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Full text of "Kentucky fossil corals : a monograph of the fossil corals of the Silurian and Devonian rocks of Kentucky"



-I/Jharvard university. 




LIBR 

OF THE 
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



AXl-vdlX^tl,^ uUcJLrOj^d \awH- 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, J. R. PROCTER, Director. 



Kentucky Fossil Corals 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE FOSSIL CORALS 



OF THE 



Sllwlin rani DtwoiiiQJi RoGks of \mM$ 



BY WILLIAM J. DAVIS 



[In Two Parts Part II] 



FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY 
Electrotyped and Printed by John D. Woods, Public Printer 

1885 



COPYRIGHT, 1887, 

BY KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

[right of translation reserved by the author] 






LETTER FROM THE AUTHOR. 



Mr. John R. Procter, 

Director Kentucky Geological Survey. 

Dear Sir: As you know, several years have passed since I began the 
work of describing and illustrating the fossil corals of Kentucky. The 
delays incident to preparing such a work for the press, occupied as I am 
most of the time with engrossing public duties, have suggested that now, 
since the plates and the explanations of the plates have been completed, it 
is best to publish these as Part II., simply prefacing them with an alpha- 
betical index. 

The text of Part I. will be finished in a few months. Part I. consists 
of 1. An Introduction, which treats of the growth and habits of coral- 
making animals, their place in nature, etc.; 2. A Descriptive Text, 
which classifies the fossil corals found in the Silurian and Devonian Rocks 
of Kentucky, showing the relations of families, genera, and species, and 
describing them ; 3. A chapter of Popular Notes, which, following the 
technical descriptions, presents the salient traits of structure or function 
characterizing the skeletons of species of the same genus, on the modifica- 
tions of which the differentiation is based, and collates comprehensively 
the resemblances and differences of related genera and the more widely 
divergent family peculiarities ; 4. A Glossary, in which are given the 
meanings and, in most cases, the etymologies of the technical terms used 
in the text ; 5. An Index, systematically arranged. 

The literature of this subject is diffused through many volumes of State 
and Government reports and society periodical or casual publications. 
Many zealous students of pakeontology, confused by synonymy or per- 



) 



plexed by descriptions and figures of badly-preserved fossils, have aban- 
doned research among these interesting and beautiful forms for the easier 
study of mollusks, crinoids, worms, or crustaceans. May I express the 
hope that the present work will prove a useful manual to the student? 

As will be seen, the number of plates is one hundred and thirty-nine, 
the number of specimens figured about one thousand. The number of 
species described is more than three hundred; of these about one hundred 
and seventy are new and heretofore undescribed. The beautiful condition 
in which these fossils occur in Kentucky and the care with which tiny 
have been freed from their matrix have permitted a satisfactory photo- 
graphic delineation by the "artotype" process. Mr. E. Klauber, of 
Louisville, has clone this part of the work under my supervision in the 
most artistic style. My thanks are due to this gentleman for the assist- 
ance he rendered me in " setting up" the fossils before the camera, and for 
his amiable co-operation during the several years we have been engaged 
together in plate-making. 

Permit me also to thank you, sir, the Director of the Survey, and the 
other officers of the State of Kentucky, whose generous consideration has 
given me the opportunity to publish this contribution to the geology of the 
country in so handsome a volume. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM J. DAVIS. 
Louisville, 1885. 



POLYPI. 



ZOANTHARIA TABULATA. 



HELIOLITID.E. 

CoLUMNOPORA Plates. 

cribriformis 5,6 

s rayi 5, 6 

Heliolites 

interstinctus 1 

megastoma 1 

pyriformis 1 

subtubulatus 1 

Lyellia 

americana 3 

^discoidea 4 

glabra 2 

papillata 2, 3, 4 

^ puella . 2, 51 



Plasmopora 
elesrans 
follis • , 



elearans 1 



11 INDEX TO PLATES. 

FAVOSITIDiE. 

Alveolites Plates. 

y constans 43 

o-oklfussi 44 

til in isus 46 

louisvillensis 46 

minimus 43, 44^- 

_/ morda x 45 

niagarensis 46 

/scandularis 44 

squamosum 43 

Antholites 

• speeiosus 78 

Cladopora 

y aculeata 48, 49 

/acupicta 52, 58 

/ alcicornis 97 

alpenensis 52, 59 

aspera 50 

/bifurca 52, 56 

billing-si 52 

complanata 49 

/■ crassa 62 

cryptodens 52 

/dentata 51, 63 

/desquamata 52, 76 

/ dispansa 61, 62 

y equisetalis 48 

expatiata 50 

fibrata 57 

/ francisci 51, 74 



INDEX TO PLATES. ::: 

ClADOPOEA — Continued. Plates. 

-gracilis 64 

^gulielmi 97 

imbricata •» . 53 

iowensis 64 

labiosa 4, 59 

laqueata 48 

menis 48 

y ordinata 48 

pinguis 54, 55 

s proboscidalis 48, 97 

pulchra 59 

^-radula 58 

reticulata 47 

/ ricta 63 

rimosa 59 

robusta 58 

rcemeri 54, 55, 56 

/striata 48 

-tela 57 

C(EXITES 

crassa 4 

laminata 4 

verticillata 46 

Dexdeopoea 

alternans 65 

elegantula 65 

neglecta 65 

ornata 63, 65 

S osculata 65, 66 

proboscidalis 63 



[ v INDEX TO PLATES. 

FAVOSITES Plates. 

/amplissimus 17 

arbor 22, 23 

baeulus 21 

canadensis 29 

/ cariosus 31, 32 

cavernosus 33 

clausus ■ 49, 73 

/delandi 24 

/convexus 27 

cristatus 9 

cristatus, varietas major 24 

/cymosus 23 

digitatus 21 

/ discus 9 

emmonsi 12, 32 

epidermatus 12 

/eximius 26, 27 

favosus 8 

forbesi 8 

, frutex 24 

^fustiformis 26 

s goodwini 25 

hemisphericus et varietates 10, 1 1 

impeditus 24 

intcrtcxtus 32 

limitaris 30, 31 

s louisvillcnsis . 9 

.. mundus 27, 28 

y mundus, varietas placentoideus 14 

niagarensis 8 

ocellatus 16 

placenta 14 



INDEX TO PLATES. v 

FAVOSITES — Continued. Plates. 

/pirum 14, 15 

proximus 15, 27, 28 

/quereus .\ . 18, 19 

radiatus 12, 13 

radiciformis 20 

s ramulosus 19 

^rotundituba 14, 27 

y spjculatus 15 

spongilla 8 

tuberosus 16, 19 

venustus 9 

MlCHELINIA 

clappi 41, 42 

/ corrugata 39 

cylindrica 32, 36 

favositoidea 37, 38 

insignis 27, 39, 40 

/ niagarensis 39 

y plana 38, 39, 40 

prima 39, 40 

MlLLERIA 

y laminata 46 

Platyaxum 

^canadense 60 

corioideum 61 

fischeri 60 

/ foliatum 63 

y turgidum 60 

>-undosum 60 



yj INDEX TO PLATES. 

PROCTEEIA Plates. 

s michelinoidea , 41 

papillosa 41 

Thecia 

major 34 

minor 34 

ramosa , 35 

swindernana * 34 

vetusta 34 

COLUMNARID.E. 

COLUMNARIA 

alveolata 6, 7 

stellata 7 

HALYSITID.E. 

AULOPORA 

cornuta 73 

y culmula 73 

edithana 73, 76 

precius 97 

/ procumbens 73 

' pygmoea 73 

serpens 74 

DlORRYCHOPORA 

/ tenuis 74 

Drymopora 

auloporoidea 72 

.» commensalis 70 

fascicularis 70, 74 

frutectosa 72 

intermedia 72, 74 

nobilis 71 



INDEX TO PLATES. v [\ 

HALYSITES Plates. 

catenulatus 67 

s nexus 67 

NlCHOLSOXIA 

/ adnata 78 

y angulata 80 

^ canadensis 51, 73, 80 

RoMIXGERIA 

•fasciculata 75 

- incrustans 73, 74, 75, 76 

umbellifera 75, 76 

/ uva 75 

y vannula 75 

Striatopora 

s alba , 64 

huronensis 51, 64 

linnseana 64 

Syrixgopora 

bouchardi 68 

hisingeri 68, 76 

perelegans 69 

/ straminea 68, 76 

tabulata 68 

tubiporoides 49, 69 



yiij INDEX TO PLATES. 



ZOANTHARIA RUGOSA. 



CYATHOPHYLLIDiE. 

ACROPHYLLUM Plates. 

/clarki 97, 102 

y ellipticum 94 

oneidaense 94 

Amplexus 

shumardi 132, 138 

AULACOPHYLLUM 

y conigerum 97, 102 

insigne 95 

mutabile 96 

/parvum 95, 101 

sulcatum , 95 

/unguloideum 95 

Blothrophyllum 

approximatum 99 

/cinetutum 99, 100, 101 

y corium 81, 101 

decorticatum 98, 99 

liratum 97, 102 

louisvillense .99, 100, 101 

niagarense 99 

parvulum 100 

/sessile 99, 100 

y zaphrcntiforme 102 

Calceola 
y proteus 101, 131 



INDEX TO PLATES. j x 

CHONOPHYLLUM Plates. 

magnificum ... 101, 103 

^multiplicatum 78 

S nanuni 80 

Cyathaxonta 

y gainesi 104 

Cyathophyllum 

y brevici >rne 79 

colligatum 91, 92 

coralliferum 83 

corniculum 79 

davidsoni , , 93, 113 

/ detextum 88 

/ethelanum 80 

exiguum 78, 133 

exiguum, varietas elongatum 133 

s timbriatum 82 

flos 78, 83 

/greeni 78, 80, 130 

balli 77, 92 

/ infoveatum 97 

/ insigne 78, 82 

jixvene 79, 80 

ligatum 88 

/■ multicrena 83 

1 multigemmatum 80, 87, 88, 89, 92 

s oedipus 83, 84 

ovoideum 93 

/ pocillum 81, 101 

s pumilus 83, 101 

y pustulosum 78 

radicula 86 



x INDEX TO PLATES. 

CyATHuPHYLLUM — Continued. Plates. 

robustum 85 

rugosum 90, 93 

scyphus 86 

tornatum 80, 86 

/trauthanum 80 

winchelli 83 

Cystiphyllum 

americanum 124 

vcicatriciferum 125 

cuyagaense 80 

vedwinanum 128 

grande 126 

hispidum 127, 129 

/ incurvum 124 

y limbatum 126 

lineatum 128 

/nettelrothi 125 

niagarense 124 

oliioense 125 

os 130 

plicatum 100, 128, 129, 130 

squamosum 125 

sulcatum 125 

■ theissi 128 

'tumidosum 128 

vesiculosum 129 

DlPHYPHYLLUM 

archiaci 108, 112, 113 

/bellis 108, 116 

/ coagulatum 117 

coalesccns 117 



INDEX TO PLATES. x i 

DlPHYPHYLLUM — Continued. Plates. 

conjunctum 116 

gigas 115 

panicum 115 

strictum 114 

vemeuilanum 89, 113 

Eridophyllum 

arundinaceum 112 

/ dividuum 109 

hiironicum 109, 111 

/ eruciforme 107 

rugosum 109, 110 

> sentum 51, 108 

simcoense 112 

Hadrophyllum 

d'Orbignyi 103 

Omphyma 

verrucosa 104, 105 

Phillipsastrea 

gigas 118 

/ ingens , . 118, 119 

Ptychophyllum 

/coniferum 106 

diaphragma 106 

/ invaginatum 105 

/ ipomcea 104, 105 

stokesi 105 

tropceum 106 

typicum 106 



x {[ LNDEX TO PLATES. 

