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I I6C 


r -r -- 

E N N E S S 


V A. 




A Guide to the Bluegrass State 



Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers 9 Project 

of the Work Projects Administration 

for the State of Kentucky 



Sponsored by the University of Kentucky 


All rights are reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or 
parts thereof in any form. 

first published in October, 




F. C. HARRINGTON, Commissioner 
FLORENCE KERR, Assistant Commissioner 

GEORGE H. GOODMAN, Administrator, 
Kentucky Work Projects Administration 


The American Guide Series, when completed, will include a guide- 
book for every State in the Union. As each State studies and describes 
its history, natural endowments, and special interests, the paradox of 
diversity and homogeneity will become apparent. For each State has 
a special personality due to its topography, people, and culture, while 
certain qualities and interests bind all the States together. 

These guidebooks will find place in schools, colleges, and libraries; 
and private individuals will consult them for information available 
elsewhere only in word-of-mouth tradition or obscure archives and 
files. For these volumes are more than simply guidebooks: they are 
wide-angle reference books as well. And this is not to say that the 
guide aspect has been neglected to be reassured on this point one 
needs only to read with attention one of the many tours included. 

The account of Kentucky's settlement and of the brave adventure 
of its great men has brought romance and charm to novels, poems, 
and stories which have carried the name of Kentucky far and wide 
and have endeared the State to many who live beyond its borders. 
Readers have been harrowed by details of poverty and hard living, 
or soothed by the picturesque. In the present guidebook they will 
learn things about the State that will give them a more rounded and 
balanced picture. Kentucky's culture, only a century and a half old, 
has been enriched by the customs and traditions of other regions and 
other lands. Kentucky was the crossroads of migration, both from the 
seaboard and from Europe, as the pioneers moved west or south. 
People flowed into the State, some to remain, some to continue their 
journeys, but in either case they made a contribution. The traveler 
today will find evidences not only of earlier white culture and of the 
progress that has been made in the past fifty years, but also traces of 
prehistoric occupation. 

For many years I have been thinking about a book on the subject, 
"Why are Kentuckians as they are?" I have thought of the early 
pioneers, their contributions to Kentucky, the settlements they estab- 
lished, the houses they built, and the civilization that was erected on 



these foundations. It is a complicated and fascinating subject. The 
present book furnishes a broad basis for knowing the State that every 
Kentuckian loves so devotedly; moreover, it suggests again and again 
the courtesy, the graciousness, and the charm of Jiving that are tradi- 
tional here. 

The articles in this book have described Kentucky scenes, resources, 
and attitudes. Photographs and maps strengthen the written word. 
The traveler will rejoice that touring routes have been planned to re- 
veal the most significant aspects of the State, and the interest of his 
journeys into Kentucky will be greatly enhanced if he has this book. 
While the reader turns the pages let him remember that it is impos- 
sible to say everything that he would wish said, or to say it as he would 
wish it said. Anyone who knows the difficulty of bringing unity to a 
guidebook will be pleased by the accomplishment of the State director 
and of the staff writers. We are thankful that the Kentucky Guide is 
a reality, and we are grateful to all those who have contributed their 
time and talents to add to our pleasure and our understanding. 


President, University of Kentucky 
Lexington, Kentucky 
July 1, 1939 


A commonwealth, in its most vital aspects, expresses itself through 
its people, whose characteristics distinguish but do not separate them 
from their neighbors. The differences need not necessarily be ethnic, 
but it is likely that speech and customs and points of view may be 
traced to an ancestry, itself marked and enduring. This is evidently 
the case with the people of Kentucky. It is not by idle chance that 
they admit with pride, sometimes with arrogance, that they are not the 
same as those who face them on the northern side of the Ohio River. 

It follows that a guidebook to Kentucky should be something more 
than pages devoted to its natural wonders, climate, products, and his- 
tory. It should seek to catch that spirit, indefinable but very real, 
which has transformed Stephen Foster's "My Old Kentucky Home" 
into something like a national ballad, poignant and tender, with per- 
sonal appeal for Kentuckians. To retain that atmosphere, to make 
the Kentuckian, his land, and his background more understandable to 
those outside the State, has been one endeavor in the present volume. 
Another, and perhaps more useful purpose, has been to tell the Ken- 
tuckian himself of the natural resources that are his heritage, to invite 
him to take stock, as it were, of the opportunities which lie at his door. 

But the State is well worth the attention of the visitor who travels 
to enjoy and to learn. It is primarily rural, and its one large city, 
Louisville, lies on the northern boundary. It has its "rocks and rills" 
of surpassing beauty, the remains of an untamed wilderness. It is for 
this reason most of all that this book, like its forty-seven companions, 
includes numerous meticulously detailed tours through the State, care- 
fully traveled and checked for accuracy. This section of the Guide 
should be helpful to visitors and instructive for stay-at-homes. 

The research and the industry which have gone into this work, can- 
not be too gratefully acknowledged. The book is submitted with mod- 
esty, and also with intimate satisfaction in the co-operation without 
which it could never have been completed. 

Specialists, many of whom volunteered their services, read and criti- 
cized all copy prepared by the editorial staff; in some cases they pre- 



pared the more technical articles. State representatives, formally ap- 
pointed by several organizations, have been consulted in the prepara- 
tion of the Guide. These include the Kentucky Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, the Association of American Railroads, and 
the National Bus Traffic Association with the concurrence of the Na- 
tional Association of Motor Bus Operators, and the American Hotel 

The editors acknowledge with gratitude the help given by specialists 
in various fields: Rexford Newcomb, Dean of the College of Fine Arts 
and Applied Design, University of Illinois, who wrote the article Ken- 
tucky Architecture; T. D. Clark, Department of History, University 
of Kentucky, for the article Kentuckians , Who and What They Are; 
C. J. Bradley and S. E. Wrather, Department of Agriculture, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky; Grant C. Knight, Department of English, University 
of Kentucky; Frank T. McFarland and Hansford T. Shacklette, De- 
partment of Botany, University of Kentucky; Gordon Wilson and L. Y. 
Lancaster, Western Kentucky State Teachers College; H. J. Thornton, 
editor of the Louisville Board of Trade Journal; Andrew K. Rule, 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Louisville; and Kincaid Herr, asso- 
ciate editor, L. & N. Magazine. 

Acknowledgment for assistance in securing and preparing material 
is also made to Joe Hart, Louisville Courier -Journal; C. W. Jackson, 
Louisville Central Negro High School; M. E. Ligon, Department of 
Education, University of Kentucky; Neil Plummer and Victor Port- 
mann, Department of Journalism, University of Kentucky; Edward 
W. Rannells, Department of Art, University of Kentucky; Lucien 
Beckner, formerly a member of the State staff of the Federal Writers' 
Project; Adele Brandeis, State Director of the Federal Art Project; 
the Standard Printing Company, publisher of Mammoth Cave and the 
Cave Region of Kentucky, for permission to use material; David W. 
Maurer, Department of English, University of Louisville; Preston 
Hinebaugh, Ohio Horse Breeders' Association; and Donald Kays, De- 
partment of Animal Husbandry, Ohio State University. Many others, 
too numerous to list, have assisted in various ways. 

It is our hope that the interest and pride that all have taken in the 
preparation of the Kentucky Guide will be justified. 

U. R. BELL, 

State Director 


.FOREWORD BY FRANK L. MC VEY, President, University of Kentucky vii 

PREFACE: State Director, Federal Writers' Project ix 



Part I. Kentucky: The General Background 
















Part II. Cities and Towns 

ASHLAND . 139 









Part III. Highways and Byways 

TOUR 1 (Portsmouth, Ohio) South Portsmouth Ashland Catlettsburg 

Paintsville Prestonsburg Pikeville (Norton, Va.) . [US 23] 233 

2 Winchester Stanton Jackson Hazard Junction with 

US 119. [State 15] 242 

3 (Cincinnati, Ohio) Newport Cynthiana Paris Lexington 

Nicholasville Lancaster Somerset (Chattanooga, Tenn.) . 

[US 27] 246 

Section a. Ohio Line to Lexington 246 

Section b. Lexington to Tennessee Line 253 

4 (Cincinnati, Ohio) Covington Georgetown Lexington 

Richmond Corbin Williamsburg ( Jellico, Tenn.) . 

[US 25 and US 25W] 261 

Section a. Ohio Line to Lexington 262 

Section b. Lexington to Tennessee Line 266 

4A Junction with US 25 Pineville Middlesboro Cumberland 

Gap (Tazewell, Tenn.). [US 25E] 274 

4s Corbin Cumberland Falls State Park Parker's Lake. [State 90] 279 

5 Warsaw Frankfort Lawrenceburg Harrodsburg Danville 

Jamestown Albany (Chattanooga, Tenn.). [State 35] 280 

6 (Indianapolis, Ind.) Louisville Bardstown Hodgenville 

Glasgow Scottsville (Nashville, Tenn.) . [US 31E] 288 

7 (New Albany, Ind.) Louisville Elizabethtown Munfordville 

Horse Cave Bowling Green Franklin (Nashville, Tenn.). 

[US31W] 296 

7A Cave City Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth 

Cave. [State 70] 309 

8 (Evansville, Ind.) Henderson Madisonville Hopkinsville 

Guthrie (Nashville, Tenn.). [US 41 and US 41E] 315 

9 (Metropolis, 111.) Paducah Mayfield Fulton 

(Martin, Tenn.). [US 45] 322 

10 (Cairo, 111.) Wickliffe Bardwell Clinton Fulton 

(Memphis, Tenn.). [US 51] 324 

11 South Portsmouth Vanceburg Maysville Alexandria. 

[State 10] 329 

12 (Cincinnati, Ohio) Covington Warsaw Carrollton 

Louisville. [US 42] 334 

12A Junction with US 42 Butler Memorial State Park Owenton 

Junction with State 40. [US 227] 341 

13 Willow Falmouth Owenton New Castle Junction with 

US 60. [State 22] 344 


TOUR 14 (Aberdeen, Ohio) Maysville Georgetown Versailles Bards- 
town Elizabethtown Central City Paducah. [US 62] 351 
Section a. Ohio Line to Elizabethtown 351 
Section b. Elizabethtown to Paducah 355 

15 (Aberdeen, Ohio) Maysville Lexington Harrodsburg Bards- 

town Hodgenville Cave City Bowling Green Paducah. 

[US 68] 362 

Section a. Ohio Line to Lexington 362 

Section b. Lexington to Bowling Green 374 

Section c. Bowling Green to Paducah 382 

16 (Huntington, W. Va.) Ashland Owingsville Mount Sterling 
Winchester Lexington Versailles Frankfort Louisville Hen- 
derson Paducah Wickliffe ( Charleston, Mo.). [US 60] 387 

Section a. West Virginia Line to Lexington 387 

Section b. Lexington to Louisville 396 

Section c. Louisville to Missouri Line 400 

17 Warfield Paintsville Mount Sterling Georgetown 

Junction with US 60. [State 40] 414 

17A Paris Boonesboro Richmond. [US 227] 419 

18 Junction with US 23 Hindman Somerset Columbia 

Glasgow Junction with US 31W-68. [State 80] 424 

19 (Williamson, W. Va.) Pikeville Jenkins Junction with 

US 2SE. [US 119] 433 

20 Burnside Monticello Albany Burkesville Glasgow. [State 90] 441 

Part IV. Appendices 



INDEX 471 

List of Illustrations 

I. The Natural Setting 14 

BREAKS OF SANDY (Caufield & Shook) 
CUMBERLAND FALLS (Caufield & Shook) 
CUMBERLAND GAP (Caufield & Shook) 
KNOB COUNTRY (Caufield & Shook) 

FOREST (Caufield & Shook) 



II. Historic Pages 28 




& Shook) 

OLD CAPITOL, FRANKFORT (Caufield & Shook) 

THE CAPITOL, FRANKFORT (Aero-Graphic Corporation) 

fayette Studio) 



NEAR BARDSTOWN (Caufield & Shook) 




& Shook) 

III. Architecture 42 



(Lafayette Studio) 



LEXINGTON (Lafayette Studio) 

CARNEAL HOUSE, COVINGTON (Rolsten Photo Service) 
WICKLAND, BARDSTOWN (Caufield & Shook) 



IV. Industry: Transportation 56 

COAL MINER (Farm Security Administration) 
MODERN COLLIERY (Bureau of Mines) 
STRIP MINING (Caufield & Shook) 


COAL MINE (Farm Security Administration') 
DIX DAM, HERRINGTON LAKE (Aero-Graphic Corporation) 
TOBACCO MARKET (Caufield & Shook) 
MULE DAY (WPA Staff Photographer) 
CHAIR MAKERS (Caufield & Shook) 

V. Education and Religion 86 


(WPA in Kentucky) 

BEREA COLLEGE, BEREA (Caufield & Shook) 






SHAKER CEREMONIES (Harrodsburg Herald) 
SHAKER CEREMONIES (Harrodsburg Herald) 


(Simmons Studio) 


VI. In the Bluegrass 244 

ARISTOCRAT (Cau field & Shook) 


(Caufield & Shook) 

MAN O' WAR (Caufield & Shook) 

& Shook) 

ON DIXIANA FARM (Caufield & Shook) 
STABLES AT ELMENDORF (Lafayette Studio) 
IDLE HOUR STABLE (Lafayette Studio) 
SPRING IN THE BLUE GRASS (Lafayette Studio) 

HUNT CLUB (Lafayette Studio) 

CLUB (Lafayette Studio) 


A KENTUCKY PIKE (Caufield & Shook) 

VII. Along the Highway I 274 

FORT KNOX (Caufield & Shook) 


PADUCAH (1937) (WPA in Kentucky) 


(Lafayette Studio) 

MT. LEBANON, NEAR PARIS (Lafayette Studio) 


MINING TOWN (Farm Security Administration) 
THE FAITH HEALER (U. S. Forest Service) 
MINER'S HOME (Farm Security Administration) 

VIII. Along the Highway II 304 


IN THE LICKING RIVER VALLEY (Rolsten Photo Service) 

SHEEP GRAZING (Caufield & Shook) 

MOUNTAIN ROAD (Caufield & Shook) 

THE PASTURE (Caufield & Shook) 


TOBACCO CURING (Caufield & Shook) 


BOILING SORGHUM (Caufield & S.hook) 

MOUNTAIN CABIN (Caufield & Shook) 


HELL-FER-SARTAIN CREEK (Caufield & Shook) 

HOME (Farm Security Administration) 


(Farm Security Administration) 

List of Maps 

KEY TO KENTUCKY TOURS front end paper 


TRANSPORTATION reverse of State map 












General Information 

(State map showing highways, and maps giving railroad, air, 
bus, and water transport routes, in pocket inside back cover) 

Railroads: Baltimore & Ohio R.R. (B&O); Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 
(C&O); Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. (Big Four, 
N. Y. Central System) ; Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Ry. 
(Monon Route); Frankfort & Cincinnati R.R. (F&C); Flemingsburg 
& Northern R.R. (F&N); Illinois Central R.R. (1C); Louisville & 
Nashville R.R. (L&N); Mobile & Ohio R.R. (M&O); Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. (NC&St.L); Pennsylvania R.R. (PRR); 
Southern Ry. (Southern) (see Transportation map). 

Bus Lines: Blue Ribbon Lines, Gibbs Bus Line, Greyhound Lines, 
Meadors & Allen, Mohawk Stages, and Southern Limited furnish 
scheduled interstate service. Many other lines furnish intrastate 

Air Lines: American Airlines (Cleveland, Fort Worth, Los Angeles); 
Eastern Airlines (Chicago, Miami) (see Transportation map). 

Highways: Fifteen Federal highways. Even numbers run east and 
west; US 60 is transcontinental. Odd numbers run north and south. 
State highway patrolled. Gas tax 6#. (See State map for routes.) 

Motor Vehicle Laws (digest): Maximum speed, 40 m.p.h., not en- 
forced; greater speed permitted when practicable; residential sections 
and curves, 20 m.p.h.; congested areas, 15 m.p.h. No licenses required 
for nonresidents over 16 yrs. of age provided driver has a home State 
license. Hand signals must be used. 

Warning: Persons charged with operating motor vehicles in Louisville 
while drunk or under the influence of liquor upon conviction will be 
fined $19 and sentenced to nine days' imprisonment. From such penal- 
ties the law allows no appeals, age, sex, color or social pretensions not- 
withstanding. Sternly enforced. 



Prohibited: Operation of automobiles by persons under 16 yrs. of age 
unaccompanied by person over 21 yrs. of age. Parking on highways 
(see General Information for large cities for local traffic regulations). 

Recreational Areas and Accommodations: Mammoth Cave National 
Park (see Tours 7 and 6): two new modern hotels, rates from $1; 
guides compulsory, available day and night, fee of $2 covers admission, 
no tax; open all year; temperature in cave remains 54 F. throughout 
year. Cumberland Falls State Park (see Tours 3 and 4), open 
May 15-Oct. 1, overnight camping, 25^; State-owned DuPont Lodge, 
rate per day from $2; Moonbow Inn, per day from $1.50; 15 cabins, 
rate per day per couple $2, 75^ for extra lodgers; modern conveniences. 
Butler Memorial State Park (see Tour 12), May 15-Oct. 1, boating 
on Lake Butler 25^; fishing 25^; overnight camping 25^; cabins. 
Columbus-Belmont State Park (see Tour 10): recreational facilities 
and cabins. Levi Jackson Wilderness Road State Park (see Tour 4): 
overnight camping 25^; fishing and swimming 25^; cabins, picnic 
grounds, camping, all improvements. Pine Mountain State Park (see 
Tour 4 A): open-air auditorium, picnic grounds, observation tower. 
Natural Bridge State Park (see Tour 2): Hemlock Lodge, cabins, auto 
bridge. Audubon Memorial State Park (see Tours 8 and 16): shelter 
houses, picnic tables, tearoom and lake. Dawson Springs State Park 
(see Tour 14): picnic grounds, trails, shelter house. Blue and Gray 
State Park (see Tour 20): golf links, cabins, shelter houses, picnic 
tables and ovens, lake. Pioneer Memorial State Park (see Tours 5 
and 15) : museum, cabins in the fort, Lincoln Chapel. Blue Licks Bat- 
tlefield State Park (see Tour 15): overnight camping 25^, museum, 
open-air auditorium, trails. Cumberland National Forest: 992,605 
acres; camps. Admission to recreational areas, adults 10^, children 
S#, except Pioneer Memorial State Park adults 25^, children 10^ and 
Blue Licks Battlefield State Park adults 1S#, children 5#; Cumber- 
land National Forest, no charge. 

General Accommodations: Few in eastern Kentucky except in larger 
towns; adequate elsewhere in State. 

General Service for Tourists: AAA in larger towns, also Courier- Journal 
in Louisville. When road conditions are doubtful, information should 
be obtained at nearest filling station, especially in eastern Kentucky. 


Poisonous Snakes and Plants: Rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cotton- 
mouth moccasins are uncommon except in southern and northwest sec- 
tion of the State and in cypress swamps. Poison ivy and poison sumac 
common in wooded areas. 

Climate and Equipment: Summer travelers should be prepared for very 
warm weather, especially in July and August. Spring days are inter- 
mittently cool and warm, with frequent showers and late snow flurries. 
Topcoats needed. Winters generally cold, with heavy frosts and some- 
times snow. In mountainous areas the snow glazes into dangerously 
slippery ice and extreme caution is necessary, especially on the north 
side of hills. Frozen dirt edges of mountain roads should be avoided. 

Fish and Game Laws (digest) : Game fish defined as black bass, trout, 
crappie, rock bass or goggle-eye. 

Open Season for Fishing: All months except May. 

Fishing License: Nonresident, $2.50. Seven-day nonresident fishing, $1. 

Limits: Black bass and trout limit, 10 per day, not more than 20 in 
possession at one time; unlawful under 11 in. Crappie limit IS per 
day; not more than 30 in possession at one time; unlawful under 
eight in. 

Open Season for Hunting (dates inclusive): Quail, Nov. 24- Jan. 9; 
wild turkey and imported pheasant protected at all times, no open 
season; doves, 12 M. to 6 P.M., Sept. 1-Dec. 15; woodcock, Nov. 15- 
Dec. 3 1 ; jacksnipe, wild duck, and wild geese, State law in conflict 
with Federal regulations comply with Federal regulations. English 
sparrows, great horned owl, sharp-shinned hawk, crow and crow- 
blackbird, not protected; deer and elk protected at all times, no open 
season; rabbit, Nov. 25-Jan. 9; squirrels, Aug. 1-Nov. 1; woodchuck 
or ground hog, not protected; beaver, raccoon, mink, otter, skunk and 
opossum lawful to kill Nov. 15-Dec. 31. 

Hunting License: Nonresident, $10.50. Resident, $1.00. 

Limits: Quail, 12 per day, season limit 75, penalty for violation $15 
to $50 per quail; doves, 15 per day; woodcock, 6 per day, not over 
24 in possession at one time. 

Calendar of Events 

(nfd means no fixed date) 


4th Mon. 





3rd Mon. 



4th Mon. 




Bowling Green 













nfd Lexington 

nfd Morehead 

nfd Murray 
last wk or 1st 

wk of May Louisville 

May 1st Sun. 

2d Sat. 

4th Sun. 




Farm Bureau Meeting 
Band and Orchestra Clinic 
Louisville Art Association 

Mule Day 

Mule Trading Day 

Academic Music Festival 

Physical Education Festival 

Boy Scout Circus 

Easter Monday Charity Ball 

Junior League Fashion Show 

Kentucky Education Asso- 
ciation Meeting 

State Spelling Bee (in con- 
nection with K. E. A. 

Keeneland Races 

Foster Festival 

Academic Music Festival 

Spring Meet at Churchill 

Allen County Singing Con- 

University of Kentucky Gar- 
den Day 

Kentucky Derby Festival 

Kentucky Derby, Churchill 

Old Southern Harmony Sing- 
ing Festival 










Bowling Green 









late May or 

early June 











2d Sun. 



Near Ashland 

Beaver Dam 


2d or 3d wk Louisville 
nfd Louisville 


Near Henderson 

Sept. 2d or 3d wk Louisville 

last wk 


Boy Scout Circus 

State Federation of Music 

Clubs Meeting 
Music Festival 
High School Music Contests 
Garden Tours 
Kennel Club Spring Show 
Music Festival and Band 


Mountain Laurel Festival 

Boone Day Celebration 

Lincoln Marriage Festival 

"Blessing of the Berries" 
(festival in connection 
with the raspberry crop) 

American Folk Song Fes- 
tival: Traipsin' Woman's 

Latonia Races 

Strawberry Producers' Revel 

Strawberry Carnival 

Annual Board of Trade Out- 

Stephen Collins Foster Fes- 

Kentucky Pioneer Memorial 

Boat Regatta 

State Tennis Tournaments 

Kavanaugh Camp Meeting 
Fall Market Week 
Dade Park Races 

State Fair, State Fair 

Fall Festival 
Junior League Fashion Show 



Sept. nfd Middlesboro Tri-State Fair 

nfd Stanford Historical Pageant 

Oct. 1st wk Louisville No- jury Exhibition of Fine 

and Practical Arts (for 
Kentucky and Southern 

1st Sun. Scottsville Allen County Singing Con- 


last wk Louisville Fall Meet at Churchill 


nfd Barbourville Dahlia Show 

nfd Lexington Annual Trotting Races 

Nov. 11 Louisville Armistice Day Parade and 

last wk Lexington Tobacco Festival 

Dec. nfd Louisville Associated Industries of 

Kentucky Meeting 
nfd Richmond Oratorio Music Festival 


Kentucky: The General 


KENTUCKY is far from being a unified region. Though known 
as the Bluegrass State, it divides into three sections which 
differ as sharply in geography, culture, economic activity, and social 
habit as if they were widely separated areas. These are the Blue- 
grass, the Eastern Mountains, and Western Kentucky. Each is popu- 
lated by people who have adjusted themselves to their environment, 
and who in the process have developed habits and attitudes differing 
markedly from those of their fellows in the other divisions. Literature 
concerning Kentucky often fails clearly to identify the section which 
forms its locale, and readers unacquainted with local conditions are 
apt to mistake a single section for the State as a whole. 

Except for Louisville, Kentucky has no large industrial centers. Most 
of its 2,900,000 people dwell in small rural communities. Like other 
agrarian folk they bear the mark of their association with the soil. The 
rural Kentuckian, whether clad in faded overalls or imported woolens, 
is an individualist. The rustic lolling at the street corners of towns and 
villages may give every evidence of being lost or out of place; but try 
to get the better of him in a trade and often he will prove master of 
the situation. He may be ragged, dirty, and ignorant, but he is still 
endowed with something of the unawed self-reliance and resourceful 
wit of the pioneer. 

Wherever a Kentuckian may be, he is more than willing to boast of 
the beauties and virtues of his native State. He believes without reser- 
vation that Kentucky is the garden spot of the world, and is ready to 
dispute with anyone who questions the claim. In his enthusiasm for his 
State he compares with the Methodist preacher whom Timothy Flint 
heard tell a congregation that "Heaven is a Kentucky of a place." 
After describing the material and cultural well-being of the State, the 
Kentuckian is likely to begin on its brilliant history. But, unless he is 
engaged in historical research, the native son's history of Kentucky does 
not chiefly refer to the part played by the State in the westward expan- 
sion of the Nation, to the frontier democracy established by pioneer 



statesmen on Kentucky soil, or to the State constitution that was 
framed at a time when it was difficult to gain majority approval for 
any act of polity. The native son has not pursued his subject through 
the trying decades of the nineteenth century, nor has he given much 
thought to the State's role in the twentieth. History, to him, centers on 
his family. When his ancestors crossed the Appalachians, the family 
was the core of community life, and the Kentuckian has never lost sight 
of the importance of his family attachment. His main personal concern 
is his family's welfare. Many Kentuckians., especially women, spend 
much time searching genealogical records, not to prove themselves 
descended from prominent persons, but from sheer love of becoming 
familiar with their personal pedigrees. 

The Kentuckian's love of family is often illustrated in the way in 
which politicians elected to office give public jobs to their kinsmen. In 
many instances the victorious Kentucky politician honestly fails to 
understand why there is anything blamable in such conduct. When a 
kinsman needs a job, "nepotism" is only a word. And it is difficult to 
place a limit on a Kentuckian's sense of kinsmanship. Parents, grand- 
parents, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, and cousins are part of any 
family pattern; but to the list of a Kentuckian's cousins there seems 
no end. There are not only first and second cousins ; there are cousins 
even to the tenth degree removed. It is sometimes said that every 
mountaineer is related to every other mountaineer; but the same ob- 
servation applies to a considerable extent to people everywhere in the 

Next to his family, a Kentuckian's home community occupies the 
place of importance in his fancy. When viewed from a national stand- 
point the State itself is of major importance, but on his home ground 
a Kentuckian never forgets his native county. He may move to Lexing- 
ton, Bowling Green, or Louisville during his mature years, but he con- 
tinuously looks with reverence upon the place of his birth. Visitors to 
many Kentucky communities will be impressed in finding there some 
of the important relics of American history. Not only have local his- 
torians and anthropologists collected important historical relics, but 
they have also armed themselves with much historical information con- 
cerning their community's place in history. A traveler can, if he is 
lucky, locate the places where "D. Boon cilled a bar on this tree in 
1760"; where John Fitch "invented" the steamboat; where Kit Carson 
was born; where Joseph Bruen built a locomotive; where the first rail- 
road of the West was built ; where scores of battles were fought ; where 


Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were born; where "Uncle Tom" 
was sold; where courthouses were scarred by bullets from feudists' 
guns, and innumerable other points of interest. All of this colorful 
background is grist to the local historians' mill, and it is used to good 

The average Kentuckian may appear a bit confused in his knowledge 
of history, but he is firmly certain about current politics. Kentucky 
cannot claim first place in political importance, but it tops the list in 
its keen enjoyment of politics for its own sake. It takes the average 
Kentuckian only a matter of moments to dispose of the weather and 
personal health, but he never tires of a political discussion. Perhaps the 
most obvious thing about Kentucky politics is the fact that there it is 
a continuous campaign. Telegraph poles, fence posts, and trees are 
seldom free of political posters. It is not at all unusual to see cam- 
paign workers pulling the tacks out of old posters and using them in 
nailing up new ones. If politics ceased to be practical, Kentuckians 
would lose an excellent excuse for having community picnics, fried 
chicken dinners, and fish fries. Even the famed Kentucky burgoo 
would lose much of its flavor. Perhaps few indoor pastimes yield such 
keen enjoyment as predicting the future turn of political affairs. 

Notwithstanding the fact that its white population, like that of most 
Southern States, is "Nordic," Kentucky's course in the Civil War was 
unlike that of the South in general. The State persisted in remaining 
neutral, while at the same time it contributed many soldiers to both the 
Northern and the Southern armies. When the war ended, Kentucky 
was left in a sharply divided state of mind. Where other Southern 
States were unanimously Democratic, Kentucky's voters were divided 
between the Democratic and Republican parties. This division still 
prevails in varying degree, and at times lends an interesting complexion 
to State politics. 

In matters of culture Kentucky has been forced, with other Southern 
States, to change its course completely. It was slow to adopt the idea 
of public education, and it was not until after the Civil War that the 
idea of common schools became thoroughly entrenched in the Kentucky 
mind. There was no real antagonism to this idea before the war, but a 
convincing precedent was lacking. When pioneer parents were rearing 
large families on the frontier, they accepted the idea that their family 
was solely their own responsibility, and that, if it was educated, they 
had to pay the bill individually. Even yet there is opposition to public 
schools on this ground. However, Kentucky has progressed to the 


point of accepting common schools as a necessity. Not only has the 
public school experienced its most progressive years since the war, but 
so, likewise, have institutions of higher learning. The University of 
Kentucky is a post-war institution, and so are teachers' colleges. Dur- 
ing the past three decades the number of illiterates has been greatly 
reduced. Where communities were once denied the privilege of public 
education, they now have fairly well-equipped schools. 

Where public schools have made rapid strides, other cultural agencies 
have thrived. Towns and villages are establishing libraries and are 
making available, through local and State agencies, literature which 
heretofore had been denied to isolated readers. There are several insti- 
tutions engaged in collecting and preserving historical materials and 
Kentuckiana. These agencies are beginning to make up for the losses 
which Kentucky has experienced in the past. Never before have Ken- 
tuckians been so conscious of the cultural possibilities of their State. 

Kentuckians have never neglected the pleasures of life. From the 
time when his forebears hunted through the woods by day and danced 
about the campfire at night, the Kentuckian has been a sporting, 
pleasure-loving individual. Following the Civil War, travelers through 
the State remarked that the trains were forever crowded with light- 
hearted passengers either going to, or coming from, a dance. Racing, 
baseball, and football have enjoyed considerable prestige. Horse racing 
is accepted as a matter of fact. When natives of other States see Ken- 
tuckians poring over racing forms on Saturday and crowding into 
churches on Sunday, it is hard for them to understand the apparent 
incongruity. Yet it is this devotion to both piety and pleasure which 
is, perhaps, the most distinguishing characteristic of the people of 
modern Kentucky. 


KENTUCKY, lying on the western slope of the Alleghenies, is 
bounded on the north by the northern bank of the Ohio River, 
on the northeast and southeast by West Virginia and Virginia, on the 
south by Tennessee, and on the west by the Mississippi River. Its 
greatest length, east to west, is 425 miles; its greatest breadth 182 
miles. The total area is 40,598 square miles, including 417 miles of 
water surface. 

"A peculiar situation exists at the extreme southwest corner," the 
U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 817 states, "where, owing to a double 
bend in the Mississippi River, there is an area of about 10 square miles 
belonging to Kentucky that cannot be reached from the rest of the 
State without passing through a part of Missouri or Tennessee." 

The State's topographic variations are mainly the result of slow or 
rapid erosion, according to the degree of resistance encountered in par- 
ticular rock strata. The mountains in the sandstone region, the occa- 
sional deep gorges or underground drainage systems in the limestone 
area, and the swamp flats and oxbow lagoons in the far western part 
of the State, indicate the force, extent, and direction of erosive proc- 
esses. Reelfoot Lake, in the far southwest, resulted from the earth- 
quake of 1811-12. It is the only lake of importance in Kentucky, 
although the edge of the Highland Rim Plateau in the southwest is 
pocked with numerous small bodies of still water. These are sinkholes 
which have choked with vegetable matter and retained the water that 
drained into them. 

The Ohio and Mississippi Rivers flow west and south, and form the 
State's main drainage channel. The Cumberland River, except for a 
small portion in the south-central region, the Big Sandy, the Licking, 
the Kentucky, the Green, the Tradewater, and the Tennessee Rivers 
follow the general northwest slope of the Allegheny Plateau. About 
3,000 miles of river course are navigable. 

Kentucky has six natural physiographic regions: (1) Mountain, (2) 



Knobs, (3) Bluegrass, (4) Pennyrile, (5) Western Coal Field, and (6) 

The Mountain region, containing 10,450 square miles, is the remains 
of a great westerly sloping plateau which has been cut by streams into 
a region of narrow valleys lying between sharp ridges. The Cumber- 
land and Pine Mountain ranges, near the southeastern border, are 
"erosion" mountains carved from the upturned edges of hard sand- 
stone. Between them lies the Middlesboro Basin, in which are the 
State's highest mountains. Here are the Cumberland and Pine Moun- 
tain ranges, with the Little and Big Black Mountain ranges between. 
The highest point in the State is at Big Black Mountain, 4,150 feet 
above sea level, in Harlan County on the southeastern boundary line. 
To the west and northwest the mountain crests gradually lower until 
they merge with the uplands of the Bluegrass and the Pennyrile; the 
elevation drops from about 2,000 feet in the southeast to less than 800 
feet along the western rim. The lowest point in the State is 257 feet 
above sea level, near Hickman in Fulton County, at the extreme south- 

The larger streams in the Mountain region have some wide flood 
plains with alluvial and rock terraces. Wind gaps, such as Cumberland 
Gap, and the water gaps, like the Breaks of Sandy, are of frequent 
occurrence. The surface rocks are sandstones and shales, with practi- 
cally no limestones. The valley soils are deep and yield excellent crops. 
Soils on the ridges are thin and easily washed away during cultivation. 

The Knobs region is bounded on the inner side by the rolling Blue- 
grass downs, and on the outer by the escarpments at the edge of the 
mountain region in the east, and of the Pennyrile in the west. It has 
the appearance of an irregular plain out of which rise many erosive 
remnants of the Mountain and Pennyrile plateaus. The knoblike 
shapes frequently seen in these remnants have suggested the name of 
the region. The escarpments, also considered part of the Knobs, rise 
from 200 to 500 feet above the drainage and cover an area of about 
2,200 square miles. The Kentucky and the Ohio Rivers are the only 
navigable streams here. The soils, composed largely of weathered 
shales, erode rapidly when cultivated, and for this reason large areas 
remain wooded. While not rich, they will yield good crops under 
proper cultivation. The larger part of the Cumberland National Forest 
lies in the eastern Knobs. 

Within the encircling arms of the Knobs on one side, and the Ohio 
River on the other, lies the Bluegrass region, about 8,000 square miles 


in extent. It is a gently rolling upland, from 800 to 1,000 feet above 
sea level. Almost everywhere it is cleared of its original forests and is 
either cultivated or in pasturage. A few open, grass-swarded wood- 
lands remain, especially around the more pretentious manors ; and there 
are uncleared glens and dells where the smaller streams fall rapidly 
from the high downs to the main streams. 

This region is divided into three sections, differentiated by their un- 
derlying Ordovician limestone : the inner Bluegrass, the Eden shale belt, 
and the outer Bluegrass. The first, about 2,400 square miles, has the 
richest soils due to the underlying limestones with their high phosphate 
content. Its surface is very gently rolling. The second, about 2,500 
square miles, lies as a broad belt around the inner Bluegrass, and is 
underlain by limestone not so rich in phosphorus, and with a large 
shale and silica content. Its soils, while good, are easily eroded, pro- 
ducing steep slopes and V-shaped valleys. The third is like the first, 
but the soils on the whole are not quite so rich. 

The large area lying at the southern end of the central plain, of which 
the Bluegrass region is the northern section, is known as the Pennyrile. 
Pennyrile takes its name from the local pronunciation of Pennyroyal, 
an annual plant of the mint family, which grows luxuriantly in this 
region. It comprises about 7,800 square miles, and is separated from 
the valleys of the western Knob and southern Mountain regions by an 
escarpment which, in the Knob area, is called Muldraugh's Hill. The 
eastern portions of the region rise 600 and 700 feet above sea level, but 
they drop gradually on the west to about 400 or 500 feet, as they ap- 
proach the Purchase in the southwest and the western coal fields along 
the Ohio. The streams cut broad valleys except in the karst or sink- 
hole areas, where only the larger streams flow on the surface. 

The scenery of the Pennyrile is varied from gently rolling farm lands 
to cliffs and scarps, and from open fields to forested rocky hillsides. 
The sinkhole part of the region was originally known as the Barrens, 
because the first settlers found it almost completely lacking in trees and 
were unable to discover water for themselves and their stock. The lack 
of trees was the result of continual forest burnings by the Indians to 
make grasslands upon which the buffalo might feed, and the water 
scarcity was caused by underground drainage. Neither condition re- 
sulted from any barrenness of soil. After white men gained control of 
the region, it was reforested. 

Waters, either surface or underground, are abundant. In the under- 
ground drainage courses are thousands of miles of subterranean pas- 


sages including Mammoth Cave. The soils are principally residual, 
varying from sandy and silt loams in the east to the limey, phosphorous 
soils in the west. Frequent coatings of loess or windblown deposits are 
found on the uplands, and alluvial clays or gravels along the Tennessee 
and Cumberland Rivers. 

The Western Coal Field, an area of about 4,680 square miles, is 
bounded on the north by the Ohio River and elsewhere by the Penny- 
rile. The region is characterized by sandstone and wooded ridges, rock 
shelters, and cliffs. However, the proportion of level lands is so much 
greater that the Western Coal Field in some places resembles the prairie 
States. Some valuable timber remains and there are large areas in 
which second growth timbers are flourishing. On the uplands the soil 
is a yellow silt loam, thin where hilly, but deeper elsewhere. Trans- 
ported soils cover the bottom lands. 

The Purchase (2,569 square miles), so named from the fact that it 
was bought from the Chickasaw Indians, is bounded by the Tennessee, 
Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers, and the Tennessee State Line. The gen- 
eral topographic relief is the lowest in the State. Gently rolling up- 
lands and wide flood plains are the rule along the larger streams. 
Stream bluffs, cypress swamps, oxbow lagoons, and an occasional deep 
erosive gully are common sights. The soft rocks of the region erode 
rapidly. Transported soils cover the Purchase except in a narrow strip, 
just west of the Tennessee River, where residual soils are found. 
Yellow-brown silt loam is prevalent. 

The average annual rainfall in Kentucky is about 45 inches, which 
places the State within the humid belt so important for agriculture 
and manufacturing. The climatic changes from north to south account 
for a difference of approximately one week in the growing seasons. Pe- 
riods of excessive rainfall or drought are rarely great enough to effect 
serious damage to crops. 

The climate of the whole State is temperate and healthful. The 
mean annual temperature is around 60 F. In the summer months it 
ranges from 75 F. in eastern Kentucky to 78 F. in the west; and in 
the winter around 36 F. in all sections. Temperatures of 100 F. are 
very rare, but marks of 80 F. and above have occurred even in mid- 
winter. Below-zero temperatures occur with moderate frequency in 
December, January, and February, and 28 F. has been experienced 
twice in the eastern half during the past 60 years. 

The last killing frosts generally occur from April 15 to 23 and the 
first from October 13 to 21. The growing season is from 174 to 189 


days. In the eastern part of Kentucky the average number of rainy 
days is about 118 a year 5 to 9 in each of the fall months from Sep- 
tember to November, inclusive, and 10 to 13 for each of the other 
months. The average number of rainy days in the west is about 104, 
of which the months from September to November inclusive have 5 
to 8, and the other months from 8 to 12. 

Prevailing winds are from the south and southwest, with north and 
northwest winds frequent in winter. Seven to ten miles is the average 
hourly wind velocity. 

Animal Life 

The animal life of Kentucky is representative of areas as far apart 
as the marshes of Louisiana and the forests of New England and 
southern Canada. 

Two large groups of fauna that once were common to the State have 
now disappeared: prehistoric, or Pleistocene mammals, skeletons of 
which have been found in various parts of the State but chiefly at Big 
Bone Lick in Boone County; and species that were killed off or driven 
away in the course of the settlement of the State. In the first class 
were mastodons, mammoths, giant wolves, beaver, elk, and moose. 
Early travelers and explorers were greatly impressed by the giant bones, 
and often wrote extravagant stories about them. Even more interest 
attaches to the animals that were almost fabulously plentiful when the 
settlers came. The bison, or buffalo, grazed the central plains of the 
Barrens and Bluegrass in numbers comparable with those of the Great 
Plains west of the Mississippi. It is thought that this species disap- 
peared from the State about 1820, soon after the settlement of the 
Jackson Purchase. The beaver was less abundant here than farther 
north, but it survived in small numbers until a generation ago. Hair- 
raising stories are still told about the panther or puma (locally called 
"painter"), once fairly common but now extinct in the State. 

The wild turkey, still found in small numbers in remote places, par- 
ticularly in the eastern mountains and other wooded sections, may be 
re-established in the State and National parks and the larger forests 
under proper protection. The area considered most suitable for this 


purpose in western Kentucky is the Coalings, a wild, wooded tract be- 
tween the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, now taken over by the 
Federal Government. 

Stories told about the passenger pigeon a hundred and more years 
ago sound impossible today although "pigeon roost" is found in place 
names in practically every part of the State. Alexander Wilson, in the 
Shelby ville area, estimated in 1810 that he saw millions of birds in one 
day. Audubon, in 1813, on his way to Louisville from Hardinsburg, 
counted 163 flocks in 23 minutes. Enormous areas in the various parts 
of the State were used by this species for nesting places. Wilson de- 
scribed one on the upper part of Green River, above the site of Greens- 
burg; Audubon pictured another near the mouth of Green River not 
far from Henderson. 

Another species, long a mark for hunters and therefore almost de- 
stroyed, was the Carolina Louisiana parrakeet, which the Audubon 
societies are protecting in the Everglades of Florida. In earlier days 
this beautiful little parrot was found in abundance around sycamore 
groves, salt licks, and fields of cockleburs. The ruffed grouse, hunted 
intensively from the very beginning of the settlement, still exists in 
small numbers. The prairie chicken, once found in many sections, dis- 
appeared after the Barrens and the Jackson Purchase were opened to 

While game birds like the prairie chicken and the wild turkey soon 
became scarce around the settlements, most of the songbirds have in- 
creased enormously. In earlier days ravens also were common; now 
only the wildest areas of the mountains harbor them. The chimney 
swift and the nighthawk, on the other hand, have greatly profited by 
the coming of civilization. The swift, formerly nesting in hollow trees, 
has thoroughly adapted itself to chimneys, and the Kentucky Ornitho- 
logical Society has no record of any nesting in trees within the memory 
of the present generation. 

Almost 300 species of birds have been observed in Kentucky, most 
of them in land habitations. The great marsh country on the Ken- 
tucky-Tennessee border, north of Reelfoot Lake, is the breeding ground 
of American egrets, great blue herons, snakebirds, double-crested cor- 
morants, and other waterfowl. Huge flocks of waterfowl pass over 
the State in their migrations, and can sometimes be seen on streams 
and ponds. On a "wet-weather lake" near Bowling Green, observers 
have counted 36 species of waterfowl. 

Of the 150 to 175 species of birds found in Kentucky in an average 


year, about IS are winter residents, including the white-throated and 
white-crowned sparrows, the slate-colored junco, the golden-crowned 
kinglet, and the yellow-bellied sapsucker. Numbered among the sum- 
mer residents are the catbird, brown thrasher, bronzed grackle, crested 
flycatcher, Bachman and grasshopper sparrows, and Kentucky and 
yellow warblers. The shy warblers are represented by more than a 
dozen types that spend the summer here. The mockingbird, bluebird, 
cardinal, bluejay, Carolina chickadee, tufted titmouse, and towhee are 
among the 35 to 40 well known species that remain throughout the 

The United States Bureau of Biological Survey states that "ob- 
servers in the Mississippi Valley probably witness the passage of greater 
numbers of varieties of birds than can be observed in any other river 
valley of the world." The area south of the mouth of the Ohio River 
is part of the great wintering grounds of the waterfowl; the Ohio 
River from Louisville up as far as Catlettsburg is another concentration 
area. Ornithologists at the Falls of the Ohio, at Louisville, have re- 
corded in recent years nearly all the species of waterfowl that visit the 
State. The migration routes follow the Ohio, Mississippi, and Tennes- 
see Rivers; land birds, particularly the warblers, have another great 
route through central Kentucky, a little to the east of Mammoth Cave, 
along what the geologists call the Dripping Springs Escarpment. 

Small mammals exist in surprisingly large numbers, especially in the 
rocky areas. Red and gray foxes, minks, muskrats, raccoons, opossums, 
red and gray squirrels, cottontail rabbits, marsh rabbits (in the Pur- 
chase), and hosts of smaller species are found nearly everywhere. In 
the Jackson Purchase the large marsh rabbit and an occasional otter 
are still seen and in central Kentucky the woodchuck is common. The 
caves are thickly populated with bats and many kinds of rodents. 

Over a hundred species of fish have been found in Kentucky. Of 
the game fishes, the one most closely identified with Kentucky (par- 
ticularly the Barren and Green River section) is the muskallonge, known 
locally as jackfish or jack salmon. Three of the bass group, the large- 
and small-mouth and the Kentucky, are found throughout the State. 
Many other fishes are widely distributed: the crappie, bluegill, rock 
bass, drumfish or white perch, red horse, white sucker, and buffalo. 
Two kinds of catfish channel and blue are often taken; some are 
very large specimens. Among the species of interest principally to 
ichthyologists are the eel, the spoonbill, the sturgeon, minnows of many 

















species, darters, and the several blind and semi-blind species of cave 

The efforts of the State game and fish commission to safeguard and 
restore wild life resources have met with much success. Stationed 
everywhere are vigilant wardens, who not only protect game, but also 
educate the people in the proper uses of woodland and streams. 

The State has introduced deer, quail, and fish wherever conditions 
seem favorable, and the Federal Bureau of Fisheries maintains a sta- 
tion and breeding pond at Louisville, from which thousands of fish 
are distributed annually throughout the State. In eastern Kentucky 
the State has 12 game refuges where deer, bear, fur bearers, turkey, 
ruffed grouse, and quail are propagated; and two fish hatcheries where 
the species best adapted for the region are produced. In central Ken- 
tucky are 22 game refuges for upland game birds, pheasants, and fur- 
bearing animals, and one fish hatchery for black bass. The bass 
hatchery at Herrington Lake was one of the first to produce black bass 
under artificial conditions. In the near-famine years fish are seined 
from the overflowed lands in the Purchase and distributed where 

Amphibians, numerous and widely distributed, include the congo 
snake or blind eel (Amphiuma means), several species of waterdogs 
and salamanders, including the wicked-looking hellbender; bullfrogs, 
green frogs, leopard frogs, many varieties of tree frogs, and two species 
of toads. Common turtles are numerous, as are the alligator, snapping, 
soft-shelled, pond, and land varieties, and the well-known box or 
Carolina terrapin. Only four poisonous species of snake have been 
recorded: the timber rattler, copperhead, cottonmouth, and coral. Of 
these, the first two are widely distributed; the cottonmouth is appar- 
ently confined to the Purchase, and the coral, a southern species, is 
found only along the Tennessee border. Nonpoisonous snakes are 
much more plentiful. The blacksnake and its near relatives, the pine, 
the bull, and the chicken snake abound, and this is true also of the 
king snake and several species of water snakes. The brown or fence 
lizard, like the six line lizard or scorpion, is known everywhere. Less 
known are the several varieties of skinks and the fabulous glass or 
joint snake, which can shed its tail when attacked. All the lizards are 
useful and harmless. Several species of crawfish, clams, and snails 
are known to most fishermen and hunters. 


Plant Life 

Kentucky flora ranges from sub-boreal in the Eastern Mountains to 
semi-tropical in the Mississippi River bottoms'. Each of the State's six 
topographic and geologic regions has its peculiar type of flora; and in 
each of these regions are minor floral divisions, resulting from varia- 
tions in elevation, moisture, soils, exposure, and the work of man. 

The most varied plant life occurs in the Eastern Mountains, where 
clearing and cultivation have not disturbed the native flora. Here are 
found the large-leafed rhododendron, azalea, blueberry, huckleberry, 
ferns in great profusion, and the magnolia. Throughout the highland 
region the rhododendron is at its loveliest in June; and in this month, 
over all the rockier parts of the mountains, the mountain laurel or 
calico-bush is in bloom. Perhaps the loveliest flower in the mountains 
is the great laurel, or mountain rosebay (Rhododendron catawbaiense) , 
which covers hill and cliff with bell-shaped, rose-purple flowers, seen in 
full bloom only in the protected ravines of the Pine Mountains. 

Four species of magnolia the great-leafed, the small-leafed cucum- 
ber tree, the ear-leafed, and the umbrella tree bloom in late May or 
early June. The waxy gloss of their leaves and their huge, but delicate, 
pure white, sweet-scented blossoms give them a tropical appearance. 
Again in the fall they catch the eye with their crimson seed cones. 

An aberrant member of the magnolia family, the tulip tree, called 
yellow poplar in Kentucky, grows in all parts of the State. In May 
and June it produces dainty chalices of green, tinted with orange. 
Because of its value for lumber, the supply of larger specimens has 
been depleted. 

In May and June the mountains bloom with trillium, bloodroot, 
bluebell, wildginger, dogtooth violet, sour-wood, firepink, mosspink, 
groundpink, violet, bluet, dogwood, crab apple, dwarf-iris, yellow and 
pink lady-slipper, and dozens of other species. From early summer 
to the first frosts, the long growing season brings from blossom to 
maturity the wild strawberry, serviceberry, haw, wild grape, persim- 
mon, and papaw. Edible nuts for winter consumption include the 


chestnut, chinquapin (both rare today), beechnut, hazelnut, walnut, 
and hickorynut. 

Visitors to the Bluegrass region who expect to find the color of its 
famous grass blue in the summer months are disappointed. Only in 
May do the blue anthers of its blossoms give the grass a distinctly 
steel-blue tint. It grows luxuriantly in the limestone phosphorus soils 
of the Bluegrass region and sporadically in the limestone soils of the 
Pennyrile but does not prosper elsewhere. In its chosen habitat blue- 
grass is unequaled as turf and for pasturage, but it is rarely cut for 
hay. On many farms in central Kentucky it is grazed every month of 
the year. 

Few untouched wild spots are left in the Bluegrass region. Park-like 
lawns and open, grassy woodland patches surround the farm houses; 
but along steep banks and in the deep dells much of the original flora 
of the region survives. Here, in spring, are hidden the purple trillium, 
springbeauty, dwarf-iris, pink catchfly, bloodroot, stonecrop, columbine, 
and ferns of every sort. Dogwood and redbud spread their lacy, tinted 
draperies over the vernal slopes. Later in the summer, purple, white, 
and blue asters and hosts of other blossoms cover the rocks and find 
foothold in every pinch of soil between them. In the fields and open 
places goldenrod vies with bridal-wreath aster in the autumn. Along 
the streams the artichoke, a sunflower with edible roots, and the golden- 
glow, very like the artichoke in size and color, cover the bottom lands 
and banks with gold. Tall purple composites, the ironweed and 
meadow beauty (deer grass), grace the open woodlands or low meadows. 

In the Eden shale soils of the Bluegrass several species of red-haw 
flourish; these are white with blossoms in the spring, and in the fall 
are hung with the red berries that children string into long necklaces 
and belts. When unmolested the red-haw grows from ten to twenty 
feet high, but cattle browse it to the size of bushes, a fact that suggests 
their usefulness as hedges. 

Old fields in the acid soils and even in the more alkaline soils of the 
Pennyrile are sometimes covered with clumps of broomsedge, a grass- 
like plant that grows green in the spring and brown in autumn. When 
growing thick, it looks like a field of grain and is eaten sparingly by 
the livestock. Farmers consider it a pest, however, and often burn 
over patches of the weed. 

Everywhere are the climbing vines grapes, wistaria, trumpetvine, 
Virginia creeper, and poison ivy. Poison ivy, which smothers fence 
posts along the highways, grows rankly wherever it finds support. Its 


three-fingered compound leaves, greenish flowers, and white berries are 
easily identified, especially in the morning when the plant is covered 
with dew. 

Western Kentucky may be divided into two broad floral grounds: the 
upland division, represented by hill or knob land; and the lowland or 
river valley division. The upland flora, although more widely dis- 
tributed, is less luxuriant than that of the lowland. Extensive ranges 
of oak forests cover many of the knobs, their rich green foliage making 
a shady habitat for herbaceous plants. Early spring bedecks these 
forests with the golden yellow buttercup, the toothwort, springbeauty, 
and the delicate rue anemone. The birdsfoot violet, the most beautiful 
native kind, often carpets a gravelly knoll. 

Deep, moist ravines are canopied by sugar maple and beech, where 
the rich humus yields the trim wake-robin, in tones of brown and 
green, and the ever popular Indian turnip (Jack-in-the-pulpit). The 
bloodroot, bellwort, Solomon 's-seal, Greek valerian, waterleaf, wild 
sweet William, butterfly weed, trout lily, numerous violets, and other 
plants furnish a continuous sequence of blossom in the spring. Perhaps 
the greatest beauty of these woods is at the flowering time of the 
dogwood and redbud, everywhere abundant. 

In summer the dryness of the soil in this area reduces the number 
of flowering plants. For the most part, plants either make their growth 
and flower in the spring, or wait until the approach of autumn. Then 
the roadsides are bordered with goldenrod, the royal purple ironweed, 
and the sky-blue wild ageratum. Entire fields are covered with a sea 
of gold as the yellow tickseed comes into flower. Several species of 
asters herald the approach of frost, as the hills are transformed almost 
overnight into masses of glowing color. 

The overflow lands of the lowland area support a tropical luxuriance 
of vegetation, particularly in the wooded parts. Trees attain a larger 
growth here than in the uplands. Nearly all the eastern North Ameri- 
can oaks are represented, even the southern willow oak, and there are, 
in addition, several varieties of hickory (including the pecan), species 
of ash, besides the maple, willow, cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum, 
blackgum, and many others. The picturesque river birch, with its thin, 
papery bark hanging in shreds, stands out in bold contrast to the 
smooth silver maples with which it often grows. 

Early spring flowers are not abundant, but summer and fall bring a 
wealth of color as the Indian pinks, the milkweeds, ruellia, cardinal 
flower, great blue lobelia, spider lily, and aster and goldenrod come into 

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prolific flower. Marshy places are fringed with the swamp rose, hal- 
berd-leafed hibiscus, swamp privet, and button bush, and covered with 
yellow pond lily and lotus. The Ohio, Mississippi, and lesser rivers, by 
their meanderings, have formed numerous oxbow lakes that furnish 
ideal conditions for the spread of the bald cypress. These beautiful 
trees, with their "knees" protruding from the surface of the water, 
often cover large areas. Festoons of catbird grape hang from the 
lower branches and climb over the smaller shrubs, extending to the 
water's edge. 

Kentucky lies in the great hardwood forest region between the Alle- 
ghenies and the western prairies. Before white settlement, three-fourths 
of the State was covered with forests unsurpassed in eastern North 
America for the size of individual trees and the density of the cover. 
Giants six, eight, and ten feet in diameter were not uncommon. The 
larger varieties were yellow poplar (tulip tree), sycamore, oak, chest- 
nut, and walnut. It is told that some of the hollow sycamores were 
so large that families were known to have camped in them until they 
could build cabins. Today not over one-fourth of the State can be 
called forested and very little of this is primeval, nearly all having 
been cut over for timber. 

Their attractiveness and the ease of settlement upon them led to the 
early clearing of limestone lands in the Bluegrass region. Today 
about 90 percent of these lands are denuded. The western limestone 
lands of the Pennyrile and the delta lands of the Purchase are about 
30 percent forested. The most densely forested areas, amounting to 
60 or 70 percent of the area, are in the valleys of the Big Sandy, Upper 
Licking, Kentucky, and Cumberland Rivers, all in eastern Kentucky. 
In the latter area the timber is chiefly composed of oak, chestnut, and 
yellow poplar; in the rest of the State it runs to oak and hickory, 
except along the lower Ohio and the Mississippi flood plains, where 
hardwoods peculiar to river bottoms prevail. 

Kentucky's forests have brought their owners considerable wealth, 
but commercial exploitation was practically at an end by the close of 
the last century. Today the State's forests are still producing mod- 
erately, but not as they did when great sawmills stood on all the 
larger streams and logs by the millions floated down in the spring and 
fall freshets. As most of the steeper land in Kentucky is better adapted 
to the production of trees than to other uses, the tendency is to con- 
serve forest stands and to cut the timber scientifically, but no thorough 
State-wide system of conservation has been adopted. Only in one or 


two small areas is reforestation being attempted, where some of the 
private landholding companies and individual owners have begun to 
reforest their cut-over lands. The establishment of the Cumberland 
National Park in eastern Kentucky offers the greatest promise of forest 
conservation. This park will contain over a million acres, of which 
much is forested, and the rest already is being replanted. The Federal 
example points to the necessity for a State forest policy that will in- 
crease timber resources, offer a measure of protection against the too 
rapid run-off of storm water, and restore the natural balance in wild 
life which reckless exploitation has destroyed. 

Geology and Paleontology 

The oldest outcropping rock formations in Kentucky are of the 
Mid-Ordovician period, an early division of the Paleozoic era, hun- 
dreds of millions of years ago when only the simplest forms of marine 
life existed. Cambrian rocks, those from the earliest period of the 
Paleozoic, are exposed nowhere in the State, but from a deep well 
drilled at Nicholasville in Jessamine County fossil remains of trilobites, 
small oval-shaped marine animals, known to have lived in the Cam- 
brian, have been taken. 

The Ordovician period, when shell-forming sea animals flourished, 
is well represented in both surface and subsurface formations. In the 
vast ocean covering this region lived sponges, corals, moss animals, 
brachiopods, sea lilies, chambered shells (cephalopods), primitive forms 
of snails (gastropods), clams (pelecyrods), and buglike creatures, the 
trilobites. Tiny gastropods, Cyclora minuta, were so numerous that 
their fossil remains in the limestone have been mined as phosphate 
rock. The lime and phosphorus of these shell-forming sea creatures 
account in large measure for the fertility of Kentucky soils, especially 
of the Bluegrass region, with which the Ordovician deposits are prac- 
tically co-extensive. The limestone and shales of this area are esti- 
mated to be half a billion years old. 

Through the massive limestone of Central Kentucky the Kentucky 
River and its tributary, the Dix River, have cut deep gorges. Gently 


rolling hills, occasional caverns, sinkholes, and countless springs are 
phenomena resulting from erosion and internal water drainage. 

At the beginning of Silurian time following the Ordovician age and 
lasting a relatively brief twenty-five million years an ancient sea in- 
vaded Kentucky from the Gulf of Mexico, permitting the immigration 
of southern types of corals, crinoids (a class to which sea lilies be- 
long), and simple shellfish. About the middle of that age the waters 
of the North Atlantic invaded the area, bringing many new forms. 
In this complex of older life forms and newer developing ones are 
found chain corals, honeycomb corals, cup corals, and organ-pipe corals 
all named for peculiarities of shape, crinoids of many kinds, and 
new species of shellfish. Trilobites were on the decline and disap- 
peared during the Pennsylvanian period. 

The limestones of the Devonian, the next period, have preserved 
about the same number of genera of corals, crinoids, and brachiopods 
as are found in the Silurian. Cephalopods, with chambered shells, and 
the mosslike and branching bryozoans are common. During this age, 
which is marked by the rise of fishes and the appearance of am- 
phibians, there were sharks in Kentucky's waters; the ostracoderm, 
a great fishlike creature, has left its remains. The oldest known land 
flora also made its appearance on Devonian lands. 

Considerably more than a fourth of Kentucky is underlaid by lime- 
stones, shales, and sandstones of the Mississippian system. These 
formations date from the beginning of the Carboniferous period, 
which was to last somewhat over one hundred million years and ex- 
hibit a flora of primitive scale trees, tree ferns, huge mosses, early 
forms of flowering plants and, from this world of luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, the development of amphibians. Among the new creatures was 
a genus called Archimedes, so named from its resemblance to the 
screw of Archimedes. From the stem of this living screw, lacy cur- 
tains extended, inhabited by thousands of microscopic bryozoan ani- 
mals. Fossils of the decorative Pentremites, the so-called fossil "hick- 
ory nut," are found in abundance in some of the limestones in the 
Pennyrile. Fossil sharks' teeth are the only evidence of vertebrates 
of the period in Kentucky. 

The limestones of the Mississippian period are responsible for the 
odd feature of the landscape known as the Land of Ten Thousand 
Sinks, with its extensive subterranean drainage. From the evidence 
of existing river channels, cutting deeply through Mississippian strata 
and subsequently filled with sandstone of the Pennsylvanian period, it 


may be deduced that the Mississippian period witnessed a vast uplift 
followed by a subsidence of the region. 

The Pennsylvanian, or great coal age, is represented in the surface 
formations of both the eastern and western coal fields of Kentucky. 
These are sandstones, shales, occasional limestones, and numerous coal 
seams. The lower sandstone outcrops along the outer edges of both 
areas and has been sculptured by erosion into natural bridges, rock 
castles, and water falls. Natural Bridge and Cumberland Falls are 
notable among these. The Pennsylvanian shales in places bear the 
imprint of the abundant plant life of the period. The shale roofs of 
some of the coal mines are decorated with fossil tree trunks, showing 
bark patterns and the traces of leaves. The sandstones also exhibit 
the Lepidodendrons, Sigillaria, and other coal-forming trees, a flora 
that vanished with the end of the Carboniferous period in its last 
stage, the Permian. The animal fossils of the Pennsylvanian resem- 
bles those of the Mississipian. 

The close of the Paleozoic era, an eon of some 350 million years, 
saw the rise of the ancient lofty Appalachian Mountains, of which the 
ancestral Pine and Cumberland Mountains formed western outposts. 

So far as Kentucky is concerned, there is a hiatus in the rock rec- 
ord, extending from the end of the Paleozoic to the last period of the 
Mesozoic. Triassic, Jurassic, and Commanchean rocks do not occur, 
and those of the Cretaceous period show no marine fossils. Dinosaurs 
or other spectacular creatures of this age of reptiles may have wan- 
dered into the area during this time, but neither fossil remains nor 
footprints have been found. 

The Tertiary period, which introduced the age of mammals, found 
the Purchase Region of coastal plain bordering an enlarged Gulf of 
Mexico. Cassias, figs, maples, laurels, oaks, walnuts, willows, papaws, 
gums, yews, hickories, and other contemporary flora thrived. In 
these forests roamed the giant ground sloth, giant wolves, and other 

The Quaternary includes the quite recent glacial period, traces of 
which (in the Illinoian stage) are found ten to twenty miles south of 
the Ohio, from the Big Sandy to the Kentucky Rivers. Louisville, in 
part, and other cities of the northern border are built on a glacial Ohio 
River outwash of sand and gravel. Big Bone Lick in Boone County 
is named from the leg bones of mammoth and mastodon that mired 
down at this place. It is possible that cave dwellers lived and hunted 


at the edge of the slowly retreating ice cap. In any event, within a 
few thousand years man made his appearance in the forests of this 
region and the modern era was ushered in. 

There are geological and paleontological collections in the Univer- 
sity of Kentucky at Lexington, in the Louisville Free Public Library, 
and in many other Kentucky institutions of higher learning. 


THE MANY mounds, forts, cave shelters, and burial fields in Ken- 
tucky show that the prehistoric population must have been fairly 
large for savages. It was diverse in culture and probably had many 
separate origins. 

Aboriginal remains are found in every county in the State. The 
eastern mound area covers the heart of the Bluegrass region and ex- 
tends northeastward to the Ohio River. This fertile and well watered 
land was heavily timbered in prehistoric times. It is characterized 
archeologically by the great number and large size of its Indian mounds, 
many of them associated with village sites, and by other structures 
which have been called forts. The popular notion that the mound 
builders were a race differing from the American Indians has no facts 
to support it. They were doubtless the ancestors of some of the his- 
toric Indians. 

The mounds were originally of various shapes and sizes but have 
been altered through weathering and the changes caused by agriculture. 
This is especially true of mounds which were not high and stand in 
cultivated fields. With each plowing the earth has been removed from 
the top and spread out at the base until the original shape has been 
destroyed. Often the surface for many yards around is strewn with 
flints, bones, and broken pottery upturned by plow and harrow. 

Some of these mounds were constructed centuries ago; others are 
quite recent. Certain tribes of modern Indians were building mounds 
when the first whites arrived. Sometimes intrusive burials indicate 
that later tribes used the mounds after the original builders had dis- 
appeared. All mounds were not used for the same purpose they were 
erected for ceremonial or sacrificial purposes, or for the burial of the 
dead; and some perhaps represent nothing more than the dirt roof of 
a lodge or the gradual accumulation of camp refuse. 

The remains of camp and village sites, usually found in the vicinity 
of mounds, are often extensive and show long occupancy. The fea- 
tures by which a site is recognized is the sporadic occurrence of broken 




















I I 

M 1 J 








bits of flint artifacts, potsherds, or bone fragments scattered over the 
surface. The midden of a village is usually one foot deep, though it 
may attain a depth of several feet. 

The life of the mound builders may be reconstructed, to some extent, 
from the artifacts found in the mounds. Agriculture is shown in the 
hoes; fishing in the fishhooks and fish scales; hunting in the bones of 
many a beast; sports in the almost obliterated race tracks and play- 
grounds; child-like vanities in the personal ornaments; industry in 
the laboriously fashioned tools and in the carved pipes and gorgets. 

The rock shelter area extends throughout the knobs and eastern 
mountains and swings south and west of the Bluegrass to portions of 
west central Kentucky having a similar topography. In this area 
erosion has formed many vertical cliffs from 50 to 200 feet high in 
which are rock shelters, known locally as rock houses. Numbers of 
these shelters are several hundred feet long and from 30 to 60 feet 
high, and many are quite dry. Into these, primitive man carried wood 
for fire and animals for food. Ashes and bones have accumulated in 
layers sometimes 10 feet deep. Each layer contains a record of con- 
temporary life and is well preserved, for no water has entered the 
shelters and the dry ashes have prevented bacterial action. Bone, 
shell, gourd shards, textiles and leather have been found in excellent 

Not all the sites are of the same age, nor do all have the same amount 
of accumulated debris; but the series of artifacts, burial customs, and 
apparent steps in the development of culture are so nearly identical 
in the shelters investigated that it is reasonable to suppose that all 
have a similar story of occupancy. 

The western Kentucky rock shelter area embraces the headwaters 
of the Green River and extends northward to the Ohio River. The 
cliff shelters found here differ from those in the cliff dwelling area. 
They are merely overhanging rock strata or ledges of sandstone or 
limestone, offering protection over a relatively small space. The cliffs 
are usually not more than 30 feet high, and the actual shelters, while 
numerous, are individually small no larger than would meet the need 
of a single family. The shelters were often so small that the ashes had 
to be periodically swept out, and their accumulation formed a talus at 
the foot of the cliff below, which grew deeper and broader as occupancy 
continued. Burials of men, women, and children were often made in 
the ashes and debris swept from the shelter. There is no known evi- 
dence of cremation. Bone and shell were used extensively; a few slate 


pendants, shell and bone beads, and other ornaments have been found. 

The distinguishing feature of the sandstone sites is the hominy hole 
used for grinding corn. At every site, from one to^ five or six of these 
conical holes are found either in the shelter floors or in large sand- 
stone boulders. A hominy hole is from four to ten inches in diameter 
at the top, tapering to perhaps three inches at the bottom and varying 
in depth from one to three feet. Associated with the hominy hole is 
a bell-shaped pestle, lashed to a staff several feet long, and used pointed 
end downward, with which the corn was ground by percussion. A 
number of pestles were left in these hominy holes by their users. Crude 
hoes, the hominy holes, and pestles suggest a horticultural people. 
They are not to be distinguished from the rock shelter dwellers of the 
eastern mountains, and their cultural connections are uncertain. 

The cliff dwellings were in continuous use from a remote period until 
the advent of white men. The lowest ash beds have no pottery of any 
kind, no flint implements, and only the crudest forms of hammer- 
stones; large broken animal bones, mingled with mussel shells, nut 
hulls, and fish scales, form a considerable portion of the refuse. Upper 
or later levels show gourd shards, grooved axes, and very crude lime- 
stone hoes, indicating the beginning of agriculture. Woven textiles and 
moccasins of both textiles and leather have also been found in the 
upper layers. Crude potsherds occur only in the top six inches of the 
ash, and a few sites have yielded paddle-marked shards. The cliff 
dwellers used shells as spoons and scrapers, and made a characteristic 
bone awl from the shoulder blade of the deer. 

Many burials of women and children occur in the ash beds, but such 
burials did not prevent later occupancy of the site. Although dozens 
of ash beds have been investigated and scores of bodies of women and 
children have been found, there is no evidence of a burial of an adult 
male. The question of what was done with deceased adult males may 
have been answered by the discovery, in one site in Wolfe County, of 
some 57 artifacts associated with the almost entirely burned bones of 
what appears to have been an adult male. These bones and artifacts 
are preserved, just as found, in the museum of the University of Ken- 
tucky. Future investigation may show that adult males were cremated. 
In the southeastern mountain area are many mounds, but they are 
not as numerous as in the neighboring central mound area. Here, too, 
are rock shelters in which the aboriginal people lived and left artifacts. 
Plowed fields have yielded artifacts of flint and other stones and 
vestiges of villages may be seen in a few places. The soil was capable 


of producing maize abundantly but the roughness of the country doubt- 
less interfered with settlement. 

An area embracing a portion of north central Kentucky includes 
evidence of aborigines of unknown cultural affinities. This occupation 
is indicated by burial sites containing stone cists of two to six burials, 
usually situated on high hill crests. The graves are covered with a 
double row of flat stones set on edge and touching each other at the 
top. Other stones are then leaned against this first row, and some- 
times an area of 10 feet square is covered with sloping stones. 

Along part of the Ohio River in Kentucky are a few larger mounds 
associated with village sites, some of which have yielded material of 
Fort Ancient culture; this would be expected from its contact with the 
Fort Ancient area in Ohio and with the eastern mound area in Ken- 
tucky, to the eastward. The Fort Ancient culture is probably Siouan. 

Kentucky caves were inhabited by prehistoric man, but how far he 
dates back in time is, at present, an unanswerable question. The term 
"cave dwellers" is used to designate those ancient people whose remains 
are found in caves and who apparently lived in them. Primitive man 
could hardly have found a more satisfactory type of shelter. The part 
of the cave near the mouth was commonly occupied, and caves which 
had good rooms close to the entrance were favorite dwelling places. 
The inhabitants also used the most remote passages, for in the deepest 
and most inaccessible chambers they left evidence of their presence. 
The caves, like the mounds, represent more than one group of people. 
After one group deserted them, a new group would move in. 

The reason for burial in the caves may have been religious belief, 
or long-established custom, or a desire to protect the graves, or merely 
the fact that the floor of the cave was never hard or frozen, and was 
easy to excavate when the outside ground was not. Whatever the 
reason, its existence is fortunate, for cave burials have proven con- 
ducive to preservation of remains, and thus they give illuminating 
glimpses of ancient life. 

Ash beds are found on the floors of caves, but it is often difficult 
to tell whether they were made by ancient residents or modern hunters. 
On the walls are marks and decorations; since weathering is very slow 
in such protected places, these marks may be ten or a thousand years 
old. Hidden in crevices are pots containing paint or pigment, but little 
is known of the men who left them there. 

South and west of the western Kentucky rock shelter area, along 
Green River in its passage through McLean, Muhlenberg, Ohio, and 


Butler Counties, is the Shell Mound area. It is distinguished by great 
shell heaps near the riverbanks, consisting of gastropod and mussel 
shells mixed with animal bones and camp refuse. The size and number 
of these mounds suggest a large population or a long-continued occupa- 
tion. The shell beds are often ten to twelve feet deep, and many of 
them are several acres in extent. The most important archeological 
investigation within this area was made by C. B. Moore at Indian 
Knoll, where many skeletons and certain characteristic artifacts were 
discovered. The circular pattern of graves at this site is unlike that in 
the surrounding territory. The artifacts indicate a people living 
wholly by fishing and hunting. There is no evidence of agriculture 
and, beyond the mounds themselves, no evidence of permanent occupa- 
tion. It is possible that these shell mounds are evidences of the oldest 
human occupancy in this area of the State. 

The stone grave area, lying between the Tennessee and Green Rivers, 
is very rich in prehistoric remains earth mounds, large village sites, 
and cemeteries. Stone grave cemeteries are fairly numerous, and some 
are fairly extensive. A stone grave is made by setting six to eight 
stones on edge, carefully joined to form a box; in this the body in the 
flesh is buried at full length. Usually the stone graves were lined at 
the bottom and covered at the top with flat stones. At one site they 
were found under mounds which contained crematory pits and ossuaries 
of a group of unknown culture. 

These stone graves are generally devoid of artifacts, although some- 
times they contain small mortuary vessels of pottery. At the head 
or foot of the individual within the stone grave are extended burials 
and many burials of bones. Thus on such sites there is evidence of at 
least two methods of disposal of the dead. Because of a dearth of arti- 
facts the cultural connections of these people are uncertain. 

Within this area, built upon a stone grave cemetery seemingly at a 
later date, a village site has been found and a group of sixty or more 
mounds, many of which have proven to be crematory pits for burning 
the bones of the dead. Remains show the practice of cremation, 
strongly suggestive of some members of the Siouan linguistic stock, and 
collections of jumbled human bones are found, often within the same 
mound. Such ossuaries often contain the bones of hundreds of indi- 
viduals, packed into small, stone, chimney-like vaults, similar to the 
crematory pits. Here again were two methods of dealing with the 
dead. Artifacts found in this association are few, the most character- 


istic being pottery "elbow" pipes. These pipes and burial customs 
are similar to those described by Gerard Fowke in Missouri. 

The third culture within this area has been called the Gordon or 
Tennessee-Cumberland aspect, first described by Meyer in the Cum- 
berland River region of Tennessee. This culture is distinguished by 
the erection of earth mounds over the sites of buildings or temples. 
The remains of these buildings, which were made of wattlework be- 
tween posts driven into the earth, show that they were destroyed by 
fire and covered with earth while the fire was yet burning. Over this 
a new structure was erected which, in time, went the way of the first. 
Generally the mounds show several levels of occupation. Remains 
of maize are found in the temple sites, indicating that the people of 
this culture practiced agriculture. They made pottery, producing dis- 
tinct and attractive types, many of which show outside influence. One 
characteristic form is a textile-marked vessel of large size, commonly 
called a salt pan. Shards of such vessels are found in great number 
in the dirt forming the mounds that cover the sites of burned build- 

While, in places, these earth mounds are found near the stone grave 
cemeteries, not all are so situated. Some of the larger sites show full- 
length burials in the flesh, accompanied by a variety of artifacts. The 
occupancy of this area by so many different peoples complicates the 
problem of identification; on the other hand it has increased the 
stratification of artifacts and culture customs. 

The Jesuit Relations recounts that the Five Nations, or Iroquois, in 
New York, got guns from the Dutch about 1630 and turned on their 
less advanced neighbors to the north, south, and west with such fury 
that by 1690 the present States of Ohio and Kentucky were depop- 
ulated, their inhabitants having fled across the Mississippi River or 
to the southeast. 

