^ 









8 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 10. 







Lf wwr^ssjK aiB-'ai 



PLATE 10. 

Favosites hemisphericus. Lower Devonian. 

Lateral view of a portion of a corallum, showing squamous walls; from 
the Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 11. 

Favosites hemisphericus, et vaeietates. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered example, showing corallet walls incras- 

sated hy siliceous deposits during fossilization, from the Middle 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Vertical section of an example from the same locality. Collection of 

the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the same horizon, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

4. Conical section, parallel with the operculous exterior, from the same 

horizon and place. Collection of the author. 

5. 6. Lateral views of sub-bacillate forms, from the upper clay beds of 

the Middle Devonian; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

7. Lateral view of a corallum, whose operculous apex has been flattened 

by attachment to a marine object; from the locality of 5 and 6. 

8. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clays derived from the de- 

composition of the encrinal limestone lying under the shale which 
caps the Devonian; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

9. Lateral view of a distorted example formed by two sub-bacillate 

forms intimately united; from the horizon of 5 and 6, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

9 PLATE 11. 




i 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 12. 




PLATE 12. 

Favosites epidermatus, Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a coralliim from the ferruginous clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites eadiatus. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites emmoxsi. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

4. Upf)er surface of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. Col- 

lection of the author. 



PLATE 13. 

Favosites radiatus, Devonian. 

Upper surface of a portion of a corallum, showing diiference in size of 
the corallets; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Gaines. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 13. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 14. 



raMr«Hir«Br«Mq^^ 




PLATE 14. 

Favosites pirum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view (prostrate) of a bacillate form from the same locality. 

Collection of the author. 

Favosites placenta. Devonian. 

3. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clay, derived from the 

encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

Favosites rotundituba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum from the dark red clay of the Upper 

Devonian, underlying the shale beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Favosites mundus, varietas placentoideus, Nov. Var. Devonian. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 15. 

Favosites piRUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, Falls of the Oliio. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum from the same locality, showing a por- 

tion of the epithecated under surface and some of the corallets in 
longitudinal section. Collection of the author. 

3. View of the epithecated under surftice of a corallum; also showing 

the squamous walls of the corallets; from the ferruginous red 
clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Favosites proximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (inverted) of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

5. Lateral view of a flexuous form from the same locality. Collection 

of the author. 

6. Lateral vi^w of a sub-ramous corallum from the same locality. Col- 

lection of the author. 

Favosites spiculatus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 15. 




t 










KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 16. 




X' 




U t". 



V 



.»'':%> 







:r 



,H»-^ 





PLATE 16. 

Favosites tuberosus. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum of typical shape from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Similar view of a corallum from the same locality and horizon, show- 

ing opercula closing the orifices of some of the corallets. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Gaines. 

3. Lateral view of upper portion of a specimen from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Favosites ocellatus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum from the upper strata of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 17. 

Favosites amplissimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

2. View of a portion of the under surface of a corallum from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 17. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 18. 







PLATE 18. 

Favosites quercus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 19. 

Favosites quercus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a coralluin of medium size from the Lower Devonia i, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites ramulosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Views of two fronds from the upper portion of coralla from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author, 

Favosites tuberosus. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum of bacillate shape from the upper strata 

of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Net- 
telroth. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 19. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 20. 




kj"^ 



PLATE 20. 

Fayosites radiciformis. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum, whose older corallets have their tubes 

closed by opercula; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum, split at the upper end so as to 

show a longitudinal section of the corallets; from the same horizon 
and locality. Collection of the author. 

3. Lateral view of a jejune frond; corallets extraordinarily small; 

horizon two feet above that of examples 1 and 2; Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 21. 

Favosites baculus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3, Lateral views of three several coralla from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Zaphrentis exigiia, it will be remarked, is 
attached to the matrix in which examj^le 3 is imbedded. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

4. Longitudinal section of the upper portion of a small corallum from 

the same horizon and place. Collection of the author. 

Favosites digitatus. Devonian. 

5. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clay of the encrinal lime- 

• stone underlying the shale which separates the Devonian and 
Sub-carboniferous formations, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 21. 








a^X^ 



>% 




/ 



ix>J^ 



life 









KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 22. 




PLATE 22. 

Favosites arbok, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Lateral view of the upper fronds of a coralliim twenty-eight inches long, 
from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. The entire left frond is 
incrusted with Stromatopora granulata; on its end appears a basal 
expansion of Favosites limitaris. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 23. 

Favosites arbor, 'Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a fragment of a frond from the Lower Devonian 

strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Favosites cymosus, !N'ov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio, Collection of the author. 

4. Lateral view of a corallum from the same place and horizon as 

examj^le 3. Collection of the author. 

5. Lateral view (prostrate) of a "sprout," or cyme, of uncommonly 

elongated growth, from the horizon and locality of example 2. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 23. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 24. 







PLATE 24. 

Favosites frutex, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper portion of a frond from the same place and horizon. Collec- 

tion of the author. 

Favosites cristatus, varietas major. Niagara. 

3. Lateral view of a fragment with squamous walls, from the white clay 

of the upper Niagara strata, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. 
McConathy. 

Favosites impeditus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. 5. Lateral views of coralla from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites clelandi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of a portion of the upper surftice of a corallum from the Lower 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 25. 

Favosites goodwini, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

The two examples in the lower right corner are coralla of compact, non- 
ramous growth. Lateral views of them are exhibited. 

A view of the upper sm'face of a corallum is presented in the figure 
occupying the upper right corner. 

The views offered by the other examples are lateral. 

Found in the encrinal limestone, and the dark red clay derived there- 
from, lying just below the shale of the Upper Devonian. Collection 
of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 25. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 26. 




PLATE 26. 

Favosites eximius, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum fi'om the dark red encrinal limestone clay 

of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites fustiformis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum, showing the tubes of some corallets in 

section and the epithecal secretion on the outside of Avails where 
new departures of growth occur; from the Lower Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum, with base incrusting a fragment of a 

frond of Cladopora expatiata; from the horizon and locality of 
example 2. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 27. 

MiCHELiNiA iNSiGNis. Devonian. 

1. View of the epithecated under surface of a corallum, showing the 

semi-cylindrical shape of the outer walls ; to the left of the center 
several of the corallets become temporarily disjunct, but again 
unite with their neighbors by approximation; from the encrinal 
limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author, 

Favosites convexus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. View of the under surface of a corallum from which the epitheca is 

removed so as to show the mural pores and squamous walls ; from 
the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

3. (Central small specimen.) View of the under surface of a small 

corallum, covered with a deeply-wrinkled epitheca; from the Lower 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites mundus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum in which the larger sub-rotund tubes are 

more regularly recurring than is common; from the blue clay of 
the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites kotundituba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the encrinal limestone clay just 

below the shale of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

Favosites proximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum of expanded discoidal shape, composed 

of corallets whose tubes are above average size; from the ferru- 
ginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection 
of Dr. Knapp. 

Favosites eximius, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Lateral view of a corallum of turbinate form, from the dark red 

encrinal limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 27. 






'■■■■' -'-'-'mM 








■Jk^ 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 28. 








PLATE 28. 

Favosites mundus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a coralkim from the ferruginous clay of the Micklle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum, the tubes of many of whose corallets are 

closed with opercula; from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. ' 

Favosites proximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a sub-ramous corallum, in some of whose tubes 

appear imperfect opercula; a basal expansion of Favosites clausus 
is attached to its upper portion; from the Lower Devonian strata, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 29. 

Favosites canadensis. Devonian. 

1. 2. Upper surface of fragments of coralla having the common form, 
from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum of rarely digitate growth, from the hori- 
zon and locality of the preceding examples. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 29. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 30. 







PLATE 30. 

Favosites limitaris. Devonian. 

Lateral vieAV of a corallum (two thirds of the natural size) from the 
Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 31. 

Favosites limitaris. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of the upper fronds of a corallum, partly freed from its 

matrix, in which the corallets at their orifices are more oblique to 
the axis than is common; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Favosites cariosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view (prostrate) of the base and trunk of a corallum, 

from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 31. 



yspm. 




.?«iT(* "• .■:■•■;• -y^' ^■^.Hf' 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 32. 




PLATE 32. 

Favosites cariosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Rear lateral view of the base and trunk of the example figured in 

Plate 31. 

2. Rear lateral view of a typically marked fragment of a frond, artifi-. 

cially attached to the matrix of example 3 for delineation; from 
the horizon and locality of the preceding specimen. Collection of 
the author. 

4. Front lateral view of a fragment from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites intertextus. Devonian. 

3. Lateral views of portions of fronds imbedded in the matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Favosites emmonsi. Devonian. 

5. Vertical section of a fragment (prostrate) showing the squamous 

tubes and incomplete tabul?e proper to the species; from the 
Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

MiCHELiNiA CYLiNDRiCA. Devonian. 

6. Longitudinal section of a fragment showing the complicated sub-ves- 

icular tabulae; from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 



PLATE 33. 

Favosites cavernosus. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of the base and fronds of a nearly perfect corallum, from 

the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Well preserved fragment from the same horizon, east of Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

3. 4. 5. Fragments such as are commonly obtained, with walls abnor- 

mally incrassated; from the encrinal limestone clay of the Upper 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 33. 




• ' - , - « 




I 



I 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 34. 



;:?^'&Sfi'C,;V;\-;;:^.i:-,L 



'f 




PLATE 34. 

Thecia majoe. Niagara. 

1. Upj)er surface of a corallum, gathered from its rock matrix twenty- 

five feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 

2. Under surface of a corallum, covered with an epitheca, from the white 

clay five feet below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niagara strata, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Thecia minoe. Niagara. 

4. Upper surface of a portion of a corallum from the upper white clay 

beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
7. Upper surface of calcified tube-casts of a corallum [Labechia con- 
ferta]. 
Thecia swindeenana. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a fragment from the upper red clay strata, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Upper surface of portion of a corallum from the white clay eight 

feet below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Thecia vetusta. Hudson River Group. 