STKOMBOBES Plates. 

incertus 123 

/knotti 120 

mammillaris 123 

pentagonus 121 

pygmceus 123 

/ quadrangularis 122 

sinemurus 121, 122, 123 

striatus 121, 122 

unions . . 122 

Zaphrentis 

compressa 134, 138 

conigera 134, 138 

conulus 133 

/ cornaiba 97 

corniculum 132, 138 

/exilis 134, 138 

s explanata 134 

/ gallicalcar 97 

gigantea 137, 138 

/greenana 78 

/ immanis 80, 138, 139 

s linneyi 133, 138 

/ maconathi 136 

, nettelrothi 97 

nodulosa 130, 134, 138 

y'obliqua 133 

patens 133 

patula 133 

prolifica 135, 138 

radicans 132 

rafinesqui 135, 138 



INDEX TO PLATES. x }jj 

ZaPHREjSTIS — Continued. Plates. 

y reynoldsi 133 

romingeri 78, 135 

scutella s 133 

/ socialis 133 

spongiaxis 132 

trigemma 130 

y torquata 134 

ungula 133, 138 

/Ulrica 132 

' yandelli 135, 138 



PLATE 1. 

Heliolites megastoma. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper surface of a fragment from the stratum of white clay ten feet 

below the passage-beds separating the Niagara and Devonian, 
near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Heliolites interstinctus. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the stratum of white clay seven 

feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of the author. 

4. Under surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay, nesr Louis- 

ville. Collection of the author. 

Heliolites pyriformis. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay, near Louis- 

ville. Collection of the author. 

6. Lateral view of a small corallum from the white clay seven feet 

below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Heliolites subtubulatus. Niagara. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum invested by Stromatopora concentrica, 

from the white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

8. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

Plasmopora follis. Niagara. 

9. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Corallets of smaller size than those of typical examples. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Nettelroth. 

10. Lateral view of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Plasmopora elegans. Niagara. 

11. 13. Lateral views of coralla from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

12. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 1. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
PLATE 2. 




^PLATE 2. 

Lyellia glabra. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay nine feet below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Lyellia papillata. Niagara. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay seven feet below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Lyellia puella, Nova Species. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a weathered corallum from the limestone twelve feet 

below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 3. 

Lyellia papillata. Niagara. 

1. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay 

just below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of the author. 

Lyellia Americana. Niagara. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay ten feet below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
PLATE 3. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 4. 




PLATE 4. 

Cladopora labiosa. Middle Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of the upper fronds of a corallum imbedded in 

rock matrix, from the Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Lyellia discoidea, Nova Species. Niagara. 

2. Convex upper surface of a corallum from the white clay, near Lou- 

isville. Collection of the author. [The example figured is ex- 
quisitely preserved, but its color seems to have prevented good 
photographic delineation.] 

3. Plane upper surface of a corallum, found near Louisville. Collection 

of Dr. J. Knapp. 

Lyellia papillata. Niagara. 

4. Lateral view of a weathered corallum showing the vesiculose ccenen- 

chyma, found near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cgexites lamixata. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a weathered corallum from the white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Ccexites crassa. Niagara. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay just below the 

Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 



PLATE 5. 

Columnopora rayi, Nov. Spec. Hudson River Group. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum found in Nelson county. Collection of 

the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the same locality. Collection of the 

author. 

Columnopora cribriformis. Hudson River Group. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum found in Nelson county. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum from the same locality. Collection of 

the author. 

5. View of the under surface of a corallum from which the epitheca has 

been removed, showing diaphragms and mural pores; from Nelson 
county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE S. 



... 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE B. 




PLATE 6. 

Colttmxopora. rati, Nov. Spec. Hudson River Group. 

1. Lateral view of the corallum figured in Plate 5, Fig. 1. 

Columxopora cribriformis. Hudson River Group. 

2. Lateral view of a pyriform corallum found in Nelson county. Collec- 

tion of the author. 

Columnaria alveolata. Hvdson River Group. 

3. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum found in Nelson countv. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 7. 

Columnaria stellata. Hudson River Group. 

1. Vertical section of a corallurn found in Trimble county. Collection 

of the author. 

Columnaria alveolata. Hudson River Group. 

2. Longitudinal section of a corallurn found near Fisherville, Jefferson 

county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 7. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 8. 











PLATE 8. 

Favosites favosus. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous clay, near Louis- 

ville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

2. Longitudinal section of an example whose corallets are smaller, found 

in the same horizon and locality. Collection of the author. 

Favosites niagarensis. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum, composed of very small corallets, show- 

ing spinulous walls; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

4. Upper surface of an example, composed of the largest sized corallets, 

with smooth walls ; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites Forbesi. Niagara. 

5. Upper sui'face of a large corallum found near Louisville. Collection 

of Mr. McConathy. 

6. View of epithecated under surface of a corallum of average size ; near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites spongilla. Niagara. 

7. 8. 9. Lateral views of coralla found near Louisville. Collection of 

the author. 



PLATE 9. 

Favosites cristatus. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered corallum from the ferruginous clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. 3. 4. 5. Lateral views of several coralla from the white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites louisvillensis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum found near Louisville. Collection of 

the author. 

Favosites venustus. Niagara. 

7. Epithecated under surface of a corallum from the white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 
10. Upper surface of a fragment, showing spinulous walls; from the 
same locality. Collection of the author. 

Favosites discus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Upper surface of a fragment from the white clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

9. Under surface of a corallum, from which the epitheca has been 

eroded ; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 9. 





*- 




8 












7 










KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 10. 




PLATE 10. 

Favosites hemisphericus. Loiver Devonian. 

Lateral view of a portion of a corallum, showing squamous walls; from 
the Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 11. 

Favosites hemisphericus, et varietates. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered example, showing corallet walls incras- 

sated by siliceous deposits during fossilization, from the Middle 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Vertical section of an example from the same locality. Collection of 

the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the same horizon, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

4. Conical section, parallel with the operculous exterior, from the same 

horizon and place. Collection of the author. 

5. 6. Lateral views of sub-bacillate forms, from the upper clay beds of 

the Middle Devonian; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

7. Lateral view of a corallum, whose operculous apex has been flattened 

by attachment to a marine object; from the locality of 5 and 6. 

8. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clays derived from the de- 

composition of the encrinal limestone lying under the shale which 
caps the Devonian; near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

9. Lateral view of a distorted example formed by two sub-bacillate 

forms intimately united; from the horizon of 5 and 6, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
PLATE 11. 



£$?" 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 12. 





^PLATE 12. 

Favosites epidermatus. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites radiatus. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites emmonsi. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. Col- 

lection of the author. 



PLATE 13. 

Favosites radiatus. Devonian. 

Upper surface of a portion of a corallum, showing difference in size of 
the corallets; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Gaines. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 13. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 14. 










PLATE 14. 

Favosites pirum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from tlie Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view (prostrate) of a bacillate form from the same locality. 

Collection of the author. 

Favosites placenta. Devonian. 

3. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clay, derived from the 

encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

Favosites rotundituba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum from the dark red clay of the Upper 

Devonian, underlying the shale beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Favosites mundus, varietas placentoideus, Nov. Var. Devonian. 

b. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 15. 

Favosites pirum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum from the same locality, showing a por- 

tion of the epithecated under surface and some of the corallets in 
longitudinal section. Collection of the author. 

3. View of the epithecated under surface of a corallum; also showing 

the squamous walls of the corallets; from the ferruginous red 
clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Favosites proximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (inverted) of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

5. Lateral view of a fiexuous form from the same locality. Collection 

of the author. 

6. Lateral view of a sub-ramous corallum from the same locality. Col- 

lection of the author. 

Favosites spiculatus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 15. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 16. 





PLATE 16. 

Favosites tuberosus. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum of typical shape from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Similar view of a corallum from the same locality and horizon, show- 

ing opercula closing the orifices of some of the corallets. Collec- 
tion of Mr. Gaines. 

3. Lateral view of upper portion of a specimen from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Favosites ocellatus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum from the upper strata of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 17. 

Favosites amplissimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

2. View of a portion of the under surface of a corallum from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 17. 








KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 18. 




v/ 

PLATE 18. 

Favosites quercus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 19. 

Favosites quercus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum of medium size from the Lower Devonia i, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites ramulosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Views of two fronds from the upper portion of coralla from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites tuberosus. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum of bacillate shape from the upper strata 

of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Net- 
telroth. - 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 19. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 20. 





PLATE 20. 

Fatosites radiciformis. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum, whose older corallets have their tubes 

closed by opercula; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view (prostrate) of a corallum, split at the upper end so as to 

show a longitudinal section of the corallets; from the same horizon 
and locality. Collection of the author. 

3. Latei'al view of a jejune frond; corallets extraordinarily small; 

horizon two feet above that of examples 1 and 2; Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 



\J 

PLATE 21. 

Favosites baculus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. Lateral views of three several coralla from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Zaphrentis exigua, it will be remarked, is 
attached to the matrix in which example 3 is imbedded. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

4. Longitudinal section of the upper portion of a small corallum from 

the same horizon and place. Collection of the author. 

Favosites digitatus. Devonian. 

5. Portion of a corallum from the dark red clay of the encrinal lime- 

stone underlying the shale which separates the Devonian and 
Sub-carboniferous formations, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 21. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
PLATE 22. 







PLATE 22. 

Favosites arbor, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Lateral view of the upper fronds of a corallum twenty-eight inches long, 
from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. The entire left frond is 
incrusted with Stromatopora granulata; on its end appears a basal 
expansion of Favosites limitaris. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 23. 

Favosites arboe, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a fragment of a frond from the Lower Devonian 
strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 



Favosites cymosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

4. Lateral view of a corallum from the same place and horizon as 

example 3. Collection of the author. 

5. Lateral view (prostrate) of a "sprout," or cyme, of uncommonly 

elongated growth, from the horizon and locality of example 2. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 23. 







' «- - 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 24. 




/ 

PLATE 24. 

Favosites frutex, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper portion of a frond from the same place and horizon. Collec- 

tion of the author. 

Favosites cristatus, varietas major. Niagara. 

3. Lateral view of a fragment with squamous walls, from the white clay 

of the upper Niagara strata, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. 
^McConathy. 

Favosites impeditus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. 5. Lateral views of coralla from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites clelandi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of a portion of the upper surface of a corallum from the Lower 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 25. 

Favosites goodwini, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

The two examples in the lower right corner are coralla of compact, non- 
ramous growth. Lateral views of them are exhibited. 

A view of the upper surface of a corallum is presented in the figure 
occupying the upper right corner. 

The views offered by the other examples are lateral. 

Found in the encrinal limestone, and the dark red clay derived there- 
from, lying just below the shale of the Upper Devonian. Collection 
of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 25. 



) 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 26. 




PLATE 26. 

Fayosites eximius, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the dark red encrinal limestone clay 

of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Favosites fustiformis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum, showing the tubes of some corallets in 

section and the epithecal secretion on the outside of walls where 
new departures of growth occur; from the Lower Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum, with base incrusting a fragment of a 

frond of Cladopora expatiata; from the horizon and locality of 
example 2. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 27. 
Michelinia insignis. Devonian. 

1. View of the epithecatecl under surface of a corallum, showing the 

semi-cylindrical shape of the outer walls ; to the left of the center 
several of the corallets become temporarily disjunct, but again 
unite with their neighbors by approximation; from the encrinal 
limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Favosites convexus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. View of the under surface of a corallum from which the epitheca is 

removed so as to show the mural pores and squamous walls; from 
the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

3. (Central small sjDecimen.) View of the under surface of a small 

corallum, covered with a deeply-wrinkled epitheca ; from the Lower 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites mundtjs, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum in which the larger sub-rotund tubes are 

more regularly recurring than is common; from the blue clay of 
the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites rotundituba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the encrinal limestone clay just 

below the shale of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

Favosites proximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Upper surface of a corallum of expanded discoidal shape, composed 

of corallets whose tubes are above average size; from the ferru- 
ginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection 
of Dr. Knapp. 

Favosites eximius, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Lateral view of a corallum of turbinate form, from the dark red 

encrinal limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 27. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 28. 





TLATE 28. 

Favosites muxdus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Lateral view of a corallum, the tubes of many of whose corallets are 

closed with opercula; from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites peoximus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a sub-ramous corallum, in some of whose tubes 

appear imperfect opercula; a basal expansion of Favosites clausus 
is attached to its upper portion; from the Lower Devonian strata, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 29. 