About 1645-1650 a group of these fugitives from the upper Ohio 
began to cross the present State by the Athiomiowee, or Warriors' 
Trace. They were overtaken by their Iroquoian foes, but fortified 
themselves and drove them back. In Virginia they defeated Colonel 
Howard Hill and killed the chief of his Indian allies, Totopottomoi, a 
successor to Powhatan. The Virginia records call these fugitives 
Rickohockans and later Occaneechos. Others of these same people 
turned down the Ohio called the Acansea River on early French maps 
and the Mississippi, and finally settled on the Missouri and Arkansas 


Between 1715 and 1725 a number of the Piqua band of Shawnee 
returned from the South and built a town, Eskippakithiki, in the south- 
eastern part of Clark County. There they remained for some time 
until they moved to Ohio and took sides with the French in the cam- 
paign against Braddock. 

In 1736 the French took a census of the Ohio Valley and credited 
the Shawnees, in the Carolina region, with a strength of 200 men. 
This was probably only for the Shawnee town of Eskippakithiki, for 
the Van Keulen map of 1720 shows a trail from the present Illinois, 
crossing the Ohio near the mouth of the Kentucky River, and passing 
by the site of Eskippakithiki, to Cumberland Gap, which is labeled, 
"The route which the French take to trade with Carolina." 

Peter Chartier, a half-breed Shawnee trader, the son of Martin 
Chartier, was in Kentucky in the late seventeenth century. He had 
his chief post at the Shawnee town on the Pequea Creek in Pennsyl- 
vania, and probably reached out for trade with his Shawnee kinsmen 
in Kentucky. In 1745, he was reprimanded by the Governor for sell- 
ing liquor to the Indians, and accepted a captaincy in the French 
service and fled down the Ohio River, taking with him 400 Shawnee 
warriors and their families. Having robbed all the English traders 
they met, they went to their kinsmen at Eskippakithiki, where they 
stopped until the fall of 1747. After making trouble in the South for 
several years, they drifted back, stopping at the present Shawneetown, 
Illinois, until they were allowed to return to their British allegiance 
and their old homes. Chartier fled to the French in Illinois. 

About 1729 Shawnees, Delawares, and Mingoes built Lower Shaw- 
neetown on the western side of the Scioto River at its mouth. A 
suburb of this backwoods capital was built on the Kentucky side, now 
Fullerton, and some trading posts were established there by Colonel 
George Croghan, and others. This town and its Kentucky suburb 
were deserted just before the French and Indian War. Eskippakithiki 
and Lower Shawneetown were the last Indian settlements in Kentucky. 


KENTUCKY was the first State to be organized west of the Ap- 
palachian Mountains. At the mountain barrier the westward 
movement of American immigrants had come to its first halt, but there 
was a lively curiosity about the land beyond to the west. 

In 1642 a company of English adventurers, Walter Austin, Rice 
Hoe, Joseph Johnson, and Walter Chiles, petitioned for "leave and 
encouragement to explore westward." Whatever their intentions may 
have been, they failed to use their grant. Twenty-seven years passed 
before the subject of western exploration was again discussed in the 
Virginia Assembly. A permit was granted in 1669 to John Lederer, a 
German adventurer and personal friend of Governor Berkeley, to ex- 
plore westward. He made three trips into the Blue Ridge, passing 
through the neighborhood of what is now Lynchburg, but accom- 
plished little. In 1671, Colonel Abram Wood, commandant of Fort 
Henry at Petersburg, Virginia, sent Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam 
into the western ranges to find the "ebbing and flowing of the rivers 
on the other side of the mountains in order to reach the South Seas." 
This expedition reached the Ohio Valley, but the English were not 
much impressed with the findings. Two or three years later, however, 
they discovered that the French were active in the western country 
beyond the mountains. The English became intensely interested when 
the French, by virtue of the Mississippi voyages of Jolliet and Mar- 
quette in 1673 and of La Salle in 1682, claimed all the region drained 
by the Mississippi River and its tributaries. James Needham and 
Gabriel Arthur were sent into the West in 1673. Needham was killed, 
but Arthur made his way into northeastern Kentucky with the Indians 
and may have been the first Englishman on Kentucky soil. English 
interest in the trans-Allegheny region lagged for 70 years and was 
confined to the cis-Allegheny frontier. 

In 1742 John Peter Salley (or Sailing) led a party from Virginia to 
the banks of the Ohio River. One or two of the men were killed, and 
Salley was captured by French adventurers and sent to prison, first at 



Natchez, and later in Cuba and France, He finally returned to 
Charleston, South Carolina. Salley's adventure stimulated a fresh 
interest on the part of the English in the Ohio Valley. Seven years 
later Pierre Joseph Celoron, Sieur de Blainville, set out from Quebec 
to lay claim for the French to all the land between Quebec and New 
Orleans. The news of this expedition aroused the English whose 
Colonial officials took steps to make counter claims. Land companies 
were organized and plans were made at once to send surveyors beyond 
the mountains to lay out claims to large tracts of lands for prospective 
settlements. The Loyal Land Company at Charlottesville, Virginia, 
secured a grant of 800,000 acres and dispatched an expedition west- 
ward under Dr. Thomas Walker in 1750. The party left Charlottes- 
ville on March 6 and came to a wide pass in the Allegheny wall on 
April 13. Walker refers to the pass in his journal as "Cave Gap" 
through which his party passed on their way to within a short distance 
from what is now Barboursville. Here the expedition established its 
base for operations, explored the eastern mountain range of Kentucky 
for several weeks, and left the country on June 20, 1750. 

The next year Christopher Gist, a frontier scout and explorer, was 
employed by the Ohio Land Company to visit the West. He traveled 
through passes in the neighborhood of modern Pittsburgh and made 
his way through Indian trading villages down the Ohio River to the 
Kentucky country. In March 1751 he visited Big Bone Lick, and 
headed for the great Falls of the Ohio River, now Louisville, but 
friendly Shawnee Indians warned him of hostile tribes encamped about 
the falls. Gist turned back, passing over the mountains to North 

The settlement line along the Virginia and Carolina frontiers grew 
more and more populous from 1751 to 1786. The settlers were anxious 
to move westward to new and more fertile lands, but the country was 
involved in the French and Indian War from 1755 to 1763 and it was 
dangerous. It appeared for a time that the land which is now Ken- 
tucky would fall to the French, but the tide turned at last, and on 
February 10, 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed. The English got 
possession of the land east of the Mississippi River, but to the disap- 
pointment of the frontiersmen, King George III issued the proclama- 
tion of 1763 forbidding settlers to move beyond the line of watershed 
in the Appalachian highlands. 

Despite the King's proclamation, scouts of one kind or another 
brought back from the West thrilling stories of the new country. Mrs. 


Inglis, with a German woman companion, came into the northern Ken- 
tucky country as captives of the Indians, from whom they escaped 
almost miraculously. The so-called silver miners, led by John Swift, 
were in Kentucky from time to time during the 1760's. A legend pre- 
vails to this day that Swift and his companions mined large quantities 
of silver in Kentucky and many communities yet claim the site of the 
Swift silver mines. 

The "long hunters," so called because of long periods of time spent 
by men of the eastern frontier settlements in hunting across the moun- 
tains, began to invade the Kentucky country. Among them were John 
Raines, Uriah Stone, John Finley, Henry Skaggs, and Daniel Boone. 
Boone's fame has grown with the passage of time until he has become, 
in legend at least, the chief figure of the early Kentucky frontier days. 
His life is symbolical of the western movement in American history. 

Born in Berks County, Pennsylvania, in 1734, Boone had moved with 
his parents in 1750 to the western part of North Carolina, on the 
Yadkin. He was restless by nature, and in 1766 entered upon a career 
of exploration that first took him as far south as St. Augustine, 
Florida. Returning to North Carolina, he was influenced to go West 
by John Finley's stories of Kentucky, and crossed through Cumber- 
land Gap. But instead of reaching the Bluegrass country he spent 
the winter of 1767 in the tablelands of eastern Kentucky, and returned 
to North Carolina. In May 1769, Boone, Finley, and several com- 
panions started for Kentucky. They spent the summer hunting in 
the cane lands and before they realized it winter was upon them. 
When their stores were broken into by the Indians in December and 
a number of horses were stolen, the party broke up, and Finley with 
three of his companions returned to North Carolina. 

Meanwhile, Squire Boone, a brother of Daniel, and a companion 
had come out to Kentucky. The two brothers hunted for a year, and 
wandered over the country from the Big Sandy to the Cumberland 
Rivers. It was during these years, 1769-1771, that Daniel Boone 
acquired information about the Kentucky country that later made him 
a valuable scout. 

The next whites to appear in Kentucky were the land surveyors sent 
out by land companies and speculators. Captain Thomas Bullitt led 
one such party to the Falls of the Ohio River in June 1773, where he 
made a survey of the lands where Louisville now stands. At the same 
time the McAfee brothers were surveying lands up the Kentucky 


River. James Harrod led another surveying party in 1774 to the 
neighborhood now known as Harrodsburg. 

No settlement had been established as yet, but immediately after 
the Indian disturbances had been settled by the Dunmore War, specu- 
lators laid plans to claim vast surveys in the West. The best known 
of these speculative ventures was the Transylvania Land Company, 
organized in 1773 as the Richard Henderson Company, under the 
leadership of Judge Richard Henderson of North Carolina. He and 
his associates, Colonel Nathaniel Hart and others, made a treaty with 
the Cherokee Indians on March 17, 1775, at Sycamore Shoals on the 
Watauga River, granting the whites possession of all the land south of 
the Ohio River, north of the Cumberland River, and west of the Ap- 
palachian ranges. Henderson also purchased a tract that reached from 
Cumberland Gap to the south bank of the Cumberland River. Daniel 
Boone and thirty companions were dispatched immediately to Ken- 
tucky to blaze the trail, and locate suitable river fording places. 
Henderson and his party followed and in May 1775, the settlement 
at Boonesboro was begun. 

Harrodsburg, of Virginia origin, was also settled in early 1775. The 
founding of St. Asaph Station and Boiling Springs followed immedi- 
ately. Judge Henderson issued a call on May 23, 1775, to all these 
forts to send delegates to Boonesboro for the purpose of making laws 
to govern the settlements. The nine laws passed by this meeting are 
sometimes called the first legislative acts passed by a Kentucky Legisla- 
ture, though this is not strictly true. 

Rivalry soon developed between the Virginia and North Carolina 
settlements. George Rogers Clark, a young Virginian who had re- 
cently come West, called a meeting at Harrodsburg on June 6, 1776, 
of all the Kentucky forts to discuss a course of procedure. Clark and 
John Gabriel Jones were selected as delegates to go to Williamsburg 
and present their problems to the Virginia Legislature, but they ar- 
rived too late to go before the assembly. Clark, however, was able to 
secure an appropriation of 500 pounds of gunpowder for the protection 
of Kentucky. 

Clark and Jones learned, while in Williamsburg, that Richard Hen- 
derson and his associates were attempting to secure recognition of their 
colony. The Harrodsburg delegates, thereupon, decided to remain in 
Virginia until the assembly convened in the fall in order that they 
might protect the rights of the Harrodsburg settlers. It was largely 
through their influence that the Transylvania Land Company was de- 


clared illegal, and that Kentucky County was created out of Fincastle 
County on December 6, 1776. The name Kentucky was first used 
officially by Virginia at this time. 

When Clark and Jones returned to Kentucky they found many 
settlers moving into the West. The Indians, however, were a constant 
menace, and Clark realized that if the Kentucky settlements were to 
survive, a military drive would have to be made beyond the Ohio. 
He therefore sought the permission and assistance of the Virginia As- 
sembly and Governor Patrick Henry to attack the Indians and the 
English in their stronghold beyond the Ohio River, and won approval 
of his plans in December 1777. Starting out from Virginia, Clark went 
to the Redstone settlement near Pittsburgh to recruit troops for his 
western expedition. At the same time he dispatched an agent to the 
Watauga settlements in Tennessee for the same purpose. Both Clark 
and his agent were disappointed in the number of troops secured. In- 
stead of 350, which he wanted, he got less than 200, and many of them 
objected to fighting beyond the Ohio River. Clark, nevertheless, pro- 
ceeded to Corn Island in the Ohio, opposite the site on which Louis- 
ville stands today. 

The expedition started secretly in June 1778 for Kaskaskia, and 
took the town by surprise. This successful coup was followed by a 
similar one against the town of Cahokia. In the fall Governor Hamil- 
ton arrived at Vincennes, the main French post in the northwest, with 
a large force of British and Indian troops, and the British flag was 
raised over the village. Hamilton thought he was perfectly safe in 
Vincennes, but in February 1779 Clark and his troops took Vincennes 
by surprise and captured the fort. The Indians were thus driven back 
temporarily from Kentucky and the American frontier was extended 
to the Mississippi River. 

In the meantime Kentuckians were having Indian troubles at home. 
Daniel Boone and his salt-making companions were captured at the 
Lower Blue Licks February 7, 1778, and carried away to Detroit where 
he was adopted as a son of Chief Black Fish. He lived happily with 
the Indians for a time, but when he heard that the French-Canadian, 
De Quindre, was plotting with the Indians to attack Boonesboro, he 
returned to that settlement to prepare for the attack. The Indians 
under the command of De Quindre appeared before the fort and de- 
manded its surrender; the demand was refused and the attack re- 
pulsed. The Kentucky settlements were saved. 

The British and Indians made a second major attack in 1782, strik- 


ing at Bryan Station on August 15. Four days later the Kentuckians 
pursued them to the banks of the Licking River. On a limestone road 
in a ravine at Blue Licks occurred one of the bloodiest battles ever 
fought on the frontier. Though the Americans were defeated, this was 
the last battle of any significance fought against the Indians on Ken- 
tucky soil. 

As the Kentucky country became^ more settled and Indian skirmishes 
became less frequent, the settlers grew tired of living in stockades. 
County organizations and taverns began to spring up. The Falls of 
the Ohio, which became Louisville, was surveyed in 1773 by Thomas 
Bullitt; Boonesboro was incorporated in 1779; Washington and Mays- 
ville soon followed; the plan for the town of Lexington was adopted 
in 1781. The Kentuckians soon began to consider separating their 
territory from Virginia and becoming one of the States of the con- 
federation. They first met in Danville December 27, 1784, to discuss 
the matter formally; ten conventions were called before an independent 
State was created. (In the meantime the Constitution of the United 
States was written and ratified.) Many reasons for a separation were 
discussed in these conventions: objections to Virginia taxes, inability 
of Kentuckians to adapt Virginia laws to local situations, the refusal 
of Virginia to permit Kentuckians to pursue Indians beyond the Ohio 
River, and the fact that all cases appealed to higher courts had to be 
carried back to Richmond for trial. Some people demanded that Ken- 
tucky become simply an independent State and have nothing to do 
with the Union, some wished to become a part of the Spanish Empire, 
some to remain a part of Virginia. Others demanded recognition as 
one of the States of the Union. The long, bitter struggle finally came 
to an end in the framing of a constitution at Danville in April 1792. 
On June 1, 1792, Kentucky was admitted as a State into the Union. 

The new government was inaugurated June 4, 1792, in Lexington. 
General Isaac Shelby, by common consent, was chosen to be the first 
Governor. The Sheaf of Wheat Tavern in Lexington became tem- 
porarily the statehouse, and the legislature met for its first session in a 
capitol building of logs. Its first task was to select a permanent site 
for the State Capital; December 8, 1792, Frankfort was so designated. 

Kentucky's first constitution was modeled to some extent on the 
National Constitution. All white males over 21 years of age were 
permitted to vote, the Governor and senators were elected by an elec- 
toral college, slavery was protected, and a bill of rights of 27 divisions 
was attached. It failed, however, to provide for a public school system. 


In 1799 a second constitutional convention was held, and a new con- 
stitution was adopted. It created the office of Lieutenant Governor, 
and made all State officers subject to direct election by the people. An 
interesting provision prohibited a minister of the Gospel from serving 
in the capacity of a lawmaker. Slave owners were afraid that ministers 
would attempt to pass abolition legislation. 

Kentucky became deeply involved in the famous French conspiracy 
at this time. When Charles Edmund Genet landed at Charleston, 
South Carolina, on April 8, 1793, he dispatched his agents to the west- 
ern country. George Rogers Clark was given a high commission in the 
French Army of the Mississippi Valley. Liberty poles were erected in 
many towns and Kentuckians hailed one another as "Citizen." Al- 
though the conspiracy was put down, the citizens of the State continued 
to favor the French. In 1798 they protested against the Alien and 
Sedition laws passed by the Adams government in Philadelphia. John 
Breckinridge, of Kentucky, in co-operation with Thomas Jefferson, 
drafted the famous series of resolutions setting forth what they be- 
lieved to be State rights. There was much public debate on the ques- 
tion and popular opinion became overwhelmingly Republican. George 
Nicholas, of Lexington, a keen constitutionalist, vigorously attacked 
the Federalist laws. Henry Clay delivered his first significant speech 
in Kentucky politics on the question of States' rights. But when 
Jefferson was elected President of the United States, Kentuckians for- 
got their attack upon the National Constitution. 

Between 1800-1804, the issue of trade rights on the lower Missis- 
sippi River was settled by the Louisiana Purchase. Kentuckians had 
lived in constant fear that the temperamental Spanish officials would 
remove the American right of deposit, and that Kentuckians would be 
unable to sell their products southward. In 1802 their fears were 
realized, and the Spanish canceled the right of deposit. The situation 
was relieved, however, when Louisiana passed into American hands in 

Hardly had Kentuckians ceased rejoicing than they were involved, 
innocently, in another national scandal. Aaron Burr, who had killed 
Alexander Hamilton in a duel, came to the State and plotted much 
of his proposed independent republic in the Southwest. Many promi- 
nent Kentuckians became involved in the plot. Burr was twice brought 
to trial in the Federal Court of the District of Kentucky, but was re- 
leased both times as not guilty of the charges of treason preferred 
against him. 


When the excitement about the Burr conspiracy had somewhat sub- 
sided, Kentucky became agitated over the possibility of a war with 
England. News reached Kentucky in 1807 of the Chesapeake and 
Leopard affair. Public opinion in favor of war ran high, and the local 
press cried out loudly against England. The State legislature passed 
laws forbidding the use of certain British laws and citation of British 
cases in court. Realizing the temper of the public mind, the politi- 
cians who sought office began to agitate the question of expanding 
American territory. Henry Clay and Richard M. Johnson were elected 
to Congress on an expansionist platform. Henry Clay even went so 
far as to advocate the annexation of Canada. By 1811 Kentuckians 
virtually demanded war with England. When war was formally de- 
clared in 1812, Kentuckians advanced rapidly to the area about De- 
troit. A large part of the American forces at the Battle of the Thames 
consisted of Kentucky militiamen under the command of Gov. Isaac 
Shelby and Congressman Richard Mentor Johnson. When Gen. An- 
drew Jackson defeated the British forces at New Orleans on January 8, 
1815, 5,500 Kentuckians were present, under Generals Thomas and 

After the War of 1812 Kentuckians turned their attention to more 
constructive interests. Western manufactures were increasing because 
British goods were off the American market from 1805-1815. Ken- 
tucky hemp, cloth and rope manufacturers especially enjoyed a flourish- 
ing trade, and butchers, distillers, salt-makers, and cabinetmakers were 
prosperous. Land prices advanced and Louisville, Lexington, Mays- 
ville, Covington, Carrollton, Paducah, Henderson, and Hickman were 
rapidly becoming busy trade centers. River boatmen began to clamor 
for a canal around the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville. A company 
was chartered by the State legislature in 1805 for this purpose, but the 
work was delayed and the canal was not completed until 1829. The 
first successful steamboat trip on western waters was taken by the 
New Orleans to New Orleans in 1811 by Captain Nicholas Roosevelt. 
About 1815 a steamboat, the Enterprise, came up the river from New 
Orleans and thereafter the steamboat business began to thrive. By 
1860 Kentuckians were supplying the Southern States with the most 
of their manufactured goods. 

With prosperous conditions, there came a demand for improved bank- 
ing facilities. Kentucky at the time had a system of State banks to 
which was entrusted the responsibility of issuing currency, but the 
amount issued was insufficient for the successful conduct of business. 

























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By 1818 the demand for an increase in the number of banks was so 
great that the Bank of Kentucky was expanded to include more than 
40 branches. Each branch bank was given the authority to issue its 
own currency. In a short time, however, the lack of control over the 
volume of currency issued led to general financial confusion, and to 
depreciation in value of currency. The situation became so acute that 
in December 1819, the general assembly passed a law granting a stay 
of execution for 60 days. This relief was not sufficient to stem the 
tide. In February 1820, all debtors were given a moratorium of two 
years. A test case was carried to the courts, and the circuit court of 
Bourbon County declared the law unconstitutional. Later, the State 
court of appeals upheld the local court and the legislature declared that 
the courts were thwarting the will of the people. A struggle between 
the legislative and the judicial branches of the government continued 
until 1829, when the court was finally absolved of all the charges made 
against it. 

The legislative-judicial struggle over the banking question created 
two political parties in Kentucky. In the Presidential campaign of 
1824 one of the four candidates in the field was Henry Clay of Ken- 
tucky, who was defeated; but, as Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, he was a powerful factor in deciding whom Congress should select 
for the next President. The Kentucky General Assembly had in- 
structed Clay to support Jackson, but he disobeyed instructions and 
supported John Quincy Adams. This brought about another break in 
Kentucky politics ; the Clay supporters became Whigs and the Jackson 
supporters became Democrats. This alignment prevailed until 1860. 

The institution of slavery was a political issue in Kentucky from 
1792 to 1865. Slavery had been transferred to the West as a part of 
the social organization of the State, but it was not an economic suc- 
cess. Lack of transportation facilities made large-scale tobacco culture 
unprofitable in the early years; and the cultivation of hemp and grain 
and the breeding of livestock were not adapted to slave labor. 

After 1820 many Kentucky farmers moved to the Cotton Belt where 
they could employ their slaves with profit. Others sold off their sur- 
plus supply of Negroes to the southern planters. When the War be- 
tween the States broke out, Kentucky had approximately 225,000 
slaves. The State was divided into two distinct economic units. The 
Bluegrass counties, in which slavery existed to the greatest extent, quite 
generally favored the southern economic system. The poorer counties 
and the larger urban centers were quite generally opposed to slavery. 


Originally the chief criticism of slavery came from the churches and 
the clergy. The slaveholders were constantly on guard against this 
opposition, and since they exercised more political influence than the 
clergy, they succeeded in building a wall of protective legislation about 
the system of slave labor. Between 1820 and 1835 the American 
Colonization Society, of which Henry Clay was president, made con- 
siderable headway in Kentucky. At the same time outside abolitionists 
began to attack Kentucky slavery; this caused much hard feeling in 
the State, and probably did more immediate harm than good. The 
institution of slavery also found severe critics within the State. Cassius 
M. Clay, a native of Madison County, and publisher of the True 
American, a newspaper in Lexington, condemned Kentucky slavery 
very bitterly. 

Other live issues were at stake in antebellum days. When Henry 
Clay died in 1852 he left behind him the wreckage of the Whig party, 
and no leader to take his place. Local politicians began to inject into 
their speeches the questions of religion and nationalities. Catholics 
were condemned along with all foreigners. The Sons of America, or 
Native Americans as they called themselves, attempted to keep posses- 
sion of the reins of local government. A riot in Louisville in 1855, 
known as "Bloody Monday," resulted. 

In the Presidential election of 1860 Kentucky voted against its two 
native sons, Abraham Lincoln and John C. Breckinridge, and gave its 
majority support to John Bell of Tennessee, who proposed to save the 
Union at any cost. Unlike her southern neighbors the State refused 
to be stampeded into secession. Although Kentucky was a slave State 
and considered itself Southern, it leaned toward the idea of maintaining 
the Union intact. Commerce and agriculture had become the chief 
interests. When war broke out, both sides looked upon Kentucky as 
a valuable prize, and both sides disregarded its neutrality. 

During the early part of 1862 western Kentucky was the scene of 
most important operations between Northern troops under the com- 
mand of Grant, McClellan, and Thomas, and the Southern troops 
under the command of Johnston, Polk, Buckner, Crittenden, and Zol- 
licoffer. Union victory at Mill Springs, where Zollicoffer was killed 
January 19, opened the way into Eastern Tennessee. In 1863 the 
Confederates under Braxton Bragg and Kirby Smith made a drive into 
central Kentucky. Bragg received the surrender of the garrison at 
Munfordville on September 17. He then moved northeastward through 
Bardstown, and at Perryville stumbled into one wing of the Union com- 


mand under General Don Carlos Buell. Here on October 8 was fought 
the battle of Perryville, the bloodiest encounter in Kentucky history. 
The result was a draw. Bragg retreated, leaving Buell in possession 
of the field. This marked the end of any serious attempt by the Con- 
federates to gain possession of Kentucky. 

Guerilla warfare was carried on in many sections of Kentucky. The 
famous bushwhacker, Quantrill of Missouri, transferred his activities 
to Kentucky and kept local communities in a state of excitement. So 
vicious did this guerilla warfare become that Governor Bramlette was 
compelled to organize a home guard for the protection of local com- 

When peace came in 1865 Kentucky firmly believed that it would 
resume its peaceful pursuit of developing agriculture and industry, but 
such was not to be the case. The carpetbaggers realized that the Ne- 
groes, many of whom were concentrated in Louisville in the Federal 
camps, offered a good opportunity for political advantage. Farmers 
were frightened into believing that they would be completely robbed of 
labor. Pamphlets were issued inviting foreigners to come to the State. 
Even Chinese coolies were sought as a solution to the labor problem. 
The State refused to ratify the thirteenth and fourteenth amendments. 
By 1871 conditions had become more or less normal; Kentuckians 
gradually forgot the war and turned to the problems of industry, agri- 
culture, politics and temperance. 

The lower South, which had been Kentucky's most important market, 
had been depleted by the war. Louisville merchants were the first to 
realize the situation, and sent ex-Confederate soldiers as salesmen into 
the South to help re-establish the crossroads stores. These drummers 
were instructed to sell goods at all cost. Wholesale houses were gen- 
erous in their credit to southern merchants. They not only thoroughly 
canvassed the South, but Louisville financiers backed the extension of 
the L. & N. R.R. into the South. Consequently Kentuckians soon re- 
covered much of the trade which they had lost in the war, and the 
State's industry once again became an important factor in the economic 
development of the South. 

Agriculture presented a more difficult problem. Many Kentucky 
farmers depended upon a single cash crop, tobacco, and with each suc- 
ceeding panic following 1865, Kentucky tobacco farmers, like southern 
cotton farmers, became virtually bankrupt. This difficulty led to the 
organization of various farmers' movements granger organizations, the 
Farmers' Alliance, and finally the Populist party. The Populists de- 


manded tariff reforms, regulation of transportation agencies, establish- 
ment of agricultural schools, a more satisfactory distribution of the na- 
tional medium of exchange, more reasonable farm credits, higher agri- 
cultural prices, and the framing of a new State constitution in 1890. 
This constitution, in effect today, reflects the philosophy of the Ken- 
tucky Populist party of 1890. 

Agricultural issues in the State were not all settled peacefully. From 
1907 to 1909 there raged in the dark tobacco, belt a "night-riders" war 
which resulted in many fatalities. The reign of general lawlessness pre- 
vailed in the State for more than a year, until it was ended by the State 
militia, called out by the Governor. Agrarian troubles were largely 
back of bitter partisan politics that prevailed in Kentucky the latter 
part of the nineteenth century. The gubernatorial election of 1899 was 
fiercely fought. William Goebel of Covington opposed William Syl- 
vester Taylor, a western Kentuckian, and John Young Brown. When 
the votes were counted it was found that Taylor had won by a ma- 
jority of more than 2,000 votes. The supporters of Goebel contested 
the election. While the legislature was considering the matter, Goebel 
was shot by an assassin (January 30, 1900). The legislature at once 
declared Goebel Governor, but he died on February 3. Kentucky 
was almost in a state of civil war ; for several months it had two Gov- 
ernors and two governments. The Democrats won in the end, and 
J. C. W. Beckham succeeded the assassinated Goebel as Governor. 
Several years were required to allay the bitter partisan feeling that was 
engendered by this affair. 

Since 1909 Kentucky has pursued a fairly steady and progressive 
course, in spite of the fact that Democrats and Republicans have 
fought each other bitterly and alternated in political power. 

Kentucky did its part in the World War by furnishing 75,043 men 
and meeting its quotas in money subscribed. Men were encamped and 
trained at Fort Thomas, Camp Zachary Taylor, and Camp Knox. The 
latter was not dismantled after the war and on January 30, 1932, it 
became a permanent post of the U. S. Army and officially named Fort 
Knox. The gold vault of the U. S. Treasury is located on the reserva- 
tion. Capt. Samuel Woodfill, a Kentuckian, was cited by General 
Pershing as the outstanding soldier of the war; Woodfill and Willie 
Sandlin were awarded Congressional medals of honor for heroism. Of 
the men who were drafted and enlisted, 70 to 80 percent passed their 
physical examinations and were accepted for Army service. 

One of the outstanding achievements of the twentieth century in the 


State is the development of good roads, under a State highway commis- 
sion. By 1920 the highway system was well enough organized to take 
over a large primary system of highways. The effects of improved 
highways in Kentucky upon the general character and welfare of the 
people cannot be overestimated. Not only have the highways speeded 
up commerce and travel, but they have tended to break down section- 
alism. With primary roads in every county, it is no longer strange to 
see people from the remote eastern and western sections of the State 
strolling the streets of Louisville as nonchalantly as if they had lived 
there all their lives. 

In the 50 years following the first census of 1790 the population 
increased more than tenfold from 73,677 to 779,828. It numbered 
1,858,635 in 1890 and 2,614,589 in 1930. Only 30.6 percent of the 
1930 population was classified as urban. 

Kentucky's government has recently been completely modernized, 
but this has been done without touching the constitution itself and with 
only a few optional alterations in the county structure. Increasing diffi- 
culties with a government that tried to operate in an industrial era, on 
a constitution descended from Kentucky's former slave-owning agricul- 
tural status, led to the appointment of an efficiency commission in 1926. 
This body made a two-year study of the State's governmental needs, 
and recommended widespread changes, but controversies over their 
adoption disrupted the State for another ten years. In 1934 the execu- 
tive offices were reorganized under Governor Ruby Laffoon, but this 
reorganization proved too cumbersome. After two years another ex- 
haustive study was made that resulted in the Shields-Nickell Govern- 
mental Reorganization Act, approved March 7, 1936. 

The important changes in this reorganization were the creation of a 
department of welfare, expanded powers of the department of health, 
consolidation of the State tax commission and the department of 
revenue and taxation into a single department of revenue, added powers 
of the efficiency department to improve the civil service, and the crea- 
tion of a new department of conservation. Finally, there was added to 
the State government the legislative council, a modern unit in American 
government in operation now only in a few States. The function of 
this council is purely advisory. It examines and reports on the working 
of the existing legislative machine, prepares and submits programs for 
the general assembly, and promotes interstate comity. 

The present Kentucky government follows the traditional American 
system of three branches executive, legislative, and judiciary all re- 


sponsible directly to the votes of the citizens. Citizenship qualifications 
are simple. Any person not an idiot or insane, who is over twenty-one 
years of age and has resided in the State one year, in the county six 
months, and in the voting precinct sixty days next preceding election, 
is qualified to vote; except that any person convicted of a felony for- 
feits his right of franchise, unless he is pardoned by the governor. 
There are no other qualifications. 

The two units of local government are the county and the city. The 
county government today is an interesting survival from Colonial 
times, when its forms were borrowed more or less directly from Eng- 
land. Counties have their own courts which administer governmental 
functions ; they collect and spend their own revenues and in general 
regulate their affairs as they please, subject only to the restrictions of 
the general assembly which, as has been pointed out, is restricted by 
the constitution from interfering with major phases of local adminis- 
tration. The government is administered entirely by courts with the 
county judge as the executive. He is elected by the county at large 
and presides over the county court. Beneath this court the county is 
divided into magisterial districts, each with a justice of the peace in 
authority. These justices compose the fiscal court of each county, 
with rather indiscriminate legislative and judicial powers. 

Kentucky cities have their own government, independent of their 
surrounding counties, and responsible only to the State. The legisla- 
ture divides the cities into six classes, according to population, and 
provides debt limits and general forms of government for each. Three 
forms of city government are established, and variations from these are 
allowed by special legislative enactment: the standard mayor-council 
form, commission government, and the city manager plan. 

The constitution of Kentucky, which covers all forms of government 
and of legislation throughout the State, is subject to alteration through 
two methods. An amendment may be proposed in either branch of the 
general assembly at a regular session, and if agreed to by a three-fifths 
vote of both branches, may be submitted to the voters of the State for 
adoption. Ninety days must elapse between the legislative adoption of 
the amendment and its submission to popular vote; and not more than 
two amendments may be voted on at any one time. If a widespread 
revision of the constitution is demanded, a general constitutional con- 
vention of delegates, equal in numbers to that of the house of repre- 
sentatives, may be authorized by the general assembly. The conven- 
tion remodels the constitution and submits it to popular vote. 


Kentucky has its State flag, its State flower, its State bird, and its 
State song. The flag is Kentucky blue with the seal of the Common- 
wealth encircled by a wreath of goldenrod in the center. The State 
flower is the goldenrod, the bird is the Kentucky cardinal, the song 
is "My Old Kentucky Home, Good Night," by Stephen Collins Foster. 


THE EARLY development of Kentucky was entirely agricultural, 
and at first only those trades incidental and necessary to farming 
received attention. Lumbering, mining, and manufacturing had to 
await the development of agriculture. Isolated from markets and 
sources of manufactured goods, farmers produced nearly everything 
consumed by their families, and each farm was largely a self-contained 
and self-supporting economic unit. 

Sugar and hardware had to be imported from the beginning, and at 
first were paid for with pelts. When farm production began to exceed 
consumption, farmers sought. means of exchanging their surplus prod- 
ucts for the articles they had to buy. A system of country merchan- 
dising based upon exchange of products developed, and farming for 
the market began. 

Prohibitive freight costs over the Appalachian Mountains made east- 
ward shipment uneconomic for all except commodities of high value in 
proportion to bulk and weight. The Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 
which border Kentucky for more than 700 miles, and tributaries of the 
Ohio that flow across and through the State, give Kentucky more miles 
of major navigable streams than any other State. With a mountain 
barrier to the east and a water route down the Ohio and Mississippi to 
New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico, river transportation reached a 
high stage of development, especially after the coming of the steam- 
boat. This profoundly affected agriculture, and partly accounts for 
the high rank of Kentucky as an agricultural State for approximately 
seventy-five years preceding the War between the States. In 1839 
Kentucky was first in the production of hemp, second in the production 
of both corn and hogs (with Tennessee ranking first), fourth in the 
production of oats and rye, and one of the leading tobacco, wheat, and 
beef producing States. The influence of Kentucky farmers, repre- 
sented in Congress by Henry Clay, contributed to the establishment 
of a protective tariff. Competition of imported fibers with hemp in- 
duced Kentucky farmers to endorse the policy of protection. 



Properly speaking, commercialized farming dates from about 1825, 
when the first market for tobacco in hogsheads was opened at Louis- 
ville. Before this time Kentucky tobacco was shipped direct from the 
farm to New Orleans. Naturally, production was confined to areas 
adjacent to navigable rivers. Western Kentucky, with an abundance 
of navigable streams, enjoyed transportation facilities superior to other 
parts of the State, and consequently became the State's center of to- 
bacco culture. Subsequently, tobacco production of the dark type 
was so concentrated in this area that it became known as the "Black 

Even before Kentucky became a State, tobacco shared with hemp the 
distinction of being one of the two crops grown commercially. Tobacco 
had long been the leading money crop in North Carolina and Virginia, 
and settlers from these States continued its culture. The variety 
grown was dark and heavy, similar to the present-day dark-fired type. 
It was believed in the early years that only virgin ground would grow 
good tobacco. Common practice, therefore, was to clear fresh acreage 
for the crops each year. Practically all land used for tobacco was 
originally covered with hardwood forests; but there was no market at 
that time for timber cleared to make room for tobacco, and great quan- 
tities of walnut, cherry, chestnut, hickory, oak, and poplar timber 
were cut and burned as waste. 

Tobacco production increased rapidly after 1825, and by 1865 Ken- 
tucky was producing more of this crop than any other State in the 
Union. White burley was first raised near Higginsport, Brown County, 
Ohio, in 1864, from seed produced in Kentucky. Rapid spread of 
this tobacco throughout central Kentucky more firmly fixed tobacco 
as the key product in the farm economy of the State. Until the com- 
ing of white burley, tobacco had not been grown to any extent in cen- 
tral Kentucky. Development of railway facilities, high content of 
calcium and phosphorus in the soils of central Kentucky, and the fact 
that burley found a good market as both smoking and chewing to- 
bacco, stimulated the rapid increase of tobacco raising in that area. 
Tobacco production grew rapidly after 1865, and until recent years 
Kentucky ranked first among the States in its culture. Lexington is 
the world's largest loose-leaf tobacco market. 

Formerly grown exclusively in the Bluegrass region, burley is now 
raised in 110 counties of the State. The 1933 crop, the last which 
preceded production control, was 250 million pounds. In addition to 
burley, four types of dark tobacco Dark-fired, One-sucker, Green 


River, and Stemming are grown in 33 western counties. Dark to- 
bacco, with the exception of the finest dark-fired, used in the manufac- 
ture of snuff, is largely exported. 

One-third to one-half of the annual cash income of Kentucky farmers 
is derived from tobacco. The ease with which it lends itself to a one- 
crop system of farming has had much to do with establishing it as a 
chief product of the State. Because of long-continued dependence on 
tobacco as their major money crop, Kentucky farmers are reluctant to 
diversify their crops or to adopt more modern practices in tobacco cul- 
ture. But there has been an economic collapse in the dark-tobacco 
areas in Kentucky since the World War, because of curtailed foreign 
demand ; and as a result, dairying, poultry farming, small fruit orchard- 
ing, and legume production are developing in those areas. 

Cotton, the chief crop produced with slave labor, was never grown 
to any large extent in Kentucky. Hemp growing, the second farm 
enterprise in point of time, and tobacco production afforded the most 
profitable opportunity in Kentucky for the use of slave labor. 

The first crop of hemp was grown near Danville in 1775. When it 
was found that hemp grew so well in the Bluegrass region, its growth 
was discontinued in the Eastern States, and from 1840 to 1870 prac- 
tically all of the hemp produced in the United States was grown in 
Kentucky. In pioneer days hemp fiber was used for the homespun 
cloth woven by the wives and daughters of early settlers. Soon the 
fiber was used in making rope, twine, and sacking, particularly to bind 
cotton bales; in the War of 1812 rigging and even cables were made of 
it for Perry's fleet on Lake Erie. A lively export trade, in addition to 
the healthy domestic demand, developed, clearing through New Or- 
leans. As has already been pointed out, protection demanded by hemp 
growers in Kentucky resulted in the adoption of the protective tariff 
system in the United States. The replacement of sailing vessels by 
steamships and the free import of various substitutes for hemp fiber 
caused rapid decline in hemp culture after 1860, and the crop is now 
not commercially important. Practically the entire national supply of 
hemp seed for fiber is now produced in the narrow valleys of the Ken- 
tucky River and its tributaries near High Bridge. The story of hemp 
and the significance of its production to Kentucky has been fasci- 
natingly described in a novel, The Reign of Law, by James Lane Allen. 

Not only did the early settlers know how to grow tobacco, they also 
knew how to make whisky. Because of its high value in proportion to 
bulk and the ready market for it at New Orleans, whisky early became 


a favored product in the rye and corn regions of Kentucky. Probably 
the bulk of the State's rye grown before 1860, and a large part of its 
corn, were utilized in whisky making. Water from Kentucky springs 
and wells was found to be especially suitable for liquor, and the result 
is that the distilling industry, in several ways, has affected agricultural 
practice. Distilleries afforded a local market for small grains, and from 
year to year farmers hoped to sell all or part of their grain to distil- 
leries at a profitable price. Thus the distilling industry tended to per- 
petuate the growing of small grains in many localities long after farmers 
might have turned to other crops. Since the repeal of prohibition, dis- 
tilleries have again become consumers of local grain and are also im- 
portant sources of slop feed for beef cattle and hogs. 

Horses were used as work stock in the American Colonies long before 
mules. In 1783, George Washington, believing that mules were supe- 
rior to horses for work on southern farms, imported jacks from Europe 
and sent them on a stud tour of the South. Henry Clay was promi- 
nent in establishing and developing the mule industry of Kentucky, and 
in 1827 and 1829 made significant importations of jack stock from 
Spain. Until the end of the century, Kentucky led in raising mules. 
Tennessee and Missouri, also important mule-producing States, ob- 
tained their foundation stock from Kentucky. 

Every American knows of Kentucky bluegrass which thrives in pe- 
culiar soil conditions, particularly in the Bluegrass region, where the 
soil contains phosphorus, lime, and other minerals in such combination 
as to make the grass especially excellent food for livestock. As soon as 
the superior feeding qualities of pastures in central Kentucky were rec- 
ognized, the region became the center of light horse breeding. 

Exclusive of horses, it is estimated that $30,000,000 is invested in 
Bluegrass horse farms and improvements; that employees are paid 
$1,500,000 annually, and that $2,000,000 of supplies are purchased. 
Bluegrass pastures contributed to the early development of improved 
breeds of beef cattle. The Shorthorn in particular received attention, 
and outstanding specimens, often selling for thousands of dollars, were 
shipped to foreign countries as well as to other sections of the United 
States. A somewhat similar improvement developed in sheep breed- 
ing, particularly with the Southdown and Cheviot breeds. The Blue- 
grass specializes in furnishing quality spring lambs for early market- 
ing; these command a high price, since competition for them is keen. 

Dairying, during the past decade, has grown almost phenomenally 
in Kentucky. Though there has been a national decrease in the num- 


ber of cows, the number in Kentucky has increased. Condenseries have 
been built at several points, and full advantage has been taken of mild, 
open winters and long grazing seasons. Collapse of dark-tobacco prices, 
urban population growth, increasing appreciation of the value of milk 
as a food, and other factors have contributed to the growth of dairy- 
ing. In several very commendable respects Kentucky dairymen have 
shown marked initiative. Union was the first county in the United 
States to rid itself of scrub bulls. A State-wide campaign to test and 
weed out tubercular dairy cows has been so successful that all the 120 
counties are rated tubercular-free. A State campaign to eradicate 
Bang's disease, or contagious abortion, among dairy cows is now well 
advanced. The United States Department of Agriculture actively co- 
operates in the campaign against tuberculosis and Bang's disease by 
partially reimbursing farmers for cattle which have to be killed. 

Corn is normally the crop of greatest value grown in the State, but 
little is usually marketed as such, since the bulk is fed to livestock. 
Hay, which is also a high value crop, is mostly fed to livestock. Jef- 
ferson County is one of the most important agricultural counties, rank- 
ing with Aroostook County, Maine, in the production of potatoes; it 
leads all Kentucky counties in onions and onion sets, and is a large 
producer of orchard and small fruits. McCracken County leads in rais-. 
ing strawberries, other small fruits, and peaches; while in Henderson 
and a few other counties are several large commercial apple and peach 

Kentucky leads in the production of bluegrass, orchard grass, and 
lespedeza seed. Poultry and pork production are important, and Ken- 
tucky hickory-cured hams enjoy a reputation that is becoming nation- 
wide. The production of sorghum molasses holds promise of future 
development. In northern, southeastern, and selected areas of western 
Kentucky, honey is produced on a commercial scale. Some cotton and 
sweet potatoes are grown, chiefly in the Purchase; and large quantities 
of vegetables and truck crops are produced around Louisville and the 
Kentucky area near Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Kentucky farmers, attempting to speak collectively concerning agri- 
cultural problems, have subscribed to a series of farm movements. The 
Grange reached its peak in Kentucky in 1875, at which time there were 
1,493 granges with a membership of 52,463. The Agricultural Wheel, 
active in Kentucky in the late eighties and early nineties, established 
co-operative stores, a co-operative mill, and a co-operative tobacco asso- 
ciation in Webster and Henderson Counties. During the existence of 


the American Society of Equity, 1904-1914, a large percentage of the 
tobacco of the State was marketed co-operatively. Kentucky farmers 
have also participated in the work of the Farmers' Alliance, the Farm- 
ers' Union, and the Burley Tobacco Growers Co-operative Association, 
which was organized in 1920 but later abandoned. The Farm Bureau 
is organized in sixty counties with a membership, in 1937, of 13,500. 

Of the total population (2,614,589) in 1930, almost 70 percent was 
rural, and two-thirds of this number, or 1,174,232, were actually living 
on 246,499 farms. Farm value of crops and livestock produced in 1929 
was approximately $275,000,000; in 1935 gross income from farms was 
$166,433,000, including Government benefit payments of $7,259,000. 
The ten leading farm products are corn, tobacco, dairy products, poul- 
try, vegetables and truck, hay, hogs, sheep, beef cattle, and fruit. Al- 
though statistics are not available, it is probable that production of 
horses and mules should be listed as one of the ten most important 
farm enterprises. 

Since its establishment in 1885, the Kentucky Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, co-operatively maintained at Lexington by the State and 
Federal Governments, has vitally influenced the agricultural and rural 
life of the State. No valuation in dollars can be placed on the worth 
to farmers of improved agricultural practices initiated upon recommen- 
dations of this agency. Nor can any estimate be made of the addi- 
tional farm income resulting from improved varieties and breeds of 
plants and animals, control and prevention of diseases of animals and 
plants, eradication and control of insect pests, and marketing and farm 
organization. All these activities have been developed by the experi- 
ment station. The increasing significance of this organization's work 
is indicated by the maintenance of branch stations at Princeton and 
Quicksand, and five experimental fields at other points in the State. 

Farmers have become increasingly conscious of the need for conserva- 
tion. Work in this field is carried on by the State department of agri- 
culture, Smith-Hughes teachers of vocational agriculture, various State 
boards, commissions, and agencies, and, lately, through the Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Administration and the agricultural conservation pro- 
gramthe Tennessee Valley Authority, Farm Security Administration, 
Civilian Conservation Corps, Farm Bureau Federation, and other 


OWING largely to natural barriers, and partly to the demands of 
interstate commerce, Kentucky's lines of trade and communica- 
tion by land developed north to south rather than east to west. 
Pioneer Kentucky lay in the path of the great migrations from Vir- 
ginia and the South to the West, and commerce between Lakes and 
Gulf was borne along its bordering waterways. But mountains formed 
an effective barrier to trade and transport eastward. 

For nearly a century, except for the Wilderness Road through Cum- 
berland Gap, the only transport route common to the three sections of 
the State mountains, Bluegrass, and western hills and downs was the 
Ohio River, tributaries of which reach back into the hills. So com- 
pletely was the eastern third of the State cut off from the central and 
western sections that within its isolation developed a type of Ken- 
tuckian who was an enigma to the lowlanders. In the 1890's and 
1900's rails were laid into the coal country in the eastern part of the 
State, and many extensions of the coal-carrying lines were made there- 
after. In the course of this development the Chesapeake & Ohio con- 
nected Ashland and Lexington with a branch line. But even today the 
only direct rail route from Kentucky to the eastern seaboard is that of 
the main line of the C. & O., which follows the valley of the Ohio to 

As motor highway transport has advanced, progress has been made 
in penetrating the eastern section. Two U. S. highways now traverse 
the area, and a growing network of modern roads is steadily reducing 
its former isolation. Transportation in its motorized form is making 
Kentucky a homogeneous State. 

Waterways and trails, naturally, were the first travel routes. The 
southern section of the trail, or trace, from Maysville to Cumberland 
Gap was the route by which most early white settlers entered the 
present State of Kentucky. Known in pioneer days as the Wilderness 
Road, this section today forms part of US 25E, extending southeast 











iwtt: * 


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from Corbin to Cumberland Gap. North of Corbin the Federal high- 
way roughly follows the old trace to Maysville. 

The waterways served well as commercial routes to the West and 
South, but trade with the East was developed laboriously. Drovers, in 
the early days, found it profitable to collect cattle and hogs, herd them 
over the mountain routes to the East, and return bearing supplies in 
demand among Kentucky settlers. 

The trails were improved slowly and unsatisfactorily, mostly through 
the construction of toll roads by private enterprise. Maintenance was 
poor, and a writer of the early nineteenth century was frank in declar- 
ing that it was easier for an immigrant to reach Kansas from the east- 
ern seaboard than to reach Kentucky. Nonetheless, stagecoach traffic 
had an early beginning. An advertisement in the Kentucky Gazette of 
August 9, 1803, announced that John Kennedy had started a stage line 
from Lexington, Winchester, and Mount Sterling to Olympian Springs, 
a famed resort in Bath County. 

Toll roads persisted in the State until late in the century, when users 
began to protest with threats and later with organized raids to destroy 
the tollgates. "Shun" pikes, too, were constructed, over which traffic 
might detour to avoid the gates. 

Many migrants from Pennsylvania or Virginia found it feasible to 
float down the Ohio River to their new homes at Limestone (Mays- 
ville), the Falls (Louisville), Yellowbanks (Owensboro), or other set- 
tlements. Most of the larger cities of the State are situated on the 
Ohio, partly as a result of the impetus given their growth when the 
river was the main artery of trade and travel, and partly because of 
the natural advantage of their position as centers of interstate traffic 
by rail, and as markets and distribution points. 

The Kentucky boatman of the early nineteenth century belonged to 
a distinct social class. Tradition pictures him as a robust, rowdy brag- 
gart, inured to drudgery and danger, and much given to snorting, slap- 
ping his thigh, and proclaiming himself a "half-horse, half-alligator 
man," a "snapping turtle," or a "child of calamity." He was schooled 
in disaster, so there was some truth in the last term; at one time the 
term "Kentucky boatman" had to be pronounced with a smile if no 
hard feelings were implied. 

The flatboats, keelboats, and "broadhorns" used in the river trade 
gradually gave place to the steamboat, which first stirred western waters 
in 1811. Within a few decades the steamboats dominated as cargo car- 
riers as well as passenger carriers on the Ohio and Mississippi; and 


broadhorns, flatboats, and rafts appeared for the most part at floodtime, 
when back-country folk took advantage of the freshets to float crops or 
lumber to market on craft of their own making. 

One of the earliest railroads west of the Alleghenies was the Lex- 
ington & Ohio, now part of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. It 
was chartered January 27, 1830, and was opened for traffic August 15, 
1832. At its opening, it was a line six miles long, extending from 
Lexington to Frankfort, with rolling stock hauled by horses; a terminus 
on the Ohio had purposely been left unsettled. It was 1851 before the 
L. & O. reached the river, and by that time it had undergone sev- 
eral reorganizations. However, it initiated railroad construction in 

On March 5, 1850, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad secured a 
charter for a route between the cities designated in its corporate name. 
The first train over the route ran on November 1, 1859. The line 
proved extremely useful to the Federal forces during the War between 
the States. 

Following the war, railroads became an obsession with numbers of 
Kentucky towns. Some of the lines built in the flush of railroad fever 
have been abandoned and their names forgotten. Others, planned to 
serve a functional need, have endured either as independent lines or 
as links or branches of larger systems. Today the Lexington & Big 
Sandy forms part of the Chesapeake & Ohio, and several short lines 
operate as part of the L. & N. 

Unusual in character among railroads is the Cincinnati, New Orleans 
& Texas Pacific Railway, constructed and owned by the city of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Chartered in 1871, by 1881 it had constructed 340 miles 
of track connecting Cincinnati with Chattanooga, extending through 
Kentucky and Tennessee. At present it is operated under lease by the 
Southern Railway System. 

A glance at a railroad map of Kentucky shows that most of the major 
transportation systems in Kentucky touch it only along the Ohio River. 
Further examination reveals, however, that the State is quite adequately 
served, except for a comparatively small part of the south central sec- 
tion, by the systems named above, together with the Illinois Central 
and a number of smaller lines. Although some counties are completely 
without rail facilities, the railroad and the motor bus in combination 
leave few areas without modern transport of some kind. There are 
today in Kentucky approximately 3,821 miles of track, owned or oper- 
ated by more than twenty railroads. Of this mileage all but about 165 
miles is either owned or operated by class 1 railroads. 


Electric railroads, or interurbans, as they were more generally called, 
enjoyed a brief prosperity at the beginning of the present century. 
With the exception of the electric lines connecting Louisville and New 
Albany, Indiana, and Cincinnati, Ohio, and its sister cities of northern 
Kentucky included in the Greater Cincinnati area, there are no inter- 
urbans in Kentucky today. The appearance of the private automobile 
foreshadowed their end, the motor bus made it certain, and the depres- 
sion delivered the final blow. 

As the railroads gradually evolved into the present-day efficient car- 
riers of freight and passengers, river traffic languished. Passenger 
travel by river has almost entirely disappeared, although some excur- 
sion boats are still operated. Volume-freight traffic on the Ohio and 
Mississippi is gaining, however, under the program being carried out by 
the Corps of Army Engineers and the Inland Waterways Corporation, 
operating the Federal Barge Lines. 

The introduction of the automobile intensified, in Kentucky as else- 
where, the demand for better roads. The constitution adopted in 1890 
had prohibited the State from expending funds on highways, but this 
provision was removed in 1909. In 1912 a State highway commission 
was created, and in 1914 the legislature authorized a system of roads 
connecting county seats. This act was modified in 1920 by an act pro- 
viding for a primary system of State highways aggregating 4,000 miles. 
There are now (1939) 62,633 miles of roads within the State. Ap- 
proximately 500 miles of improved roads are being added annually by 
the State highway commission, in addition to improved mileage added 
by the various counties. 

Since 1920 improved highways have encouraged the growth of a net- 
work of bus lines that covers the entire State. Interstate buses are 
well designed and equipped, and local buses are becoming more com- 
fortable and modern. The largest bus center in Kentucky is Lexington, 
which is the hub of a system of fine highways in all directions, over 
which local and interstate coaches carry hundreds of passengers daily. 

Air travel in Kentucky is still in the embryonic stage of development. 
The only important commercial airport in Kentucky is Bowman Field, 
in Louisville, used by American Airlines and Eastern Airlines. It is an 
important stop on the American Airlines route from Cleveland to Los 
Angeles, by way of Louisville, Nashville, Dallas, and Fort Worth; and 
on the Eastern Airlines route from Chicago to Miami, by way of In- 
dianapolis, Louisville, and Jacksonville. Many municipalities maintain 
airports for local air traffic, chiefly of the air taxi type. 


KENTUCKY'S industries are widely distributed. Much the greater 
part of the State's factory output issues from the towns along the 
Ohio River but both eastern and western Kentucky are rich in minerals, 
though the east far outyields the west in tonnage. Yet Kentucky is 
rightly regarded as being primarily an agricultural State. The value 
of factory and mine products is nearly three times that of crops and 
livestock, but, according to the U. S. Census of 1930, more than 340,000 
Kentuckians were gainfully employed on farms, while about 203,000 
were gainfully employed in mines, shops, and factories. Interest in 
agriculture is strong even in the State's industrial centers ; and the Ken- 
tuckian becomes more excited over a killing frost or a rainy spring 
than over Dow- Jones averages or the Bedeaux system, and takes more 
interest in thoroughbred foals than in the latest model punch press. 
Something of the native temperament seems to have found expression 
in Kentucky's favorite industries, for the Bluegrass State is most popu- 
larly known as a producer of fine rye and bourbon whiskies, and of 
rich, sweet smoking and chewing tobacco. In quantity of whisky pro- 
duced it leads the Nation, and in tobacco it is outranked by only two 

Colonization of Kentucky involved transplanting not merely people 
but an economy capable of serving community life. Men of numerous 
trades, professions, and businesses joined the rush to the West, bring- 
ing with them their tools and experience. 

Isolated from markets and sources of supply, Kentucky was not slow 
in putting to use the abilities of its pioneer craftsmen. Activities essen- 
tial to life in the new settlements developed with the clearing of the 
land. Salt-making, tanning, gristmill construction, gunpowder manu- 
facture, lead molding, iron smelting, and the production of nails, rope, 
linen, woolen cloth, and paper were among the early industries. The 
trade in furs, first product of the region, expanded into an exchange and 



export business that warranted highways across the mountains, and that 
became a potent argument in favor of the Louisiana Purchase and the 
opening of the Mississippi. 

Tools and equipment for replacement had either to be made on the 
spot, in the early days, or packed in over long, difficult trails. This 
accounts for the early development of smelting and forging, antedating 
by nearly a century the rise of the State's present steel industry. In 
the 1800's Lexington was a thriving industrial town with 58 manufac- 
turing establishments representing 13 industries. Twelve of the plants 
were cotton mills, four were hat factories, and four were carriage works. 
The difficulty of transporting unprocessed grain to market was an incen- 
tive to distilling. Georgetown had a distillery as early as 1789, and in 
1810 two thousand stills were operating in the State. By that time 
Kentucky also had nine linseed oil mills, 63 gunpowder plants, and 267 
tanneries. Small enterprises and trade limited to the immediate locality 
were the rule, but every town was eager to outdo the rest. Among the 
aspiring commercial and industrial centers Lexington early established 
its leadership. 

Rapid settlement created a demand for manufactures that for a time 
ran ahead of production, and this stimulated plant expansion to a point 
where surpluses became a plague. The clamor for free navigation of 
the lower Mississippi grew stronger. In 1803 the United States pur- 
chased the Louisiana Territory. The opening of the river sent an in- 
creased flow of goods toward New Orleans, and loosed forces which in 
time were to disrupt and reorganize the economy of the Republic. 
When, in the second decade of the nineteenth century, the first steam- 
boat appeared on western waters, the Ohio's importance as an artery 
of commerce was vastly increased. The river towns began to flourish 
as centers of manufacture and trade after 1820, and inland towns 
correspondingly declined. The Bluegrass, forced to move its goods 
over highways, could not compete with the river towns, with navigable 
waters for heavy freight transportation at their doors. Louisville, at 
the Falls of the Ohio, prospered as the transshipping point for cargoes 
from both up and down the river, and had the added advantage of 
cheap power from the falls. 

Hemp, cotton, woolen, and linen mills prospered in early times. 
Even in the 1860's American sailing ships were equipped with rope 
from the Bluegrass, and Great Lakes schooners provided a market for 
a considerable time after. The great cause of decline in the State's 
hemp industry was the replacement of sailing ships with steamships in 


the final decades of the century, and the decline was accelerated when, 
after the war with Spain, sisal and other fibers were placed on the free 
list of imports. A single hemp factory continued to operate at Frank- 
fort as late as 1937. Cotton, woolen, and linen factories underwent a 
similar decline. 

The extension of railroad lines into the interior of the State in the 
final half of the century stimulated lumbering, mining, and manufacture 
in some of the more retarded areas; but elsewhere they failed to stimu- 
late the expansion of established industries or promote the development 
of new ones. Mainly, the railroad strengthened the dominant economic 
position of the best-situated river towns. One by one the small fac- 
tories of the interior towns moved or ceased operation. Today only a 
few remain. Portable lumber mills now work the cut-over lands for 
stock for barrel staves and similar special forms. Industries in which 
proximity to raw supplies is important, like quarrying, brick and tile 
making, and mining, are represented by plants here and there. 

The few small factories surviving in the interior have profited, like 
the local merchant, from improved highways and motor-truck transpor- 
tation. The motor truck has made it practicable for manufacturing 
plants in large industrial centers to maintain branch supply houses at 
well-chosen points in the interior, through which local dealers may be 
restocked frequently with goods in quantities suited to their needs. At 
the same time the motor truck has enabled the local manufacturer 
greatly to extend his market area. Livestock, tobacco, horticultural 
and dairy products, and a variety of other local commodities now find 
their way to market by highway. 

The concentration of large-scale industries along the Ohio makes the 
economic map of the State a wide agricultural zone, with an industrial 
fringe along its northern border. The State's tobacco crop is processed 
in major part in the factories at Louisville, and this city also produces 
the bulk of Kentucky's whiskies. A number of distilleries, however, 
making brands that have been established in the market for many 
years, continue to operate at their original locations in the Bluegrass 
and Pennyrile, and west as far as Owensboro. 

Most Ohio River towns prospered during the War between the States 
as supply centers for the armies of the North; this was especially true 
of Louisville and Covington. The railroads brought prosperity mainly 
to the already flourishing river cities, which became division terminals 
and distribution and transshipment points because of the natural ad- 
vantages of their locations. Kentucky capitalists chose to invest in 


further development of their home territory, and this tendency still 
persists, serving in a degree to stimulate legitimate industry and re- 
strain wildcat speculation. The results of this policy are evident today 
in the wide variety of the small-scale industries in the river towns. 
Cabinet making, organ building, shoe production, and the manufacture 
of wire cloth are but a few of the many industrial activities of the 
valley. Often the plants were started as small shops by craftsmen who 
landed from river boats in the 1830's or 1840's with little baggage 
except the tools of their trades. 

Following the War between the States Louisville became Kentucky's 
leading industrial city, and first among cities east of the Mississippi 
and south of the Mason and Dixon Line in volume and total of manu- 
factured products and wages. Ashland and Newport have become 
minor centers of steel manufacture. Covington's industrial pattern is 
characterized by variety. Owensboro and Henderson, distribution cen- 
ters for the western Kentucky coal fields, have developed extensive 
marketing connections for their agricultural and horticultural products 
as well as for their manufactured specialties, which include textiles and 
electrical supplies. Paducah, like Louisville, a rail-terminal town, is 
known chiefly for its locomotive repair shops and as a river-boat con- 
struction center. 

Kentucky's manufacturing establishments in 1933 numbered about 
1,700. Wages paid totaled about $62,000,000, and the value of product 
was about $500,000,000. Approximately three-fifths of the output by 
value issued from Louisville. In all, about 70,000 wage earners were 

Kentucky's liquor distilleries in 1935 produced about 197,000,000 
gallons of spirits, mainly bourbon, corn, and rye whiskies, with a value 
of approximately $60,000,000. Total wages to 7,500 distillery workers 
were $4,825,806; more than $11,000,000 was spent for grain supplies; 
and the bill for cooperage was more than $4,500,000. The industry 
maintains a stock of between four hundred million and five hundred 
million gallons in process of aging, representing an investment of 
$150,000,000. The State's 57 active bonded distilleries produced 43 
percent of the Nation's distilled liquor output in the fiscal year 1937. 

Kentucky's tobacco industry, first in dollars-and-cents importance in 
the State's economy, processed 343,865,000 pounds of leaf, grown 
mainly in the central, southern, and western sections, in 1937. Of this 
total, about 270,000,000 pounds were burley which forms the bulk of 
the average American cigarette and 55,000,000 pounds were dark to- 


bacco, used in cigars, pipe and chewing tobaccos, and snuff. The value 
of the crop to the producers was $64,990,000. 

Considerable quantities of Kentucky's dark tobacco are exported. 
Cigarette production in the State was 11,742,614,000 in 1937 an in- 
crease of 140,000,000 over that of 1936. This placed the State third 
in cigarette output. It is first in burley production and third in pro- 
duction of processed tobacco. 

Meat packing in Kentucky centers around the Bourbon Stock Yards 
in Louisville. In this industry Kentucky leads the southeastern area 
of the Nation. Livestock and other raw supplies valued at more than 
$13,000,000 were processed in Kentucky packing plants in 1935. Flour 
and grain processing, railroad rolling-stock repair, petroleum refining, 
and bread making are other major industrial activities in Kentucky, 
and more than sixty other industries contribute to the total annual 
product value of $300,000,000 to $500,000,000. 

Kentucky's mineral production is at present confined to coal, petro- 
leum, natural gas, fluorspar, limestone, rock . asphalt, and a number of 
minor substances like the finer plastic and refractory clays and clays 
commonly utilized in tile making. 

In earlier times a number of other minerals were produced locally 
which are now supplied from more economical sources outside the State. 
Early settlers in the Kentucky area obtained their salt from the licks 
frequented by deer, boiling the water from the salt springs until only 
the solid content was left. In Mammoth Cave and elsewhere deposits 
of saltpeter were processed for gunpowder by leaching. Lead was found 
in quantities sufficient for local purposes, and iron ore of good quality 
was mined in the eastern part of the State. Commercial iron mining 
was carried on near Ashland as late as the 1870's. 

Early in the nineteenth century coal began to be mined in the moun- 
tains and shipped by barge to Lexington, Louisville, and other towns 
for use in both forging and heating. The western fields early developed 
a trade in coal with New Orleans. Limestone from cliffs along the 
Kentucky River "Kentucky marble" was used to construct both 
public and private buildings; the old capitol at Frankfort exhibits the 
natural beauty of this stone. Plastic clays found in scattered deposits 
in central and eastern Kentucky provided the settlers with material for 
earthenware, and brick and tile clays found everywhere in the State 
served for the construction of many homes. 

Modern coal mining began to develop in the 1870's, when a blast 
furnace was blown in at Ashland, now important for iron and steel, 


using ore and fuel of local origin. Cheaper ores from Missouri and 
later from the Mesabi Range in Minnesota made iron mining uneco- 
nomical in Kentucky, but coal mining in the Big Sandy Valley devel- 
oped steadily. Coal mines in both the eastern and western parts of the 
State found a market in the growing industries along the Ohio. Rail 
connections with Great Lakes ports later widened the market for Ken- 
tucky coal. 

Mining operations in the later industrial period were at first carried 
on in the crude style traditional of development by individuals of lim- 
ited means. Farmers or lessees opened small tunnels, leaving pillars of 
coal for supports to save the expense of timbering. Coal was hauled 
by wagon to the barges. But gradually the railroads penetrated the 
mountainous coal country, and after 1900 coal mining became a big- 
capital industry (see Labor). 

Coal production in Kentucky rose from 169,000 tons in 1870 to an 
average of more than 30,000,000 tons between 1916 and 1920, mainly 
because of expanding markets and rail transportation. Production in 
the eastern fields mounted to more than 60,000,000 in 1929, and 
dropped to 35,000,000 tons at the low point of the depression starting 
in 1930. In 1936 production had risen to an estimated 47,570,000 
tons, with a value at the mine mouth of $65,956,000. One-ninth of 
this total tonnage is utilized for coke production, mostly outside the 

Kentucky petroleum production was 5,628,000 barrels in 1936, with 
a value of $6,000,000. The value of natural gas produced was 
$17,730,000 at the point of consumption. 

The output of fluorspar, from which fluorite necessary in modern 
steel manufacture is obtained, is about 80,000 short tons a year. This 
is about half the national total. Total annual production of Kentucky 
minerals, by value, is about $100,000,000. 


KENTUCKY labor, both white and Negro, has always been almost 
wholly native born. Its development has been essentially rural 
and ties in closely with lumbering and river transportation. 

In early times, settlers from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Maryland 
dominated the Bluegrass and the Pennyrile. Many of their slaves were 
skilled craftsmen, who worked, when not employed at home, for people 
who paid their masters for their services. Thus they were a source of 
income to their owners, and as such were assured a degree of security 
against sale. 

Coincidentally, the use of white labor was developing. Many early 
settlers, especially those from Pennsylvania and other Northern States, 
took up land in the mountains, where slavery was impracticable. Re- 
stricted by nature in its agricultural development, the mountain area 
soon had an excess of white labor that migrated to the lowlands and 
competed there with the labor of slaves, which was never sufficient to 
meet the demand. In earlier times white labor was largely engaged in 
logging in the great river valleys, and in clearing and farming the cut- 
over lands. The two processes went hand in hand; and the disappear- 
ance of marketable timber left a surplus of white laborers who, when 
they did not settle down to farming, either " followed the timber" or 
migrated to other parts of the State. Such was the general situation 
after the War between the States, when coal mining, oil production, 
and other industries widened the field of labor and extended it through- 
out Kentucky. 

Of great importance in the developing labor situation was the early 
rise and subsequent decline of industrial centers. Lexington, a thriving 
manufacturing center in the 1800's, was plagued with piled-up surpluses 
and a lack of outlets. The decline of the city's manufacturing, which 
began about 1825, is illustrative of a process then taking place through- 
out the State: small community industries were being relocated at 
places convenient for land-and-water transfer, and in such places a 
population was growing which was essentially urban in outlook. 



With the development of the Ohio River as a major artery of com- 
merce between the Ohio Valley States and the West and South, 
trading and industrial river ports grew up in which the older Kentucky 
tradition had little part. The Middle East and the South fought for 
Kentucky's developing trade, and for a time the South prevailed. But 
between 1830 and 1860 the Middle East, by weight of numbers, in- 
creased its influence and won out. Migrants pouring down the Ohio 
settled in the river towns, and to their northern traditions were added 
the traditions of craftsmen who emigrated from Germany in large num- 
bers after the Revolution of 1848. 

The labor traditions of Covington, Newport, Louisville, Paducah, and 
other river towns are largely of such derivation. The late-comers first 
as journeymen, later as the owners of shops set the pattern of labor 
conditions that prevailed up to the time of the War between the States. 
Long hours were the rule. Most workmen supplied their own tools. 
Employers furnished space and materials and found a market for the 
goods. Wages, affected in many cases by slave competition, were low, 
but the prospect of a worker's becoming head of his own shop tended 
to head off union agitation. 

The pre-war record of labor unionism is short and vague. In the 
1830's seven trade unions were in existence in Louisville. The tailors 
organized in 1835. Sometime in the 1850's the carpenters of Hopkins- 
ville formed a union along co-operative lines, and those at Ashland 
and Paducah followed suit. There is no further record of union activi- 
ties until after the war. Out of the chaos of the War between the 
States rose the unionism of modern times. 

Disbandment of the armies sent masses of men into the labor market 
to seek work. Kentucky had its full quota, and in addition had the 
problem of employing the masses of freed Negroes. 

Many Negroes collected in Louisville and other industrial towns, 
competed for jobs, and by their numbers depressed wages. They found 
work in semiskilled pursuits, or served as doormen, porters, cleaners, 
servants, hotel attendants, and the like. In more recent times the 
Negro's field of occupation has widened, and there are Negroes today 
who own small industries or are members of the professions. But the 
problems of Negro employment, housing, and wages in the main are 
still unsolved. 

The war was followed by the decline of the hemp industry, which 
formerly had given off-season work in the mills to farm labor. The 
slack in employment was taken up by an expansion of tobacco growing, 


a development that entailed an expansion in curing, warehousing, and 
marketing. White and Negro labor was attracted to the tobacco cen- 
ters, where it found quarters in the low-rent areas, worked in the ware- 
house in the fall and winter, and hired out in the growing season to 
planters who collected and delivered their daily quota of field hands. 
The pattern is the same today. Their gregarious habits of living and 
working have resulted in little or no movement to organize on the part 
of the farm laborers, who form a large proportion of the working popu- 
lation of the State. The total farm population in Kentucky is 
1,307,816, according to the Statistical Abstract of the United States 
for 1936; persons classified as family labor number 414,222, and those 
classified as hired help number 36,915. Many farmers belong to co- 
operative organizations, but there is little if any organization among 
farm workers, Negro or white. 

The movement toward labor unionism in Kentucky, feebly defined at 
best, disappeared during the war period 1861-65. In the war years 
labor was in demand, wages were high, and betterment through co- 
operative effort, the working principle of the early unions, lost its ap- 
peal. It took a depression that of the 1870's to bring to life the 
idea of group action among the workers. The Kentucky union move- 
ment took form in local craft unions, the aim of which was mutual 
self-help for the immediate benefit of workers and their families. At 
first the unions of the 1870's gave no special emphasis to collective bar- 
gaining, but tried instead to resume action on co-operative lines. Efforts 
were made to provide employment for jobless workers by co-operative 
means, and the Knights of Labor established stores (in 1880) and at 
least one tobacco company (at Earlington), the profits of which were 
divided equally among capital, labor (the laborer usually supplied the 
capital by stock purchases), and the Knights of Labor (as the promot- 
ing and fostering organization). Failure of the Knights of Labor to 
live up to its promise as an instrument for bettering conditions resulted 
after 1886 in loss of membership, and it disappeared from the scene. 
The American Federation of Labor then came to the fore, with a pro- 
gram of better working conditions, shorter hours, and fair wages; most 
local unions, whether affiliated with the Federation or not, followed the 
same line. 

Most labor disputes during this period hinged on wages, but union 
recognition grew in importance as an objective. Employers' associa- 
tions were forming and growing, and the fight against unionism was 
carried on ruthlessly. According to A. E. Suffern, during a coal strike 


starting in November 1900, in Hopkins County, operators secured an 
injunction forbidding the United Mine Workers of America to supply 
strikers with food. 

The change in union aims, noted above, was made in response to 
technological and organizational changes in industry out of which de- 
veloped the present industrial order. 

After the southward expansion from the Ohio River of railroads con- 
necting the Deep South with the North, the river towns, notably Louis- 
ville, Covington, and Paducah, became centers of labor unionization 
activity. A wage cut early in the summer of 1877 provoked a railroad 
strike, in which demonstrations were suppressed by police action. The 
strike, which coincided in time with others throughout the Nation, was 
apparently under local leadership and was fought out over issues in- 
volved in the relations between the Louisville & Nashville Railroad 
and its employees. Other strikes, local in significance and effect, at 
times have interrupted the generally amicable relations of labor and 
capital, but persuasion and appeal to reason have often ended a dispute 

The period of industrial expansion ending with American entry into 
the World War was marked by the passage of laws fostered by the 
unions. Among these laws were measures widening the field and limit- 
ing the hours of women's labor, specifying the industries and limiting 
the hours of labor for minors, and providing protection for workers in 
hazardous occupations and compensation for workers injured in the line 
of duty. The influence of the unions has continued to grow, but the 
State as a whole is far from unionized, largely because of the peculiar 
characteristics of many of its industries, chief among which is the pro- 
duction of tobacco. Besides this deterrent factor, the tradition of self- 
sufficiency operates outside the Ohio River towns against active labor 
organization based on current union conceptions of the relation between 
capital and labor. 

Especially striking has been the expansion of Kentucky's coal indus- 
try. The State's coal production in 1870 was only 169,000 tons; in 
1900 it reached 5,182,000 short tons. Coal mining gave work to men 
of the mountain areas, where lumbering had become a minor industry 
and where farming, above the subsistence level, was difficult. But until 
the end of the century the mines were small, individually owned, and 
manned by local labor. Many operators worked side by side with their 

After 1900 mining rapidly became mechanized, especially in the east- 


ern part of the State. Railroad branches were built into the coal coun- 
try and large capital investments and corporate ownership became the 

Shortly after the World War, with living costs increasing, the workers 
in Kentucky, as elsewhere, began to organize for higher wages. Wage 
strikes of steel workers in Newport and of coal miners in the western 
part of the State during the 1920's, and the bitterness engendered by 
the struggles, are still remembered in those areas. In the steel industry 
the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers did little 
more than collect dues. If union men displayed militancy, as they did 
in Newport when the militia appeared with a tank and enforced a cur- 
few law, that was their own affair. The Newport Rolling Mill Com- 
pany (since absorbed by Armco) and the Andrews Steel Company 
drove the unions from their mills, membership dropped, and many 
locals ceased to exist. Events in Harlan County since 1931 emphasize 
a condition unlike that prevailing generally in Kentucky industry or 
elsewhere in the Kentucky coal industry. 