8. Upper surface of a corallum incrusting Streptorhyncus planum- 

bonus, near Milton, Ky. Collection of the author. 

9. 10. Similar views of coralla from the same horizon and locality. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



PLATE 35. 

Thecta ramosa. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a nearly perfeet coralliim from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

[Note.— The apex of growth of this example is just above the figure 1.] 

2. Upper portion of a frond (inverted) from the same horizon and place. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 35. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 36. 




PLATE 36. 

MiCHELiNiA CYLiNDRiCA. Devonian. 

Upper surface ot a corallum from tlie red clay of the Middle Devonian, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 37. 

MiCHELiNiA FAVOSiToiDEA. Devonian. 

Upper surface of a corallum fi'om the blue clay of the Middle Devonian 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

[Note. — With a lens of low power observe the papillose surface of the tabulpe and of the walls, the 
latter dotting the longitudinal ridges. The author recommends the use of a double-convex lens, with 
a power of about two diameters, in examining all the illustrations of this work. Viewed with such 
a lens, all characteristic structural details will appear as they seem in the fossil itself, and "an atmos- 
phere" so invests the figure that it may be studied almost as advantageously as the natural object.] 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 37. 



1 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 38. 







mw 










ri^ 




PLATE 38. 

MiCHELiNiA PLANA, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the encrinal limestone clay of the 

Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Under surface of a corallum, with epitheca partially preserved, from 

the yellow clay of the Upper Devonian, near Crab Orchard, Ky. 
Collection of the author. 

MiCHELiNiA FAVOSiToiDEA. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 39. 

MiCHELiNiA coRRUGATA, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

MicHELiNiA NiAGARENSis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

MiCHELiNiA PRIMA, Nov. Spcc. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a weathered sjiecimen, in which the walls of the 

several corallets arc seen separated; from the white clay of the 
Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

4. Artilicially attached to Figure 6 is a corallum whose lateral view 

showing epitheca is presented. Not photographed satisfactorily 
on account of its color. From the same horizon, near Louis- 
ville, as example 3. Collection of the author. 

5. Upper surface of a fragment showing tube-walls delicately spinulous, 

in exquisite preservation; from the same horizon and place as the 
preceding example. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

MiCHELTNiA PLANA, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Lateral view of a corallum from the dark red clay beds derived from 

the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

MiCHELiNiA iNSiGNis. Devonian. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum whose corallets have thinner walls than 

the average specimen; from the encrinal limestone clay of the 
Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 39. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 40. 




PLATE 40. 

MiCHELiNiA PRIMA, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Under surface of corallum previously figured in Plate 39; Fig. 4. 

MiCHELiNiA PLANA, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Longitudinal section of a fragment from which the tabulse are removed 

so as to show the mural pores; from the encrinal limestone clay 
of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Longitudinal section of a fragment showing tabulse; from the horizon 

and locality of the preceding example. Collection of the author. 

MiCHELiNiA iNSiGNis. Devonian. 

4. Oblique view of the upper surface of a corallum, from the encrinal 

limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from- the horizon and locality of example 

4. Collection of the author. 

6. Vertical section of a corallum, showing tabulae, from the same horizon 

and locality as the preceding examples. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 41. 

MiCHELiNiA cLAPPi. Devonian. 

1. Vortical section of a fragment, showing the tabulate septa extrane- 
ous to the corallets' walls ; from the ferruginous clay of the Mid- 
dle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
2. Uj^per surfixce of a frcignient from the same horizon as example 1, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Procterta (Nov. Gen.) michelixoidea, N. S. Devonian. 

3. 4. Upper surfticcs of coralla. 

5. Lateral view of a corallum. 

6. Under surface of a corallum, showing the papillose exothecal secre- 

tion. 

7. 9. Under surfaces of fragments, showing the radiation of corallets 

from the central apex. 

10. Under surface of a corallum, from Avhicli a portion of the papillose 

exothecal secretion is removed, so as to show the mural pores 
perforating the epitheca. 
12. 13. 14. Views of tube-casts and pore-casts similar to those observed 
in Pleurodictyum problematicum. 
All the above examples are from the decomposed hornstone of the 
Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

8. Under surface of a fragment from the limestone on which rests the 

uppermost chert layer of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

11. Under surface of a corallum from which a portion of the exothecal 

layer has been removed, so as to disclose a tube-cast l)eneath; 
from the horizon and locality of example 3. Collection of Mr. 
McConathy. 

Procteria papillosa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

15. Upper surface of a corallum, showing papillose exothecal layer sur- 

mounting the corallets' walls. 

16. Under surface of a corallum, showing papillose exothecal secretion 

and the concave margins of the outer walls of the prostrate 
corallets. 

17. Lateral view of a corallum. 

19. Ui)per surface of a small corallum with thinner walls than the 
average. 

18. 20. 21. Under surfaces of coralla. 

All the forms of this species have been found in the decomposed 
chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohia. The examples 
figured are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 41. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 42. 




PLATE 42. 

MiCHELiisriA CLAPPI. Devonian. 

1. Oblique lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the same locality and horizon. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

4. Lateral view of the example figured in Plate 41, Fig. 2. 
The specimens figured are fi'om the collection of the author. 



PLATE 43. 

Alveolites constans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the red clay of the Lower Devonian, 

near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites squamosus. Devonian. 

2. 3. Upper surfaces of coralla from the horizon of the preceding species, 

near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites minimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 43. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 44. 




PLATE 44. 

Alveolites scandularis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment of a coralhim from the encrinal lime- 

stone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of 
the author. 

Alveolites goldfussi. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface of a coralhim ft'om the horizon of A. scandularis 

(Fig. 1), near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites minimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 45. 

Alveolites mordax, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
2 Lateral view of a small corallum, with corallets of the smallest size, 

from the same horizon, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 45. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 46. 







■'.' . ■ • - '•--'A 



' M&0i ' ' ' • " ; : ■:''-!'0M 







> SOMU^JtN^M^K 



PLATE 46. 

C(ENiTES VEETiciLLATA. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of the cylindrical portion of a corallum. 

3. Lateral view (prostrate) of the cylindrical portion of a corallum, with 
a verticillate expansion. 

2. 4. Under surfaces of expanded verticillate plates. 

These examples are from the ferruginous clay of the Upper Niagara, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites louisvillensis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay of the Upper 

Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Upper surface of a weathered corallum, from the same horizon and 

locality. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites niagarensis. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white clay, 
near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Alveolites fibrosus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Ui3per surface of a corallum fi'om the Upper Niagara clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

MiLLERiA (Nov. Gen.) laminata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

9. Oblique view of the upper surface and side of a corallum, showing 

the successive thin laminar expansions; from the Upper Niagara 
ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 47. 

Cladopora reticulata. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, 

thirteen feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. View of a corallum, with its apex of growth centrally situated, and its 

fronds radiating in all directions therefrom; found in the horizon 
of example 1, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 47. 




W^P^. 



»'>'-■«?-, ^j^'^JL-^''-^. 






■M 



^yu;;^ 



t*^. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 48. 



''5^ ' '^' ;^ '> i, • - 1 



'■"■^r-^ 





PLATE 48. 

Cladopora aculeata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white chiy, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora ordinata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Lateral view of a small fragment from the same horizon as C. acu- 

leata, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora proboscidalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. Lateral view of a fragment from the same horizon and place as the 

preceding species. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora men^ls, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. Lateral view of the upper portion of a frond showing the tricho- 

tomous branching; from the horizon and neighborhood of the 
examples preceding. Collection of the author. 
6. Pedicle of a corallum with a portion of the trunk; fi'om the horizon 
and place of example 4. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora striata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Lateral view of several fronds of a corallum, from the horizon of the 

above examples. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Cladopora equisetalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Several fronds springing from the same base; from the same horizon 

as the above. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Cladopora laqueata. Niagara. 

8. Corallum, pedicle wanting, from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

LouisA^lle. Collection of the author. 

9. Nearly entire corallum from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louis- 

ville. Partly invested by Stromatopora concentrica. Collection 
of Mr. Nettelroth. 



PLATE 49. 

Cladopora complanata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view (half inverted) of a portion of a frond from the Upper 

Niagara white clay, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cladopora aculeata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Lateral view (half inverted) of a portion of a corallum, from the 

horizon and place where the preceding specimen was gathered. 
Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Syringopora tubiporoides. Devonian. 

3. Section of several corallets, partly imbedded in the rock matrix, 

showing the conical invaginating diaphragms; from the Lower 
Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 
Favosites CLAUsys. Devonian. 

4. Portion of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 49. 




I**'- 



>■<* 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 50. 













PLATE 50. 

Cladopora aspera. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora expatiata. _ Devonian. 

2. Portions of fronds with part of pedicle, from the ferruginous clay of 

the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Front lateral view of a corallum (prostrate) from the Lower Devo- 

nian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PL'ATE 51. 

Cladopora dentata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Under surface of l)asal expansion and rear lateral view of portions 

of fronds of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cladopora FRANCiscr, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front Lateral view of fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Striatopora huronensis. Niagara. 

3. Fragment imperfectly freed from the matrix ; from the Upper Niagara 

white chxy, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knaj^p. 

Eridophyllum sentum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. Lateral view of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Lyellia puella, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

NiCHOLsoNiA (Nov. Gen.) canadensis. Devonian. 

6. Corallum incrusting Spirifera oweni, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knaj)p, 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 51, 



cy.^Tv^\f!^twcvKafiirimMimnEr-jf-'^-i^]rittif!:iri,^^^^^ 



37B 




■■-: .<-"'"'-,'j''/t'iA''!^ t^^ '.--, '<fv 






< 




• -••,•>■•, ■ •;. ■ ' _^' ■ 



mm 






i 



'^jf^ 






fe 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 52. 