Favosites canadensis. Devonian. 

1. 2. Upper surface of fragments of coralla having the common form, 
from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum of rarely digitate growth, from the hori- 
zon and locality of the preceding examples. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 29. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 30. 




PLATE 30. 



Favosites limitaeis. Devonian. 

Lateral view of a corallum (two thirds of the natural size) from the 
Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 31. 

Favosttes limitaris. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of the upper fronds of a corallum, partly freed from its 

matrix, in which the corallets at their orifices are more oblique to 
the axis than is common; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Favosites cariosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view (prostrate) of the base and trunk of a corallum, 

from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 31. 




w 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 32. 




J 

PLATE 32. 

Favosites cariosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Rear lateral view of the base and trunk of the example figured in 

Plate 31. 

2. Rear lateral view of a typically marked fragment of a frond, artifi- 

cially attached to the matrix of example 3 for delineation; from 
the horizon and locality of the preceding specimen. Collection of 
the author. 

4. Front lateral view of a fragment from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Favosites ixtertextus. Devonian. 

3. Lateral views of portions of fronds imbedded in the matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian. Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Favosites emmonsi. Devonian. 

5. Vertical section of a fragment (prostrate) showing the squamous 

tubes and incomplete tabula? proper to the species; from the 
Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Michelixia cylixdrica. Devonian. 

6. Longitudinal section of a fragment showing the complicated sub-ves- 

icular tabulae; from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 



PLATE 33. 

Favosites cavernosus. " Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of the base and fronds of a nearly perfect corallum, from 

the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Well preserved fragment from the same horizon, east of Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 

3. 4. 5. Fragments such as are commonly obtained, with walls abnor- 

mally inerassated; from the encrinal limestone clay of the Upper 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 33. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 34. 




PLATE 34. 

Thecia major. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum, gathered from its rock matrix twenty- 

five feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 

2. Under surface of a corallum, covered with an epitheca, from the white 

clay five feet below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niagara strata, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Thecia minor. Niagara. 

4. Upper surface of a portion of a corallum from the upper white clay 

beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
7. Upper surface of calcified tube-casts of a corallum [Labechia con- 
ferta]. 
Thecia swixdeknana. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a fragment from the upper red clay strata, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Upper surface of portion of a corallum from the white clay eight 

feet below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Thecia vetusta. Hudson River Group. 

8. Upper surface of a corallum incrusting Streptorhyncus planum- 

bonus, near Milton, Ky. Collection of the author. 

9. 10. Similar views of coralla from the same horizon and locality. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



PLATE 35. 

Thecia ramosa. Devonian, 

1. Lateral view of a nearly perfect corallum from the Lower Devonian. 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

[Note.— The apex of growth of this example is just above the figure 1.] 

2. Upper portion of a frond (inverted) from the same horizon and place. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 35. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 3B. 




PLATE 36. 

Michelinia cylixdeica. Devonian. 

Upper surface of a corallum from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 37. 

Michelinia favositoidea. Devonian. 

Upper surface of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

[Note. — With a lens of low power observe the papillose surface of the tabula and of the walls, the 
latter dotting the longitudinal ridges. The author recommends the use of a double-convex lens, with 
a power of about two diameters, in examining all the illustrations of this work. Viewed with such 
a lens, all characteristic structural details will appear as they seem in the fossil itself, and "an atmos- 
phere" so invests the figure that it may be studied almost as advantageously as the natural object.] 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 37. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 38. 






t^ ■■'■ —< ' 4>r^-^£ 



**5 




KM 






PLATE 38. 

Michelinia plana, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the encrinal limestone clay of the 

Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Under surface of a corallum, with epitheca partially preserved, from 

the yellow clay of the Upper Devonian, near Crab Orchard, Ky. 
Collection of the author. 

Michelixia favositoidea. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 39. 

Michelinia corrugata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Michelinia niagarensis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Portion of the upper surface of a corallum from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Michelinia prima, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. Upper surface of a weathered specimen, in which the walls of the 

several corallets are seen separated; from the white clay of the 
Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

4. Artificially attached to Figure 6 is a corallum whose lateral view 

showing epitheca is presented. Not photographed satisfactorily 
on account of its color. From the same horizon, near Louis- 
ville, as example 3. Collection of the author. 

5. Upper surface of a fragment showing tube-walls delicately spinulous, 

in exquisite preservation; from the same horizon and place as the 
preceding example. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Michelinia plana, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Lateral view of a corallum from the dark red clay beds derived from 

the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Michelinia insignis. Devonian. 

7. Upper surface of a corallum whose corallets have thinner walls than 

the average specimen; from the encrinal limestone clay of the 
Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 39. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 40. 




PLATE 40. 

Michelinia prima, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Under surface of corallum previously figured in Plate 39; Fig. 4. 

Michelixia plana, Nov. Spec. . Devonian. 

2. Longitudinal section of a fragment from which the tabula? are removed 

so as to show the mural pores; from the encrinal limestone clay 
of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Longitudinal section of a fragment showing tabula? ; from the horizon 

and locality of the preceding example. Collection of the author. 

Michelixia insignis. Devonian. 

4. Oblique view of the upper surface of a corallum, from the encrinal 

limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the horizon and locality of example 

4. Collection of the author. 

6. Vertical section of a corallum, showing tabula?, from the same horizon 

and locality as the preceding examples. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 41. 

Michelixia clappi. Devonian. 

1. Vertical section of a fragment, showing the tabulate septa extrane- 
ous to the coi'allets' Avails ; from the ferruginous clay of the Mid- 
dle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
2. Upper surface of a fragment from the same horizon as example 1, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Peocterta (Nov. Gen.) michelinoidea, N. S. Devonian. 

3. 4. Upper surfaces of coralla. 

5. Lateral view of a corallum. 

6. Under surface of a corallum, showing the papillose exothecal secre- 

tion. 

7. 9. Under surfaces of fragments, showing the radiation of corallets 

from the central apex. 

10. Under surface of a corallum, from which a portion of the papillose 

exothecal secretion is removed, so as to show the mural pores 
perforating the epitheca. 
12. 13. 14. Views of tube-casts and pore-casts similar to those observed 
in Pleurodictyum problematicum. 
All the above examples are from the decomposed hornstone of the 
Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

8. Under surface of a fragment from the limestone on which rests the 

uppermost chert layer of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

11. Under surface of a corallum from which a portion of the exothecal 

layer has been removed, so as to disclose a tube-cast beneath; 
from the horizon and locality of example 3. Collection of Mr. 
McConathy. 

Procteria papillosa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

15. Upper surface of a corallum, showing papillose exothecal layer sur- 

mounting the corallets' walls. 

16. Under surface of a corallum, showing papillose exothecal secretion 

and the concave margins of the outer walls of the prostrate 
corallets. 

17. Lateral view of a corallum. 

19. Upper surface of a small corallum with thinner walls than the 
average. 

18. 20. 21. Under surfaces of coralla. 

All the forms of this species have been found in the decomposed 
chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. The examples 
figured are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 41. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 42. 




y 

PLATE 42. 

Michemnia clappi. Devonian. 

1. Oblique lateral view of a corallum from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the same locality and horizon. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

4. Lateral view of the example figured in Plate 41, Fig. 2. 
The specimens figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 43. 

Alveolites constans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the red clay of the Lower Devonian, 

near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites squamosus. Devonian. 

2. 3. Upper surfaces of coralla from the horizon of the preceding species, 

near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites minimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 43. 



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c ;^l^%i 



KAf: 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 44. 




PLATE 44. 

Alveolites scaxdularis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment of a corallum from the encrinal lime- 

stone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of 
the author. 

lites goldfussi. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the horizon of A. scandularis 

CFipr. 1), near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites minimus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 45. 

Alveolites mordax, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallura from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 
2 Lateral view of a small corallum, with corallets of the smallest size, 

from the same horizon, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 45. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 46. 




PLATE 46. 

Ccenites veeticillata. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of the cylindrical portion of a corallum. 

3. Lateral view (prostrate) of the cylindrical portion of a corallum, with 
a vertieillate expansion. 

2. 4. Under surfaces of expanded vertieillate plates. 

These examples are from the ferruginous clay of the Upper Niagara, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites louisvillensis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the white clay of the Upper 

Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Upper surface of a weathered corallum, from the same horizon and 

locality. Collection of the author. 

Alveolites xiagarexsis. Niagara. 

7. Upper surface of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white clay, 

near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Alveolites fibeosus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Upper surface of a corallum from the Upper Niagara clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Milleeia (Nov. Gen.) lamixata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

9. Oblique view of the upper surface and side of a corallum, showing 

the successive thin laminar expansions; from the Upper Niagara 
ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 47. 

Cladopora reticulata. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, 

thirteen feet below the "Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. View of a corallum, with its apex of growth centrally situated, and its 

fronds radiating in all directions therefrom; found in the horizon 
of example 1, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY] 

PLATE 47. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 43. 




PLATE 48. 

CLADOPORA ACULEATA, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora ordixata, Xov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Lateral view of a small fragment from the same horizon as C. acu- 

leata, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora proboscidalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. Lateral view of a fragment from the same horizon and place as the 

preceding species. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora mexis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

-A. Lateral view of the upper portion of a frond showing the tricho- 
tomous branching; from the horizon and neighborhood of the 
examples preceding. Collection of the author. 

5. Pedicle of a corallum with a portion of the trunk; from the horizon 

and place of example 4. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora striata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Lateral view of several fronds of a corallum, from the horizon of the 

above examples. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Cladopora equisetalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Several fronds springing from the same base; from the same horizon 

as the above. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Cladopora laqueata. Niagara. 

8. Corallum. pedicle wanting, from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

9. Nearly entire corallum from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louis- 

ville. Partly invested by Stromatopora concentrica. Collection 
of Mr. Nettelroth. 



PLATE 49. 

Cladopora complanata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Lateral view (half inverted) of a portion of a frond from the Upper 

Niagara white clay, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cladopora aculeata, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Lateral view (half inverted) of a portion of a corallum, from the 

horizon and place where the preceding specimen was gathered. 
Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Syresgopora tubiporoides. Devonian. 

3. Section of several corallets, partly imbedded in the rock matrix, 

showing the conical invaginating diaphragms; from the Lower 
Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 
Favosites clausus. Devonian. 

4. Portion of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 49. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE SO. 





■v.'V. 



.""■•I'll 







73 1 



' e-v v j 




PLATE 50. 

Cladopora aspera. Devonian. 

1. Front kiteral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora expatiata. Devonian. 

2. Portions of fronds with part of pedicle, from the ferruginous clay of 

the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Front lateral view of a corallum (prostrate) from the Lower Devo- 

nian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 51. 

Cladopora dentata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Under surface of basal expansion and rear lateral view of portions 

(if fronds of a coralkun from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cladopora francisct, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front Lateral view of fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Striatopora huronensis. Niagara. 

3. Fragment imperfectly freed from the matrix ; from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Eridophyllum sentum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. Lateral view of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Upper 

Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Lyellia puella, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Nicholsonia (Nov. Gen.) canadensis. Devonian. 

6. Corallum incrusting Spirifera oweni, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 



" 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 51. 



' I .,,>-■• ■ 








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*&1 






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■ : 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 52. 




PLATE 52. 

Cladopora bifurca, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Portion of a corallum investing Favosites ramulosus, from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora crvptodens. Devonian. 

2. Dichotomously branching example, from the Lower Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. Frond (inverted) from the same horizon and locality. Collection of 

the author. 

4. Fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 

Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora billixgsi. Devonian. 

•5. Fragment (inverted) from the Lower Devonian clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 
Cladopora alpexexsis. Devonian. 

6. Fragment from the horizon and place of example 5. 

Cladopora acupicta, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. 8. Portions of fronds from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 

Cladopora desquamata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. Portion of a corallum with its pedicle attached to the interior of 
the calyx of Zaphrentis ungula, from the Lower Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 53. 