Natural advantages favoring cheap coal production in Harlan were 
seized upon in 1910 by local enterprise. Capital was secured, a rail- 
road was built, and in 1911 the first coal was shipped. Men flocked 
in from the surrounding hills to work at the mines, and the population 
of the county increased at an extraordinary rate. Mountaineers, drawn 
from their hill farms by the high wages, or what seemed so to them, 
came to the mines to work, to live in company shacks, to trade in com- 
pany stores, and to be policed by company guards. 

Limitations imposed on workers became irksome, but it was not prac- 
ticable to resist the rulers of the county, who were mainly intent on pro- 
tecting their income and on blocking all organization that might 
threaten it. Labor unions were told peremptorily to keep out, and the 
Harlan County Coal Operators' Association showed that on this point 
it meant business. In the course of five years of operator rule Harlan 
County became known as "Bloody Harlan," and labor conditions there 
became popularly identified with those in Kentucky as a whole. 

After two years of increasing unemployment, unionization of large 
numbers of miners was effected by the United Mine Workers of 
America. Strikes that developed were met with the usual strikebreaking 
tactics, including intimidation and worse by company police and the 
importation of non-union employees. One strike brought the "Battle of 
Evarts" on May 5, 1935, in which two deputy sheriffs in the employ 


of mine owners were killed and a dozen or more miners were killed or 
reported missing. Something like civil war followed. 

Attempts by private organizations to learn the facts and provide re- 
lief for out-of-work miners were repressed by the operators and authori- 
ties. Beginning in 1931 the violation of the rights of miners, organizers, 
investigators, and relief workers resulted in many protests, but no action 
was taken by the Government until the La Follette Civil Liberties 
Committee started an inquiry in 1935. This inquiry was still in prog- 
ress when the Wagner Labor Relations Act, affirming the right of 
workers collectively to bargain through a union of their own choosing, 
became law. The National Labor Relations Board subsequently issued 
an order to "cease and desist" from interference with unionization 
against the operators' association. 

The order was ignored by the mine owners, and indictments on 
charges of conspiracy to deprive citizens of their constitutional rights 
were returned against 23 members of the operators' association, against 
a like number of individual heads of the companies involved, and 
against 21 deputy sheriffs allegedly in company employ. Feeling in 
Harlan ran so high that venue in the case was changed to near-by 
London, Laurel County. The trial began May 16, 1938, and ended 
August 1 with a disagreement of the jury. Action for retrial was halted 
when the operators signed an agreement on September 1 which sub- 
stantially satisfied the miners' demands. 

The years since the World War have brought difficult problems to 
the unions. A policy of working constructively with business organi- 
zations and with State and Federal Governments has lessened the im- 
pact of depression. Organized labor in the State today is for peace in 
the labor movement, improvement of labor and social laws, and a more 
comprehensive educational program within the ranks of labor. 


A PPROXIMATELY 226,240 or 7.8 percent of the 2,900,000 people 
\^ in Kentucky are Negroes. They live for the most part in the 
inner Bluegrass area, of which Lexington is the center, and in the better 
farming sections of the Pennyrile around Hopkinsville. Despite their 
relative numerical unimportance, Kentucky Negroes are an integral 
part of the State's life and have contributed notably to its development. 

In 1751, when Christopher Gist came into the Kentucky country in 
search of lands for the Ohio Company, his only attendant was a Negro 
servant. Fifteen years later a mulatto slave was one of a party of five 
exploring this region. A few of the pioneers from Virginia brought 
their slaves when they migrated to the West, but as a rule the earliest 
settlers did not own slaves, since they were poor and slave property 
was a luxury. Such slaves as were brought into the Kentucky country 
in the early days were usually affectionately attached to the household 
through long years of service. In accounts of Indian raids slaves are 
reported as loyal and daring. One of them, Monk, owned by Colonel 
William Estill, was an expert in making gunpowder and a preacher of 
ability, listened to by both Negroes and whites. 

Though slavery, as an institution, was slow in becoming established, 
there were more than 12,000 slaves by 1790, and their number in- 
creased during the next 40 years. In 1833, when a quarter of the total 
population was Negro, it was thought prudent to legislate against fur- 
ther importation of slaves. Thereafter the proportion of Negroes to 
whites decreased. 

This was partly because of the profitable traffic with sections of the 
Deep South where cotton, cane, rice, and other crops dependent on 
slave labor were raised. Another factor was the Underground Railroad, 
so named according to one version of the origin of the term by a 
Kentuckian. Fostered by Northern money, directed by shrewd, re- 
sourceful men, it spirited fugitives across the Ohio River into the 
friendly shelter of Ohio and Indiana. Despite the reputedly mild and 
patriarchal character of slavery in Kentucky, Negroes took advantage 



of the opportunity thus offered to gain their freedom. The State's loss 
in slave property has been placed at not less than $200,000 annually, 
in the decades immediately preceding the War between the States. 

Since the State did not secede from the Union, its slaves were not 
freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, but by the Thirteenth Amend- 
ment, enacted on December 18, 1865. The State legislature passed a 
civil rights act, repealing the old slave code, in February 1866. 

In reality the slave system was not ended by legislation but by enlist- 
ment. Negroes deserted from the fields, or were forcibly taken, to serve 
in the Union Army. The historian, E. Merton Coulter, states that 
"10,000 slaves left the State during the year 1863; slaves enlisted at 
the rate of a hundred a day, and after the war, were freed at the rate 
of 500 a day." The 1860 census showed 236,167 Negroes in the State, 
of whom 10,684 were free; the census of 1870 showed 222,210 

Though losing steadily in ratio, Negro population has gained in num- 
bers and changed in distribution. During the World War there was 
considerable migration to the North, where labor was at a premium. 
Then and later a shift set in from the poorer farms to the State's in- 
dustrial centers principally to Louisville, Covington, Newport, and 
Ashland and to the mining regions. In 1930 approximately half of 
Kentucky's Negro population was urban. Of the 109,479 Negroes on 
farms, 9,104 were listed as operators; 4,175 of these owned their farms, 
4,914 were tenants, and 15 were managers. 

The proportion of those gainfully employed is high, and their occu- 
pations are varied. The 1930 United States Census lists a total of 
106,572 gainfully employed, including 7,346 in coal mines, 3,414 in 
railroads, 2,239 in building construction, 2,226 chauffeurs and truck 
and tractor drivers, 1,473 laborers, porters, and helpers in stores, and 
1,222 waiters (men and women). 

In the "white collar" class, the census lists 39 Negro college presi- 
dents and professors, 86 trained nurses, 25 lawyers, 37 dentists, 129 
doctors, 727 clergymen, and 1,615 teachers. The need for expansion of 
Negro activities in these occupations is shown by the fact that there is 
1 trained nurse for every 2,828 Negroes, 1 lawyer for every 9,142 
Negroes and 1 doctor for every 1,752 Negroes in the State. 

Two large Negro insurance companies are located in Louisville, fac- 
ing each other on Walnut Street. There are three Negro newspapers 
in the same city: the American Baptist, the Louisville Leader and the 
Louisville Defender. 


In ante bellum days most of the free Negroes lived in Louisville, and 
attempts were made to provide education for them. The Freedmen's 
Guild took charge of such efforts after the war, and in a short time 
established 35 schools with 58 teachers, many of them Negroes. There 
was, however, no public provision for financing these schools and tui- 
tion fees were necessarily low. Private generosity had to be depended 
on for funds, and northern Negroes contributed a great share of the 

In 1866 a law was passed providing that the proceeds of all Negro 
taxes should be divided equally between Negro schools and Negro 
paupers. The principle of equality in education was incorporated in 
the constitution of 1891, perhaps as a result of agitation in 1873 and a 
threat of appeal to the State and Federal courts for equal school ad- 
vantages. During the present century educational facilities for Negro 
children have improved. 

In one institution only Berea College have Negroes in Kentucky 
been permitted to attend school with whites. But this practice was 
discontinued in 1904 when the law prohibiting "mixed" schools was 
passed. A division of property and endowment was effected, and Lin- 
coln Institute, a high school for Negroes, modeled on Berea, was es- 
tablished in Shelby County. 

The Louisville Municipal College for Negroes is an outgrowth of 
Simmons University, founded in 1873 by the General Association of 
Colored Baptists of Kentucky as the Kentucky Normal and Theological 
Institute. In 1920 a proposal for a million-dollar bond issue for the 
University of Louisville was defeated, largely because it did not have 
the support of the Negro electorate. The proposal, with provisions 
for earmarking $100,000 of the issue for the advancement of higher 
education for Negroes in Louisville, was resubmitted in 1925 and 
passed. Simmons University was purchased, renamed the Louisville 
Municipal College for Negroes, and opened as part of the University 
of Louisville on February 9, 1931. The institution is now recognized 
as a four-year college, and has the highest scholastic rating of any 
Negro institution in the State. 

The only other State-supported institution of higher learning in the 
State is the Kentucky State Industrial College at Frankfort. Since 
no State institution granting master's and higher degrees admits 
Negroes, the Anderson-Mayer Aid Act, passed in 1935, requires the 
State to defray expenses of Negro students wishing to secure ad- 
vanced degrees in institutions outside the State. 


The church is to a considerable degree the center of social life for 
the Kentucky Negro. The first Negro church in Kentucky was the 
Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, organized in Louisville in 1816. It 
was not until after emancipation, however, that the Negro church de- 
veloped, for the Negro slave generally attended his master's church, 
worshiping in a gallery set aside for the purpose. Sometimes separate 
Negro services were held in schoolhouses and vacant church buildings, 
and gave rise to preachers who achieved more than local fame. Josiah 
Henson, a slave in Davies County, preached widely in both America 
and England after escaping from bondage. He is best known as one 
of the many prototypes of Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom." 
Total State membership of Negro churches today is 127,126; the Bap- 
tist, with 83,837 members, the African Methodist Episcopal, with 
10,492, and the Colored Methodist Episcopal, with 7,715 are the three 
major denominations. 

In politics the Kentucky Negro has been traditionally Republican, 
but in recent years he has supported the Democratic party. In Louis- 
ville, Lexington, Hopkinsville, and Paducah the Negro vote is often a 
decisive factor. As has been noted above the Negro vote was largely 
responsible for the establishment of the Louisville Municipal College 
for Negroes, and other advances for Negroes in the educational field 
have been won through the ballot box. Phil Brown, Kentucky's out- 
standing Negro in politics, was appointed Commissioner of Conciliation, 
in the United States Department of Labor in April 1921 and served 
in this capacity until November 1923. Representative C. W. Ander- 
son, Jr., a Negro of Louisville, has served in the State legislature since 

Housing facilities for Negroes, long a reproach to property owners 
and to those in authority, are improving. Many fine homes, well main- 
tained, are owned and occupied by Negroes. The Federal Housing 
Administration completed one Negro project, College Court in Louis- 
ville, in 1937 and has others under immediate consideration. 

In all the wars fought since Kentucky became a State, the Negro 
has played his part with credit and distinction. Approximately 23,700 
Negroes served in the War between the States; hundreds saw service 
in the Spanish-American War, and 12,580, or more than 14 percent 
of the Kentuckians in the World War, were Negroes. 

Among Kentucky Negroes who have won distinction in their chosen 
fields are Bishop Alexander Walters, civic and political leader; Allen 
Allensworth, chaplain of the Twenty-fourth Infantry; Charles Young, 


Twenty- fourth Infantry; Isaac Murphy, famous jockey; Roland Hayes, 
the singer, a native of Georgia, but resident in Louisville; Stephen 
Bishop, one of the explorers of Mammoth Cave; Joseph Seamon Cotter, 
the poet, and his son, Joseph Seamon Cotter, Jr., also a poet; Ernest 
Hogan, showman and one of the popularizers of "jazz"; and H. C. 
Russell, Negro specialist in the United States Office of Education. 


CHURCH membership in Kentucky has increased at a rate faster 
than that of the population. Almost one-half of the people of 
the State approximately a million are church members today, while 
only about one person in 12 claimed membership in 1800. 

The different religious sects, of which there are nearly 60, show 
great disparity in size and represent divisions and subdivisions within 
some of the major denominations. The Baptists, the largest single 
group, have a total membership of 425,000, of which 300,000 are in the 
Southern Baptist Convention and the remainder in nine other Baptist 
divisions. The Catholics come next in point of numbers, with 180,000 
members, followed by the Methodists with 170,000 members dis- 
tributed among eight subdenominations. The Disciples of Christ 
(better known in Kentucky as the Christian Church) have a member- 
ship of 122,000, and the Presbyterians (subdivided into five groups) 
number 52,000. The remaining 50,000 church members are found in 
more than 50 smaller organizations. 

The religious history of the State falls roughly into four periods: 
the time of pioneering, the decades of the Great Revival beginning in 
1797, the period dominated by the slavery issue and the War between 
the States; and what may be considered the modern epoch, following 
reconstruction and extending to the present. As the story unfolds, 
the growth of the different denominations and their relative status 
today, as well as the underlying causes of their schisms, become clear. 

Pioneering days were marked by the missionary zeal of the first 
pastors and circuit riders and, conversely, by a general indifference 
to religious matters on the part of the general populace. An Epis- 
copalian minister, the Reverend John Lythe, preached the first sermon 
of which there is any record in 1775. The first recorded preaching by 
a Baptist minister took place at Harrodsburg the following year, but 
Baptist services were probably held before that. Increasing religious 
activity came in the 1780's. Three Baptist churches were established 
in 1781 at Severn's Valley (now in Elizabethtown), Cedar Creek, and 



Gilbert's Creek; the first Methodist church west of the Alleghenies 
was organized near Danville in 1783; and during the following year 
Reverend David Rice settled there to take charge of three associations 
with about twenty churches. By this time the Presbyterians had or- 
ganized their first presbytery with twelve churches, and a Roman 
Catholic church had been built at Holy Cross near Rohan Knobs. In 
1789 there were three Methodist circuits; the first annual conference of 
Methodists was held near Lexington in 1790. When Kentucky be- 
came a State in 1792 there were forty-two churches with a combined 
membership of 3,095. 

But despite this apparent activity of organized religion, morals were 
at low ebb at the end of the eighteenth century, according to the ac- 
counts of eyewitnesses. Frontier conditions and general religious in- 
difference throughout the country at this time would seem to give 
credence to these contemporary estimates. The time was ripe for the 
Great Revival. 

The first signs appeared in 1797 when James McGready, a Presby- 
terian minister, came from South Carolina to take charge of three 
churches in Logan County. By 1800 the revival spirit had swept over 
the entire State and the adjoining territory. The period was marked 
by a wave of religious excitement that found expression in the re- 
vivalist or camp meeting type of service and led to a dramatic in- 
crease in church membership. 

One striking psychological phenomenon associated with the revival 
meetings (and indeed with similar meetings today) is known as the 
"jerks." People were seized with violent convulsions, the head jerking 
spasmodically from side to side. Some fell into a coma-like state; 
others rolled on the ground, jumped and ran, danced, barked, gave 
way to hysterical laughter, or had trances and visions. A high tide of 
emotionalism swept over the meetings and kindled a flame of religious 

The Presbyterians, among whom the revival movement first showed 
itself, failed to profit by it. Instead, they split on the rock of doc- 
trinal and practical differences. The revival spirit, as it spread through 
the State, created a demand for preachers that could not be met by 
the number of trained ministers available. Opportunities opened up 
by the awakening religious interest had to be lost, or men who lacked 
the formal qualifications for the task had to be licensed to preach. The 
Cumberland Presbytery, immediately responsible for carrying on the 
revival, took the latter way out of the dilemma, and was dissolved by 


its synod. Appeal was made to the General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church in 1809 without success, and as a result the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church was formed as an independent denomination 
in 1810. By 1829 it had grown so rapidly that it organized a general 
assembly of its own with eighteen presbyteries. 

Matters of doctrine offered an even more formidable stumbling block 
and led, indirectly, to the formation of the Church of the Christian 
Disciples (the Christian Church). Barton W. Stone, minister in 
charge of two Presbyterian churches in Bourbon County, visited the 
Logan County revival in 1801 and was so impressed that he decided 
to organize a similar meeting of his own. Held at Cane Ridge in 
August, it drew crowds variously estimated all the way from 10,000 
to 25,000. Excitement and emotional fervor rose to a high pitch, and 
the Cane Ridge meeting is commonly regarded as the peak of the 
Great Revival. Stone and his followers (the Stonites) found it dif- 
ficult to reconcile the part played by human reaction in salvation with 
the Calvinistic emphasis on the doctrines of election and predestina- 
tion, and this got them into trouble with the Presbyterian Synod of 
Kentucky. Suspended in 1803, they first formed the independent 
Springfield Presbytery, but almost immediately threw over the back- 
ground of allegiance to the parent denomination and adopted the 
simple name "Christian." 

The Baptists, unlike the Presbyterians, took full advantage of the 
Great Revival to add to their ranks. In the three years, from 1800 
to 1803, they enrolled 10,000 members, and by 1820 had more mem- 
bers than all other denominations combined. But trouble was brew- 
ing. Thomas Campbell and his son Alexander, originally Presby- 
terians, had joined the Baptists when differences of doctrine forced 
them out of the Presbyterian fold in 1813. They became an influential 
force among the Baptists of Kentucky and by 1830 had drawn as 
many as 10,000 adherents away from the Baptist ranks. Their fol- 
lowers (the Campbellites) held the Armenian views and sought to 
promote a simple evangelical Christianity. In 1832 two men repre- 
senting the Stonites and the Campbellites were sent through Kentucky 
to bring these two groups together. They were largely successful and 
effected a union resulting in the organization of the Christian Church 
which may be regarded as a sect formed of members of the Presby- 
terian and the Baptist Churches. 

Methodism was peculiarly open to the influence of the Great Re- 


vival. Its numbers grew rapidly and it prospered; not until later did 
it, too, suffer dissensions and divisions. 

The Catholics were untouched by the revival^ but were perhaps 
affected by the general awakening of interest in religion. The first 
diocese, which originally included Tennessee and all the Northwest 
Territory, was organized at Bardstown in 1808. The first bishop, 
Benedict Joseph Flaget, had his residence in a log cabin (still pre- 
served) at St. Thomas, near Bardstown, and began building the first 
cathedral west of the mountains at Bardstown in 1819. It was not 
until 1841 that the see was transferred to Louisville. 

The Shakers, though they did not come directly under the influence 
of the revival, were drawn to Kentucky by it. Organized as an off- 
shoot of Quakerism in England, the Shaker Society had been brought 
to America in 1775 by "Mother Ann" Lee, and was first centered in 
New York. Its members believed in strict and simple living, in 
prophecy, and direct spiritual guidance. Thus they were attracted by 
reports of the revival, and thought, probably, that Kentucky would 
offer congenial soil for Shaker beliefs and practices. For a time the 
Shakers prospered in their new home, and had two establishments of 
which one, known as Shakertown or Pleasant Hill, is still well pre- 
served. By about 1850, however, the society began to decline. 
Shakerism in Kentucky is of historic interest but it is not part of the 
present-day picture. There are still a few Shakers in America, but 
none are left in the State. 

What may be considered the third period in Kentucky's religious 
history reached its climax during the War between the States. It saw 
divisions over the slavery issue within the major denominations, and 
reflected the trend of secular events which so bitterly divided the 

The Presbyterians, already disorganized by the revival, were further 
divided in 1837 by a general schism of the Presbyterian Church over 
doctrinal matters into Old School and New School Presbyterians. The 
latter organization was confined largely to the North and became out- 
spokenly antislavery. But there were enough Southern members, in- 
cluding the Kentucky Presbytery of Lexington, to cause these to with- 
draw in 1857 to form the United Synod of the South, with six synods, 
twenty-one presbyteries, and about 15,000 members. In 1864 the 
United Synod of the South joined the Presbyterian Church of the Con- 
federate States (which had split off from the Old School Church in 
1861) to form the Presbyterian Church in the United States, now pop- 
ularly known as the Southern Presbyterian Church. Since Kentucky 


was a border State, the war divided the Presbyterians cruelly, and 
created chaos in their ranks. The Southern churches cut themselves 
off completely from Northern affiliations, and this wound has not yet 
been entirely healed. 

The Baptists and Methodists also split on the slavery question. As 
early as 1844 the Baptist associations of the South, including those 
in Kentucky, withdrew from the triennial convention to form their own 
organization, the Southern Baptist Convention. In the same year the 
Methodists decided on an amicable separation, and the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South (Southern Methodist Church) was organized 
in Louisville in May 1845. Of its 460,000 members in 1846 in the 
entire South 125,000 were Negro. But by 1860 there remained 
fewer than 50,000 Negroes, and ten years later these withdrew to form 
the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. 

With the slavery issue settled and the War between the States be- 
hind them, the denominations which split on these national issues have 
shown a growing tendency, not yet altogether successful, to mend the 
schisms of that period. A gradual development of tolerance, and of 
social and philanthropic activities, mark the fourth (or present) period 
of Kentucky's religious history. 

The picture of religious life today may be drawn briefly. There 
are, all told, more than 7,000 churches in the State. Though only 
about 16 percent are urban, these claim approximately 40 percent of 
the entire church membership. More than 50 percent of all Negroes in 
Kentucky are church members; the Baptist group numbering 90,000 
is larger than all other Negro church groups combined. 

The Baptists, as stated above, are the largest single religious group. 
They are found in every county except those of the extreme north- 
eastern section. In many counties they constitute half (or more) of 
the church membership, and are especially strong along the southern 
border and in the southeastern section. The Southern Baptist Con- 
vention has as yet shown no inclination to reunite with other Baptist 
groups, possibly because of the fundamentalist issue. 

Catholic church membership is unevenly distributed. Thirty-four 
counties in the southwest and along the southern and eastern borders 
report no Catholics, while 115,000 of the total 180,000 are in Jeffer- 
son, Campbell, Nelson, and Kenton Counties. 

Of all the denominations divided by the slavery issue, the Method- 
ists have shown the strongest tendency toward reconciliation with 
the Northern Conference. In 1925 a plan for the organic reunion of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, 


South failed by a narrow margin of the combined votes of lay and 
ministerial members of the Southern Church, while the vote in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church itself was overwhelmingly in favor of 
union. In April 1938, at a meeting of the general conference in Birm- 
ingham, Alabama, a plan of union was adopted by a majority of 334 
affirmative votes to 26 opposing votes. The plan provided for a unit- 
ing conference to be held on April 26, 1939, for the purpose of har- 
monizing and combining provisions now existing in the disciplines of the 
uniting churches. At a conference held in Kansas City, Missouri, in 
June 1939, the three branches of Methodism were united under the 
name "The Methodist Church." 

The Presbyterians are still divided into the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States with 22,000 members; the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America, with 16,000 members; the Cumberland 
Presbyterians with 11,600 members; and the Colored Cumberland 
Presbyterians and the United Presbyterians with 1,370 members. 
There are, however, many indications of effort to unite northern and 
southern elements. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church is comparatively small. More 
than half of its 13,000 members are in Jefferson and Breckinridge 
Counties and 75 of the 120 counties report no members. Jewish con- 
gregations are likewise small. Of the 15,500 Jews in the State, 12,500 
are concentrated in Louisville. 

Camp meetings, revivals, baptisms, and other outdoor religious 
gatherings, which formerly were an important factor in the religious 
life of the State, have almost entirely disappeared except in the Ken- 
tucky highlands. Here customs change slowly, and, even with better 
roads and churches, these activities are still conducted with great 
fervor. One of the oldest institutions of its kind in the Southern 
Methodist Church is the Kavanaugh Camp Meeting near Crestwood, 
18 miles from Louisville. Founded more than 60 years ago by Bishop 
H. H. Kavanaugh, the meeting has been held here annually except 
for a short period when the camp was closed. Before there were any 
buildings on the grounds everything was of a primitive nature. Benches 
were built in a grove of oak and beech trees; tents were used to lodge 
those who wished to remain for the entire meeting. Later a pavilion, a 
dining hall, dormitories, and about twenty cottages were added. Today 
the camp is equipped with modern conveniences. Speakers of na- 
tional prominence deliver addresses at the meetings, which are inter- 
denominational . 


PIONEER Kentuckians were often unlettered, according to the 
standards of formal education, but they respected learning. Wher- 
ever stockades were erected, cabins within them were set apart as 
schools in which the more literate members of the community taught 
the "three R's," often from memory. 

In 1775, before the first church and the first court of justice were 
established, the first school was opened in the fort at Harrodsburg. 
The teacher, Mrs. William Coomes, taught the beginners to read and 
write from paddle-shaped pine shingles inscribed with the alphabet, 
and from Bible texts. At McAfee's Station, near Harrodsburg, there 
was a school in 1777. John McKinney taught at Lexington " between 
fights" with wildcats and Indians. At Boonesboro, at Logan's Station 
wherever a cluster of cabins appeared schools were established, 
presided over by teachers who sometimes knew little more than their 
pupils. With low pay, often in tobacco which was legal tender 
bear bacon, buffalo steak, or jerked venison, these pioneer teachers 
eked out a precarious existence. 

The schoolhouse was a cheerless log hut, lighted through oiled paper 
stretched over an opening that served for a window. Books were 
few, but there was always the Bible, supplemented by hand-written 

Numerous private schools were established between 1780 and 1800. 
At Lexington, John Filson, Kentucky's first historian, conducted a 
private academy until his death in 1788; Elijah Craig, a pioneer Bap- 
tist minister, established a school for his congregation at Georgetown; 
and Salem Academy at Bardstown, under John Priestly, became one 
of the leading schools in the State. Schools at this time were primarily 
for boys, who were taught arithmetic, surveying, geometry, bookkeep- 
ing, a smattering of English grammar, and a little Latin if they were 
destined for the law or medicine. The private schools opened by the 
French immigrants offered languages, music, deportment, and "fancy" 



There were also "female" academies, which corresponded to finish- 
ing schools and specialized in such subjects as "ornamental" literature, 
poetry, and fancy and practical needlework, in addition to reading, 
writing, and grammar. Girls were considered cultured if they were 
accomplished dancers, and could make samplers and speak a little 

Early efforts at elementary education were definitely individualistic, 
and followed the motto that governed Indian fighting: "Every man 
to his man, and every man to his tree." The first constitution, adopted 
in 1792, made no mention of education. On the other hand, higher 
education was recognized as the responsibility of the State soon after 
the Revolution. In 1783 the Virginia Legislature set aside confiscated 
Tory land in the County of Kentucky "for a public school or seminary 
of learning." As a result, Transylvania Seminary, later to become the 
first university west of the Alleghenies, was opened as a grammar 
school at Crow's Station, afterward Danville, in the double log cabin 
of "Father" David Rice. He was the school's first teacher at a salary 
of three pounds sterling a year one-half to be in cash and the rest in 
corn, tobacco, and pork. In 1788 the seminary was moved to Lexing- 
ton, which was at that time the most important frontier settlement of 
the West. Transylvania later developed and prospered sufficiently to 
make Lexington the literary capital of the region. A large majority 
of the influential men in the early history of Kentucky and the West 
are related to this institution in one way or another. 

In 1788 there came the first suggestion, from an anonymous Lexing- 
ton correspondent, that a public school system should be established. 
The system proposed the division of counties into districts, in each 
of which a public school was to be located. The opposition of the 
private academies, however, prevented the materialization of the plan. 
At Georgetown and Bardstown, and in Mercer and Madison Counties, 
new private schools were opened. 

In 1794 Kentucky Academy, the first public school authorized and 
incorporated by the Kentucky Legislature, was established through a 
State endowment of 6,000 acres of land at Pisgah, near Lexington. 
George Washington and John Adams each contributed $100 to this in- 
stitution. Bethel Academy, the first Methodist institution of learning 
in the Mississippi Valley, opened in Jessamine County in 1798. The 
precedent set by the Methodists was quickly followed by other de- 
nominations. The legislature then provided endowments of 6,000 acres 
of land to each county in the State for the purpose of establishing 


seminaries that were somewhat more restricted in educational scope 
than colleges. In order to raise $1,000 with which to meet preliminary 
expenses, each county was allowed to operate lotteries. 

Notwithstanding the development in higher education, common 
school instruction still followed the pioneer principle that education 
should be diffused downward from college to the masses. By the end 
of the second decade of the nineteenth century, fifty-nine county 
academies, favored by generous legislatures, were chartered. The 
majority of Kentuckians, however, failed to give adequate financial 
support to the State-endowed county academies, and by the outbreak 
of the War between the States, only one of them was left. 

The period 1820-1850 was one of extremes in the development of 
education. Incompetent trustees of academy endowments frittered 
away assets; visionary legislatures set up educational funds, only to 
raid them for any emergency which arose ; forward-looking men wagged 
an admonishing finger at those in places of responsibility; Governors 
addressed legislatures, and the press at times vigorously argued in be- 
half of the uneducated masses. Meanwhile, religious denominations 
were establishing or getting control of colleges, seminaries, and acad- 
emies throughout the State; but this contributed little if anything to 
elementary education. 

The general educational level in 1830 was revealed in a school re- 
port from 78 out of 83 counties. Of a total of almost 140,000 children 
in the State between the ages of five and fifteen years, only 31,834 
were attending school. In the county with the best record only one- 
half of the children were at school. 

The State's leaders, concerned over the situation, organized the 
Kentucky Educational Society in the early 1830's to arouse public 
sentiment. Realization of the need for education spread, and when 
the Federal Government adopted the policy of distributing surplus 
land revenues among the States in 1836, education shared in Ken- 
tucky's $2,000,000 windfall. A fund of $850,000 was set aside to 
found and sustain a general program of public education. A law, 
sponsored by Judge W. F. Bullock, of Louisville, was passed by the 
legislature on February 16, 1838, establishing the first public school 
system. The income from the fund was to be distributed among the 
counties according to the number of children of school age, and school 
districts were empowered to tax citizens to an amount equal to the sum 
received from the State. The system also provided for a State board of 
education, division of the State into districts containing 30 to 50 chil- 


dren, appointment of five commissioners of education for each county 
and five trustees for each district. 

The cause of general education was retarded by the fact that the 
prosperous patronized private schools and the poor were indifferent. 
Agitation continued. One writer suggested that not only should the 
poor be educated, but poor parents who needed the labor of their 
children should be compensated for the time their children spent in 

By 1840, two years after the public school system had come into 
existence, the first real public school census was made. Only 32,920 
children were reported in school, while the school-age population had 
increased by more than 40,000. There were 42,000 persons over 20 
years of age in the State who were unable to read. Counties with as 
many as 2,000 children of school age reported none in school attend- 
ance, while the best records again showed only one-half the children 
in school. Still the legislature and elected officials bickered over school 
funds and policies. 

In 1847, when Robert J. Breckinridge became superintendent of 
education, the situation changed. Due to his efforts the new constitu- 
tion, adopted in 1849, contained a clause protecting educational funds. 
By 1853 the common-school law was in operation in every county of 
the State, even though first-class teachers could not always be obtained 
with the funds available. 

Then came the War between the States, and much of the ground 
gained was lost. 

In 1869 there were 4,447 schools with 169,477 children in attendance 
out of a total of 376,868 of school age. Nine years later there were 
still 226,323 children out of school. In 1883 more than 250,000 peo- 
ple 15 percent of the Commonwealth's population could not read. 

But it must be remembered that Negroes had not been classed as 
citizens until after the emancipation of slaves; that Negroes almost 
without exception had no schooling during slave days and that ade- 
quate school facilities for Negroes did not exist for many years there- 
after. With this great group of illiterate children added to the popula- 
tion it appeared that the list of illiterate citizens in the State had 
grown alarmingly when such was not the case. 

Increasing funds went into common-school education and the citizens 
fought illiteracy under such slogans as "We Want a Pen in Every 
Hand in Kentucky." At one time as many as 100,000 illiterates were 
being instructed by volunteer teachers. 









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Kentucky's educational system received its most progressive boost 
in the "Educational Legislature" of 1908 and 1909. Funds were in- 
creased for the support of schools, and State and county funds were 
combined and distributed on a basis which equalized opportunities for 
each county. From 1908 to 1936 important changes were made in 
the whole school system: the school laws were clarified and placed in a 
single codification in 1934; the Council of Higher Education was or- 
ganized; the University of Kentucky was made head of the educa- 
tional system and given responsibility for graduate training; the other 
State colleges were entrusted with the responsibility of teacher training 
and undergraduate work in general. Today (1939) Kentucky has the 
lowest rate of illiteracy of any of the southern States, and State sup- 
port to its public schools compares favorably with that of the Nation. 

Keeping pace with the development of common-school education, 
facilities for higher education have also progressed. The University 
of Louisville, the oldest public institution of higher learning in the 
State, was founded by the city council in 1837. A branch of the uni- 
versity, the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes, offers a regular 
four-year college course. The Kentucky State Industrial College is the 
only other State-supported institution of higher learning for Negroes 
in the State. 

The University of Kentucky was founded as the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College in 1866, under provisions of the Congressional 
Morrill Land-Grant Act. It opened with an enrollment of 190 stu- 
dents. The present resident enrollment is 3,825, not counting students 
in correspondence and extension courses. 

There are four State teachers colleges, at Richmond, Moorehead, 
Murray, and Bowling Green. Among the privately endowed institu- 
tions are Transylvania, Centre, Asbury, Union, Georgetown, Win- 
chester, Kentucky Wesleyan, and Berea. Most of the fifteen junior 
colleges in the State are supported by religious denominations. 

Not until 1911 was a concentrated effort made to establish a pro- 
gram of adult education. In that year Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart 
founded the "moonlight schools" in which adults were taught to read 
and write. Her project led to the appointment of Governor Mc- 
Creary's "illiteracy commission" in 1920. 

The public school system is now supported by State appropriations 
amounting to approximately $11.65 per capita, in addition to county 
appropriations and funds derived from taxes on public properties for 
schools. Approximately 655,186 Kentucky children, or 86 percent of 


those between the ages of six and eighteen years, were enrolled in 
public and private schools in the school year 1934-1935. In 1935 
there were 848 high schools in the State, 773 for white children and 
75 for Negroes. 

In co-operation with the Works Progress Administration and the 
Public Works Administration, modern school buildings have been con- 
structed and old buildings have been improved in practically every 
county in the State. The adult educational program of the Works 
Progress Administration has done much to solve the problem of il- 


>HpHE CONVENIENT and pithy term for the mountain people of 
JL Kentucky, "our contemporary ancestors," does not indicate the 
origin of the customs, beliefs, and peculiarities which persist among 
them. For they too had ancestors. These were, for the most part, 
British, and of the soil. Just as today many a mountaineer has never 
been ten miles from his birthplace, so also his forebears remained at 
home. They were sturdy men and women, steeped in traditional ways, 
independent and as little humble as possible. The mountaineer is that 
way too. He cares neither for ease nor for soft living. He is hospita- 
ble. "Welcome, stranger, light and hitch," is the salutation, and the 
stranger is bidden to take "d n near all" of whatever the table offers. 
A hunter by race, he is first of all a poacher, in arms against such as 
would deny him the right to take game where he may find it, a trait 
dating back to the time of Robin Hood in England. His speech is remi- 
niscent of this older land and people. Labeled as "a survival," the 
mountaineer in reality is on the defensive, protecting himself against 
later comers and strange ideas. "I wouldn't choose to crave this new- 
fangled teachin' and preachin'," he says. "All I ask is to be let alone. 
I was doin' middlin' well. The hull kit and bilin' can go to the devil." 

Mountain dialect reflects the Anglo-Saxon origin of the mountain 
people; obsolete forms found in Shakespeare and the King James 
version of the Bible are in common use. "dumb," "writ," and "et" 
for climbed, wrote, and ate are sound enough if you go back a few 
centuries. "Buss" for kiss, "pack" for carry, and "poke" for pocket- 
bag and the like are pure Elizabethan. 

Shakespeare said "a-feared," as does the mountaineer today, and 
"beholden" is common to both. "His schoolin' holp him mighty," says 
the proud mountain father; King Richard of England said, "Let him 
thank me that holp to send him thither." "Hit's right pied," shouts 
the mountain boy when the snake he has stoned puffs up and mottles. 


But he probably never read of "meadows trim with daisies pied/' or 
heard of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. When he sings, the mountaineer 
"rolls a song," and his expression, "he looks like the hind wheels of 
bad luck," is so expressive that only the carping student would seek to 
trace its heritage. 

Folklore is found not only among the mountaineers but in every 
county in the State, in town and in city. In the mountains, however, 
because of close-knit family and community ties, it is part of everyday 
life. Songs and sayings are more than quaint and queer; they have 
living reality. How much of the folklore is Scotch or Welsh, English 
or Irish, cannot readily be known. 

The sense of something evil pervades mountain superstition; the 
devil is a personage, as real as he is malicious, as easily foiled as in 
Faust. The formula is common, and Satan is sent packing as surely 
by the sacred words "in the name of the Father and the Son and the 
Holy Ghost" as, in European story, by the sign of the Cross. Stories 
of people seeing the devil are accepted, and such an experience might 
almost be described as normal. It does not appear that belief in the 
"little people," so widespread in Ireland, was carried to Kentucky; 
few cases of children being "fairy-struck" exist. There is bedevilment 
rather than enchantment. 

Hard by the headwaters of Hell-fer-Sartain is the Devil's Jump, a 
small branch, its course cluttered throughout by a confused mass of 
boulders and rocks. Here the devil, skipping in haste from hilltop 
to hilltop, his apron loaded with rocks with which he proposed to 
burden the land, "busted" his apron string and dropped the cargo into 
the stream below. To the present day an unusual scattering of rocks 
will be met with the exclamation: "The Devil must have broken his 
apron string hereabouts." 

Leslie County has the usual legend, based on a common Old World 
theme, of a wager for the soul of a human being. The devil chal- 
lenged a gunsmith to a shooting match with the soul of the craftsman 
as prize. Singularly enough, the gunsmith won. He had the scare 
of his life, however, and never after could he be persuaded to return 
to his bench and fashion fine guns. 

Among these people, who are not of the twentieth century, nor want 
to be, strange things are everyday happenings, and witchcraft is taken 
as a matter of course. Witches, however, are quite another story; 
they no longer belong. But they are feared just the same. From 


ante bellum days come superstitions given to white children by their 
Negro mammies. This is the origin of the wholesome dread of "hoo- 
doo" or "voodoo" signs. 

Weather signs are deferred to and planting determined by the phases 
of the moon. If you don't hang a bread-sifter on the doorknob at 
night, you'll find witches in the bread in the morning. "If it comes, 
it no comes; if it no comes, it comes" means that if the crow comes 
the corn will not grow; if the crow doesn't come, the corn will. Along 
the Upper Middle Fork of the Kentucky River every hamlet and 
county seat has its ancient teller of tales, grateful for a good listener. 

Old World backgrounds and traits of Kentucky's pioneers are reflected 
in the tunes and songs handed down from generation to generation 
historical and sentimental ballads reminiscent of a time long past. 
"Queen Jane" tells how Henry VIII followed Jane Seymour to the 
grave: "Six went before, four carried her along. King Henry fol- 
lowed with his black mourning on." Dating back to the fifteenth 
century mysteries is the "Cherry Tree Carol," built around the story 
of Joseph and Mary in the Apocrypha. This song was discovered 
by Josephine McGill of Louisville, one of the first to collect and har- 
monize songs in this particular field. "Lord Randal" tells the story 
of the poisoned lover, a universal theme; the "Maid and the Gallows 
Tree" brings in the ransom motif; while "Barbara Allen," "Lord 
Thomas," "Fair Annet," "Sweet William," and "Lord Lovel" lament 
the girl who loved and died. 

There is a more contemporary, defiant note to the well-known lines: 

Way up on Clinch Mountain I wander along; 
I'm as drunk as the devil 
Oh, let me alone. 

A variant is more plaintive: 

Go away, old man, and leave me alone, 

For I am a stranger 

And a long ways from home. 

With a Miles Standish touch, another ballad tells of a young fellow 
in love who, going to sea, leaves a friend to kiss his sweetheart good-by. 
Eventually he returns to find friend and sweetheart married: 

Jack, you selfish elf, 

The very next girl I learn to love, 

I'll kiss her for myself. 


A distinctive type of song was characteristic of the camp meetings, 
the literary form resembling the popular ballad or song. "Old-Time 
Religion" of indefinite length and "The Old Ship of Zion" are 
typical camp meeting songs, sung by both white people and Negroes 
in Kentucky. 

One of the earliest of Kentucky's social and educational activities 
was the singing school. No place was too remote for the singing class 
that met in the church or schoolhouse. The songs were always re- 
ligious and were usually found in a book for sale by the teacher. Two 
of the earliest singing schoolbooks were the Kentucky Harmony, in 
use by 1816, and Supplement to Kentucky Harmony, published in 1820. 
Both were written in four-shape notation and compiled by Ananias 
Davisson, a singing-school teacher, born somewhere on the border line 
of Maryland and Virginia; they contained a large number of songs 
popular in the rural South. The first fifteen pages of Kentucky 
Harmony were devoted to Preface, Rudiments, General Observation, 
"A Remark or Two at the request of several Refined Musicians," 
"Lessons for Tuning the Voice," and directions for the construction 
of a metronome. The 144 pages of tunes were all in four-part har- 
mony. Part I contains "plain and easy tunes commonly used in time 
of divine worship"; Part II, "more lengthy and elegant pieces," used 
in "singing schools and private societies." 

The Kentucky Harmonist, published about 1817, was compiled by 
Samuel Lytler Metcalf (1798-1856) whose home was Shelbyville, Ken- 
tucky. He began teaching singing school when a mere boy, and the 
proceeds of several editions of the Kentucky Harmonist enabled him 
to complete his medical education. 

In 1835 appeared the first edition of Southern Harmony, written 
and published by "Singin' Billy" Walker perhaps the most widely 
known of the shape-note song books and still used at "Benton's Big 
Singing." The last of its many editions, which appeared in 1854, has 
recently been reproduced in facsimile. 

Kentucky Negro spirituals resemble those of other Southern States, 
but nearly every section has its own slight variations of the same songs 
as well as actual new ones. So characteristic are the Negro's own 
harmonic arrangements and words, that his songs may be considered 
native folk music. His ability to convey emotion in a few powerful, 
one-syllable words is unparalleled. Beautiful, simple, and generally 
plaintive, the spirituals are the unique expression of the Negro's ex- 


perience, and a distinct contribution to the development of Kentucky 

Another type of Kentucky song is known as a play-party game. 
Singing is unaccompanied; clapping of hands and stamping or patting 
of feet are often added. Such games as "Chase (or Shoot) the Buf- 
falo," "Skip to My Lou," "Pig in the Parlor," and "Over the River 
to Charley" are good examples. These folk games have died out of 
general usage in Kentucky, but have been revived at school, community 
gatherings, and camps. 

Breakdowns, or dance tunes, are known everywhere. There are two 
kinds, sung and instrumental. The former is often the same as the 
play-party game, except that it is used as a square dance. The second 
type of breakdown calls for a fiddler, usually with the accompaniment 
of a banjo picker or guitarist. The string band, now known to the 
radio as a "Hillbilly" band, is made up of a variety of instruments: 
fiddle, banjo, guitar, bass viol, mandolin, accordion, castanets, or any 
available musical contrivance. Old songs and ballads are sung regu- 
larly by students at Berea College, Hindman Settlement School, Pine 
Mountain Settlement School, and elsewhere. Several public events in 
the State are held annually with the primary object of preserving Ken- 
tucky's folk music. Among these is the American Folk Song Festival, 
sponsored by the American Folk Song Society, founded by Jean 
Thomas of Ashland. On the second Sunday of June of each year, in 
front of the "Traipsin' Woman's" cabin in a picturesque hollow of the 
foothills of Kentucky, mountain people gather to present a program 
of primitive songs and dances. The annual singing convention at 
Benton, Marshall County, held on the fourth Sunday of May, recently 
celebrated its fifty-fourth meeting. Kentucky folk music is now reach- 
ing an audience outside of the State, through the radio and activities 
of musicians such as John Jacob Niles, who gives concerts and lecture 
recitals in Europe as well as America. 


XT7THEN Daniel Boone in 1775 brought to the Virginia Legislature 
\^ a resolution to improve the breed of horses over in Kentucky 
County, he was voicing a determination that has persisted in the Blue- 
grass. And the Bluegrass has made Kentucky celebrated throughout 
the world for its fine horses. 

The resolve alone would not have been enough, however, if the 
Bluegrass did not have a mild climate and 1,200 square miles of 
cherished land around Lexington peculiarly fitted to be the nursery 
of thoroughbreds. The long, easy roll of the land, with its firm, dry 
turf undisturbed by plows and harrows, with its pools of water and its 
clumps of open woods, seems to please the eyes and feet of both 
horses and men. Underneath this Bluegrass turf is a layer of rare 
Ordovician limestone, a shell deposit laid down millions of years ago 
when the region was an ocean floor. This limestone gives to the water 
and grass a high phosphorus and calcium content which builds light, 
solid bones, elastic muscles, and strong tendons in the horses that feed 
and drink here. Under these ideal conditions are developed the prime 
requisites of the Thoroughbred strength and fleetness. As a result, 
Kentucky-bred horses make up one-half of the winners on first-class 
American tracks, and a large majority of Derby firsts. 

Kentucky has always been interested in horse racing and horse 
breeding. The first settlers in the Bluegrass were men from Virginia 
and the Carolinas, who brought with them over the mountains and 
down the rivers on flatboats strong, fast horses, tended affectionately 
and with care. As early as 1788, six months after the first edition of 
the Kentucky Gazette was printed, there appeared the first Kentucky 
stallion advertisements. One of them reads, in part: 

The famous horse Pilgarlic, of a beautiful colour, full fourteen hands three 
inches high, rising ten years old, will stand the ensuing season on the head of Salt 



River at Captain Abe Irvins, Mercer County, and will cover mares at the very 
low price of ten shillings a leap, if the money is paid down, or fifteen at the expira- 
tion of the season; and twenty shillings the season in cash, or thirty shillings in 
good trade. . . . 

None of these first stallions was good enough to improve the breed; 
but after about fifty years of importing sires and brood mares, Ken- 
tucky began to produce great Thoroughbreds. 

The first Thoroughbreds were English products. In England the 
strong, heavy Norman horses that had carried armored knights into 
battle were relegated by changing times to the fields, and the qualities 
of the light, fleet animals from the East were sought. Three great 
Eastern sires were imported into England the Byerly Turk about 
1685, Barley's Arabian in 1704, and the Godolphin Arabian in 1730. 
Crossed with native mares, they produced the English Thoroughbred, 
a peerless runner. In England the Thoroughbred was improved until 
there were the three great stallions, Herod (1758), Eclipse (1764), 
and Matchem (1748), who established the three dominant male lines 
to which all Thoroughbreds belong. 

America imported its first thoroughbred, Bull Rock, son of the 
Byerly Turk and grandson of the Arabian, in 1730. Within the next 
thirty years Virginia and the Carolinas had excellent Thoroughbred 
stock. Messenger was brought to America in 1768, and Diomed, 
winner of the first English Derby, in 1799. Messenger was crossed 
with American Thoroughbreds and native mares to produce the stand- 
ard-bred, or light-harness horses trotters and pacers which, like the 
Thoroughbred, found their best home in the Bluegrass. The third of 
the light breeds for which the State became renowned is the American 
Saddle Horse, which developed after Denmark (an American thorough- 
bred foaled in 1839) was crossed with standard-breds and thorough- 
breds. This breed, known for beauty, intelligence, and show qualities, 
is Kentucky's own. 

During the War between the States Kentucky horses were demanded 
by both factions. Owners subsequently found their stables empty, and 
interest in breeding at a low ebb. Since it was costly to ship horses 
East and South for big money, Colonel Lewis Clark was sent to Eng- 
land to study breeding methods and to investigate the Derby, Eng- 
land's great sporting event. The result was the first Kentucky Derby, 
held at Louisville in 1875. Aristides galloped home for a purse of 
$2,850. The mile-and-a-half event (now a mile-and-a-quarter) was 
worthy of the Kentucky product. Succeeding Derbies focused attention 


on the State, and several wealthy Eastern owners, Milton Sanford and 
August Belmont among others, bought large estates and moved their 
stables to the Bluegrass where some of the best-known sires in America 
Man o' War, The Porter, Sir Galahad III, Blue Larkspur, and many 
others are spending their last days in the velvet. Every year about 
15,000 people follow the arrow from Lexington to pay their respects 
to "Big Red," as Man o' War is affectionately called. Though insured 
for half a million, and guarded day and night, he likes nothing so much 
as retrieving a hat thrown across the paddock. His 25-foot strides 
soon discouraged competition and he was retired early. He once was 
clocked at 43 miles an hour during a workout, and his size and strength 
were such that he seemed never to tire. "Chicago" O'Brien, one of the 
greatest of plungers, once bet $100,000 on him to win $1,000. 
Smasher of five world records, his "get," including War Admiral, Cru- 
sader, Mars, American Flag, Edith Cavell, and Scapa Flow, are near- 
ing the two-and-a-half million mark in winnings on the American turf. 

From the Bluegrass have come many of the great moneymakers of 
the track, among them Equipoise (d. 1938), the third highest stake 
winner in America, who earned $338,000; Gallant Fox, who took 
purses of more than $328,000; and Seabiscuit, who in 1938 passed 
the $340,000 mark. 

The horse farms range in size from less than a hundred to two or 
three thousand acres. Many of the larger ones are financed by in- 
dustrial fortunes. Despite spectacular individual earnings, such es- 
tablishments rarely enrich their owners. Ten thousand dollars is a 
fair price for a yearling colt of distinguished parentage, and two thou- 
sand more each year will keep him in the pink; but even if he shows 
the stuff Derby winners are made of, he may never return his invest- 
ment. The hazards of disease, injury, lack of speed, and tempera- 
mental obstacles, all unite to keep Thoroughbred breeding a sporting 

A visitor in the Bluegrass sees stone walls and white plank fences 
rising and falling on an ocean of dark rich green to enclose paddocks 
and fields and formally beautiful homes, immaculate barns and Negro 
cabins as precisely arranged as in a blueprint. Great elms, and maples 
trees that sheltered early settlers as they made their way across the 
Great Meadow interrupt the endless flow of green pasture. An in- 
genious device on the gates makes it possible to open them from an 
automobile. The driver, if he is lucky, may be asked by a grinning 
stable boy to wait a few moments; then he sees a group of colts 


coming over a hill on their spindly legs. Prancing along, they are 
ushered gently on to a felt carpet that has been laid across the hard 
rock. "Horses first!" is the primary rule on the horse farm. 

The larger stables maintain a Tack Room, which is decorated with 
ribbons and silver cups and may have a bar. The Tack Room 
actually is designed to contain halters, stirrups, spurs, reins, and other 
horse equipment. 

The story is told of a man who, seeing one of the thoroughbred 
stables for the first time, suddenly removed his hat and said in awed 
tones, "My Lord! The cathedral of the horse." The varnished stalls 
with polished metal trim and the tanbark aisles without a wisp of 
fallen hay are as neat as the cabin of a steamship. A stable boy leads 
out his royal charge. His attitude is that of a colored mammy toward 
the "white chile" in her care. He croons and chuckles, argues and 
cajoles, but never uses a whip. It is generally conceded that the horse 
"knows more than a pin-headed boy." Yet the stable boys and exer- 
cise boys have been carefully selected for their tact, skill, and disposi- 
tion. Usually one man to every three horses is employed in the rac- 
ing stables and one to ten on the breeding farms. There may be ex- 
ercise boys, grooms who rub down the satin coats, jockeys, foremen, 
blacksmiths, veterinarians, bookkeepers and cooks, as well as a man- 
ager and trainer. 

Methods of training and stable routine vary, but precision is the 
keynote of all stables. Colonel E. R. Bradley, of Idle Hour Farm, 
has a record sheet posted on the door of each stall where twice daily 
the horse's temperature, the amount of food he has eaten, and other 
facts of his behavior are recorded. The record is discussed with the 
veterinarian each night. 

During the spring about 70 per cent of the brood mares on a farm 
will foal. Each receives the care of a maternity ward patient, for 
nothing must go wrong with the Thoroughbred baby. He spends his 
first summer in carefree fashion near his mother, and very soon his 
slender legs have grown sure and he loves to run. His feet are 
trimmed and watched for the slightest injury. He has been weaned 
at about 5 to 6 months, and is now becoming accustomed to a diet con- 
sisting mainly of crushed oats, with corn, bran, salt, and flaxseed in 
judicious quantities. Doses of cod-liver oil give him resistance to colds 
and help to build up his strength. 

His first lessons begin early; he is broken to the halter when a few 
weeks old; as a yearling, about July, he learns the feel of bit, bridle, 


and halter shank. Slowly he becomes accustomed to the tack he 
must carry as a race horse. When he can be led around the stall thus 
equipped, he is ready for the paddock, where he learns to obey the 
commands of his rider. 

New Year's Day is always his first birthday, though he may be 
actually only seven or eight months old. He may make his exciting 
debut any time after his second birthday. Since he is born to race, 
he may instinctively know the procedure. At first the boy lets him 
go along easily and observes his reactions to the track. By this time 
it is known whether the colt is calm or nervous, high-spirited or digni- 
fied, stubborn or tractable. 

On a cool autumn day the yearling goes to work. For a few weeks 
he walks, trots, and canters up to as much as three and a half miles a 
day. He gets a few speed trials, generally at one-quarter mile. After 
his trials, he is let down until February 1, unless he is going to winter 

If the Thoroughbred comes from a long line of sprinters, he will 
probably never be nominated for the Derby, but he has plenty of op- 
portunities at distances shorter than that famous mile-and-a-quarter. 
By his second winter, perhaps the most important molding period, he 
has usually given some indication of his racing possibilities. Some- 
times he is three before all these things are determined. His speed, 
action, and conformation (the extent to which he approaches the level 
of excellence for his breed) do not always explain his performance; 
authorities agree that there are traits bequeathed him in the con- 
glomerate blood of his forebears. Awkward little colts are often pur- 
chased on their pedigrees and on the expectation of development. The 
training period usually places the Thoroughbred in the company he 
shall keep; only a few are stars, but almost all take their places some- 
where between Belmont and the "leaky-roof" circuits. More and 
more Thoroughbreds are seen in polo teams; some are sold for saddle 
horses or hunters. Before being placed at stud, regardless of his bril- 
liant ancestry, a stallion has usually established his reputation on the 
race track, for his own capabilities should be proved to avoid per- 
petuating any possible weakness in the line. 

Some weeks before the seasonal sales, the breeder selects the most 
attractive colts and fillies for a regime of diet and grooming that will 
enable them to appear to the best advantage. Picking a great race 
horse out of a string of yearlings is a gamble. Samuel Riddle paid 


$5,000 for Man o' War because the youngster "had a look"; today 
he stands at stud for that amount. 

The new owner is usually given the privilege of naming the colt 
which must be done before March 1 of his two-year-old year. This 
is no simple matter. There can be no duplicates within a 15-year 
period, and with approximately 5,000 foals registered annually in the 
American Stud Book, ingenuity is taxed strenuously. Any number 
of names may be submitted to the Jockey Club; the owner is notified 
of the one allowed. Colts may be given names inspired by their an- 
cestry, or associated with speed, courage, stamina, supremacy, luck, 
heroism, or plain whimsy. When Colonel Bradley bought the colt 
Bad News, he inquired why that name was attached to the animal. 
Said the owner, "I've always heard that bad news travels fast." Brad- 
ley had such good luck with his first two horses, Bad News and Bri- 
gade, that he gave all the others "B" names. In the colorful history 
of the Kentucky Derby he is the only owner who has taken four 
Derby firsts. Many Kentuckians will bet on the Bradley entries as 
a matter of course. Once a Negro admirer of the Colonel declared he 
would name his expected baby for the Derby winner. After two 
Bradley horses came down the track to take top honors, twin off- 
spring in Louisville were promptly named Bubbling Over and Baggen- 
baggage Jones. 

The language of the horse barns is simple. The size of a horse is 
measured in "hands"; a "hand" is four inches. An average horse of 
the light breed stands between 15 and 16 hands, as measured at the 
wither. A "foal" is a suckling colt or filly. "Filly" applies to a 
female four-year-old or less; "colt" applies to a male of the same 
years. A "maiden" is a race horse that has never placed first in a race. 
The term "stud" applies to the entire plant of a horse-breeding farm 
land, buildings, and livestock. "Imp." before a horse's name means 
that it is not American-born, but imported. Racing time is written 
"1:34 2/5," and is read "one minute, thirty-four and two-fifths sec- 
onds." Twenty years is considered a ripe old age, but many exceed 
that term by years, and a few have been known to live into their 

Jargon of the track is extensive and baffling. A "high school horse" 
wins when the odds are high ; he is suspected of being able to read the 
board. If a horse is "pitched up," he is running in better company 
than usual. A jockey who "hand-rides" makes a rousing finish with- 
out resorting to whip or spurs. A "grafter" is a pet kept in a racing 


stable. A Kentucky horseman is called a "boot"; a "chalk eater" plays 
favorites; a "throat-latcher" consistently finishes second and seldom 
wins; a "tumble-bug" is a horse that likes to roll in his stall. 

Kentucky owners, like all American Thoroughbred breeders, are 
hoping for a repeal of the so-called Jersey Act, a rule set up in Eng- 
land in 1913, which declared some American Thoroughbreds "half- 
bred." Horses whose lineage cannot be traced in every line to horses 
already in the British Stud Book fall into this category. Since the 
blood of the illustrious Lexington (foaled in America) carries through 
a great many American Thoroughbreds, it automatically outlaws the 
strain. The rule was made to hamper our export trade with England 
at a time when racing reached a low ebb in the United States and own- 
ers were shipping their Thoroughbreds abroad. It has been suggested 
that a committee of experts select certain superior American horses 
and register them in the British Stud Book to redeem this country's 
Thoroughbreds from unfair discrimination. 

Producing a Derby winner is the dream of every thoroughbred owner 
and trainer in Kentucky. When Colonel Bradley came to Kentucky 
to raise horses, he was told that it would take 15 years to breed a 
Derby winner; it took him just that long. The procedure starts sev- 
eral years before the Derby "in the imagination of some sportsman 
when he decides to match his knowledge of breeding and bloodlines 
against that of other horsemen." Joseph E. Widener knows the haz- 
ards that obstruct entrance into that exclusive society. In 1927 his 
colt, Osmand, was thought unbeatable, but he lost to Whiskery by a 
head. In 1935 one of his favorites, Chance Sun, broke down in train- 
ing. In 1934 Peace Chance set a mile record before the Derby, but 
finished far behind Cavalcade. In 1936 Brevity, widely accepted as 
the favorite, lost to Bold Venture, a 20-1 shot. 

The Derby is about the most popular sporting event in America. 
Since Matt Winn took over the management of Churchill Downs in 
1902, the Derby has become a national fiesta with an economic im- 
portance that can hardly be estimated. In the dark spring of 1908 
when Stonestreet and Sir Cleges seemed likely to languish in their 
stalls because of a ban against illegal betting, Colonel Winn dug down 
into the archives of Kentucky legislation and produced an old law 
permitting pari-mutuel betting. The day was won; the system became 
popular not only in Kentucky but also throughout the Nation. Winn 
encouraged bookmakers to open a winter book, which gave the Derby 
nationwide publicity. Land used for pasture rose in price the value 


per acre is three times that of the best Burley tobacco land the 
value of horses increased, and interest in breeding ran high. Winn's 
dream of attracting brilliant three-year-olds from all parts of the 
United States came true. Although there are older and larger stakes 
than the Derby, none attracts a more cosmopolitan crowd. It is the 
dramatic climax to the Kentucky legend, or, in the words of a well- 
known sports writer, " 'My Old Kentucky Home' acted out before 
your eyes." 

All roads lead to Louisville where 70,000 people spend more than 
a million dollars. Sleeping quarters cost all the way from one dollar 
for a room to a thousand dollars for a large house over the weekend. 
Justice relents, and rash and noisy revelers are smilingly indulged. 
All the juleps served in Churchill Downs Club bar on Derby Day 
would make a long, long drink. Ambassadors, Governors, and screen 
stars enter the stands with collegians and stenographers from border- 
ing States, and all suddenly wish they had been born in Kentucky. 
Occasionally julep-husky baritones of city "big shots" can be heard 
when the crowd stands to sing "the sun shines bright ..." A million 
radios throughout the country are tuned to give the richest two-minute 
suspense of the year. A blanket of roses awaits another champion. 


IN MAY 1785 the second convention to discuss "separation from 
Virginia and the formation of a new state," in session at Danville, 
passed a resolution to establish a printing press in the western ter- 
ritory for the purpose of "giving publicity to the proceedings of the 

A committee was appointed to negotiate with a printer and start a 
paper. But for some reason the West had not appealed to printers, 
and none could be found among the settlers in the territory. Finally 
a young surveyor and soldier of the Revolution, John Bradford of 
Fauquier County, Virginia without any previous experience as a 
printer or editor, but a man of unusual common sense approached 
the committee with the proposition that he would undertake the estab- 
lishment of a newspaper if the convention would assure him of public 
patronage when the new State came into existence. His terms were 
met and the Kentucky Gazette was launched. 

The citizens of Lexington were more generous in their support of 
the new movement than the citizens of Danville, and when the town 
council of Lexington granted Bradford lot number 43, free of cost as 
long as the press continued, Lexington became the birthplace of the 
first newspaper published in Kentucky. 

An antiquated press, type, ink balls, and ink were secured in Phila- 
delphia in the summer of 1787. This equipment was hauled over the 
mountains to Pittsburgh, loaded on a flatboat and transported to 
Maysville, then taken by pack horse to Lexington. Some of the type 
was set by Bradford's brother, Fielding Bradford, as they drifted down 
the river, but most of it was reduced to "pi" on the journey from 
Maysville to Lexington. Nevertheless, on August 11, 1787, Bradford 
issued the first edition with an editorial apology. It was a small sheet 
about 8 x 10^2 inches, folded once, making a four-page paper of news 
collected by the Bradfords on their journey to and from Philadelphia. 
No copies of this first issue of about 180 papers are in existence. Local 
news was given little consideration in the early editions, but partisan 



editorials attacking political opponents of the idea of statehood filled 
its columns. About the only news preserved for posterity in the 
existing issues of the Gazette is what may be gleaned from paid ad- 
vertisements and notices. 

Bradford became one of Lexington's leading citizens. He served 
several terms in the town council, was for many years a trustee of 
Transylvania University, and at the time of his death was high sheriff 
of Fayette County. He not only published the Gazette but issued 
many books and pamphlets. In 1788 he published the first Kentucky 
Almanac, and later the first acts of the legislature and Bradford's Laws. 

The second newspaper to appear was the Kentucky Herald, published 
in 1793, also at Lexington, by James H. Stewart. It had a short life, 
but was revived in 1797 at Paris and became the first newspaper of 
Bourbon County. The Kentucky Mirror, published at Washington 
under the editorship of William Hunter, appeared in the same year. 
Hunter was elected State printer in 1798 and moved the Mirror to 
Frankfort, where it was published by the Kentucky Journal, begun 
in 1795 by Benjamin J. Bradford. Hunter and Bradford established 
the Palladium in 1798, and the Mirror was discontinued in 1799. Dur- 
ing the next thirty-five years dozens of newspapers sprang up in vil- 
lages and towns throughout the State. Many of them lived for only 
a short time and were of no consequence. The only factual evidence 
that some of these papers actually existed is found in the proceedings 
of the early legislatures, which authorized the publication of State ad- 
vertisements in them. 

The first newspaper that can be considered a success was the Ad- 
vertiser, established in Louisville in 1818 and edited by Shadrach 
Penn. In 1826 it became the first daily paper in the West. Politically 
it was Democratic and supported Andrew Jackson for the Presidency 
in 1828. Penn was an able and virile editor, feared by his enemies. 
But in 1830 he encountered his equal in George D. Prentice, a young 
New Englander, who had been sent to Kentucky by the Whigs to 
write a biography of Henry Clay for campaign purposes. Prentice 
attracted the attention of the Kentucky Whigs and was persuaded to 
accept the editorship of the newly established Whig organ, the Louis- 
ville Journal. An editorial battle began at once between the Demo- 
crats, represented by Penn in the Advertiser, and the Whigs, repre- 
sented by Prentice in the Journal. Penn went down in defeat in 1841, 
discontinued the Advertiser, and moved to St. Louis. 

The Journal from its beginning in November 1830 enjoyed a large 


circulation, and for more than forty years Prentice edited it and fought 
consistently and courageously for the Whig Party. He was indifferent 
to the institution of slavery, but bitterly opposed k when war threat- 
ened, since he was a strong advocate of the Union. Throughout the 
War between the States, Prentice stood steadfastly by the Union. In 
1868 he sold his interest in the Journal and was succeeded by Henry 
W. Watterson. 

The Louisville Courier, a successful newspaper more interested in 
news than editorials, was established in 1844 by Walter N. Haldeman. 
Although ordinarily without strong editorial convictions, it took sides 
against the North in the War between the States, and was suppressed 
by Union forces in 1861. For four years it was published in different 
places and under many names; in 1865 it was brought back to Louis- 
ville by the original owner and re-established. 

A third important Louisville paper, the Louisville Democrat, spon- 
sored by the Democratic leader of his time, James Guthrie, was also 
established in 1844. It was first edited by Phineas Kent, later by 
John H. Harney, and existed until 1868. In that year the Journal, 
Courier, and Democrat were merged into one paper, the Courier- 
Journal, under the able editorship of Henry Watterson. Under his 
editorial leadership the Courier- Journal became the outstanding news- 
paper of the State and one of the foremost of the South. 

Henry Watterson (1840-1921) was born in Washington, D.C., the 
son of a Tennessee Congressman. He began his journalistic career on 
Harper's Weekly, the New York Times, and Horace Greeley's New 
York Tribune. When the storm of the War between the States began 
to gather, Watterson went back to Tennessee, his father's native State, 
to become associate editor of the Nashville Banner. During the war 
he served as a staff officer and as chief of scouts in the Confederate 
Army. He then spent a year in Europe, and returned to revive the 
Banner. His success in this undertaking attracted the attention of 
Prentice of the Louisville Journal; although they had supported op- 
posite sides in the War between the States, Prentice chose the young 
man as his successor. Watterson soon became the dean of southern 
journalism, as Prentice had been before him. 

Affectionately known as "Marse Henry," Watterson was active in 
Democratic party affairs, a pleasing and forceful public speaker, and 
progressive in thought and action. His literary style was polished and 
forceful, and his keen, sometimes caustic, pen roved from heated 
political diatribes to scholarly essays. One of his favorite topics was 


the authorship of Shakespeare's works, which he attempted to prove 
were written by Christopher Marlowe. Although opposed to the saloon, 
he did not think prohibition enforceable and considered it an infringe- 
ment of the liberties of the American people. He favored a restriction 
rather than an extension of suffrage, believing that there already 
existed an excess of uninformed voters. Watterson won the Pulitzer 
Prize in 1917 for editorials celebrating the entrance of the United 
States into the World War. Although a staunch, at times militant, 
Democrat, Watterson opposed the League of Nations. On March 5, 
1919, he wrote, "Government is a hard and fast and dry reality. At 
best statesmanship can only half do the things it would. Its aims 
are most assured when tending a little leeward; its footing safest on 
its native heath. We have plenty to do on our own continent without 
seeking to right things on other continents." 

In 1884 Walter N. Haldeman established the Louisville Times, with 
Emmet Garvin Logan and E. Polk Johnson as editors. Logan's edi- 
torials were short and pithy, usually without headlines, and although 
not finished and well organized like the editorials of Watterson, they 
appealed to a large constituency. The Times succeeded, and it is 
now the only afternoon paper published in Louisville. 

Judge Robert W. Bingham purchased the Courier- Journal and the 
Times in 1918. Watterson retired from the editorship of the Courier- 
Journal and was succeeded by Harrison Robertson. Arthur Krock, 
subsequently (1923) compiler of Watterson 's Editorials and in 1935 
and 1938 a Pulitzer award winner, became the editor of the Times and 
was later succeeded by Tom Wallace. 

The Courier- Journal and the Times have aggressively supported the 
Democratic Party. In 1935 Judge Bingham was made Ambassador to 
the Court of St. James's, where he served until his death. 

In Lexington the first successful newspaper was the Kentucky Re- 
porter, established in 1807 by William Worsley and Samuel Overton. 
As its name implied, it stressed local news and was less concerned about 
foreign affairs than its predecessor, the Gazette. In 1832 the Reporter 
merged with the Lexington Observer and continued the policy of em- 
phasizing local news. In politics it was Whig and supported Henry 
Clay. After the War between the States it became a staunch Demo- 
cratic organ, edited by W. C. P. Breckinridge. Another Democratic 
paper emerged during the Reconstruction period, the Lexington Press, 
that city's first daily, established by Colonel Hart Foster and Major 
Henry T. Duncan in 1870. It was later consolidated with the Lex- 


ington Transcript and was called the Lexington Herald, with Desha 
Breckinridge, son of W. C. P. Breckinridge, as editor from 1897 to 
1935. The Herald became an outstanding and aggressive mouthpiece 
of the Democratic Party in the Bluegrass. 

The Lexington Leader was founded in 1888 as a Republican daily by 
Samuel J. Roberts of Canton, Ohio. It was one of the pioneers in the 
field of specialized news and departments for family reading. In 1937 
its owner purchased the Herald and published both papers from the 
same press without disturbing the political policy or integrity of either. 

Many newspapers in Kentucky such as the Owensboro Messenger, 
established by Urey Woodson in 1881, and the Frankfort Daily and 
Weekly Commonwealth, published by Albert Gallatin Hodges have 
had brilliant careers editorially. In most instances the newspaper was 
the editor, and the editor was the newspaper. A Kentuckian, for 
example, can hardly think of the Courier- Journal without thinking of 
Henry Watterson. These editors were born writers without formal 
training in schools or colleges of journalism. They fought for ideas and 
issues with their pens, and seldom yielded any ground. They had no 
press associations where they exchanged views and contributed to each 
other's welfare. 

This situation was characteristic of the Kentucky press until very 
recent years. The newspaper business, however, has become more and 
more complex and demands specialized training. In response to this 
demand, the University of Kentucky has developed its school of jour- 
nalism and sponsors the well-organized Kentucky Press Association. 
In addition to its annual meetings, sectional gatherings, where editors 
and business managers discuss their mutual problems, are held in 
various parts of the State from time to time. 


Anxious listeners in both America and Europe, hearing over the air 
waves the incessant plea "Send a boat" during the 1937 flood disaster, 
realized that radio, in that tragic hour, was an integral part of Ken- 
tucky life. 

On Sunday, January 24, 1937, Louisville lay submerged, with only 


a skeleton telephone service, and in near darkness. The order had 
been issued that what remained of electric power must be rationed. 
Hospitals and broadcasting stations awaited from moment to moment 
the interruption of all power. Station WHAS must be kept on the air 
until a hook-up with WSM could be completed, and Nashville was 
ready to take up broadcasting with the least possible delay. Marooned 
people heard that an equipment truck from Nashville had gone astray, 
that power was failing rapidly; they listened to offers of aid from all 
over the country; at last came word that Nashville was standing by. 
A few moments before 1 A.M., in the middle of a sentence, the tired 
voice of Louisville's announcer halted. Nashville took up the call 
"Send a boat." 

During the emergency period Station WHAS never left the air, put- 
ting on approximately 115,000 broadcasts in 18 7^ hours of uninter- 
rupted service. It served as nerve center of the volunteer network that 
carried official flood news. All relief work was directed through WHAS. 
The chain included WAVE of Louisville, WCKY at Covington, WPAD 
at Paducah, WLAP at Lexington, WOMI at Owensboro, and WCMI 
at Ashland, in addition to WSM at Nashville, Tennessee, and WFBM 
at Indianapolis, Indiana. Bulletins sent out calls for doctors, medical 
aid, food, and resources. 

On January 25 a three-way telephone conversation among WHAS, 
Columbia Broadcasting System, and National Broadcasting Company, 
resulted in the formation of a network covering the United States and 
Canada. The British Broadcasting System and, later, other foreign 
networks were included. This tied in approximately 5,000 short-wave 
stations throughout the world, the largest network ever established in 
the history of radio. All directions emanated from Station WHAS. 
Volunteer sound equipment units went as near the flooded areas as pos- 
sible to amplify directions to rescue workers through loud speakers. 
The resultant saving in life and property cannot be estimated. 

The flood reached its crest on January 27. The waters receded; 
reconstruction work commenced; life resumed its normal course. On 
the second Saturday of May sports commentators at Churchill Downs 
were broadcasting the Kentucky Derby. 

Radio experimentation in Kentucky began in the late nineteenth cen- 
tury. About 1892, in the little town of Murray, a wireless telephone 
was successfully demonstrated before an audience of 1,000 persons. 
The crude radio consisted of a rough box, some telephone equipment, 


rods, and a coil of wire, and was the invention of a farmer, Nathan 
B. Stubblefield. 

In 1902 Stubblefield went by invitation to Washington, where he 
broadcast for a group of prominent scientists from the steam launch 
"Bartholdi." The same year he gave a demonstration in Philadelphia 
from Belmont mansion and from Fairmont Park, projecting his voice 
more than a mile by wireless. 

The St. Louis Post Dispatch, in a full-page article on January 12, 
1902, said: "However undeveloped his system may be, Nathan B. Stub- 
blefield, the farmer inventor of Kentucky, has accurately discovered 
the principle of telephoning without wires." 

Through an attorney, Rainey Wells, he secured patents in the United 
States, Canada, England, France, Spain, and Belgium. To raise capital 
for marketing his invention he had sold stock, in 1900, to a small group 
of friends. The end of Stubblefield's business career is shrouded in 
mystery. He advised his friends to withdraw such funds as they had 
invested, hinting darkly of the rascality of certain eastern associates. 
But to none of them did he give concrete information. An old trunk, 
in which he kept the invention and the documents concerning it, was 
not with him when he subsequently returned from the East, broken and 
embittered, to Murray. Whether it was a case of open theft, or 
whether he had been the dupe of unscrupulous manipulators, was never 
known. He continued his experiments with wireless in a two-room 
shack of his own construction. Cornshucks provided protection against 
rain and cold. Offers of neighborly aid were refused, an estranged 
family was spurned. On March 28, 1928, the body of Stubblefield was 
found in his shack; he had apparently been dead about forty-eight 

The State's present radio stations have all developed since 1922, 
when an amateur station was licensed as WLAP (now in Lexington), 
and WHAS, now part of the Columbia System, went on the air in 
Louisville. The National Broadcasting System is represented by 
WAVE, in Louisville. Station WCKY is in Covington, WPAD in 
Paducah, WOMI in Owensboro, and WCMI in Ashland. WGRC, 
the George Rogers Clark Station, has studios in Louisville, as well as 
in New Albany and Jeffersonville, Indiana. 

Kentucky, because of its topography, offers unusual opportunities for 
radio experimentation. Although it was known by 1923 that the human 
voice, without the aid of wires, could encircle the earth, there remained 
doubt as to whether radio could penetrate the depths of the earth as 


well. Radio history was made on July 21, 1923, when a successful 
broadcast was sent out from Mammoth Cave at a depth of 378 feet. 
That morning a junior operator, with assistant and guide, entered the 
cave. The personnel of Station WHAS in Louisville was standing 
ready to send vocal signals at given hours. The first attempts were 
complete failures. The crust of century-old dust made it impracticable 
to drive the ground spike. Walls and ceilings dripping with moisture 
became natural conductors with a tendency to absorb the signals be- 
fore they reached the aerial. At length a spot was found where walls 
were dry and the path slightly moist. By mid-afternoon WHAS came 
in with surprising volume and complete absence of static. 

The mountains and remote country sections also provide territory 
for radio development. One of the most interesting experiments is that 
of the Mountain Listening Centers. Broadcasts arranged by the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky and made possible by private contributors, with 
the co-operation of the National Youth Administration, supplement 
other forms of educational work among the Kentucky mountaineers. 