PLATE 52. 

Cladopora bifurca, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Portion of a corallum investing Favosites ramulosus, from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora cryptodens. Devonian. 

2. Dichotomously branching example, from the Lower Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Frond (inverted) from the same horizon and locality. Collection of 

the author. 

4. Fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora billingsl Devonian. 

5. Fragment (inverted) from the Lower Devonian clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 
Cladopora alpenensis. Devonian. 

6. Fragment from the horizon and place of example 5. 

Cladopora acupicta, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. 8. Portions of fronds from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 

Cladopora desquamata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. Portion of a corallum with its pedicle attached to the interior of 
the calyx of Zaphrentis ungula, from the Lower Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 53. 

Cladopora imbricata. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. Fronds of different sizes and modes of growth. 
4. Pedicle of a corallum from which fronds are beginning to spring. 
The examples are from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio, and 
belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 53. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 54. 




Ji 



syjws'fcuj.-''- 



■ -•f-\i<««i^t^ 



PLATE 54. 

Cladopoka pinguis. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

2. Basal expansion with portions of fronds, "from the red clay of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

3. Basal expansion with portions of fronds, from the encrinal limestone 

dark red clay of the Ujjper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cladopora r(emeei. Devonian. 

4. 5. 6. Fragments found in the red clay of the Lower Devonian, near 

Louisville. 
The examples figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 55. 
Ci.ADOPORA PiNGUis. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

2. L^pper surface of a basal expansion, showing corallets of diiferent 

sizes; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Front lateral view of the pedicle with portions of fronds, showing 

differently sized corallets; from the horizon and neighborhood of 
exam])le 2. Collection of the author. 
Cladopor.v rcemeri. Devonian. 

4. Fragment from the Lower Devonian red clay, near Louisville. Col- 

lection of Dr. Knapp. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 55. 




"mm 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 56. 



'-i 0. c 




PLATE 56. 

Cladopora rcemeri. Devonian. 

1. Corallum (prostrate) partly imbedded in its matrix; from the Lower 

Devonian strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora bifurca, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Upper fronds of a corallum partly imbedded in its rock matrix ; from 

the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 57. 

Cladopora tela, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a portion of the base and fronds of a nearly 

perfect corallum, from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora fibrata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view of the reticulating fronds of a fragment, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 57. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 58. 




PLATE 58. 

Cladopora radula, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. (Upper specimen.) Front Lateral view of a corallum, pedicle Avant- 

ing, invested by Stromatopora texilis ; ii'om the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora robusta. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view (prostrate) of a frond from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author, 

Cladopora acupicta, Nov. spec. Devonian. 

3. (Lower specimen.) Fronds (inverted) partly imbedded in rock ma- 

trix. Projecting from the matrix, in the lower right corner, are 
the terminal branches of a frond of Favosites ramulosus. A calyx 
of Ptychophyllum coniferum appears in the same matrix. From 
the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 59. 

Cladopora rimosa. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a eorallum commensally attached to Stromat- 

opora texilis; from the manganese limestone of the Lower Devo- 
nian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Fragment from the 1)1 lie clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. (Ui)per central specimen.) Pedicle with parts of fronds from the red 

clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Cladopora labiosa. Devonian. 

4. 5. (Specimens above and to the left of 3.) Fronds from the red clay 

of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora alpenensis. Devonian. 

6. (Upper left corner.) Trichotomously ramous frond from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of 
the author. 

Cladopora pulchra. Devonian. 

7. (Lower specimen.) Fronds partly imbedded in rock matrix, from 

the Lower De^'onian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Mc- 
Conatliy. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 59. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 60. 





9 mmn^mm. 



'^■yiir:':ii 










PLATE 60. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) turgidum. Devonian. 

1. 2. Fragments showing front lateral views, from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) fischeri. Devonian. 

3. Fragment showing front lateral view, from the Lov/er Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) canadense. Devonian. 

4. Front lateral view of fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

5. Rear lateral view of fragment from dark-red encrinal limestone clay 

of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) undosum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Front lateral view of a fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 
The examples herein figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE .61. 

Cladopora dispansa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a cymous corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

2. Lateral A^iew of a cyme of unusual altitude, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of example 1. 

3. Under surface of a fragment of typical growth, from the horizon and 

vicinage of examples 1 and 2. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gren.) corioideum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Front lateral view (prostrate) of a })ortion of a frond from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. The inner walls of the corallets of 
the rear side are seen springing from the plane axis in the left 
lower corner of the specimen. 
These specimens belong to the private collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 61. 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 62. 




PLATE 62. 

Cladopora dispansa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a sub-cymous corallum from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopoea crassa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Upper surftice of a fragment of typical growth. 

3. Upper surface of a specimen with corallets less erect than those of 

the preceding example. 
Both specimens from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 63. 

Cladopora dentata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

2. Fragment of a frond from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. 

3. Portion of a pedicle obtained in situ two feet above the horizon of 

example 1, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cladopora ricta, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Rear view of a fragment showing fronds laterally joined by approxi- 

mation. 

5. Front lateral view of the base of an example. 

Both specimens gathered from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of 
the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) foliatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Front lateral view of the lower half of a corallum from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Dendropora ornata. Devonian. 

7. Side view of a corallum from the dark-red clay derived from the 

decomposition of the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, 
near Louisville. 

Dendropora proboscidalis. Devonian. 

8. (Artificially attached, for convenient photographic delineation, to the 

side of the Cyathophyllum imbedded in the rock matrix of C. 
Dentata, Fig. 1.) Frond from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 63. 










KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 64. 












•■.-♦ >• 










'<;•» 










PLATE 64. 

Cladopora iowensis. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. 4. Fragments from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. In 
Fig. 3 the specimen is inverted. Collection of the author. 

Striatopora huronexsis. Niagara. 

5. Fragment from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Col- 

lection of the author. 

6. Front side view of an eroded specimen, showing mural pores and 

faint longitudinal striae, from the white clay of the Upper Niagara. 
Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Striatopora linn^eana. Devonian. 

7. Fragment (prostrate) from the Lower Devonian rocks two feet above 

the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

8. Fragment (prostrate) from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. Occurring in a horizon eight feet above 
that of example 7. Collection of the author. 

Striatopora alba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. 10. 11. Portions of fronds from the red clay beds of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora gracilis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

12, 13. Fronds from the rotten chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls of 
the Ohio. Example 12 is artificially attached to the matrix of 
example 13. The latter fails to photograph satisfactorily because 
of its color. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 65. 

Dendropora elegantula. Devonian. 

1. Portion of a ffond partly imbedded in its rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Dendropora alternans. Devonian. 

2. Fragment from the red clay of the encrinal limestone of the Up]K;r 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Dendropora neglecta. Devonian. 

3. 4. 5. Fragments from the horizon and vicinage of D. alternans. 

Dendropora ornata. Devonian. 

6. Fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louis- 

ville. 

Dendropora osculata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. 8. 9. Fragments from the horizon and vicinage of D. alternans, 

10, Two fronds inosculating or joining by api^roximation ; from the same 

place. 

11. Portion of a basal expansion with parts of fronds intimately united; 

from the horizon and neighborhood of the preceding specimens 
of the species. 
The examples herein figured belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 65. 















KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 66. 




PLATE 66. 

Dendropoea osculata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Front lateral view of a portion of a corallum of great size, showing 
the base and the fronds disjunct and again anastomosing; from the 
upper strata of the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Col- 
lection of the author. 



PLATE 67. 

Halysites catenulatus. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a portion of a corallum, in which the corallets are 

of average size; from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper surface of a fragment whose corallets are below the medium 

size; from the ferruginous clay of the Upper Niagara, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a jejune corallum, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of example 2. 

Halysites nexus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. Oblique lateral view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara Avhite 

clay, two feet below the Niagara and De\^onian passage-beds, near 
Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

5. Upper surface of a divaricating chain, imbedded in its chert matrix; 

from the ferruginous clay of the Upper Niagara, just below the 
passage-beds above referred to, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 67. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 68. 




■iiiiiMByt ii».. 






rM^ 








^^Sf, 



I 




PLATE 68. 

Syringopora hisingeri. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Syringopora stramixea, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. (Upper right specimen.) Lateral A'iew of a fragment whose horizon 

is about one foot lower than the lowest stratum in which S. 
hisingeri is found ; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 
nian, near Louisville. 

Syringopora tabulata, Devonian. 

3. Lateral view and also an oblique view of the upper surface of a 

fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louis- 
ville. 

Syringopora bouchardi. Devonian. 

4. Under surface of a corallum whose appressed corallets indicate the 

form of the marine object to which the incipient community was 
attached; from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum incrusting Oyathophyllum corniculum, 

from the upper rock strata of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 69. 

Syringopora tubiporoides. Devonian. 

1. Oblique view of the Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

2. Upi^er surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

3. Basal expansion incrusting Favosites emmonsi, from the Lower De- 

vonian red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Syringopora perelegans. Devonian. 

4. Oblique section of a corallum from the upper strata of the Lower 

Devonian group of rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

5. Variety (inverted) from the samfe locality as example 4, but whose 

horizon is a little higher, showing more widely separated corallets, 
and more remote processes of connection. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 69. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 70. 










SJ 



>^y. 
















PLATE 70. 

Drymopora (Nov. Gen.) fascicularis. Niagara and Devonian. 

1. Lateral view (inverted) of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. 

2. Base of a coralliim attached to Stromatopora concentrica ; from the 

Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Portion of a corallum invested by Stromatopora, from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

4. Portion of a corallum similarly inclosed, from the manganese lime- 

stone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Drymopora commensalis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Vertical section of a corallum growing in commensality with Stro- 

matopora texilis, as it is the habit of the species to do Avith some 
form of Stromatopora ; most of the corallets appear larger than 
their proper size because of their investiture ; from the manganese 
limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

6. 7. Upper surfaces of coralla, the orifices of the corallets showing at 

the surfaces of the sarcodemes; from the ferruginous clay of the 
Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
All from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 71. 