Cladopoea imbricata. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. Fronds of different sizes and modes of growth. 
4. Pedicle of a corallum from which fronds are beginning to spring. 
The examples are from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio, and 
belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 53. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 54. 









■ 






40 






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PLATE 54. 

Cladopora pinguis. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

2. Basal expansion with portions of fronds, from the red clay of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

3. Basal expansion with portions of fronds, from the encrinal limestone 

dark red clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cladopora rcemeri. Devonian. 

4. 5. 6. Fragments found in the red clay of the Lower Devonian, near 

Louisville. 
The examples figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 55. 

Ci.adopora pingttis. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

2. Upper surface of a basal expansion, showing corallets of different 

sizes; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. Front lateral view of the pedicle with portions of fronds, showing 

differently sized corallets; from the horizon and neighborhood of 
example 2. Collection of the author. 
Cladopora roemeri. Devonian. 

4. Fragment from the Lower Devonian red clay, near Louisville. Col- 

lection of Dr. Knapp. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 55. 




•"^'••••'.■•.'^'"ii 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 56. 



■••^^S^i^v 




PLATE 56. 

Cladopora rcemeri. Devonian. 

1. Corallum (prostrate) partly imbedded in its matrix; from the Lower 

Devonian strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora bifurca, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Upper fronds of a corallum partly imbedded in its rock matrix ; from 

the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 57. 

Cladopoea tela, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a portion of the base and fronds of a nearly 

perfect cofallum, from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora fibrata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view of the reticulating fronds of a fragment, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 57. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 58. 




* V &P 



PLATE 58. 

Cladopora radula, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. (Upper specimen.) Front Lateral view of a corallnm, pedicle Avant- 

ing, invested by Stromatopora texilis ; from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora robusta. Devonian. 

2. Front lateral view (prostrate) of a frond from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora acupicta, Nov. spec. Devonian. 

3. (Lower specimen.) Fronds (inverted) partly imbedded in rock ma- 

trix. Projecting from the matrix, in the lower right corner, are 
the terminal branches of a frond of Favosites ramulosus. A calyx 
of Ptychophyllum coniferum appears in. the same matrix. From 
the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 59. 

Cladopora rimosa. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a eorallum eommensally attached to Stroma t- 

opora texilis; from the manganese limestone of the Lower Devo- 
nian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

2. Fragment from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 

3. (Upper central specimen.) Pedicle with parts of fronds from the red 

clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Cladopora labiosa. Devonian. 

•i. 5. (Specimens above and to the left of 3.) Fronds from the red clay 
of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora alpexexsis. Devonian. 

6. (Upper left corner.) Trichotomously ramous frond from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of 
the author. 

Cladopora pulchra. Devonian. 

7. (Lower specimen.) Fronds partly imbedded in rock matrix, from 

the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Mc- 
Conathy. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 59. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 60. 









v.'j" 
3s 



m 




PLATE 60. 

lTYAXUM (Nov. (.Ten.) turgidum. Devonian. 

1. 2. Fragments showing front lateral views, from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Xov. Gen.) fischeri. Devonian. 

3. Fragment showing front lateral view, from the Lower Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Xov. Gen.) caxadense. Devonian. 

4. Front lateral view of fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

5. Rear lateral view of fragment from dark-red encrinal limestone clay 

of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Platyaxum (Xov. Gen.) uxdosum, Xov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Front lateral view of a fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 
The examples herein figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 61. 

Cladopora dispansa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a cymous corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

2. Lateral view of a cyme of unusual altitude, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of example 1. 

3. Under surface of a fragment of typical growth, from the horizon and 

vicinage of examples 1 and 2. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gren.) corioideum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Front lateral view (prostrate) of a portion of a frond from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. The inner walls of the corallets of 
the rear side are seen springing from the plane axis in the left 
lower corner of the specimen. 
These specimens belong to the private collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 61. 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 62. 




PLATE 62. 

Cladopora dispansa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a sub-cymous corallum from the Lower Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora crassa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

'2. Upper surface of a fragment of typical growth. 

3. Upper surface of a specimen with corallets less erect than those of 
the preceding example. 
Both specimens from the Lower Devonian strata, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 63. 

Cladopora dextata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Front lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of 

the Ohio. 

2. Fragment of a frond from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. 

3. Portion of a pedicle obtained in situ two feet above the horizon of 

example 1, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cladopora ricta, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Rear view of a fragment showing fronds laterally joined by approxi- 

mation. 

5. Front lateral view of the base of an example. 

Both specimens gathered from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of 
the Ohio. 

Platyaxum (Nov. Gen.) foliatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Front lateral view of the lower half of a corallum from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Dexdropora orxata. Devonian. 

7. Side view of a corallum from the dark-red clay derived from the 

decomposition of the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, 
near Louisville. 

Dexdropora proboscidalis. Devonian. 

8. (Artificially attached, for convenient photographic delineation, to the 

side of the Cyathophyllum imbedded in the rock matrix of C. 
Dentata, Fig. 1.) Frond from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 63. 



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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 64. 











PLATE 64. 

Cladopora iowensis. Devonians 

1. 2. 3. 4. Fragments from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. In 
Fig. 3 the specimen is inverted. Collection of the author. 

Striatopora huroxexsis. Niagara. 

5. Fragment from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Col- 

lection of the author. 

6. Front side view of an eroded specimen, showing mural pores and 

faint longitudinal striae, from the white clay of the Upper Niagara. 
Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Striatopora linn^eana. Devonian. 

7. Fragment (prostrate) from the Lower Devonian rocks two feet above 

the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 

8. Fragment (prostrate) from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 

nian, near Louisville. Occurring in a horizon eight feet above 
that of example 7. Collection of the author. 

Striatopora alba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. 10. 11. Portions of fronds from the red clay beds of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora gracilis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

12. 13. Fronds from the rotten chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls of 
the Ohio. Example 12 is artificially attached to the matrix of 
example 13. The latter fails to photograph satisfactorily because 
of its color. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 65. 

Dendropora elegantula. Devonian. 

1. Portion of a frond partly imbedded in its rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Dendropora alternans. Devonian. 

2. Fragment from the red clay of the encrinal limestone of the Upper 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Dendropora neglecta. Devonian. 

3. 4. 5. Fragments from the horizon and vicinage of D. alternans. 

Dendropora ornata. Devonian. 

6. Fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louis- 

ville. 

Dendropora osculata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. 8. 9. Fragments from the horizon and vicinage of D. alternans. 

10. Two fronds inosculating or joining by approximation ; from the same 

place. 

11. Portion of a basal expansion with parts of fronds intimately united; 

from the horizon and neighborhood of the preceding specimens 
of the species. 
The examples herein figured belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 65. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 66. 




PLATE 66. 

Dexdropoba osculata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Front lateral view of a portion of a corallum of great size, showing 
the base and the fronds disjunct and again anastomosing; from the 
upper strata of the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Col- 
lection of the author. 



PLATE 67. 

Halysites catenulatus. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of a portion of a corallum, in which the corallets are 

of average size; from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Upper surface of a fragment whose corallets are below the medium 

size; from the ferruginous clay of the- Upper Niagara, near Lou- 
isville. Collection of the author. 

3. Upper surface of a jejune corallum, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of example 2. 

Halysites nexus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. Oblkpie lateral view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, two feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage-beds, near 
Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

5. Upper surface of a divaricating chain, imbedded in its chert matrix; 

from the ferruginous clay of the Upper Niagara, just below the 
passage-beds above referred to, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 67. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 68. 








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PLATE 68. 

Syeixgopoba hisixgebi. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a fragment from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Syeixgopoba stbamixea, Nov. Spec. __ Devonian. 

2. (Upper right specimen.) Lateral view of a fragment whose horizon 

is about one foot lower than the lowest stratum in which S. 
hisingeri is found ; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devo- 
nian, near Louisville. 

Syeixgopoba tabulata. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view and also an oblicpie view of the upper surface of a 

fragment from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louis- 
ville. 

Syeixgopoba bouchaedi. Devonian. 

4. Under surface of a corallum whose appressed corallets indicate the 

form of the marine object to which the incipient community was 
attached; from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

5. Upper surface of a corallum incrusting Cyathophyllum corniculum, 

from the upper rock strata of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 69. 

Syringopora tubiporoides. Devonian. 

1. Oblique view of the Upper surface of a corallum from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

3. Basal expansion incrusting Favosites emmonsi, from the Lower De- 

vonian red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Syringopora perelegans. Devonian. 

4. Oblique section of a corallum from the upper strata of the Lower 

Devonian group of rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

5. Variety (inverted) from the same locality as example 4, but whose 

horizon is a little higher, showing more widely separated corallets, 
and more remote processes of connection. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 69. 




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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 70. 




2 








PLATE 70. 

Drymopora (Nov. Gen.) fascicularis. Niagara and Devonian. 

1. Lateral view (inverted) of a fragment from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. 

2. Base of a corallum attached to Stromatopora concentrica; from the 

Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Portion of a corallum invested by Stromatopora, from the ferruginous 

clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

4. Portion of a corallum similarly inclosed, from the manganese lime- 

stone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Drymopora commensalis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Vertical section of a corallum growing in commensality with Stro- 

matopora texilis, as it is the habit of the species to do with some 
form of Stromatopora ; most of the corallets appear larger than 
their proper size because of their investiture ; from the manganese 
limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. * 

6. 7. Upper surfaces of coralla, the orifices of the corallets showing at 

the surfaces of the sarcodemes; from the ferruginous clay of the 
Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
All from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 71. 

Drtmopora nobilis. Devonian. 

1 . Lateral view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum, from the same horizon and place. 

3. Upper surface of a corallum of procumbent habit; from the same 

place. 

4. Basal corallets of a young community, attached to Cyathophyllum 

halli; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near 
Louisville. 
Examples from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 71. 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 72. 





PLATE 72. 

Drymopora auloporoidea, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2. 3. -i. Front lateral views of corallets of prolific habit. 

5. Lateral views of two inosculating coralla. 

6. 10. 11. Coralla of biserial growth. 

7. 8. Examples of quadriserial growth. 
9. A triserial form. 

12. Basal corallets of a jejune community, attached to the upper surface 

of a Chetetes. 
Examples 1-11 are found in the encrinal limestone dark red clay 
of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. Specimen 12 was 
gathered from the rotten chert of the Middle Devonian, Falls 
of the Ohio. 

Drymopora frutectosa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Upper surface of a corallum composed of large corallets. 

14. Upper surface of a corallum wdiose corallets are of medium size. 

15. Under surface of a corallum. 

16. Front lateral view of a corallum. 

All from the horizon and vicinage of D. auloporoidea, Figs. 1-11. 

Drymopora intermedia. Devonian. 

17. Rear lateral view of corallets invested by Stromatopora granulata, 

from the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Specimen 1 belongs to the collection of Mr. Gaines. The other 
sj)ecimens herein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 73. 

Aulopora edithana. Devonian. 

1. Corallum incrusting the dorsal valve of Strophomena hemispherica, 

from the rotten hornstone of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Ro.mixgeria incrustans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Corallum, somewhat eroded, incrusting Cyathophyllum pocillum. 

3. Under surface and lateral view of a corallum. 

4. Upper surface of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

Atlopora pygmcea, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

5. Corallum incrusting Thecia swindernana, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. 

6. Example incrusting Stromatopora concentrica, from the Upper Ni- 

agara red clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Aulopora cornuta. Devonian, 

7. Corallum incrusting interior and margin of calyx of Cyathophyllum 

corniculum, from, the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Col- 
lection of the author. 

8. Corallum incrusting fragment of Cyathophyllum scyphus, from the 

Upper Devonian dark red encrinal limestone clay, near Louis- 
ville. Collection of Mr. Graines. 

Aulopora culmula, Nov. Spec. Devonian, 

9. Corallum incrusting a jejune frond of Favosites clausus, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Nicholsonia (Nov. Gen.) canadensis. Devonian. 

10. 11. Corallets incrusting a Fenestella, from the rotten chert of the 
Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 
[The corals and bryozoa both being white, the photographic deline- 
ation of the former is unsatisfactory, although the examples are 
good.] 