On October 21, 1934, a series of Sunday morning broadcasts from 
the Jefferson County Jail was inaugurated by the Volunteers of 
America, with Major W. O. Ulrey in charge, and Lillian B. Ulrey as 
soloist. A tiny organ was used at first, but has since been replaced by 
a larger electric organ. These broadcasts are heard in jails and penal 
institutions in 101 Kentucky counties and in seven State prisons, in- 
cluding those in Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, and Michigan. Thousands 
of prisoners, their friends, and relatives have written to the broad- 
casters who perform this service. 

Interest in television was evident in Kentucky as early as 1929, when 
Station WHAS began experimentation, though it had at that time a 
power of only a fifth of its present 50,000 watts. 


The Theater 

E FIRST record of public amusement in Kentucky, was an ad- 
L vertisement of May 31, 1797, in the Kentucky Gazette, a Lexing- 
ton paper. It announced that "a room for exhibition purposes" had 
been erected adjoining Coleman's Tavern for "an exhibition of tum- 
bling, balancing on slack wire, slack rope walking and dancing. Admis- 
sion to pit, 2 shillings, to gallery, 2 shillings, 2 pence. Doors open at 
sunset, performance beginning at dark." 

Not until January 1, 1802, however, did theater items begin to ap- 
pear in the Gazette, nor was the location of the building, corner of 
Spring and Vine Streets, given until June 25, 1811. The owner was 
Luke Usher, who was probably the first theatrical manager in central 
Kentucky; he also controlled houses at Frankfort and Louisville and 
sent his actors from one town to the other, as business justified. Noble 
Luke Usher, nephew of the theater owner and a Shakespearean actor 
of some standing, joined the company in 1812 with his wife, Harriet 
L'Estrange, an actress of unusual attainments and charm. Both were 
from the south of Ireland and had been members of a theatrical com- 
pany which included the parents of Edgar Allan Poe. It may be that 
Poe's story, "Fall of the House of Usher," was based on some tradition 
of this family. 

The theater of Kentucky was of little consequence until the coming 
of the Drake family and their company. The story opens in Albany, 
New York. In 1814 Noble Luke Usher arrived at the Albany Theater 
to recruit actors for his houses in Kentucky, then regarded as "the 
Far West." The adventure appealed to Samuel Drake, stage manager ; 
he agreed to get a company together and start for Kentucky the fol- 
lowing spring. But the task was difficult, for experienced actors hesi- 
tated to make the hazardous journey into "the unknown." However, 
members of Drake's own family, all actors, and young N. M. Ludlow, 
who had recently joined the company to play small parts, were eager 
for the adventure. 



The party including Samuel Drake; his sons, Samuel, Jr., Alex- 
ander, and James; his daughters, Martha and Julia; and Frances Ann 
Denny, N. M. Ludlow, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, and Joe Tracy, a man 
of all work set out in wagons from Canandaigua, New York, late in 
July 1815. They traveled across New York State, thence by boat to 
Pittsburgh where they played for some time. In November they 
started on their 400-mile journey in a flat-bottomed boat, known in 
that day as an "ark" or a "Kentucky broadhorn." Floating down the 
Ohio River to Limestone (Maysville), Kentucky, they made the re- 
mainder of the trip in wagons to Frankfort. Here, in December 1815, 
Kentucky's first real theatrical season opened with The Mountaineer 
by Coleman, followed by a farce, The Poor Soldier. The season was 
a good one and lasted until March. The players then proceeded by 
private conveyance to Louisville, a distance of 50 miles, making the 
trip in two days. 

"On arriving in Louisville," wrote Samuel Drake, "we found the peo- 
ple on the tiptoe of expectation, and anxious for the opening of the 
season; but the theater was not in a position to be occupied; it was 
dark, dingy and dirty. The scenery was badly painted, the auditorium 
was done in the most dismal colors, and the house badly provided with 
means for lighting. In about two weeks the theater had been turned 
into passable condition for the opening, and we commenced our season 
with Coleman's comedy, The Heir at Law, and the comic opera, Sprig 
of Laurel. The performance went off with great applause, and the 
people appeared delighted with the company. This season of ours in 
Louisville, I understand, was the first that had been made by any the- 
atrical company. It lasted ten or eleven weeks and was undoubtedly 
profitable to the management, for the house was well filled every 
night. The season closed with benefits for the company, all of them 
being well attended, and this in a town of less than 3,000 inhabitants. 
But these people were gay, prosperous and fond of theatrical enter- 

Drake's company met with similar success in Lexington, where they 
opened with Speed the Plough. The old theater building, 80 feet long 
by 30 feet wide, had a lower floor with pit and boxes in the London 
style ; the seats, built up the side of Spring Street hill and rising gradu- 
ally from the stage, were covered with canvas and without backs. The 
interior was plain, the scenery limited and badly painted, judged by 
modern standards. The Kentucky Gazette in 1812 announced that 


"hereafter the smoking of segars" in the theater would be prohibited; 
but a coffee-room and bar "near the stage," offered consolation. The 
most popular actors were those who could "hold their liquor like gen- 

John Palmer, in Travels in the United States in 1817, mentions at- 
tending a performance at Limestone (Maysville), given by a company 
of strolling players from England. The plays, Honeymoon and 'Tis All 
a Farce, were presented in a frame building "appropriate for theatrical 
purposes. . . . The scenery and performance were miserable," he re- 
ported, "but the buffoonery of the farce and the orchestra of Negroes, 
who performed two tunes with two fiddles and two triangles, kept the 
audience in good humor; segar smoking during the performance was 
practiced by most men." 

Dr. H. McMurtrie, in his Sketches of Louisville, described the Louis- 
ville theater of 1819 as a a handsome brick building of three stories." 
Drake's playhouse, called the old City Theater, "was a very creditable 
one and had some features not excelled by its successors," wrote 
Colonel John T. Gray. "It had a row of private boxes occupying the 
whole front of what is now the dress circle, as in the French Opera 
House in New Orleans. They were closed in the rear, having doors for 
entrances, and open at the front. The second tier was open and cor- 
responded to the latter day dress circle, while the third was low priced 
as now. The pit was not the choice place, as now, but was occupied 
by men, veteran theater-goers and critics. The theater was lighted 
with a grand chandelier swung from the dome, and with side lights, all 
of sperm candles, and there was never a dripping one." 

Samuel Drake successfully managed theaters in Kentucky until 1830. 
(He then purchased a farm in Oldham County, where he died October 
16, 1854, at the age of eighty-six.) His company remained together 
until about 1835 after which some returned East, while others joined 
N. M. Ludlow, author of Dramatic Life as I Found It, and head of a 
company which held a prominent place in the theatrical world of the 
Midwest until the 1850's. Ludlow's "Kentucky Comedians" played 
in Louisville, Lexington, Frankfort, Harrodsburg, Danville, Cincinnati 
and adjoining towns. They also ventured as far afield as Nashville, 
Natchez, St. Louis, Mobile and New Orleans. 

The customary program of this period consisted of a three- to five- 
act drama, followed by a two-act farce or comedy; sometimes comic 
dialogue or musical solos were added for good measure. Most in de- 


mand, judging by advertising and requests for return performances, 
were: The Soldier's Daughter, The Rivals, The Wheel of Fortune, 
Animal Magnetism, or the Doctor Outwitted, Matrimony, or the 
Happy Imprisonment, Love a la Mode, or Humors of the Turf, and 
Raising the Wind, or How to Live Cheap. Romantic dramas such as 
Blue Beard, or Female Curiosity, Abeallino, or the Venetian Outlaw, 
Rudolph, or Robbers of Calabria, were enthusiastically received time 
and again. The tragedies most frequently advertised were The Re- 
venge, The Roman Father, Barbarossa, or Tyrant of Algiers, and 
Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Richard III. 

Sol Smith, author of Theatrical Management in the South and West, 
and member of a traveling company which played in the villages 
throughout central Kentucky as early as 1829, calls attention to 
Drake's singular propensity for adding second titles to plays. "To the 
Honeymoon he would add, or The Painter and His Three Daughters. 
He always announced the Hunter of the Alps with this addition: Or 
The Runaway Horse that Flung its Rider in the Forest of Savoy." 

Benefits for the actors were given at the end of the season to pro- 
vide funds for idle months ahead. On these nights, friends bought 
large blocks of tickets, and added to the success of the performance 
by applause. On February 6, 1850, Julia Dean, best remembered as 
Lucretia Borgia, took a benefit at the old City Theater in The Wreck- 
er's Daughter, and Faint Heart Never Won Fair Lady. The crowd 
was tremendous; many were turned away and the occasion made the- 
atrical history, setting a mark often referred to later. The Daily 
Journal went into raptures. "She is not a mere machine," said the 
critic, "moving first one arm and then another, uttering mechanical 
things, but a creature of fiery genius and passion, pouring forth her 
emotions from the depths of an unburdened heart." When Mrs. Kent 
took her benefit on April 11 of the same year in Katherine and Pe- 
truchio, an arrangement of Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, bou- 
quets and baskets of flowers were thrown at her feet, with money 
hidden among the flowers. 

The City Theater was destroyed by fire in May 1843, and Louisville 
remained without a theater until February 9, 1846, when the new 
Louisville Theater, built on the old site, opened. Douglas Jerrold's 
Time Works Wonders was presented, with Julia Dean, granddaughter 
of old Samuel Drake, playing Florentine; The Widow's Victim and 
The Stagestruck Chambermaid were played as after pieces. Until it 
was abandoned in 1873 the Louisville Theater housed the favorite ac- 


tors and actresses of their day. Junius Brutus Booth appeared there 
in December 1848 in a number of his characterizations, his Richard III 
being spoken of as "full of genius, truth and nature." The great 
Macready played a week's engagement in April 1848 and was said to 
have drawn the largest audience ever seen in the theater. The 1860 
season closed with Charlotte Cushman's performance in The Stranger. 
Laura Keene, the resourceful actress-manager, played here with her 
company for three weeks in 1863, presenting -such plays as She Stoops 
to Conquer, School for Scandal, and Our American Cousin, in which 
the elder Sothern later rose to glory. James E. Murdock, James K. 
Hackett, John McCulloch, Mr. and Mrs. James Wallack, Frank Mayo, 
and Clara Morris appeared year after year. In 1872, when the pres- 
tige of the old house was already waning, Cooper and Pyne, Harrison, 
and the New Orleans English Opera Company presented a series of 
operas, and Strakoscn's company with Christina Nilsson filled a short 

The Louisville Theater was abandoned in 1873 when Barney Ma- 
cauley, who had come to Louisville from Memphis, Tennessee, about 
the time of the War between the States, offered his first play in the 
new $200,000 theater which bore his name. An old "dodger" de- 
scribed the building as "constructed and finished in the highest style 
of modern art ... and one of the most substantial and elegant the- 
aters in the world." The opening performance on October 13, 1873, 
given before a fashionable crowd in the high hats and pompadours of 
the period, was the play Extremes, with Marie Bates starred as Lady 
Cosby. This marked the beginning of a series of notable productions 
that won for Macauley a national reputation. 

Colonel John T. Macauley succeeded his brother Barney as manager 
in 1879 and retained the management until his death in 1916. Here 
on the night of November 27, 1875, Mary Anderson, Louisville's best 
beloved actress, made her first appearance as Juliet. Sarah Bernhardt 
came to Macauley 's in 1880 during her first American tour. It was at 
Macauley's on December 7, 1883, that Helena Modjeska, talented Po- 
lish actress, appeared in Ibsen's A Doll's House, the first presentation 
of Ibsen in America. Given under the title of Thora, the name of the 
heroine, now known as Nora, the Ibsen ending was replaced by a 
"happy" one. The Courier- Journal critic reported a brilliant audience. 
The production, he observed, "was a novelty, curiosity to see Modjeska 
in a new role as well as admiration for the great actress" brought it 
together. He thought the tragic ending more consistent and predicted 


the play, which "lived through Modjeska," would never "be very 
popular." Joseph Jefferson, Edwin Booth, Lawrence Barrett, Fanny 
Davenport, Mrs. Fiske, Maggie Mitchell, Lotta, Ada Rehan, and such 
foreign celebrities as Bernhardt, Salvini and Langtry, appeared time 
after time at Macauley's until Louisville audiences knew them well 
and loved them all. The final chapter was written at the closing per- 
formance of the Malcolm Fassett stock season on August 25, 1925. 
Macauley's was then torn down to make way for the Starks office build- 
ing; with its passing, Louisville lost one of its most colorful and 
glamorous historical landmarks. 

Other theaters in Louisville came and went, but none ever attained 
the prestige of Macauley's. In the nineties Colonel Norton built a 
huge, sprawling auditorium on Fifth Street, where prize fights and 
Italian opera were housed indiscriminately. Mozart Hall, on Fourth 
Street near Liberty, renamed Woods in 1863, was an early amateur 
enterprise, one of the first theaters to inaugurate matinees. Later this 
theater became the Academy of Music, flourished briefly as the Theatre 
Comique, and then passed out of existence. Among the other houses 
were the Hopkins, the Masonic Temple, the Buckingham (now the 
Savoy) and the Gayety a vaudeville house. The Brown Theater on 
Broadway took the place of Macauley's for a brief while. 

The glamorous days of stock companies and road shows are over, 
and today Louisville has no legitimate theater. The few noted actors 
who still tour the country such as Katharine Cornell, Helen Hayes 
and Walter Huston play at the Memorial Auditorium. 

The little theater movement, however, has had a phenomenal growth 
in Kentucky, dating from a performance by the University of Louis- 
ville Players in 1911. The initial production of this group was given 
in the old clinic of the medical school, with a stage measuring eight by 
twelve feet. The first regular season began in 1913. At the present 
time practically all the State colleges, the larger high schools, churches, 
and many independent organizations have active groups producing 
plays regularly. The Little Theater, of Louisville, the Guignol Thea- 
ter Company, of Lexington, which owes much of its success to Carol 
Sax, and a club at Bowling Green, all give productions of real merit. 
The yearly productions at the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes 
encourage dramatic activity in Kentucky's Negro schools. 

Boyd Martin, dramatic director of the University of Louisville for 
the last 25 years and dramatic critic of the Courier -Journal, is in 
great measure responsible for the activity of three groups of players in 


Louisville: the University of Louisville Players, The Players Club, and 
the Alumni Players. These clubs have been recently combined as the 
Little Theater Company of Louisville. Five plays^are presented each 
season at the Playhouse on Belknap Campus, University of Louisville. 
Dedicatory services for the Playhouse, a small Tudor Gothic building 
recently remodeled, were held November 12, 1925, the same year in 
which Macauley's Theater was razed. Here is housed the gallery of 
theatrical pictures formerly a feature of Macauley's lobby, a gift to the 
University from Macauley's heirs. The collection, begun when the old 
theater opened its doors, contains 3,000 pictures of famous actors and 
actresses, many of them autographed. The Guignol Theater in Lex- 
ington, under the direction of Frank Fowler, is sponsored by the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky and offers five or six plays during the school term 
and usually one during the summer. 

The newest and one of the most ambitious adventures in theatrical 
entertainment in the State is the open air theater in Iroquois Park, 
Louisville, built with the aid of the Works Progress Administration. 
Ground was broken on April 18, 1938, and the theater opened with a 
performance of Naughty Marietta. The seats are in the open and are 
placed on natural terraces with a garden wall across the back. The 
permanent structure consists of stage, dressing rooms, and offices. The 
Park Theatrical Association, a non-profit organization, accepts from the 
Park Board responsibility for providing attractions, underwriting the 
project against loss, and at the end of each season, turns over profits, 
if any, to the city for further improvement of the property. It is note- 
worthy that the initial season (1938) showed a profit of $900. The 
operas presented were: Naughty Marietta, Rose Marie, The Mikado, 
and Rio Rita. 

Painting and Sculpture 

The pioneers who penetrated the Appalachians could carry but 
little equipment; and when they settled on the land they were com- 
pelled to rely upon their manual skill for a home and its furnish- 
ings. During the early days handicrafts supplied almost all necessary 
articles. Furniture, utensils, brooms, rugs, quilts, coverings, cloth, 


baskets, were woven, spun or tooled by hand. The pioneer women 
picked, washed, carded, and spun wool and cotton, and colored them 
with dyes made from clays, roots, and bark. 

Although utility is the primary aim of the crafts, they stimulate by 
their very nature the development of the arts of decoration. The 
homespun fabrics were woven according to both new and traditional 
designs. The carving of chairs, stools, tables, benches, and bedsteads 
produced in time an indigenous style. Coverlets and quilts, objects of 
special regard among pioneer women, were ornamented with colored 
flowers and stitching which often reached a high level of creative 

The pioneer crafts declined with the advance of roads and machine- 
made goods, and by the end of the nineteenth century they had all 
but disappeared. A few "pockets" in the mountains and valleys of 
eastern Kentucky continued, however, to preserve the remnants of the 
old skills. Recently a broad movement, in which Berea College took 
the lead in 1893, has developed to revive and stimulate the local 
crafts. Schools and centers have been set up in many parts of the 
State to encourage their practice and to carry them forward in new 
directions. Besides furniture and textiles, ironwork, poppets (mountain 
dolls), dulcimers, toys, and whittled animals and figures are among the 
products of the "contemporary ancestors." 

The early history of the State was not, however, solely one of fron- 
tier hazards. Some of the pioneers who settled in the soft lands of 
central Kentucky soon built fine homes, lived in comfort, and even 
with a degree of luxury, entertained visitors from the East, and fos- 
tered whatever fine arts were accessible. Here the collection of silver- 
ware was popular, and knives, spoons, forks, pitchers, ladles, and 
mint julep cups were fashioned from coin metal. Asa Blanchard 
and Samuel Ayres are among the silversmiths whose names have sur- 
vived. A good deal of this early work is still to be found in Kentucky, 
including a teapot and pitcher made for Isaac Shelby, first Governor, 
and a service (dated 1819) for General Green Clay. 

By 1825 Lexington, then the cultural center of the State and proud 
to be known as the " Athens of the West," ranked with New Orleans 
as a center for portrait painters. John Neagle, who came from Phila- 
delphia in 1818, found himself in competition with a native Kentuckian 
already firmly established as one of the leading portrait painters of his 
day. This was Matthew H. Jouett (1787-1827), called "the best 
painter west of the Appalachians." 


Jouett had been a student of Gilbert Stuart for several months, but 
was largely self-taught. Showing a keen sense .of character, firm draw- 
ing and brush work, and a feeling for strong composition, his work set 
a standard for the Kentucky portraitists who followed. Though but 
fifteen years of his brief life were devoted to painting, he left hundreds 
of portraits, which today constitute a roll call of the notable figures of 
early-Republican Kentucky. The J. B. Speed Memorial Museum in 
Louisville includes in its collection ten Kentucky portraits by Jouett; 
Transylvania College in Lexington has his painting of Henry Clay; and 
the Kentucky State Historical Society has a number of his canvases, 
including a full-length portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette, painted 
as a memento of his visit to Kentucky in the spring of 1825. 

A contemporary of Jouett, William Edward West (1788-1857), son 
of a Lexington inventor and silversmith, studied under Sully in Phila- 
delphia, and later continued his education abroad, where he received 
attention for his portrait of Byron. West also made a sketch of Shelley, 
and was commissioned for portraits by many well-known figures of his 
day. In Paris he formed the acquaintance of Washington Irving and 
became his close friend, illustrating his The Pride of the Village and 
Annette Delabre. The career of West is a Kentucky example of the 
early tendency among American artists to seek education and a con- 
genial life in the cities of Europe. 

In sculpture Italy was the chief influence in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. Joel T. Hart (1810-1877), who was born in Win- 
chester, spent many years in Florence. His Triumph of Chastity is 
typical in style and theme of the sculpture of the period. He is per- 
haps most popularly known for his statue of Henry Clay at Richmond, 
Virginia, a copy of which stands in the rotunda of the Jefferson County 
Courthouse in Louisville, Kentucky. Hart was associated with Gideon 
Shryock (1802-1880) in the building of the Old Capitol at Frankfort. 

In contrast with these expatriate artists, John James Audubon (1779- 
1851) and Chester Harding (1792-1866) established wide reputations 
through their paintings of local subjects. Audubon lived at Henderson 
and at Louisville for several years, and gathered material on the Ohio 
River for his monumental Birds of America. The J. B. Speed Museum 
has five portraits by him, and there are numerous collections of Audu- 
bon 's prints in Kentucky, the largest of which is housed in the Museum 
in Audubon Memorial Park at Henderson. 

Chester Harding, who achieved a tremendous reputation during his 
lifetime, was born in Massachusetts, but spent much of his early life 


wandering in the newly settled territories. He arrived in Paris, Ken- 
tucky, about 1818 when portraits were much in demand. Later he 
went to Missouri and painted the picture of Daniel Boone, which hangs 
in the Filson Club in Louisville. 

Other Kentucky painters of this epoch were Joseph H. Bush (1794- 
1865); John Grimes (1799-1837), a pupil of Jouett; Oliver Frazer 
(1808-1864); and E. F. Goddard, who settled in Georgetown about 
1840. Edward Troye (1804-1874), a Swiss who arrived in America in 
1828, achieved much renown as a painter of horses. James Reid 
Lambdin (1807-1889), famous for his portraits of American Presi- 
dents, moved to Louisville in 1832. 

Frank Duveneck (1848-1919), outstanding American painter, sculp- 
tor, etcher, and teacher, was born in Covington. During a prolonged 
period of study at Munich, he absorbed the new brushwork technique 
of that school, and on his return to America became a leading influence 
of the latter half of the nineteenth century. In his later years he 
served as Dean of the Cincinnati Art School and made his home per- 
manently in Covington. In St. Mary's Cathedral in Covington are 
some large murals by Duveneck, Crucifixion, Christ at Emmaus, and 
others painted about 1910. 

Alfred L. Brennan (1853-1921), born in Louisville, was known for 
his illustrations. Charles Courtney Curran, winner of many prizes and 
medals both in America and abroad, was born in Hartford, Kentucky, 
in 1861. Charles Sneed Williams (b. 1882) is represented at the State 
Capitol, the Kentucky State Historical Society, and the Speed Memo- 
rial Museum. Enid Yandell (1870-1934), whose work in sculpture is 
well known, was a native of Louisville. Her Daniel Boone, a character 
study, first exhibited at the Chicago Fair in 1893, stands in Cherokee 
Park in Louisville. Near by is Hogan Fountain also designed and 
executed by her. 

Paul Sawyier (d. 1917) painted views along the Kentucky and Dix 
Rivers above Frankfort. His water colors and oils are subjective in- 
terpretations, rich in atmosphere and feeling. Dean Cornwell, who has 
achieved a reputation as an illustrator and mural painter, was born in 
Louisville in 1892 and received his first instruction in art there; his 
work has been exhibited at the Speed Museum. Charles Warner Wil- 
liams, an example of whose work is to be seen at Berea College, was 
born in Henderson in 1903. 

In recent years a number of public monuments have been dedicated 
in the State. A. A. Weinman's (b. 1870) seated Lincoln is in the 


public square at Hodgenville, and another Lincoln, in a standing pos- 
ture, by the same artist, is in the rotunda of the State Capitol at Frank- 
fort. A replica of George Gray Barnard's colossal Lincoln at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, stands in the grounds of Louisville's Public Library. The 
statue of William Goebel in front of the Capitol grounds in Frankfort 
is by Charles N. Niehaus (1855-1935), and one of James Kennedy 
Patterson on the campus of the University of Kentucky is the work of 
Augustus Lukeman (1871-1935). A bronze statue of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, a work of much imagination by Moses Jacob Ezekiel (1844-1917), 
stands in front of the Jefferson County Courthouse in Louisville. 
George Rogers Clark's departure from Fort Harrod on the expedition 
that was to win the Northwest Territory is commemorated at Harrods- 
burg, the site of Fort Harrod, by a high-relief done in granite by Ulric 
Ellerhusen (b. 1879). Other Kentucky monuments are the statue of 
John B. Castleman by Roland Huston Perry, a memorial to Governor 
H. Clay Egbert by John Carlisle Meyenberg, and the Charles J. 
Duncan Memorial by George Julian Zolnay all in Louisville. 

Of major interest is the current revival of mural painting. The 
Marine Hospital in Louisville has a series of panels by Henrick M. 
Mayer, executed under the section of painting and sculpture of the 
Federal Treasury Department, dramatizing the Ohio River steamboat 
trade of half a century ago. In the lobby of the Seelbach Hotel, 
Louisville, is a series of murals by Arthur Thomas, depicting the pio- 
neer life and history of Kentucky and Northwest Territories. In the 
Federal Building at Louisville, the postal service and Kentucky indus- 
tries are shown in a group of decorations by Frank Long, whose two 
murals at the University of Kentucky Library are a vigorous interpre- 
tation of rural and mountain life. In the foyer of the University's 
Memorial Hall is a fresco by Ann Rice, the only example of this me- 
dium in the State. In Louisville two murals by Ferdinand G. Walker 
are in St. Peter's Church, and the State Capitol at Frankfort has 
murals by Gilbert White. 

Several nationally known cartoonists and caricaturists including 
Fontaine Fox, Wyncie King, and Paul Plaschke are from Kentucky. 
In the field of "popular" art, paintings, prints, tombstones, and monu- 
ments of horses are among Kentucky's interesting contributions. A 
life-size bronze stands over the grave of Fair Play, great sire of the 
Elmendorf Farm, the central Kentucky estate of Joseph Widener. At 
Hamburg Place, the property of Ed Madden, is a graveyard enclosed 
by a gray stone fence, horseshoe-shaped; here are buried many famous 


Madden runners, including Nancy Hanks, champion trotting mare. At 
Colonel E. R. Bradley 's place, near Lexington, a small bronze statue 
has been erected over the grave of North Star III. 

The Federal Art Project, started in February 1936, has worked to 
promote the development of native talent. Besides its other activities, 
the project has made valuable reproductions of old furniture and de- 
signs with the aim of perpetuating the tradition and accomplishments 
of early Kentucky craftsmen. 


Since Kentucky was admitted to the Union as early as 1792 it 
might be assumed that its literary development would, in a gen- 
eral way, parallel that of the new Nation, moving through a protean 
romanticism to an equally protean realism. And that, up to a certain 
point, and with modifications imposed by its sectional character, is pre- 
cisely what Kentucky literature has done. 

To a population whose booklovers had been reared pretty largely in 
the traditions of Walter Scott and Lord Byron, a love for historical fic- 
tion, for florid oratory, for the passionate expression of emotion, came 
without much effort. Its liking for the Gothic elements of narrative 
has not yet been wholly satisfied, and from Catharine A. Warfield's 
The Romance of Beauseincourt (1867) through Robert Burns Wilson's 
Until the Day Break (1900), down to the detective novels of the late 
Foxhall Daingerfield, Kentuckians have enjoyed the stock materials 
which arouse horror and mystery. This sensationalism, growing out 
of an essentially aristocratic attitude, is a minor trait of Kentucky lit- 
erature, to be sure. The spread of democratic feeling in a State which 
was, despite any pretensions to the contrary, founded upon a midwest- 
ern democracy, was inevitable ; by the middle of the nineteenth century, 
books which had the best chance to succeed in Kentucky were those 
which had not a little relation to actualities books which preserved 
the homely manners, the homely humor, and the homely dialect of its 
people. Out of this regionalism qualified, it is important to note, by 
a gentility which survived from the height of the romantic movement 
came the impetus for the most noted of Kentucky's novelists. 


The first of these, and the one that should be read first by the visitor 
to Kentucky, is James Lane Allen. Born near Lexington in 1849, he 
located the scenes for fifteen of his nineteen books in the Bluegrass of 
his native State. His second volume, The Blue-grass Region of Ken- 
tucky (1892), was an account of Kentucky landscapes, houses, people, 
and manners, with a nostalgic longing for a culture which had died 
during the War between the States. In his fiction Allen made the cen- 
tral plateau of Kentucky as familiar to the national public as any other 
section popularized by any author. If the name of Kentucky is today 
an alluring one, it is chiefly because of the legends and facts that 
cluster about the figure of Daniel Boone, because of the fading con- 
vention of resounding public speech, because of the genuine balladry 
of the mountains and the simulated balladry of Stephen Collins Foster, 
and because James Lane Allen wrote such novels as A Kentucky Car- 
dinal (1895), The Choir Invisible (1897), and The Reign of Law 

Allen began by following in the steps of the local colorists. Before 
the opening of the twentieth century he passed on into a realism in- 
spired by his reading and by a maturing philosophy, a realism which 
eventually shocked and alienated his readers, especially his Kentucky 
readers. Disturbed by the antagonism and condemnation he had in- 
spired, Allen turned back briefly to romance, then experimented with 
a realism deeply colored by symbolism, and ended with narratives 
which he intended to transcend all schools. Much of what he wrote 
is now forgotten; much will never have value save for the student and 
historian. But Allen did preserve, in a style which became progres- 
sively imposing and artificial, many scenes and people, and customs 
which anyone who wishes to know the Bluegrass must read. Note, for 
example, what tinges of romance his early "The White Cowl" and 
" Sister Dolor osa" add to the Trappist monastery of Gethsemane and 
the convent at Loretto. One should read The Choir Invisible for an un- 
matched re-creation of the idealism of the best Bluegrass blood of a 
former age. A reading of "King Solomon of Kentucky" and "Two 
Gentlemen of Kentucky" will add sentimental interest to any stay at 
Lexington. Allen's writing after 1910 failed to win critical or popular 
approval; today it is little known and probably on the way to oblivion. 
This decline was owing, as intimated, to the fact that he became the 
victim of his precious style, and to the additional fact that he was un- 
willing to throw off his mantle of gentility. Before he died in 1925 he 
had outlived both his fame and his once sizeable earnings. 


Influenced at the outset by James Lane Allen, John Fox, Jr., man- 
aged to combine romance and realism more shrewdly, more palatably. 
Born near Paris in 1863, Fox later made his home in the highlands 
which meet on the borders of Virginia and Kentucky at Big Stone Gap. 
Here he found the material which put two of his novels among the 
best-selling American books of all time: The Little Shepherd of King- 
dom Come (1903) and The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1908). The 
material, of course, was the mountaineer and his manners. In narra- 
tive these novels, perhaps, surpass anything Allen wrote; indeed, The 
Trail builds a climax which most novelists would be glad to equal. A 
pupil of the regional writers, Fox met the demands of his generation 
by idealizations of character which now provoke skepticism. Commen- 
tators are likely to complain of the romanticism which made the primi- 
tive mountaineer a nobler individual than the inheritor of Bluegrass 
civilization. On the other hand, the mountain people protest that his 
representations of them are unfair and untrue, particularly as he em- 
phasizes feuds, lawlessness, and moonshining. Like Allen, Fox found 
his literary reputation waning before he died in 1919. Authors who 
put their trust in regionalism are likely to find their material limited, 
their themes repetitious. 

This is the peril confronting Elizabeth Madox Roberts, born near 
Perryville in 1885, who writes not of the mountaineers, as most eastern 
reviewers take for granted, but of the farmers southward from Louis- 
ville. Miss Roberts is at her best when most subjective; perhaps no 
living American writer has more truthfully explored the consciousness 
of the adolescent girl, of the lonely and poetic woman. Her first 
volume was verse, Under the Tree (1922), now very rare. She has also 
attempted the historical novel in The Great Meadow (1930), which in- 
troduces Boone and what is now Harrodsburg, and satire upon the 
contemporary scene in the obscure but not doctrinnaire Jingling in the 
Wind (1928) and He Sent Forth a Raven (1935). Her latest story, 
Black is My Truelove's Hair (1938), is a tragi-comedy of the Ken- 
tucky countryside. No well-read person will be unacquainted with her 
first novel, The Time of Man (1926), which in its universality has the 
earmark of a classic. 

Irvin S. Cobb, also an offspring of the regionalists, will escape their 
fate by virtue of his humor and because he has created one of the most 
lovable heroes, the canny, benevolent Judge Priest. Cobb describes a 
still different section of Kentucky the Purchase, whose capital is 
Paducah, where he was born in 1876. He captures and reveals with 


sometimes irrelevant details the era of steamboat traffic on the Ohio, 
of leisurely and kindly living in southern provinces. One of the best- 
paid of present-day story writers, he is usually represented in antholo- 
gies by "The Belled Buzzard" and "Words and Music," the latter per- 
haps his finest narrative so far. 

Another Kentuckian to produce a book ranking among the best 
sellers of all time is Alice Hegan Rice, of Louisville, whose Mrs. 
Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch (1901) taught the favorite American 
gospel that poverty can be supported with courage and honor. The 
scene is laid in Louisville. Widely read, too, have been the "Emmy 
Lou" stories of Mrs. George Madden Martin and the "Little Colonel" 
series of Annie Fellows Johnston, both of Pewee Valley. 

Kentucky regionalism found a virile, lyrical voice in 1935 when Jesse 
Stuart (1906 ) surprised the literary world with his Man with a 
Bull-Tongue Plow, a prodigal book of more than 700 sonnets about 
"birds, cornfields, trees, wildflowers, log shacks, my own people, val- 
leys and rivers and mists in the valleys." Often crude in form and 
mediocre in content, these musical sonnets have a refreshing spon- 
taneity and a ringing sincerity. Stuart resorts to poetry to celebrate 
the beauties of nature and an ancestral way of life that he finds good, 
but uses prose to tell about the people of the foothills of eastern Ken- 
tucky. Something of their angularity is portrayed in some of the 
casually grim or profanely humorous stories in Head o' W-Hollow 
(1936). In these stories, with their odd characters and episodes of 
frustration and tragedy, Stuart achieves a form of implicit criticism not 
often found in his poetry. His autobiography, Beyond Dark Hills 
(1938), first written while he was attending college, is an understand- 
ing account of the more representative folk of his region the hill 
farmers who have wrestled with a tough, stingy soil for generations, and 
faced sickness, hardship, isolation and death with equanimity. 

It is difficult to account for the absence of first-rate poets among a 
people fundamentally romantic. The explanation probably lies in the 
lack of critical guidance, in a hampering conservatism, and in the lack 
of local encouragement. Madison Cawein, for example, blinded by the 
magic of Keats and Spenser, could do no better with Kentucky than 
populate the woods near Louisville with fays, elves, pixies, oreads, and 
the like; in this process he was too prolific, too oblivious to things 
human. Sometimes called the greatest nature poet of his day, he died 
disappointed, convinced that his world of dreams had been shattered 
by pressing poverty and illness. A less melodious poet is Cale Young 


Rice, of Louisville, who carries on the classical tradition of English 
verse and resents recent experiments in versification. It must be said 
of Kentucky poets, as of the prose writers, that they have failed, either 
through lack of vision or of courage, to give the State the epical treat- 
ment in literature which it deserves. 


Kentucky, like most of our western States, passed through a pio- 
neering period the period of the "clearing" in the timber, the stock- 
ade fort, and the Wilderness Road. Forests had to be cleared; 
land had to be broken; a new domain had to be brought under the 
hand of the plowman. The story of those early parties, of their settle- 
ments here, of grim days of privation and Indian peril, are eloquently 
recorded in the architecture of the old stockade forts like Fort Harrod, 
so admirably reconstructed at Harrodsburg. 

As soon as the country had been made safe for settlement, Ken- 
tucky's virgin acres had to be made to produce, and produce abun- 
dantly, before anything like a real competence could be won from the 
soil. But the sturdy pioneers did conquer the soil and did establish 
in the wilderness the foundations of a commonwealth as early as the 
last quarter of the eighteenth century. 

With the establishment of an agricultural economy there came a 
second architectural expression the log cabin. These staunch and 
rugged four-square old houses, with rough-hewn walls and dirt floors, 
are emblematic of the type of life which was lived in them, and sym- 
bolic of the men and women who inhabited them. Good examples of 
the house of this period are the Marriage Place of Tom Lincoln and 
Nancy Hanks in Pioneer Park at Harrodsburg, and the old Creel 
Cabin (see Tour 6) on the Lincoln birthplace farm near Hodgenville. 

Beginning with stockade forts and log cabins, architectural expres- 
sion in Kentucky passed through successive phases, eventually culmi- 
nating in the great porticoed brick mansions which lend so much charm 
to the countryside. 

Thus Kentucky architecture parallels the course of architecture upon 
the Atlantic seaboard with this difference; a style or a fashion well 


known in the maritime States will often not make its appearance in 
Kentucky for from 10 to 30 years later. Once acclimated, however, 
such vogues are as likely to persist here as in other areas. It is, there- 
fore, not feasible to set down the chronology for seaboard architecture 
and expect it completely to apply to the course of the art in Kentucky. 

Chronologically it must be pointed out that the term "Colonial," so 
far as Kentucky architecture is concerned, can have no historic con- 
notation and is employed only to refer to that variety of architecture 
which arose upon the Atlantic seaboard during the Colonial period and 
belatedly reached Kentucky. Because of this fact one should be care- 
ful in the use of the word. The term is generally very loosely applied 
to Kentucky architecture, being used to designate not only the true 
Colonial but also the porticoed house of the Greek Revival, so common 
in the State. "Liberty Hall" in Frankfort, "Federal Hill" (see Tour 
15) near Bardstown, and the Benjamin Gratz House in Lexington are 
perfect examples of the Georgian phase of Kentucky Colonial and 
should not be confused with such Greek Revival examples as the Or- 
lando Brown House in Frankfort, Beaumont Inn (Daughters' College) 
in Harrodsburg, or old Centre College at Danville, Morrison College 
of Transylvania, and the Old Statehouse at Frankfort. 

After the advent of railways and the accompanying facility in the 
exchange of ideas and materials, the development of architecture in 
Kentucky, particularly in the towns and cities, more nearly paralleled 
that of the eastern part of the United States. This was especially true 
after the reconstruction period that followed the Civil War. 

The first phase (the log cabin) of early Kentucky architecture dates 
from 1767 to 1786. Although Gabriel Arthur, of Virginia, appears to 
have traversed territory now within Kentucky as early as 1674, nothing 
that can even remotely be termed architecture was erected in the State 
for nearly a century. What purports to be the ruined chimney of the 
"first house in Kentucky," built by Dr. Thomas Walker (see Tour 4 A) 
about 1750, is today preserved at the Walker State Park near Barbour- 
ville. The exact form of this house is not known, but a log cabin in 
the accepted style of the day has been erected to give the visitor some 
notion of Kentucky's "first home." At the time that Kentucky was 
being settled the log cabin built of horizontal logs had long since be- 
come the recognized type for the pioneer woodsman. These houses 
could be built of the timber taken from the lands which the settlers 
cleared for cultivation and were, when well "chinked" with mud or 
plaster, warm in winter and cool in summer. The simpler cabins 


usually consisted of one room, sometimes of two. Often two portions 
of a house were separated by an open passageway or "dogtrot" porch, 
as it was sometimes locally called. This passageway often served as a 
washroom, where extra wood for the kitchen fire and a bench with 
water pail and wash basin were kept. 

Such cabins were usually constructed of round logs flattened upon 
two sides in order to make a better joint. These were halved into 
each other at the corners, the ends left to project about a foot. If a 
foundation was used, it was of stone and the massive fireplace was of 
the same material. Above the throat of the fireplace the chimney was 
constructed of "stocks" or logs carefully chinked, at first with clay but 
later with mortar. In time the "stock" chimneys, always in danger of 
burning, were replaced with stone. The roofs were at first covered 
with "shucks," later with bark "shingles," and finally with hand-split 
"shakes" held in place by long poles secured at the ends. Often the 
floors were of dirt, but these were in time replaced with "puncheons" 
or split logs, usually very uneven and sometimes full of splinters. Be- 
fore glass was available windows were protected by skins or heavy shut- 
ters. Upon occasion oiled paper was used in lieu of glass, this being 
protected by wooden slats. Kentucky has a wealth of examples coming 
down from pioneer days, the old Creel cabin on the Lincoln Birthplace 
farm being a good example of the more elaborate type. Old Fort 
Harrod at Harrodsburg, reconstructed in 1926, forms an easily acces- 
sible exhibit of the pioneer stage of Kentucky architecture. 

Succeeding the earliest cabins just described there appeared a more 
refined variety of log house. This was constructed of beautifully hewn 
squared logs carefully jointed and calked. Stone foundations and stone 
or brick chimneys were usual, and in general plan such houses resem- 
bled the more adequate types left behind by the settlers who came from 
the Atlantic seaboard. Many comfortable and respectable looking 
Kentucky houses of this type of construction are still standing, an 
excellent example being the Wilmore Garrett place not far from Lex- 
ington. It is a well proportioned two-story house of Georgian Colonial 
lines, resembling in general character the architecture of Tuckahoe in 
Virginia. The stairway ascends from a central hallway, the more im- 
portant rooms flanking the entry. This house, like many another, was 
covered with clapboards and, with the addition of a classic portico, 
attained a real gentility. At the rear of this house a fine stone wing, 
the next step in the utilization of materials, is to be seen. 

Stone, where it was readily available, early became a favorite ma- 


terial. As a matter of fact, stone as an architectural material really 
came into prominence before the cabin type went out of use. There 
are still extant many smaller stone houses, now long used for Negroes 
or servants, that were the habitations of the original landowners. 
More genteel and commendable examples of stone construction, how- 
ever, are the fine old structures at Shakertown (see Tour 15), the rear 
wing of the Garrett house above mentioned, and the old DuPuy farm- 
house below Versailles in Woodford County; This latter house is of 
two stories with a central hall, a quaint front porch, and simple but 
dignified mantels. Built of cream-gray Kentucky "marble" with white 
wood trim and green shutters, this staunch old house has real distinc- 

Georgian and Federal architecture in Kentucky prevailed from 1786 
to 1825. In a sense the advent of brick as a structural material may 
be said to signalize the arrival of Georgian forms in Kentucky. The 
William Whitley House (see Tour 3) in Lincoln County, built in 1786, 
was one of the earliest of the Georgian types, and the "first brick 
house" in the State. In mass this structure is not unlike the simpler 
two-story houses of old Virginia and, as in these, the brick work is in 
Flemish bond with dark headers. It was followed by a brilliant com- 
pany of noble houses, the general arrangement of which, following the 
models of Virginia, provided a broad central hall with a stairway up to 
a landing from which it returned to the second floor. Ceilings were 
high and windows double-hung with 12- or 16-paned sashes. 

Often Palladian windows, an invention of the Italian Renaissance 
introduced through England to America, were used either over the prin- 
cipal portal, as at "Liberty Hall" in Frankfort, or for the regular open- 
ing, as at the old Muldrow farm (see Tour 14) near Milner, and at the 
Eliza Cleveland house in Versailles. Each important room had a beau- 
tiful mantel, while an arch, spanning the central hall and supported 
upon delicately fluted columns, often divided the hall into "front" and 

Perhaps no single example of Georgian architecture in Kentucky is 
better known than "Federal Hill" (see Tour 15) near Bardstown. 
Built in 1795 by John Rowan, this sedate but graceful home was 
constructed of native brick with stone foundations, the brick laid in 
Flemish bond but without the dark headers. The main house, con- 
sisting of two stories and a low attic, would present the typical 
Georgian plan were it not for the fact that what would ordinarily be 
a rear room, on the west side of the hall, is here replaced by a service 


court which intervenes between the dining room and the one-story 
detached kitchen wing. The house is nobly proportioned, both inside 
and out. The windows are of the generous 12-paned variety, while 
long side windows, fitted with double-hung six-paned sashes, flank 
the simple, classically enframed portal. 

A broad central hall, spanned by a beautiful arch carried upon deli- 
cately fluted colonnettes, leads through the house. At the right, be- 
yond the archway, the stairway ascends to a landing above the rear 
door, from which it returns on the left of the hall to the second floor. 
At the right as one enters is the dining room; at the left the parlor, 
behind which is a lower bedroom. Above, a similar arrangement pro- 
vides three bedrooms with a library over the front hall. The parlor, 
dining room and bed chambers are provided with mantels, which con- 
nect with chimneys that go up through inside walls. Each of these 
mantels is a splendid example of the carver's art. 

A Georgian house quite similar in plan to "Federal Hill" is "Liberty 
Hall" in Frankfort. In this notable house, built by the Honorable 
John Brown in 1796, the plan suggested in the remarks about "Federal 
Hill" is realized; that is, the central hall with spanning arch and stair- 
way is flanked by two rooms on either side. Moreover, the kitchen 
wing, which at "Federal Hill" is upon a lower level, is here upon the 
same level and is better related to the house proper. "Liberty Hall" 
therefore represents the full-blown Georgian plan. 

Here also the general mass of the house has received greater thought 
and presents, in its pediment-crowned frontal bay, a motif quite usual 
in the Pennsylvania and Virginia houses of its day. The portal is of 
noble lines and above it is the handsomest Palladian window in Ken- 
tucky. The interior woodwork, particularly the doors, windows, and 
wainscots, are chaste in proportion and classic in detail. 

A charming Federal example is the fine old house in St. Matthews, 
now owned by Judge Churchill Humphrey (see Tour 16). This house 
has a well-designed central mass flanked by outlying wings connected 
by lower links. In massing, this structure recalls the Maryland plan- 
tation houses and bears a striking resemblance to "Homewood," the 
old Carroll mansion now on the campus of Johns Hopkins University 
at Baltimore. The beautiful tetrastyle portico, with its delicate attenu- 
ated columns, makes a splendid entrance to the spacious arched front 
hall, which leads into a cross corridor giving access to the wings. In the 
central mass just beyond the cross corridor are the high-ceilinged 
living room at the left and the dining room at the right. The wood- 


work throughout the house is as refined as the frontal portico, the 
whole constituting an excellent example of that simplicity, lightness, 
and delicacy in carving that characterizes the "Federal" era at its best. 
Lovely mantels grace each room. 

Other outstanding examples of Georgian and Federal architecture are 
the Crittenden house in Frankfort, "Wickland" near Bardstown; the 
Eliza Cleveland and Lyle houses in Versailles; "Clay Hill" and the 
Vaught (Burford) house, in Harrodsburg; "Castlewood," "Woodlawn" 
(see Tour 4), and "Woodstock" at Richmond; "Rose Hill," "Eothan," 
the John W. Hunt house, "Loudoun," Bodley House, and the Benjamin 
Gratz house, in Lexington; Xalapa Farm near Paris; the "Grange" and 
the Clark farm on the Paris-Maysville Pike, various brick houses in 
Shakertown (see Tour 15) ; the Colonel Andrew Muldrow house (see 
Tour 14) near Milner; and various lesser, though often as interesting, 
structures throughout the State. 

The Greek Revival was tardy in reaching Kentucky. By 1825, how- 
ever, Greek details were beginning to make their appearance upon 
otherwise Georgian structures and by 1830, largely through the instru- 
mentality of Gideon Shryock, the style was well established in Ken- 

Shryock, who was born in Lexington where he learned the practical 
art of building from his father, Mathias Shryock (1774-1833), pur- 
sued the study of architecture with William Strickland of Philadelphia, 
who, in turn, had been trained by Latrobe. Perhaps Shryock's most 
notable work is the Old Capitol (now the State Historical Society 
Building) in Frankfort. This beautiful and well proportioned edifice, 
built of Kentucky "marble," immediately set a precedent for elegance 
and dignity in public buildings in the State, and did much to stimulate 
interest in classic design. Other important public structures, designed 
by Shryock, are Morrison College, Lexington, the old Bank on Main 
Street, the Blind Institute and the Jefferson County Court House, all 
in Louisville. 

The Greek influence in Kentucky was first apparent in classical 
porches, mantels, and other details, which were used to adorn masses 
otherwise reminiscent of the past vogue in architecture. Soon, however, 
the masses themselves took on more and more of the Greek temple and 
all details doors, windows, and stairways became completely Hel- 
lenized. It was at this period that the stately columned porticoes, 
usually of the Doric or Ionic order, made their appearance. Gleaming 
white, these classic portals, seen across a bluegrass greensward or dis- 


covered at the end of a shady tree-lined drive, are among the most de- 
lightful sights in the older sections of the State. 

One of the earliest true Greek Revival houses in Kentucky is the 
Orlando Brown House in Frankfort, built in 1835 by John Brown of 
"Liberty Hall" for his son. Gideon Shryock, architect of the Capitol, 
was called to execute this task and here showed himself as much a 
master at the design of private buildings as of public structures. The 
simple four-square mass of this brick structure is crowned by a low 
pediment fronting the street and pierced by a fanlight reminiscent 
of the Georgian. A one-storied tetrastyle Ionic portico shelters a sim- 
ple rectangular doorway and forms a "support" to a triple-membered 
unshuttered window in the upper hall, similar to the windows at 
"Mansfield" described below. The four other windows of the fagade 
have six-paned Georgian sashes, flanked by slatted blinds. 

A full-blown Greek Revival example is "Mansfield," the Thomas 
Hart Clay house, just east of the famous "Ashland" on the Richmond 
Pike in Lexington. Like the Churchill Humphrey house, it has a dig- 
nified central mass with low attic and ridge paralleling the street, 
flanked at either end by lower masses with gable ends. Still lower, 
links join the three masses and complete the ensemble. A feature of 
the central fagade is a graceful tetrastyle Ionic portico sheltering a 
Greek pilastered entrance, which is capped with transom and entabla- 
ture. The walls of the fagade are relieved by pilasters in brick with 
membering at the corners and triple windows enframed in the same 
style as the doorway. These Greek windows are not shuttered. 
Throughout this house, inside and out, the chaste sobriety of the Greek 
Revival at its best is exemplified. 

While the typical Greek Revival house is fronted by a two-storied 
portico of Doric or Ionic design, many examples in Kentucky exhibit 
variations therefrom as charming as they are unusual. An excellent 
and unique portico is that of the old Adam Childers House on the high 
school campus at Versailles, where a splendid effect has been obtained, 
not by the use of columns at all, but by the use of square piers sim- 
ply molded and decorated by a necking embodying a simple Greek 

At "Diamond Point" in Harrodsburg a two-storied portico with 
Doric columns, set between square end piers, shelters a rich and elabo- 
rately carved doorway and a narrow lacy balcony that crosses the 
fagade at the second story level. 

Sometimes the use of a portico is dispensed with altogether and the 


fagade is decorated with a two-storied recessed entrance, as in the Dr. 
Robert Alexander Johnston house in Danville. Here simple fluted 
Doric colonnades, set distyle in antis, form the entrance on the first 
floor, while a similar arrangement above, provided with a balcony rail, 
makes a small recessed porch. An important portal of this type, but 
under a portico, is to be seen at the Moberly house in Harrodsburg. 

Windows enframed with simple Greek architraves often exhibit 
Greek anthemion and "honeysuckle" motifs as applied decoration. 
Good examples of these are seen at the Stephenson house in Harrods- 

The plan of the Greek house in the main followed Georgian lines, an 
arrangement which in the preceding period had been found admirably 
adapted to living in Kentucky. Often Georgian details were retained 
inside the house, an excellent example being the staircase, which seems 
to have remained steadfastly Georgian even in the late Greek house, 
as at "Scotland" on the Frankfort-Versailles Pike. But alongside the 
Georgian staircases one finds heavy Greek enframed interior doors and 
windows, mantels, and woodwork. Often Ionic and upon occasion 
Corinthian columns carried a cornice, which, at the wall, rested upon 
pilasters to form effectively trimmed openings between rooms. The 
Doctor Carrick residence in Lexington, "White Hall," and the Helm 
Place, south of Lexington, show good examples. At the latter, sliding 
doors, encased by recessed wing walls, made their appearance. Interior 
doors may have horizontal or vertical panels and may be enframed by 
a splayed casing with Greek "ears" at the top, or by a rectangular 
casing resting upon simple plinths and carved with fret or key designs 
and including recessed corner blocks at the top. A prominent interior 
feature of this period was the elaborate decorative plaster work in the 
form of deep cornices and central medallions in the ceilings. The latter 
were decorated with the Greek "water leaf," anthemion, acanthus, and 
other motifs executed exquisitely in plaster of Paris, and were tinted 
in delicate pastel colors; they formed the motif from which crystal 
chandeliers were suspended. 

Fine old examples of Greek Revival architecture are the McClure, 
Barbee (Adams), and Chestnut houses in Danville; "Aspen Hall" and 
the Ben Lee Harden House in Harrodsburg; the Showalter, Brooker, 
and Shropshire houses at Georgetown (see Tour 4) ; the Colonel James 
Marshall Brown and Carrothers houses in Bardstown ; the James Wier- 
Duncan (Dr. Carrick) home in Lexington; and Helm Place, south of 


that city. Certain of the buildings at the Kentucky School for the 
Deaf at Danville, old Centre College (see Tour 5) in the same city, 
Daughters' College (now the main hall of Beaumont Inn) at Harrods- 

A number of churches and residences in Kentucky are excellent 
examples of the Gothic Revival style (1835-1860). The First Pres- 
byterian Church of Louisville (organized in 1816) erected a Gothic 
church edifice with a square English tower, while St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church in the same city built one of Gothic design with tower and 
spire. An interesting church of this era is the fine old First Presby- 
terian at Danville. Another very choice example is the little sexton's 
house in the abandoned Episcopal Cemetery in Lexington, designed 
just prior to the War between the States by John McMurtry, a promi- 
nent architect of the city. The Gothic continued to be the popular 
ecclesiastical style up to the war, and so strong was its momentum 
that it survived as "Victorian Gothic" in the post-war period. 

There are five typical examples of the Gothic Revival residences left 
in Kentucky, four of brick and one of wood. Three of these the 
Alexander-Alford house, "Ingleside" and "Loudoun," in Lexington 
may be attributed to McMurtry, who made a trip to England to study 
the details of the Tudor Gothic style of that country. The date of the 
building of "Ingleside" is generally given as 1852. "Loudoun," on the 
Bryan Station Pike (Loudoun Avenue) at the northern limits of Lex- 
ington, now beautifully overgrown with English ivy, is a handsome 
Gothic Revival house. "Mound Cottage," in Danville, said to have 
been built in the late fifties, is another splendid example constructed 
of brick; while "Woodland Villa" on the Paris-Maysville Pike is an 
interesting example, built of wood. 

The War between the States and the reconstruction period were gen- 
erally very discouraging eras for architecture in America. The blight 
that settled over building in the Nation was, if anything, more pro- 
nounced in the border States than elsewhere. Kentucky was a part of 
the battleground, and many a fine ante bellum structure was pressed 
into wartime service. As a result a number of fine old buildings, like 
Bacon College at Harrodsburg and the "second" Medical Building of 
Transylvania University at Lexington, both in the Greek style, were 
burned during the war. Not until the expansive industrial period which 
followed reconstruction was there a revival of building activity in Ken- 
tucky, and by this time eclecticism, which has since characterized art 
in America, had begun its riotous career. 


During the reconstruction period American architecture reached its 
depth of degradation. Indeed the country did not awaken to the ugli- 
ness of its art until the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876 
gave us some notion of the art of other nations. The period between 
this exposition and that of Chicago in 1893 was a backward one, but 
during this interim American students who had been studying architec- 
ture abroad, particularly at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, returned 
to give a new impetus to architectural design in America. 

One of these students, Richard Morris Hunt, who had gone to Paris 
in 1843, had returned home just prior to the War between the States. 
During the seventies and eighties he was at the height of his profes- 
sional career and, being a champion of the French Renaissance, gen- 
erated a great vogue for this style through the example of his works. 
Following his precedent, buildirigs throughout the Union were conceived 
and erected in the mansard-roofed style, capitols, courthouses, city 
halls, post offices, and large residences in particular being adapted to 
this manner. The Louisville City Hall and the old Post Office (1886- 
1892), at the northeast corner of Fourth and Chestnut Streets, together 
with other buildings in the city and elsewhere in the State, were part 
of this movement. 

Just at the close of the War between the States, Henry Hobson 
Richardson, a native of Louisiana, returned from his architectural 
studies in Paris. Soon he was in practice, and, although he died at 
the age of forty-eight, his influence upon American architecture was 
most pronounced. He espoused the Romanesque manner of the south 
of France and the north of Spain, and designed many buildings 
throughout the Union in a manner so highly personalized that it has 
since been called the Richardsonian Romanesque. This vogue, although 
highly eclectic, so captivated the American people that Montgomery 
Schuyler, an architectural critic and writer of the time, hailed it as the 
"American National style." Trinity Church in Boston is, perhaps, 
Richardson's most beautiful building. Kentucky, in common with 
other States, exhibited considerable enthusiasm for the Romanesque 
and within the State there are a number of examples in this manner, 
among them the post offices at Lexington (1886-89), Owensboro 
(1888-89), Paducah (1881-83), and Richmond (1893-97); the Lex- 
ington City Hall; and the Central Christian Church in the same city; 
the Christian Church in Cynthiana, and the State Street Methodist 
Church in Bowling Green. Essentially a style adapted to construction 


in stone or brick, the Romanesque is still popular in some sections for 
hospitals, schools, and churches. 

Once eclecticism had set in, the architect felt free to examine Old 
World styles and to adopt any that seemed appropriate to the task at 
hand. This led to an infusion into American architecture of Italian, 
English, French, and Spanish ideas and motifs, and most cities show 
the personal predilections of the architects who designed their struc- 
tures. Not finding a better style than the Gothic for church build- 
ings, architects generally reverted to this manner for ecclesiastical 
work. Certainly the influence of Ralph Adams Cram and his associates 
in the East has helped to fix upon America the Gothic as a church 
style; upon occasion, other structures have been built in this manner. 
A good example is the old post office in Covington (1875-79), which 
is an American adaptation of the Italian Gothic popular at the time it 
was built. In a sense the continuity of the Gothic Revival has never 
been broken, except for the interlude of the War between the States, 
when most architectural activity ceased. Thus by 1872 Cincinnatus 
Shryock, brother of Gideon, was constructing the First Presbyterian 
Church in Lexington of brick in Gothic style. St. Rose Church at St. 
Rose, Kentucky, and the church of Gethsemane Abbey (see Tour 6) 
belong also to this continuation of the Gothic Revival, which we gen- 
erally call Neo- Gothic. Kentucky is well supplied with churches of 
this type, many of them, like the Chapel of the Good Shepherd in 
Lexington, being of very excellent design. 

American architecture, with the exception of the Romanesque and 
Gothic infiltrations, has derived its inspiration largely from the Classic. 
Therefore, when the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 blossomed forth in 
forms almost exclusively classic, the country was very ready to accept 
them; and, as a result, American architecture for the past forty years 
has remained decidedly classic in flavor. This classicism has been at- 
tained at times through the adoption of the Greek or Roman forms, at 
other times through a skillful rendition of American utilities in the 
spirit of the Italian Renaissance, as in the new State Capitol at Frank- 
fort. An interesting example of the adaptation of Italian Renaissance 
architecture was the famous Gait House, on Main Street in Louisville, 
which showed unmistakable inspiration from the Palazzo Farnese in 

Henry Whitestone was the architect of a great number of commend- 
able structures in the city of Louisville, which, in general, may be said 
to be of classic design. In addition to structures with a decidedly 


antique flavor, like the new Post Office in Louisville and the Lincoln 
Memorial (see Tour 6), on the Lincoln Farm at Hodgenville, there 
has been a recent tendency to revive another style of classic derivation, 
the American Georgian. The Christian Church in Harrodsburg, the 
new Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, and many residences 
throughout the State indicate a growing regard for indigenous American 

Part II 

Cities and Towns 


Railroad Stations: Carter Ave. and 12th St., for Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; N. end 
Interstate Bridge, for Norfolk & Western R.R. ; Kenova, W. Va. 6 m. E. for Balti- 
more & Ohio, and Norfolk & Western R.R's. 

Bus Station: Union Depot, 13th St., near Winchester Ave., for Greyhound and 
Sparks Bros. Lines. 

Local Buses: Local, interurban, and jitney buses; fare 5tf and 10^. 
Airport: L. from Winchester Ave. on 34th St.; no scheduled service. 
Taxis: 25$ minimum. 

Toll Bridge: Kentucky-Ohio Interstate Bridge: autos, 25$; pedestrians, Stf. 
Traffic Regulations: No U-turns or left-turns on business street intersections. 

Accommodations: Two hotels; rooming houses and private homes cater to tourists. 
Information Service: Eastern Kentucky Auto Assn., Henry Clay Hotel. 

Radio Station: WCMI (1310 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Swimming: South Side Pool, off Blackburn Ave., E., 10^ and 25#. 

Golf: Hillendale Club, Division St.; 18 holes, greens fee SOtf and $1. 

ASHLAND (555 alt., 29,074 pop.), largest and most important city 
in Eastern Kentucky, is concentrated on a rather high and wide flood 
plain of the Ohio River. The river makes a great bend around the 
southernmost tip of Ohio, receives the waters of the Big Sandy at the 
border between West Virginia and Kentucky, and then sweeps north- 
west with slow, easy curves past the long waterfront of Ashland. The 
city stretches up the river to Catlettsburg at the mouth of the Big 
Sandy, and down to the rolling mill plant, a distance of seven miles, 
widening and narrowing with the contour of the river bluffs overlook- 
ing the town. 

Ashland is the chief Kentucky unit of an industrial area that in- 
cludes Huntington, Ceredo, and Kenova, West Virginia; and Coal- 
grove, Ironton, and Portsmouth, Ohio. The river bank at Ashland is 
uncommonly high, acting as a wall against all but the superfloods that 
ravage most river towns year after year. This protected river front is, 
however, strictly utilitarian. Along it are strung the steel and iron 
mills, the sawmills, the coke plants, and brickyards. In front of the 
city fleets of barges pass, pushed by stern-wheeled tugboats, carrying 
thousands of tons of freight far more than in the heyday of river 
boats. In the decade before the turn of the century the Ohio River 
peak was 12 million tons, whereas in 1936 it was in excess of 24 mil- 
lions of tons. The Gordon Greene, last of the packets making the 
run up-river to Pittsburgh, periodically sweeps by with the old grace. 

Down near the river front, too, are many of the warehouses, whole- 
sale houses, packing houses, the livestock market, and a few of the 
retail stores. But this part of the city is caught by high floods, and 



the modern business district has centered along Winchester Avenue 
and intersecting streets, three blocks inland on a higher plain. Here 
are the banks, hotels, modern office buildings, churches, and depart- 
ment stores, and, immediately adjoining them, the downtown resi- 
dential section, all showing the marks of the boom in the 1920's. On 
a third and still higher terrace, from Carter Avenue to the hill, and 
well above even the 1937 flood level, is the chief residential area, with 
the 52-acre Central Park, only five minutes' walk from the shopping 
district. Near the park are the fine houses of Bath Avenue, built by 
the iron masters, the lumber men, and the "wholesale" families. To 
the south the town has spread, up the river bluffs and over the irreg- 
ular, wooded plateau where the new, winding streets follow the contour 
lines, and buses and jitney service connect the residents with down- 
town business and industry. These terraces provide natural zoning for 
the city and account in part for the unusual attractiveness of Ashland. 
It is a steel, coal, iron, and railroad center, free of the appalling grime 
and ugliness that disfigure so many American steel towns. 

The population of the city is divided into four rather distinct groups. 
The first of these is made up of the old families that have been here 
for three or four generations the people who made their money from 
iron, clay, coal, and lumber, and the professional people. Next to them 
are the workers of the older generation who used to live in a kind of 
feudal relationship to the owners of the mills and factories. In the 
last three decades, as Ashland doubled its population and the small 
mills grew large and were absorbed by outside interests, two new 
elements were added the clerks, managers, technicians, and white 
collar workers who poured into town, and the hill people who came 
down to find work. There are very few foreign-born, and the rather 
small Negro settlement has its own educational plants and community 

Eighty percent of the homes are owned by those who live in them. 
Small business and "corner groceries" thrive in the newly incorporated 
neighborhoods. Education and the schools are the object of a zeal 
that is almost a crusade. In the last few years new elementary school 
buildings like the Hager and the Hatcher, and junior high school 
buildings like the recently completed Putnam, have sprung up in the 
downtown area and the suburban hills, and a city library has been 
erected in Central Park. Churches are well attended and play a large 
part in the spiritual and social life of the community. 

From the very beginning the rich natural heritage of the region has 
been the dominant factor in its growth. Natural resources determined 
where white men first would settle in this eastern section of Kentucky, 
and then dictated the types of industrial enterprise in which they 
would engage. 

Even the Indians placed a special premium on this section and were 
extremely loath to give it up. Of all the choice hunting grounds in this 
area, the red men held on to the timbered valley of the Big Sandy and 
the neighboring banks of the Ohio long after white settlers had forced 


them out of surrounding territory. While the local deposits of coal, 
iron ore, fire clay, sandstone, limestone, oil, and gas meant little or 
nothing to the Indians, they did value highly the fine hardwood timber, 
the convenient watering places, and the abundance of wild game. 
Also, they favored the high bench on the site of Ashland as a con- 
venient place to bury their dead, as evidenced by the number of 
burial mounds that remain in the heart of the city. 

Eastern Kentucky did not beckon to white pioneers until the Indian 
power north of the Ohio was broken at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 
1811. The first pioneers to come to the high flood plain and establish 
the forerunner of Ashland brought with them a fixed determination, 
and a willingness to fight an attribute that quickly found expression 
in disputes over land claims growing out of inaccurate surveys. These 
disagreements cluttered the local courts and some of the disputants 
"lawed" each other for years, settlement in many cases coming long 
after the original contestants had died. True to the early feudist's 
code, a number of the belligerents chose a more expeditious method 
of settling arguments and disposed of their opponents in the orthodox 
frontier fashion. 

When three Poages George, Robert, and Robert, Jr. came from 
Virginia in 1815 to settle in the fertile lands now occupied by Ashland, 
they chose a spot that is included in the present downtown section, 
and there established "Poage Settlement." As other pioneers moved 
in from the East and erected log cabins, the settlers' attention was 
focused on the industrial potentialities of the fine forests and the trans- 
portation facilities of nearby streams. The great stretches of timber 
already had made the Big Sandy Valley the scene of much activity, and 
Catlettsburg, five miles up the Ohio, was becoming widely known as a 
lumber town. 

Naturally, therefore, lumbering was the first and most important 
industry of the new village which developed from Poage Settlement. 
Soon, however, with the discovery of iron ore and other mineral de- 
posits, much of the hardwood in the vicinity of Ashland was being 
converted into charcoal for use in the production of iron. The Belle- 
fonte furnace, first in Ashland and Boyd County, was set up in 1826; 
it consumed millions of feet of Kentucky's best timber, but produced 
thousands of tons of iron. By the time Ashland was formally laid 
out in 1850, most of its inhabitants had been attracted by the promise 
of the vicinity's valuable mineral deposits and hardwood timber. The 
village took its name from Henry Clay's home, "Ashland," in Lexing- 

Industrial development came rapidly. The new village was only one 
year old when the State legislature authorized incorporation of the 
community's first railroad, now the Kentucky division of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio. Ashland welcomed its first bank in 1856 and imme- 
diately assumed a more important commercial standing when the bank 
established a branch in Shelbyville. The first railroad was completed 
in 1857, and the next year Ashland became an incorporated village. 


During the War between the States, Ashland's iron production in- 
creased. However, it was not until after the conflict, when iron be- 
came a vital factor in reconstruction, that the community gained the 
dominant Kentucky position in the industry. With the basic requisites, 
coal, limestone, and iron ore, immediately at hand in the hills just 
south of the town territory that now is included in the city it was 
only a short time until many furnaces were erected, and Ashland and 
its environs vied with the iron-producing towns of Hanging Rock and 
Ironton on the Ohio side of the river. Notable among the new plants 
was the Star Iron Works, which was built along the river front in 
1868. This plant, in 1870 the year in which Ashland became an 
incorporated city was taken over by the Ashland Furnace Company, 
owned by the Ashland Coal & Iron Company Railroad. From March 
1871 through June 1874 the furnace produced an average of more 
than 1,000 tons of pig iron per month, or a gross of 40,527 tons, a 
record that was not broken until 1916. 

The Norton Iron & Nail Works, established in 1873, built a blast 
furnace, a rolling mill, and a nail mill; and in the same year "Big 
Etna," at that time the largest blast furnace in the West, added to 
Ashland's prestige as an iron center. Of all its iron family, Ashland's 
Bellefonte furnace probably had the most colorful history, although 
later ones outstripped it in production. In the days before the Ohio 
was alive with big steamboats, the Bellefonte's products were shipped 
down the river in barges. In the same manner, coal was brought down 
the Big Sandy to the furnace, and the fire clay and ore were taken 
from the hills at what was then Ashland's back door. 

As iron and steel forged to the front in Ashland, the community 
began to mine the clays of Boyd County. Brick- and tile-making be- 
came an important industry, and when, within a few years, nearby oil 
and natural gas deposits were developed, Ashland embarked upon a 
well-rounded, modern industrial era. Although the source of iron ore 
supply soon shifted to the head of the Great Lakes, relegating Ken- 
tucky ores to the background, the vast supply of other crude essentials 
and the advantageous transportation facilities of the Ashland area 
enabled the town to improve its position as a steel center. With the 
opening of the Ashland Steel Company's Bessemer mill in 1891, the 
town definitely assumed its modern industrial role; the climax came 
with erection of a big plant of the American Rolling Mill Company 
in 1920. Ashland still looks to its own community for the major 
part of its basic industrial materials, and the hills of the immediate 
region are the great storehouses from which its rolling mills, coke 
ovens, fire-brickworks, and lumber mills draw their supplies. 

The comparatively high plain on which the town sits saved it from 
a most disastrous experience during the Ohio River floods in 1937. 
Although the flood waters went to an unprecedented high mark, inun- 
dating the lower streets, and reaching Winchester Avenue in the mod- 
ern business section, actual losses in Ashland were slight in comparison 


with those in river towns less fortunately situated. During the flood 
period, 2,200 residents were evacuated; and property loss, resulting 
largely from damage to industrial plants, wholesale and retail estab- 
lishments, and to household furnishings, was estimated by local officials 
at less than $1,500,000. Ashland cared for 600 refugees from other 
flood areas until they could be rehabilitated. The city's recovery from 
the river's onslaught was so rapid that within six months few marks 
of the flood's ravages remained and Ashland resumed its role of a 
busy industrial spot where substantial homes, excellent educational 
institutions, and a culture befitting a sizeable community provide an 
even balance with steel, coke, brick, and lumber. 


special occasions or by appointment), Winchester Ave., West, was 
begun in 1920, when the city had a population of 14,000. Five years 
later, due chiefly to the growth of this plant and its associated activi- 
ties, the population had doubled, and Armco was employing a force 
of 3,200. Its present monthly payroll approximates $400,000. Here 
are seen the processes by which the major raw materials entering into 
the steel industry iron ore, coal, and limestone become, by reduction 
and intricate chemical processes employing less well known but essen- 
tial metals, the specialized steels used in modern manufacture. These 
raw materials enter at one end of the works, go through the conversion 
process en route, and emerge at the other end in the forms of steel 
adapted to the factory requirements of automobile and other manu- 

The floor space of the Armco plant, which extends to the west of 
the business section along the Ohio River, exceeds 1,600,000 square 
feet. Twenty-two miles of standard-gauge side track serve this shop 
area. Two steam and five oil-electric locomotives, more than 30 
freight cars, 60 electric cranes and 15 tractors are employed in shift- 
ing materials in and about the plant. 

Winchester Ave., a branch of the nationwide concern with offices in 
Cleveland, Ohio, manufactures locomotive fire boxes, furnace linings, 
gas retorts, and similar articles capable of withstanding intense and 
long continued heat. Eastern Kentucky, especially the vicinity of 
Ashland, is rich in non-plastic clays that possess the unusual quality 
of resistance to temperatures up to 3,000 degrees F. The plant was 
built in 1886, and gives employment to an average of 200 men. 

3. CENTRAL PARK, Central Ave. and 17th St., is a 52-acre native 
woodland area in the heart of the city. Within the park are six 
Indian mounds, conical in shape, where the red men buried their dead. 

On the north side of the park entrance, head of 17th St., is the 
CITY LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays). The building, completed in 


1937, was erected with government funds. It is a one-story-and-base- 
ment, T-shaped structure of Georgian Colonial design, built of dressed 
local sandstone. The reading room is furnished simply and supplied 
with current magazines. The stack room provides adequate space for 
the development of a fiction, reference, and general purpose library. 
In the basement are conference rooms and an auditorium provided with 
a small stage and picture screen. The exterior is dominated by a 
Classic Revival portico of restrained proportions and a belfry tower 
surmounting the roof. 

Ave. and 25th St., manufactures leather belting of all kinds. Hides 
are transformed by intricate processes into the continuous belting that 
drives a threshing machine or the fly-wheel of a great power plant, and 
the plant extends its search for materials into the hide markets of the 

5. SCRAP IRON YARDS. Skirting the N. side of Winchester 
Ave., E. of the downtown business section, are great yards where old 
iron gathered from the farms, back yards, and refuse heaps of a wide 
region throughout Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia is concentrated 
preliminary to its movement to the steel mills. The "old iron" is 
stripped of everything undesirable, sheared into workable sizes, and 
then caught up by electro-magnets and loaded into cars for transfer 
to local or perhaps far-distant steel furnaces. At the furnace it be- 
comes an important part of the white-hot mixture that is drawn off 
into huge mechanically controlled ladles from which is poured the ingot 
steel that, under the tremendous pressure of huge rollers, is flattened 
out into whatever rough form may be required by the manufacturer. 

6. ASHLAND LIVESTOCK MARKET (open Hon.), 36th St. and 
Winchester Ave., is the scene of an activity of considerable interest to 
visitors. The hilly region adjacent to Ashland is not generally adapted 
to field crop production, but the field and wood pastures of the area 
feed a very considerable quantity of livestock, principally cattle and 
hogs. These are concentrated for sale and shipment on Mondays at 
the livestock yards. Picturesque in garb and speech, drovers from 
the hills come in with their offerings, to barter and haggle. After the 
sale the stock goes by rail to the great midwest packing houses. 

7. SEMET-SOLVAY COKE PLANT (not open to the public), 
40th St. and the river front, presents a spectacular sight by night 
when the flames from the ovens light up the whole countryside. Coke 
making is an adaptation, applied to coal, of the long known process 
of burning wood under conditions that allow insufficient oxygen, with 
the result that a high-efficiency fuel remains after the moisture and 
gases are driven off. In similar fashion certain grades of coal are 
"baked" in great ovens. After the volatile materials are driven off and 
captured (later to be employed in industry), the residue forms the 
ordinary coke of commerce. Coke has a thermal efficiency, ton for 
ton, approximately equal to the best anthracite, and is widely em- 
ployed both in industry and in the heating of dwellings. 


8. GOVERNMENT LOCK NO. 29, Riverside, opposite Clyffeside 
(E. end), includes one of the dams that control the low-water stage 
in the Ohio River at a minimum navigation depth of nine feet, the 
draft necessary for barges. The location of these dams, designed to 
provide for navigation rather than power, is determined by the slope 
of the stream bed. They divide the river, from Pittsburgh to Cairo, 
Illinois, into "pools" that can retain sufficient water for navigation 
purposes at all times. The Ashland dam illustrates the entire river- 
control system, and the manner in which barges and their tows are 
passed through the locks. Government dredges remove the silt that 
accumulates, and the maintenance of a nine-foot minimum stage pro- 
vides, for Ashland and for all cities along the Ohio, a low cost route 
for the movement of iron, coal, limestone, oil, timber, and other basic 
commodities, as well as for the finished manufactured products in 
transit to key distribution points. 


Railroad Station: Union Depot, Pike and Russell Sts., for Louisville & Nashville 
R.R., and Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 

Bus Station: 6th St. between Scott Blvd. and Madison Ave., for Greyhound, 
Fleenor, and Blue Ribbon Lines. 