Drymopora nobilis. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum, from the same horizon and jilace. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum of procumbent habit; from the same 

place. 

4. Basal corallcts of a young community, attached to Cyathophyllum 

halli; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 
Louisville. 
Examples from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 71. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 72. 




tSSKSf^^*^''' 




r.4^> 



'>■., 





>» ^^. •' 



J*-^ '- V 




.*^^-' 



'Y'. 




PLATE 72. 

Drymopoka aulOporoidea, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. 4. Front lateral views of corallets of prolific habit. 

5. Lateral views of two inos(;iilating coralla. 

6. 10. 11. Coralla of biserial growth. 

7. 8. Examples of quadriserial growth. 
9. A triserial form. 

12. Basal corallets of a jejune community, attached to the upper surface 

of a Chetetes. 
ExamjDles 1-11 are found in the encrinal limestone dark red clay 
of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Specimen 12 was 
gathered from the rotten chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. 

Drymopoka frutectosa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Upper surface of a corallum composed of large corallets. 

14. Upper surface of a corallum wiioso corallets are of medium size. 

15. Under surface of a corallum. 

16. Front lateral view of a corallum. 

All from the horizon and vicinage of D. auloporoidea, Figs. 1-11. 

Drymopora intermedia. Devonian. 

17. Rear lateral view of corallets invested by Stromatopora granulata, 

from the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Specimen 1 belongs to the collection of Mr. Gaines. The other 
specimens herein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 73. 

AuLOPORA EDITHANA. Devonian. 

1. Corallum incrusting the dorsal valve of Strophomena hemispherica, 

from the rotten hornstone of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA INCRUSTANS, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Corallum, somewhat eroded, incrusting Cyathophyllum pocillum. 

3. Under surface and lateral view of a corallum. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

AuLOPORA PYGM(EA, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Corallum incrusting Thecia swindernana, ffom the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. 

6. Example incrusting Stromatopora concentrica, from the Upper Ni- 

agara red clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

AuLOPoRA coRXiTTA. Devonian. 

7. Corallum incrusting interior and margin of calyx of Cyathophyllum 

corniculum, from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Col- 
lection of the author. 

8. Corallum incrusting fragment of Cyathophyllum scyphus, from the 

Upper Devonian dark red encrinal limestone clay, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

AuLOPORA cuLMULA, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

9. Corallum incrusting a jejune frond of Favosites clausus, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

NiCHOLSONiA (Nov. Gcu.) CANADENSIS. Devonian. 

10. 11. Corallets incrusting a Fenestella, from the rotten chert of the 
Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 
[The corals and bryozoa both being white, the photographic deline- 
ation of the former is unsatisfactory, although the examples are 
■ good.] 

AuLOPORA PROCUMBENS, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

12. Corallets incrusting a species of Stromatopora, from the Lower 

Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

13. Corallets similarly incrusting Stromatopora, from the horizon and 

place of example 12. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 73. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 74. 




PLATE 74. 

AuLOPORA SERPENS. Devonian. 

1. (Upper left-hand specimen.) Corallets incrusting under surface of 

Stromatopora texilis, from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the 
Ohio. 

2. Corallets incrusting a fragment of Favosites, from the Lower Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

Drymopora intermedia. Devonian. 

3. View of the corallum figured in Plate 72. 

4. Basal corallets attached to a fragment of Favosites canadensis, from 

the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

Romingeria incrustans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Corallets incrusting a frond of Cladopora cryptodens, from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

DiORYCHOPORA (Nov. Gen.) tenuis, Nov. Spec. ^ Niagara. 

6. Corallum (inverted) from the Upper Niagara white clay, near Lou- 

isville. 

DpYMOPORA FASCicuLARis. Devonian. 

7. Fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collected 

by Dr. Theiss. 

Cladopora francisci. Devonian. 

8. Upper fronds of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. 
The specimens horein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 75. 

RoMiNGERiA VANNULA, Nov, Spec. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of corallets from the Upper Niagara Avhite clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

2. Similar view of corallets from the same horizon and locality. Col- 

lection of Mr. Gaines. 

5. Similar view of corallets attached to a Favosites, from a lower 

horizon of the same group, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

3. Under surfoce of two inosculated cymes, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA UVA, Nov. Spcc. Niagara and Devonian. 

6. Basal corallets incrusting a Fenestella frond, from the rotten chert 

of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

7. Corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay stratum three feet 

below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA UMBELLiFERA. Devonian. 

4. U})per surface of two cymes, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

8. Fragment showing verticillate sprouts, from the Lower Devonian 

red clay. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

9. Similar fragment from the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 
10. 11. 12. Fragments from the horizon and place of example 9. Col- 
lection of the author. 

13. Jejune corallets from the same place. Collection of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA FAscicuLATA, Nov. Spoc. , Devonian. 

14. 15. 16. Lateral views of corallets from the decomposing chert of 

the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
18. Upper surface of corallets from the same place. 
Collection of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA INCRUSTANS, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. Corallets incrusting Cladopora imbricata, from the Lower Devo- 
nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

I^LATE 75. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 7B. 



<>^C^-^-»S -V^-^T^ - ^JK--- <J»->'V- V^-»r ■ ,J? " i ^ 






■-'^■^/^ 




PLATE 76. 

RoMiXGERiA UMBELLiFERA, Devonian. 

1. Rl^ui" lateral view of verticillate umbels, showing spinulous inner- 

Avalls, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection 
of the author. 

RoMiNGERiA INCRUSTANS, Xov, Spec. Devonian. 

2. Corallum iiicrustiiig Zaphrentis gregaria, fi^om the Middle Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

AuLOPORA EDiTHANA. Devonian. 

3. Corallum attached to Favosites hemisphericus, from the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Syringopora hisingeri. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (inverted) of example figured in Plate 68, Fig. 1. 

Syringopora straminea, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Upper surface of corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora desquamata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Corallum j)artly imbedded in m.atrix, from the LoAver Devonian 

rocks. Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 77. 

Cyathophyllum halli. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view of corallum, from which the epitheca is worn; 

from the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 77. 




S7 








KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 78. 




PLATE 78. 

Antholites (Nov. Gen.) speciosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the dark-red clay 

derived from the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, 
near Louisville. 

2. Sectional view of the same specimen, showing avitous corallets 

attached to a crinoid column. 

C'yathophyllum pustulosum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Oblique front and right lateral view of a corallum of typical shape 

and size. 

4. Calyx of a corallum. 

Found in the vicinage of the antholite, but in a horizon about a foot 
lower. 

Cyathophyllum insigne, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum, found associated with the former 

species. 

Choxophyllum multiplicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian lime- 

stones, Falls of the Ohio. 



Cyathophyllum exiguum. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a huge corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

clay, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum greeni, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Rear lateral view of an adult corallum. 

9. Left lateral view of a weathered example. 
10. A jejune specimen. 

Cut from the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 



PLATE "l^.— Continued. 

Cyathophyllum FLOS, Nov. Spec. Niagara and Devonian. 

11. View of the calyx of a proliferous coralluin, from the stratum, of 

white clay seven feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage- 
beds, near Louisville. 

12. Central view of a corallum of average size, from the same horizon 

and place. 

13. View of the calyx of a small corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

clay, near Louisville. 

14. View of the calyx of a large corallum, from the red clay of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis greenana, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

15. Right lateral view of a medium-sized corallum. 

16. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis romingeri, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Nicholson lA (Nov. Gen.) canadensis. Devonian. 

18. Corallcts of continuous growth attached to a zaphrentis, from the 

blue clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

NicHOLSONiA ADNATA, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

19. Corallets incrusting a zaphrentis and overrunning a portion of the 

less robust N. canadensis. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 79. 




PLATE 79. 

Cyathophyllum corxiculum. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of corallum of uncommon altitude, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

2. 4, Left lateral views. 

3. 5. Right lateral views. 

6. Central view. 

7. View of calyx. 

8. View of gemmiferous calyx. 

The several coralla are from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum juvpjne. Devonian. 

9. Central view. 

10. 11. Right lateral views. 

12. View of calyx. 

The several coralla are from the dark-red encrinal limestone clay of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum brevicorne, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Apertural vie^v- 

14. Central view. 

15. 16. Left lateral views. 
17. 18. Views of calyces. 

The coralla are from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Examples herein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 80. 

Cyathophyllum tornatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Exterior apertural view of a corallum from the superior stratum 

of the encrinal limestone dark-red clay, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum juvexe, Devonian. 

2. Right lateral view of a young corallum. 

G. View of the gemmiferous calyx of a corallum, 

7. Apertural view of a corallum of more than average altitude. 

8. Explanate calyx of a corallum of medium size. 

From the horizon and vicinage of examples figured in Plate 79. 

CvATHornvLLUM ETHELAXUM, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

3. Lateral and apertural-gap view of corallum of slender, tortuous 

growth. 
5. 01)1 ique anterior view of a corallum of medium size. 

Found from three to four feet below the shale which caps the 
Ujiper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum trauthaxum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum of average size. 
Associated with C. cthelanum. 

Cystiphyllum cuyagaense. Devonian. 

9. Right lateral view of corallum with flattened apex. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both examples from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Chonophyllum nanum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

11. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

12. Similar view of a corallum of unsymmetrical growth above medium 

size. 

13. View of the calyx of a small corallum. 

From the dark-red clay of the Upper Devonian encrinal limestone, 
near Louisville 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 80. 




PLATE SO.— Continued. 

Cyathophyllum greeni, Nov. Spec, Devonian. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

NicHOLsoxiA CANADENSIS. Devonian. 

15. Corallets attached to Stromatopora, from the Middle Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

NiCHOLSONiA ANGULATA, Nov. Spec Devonian. 