Aulopora procumbens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

12. Corallets incrusting a species of Stromatopora, from the Lower 

Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

13. Corallets similarly incrusting Stromatopora, from the horizon and 

place of example 12. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 73. 







■ 



V* 






- - _: 








KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 74. 



r " - -JT 




PLATE 74. 

ArLoroRA serpens. Devonian. > 

1. (Upper left-hand specimen.) Corallets incrusting under surface of 

Stromatopora texilis, from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of. the 
Ohio. 

2. Corallets incrusting a fragment of Favosites, from the Lower Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

Drymopora intermedia. Devonian. 

3. View of the corallum figured in Plate 72. 

4. Basal corallets attached to a fragment of Favosites canadensis, from 

the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Romingeria incrustans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. Corallets incrusting a frond of Claclopora cryptodens, from the Lower 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Diorychopora (Nov. Gen.) tenuis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Corallum (inverted) from the Upper Niagara white clay, near Lou- 

isville. 

Drymopora fascicularis. Devonian. 

7. Fragment from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collected 

by Dr. Theiss. 

Cladopora francisci. Devonian. 

8. Upper fronds of a corallum from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. 
The specimens herein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 75. 

Romingeria vannula, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface of corallets from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

2. Similar view of corallets from the same horizon and locality. Col- 

lection of Mr. Gaines. 

5. Similar view of corallets attached to a Favosites, from a lower 

horizon of the same group, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

3. Under surface of two inosculated cymes, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Romingeria uva, Nov. Spec. Niagara and Devonian. 

6. Basal corallets incrusting a Fenestella frond, from the rotten chert 

of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the 
author. 

7. Corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay stratum three feet 

below the passage-beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Romingeria umbellifera. Devonian. 

A. Upper surface of two cymes, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

8. Fragment showing verticillate sprouts, from the Lower Devonian 

red clay. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

9. Similar fragment from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the 

Ohio. Collection of the author. 
10. 11. 12. Fragments from the horizon and place of example 9. Col- 
lection of the author. 

13. Jejune corallets from the same place. Collection of the author. 

Romingeria fasciculata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

14. 15. 16. Lateral views of corallets from the decomposing chert of 

the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
18. Upper surface of corallets from the same place. 
Collection of the author. 

Romingeria incrustans, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. Corallets incrusting Cladopora imbricata, from the LoAver Devo- 
nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 75. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 76. 




PLATE 76. 

Romingeeia umbellifera. Devonian. 

1. Real' lateral view of verticillate umbels, showing spinulous inner- 

walls, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection 
of the author. 

Romingeria ixcrustaxs, Nov.'Spec. Devonian. 

2. Corallum incrusting Zaphrentis gregaria, from the Middle Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

Aulopora edithaxa. Devonian. 

3. Corallum attached to Favosites hemisphericus, from the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Syrixgopora hisixgeri. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view (inverted) of example figured in Plate 68, Fig. 1. 

Syrixgopora stramixea, Nov. Spec. . Devonian. 

5. Upper surface of corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of 

the Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Cladopora desquamata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Corallum partly imbedded in matrix, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 77. 

Cyathophyllum halli. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view of corallum, from which the epitheca is worn; 

from the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 77. 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 78. 




PLATE 78. 

Axtholites (Nov. Gen.) speciosus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the dark-red clay 

derived from the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, 
near Louisville. 

2. Sectional view of the same specimen, showing avitous corallets 

attached to a crinoid column. 

Cyathophylltjm pustulosum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Oblique front and right lateral view of a corallum of typical shape 

and size. 

4. Calyx of a corallum. 

Found in the vicinage of the antholite, but in a horizon about a foot 
lower. 

Cyathophylltjm insig-ne, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

•5. View of the calyx of a corallum, found associated with the former 
species. 

Choxophylltjm multiplicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian lime- 
stones, Falls of the Ohio. 



Cyathophylltjm exigtjtjm. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a huge corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

clay, near Louisville. 

Cyathophylltjm greexi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Rear lateral view of an adult corallum. 

9. Left lateral view of a weathered example. 
10. A jejune specimen. 

Cut from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 



PLATE 78.— Continued. 

Cyathophyllum flos, Nov. Spec. Niagara and Devonian. 

11. View of the calyx of a proliferous corallum, from the stratum, of 

white clay seven feet below the Niagara and Devonian passage- 
beds, near Louisville. 

12. Central view of a corallum of average size, from the same horizon 

and place. 

13. View of the calyx of a small corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

clay, near Louisville. 

14. View of the calyx of a large corallum, from the red clay of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis greenana, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

15. Right lateral view of a medium-sized corallum. 

16. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis romingeri, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

Nicholsonia (Nov. G-en.) canadensis. Devonian. 

18. Corallets of continuous growth attached to a zaphrentis, from the 

blue clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Nicholsonia adnata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

19. Corallets incrusting a zaphrentis and overrunning a portion of the 

less robust N. canadensis. 
The specimens figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 79. 







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/ 

' PLATE 79. 

Cyathophyllum corniculum. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of corallum of uncommon altitude, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

2. 4. Left lateral views. 
8. 5. Right lateral views. 

6. Central view. 

7. View of calyx. 

8. View of gemmiferous calyx. 

The several coralla are from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum juvene. Devonian. 

9. Central view. 

10. 11. Right lateral views. 

12. View of calyx. 

The several coralla are from the dark-red encrinal limestone clay of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum brevicorne, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Apertural view. 

14. Central view. 

15. 16. Left lateral views. 
17. 18. Views of calyces. 

The coralla are from the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Examples herein figured are from the collection of the author. 



PLATE 80. 

Ctathophyllum torxatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Exterior apertural view of a corallum from the superior stratum 

of the encrinal limestone dark-red clay, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum JUVENE, Devonian. 

2. Right lateral view of a young corallum. 

6. View of the gemmiferous calyx of a corallum. 

7. Apertural view of a corallum of more than average altitude. 

8. Explanate calyx of a corallum of medium size. 

From the horizon and vicinage of examples figured in Plate 79. 

Ctathophyllum ethelaxum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Lateral and apertural-gap view of corallum of slender, tortuous 

growth. 
5. Oblique anterior view of a corallum of medium size. 

Found from three to four feet below the shale which caps the 
Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Ctathophyllum trauthaxum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum of average size. 
Associated with C. ethelanum. 

Cystiphyllum cuyagaexse. Devonian. 

9. Right lateral view of corallum with flattened apex. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both examples from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Choxophyllum nanum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

11. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

12. Similar view of a corallum of unsymmetrical growth above medium 

size. 

13. View of the calyx of a small corallum. 

From the dark-red clay of the Upper Devonian encrinal limestone, 
near Louisville 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE SO. 




■ijr* 



PLATE 80.— Continued. 

Cyathophyllum gkeeni, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian, Falls 

of the Ohio. 

s 

Xicholsonia canadensis. Devonian. 

15. Corallets attached to Stromatopora, from the Middle Devonian, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Nicholsonia angtjlata, Nov. Spec Devonian. 

16. Corallum incrusting Stromatopora texilis, from the blue clay of the 

Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllitm multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

17. View of confluent calyces of corallets, from the Middle Devonian 

waste, Marion county, Kentucky. 

Zapheentis immanis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

18. Central view and oblique view of calyces of twin coralla, from the 

Middle Devonian clay, near Louisville. 
The examples figured in this plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 81. 

Cyathophyllum focillum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Central view of a rapidly expanding corallum. Collection of Mr. 

McConathy. 

2. Central view of a corallum of typical size and shape. Collection 

of the author. 

3. Calyx of a corallum. Collection of the author. 

5. Corallum of gigantic dimensions, with oblique section of the calyx- 
wall, showing the sub-vesicular cellulose tissue of the interloculi. 
Collection of the author. 
Found in the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Blothrophyllum corium, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Right lateral view of corallum, with apex flattened by attachment 

to an extraneous object, from the Middle Devonian red clay, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 81. 



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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 82. 




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"PLATE 82. 

Cyathophyllum fimbriatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Central view of a flexuous corallum, with epitheca denuded, from 

the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

3. Calyx of a corallum; the figure also shows the margins of some of 

the inferior invaginated calyces; from the Middle Devonian red 
clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 
Cyathophyllum insigne, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Right lateral view of a jejune corallum, with apical scar of attach- 

ment during growth. 



PLATE 83. 

Cyathophyllum multicrexa, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Right lateral view of a corallum of slender habit, from the Middle 

Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

2. Left lateral view of a symmetrical corallum of average size, from 

the same horizon and neighborhood. 

3. Right lateral view of a young corallum, from the blue clay of the 

Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

4. Calyx of a corallum. 

5. Calyx of a very large corallum of which the circular elevated rim 

of the diaphragm has been fortuitously broken down. 
Examples 4 and 5 are from the horizon and locality of example 3. 

Cyathophyllum cedipus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Left lateral view of a small corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

7. Central view of a small corallum. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum of medium size. 

9. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

Examples 7, 8, 9, are from the horizon and vicinage of example 6. 

Cyathophyllum flos, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

10. Calyx view of a corallum from the Upper Niagara white clay, near 

Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum coralliferum. Devonian. 

11. Calyces of corallets, varying in size, imbedded in Stromatopora, as 

is usual with the species; from the blue clay of the Middle 
Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum pumilus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum slightly below medium size, with 

apical scar; from the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls of the 
Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum vvixchelli, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

13. Right lateral view of a corallum of average size, with small cir- 

cular apical scar. 

14. Calyx of a corallum. 

From the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls -of the Ohio. 

The examples figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 83. 




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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 84. 




PLATE 84. 

Cyathophyllum cediptts, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Composite corallum, partly imbedded in rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 85. 

Cyathophyllum eobustum. Devonian. 

1. Adult corallum: left lateral view. 

2. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

3. Calyx of a corallum, the linear edges of whose lamellae are broken 

down so as to show the cellulose inner walls. 

4. Right lateral view of a young corallum. 

5. (Central specimen.) View of calyx and central exterior of an un- 

symmetrical jejune corallum, with well-preserved acute lamellae 

but abnormally shaped diaphragm. 
The examples figured were cut from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 
Example 4 is from the collection of Mr. Gaines; the others from 

the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 85. 





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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 86. 



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PLATE 86. 

Cyathophyllum radicula. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of large corallum, with the gem of an inferior 

calyx still adherent, from the Upper Niagara white clay, v near 
Louisville. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

2. 3. 4. Typically flexuous coralla: example 4 from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, the others from the slightly lower horizon of the white 
clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

5. A sessile corallum, with calycinal gem, from the horizon and neigh- 

borhood of example 4. Collection of the author. 

6. Right lateral view of a stout sessile corallum, with inchoate root- 

like processes of attachment, common to most Niagara cyatho- 
phylloids; from the horizon and locality of example 4. Collec- 
tion of the author. 

Cyathophyllum torxatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Left lateral view of a corallum from the inferior stratum of the 

dark-red eiicrinal-limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

8. Exterior view of a corallum, showing rounded apex and wrinkled 

epitheca, from the horizon and neighborhood of example 7. 
Collection of the author. 

9. Calyx of a corallum, from the same horizon and place. Collection 

of the author. 
10. 11. Left lateral views (prostrate) of unusually long and slender 
coralla, from the horizon and vicinage of the previous examples. 
Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum scyphus. Devonian. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum of geniculated form. 

13. Left lateral view of a corallum of medium size, with circular apical 

scar. 

14. Calyx of a corallum, with gem. From the horizon and vicinage 

of C. tornatum, figured in this Plate. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 87. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. ' Devonian. 

View of exterior apertural side of ancestral corallet. The central 
form is not a corallet of the community, but is held in embrace- 
ment. Cut from the Lower Devonian limestone, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

[Note. — Turn the Plate so as to view it from the right side.] 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 87. 



A~ 

J 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 88. 




PLATE 88. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View along the line of the apertural gap of the ancestral corallet ; 

right and left lateral views of its progeny. From the horizon 
and locality of the specimen figured in Plate 87. 