Airport: Lunken Field, (5.5 m., via Cincinnati on US 50 (River Road), for Ameri- 
can Air Lines. 

Taxis: 15# and upward according to distance and number of passengers. 
Toll Bridges: Suspension, N. end of Court Ave., passenger autos 10^ and 15^, 
pedestrians free; Covington-Newport, E. end of 4th St., passenger autos 10^ and 
15tf, pedestrians 2#. 

Traffic Regulations: Right turn on red light only at intersection of Starrett St. 
and Madison Ave. Watch signs for parking limitations. 

Accommodations: Nearest hotels in Cincinnati; private homes cater to tourists. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, SW. corner Pike St. and Madison 
Ave.; Kentucky Motor Club, 417 Scott St. 

Radio Station: WCKY (1490 kc.). 
Motion Picture Houses: Seven. 

Swimming: Rosedale Park, entrance Carroll St., near 45th St.; Y.M.C.A., Pike St. 
and Madison Ave. 

Golf: Devou Park, entrance on Western Ave. between 6th and 7th Sts., 9 holes, 
greens fee 50tf, 75<J and $1; Twin Oaks Country Club, E. end of Baltimore St., 
18 holes, greens fee 75<? and $1. 

Tennis: Dixie Court, Madison Ave. and 2d St., 20tf per hour; Goebel Park, 5th 
and Philadelphia Sts., free; South Covington Court, W. end of 45th St., SOtf per 

Riding: Sunny Side Riding Club, Park Hills, 75(* and $1 per hour; Pleasure Isle, 
$1 per hour. 

Racing: Latcnia Race Track, S. and Latonia Ave. car line; spring and fall meet- 
ings (pari-mutuel betting). See local papers for schedules. 

Annual Events: Egg Fight, Easter Sunday, Devou Park. 

COVINGTON (513 alt., 65,252 pop.), second largest city in Ken- 
tucky, lies on a flood plain of the Ohio River at the foot of suburban 
hills that reach back to a high plain of the Bluegrass. Highways from 
Louisville and the hills of central Kentucky sweep rather suddenly 
into position for a fine view of the city. To the east the Licking 
River separates old Covington residences from Newport; to the west 
the Ohio River bends away past scattered suburbs and the long Cin- 
cinnati waterfront; and to the north most of Covington's business 
houses, factories, churches, parks, and homes are clustered against a 
magnificent backdrop, where five bridges cross the Ohio to Cincinnati 
on the opposite side of the river. 

In this setting Covington looks like a city on the Rhine. The im- 
pression is heightened by the spires of many churches Covington has 
more than threescore that taper up from among compact business 


and factory buildings and the plain brick structures put up by German 
immigrants of the mid-nineteenth century. 

Though the Germans have stamped the pattern of the city indelibly, 
other influences have been almost equally strong. The early settlers 
came mainly from the South, and they brought slaves and plantation 
culture with them. They built the walled- and fenced-in homes lining 
the streets that criss-cross the angle formed by the intersection of the 
Licking with the Ohio. When the Negroes were freed, they went to 
live in what were then the outskirts of the city, farther up the Licking 
and beneath the bluffs toward which the industrial areas were expand- 
ing. The neglected homes of the Negroes in Covington are small, but 
the Negro's contribution to the city, especially in the way of education, 
is large. Through the good work of their public and parochial schools, 
Covington 's Negroes have reduced the more than 90 percent illiteracy 
of the 1860's to almost zero. In 1930 only 501 Covington residents 
(and many of these white) were illiterate. 

Covington does not have skyscrapers, huge photoplay palaces, 
gigantic department stores, or bulky hotels, because it has geared its 
economic and social life to that of Cincinnati, only a bridge toll away. 
Each weekday morning Covington empties motorcars and little green 
trolleys full of people into Cincinnati; each weekday afternoon Cin- 
cinnati sends the steady, noisy stream of traffic back to Covington. 
In the evening Covingtonians generally relax in their homes or recross 
the river for entertainment, while their city plays host to many Cin- 
cinnatians who find Kentucky less restricting than Ohio. 

On St. Valentine's Day in 1780, George Muse, a soldier of Virginia 
in the French and Indian War, swapped for a keg of whisky his scrip 
for 200 acres of land allotted him for military service. The new 
owner of the land traded it for a quarter of buffalo that Gen. James 
Taylor offered him. Taylor dickered it off to Col. Stephen Trigg, who 
got rid of it to John Todd, Jr., who unloaded it onto James Welch. 
Welch kept the land long enough to get it surveyed, and in 1801 sold 
it to Thomas Kennedy for $750. Kennedy erected a huge stone house 
overlooking the Licking near what is now the approach to the Sus- 
pension Bridge, and lived there as a tavern-keeper and ferry-man 
until 1814. Then he sold 150 acres of his property to John S. Gano, 
Richard M. Gano, and Thomas Carneal. In the following year, the 
three men chartered a town and named it for Gen. Leonard Covington 
of Maryland, a hero of the War of 1812 who died of wounds received 
during the Battle of Chrystler's Field. 

Covington's growth was negligible during the years of national de- 
pression following 1819, but in 1830, with a population of only 715, 
the town had a log church, several inns, and a schoolhouse which was 
also a meeting place for a light infantry troop, the town trustees, and 
the Social Polemic Society. A few streets were paved; those running 
east and west were numbered, those north and south were named for 
notables. The town also had a fire brigade, a steam ferry, and the 


store of Benjamin J. Leathers, who issued so much scrip in hard times 
that "paid in Leathers" became Covington argot. 

Beginning with the 1830's, as settlers headed West over Kentucky 
land routes and the Ohio River, Covington became a trade center for 
livestock, grain, and other products of the countryside. An influx of 
people from over the Appalachians (principally Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Virginia) was succeeded by the large German immigration 
of 1840-1860. 

By 1847 there were two leading educational institutions in Coving- 
ton the Western Baptist Theological College and Dr. Orr's Female 
Seminary. The seminary stressed good manners and deportment. 
One teacher, a Miss Robb, dismissed her class one by one, and exacted 
from each girl a Victorian curtsy the spreading of the skirt and mak- 
ing a low bow, not one of the "silly bobs" as of later days. 

In the 1850's the Kentucky Central Railroad was begun from Cov- 
ington to Lexington, a high school opened, the seat of a Roman Cath- 
olic bishopric established, a local Turnverein organized, and gas first 
used for lighting. In 1860 the first hospital, St. Elizabeth's, was 
established. Covington people made furniture, farm tools, rope, and 
cloth, and brewed beer, packed meat, and participated in the growing 
river commerce. 

Covington commuted to Cincinnati by ferry. But service was inter- 
rupted during flood times, and it sometimes took a whole day to make 
a business trip to Cincinnati and back. The State of Kentucky had 
already bought the macadamized highway coming up from Lexington 
over an old Indian trail. Elimination of road tolls drew Covington 
and interior Kentucky together, but the city was more closely asso- 
ciated with its big neighbor to the north, and it needed better means 
of getting across the Ohio. In 1846 the State legislature authorized 
the building of a bridge over to Cincinnati, but work on the structure 
was postponed periodically. When actual construction finally began, 
along came the panic of 1857, followed by the War between the States 
four years later, and work was stopped. 

Although Kentucky wanted to be neutral in the war, neutrality was 
impossible. The State became a battleground, and Covington an 
armed camp, half its citizens Northern, half Southern, in sympathy 
and enlistment. Actual warfare, however, came only as close to Cov- 
ington as Morgan's and Kirby Smith's raids in north-central Kentucky. 

One threatened raid, however, had beneficial after-effects. When 
a detachment of Kirby Smith's men was detailed to terrorize the Cin- 
cinnati region, Gen. Lew Wallace declared martial law in Cincinnati, 
Newport, and Covington, and laid a pontoon of coal barges across the 
Ohio so Cincinnati troops could hurry over to Covington and help 
build earthworks on the southern border of the town. The Con- 
federates skirmished with a few pickets, and then withdrew. 

The pontoon bridge, however, had proved its value. After the War, 
work on the Suspension Bridge was resumed, and this solid symbol of 
commercial and political union between North and South was com- 


pleted in 1866. During the years that followed, new industries, such 
as brewing, yeast making, and distilling were established and old ones, 
such as the manufacture of tobacco products, were enlarged. Real 
estate boomed phenomenally. In 1870, although the taxable value of 
the city's property was 700 percent greater than it had been 30 years 
before, suburbs were laid out rapidly and many newcomers settled in 
new homes. All this growth was stunted, however, by the panic of 

Covington aroused itself quickly following the panic years. By the 
end of the decade the present Federal Building was completed. During 
the next few years the Maysville and Big Sandy Railroad came through 
from Ashland, and in 1888 a bridge was built across the Ohio River. 
In 1899 the. city waterworks (in Fort Thomas) was completed. In 
the 1890's the chamber of commerce was organized; an electric power 
and light plant built; and the streetcar system, acquired by Cleveland 
capitalists, fitted with single-trolley electric cars. 

During this long middle period, characterized industrially by the 
establishment of "one man" shops, the genius of Covington flowered. 
John G. Carlisle and William Goebel grew to national stature polit- 
ically; Archbishop Maes inaugurated the construction of huge St. 
Mary's Cathedral; and Frank Duveneck painted murals in Covington 
homes. When the twentieth century arrived, Dan Beard, raised in 
Covington on the banks of the Licking, began his program of young 
character building by helping to found the Boy Scouts of America. 

As the Nation emerged from the depression-ridden 1890's, Coving- 
ton industry expanded. The "one man" businesses grew into small but 
substantial industrial concerns. The outstanding Covington example 
of this change is the firm that supplies X-ray equipment to hospitals 
and to private manufacturing industries. Another company that grew 
up within the last 40 years, makes the machinery that wraps razor 
blades and other goods into small packages. Still another builds cell 
blocks for prisons. Many more produce specialties such as signs, 
ornamental fences, locks and safes, and a host of other things not 
subject to mass production. In addition, several packing houses, mill- 
ing establishments, distilleries and breweries, brick and tile works, 
tobacco warehouses, and rope-making plants are in the city. 

From time to time the Ohio and the Licking Rivers have overrun 
their banks and pillaged Covington. The flood of 1832 taught a 
lesson that was not well learned, for the floods of 1883 and 1884 
brought great ruin and that of January 1937 was even worse. Two- 
thirds of the business section was submerged. Lights and power were 
shut off, transportation was at a standstill, and schools were closed. 
Hospitals were badly damaged, but their staffs worked on heroically. 
Property loss ran into the millions. By summer of 1937, however, 
debris had been cleared away and buildings repaired, and the city was 
back to normal. Immediate help was given by the American Red 
Cross, and Covington citizens quickly rehabilitated their homes and 
business places. 



1. SUSPENSION BRIDGE (tolls 10$ and 15$; pedestrians 2$) 
across the Ohio River, N. end of Court Ave., connects Covington with 
Cincinnati. Designed and built by John A. Roebling of New York, 
and completed at a cost of $1,871,000 in 1866, this is the first of 
America's great suspension bridges. It is 36 feet wide and 2,252 feet 
long, and its towers are 100 feet high. 

and Riverside Drive, is a small square of landscaped ground on the 
Ohio River bank, from which the Cincinnati waterfront seems but a 
stone's throw away. Near the alleyway that runs behind the park is 
the SITE OF THE THOMAS KENNEDY HOUSE, marked by a boulder and 
inscribed plaque. Kennedy operated a ferry across the river and was 
a congenial host in the stone tavern, called Kennedy's Ferry, which 
he erected here in 1801. 

3. The CARNEAL HOUSE, now the ROTHIER HOME (private), 
405 E. 2nd St., was built in 1815 by Thomas D. Carneal, of Coving- 
ton and Ludlow. The two-story mansion, set above the street level, 
is designed in the late Georgian Colonial manner, with such Italian 
Renaissance detail as the loggias that break the wide front of the 
structure on the first and second stories. The main doorway is a fine 
example of the Georgian Colonial style, but the door itself is of a later 
date. Tradition says that Carneal aided Negroes to escape by giving 
them asylum in his home and helping them to cross the Ohio into free 
territory. Eliza, heroine of Uncle Tom's Cabin, is said to have been 
aided in this way. 

3rd St., a comfortable two-story brick residence dating from the mid- 
nineteenth century, bears a plaque on the side facing Licking River 
stating that here lived, in his boyhood, the founder of the Boy Scouts 
of America. As a boy Beard (b. 1850) consorted with the soldiers at 
Newport Barracks. Later he became well acquainted with stories and 
legends of Kentucky pioneer life, and formed a band called the Sons 
of Daniel Boone. The youngsters took oath and named themselves 
for Boone, Kenton, and other noted pioneers. They became adept at 
making dugout canoes, brush shelters, and other woodcraft necessities. 
When Sir Robert Baden-Powell formed the Boy Scouts of England in 
1908, he made use of Beard's plan of organization. In 1910, when 
the Boy Scouts of America was incorporated, Beard merged the Sons 
of Daniel Boone with the Boy Scouts. Today (1939) the American 
branch of the world-wide organization, of which Beard is still an active 
member, has an enrollment of about a million and a half. 

5. The JOHN W. STEVENSON HOME (private), 318-320 Gar- 
rard St., built about 1820, is a two-story brick structure fronted by a 
portico of white fluted columns. The large windows have the original 


mullioned panes. The house is connected by a large brick tunnel with 
a private home at Seventh and Garrard Streets. According to local 
tradition, a second tunnel once ran from a mansion on Second Street 
up along the river bank into the backyard of the Stevenson home. 
Beneath the house and in the yard are huge subterranean cellars, with 
thick brick walls, said to have been used for concealing slaves during 
the War between the States. Stevenson was Governor of Kentucky 
from 1867 to 1871. 

6. The CLAYTON HOUSE (private), 528 Greenup St., a story- 
and-a-half white frame structure built of ship's timbers, was put up 
in 1839 by John W. Clayton, and is now the residence of his grand- 
daughter. During the War between the States it housed a private 
school, kept by Clayton's daughter, among whose pupils was Frederick 
D. Grant, son of Gen. U. S. Grant. 

NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM (open 1-3 weekdays, 1-6 Sun.), 
620 Greenup St., are housed in simple brick buildings adapted to edu- 
cational work. The dual organization is the result of two gifts to the 
city of Covington. Margaretta W. Hunt provided in her will for the 
establishment of the foundation (1931), and Archie J. Williams gave 
the rare insects he collected in the course of wide travels and research. 
The foundation offers after-school classes in the arts and crafts for 
adults and children. 

The Natural History Museum, which includes the Williams' collec- 
tion and later accessions, has about 200,000 insect specimens and 
more than 5,000 natural history volumes, including what is said to be 
the largest collection of books on insects. Kentucky plant and animal 
life is particularly well represented. 

8. COVINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), SE. 
corner Robbins St. and Scott Blvd., established through an act of the 
Kentucky legislature in 1898, was inadequately housed in a room on 
Seventh Street until a gift by Andrew Carnegie made possible the 
present two-story concrete building (1901). The library has about 
50,000 volumes for adults and 15,000 for children, and a great deal of 
miscellaneous Kentuckiana. In the building is an auditorium seating 
750 persons. 

Ave. between llth and 12th Sts., is the seat of the Diocese of Coving- 
ton. The plan of the nave, transept, and apse, designed by Leon 
Coquard, begun in 1895 and finished in 1900, follows that of the 
Abbey of St. Denis, France; while the fagade, designed by David 
Davis in 1908 and completed two years later, is patterned after that 
of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. The bas-relief above the 
main portal is Clement J. Barnhorn's portrayal of the Ascension of the 
Blessed Virgin. The two front towers (now 128 feet high, eventually 
to be 180) are surmounted by gargoyles. 

Within the massive hand-tooled doors tall graceful columns line the 

Suspension Bridge 

3eorge Rogers Clarlc Memorial Pork 

^arneal House 

Jan Carter Beard Boyhood Home 

lohn W. Stevenson Home 

Dayton House 

taker Hunt Foundation ond.Willioms 

Natural History Museum 

^ovington Public Library 

>t. Mary's Roman Catholic Cathedral 

: rank Duveneck Birthplace 

.inden Grove Cemetery 

.atonia Race Track 

Mother ol God Cemetery 

Monte Casino 

Devou Park 

3oebel Pork 

<elley-Koett Manufacturing Plant 

Kenton Tobacco Warehouse 




aisles. Among the high windows of the nave and apse, that in the 
north wall, 24 by 67 feet, depicts the Coronation of the Virgin, the 
Council of Ephesus, and the Fathers of the Church, in stained and 
leaded glass. 

The mosaics on the Stations of the Cross are the work of Italian 
artisans. The pulpit, altar, and other wooden fixtures were hand- 
tooled by Swiss craftsmen. In the right end of the transept is the 
Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, on the walls of which are three 
frescoes by Frank Duveneck, Covington-born artist. Divided into 
three parts like the medieval triptych, these frescoes have as their 
central theme Christ's sacrifice on Calvary, and on either side are 
shown priests of the Old and the New Law. 

10. The FRANK DUVENECK BIRTHPLACE (private), 1226 
Greenup St., is a simple frame house marked by a plaque. Duveneck 
(1848-1919) worked for several local church decorators and later 
studied art in Munich. In 1875 he exhibited a group of sensational 
paintings in Boston, and became famous in this country overnight. 
After his wife died at Florence, Italy, in 1888, Duveneck came to 
Cincinnati to teach at the Art Academy, and became the dean of Ohio 
Valley artists. As teacher and exemplar, Duveneck was one of the 
pioneers of modern American art. He executed the murals in St. 
Mary's Cathedral as a gift in memory of his mother. Some of his 
paintings are on the walls of the State Historical Museum (Old 
Capitol) in Frankfort. The best collection is in the Cincinnati Art 
Museum, to which Duveneck donated a large group of his works in 

11. LINDEN GROVE CEMETERY, Holman St. between 13th and 
15th Sts., one of Covington's oldest burial grounds, contains graves of 
men who fought in the Revolution and in all wars of the United States. 
Toward the rear of the main driveway (R), a simple stone marks the 
GRAVE OF JOHN GRIFFIN CARLISLE, Secretary of the Treasury under 
Cleveland. Carlisle, who was born in Kenton County in 1835, dis- 
tinguished himself as a lawyer, State legislator, Lieutenant Governor, 
Congressman, and Speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1893 
Cleveland selected him as a member of his cabinet, and his efforts to 
avert the panic of that year won him wide acclaim. 

12. LATONIA RACE TRACK (gate open the year around), S. end 
Latonia Ave., opened in 1883 by the Latonia Agricultural Association, 
is one of the great running tracks of America, second in Kentucky only 
to Churchill Downs, home of the Kentucky Derby. The spring-summer 
racing season follows the May meet at Churchill Downs with a 31 -day 
schedule. A similar late fall schedule succeeds the autumn season at 
Churchill Downs. The Latonia Oaks, Latonia Cup, and Latonia Cham- 
pionship stakes are among the regular events, but the greatest attrac- 
tion is the Latonia Derby, a mile-and-a-quarter event carrying an 
added purse of $15,000. Latonia has been dubbed "Death Valley" 
by some Kentucky "hard boots" (chronic backers of Kentucky horses) 
because they believe the best of horses are beaten here. 


13. MOTHER OF GOD CEMETERY, 27th St. and Latonia Ave., 
is the resting place of many who have brought fame to Covington. 
The GRAVE OF FRANK DUVENECK, marked by a rose-colored granite 
tomb, is to the right of the driveway, near the center of the grounds. 

14. MONTE CASINO (open all hours), off Highland Pike (entered 
over a twisting road), is a two-story gray brick building, constructed 
about 1850, on a farm owned and rented out by the Benedictine 
Fathers of St. Vincent Archabbey, Latrobe, Pa. The building was a 
family residence before the War between the States. The estate once 
contained a vineyard yielding grapes for the sacramental Benedic- 
tine and Red Rose wines produced by Brothers of the Order of St. 
Benedict. Wine making by the brothers and their hired help was 
begun soon after this property was bought, and continued until Pro- 
hibition in 1919. The brothers then returned to Latrobe. 

About 1878 Brother Albert Soltis, for his private devotions, erected 
what is widely referred to as the TINIEST CHAPEL IN THE WORLD (ac- 
commodating only three persons), in front of the home atop the cliff. 
Except for the wood in the door, window casing, and sash, and the 
glass in the one small leaded window, it is entirely of native limestone. 
The interior is decorated with religious emblems. 

15. DEVOU PARK, entrance Western Ave. between 6th and 7th 
Sts., donated to the city in 1910, is a 550-acre rolling wooded park 
that looks down from the Knobs directly upon Covington, Ludlow, and 
the Ohio River. Thirty miles of bridle path, athletic and picnic 
grounds, and a lake, public golf course, target range, and natural 
amphitheater are distributed among the hills and valleys. From LOOK- 
OUT POINT Cincinnati's western and northern hills and its downtown 
office buildings appear above the smoke and fog that often hang over 
this populous section of the Ohio Valley. 

16. GOEBEL PARK, SW. corner 5th and Philadelphia Sts., is a 
14-acre civic recreation center purchased about 1906 from the late 
Gov. William Goebel. It has swimming pools, baseball and football 
grounds, and a shelter house. Band concerts, furnished by the city 
throughout the summer, are attended weekly by thousands. 

permission), 212 W. 4th St., is one of the world's largest producers of 
X-ray equipment. During the years when Roentgen was developing 
the X-ray, a Virginia boy, John Robert Kelley, was experimenting 
with methods for its use. He came to Covington and became ac- 
quainted with Albert B. Koett, who backed him financially. This 
partnership was the basis for a concern (1903) that supplies X-ray 
apparatus to industrial and clinical laboratories throughout the world. 

18. KENTON TOBACCO WAREHOUSE (open during winter 
sales season, Dec.-Feb.), SW. corner 2nd St. and Scott Blvd., one of 
the largest loose-leaf tobacco warehouses in northern Kentucky, covers 
more than a city block. It is a typical one-story brick structure 


equipped to handle the tobacco that the growers haul here to be sold. 
Sales begin on or about the first of December and continue through 


Fort Thomas Military Reservation, 5 m. (see Tour 3). 


Railroad Station: Union Station, Ann St. and Broadway, for Louisville & Nash- 
ville R.R., Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Frankfort & Cincinnati Ry. 
Bus Station: Ann and Main Sts. for Greyhound and Nunelly Lines. 
Local Buses: Fare 10^. Service from downtown to all residential districts, inclu- 
sive of New Capitol. 

Taxis: 25$ to any point in city; $1 an hour with a 10-mile maximum distance. 
Traffic Regulations: No right turn on red lights. Restricted parking areas so 
marked. Two hours parking on unmarked streets. 

Accommodations: Three hotels. Convenient, reasonably priced rooming houses 
open to tourists. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Capital Hotel. 
Motion Picture Houses: Four. 

Fishing: Forks of Elkhorn (see Tour 9), 4 m., for bass. 
Baseball: Hoge-Montgomery Park, State 37, 1 m. N. 

FRANKFORT (504 alt., 11,626 pop.), capital of Kentucky, lies 
within the S-loops of the Kentucky River as it thrusts first against the 
eastern and then against the western bluffs that border its deep and 
narrow valley. Upon the alluvial plain, through which meanders the 
navigable stream, stands the city, separated by the river into north 
and south sides which are connected by three bridges. 

The north side embraces the older residential section of the city, the 
Old Capitol, and the downtown business section. The south side, 
chiefly residential, is expanding southward to and beyond the New 
Capitol, that lifts its dome high above the roofs and spires of the town. 
To the eastward, beyond the city limits, where US 60 traverses the 
rolling Bluegrass highland, an addition is steadily extending the urban 
area, which, inclusive of the overflow of population beyond the borders 
of the city proper, covers approximately four square miles. 

Along Main Street and the intersecting business streets, old buildings 
of brick and stone, having the impression of earlier generations, are in- 
terspersed with substantial and imposing modern structures. Loungers 
and passers-by represent a cross-section of every phase of Kentucky life. 

For a portion of each year politics dominates the scene, and Frank- 
fort is then the gathering place of legislators and of others materially 
interested in legislation. Year in and year out the city is the home of 
a fluctuating group of officeholders and State employees. 

Workers, white and Negro, from the factories within the city and 
from the distilleries in its environs, throng the streets on holidays or 
when the work of the day is over, and farmers from the rich agricul- 
tural lands in the vicinity come in, especially on Saturdays, to do their 
trading. At such times the city assumes the air of an old-fashioned 
country town, its streets filled with a leisurely moving crowd, colorful, 



chattering, parcel-laden. Daily, among all these, move men and women 
whose traditions root deeply in the past, who live on quiet streets, in 
old houses rich in history. 

It is probable that Christopher Gist was the first white man to view 
the lovely valley in which Frankfort lies; his journal tells of being in 
this region in 1751. More than twenty years later, in 1773, Governor 
Dunmore of Virginia sent a survey party into the West to look into 
the land; Robert McAfee and his group surveyed and claimed some 
600 acres, including the site of the present Capitol. In the following 
year land-hungry adventurers accepted the opportunity, and "squatted" 
in miserable shelters on the land, seeking thus to get by the law which 
required "settlement and improvement." The Indians were not slow 
to sense the menace. Shawnee, Miami, Delaware and Wyandotte 
went on the warpath, murdering and burning at large. So grave was 
the situation that Virginia was compelled to send militia and "Regulars" 
to restore peace and protect the settlers, Lord Dunmore himself head- 
ing one regiment. 

In 1773 Hancock Taylor had surveyed, in behalf of Robert McAfee, 
lands that are now within the downtown section of the north side. 
The following year it was discovered that the McAfee claim, always 
shadowy, had lapsed, and Humphrey Marshall, while working as at- 
torney for the estate of Francis McConnell, secured a grant from the 
Province of Virginia. The McConnell heirs considered this a breach 
of trust and a lawsuit resulted, which the court settled by giving the 
heirs half the profits Marshall had realized from his title to the land. 
Prior to the settlement of this suit, known as Patrick vs. Marshall, Gen. 
James Wilkinson, friend of Washington and one time commander of 
American armies in the West, later involved in the Burr conspiracy, 
purchased the lands from Marshall for the present-day equivalent of 
$433. This purchase, made in 1786, gave Wilkinson a not-too-clear 
title to the major portion of that part of Frankfort lying north of the 
river the downtown district. 

Wilkinson immediately set about organizing the new town. He se- 
cured passage of an act of the Virginia Legislature (1786) which set 
aside 100 acres as a town site, provided a ferry and fixed its rates. 
When he found the Kentucky River flooding parts of the city as 
planned, he put in a drainage system. The town as platted extended 
from the present site of the New Capital Hotel westward to the river, 
and from Fort Hill, the height that overlooks the north end of the city, 
to the old bridge connecting the downtown district with the south side. 
The name Frankfort was chosen by Wilkinson in memory of a pioneer 
who, some years earlier, had been shot by Indians, and whose surname, 
Frank, had already been given to a ford within the area chosen as the 
town site. By a slight change the name "Frank's Ford" became 
"Frankfort." Within this tract streets were laid out and named in 
honor of the general and his friends. Ann Street, running north and 
south on the west side of the New Capital Hotel was named for his 
wife, and Mero Street for the Spanish Governor General of the Prov- 


ince of Louisiana who was involved with Wilkinson and others in the 
historic Burr conspiracy. The name of Wapping Street, on which the 
post office is now, was suggested by a visiting Englishman, for a street 
in London famous in that day but now only a memory recorded in 
song. Other streets bear names familiar in early American history. 

Wilkinson visioned Frankfort as a port of the Bluegrass country, 
connected directly with the rising towns on the Ohio also with New 
Orleans, with the West Indies and with the Atlantic Coast. The ad- 
vent of steamboating encouraged these early ambitions, but the Lex- 
ington and Ohio railroad entered Frankfort in 1835, concentrating 
transfer and wholesale business at Ohio River points. Nevertheless 
the town prospered; tobacco, salt pork, skins, and hemp gave place in 
business importance to livestock and lumbering. About the middle of 
the nineteenth century Frankfort again became an important primary 
tobacco market but today the last tobacco-floor has disappeared. The 
vast timberlands of the upper Kentucky River and its tributaries made 
Frankfort a leading sawmill town during the period 1865-1900. The 
industry also has vanished, but furniture and shoe manufacturing, once 
incidental to lumbering and local Bluegrass livestock slaughtering, still 
survive. The accessibility and quality of the crystalline limestone of 
the adjacent bluffs, known as "Kentucky marble," not only provided 
the material out of which the statehouse was built in 1827-1830 (see 
Point of Interest No. 2), but for many of the earliest business build- 
ings and homes. The bluffs still furnish building stone for the more 
enduring structures, and materials for extensive road-building about 

June 1, 1792, Kentucky became the fifteenth State of the Union, and 
the first west of the Alleghenies. The first session of the legislature 
convened in Lexington on November 5, "to fix on a place for the per- 
manent seat of government." Five commissioners were appointed to 
consider applications from various points that included Ledgerwood's 
Bend, Delaney's Ferry, Petersburg, Louisville, Lexington, Danville and 
Leestown. The commissioners demanded a free site and the expense 
of erecting necessary buildings. December 5, Frankfort was adjudged 
to be "the most proper place" and on December 22 the legislature 
adjourned "to hold its next session in the house of Andrew Holmes, at 
Frankfort, on the Kentucky River." Holmes, in behalf of Frankfort, 
agreed to convey to the government: 

(a) For seven years, the house and tenement lately occupied by Gen. James 
Wilkinson; (b) Absolutely, the lots marked Public Ground, Nos. 58, 59, 68, 74, 
75, 79, 83, and 84; (c) Choice of 30 lots yet unsold, or alternate-choice of half 
of all the unsold lots, and if more space is requisite will lay off into half-acre lots 
50 acres more and convey one-half of them; (d) The rents of the warehouse for 
7 years; (e) 10 boxes 10 x 12 window glass, 1,500 Ibs. nails, 50 worth of locks and 
hinges, stone and scantling for building to an equivalent value, all delivered upon 
the Public Ground Or, in place of the latter, stone that will build 1,590 perches 
of wall in any part of Frankfort, and the use of Holmes's sawmill, carriage, wagon, 
and two good horses until a sufficiency of scantling for a statehouse is pro- 


cured, and the privilege of timber from any part of his tract; 2d, The bond, dated 
Aug. 9, 1792, of 8 citizens of Frankfort Harry Innes, Nat Sanders, Bennett Pem- 
berton, Benj. Craig, Jere Craig, Wm. Haydon, Daniel James, and Giles Samuel 
to pay to the commissioners $3,000 in specie (gold or silver). 

The choice of the little village on the Kentucky River midway be- 
tween the two, settled amicably, if not to their individual satisfaction, 
the claims of Lexington and Louisville, chief contenders for the Capitol 
site. The fact of its central location satisfied the remainder of the 
State for the time only, however. Twice the Capitol burned, 1815 
and 1824, and each time Frankfort's availability was challenged before 
the structure was rebuilt. 

Perhaps, when "Jim" Mulligan told in his ballad how politics were 
"the damnedest in Kentucky" he was thinking of Frankfort and the 
General Assembly. There, just the same, leaders have been developed 
and history made. As far back as 1811, a European traveler passing 
through Frankfort heard that the legislature was in session and thought 
he would drop in and look it over. "Backswoodsmen," he supposed, 
were less competent at such a game than their Eastern rivals. Thus 
he reports: "There was a silver-tongued orator speaking. . . . 'Gentle- 
men, we must have war with Great Britain War will ruin her com- 
merce Commerce is the apple of Britain's eye There we must gouge 
her!' " He was convinced of his error. 

Since 1825, when Lafayette was entertained here, the presence of 
the State Capitol has flavored the social life of Frankfort throughout 
the years. From all parts of Kentucky have come men and women to 
live beside its quiet streets and bring distinction to the city by their 
part in the shaping of State policies and development. The effect has 
been to develop a distinguished political and social atmosphere. Henry 
Clay, John J. Crittenden, Ninian Edwards, John G. Carlisle, John M. 
Harlan and many others have trained in Frankfort for the national 
scene. The social tone is quiet and somewhat reserved; a typically 
southern city where what one is takes precedence over what one has. 

The early settlers of Kentucky, notably those who left western Penn- 
sylvania about the time of the "Whisky Rebellion" (1791-1794), were 
acquainted with the methods employed in the British Isles in the dis- 
tilling of whisky. The low price of corn and wheat on western markets 
favored their conversion into whisky, a product that improved with 
age, and that was readily transportable. Out of this economic situa- 
tion developed "corn liquor" for which Kentucky is famous. From the 
Civil War era, Frankfort began the commercial development of its dis- 
tilleries at points near the city where flowing springs furnish limestone 
water, a prerequisite to a first-class product. During the prohibition 
era the distilleries about Frankfort, with one exception, were closed; 
they resumed operation on repeal (1933) of the Prohibition Amend- 

Only once, in 1862, has war invaded the peace of Frankfort. Bragg's 
Confederate forces swept northward out of Tennessee, seized the city, 


and set up a Confederate State Government. Before the ceremonies 
of installation had ended, the guns of the North were hammering from 
the crest of the bluffs west of town. The Confederates withdrew, and 
the new Governor, Richard J. Hawes, hastily retired to Lexington. 

The years of reconstruction and those that have followed have wit- 
nessed the modernization of the city, the development of its schools, the 
upbuilding of the newer section of the city adjacent to the New Capi- 
tol ; but the city as a whole retains the quiet charm of its earlier years. 
The Capital Bridge is the most recent of many civic improvements that 
include a modern system of public schools, an excellent hospital, play- 
grounds, and churches. 

The Ohio Valley Flood of 1937 brought great property loss to Frank- 
fort. The swollen Ohio formed a dam at the mouth of the Kentucky, 
causing that river to rise out of its banks; then torrential rains within 
the valley inundated the city, cut it in two parts, flooded cellars, inter- 
rupted light, gas, and water service, and swirled through the lower 
streets, carrying smaller homes and business houses off their founda- 
tions. The damage to properties, personal and civic, was estimated at 
$5,000,000. Within the State Reformatory, one of the oldest penal in- 
stitutions in the Nation, the water rose to a depth of six feet, and the 
inmates were evacuated to the heights on the east side of town. Later, 
steps were taken for the abandonment of the old stone-walled enclosure 
for a less restricted and more healthful site near LaGrange. 


1. The NEW CAPITOL (open 9-5 weekdays), S. end of Capitol 
Ave., encircled by a broad drive, stands within an extensive grassy 
plot on a gentle slope overlooking the Kentucky River. The main, or 
north, entrance is approached from Capitol Avenue by a walk and 
flights of steps that accentuate the elevation of the building above the 
surrounding area. The superstructure, gleaming white in the sun, is of 
Bedford stone on a high granite base. Surrounding the lower story is 
a broad paved terrace with balustrade. Designed with majestic sym- 
metry, the exterior is adorned with Ionic colonnades, entablature and 
crowning balustrade; its simple rectangular lines are broken only by 
the massive pedimented central section and smaller end pavilions. 
The dominant feature of the exterior is the high central dome, raised 
on a graceful Ionic peristyle, or drum, and crowned with a slender lan- 
tern cupola. 

The designer of the richly sculptured pediment, above the north 
entrance, was Charles Henry Niehaus, of New York. It was executed 
by Peter Rossack, of Austria. Frank M. Andrews was the architect of 
the building completed in 1909 at a cost of $1,820,000. 

Beyond the vestibule, where visitors register and guides are provided, 
is the central corridor. The floors are of Tennessee marble, the wain- 


scoting and pilasters of Georgia marble; monolithic Vermont granite 
columns, 36 in number, ornament the interior. Among the paintings 
that adorn the interior are the LUNETTES in the east and west ends of 
the corridor. These murals, executed by T. Gilbert White, of Michigan, 
portray events in the early history of Kentucky. 

On the first floor, directly beyond the vestibule and beneath the mas- 
sive dome, is the HALL OF FAME, where stand four memorials to noted 
Kentuckians. In the center is a bronze figure of Abraham Lincoln by 
A. A. Weinmann. Nearby is the statue of Jefferson Davis, President 
of the Confederacy, the work of Frank Hibbard, and a plaster facsimile 
of C. H. Niehaus' marble statue of Henry Clay, the conciliator. A 
marble statue of Dr. Ephraim McDowell, by Niehaus, honors the great 
pioneer in the field of abdominal surgery. 

The chambers of the senate and the house of representatives are on 
the third floor. Visitors are admitted to the galleries when the legis- 
lature is in session. 

On the grounds of the Capitol, and overlooking the Kentucky River, 
is the EXECUTIVE MANSION, residence of Kentucky's Governors. It 
harmonizes in architectural detail with the Capitol. 

2. OLD CAPITOL (open 9-12, 1-4:30 weekdays), St. Clair St. and 
Broadway. Twice, in the early days of statehood, the Capitol burned. 
The edifice, now known as the "Old Capitol," is an excellent example of 
the Greek Revival style of architecture, and first of the many notable 
buildings designed by Kentucky's early-day architect, Gideon Shryock. 
It was built (1827-1830) out of the native rock of the bluffs of the 
Kentucky River. This rock, a durable white limestone, was sawn at 
nearby quarries, and the timbers were hewn out of the native forest. 
The entire cost of this statehouse that served the State for eight decades 
was $95,000. 

Set into the concrete walk to the portico is a bronze tablet that marks 
the spot where, in 1900, William Goebel, contender for the governor- 
ship, fell, shot by an assassin whose identity never has been divulged. 
Three days later Goebel died, after having been proclaimed Governor 
by the legislature then in session. He was succeeded in office by 
Lieutenant-Governor J. C. W. Beckham. At once a number of sus- 
pects were apprehended and put on trial. One turned State's evidence 
whereat three were convicted; Secretary of State Caleb Powers was 
given the death penalty. In course of time all were pardoned and 
Powers was later sent to Congress. 

The front fagade of the building is dominated by a hexastyle portico 
of the Ionic order. The columns, each four feet in diameter and 33 
feet high, carry the weight of the massive, severely plain pediment. 
The walls and stone window casings are also unadorned. Above the 
copper roof rises the cupola, a pedestal 25 feet square, on which stands 
a circular lantern 22 feet in diameter, surmounted by a dome. Inside 
the great double doors are floors of "Kentucky marble," polished and 
mellowed in color by more than a century of use. A broad corridor 
extends back to the rotunda beneath the dome, where a transverse cor- 


1. New Capitol 

2. Old Capitol 

3. Liberty Hall 

4. Frankfort Cemetery 

5. State Arsenal 

6. Capital Bridge 

7. State Industrial Insti- 




ridor leads to exits on either side of the building. On the right of the 
entrance are the offices of the STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY (open 9-12, 
1-4:30 weekdays), custodian of a rich collection of Kentuckiana. Left 
is the LIBRARY (open 9-12, 14:30 weekdays), a treasure-house of Ken- 
tucky history. 

From the main floor to the balcony rises the beautifully executed 
double stairway of self-supporting stones designed by Shryock. In its 
construction the architect made free use of the principles that govern 
the construction and support of the Roman arch. 

On the second floor are the large, simply-designed rooms where the 
houses of the legislature met. These two rooms have collections of 
historic value. On the walls of the building hang paintings that recall 
the history of the State from earliest days. Among these is Oliver 
Frazer's copy of Stuart's Washington, the Historical Society's most 
valued possession. 

3. LIBERTY HALL (open 9-5 weekdays, adm. 25$), 218 Wilkinson 
St., was originally the home of John Brown, first United States Senator 
from Kentucky, who, with his family, occupied it in 1796. Since that 
time until 1937, when it was taken over by the State, it remained in 
possession of his heirs. It stands in the corner of a large lawn and 
garden that extends back to the river. Late Georgian Colonial in 
architecture, it is simple and dignified in its lines. A short walk leads 
from the street to an entrance above which rises a fine Palladian win- 
dow. Within the entrance a broad hall opens on either side into spa- 
cious, high-ceilinged rooms, heated by huge fireplaces. Mantels and 
other interior woodwork are hand-carved. 

At the rear of the main hall a stairway rises to the second floor where 
in early days a large ballroom was the scene of many entertainments. 
The remainder of this story was originally divided into guest rooms and 
sleeping rooms for the family; it is now somewhat altered. In the attic 
and in the great basement, other rooms provided space for the liberal 
entertainment that was part of the family scheme of living. Monroe, 
Lafayette, William Henry Harrison, Jackson, Taylor, "Teddy" Roose- 
velt, among others, were entertained in this home. The furnishings are 
the former personal possessions of the Brown family. A portrait, by 
Gilbert Stuart, of one of the members of the family hangs on a down- 
stairs wall. The piano and some music that belonged to Margaretta, 
wife of the builder, remain. 

The area bounded by Wapping, Wilkinson, Washington and Main 
Streets is known as the CORNER OF CELEBRITIES. Brown owned the 
entire block on which Liberty Hall stands. For his son Orlando he 
built the house that stands on the opposite corner. Around this nucleus 
developed a remarkable neighborhood. During the five generations 
since the Browns first made their home in Frankfort, the little neigh- 
borhood has been the birthplace, or the later home, of two Justices of 
the Supreme Court, nine United States Senators, six Representatives, 
seven Ambassadors, and three Admirals of the United States Navy. 


Two other residents Marshall M. Bibb and John J. Crittenden 
served in the Federal Cabinet. 

4. FRANKFORT CEMETERY, E. Main St., lies along the edge 
of the bluff that overlooks Frankfort from the east. Within its rolling 
acres are the graves of distinguished Kentuckians. Near the entrance 
(R) is the GOEBEL MONUMENT, where is buried the man who in 1900 
was assassinated on the steps of the Old Capitol. 

At a point where the drive closely skirts the edge of the bluff (R), 
is the BOONE MEMORIAL. A footpath winds downward from the drive 
to the single grave beneath the trees where lie Daniel Boone and Re- 
becca Boone, first of the pioneers. The monolithic limestone memorial 
that stands above their grave was quarried from the Kentucky River 
cliffs at Boonesboro, where in 1775 Daniel helped establish the first 
seat of government in the West. On the four sides of the monolith are 
inset panels of Italian marble, representing scenes from the life of the 

After the settlement of' Kentucky began in earnest Boone, unfortu- 
nate in his business enterprises, moved his family into the wilderness 
west of the Mississippi which was then a Spanish possession. In 1820 
he died at the home of his son Nathan Boone, in the southern section 
of St. Charles County, Mo. In 1845 the Legislature of Kentucky 
brought his remains to Frankfort and erected the memorial. 

From the center of an oval plot, known as STATE CEMETERY, rises 
the tall Carrara marble shaft of the monument, dedicated by the State 
in 1850 to the memory of Kentuckians who fell in foreign wars. Sur- 
mounting the shaft is the figure of Victory designed by Robert E. 
Launitz of New York. He also executed the monument. The Victory 
and the four eagles seen at its feet were made in Italy from detail de- 
signs by Launitz. Inscriptions on the four sides of the shaft tell the 
part that Kentucky has played in the wars of the Nation. Encircling 
the base are the graves of soldiers whose remains were brought here 
from the battlefields of the Mexican War. 

Within the oval, just outside the circle of soldier dead, is the TOMB 
OF THEODORE O'HARA, citizen of Frankfort, editor, soldier of the 
Mexican War and of the War between the States. Engraved upon his 
tomb are verses from his ode, the Bivouac of the Dead, memorializing 
his comrades of the Mexican War. 

Beyond the O'Hara tomb, at the southern tip of the oval and screened 
by heavy foliage, is the COL. RICHARD M. JOHNSON TOMB. Johnson 
led the Kentucky troops who in 1813, at the Battle of the Thames, 
helped break the Indian power north of the Ohio. He is credited with 
killing Tecumseh, the Indian leader, in this battle. 

5. STATE ARSENAL (not open to public)^ E. Main St., at foot of 
hill, attracts attention by its commanding position, rather than from its 
size or style of architecture, which with its ornamental battlements and 
turrets is suggestive of the Tudor. It was erected in 1850 as a storage- 
house for equipment and materials belonging to the State Militia and 
it still serves that purpose. 


6. CAPITAL BRIDGE, E. Main St. and Capitol Ave., is dedicated 
to the memory of those who fell in the World War. It unites north 
and south Frankfort, crossing the Kentucky River at a level that assures 
uninterrupted highway communication in the event- of a flood similar to 
that of 1937, when all highway travel by way of Frankfort was sus- 

The area between Capital Bridge and the intersection of East Main 
and Ann Streets (L) is one of the oldest business blocks in the west. 
The STONE HOUSE, the first abutting the street on the left, was built 
by John Hampton, an early settler. A few doors beyond an old build- 
ing reveals itself as a clapboarded LOG HOUSE, one of the first in the 
growing village. First built as a home, it has served several uses since. 
The largest building in the row, formerly a livery stable, is used as a 
garage. The buildings between the old barn and the Ann Street corner 
are of the same early period. The great hewn timbers, doorways, win- 
dows, worn thresholds, chimneys, weathered siding between the build- 
ings all attest their age. At the southeast corner of Main and Ann 
Streets, a BRONZE MARKER attached to the Ann Street wall of the 
building tells that a few feet from the corner, and toward the river at 
a jog in the building line abutting the street, the first stake was driven 
of the original survey of the town site. 

7. STATE INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE (Kentucky Negro College), 
E. Main St. and City Limits, is a teachers' training school for Negroes. 
The plant is on a 35-acre campus overlooking the northwestern section 
of Frankfort and consists of six modern, well-equipped school build- 
ings, together with dormitories provided for students and faculty. A 
farm of 265 acres, owned and operated by the school, lies immediately 
south of the highway and serves as an out-of-doors laboratory for stu- 
dents in agriculture. It is equipped with barns, a silo, cattle and hog 
sheds, and a poultry building. Training for steam and electrical engi- 
neering, manual training, dressmaking and domestic science is stressed. 
Students also may receive a thorough training in teaching, for which 
purpose there are maintained elementary courses that any Negro child 
may attend. The institution possesses the finest library of Negro lit- 
erature in Kentucky. 

Under the laws of Kentucky white and Negro children are separately 
educated. Negro children receive training under Negro teachers. An 
impartial pro-rata division of school funds assures to children of both 
races their full share of school equipment and of teacher-service. To 
meet the demand so created with trained men and women, the State 
Industrial Institute was founded by an act of the legislature in 1886. 
The Negro illiteracy, estimated at 96 percent in the late 1860's, now 
averages 5 percent for the State as a whole. 



8. US LOCK 4, N. end of Kentucky Ave. (open), part of the engi- 
neering improvement by which the Kentucky River is made navigable. 

9. HEMP MILLS (Kentucky River Mills), Wilkinson St. extended, 
N. of City Limits. 

10. O.F.C. (Frank Stagg) DISTILLERY (open weekdays on appli- 
cation), Leestown Pike (Wilkinson St. extended), where Bourbon (corn) 
whisky is manufactured. 


Railroad Station: Depot and Office Sts., for Southern Ry. 

Bus Station: Main and Lexington Sts., adjoining post office, for Greyhound and 

Fleenor Lines. 

Taxis: 25^ within city limits; 10# per mile outside city. 

Accommodations: One hotel; inns, and tourist homes. 
Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, in Hotel Harrod. 
Motion Picture Houses: Two. 

Annual Events: Historical pageant, usually June 16; Mercer County Fair, last week 
in July; Fox Hound Show, second day of fair. 

HARRODSBURG (824 alt., 4,585 pop.), first permanent white set- 
tlement in Kentucky, is on a hill of the Bluegrass just west of the upper 
Kentucky River. 

Set on a lawn facing the main street, the Mercer County Courthouse 
lifts a white clock tower and cupola high over the countryside. Around 
it hurries the vigorous life of this tourist city. Along College Street 
old families live in homes designed in early nineteenth century styles. 

Around the city in all directions cluster horse farms, tobacco farms, 
and chicken farms with their distinctive houses in the southern planta- 
tion manner. 

Harrodsburg's fine homes and mineral springs are less cherished than 
the historic shrines assembled here in Pioneer Memorial State Park. 
Kentucky looks to Harrodsburg for reminders of long struggles dur- 
ing surveying and settlement; and great deeds of men like James Har- 
rod and George Rogers Clark are commemorated here. 

Early in 1773 Governor Dunmore of Virginia sent surveyors into 
Kentucky to survey public land, to be used in paying off veterans of 
the French and Indian War. One of these surveying parties, led by 
Thomas Bullitt and James Harrod, left Fort Pitt in the spring of 1773 
and descended the Ohio River to the mouth of the Kanawha. Here 
the party met the McAfee brothers Robert, William, James, and 
George who had left Virginia on a similar mission. The two parties 
joined forces and continued down the Ohio River to Big Bone Lick, 
where they camped July 4 and 5. On July 7 they separated. Bullitt 
and his followers went to the Falls of the Ohio where they laid out the 
site of Louisville. Harrod accompanied the McAfees up the Kentucky 
River beyond the present site of Frankfort, where they crossed over 
into the valley of the Salt River. At its headwaters they located two 
proposed settlements, one by James Harrod where Harrodsburg now 
stands, the other by the McAfees a few miles north. They then re- 



turned to Pennsylvania and Virginia to plan for a migration in the fol- 
lowing spring. 

Early in 1774 James Harrod and 31 other men returned to the site 
of Harrodsburg. On June 16, 1774, a settlement called Harrodstown 
was laid out near Boiling Springs, three miles east of the later Harrod's 
Fort. A half-acre town lot and a 10-acre out-lot were assigned to each 
man. All the men took shares, but only five or six cabins were built 
that summer. 

On July 20, 1774, while resting near a spring, four Harrodstown men 
were fired on from the underbrush. One was killed. Two fled through 
the woods to the Ohio River; they went down the Mississippi to New 
Orleans, and took ship for Philadelphia. The fourth ran to the settle- 
ment and told of the attack. 

The Indians were on the warpath! Early that summer they attacked 
surveyors and settlers north of the Ohio River, and Lord Dunmore sent 
Daniel Boone and Michael Stoner to order the return of Kentucky sur- 
veyors until the Indian war was over. By the end of 1774 the cabins 
at Harrodstown were deserted and few white men remained in Ken- 

While Daniel Boone, in the employ of the Transylvania Company, 
was blazing the trail across the mountains to the site of Boonesboro, 
James Harrod and 30 men in March 1775 occupied cabins built the 
previous year. On higher ground they constructed a palisaded village. 
It was a defensive arsenal and fortified town, the residents serving as 
a garrison ready to protect settlers living on the outside. Women and 
children arrived in September 1775. 

Late in the summer of that year, James Ray, a boy of 16, was hunt- 
ing near the fort. He had just killed and roasted a blue-winged duck 
when a "soldierly looking" man stepped from the forest. The boy 
offered to share his duck. "The man seemed starved and ate all of it," 
Ray said later. The stranger asked a great many questions about the 
settlement, and Ray offered to lead him to the fort. In this way, ac- 
cording to old accounts, George Rogers Clark introduced himself to 
Harrodstown (later Harrodsburg), and became its leader. 

Besides the usual pioneer troubles, Harrodstown settlers soon faced 
the problem of proving title to their land. The Transylvania Company 
claimed a large tract of Kentucky land through purchase from the 
Cherokee. The company attempted to exert authority over the terri- 
tory settled by Harrod and others. Clark called a meeting of the set- 
tlers in June 1776. The settlers authorized Clark and Gabriel Jones 
to go to Virginia to re-establish their claims. 

The two men set out over the Wilderness Trail, but in the Cumber- 
land foothills were halted by an acute case of "scaldfeet." They were 
delayed just long enough to prevent their arrival at Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia, before adjournment of the assembly. Clark went to Governor 
Henry, who gave him a letter of approval to the council of state. The 
council offered to lend him 500 pounds of powder if he would defend 
and settle the country across the mountains. Clark refused, saying that 


a country not worth claiming is not worth protecting. Clark was then 
given the powder, with the assurance that Virginia would back him. 

As Clark returned to Kentucky he was hotly pursued by Indians 
along the Kentucky River and was forced to land^at Limestone (now 
Maysville) to hide the powder. On the way to Harrodsburg he met 
a group of surveyors. They returned to the powder cache, recovered 
the explosive, and took it to Harrodsburg. Clark evidently conceived 
the idea of attacking the British in the northern territory either before 
or while he was at Harrodsburg, for he obtained permission from Gov. 
Patrick Henry to attack wherever he thought advisable. 

Throughout the Revolutionary War, Harrodsburg was the seat of 
Kentucky County, which was organized in December 1776. According 
to the census, the town had a population of 198 persons, of whom 81 
were eligible for military duty. The first court held in Kentucky con- 
vened January 16, 1781, in the blockhouse at Harrodsburg. One of the 
first cases tried was that of Hugh McGary, charged with playing the 
races. He was found guilty as charged, and the court proclaimed him 
"an infamous gambler . . . not [to] be eligible to any office of trust 
or honor within the State." 

Harrodsburg people were industrious and thrifty. In 1775 John 
Harman raised the first corn in Kentucky in a field at the east end of 
Harrodsburg. The first woolen mill and the first gristmill in the West 
were operated here, and pottery, plows, flour, and textiles were manu- 

The first school in the State was conducted within the fort in 1778. 
The teacher had no textbooks, and the children used smooth boards for 
paper and juice of ox galls for ink. They learned to write and read, 
and studied the Bible and hymnals. 

By 1800 the community was prosperous. Rich farm lands surround- 
ing the town encouraged cultivation of flax, hemp, tobacco, and other 
money crops. Harrodsburg's industries thrived. Then the development 
of roads to other Kentucky settlements and the coming of the steam- 
boat in 1811 shifted Kentucky's major trade routes. Harrodsburg fell 
back on agriculture, and developed a tourist trade at first because of 
its sulphur springs, later because of its historic interest. Harrodsburg 
was the summer resort of plantation owners in the Deep South, and 
Graham Springs alone is said to have had more than a thousand guests 
at one time. 

Despite its industrial collapse Harrodsburg so profited from tourist 
business and marketing that the period 1820-1860 was one of steady 
growth. Log cabins gave way to more genteel houses modeled after 
the mansions on the Potomac and James Rivers. Bacon College was 
removed from Georgetown to Harrodsburg in 1839, and remained here 
until destroyed by fire in 1864, when it was merged with Transylvania 
College at Lexington. Greenville Female College, later known as 
Daughters' College, now Beaumont Inn, began in 1840. In 1847 there 
were two female academies: one, under the management of the Chris- 


tian Church, enrolled 60 to 70 students; the other, under the care of 
the Presbyterian Church, 100 to 120 students. 

During this period many men of distinction were born or lived in 
Harrodsburg. Gabriel Slaughter (1818-20), John Adair (1821-24) 
(see History), and Beriah Magoffm (1859-62) became Governors of 
Kentucky; George S. Houston took the same high office in Georgia. 
John B. Thompson was a United States Senator (1853-59). William 
Marcus Linney (1835-87) was a pioneer Kentucky botanist and 

This era of prosperity was seriously interrupted by the War between 
the States. Nearly all nearby farmers were slave owners. Their slaves 
were liberated, their fields laid bare, their livestock and horses taken, 
and their estates impoverished. Property built up through three gen- 
erations passed into other hands. The family ownership of practically 
all the old homes of Harrodsburg can be traced back no further than 
1870, when the population was 2,200. 

In the decades that followed, rehabilitation and growth were slow. 
Competition from imported sisal and jute, because of practically no 
tariff protection, caused the hemp industry to fail. Prices of grain 
were uncertain, and tobacco gradually became the chief money crop. 
Little by little, farms restocked sheep and beef cattle, and by 1900 
Harrodsburg had regained some of its prosperity. 

During the last 30 years Harrodsburg has become the trade center of 
a farming region producing exceptional trotting horses, poultry, and 
white burley tobacco; its few industries operate on power furnished by 
the Dix Dam hydro-electric plant. Its tourist and resort trade is enor- 
mous. Throughout the warm season beginning in May, a number of 
people come from all parts of the country to "take the water" at its 
sulphur springs and visit its historic shrines. 


wick Sts., is a tract that occupies the site of Old Fort Harrod and 
its immediate environs. Before 1923 only a neglected graveyard 
marked the place and quarrying operations threatened the site. One 
of America's historic landmarks was going to ruin, and Kentucky citi- 
zens undertook to restore the fort and beautify the grounds. The old 
Taylor Mansion was acquired for a museum; Congress provided funds 
for the erection of the Clark Memorial; the Thomas Lincoln Marriage 
Cabin was set up in a building especially erected to house it; the pali- 
sades and fort buildings were reconstructed as nearly as possible like 
the originals. On November 16, 1934, President Franklin D. Roose- 
velt and Gov. Ruby Lafoon joined in dedicating the park. It is fenced 
by a brick wall on Warwick Street, and a gateway opens on a wide 
road running through a bluegrass lawn to a parking space at the foot 
of the memorial, the fort (directly in front), and the cemetery. 


OLD FORT HARROD (open 8-6 in summer; 8:30-6 in winter; adm. 
adults 25$, children 10$, including adm. to Mansion Museum), end of 
drive in the park, is a reconstruction of the original fort that occupied 
this site. It is 64 feet shorter than the 264-feet-square original. Block- 
houses at the southeast and southwest corners are connected by cabins 
with roofs sloping inward. The remainder of the enclosure is a pali- 
sade of upright logs 12 feet high. The outside chimneys are of clay- 
chinked logs set on stone foundations. In former times each cabin had 
a pole to push over the chimney in case it caught fire. The spring, 
still flowing, furnished sufficient water for the inhabitants. 

Within the cabins and blockhouses are pioneer relics homemade 
wooden utensils, hand-made furniture, crude agricultural tools, lanterns, 
dishes, spinning wheels, copper kettles, pioneer beds, and many other 
items preserved by descendants of early settlers. 

Within the fort is a reproduction of the FIRST SCHOOLHOUSE, where 
Mrs. William Coomes taught reading and writing to the children of the 

In this fort Ann McGirty operated the first spinning wheel in the 
West; John Lythe preached the Gospel; Squire Boone, brother of 
Daniel, walked about with a Bible in his hand; the first white child in 
Kentucky was born; and George Rogers Clark prepared to march into 
the Old Northwest. 

LINCOLN MARRIAGE TEMPLE, R. at Warwick St. entrance, is a red 
brick building, cruciform in plan, its 12 angles representing the 12 
Apostles. In the central tower is the bell, rung twice each year on 
the marriage anniversary of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and 
on the anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's death. The floor plan of the 
temple was suggested by an old Baptist church in the neighborhood 
where the pulpit was in the center of the church. The LINCOLN MAR- 
RIAGE CABIN stands where the pulpit would be ordinarily. It was re- 
moved from its original site in the Beech Fork Settlement, where 
Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks were married June 12, 1806. The 
cabin resembles the one in which Lincoln was born (see Tour 6). 

PIONEER CEMETERY, N. side of the park, oldest in the West, is the 
burial place of more than 500 early settlers and soldiers. Few names 
appear on the gravestones. A coffin-shaped stone, near the middle of 
the cemetery, marks the grave of the first white child who died in the 

GEORGE ROGERS CLARK MEMORIAL, SE. of entrance to the fort, is 
a heroic granite bas-relief, the money for which was appropriated by 
Congress. The central section shows Gen. George Rogers Clark stand- 
ing beside his horse. To the right is a young pioneer and an old one; 
to the left, a frontier soldier bids wife and child good-by. The memo- 
rial was designed and executed by Ulric Ellerhusen, sculptor, and 
Francis Keally, architect. In a granite stone, lying flat before the 
sculptured figures, is chiseled an illustrated map of the Northwest Ter- 


The MANSION MUSEUM (open 8-6 in summer; 8:30-6 in winter), 
Warwick and Poplar Sts., built by Maj. James Taylor in 1830, is a 
post-Colonial two-story brick house built close to the sidewalk. It was 
acquired by the Harrodsburg Pioneer Memorial Park Association in 

Portraits are hung around the front hallway. The Lincoln Room 
contains Lincolniana. The Confederate Room has battlefield relics and 
paintings and prints of many Southern leaders. The George Rogers 
Clark Room preserves prints and papers about Clark and his conquest. 
There is a collection of firearms in a room on the second floor. Next 
to it in the music room are many old instruments, some of them rare. 
In another room are old costumes, Indian relics, and historic books. 

The DOCTOR SHOP, Warwick St. S. of the main entrance, was dedi- 
cated in June 1924 by the Kentucky State Medical Association in 
memory of pioneer physicians. This small one-story brick building 
contains a museum of early medical books, surgical instruments, and 
pictures pertaining to the medical profession. 

GRAHAM SPRINGS (open), in the extreme SW. section of the city 
(roadway marked), is a mineral spring in a grove once occupied by a 
famous resort. The SPRING SHELTER is near the site of the old resort 
building burned during the War between the States. Wealthy Ken- 
tuckians and planters from the Deep South, accompanied by their 
slaves, menservants and maids, came here in great numbers during the 
years before the war. 

At the FAIRGROUNDS (adm. to fair 50$), adjoining Graham 
Springs, the Mercer County Fair Association holds its annual exhibits 
and meetings. The fair has agricultural and industrial displays com- 
mon to rural fairs, but emphasizes its horse shows, and has stables for 
300 show horses. The annual Fox Hound Show is held on the second 
day of the fair. 

MORGAN ROW (private), Chiles St. opposite Courthouse Square, 
is a compact series of four two-story brick buildings set flush with the 
street, constructed between 1807 and 1836. They are separated by fire 
walls that extend some distance above the roof level. Seven doors in 
the houses open on limestone steps leading down to the original brick 
sidewalk. At the north end of the row is a post-Colonial structure 
built by John Chiles, an innkeeper and stagecoach operator of the 
1830's. The buildings were operated by Chiles as an inn and as a 
rendezvous for gamblers. One of the doors still has the peephole used 
by the suspicious doorman. 

DIAMOND POINT (private), Price Ave. and College St., is a two- 
story Greek Revival brick home built in 1840. The deep Doric portico, 
with two central columns and corner pilasters, protects the long French 
windows and the richly carved doorway. Across the fagade extends an 
iron balcony with diamond-shaped tracery, one of the first of its kind 
in the State. 

BURFORD HILL (private), W. of cemetery at N. city line, is a 
one-and-a-half-story late Georgian Colonial house built in 1820. The 


original west wing was destroyed by lightning. The bricks, burned 
locally, are laid in Flemish bond. The arched, fanlighted doorway is 
protected by a small Doric portico topped with a steep pediment. The 
gable roof is broken by small dormers. 

AVALON INN, Main, Maxwell, and Chiles Sts., was originally the 
home of a Presbyterian academy for girls. In the Main Street fagade 
four massive Doric columns rise two stories to support an entablature 
and cornice which carry out the Greek Revival design even to the 
dentils, triglyphs, and simple metopes. The doorway, with rectangular 
side lights and transom, is severely plain. 

CLAY HILL (private), Beaumont Ave., late Georgian Colonial in 
style, was built in 1812 by Beriah Magoffin, father of the Kentucky 
Governor (1859-62) of the same name. This two-story brick structure 
with one-story wings is noted for its handsome carved mantels and the 
loggia in the rear. 

BEAUMONT INN (open), Danville St. near the city line, is a Greek 
Revival brick building erected by John Augustus Williams in 1845, and 
was for some years the home of Daughters' College. Six tapering Ionic 
columns of the impressive entrance portico support a plain entablature. 


McAfee Station, 8 m. (see Tour 5). Old Mud Meeting House, 3 m.; Shaker- 
town, 8 m.; Herrington Lake, 11 m.; Perryville Battlefield, 12.4 m.; High Bridge, 
16.4 m. (see Tour 15). 


Railroad Stations: Union Station, Broadway and 10th St., for Louisville & Nash- 
ville R.R., Pennsylvania R.R., and Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville R.R. (Monon 
Route). Central Station, N. 7th St. and Ohio River, for Baltimore & Ohio R.R., 
Chesapeake & Ohio R.R., New York Central R.R., Illinois Central R.R., and 
Southern Ry. 

City Ticket Offices: Starks Bldg. Arcade, 4th and Walnut Sts., for all railroads. 
Bus Stations: Union Bus Depot, Sth and Broadway, for Greyhound, Blue and 
White, Chaudoin (Carrollton division), Meadors & Allen Lines; 403 S. 3rd St. for 
Blue Motor Coach Lines; 240 W. Jefferson St. for Chaudoin Bus Lines, all divi- 
sions; 502 S. 3rd St., Interstate Bridge Transit Co. (inter-city) for Jeffersonville, 

Airport: Bowman Field (Municipal), Taylorsville Rd. E. of Bon Air Ave., 5 m. 
from business section, for American and Eastern Air Lines. (Ticket ofhce, Ken- 
tucky Hotel.) 

Taxis: Separate systems for white and Negro patrons, 15^ for the first % m., $$ 
for each additional % m.; maximum capacity for a single cab 4 passengers. 
Streetcars and Buses: Fare 10^ or three tokens for 25^; transfers interchangeable. 
Toll Bridges: Kentucky and Indiana Terminal R.R. Bridge (Louisville to New 
Albany, Ind.), 31st St. and Western Parkway (US 31 W and US ISO, Ind. 63, and 
Ind. 64), toll 25^ for vehicles and all passengers; 5^ for each pedestrian; Municipal 
Bridge (Louisville to Jeffersonville, Ind.), 2nd and Main Sts. (US 31 E and US 
150, Ind. 60 and Ind. 62), toll 25^ for vehicle and all passengers, 5^ for each pedes- 

Traffic Regulations: Strictly enforced. Right turns against a red light may be 
made from curb lane after a full stop anywhere outside the area between S. 1st and 
S. 6th Sts., from Broadway to the river. Left turns in the downtown area only 
at intersections indicated by large signs painted on the street. U-turns prohibited 
at intersections and boulevards, on through streets, and in central traffic district. 
Hand signals required. Pedestrians observe traffic lights. 

Street Order and Numbering: Main St. divides the city's N. and S. street number- 
ing, and 1st St. the E. and W. numbering. 

Accommodations: Forty-one hotels (three for Negroes) ; many boarding houses and 
tourist homes. During week of Kentucky Derby rates are much higher. 

Information Service: Louisville Board of Trade, Lincoln Bank Bldg., 421 W. Mar- 
ket St., Louisville Automobile Club (AAA), 800 S. 3rd St. 

Radio Stations: WHAS (820 kc.) ; WAVE (940 kc.) ; WGRC (1370 kc.). 
Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Five first-run motion picture houses down- 
town, 25 second-run and community houses (two for Negroes). Road attractions 
and local musical and dramatic productions occasionally at Memorial Auditorium, 
S. 4th and Kentucky Sts.; Columbia Hall Auditorium, 820 S. 4th St.; Playhouse, 
Belknap Campus, S. 3rd and Shipp Sts.; Jefferson County Armory, Liberty St. 
between Armory Place and S. 6th St.; and the Woman's Club Auditorium, 1320 
S. 4th St. 

Baseball: Parkway Field, Eastern Parkway and Brook St., for Louisville and 
American Assn. teams. 
Swimming: Public outdoor pools: Reservoir Park, Frankfort Ave. and Grinstead 
Dr., 25^; Shelby Park, Oak St. between Hancock and Shelby Sts., 25^; Shepard 
Park (for Negroes), 16th and Magazine Sts., 25^. Indoor public pools: 
Y. M. C. A., Broadway and S. 3rd St., 25tf; Y. W. C. A (medical examination 



required before entering pool), Broadway and S. 2nd St., 25^; Henry Clay Hotel, 

S. 3rd and Chestnut Sts., 25tf. 

Golf: Public courses in Shawnee Park, W. end of River Park Dr., 18 holes, greens 

fee 50^; Crescent Hill Golf Course, Brownsboro Rd. and Lueile Ave., 9 holes, 35^; 

Seneca Park, Taylorsville Rd., E. of Bon Air Ave., 18 holes, 50tf. 

Tennis: All major public parks, free. Reservations required. 

Steamer Excursions: Up Ohio River at least once daily during summer. 

Annual Events: Kentucky Derby 1st or 2nd Sat. in May. Kentucky State Fair, 
2nd or 3rd week of Sept. 

LOUISVILLE (Loo-i-vil, 463 alt., 307,745 pop.), noted for its fine 
whisky, beautiful women, and the Kentucky Derby, lies across the Ohio 
River from New Albany and Jeffersonville, Indiana, on a low, level 
plain that curves for eight miles along the river. Midway in the adjoin- 
ing river are the Falls of the Ohio, which determined the location of the 
original settlement and provided it with a name (Falls of the Ohio) 
until, as a gesture of gratitude for the aid given by Louis XVI and the 
French Nation to the American Revolution, the name was changed to 
Louisville. It is the largest and most important city, commercially and 
industrially, in the State. 

The main portion of Louisville is built on a flood plain, about 60 feet 
above the Ohio River, surrounded by the river on the north and west 
and by low hills on the south and east. The residential area spreads 
into the Highlands. Northeast of the city the Ohio stretches in a bent 
swath nearly a mile wide and six miles long, forming one of the finest 
harbors in the whole course of the river. Passenger steamers, ferries, 
and tugs fill the harbor. An excursion boat, which periodically plies 
the tree-banked stream, plays its steam calliope. Across the river the 
low skylines of New Albany and Jeffersonville bespeak a more rural 
existence than that of their metropolitan neighbor. 

The business section extends east and west from Fourth Street, which 
runs from the Ohio River southward into the Highlands. Like a giant 
chessboard, the taller buildings along this street stand like castles, 
knights, and bishops, while the lower business buildings and dwellings 
in the downtown area are pawns in the background. 

In general, the city has the form of a letter T with the top approxi- 
mately three miles wide, extending from the Highlands about nine 
miles westward along the south shore of the Ohio River. A southward 
projection of this urban area, forming the stem of the T, extends about 
seven and one-half miles from the river into the Highlands. Near the 
river front are tobacco warehouses, mills, livestock yards, distilleries, 
and the wholesale district that make Louisville one of the South's great 
distributing centers. 

In the downtown area old homes suggest the social prestige of their 
owners, and indicate that the city was important even at an early date. 
On the highways leading into the city are mansions of plantation days, 
reminders that this early prosperity depended largely upon agriculture. 

Between Jefferson Street and the Ohio River are a number of brick 


homes in the Greek Revival style sandwiched between business prop- 
erties. Conspicuous among them are the three-or-four-room brick cot- 
tages with pretentious classic fagades. Substantial homes of French 
and Italian Renaissance and Georgian design, built after 1835, are set 
far back from the street on spacious grounds south of Walnut Street 
between Floyd and Sixth Streets. With southward expansion of the 
city, continued until the middle 1870's, came the houses of gingerbread 
Victorian styles, many of which are still standing. 

Louisville's parks ring the city in a loose half-circle. Shawnee Park, 
on the west, is formally arranged on flat land near the Ohio River. 
Iroquois and Cherokee Parks, thickly planted with trees, climb the hills 
that skirt the city on the south and east. Thirty-two miles of boule- 
vard wind through the parks. 

Louisville is a border metropolis that blends the commerce and in- 
dustry of a Northern city with a Southern city's enjoyment of living. 
The result is an attractive compromise. Louisville is too busy making 
and selling things to have the languor of a town in the Deep South; 
but it does have its special graces. Its people are friendly and hos- 
pitable. The phalanx of clothing shops on Fourth Street north of 
Broadway contributes to the reputation of Louisville women for being 
well-dressed. Bourbon and water or a cocktail after work is popular; 
amusement and relaxation are nearly as important as work. Downtown 
theaters, restaurants, and hotel lobbies are invariably crowded; and it 
is still a favorite custom to drive or walk "in Fourth Street" of an 

Horse racing is by all odds Louisville's most exciting sport. The 
Racing Form is sold on the downtown streets like a newspaper. At 
nearby Churchill Downs 29 days of each year are given over to races. 
The spring and fall meets provide something to see, and add an extra 
fillip to conversation. During Derby Week in May, Louisville is the 
most feverish city in the Nation. Highways entering the city carry a 
steadily increasing number of automobiles and buses into the down- 
town area, hotels are "all out," and the streets teem with thousands of 
happy, hysterical townsmen and visitors. "A Kentucky girl," Irvin S. 
Cobb has said, "does not consider that she has been properly launched 
into society until she has seen a Derby run off." Seventy thousand 
people pack the stands, bleachers, and infield at Churchill Downs to 
see, in slightly more than two minutes, the start and finish of America's 
most celebrated horse race. 

When the Kentucky State Fair is held in early September, Louisville 
again plays host to Kentuckians and out-of-Staters. The horse show 
and the livestock exhibit are outstanding attractions. 

Many early planters who later became associated with the life of the 
city were large slaveowners, and the residents of Louisville kept house 
servants who, after the manner of the time, assumed the family name. 
This transplanted Negro stock is the foundation of the city's present 
Negro life and culture. Despite his background of decades of slavery, 
the Negro in Louisville has adapted himself remarkably to the envi- 


ronment of freedom. Illiteracy among Negroes has dropped from about 
96 percent in 1865 to a percentage level only slightly above that of the 
whites. Illiterates, white and Negro, reported by the U.S. Census of 
1930 reached a low of 2.2 percent. The first free public library for 
Negroes with Negro attendants was opened at Louisville in 1905 as a 
branch of the city Free Public Library. Louisville is the only city in 
the State that has two Carnegie branch buildings for Negro readers. 
Local Negroes have a complete system of primary and secondary 
schools in addition to the Louisville Municipal College part of the 
University of Louisville which, in October 1937, had an enrollment of 
224 students working toward the A.B. degree. Opened in 1931, it is 
the only institution of its kind in the Nation. 

Negro neighborhoods have their own stores, hotels, restaurants, news- 
paper publishing houses, and theaters. The 1930 census figures record 
45.6 percent of all Negro families as homeowners. This slightly exceeds 
the white ownership percentage, but because of the low economic status 
of the Negro the individual value of these homes is still sub-standard. 
The voting power of the city's 47,354 Negroes is a factor in the prog- 
ress of the race in Louisville. 

The Ohio River commonplace enough today played a vital part 
in the development of Louisville and the surrounding country. The 
French were the first to explore the river they called "La Belle Riviere" 
(the beautiful river). During the next hundred years a long line of 
adventurers, explorers, traders, and surveyors saw the Falls of the 
Ohio, stopped here for a time, and passed on. 

In 1773, after England had won the Ohio Valley from France, the 
first permanent settlement was attempted at the falls. In the summer 
of that year Capt. Thomas Bullitt, commissioned by Lord Dunmore, 
Governor of Virginia, to locate land warrants granted to Virginia sol- 
diers of the French and Indian War, camped on the Ohio River shore 
near the present interstate bridge. He surveyed 2,000 acres of land, 
for which Dr. John Connolly, a native of Pennsylvania who had served 
in the war, received a patent from the British Crown. Col. John 
Campbell became joint owner of the land with Dr. Connolly, and they 
issued proposals for the sale of lots. Before they could establish set- 
tlers here, Connolly was charged with being a Tory and his land was 
confiscated by Virginia. 

In May 1778 young George Rogers Clark, with 150 volunteer sol- 
diers and about 20 families, left the Redstone settlement (now Browns- 
ville, Pennsylvania) on the Monongahela and came down the Ohio. 
His purpose was to establish a military base along the lower Ohio be- 
fore starting his campaign for the conquest of the Old Northwest, then 
held by the British. When the party reached the falls they landed on 
an island, long since swept away by floods, where they built blockhouses 
and planted corn; Clark and his raw recruits then pushed on into the 
wilderness to capture the British posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and 
Vincennes. In the fall, Clark sent some of his men back to the settle- 
ment to establish a fort on the mainland. This fort, built during the 


winter 1778-79, near the present junction of Twelfth Street with the 
river opposite Corn Island, became the nucleus of the settlement and 
headquarters of General Clark until Fort Nelson was completed in 
1782. The falls, which interrupted navigation except in periods of 
high water, determined the site of the settlement. Downstream boats 
had to be piloted, and upstream boats towed by men familiar with the 
dangerous rapids. 