16. Corallum incrusting Stromatopora texilis, from the blue clay of the 

Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. View of confluent calyces of corallets, from the Middle Devonian 

waste, Marion county, Kentucky. 

Zaphrentis immanis, Nov. Spec, Devonian. 

18. Central view and oblique view of calyces of twin coralla, from the 

Middle Devonian clay, near Louisville. 
The examples figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 81. 

Cyathophyllum rociLLUM, Nov. Spec. Dewnian. 

1. Central view of a rapidly expanding corallum. Collection of Mr. 

McConathy. 

2. Central view of a corallum of typical size and shape. Collection 

of the author. 

3. Calyx of a corallum. Collection of the author. 

5. Corallum of gigantic dimensions, with oblique section of the calyx- 
wall, showing the sub-vesicular cellulose tissue of the interloculi. 
Collection of the author. 
Found in the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Blothrophyllum corium, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Right lateral view of corallum, with ai)ex flattened by attachment 

to an extraneous object, from the Middle Devonian red clay, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 81. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 82. 





«WJ*:. .W-.'i 



^0 





PLATE 82. 

Cyathophyllum fimbriatum, Nov. Spec. ' Devonian. 

1. Central view of a flexuous corallum, with epitheca denuded, from 

the bhie clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

3. Calyx of a corallum; the figure also shows the margins of some of 

the inferior invaginated calyces; from the Middle Devonian red 
clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 
Cyathophyllum its^signe, 'Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Rig'ht lateral view of a jejune corallum, with apical scar of attach- 

ment during growth. 



PLATE 83. 

Cyathophyllum multicrexa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Rio-ht lateral view of a corallum of slender habit, from the Middle 

Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

2. Left lateral view of a symmetrical corallum of average size, from 

the same horizon and neighborhood. 

3. Right lateral view of a young corallum, from the blue clay of the 

Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

4. Calyx of a corallum. 

5. Calyx of a very large corallum of which the circular elevated rim 

of the diaphragm has been fortuitously broken down. 
Exami:)les 4 and 5 are from the horizon and locality of example 3. 

Cyathophyllum (EDIPUs, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Left lateral view of a small corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

7. Central view of a small corallum. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum of medium size. 

9. Ri<2;ht lateral view of a corallum. 

Examples 7, 8, 9, are from the horizon and vicinage of example 6. 

Cyathophyllum flos, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

10. Calyx view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum coralliferum. Devonian. 

11. Calyces of corallets, varying in size, imbedded in Stromatopora, as 

is usual with the species; from the blue clay of the Middle 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum pumilus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum slightly below medium size, with 

apical scar; from the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls of the 
Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum winchelli, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Right lateral view of a corallum of average size, with small cir- 

cular apical scar. 

14. Calyx of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls of the Ohio. 
The examples figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 83. 







• '<^, 









m 





'■^10 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 84. 




PLATE 84. 

Cyathophyllum (EDIpus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Composite corallum, partly imbedded in rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 85. 

Cyathophyllum robfstum. Devonian. 

1. Adult corallum: left lateral view. 

2. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

3. Calyx of a corallum, the linear edges of whose lamellae arc broken 

down so as to show the cellulose inner walls. 

4. Right lateral view of a 3'oung corallum. 

5. (Central specimen.) View of calyx and central exterior of an un- 

symmetrical jejune corallum, with well-preserved acute lamellae 
but abnormally shaped diaphragm. 
The exam]>les figured were cut from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 
Example 4 is from the collection of Mr. Gaines; the others from 
the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 85. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 86. 




i'f 







^"i ' V- •'3 




. fe^^ 



PLATE 86. 

Cyathophyllum radicula. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of large corallum, with the gem of an inferior 

calyx still adherent, from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 
Louisville. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

2. 3. 4. Typically flexuous coralla : example 4 from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, the others from the slightly lower horizon of the white 
clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

5. A sessile corallum, with calycinal gem, from the horizon and neigh- 

borhood of example 4. Collection of the author. 

6. Right lateral view of a stout sessile corallum, with inchoate root- 

like processes of attachment, common to most Niagara cyatho- 
phylloids; from the horizon and locality of example 4. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

Cyathophyllum torxatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Left lateral view of a corallum from the inferior stratum of the 

dark-red encrinal-limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

8. Exterior view of a corallum, showing rounded apex and wrinkled 

epitheca, from the horizon and neighborhood of example 7. 
Collection of the author. 

9. Calyx of a corallum, from the same horizon and place. Collection 

of the author. 
10. 11. Left lateral views (prostrate) of unusually long and slender 
coralla, from the horizon and vicinage of the previous examples. 
Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum scyphus. Devonian. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum of geniculated form. 

13. Left lateral view of a corallum of medium size, with circular apical 

scar. 

14. Calyx of a corallum, with gem. From the horizon and vicinage 

of C. tornatum, figured in this Plate. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 87. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

View of exterior apertural side of ancestral corallet. The central 
form is not a corallet of the community, but is held in embrace- 
ment. Cut from the Lower Devonian limestone, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

[Note. — Turn the Plate so as to view it from the right side.] 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 87. 



A- 
) 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 88. 




PLATE 88. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View along the line of the apertural gap of the ancestral corallet ; 

right and left lateral vieAvs of its progeny. From the horizon 
and locality of the specimen figured in Plate 87. 

Cyathophyllum ligatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Right and left lateral views of inosculating gems detached from the 

maternal corallum, with epitheca removed so as to show the con- 
cave interlocular dissepiments. From the Lower Devonian rocks, 
Falls of the Ohio. 
4. Calyx of a corallum, with bell-shaped wall, from the ferruginous 
clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville, 

Cyathophyllum detextum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of a corallum (prone), the lower half of which shows the 

exterior right lateral gap-line, and the upper half the exterior 
surface symmetrical with the line of the apertural gap. From 
the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
The specimens figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 89. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM VERNEUiLANUM. Devonian. 

1. Exterior lateral view of a corallum from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Exterior lateral views of inosculated corallets accidentally broken 

from their parent, from the Middle Devonian waste of Marion 
county, Kentucky. Collection of Mr. Linney. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 89. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE go. 




PLATE 90. 

Cyathophyllum rugosum. Devonian. 

Ul)per surface of a corallum from the Middle Devonian rocks, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 91. 

Cyathophyllum colligatum. Devonian. 

1. Under surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the same horizon and neighbor- 

hood. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 91. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 92. 




PLATE 92. 

Cyathophyllum colligatum. Devonian. 

1. Vertical section of specimen Fig. 2, Plate 91. 

Cyathophyllum halli. Devonian. 

2. Calyx of corallum Fig. 1, Plate 77. 

3. Calyx of a corallum of medium size, bell-shaped, from the red clay of 

the Middle Dev^onian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Three small inosculated gems fortuitously detached from the inferior 

corallet; from the Middle Devonian waste, Lincoln county, Ken- 
tucky. Collection of Mr. Linney, 



PLATE 93. 

Cyathophyllum ovoideum, Nov\ Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the decomposed chert of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum davidsoni. Devonian. 

2. Upi^er surface of a corallum ii'uia the rotten chert of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

CYATHorHYLLUM KUGOSUM. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment showing cristate calyx-walls, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 93. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 94. 




PLATE 94 

AcROPHYLLUM ONEiDAENSE. Devonian. 

1. (Oblique) anterior, or central-gap view of a corallum of average 

size, with calyx wall broken so as to show the cone-shaped 
diaphragm ; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view (prostrate) of a small corallum, more conical 

than the typical specimens. From the horizon and locality of 
the preceding example. 

AcROPHYLLUM ELLiPTicuM, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

3. Anterior, or central-gap view of a corallum, with wall removed so 

as to show the bottom of the calyx; from the horizon and place 
of C. oneidaense. 
The specimens belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 95. 

AULACOPHYLLUM SULCATUM. JDevonian. 

1. Anterior, or central-gap view and view of the calyx of a corallum, 

from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Posterior, or apertural-gap view of a weathered corallum, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

[Note. — The arrangement of the himelhe about the line of tlie apertural-gap may be observed.] 

AuLACOPHYLLUM PARVUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the central-gaj) line and of the calyx of a corallum, fr'^rn 

the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

AuLACOPHYLLUM UNGULOIDEUM, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

5. View of central-gap line and of the calyx of a corallum of medium 

■ size, from the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

[NoTK. — In this specimen are conspicuously shown the four gaps i)roper to C'yatlinphylloids, and 
the con.sequent fascicular grouping of the lamellae.] 

6. Similar view of a corallum, in Avhich the central and lateral gaps 

arc obscure, but showing the lamella occuj^ying the center of the 
apertural-gap fovea. 

7. Left lateral-gap view of a corallum (prone). This and example 6 

are from the same horizon and place as example 5. 

[Note. — The arrangement of the lamellre about the line of the left lateral gap is noticeable.] 

8. View of the calyx of a weathered corallum, from the Lower Devo- 

nian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

[Note. — In this example some of the lamelliB beyond the lateral gaps remain erect, and hy their 
co-incidental meeting have the appearance of continuous plications from opposite margins of the wall.] 

AuLACOPHYLLUM INSIGNE. Devonian. 

9. View of the central gap and of the calyx of a corallum, whose 

lamella3 are fortuitously broken down in the calyx bottom. From 
the manganese limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The examples are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 95. 



^ 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 96. 




PLATE 96. 

AuLACOPHYLLUM MUTABiLE, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum. 

2. View of central-gap side and posterior portion of the calyx of a 

coralluui, indicating the formation of the calyx floor. 

3. Right lateral view of a corallum with anterior wall broken down. 

4. Posterior view of a corallum. 

5. Oblique lateral view of a badly weathered corallum, whose lamellae 

were incrassated by the process of fossilization. 