Cyathophyllum ligatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Right and left lateral views of inosculating gems detached from the 

maternal corallum, with epitheca removed so as to show the con- 
cave interlobular dissepiments. From the Lower Devonian rocks, 
Falls of the Ohio. 
-A. Calyx of a corallum, with bell-shaped wall, from the ferruginous 
clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophyllum detextum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of a corallum (prone), the lower half of which shows the 

exterior right lateral gap-line, and the upper half the exterior 
surface symmetrical with the line of the apertural gap. From 
the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
The specimens figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 89. 

Diphyphyllum verneixilanum. Devonian. 

1. Exterior lateral view of a corallum from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Exterior lateral views of inosculated corallets accidentally broken 

from their parent, from the Middle Devonian waste of Marion 
county, Kentucky. Collection of Mr. Linney. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 89. 




PLATE 91. 

Cyathophyllum colligatum. Devonian. 

1. Under surface of a corallum from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 

Devonian, near Louisville. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the same horizon and neighbor- 

hood. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 31. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 92. 




< 



PLATE 92. 

Cyathophyllum colligatum. Devonian. 

1. Vertical section of specimen Fig. 2, Plate 91. 

Cyathophyllum halli. Devonian. 

2. Calyx of corallum Fig. 1, Plate 77. 

3. Calyx of a corallum of medium size, bell-shaped, from the red clay of 

the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum multigemmatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Three small inosculated gems fortuitously detached from the inferior 

corallet; from the Middle Devonian waste, Lincoln county, Ken- 
tucky. Collection of Mr. Linney. 



PLATE 93. 

Cyathophylltjm ovoideum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Upper surface of a corallum from the decomposed chert of the 

Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cyathophylltjm davidsoni. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface of a corallum from the rotten chert of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum rugositm. Devonian. 

3. Upper surface of a fragment showing cristate calyx-walls, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 93. 








KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 94. 




1 PLATE 94 

Acrophyllum oxeilae^tse. Devonian. 

1. (Oblique) anterior, or central-gap view of a corallum of average 

size, with calyx wall broken so as to sliow the cone-shaped 
diaphragm; from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Right lateral view (prostrate) of a small corallum, more conical 

than the typical specimens. From the horizon and locality of 
the preceding example. 

Acrophyllum ellipticum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Anterior, or central-gap view of a corallum, with wall removed so 

as to show the bottom of the calyx; from the horizon and place 
of C. oneidaense. 
The specimens belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 95. 

Aulacophyllum sulcatum. Devonian. 

1. Anterior, or central-gap view and view of the calyx of a corallum, 

from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Posterior, or apertnral-gap view of a weathered corallum, from the 

Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

[Note. — The arrangement of the lamellae about the line of the apertural-gap may be observed.] 

Aulacophyllum pakvum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the central-gap line and of the calyx of a corallum, from 

the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Aulacot-hyllum unguloideum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5. View of central-gap line and of the calyx of a corallum of medium 

size, from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

[Note. — In this specimen are conspicuously shown the four gaps proper to Cyatliophylloids, and 
the consequent fascicular grouping of the lamellae.] 

6. Similar view of a corallum, in which the central and lateral gaps 

are obscure, but showing the lamella occupying the center of the 
apertural-gap fovea. 

7. Left lateral-gap view of a corallum (prone). This and example 6 

are from the same horizon and place as example 5. 

[Note. — The arrangement of the lamellae about the line of the left lateral gap is noticeable.] 

8. View of the calyx of a weathered corallum, from the Lower Devo- 

nian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

[Note. — In this example some of the lamella? beyond the lateral gaps remain erect, and by their 
co-incidental meeting have the appearance of continuous plications from opposite margins of the wall.] 

AuLACorHYLLUM ixsiGNE. Devonian. 

9. View of the central gap and of the calyx of a corallum, whose 

lamelhe are fortuitously broken down in the calyx bottom. From 
the manganese limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. 
The examples are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 95. 




■'.. . i ill Hi-*:, i^ ^ 

mm 
























KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 96. 



- •- ■'fSJL'™ 1 




PLATE 96. 

Aulacophyllum mutabile, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum. 

2. View of central-gap side and posterior portion of the calyx of a 

corallum, indicating the formation of the calyx floor. 

3. Right lateral view of a corallum with anterior wall broken down. 

4. Posterior view of a corallum. 

5. Oblique lateral view of a badly weathered corallum, whose lamellae 

were incrassated by the process of fossilization. 

6. Front, or central-gap view of a corallum with anterior wall fortui- 

tously removed, showing the sub-cellulose structure of the wall. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum (prone), showing a secondary 

calyx of cystose structure. 

8. Anterior view of a corallum in which the secondary calyx is lami- 

nated. 
Specimens 1-6 are found in the Middle Devonian red clay, near 

Louisville. 
Specimens 7 and 8 are found in the Middle Devonian blue clay, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

The examples figured belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 97. 

Blothrophyllum liratum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a weathered corallum, with epitheea denuded, 

showing the ridge along the line of the apertural gap; from 
the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Aulacophyllum coxigerum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Calyx of a corallum from the dark-red clay derived from the 

encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Acrophyllum clarki, Nov. Spec. Devonian, 

3. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size, with flattened 

apex. 

4. Left lateral view of a large corallum with flattened apex. 

5. Posterior view of a corallum, with apex taking shape from the 

object to which the corallum attached in the early stages of 
growth. 

6. Posterior view of a corallum from which the epitheea has been 

removed by weathering. 
Examples 3-6 are from the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum, 
Fig. 2. 

Cyathophyllum iniweatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the Lower Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

8. Similar ' view of a corallum, from the Upper Devonian encrinal 

limestone dark-red clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis gallic alcar, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

U. Posterior view of a corallum of adult size. 



10 
11 
12 
14 
15 



Anterior view of a corallum. 

Right lateral view of a corallum. 

L3. 1 ^ iews of calyces of coralla. 

Left lateral view of a young specimen. 

Left lateral view of a jejune corallum of irregular growth. 

From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 97. 




PLATE 97— Continued. 

Zaphrentis cornalba, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

16. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

17. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum. 
From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 

Zaphrextis nettelrothi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

18. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

19. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Found in the vicinage and horizon of A. conigerum. 

Aulopora precius. Niagara. 

20. Corallets incrusting an eroded fragment of Strombodes pentagonus. 

from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

Cladopora proboscidalis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

21. Front lateral view of frond partly imbedded in rock matrix, from 

the white clay strata of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

Cladopora alcicornis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

22. Upper fronds of a corallum. 

23. Front lateral view of a frond of typical form. 
From the horizon and vicinage of A. conigerum. 

Cladopora gultelmi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

24. Front lateral view of fronds partly imbedded in a fragment of 

decomposing encrinal limestone; from the horizon and neighbor- 
hood of A. conigerum. 

With the exception of example 4, which was collected by Mr. 
Gaines, the specimens figured in this Plate belong to the collec- 
tion of the author. 



PLATE 98. 

Blothrophtllum decorticatttm. Devonian. 

1, Lateral view of an adult corallum of average size and usual form, 

from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Lateral view of the upper portion of a corallum partly imbedded 

in its rock matrix, with closely set explanate rims of the invag- 
inating calyces ; from the rocks of the Lower Devonian formation, 
near 'Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 98. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 99. 




PLATE 99. 

Blothropyllum decorticatum. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of a corallum, with depressed floor. 

2. View of the calyx of a corallum, without a diaphragm. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum, with the diaphragm as it com- 

monly appears. 
From the horizon and vicinage of example Fig. 1, Plate 98. 

Blothrophyllum sessile, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

5. Similar view of the calyx of a corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillense, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, from 

the horizon and locality of B. sessile, Figs. 4. and 5. 

Blothrophyllum cixctutum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 

clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

8. Right lateral view of a small corallum, from the same horizon 

and place. 

Blothrophyllum approximatum. Devonian, 

9. Upper portion of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Blothrophyllum xiagarexse, Nov. Spec. Niagara, 

10. Lateral view of a flexuous corallum, from the Upper Niagara 
white clay stratum, ten feet below the Niagara and Devonian 
passage-beds, near Louisville. 

The specimens figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 100. 

Blothrophyllum parvulum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. 2, 3. Lateral views of adult coralla, from the Middle Devonian 
red clay, near Louisville. 

Blotiikoimiyllum cixctutum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Lateral view of an adult corallum of flexuous form, from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

I"Note. — The apex and several inches of the lower part of the corallum are concealed from view by 
geniculation.] 

5. Anterior view and oblique view of the calyx of the upper portion 

of a corallum, from the same horizon and locality. 

6. Calyx of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillense, Nov. Spec. Devonian, 

7. Anterior, or central-gap view of the upper portion of a corallum. 

8. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both from the blue clay beds of the Middle Devonian, Falls of 
the Ohio. 

Blothrophyllum sessile, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. Left lateral view of the corallum figured in Plate 99, Fig. 4. 

10. Left lateral view of a corallum from the same horizon and locality. 

11. Central gap view of a corallum with small apical scar of attach- 

ment, from the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

12. View of the calyx of a corallum from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of the preceding example. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian, 

13. Posterior view of a corallum from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

[Introduced here for comparison with the Blothrophylla, to which it bears a superficial resemblance.] 

Blothrophyllum approximatum. Devonian, 

14. Lateral view of the upper portion of a corallum, from the Middle 

Devonian blue clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

15. View of the calyx of a large corallum from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 

Specimens figured in this plate are from the collection of the 
author, with the exception of Cystiphyllum plicatum, Fig. 13, 
which belongs to Mr. Gaines. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 100. 







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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 101. 



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PLATE 101. 

Cyathophyllum pocillum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Longitudinal section of a corallum, from the Upper Devonian red 

clav, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Calceola proteus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. Inner surface of an operculum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay beds, near Louisville. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Choxophi'llum magxificum. Devonian. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum of medium size, from the man- 

ganese limestone rocks of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 
Ohio. Collection of the author. 

Blothrophyllum louisvillense, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 

clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

5. Similar view of a corallum, from the same horizon and place. 

Blothrophyllum cixctutum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Longitudinal section of a fragment, showing arrangement of the 

diaphragms, etc., from the locality and horizon of the preced- 
ing species of Blothrophyllum. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cyathophyllum pumilus, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the red clay of the Middle 

Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Blothrophyllum corium, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the upper part of which the 

epitheca has been fortuitously denuded; from the Middle Devo- 
nian red clay, near Louisville. 
11. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian blue 
clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

9. View of the calyx of a sessile corallum, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of example Fig. 8. 
The specimens are from the collection of the author. 

Aulacophyllum PARVUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum, with 
small apical scar; from the Middle Devonian blue clay, Falls 
of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 102. 

Blothrophyllum liratum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of the corallum figured in Plate 97, Fig. 1. 

Aulacophyllum conigerum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of a flexuous corallum, from the dark-red clay 

of the Upper Devonian encrinal limestone, near Louisville. 

3. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a corallum (in- 

verted), from the same horizon and neighborhood. 

Acrophyllum clarki, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. View of the calyx of corallum figured in Plate 97, Fig. 3. 

5. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 4, Plate 97. 

6. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 5, Plate 97. 

7. View of the calyx of corallum in Fig. 6, Plate 97. 

Blothrophyllum zaphrentiforme, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

9. Similar view of a corallum. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

11. Left lateral view of a stout corallum. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Right lateral view of a corallum, whose epitheca has been fortui- 

tously removed. 

14. Right lateral view of a corallum of gigantic dimensions. 

15. 1(3. Views of calyces of coralla (inverted). 

The examples of this species figured, with the exception of ex- 
ample 14, which is from Crab Orchard, are from the horizon 
and vicinage of Aulacophyllum conigerum. 

The specimens figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PLATE 102. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 103. 










PLATE 103. 

Xettelrothia (Nov. Gen.) crateriforme, Nov. Spec. Devonian: 

1. View of the under surface of a sarcodeme. 

2. Lateral view of a sarcodeme (inverted). 

From the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louis- 
ville. 