That winter was a hard one, with food and wild game scarce; but 
great preparations were made for the first Christmas party. The men 
brought in venison. The women made "hoecakes, hominy, and other 
frontier fancies." Old Cato, a Negro fiddler, was distressed because 
he had only one string for his fiddle. On Christmas Eve a canoe landed, 
and in it was a Frenchman with a fiddle. Old Cato traded him coon- 
skins for new fiddle strings, and gave him an extra skin to say nothing 
about the trade, because he wanted to surprise his white folks. To 
Cato's chagrin the Frenchman was asked to play for the dancing. He 
tried to teach some of the dances of his own country, but they were 
too complicated. He gave it up in disgust, and yielded the honors to 
Old Cato and the Virginia Reel. 

News of Clark's victories in the Northwest lured many settlers to 
this region. Three hundred arrived in the spring of 1780, and in May, 
Col. George Slaughter and 150 soldiers came from Virginia to protect 
the fledgling community. In the same month the legislature of Vir- 
ginia passed an "Act for establishing the town of Louisville at the Fall 
of the Ohio." 

The appearance of the little town was not inviting. A large fort, 
and a number of log cabins, occupied by several score families who had 
cleared and cultivated garden plots, stood not far back from the river 
front. The roar of the falls was sometimes broken by the howl of 
wolves and the yell of savages. Indians sometimes attacked the fort, 
and usually made their escape across the river. In 1781 such an attack 
occurred, and the whites, thinking that the Indians had fled across the 
river, started in canoes to pursue them. They were fired upon from the 
Kentucky side, and nine were killed. The Indians often fired at the 
flatboats of the whites as they plied the river. 

The first court convened here on March 7, 1781, and one of its 
first official acts was to fix the charges for the "necessities of life." 
These included whisky, which could not be sold for more than $15 a 
half-pint, and shelled corn, not to sell for more than $10 a gallon. A 
man might object if a hotel keeper charged him more than $18 a day 
for board or more than $6 a night for a feather bed; the stabling of 
his horse was not to exceed $4 a night. These prices were computed 
in terms of the depreciated Continental currency. 

In 1781-82, Fort Nelson, named in honor of Governor Nelson of 
Virginia, was erected north of Main Street between Seventh and Ninth 
Streets, covering an acre of ground along the Ohio shore. General Clark 
had his headquarters here and the fort served as courthouse and jail. 

With the westward expansion Louisville assumed the character of a 


commercial city. At the opening of the new century, it had 600 people, 
and soon it had sanitary laws and police and fire protection. 

The New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12, which shook the greater 
part of the continent, and formed Reelfoot Lake (see Tour 10), rocked 
Louisville. The first shock, lasting four minutes, was felt here on De- 
cember 16, 1811, at 2 P.M. It was accompanied by thunder and was 
followed by "complete darkness and saturation of the atmosphere with 
sulphuric vapor." Eighty-seven shocks occurred during the following 
week and temblors continued through part of ,1812. One very fright- 
ened and penitent person rushed in on a group of card players, exclaim- 
ing, "Gentlemen, how can you be engaged in this way when the world 
is so near its end?" The party rushed into the street, where, from the 
rocking of the earth, the stars seemed to be falling. A member of the 
group was constrained to remark, "What a pity that so beautiful a 
world should be thus destroyed." Public morals improved noticeably 
during this period. 

The steamboat New Orleans, first successful steamer on the Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers, stopped at Louisville on its way to Natchez in Oc- 
tober 1811. Latrobe describes the occasion in his Rambler in America: 

Late at night on the fourth day after quitting Pittsburgh, they arrived in safety 
at Louisville, having been but 70 hours in descending upwards of 700 miles . . . 
and it is related that on the unexpected arrival of the boat before Louisville, in 
the course of a fine, still, moonlight night, the extraordinary sound which filled the 
air, as the pent-up steam was suffered to escape from the valves on rounding to, 
produced a general alarm, and multitudes rose from their beds to ascertain the 
cause. I have heard that the general impression among the Kentuckians was that 
a comet had fallen into the Ohio. 

This trip inaugurated the steamboat era, which vitally affected Louis- 
ville. In 1815 the Enterprise steamed upriver from New Orleans to 
Louisville in 12 days, less than half the time it took broadhorns and 
keel-boats to make the journey downstream. Talk revived about build- 
ing a canal around the falls in front of Louisville. 

From 1820 to 1870 this river town's prosperity was measured by its 
boat traffic. During the first three decades of the nineteenth century 
portaging cargoes around the Falls of the Ohio was Louisville's chief 
concern. Shipments were unloaded, carted overland to Towhead Island 
above the falls, and put on boats for the upriver journey. Except in 
periods of high water, when the falls were navigable, the same transfer 
of goods took place in moving cargoes downstream. 

In 1825 a private company was organized to construct the long- 
deferred canal project, and in December 1830, the Uncas passed 
through the locks of the completed Portland Canal, which ran laterally 
across Louisville's river front. The canal opened through navigation on 
the Ohio from Pittsburgh to its mouth. The movement of commerce 
picked up. Less than a decade after it was completed, 1,500 steamers 
and 500 flatboats and keel-boats entered the canal annually, bearing 
300,000 tons of produce for Southern markets. Today, along Fourth 
and Fifth Streets, near the river, are many landmarks of the gilded 


days when river trade brought Louisville its first prosperity; and to the 
foot of Fourth Street occasionally comes the Gordon Greene, the only 
packet now making the journey upriver to Pittsburgh. 

Meanwhile, in 1828, Louisville was incorporated and received its first 
city charter. The makeshift village government was superseded by 
a mayor and a board of aldermen elected by the voters. The loss of 
the portage business following the opening of the Portland Canal 
brought on a temporary local depression, made more acute by the 
cholera epidemic of 1831. 

By the middle 1830's Louisville had two noted hostelries the 
Louisville Hotel, still standing at Main and Sixth Streets, and the 
Gait House. The spacious architectural design of the Louisville Hotel, 
built in 1832 of native limestone, was for many years a model for 
hotel building throughout the South and Middle West. The Gait 
House, razed in 1920, for 75 years had a reputation for fine Southern 
cooking and service. Charles Dickens was a visitor in 1842: "We 
slept at the Gait House, a splendid hotel, and were as handsomely 
lodged as though we had been in Paris, rather than hundreds of miles 
beyond the Alleghenies." 

Caleb Atwater, in Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie Du Chien, 
written in 1831, said of Louisville: 

Main St., for the distance of about one mile, presents a proud display of wealth 
and grandeur. Houses of two and three lofty stories in height, standing upon solid 
stone foundations, exceed anything of the kind in the Western States. The stores 
filled with commodities and manufactures of every clime and every art, dazzle the 
eye ... the ringing of the bells and the roaring of the guns, belonging to the 
numerous steamboats in the harbor, the cracking of the coachman's whip, and the 
sound of the stage driver's horn salute the ear. The motley crowd of citizens, all 
well dressed, hurrying to and fro the numerous strangers from all parts of the 
world almost, visiting the place to sell or to buy goods the deeply loaded dray 
cart, and the numerous pleasure carriages rolling to and fro, arrest and rivet the 
attention of a mere traveler like myself. . . . There are at this time about 1,200 
dwelling houses in the town, mostly built of brick. Many are equal to any in the 
Atlantic cities. . . . There are probably more ease and affluence in this place than 
in any western town their houses are splendid, substantial, and richly furnished. 

Louisville in its early years drew its population mostly from Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, and the Carolinas. Louisville early became an im- 
portant outstation in the expanding New Orleans commercial empire. 
Men of wealth, character, and influence came up from that city, entered 
the Louisville scene, and left the imprint of their early training and 
social environment. 

By way of Pittsburgh and down the Ohio came another, larger 
stream of men seeking their fortunes in the expanding West. Among 
them were New Englanders and people from the Middle Atlantic States. 
This group added materially to the business caution of the roaring 
river town and much to its diversity of opinion. Their active participa- 
tion in political life explains the fact that Louisville, a Southern city, 
was vocally Northern during the War between the States. 


During these first few decades, Louisville was influenced by a num- 
ber of French emigres. Michel Lacassagne, the first postmaster, re- 
produced a French garden at his home on the river front; Tarascon 
built mills and utilized the water of the falls; Audubon painted birds 
and taught drawing; the young Duke of Orleans, afterwards Louis 
Philippe, King of France, was among the first musicians in the city; 
the Barbaroux brought mercantile and manufacturing skill; the 
Berthouds and Honores, like Tardiveau, were pioneers in navigation 
and commerce. Some traces remain of their architectural contribu- 
tions. Tradition remembers their graceful living and dancing feet. 

The 1840's started off with a fire that burned a large part of the 
business district. It was rebuilt, and the town continued to grow. 
In this decade many Germans came to Louisville. They brought little 
of tangible wealth but much practical education and industrial skill. 
They founded stores and industries, and in time exercised a definite in- 
fluence upon the social and commercial life of the community. Some 
of the firms they established are still doing business under the German 
names of the founders. 

By 1850 Louisville had a population of 43,194. A new charter, 
granted March 24, 1851, provided for election of all city officers. 

On election day, August 6, 1855, the Know Nothing Party pre- 
cipitated a riot in Louisville. A mob with a cannon went fighting and 
burning through the streets. Several lives were lost and a number of 
houses were burned. The day is known as "Bloody Monday." 

The 1850's were years of general prosperity, and Louisville inaugu- 
rated street railways and witnessed the completion in 1851 of the 
Louisville, Frankfort & Lexington Railroad. The Louisville & Nash- 
ville Railroad, actively promoted by Louisville, was completed to 
Nashville in 1859. 

Louis Kossuth, Hungarian exile, visited Louisville. A member of 
his entourage wrote: "We were astonished at the expanse of Louisville 
which, we were told, twenty-four years ago was but an insignificant 
town. The streets are broad, the houses substantial, with neat front 
and back gardens; carriages are numerous; Negro footmen wear livery; 
everything looks more aristocratical than economical." 

The outbreak of the War between the States brought a bitter division 
of opinion in Louisville. The predominant Union sentiment within 
the city vied with the pro-Confederate temper of the adjoining rural 
section. Many residents with Southern sympathies were compelled to 
espouse the cause of the Union as a matter of self-preservation. 
Louisville was military headquarters and supply depot for the Armies 
of the North throughout the war. 

The end of the conflict found the South's traditional plantation 
economy bankrupt. Louisville, one of the most important distributing 
centers for the Southern States, had to adjust to changed conditions. 
It pressed new merchandising methods and established railroad con- 
nections with Memphis, New Orleans, Mobile, Atlanta, and other 
Southern cities. Louisville merchants sent salesmen in two-horse rigs 


to all parts of the South with instructions to get orders at any cost. 
For two decades Louisville and Cincinnati waged an intense struggle 
for Southern trade. Eventually it was divided between them. 

Louisville's third charter was approved March 3, 1870. Local pop- 
ulation reached 100,753, an increase of 41 percent in 10 years. The 
decade from 1870 to 1880 was marked by the completion of a railroad 
bridge across the Ohio and the erection of a new city hall. 

In the spring of 1890 a devastating wind swept through the western 
part of the city, causing the loss of 106 lives and extensive property 
damage. In 1893 Louisville again approved a new charter, with 
changes to conform to the State constitution adopted the previous year. 
A system of bureaus was created, which took charge of business details 
previously administered by the city council. 

The census of 1900 showed Louisville with a population of 204,731. 
Since the World War a new sewerage system has been installed at an 
outlay of $8,000,000; the municipally owned water company has spent 
$5,000,000 in expansion and improvements; and the elimination of 
grade crossings within the city limits (to cost $21,000,000) has been 

Louisville boomed through the 1920's. The downtown skyscrapers 
that give Fourth Street and Broadway an elevated skyline have all 
been built since 1920. In 1925 the Falls of the Ohio were harnessed 
for the production of electricity. The depression did not affect it as 
severely as many other American cities because of the diverse char- 
acter and wide distribution of its industries. Through the lean years 
its tobacco trading and manufacturing maintained most of their normal 
prosperity, and the revocation of the eighteenth amendment set in 
motion the long-idle distilling business. In spite of these material 
advantages, unemployment became a pressing problem in an industrial 
city, and municipal officials, co-operating with the Federal Government, 
began construction and improvement of parks and parkways, the 
building of model homes for whites and Negroes, the extension of 
street paving, and the construction of a municipal boat harbor. 

The city was carrying increased expenditure, with good promise of 
lessening its relief load, when in January- February of 1937 the Ohio 
swept out of bounds in the greatest flood ever recorded for this river. 
Boats patrolled Broadway from the Highlands to Shawnee Park. Ex- 
cept for a small downtown district, the entire lowland area was in- 
undated. Transportation of all kinds came to a standstill. . Basements 
were flooded. Heating plants shut down. The city was placed under 
emergency control. Thousands were evacuated to the Highlands and 
neighboring cities. For a month and more the ordinary processes of 
living ceased to function, but by rigid enforcement of sanitary regula- 
tions and because of warm weather, an epidemic was avoided. By 
April daily life over the major part of the city had returned to normal. 
Losses within the city amounted to more than $52,000,000, and neces- 
sitated costly renovation and replacement of goods. With the assist- 


ance of rehabilitation loans and Red Cross aid the city by mid-summer 
of 1937 had resumed its usual way of life. 

Throughout its history, Louisville has contributed to the intellectual 
and cultural life of the Nation. Its press has voiced the sentiments 
of the early West, the Middle West, and the renewed South. The 
first newspaper was the Farmer's Library, which appeared in 1801 as 
a four-page, 11- by 19-inch sheet having little more than foreign news 
and advertisements. The Public Advertiser was established in 1818 
by Shadrach Penn; it began as a weekly, but on April 24, 1826, it 
became the first daily published in the West. The Louisville Journal, 
edited by George D. Prentice, began in 1830. In 1868 it merged with 
the Louisville Morning Courier and American Democrat, started in 
1844 but suppressed by the Federal Government in 1861. Henry Wat- 
terson (1840-1921), the South 's most noted editor of the last century, 
edited the newspaper for the next fifty years, and made the Courier- 
Journal influential in Southern and national affairs through its vigorous 
editorials (see Press and Radio). 

John James Audubon (1785-1851), the naturalist, lived here from 
1808 to 1812. Mary Anderson, born in California in 1859, was Louis- 
ville's contribution to the stage, and Enid Yandell (1870-1934) was 
the city's most notable sculptor. Madison Cawein (1865-1914), Cale 
Young Rice (b. 1872), and David Morton (b. 1886) are leading 
Louisville poets. Alice Hegan Rice (b. 1870) has refreshed readers 
everywhere with Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch and other stories. 
(Mrs.) George Madden Martin (b. 1866), dean of Louisville writers, 
is best known for her delightful chronicles of Emmy Lou. Ellen 
Churchill Semple (1863-1932) attained international prestige with 
American History and Its Geographic Condition and other scientific 
works. Josephine McGill added to Kentucky's published treasure of 
ballad material with her Folk Songs of the Kentucky Mountains 
(1917). Louisville was also the birthplace (1856) of Louis Dembitz 
Brandeis, a member of the U.S. Supreme Court (1916-1939) and the 
author of several important books (see Literature). 

Since the War between the States, industrial development has cen- 
tered about the manufacture of farm implements, tobacco products, 
meat-packing products, leather goods, flour, and whisky. Tobacco is 
the leading cash crop in the neighboring area. Prior to about 1918 
the burley tobacco sold here was packed in great hogsheads, each 
containing about a thousand pounds. These containers were broken 
open for inspection, and a handful of tobacco determined the grade 
of the entire hogshead. From this custom originated the name 
"Breaks" for tobacco market floors. Louisville is still the leading 
"hogshead market." Principal marketing activities run from about 
Thanksgiving to Easter. Approximately one-fifth of the Nation's 
cigarettes are manufactured here. 

Two-thirds of Kentucky's wealth from manufactures is concentrated 
in Louisville and Jefferson County. Livestock receipts and the meat- 


packing industry are vital factors in the city's business. Since repeal 
the old distilleries on Main Street have awakened to new life and made 
the city once more one of the Nation's ranking distributing centers for 
liquor, especially Bourbon whisky. Plumber's supplies, sanitary equip- 
ment, and mill and factory supplies are extensively produced; and 
Louisville is outstanding in the manufacture of reed organs, baseball 
bats, boxes, mahogany veneering, nicotine products, hickory handles, 
minnow buckets, wagons, and the milling of soft winter wheat. 

Local deposits of alluvial sands and glacial gravels, with clays and 
some sandstone, have provided the materials for many of Louisville's 
residences and business buildings. Underneath this downtown area 
once ran the channel of the Ohio River. Long since silted up with 
sand and gravel, this channel provides an unlimited supply of cold 
sanitary water used in air-conditioning hotels, theaters, factories, and 
office buildings, and to some extent in manufacturing processes, par- 
ticularly distilling. 



(open daily), 435 S. 5th St., was consecrated in 1852, the year of its 
completion. Constructed of brick trimmed with limestone, in Gothic 
Revival style, the building is the work of William Kelly. The spire 
with its 24-foot cross rises to a height of 287 feet. Within the lofty 
tower is a 4,500-pound bell, given to the cathedral by the Right 
Reverend Monsignor LaBastida, an Archbishop of Mexico. The tower 
clock was made in Paris by Messieurs Blin. Among the treasures of 
the cathedral is an old painting that depicts St. Bernard with the 
Sacred Host. In its bold conception, brilliant coloring, and general 
composition, the painting recalls the work of Rubens and Van Dyck. 

2. The GRAYSON HOUSE (private), 432 S. 6th St., a broad, 
nearly square structure of one-and-a-half stories with outer walls 17 
inches thick, is the oldest brick house in the city. It was built not 
later than 1810 by John Gwathmey, a Virginian, on an Indian burial 
mound. The brick, laid in Flemish bond, was brought from the East 
and shipped down the Ohio in keel-boats. The house has 17 rooms 
and a large central hall. Slave quarters and a kitchen formerly oc- 
cupied the basement level. The earthquakes of 1811-12 and the 
tornado of 1890 did no serious damage to this robust house. 

3. COLLEGE SQUARE, W. Chestnut St. between S. 8th and S. 
9th Sts., was set aside by the city in 1837 as the site for a college. 
The Medical Institute, from which the University of Louisville ulti- 
mately developed, opened here in the year 1839. In 1838 Gideon 
Shryock, Lexington architect, designed and built the Greek Revival 
building on the corner of Eighth and Chestnut Streets. With the 
exception of the inner two, the Corinthian columns supporting the 
severely plain pediment are square in design. Shryock also designed 


the building at the corner of Ninth and Chestnut Streets. A third 
structure, midway between the others, and like them in plan, has been 
added in recent years. In 1852 a fire gutted the original building at 
the corner of Eighth and Chestnut Streets, and subsequent alterations 
of the reconstructed building left little of the interior plan. However, 
the fagade and exterior, which emerged whole from the flames, are 
designed in the best Shryock manner. The property is occupied by 
the Central Colored High School, which emphasizes training in the 
manual arts. 

4. FORT NELSON MONUMENT, NW. corner N. 7th and W. 
Main Sts., is an irregular slab of Georgia granite bearing a bronze 
tablet; it commemorates a fort, built in 1782, which extended from 
this point west approximately two blocks along what is now Main 
Street, and north to the river shore. Fort Nelson was a Revolutionary 
fort built by George Rogers Clark as a military base and as a refuge 
for Louisville's first settlers. The monument, presented to the city by 
the Colonial Dames of America, was dedicated in 1912. 

tween S. Sth and S. 6th Sts., designed in the Greek Revival style with 
an impressive Doric portico, is a characteristic work of Gideon Shryock, 
designer of the Old Capitol at Frankfort and of the Bank of Louisville 
building. The limestone structure was begun in 1838-39, but was not 
completed and occupied until 1850. In the center of the rotunda is 
a life-size white marble STATUE OF HENRY CLAY by Joel T. Hart, un- 
veiled in 1867. It is a replica of the original at Richmond, Virginia. 
In front of the courthouse is a THOMAS JEFFERSON STATUE by Moses 
Ezekiel, the gift of I. W. and B. Bernheim. 

days), 320 W. Main St., occupied by the Louisville Credit Men's As- 
sociation, is popular with artists who come to sketch the stately fagade. 
The structure was designed in the Greek Revival style by Gideon 
Shryock and erected in 1837. The fagade is of dressed limestone and 
incorporates a portico with a pediment supported by two Ionic columns 
and, at either end, a tapered pylon. Within, an elliptical dome and 
skylight, supported by four classic columns, forms the major part of 
the building. 

The WHARF AND WATERFRONT, N. end of N. 3rd St., are 
closely associated with the history of Louisville. Visible (L) along the 
water's edge is the upstream end of the LOUISVILLE AND PORTLAND 
CANAL, rebuilt in 1927 to provide a nine-foot navigation stage. The 
original canal, dug by slave labor in 1830 at a cost of $740,000, opened 
a new era in inland navigation. The canal was twice rebuilt before 
the present locks and dam were completed. U.S. GOVERNMENT DAM 
41 floods the rapids and eases a drop of 37 feet in the river level. 
The dam, largest on the Ohio River, is constructed of reinforced con- 
crete and was completed in 1928. Backwater from the dam floods 
Corn Island, site of the original settlement of Louisville. In the im- 

{lift J, 


mediate foreground, at the water's edge, is the only inland U.S. COAST 
GUARD STATION, established in 1881 to protect life at the Falls of the 
Ohio. Up to 1937 more than 9,000 persons had been rescued from 
drowning. Directly across the river is the Jeffersonville, Indiana, plant 
of the Colgate Company, bearing a great illuminated clock that tells 
time for people in Louisville. To the right is Towhead Island, so 
named because, prior to the building of the canal, it provided the up- 
harbor on the river between it and Shippingport harbor below the 
falls. Goods were transferred overland and boats were towed, except 
when periods of high water permitted navigation of the river channel. 
Four bridges span the Ohio River at Louisville; one of them, gen- 
erally known as the K. & I. (Kentucky and Indiana) bridge, is just 
over the falls and connects New Albany, Indiana, with Louisville, near 
North Thirty-second Street. It is a combined highway, trolley, and 
railroad bridge. The Pennsylvania Railroad bridge, built in 1870, is 
exclusively for railroad purposes. The Big Four Railroad bridge was 
rebuilt in 1928 to accommodate railroad and trolley traffic to Jefferson- 
ville, Indiana. The MUNICIPAL BRIDGE, a giant steel structure 5,750 
feet long, built in 1930 for highway traffic, runs from North Second 
Street to Jeffersonville. At the Kentucky end of the bridge tall stone 
pylons are surmounted by large wrought-iron lamps. In front of each 
of these fluted pylons is a lower pylon bearing in bas-relief the seal 
of Kentucky surmounted by an eagle. They were designed by Paul 
Cret of Philadelphia, who planned the Folger Shakespeare Library in 
Washington, D.C. A marker, erected in 1935 by the Colonial Dames 
of America on the Kentucky approach to the bridge, records La Salle's 
alleged discovery of the Ohio River in 1669. 

St., was built by the Government in 1832 to house the Louisville branch 
of the Bank of the United States. It is a brick structure two stories 
high, chiefly Greek Revival in design, now used as an office building. 

8. The SITE OF CROWE'S LIVERY STABLE, 224 S. 3rd St., 
is occupied by a deserted brick building. About 1825 Thomas Crowe, 
a retired stagecoach driver, operated a livery on this plot, near which 
was the stage entrance to the old City Theater on Jefferson Street. 
Crowe had several slaves who were stable hands, among them one 
called Jim Crow. Jim was a jovial, elderly Negro, much deformed, 
with a high right shoulder and a stiff left leg as bowed as a new moon, 
which gave him an odd limp. One day in the spring of 1828 when 
the Drake Stock Company was playing at the City Theater, Thomas D. 
Rice, a member of the company, was standing at the theater entrance 
watching the old Negro and listening to him singing at work. At the 
end of each verse Jim gave a queer little jump, and when he came 
down, he set his "heel a rockin'." 

The words of the refrain were: 

Wheel about, turn about, 
Do jes so ; 


An' every time I wheel about 
I jump Jim Crow. 

Rice was cast as a Kentucky cornfield slave in The Rifle, then playing 
at the theater. Drake reluctantly consented to let Rice insert the Jim 
Crow song. Rice made himself up like Jim Crow, sang his song, and 
did his queer little dance. The audience went wild. It is said that 
he was recalled 20 times the first night. The play ran for many nights 
to crowded houses. After that Thomas Rice was nicknamed "Jim 
Crow" Rice, and even as late as the forties he was still playing Jim 
Crow and other Negro impersonations. Jim Crow terminology, with 
its many variations dealing with the Negro, has developed from this 

9. The COURIER- JOURNAL BUILDING, SW. corner S. 3rd and 
W. Liberty Sts., is a plain four-story dressed limestone structure built 
in 1858 by the U.S. Government as a post office and Federal building. 
It later became the home of the Courier- Journal, established in 1868 
by a merger of the Daily Journal with the Courier, and Henry Watter- 
son was made editor-in-chief (see Press and Radio). In August 1918 
R. W. Bingham purchased the Courier- Journal and Times from the 
heirs of W. N. Haldeman. As editor emeritus, Henry Watterson con- 
tinued to direct its policy until his death in 1921. 

Robert Worth Bingham (1871-1937) was born in Orange County, 
N.C., and was graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1888. 
In his early twenties he became a resident of Louisville, where he was 
admitted to the bar, and received his degree in law from the University 
of Louisville in 1897. In Kentucky, Judge Bingham was best known 
as a publisher, though he served as mayor, chancellor of Jefferson 
Circuit Court, and county attorney before acquiring the two news- 
papers associated with his name. He was appointed U.S. Ambassador 
to Great Britain in 1933. 

10. SEELBACH HOTEL, SW. corner S. 4th and W. Walnut Sts., 
has murals in the main lobby depicting the pioneer life and history of 
Kentucky and the Northwest Territory. This work was completed in 
1904 by Arthur Thomas. The central panel shows Colonel Henderson 
calling to order the first legislature of Kentucky. Adjoining panels 
portray scenes in the life of Daniel Boone and Gen. George Rogers 
Clark in the march on Vincennes. Smaller panels of a pioneer distiller, 
a tobacco field slave, a pioneer farmer, and an Indian chief complete 
the series. 

11. CHRIST CHURCH CATHEDRAL (Episcopal), 419 S. 2nd 
St., oldest church in the city, was built in 1822 after plans by Graham 
and Ferguson. It was originally a two-story building, almost square, 
with two tiers of windows. In 1872 the front wall was removed and 
the building extended west to Second Street. Two towers, one topped 
with a spire and cross, were included in the later Gothic Revival 
fagade. Although the diocese of Kentucky was established in 1829, 
Christ Church was not consecrated until 1894. 


12. The BENJAMIN SMITH HOME (open 10-5 daily), 114 E. 
Jefferson St., now headquarters of the Union Gospel Mission, was 
built in 1827 by a retired Southern planter. It is a three-story house 
of Classical Revival design. Its massive walls are 6f brick with rusti- 
cated limestone trim. The facade is also of limestone and the four 
fluted monolithic columns of the portico were carved by hand. The 
rear and side walls are plastered and marked off to simulate stone. 
The original hand-wrought ironwork and light standards at the en- 
trance are still in use. The rooms are finished in solid mahogany wood- 
work, Italian marble mantels, and finely etched glass. An oval spiral 
stairway winds from the first floor to the third. 

13. The HAYMARKET (open day and night throughout the year), 
E. Jefferson St. between S. Brook and S. Floyd Sts., in the 1880's was 
an abandoned railroad yard where farmers congregated to sell their 
hay and other produce. In order to protect the market place against 
intrusion by city buildings, the farmers formed a stock company in 
1891, which today owns and administers the property. Stalls are 
rented to actual producers who, under the charter, pay no license to 
the city. No discrimination is made between near and distant pro- 
ducers so long as they can certify that the produce offered for sale is 
of their own raising. The market sells vegetables, fruits, honey, and 
other home-grown products. 

14. The MEDICAL SCHOOL (open 9-5 weekdays), 101 W. Chest- 
nut St., is a three-story stone structure of Renaissance design, erected 
in 1893 for the Louisville Medical College. In 1909 it became the 
home of the original unit of the University of Louisville. Behind the 
older building is a modern four-story brick addition, built in 1935. 

15. SCOTTISH RITE TEMPLE, 200 E. Gray St., neo-classic in 
design, is a huge building constructed of dressed Bedford stone. The 
pediment of the portico is supported by six thick Doric columns. The 
interior contains an auditorium seating 500 and a room paneled with 
cedar of Lebanon. The cedar, pronounced genuine by the Smithsonian 
Institution, was obtained from the estate of a French officer, who had 
taken it from the ruins of an ancient Syrian building. 

weekdays), 109 E. Broadway, forms an open quadrangle fronting on 
Broadway. It consists of several contiguous Tudor-Gothic style halls, 
the general mass resembling that of Balliol College, Oxford, England. 
The battlemented walls are faced with machine-tooled Bowling Green 
limestone, and the traceried windows are designed in the English per- 
pendicular style. The seminary owns the Palestinian Archeological 
Collection of antiquarian articles from Palestine. In 1938 the institu- 
tion had an enrollment of 62 students. 

17. FORD MANSION, SW. corner W. Broadway and S. 2nd Sts., 
now occupied by the Y. W. C. A., was built in 1858 for James Ford, 
a retired Mississippi planter. The building was designed by the Louis- 
ville architect, Henry Whitestone, in a modified Italian Renaissance 


style. Additions have been made, but the beauty of the original 
dressed stone fagade is unchanged. Spaciousness and excellent decora- 
tive detail, carried out in finely carved rare wood, marble, and plaster, 
characterize the interior. 

18. LOUISVILLE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays, 
2-6 Sun.), W. York St. between S. 3rd and S. 4th Sts., was designed 
by Tilscher and Tachau and opened to the public in 1908. The two- 
story building, French Renaissance in style, is T-shaped in plan and 
has a full basement. A wing to the right of the entrance is used as a 
reference room and that to the left for open bookshelves and general 
reading. Directly opposite the entrance is the circulation room dec- 
orated in the Louis XVI style. Its walls are finished in ivory and 
embellished with murals symbolizing the advance of civilization. Two 
stairways lead from this room to the balcony above, at one end of 
which is the original of Canova's Hebe, and at the other, Joel T. Hart's 
copy, of the Venus de Medici. On the balcony is a room housing 
Henry Watterson's private library, which he bequeathed to the city. 
Adjoining it is the Civics Room, where files of the leading Kentucky, 
national, and foreign papers are on racks open to the public. In the 
basement is the MUNICIPAL MUSEUM, which contains collections of 
minerals, birds, butterflies, and fossils. On the grounds facing Fourth 
Street stands Barnard's heroic LINCOLN STATUE, and immediately in 
front of the building is Bouly's PRENTICE STATUE. 

19. The FILSON CLUB (open P-5 weekdays), 118 W. Breckin- 
ridge St., a square, three-story red brick structure, has served since 
1929 as the home of the historical society, which collects Kentuckiana. 
The eleventh volume of its magazine, The Filson Club History Quar- 
terly, was completed in 1937. The Quarterly publishes current find- 
ings of society members and staff workers. The club was founded in 
1884 and named for John Filson, first historian (1784) of the State 
of Kentucky. The library contains a large collection of books and 
manuscripts pertaining to the State. 

In the MUSEUM on the second floor, which exhibits pioneer relics, 
are mementos of James D. (Jim) Porter, the Kentucky Giant, includ- 
ing his rifle, 7 feet 10 inches long, and his leather boot, 14^ inches 
long. Other Porter relics are preserved by descendants living in Ship- 

Porter, the second tallest man in the world at the time he lived, 
was born in Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1810. A year later his parents 
moved to Shippingport where he remained the rest of his life. His 
phenomenal growth began at about the age of 1 7 and, as he said, while 
he was growing his mother had to sew an extra foot of cloth on his 
pantaloons every night. It was a favorite pastime of local people to 
measure Big Jim. An inch a week was his greatest record, and at the 
age of 24 he had achieved his full stature of 7 feet 9 inches, or "6 feet 
21 inches" as he expressed it. Apprenticed to a cooperage, he outgrew 
his task of making barrels, then that of making hogsheads, and for a 
time he tried hack driving. Annoyed by the curious public, he gave 


that up to go into business as keeper of the Lone Star Tavern. After 
two years as a tavern proprietor, Porter built an 18-room house with 
doors, ceilings, and furniture on a scale to accommodate his stature. 
Charles Dickens, who visited him in 1842, described Porter "among 
men of six feet high and upwards, like a lighthouse walking among 
lamp-posts." Big Jim, a "powerful drinker," was joined in his sprees 
by little Elisha Reynolds, 5 feet 4 inches tall, his partner in the Tavern, 
which they ran until Porter's death in 1859. He was buried in Cave 
Hill Cemetery, Louisville. 

sion), NW. corner S. 4th and W. Kentucky Sts., is a massive neo- 
classic building of Bedford stone opened in 1929 as a memorial to 
Jefferson County soldiers, sailors, and marines who died in the World 
War. Ten fluted Doric columns support the entablature of the broad, 
shallow front portico; behind them are four huge entrance doorways. 
Above the colonnade is a high attic, adorned with classic bas-reliefs 
and surmounted with decorative tripods at the corners. Beneath the 
skylighted dome is the auditorium, seating 3,151. The interior is 
decorated in soft shades of blue and gray. Spanish marble surfaces 
the lower walls. Lectures, dramas, and occasional operas are presented 
on the stage. On the second floor is the Trophy Room where flags 
of the Allied and Associated Nations are displayed. Another memorial 
of the World War, set within a bit of the soil of France, is a weathered 
wooden cross that was erecteS above an American killed in battle and 
buried as a Soldat Fran^ais Inconnue. When the "unknown soldier's" 
nationality was determined by some trinket, he was returned to his 
native land, and with him came this graying cross. 

21. CENTRAL PARK, S. 4th St. and Magnolia Ave., a 17-acre 
tract, contains several huge specimens of tulip poplar, survivors of the 
virgin forest. The natural amphitheater here is the scene of occasional 
pageants and civic gatherings. West of Central Park, extending along 
the railroad tracks for several blocks, is the locale of Alice Hegan 
Rice's Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch. The land was originally 
used as a cabbage field. Then a sub-division was laid out, but the lots 
did not sell. Squatters came in and built shacks of materials salvaged 
from the nearby city dump. Comfortable homes now fill the area. 

22. KENTUCKY STATE FAIRGROUNDS (open throughout the 
year), 1400 Cecil Ave., were acquired in 1908, when the State Fair 
became a permanent institution, and the $100,000 livestock pavilion 
in 1921, is devoted to industrial and commercial exhibitions. A LOG 
HOUSE, built and furnished in pioneer style, memorializes the pioneer 
home. In front of the grandstand is a half-mile track on which saddle 
racing is held daily during the State Fair in September. The feature 
of the fair is the Kentucky Horse Show, where native and foreign 
horses vie for honors. The standards of excellence include the breed- 
ing and quality of the horses and the showmanship of the trainers. 

23. BOURBON STOCKYARDS (open 9-2), SE. corner Main and 


Johnson Sts., received its name because it is on the SITE OF BOURBON 
HOUSE, a drover's tavern of the early days where, according to tradi- 
tion, Louis Philippe, later King of France, stayed for a time. Spring 
lamb marketing is one of the stockyards' most important activities. 

9-4:30 weekdays), 1839 Frankfort Ave., one of the largest and oldest 
establishments of its kind, prints Braille books for the blind. It was 
established in 1858, and was supported by individual subscription and 
by the State until Congress in 1879 made an annual appropriation of 
$10,000. In 1919 this grant was increased to $50,000. This publish- 
ing house, occupying a three-story brick building, supplies books for 
the blind in the United States and abroad. Its catalogue of published 
works lists more than 5,000 volumes, including standard works on the 
arts, sciences, history, travel, fiction, poetry, and general information. 

25. KENTUCKY SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND (open 9-4:30 week- 
days), 1867 Frankfort Ave., designed in 1855 by F. Costigan, is Greek 
Revival in design. All outer walls are of stuccoed brick with stone 
trim, except the first story of the main building on the south elevation, 
which is of dressed stone, and is dominated by a graceful Ionic portico. 
Its three domes are visible from many points in the city. 


The tour 26 m. begins at Third Street and Broadway in down- 
town Louisville, covers a portion of the boulevard system that prac- 
tically encircles the city, passes through the older residential section, 
and into the more recently developed Highlands. It includes three of 
the city's finest parks and Cave Hill Cemetery, burial place of many 
distinguished former residents of the city. 

S. from Broadway on S. 3rd St. 

26. CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL, S. 3rd and Shipp Sts., is a 
large, tapering, Georgia granite shaft erected by the Kentucky 
Women's Confederate Monument Association in honor of Confederate 
soldiers. Cavalry and artillery groups are on two sides of the shaft. 
A medallion in the center depicts a mounted cavalryman. At the top 
is a square decorated with palm leaves, wreath, and crossed swords, on 
which stands a sentinel-like figure facing the North. His knapsack, 
canteen, and long rifle are characteristic of the Confederate infantry. 
This memorial, unveiled in 1895, was designed by the Louisville-born 
sculptress, Enid Yandell. 

27. UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE, on 55-acre Belknap Campus, 
S. 3rd and Shipp Sts., running to Eastern Parkway, is the oldest 
municipally owned university in America. The 1937 enrollment ex- 
ceeded 3,500 students. The university started in 1837 as the Louisville 
Medical Institute. In 1846 the Institute and Louisville College were 
merged as the University of Louisville, and a law school was added. 
For half a century law and medicine were the only courses offered by 
the university. In 1907 the College of Liberal Arts was established 


through a private fund. Since 1910 appropriations have been made by 
the city. In 1911 five medical schools amalgamated as the Medical 
School of the university. The School of Dentistry -was added in 1918. 
In 1922 co-operation was arranged between the City Hospital and the 
university, and in the same year summer terms were initiated. In 1925 
the present main campus was purchased and the Speed Scientific 
School established, and two years later the College of Music was or- 

On the left of the entrance is SPEED MEMORIAL MUSEUM (open 10-5 
Tues.-Sat., 2-5 Sun.), an Indiana limestone structure erected in memory 
of James B. Speed, prominent Louisville resident. The building con- 
tains a collection of pottery and porcelain by English, German, and 
Austrian artisans. Miniatures by English, American, French, Swedish, 
Russian, Austrian, and Persian artists of the past three centuries are 
also on display, among them Lord Byron, by C. Q. A. Bourgeois. 
Paintings of more than 100 artists include The Arrival at the Inn, by 
Vincent Augustus Tack, and portraits by Peale, Sully, Healy, and 
Matthew Harris Jouett. 

Immediately beyond the Museum is a group of buildings housing 
many of the activities of the university proper. The Schools of Medi- 
cine and Dentistry and the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes 
are in downtown Louisville. 

R. from S. 3rd St. on Central Ave.; L. on S. 6th St. 

28. CHURCHILL DOWNS (open), S. 7th St. and Central Ave., 
the 180-acre park-like tract of the Kentucky Jockey Club, provides 
one of the fastest tracks in the world for the 19-day spring and 10-day 
fall race meets and the Kentucky Derby, usually run the first or 
second Saturday in May. The green-trimmed white clubhouse and 
grandstands and the landscaped grounds have changed little in ap- 
pearance since the course was opened in 1875. It was a l l /2 mile 
track until 1896, when it was shortened to 1^4 miles. Under the 
main grandstand are pari-mutuel betting machines, pay-off windows, 
offices, and the cafe. To the right is the clubhouse, and to the left 
the Negro grandstand. Directly in front of the grandstand, the blue- 
grass lawn of the infield, broken by beds of flowers, shrubs, and low- 
growing trees, is enclosed by the white guard-rail of the mile oval. 
Beyond and facing the oval is a group of one-story green and white 
horse barns against a background of forest trees. 

The Kentucky Derby, America's supreme racing event, open to the 
three-year-olds, was inaugurated in 1875 and has continued without a 
break. In 1912 Sotemia established a world's running record at 
Churchill Downs by doing 4 miles in 7:10%, and in 1931 Gallant 
Knight clipped another world's record for 6^ furlongs in 1:16%. 
Famous winners of the Derby include Bubbling Over (1926, time 
2:03%) and War Admiral (1937, time 2:03%). The largest Derby 
purse was $55,375, won by Reigh Count in 1928. Lawrin was the 


first "winter horse" to win the Derby, being first over the line in 

Retrace S. 6th; R. on S. 3rd, which at Kenton St. becomes Southern 

29. IROQUOIS PARK, Southern Parkway and Taylor Blvd., con- 
tains 676 acres of heavily wooded land acquired by the city in 1890 
as the nucleus of the present park system. A roadway and footpaths 
wind from the base of Burnt Knob, center of the park, to its summit, 
from which the countryside can be seen for miles. Point Lookout has 
an elevation of 720 feet and looks down on Louisville, the Ohio River, 
and the Indiana hills to the north. 

Retrace Southern Parkway; R. on Eastern Parkway to Cherokee Rd. 

30. CHEROKEE PARK, Eastern Parkway at Cherokee Rd., is a 
rolling tract of 409 acres in the eastern section of the city. The 
Middle Fork of Beargrass Creek, winding through the area, is fed by 
springs from limestone cliffs above.' The BIRD OBSERVATORY houses a 
large collection of mounted native Kentucky birds. In a wild spot is 
Enid YandelFs DANIEL BOONE STATUE, placed so that Boone, clad 
in his traditional hunting garb, seems to be stepping out of a thicket. 
The statue was presented to the city by C. C. Bickel. 

Follow Cherokee Park Trail beside headwaters of Middle Fork of 
Beargrass Creek, past Big Rock to entrance of Seneca Park, just be- 
yond the city limits. 

31. SENECA PARK is a continuation of the city's park system. 
The trail climbs from the valley of Middle Fork and passes through a 
region of rolling green hills. 

L. from Cherokee Trail on Beal's Branch Rd.; R. on Garden Dr.; 
L. on Lexington Rd. 

9-4:30 weekdays), 2825 Lexington Rd., a group of Georgian Colonial 
buildings of red faced brick with dressed Bowling Green stone trim, 
is situated in a 55-acre grove of huge beech trees. NORTON HALL, 
three stories high, contains administration offices, museum, and library. 

The MUSEUM (open by appointment) has exhibits of the Depart- 
ments of History, Religion, and Missions. An eleventh century Greek 
parchment of the Four Gospels and a reprint of the 1587 "Breeches 
Bible" are among the rare items. The seminary was first opened in 
Greenville, S.C., in 1859. It closed during the War between the States, 
re-opened in 1865, and in 1877 was moved to Louisville, where it oper- 
ated in its own buildings on Fifth Street and Broadway until 1926, 
when it was moved to the present location. The 1937-38 attendance 
was more than 400. 


L. from Lexington Rd. on Grinstead Dr.; R. opposite head of Ray 
Ave., through rear entrance to Cave Hill Cemetery. 

33. CAVE HILL CEMETERY, main entrance at Baxter Ave. and 
E. Broadway, is a 291 -acre burying ground containing the graves of 
famous men and women, among them Gen. George Rogers Clark and 
George Keats, brother of the English poet. Six miles of driveway, 
planted with trees, shrubbery, and flowers, wind through park-like 
grounds that overlook downtown Louisville. Near the main entrance 
stands a lofty campanile, its clock tower surmounted by a life-size 
white marble copy of Thorwaldsen's Angel. Lower, in a niche, is a 
copy of the same sculptor's Christ. 


Fort Knox, 32 m. (see Tour 7). Monument and Tomb of Zachary Taylor, 
72 m. (see Tour 12). My Old Kentucky Home, 39.6 m. (see Tour 15). 


Railroad Stations: Union Station, Viaduct and E. Main St., for Louisville & Nash- 
ville R.R., and Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; S. Broadway and Angliana Ave. for South- 
ern Ry. 

Bus Station: Union Station, 244 E. Main St. for Greyhound, Fleenor, Nunnelly, 
Phillips and Cooper Lines. 

Airport: Municipal, 6 m. N. on Newtown Pike; chartered planes, no scheduled 
Buses: Fare 5^. 

Accommodations: Five hotels. 

Information Service: Lafayette Hotel, E. Main St. at Union Station Viaduct; 
Phoenix Hotel, Main and Limestone Sts. ; Board of Commerce, Main and Upper 
Sts. ; Bluegrass Auto Club, Esplanade. 

Radio Station: WLAP (1420 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Little Theater, Transylvania College and 
Guignol Theater, University of Kentucky, monthly civic talent plays; six motion 
picture houses. 

Swimming: Municipal Pool, Castlewood City Park, 25tf; Clay's Ferry, 15 m. on 
US 25; Valley View, 15 m. S. on Tates Creek Rd.; Boonesboro, 25 m. S. via US 
25; Joyland Park, 3 m. N. on US 27; Johnson's Mill, 12 m. N. on Newtown Rd. 
Golf: Picadome, S. Broadway extended, 18 holes, greens fee 50tf Mon.-Fri., 75# 
Sat. and Sun. 

Tennis: Woodland Park, Woodland and High Sts., free; Duncan Park, Limestone 
and 5th Sts., free; University of Kentucky, Rose St., lOtf per hour; Castlewood 
Park, Bryan Station Rd. and Castlewood Drive, free. 

Riding: 123rd Kentucky Cavalry Club, Henry Clay Blvd., 75^ per hour. Lexing- 
ton Riding School, Tates Creek Pike, 75tf. 

Racing: Keeneland, 5 m. W. on US 60, running races (mutuel betting), April and 

Trots: Kentucky Trotting Horse Breeders' Association, S. Broadway extended, 
June and September. 

Polo: Iroquois Hunt and Polo Grounds, 6 m. E. on US 60, June through Septem- 

Annual Events: Blessing of Hounds, beginning of hunt season, November Iroquois 
Hunt Club; May Day Festivals, University of Kentucky and Transylvania Col- 
lege; Junior League Horse Show (Saddle Horses), latter part of July; Tobacco 
Carnival; Farm and Home Convention, University of Kentucky, November. 

For further information regarding this city, see LEXINGTON 
AND THE BLUEGRASS COUNTRY, another of the American 
Guide Series, published April 1938 by the city of Lexington, Ky. 

LEXINGTON (957 alt., 45,736 pop.), third largest city in Kentucky, 
lies on a rolling plateau in the heart of the Bluegrass Country. The 
golden stallion weathervane on the Fayette County Courthouse sym- 
bolizes an aristocracy of horses. An early law passed in this county 



just after the Revolution was designed to keep the blood of race horses 
pure. The law was superfluous. The city has few industries except 
those that have to do with tobacco and horses; and it preserves and 
advances education and culture. 

Lexington draws shoppers and sightseers from the farms and small 
cities of the Bluegrass, and from the more distant hills. It is unusually 
busy on Saturday nights when farmers and horse breeders and Negro 
farm hands come to town. In early fall about 4,000 students of the 
University of Kentucky and of Transylvania College pour into the 

In December, January, and February, the tobacco auctions are held. 
By wagon, bus, and truck, a-horse and in limousine, on shanks' mare 
and thoroughbred, come tobacco growers, buyers, auctioneers, ware- 
housemen and officials of billion-dollar cigarette companies, all bound 
for the 26 huge tobacco warehouses. Often $40,000,000 is exchanged 
over the baskets of sorted tobacco leaves in this important loose- 
leaf light burley tobacco mart. During this season Lexington's Main 
Street (the Dixie Highway through the city) is a particularly active 
shopping thoroughfare. Stores in old and new buildings are concen- 
trated on Main Street between Broadway and Rose, and on intersect- 
ing side streets. There are few modern buildings most of them date 
from the War between the States, and they bear their age with dignity. 

Just north of Main Street are the churches, the public buildings, the 
old Georgian Colonial houses with gleaming white doorways, highly 
polished door knockers, and ivy-clad walls. Just south of Main Street 
are the railroad tracks flanked by livestock, wool, bluegrass seed, and 
grain warehouses and markets, and a rooming house, pawnshop, and 
saloon district. 

The University of Kentucky is only a few blocks farther south on 
Limestone Street, and the university boys and girls overflow into Main 
Street, where comfortable and well-dressed Bluegrass folk stroll, rub- 
bing elbows with hill people in less fancy clothes, city business men, 
tobacco men, horse breeders and horse buyers. 

Scattered through all the better sections of town are some of the 
big old homes, set back among trees and shrubs and well-kept lawns. 
Local industry has never driven the old families out of their early 

The Negroes make up more than a third of the population, and live 
in their own sections in the northeast and the southwest. Partly be- 
cause they are integrated in Lexington life, their place is fixed and 
fairly secure; they are cooks, horse trainers, farm hands, servants, 
and local laborers. They have their churches and burying societies, 
their choirs and their parties, and they have made substantial progress 
in education and home ownership. 

The city was named after the Battle of Lexington by Robert Patter- 
son, Simon Kenton, and others who in June 1775 were camped nearly 
opposite the present Lexington Cemetery while on their way to build 
a fort near the Kentucky River. Four years later the town was 


founded when a blockhouse was put up at Main and Mill Streets and 
in 1782 the General Assembly of Virginia granted it a charter. 

In 1784 Gen. James A. Wilkinson, friend of Washington, entered 
his checkered western career by opening a store in the village. The 
next year the first tavern hung out its hospitable sign on West Main 
Street: "Entertainment for man and beast, by James Bray." In 1787 
Transylvania Seminary was removed here from Danville. The first 
issue of John Bradford's Kentucky Gazette appeared in the same year. 

Merchants brought wares from Philadelphia and Baltimore, accept- 
ing in payment ginseng, homespun linens, and cured meats. Hemp, a 
fine cash crop, and lumber, tobacco, and whisky were exported. Money 
was scarce, barter common. Change was made by cutting coins into 
halves, quarters, and eighths. 

Raw materials were made into shoes, hats, woolen goods, ducking, 
white lead, and other commodities. Most important of all was the 
making of hemp rope for ships' rigging. Lexington was the chief in- 
dustrial city of Kentucky until about 1820 when the paddlewheeler 
began industrializing the Ohio Valley and attracting inland industrial 
plants to the river bank. 

One early industry that the Ohio River had nothing to do with was 
the breeding of light horses thoroughbreds, trotters, and saddle horses. 
"They may race 'the ponies' at Louisville, Santa Anita, Paris, France, 
or Timbuctoo," says the staunch booster of Lexington, "but they breed 
them, and they rear them, and they train them at Lexington." It was 
a horse named Lexington, foaled in 1850 at The Meadows, an estate 
nearby, that founded the family of Fair Play, Man o' War, and War 
Admiral, and men say there are others here as good. 

The men from Virginia and Maryland who settled the city rode 
their best horses over the mountains, or floated them on flatboats down 
the Kentucky River. The first impromptu Lexington races were held 
in 1787, and the first jockey club was organized 10 years later. In 
the early years of the next century breeding stallions were imported 
from England and Arabia. From these came the modern race horse 
(see Kentucky Horses). 

By 1800 schools of medicine and law had been added to Transyl- 
vania, making the town one of the most important academic centers 
in the West. Notables came to the town and college: Henry Clay 
led a group of men who for fifty years spread the fame of the college 
and Lexington across the Nation. 

In 1830 Lexington started to build the Lexington and Ohio Railroad, 
which was finished in 1832 to a point six miles west of the town. That 
year the town became a city. 

Despite a cholera epidemic that swept the Bluegrass in 1833, killing 
500 in the city alone, the young metropolis at the end of the decade 
was riding high on increased farming and light horse and livestock 
breeding. The richest money crop of those days was hemp, which 
went into the rigging of Yankee clippers. The soil was also fine for 
tobacco, which became much more important to the city. 


The nation-wide panic of 1837 stifled Lexington business. Then, 
as the city was getting back on its feet, North and South came to 
blows. Although it gave a cavalry general, John Hunt Morgan, to 
the South, and Jefferson Davis went to school here, Lexington also 
spilled its blood for the Union. 

The War between the States, however, established the cigarette 
market. Before the war, men were content to chew tobacco or smoke 
an occasional cigar; but soldiers began "rolling their own" with bits 
of tobacco, and unconsciously started one of America's biggest in- 
dustries. When the war was over they carried a craving for cigarettes 
to all corners of an expanding Nation. It was a good thing for Lexing- 
ton, because steam was driving the clipper from the seas, and Lexing- 
ton's hemp lay unsold. 

Lexington after the war, however, concentrated primarily on horses. 
In the 1870's, when the bookmakers appeared and betting became an 
industry, racing again revived and with it Lexington's favorite work 
of breeding, rearing, and training thoroughbreds. The great horse 
farms began to revive; wealthy easterners, attracted to the Bluegrass, 
started to buy land, build estates, and raise horses. Neighborly dash 
races were held, and stallion shows were feature events just outside 
of town. 

During the war, the State-supported University of Kentucky was 
started in the city. It took over much of Transylvania's work, whose 
faculty and students were scattered by the war. Transylvania later 
affiliated with the College of the Bible and specialized in religious 
teachings. Growing swiftly after 1900, the university was modernized 
and expanded, and today it ranks high among State educational in- 

The World War boomed the cigarette industry. Tobacco sales and 
prices went so high that Lexington did not suffer much when prohibi- 
tion came and closed the distilleries. With record crops and soaring 
prices, tobacco money became plentiful in the Bluegrass and its capital. 
When Lexington celebrated its sesquicentennial with a round of speech- 
making and pageantry in 1925, it was a wealthy and going city. 

The 1929 crash hit the city hard for a while. Poverty-stricken 
farmers in other States and in Kentucky all began to grow tobacco. 
Prices held up until excess production cut them sharply in 1932. They 
lay at rock bottom until the great drought in the middle thirties, and 
then began to rise gradually. In 1937 Lexington markets, which open 
before any others in the Burley Belt, cashed in on a record crop which 
sold at the high average of $22.45 a hundredweight. 

The University of Kentucky is one of the most important sources of 
business in the town. Each year thousands of school children, farmers, 
ministers, and others flock into Lexington to attend conferences and 
athletic contests conducted under the auspices of the university. Hun- 
dreds of research people come annually to the town to use the rare 
materials contained in the two university libraries and the Lexington 
public library. The combined facilities of these libraries constitute a 


notable collection of Americana, especially that relating to the Ohio 


1. ASHLAND (private), SE. corner Sycamore and Richmond Rds., 
was the home of Henry Clay (1777-1852). The present house, recon- 
structed by Maj. T. Lewinski, Lexington architect, dates from 1857 
and although it follows the same plan as the original designed by 
Latrobe and built for Clay in 1806, the architectural detail is greatly 
changed. Set back from the street among trees planted by Clay, the 
two-story central mass of this great brick house is flanked by one- 
story wings. The main entrance projects in the form of a bay; the 
simple doorway has a half-circle fanlight and plain molded architrave 
and cornice. The Palladian window above is accentuated by a small 
eave pediment that relieves the straight cornice line of the roof. 

Beside the house is a thick pine grove, and the path Clay liked to 
pace as he composed his speeches. Mrs. Clay's garden, laid out by 
L'Enfant, is behind the house. Beyond the south lawn were the slave 
quarters and barns, with the great estate, on which Clay bred fine 
cattle and horses, spreading away to the south. 

Clay lived here from 1797 until his death in 1852. Becoming a 
United States Senator at 29, he formulated and championed the "Amer- 
ican System" based on a protective tariff. He advocated aggression 
in the War of 1812 and was one of the commissioners who concluded 
the peace. Clay was Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senator, 
and Secretary of State, but he failed in his life's ambition to reach 
the Presidency. 

2. CHURCH OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD (Episcopal), E. Main 
St. and Bell Court, neo-Gothic in style, dedicated in 1926, is known as 
the "Horseman's Church" because Bluegrass horsemen gave generously 
toward its building. In the interior are carvings by Gustav Lang, 
brother of Anton Lang, famous Christus in the Passion Play of 

3. The SENATOR POPE HOME (open by appointment), 326 
Grosvenor Ave., a two-story red brick structure built soon after the 
War of 1812, is now an apartment house. The balcony above the 
deeply recessed, arched entrance is part of the original design, but the 
porches that flank it are of later date. 

John Pope, for whom the house was built, was United States Senator 
from Kentucky, 1807-13. At this house on July 3-4, 1819, he enter- 
tained President Monroe, Gen. Andrew Jackson, Gov. Isaac Shelby, 
and others. 

One-armed Senator John Pope was a strong political opponent of 
Henry Clay. During one of their races for Congress, Clay approached 
an Irishman and asked him why he was going to vote for his opponent. 
The Irishman replied, "Och, Misther Clay, I have concluded to vote 
for the man who has but one arm to sthrust into the sthreasury." 


4. The JOSEPH FICKLIN HOUSE (private), SW. corner High 
and S. Limestone Sts., is a plain red brick late Georgian Colonial house. 
Here in the 1820's lived Lexington's postmaster, Joseph Ficklin, and 
with him Jefferson Davis during the three years (1821-24) that he 
was a student at Transylvania University. 

5. BOTHERUM (private), 341 Madison PL, was designed and 
built in the 1850's for Maj. Madison C. Johnson by architect John 
McMurtry. The trees on the lawn and a profusion of vines veil the 
Greek Revival one-story stone mansion. Massive stone steps lead up 
to the four entrances, one to a side. White Corinthian columns sup- 
port low porticos on each fagade. A deep-sunken brick walk leads 
out from the north fagade to the property line, beyond which stands 
a giant ginkgo tree, sent from Japan to Henry Clay, who gave it to 
his friend. Major Johnson is said to have been the prototype for 
Col. Romulus Fields in James Lane Allen's story, Two Gentlemen of 

6. LEXINGTON CEMETERY, W. Main St. at city limits, is the 
burial place of many of Lexington's illustrious men, including James 
Lane Allen, John C. Breckinridge, John Hunt Morgan, and Henry 
Clay. The HENRY CLAY MEMORIAL (1857) has a large square base 
from which rises a lone Corinthian column supporting a statue of 
Clay. The original, designed by Joel T. Hart and cast by John 
Hailey of Frankfort, was destroyed by lightning in 1903. The statue 
now in place, copied from the Hart design, is the work of Charles J. 
Mulligan. Within the base of the monument are the sarcophagi of 
Clay and his wife. 

7. GLENDOWER or PRESTON PLACE (private), W. 2nd St. 
between Jefferson and Georgetown Sts., now a nurses' dormitory con- 
nected with St. Joseph's Hospital, was built early in the nineteenth 
century. Here Robert Wickliffe, Col. John Todd's son-in-law, enter- 
tained lavishly. After William Preston, aide on the staff of Confederate 
Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, and son-in-law of Wickliffe, became 
owner of the property, its reputation for hospitality was equaled only 
by that of Col. David Meade's La Chaumiere. 

8. The MARY TODD LINCOLN HOME (open by appointment), 
574 W. Main St., is the Georgian Colonial red brick house where Mary 
Todd lived as a child and at the time she married Abraham Lincoln. 
It is now a rooming house, and a grocery store occupies half of the 
first floor. 

Mary Todd was born December 13, 1818, on West Short Street 
where the Roman Catholic parish house now stands. Her mother died 
when Mary was seven years old. An older sister, Elizabeth, married 
the son and namesake of Gov. Ninian Wirt Edwards, and moved to 
Springfield, Illinois. Completing her education in the private schools 
of Lexington, Mary went to live with Elizabeth, at whose home she 
met a young lawyer named Abraham Lincoln. They kept company, 
quarreled to the breaking point in 1840, married in 1842, and made 
Springfield their home. From Springfield Mary went to the White 

1. Ashlond 

2. Church of the Good Shepher 
'/ / \ 3. The Senator Pope Home 

/ . 4. The Joseph Ficklin House 

< 5. Botherum 

6. Lexington Cemetery 

\\ /. 7. Glendower or Preston Place 
\\S/ 8. The Mary Todd Lincoln 
First Presbyterian Church 
The Thomas Hart Home 

The Benjamin Gratz'Home 
Transylvania College 

4. Lexington Public Library 

5. The Bodley House ' 

6. Christ Church 

7. Courthouse Square 

^ The Tobacco Markets. 

19. The Trotting Track 

20. University of Kentucky 

21. Lexington's Westminster At 

22. The William Morton Home 




House. After Lincoln's assassination, she traveled about, and then 
sought sanctuary at the home of her sister Elizabeth, where she died 
in 1882. She was buried beside her husband in Springfield. 

9. FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 174 N. Mill St., designed 
by Cincinnatus Shryock and completed in 1872, is the home of a 
church congregation organized in the late eighteenth century. 

10. The THOMAS HART HOME (private), 193 N. Mill St., a two- 
story Georgian Colonial brick house, was built in 1794 for Thomas 
Hart, whose daughter, Lucretia, married Henry Clay here. The young 
couple lived in the attached house on North Hill Street until Ashland 
was ready for them. In this building lived John Bradford, editor of 
the Kentucky Gazette, John Hunt Morgan, Confederate leader (who 
also was married here), and Cassius M. Clay, the emancipationist. 

11. HOPEMONT (open 10-5 weekdays; adm. 25$), 201 N. Mill 
St., the John Hunt Morgan home, is a post-Colonial white-painted 
brick mansion built in 1811 by John Wesley Hunt, grandfather of 
John Hunt Morgan. House and grounds are about as they were on 
the day in 1861 when grandson Morgan rode away at the head of the 
Lexington Rifles to join the Confederate Army. An extensive Con- 
federate museum has been installed in the home, filled with treasures 
of five generations of Hunts and Morgans. 

The house is entered through a doorway capped with an elliptical 
fanlight and flanked by traceried side lights. Immediately within is 
the reception hall and the room that John H. Morgan used as a busi- 
ness office, which contains many of his personal belongings. To the 
rear of the reception hall is the dining room, off which a long living 
room looks out upon the flower garden. 

Above stairs and below are Morgan family portraits and prints. In 
the basement are the kitchens, storerooms, and servants' quarters of 
slavery days, and in the rear of the main structure is a wing with 
additional living quarters for the household. Behind this wing are 
the carriage house and the stable where Morgan's Black Bess was kept. 

John Hunt Morgan (1825-1864), born in Huntsville, Alabama, 
grew up in Lexington. He saw service as a first lieutenant in the 
Mexican War, and in the War between the States became a Confed- 
erate general with a roving commission to hamper the southward ad- 
vance of the Union Armies. Early in July 1863 he raided Indiana and 
Ohio, and on July 26 was captured near New Lisbon, Ohio. On 
November 27 he escaped from the penitentiary at Columbus, Ohio, 
rejoined the Armies of the South, took command in the department of 
southwestern Virginia, and later at Jonesboro, Georgia. On September 
4, 1864, he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee. His grave is in Lex- 
ington Cemetery. 

12. The BENJAMIN GRATZ HOME (private), 231 N. Mill St., 
is an excellent example of the late Georgian Colonial style. The exterior 
is distinguished by a fine hand-wrought iron railing on the entrance 
stoop and a wide arched doorway with paneled door, flanked by side 
lights, and surmounted by an elliptical fanlight of leaded glass. This 


house was built for Mrs. Mary G. Maton in 1806. In 1824 Benjamin 
Gratz, brother of Rebecca, came to Lexington from Philadelphia and 
bought the property. Members of the Gratz family have lived in this 
house continuously since that date. In the rear, abutting a side street, 
stands what is said to be the OLDEST BRICK BUILDING in Lexington, 
used as a laundry for the household. 

13. TRANSYLVANIA COLLEGE, W. 3rd St. between Upper St. 
and Broadway, with an enrollment of 500 students, is maintained by 
the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Its several red brick ivy- 
covered buildings and Greek Revival Morrison College are distributed 
over a small campus. 

Transylvania College, oldest educational institution west of the 
Alleghenies, grew out of an act of the Virginia Legislature of 1780 
setting aside 8,000 acres of confiscated Tory land in Kentucky for the 
development of higher education. Twelve thousand acres were added 
in 1783, and in 1785 Transylvania Seminary was opened in the home 
of "Old Father Rice," near Danville. Three years later this seminary 
was removed to Lexington, where the first building was erected in 
1794. Following a dispute over doctrinal matters, Presbyterians on 
the board seceded and set up a school known as Kentucky Academy 
at Pisgah, 11 miles west of Lexington. In 1798 Transylvania Academy 
and Kentucky Academy were merged as Transylvania University. 

Transylvania took high rank among early educational institutions. 
In its Law College, where Henry Clay was a professor (1805-07), 
were trained many of the early leaders of the legal and political life 
of the West. Dr. Samuel Brown, pioneer in smallpox vaccination, 
founded the College of Medicine (1799), which in its first 60 years 
graduated more than 2,000 physicians. Affiliated with Transylvania 
is the College of the Bible, a post-graduate theological school. 

MORRISON COLLEGE is a Greek Revival brick building designed by 
the Lexington architect Gideon Shryock and completed in 1833. The 
three-story structure has a massive two-story Doric portico with fluted 
columns, approached by a broad flight of steps. In one of the vaults 
flanking the steps are the remains of Constantine Rafinesque. Born 
in Turkey, of French and German descent, Rafinesque settled in 
America in 1815. He was one of the strangest and most brilliant 
figures of the middle frontier, an authority on natural history, espe- 
cially botany, shells, fishes, banking and political history. At Transyl- 
vania he was professor of modern languages, practically founding that 
subject in America, and was possibly the first to give illustrated lec- 
tures. In 1824 he published Ancient History: or Annals of Kentucky, 
and his later works on American flora were authoritative for their day. 
Traversing the wilderness hunting specimens, bearded and oddly clad, 
with a pack on his back, he was often taken by the natives for an 
itinerant peddler, and many pranks were played on him by John James 
Audubon and other wilderness men. The LIBRARY (open 8-4 Mon.- 
Fri., 8-12:15 Sat.) was long rated one of the best in the United States. 
Its collection of medical books is especially notable. RUSH MUSEUM 


(open by appointment) has good collections of bird specimens and 
classroom apparatus used a century ago in natural science classes. 

14. LEXINGTON PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 8:30-9 weekdays; 
2-6 Sun.), W. 2nd St. between Market and N. Mill Sts., was organized 
in 1795 as a pay library endowed by annual subscriptions, and is the 
oldest circulating library west of the Alleghenies. In 1903 Andrew 
Carnegie gave $60,000 toward the construction of the present build- 
ing. The library has numerous volumes on the history of Lexington 
and the Bluegrass, and a file of rare newspapers, including issues of 
the old Kentucky Gazette. 

On the second floor, at the head of the stairs, is a case containing 
a collection of coins, State money, "shinplasters," and other early 
curios; and in another is a collection of stuffed Bluegrass song birds, 
among them the Kentucky cardinal, "redbird" of the South. 

15. The BODLEY HOUSE (private), 200 Market St., an old post- 
Colonial house once the property of Col. Thomas Bodley, War of 1812 
veteran, was built soon after that war. During the War between the 
States this home was a headquarters for Union troops, and Dr. Ben- 
jamin Winslow Dudley, surgeon and Transylvania professor, owned it 
for a time. 

16. CHRIST CHURCH (Episcopal), NE. corner Church and 
Market Sts., a Victorian Gothic structure designed by Maj. T. Lewin- 
ski, stands on a site occupied by Episcopal churches since 1796. The 
cornerstone of the present brick building was laid in 1847. The chimes 
in the tower were given by Mrs. Rosa Johnson Rhett in memory of 
her mother, Rose Vertner Jeffrey, Bluegrass poetess. 

17. COURTHOUSE SQUARE, W. Main St. between Upper St. and 
Cheapside, is in the center of downtown Lexington. Within the park- 
like area stands FAYETTE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a massive three-story 
stone building designed in the Romanesque style, surmounted by a 
dome above which swings the golden stallion weather vane. 

On the east lawn of the square is the equestrian STATUE OF JOHN 
HUNT MORGAN, showing him sitting in full uniform upon his charger. 
Among the names on the plaque of the SOLDIER'S MEMORIAL, World 
War monument before the Main Street entrance, is that of a woman, 
Curry Desha Brickinridge, Red Cross nurse. On the west side of the 
square in CHEAPSIDE PARK is the BRECKINRIDGE STATUE, erected by 
the State of Kentucky in memory of John Cabell Breckinridge (1821- 
1875), Lexington lawyer who at 30 was elected U.S. Representative, 
and at 35, Vice President of the United States. At the Baltimore Con- 
vention of 1860 he was nominated for the Presidency by pro-slavery 
seceders from the convention. With the outbreak of the War between 
the States, Breckinridge joined the Confederate army, was put in com- 
mand of the Kentucky Brigade under Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, 
and in January 1865 became Confederate Secretary of War. 

Throughout the years Cheapside has been an open-air forum where 
men with causes, or no causes at all, air their opinions. Statesmen and 
office seekers harangue the passing crowd. The strolling ballad singer 


finds a sympathetic audience. An occasional group of worshipers 
gather about the fountains for prayer and praise. Perched on the base 
of the Breckinridge Memorial, a lanky religious exhorter sometimes tells 
his little circle of listeners about death and judgment to come. 

18. The TOBACCO MARKETS (open from first Mon. in Dec. until 
about March 1) are held in southwestern Lexington, in the heart of 
the tobacco warehousing district. Here, in 26 handling houses, called 
"sales floors," the "brown gold" crop of the Bluegrass is sold. Several 
times during each winter these sales floors are cleared, filled with new 
deliveries from the farms, and cleared again, until the last of the crop 
has moved on to processors. 

The tobacco, known to the farmer and the tobacco merchant simply 
as "white burley," comes to the sales floor cured and graded by the 
farmer. His entire crop is arranged, according to quality, in baskets 
upon each of which an agent of the warehouse has placed a starting 
bid. Down the narrow aisle between the high-piled baskets pass auc- 
tioneer, bidders, and gallery. The auctioneer, sing-songing a sales 
jargon, unintelligible to the visitor, tries to drum up the bid. The 
jew's-harp chant goes on continually, interrupted only by a nod, a wink, 
or a word spoken by competing buyers. An unsatisfactory bid can be 
rejected by the owner, whose lot is then held for a subsequent sale. 

Close on the heels of the main actors shuffles the gallery, straining 
forward to catch every shift in the action, for upon these sales depends 
the good or ill fortune of the year. 

19. The TROTTING TRACK (1873), S. on Broadway in the rear 
of Tattersall's Sales Stables, is the mile oval of the Kentucky Trotting 
Horse Breeders' Association. Spring and fall meets on the Grand Cir- 
cuit are held here on what horsemen believe to be the fastest trotting 
strip in the world. Twenty American trotting and pacing records have 
been made on this track. In 1937, Alma Sheppard, 11 years old, drove 
Dean Hanover over the track in 1:58^. This horse was given to the 
girl by her father, when no one else seemed to be able to do anything 
with him. She trained him herself, entered him in the race, and set 
one of the track records, only 2*/2 seconds from the world's record. 
Other records made on this track include the fastest three heats, by 
Rosaline in 1937; trotting record with mate against time, Uhlan 
( 1:541/2) 1913; trotting record by team, Uhlan and Louis Forest, 1912. 
One of the two world records broken in 1938 was the mile pacing time 
of Dan Patch in 1905, shattered by Billy Direct (1:55). 

20. UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY (buildings open daily except 
Sun. and holidays), S. Limestone St. and Euclid Ave., was established 
in 1866 as a land-grant college (following the passage of the Morrill Act 
in 1862) and became part of Kentucky University, formerly Transyl- 
vania University. The Agricultural and Mechanical divisions were 
located on the Henry Clay farm, Ashland, but due to unfavorable finan- 
cial arrangements the Agricultural and Mechanical college was trans- 
ferred to its present location, and completely separated from Kentucky 


University. The university has been on its present 94-acre campus 
since 1878. 

The plant, excluding the experimental farm, consists of forty-eight 
buildings located somewhat at random on the campus. On the left of 
the north gate entrance is the NEW STUDENT UNION BUILDING, which 
houses all the offices of the student activities, the ball and assembly 
rooms, the cafeteria and other shops. Beyond and immediately to the 
left is FRAZEE HALL in which are the departments of Sociology, Phi- 
losophy, History, and University Extension. 

The oldest classroom building now in use is the classic revival ADMIN- 
ISTRATION BUILDING, at the top of the hill facing the parade ground 
and Limestone Street, which houses the administrative offices. East 
of the Administration Building are the Archeological Museum (Old 
Library), the Faculty Club (Patterson home), Lafferty Hall, and the 
Library. The Faculty Club building is typical of the homes built in 
Kentucky during the latter part of the nineteenth century. Lafferty 
Hall is modern in design and typifies the plan of the buildings which 
have been constructed since 1935. The LIBRARY, the first unit of which 
has been completed, was constructed in 1931 and is Georgian in design. 
It houses the university's collection of approximately 270,000 books and 
pamphlets. This is the largest and most complete library collection in 
the State. 

East of the Library is MAXWELL PLACE, the home of the President 
of the university. The house, Italian Renaissance in design, was for- 
merly the home of James Hilary Mulligan. 

West of the library is a hall which houses the State department of 
Mines and Geology, and the university department of Botany. To the 
south beyond the library are the Physics and Chemistry buildings. 
Across the open court to the south is McVey Hall, a classroom build- 
ing. At the end of the quadrangle is the new 1939 Biological Science 

West of McVey Hall in the center of the large commons is the 
MEMORIAL HALL, of Greek Revival design with a Christopher Wren 
tower. The building was erected by public subscription as a memorial 
to Kentucky's World War dead. On the left and right of the foyer are 
memorial plaques and on the wall facing the entrance is a large mural 
depicting the growth of the State. The auditorium seats eleven hun- 
dred. Immediately west of Memorial Hall is the College of Agriculture 

North of Memorial Hall is the Engineering College quadrangle. Di- 
rectly west of the quadrangle is Neville Hall and farther west, facing 
the front circular drive, is the building which houses the university dis- 
pensary and the classrooms of the department of Hygiene. 

To the north and rear of Neville Hall is the Natural Science Build- 
ing, which houses the geological library and exhibits. West of the Ad- 
ministration Building, across Limestone and Upper Streets, is the Col- 
lege of Education and Associated Schools, a Greek Revival building of 


three units. East on Euclid from its intersection with Limestone are 
other buildings of the university. 

Across Graham Avenue to the south are some of the experimental 
buildings of the College of Agriculture, and at Graham Avenue and 
Limestone Street is the Agricultural Experiment Station with its labora- 
tories and offices. The UNIVERSITY FARM of 620 acres is on the east 
side of Rose Street beginning at Graham Avenue. 

The university is composed of seven colleges, the Experiment Station, 
and the Department of University Extension. The enrollment is ap- 
proximately 3,700 and about 2,000 students attend the summer sessions. 

The Experiment Station has associated with it the sub-station of 
15,000 acres at Quicksand, and the sub-station of 600 acres at Princeton. 

tween Walnut and Deweese Sts., is a local name for several old ceme- 
teries dating from the years immediately after the 1833 cholera epi- 
demic. Within this area lie members of the Bradford family; John 
Grimes, the artist whose portrait by Jouett hangs in the Metropolitan 
Art Museum; John Postlethwait, early innkeeper; and many other old- 
time residents. The SEXTON'S COTTAGE, designed by John McMurtry, 
is an excellent example of a Tudor cottage. The little GREEK TEMPLE 
was erected by Gideon Shryock as a memorial to his parents. 