6. Front, or central-gap view of a corallum with anterior wall fortui- 

tously removed, showing the sub-cellulose structure of the wall. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum (prone), showing a secondary 

calyx of cystose structure. 

8. Anterior view of a corallum in which the secondary calyx is lami- 

nated. 
Specimens 1-6 are found in the Middle Devonian red clay, near 

Louisville. 
Specimens 7 and 8 are found in the Middle Devonian blue clay, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

The examples figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 97. 

Blothrophyllum liratum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum, with epitheca denuded, 

showing the ridge along the line of the apertural gap; from 
the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

AuLACOPHYLLUM coxiGERUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Calyx of a corallum from the dark-red clay derived from the 

encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

AcROTHYLLUM CLARKi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size, with flattened 

apex. 

4. Left lateral view of a large corallum with flattened apex. 

5. Posterior view of a corallum, with aj)ex taking shape from the 

object to which the corallum attached in the early stages of 
growth. 

6. Posterior view of a corallum from which the ei)itheca has been 

removed by weathering. 
Examples 3-6 are from the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum, 
Fig. 2. 

Cyathophyllum infoveatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the Lower Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

8. Similar view of a corallum, from the Upper Devonian encrinal 

limestone dark-red clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis gallicalcar, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. Posterior \'iew of a corallum of adult size. 

10. Anterior view of a corallum. 

11. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

12. 13. Views of calyces of coralla. 

14. Left lateral view of a young specimen. 

15. Left lateral view of a jejune corallum of irregular growth. 
From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 97. 






4 




;:»-ag.-.;mi^Kw.- 



PLATE Q1— Continued. 

Zaphrentis cornalba, Nov, Spec. Devonian. 

16. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

17. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum. 
From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 

Zaphrentis nettelrothi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

18. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

19. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Found in the vicinage and horizon of A. conigerum. 

AuLOPORA PRECius. Niagara. 

20. Corallets incrusting an eroded fragment of Strombodes pentagonus. 

from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louis vdlle. 

Cladopora proboscidalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

21. Front lateral view of frond partly imbedded in rock matrix, from 

the white clay strata of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

Cladopora alcicornis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

22. Upper fronds of a corallum. 

23. Front lateral view of a frond of typical form. 
From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 

Cladopora gulielmi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

24. Front lateral view of fronds partly imbedded in a fragment of 

decomposing encrinal limestone; from the horizon and neighbor- 
hood of A. conigerum. 

With the exception of example 4, which was collected by Mr. 
Gaines, the specimens figured in this Plate belong to the collec- 
tion of the author. 



PLATE 98. 

Blotheophyllum decorticatum. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of an adult corallum of average size and usual form, 

from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Lateral view of the upper portion of a corallum partly imbedded 

in its rock matrix, with closely set explanate rims of the invag- 
inating calyces; from the rocks of the Lower Devonian formation, 
near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 98. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 99. 




PLATE 99. 

Blothropyllum decorticatum. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of a coralliim, with depressed floor. 

2. View of the calyx of a corallum, without a diaphragm. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum, with the diaphragm as it com- 

monly appears. 
From the horizon and vicinage of example Fig. 1, Plate 98. 

Blothrophyllum sessile, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

5. Similar view of the calyx of a corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillense, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the horizon and locality of B. sessile, Figs. 4. and 5. 

Blothrophyllum cinctutum, Noa^ Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 

clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

8. Right lateral view of a small corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

Blothrophyllum approximatum. Devonian. 

9. Upper portion of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Blothrophyllum niagarense, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

10. Lateral view of a flexuous corallum, from the Upper Niagara 
white clay stratum, ten feet below the Niagara and Devonian 
passage-beds, near Louisville. 

The specimens figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 100. 

Blothrophyllum parvulum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2, 3. Lateral views of adult coralla, from the Middle Devonian 
red clay, near Louisville. 

Blothrophyllum cinctutum, IVov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view of an adult corallum of flexuous form, from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

TNoTE. — The apex and several inches of the lower part of the corallum are concealed from view by 
geniculation.] 

5. Anterior view and oblique view of the calyx of the upper portion 

of a corallum, from the same horizon and locality. 

6. Calyx of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillexse, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Anterior, or central-gap view of the upper portion of a corallum. 

8. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both from the blue clay beds of the Middle Devonian, Falls of 
the Ohio. 

Blothrophyllum sessile, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. Left lateral view of the corallum figured in Plate 99, Fig. 4. 

10. Left lateral view of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. 

11. Central gap view of a corallum with small apical scar of attach- 

ment, from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

12. View of the calyx of a corallum from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of the preceding example. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Posterior view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

[Introduced here for comparison with the Blothrophylla, to which it bears a superficial resemblance.] 

Blothrophyllum approximatum. Devonian. 

14. Lateral view of the upper portion of a corallum, from the Middle 

Devonian blue clay. Falls of the Ohio. 

15. View of the calyx of a large corallum from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 

Specimens figured in this plate are from the collection of the 
author, with the exception of Cystiphyllum plicatum, Fig. 13, 
which belongs to Mr. Gaines, 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 100. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 101. 







PJ.ATE 101. 

Cyathophyllum pocillum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Longitudinal section of a corallum, from the Upper Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Calceola PROTEUS, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Inner surface of an operculum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay beds, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Chonophyllum magnificum. Devonian. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum of medium size, from the man- 

ganese limestone rocks of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillense, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 

clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

5. Similar view of a corallum, from the same horizon and place. 

Blothrophyllum cixctutum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Longitudinal section of a fragment, showing arrangement of the 

diaphragms, etc., from the locality and horizon of the preced- 
ing species of Blothrophyllum. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cyathophyllum pumilus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Blothrophyllum corium, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the upper part of which the 

epitheca has been fortuitously denuded; from the Middle Devo- 
nian red clay, near Louisville. 
11. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 
clay. Falls of the Ohio. 

9. View of the calyx of a sessile corallum, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of example Fig. 8. 
The specimens are from the collection of the author, 

AuLACOPHYLLUM PARVUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, with 
small apical scar; from the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls 
of the Ohio, Collection of the author. 



PLATE 102. 

Blothrophyllum liratum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of the corallum figured in Plate 97, Fig. 1. 

AuLACOPHYLLUM coNiGERUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of a flexuous corallum, from the dark-red clay 

of the Upper Devonian encrinal limestone, near Louisville. 

3. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum (in- 

verted), from the same horizon and neighborhood. 

AcROPHYLLUM CLARKi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the calyx of corallum figured in Plate 97, Fig. 3. 

5. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 4, Plate 97. 

6. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 5, Plate 97. 

7. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 6, Plate 97. 

Blothrophyllum zaphrentiforme, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

9. Similar view of a corallum. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

11. Left lateral view of a stout corallum. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Right lateral view of a corallum, whose epitheca has been fortui- 

tously removed. 

14. Right lateral view of a corallum of gigantic dimensions. 

15. 16. Views of calyces of coralla (inverted). 

The examples of this species figured, with the exception of ex- 
ample 14, which is from Crab Orchard, are from the horizon 
and vicinage of Aulacophyllum conigerum. 

The specimens figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 102. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 103. 







'i'-^^'^'^^-^-.^T^r. 






PLATE 103. 

Nettelrothia (Nov. Gen.) crateriforme, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the under surface of a sarcodeme. 

2. Lateral view of a sarcodeme (inverted). 

From the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louis- 
ville. 

[Note. — This form does not belong to the Polypi, but to the Protista. For this reason it is not 
described in the descriptive text of this work. It will be described in another work now in prepa- 
ration.] 

Hadrophyllum d'orbignyi, Devonian. 

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. VieAvs of calyces of coralla. 

8. 9. 10. 11. Lateral views of coralla of varying form and size. 
From the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Chonophyllum magnificum. Devonian. 

12. Lateral view of a corallum, from the ferruginous clay of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

13. Lateral view of a corallum, with epitheca denuded, from the man- 

ganese limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

14. View of a portion of the calyx of a well preserved fragment, from 

the horizon and neighborhood of example in Fig. 12. 

With the exception of example 14, which belongs to Mr. McCon- 
athy, the specimens herein figured are from the collection of 
the author. 



PLATE 104. 

Cyathaxonia gainesi, IS'ov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Mew of the calyx of a corallum, 

2. Anterior view of a young corallum. 

3. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

5. Posterior view of a corallum. 

6. Anterior view of a corallum. 

From the lowest strata of the Niagara period, near Louisville. 

Ptychophyllum ipomcea, Nov. Sj^ec. Niagara. 

7. (Upper left specimen.) Under surface of a corallum, from the 

Upper Niagara white clay, near Louisville. 

Omphyma verrucosa, Niagara. 

8. (Central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from the 

Upper Niagara ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

9. (Right central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from 

the white clay beds of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

10. Posterior view of a corallum, with part of the calyx wall l^roken oif. 

11. Anterior view of a large corallum, with partially denuded epitheca. 
Examples 10 and 11 are from the horizon and vicinage of exam- 
ple 8. 

All the specimens are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 104. 



^V > 





V f ^ 

9 



4- 



6' 




6 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 105. 




PLATE 10.5. 

Ptychophyllum stokesi. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

2. (Upper central specimen.) View of the calyx of a corallum. 

3. (Central Specimen.) Posterior view of a corallum attached by its 

radicels to an extraneous object. 

4. (Left central specimen.) Lateral view of coralla mutually attached. 

5. View of the calyces of three inosculated coralla. 

6. (Left upper specimen.) View of a proliferous corallum. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, invaginated within the inferior 

calyx. 
All from the red clay of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
Example 5 from the collection of Mr. McConathy; example 6 from 

the collection of Mr. Nettelroth; the others from the collection 

of the author. 

Ptychophyllum invaginatum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the red clay of the Upper 

Niagara, one foot below the Niagara and Devonian passage- 
beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Ptychophyllum ipomcea, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

9. View of the calyx of the corallum figured in Plate 104, Fig. 7. 

10. (Lower central specimen.) Oblique right lateral view of a young 

gemmiferous corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author, 

Omphyma verrucosa. Niagara. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 106. 