[Note. — This form does not belong to the Polypi, but to- the Protista. For this reason it is not 
described in the descriptive text of this work. It will be described in another work now in prepa- 
ration.] 

Hadrophyllum i/orbigxyi. Devonian. 

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Views of calyces of coralla. 

8. 9. 10. 11. Lateral views of coralla of vai'ying form" and size. 
From the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

ChoXophyllum magxificum. Devonian. 

12. Lateral view of a corallum, from the ferruginous clay of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

13. Lateral view of a corallum, with epitheca denuded, from the man- 

ganese limestone of the Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

14. View of a portion of the calyx of a well preserved fragment, from 

the horizon and neighborhood of example in Fig. 12. 

"With the exception of example 14, which belongs to Mr. McCon- 
athy, the specimens hei'ein figured are from the collection of 
the author. 



/ 
PLATE 104. 

Cyathaxonia gainesi, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

2. Anterior view of a young corallum. 

3. Left lateral view of a corallum. i 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

5. Posterior view of a corallum. 

6. Anterior view of a corallum. 

From the lowest strata of the Niagara period, near Louisville. 

Ptychophyllum ipomcea, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. (Upper left specimen.) Under surface of a corallum, from the 

Upper Niagara white clay, near Louisville. 

Omphyma verrucosa. Niagara. 

8. (Central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from the 

Upper Niagara ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 

9. (Right central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from 

the white clay beds of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

10. Posterior view of a corallum, with part of the calyx wall broken off. 

11. Anterior view of a large corallum, with partially denuded epitheca. 
Examples 10 and 11 are from the horizon and vicinage of exam- 
ple 8. 

All the specimens are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 104. 





; v\^ r^-^f- 






& 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 105. 









PLATE 105. 

Ptychophyllum stokesi. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum of average size. 

2. (Upper central specimen.) View of the calyx of a corallum. 

3. (Central Specimen.) Posterior view of a corallum attached by its 

radicels to an extraneous object. 

4. (Left, central specimen.) Lateral view of coralla mutually attached. 

5. View of the calyces of three inosculated coralla. 

6. (Left upper specimen.) View of a proliferous corallum. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, invaginated within the inferior 

calyx. 
All from the red clay of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
Example 5 from the collection of Mr. McConathy; example 6 from 

the collection of Mr. Nettelroth; the others from the collection 

of the author. 

Ptychophyllum invaginatum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

8. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the red clay of the Upper 

Niagara, one foot below the Niagara and Devonian passage- 
beds, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Ptychophyllum ipomoea, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

* 

9. View of the calyx of the corallum figured in Plate 104, Fig. 7. 

10. (Lower central specimen.) Oblique right lateral view of a young 

gemmiferous corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Omphyma verrucosa. Niagara. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 106. 

Ptychophyllum TRorcEUM, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. (Lower right specimen.) Anterior view of a corallum of average 

size. 

2. (Lower central specimen.) Posterior view of a corallum. 

3. View of the calyx of a large corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Ptychophyllum diaphragm a, Noi pec. Devonian. 

4. (Lower left specimen.) Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum, with portion of the right wall 

fortuitously broken. 
From the horizon and vicinage of the preceding species. 

Ptychophyllum typicum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian clay 

of Lincoln county. 

7. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Ptychophyllum contferum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. (Right of center.) Right lateral view of a corallum, from the 

Lower Devonian clay of Lincoln county. 

9. (Left of center.) Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

11. (Upper central specimen.) Right lateral view of a corallum, with 

calyx wall broken down so as to show the sub-vesicular cen- 
tral cone. 

Examples 10 and 11 are from the horizon and vicinage of exam- 
ple 9. 

The specimens figured in the Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 106. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 107. 




PLATE 107. 

Eridophyllum eeuciforme, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

Front lateral view of eorallets, from the Upper Niagara red clay 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 108. 

Eridophyllum sentum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Upper surface view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Diphyphyllum bellis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Upper surface view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Diphyphyllum archiaci. Devonian. 

3. Lateral view of a corallum, from the dark-red clay derived from 

the encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
Collected by Mr. Goodwin. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 108. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 109. 




PLATE 109. 

Eridophyllum rugosum. Niagara. 

1. Rear lateral view of corallets (prostrate), from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. [Jejune example.] 

Eridophyllum huronicum. Niagara. 

2. Front lateral view of a fragment, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of E. rugosum, Fig. 1. 

Eridophyllum dividuum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a composite corallum, partly imbed- 

ded in chert, from the red clay of the Upper Niagara, near 
Louisville. 

4. Lateral view of a composite corallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

5. Lateral view of a composite corallum, from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

6. Lateral view of two corallets detached from their parent, showing 

connective processes; from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. 

7. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. 

8. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, 

near Louisville. 

9. Right lateral view of a small corallum. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

11. Lateral view of a small gemmiferous corallum. 

12. View of the calyx of the parent corallet, with gems adherent. 
The last four specimens are from the Upper Niagara red clay, 

near Louisville. 
With the exception of specimen 5, the examples figured in this 
Plate belong to the collection of the author. 



PLATE 110. 

ElilDO'PHYLLUM RUaOSUM. 

Oblique sectional view of corallets (prostrate), from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 110. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 111. 




PLATE 111. 

Eridophyllum huronicum. 

Portion of longitudinal section through corallum, from the stratum 

of white clay of the Upper Niagara, ten feet below the Niagara 

and. Devonian passage-beds, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 



/PLATE 112. 

Eridophyllum simcoense. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of corallets, from the Lower Devonian, Falls of the 

Ohio. 

Eridophyllum arundinaceum. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of corallets, partly imbedded in rock matrix, from the 

Lower Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Diphyphyllum archiaci. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, whose corallets are above 

the average size; from the dark-red encrinal-limestone clay of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 
These specimens are from the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 112. 





KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 113. 




'PLATE 113. 

Diphyphyllum archiaci. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of specimen figured in Plate 112, Fig. 3. 

Diphyphyllum vernettilanum. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a fragment, from the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls 

of the Ohio. Collection of Dr. Knapp. 

Cyathophyllum davidsoni. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 114. 

DiPHYrHYLLUM steictum. Devonian. 

View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 
nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 114. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 115. 





PLATE 115. 

Diphyphyllum gigas. Devonian. 

1. Lateral view of a weathered corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Middle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. 

Diphyphyllum panjcum. Devonian. 

3. 4. View of the upper surfaces of small coralla, from the Middle 

Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 116. 

Diphyphyllum conjuxctum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 

nian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, showing the up-springing 

of young corallets from the floors of the polygonally compressed 
older calyces; from the ferruginous clay of the upper strata of 
the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

3. Vertical section of a fragment, from the horizon and locality of the 

preceding specimen. 

Diphyphyllum bellis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Oblique view of the upper surface of a corallum, from the upper 

rock strata of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 116. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 117. 





PLATE 117. 

Diphyphyllum coalescens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the upper rock strata 

of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Diphyphyllum coagulatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of the preceding species. 
Collection of the author. 



•PLATE 118. 

Phillipsastrea gigas. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Middle Devo- 

nian waste of Marion county. Collection of the author. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Middle Devo- 

nian red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Phillipsastrea ingens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. View of the upper surface of a fragment, showing the upraised 

rounded rims between the central pits and the perimeters of the 
explanate calyces; from the Middle Devonian waste of Marion 
county. Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 118. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 119. 




l/ 

PLATE 119. 

Phillipsasteea ingens, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Middle Devo- 
nian waste of Marion county. Collection of the author. 

[Note. — In the right upper corner are seen twin corallets. These spring from the margin of the 
inferior calyx.] 



PLATE 120. 

Strombodes knotti, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the Lower Devo- 

nian clay of Marion county. Collection of Mr. Knott. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, showing somewhat larger 

central pits. 

3. View of the upper surface of a fragment. 

4. View of the under surface of a fragment. 

5. View of the under surface of a fragment, with a part of the epitheca 

fortuitously stripped so as to show the terete apical part of a 
corallet. 
Specimens 2, 3, 4, 5, are from the horizon and vicinage of example 
1. Collection of the author. 

6. View of the upper surface of a moderately well preserved example, 

with extra-sized central pits and calyx walls better defined than is 
common. 

From the horizon and neighborhood of the other specimens. Col- 
lection of Mr. Linney. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 120. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 121. 




PLATE 121. 

Strombodes striatus. Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a weathered corallum, from the ferru- 

ginous clay of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection 
of the author. 

Strom bodes' pentagon us. Niagara. 

2. View of the upper surface of a fragment, from the white clay of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the red clay of the 

passage-beds between the Niagara and Devonian rocks, near 
Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes sinemurus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the horizon and neigh- 

borhood of S. pentagonus, Fig. 2. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 



PLATE 122. 

Strombodes striatus. Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. View of a vertical section of a weathered corallum, from the Upper 

Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes quadrangularis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the lower strata of 

the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the 
author. 

Strombodes iwicus, Nov. Spec. Niagara, 

5. Lateral view of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 

Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

Strombodes sinemurus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

6. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the red clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 122. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 123. 




PLATE 123. 

Strombodes pygmceus. Niagara. 

1. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the white clay of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes incertus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

2. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Strombodes sinemurus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

3. View of the upper surface of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Strombodes mamillaris. Niagara. 

4. View of the upper surface of a small corallum, from the Upper 

Niagara red clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 124. 

Cystiphyllum niagaeense. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of an adult corallum. 

2. Anterior view of a gemmiferous corallum. 

3. Anterior view of a small corallum. 

Examples 1, 2, 3, are from the Upper Niagara red clay, near 
Louisville. 

4. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a small corallum. 

5. View of the calyx of an adult corallum, in Avhich three of the 

four foveal gaps proper to Cyathophylloidea are conspicuous. 
Specimens 4 and 5 are from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, 
near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum incuevum, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

6. Left lateral view of a small corallum, with denuded epitheca, from 

the Upper Niagara white clay, near Louisville. 

7. Posterior view of an adult corallum, from the Upper Niagara red 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

8. Antei'ior view of a corallum, from the horizon .and neighborhood of 

the preceding example. From the collection of Mr. McConathy. 

Cystiphyllum ameeicanum. Devonian. 

9. Posterior view of a corallum of robust habit, with warped apical 

scar of attachment; from the encrinal limestone clay of the 
Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

10. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

11. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Middle 

Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

The specimens figured in this Plate, with the exception of Figs. 
7 and 8, belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 124. 




Y3YHU2 JA3I30J0 ! 

2t 3TA.J 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 125. 




PLATE 125. 

Cystiphyllum sulcatum. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a symmetrical adult corallum. % 

2. Left lateral view of a slender corallum. 

3. View of the calyx of a corallum similar to example 1. 
From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum squamosum. Devonian. 

4. Posterior view (prone) of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 

5. Right lateral view of a weathered corallum of unusual altitude ; 

from the horizon and neighborhood of the preceding specimen. 

6. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the blue clay of the Mid- 

dle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum nettelrothi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

9. Posterior view (prone) of a corallum. 

8. View of the calyx of a corallum, whose radial lamellae are some- 

what obscured by siliceous deposition in annular dots. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum cicatriciferum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. Posterior view of a . corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum of sessile growth, whose circular 

apical scar has the dimensions of the calyx; from the encrinal 
limestone clay of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum ohioense. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Posterior view of a corallum. 

From the red clay strata derived from the encrinal limestone of 
the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

The specimens herein figured belong to the collection of the author. 



10 



PLATE 126. 

Cystiphyllum grande. Devonian. 

1. Anterior view of an adult corallum, with a portion of the wall 

removed, so as to show the delicately laminated calyx wall and 
the floor; from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum limbatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of the upper part of a corallum, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 
Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 126. 
















KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 127. 




PLATE 127. 

Ctstiphyllum hispidum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Left lateral view of a corallum (prone), from the Lower Devonian 
rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 128. 

Cystiphyllum lineatum, Nov. Spec. Niagara and Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallurn, from the ferruginous clay of the 

Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

2. Right lateral view of an adult corallurn, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. 

3. Exterior view of a corallurn, from the passage-beds between the 

Niagara and Devonian formations, near Louisville. 