22. The WILLIAM MORTON HOME (Duncan Park Day Nurs- 
ery), NE. corner N. Limestone and 5th Sts., was built and furnished on 
a lavish scale in 1810 by William ("Lord") Morton, younger son of a 
titled English family. After the death of "Lord" Morton in 1836, the 
place became the home of Cassius M. Clay. 

23. LOUDOUN (open 8:30-5:30 weekdays)^ Bryan Ave. and Cas- 
tlewood Dr., now the city's Castlewood Community Center, was erected 
in 1850 by Francis K. Hunt, son of a pioneer Lexington industrialist. 
Architect John McMurtry designed the building in the Gothic Revival 
style, and embellished it with pointed-arch windows, a battlemented 
turret, hand-carved woodwork, and Jacobean chimneys. 

24. SAYRE COLLEGE (open weekdays on request, during school 
year), 194 N. Limestone St., preparatory school dating from 1854, was 
among the first schools in America to offer women a full college cur- 
riculum. It is housed in three red brick buildings, each three stories 

In the basement of Sayre is BARLOW PLANETARIUM, invented in 
1844 by Thomas Harris Barlow of Lexington. Designed to illustrate 
the activity of the solar system, this invention so simplified the teach- 
ing of astronomy that 300 like it were manufactured and sold to the 
United States Government, public institutions, and colleges throughout 
the world. Only a few are still in use. 

25. WHITEHALL (private), NE. corner Limestone and Barr Sts., 
a two-story white brick structure in the Greek Revival style, designed 
by Gideon Shryock and built 1834-36 for the Wear family, stands well 
back from Limestone Street. Here in the 1850's lived Thomas Mar- 
shall, a descendant of Chief Justice John Marshall. 


26. ROSE HILL (private), 461 N. Limestone St., a low, rambling 
Georgian Colonial structure, was built in 1818 by John Brand, hemp 
manufacturer. The entrance is copied after that of the Temple of 
Minerva in the Maison Carree of Nimes, France. 

27. PHOENIX HOTEL, 120 E. Main St., stands on the SITE OF 
POSTLETHWAIT'S TAVERN. In the lobby hang pictures of great Ken- 
tucky thoroughbreds. The dining room behind the lobby is finished in 
early English tavern style. The coffee shop displays medallions of 
prominent Kentuckians. 

In 1790 Capt. John Postlethwait, Revolutionary officer, came to Lex- 
ington and for 43 years put his finger into every Lexington pie. He 
was trader, merchant, innkeeper, and generous citizen. His first tavern 
was built in 1797. He gathered the horsemen of his time about the 
huge fireplace of his tavern, and talked up the breeding of light horses. 
The tavern caught fire twice, and thenceforward the name Phoenix was 
attached to the hotel. The old section of the present structure dates 
from the third fire, which occurred during a race in 1879. 


Lexington to Lexington, 22.5 m.; US 60 (Winchester Pike), Hume Rd., Bryan 
Station Pike, Johnston Rd., US 27-68 (Paris Pike), Ironworks Pike, Newtown 

Hard-surfaced throughout. 

Horse Farms on this route open to public; permission to visit stables must be 
obtained at farm offices. Visitors are required to refrain from smoking and to shut 
all gates that they open. Many of the gates are of the patent type that can be 
opened and shut from motor cars. Numbers in parentheses correspond with num- 
bers on Horse Farm Tour map. 

East on US 60 from the Zero Milestone, at the corner of Main St. 
and Union Station Viaduct on Walnut St., to Midland St. ; L. on Mid- 
land St. to 3rd St., here called Winchester Pike. 

The entrance to (28) PATCHEN WILKES STOCK FARM (L), is 
at 3.2 m. (open 9-4 on request). This once busy horse place, now 
devoted to the raising of cattle and sheep, was owned a century and 
more ago by Capt. Benjamin Warfield on land granted to the Warfield 
family by the colony of Virginia before the Revolution. Prior to 1825 
he built the one-story brick house with rooms opening on a porch 
enclosing three sides of a flower-bordered rear court. The white house, 
sheltered by a grove of trees, the large barn and other buildings are in 
a striking position on the brow and crest of two sweeping slopes half 
a mile from the highway. For years the horse farm was operated by 
W. E. D. Stokes, of New York. 

The farm was named for the blooded sire, Patchen Wilkes. Peter 
the Great, purchased as a nine-year-old stallion with a track record of 
2:07^, having stood here for more than a decade, sold at the age of 
21 for $50,000. 

At 3.6 m. is the entrance to (29) HAMBURG PLACE (R), acquired 


in 1897 by John E. Madden, and since owned and operated by his son 
J. E. Madden, Jr. The estate, consisting of approximately 2,700 acres 
and extending several miles along the highway, was named for Ham- 
burg, a great thoroughbred, which, after being successfully campaigned 
30 years ago, stood after his retirement with pronounced success. Since 
1929 Hamburg Place has been important for the breeding of polo 

At Hamburg Place have been foaled and bred six Kentucky Derby 
winners the largest number to come from any one nursery. Plaudit, 
the first of these, won the Kentucky Derby of 1898 (l l /\. m.) in what 
was then the creditable time of 2:09. 

Behind the unpretentious green-trimmed white frame residence is the 
old-fashioned barn in which were foaled and bred the other five Ken- 
tucky Derby winners. Old Rosebud, the second Madden Derby win- 
ner, after establishing a reputation when a two-year-old, went to the 
post in the 1914 Derby as a favorite and ran the distance handily in 
2:03%, a new track record. Old Rosebud was a frequent winner in 
high class company after taking the purse at Churchill Downs, until, 
as an aged horse, patched up and returned to the turf following a 
breakdown, he met with a fatal accident during a race in the East. Sir 
Barton, winner of the Kentucky Derby in 1919, was the last of the 
great Star Shoots and the only maiden performer ever to win this stake. 
Although Sir Barton's time was slow (2:09%) due to an off track, he 
demonstrated his class later in the month by winning the Preakness in 
Maryland. Paul Jones, a fine mudder, won the Kentucky Derby in 
1920 over a heavy track (2:09). Zev, the fifth Derby winner, was 
by the successful Madden sire, The Finn, from the good race mare, 
Miss Kearney. Zev, possessed of a high flight of speed, was also a 
superior mud runner. For the Derby of 1923 he turned in the fair 
time of 2:05%. Zev defeated the great English colt, Papyrus, in 
their $100,000 match race in the East in 1924, and In Memoriam at 
Churchill Downs later. Flying Ebony, another son of The Finn also 
ridden to victory by the much-publicized jockey, Earle Sande, won the 
Kentucky Derby of 1925 over a sloppy track in 2:07%. 

The stables of Hamburg Place are empty except in winter when polo 
ponies are quartered here. 

NANCY HANKS HORSE GRAVEYARD (30) 4.1 m. (R), sur- 
rounded by a horseshoe-shaped field-stone fence, is the burial ground 
of a dozen horses that made John E. Madden famous as a breeder. 
Nancy Hanks, considered one of the greatest trotters that ever lived, 
is buried in the center of the plot. A stone monument, topped with a 
miniature statue of the great mare, stands over her grave. Eleven other 
noted harness horses and thoroughbreds are buried in a semicircle 
around the Nancy Hanks monument. Of these Plaudit is perhaps the 
best remembered. The others are Hamburg Belle, noted trotting mare, 
Ida Pickwick, Imp. Star Shoot, famed mostly as a successful sire of 
brood mares, Lady Starling, Ogden, Major Delmar, Siliko, Silikon, 
and Imp. 


At 4.5 m. is the junction with Hume Rd. The main route of the tour 
turns L. here. 

Right (straight ahead) on US 60, 0.6 m. to (31) the IROQUOIS HUNT AND 
POLO CLUB (open May or June to September 1) entered (R) through iron 
gates bearing silhouetted figures of polo players. The landscaped grounds of the 
club include four polo fields one for exhibition matches, another as a practice 
field for men, a third for women, and the fourth field for children. 

Polo ponies are drawn from the best blooded and mixed stock obtainable, using 
sires and dams of all three light horse breeds. Nimble, intelligent native mares, 
bred to thoroughbred, trotter, or saddle horse sires, produce a high proportion of 
colts having the desired qualities, and Western ponies have been crossed upon thor- 
oughbreds. Polo ponies range in weight up to 1,400 pounds, and the qualities de- 
manded are good bone, intelligence, quick action, and sure-footedness. Matches, 
open to the public, are frequently played here. 

Left on Hume Rd., at 7 m. is the junction with Bryan Station Pike; 
R. on Bryan Station Pike to the junction with Johnston Rd., 9.3 m.; 
L. on Johnston Rd. 

On Johnston Rd. is (32) (L) LLANGOLLEN (Welsh, pronounced 
Thlangothlen), 10 .3 m., which has a color motif of white trimmed in 
black. This 273-acre farm, owned by John Hay Whitney, is one of the 
three Whitney horse farms in the Bluegrass. At the head of this stud 
for seven years was Imp. Royal Minstrel, a gray, many of whose get 
are of that color. This horse, returned to England in the latter part 
of 1938, was campaigned in America and is said to have won more for 
his American owner than his purchase price of $75,000. His victories 
on English courses include the Eclipse, Craven, Cork and Orrery Stakes, 
and the Victoria Cup. Here also is standing the Bonnie Scotland 
thoroughbred, The Porter. This horse, a small chestnut and a superior 
performer in "sloppy" going, was owned when in training and for some 
time after his retirement by E. B. McLean of Washington. Somewhat 
like Ferdinand the Bull, The Porter, a dignified old gentleman, is fasci- 
nated by butterflies, but despises dogs, cats, and roosters. It is esti- 
mated that his get have won more than $1,350,000. The Porter sired 
Toro, a bay from Imp. Brocatelle, in 1925, who as a three-year-old was 
just about the shiftiest of his age. Although Toro's turf career was 
short his winnings amounted to $142,530. 

Johnston Rd. runs to a dead end at its junction, 10.8 m., with US 
27-68, which is here called the Paris Pike. Right on US 27-68. 

The C. V. WHITNEY FARM (33) 11 A m. (open 11-4, February- 
June 20: no specific hours at other times), its yellow buildings (R) 
forming a striking contrast with the green landscaped grounds, is 
entered from the Paris Pike. The 900-acre estate has 11 well-built 
and ventilated barns including three for stallions (one of them floored 
with cork), a two-story frame cottage, and a two-story stone farm office 
building (L), and a one-mile training course. About a mile from the 
entrance, in a wooded area near one of the stallion barns, is the ceme- 
tery where Broomstick, Peter Pan, Whiskbroom II, Prudery, Regret- 
only filly ever to win the Kentucky Derby Pennant, and the great 
Equipoise (d. 1938) are buried. 


Broomstick, favorite stock horse of James (Jimmy) Rowe, head 
trainer for so many years for Harry Payne Whitney, was a consistent 
winner regardless of the fields in which he competed. Through his sire, 
Ben Brush, he came of the hardy Bonnie Scotland line. Broomstick 
headed the stud founded by William C. Whitney, and, among a goodly 
number of superior performers, he sired Regret, Dam, Jersey Lightning, 
by Hamburg. In the Kentucky Derby, over a track thought to have 
been fully a second and a half on the slow side, he won easily by two 
open lengths over Pebbles in 2:05%. Whiskbroom II, a chestnut foaled 
in 1907 by Broomstick- Audience, could run fast and far, even under 
high imposts. Among the successful performers sired by him is the Ken- 
tucky Derby winner, Whiskery. Prudery, a filly rated good enough to 
be started in the Kentucky Derby (1921), finished third to the Bradley 
pair, Behave Yourself and Black Servant. Prudery, by Peter Pan-Polly 
Flinders, was a fine race mare, and in the stud she produced Victorian 
and Whiskery, winners respectively of $253,425 and $103,565. Peter 
Pan, by Commando-Imp. Cinderella, was owned and raced by James 
R. Keene. A son of one of America's truly great horses, Peter Pan, a 
fine performer and a stock horse of more than usual merit, won above 
$100,000, and among his get were Pennant, sire of Equipoise, outstand- 
ing performer of recent years, and the noted race and brood mare, 
Prudery. Pennant, best remembered as the sire of Equipoise, was a 
good thoroughbred race horse. 

Equipoise, by Pennant-Swinging, one of those thoroughbreds that 
breeders, large and small, live from year to year in the hope of pro- 
ducing, was one of the outstanding performers of all time. Campaigned 
by C. V. Whitney, he was retired in 1937 and put at stud after winning 
stakes and purses of $300,000 or more. Only Sun Beau, W. S. Kilmer's 
champion handicapper, with winnings of $338,610, has exceeded those 
of Equipoise. A brown chunk of a horse, on the small side, Equipoise 
completed his two-year season by finishing an eyelash behind Twenty 
Grand in the Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes at one mile, in time that 
broke the record for horses of his age at the distance, under scale 
weight. He was handicapped by a bad hoof, and failed to train for the 
Kentucky Derby of 1931. He died unexpectedly from an intestinal ail- 
ment after standing little more than a year. 

Chicle, of fashionable blood line (Spearmint-Lady Hamburg) foaled 
in 1913, has sired horses that have won more than a million dollars. 
At stud here are such excellent performers during their days on the turf 
as Peace Chance, one of the fastest running horses America has pro- 
duced, Halcyon, Whichone, and Firethorn, a good thoroughbred race 
horse (by Imp. Sun-Briar-Baton Rouge) campaigned actively since 

Peace Chance, a bay by Chance Shot-Peace, was foaled in 1931. 
Although his career was shortened by a leg ailment, his winnings 
amounted to almost $50,000. Possessed of blinding speed and a stout 
heart, this young stallion promises to be a successful stock horse. 
Halcyon, a bay foaled in 1928, is by Broomstick, from Prudery, both 


of which are dead. Halcyon, a shifty performer in good company and 
now at stud on the C. V. Whitney farm, has the making of an excellent 
stock horse, and choice mares are being sent to his court. Whichone, 
one of the fastest two-year-olds of record, is a bay horse, by Chick- 
Flying Witch, foaled in 1927. Although he went amiss early and was 
retired, his winnings amounted to $192,705, most of it earned during 
his first season on the turf. 

At 11.5 m. is the junction with the Ironworks Pike. The main tour 
route turns left on Ironworks Pike. 

Right (straight ahead) on US 27-68, 0.2 m. to (34) ELMENDORF (L) (open 
8-4 weekdays), owned by Joseph E. Widener. This 1,300-acre estate, through 
which North Elkhorn meanders, has a natural beauty enhanced by landscaping. 
Four Corinthian columns and two marble lions on a hilltop are all that remain 
of the marble palace built in 1897-1900 by James B. Haggin, copper magnate, 
for his bride. The house was razed in 1929 to avoid payment of taxes on so 
costly a building. Mr. Haggin built up an estate of 13,000 acres from the orig- 
inal 564 acres, which he acquired in 1891. 

Among the many barns at Elmendorf the red brick Norman French barn (L) 
is the most striking, its slate roof decorated with models of animals and birds. 
Above it rises a two-story tower with a clock from Normandy and a bell that 
strikes every half-hour. Another barn is in two parts with the 30 stalls facing 
an enclosed oval tanbark track. Among the thoroughbreds housed here are 
Brevity, Chance Shot, son of Fair Play, dam, Imp. Quelle Chance, Imp. Sickle, 
and Haste. 

Brevity, a bay by Chance Shot, or Imp. Sickle, dam, Imp. Ormando, was the 
best of the 1935 two-year-olds, and his brilliant performances at that age were 
followed by an equally impressive race or two at Miami the following winter. 
He came north to fulfill his engagement in the Kentucky Derby of 1936, the odds- 
on favorite in a smart field. Knocked to his knees at the start, he got away 
tenth in a field of fourteen, and worked his way up to finish a head behind 
Bold Venture, the winner. He went amiss in his three-year-old season, and has 
since been at stud. Chance Shot, a bay foaled in 1924, has been a consistent sire 
of winners, among them no less a performer than Peace Chance, turf winner of 
$142,277. Imp. Sickle, an English thoroughbred by Phalaris-Selene, she by 
Chaucer, is a brown foaled in 1924 and imported for breeding purposes. A 
prolific sire, he has sent to the races such performers as Brevity, Stagehand, 
Reaping Reward, and others of stakes caliber. Haste, a bay thoroughbred by 
Imp. Maintenant-Miss Malaprop, foaled in 1923, was an excellent performer and 
has sired a number of good horses, usually with high flight of speed and ability 
to excel over muddy going. As a two-year-old he won the Saratoga Special and 
the Grand Winner Hotel Stakes, and at three years old the Withers and Fair- 
mount Derby. 

In the Elmendorf cemetery is a large bronze statue of Fair Play which, even 
as an aged stallion in 1919, brought $100,000. Fair Play, by Hastings-Fairy 
Gold, sired Man o' War. In front of the statue are the graves of Fair Play and 
of Mahubah, dam of Man o' War, with huge gravestones bearing wreaths. 
Mahubah, by Imp. Rock Sand, was the dam of Fair Play's greatest sons, the 
peerless Man o' War, often called a super-horse, and of My Play, a pronounced 
success on the turf and at stud. 

The Paris Pike (US 27-68) continues to (35) GREENTREE (R), 0.6 m., a 
750-acre breeding farm owned by Mrs. Payne Whitney. The Whitney colors, 
white and black, are used on buildings that dot the estate and on fences that 
divide the farm into fields and paddocks. 

Mrs. Whitney's Imp. St. Germans, a French horse foaled in 1921, spends the 
sunset of his life in a pasture all his own with his companions, Lum and Abner, 
two bewhiskered goats. St. Germans is the sire of Twenty Grand, holder of the 


record (2:01%) for the Kentucky Derby (1931) and the Churchill Downs three- 
year-old record for that distance. Twenty Grand in 1930 also set the record 
(1:36%) of the Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes, a one-mile race for two-year-olds 
run in the fall. St. Germans also sired St. Brideaux, and -Bold Venture, winner 
(1936) of the Kentucky Derby (2:03%) and of (1936) the Preakness (1:59). 
Also at stud here is Questionnaire, by King-Miss Puzzle, foaled in 1927. 

Left from US 27-68 on Ironworks Pike, now the main route. 
At 13 A m. is the junction with the George Widener farm road. 

Right on the Widener road; at 0.1 m. is back entrance (L) of (36) DIXIANA 
FARM, one of the showplaces of the Bluegrass, owned by Charles T. Fisher, 
manufacturer of motor car "bodies by Fisher," who acquired it after the death 
of James Cox Brady (1882-1928) of New York. The 1,100-acre estate is a 
prominent Kentucky nursery, known at a much earlier date as the Hamilton 
Stud, and was once part of the 13,000-acre estate of James B. Haggin. Maj. 
B. G. Thomas, who once owned it, named the place Dixiana in 1877 in honor 
of his favorite brood mare. Mr. Fisher has a fine stable of running horses. In 
addition to numerous modern barns, the farm has an excellent one-mile training 

Sweep All, Peter Hastings (sold), and High Time (dead) lived in the small 
barn (R) near the office. The stable hands insist that when any performer sired 
by High Time was winning a race, he sensed it and kicked and "raised sand." 
Sweep All, Peter Hastings, and High Time were all excellent performers on the 
turf but their fame rests chiefly upon their value at stud. High Time was for 
years a steady producer of winners, among them the great gelding, Sarazon, one 
of the fastest thoroughbreds that ever came up, and the American which defeated 
Epinard, leading French performer of his day. Mata Hari, a filly adjudged smart 
enough to be sent in the Kentucky Derby of her year (1934) is one of the leading 
brood mares at Dixiana. Near by are the large barns where 24 American Stand- 
ard Bred horses, each a familiar figure among the winners of its class in the show 
rings, lived until 1938, when the stables were broken up. 

At 1.2 m. is the junction with Russell Cave Pike; L. on this road. 

On Russell Cave Pike opposite the Junction is (37) MT. BRILLIANT 
(private), a two-story brick mansion built in 1792, home of Louis Lee Haggin. 
The wide veranda is noteworthy for its four massive Doric columns. 

Left from the Dixiana front entrance on Russell Cave Pike to a junction with 
Huffman Mill Pike, 1.8 m. Right on Huffman Mill Pike 3.3 m. to (38) FAR- 
AWAY FARM (R) (open 7:30-4:00), owned by Samuel Riddle. This is the 
home of Man o' War (1917- ), greatest thoroughbred race horse of his day 
and by some authorities ranked the greatest native performer of all time in 
this country. Man o' War was by Fair Play, dam Mahubah. Bred by August 
Belmont, he was put for sale as a yearling at the annual Saratoga auction and bid 
in by Mr. Riddle for $5,000. As a performer, he was started 21 times and won 
19 stakes and purses and the match race at Windsor, Ontario, in 1920 against 
Sir Barton. Man o' War is a strapping fellow, in color a dark chestnut. He 
was not raced after completion of his season as a three-year-old. Insured for 
$500,000, he was put at stud on Mr. Riddle's estate, where he is constantly under 
guard. Man o' War has sired 236 horses (November 1938) and of these 176 
have been winners. Around $2,500,000 has been won by his get, and the great 
sire took approximately $250,000 on the turf, in only two seasons at a time when 
purses were not so large as today. 

American Flag, at stud here, is one of the several high class thoroughbred race 
horses sired by Man o' War. He was campaigned in the East, where he won a 
substantial sum in stakes and purses. War Admiral, foaled and bred here, is, per- 
haps, the greatest son of Man o' War. Lightly campaigned and running not a 
little green as a two-year-old, he became the recognized champion of the three- 
year-olds (1937), when he joined the select circle whose few members have won 


in succession the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness, and the Belmont. In winning 
the Belmont, he shaded his sire's time. War Admiral, a five-year-old in 1939, 
was retired after fulfilling a final engagement in November 1938. 

Russell Cave Pike continues southward from its junction with Huffman Mill 
Rd. to the junction with the Ironworks Pike, 2.4 m. 

The Ironworks Pike continues northwestward (straight ahead) from 
the junction with the Widener farm road, crossing Russell Cave Pike, 
at 13 A m., the junction with the side tour to the home of Man o' War. 
Northwest of the junction with Russell Cave Pike, the Ironworks Pike 
passes the entrance (R), 152 m., to (39) CASTLETON, 1,132 acres, 
owned by David M. Look. This was once the estate of the Castleman 
family, which earlier was known as Cabell's Dale, home of John Breck- 
inridge (1760-1806), sponsor of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798-99, 
and U.S. Senator from Kentucky, 1801-05. Breckinridge left the 
Senate to become Attorney General of the United States and died in 

Beyond the two-story, green-shuttered, white brick house, built in 
1806, is a large yellow barn occupied by Standard Bred horses, and 
in a building near by are the stables of Castleton's stallions: Guy Cas- 
tleton, Spencer, Rutherford, Schuyler, Lee Tide, and Moran. Among 
the great winners foaled and bred at Castleton were Colin, Domino, 
Commando, Peter Pan, Pennant, and numerous others. Colin, a brown 
by Commando-Imp. Postorella foaled in 1905, raced in the colors of 
James R. Keene, and, although there were some shifty horses in his 
day, none ever got near him. He was retired, an unbeaten winner of 
$181,610. At stud Colin failed to measure up to expectations. Domino, 
also a brown, by Himyar-Mannie Gray, was foaled in 1891. During 
his brief career on the turf, his winnings totaled $193,550. The Negro 
who proudly exhibits the horses to visitors sometimes sleeps in the barn. 
He is roused promptly at 4 A.M. by a disturbing clatter. The culprit 
is a spotted pony, rattling his empty bucket until breakfast is served. 

At 15.8 m. on Ironworks Pike is a junction with the Newtown Pike. 

Right on Newtown Pike to (40) the WALNUT HALL STOCK FARM (L), 
0.9 m.; L. through the farm. This estate of 3,500 acres, having the appearance 
of a large well-kept park, is one of the world's foremost trotting horse nurseries. 
The farm, established in 1892 by Lamon V. Harkness of Pittsburgh, is owned 
by Dr. Ogden M. Edwards. Near the large Colonial-style yellow brick residence 
(Walnut Hall) stands the main barn. Peter Volo, which died in 1937 at the 
ripe age of 25, was at stud here. His son Protector, sold for $1,200 and later 
repurchased for $25,000, heads the stud. Volomite and Guy Abbey are also on 
this farm. On the morning of a race, when the stable routine is changed, the 
horses, like those in other racing stables, become very restless. In the cemetery, 
where 11 famous horses are buried, is a life-size statue of Guy Axworthy. 

The Walnut Hall Farm road turns L. and reaches a junction with the Iron- 
works Pike, 3.4 m. Left on Ironworks Pike. 

At 4.3 m. is (41) SPINDLETOP (R), owned by Mrs. M. F. Yount, with 
826 acres of almost treeless land. The palatial residence was built in 1936. The 
stable houses some beautiful American saddle horses, among them Beau Peavine 
and Chief of Spindletop. The latter was one of the winners of the $10,000 
award annually offered by the Kentucky State Fair for championship form in the 


three- and five-gaited classes. These two sires are Standard Bred American 
Saddle Horses, perhaps the most notable breed of its kind of purely American 
origin. These horses are bred for gaits and action from beautiful and enduring 
foundation stock. 

Southeast of the entrance to Spindletop, Ironworks Pike reaches its junction, 
52 m., with Newtown Pike, the point at which the loop to Walnut Hall Farm 
and Spindletop started. 

The main route turns L. from Ironworks Pike on Newtown Pike. 

On the Newtown Pike is COLDSTREAM STUD (42), 18.5 m., bor- 
dered by a limestone wall four miles long. The 1,8 5 5 -acre estate (R) 
has been owned since 1915 by C. B. Shaffer. The main barn remodeled 
from a dairy, contains 32 stalls for thoroughbreds, including Bull Dog, 
sire of many winning performers. There is a tradition that Price Mc- 
Grath, the first owner, hid a fortune in the walls of the barn, but search 
has not revealed it. 

Newtown Pike continues south to a junction with Main St. in Lex- 
ington; L. on Main St. to the Zero Milestone, 22.5 m. 


Lexington to Lexington, 18 m.; US 60, Rice Pike, Elkchester Pike, Old Frankfort 


Four-lane concrete highway to Rice Pike; asphalt roads from Rice Pike into 


West on US 60 from Zero Milestone (Main and Walnut Sts. at the 
Union Station Viaduct) on Main St. to Jefferson St.; L. on Jefferson 
St. over Viaduct to W. High St.; R. on W. High St., which becomes 
Versailles Pike (US 60). 

On US 60 is (R) CALUMET FARM (43), 4.7 m. (visiting hours 
9-4 throughout year), originally known as Fairland when owned by 
Joseph W. Bailey, Senator from Texas. Calumet Farm was the home 
of W. M. Wright, whose fortune was made in Calumet baking powder. 
It is now (1939) owned by his son, Warren Wright of Chicago. 
Calumet is important as a stud, with such successful younger sires as 
Hadagal, Bostonian, and Chance Play. Hadagal, a bay by Imp. Sir 
Galahad III out of Imp. Erne, foaled in 1931 was a stakes winner 
at two, and as a three-year-old broke the track record to win the Gov- 
ernor Green handicap at 1^ miles. Bostonian, a black by Broomstick- 
Yankee Maid, was foaled in 1924. He was raced only two seasons, yet 
won a number of stakes, including the Preakness. Chance Play, a 
chestnut horse by Fair Play-Imp. Quelle Chance and a half brother to 
Man o' War, was foaled in 1923. His winnings totaled nearly $138,000 
and among his get are such sterling performers as At Play, Grand Slam, 
Good Gamble, and Psychic Bid. Galsum, a gelding, Nellie Flag, a filly, 
and Nellie Morse, dam of Nellie Flag and Count Morse, are also housed 
at Calumet. Nellie Morse, filly winner of the Preakness, was cam- 
paigned by Bud Fisher, creator of Mutt and Jeff. The 1,000-acre 


Calumet Farm, its color motif white and red, was purchased by the 
senior Wright in 1924 in the hope of breeding a winner of the Hamble- 
tonian the most desired stake in the harness horse field. He won this 
stake in 1931. The air-conditioned stallion barn with classic portico 
and turret has a cork floor and handsome woodwork. Behind the barn 
is an outdoor track. There is an estate house, 18 barns, and cottages 
for employees. In November 1938, there were three stallions, 65 
mares, and 30 weanlings in the stables. 

KEENELAND RACE COURSE (44), on US 60 at 6.4 m. (R), held 
its inaugural meeting in 1936. This track, which supplants Lexington's 
century-old Association Course, is patterned after the great English race 
courses where the chief considerations are the sport of racing and the 
improvement of thoroughbred stock. The grandstand seats 2,500 peo- 
ple. The l% 6 -mile oval track here is considered one of the fastest in 
America. In the three-story stone clubhouse are photographic murals 
by the best photographers of the Bluegrass, in the stag-room, on the 
second floor, are Currier and Ives lithographs of events on the tracks. 
The offices and facilities of Keeneland, including pari-mutuel wagering, 
a restaurant, bars, and private dining rooms, are all in the clubhouse. 

There is a Currier lithograph of Lexington, the great thoroughbred 
stallion of the Bluegrass which held the running record of four miles 
at 7:19^4. As a performer Lexington was matchless, and for about a 
quarter of a century the turf's most tempting prizes fell largely to mem- 
bers of his family. He was light bay of 15 hands, 3 inches, by Boston, 
himself the greatest performer of his day; dam, Alice Carneal, she by 
Imp. Sharpedon. He was bred by Dr. Elisha Warfield, master of the 
meadows near Lexington, and was named Darley. Richard Ten 
Broeck acquired and renamed him Lexington. A horse of stout heart, 
superb muscular development and action, Lexington never broke down, 
but shortly after his last race, in which he defeated Lecompte, his eyes 
failed, and Mr. Ten Broeck sent him to Kentucky, where he made his 
first season at W. F. Harper's place, near Midway. His get won nearly 
$1,000,000, despite the War between the States during his day at stud. 
For 14 consecutive years, and in all 16, he led American thoroughbred 
sires in earnings of their get, a record never equaled. Lexington's 
health was excellent until his death in 1875. Buried in his paddock, 
his bones were later placed in the Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, B.C. 

The Keeneland Race Course occupies about 150 acres of the old 
Keene Place, founded on a tract of approximately 8,000 acres granted 
by Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, to his kinsman, Francis 

West of the race course is the junction with Rice Pike, 7.1 m.; R. 
from US 60 on Rice Pike to a junction with Van Meter Pike, 8.7 m.; 
L. on Van Meter Pike to a junction with Elkchester Pike, 9.9 m.; R. 
on Elkchester Pike to a junction with the Old Frankfort Pike, 11.7 m.; 
R. on the Old Frankfort Pike. 


IDLE HOUR FARM (45), 12.5 m. (open 9 AM.-3:30 P.M.;, owned 
by Col. E. R. Bradley, covers 1,300 acres on both sides of the Old 
Frankfort Pike. Miles of white fences divide the farm into paddocks 
and pastures. An underground passageway connects the paddocks on 
each side of the pike. White and green, the racing colors of Bradley's 
horses, give the many buildings a neat and striking appearance. The 
private race course was the scene of an annual Charity Day program 
for the benefit of Kentucky's orphans. The farm has a tiny Catholic 
chapel, a solarium for yearlings, a large brick -residence, and numerous 
barns. Colonel Bradley had four Kentucky Derby winners Behave 
Yourself, 1921 (2:04y 5 ); Bubbling Over, 1926 (2:03%); Burgoo 
King, 1932 (2:05%); and Broker's Tip, 1933 (2:06y 5 ). 

Behave Yourself, a big gangling colt, was a surprise winner. Colonel 
Bradley sent Behave Yourself and his crack colt, Black Servant, his 
chief dependence, to the post. Black Servant took the track and led 
until, half way down the home stretch, Behave Yourself came along 
to challenge and finally to nose out his stable mate in a whipping finish. 
As a green two-year-old Bubbling Over scored in his maiden effort at 
nearly 50-1, by coming from behind down the home stretch. Burgoo 
King, whose total winnings are well above $100,000, was by Bubbling 
Over. Broker's Tip, by Black Toney, won the Derby by a nose over 
Head Play. 

To the left of the residence are the stables where Burgoo King and 
Bubbling Over are kept, together with such racers as Blue Larkspur, 
Balladier, and Black Servant. Blue Larkspur, a bay by Black Servant- 
Blossom Time, foaled in 1926, won $272,000 in the short time he stood 
training. Now at stud, he is sending some fine performers to the races. 
Black Servant, Black Toney's best son, dam Imp. Padula, was foaled 
in 1918. He was an excellent thoroughbred race horse in fast company, 
and has now replaced his sire at stud. Black Toney, foaled in 1911 
and head of the stud for so many years, died in 1938. He was a thor- 
oughbred by Peter Pan and was himself a great race horse. Black 
Toney sent winner after winner to the races, among them Black Gold, 
winner of the Kentucky Derby in 1924, Black Maria, Black Servant 
and Miss Jemima. 

It is said of Colonel Bradley, who purchased the estate in 1906, that 
the name of any employee who dies in his service is never removed 
from the payroll as long as there is a surviving dependent. Since most 
of the thoroughbreds bearing the Bradley colors were named with 
words starting with "B," his string is known everywhere as the "B" 

The Old Frankfort Pike continues eastward into Lexington over the 
viaduct to Jefferson St.; L. on Jefferson St. to Main St.; R. on Main 
St. to the Zero Milestone, 18 m. 


Railroad Station: Union Depot, Brown and Caldwell Aves., 2 m. from downtown 

section, for Illinois Central R.R.; Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R.R.; Gulf, 

Mobile and Northern R.R.; Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis R.R.; Paducah 

and Illinois R.R. 

Bus Stations: 220 S. Sth St. for Greyhound, C. Ray, and Ohio Lines; Broadway 

and 2nd St. for Cardinal and Mohawk Lines; Arcade Bldg., Sth and Broadway, 

for Southern Limited Line; 4th St. and Kentucky Ave., for Chaudoin Bus Lines. 

Airport: Cairo Rd. 4 m. W. ; no scheduled service. 

Street Buses: Fare 5#. 

Taxis: 25$ and upward; $2 per hour. 

Traffic Regulations: Right turn on red light. Parking restrictions indicated by 


Accommodations: Eight hotels, three for Negroes; tourist camps 4 m. south on 
US 68 and 5 m. W. on US 60. 

Information Service: Irvin Cobb Hotel, Broadway and 6th St. 

Radio Station: WPAD (1420 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Three. 

Swimming: Noble Park, Park Ave. and 28th St., adm. to pool 25#. 

Golf: Noble Park Municipal course, Park Ave. and 28th St., 9 holes, greens fee 

15$; Lakeview Country Club, 4 m. S. on Lovelaceville Rd., 18 holes, greens 

fee SOtf. 

Tennis: Municipal courts in Noble Park, entrance 28th St. and Park Ave. 

Annual Events: Strawberry Festival, movable date varying with crop season, 
usually early in June. 

PADUCAH (326 alt., 33,541 pop.) is the seat of McCracken County, 
and the most consequential port and distributing center for the extreme 
western section of Kentucky. It lies on the flood plain of the Ohio 
River at the point where the Tennessee, pouring down from the 
Southern Highlands, joins the larger stream before it goes on fifty 
miles to the Mississippi. Cypress and sycamore trees thrive in the low, 
moist land, giving Paducah the appearance of an Old World town sur- 
rounded by rivers and trees. 

The city is laid out in a rectangular plan, its streets running parallel 
to and at right angles with shorelines of the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers. 
Numbered streets, parallel with the river, begin at the waterfront with 
1st Street. Except for Broadway and three streets named for Ken- 
tucky and neighboring States, the rest, for the most part, honor Presi- 
dents and statesmen. 

Paducah seems on first sight to be peaceful and unhurried; actually 
it is a rather busy place. The waterfront, built up for utility rather 
than beauty, is still active in a modest way. Paducah pioneers dis- 
covered very early that in winter the mouth of the Tennessee River 
was usually free of ice because of its warm waters from the south, and 



that it offered a winter haven for Ohio River boats. Today the left 
shore of the Tennessee, sheltered by a low-lying island that separates 
it from the Ohio, is lined with boatyards, fuel storage tanks, and ware- 
houses, remnants or expansions of the once lively river traffic; and 
Paducah is still the center of boatbuilding and boat repairing for the 
Ohio Valley. 

Farther down the Ohio and extending through much of the older 
section of the city are the various factories, the extensive railroad 
shops five lines serve Paducah and the vast tobacco warehouses 
which have grown up in this principal dark-tobacco market of the coun- 
try. Four blocks inland from the river is the business center of brick 
structures, largely dating from the last century, packed into a few 
blocks along Broadway and 4th Street. Commerce has invaded the 
old residential section in the downtown areas, leaving the homes and 
lawns looking bedraggled and forlorn. 

The newer homes have reached out over the flood plain into higher 
ground back of the river, from which the eastern foothills of the Ozarks 
in Illinois, lying low beyond the bend in the Ohio, are visible on clear 
days. Playgrounds and parks are scattered over Paducah's nine square 
miles, and to the south are small farms devoted to livestock, tobacco, 
dairying, and berry culture. Peach and apple orchards front the many 
State and Federal highways that lead into the city. 

The Negroes represent about 20 percent of the population of Pa- 
ducah. They have their own schools, churches, and social life. 
Friendly co-operation between the races is maintained in all business 
and labor relations. The older generation of Negroes engages in the 
unskilled labor of various Paducah industries. Among the younger 
generation are many skilled mechanics and tradesmen who enjoy the 
better economic conditions given by industrial training, and the Negro 
students of Paducah are taught by members of their own race, in 
Negro public schools and the West Kentucky Industrial College for 
Negroes. The more than 90 percent Negro illiteracy of 1865 dwindled 
to less than 4 percent in 1930. 

In 1778, when George Rogers Clark advanced upon the British mili- 
tary posts in the Old Northwest, his last base before striking into the 
wilderness was at the mouth of the Tennessee River. In 1795 the State 
of Virginia gave Clark, in compensation for his services, 72,962 acres 
of land along the southern shore of the Ohio between the Tennessee 
and Mississippi Rivers. Though claimed by Virginia under its Colonial 
Charter from the British Crown, this area was not included in the agree- 
ments by which the rights of the Indians to the balance of Kentucky 
had been upheld, and Clark derived no benefit from the grant; it was 
still the property of the Chickasaw Indians. On October 19, 1818, a 
special commission headed by Gen. Andrew Jackson and Gov. Isaac 
Shelby negotiated a settlement known as the Jackson Purchase, follow- 
ing which the Chickasaw evacuated the region and moved into northern 


News of the impending purchase spread, and in 1817 a migration to 
the area began. Settlers poured in by flatboat and wagon from North 
Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky settlements 
already established for some years. James and William Pore built the 
first log cabin in Paducah (then known as Pekin) at the foot of Broad- 
way. James Davis who came with his family down the Licking River 
from Harrison County, Kentucky, to Cincinnati, then by way of the 
Ohio to Paducah, built a hut at the northwest corner of First and 
Broadway, and later erected a house where Riverside Hospital now 

When George Rogers Clark died in 1818, his claim passed into the 
hands of his brother William, of the famous Lewis-Clark expedition 
along the Missouri and Columbia Rivers. William Clark, who was 
made Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Missouri (1822-1836), re- 
vived his brother's claim and in 1827 laid out the town site, and 
named it for his Chickasaw friend, Chief Paduke. Paducah was incor- 
porated as a village in 1830, and as a city in 1856. 

The growth of Paducah has been slow, continuous, and at no time 
spectacular. In early steamboating days its proximity to four great 
navigable rivers made it convenient for the transshipping of goods and 
passengers. This fact lured merchants and business men to the new 
town. The first store, in which furs were used for money, was erected 
in 1826 at the northeast corner of what is now First and Broadway. 
Opposite this store Albert Hays in the same year built the first frame 
house. Although it was not a hotel, the three rooms, considered elabo- 
rate in that day, often housed traders overnight. 

When the logs began to come down from the Tennessee and Cumber- 
land Valleys during the mid-nineteenth century, there arose a thriving 
lumber industry, with its attendant mills and factories. As this indus- 
try declined, its place was taken by the handling and transshipment 
of agricultural products down the river to the seaports, and of goods 
from the Atlantic Coast and from Europe destined for the interior 
towns and cities of the Cumberland and Tennessee Valleys. 

Because of its location Paducah was a strategic point during the War 
between the States. For a brief time in the earlier months of the war, 
Kentucky, striving to be neutral, served as a no man's land between 
North and South. Both sides rushed their armies into this area, for 
mastery over it would give the victor control of western Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and a good-sized portion of Alabama. In September 1861, 
General Grant took military possession of Paducah. Thereafter, until 
the close of military operations in the West, the city was one of the 
important depots of supply that linked the farms and storehouses of 
the North with the Union Armies in the field. 

During this occupation by Federal troops, Gen. Lew Wallace, later 
the author of Ben Hur, for a time commanded the garrison. In 1864, 
after the main theater of action had been moved southward, Gen. 
Nathan Forrest, Confederate cavalry leader, trying desperately to turn 


back the Northern invasion by destroying Union Army bases, struck 
savagely at Fort Anderson, which controlled the Ohio River from its 
position at the west end of 5th Street. The attack, known as the Battle 
of Paducah, was from the south along Lovelaceville Road and down 
Broadway toward the river. After burning Union supplies stored along 
the river front, Forrest retired. In his report to President Jefferson 
Davis, he explained that he withdrew because of an epidemic of small- 
pox in the city, rather than because of the formidable nature of the 
Union entrenchments. This raid ended operations in western Kentucky 
for the remainder of the war. 

After the war the city resumed its customary place in river transpor- 
tation. The great steamboating era that continued in its prime to about 
1880 gave life to its shipbuilding and ship repair industries, and those 
depending upon lumbering and farming adjusted themselves to the 
dwindling of the lumber trade and the expansion of agriculture. South- 
ward extension of rail lines connecting the Great Lakes region with the 
Gulf Coast, which took place shortly after the conclusion of the War 
between the States, made Paducah an important river-and-rail junction 
point, and the Illinois Central Railway located its locomotive rebuilding 
and repair shops in the city. Revival of river transportation since 1920 
has brought about the establishment, on the ice-free Paducah shore of 
the Tennessee, of a Government plant for the building and repair of 
boats, barges, and other river equipment used by the Inland Waterways 
Corporation. Other important industries that have survived from early 
days or have developed since the War between the States are the manu- 
facture of textile machinery and textiles, garments, hosiery, leather 
goods, furniture, barrels, and sundry other products depending on a 
plentiful supply of workable timber. The volume of Paducah industry 
is indicated by bank clearings that average about $80,000,000 a year. 

Paducah is the center of dark tobacco growing. The tobacco in "the 
Purchase," known to the trade as "dark fire-cured," is brought to the 
loose-leaf floors, where it is auctioned off chiefly for the export market. 
A steady movement of livestock from the Jackson Purchase country to 
Middle West packing houses goes through the local yards, and the ship- 
ping of fruit apples, peaches, and strawberries is lucrative in Pa- 
ducah. The localized cultivation and co-operative shipping of a straw- 
berry known as Dixie Aroma is the basis for the Strawberry Festival, 
held usually in June. Business men and farmers alike join in the fes- 
tivities, that usually include a street parade. 

Like other river towns, Paducah has had its battles with floods. The 
most damaging was the Ohio River flood of January 1937, which swept 
with full fury over low-lying Paducah. The flood crest of the Missis- 
sippi River, reached before that of the Ohio, acted as a dam to retard 
and spread out the waters of the Ohio, which backed over the low 
grounds in the vicinity of Union Station, and ran through the entire 
downtown area. Water rose into the elevated first floor of the City 
Hall. Government barges steamed up Broadway and rescued refugees 
from the second story of the Irvin Cobb Hotel. Stocks of goods, trans- 


ferred to supposedly safe altitudes, were soaked by oily waters. Ninety- 
three percent of the buildings in the city were made untenable. Pa- 
ducah's damage bill totaled $30,000,000. Prompt relief work, however, 
reduced disease to a minimum, and by midsummer of 1937 few visible 
effects of the disaster remained. 

Irvin S. Cobb was born at Paducah in 1876, and up to the age of 
17 was a shorthand reporter, a contributor to comic weeklies, and a 
reporter on a local paper. At 19 he edited the Paducah Daily News. 
He was in the town off and on, and from 1901 to 1904 served as man- 
aging editor of the Paducah News Democrat. The first collection of 
his Judge Priest stories, Old Judge Priest, was published in 1915; the 
last volume, Judge Priest Turns Detective, in 1936. The list of his 
writings is too long for mention, but in 1922 he won the O. Henry 
Award for the best short story of that year; has been starred and fea- 
tured in movies; wrote and collaborated in plays; and is a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor (France, 1918). 

The New York Times, reporting a movement in August 1938 to name 
a bridge across the Ohio River for Cobb, printed the following char- 
acteristic comment: 

There is a brass marker in the sidewalk before the house where he was born 
sixty-two years ago. A cigar has been named for him, a beauty shop, a barber 
shop. Even a Kentucky mint julep honors Irvin S. Cobb. 

This son of Paducah has sometimes been cited as an authority on different 
kinds of alcoholic beverages. To the Distillers Code Authority, back in the NRA 
days, he gave this description of corn liquor: "It smells like gangrene starting in 
a mildewed silo ; it tastes like the wrath to come, and when you absorb a deep 
swig of it you have all the sensations of having swallowed a lighted kerosene 
lamp. A sudden violent jolt of it has been known to stop the victim's watch, snap 
both his suspenders and crack his glass eye right across all in the same motion." 


Much of Paducah 's early history was made within an area of four or 
five squares in either direction from the Ohio river front. Poorly made, 
poorly placed markers and crumbling old buildings do not tell a great 
deal about the city's past, and sites are not always definite. The best- 
informed people therefore usually say "about here," and point with a 
moving finger to places where great events happened. 

1. The SITE OF CLARK'S LANDING, Ohio River shore and Ken- 
tucky Ave., is recorded by a sidewalk marker. Local tradition has 
fixed this as the point where Gen. George Rogers Clark, after leaving 
his base at the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville), paused to reorganize his 
forces for their successful campaign in the Illinois wilderness. Clark's 
journal, however, seems to indicate encampment on Tennessee Island, 
visible offshore. 

2. The GRANT MARKER, 1st St. and Broadway, designates the 
place where Gen. U. S. Grant landed his Union forces in the fall of 


1861 and proclaimed martial law. Paducah then became the base for 
extensive Union operations. 

3. The CONFEDERATE FLAG MARKER, 3rd St. between Broad- 
way and Kentucky Ave., is a sidewalk slab telling that here, early in 
the summer of 1861, was unfurled the first Confederate flag publicly 
shown in Paducah. 

4. FORT ANDERSON SITE, Trimble St. between 4th and 5th Sts., 
is the place where the fort's Union guns commanded the Ohio River, 
and Confederate soldiers stormed the breastworks (see History). 

5. The SOUTHERN HOTEL, NW. corner 1st St. and Broadway, a 
three-story brick building, was one of the leading Western hotels in the 
1850's. This old structure, which shows plainly the marks of time and 
recurring floods, is used by temporary occupants for various commer- 
cial purposes. It stands upon the SITE OF THE FIRST INN, a log build- 
ing erected by John Field in 1830 on a lot costing $12. 

6. MARINE WAYS (open by permission), 101 Washington St., is 
a shipyard where river craft are built or reconditioned. Boats to be 
overhauled are floated into a "cradle" resting on inclined tracks that 
run down from the Tennessee River bank into the water. Resting side- 
wise, boats to be repaired are carried ashore on these tracks, and ves- 
sels built ashore are launched down them from the cradles. Here are 
boats ranging from the old "floating palace" to the newest self-propelled 
barge boats. 

by permission), Meyers St. between Island Creek and E. City Limits, 
build and repair power barges, tow barges, dredges, and tenders. 

8. The OLD BRAZELTON HOME (private), NW. corner 6th and 
Clark Sts., erected in 1858, was originally a comfortable two-story 
frame structure designed to house a large family. During the War 
between the States its ten rooms served as headquarters for Gen. Lew 
Wallace, for a time commandant of the Union forces quartered in the 
city. In it Wallace entertained Grant when the Union chief of staff 
came to Paducah on one of his wartime visits. 

9. The McCRACKEN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 6th St. between 
Clark and Washington Sts., extending to 7th St., is a two-story gray 
brick building erected in 1857. Judge Bishop, prototype of the Judge 
Priest in Irvin Cobb's stories, sat on the bench in its courtroom. 

10. The FEDERAL BUILDING, NW. corner Broadway and 5th 
St., is a modern building which replaced the old post office structure 
(1883). The present building houses not only the post office, but also 
the Federal District Court and Government offices. 

11. IRVIN COBB HOTEL, Broadway and 6th St., opened in 1929 
with Paducah-born Irvin S. Cobb as the first registered guest. The 
fagade is a combination of stone, brick, half-timbers, stucco, turrets 
and broken parapets characteristic of medieval English castles. The 
romantic feeling of Old English architecture is carried out more fully 
in the interior by the elaborate paneling and decorative balconies in 
the main lobby. 


12. LOOSE-LEAF TOBACCO SALES FLOORS (open, sales daily 
during marketing season), between Madison and Harrison Sts., and 
extending from 8th to 10th Sts., is the center of intense activity during 
the marketing season, which begins in mid-December and lasts until 
May. The tobacco crop from "the Purchase," prepared for sale on the 
farm by a process known as "fire-curing," is offered on the floors, and 
sold at auction to the highest bidder. The yield varies widely, depend- 
ing upon the season and the prospective market demand at the time 
of planting. 

13. The FOWLER HOME (private), 619 Kentucky Ave., a two- 
story house with 15 rooms, built by R. C. Woolfork about 1830, has 
been the home of the Fowler family for five generations. During the 
War between the States it served as headquarters for Col. S. G. Hicks, 
of the Union Army. 

14. The WHITFIELD HOUSE (private), corner 7th St. and Ken- 
tucky Ave., built in 1857, was the home of Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, Con- 
federate leader. Later it was occupied by Sgt. William G. Whitfield, 
said to be the model for the Sergeant Jimmy Bagby of Irvin Cobb's 
Back Home Stories. 

15. The LANGSTAFF HOME (private), 800 Broadway, is a Vic- 
torian Gothic structure erected in the 1850's. It has an ornamental iron 
porch across the front, and a railing runs around the roof. The main 
fagade is broken by the straight lines of the entrances, projecting sev- 
eral feet in bays. Its otherwise plain wall surfaces are relieved by 
broad, shuttered windows with dog-eared trim. In the rear of this 
home is a BOMBPROOF SHELTER built by residents of the neighborhood 
in the 1860's. 

16. The ILLINOIS CENTRAL SHOPS (open by permission), Ken- 
tucky Ave. and 15th St., are mainly engaged in rebuilding engines. 
The 38 separate units, covering 21 acres, take care of all the repair 
work on the Illinois Central Railroad south of the Ohio River. The 
shops, one of the four largest industrial plants in Kentucky, represent 
an investment of $11,000,000 and sometimes employ as many as 2,500 

17. The TILGHMAN STATUE, 17th and Madison Sts., unveiled in 
1909, was erected by members of the Tilghman family and by Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy to honor Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, C.S.A., who 
served with distinction through the Mexican War and later helped 
build the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and other important lines through 
the South. At the time of the War between the States, Tilghman or- 
ganized the Third Kentucky Regiment, C.S.A., and was assigned to the 
defense of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. In 1863 he was 
killed during the Battle of Champions' Hill. The statue, by Henry 
Kitson, of Boston, shows him standing in field uniform. 

18. CHIEF PADUKE STATUE, 18th and Jefferson Sts., by Lorado 
Taft, was given in 1909 to the city by the Paducah chapter of the 
D.A.R. The statue shows the Indian chieftain sitting, staring into 


19. GARLANDS (private), 1710 Kentucky Ave., is a two-story yel- 
low brick structure erected in 1833. A spacious porch of much later 
construction almost conceals the simple lines of the original dwelling. 
This was the home of Linn Boyd, Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives (1851-1855). Mrs. Boyd (nee Anna L. Rhey) was the cousin 
of President Millard Fillmore. 


Fort Massac State Park (Illinois), 10 m. N. on US 45 (see ILLINOIS GUIDE). 
Ballard Lakes, 29 m.; Buried City, a prehistoric Indian center, 33 m. (see Tour 2). 

Part III 
Highways and Byways 

Tour 1 

(Portsmouth, Ohio) South Portsmouth Ashland Catlettsburg 

Paintsville Prestonsburg Pikeville (Norton, Va.) ; US 23, the Mayo 


Ohio Line to Virginia Line, 194.6 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed in most places; remainder graveled. 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route throughout. 
Accommodations chiefly in towns. 

This route follows the low bluffs along the curving Ohio River; the 
Big Sandy Valley, and the Levisa Fork, a tributary of the Big Sandy 
River. In the southern section it passes between a cordon of small 
hills that increase in height toward the south until, at the Kentucky- 
Tennessee border, they are stopped by the great purple and green wall 
of the Cumberland Mountains. Veined by the river and its tributary 
creeks and locked on three sides by hills and mountains, the Big Sandy 
country was the last part of Kentucky to be surrendered to the white 
man by Indians. Game abounded here and salt licks were plentiful; 
until 1795 this common hunting ground was regularly visited by Creeks, 
Choctaws, and Cherokees from the South, and by Shawnees, Miamis, 
Delawares, Wyandottes, and Illinois from the North. 

The rest of Kentucky had already been cleared before this section 
was settled, and in the 1820's population in the Big Sandy Valley aver- 
aged only about six inhabitants to the square mile. But hardy, inde- 
pendent men continued to come into the valley by way of the four gaps 
through the Cumberlands and along the Indian trails, or down the Ohio 
and up the Big Sandy Rivers to the dark hills beyond. These men 
established farms in open hollows; the loggers arrived later, to "bring 
daylight in the swamp" and send millions of logs floating down the Big 
Sandy; little towns arose in some of the more accessible pockets of the 
region ; and to the long-sounding toot of the packets that plied the river 
was added, in the 1870's, the clear sharp whistle of locomotives an- 
nouncing the coming industrialism. The hills were tapped for their min- 
eral resources and coal mining became a major industry in the valley; 
in some of the larger towns small factories developed. Today the Big 
Sandy Valley has hard-surfaced roads, modern hotels, schools, and 
churches. As seen from US 23, it has a settled appearance. Just across 
the hills from the river, however, the isolation still continues. Side 
roads leading off from the highway are few; in the remote hollows, or 
on the steep slopes of countless hills, are lonely little cabins where the 
spinning wheel is kept busy and the wagon carries the family to 
"buryin's," "meetin's" or "foot-washin's." This is Jesse Stuart's coun- 



try (see Literature) and the locale of Jean Thomas' stories about 
the hill people of the Big Sandy region. 

US 23 crosses the Ohio Line m. at Portsmouth, Ohio (see Ohio 
Tour 21), by way of a bridge (autos 25$, pedestrians 5$) over the 
Ohio River. 

SOUTH PORTSMOUTH, 0.4 m. (660 alt., 500 pop.) (see Tour 11), 
is at the junction with State 10 (see Tour 11). 

Between FULLERTON, 2.4 m. (1,239 pop.), and Greenup the high- 
way closely parallels a long right-angle bend- of the near-by Ohio and 
crosses fertile bottoms behind the dark, squat bluffs that border the 
river. Fruit growing is the chief activity in this level region. 

GREENUP, 18.7 m. (478 alt., 1,125 pop.), seat of Greenup County, 
was named for Christopher Greenup, Governor of Kentucky (1804- 
1808). The town was known as Greenupsburg until 1872 when the 
name was changed to avoid confusion with Greensburg in Green County. 
The old brick GREENUP COUNTY COURTHOUSE was erected in 1811 to 
replace an earlier one built of logs with puncheon floor and benches. 

Greenup is no longer an important river port, and only a few farmers 
use the old ferry between this point and Haverhill. But the town still 
attracts the hill folk so colorfully pictured in the autobiography and 
short stories of Jesse Stuart. Greenup was almost obliterated by the 
disastrous flood of 1937 when the entire population was suddenly ma- 
rooned, and desperate efforts had to be made to prevent destruction. 

During his later years Daniel Boone (see Tour 17 A) is said to have 
made his home on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River near Greenup. 
About 1799 he removed from Kentucky to West Virginia by going up 
the Ohio in a canoe made of the trunk of a tree. 

Right from Greenup on State 2, an improved road, to RACCOON IRON FURNACE 
(R), 6.5 m., not operated since 1872. The final charge of ore has never been 

East of Greenup as US 23 passes through some of the best eastern 
Kentucky bottom lands, there are occasionally fine views of the sweep- 
ing Ohio River. 

RACELAND, 26.2 m. (1,088 pop.), has a track that is the center for 
horse racing in eastern Kentucky. 

RUSSELL, 28.1 m. (549 alt., 2,084 pop.), named for John Russell of 
Ashland, one of the region's former ironmasters, lies directly opposite 
Ironton, Ohio, with which it is connected by a highway bridge (autos 
20$, pedestrians 5$). The town has grown up around the large rail- 
road yards, containing 147 miles of track, owned and operated by the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Company. A modern car shop with a capacity 
for rebuilding 45 cars daily is also here. 

In the vicinity of Russell are a few ivy-mantled ruins of old blast 
furnaces that are the sole reminders of the iron industry that flourished 
here and on the opposite side of the Ohio from about 1812 until the 
closing decades of the nineteenth century. These silent and ghostly 
structures sprang up as enterprising capitalists began exploiting the rich 

TOUR I 235 

iron, coal, clay, stone, and timber resources of the region. The pioneer 
furnaces were called "salts" because the iron they produced was cast 
in 40-inch pots used for evaporating salt. The Ohio River offered con- 
venient transportation; shortly pots and pans, fireplace implements, 
waffle irons, trivets, and the like were being made here and sold up and 
down the Ohio and Mississippi. With the coming of the industrial 
period and the building of railroads, dozens of furnaces in the iron fields 
bordering both sides of the river roared with activity. Plumes of pale 
blue smoke curled skyward and then films of wood ash settled on the 
hillsides as the tapped furnaces surrendered the molten metal that was 
to become cannon and rails and plowshares and machines. A special 
class of men arose, the ironmasters, mostly Scots and Englishmen, who 
gave flavor and excitement to the entire region as they compelled their 
men and their furnaces to produce more and better iron and large per- 
sonal fortunes for themselves. They were the lords of the country 
living in regal mansions in the larger towns and visiting Maysville or 
Cincinnati for week-end jollities, yet they mingled freely with their 
workers and cared for them paternally in hard times. 

The opening of a new furnace meant a holiday celebration attended 
by the ironmaster, his family, and all his workers. Old songs were 
sung, and after the sun was up (there was a superstition about this) 
a lady, often the betrothed of the ironmaster's son, lighted the first fire 
in the furnace. At noon a prodigious feast was served, consisting of 
quarters of barbecued beef, sweet potatoes, large loaves of bread, and 
burgoo large pieces of prime steer, vegetables, and imported spices 
boiled in a large kettle. The blast was applied and the ironmaster, cer- 
tain that he had another successful furnace, mingled with the crowd and 
received their congratulations. Young couples stood upon the runners 
and pressed their initials in the pig iron mold; if the initials of a young 
man and woman were broken off in the same piece of iron from the first 
cast, they would be married and the bonds of matrimony would be as 
strong as bands of iron. When night came, square dances were per- 
formed in the spacious commissary until a horn blast ended the fes- 
tivities as the next shift came on duty at the furnace. 

The furnaces had their greatest activity about the time of the War 
between the States. The discovery of superior metal in the Upper 
Great Lakes region and the depletion of the local ores caused iron 
making to decline in this area; the rise of the Youngstown-Pittsburgh 
region brought it to an end. The furnaces still standing have been cold 
and silent for decades, and the steel mills at Ashland look elsewhere 
for their iron. 

Through Ashland and southeast of it, the highway continues for 10 
miles through the concentrated industrial area of eastern Kentucky. 

ASHLAND, 33.4 m. (552 alt., 29,074 pop.) (see Ashland). 

Points of Interest: American Rolling Mills, Ashland Coke Company Plant, Cen- 
tral Park. 


Between Ashland and CATLETTSBURG, 39.3 m. (552 alt., 5,025 
pop.) (see Tour 16), US 23 and US 60 (see Tour 16) are united. 

Between Catlettsburg and Louisa US 23 abruptly leaves the Ohio and 
Big Sandy Rivers (the latter flows into the Ohio just east of the town), 
and makes a short cut back through the hill country with its frame 
houses in the good bottoms, log cabins up narrow hollows, small patches 
of tobacco, one-room schoolhouses, and an indefinable sense of isola- 

At 51.6 m. is the junction with an unmarked graveled road. 

Right on this road to the TRAIPSIN' WOMAN'S CABIN (open by request), 1.6 m., 
owned by Jean Thomas, founder of the American Folk Song Festival (adm. free). 
On the second Sunday of June each year a large audience gathers here to hear 
the ballads and see the folk dances presented by the mountain people. The songs 
and dances are performed with strict attention to appropriate costuming, steps, 
and music. Women in linsey-woolsey, slat bonnets, and homespun shawls dance 
to the tunes of "Chimney Sweeper" and "Prince Charley." Mrs. Thomas, whose 
home is in Ashland, Ky., was born of mountain folk and early became interested 
in the folk customs of her people. Traveling through the mountains, sometimes in 
a jolt wagon, sometimes on foot, she made a study of the legends, ballads, and 
dances of the Kentucky mountaineer. Her works include Devil's Ditties, a collec- 
tion of songs, and the Traipsin' Woman, an account of her experience in the Cum- 
berland Mountains. 

Mrs. Thomas' log cabin is a reproduction of the type occupied by the more pros- 
perous settlers of 100 years ago. It is on an eminence among wooded hills. Jilson 
Setters, the left-handed fiddler from Lost Hope Hollow, who journeyed to London 
to sing for the English Folk Song Society, sings ballads of his own creation about 
his travels. He helped Mrs. Thomas found the folk pageant. It was the moun- 
tain people who first called Mrs. Thomas the "traipsin' woman," for they described 
her journeyings from county to county as "considerable spells of traipsin'." 

LOUISA, 75.7 m. (526 alt., 1,961 pop.), seat of Lawrence County, 
was named for Louisa, Duchess of Cumberland. It is a pleasant old 
town, dating from the flatboat era, and is in a region of considerable 
natural beauty at the head of navigation on the Big Sandy River. Dur- 
ing the Napoleonic wars thousands of bearskins were collected along the 
Big Sandy and Kanawha Rivers and sent from Louisa down river to 
the Ohio, then down river to New Orleans, and thence to Europe, where 
they were made into headpieces for Napoleon's grenadiers. Big Sandy 
has been used for transportation for more than a century. Packets and 
barges superseded the crude early flatboats; down Tug and Levisa 
Forks came millions of logs from the forests of the upper valley, bound 
for Louisa and the sawmills along the Ohio River; the Chesapeake & 
Ohio Ry. built a terminus here decades ago. Today an occasional 
steamboat continues to carry traffic between this point and Catletts- 

At the northern end of Louisa along US 23 is the BIG SANDY 
DAM (L), the first movable needle-type dam built in the United 
States. This dam was erected in 1896 at a cost of $396,305. 

The old FREESE HOUSE (private), at the end of Sycamore St. over- 
looking the Big Sandy, is the only old Georgian Colonial home in 
Louisa. This two-story brick structure, with walls 13 inches thick, was 

TOUR I 237 

built about 1840. A front porch and a rear ell have been added, and 
the house has been painted red with white trim. The original yellow 
poplar woodwork, all of it hand-whipsawed, is still in place. This was 
first the home of Capt. Milton Freese, who operated packets on the Big 
Sandy and Ohio Rivers for 50 years. 

According to a tradition, believed by many, George Washington, 
before the Revolution, had a tract of 2,084 acres surveyed on both sides 
of the Big Sandy River, including the present town site of Louisa. The 
story is supported by the fact that a cornerstone on this survey bears 
the initials "G.W." 

Another tradition concerning the selection of the Kentucky- Virginia 
boundary relates that three commissioners, selected by the Governors 
of the two States, arrived late one evening in October 1799 at the point 
where Louisa now stands. Rains had been falling and the waters of 
both forks of the Big Sandy were rising. After the commissioners had 
enjoyed the refreshments and conviviality of pioneers, it was decided 
that the boundary should follow the larger fork of the Big Sandy. The 
next morning the Tug Fork, which had been rising steadily during the 
night, appeared to be much larger than the Levisa Fork and forthwith 
became the boundary. The commissioners departed before the slowly 
rising waters of the Levisa, normally the larger of the two, reached the 
junction of the forks. Satisfaction with the result was widespread; 
many years later it was realized that, had the Levisa Fork been selected, 
the rich bottom lands and extensive mineral resources of the Big Sandy 
Valley would have remained a part of Virginia. 

There is a story that in 1760 John Swift left Alexandria, Va., with 
a party and came through the mountains to some place in Kentucky 
where they knew of a silver mine. They worked the mine that summer 
and returned to Virginia in the fall ; a program they repeated each year 
until 1769. A manuscript of their travels and operations gives the dates 
of the various trips and the names of Swift's companions. It asserts 
that they also had some interests in piratical enterprises along the 
Atlantic Coast, and gives an account of money coined and treasures of 
thousands of dollars hidden when either Indians or the weather made 
it difficult to get the money out. Although the journal seems to point 
to the region around Paint Creek in Johnson County as the place where 
Swift's party camped and worked and the Mine Fork of Paint Creek 
was so named for their mine, nearly every county in eastern Kentucky 
has a tradition linking it with this romantic story; searching for the 
lost treasure has long been a favorite pastime in Kentucky, Virginia, 
North Carolina, and Tennessee. 

Left from Louisa on State 37, a paved road, to the center of the FORT GAY 
BRIDGE (toll 15$ for auto and driver, 15^ each additional passenger), 0.5 m., 
over the point where the Levisa and Tug Rivers converge to form the Big Sandy. 
This bridge connects two States (West Virginia and Kentucky), two counties, 
two towns, crosses two rivers, charges two tolls, and has three approaches. There 
is an excellent view here of the Big Sandy River. 


Right on State 3, from the center of the bridge, a short distance to the so- 
called "Point" section, between the forks of the Big Sandy. The first settlement 
in Lawrence County, consisting of three cabins connected by palisades, was 
founded here in 1789 by Charles Vancouver of London, England, who had re- 
ceived a grant of land from King George III in 1772; the patents were issued by 
Governor Randolph of Virginia in 1768. William M. Fulkerson, an attorney of 
Louisa, has in his possession this old parchment document with the official seal 
of the Lord Mayor of London. 

South of Louisa the highway (now graveled) follows Levisa Fork 
through mountain farm lands typical of the Big Sandy Valley. There 
are a few small villages, but most of the region appears to be unin- 
habited as the hills near the highway conceal more distant hills in the 
hollows and bottoms of which are trie cabins and farms of the moun- 
taineer. Hard put though he is to scrape a living from his steep and 
sometimes unfertile patches, the mountaineer has a deep attachment 
for his farm and his home; he would not think of forsaking them (as 
long as they are his) to go out to "the level land" beyond the moun- 
tains. Proud and sensitive, he is quick to resent the flouts of outsiders, 
and contemptuous of any of his own kind who "git above their raisin'." 
He is unfailingly kind and hospitable because he holds individuality in 
high esteem; his cabin often has a place set at the table for a chance 
visitor, he is "mighty proud" to meet someone he likes, and his tradi- 
tional invitation is, "Drag up a cheer and sit a spell." 

In these hollows bearing such names as Lonesome, Troublesome, and 
Peevish, the traditions, songs, customs, and handicrafts of the original 
settlers still survive among their descendants who continue to live in 
the same way and often in the same places as their great-grandsires. 
The pattern of life is simple but tenacious. The typical mountaineer 
owns a cow, a couple of mules, hogs, chickens, geese, turkeys, and 
ducks. His house is usually a log cabin. He raises corn and tobacco 
for a "money crop," an acre of cane for sorghum, and potatoes, turnips, 
and sometimes pumpkins and apples for winter use. Wild berries, 
game, and fish in the mountain streams also provide him with food. 
The material with which he clothes his family is still woven on hand 
looms and he needs money chiefly for taxes; many of his possessions he 
acquires by barter. Paths and old creek beds join hollow to hollow and 
serve in lieu of roads. The ham a traveler eats at one of the town 
hotels in this region quite likely comes from a Chicago packing house 
because the mountaineer cannot bring in his hogs from his farm four 
miles away. 

Music is second only to religion in the hearts of the mountain peo- 
ple; and while the women have preserved the handicrafts of their an- 
cestors, it is the mountain men chiefly who have cherished their songs. 
The fiddle, the dulcimer, the banjo, and the guitar are met with at 
infares (weddings), dances, frolics, and impromptu gatherings; and to 
this day there is found in the mountains of Kentucky the wandering 
minstrel who trudges along quiet creeks and into lonely hollows to 
bring cheer with his "sure-enough fiddle" (as contrasted with the chil- 

TOUR I 239 

dren's gourd fiddle) and his songs. Religious extremists call these lively 
jigs or sweet romantic ballads "devil ditties." But it delights most of 
the mountain people, from the "leastuns" (youngest children) to the 
grandsires, to gather about the minstrel who can sing and play these 
old, sometimes Elizabethan, songs that their ancestors knew in the 
shires of England or the highlands of Scotland; a "right ditty singer" 
means as much in their lives as a "mighty knowin' " doctor or a good 
preacher. Some of the more famous mountain minstrels are said to be 
able to carry on for days without repeating themselves. Old favorites 
include "Lord Lovell," "The Dying Knight's Farewell," "Lady Isabel 
and the Elf Knight," "Barbara Allen," "Thread the Needle," "Rickett's 
Hornpipe," "Give the Fiddler a Dram," "Lord Dannel," "Pa's Done Et 
the Shotgun," and "My Gal is Billy-be-Damned." 

The mountaineer's life is hard but self-contained, and the sense of 
independence is his most prized trait. His psychology is still that of 
the frontier; he is suspicious of outsiders, takes strong measures against 
real or fancied wrongs, yet withal is extremely sociable. He describes 
his neighbors as sometimes "contrarious," sometimes "witchy" (claim- 
ing power to bewitch people) ; others are "flighty" and some are 
"drinlin" (frail). He respects "larnin'," even though he may not be 
able to read or write himself, so long as it does not make the possessor 
flout the ways of his people. Rooted to the soil and ancestral tradi- 
tions, the mountaineer's concern with elemental things gives him a 
strength of character and a basic permanence that is not found else- 
where in the United States; to find his like, one must look to the Eng- 
lish yeoman. 

At 106.5 m. is the junction with State 40 (see Tour 17); between 
this point and Paintsville, US 23 and State 40 are united. 

PAINTSVILLE, 108.3 m. (620 alt., 2,411 pop.), seat of Johnson 
County, was named for PAINT CREEK which flows through the 
town, and along which early settlers found many of the large trees 
stripped of their bark and embellished with drawings of birds and 
animals, painted in red and black on the smooth undertrunk of the 
trees. There were found also odd figures of buffalo and deer painted 
in red and black on the clifflike sandstones of the creek gorge. Various 
undecipherable hieroglyphs were once visible near the drawings, but 
these have become obliterated by the weather during the last 40 or 50 

The town is on the SITE OF PAINT LICK STATION, an old trading 
post. Indian traditions cling to this part of the valley, which was ap- 
parently a favorite burial ground of the Indians. On the hills surround- 
ing Paintsville many graves and burial mounds have been found; and 
artifacts, such as pipes, tomahawks, pottery, and beads, have been 
taken from them. The ROCK HOUSE, a natural rock formation with a 
circular opening cut to provide entrance, stands on a hill facing the 
river just north of Concord Baptist Church. Such shelters, bearing 
evidence of Indian occupation, replaced wigwams in times of danger. 

Paintsville is at the junction with State 40 (see Tour 17). 


EAST POINT, 114.5 m. (627 alt., 265 pop.), lies directly across the 
Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River from Blockhouse Bottom, the 
SITE OF HARMON'S STATION. This, the first fort, in the Big Sandy 
Valley, was founded in 1787 by Matthias Harmon and a party of set- 
tlers from Draper's Meadow. Attacked by Indians in 1788, the station 
was abandoned and burned, but a year later rebuilt. 

In the fall of 1787, while practically all the men from Harmon's 
Station were on a hunting trip in the Big Sandy Valley, a band of 
Cherokee and Shawnee attacked the home of Jennie Wiley at the settle- 
ment of Walker's Creek. With Mrs. Wiley were her 15-year-old brother 
and her four children. Realizing from the actions of the two leaders 
that they had mistaken her home for that of Matthias Harmon, who 
had defeated the Indians a few days before, Mrs. Wiley tried to fight 
them off only to see three of the children and her brother tomahawked 
and scalped. After setting fire to the cabin, the Indians, with Mrs. 
Wiley and her 15-month-old baby as captives, left the settlement. 
During the 11 months in which she was held, Jennie Wiley saw them 
kill her baby by dashing its brains out against a tree. 

During the winter the Indians camped near the head of Cherokee 
Creek. While they were on one of their hunting trips, Mrs. Wiley, 
bound with rawhide thongs, crawled to the corner of the cabin; she 
allowed the rain to drip through the roof and to fall on the leather 
until it stretched. Then she freed herself and escaped down Little Mud 
Lick Creek and up another small stream, which the settlers later named 
Jennie's Creek in honor of this brave pioneer woman. At East Point 
she crossed the river on a log and reached Harmon's Station just before 
the Indians who were pursuing her appeared on the opposite side. 

The Bottoms between East Point and Prestonsburg were used as 
camping grounds during the War between the States by Union forces 
under Gen. James A. Garfield. 

PRESTONSBURG, 121.2 m. (643 alt., 2,105 pop.), between the 
river and the hills, was first known as Preston Station, named for Col. 
John Preston, a surveyor from Augusta County, Virginia, who camped 
here in 1791. The erection of John Spurlock's house on this site in 
1791 distinguishes Prestonsburg as the oldest settlement in the Big 
Sandy Valley. The building stood here for many years as a landmark. 

On Second Ave., north of Court St., is the house used as COLONEL 
GARFIELD'S HEADQUARTERS (open by request) during his Big Sandy 
campaign. The building, facing the river, is a rambling two-story 
frame structure with brick end chimneys and a two-story veranda across 
the front. Soldiers camped 300 yards north of the house. 

During the War between the States the Big Sandy Valley was the 
scene of an important military campaign. The Battle of Middle Creek, 
fought on January 10, 1862, within three miles of Prestonsburg, deter- 
mined the control of eastern Kentucky and drove a Union salient into 
the broken Confederate line that cut across southern Kentucky. Col. 
James A. Garfield, who commanded a brigade of Ohio and Kentucky 
troops under General Buell, planned and executed the campaign. In a 

TOUR I 241 

month he succeeded in driving the Confederate forces under Gen. 
Humphrey Marshall from the Big Sandy Valley, causing them to re- 
treat into southeastern Virginia, thereby preventing them from descend- 
ing the Ohio River to Cincinnati. The Battle of Middle Creek was the 
first substantial victory for the Union cause. It was the success of 
Garfield's campaign in the Big Sandy that gave him the general's star 
and started him on the road leading to the Presidency. 

A story is told that illustrates some of the difficulties of the cam- 
paign. The Big Sandy was in flood, the roads deep in mud, and the 
brigade in need of supplies. Garfield, with one other soldier, descended 
in a skiff from Pikeville to Catlettsburg where they found the steamer 
Sandy Valley. He loaded the boat with supplies and commanded the 
captain and crew to pilot him back to Pikeville. The captain refused, 
so Garfield took the wheel himself, and after a perilous trip reached 

Between Prestonsburg and Pikeville the highway winds along the 
east side of Levisa Fork, much of the distance in plain sight of the 

At 130.5 m. is the junction with State 80 (see Tour 18). 