Ptychophyllum trop(eum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. (Lower right specimen.) Anterior view of a coralluni of average 

size. 

2. (Lower central specimen.) Posterior view of a corallum. 

3. View of the calyx of a large corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Ptychophyllum diaphragma, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. (Lower left specimen.) Left lateral ^•iew of an adult corallum. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum, with portion of the right wall 

fortuitously broken. 
From tlie horizon and vicinage of the preceding species. 

Ptychophyllum typicum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian clay 

of Lincoln county. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Ptychophyllum coniferum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. (Right of center.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from the 

Lower Devonian clay of Lincoln county. 

9. (Left of center.) Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

11. (Upper central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, with 

calyx wall broken down so as to show the sub-vesicular cen- 
tral cone. 

Examples 10 and 11 are fi'om the horizon and vicinage of exam- 
ple 9. 

The specimens figured in the Plate are fi'om the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 106. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 107. 




PLATE 107. 

Eridophyllum eruciforme, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

Front lateral view of corallets, from the Upper Niagara red clay 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 108. 

Eridophyllum SEIVTUM, 'Nov. Spec. • Niagara. 

1. Upper surface view of a corallum, from tlie Upper Niagara red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM BELLis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM ARCHiACi. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum, from the dark-red clay derived from 

the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collected by Mr. Goodwin. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 108. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 109. 




PLATE 109. 

Eridophyllum rugosum. Niagara. 

1. Rear lateral view of corallets (prostrate), from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. [Jejune example.] 

Eridophyllum huronicum. Niagara. 

2. Front lateral view of a fragment, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of E. rugosum, Fig. 1. 

Eridophyllum dividuum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a composite corallum, partly imbed- 

ded in chert, from the red clay of the Upper Niagara, near 
Louisville. 

4. Lateral view of a composite corallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

5. Lateral view of a composite corallum, from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Lateral view of two corallets detached from their parent, showing 

connective processes; from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. 

7. Right lateral A'iow of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, 

near Louisville. 

9. Right lateral view of a small corallum. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

11. Lateral view of a small gemmiferous corallum. 

12. View of the calyx of the parent corallet, with gems adherent. 
The last four specimens are from the Upper Niagara red clay, 

near Louisville, 
With the exception of specimen 5, the examples figured in this 
Plate belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 110. 

Ehidophyllum rugosum. 

Oblique sectional view of corallets ([)rostrate), froin the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 110. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 111. 




PLATE 111. 

ErIDOPHYLLUM HUROJfflCUM. 

Portion of longitudinal section through corallum, from the stratum 
of white clay of the Upper Niagara, ten feet below the Niagara 
and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 112. 

Eeidophyllum simcoense. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of coralletis, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. 

Eeidophyllum arundinaceum. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of corallets, partly imbedded in rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM ARCHiACi. Devonian. 

3. View of the np})er surfiice of a corallum, whose corallets are above 

the average size; from the dark-red encrinal-limestone clay of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
These specimens are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 112. 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 113. 




PLATE 113. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM ARCHiACi. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of specimen figured in Plate 112, Fig. 3. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM VERNEUILANUM. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a fragment, from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collectio/i of Dr. Knapp. 

Cyathophyllum davidsoni. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 114. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM STRICTUM. Devonian. 

View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 
nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. • 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 114. 




-'^"'•^^'^-n^r -"' -^-^'iri 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 115. 





PLATE 115. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM GTGAS. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Middle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM PANJCLTM. Devonian. 

3. 4. View of the upper surfaces of small coralla, from the Middle 

Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 116. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM CONJUNCTUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, showing the up-gpringing 

of young corallets from the floors of the polygonally compressed 
older calyces; from the ferruginous clay of the upper strata of 
the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

3. Vertical section of a fragment, from the horizon and locality of the 

preceding specimen. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM BELLis, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

4. Oblique view of the upper surface of a corallum, from the upper 

rock strata of the ]Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 116. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 117. 





PLATE 117. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM COALESCEXS, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the upper rock strata 

of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

DiPHYPHYLLUM COAGULATUM, Nov. Spcc. Devonian. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of the preceding species. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 118. 

Phillipsastrea gigas. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Middle Devo- 

nian waste of Marion county. Collection of the author. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the ISIiddle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Phillipsastrea ingens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a fragment, showing the upraised 

rounded rims between the central pits and the perimeters of the 
explanate calyces; from the Middle Devonian waste of Marion 
county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 118. 




m 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 119. 




1 



HE. 



,!'t»tfif s:.Mm i 



PLATE 119. 

Phillipsastrea ingens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

View of the upper surface of a coralhim, from the Middle Devo- 
nian waste of Marion county. Collection of the author. 

[NoTi.. — In the right upper corner are seen twin corallets. These spring from the margin of the 
inferior calyx.] 



PLATE 120. 

Strombodes knotti, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a fragment, fi'om the Lower Devo- 

nian clay of Marion county. Collection of Mr. Knott. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, showing somewhat larger 

central pits. 

3. View of the upper surface of a fragment. 

4. View of the under surface of a fragment. 

6. View of the under surface of a fragment, with a part of the epitheca 
fortuitously stripped so as to show the terete apical part of a 
corallet. 
Specimens 2, 3, 4, 5, are from the horizon and vicinage of example 
1. Collection of the author. 

6. View of the upper surface of a moderately well preserved example, 
with extra^sized central pits and calyx walls better defined than is 
common. 
From the horizon and neighborhood of the other specimens. Col- 
lection of Mr. Linney. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 120. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 121. 




PLATE 121. 

Strombodes striatus. ' Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a weathered corallum, from the ferru- 

ginous chxy of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Strombodes pentagonus. Niagara. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the white clay of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the red clay of the 

passage-beds between the Niagara and Devonian rocks, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes sinemurus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the horizon and neigh- 

borhood of S. pentagonus. Fig. 2. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 



PLATE 122. 

Steombodes striatus. Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. View of a vertical section of a weathered corallum, from the Upper 

Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strom BODES quabrangularis, Nov. Spec. ■ Niagara. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the lower strata of 

the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. ... 

Strom BODES unicus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Lateral view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Strombodes sinemurus, Nov. Spec. • Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

6. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the red clay of the 

L^pper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 122. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 123. 





A 



\ 



\. 










•^- ■ ■■■ : f-r' '.I 



r 



PLATE 123. 

Strombodes pygmceus. Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the white chxy of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes ixcertus, Nov. Spec. Niafjara. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

• 

Strombodes sixemurus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. View of the upper surftice of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Strombodes mamillaris. Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a small corallum, fi'om the Upper 

Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 124. 

Cystiphyllum NiAGARENSE. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

2. Anterior view of a gemmiferous corallum. 

3. Anterior view of a small corallum. 

Examples 1, 2, 3, are from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. 

4. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a small corallum. 

5. View of the calyx of an adult corallum, in which three of the 

four foveal gaps proper to Cyathophylloidea are conspicuous. 
Specimens 4 and 5 are from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, 
near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum incurvum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Left lateral view of a small corallum, with denuded epitheca, from 

the Upper Niagara white clay, near Louisville. 

7. Posterior view of an adult corallum, from the Upper Niagara red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

8. Anterior view of a corallum, from the horizon and neighborhood of 

the preceding example. From the collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Cystiphyllum americaxum. Devonian. 

9. Posterior view of a corallum of robust habit, with warped apical 

scar of attachment; from the encrinal limestone clay of the 
Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

11. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

The specimens figured in this Plate, with the exception of Figs. 
7 and 8, belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 124. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 125. 




PLATE 125. 

Cystiphyllum sulcatum. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a symmetrical adult corallum. 

2. Left lateral view of a slender corallum. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum similar to example 1. 
From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum squamosum. Devonian. 

4. Posterior view (prone) of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 

5. Right lateral view of a weathered corallum of unusual altitude ; 

from the horizon and neighborhood of the preceding specimen. 

6. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Mid- 

dle Devonian, Falls of .the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum nettelrothi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

9. Posterior view (prone) of a corallum. 

8. View of the calyx of a corallum, whose radial lamell?e are some- 

wdiat obscured by siliceous deposition in annular dots. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum cicatriciferum, Nov. Sjiec. Devonian. 

10. Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum of sessile growth, whose circular 

apical scar has the dimensions of the calyx; from the encrinal 
limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum ohioense. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Posterior view of a corallum. 

From the red clay strata derived from the encrinal limestone of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

The specimens herein Hgured belong to the collection of the author. 



10 



PLATE 126. 

OYSTiiMivLi^rM (!HA.\i)E. Devonian. 

1. .Vnterioi- ^iew (»f an adult corallum, with a portion of the wall 

removed, so as to show the delicately laminated calyx wall and 
the floor; from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum limhatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of the upper part of a corallum, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 126. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 127. 














PLATE 127. 

Cystiphyllum HisriDUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Left lateral view of a coralluni (prone), from the Lower Devonian 
rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 128. 

Cystiphyllum lixeatum, Nov. Spec. Niagara and Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the ferruginous clay of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

2. Ri<>'ht lateral view of an adult corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Exterior view of a corallum, from the passage-beds between the 

Niagara and Devonian formations, near Louisville. 

4. View of the calyx of a large corallum, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of specimen 1. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. 6. 7. Right lateral views of small coralla, with apical scars of 

attachment. 

8. Anterior view of a corallum, with apical scar. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum edwinanum, Nov. Sf>ec. Devonian. 

9. View of the calyx of a gemmiferous corallum. 
From the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum tumidosum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallum of average size. 
From the horizon and locality of C. edwinanum. 

Cystiphyllum theissi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

11. Posterior view of an adult corallum. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Anterior view of a gemmiferous corallum. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 128. 