4. View of the calyx of a lai'ge corallurn, from the horizon and 

neighborhood of specimen 1. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

5.. 6. 7. Right lateral views of small coralla, with apical scars of 
attachment. 

8. Anterior view of a corallurn, with apical scar. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum edwinanum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. View of the calyx of a gemmiferous corallurn. 
From the Middle Devonian red clay, near Louisville. 

Cystiphyllum tumidosum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. View of the calyx of a corallurn of average size. 
From the horizon and locality of C. edwinanum. 

Cystiphyllum theissi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

11. Posterior view of an adult corallurn. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallurn. 

13. Anterior view of a gemmiferous corallurn. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallurn. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 
The specimens figured in this Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 128. 

















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^"y^H-h 











■ii !i 



■4 







KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 129. 



* .-•_-,._ >^T^J'i- ,-'..->..'■. **'' — •.■ . ~_ 




'PLATE 129. 

Cystiphyllum hispidum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. View of the calyx of the corallum, figured in Plate 127. 

Cystiphyllum vesictlosum. Devonian. 

2. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

3. Left lateral view of a large corallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Collection of the author. 



PLATE 130. 

Zaphrentis trigemma, Nov. Spec. • Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a portion of a corallum, partly imbedded in 

the rock matrix. 

2. Anterior view of the superior portion of a corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis nodulosa. Devonian. 

3. Anterior view of a large corallum, with a portion of the rock 

matrix attached ; from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the 
Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum plicatum, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Posterior view of a corallum, with epitheca denuded, and the 

successively invaginating calyx - wall margins fortuitously worn 
off, showing the radial lamellpe. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cystiphyllum os, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

6. 7. Lateral views of coralla, with spreading apices, from the Lower 

Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Cyathophyllum greent, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

8. Left lateral view of an adult a jejune corallum. 

9. Right lateral view of the upper portion of a jejune corallum. 
From the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

The examples figured in the Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 130. 





I 1 ' 1 ' '•: -\'v 

m 




mm 



i 










KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 131. 






y 













// 




I 'LATE 131. 

Calceoea proteus, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Anterior view of a proliferous eorallum, from the Upper Niagara 

white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. View of portions of some corallets partly imbedded in rock matrix; 

from the Upper Niagara strata, Falls of the Ohio. Collection 
of Mr. Nettelroth. 

3. Posterior view of a large eorallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

4. Posterior view of ;i eorallum of average size, from the red clay of 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

5. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a eorallum, from 

the horizon and neighborhood of example 4. Collection of the 
author. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique posterior view of a eorallum, from 

the locality of specimen 5. 
8. 9. Oblique views (8 inverted) of small coralla, from the Upper 
Niagara white clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

7. Oblique view 5 of a eorallum, whose calyx is closed by an opercu- 

lum; from the white clay of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
14. 15. 16. Oblique views of coralla, with calyces closed by opereula; 

from the horizon and vicinage of specimen 7. Collection of the 

author. 
13. View of the exterior surface of the operculum of a eorallum of 

average size; from the horizon and neighborhood of example 7. 

Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
17. View of the operculum of a small eorallum from the same place. 

Collection of the author. 

10. View of a gem detached from its parent. 

11. Posterior view of a gemmiferous eorallum. 

12. Posterior view r of a fortuitously detached gem. 

Specimens 10, 11, 12, are from the Upper Niagara red clay strata, 
near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

[Note. — In Fig. 18 an oblique posterior view of a eorallum of Cukeola mndalina, an European form 
said to be from the Devonian strata of the Eifel, closed by an operculum, is here presented for com- 
parison with our Niagara species.] 



PLATE 132. 

Zaphrentis corniculum. Hudson Eiver Group. 

1. Left lateral view of an adult corallum, from the Hudson River 

Group of the Lower Silurian formation, near Milton. 

2. Oblique view of the calyces of two small inosculated coralla from 

the same place. 

3. View of the calyx of a small corallum from the same place. 

Zaphrentis spongiaxis. Niagara. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the white clay of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

5. Lateral view of a corallum, with part of the calyx wall removed, 

so as to show the spongiose central cone; from the red clay of 
the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 
6. View of the calyx, with walls fortuitously removed, and oblique 
anterior view of a corallum, from the horizon and neighborhood 
of specimen 4. Collection of Mr. Gaines. 

Zaphrentis unica, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the red clay strata of the 

Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

8. Similar view of a geniculated corallum, from the white clay beds 

of the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. 

9. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

10. Posterior view of a corallum. 

Specimens 9 and 10 from the horizon and vicinage of example 8. 

Zaphrentis radicans. Niagara. 

11. Anterior view of a corallum, with apex broken off, from the 

Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

12. Left lateral view of a corallum, with anterior calyx wall fortuitously 

removed, from the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 

13. Posterior view of a young corallum, from the horizon and vicinity 

of specimen 11. 

Amplexus shumardi. Niagara. 

14. Fragments of two coralla, partly imbedded in chert matrix, from 

the Upper Niagara red clay, near Louisville. 
The specimens figured in this Plate, with the exception of 6, 
belong to the collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 132. 













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KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 133. 







PLATE 133. 

Zaphrentis scutella, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum, with calyx filled with rock, from 

the Upper Niagara, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

2. Similar view of a weathered corallum, from the Upper Niagara 

red clay, near Louisville. 

3. View of the exterior of a corallum, from the Upper Niagara white 

clay, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis patula. Niagara. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum, from the lower strata of the 

Niagara period, near Brunerstown, Jefferson county. Collection 
of the author. 

5. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

6. Oblique views of inosculated coralla. 

Examples 5 and 6 from the locality of specimen 4. Collection of 
the author. 

Zaphrentis socialis, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

7. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

8. 9. Views of the calyces of coralla. 

From the horizon and vicinage of Z. patula. Collection of the 
author. 

Zaphrentis patens, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

10. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

11. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

Both from the horizon and vicinage of Z. patula and Z. socialis. 
Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis conttlus. Niagara. 

12. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

13. Posterior view of a corallum. 

14. View of the calyx of a corallum. 

From the Upper Niagara ferruginous clay, near Louisville. Col- 
lection of the author. 



PLATE 133— Continued. 

Zaphrentis obliqua, Nov. Spec. Niagara. 

15. Left lateral view of a eorallum. 

16. Posterior view of a eorallum. 

17. View of the calyx of a eorallum. 

From the horizon and vicinage of Z. conulus. Collection of the 
author. 

Cyathophyllum exiguum. Devonian. 

18. View of the calyx of a large eorallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of Mr. McConathy. 

19. View of the calyx of a eorallum of average size, from the horizon 

and locality of example 18. Collection of the author. 

20. Posterior view of a eorallum. 

21. Right lateral view of a eorallum. 

22. View of the calyx of a eorallum. 

[Note. — In example 22 the lamella; from the inner rim to the outer rim of the calyx wall seem to be 
faintly carinated. Other examples are so obscurely carinated as to superficially resemble Zaphrentis, with 
which genus they have been classed by Eominger.] 

Specimens 20, 21, 22, are from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 
Devonian, near Louisville. Collection of the author. 

Cyathophyllum exiguum, varietas elongatum, Nov. Var. Devonian. 

23. Left lateral view of a robust eorallum, from the Lower Devonian 

rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

24. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a eorallum, from 

the Lower Devonian ferruginous clay, near Louisville. 
Collection of the author. 

Zaphrentis reynoldsi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

25. Anterior view of a eorallum. Collection of the author. 

26. Left lateral view of a eorallum. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

27. View of the calyx of a eorallum. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis linneyi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

28. Posterior view of a eorallum. Collection of the author. 

29. Left lateral view of a eorallum. Collection of the author. 



PLATE 133— Continued. 

30. Anterior view of a large corallum. Collection of Mr. Nettelroth. 

31. View of the calyx of a corallum. Collection of the author. 
From the ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis ctngula. Devonian. 

32. Posterior view of a corallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

33. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the same place. 

34. Anterior view of a slender corallum of unusual altitude, with lami- 

nated structure obscured by the deposition of silica in annular 
dots during fossilization; from the ferruginous clay of the Lower 
Devonian, near Louisville. 

35. View of the calyx of a corallum, from the horizon and neighbor- 

hood of the preceding specimen. 
Collection of the author. 



PLATE 134. 

Zaphrentis conigera. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a eorallum. 

2. Right lateral view of a eorallum. 

Both from the Lower Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis compressa. Devonian. 

3. Posterior view of a eorallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis explanata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

4. Anterior view of an elongated conical eorallum of medium size. 

5. Left lateral view of a corniform eorallum. 

6. View of the calyx and oblique anterior view of a eorallum of 

common form. 
From the dark-red clay derived from the decomposition of the 
encrinal limestone of the Upper Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis exilis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

7. Posterior view of a eorallum. 

8. Anterior view of a eorallum. 

From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrentis torquata, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

9. 10. Lateral views of coralla. 

11. View of the calyx of a eorallum. 

From the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near Louisville. 

Zaphrentis nodulosa. Devonian. 

12. Left lateral view of a eorallum, from the Lower Devonian rocks, 

Falls of the Ohio. 

13. Left lateral view of the lower portion of a eorallum, from the 

ferruginous clay of the Lower Devonian, near Louisville. 
The examples figured in this Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 134. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 135. 



100 




J PLATE 135. 

Zaphrextis prolifica. Devonian. 

1. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the Middle Devonian red 

clay, near Louisville. 

Zaphrextis rafixesquj. Devonian. 

2. Lateral view of a flexuous adult corallum. 

3. Left lateral view of a corallum. 

4. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size. 

5. Left lateral view of a young corallum, with radiciform processes 

of attachment. 

6. Posterior oblique view of a corallum, with radiciform processes of 

attachment. 
From the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. 

Zaphrextis yaxdelli. Devonian. 

7. Right lateral view of an adult corallum. 

8. Right lateral view of a corallum. 

Examples 7 and 8 are from the blue clay of the Middle Devonian, 
Falls of the Ohio. 

9. Right lateral view of a fragment, with a portion of the wall re- 

moved, so as to show the lamellae and the diaphragm of the 
calyx, and the siphuncular fovea connecting the calyx with the 
interior cavity; from the red clay of the Middle Devonian, near 
Louisville. 

Zaphrextis romixgeri, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

10. Posterior view of arr~adult corallum, from the Middle Devonian 
blue clay, Falls of the Ohio. 

The specimens figured in the Plate are from the collection of the 
author. 



PLATE 136. 

Zapheentis maconathi, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

1. Right lateral view of a corallum of medium size, from the blue 

clay of the Middle Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

2. Left lateral view of a corallum, from the same horizon and locality. 

3. Anterior view of the upper part of a corallum of gigantic dimen- 

sions, with wall broken down, so as to show the radial lamellae 

and the smooth plane diaphragm of the calyx; from the Lower 

Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. 

4. Right lateral view of a young corallum, from the Middle Devonian 

red clay, near Louisville. 
The specimens figured in the Plate belong to the collection of the 
author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 136. 




PLATE 138. 

1. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis gigantea. 

2. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis immanis. 

3. View of the calyx of the Amplexus shumardi in Plate 132, Fig. 14. 

4. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis compressa, with anterior wall 

partly broken. 

5. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis linneyi in Plate 133, Fig. 30. 

6. View of the calyx of the Z phrentis ungula in Plate 133, Fig. 32. 

7. View of the calyx (anterior wall removed) of the Zaphrentis nod- 

nlosa in Plate 134, Fig. 12. 

8. View of the calyx of an adult corallum of Zaphrentis corniculuni. 

9. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis prolifica in Plate 135, Fig. 1. 

10. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis exilis in Plate 134, Fig. 8. 

11. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis yandelli. 

12. View of the calyx of Zaphrentis conigera. 

13. View of the calyx of the Zaphrentis rafinesqui in Plate 135, Fig. 2. 

Collection of the author. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 138. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

PLATE 139. 











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PLATE 139. 

Zaphrextis immanis, Nov. Spec. Devonian. 

Right lateral view of a corallum, half natural size, from the Middle 
Devonian rocks, Falls of the Ohio. Collection of the author. 







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