: ■■ V. V. «*•>;*.-• ■--"^, . 

vt- ■:.>;■. ... . : 








fCi 








.•'-7 J.;: -^-^^'ie.iA-:,^ ■ -3:^1?,- 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 129. 



k 9m 




PLATE 129. 

Cystiphyllum hispidum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of the corallum, figured in Plate 127. 

Cyptiphyllum vesiculosum. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Left lateral view of a large corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 130. 

Zaphrentis trigemma, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a portion of a corallum, partly imbedded in 

the rock matrix. 

2. Anterior view of the superior portion of a corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis nodulosa. Devonian. 

3. Anterior view of a large corallum, with a portion of the rock 

matrix attached ; from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the 
Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Posterior view of a corallum, with epitheca denuded, and the 

successively invaginating calyx - wall margins fortuitously worn 
off, showing the radial lamella). 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum os, Nov. Spec, Devonian. 

6. 7. Lateral views of coralla, with spreading apices, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum greexi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left, lateral view of an adult a jejune corallum, 

9. Right lateral view of the upper portion of a jejune corallum. 
From the Lower Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio, 

The examples figured in the Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 130. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 131. 



^r ' 



J 




^^^ 






n 



'^1^ 



rs 



? 



/6 



n 




PLATE 131. 

Calceola PROTEUS, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Anterior view of a proliferous corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville, Collection of the author. 

2. View of portions of some corallets partly imbedded in rock matrix; 

from the Upper Niagara strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection 
of Mr. Nettelroth. 

3. Posterior view of a large corallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

4. Posterior view of a corallum of average size, from the red clay of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

5. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the horizon and neighborhood of example 4. Collection of the 
author. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique posterior view of a corallum, from 

the locality of specimen 5. 
8. 9. Oblique views (8 inverted) of small coralla, from the LTpper 
Niagara white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

7. Oblique view of a corallum, whose calyx is closed by an opercu- 

lum; from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
14. 15. 16. Oblique views of coralla, with calyces closed by opercula; 

from the horizon and vicinage of specimen 7. Collection of the 

author. 
13. View of the exterior surface of the operculum of a corallum of 

average size; from the horizon and neighborhood of example 7, 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
17. View of the operculum of a small corallum fi-om the same place. 

Collection of the author. 

10. View of a gem detached from its parent. 

11. Posterior view of a gemmiferous corallum. 

12. Posterior view of a fortuitously detached gem. 

Specimens 10, 11, 12, are from the Upper Niagara red clay strata, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

[Note. — In Fig. IS an oblique posterior view of a corallum of Calceola sandalina, an European form 
said to be from the Devonian strata of the Eifel, closed by an operculum, is here presented for com-, 
parison with our Niagara species.] 



PLATE 132. 

Zaphrentis corniculum. Hudson Miver Group. 

1. Left lateral view of an adult corallum, from the Hudson River 

Group of the Lower Silurian formation, near ]\Iilton. 

2. Oblique view of the calyces of two small inosculated coralla from 

the same place. 

3. View of the calyx of a small corallum from the same place. 

Zaphrextis spongiaxis. Niagara. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

5. Lateral view of a corallum, with part of the calyx wall removed, 

so as to show the spongiose central cone; from the red clay of 
the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
6. View of the calyx, with walls fortuitously removed, and oblique 
anterior view of a corallum, from the horizon and neighborhood 
of specimen 4. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

Zaphrentis uxica, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the red clay strata of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

8. Similar view of a geniculated corallum, from the white clay beds 

of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

9. Riij-ht lateral view of a corallum. > 

10. Posterior view of a corallum. 

Specimens 9 and 10 from the horizon and vicinage of example 8. 

Zaphrentts radicaxs. Niagara. 

11. Anterior view of a corallum, with apex broken off, from the 

Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum, with anterior calyx wall fortuitously 

removed, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

13. Posterior view of a young corallum, from the horizon and vicinity 

of specimen 11. 

Amplexus shumardi. Niagara. 

14. Fragments of two coralla, partly imbedded in chert matrix, from 

the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville, 
The specimens figured in this Plate, with the exception of 6, 
belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 132. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 133. 







PLATE 133. 

Zaphrentis scutella, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum, with calyx filled with rock, from 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Similar view of a Aveathered corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. 

3. View of the exterior of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis patula. Niagara. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the lower strata of the 

Niagara period, near Brunerstown, Jeiferson county. Collection 
of the author. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

6. Oblique views of inosculated coralla. 

Examples 5 and 6 from the locality of specimen 4. Collection of 
the author. 

Zaphrentis socialis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

8. 9. Views of the calyces of coralla. 

From the horizon and vicinage of Z. patula. Collection of the 
author. 

Zaphrentis patens, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

10. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both from the horizon and vicinage of Z. imtula and Z. socialis. 
Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis conulus. Niagara. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Posterior view of a corallum. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Upper Niagara ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 



PLATE 133— Continued. 

Zaphrentis obliqua, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

15. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

16. Posterior view of a corallum. 

17. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the horizon and vicinage of Z. conulus. Collection of the 
author. 

Cyathophyllum exiguum. Devonian. 

18. View of the calyx of a large corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

19. View of the calyx of a corallum of average size, from the horizon 

and locality of example 18. Collection of the author. 

20. Posterior view of a corallum. 

21. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

22. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

[Note. — In example 22 the lamelhi; from the inner rim to the outer rim of the calyx wall seem to be 
faintly carinated. Other examples are so obscurely carinated as to superficially resemble Zaphrentis, with 
which genus they have been classed by Rominger.] 

Specimens 20, 21, 22, are ft'om the ferruginous clay of the Lower 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collecticm of the author. 

Cyathophyllum exiguum, varietas elongatum, Nov. Var. Devonian. 

23. Left lateral view of a robust corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

24. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis reynoldsi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

25. Anterior view of a corallum. Collection of the author. 

2G. Left lateral view of a corallum. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

27. View of the calyx of a corallum. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis linneyi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

28. Posterior view of a corallum. Collection of the author. 

29. Left lateral view of a corallum. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 133— Continued. 

30. Anterior view of a large coralliim. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

31. View of the calyx of a corallum. Collection of the author. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis unctULA. Devonian. 

32. Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

33. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the same place. 

34. Anterior view of a slender corallum of unusual altitude, with lami- 

nated structure obscured by the deposition of silica in annular 
dots during fossilization ; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 
Devonian, near Louisville. 

35. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of the preceding specimen. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 134. 

Zaphrentis coisriGERA. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

2. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

Both from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis compressa. Devonian. 

3. Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. ■ 

Zaphrextis explaxata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Anterior view of an elongated conical corallum of medium size. 

5. Left lateral view of a corniform corallum. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum of 

common form. 
From the dark-red clay derived from the decomposition of the 
encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis exilis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Posterior x'iqw of a corallum. 

8. Anterior view of a corallum. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis torquata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. 10. Lateral views of coralla. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis nodulosa. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

13. Left lateral view of the lower portion of a corallum, from the 

ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
The examples figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 134. 






k 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 135. 



^"^'-, 100 




PLATE 135. 

Zaphrentis prolifica. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis Ri¥FiNESQUi. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a fiexuoiis adult corallum. 

3. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size. 

5. Left lateral view of a young corallum, with radiciform processes 

of attachment. 

6. Posterior oblique view of a corallum, with radiciform processes of 

attachment. 
From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis yaxdelli. Devonian. 

7. Right lateral view of an adult corallum. 

8. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

Examples 7 and 8 are from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. 

9. Right lateral view of a fragment, with a portion of the wall re- 

moved, so as to show the lamellae and the diaphragm of the 
calyx, and the siphuncular fo\'ea connecting the calyx with the 
interior cavity; from the red clay of the jNIiddle Devonian, near 
Louisville. 

Zaphrentis romingeri, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. Posterior view of an adult corallum, from the Middle Devonian 
blue clay. Falls of the Ohio. 
The specimens figured in the Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 136. 

Zaphrentis maconathi, Nov, Spec. Devonian. 

1. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size, from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the same horizon and locality. 

3. Anterior view of the upper part of a corallum of gigantic dimen- 

sions, Avith wall broken down, so as to show the radial lamolhi) 
and the smooth plane dia[)hragm of the calyx; from the Lower 
Devonian rocks. Falls of the Ohio. 

4. Right lateral view of a young corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 
The specimens tigured in the Plato belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 136. 



'y f iyiv;. ' 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 137. 




PLATE 137. 

Zaphrentis gigantea. Devonian. 

1. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size, with a portion of 

the calyx wall removed, so as to show the lamelLie and the dia- 
phragm or floor of the calyx carinated by the primary lamelhe; 
from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Section of a fragment, showing the thickness of the wall, the 

arrangement of the lamellce, and the diaphragms and the in- 
choate pseudo-diajihragms which, in certain places, apj^ear like 
dissepiments in the interloculi; from the horizon and locality of 
the preceding sj^ecimcn. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 138. 

1. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis gigantea. 

2. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis immanis. 

3. View of the calyx of the An plexus shumardi in Plate 132, Fig. 14. 

4. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis coinj^ressa, with anterior wall 

partly broken. 

5. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis linneyi in Plate 133, Fig. 30. 

6. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis ungula in Plate 133, Fig. 32. 

7. View of the calyx (anterior wall removed) of the Zaphrentis nod- 

ulosa in Plate 134, Fig. 12. 

8. View of the calyx of an adult corallum of Zaphrentis corniculum. 

9. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis prolifica in Plate 135, Fig. 1. 

10. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis exilis in Plate 134, Fig. 8. 

11. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis yandclli. 

12. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis conigera. 

13. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis rafinesqui in Plate 135, Fig. 2. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 138. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 139. 




PLATE 139. 

Zaphrentis immanis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Right lateral view of a corallum, half natural size, from the Middle 
Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 









CALIF ACAD OF SCIENCES LIBRARY 



3 1853 10017 5541