US 23 passes through several little towns whose men work irregularly 
in the numerous hillside coal mines of the area (see Tour 19). Since 
the highway has opened this region to products from the South, the 
farmers, living a mile or two back from the road, are no longer able to 
sell the garden products with which they formerly paid their taxes; 
their situation is desperate. In this region dwell many relatives and 
descendants of the Hatfield and McCoy families, whose feuds were 
notorious for several generations (see Tour 19). 

Back from the highway are isolated little graveyards usually perched 
on hilltops under a cluster of oak trees. Many of them have "grave 
houses" rude log and clapboard shelters that the mountaineers cus- 
tomarily erect over and around the graves of their relatives. 

PIKEVILLE, 152.2 m. (680 alt., 3,376 pop.), with its long narrow 
streets, is surrounded by thickly timbered countryside that ranges from 
the hilly to the mountainous; neighboring roads reveal scenes of wild, 
almost breathtaking, beauty. Although the Levisa, which flows through 
the town, no longer carries its once heavy burden of logs and other 
freight, Pikeville is still a lumbering and coal mining center. It is also 
the administration office of the Pikeville terminus of the Chesapeake 
& Ohio Ry. It was named for Zebulon M. Pike, the explorer, and was 
developed chiefly by the younger sons of the Rees family of Virginia 
who took up thousands of acres here. 

The HOTEL JAMES HATCHER, Main St., completed in 1931, has an 
odd assortment of relics on display in its lobby ox-yokes, hoop skirts, 
cannon balls, ox-shoes, chain dogs, cant hooks, bootjacks, spinning 
wheels, looms, and flintlock rifles. On the walls are popular bits of 
rural humor: "To live a long life, reside in Pikeville the only city 
on the map where an undertaker ever failed in business"; "There is a 
noticeable increase in population in these mountain counties. Why? 


True mountaineers obey the commandments and never allow a twin 
bed in their homes"; "Visiting Pikeville is like making love to an old 
maid. You'll have to do it all over again"; and "We serve free beer if 
you are over 95 years old and accompanied by your parent." 

Pikeville is at the junction with US 119 (see Tour 19); between 
Pikeville and JENKINS, 191.5 m. (1,527 alt., 8,465 pop.) (see Tour 
19), US 23 and US 119 are united (see Tour 19). 

South of Jenkins the route leads over continuous elevations to the 
crest of Pine Mountain, thence through historic POUND GAP, 194.6 m. 
(2,366 alt.), a mountain pass that connects the South with the Big 
Sandy Valley. It is called a wind gap because water no longer flows 
through it. Pound Gap, like many mountain passes, has been a high- 
road of adventure and romance. The Kentucky, the Cumberland, and 
the Big Sandy head near it; Indian trails passed through it; pioneers 
eventually utilized it. At first called Sounding Gap because the rocky 
formation seemed to give back a hollow sound, the name was corrupted 
to Pound Gap. 

A marker on the Kentucky side of the gap lists important dates in 
the early history of the State and of this pass. 

Pound Gap is on the Virginia Line, 20.5 miles west of Norton, Va. 
(see Virginia Tour 15). 

Tour 2 

Winchester Stanton Jackson Hazard Junction with US 119; 161.9 
m. State 15. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. roughly parallels entire route. 

All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere. 

This route, between Winchester and the junction with US 119, passes 
from the fertile fields and spacious farmhouses of the Bluegrass region, 
along Indian and pioneer trails and winding streams, to the wooded 
hills of the mist-hung Appalachians. 

WINCHESTER, m. (981 alt., 8,233 pop.) (see Tour 16), is at the 
junctions with US 60 (see Tour 16) and US 227 (see Tour 17A). 

Southeast of Winchester State 15 winds through rolling country to 
Indian village that was here from about 1718 to 1754, and is believed 
to have been the last one in Kentucky. Early Scottish traders, referred 
to the Piqua, a band of Shawnee who lived here, as Picts, and their 

TOUR 2 243 

village as Little Pict Town. The first white settlers found remnants 
of Indian cornfields, cabins, and a palisade here. 
At 12 m. is the junction with an unimproved road. 

Left on this road to OIL SPRINGS, 0.5 m., a once popular resort marked by 
an abandoned hotel and a few servants' quarters. There are both sulphur and 
chalybeate springs here. Like others in the vicinity, they contain traces of 

The overflow from the springs forms LULBEGRUD CREEK, beside which 
John Finley, Daniel Boone, and several others camped in 1769. They had been 
reading Gulliver's Travels at night by the campfire, when one evening one of the 
men returned to camp and reported that he, like Gulliver, had been to Lorbrulgrud, 
capital of Brobdingnag, and had killed two of the inhabitants. He had in reality 
been to near-by Oil Springs and had killed two buffaloes. The name, twisted into 
Lulbegrud, is still applied to the creek. 

Left 4 m. from Oil Springs on a trail, passable in good weather, to PILOT 
KNOB, 800 feet above the plains. The superb view from this point includes 
the towns of Winchester and Mount Sterling, 20 miles distant. From this summit 
John Finley and Daniel Boone (see Tour 17 A) first glimpsed the Bluegrass up- 
lands in 1769. Pilot Knob had been a landmark to Indians passing up and down 
the great Warriors' Trace many years before the first pioneers arrived in Ken- 

CLAY CITY, 19.5 m. (628 alt., 528 pop.), is the site of the once 
prosperous Red River Iron Works, known as early as 1802 for the 
superior quality of the nails, stoves, plowshares, cannon balls, and 
other products manufactured in its blast furnace and forge. Tradition 
states that many of the cannon balls used in the War of 1812 were 
made here. 

STANTON, 24.3 m. (562 alt., 423 pop.), seat of Powell County, is 
on the flood plain of Red River. Stanton, first called Beaver Pond 
for a small lake created by a beaver dam in the swampy lowlands just 
east of the town, was renamed in 1852 to honor Richard H. Stanton 
of Maysville, Representative in Congress from 1849 to 1855. Hunting 
is a popular sport during the fall season in the extensive woodlands 
of the mountainous region surrounding Stanton, where small game, in- 
cluding fox, raccoon, opossum, rabbit, and squirrel are plentiful. 

SLADE, 36.4 m. (890 alt., 418 pop.), is a hamlet lying in rugged 

Right from Slade on graveled State 11 to NATURAL BRIDGE STATE PARK, 

2.6 m. (adm. adults 10$, children 5$; overnight parking, 25$; lodge, shelter houses, 
hotel and cabins; boating and bathing facilities). NATURAL BRIDGE, a reddish 
rock-span of the Paleozoic era, forms a dividing ridge between Wolfe and Powell 
Counties. Contrary to the popular impression, it was not carved by stream 
erosion but by the disintegrating action of wind, mist, rain, and frost on the 
softer conglomerate limestone under the hard capstone. This vast arch has a 
clearance of 92 feet, a width between abutments of 76 feet, and a roadway breadth 
of 24 feet. Trails lead to the top of the bridge, from which there is a magnificent 
view of the surrounding countryside. In the park's 1,127 wooded, hilly acres 
are cliffs and huge balanced rocks, as well as a profusion of wild flowers, rhodo- 
dendron, and mountain laurel. 


Between Slade and Jackson the route is through a deep gap in Holly 
Ridge, the mountain on the south side of which the highway follows 
a small ravine which is cool even in the hottest weather. The surround- 
ing hills are covered with shrubs and vines and in the spring and early 
summer they fairly glow with mountain laurel and rhododendron. At 
intervals the waters of mountain streams can be heard plunging against 

South of this peaceful valley the highway winds in and out, making 
sweeping curves and sharp turns to the top of FROZEN MOUNTAIN 
(1,500 alt.) . From this point is a panorama of jagged cliffs rising above 
wide expanses of woodland. In late fall the varicolored foliage of the 
deciduous trees chiefly scrub oak contrasts pleasingly with the green 
of the conifers. South of Frozen Mountain the highway follows the 
devious course of the North Fork of the Kentucky River. 

JACKSON, 77.9 m. (790 alt., 2,109 pop.), the seat of Breathitt 
County, straggles over a hillside around which the North Fork curves. 
Houses in this town face a narrow valley through which the river flows 
toward a towering mountain. Jackson, named by admirers of Andrew 
Jackson, was formerly so isolated that its inhabitants retained for many 
years the customs and peculiarities of speech of their pioneer English 
ancestors. Since 1890, when the railroad was extended from Lexing- 
ton, Jackson has become a distributing point of merchandise for the 
remoter mountain regions and its residents have abandoned not only 
the feuds (see Tour 19) which caused the county to be called Bloody 
Breathitt but also most of their distinctive mountain customs and 
occupations. One of the latter, "senging," or the gathering of ginseng, 
was an important source of income of the early settlers. The roots 
of this herb were dried, baled, and shipped to China where they are 
valued for their medicinal properties. The hillspeople especially the 
womenfolk used to troop into the mountains at dawn with sacks and 
small hoes. There they worked busily all day filling their bags with 
roots which they dragged wearily home at twilight. At the end of each 
week all of the dried ginseng was exchanged at the country store for 
" factory" gingham and calico, salt, soda, coffee, and other necessities 
that could not be produced on the little hillside farms. There was 
keen competition among "sengers" for the award given to the digger 
who had brought in the greatest quantity by the end of the season. 
The prize, often a pair of coarse shoes or only a bright ribbon, was 
eagerly coveted, and the winner was lauded throughout the county. 

LEE'S JUNIOR COLLEGE, at Jackson, established in 1864, is main- 
tained by the Presbyterian Church of Kentucky. The school is co- 
educational and has an enrollment of approximately 100 students. 

In QUICKSAND, 82 m. (673 alt., 90 pop.), is a substation of the 
forestry division of University of Kentucky College of Agriculture. A 
tract of 15,000 acres here is devoted to experiments in reforestation. 
On the top of a ridge in Quicksand overlooking the river is a large 
MOUND of unknown origin and purpose. It consists of an immense 


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TOUR 2 245 

heap of stones, many of which are believed to have been brought from 
a considerable distance. In a neighboring valley is an Indian village 
site that has yielded some artifacts. 

Quicksand is the scene of the annual Robinson Harvest Festival 
(last Thurs. and Fri. of Sept.), during which products of the fireside 
industries of the mountain people are displayed and sold, and contests 
in folk singing and dancing are held. 

RIVERSIDE INSTITUTE in LOST CREEK, 89 m. (40 pop.), is de- 
scribed as a "small Berea" (see Tour 4). Here about 70 mountain 
boys and girls are given vocational training. The school is conducted 
by the United Brethren in Christ. This Protestant sect was founded 
in the United States by Philip W. Otterbein (1726-1813). 

Between DWARF, 114.3 m. (900 alt., 118 pop.) (see Tour 18) and 
120 m., State 15 and State 80 (see Tour 18) are united. 

HAZARD, 121.6 m. (833 alt., 7,021 pop.), seat of Perry County, 
was named by men who served under Oliver Hazard Perry in the Battle 
of Lake Erie, September 10, 1813. Shortly after the close of the War 
between the States, natural gas was discovered in this region, and in 
1917 oil was found. In 1910 Hazard had only 537 inhabitants, but 
after the Louisville & Nashville R.R. tracks had been extended from 
Jackson into the Perry County coal fields one of the finest in the State 
Hazard grew steadily. Because of the ready accessibility of fuel, a 
large steel mill has been erected in the town. Large quantities of 
timber are still available in this vicinity and numerous sawmills are in 

The French-Eversole feud, which began in 1882, was principally con- 
fined to Perry County. The worst conflict occurred in Hazard (1888) 
where members of one faction barricaded themselves in the courthouse 
and the other faction occupied nearby dwellings and stores. Twelve 
men were killed and several were wounded in this battle. 

Between Hazard and Whitesburg the highway leads through rugged 
hills and short fertile valleys. Lonely little cabins with their small 
patches of corn perch on the ridges or nestle in the coves. This is the 
region of Chaucerian English, old ballads, and the dulcimer (see Tours 
1, 18, and 19). 

WHITESBURG, 160.2 m. (1,146 alt., 1,804 pop.), seat of Letcher 
County, is named for C. White, a member of the legislature when the 
county was formed. Before the coming of the railroad in 1912, Whites- 
burg with a population of 300, was the only town in Letcher County, 
and lumber milling was the chief industry. Between 1880 and 1890 
great quantities of timber from the vast forests along the headwaters 
of the Kentucky and Cumberland Rivers were floated downstream to 
the mills here from which lumber was shipped to many parts of the 

At 161.9 m. is the junction with US 119 (see Tour 19). 


Tour 3 

( Cincinnati, Ohio ) Newport Cynthiana Paris Lexington Nicho- 
lasville Lancaster Somerset (Chattanooga, Tenn.); US 27. 
Ohio Line to Tennessee Line, 221.4 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Texas Pacific R.R. parallels route between Eubank 

and Tennessee Line. 

All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere. 

This route crosses rolling hills, fertile Bluegrass lands, and the foot- 
hills and mountains of southeastern Kentucky. US 27, bordered by 
white rail fences or old stone walls, passes fine farms in central Ken- 
tucky with their stately old mansions; great stables kept with the tidi- 
ness of a Dutch kitchen ; sleek horses, purebred cattle, and sheep brows- 
ing in blue-tinted fields; and broad acres of waving grain, tobacco, and 

Section a. OHIO LINE to LEXINGTON; 98.3 m. US 27 

US 27, the Lookout Mountain Airline, crosses the Ohio Line, m., 
at Cincinnati, Ohio (see Ohio Tour 26), on the Central Bridge (toll 
10$ to 75$) over the Ohio River. 

NEWPORT, 1 m. (512 alt., 29,744 pop.), directly above the con- 
fluence of the Licking and Ohio Rivers, is within the Cincinnati met- 
ropolitan area. Seen from a distance on winter days when the city 
is blanketed with Cincinnati's smoke, Newport seems to be a gray 
lake buoying up church spires and chimneys. Most of the buildings, 
erected in the days of chimney pots, coal stoves, and open fires, are of 
brick and are utilitarian in workmanship and design. The town is 
quiet on weekdays, when so many of its citizens have gone over the 
river to work in Cincinnati, but on Saturdays farmers from the nearby 
fertile farm lands come to do their trading or discuss crops and politics. 

A young soldier by the name of Hubbard Taylor came here in 1790 
with the Kentucky troops from Lexington, on their way to join St. 
Clair at Fort Washington. When young Taylor saw the lush vegeta- 
tion here, he went no farther. Acting as agent for his father in Vir- 
ginia, he bought holdings and roughly planned the town, naming it 
Newport in honor of Christopher Newport who had come to America 
in 1607 as commander of the first ship to reach Jamestown. 

There is no record of what became of Hubbard; two years later 
when his brother James came to visit the family holdings, he found 

TOUR 3 247 

little except the name and the fine land. James returned to Virginia 
and the following spring came back to Newport with Robert Christy, 
an Englishman. He also brought his wife, two slaves, a pair of blooded 
horses, and farming and household equipment. 

During the first two years the place continued to be little better than 
a clearing in the wilderness, though in 1 796, a year after its incorpora- 
tion as a village, Newport became the county seat. In 1798 William 
Kennedy and other prominent citizens of northern Kentucky estab- 
lished Newport Academy, a school that soon became famous throughout 
the region. In spite of early steps in education and the building of 
churches, more than one citizen protested through the Cincinnati papers 
against the practice of staining Newport's riverbanks with gore from 
frequent duels. Others spoke against the custom of burning useless 
flatboats on the riverbanks; still others complained of disturbances 
made by inebriates. 

By 1835 Newport had again been incorporated, this time as a city. 
The mayor and the trustees seem to have been men of dignified man- 
ners and strict morals, judging from the laws they passed. Hallooing 
was declared illegal, day or night; swearing was likely to cost five 
dollars; swimming was prohibited within the town limits between 
4 A.M. and 9 P.M.; and four trustees had to give permission for the 
interment of any body within the public burying ground. 

Like other Kentucky towns, Newport was caught between the North 
and the South during the War between the States. A mob of Southern 
sympathizers in 1856 destroyed the office and equipment of the True 
South, an abolitionist newspaper. Many secessionists were arrested; 
prominent men were found hiding from Union sympathizers in the 
cellars of their homes; female Southern sympathizers insulted Union 

By the eighties and nineties, Newport was enjoying a mild boom 
the only one in its history. The coming of Germans in large numbers, 
the completion of bridges over the Ohio to Cincinnati, and the growth 
of the county agricultural population, were all contributing factors. 
The many small industries gave place to a few large ones such as 
breweries and a steel mill; while quick, cheap transportation tempted 
more and more of its citizens to go over the river for work. In 1921 
steel workers in Newport began a strike that lasted for seven years 
(see Labor). 

Newport has grown little within the past 40 years. Many who might 
settle here prefer the higher elevation at Fort Thomas; others who must 
work in Cincinnati move there in order to save time and carfare. 

THE SOUTHGATE HOUSE (visit by appointment), 24 E. 3rd St., 
now a clubhouse, was built by Col. Wright Southgate about 1821. This 
20-room brick mansion later passed into the hands of the Talliaferro 
family. The house is Southern Colonial in design and has a winding 
staircase of mahogany and a small observation tower with four win- 
dows, each less than one foot square. 


The JAMES TAYLOR MANSION (visit by appointment), 3rd and 
Overton Sts., is now a funeral home. It occupies the site of the frame 
building erected in 1812 by James Taylor. A discontented slave burned 
the first home in 1837, and soon after, Taylor built this four-story brick 
and frame mansion. The pillared veranda originally faced the river, 
and a winding driveway formed a semicircle through the shade trees 
surrounding the house, but in 1888 the house was remodeled so that 
the back became the front. The name Taylor is still legible on the 
front door, while his love of horses is shown by the figure of a brown 
horse standing on the spread wings of an eagle above the motto "Ready 
and Faithful." 

The interior of the house has wide halls, a winding stairway, and 
spacious rooms with ceilings 16 feet high that are supported by wooden 
columns of Corinthinian design. The basement, which was used to 
house the slaves, has stone walls that are two feet thick, low ceilings, 
and small windows heavily barred. The basement dining room still 
contains the plank dining tables, scarred by countless jackknife blades 
of restless slaves. Many notables were served by these slaves; among 
them Lafayette. 

simple red brick building with plastered walls, cherry pulpit, and hand- 
made wooden pews. It was erected in 1831. In the deed to the lot 
appears the name of Henry Ward Beecher, then a student at Lane 
Theological Seminary in Cincinnati. 

From the NEWPORT CITY PARK, a six-acre wooden tract on the point 
between the mouth of the Licking River and the Ohio, is a view of 
downtown Cincinnati. The U.S. Government acquired part of this 
area in 1803 by gift and purchase from James Taylor. Between 1806 
and 1884 this was the site of Newport Barracks, the headquarters in 
1812 of the 5,000 militia under Col. Isaac Shelby (see Tour 5) that 
later marched to reinforce General Harrison against the British. The 
drills, parades, and Sunday band concerts grew to be a colorful part 
of the town life, and on summer Sundays attracted barge-loads of 
Cincinnatians. After the great Ohio River flood of 1884 had inundated 
the barracks, the post was moved to what is now Fort Thomas, and all 
that remains today are a part of the brick wall and a bronze cannon 
captured from the Spanish at the battle of San Juan Hill. 

720 Orchard St., are manufactured metal and celluloid identification 
bands for poultry, game, and livestock. Since each band must bear 
the name and address of the animal's owner, all work is done to order 
and a large percentage of the business is carried on by mail, orders 
being secured through advertisements in national farm papers and 

The CAMPBELL COUNTY COURTHOUSE, SW. cor. 4th and York Sts., 
a brick structure of Tudor design with stone trim, stands on the plot of 
ground deeded to the city by James Taylor for one shilling in 1795. 
The first log courthouse built here the following year was replaced in 

TOUR 3 249 

1815 by a brick building called the Palace of Peace. The present 
building, erected in 1884, has a large window of colored glass, a 
rotunda, and a clock tower. On the elm-shaded grounds are two 

About 3,000 men are employed at the ANDREWS STEEL COMPANY 
PLANT (no admission), 9th and Lowell Sts. There are about 30 build- 
ings in which are manufactured such varied steel products as refrigera- 
tors and truck bodies, and heavily galvanized sheet metal for South 
American ranchers who use them to protect their crops against hordes 
of grasshoppers. 

Between Newport and Cynthiana, US 27 traverses the outer Blue- 
grass. The land is quite hilly in some places, gently rolling in others. 
Valleys and creek beds are cut deeply into the limestone; there are 
occasional stands of second- or third-growth timber, and in spring the 
wild plum, dogwood, and redbud are much in evidence. Outside the 
towns the homes are usually modest farmhouses, frequently backed by 
tobacco or cattle barns. 

FORT THOMAS, 4.3 m. (852 alt., 10,008 pop.), is an attractive 
residential city of secluded streets and landscaped lawns and gardens 
on a rolling ridge that rises between the Ohio and Licking Rivers. 
Most of its people are connected with the business and industrial life 
of the metropolitan area. 

In the COVINGTON WATERWORKS, occupying an extensive area in 
Fort Thomas, water drawn from the Ohio River is filtered and pumped 
through supply mains to reservoirs. The reciprocal agreement by which 
Fort Thomas draws its water supply from the Covington reservoirs in 
return for the space occupied by the waterworks has been in effect for 
many years. 

A 90-foot water tower, of rough-hewn Kentucky limestone, South Fort 
Thomas Ave. at the entrance to Fort Thomas Military Reservation, 
was presented by citizens of Covington, Cincinnati, and Newport as a 
SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR MEMORIAL. It commemorates members of 
the U.S. Infantry who lost their lives in that war and Brig. Gen. Harry 
Clay Egbert, colonel of the 6th Infantry during the Cuban campaign, 
who was killed in action in the Philippines. The two cannon near the 
tower, excellent specimens of the workmanship of Spanish gunsmiths 
of the eighteenth century, are trophies of the Cuban campaign. 

The FORT THOMAS MILITARY RESERVATION (open with restrictions) 
was named for Gen. George H. Thomas, the "Rock of Chickamauga." 
The site was selected in 1887 by Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, and the first 
building, the commanding officer's quarters, was completed in 1888. 
The present development of the fort represents an investment of nearly 
$4,000,000. The post has been garrisoned continuously since its estab- 
lishment, except for a period in 1911 and 1912. The 10th U.S. In- 
fantry (drills daily at 8:00 and 11:45 A.M.; parades Tues. and Thurs. 
at 4:30 P.M.,) is now stationed here, and this is the headquarters of 
the eastern Kentucky district of the CCC, which, consists of approxi- 


mately 5,000 men. From the driveway as it circles the parade ground 
and drill field is a wide-spreading view of the Ohio River Valley. 

ALEXANDRIA, 14.2 m. (845 alt., 424 pop.), in a rich agricultural 
area, is an old village with sturdy brick homes and many trees. On 
the highest promontory of the county, in the heart of the village, is 
the old brick CAMPBELL COUNTY COURTHOUSE, whose clock tower and 
dome are visible for miles. Many valuable old records are housed 
here. When Kenton County was formed from the western half of 
Campbell County, the seat of government was transferred from Visalia 
to Alexandria. Through the years this little town has clung tenaciously 
to the honor of being the county seat, though Newport has its own 
courthouse and criminal and chancery courts, and keeps the records 
relating to northern Campbell County. 

Alexandria is at the junction with State 10 (see Tour 11). 

In GRANT'S LICK, 22.4 m. (1,293 pop.), a village originally set- 
tled by the Grant family, relatives of Daniel Boone, salt was manu- 
factured at the old salt lick as early as 1793. 

The old COVERED BRIDGE, 30 m., across the Licking River, is 500 
feet in length, one of the longest wooden bridges in existence. 

The Licking River is a narrow, deep-flowing stream whose canal- 
like lower course is now the scene of commercial activity. Barges from 
the Ohio enter it and discharge their cargoes at private landings along 
its banks. The Licking rises near the Virginia border and flows in a 
northwesterly course across the State, traversing the "big bend" region 
and forming the dividing line between Kenton and Campbell Counties. 
Long before the white man came, it was the route by which the Indians 
who lived north of the Ohio River entered the Bluegrass region abound- 
ing in deer and buffalo. On August 19, 1782, on the banks of the 
Licking occurred the fierce Battle of Blue Licks (see Tour 15), and 
from the spot where the Licking joins the Ohio, George Rogers Clark 
launched his avenging drive against the Indians on the Little Miami. 
Again, at the outbreak of the War of 1812, it was from the mouth of 
the Licking that the soldiers of Kentucky marched against the allied 
British and Indians. When the war with Mexico broke out, Newport 
Barracks was a rallying point of volunteers who helped form the con- 
quering armies that crossed the Rio Grande. In a later day, when the 
Union was torn by the struggle between North and South, the banks 
of the Licking, at this point, were again a center of military activity. 

At 36 m. is the junction with State 22 (see Tour 13); between this 
point and Falmouth, State 22 and US 27 are united. 

FALMOUTH, 39.3 m. (525 alt., 1,876 pop.), known as the Island 
City, is at the confluence of the Main and South Licking Rivers. Its 
tree-shaded streets and well-kept old houses create an atmosphere of 
hospitality. First settled in 1776, the town was established in 1799 
by Virginians who named it for Falmouth, Virginia. Until 1854, when 
the railroad was extended to this point, Falmouth was a village of 
"mud roads, tin lanterns, and tallow dips." All merchandise had to 
be hauled in covered wagons from Foster's Landing, 13 miles distant, 

TOUR 3 251 

on the Ohio River. The stores were "swapping posts," where feathers, 
rags, tallow, hides, furs, beeswax, ginseng, ax handles, and whisky 
were exchanged for calico, sugar, coffee, gunpowder, and lead. 

One of the earliest sawmills in the State, established at "Fallsmouth" 
(Falmouth) in 1793, was advertised in 1794 in the Cincinnati Centinel 
of the North-Western Territory: 

Plank and scantling of every kind, delivered at the mill or in Cin- 
cinnati, on the shortest notice. Orders will be thankfully received and 

pointedly attended to. T 


Fallsmouth, Forks of Licking, Dec. 15, 1794. 

N.B. The subscriber will be down with a quantity of planks as soon 
as the water of Licking will admit. 

In June 1780 Captain Bird of the British Army, with a Canadian 
and Indian force of 600 men, ascended the Licking River to the con- 
fluence of its forks at Falmouth. Here he landed his cannon and con- 
centrated his forces. From this point he proceeded on his march to 
the attack of Ruddle's Station, about seven miles north of the present 
town of Paris; his trail can be distinguished in many places by the 
blazes that still mark the trees. 

Pendleton County, of which Falmouth is the seat, is sometimes called 
"the county that came back." At one time a third of its population 
moved away because of the decreasing productivity of its land. Even- 
tually the remaining residents adopted new methods of cultivation and 
planted clover and other soil-enriching crops on the barren wastes. 
Today beekeeping is an extensive business, annual shipments of honey 
approximating 2,000,000 pounds. A queen-rearing plant is in operation 
in the region in which 4,000 queen bees are bred and shipped to various 
parts of the State. 

Falmouth is at the junction with State 22 (see Tour 13). 

CYNTHIANA, 64.7 m. (718 alt., 4,386 pop.), lying in the outer 
Bluegrass region, on the banks of the South Fork of Licking River, 
is a residential town with a leisurely social life, and a background of 
tradition, culture, and wealth. Established in 1793 and incorporated 
in 1806, Cynthiana was named for Cynthia and Anna, two daughters 
of the first settler, Robert Harrison. The stately old red-brick HAR- 
RISON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Main St., was built in 1851 in Greek 
Revival style, with an octagonal clock tower. Preserved in this build- 
ing are valuable county records, many of them bearing the handwriting 
of prominent statesmen, including Henry Clay who in 1801 was ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Quarter Sessions Court at Cynthiana. 

Directly back of the courthouse square is an old log house, built in 
1790 and used successively as a courthouse, law office, printing office, 
photograph gallery, and residence. In this house Bishop H. H. 
Kavanaugh and Ambrose Dudley Mann, later special commissioner of 
the United States Government to the German Spates (1846), special 


agent to Hungary (1849), and to Switzerland (1850), served as ap- 
prentices. The Guardian of Liberty, Cynthiana's first newspaper, was 
also published in this old building. A left wing, also built of logs, has 
been added recently. 

The JUDGE BOYD PLACE, on Pike St. R. from Main St., faces the 
river. This mansion, built in 1807 and designed in the late Georgian 
Colonial manner, is still in excellent condition. On the outskirts of 
town, on N. Main St., is a BURYING GROUND established in 1793; it 
contains many old gravestones. 

Cynthiana was the scene of a severe battle during the War between 
the States. On July 17, 1862, Gen. John H. Morgan, with about 800 
men, captured the town which was defended by a Federal force under 
Col. John J. Landrum. Much of the fighting was around the old 
covered bridge over the Licking River. 

Again in 1864 General Morgan, with 1,200 men, captured the town 
after two days' fighting. Federal forces, under the command of Gen. 
E. H. Hobson, surrendered. On Sunday morning, June 12, 1864, the 
day after the battle, General Morgan's troops, fatigued from the fight- 
ing, were suddenly attacked by Gen. Stephen G. Burbridge and a force 
of 5,000 fresh troops. This surprise attack resulted in the retreat of 
General Morgan's troops. Most of the business section of Cynthiana 
was destroyed by fire during the fighting and the loss of life on both 
sides was unusually heavy. 

Cynthiana is at the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14). 

Left from Cynthiana on Millersburg Rd. to BATTLE GROVE CEMETERY, 
1 m., the site of the second day's battle on June 12, 1864. A Confederate monu- 
ment, erected in 1869, memorializes the spot. A monument here to the memory 
of Harrison County soldiers who lost their lives in the Mexican War was erected 
in 1848 on the Courthouse Square, but was moved to Battle Grove in 1868. 

Between Cynthiana and Stanford the route, bordered with old stone 
walls and shaded by rows of honeylocust trees, goes through the inner 
Bluegrass, one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the country. 
It was a landowner in this region who, upon hearing one night from a 
guest that there was a weed in one of his 10-acre pastures, got up and 
went hunting with lights and lanterns until he found it. Judging from 
the neatness of the pastures, the story might well be true; barns and 
stables in the Bluegrass are clean as can be, the old elms and beech 
trees in the pastures show signs of careful pruning, and the stone walls 
are neatly and strongly built, some having stood for more than 150 
years with no help from cement. In many places the mansion with its 
attendant barns, trainers' and laborers' quarters, stables, and paddocks 
has the look of a small prim village. 

In the early days, settlers on this fertile land used it to produce 
almost all of their needs corn, wheat, hogs, sheep, cows, horses, blue- 
grass for pasture, clover for hay, and oats for feed. Hemp and tobacco 
were grown to be sold, and from the beginning the horse was an im- 
portant product. But as the western corn and wheat lands were opened 

TOUR 3 253 

to settlement, the functions of the Bluegrass farms decreased in num- 
ber. Cultivation of tobacco and the breeding of horses are predominant 
now, the Bluegrass farmer often finding it cheaper to buy his oats and 
corn than to use precious tobacco land and pasturage for their cultiva- 

PEAVINE'S HIGHLAND CHIEF STUD, the well-known saddle horse farm 
(L), at 68.1 m., is typical of many in the Bluegrass region. Harrison 
Chief, the prize winner admired by all lovers of the Kentucky saddle 
horse, was bred here; his stall is still preserved. 

Across the Licking River from the tiny settlement of LAIR, 69.2 m., 
is the LEWIS HUNTER DISTILLERY (open), still producing the same 
brand of whisky it made in the 1860's. 

The EWALT HOUSE (open), 75.2 m., was built (R) in 1794 by Henry 
Ewalt, a soldier in the Revolutionary War. On a 200-acre tract, for 
which he paid 110 pounds sterling, he erected a two-story frame house 
with a stone chimney, seven feet wide and three feet deep at the base, 
at each end. About 1808 a stone ell of four rooms was added to the 
house; its walls are 22 inches thick. The interior walls are paneled in 
ash and walnut and decorated with hand-carved moldings. This site 
has belonged to the Ewalt family since 1788. In the old burying ground 
near the house are graves of several members of the Ewalt family. 

At 78.8 m. is the junction with State 40 (see Tour 17); between this 
point and PARIS, 80.3 m. (826 alt., 6,204 pop.) (see Tour 15), US 27 
and State 40 are united. Paris is also at the junction with US 68 (see 
Tour 15) and US 227 (see Tour 17A). 

Between Paris and Lexington, US 27 and US 68 are one route (see 
Tour 15). 

LEXINGTON, 98.3 m. (957 alt., 45,736 pop.) (see Lexington). 

Points of Interest: Homes of Henry Clay, Gen. John Hunt Morgan, Mary 
Todd Lincoln, and John Bradford; Transylvania College, University of Kentucky, 
loose-leaf tobacco market. 

Lexington is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), US 25 (see 
Tour 4), and US 68 (see Tour 15). 

Section b. LEXINGTON to TENNESSEE LINE; 123.1 m. US 27 

South of Lexington, m., US 27 passes through several towns of the 
Bluegrass, towns that draw their life from the surrounding country 
rather than from industrial establishments. They are centers of market 
for tobacco and stock, and distributing points for farmers' needs. 
Many wealthy farmers live in town, and rent their two or three farms 
to others. Busy days in spring or a good spell of tobacco-stripping 
weather find the towns almost deserted, for the farmers do not have 
time to loiter on the courthouse lawn. On Saturdays the streets are 
crowded with farm folk and gay with Negro laborers who have come in 
from their jobs of stock tending or field work. The tobacco season 


comes in late fall and early winter ; it is then that the town is crowded 
with sellers and buyers whose trucks and wagons, canvas-covered, creak 
along the country lanes and highways under loads of cured, stripped, 
and tightly pressed white hurley. 

ALLEGHAN HALL (R), 2.7 m., with its massive Ionic columns and 
fine proportions, is a good example of the Greek Revival type of archi- 
tecture in Kentucky. A stone fence covered with honeysuckle and roses 
encloses the tree-shaded lawn, and iron gates guard the circular drive- 
way. This site was part of a 2,000-acre tract that formerly belonged 
to John Campbell of Louisville. Ownership of the land changed several 
times before William Pettit bought it and built Alleghan, just before 
the outbreak of the War between the States. During the war Pettit 
was driven out of the State, and his home was occupied by Federal 
forces. There is a story that upon the outbreak of hostilities Pettit 
drove to Lexington, withdrew his money from the bank in gold, and 
buried it on his place. He died shortly after his return from his war- 
time exile, and in his last hours is said to have made repeated but 
futile attempts to reveal the hiding place of the treasure. 

NICHOLASVILLE, 12.5 m. (947 alt., 3,128 pop.), seat of Jessamine 
County, resembles a Kentucky town of earlier days. Many old houses 
border its quiet, tree-shaded streets. It was first settled in 1798 and 
named for Col. George Nicholas, a native of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
and a member of the convention that met in Danville in 1792 to frame 
a State constitution. A geography, written by Jedidiah Morse and 
published in 1789 at Elizabeth town, New Jersey, contains the following 
description of this region: 

"Elkhorn River, a branch of the Kentucky, from the southeast, 
waters a country fine beyond description. Indeed, the country east and 
south of this, including the headwaters of Licking River, Hickman's and 
Jessamine Creeks, and the remarkable bend in Kentucky River, may 
be called an extensive garden . . . The banks, or rather precipices, of 
the Kentucky and Dick's (Dix) Rivers are to be reckoned among the 
natural curiosities of this country. Here the astonished eye beholds 
300 or 400 feet of solid perpendicular rocks in some parts of the lime- 
stone kind and in others of fine white marble, curiously checkered with 
strata of astonishing regularity. These rivers have the appearance of 
deep artificial canals. Their high rocky banks are covered with red 
cedar groves." 

Right from Nicholasville on the Old Frankfort Pike to the JOSEPH DRAKE 
HOUSE, 5 m., which, according to legend, was built prior to 1770 by Joe Drake, 
described as a descendant and heir of Sir Francis Drake, the English admiral. 
The red brick house contains seven rooms with beams and sills of hand-hewn 
logs and massive walnut mantels and cabinets. Parts of the house are joined by 
large crude iron spikes, instead of the wooden pegs found elsewhere. The use of 
brick and iron makes its alleged age questionable. Across the road on land belong- 
ing to the estate is an old burying ground in the midst of a clump of trees. In 
the center stands a reproduction of the original gravestone, bearing this inscription: 

TOUR 3 255 



Buckland, Monaghorum England 
Born 1694 
Died 1777 

Beloved Husband of Rebecca Hamble of 
Bodwin Cornwall, England. 

In a primitive setting is GLASS'S MILL, 6 m., erected in 1782, and said to have 
been the first gristmill in Kentucky. It later became a paper mill, and in 1849 
was converted into a distillery which is no longer in use. 

South of Nicholasville the highway descends gradually along the 
banks of Hickman Creek to the Kentucky River. 

19.8 m., contains the graves of more than 500 soldiers who lost their 
lives at the Battles of Perryville and Richmond during the War between 
the States. 

FORMER CAMP NELSON (L) 21.3 m., is at the mouth of Hickman 
Creek; this was one of the leading concentration camps for Federal 
troops and munitions during the War between the States. It was also 
the main camp in the State for the enlistment of Negro troops and a 
refuge for Negro slaves. Established in 1863 and named for Gen. 
William Nelson, it remained a military camp until the close of the war. 

The highway crosses the new concrete bridge over the Kentucky 
River. Nearby are the stone abutments of an old covered bridge re- 
cently torn down. It was considered an engineering triumph at the 
time of its construction in 1838, being then one of the longest wooden 
bridges in the United States. The length was 240 feet and no metal 
was used in the construction. 

At 24.9 m. is the junction with State 152. 

Right on this road to the junction with an unmarked graveled road, 2.6 m. 
Right on this road to CHIMNEY ROCK, 5 m., a remarkable formation 125 feet 
high, carved by slow erosion from the limestone of the Kentucky River cliffs. 

At 7 m. is HERRINGTON LAKE (fishing, swimming; motorboats, $1 an hour 
or $3 a day ; furnished cabins). This lake was formed in 1925 when the Kentucky 
Utilities Company completed the construction of a dam across Dix River near its 
confluence with the Kentucky River (see Tour 15). Herrington Lake, 35 miles in 
length, covering 3,600 acres and ranging in depth to 250 feet, has a picturesque set- 
ting amid cliffs, rolling hills, upland farms, and forests. 

In BRYANTSVILLE, 26.2 m. (150 pop.), is (R) BURNT TAVERN 
(open), a popular roadhouse in stagecoach days; it was so named be- 
cause it was twice destroyed by fire. One wing, which was saved, is 
now (1939) more than 100 years old. The porch across the front of 
the present two-story brick building is a later addition. This tavern 
was the birthplace of Henry Smith, Provisional Governor of Texas 
(1824 and again in 1837-38), who was a son of the original owner, 
Edward Smith of Virginia. 

CAMP DICK ROBINSON, 28.4 m., established in 1861 over the protest 
of Beriah Magomn, then Governor of Kentucky, was the first Federal 


Recruiting station south of the Ohio River. Gen. William Nelson, 
who was in command of the camp, had his headquarters in (L) the old 
DICK ROBINSON HOUSE (open), a very long two-story frame building. 
In the central third, which is recessed, is a two-story galleried porch, 
topped with a gabled pediment. 

Right from Camp Dick Robinson on State 34 to a junction, 1m., with an un- 
marked road; right on this road to the BIRTHPLACE or CARRY NATION (open), 
4 m., at Pope's Landing on Herrington Lake. The long one-story house of logs, 
now clapboarded, has outside end chimneys and rear additions. The house has a 
pedimented Doric portico of Greek Revival design. 

Carry Amelia Moore Nation, the temperance agitator, was born here November 
25, 1846. George Moore, her father, was a prosperous stock dealer and her mother 
a descendant of Alexander Campbell, founder of the Christian Church. About 
1853 the family moved to Glen Artney in Woodford County (see Tour 14) and 
two years later to Cass County, Mo., where for a few years Carry attended a 
boarding school. She was married in 1867, but because of her husband's excessive 
drinking the marriage proved to be an exceptionally wnhappy one and was of 
short duration. In 1877 she was married to David Nation, a lawyer, minister of 
the Christian Church, and editor of the Warrensburg Journal. After 25 years of 
married life, he divorced her in a spasm of revolt against her saloon-smashing activ- 
ities. Between 1900 and 1910 Carry, an ardent member of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, became internationally known for her hatchet -wielding against 
saloons, in which she indulged until a short time before her death in 1911. 

BURDETT'S KNOB (1,090 alt.) 28.9 m., is (L) a monadnock a 
hill of resistant rock projecting from a plain that has been greatly 
reduced by erosion. It was used in pioneer times by settlers as a look- 

The FORK CHURCH, 29.2 m., is (L) a small brick structure, on the 
site of the log church, built in 1782 by Lewis Craig and other Baptist 

LANCASTER, 35.6 m. (1,032 alt., 1,630 pop.), seat of Garrard 
County, like many southern towns, is built around a public square in 
the center of which is a small park. On one corner is the red-brick 
GARRARD COUNTY COURTHOUSE designed in the Greek Revival style. 
The business section encircles the park, from which the tree-shaded 
streets radiate. The home demonstration agents of the Department of 
Agriculture have been reviving the art of rug-hooking in the county 
and some of the women are now placing their products on sale. (Apply 
Home Demonstration office in courthouse for Information.) The re- 
turns from this home industry are very low but the housewives are 
willing to work at it for the sake of bringing in even a small amount 
of cash. The town was settled in 1798 by pioneers from Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, who designed and named it for their native city. When 
the town founders met to choose a site, Capt. William Buford persuaded 
them to build on his land at the crossroads, promising to donate land 
for a public square and courthouse, and to provide water for all those 
attending court during his life. The numerous public wells that sur- 
rounded the square until a few years ago were the result of this promise. 
The first courthouse, built in the center of the square in 1798 by 

TOUR 3 257 

Stephen Giles Letcher and Benjamin Letcher for the sum of 410 pounds 
sterling, was torn down in 1868 and the present courthouse erected. 

The BRADLEY HOUSE (L), on a spacious lawn on Main St., opposite 
the high school, is a red brick Gothic-style structure with seven gables. 
This was formerly the home of William O. Bradley, Governor of Ken- 
tucky (1895-99). 

The old LETCHER HOUSE (open), on Maple Ave., is (R) a one-and- 
one-half story clapboarded structure remodeled from a double log house 
that was erected in 1789 by John Boyle, who later served as Chief 
Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals (1810-26) and U.S. Repre- 
sentative (1803-09). When Boyle vacated his log cabin home here, 
Samuel McKee, who succeeded Boyle in Congress (1809-17), moved 
in with his bride. George Robertson, elected to the U.S. Congress in 
1817 and Chief Justice of Kentucky from 1829 to 1843, later brought 
his bride to this little house. Robert P. Letcher, a young lawyer of 
Garrard County, moved in when Robertson left for Washington. 
Letcher served as a Member of Congress from 1823 to 1833 and Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky from 1840 to 1844; in 1850 he was appointed Am- 
bassador to Mexico by President Zachary Taylor. 

1. Left from Lancaster on State 52, an improved road, to the junction with the 
Walker Pike, 8.4 ra.; R. 1 ra. on this road to the SITE or THE KENNEDY HOUSE. 
So many parts of the building have been carried away by antique dealers and 
souvenir hunters that only the foundation remains. Harriet Beecher Stowe is said 
to have visited this place when she was in Kentucky gathering material for Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, which was published (1851-52) first as a serial in The National Era. 
Her trips to Kentucky were made while she was a resident of Cincinnati (1832-50). 
Gen. Thomas Kennedy owned 200 slaves and 15,000 acres of land, one of the largest 
plantations in the South. General Kennedy's daughter, Nancy Kennedy Letcher, 
who lived in this house and reared a family of 10 children, is said to have been 
the inspiration for the little Eva of the story. Lewis Clark, a Negro slave owned 
by General Kennedy, was the George Harper of the story. After the death of 
General Kennedy, Clark, who feared that he would be sold on the New Orleans 
slave market, fled to Cambridge, Mass., where he lived for many years in the 
family of Mrs. Stowe's sister; his descriptions of old slaves are said to have sug- 
gested to Mrs. Stowe the character of Uncle Tom. 

At 11.6 m. on State 52 is PAINT LICK (250 pop.), a hamlet near the site of 
Paint Lick Station, which was established in 1782 and so named because the first 
settlers found Indian symbols painted in bright colors on trees and stones along 
the creek and around the near-by salt lick. 

PAINT CREEK PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, designed in the Gothic manner, was 
erected in 1872 to replace the second church on this site. The original meeting 
house was built of hewn logs in 1782, immediately after the pioneers had reached 
Kentucky. Among the prominent clergymen of the period who occupied the pulpit 
of this little meeting house were James Blythe and the Rev. David Rice, a min- 
ister of the Presbyterian Church. A communion cup with gold markings, easily 
mistaken for a shaving mug, and a grease lamp belonging to the first church are 
kept in the present building. The BURIAL GROUND adjoins the church. In the 
shade of its maple trees are the graves of several veterans of the Revolution, in- 

2. Left from Lancaster on State 39, an improved road, to the SITE OF GIL- 
BERT'S CREEK MEETING HOUSE, 2.8 m., erected by members of the Traveling Bap- 
tist Church. In 1781 about 600 people left Spotsylvania County, Virginia, under 
the leadership of Capt. William Ellis and Lewis Craig, a devout young minister 


who had long chafed against what he considered the injustice of the church laws 
of Virginia. On reaching the Gilbert's Creek settlement, the company organized 
their church and erected the little log meeting house that became the first Baptist 
Church in the State. The building was loopholed and the- settlers brought their 
rifles with them when they came to worship. When they bowed in prayer two of 
the men stood armed at the door to guard against surprise attacks by Indians. 
This building was used by various denominations. Alexander Campbell, founder 
of the Disciples of Christ or Christian Church, and the Reverend David Rice, a 
pioneer Presbyterian minister, both preached here. 

In 1783 Lewis Craig and a part of his congregation moved to South Elkhorn, 
about five miles southeast of Lexington, where they established the first Baptist 
church in central Kentucky. The church at Gilbert's Creek declined and by 1865 
the brick building that had succeeded the little log church had become a ruin. 
The foundation of the church and its adjoining graveyard, with a few stately old 
walnut and cedar trees standing watch, are all that remain on the hill overlooking 
Gilbert's Creek. 

The WILLIAM OWSLEY HOUSE (R), 36.5 m. f was built in 1813 on 
an eminence overlooking the Wilderness Road. The house is a two- 
and-one-half story brick structure of Georgian Colonial design with a 
two-story portico. William Owsley, Governor of Kentucky (1844-48), 
lived here until 1843 when he moved to Boyle County. This house was 
also the home of Robert P. Letcher for a few years. 

STANFORD, 44.6 m. (1,032 alt., 1,544 pop.), an attractive resi- 
dential town with a leisurely life, has many old houses bordering its 
quiet tree-shaded streets. It is the seat of Lincoln County, one of the 
three original counties of the Kentucky District of Virginia formed in 
1780. The red brick LINCOLN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Main St., built 
about 1915 to replace an earlier structure, has Ionic porticoes on the 
front and sides and a tall clock tower which dominates the town. The 
courthouse contains sheepskin documents dating back to the pioneer 
era of the State. 

Stanford, founded by act of the Virginia Legislature in 1786, is near 
the SITE OF ST. ASAPH or Logan's Fort, established by Col. Benjamin 
Logan in 1775. When their efforts to capture it proved unsuccessful, 
Indians named the settlement Standing Fort, which was later con- 
tracted to Stanford. On the morning of May 20, 1777, when the 
women of the fort were outside of the gate milking the cows, and the 
men were acting as a guard, they were fired upon by more than a 
hundred Indians who had concealed themselves in the thick canebrake. 
One man was killed and two were wounded; the remainder made their 
escape into the fort and closed the gate. Harrison, one of the wounded 
men, ran a few paces and fell. Colonel Logan, ignoring the danger, 
dashed out of the gate to the spot where the wounded man lay, threw 
him on his shoulders and, amidst a shower of rifle balls, made a safe 
retreat into the fort which was now vigorously assaulted by the Indians. 
When the scarcity of powder and balls made additional supplies essen- 
tial, Logan and two companions, under cover of darkness, slipped 
through the Indian lines and with almost incredible rapidity made the 
journey over the mountains and through the valley to the Holston 
River settlements, returning on the tenth day with the ammunition. 

TOUR 3 259 

A few days later Colonel Bowman with a party of men arrived at St. 
Asaph's and compelled the Indians to retire. 

1. Right from Stanford on US 150, an improved road, to BRIGHT'S INN (open 
on request), 1.5 m., a two-story brick and stone building (R). The brick ell was 
added in 1916 to replace a log house built in 1816 and was operated as a tavern 
by Capt. John Bright, son of a Revolutionary soldier. Captain Bright's business 
flourished; in 1820 he added the stone building that still stands. On the premises 
he built a blacksmith shop, stables, slave cabins, coach house, and a horse-powered 
gristmill. A cave served as a cooling plant. 

The stone section of Bright's Inn has a central hall 10 feet wide and 100 feet 
long, with 10 rooms on each side. This hall, with its huge fireplace, was a favorite 
gathering place and re-echoed to the dance music of several generations. The 
cuisine of the old days was famous for its corn pone baked in a Dutch oven, and 
roasts of venison, pork, and beef cooked on the spit. Meals were 25^ with whisky 
thrown in, or metheglin, a drink made of honey and vinegar, for the temperate. 
Captain Bright, the jovial host, weighed 340 pounds, but in spite of his size often 
rode horseback, and insisted that his horse, Nigger, was the fastest in Kentucky 
considering the weight it carried. 

2. Left from Stanford on US ISO to the WHITLEY HOUSE (open) 10 m., stand- 
ing (R) well back from the highway. This structure, built about 1783 by Col. 
William Whitley, is said to have been the first brick house in Kentucky; it is now 
(1939) being restored and is to be included within a State park. 

This tall two-story structure, with walls laid in Flemish bond and with small 
windows placed high above the floor, is an interesting example of pioneer archi- 
tecture. Restoration of the house has included removal of a comparatively enor- 
mous two-story pedimented Doric portico that was probably added after the 
family had prospered. Over the simple entrance door are the initials of Colonel 
Whitley in brick; the initials of his wife are over the rear door. The interior ex- 
hibits much more elegance than the exterior. Over the mantel in the parlor are 
13 small panels symbolizing the Thirteen Colonies, and one entire side of the room 
has elaborately carved paneling. The handrail of the stairway balustrade is curved 
downward and outward to form the newel. Other unusual features of the house 
include the high placement of the first floor windows to prevent the Indians from 
seeing the occupants and a third floor ballroom, once furnished as a courtroom, 
which contained a secret hiding place for women and children. Records show that 
Whitley paid for the bricks and masonry with one farm, for the liquor furnished 
to the laborers with another, and for the carving (done by a man named Swope) 
with still another tract. 

William Whitley, born in Amherst County, Va., August IS, 1749, was a skilled 
Indian fighter. In this home, a favorite with the important persons of his day, 
George Rogers Clark and Gov. Isaac Shelby were guests. Theodore Roosevelt, in 
his book, the Winning of the West, describes this house as the center of the reli- 
gious, political, and social life of the Transylvania region, and the aristocratic home 
of the Wilderness Road (see Tour 4A). Though he was more than 60 years old 
when the War of 1812 broke out, Colonel Whitley, disregarding his previous service 
and rank, enlisted as a private and was killed in the Battle of the River Thames 
in 1813. 

At 11.8 m. on US ISO is CRAB ORCHARD (919 alt., 576 pop.), on the old Wil- 
derness Road (see Tour 4A), early noted as a watering place because of the num- 
ber, variety, and excellence of its mineral springs. The friendliness, hospitality, and 
old-fashioned manners in this quiet resort are in keeping with its old buildings. 
Crab Orchard Salts, a highly valued medicinal remedy, were produced here by 

3. Left from Stanford on the Ottenheim Pike, a graveled road, to the village of 
OTTENHEIM, 6 m., a tiny settlement established in 1885 by Jacob Ottenheim, 
steamboat and railroad passenger agent. The community, composed of the de- 


scendants of Swiss, Austrians, and Germans the latter predominating has been 
noted for the production of wine and Swiss cheese. 

South of Stanford, US 27 again penetrates the outer Bluegrass, 
though the terrain differs from the outer Bluegrass to the north in that 
it is flatter and has low abrupt knobs instead of shaggy hills. There 
are fewer horses and more sheep here than in the inner Bluegrass; and 
the fields are not so fine. Violets, wild roses, and daisies bloom in 
spring and early summer; the yellow-white of honeysuckle and scarlet 
of trumpet vine are frequently seen on the 1 fences, and in the fields 
bloom Queen Anne's Lace, wild aster, and goldenrod. 

Through HALL'S GAP, 51.5 m. (1,200 alt.), on the dividing line 
between the Bluegrass area and the mountains, an important road has 
run since pioneer times. An observation tower (L), 1,000 feet from 
the highway, affords a view on a clear day of five counties. The view 
embraces mile upon mile of bluegrass rolling away to the north, and 
toward the south and east the first foothills of the mountains are out- 
lined against the sky. 

EUBANK, 65.9 m. (1,172 alt., 334 pop.), is in an agricultural re- 
gion noted for the quantity of buckwheat grown. 

SOMERSET, 80.1 m. (879 alt., 5,506 pop.), a growing railroad town, 
was named for the Duke of Somerset and made the seat of Pulaski 
County by court order in 1801. Built on the sunny side of a sloping 
ridge, where surrounding terrain embraces characteristics of both knobs 
and mountain areas, Somerset is known as the Gateway to the Moun- 
tains. Along its main street are small shops, motion-picture houses, 
and a $250,000 hotel, opened in 1930. MEMORIAL SQUARE, Main St., 
is dedicated to Somerset's distinguished citizens, one of them was 
Edwin P. Morrow, Governor of Kentucky (1919-23). Somerset has 
one of the outstanding school plants of the State; the group of build- 
SOMERSET GRADE SCHOOL, form an imposing block in this secluded 
mountain town. Cyrenius Wait is credited with producing in Somerset, 
about 1840, the first raw silk in Kentucky. 

Somerset is at the junction with State 80 (see Tour 18). 

PISGAH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 86 m,, on an eminence about 200 
yards R. of the highway, is one of the State's oldest churches. The 
small brick structure is rectangular in shape, with a low square bell 
tower. A well-kept cemetery adjoining the church is the resting place 
of pioneers. 

US 27 crosses the Cumberland River, 89.5 m. t on a bridge (toll 30$). 

BURNSIDE, 89.6 m. (705 alt., 914 pop.), straggling along the banks 
of the Cumberland River and its confluent South Fork, clings to the 
steep slope of a hill. The business section of the town lies at the hill's 
base. Here the route crosses the old corduroy road, built and used by 
Federal troops during the War between the States. Originally known 
as Point Isabel, the town was renamed for the Union general who made 

TOUR 3 26l 

this his headquarters. GENERAL BURNSIDE'S HEADQUARTERS (R) is a 
rambling two-story frame building with a two-story porch. 

Burnside is at the junction with State 90 (see Tour 20). 

The highway, following a ridge that rises at times to an altitude of 
1,300 feet, leads through rugged, wooded hills and along winding 

PARKER'S LAKE, 104.3 m. (1,256 alt., 200 pop.), is at the junc- 
tion with State 90 (see Tour 4B). 

WHITLEY CITY, 112.2 m. (1,322 alt., 1,200 pop.), seat of Mc- 
Creary County, is one of the highest county seats in the State. Until 
the formation of the county in 1912, this was one of Kentucky's most 
isolated regions; the people, dwelling in log cabins, led a primitive life 
in their small self-sufficing communities. Hostilities frequently de- 
veloped, and feuds (see Tour 19) were common. With the building of 
US 27, Whitley City developed rapidly into a progressive community 
with modern schools, churches, and a new fireproof brick courthouse. 

STEARNS, 114.9 m. (2,176 pop.), is the center of a thriving lumber 
industry and a shipping point for both the coal and timber of the 

PINE KNOT, 118.4 m. (1,410 alt., 500 pop.), until 1913 the seat 
of McCreary County, lies in the foothills of the Cumberland Moun- 
tains. There is little arable land in the surrounding region except that 
along the creek bottoms and on top of the level plateaus. 

US 27 crosses the Tennessee Line, 123.1 m., at a point 146 miles 
north of Chattanooga, Tenn. (see Tenn. Tour 6). 

Tour 4 

( Cincinnati, Ohio ) Covington Georgetown Lexington Richmond 
Corbin Williamsburg (Jellico, Tenn.); US 25 and 25W Ohio 
Line to Tennessee Line, 223.7 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas-Pacific R.R. roughly parallels route between Cin- 
cinnati and Lexington, and Louisville & Nashville R.R. between Richmond and 
All types of accommodations in cities; limited elsewhere. 

US 25, locally called the Eastern Dixie Highway, reveals a typical 
cross-section of Kentucky. It crosses the low wooded hills of the 
Ohio River, passes rolling orchard land and prosperous country estates 
with waving bluegrass meadows, and between the great gorge cut by the 
Kentucky River and the rugged foothills of the Appalachians, follows, 
Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road. 


Section, a. OHIO LINE to LEXINGTON; 84.1 m. 

US 25-42 crosses the Ohio Line, m., on the southern outskirts of 
Cincinnati (see Ohio Tour 22), on the OHIO RIVER SUSPENSION BRIDGE 
(toll 15$). This bridge with its 1,057-foot middle span was built in 
1867 by John A. Roebling, who also designed New York's Brooklyn 

COVINGTON, 0.5 m. (513 alt., 65,252 pop.) (see Covington). 

Points of Interest: Carneal House, Devou Park, Monte Casino Chapel, St. 
Mary's Cathedral, Latonia Race Track, Baker-Hunt Foundation, and William's 
Natural History Collection. 

Covington is at the junction with US 42 (see Tour 12). 

Right from Covington on Main St. to the junction with State 20, 0.2 m.; L. on 
State 20 to LUDLOW, 2.3 m. (6,485 pop.), overlooking part of Cincinnati's indus- 
trial waterfront from its slightly elevated position before the high Kentucky hills 
that press it against the Ohio River. Ludlow had a few settlers in the 1790's, but 
was not chartered as a village until 1864. Today it is an industrial city that manu- 
factures furniture, compressing machines, and brass and electrical apparatus; the 
shops of the Southern Railway are also here. 

MASONIC LODGE HALL (open to Masons), on Closson St., Greek Revival in style, 
was built in 1832 by Simon Kenner of Baton Rouge, La., as a summer residence. 
The story-and-a-half brick structure has a central hall, 44 feet long, flanked on 
either side by spacious rooms, trimmed in fine woodwork. In 1885 this property 
was bought by A. B. Closson, from whom the Unity Lodge of Freemasons pur- 
chased it in 1924. 

ELMWOOD HALL (open weekdays, 8-6), 244 Forrest Ave., is a low, compact, stuc- 
coed building, built of stone and brick in 1819 by Thomas Carneal. Its hip roof 
is topped with an observation deck 16 feet square. The building, now occupied 
by the Eda E. Thomas Candy Company, originally faced the narrow driveway 
that leads from the street. The fagade, with its recessed Doric portico and its 
small-paned windows, is still handsome. (The original portal, with fanlights and 
side lights, is gone.) The central room on the north side was formerly a recep- 
tion hall. Most of the fireplaces, with brick hearths, marble borders, and mantel- 
pieces, remain. 

In its early days Elmwood Hall estate, stretching down-river for 2.5 miles, was 
densely covered with beech, oak, walnut, and elm trees; it became a vast park 
and bird sanctuary, and tame deer, bison, and elk grazed on its 1,000 acres. Bril- 
liant parties and receptions took place here. In 1827 William Bullock, owner of 
the Piccadilly Museum in London, bought the place as a site for a dream city, 
which he wanted to call Hygeia. Bullock went back to England for awhile and 
wrote a book about his American travels that featured an account of the model 
city it was to have "cultural" gardens along the river, streets with imposing 
names, inns, theaters, baths, and even a brewery. He then returned to Elmwood 
Hall and gave a long series of balls and gatherings, in honor of such personages 
as Mrs. Frances Trollope, Henry Clay, New York Governor De Witt Clinton, and 
President James K. Polk. When his model town idea died, Bullock sold Elmwood 
to Israel J. Ludlow, son of one of the three founders of Cincinnati, who continued 
to uphold Elmwood's tradition of hospitality. 

BROMLEY, 3.6 m. (489 pop.), a Ludlow suburb of small workers' cottages, is 
squeezed tightly against the river by the dark hills behind it. Garden patches are 
strung along the river opposite the few steamers usually offshore on the Cincin- 
nati side, where houses and some industries fill the bottom land. In Bromley, 
houses clamber, stairstep fashion, up the steep, rugged heights. On a slight rise 

TOUR 4 263 

sloping down to State 20 (L) is the LANDMARK, a two-story house that, tradition 
relates, was built in 1765 it was probably built later. About 2,000 pieces of stone 
went into the construction of this dwelling whose walls are almost two feet thick. 
White pine was used for the flooring ; ash trees, split in half and still showing their 
woodland bark, made the cellar rafters; and black walnut was used for door sills 
and other purposes. Hand-wrought nails and wooden pins hold the structure to- 
gether. A keystone on the east wall of the house bears the head of an Indian in 
stone. The present owner has installed hardwood floors on the first story, mod- 
ernized the large open hearths and the old narrow, enclosed stairways, and built 
a frame addition. The small, one-story frame structure east of the house formerly 
stood to its rear and was a slaves' quarters. 

The route continues westward over a narrow shelf of land continually flanked 
by dark hills and the broad quiet sweep of the Ohio. Plain little frame houses 
having garden patches, cornfields, and some livestock around them stand by the 
road or near the river; an occasional summer house of the lodge type is seen. 
The Cincinnati suburbs are in view across the river. On State 20 is CONSTANCE, 
7.4 m. (87 pop.), a river village whose old FERRY HOUSE (R), a large and sub- 
stantial structure, did a bustling trade before the turn of the present century. The 
little steam ferry operated for many decades by the Anderson family still plies 
back and forth on the Ohio River at this point and a few shantyboats sometimes 
tie up here ; but Constance's real river life is gone. Fleets of long, low, steel barges 
pushed by blunt-nosed stern-wheelers commonly called towboats sweep by with 
never a pause, bound for the big industrial cities up or down the Ohio. Steamers 
pass by once in awhile, and occasionally the Gordon Greene, last of the packets 
making the trip up-river to Pittsburgh, is seen, a graceful white creation. 

Between Covington and Florence US 25 and US 42 are one route, 
traversing the hilly orchard land of the Ohio River's north bend, with 
a fine view of Cincinnati and the winding river. 

FORT MITCHELL, 4.4 m. (359 pop.), is a residential suburb. 
During the War between the States, when Confederate forces, in 1862, 
were threatening an invasion of the North, Gen. Lew Wallace the 
author of Ben Hur and the commander of the Union forces assigned to 
the defense of Cincinnati led 15,000 men across the Ohio River on a 
hastily constructed pontoon bridge formed of coal barges. He erected 
a series of defensive earthworks reaching from the Ohio River at Brom- 
ley on the west to the banks of Licking, then to the Ohio near Fort 
Thomas. These temporary defenses were under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Ormsby Mitchell, and were called by his name. The FORT 
MITCHELL COUNTRY CLUB, Mitchell Ave., has a nine-hole golf course 
and is the local center of social life. 

ERLANGER, 8.4 m. (905 alt., 1,854 pop.), is a residential town of 
the Cincinnati-Covington metropolitan area. 

FLORENCE, 9.8 m. (935 alt., 450 pop.), provides the locale for 
one of John Uri Lloyd's best-known stories, Stringtown on the Pike. 
Here US -42 turns R. (see Tour 12), leaving US 25. 

Right from Florence on State 18, an improved road, to BURLINGTON, 6 w. 
(848 alt., 600 pop.), seat of Boone County, incorporated in 1824. Burlington is a 
prosperous farm trade center. Cereals and a fine grade of white burley tobacco 
are the main agricultural products of the surrounding countryside. 

In CRITTENDEN, 26.3 m. (908 alt., 265 pop.), is (R) the LLOYD 
RESERVATION, founded in 1918 by Curtis Lloyd, professor of botany 


at the University of Cincinnati, for the preservation of native plant life ; 
it covers more than 400 acres. The Wild Flower Preserve, in a wood- 
land on the reservation, contains every known species of this region. 
On the preserve is a community house, built by Professor Lloyd, and a 
log cabin containing fine old furniture. 

Near the southern limits of Crittenden on US 25 is (R) the SHERMAN 
TAVERN, a one-story frame structure, 26.7 m., once the most popular 
inn on the stagecoach route between Cincinnati and Lexington. It had 
the first plastered interior walls in this section of the country, one of 
the first pianos in the State, and its proprietor dispensed free bourbon 
to guests. The bar still occupies a room in the rear of the house. 
Lafayette is said to have spent a night here in 1825, while traveling by 
stage from Cincinnati to Lexington, Kentucky. 

DRY RIDGE, 33.4 m. (929 alt., 97 pop.), first called Campbell's 
Station, was settled before 1792 near a mineral spring later valued for 
its medicinal qualities. Between Dry Ridge and Williamstown, US 25 
and State 22 (see Tour 13) are united. 

WILLIAMSTOWN, 36.5 m. (943 alt., 917 pop.), a lively town and 
the seat of Grant County, is in the fertile agricultural region. It was 
named for William Arnold, who in 1820 gave the land for the public 
buildings, and free timber to all who purchased lots from him. 

South of Williamstown the gently rolling highway is flanked by fields 
of tobacco and corn, and pastures in which cattle browse. 

CARDOME (open by permission), 70.2 m., was built (R) in 1821 
by Maj. Benjamin Stuart Chambers, an officer in the War of 1812. 
After having passed through the hands of various owners, this fine old 
estate, first called Acacia Grove, became a Catholic school for girls. 
In 1896 a four-story brick building with a tall square bell tower above 
the entrance was added to the original mansion. 

GEORGETOWN, 70.4 m. (866 alt., 4,229 pop.), with its many large 
trees and old houses, is a college town and the seat of Scott County. 
Incorporated by the Virginia Legislature in 1790, and named for George 
Washington, the town grew up around and still obtains its water supply 
from ROYAL SPRING (R), one block from the highway on Water St. 
The spring was discovered and named, in 1774, by Col. John Floyd, a 
pioneer adventurer and surveyor, who was impressed by the volume 
and crystal clearness of its water and by the beauty of its setting. 

In 1775, John McClelland, a landowner residing near Pittsburgh, 
accompanied by his family and several frontiersmen, floated down the 
Ohio River in flatboats to Salt Lick Creek, now in Mason County. 
Here they were joined by Simon Kenton (see Tour 15) and Thomas 
Williams. When they reached the Royal Spring in 1776 they built 
here. This became an outpost of civilization in the wilderness where 
pioneers, passing to and from the larger settlements south of the 
Kentucky River, found refuge and shelter. McClelland's Station suf- 
fered from frequent Indian attacks; one of these, in December 1776, 
was led by the famous Mingo chief, Pluggy, who was killed during 
the fight. After the Indians had been driven off, Pluggy was buried 

TOUR 4 265 

on the bluff that overhangs the spring. For many years superstitious 
inhabitants of the settlement believed that the echo in the spring was 
the death cry of the Indian chief. 

On College St. is GEORGETOWN COLLEGE (L), a Baptist institution, 
established in 1829; it has a campus of 20 acres, an enrollment of ap- 
proximately 600 students, and awards the bachelor of arts degree. 

GIDDINGS HALL, the oldest building on the campus, was erected in 
1839 as a monument to Dr. Rockwood Giddings, a former president 
of the college. This structure was designed by Dr. Giddings and 
erected entirely by student and faculty labor. The bricks, burned and 
laid by the students, are of clay dug from a corner of the campus. It 
is said that a quart of bourbon reposes under each of the six Ionic 
columns of the portico. This stately building is one of the most notable 
examples of Greek Revival architecture in the State. The one-story 
red brick gymnasium has an Ionic portico between the wings. 

An old one-story house at 140 E. Washington St., now in poor con- 
dition, has a fine Palladian doorway with carved frame and a well- 
modeled cornice, and stands on a stone-paved terrace. 

The SHROPSHIRE HOUSE on Main St., has a Greek Revival portico 
and an elliptical-fanlighted doorway with side lights. The window 
openings on the first story, with long narrow side lights and hinged 
panels below the sashes, open on the terrace. Within, a graceful arch 
supported by Ionic columns ornaments the hall. 

The charming SHOWALTER HOUSE, on W. Hamilton St., of brick 
painted white, is designed in the Greek Revival style with four Ionic 
columns supporting the pediment of the two-story portico. The house 
is on the site of a slave market whose auction block still stands in the 

Georgetown is at the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14) and State 
40 (see Tour 17). 

Between Georgetown and Lexington US 25 crosses the Bluegrass 
the world's finest pasture for the rearing of blooded horses, as is dem- 
onstrated by the large number of notable breeders who maintain farms 
in it. The highway passes one estate after the other with trim white 
fences or old stone walls covered by vines, with large well-kept farm 
buildings particularly stables and with tree-shaded country houses, 
some of which belong to ante bellum days. 

HURRICANE HALL (R), 76.8 m., is an old Georgian Colonial style 
house of whitewashed brick, built prior to 1801; it stands at the head 
of an avenue of locusts and wild cherry trees, with an aged, vine- 
covered end turned to the highway. The wallpaper of the hall and 
the parlor was hung in 1817. The old parlor paper, depicting the ruins 
of Rome and scenes along the Tiber, was hand-blocked. Roger 
Quarles, who built the house, brought his family, slaves, and furnish- 
ings in wagons from Virginia. 

The house of EOTHAN (L), 81.8 m., was built in 1798 by the Rever- 
end James Moore, organizer and first rector of Christ Church Episcopal 
parish, later president of Transylvania University. From the gate a 


road winds through a meadow to the house which is concealed from 
the road by trees and a hedge of syringa and roses. The one-story 
brick structure, painted white, of Georgian Colonial design, has a fine 
paneled door and fanlight. On both sides of the doorway is an arched 
window. This was the home of the music master, described by James 
Lane Allen in his story, Flute and Violin. It was long the home of 
Miss Fanny Frazer Redd, granddaughter of Oliver Frazer, the lovable 
artist, who purchased the place during the War between the States. 
Many portraits painted by him, as well as those by his teacher, Mat- 
thew Jouett, adorn the walls. 

LEXINGTON, 84.1 m. (957 alt., 45,736 pop.) (see Lexington). 

Points of Interest : Homes of Henry Clay, Gen. John Hunt Morgan, Mary Todd 
Lincoln, and John Bradford; Transylvania College, University of Kentucky, Loose- 
leaf Tobacco Market. 

Lexington is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), US 27 (see 
Tour 3), and US 68 (see Tour 15). 

Section b. LEXINGTON to TENNESSEE LINE, 139.6 m. 

South of Lexington, m., US 25 passes through the Kentucky River 
gorge, widely known for its scenic beauty, and crosses the KEN- 
TUCKY RIVER on a bridge at Clay's Ferry. From a parking space 
near the top of the bluff is a splendid view of the palisades and the 
winding river. 

Between Clay's Ferry and Richmond is a fertile, undulating upland 
plain where farming and stock raising are the outstanding occupations 
and fox hunting a favorite sport. Hunters in pink mounted on thor- 
oughbreds, and those in overalls on farm horses and mules, mingle and 
ride to hounds side by side. Young and old, rich and poor, gather at 
dawn on a frosty morning at the casting grounds. The master calls 
the roll and each handler answers to the number that has been assigned 
to his hounds. After the master has instructed the judges, he gives 
the word to turn the hounds loose. Without a sound they trot out 
of sight. 

When the strike is made, the hounds advance in full cry a crescendo 
of deep and high shrill tones. Suddenly the beautiful little quarry is 
seen in the open, loping speedily and easily over the ground with the 
full pack following, each hound baying with every bound. In a flash, 
fox, hounds, and hunters are gone the sound grows fainter and dies 
away. Kentuckians have inherited a love of this sport from their Eng- 
lish forebears. It is said that when "Pidgeontail" Bedford, an in- 
veterate follower of the hounds, married and took his bride home, the 
house he had built for her had been completed except for the hanging 
of the front door. After carrying her over the threshold in the tradi- 
tional manner, he set out on his horse to borrow a pair of hinges from 
a neighbor. In the snow he saw the track of a fox, and, forgetting his 

TOUR 4 267 

errand, he and his hound gave chase. It is said that three days elapsed 
before he returned with the brush as a present for his bride. 

One of the most notable fox hunters of the State, and one of the 
most picturesque characters of his time, was Gen. George Washington 
Maupin (1807-1868) of Madison County. He is described as having 
been primarily a fox hunter, secondarily a trader in Negroes and mules, 
and last a planter. With his high peaked cap, flowered waistcoat, and 
garish scarf, he was conspicuous at every hunt. The noted Maupin- 
Walker foxhound traces its pedigree to his dogs. Foxhounds bred in 
this section of Kentucky are shipped to many parts of the world and 
many of the field trials of the National Foxhunters Association are 
held in this area. 

At 22 m. is the junction with Whitehall Lane. 

Right on this road to WHITEHALL (open on request), the home of Gen. Cassius 
M. Clay, noted abolitionist and, in 1861, Minister to Russia. The tall two-and-one- 
half -story building, designed in 1864 in the General Grant manner by T. Lewinski, 
a Pole living in Lexington, contains 22 rooms and three wide hallways. It was 
built about the original mansion, said to have been the first brick house erected in 
Madison County, constructed in 1787 by Brig. Gen. Green Clay, who represented 
Madison County, Ky., in the Virginia convention called in 1788 to ratify the Fed- 
eral Constitution. It was he who unsuccessfully attempted to raise the siege of 
Fort Meigs by the British and Indians in 1812. 

RICHMOND, 26.8 m. (926 alt., 6,495 pop.), named for Richmond, 
Virginia, and referred to in early writings as a a manufacturing little 
log village," is an old town with majestic trees bordering the streets 
and many dignified old houses. The first settlement was made in 1784 
by Col. John Miller, who served at Yorktown. When Richmond was 
made the seat of county government in 1798, the first court was held 
in Colonel Miller's barn. The beautiful MADISON COUNTY COURT- 
HOUSE (L), on Main St., is on the site of the Miller barn. The build- 
ing, completed in 1849, has a pedimented Doric portico surmounted 
with a clock tower having two octagonal stages. The flanking wings 
are lower than the central unit. 

From the spring of 1861, when Federal forces took control of Madi- 
son County, to the end of the War between the States, Richmond was a 
scene of conflict. Many of its buildings bear the scars of the engage- 
ment between Gen. William Nelson's Union forces and Gen. Kirby 
Smith's Confederates that took place August 29-31, 1862. The battle, 
which began six miles south of Richmond at Mount Zion Church, and 
developed into a sharply contested retreat through Richmond and 
along the highway north toward Lexington, resulted in the first Con- 
federate victory in Kentucky. 

which in 1906 took over the buildings and campus of old Central Uni- 
versity, established in 1874 and united with Centre College at Danville 
(see Tour 5) in 1901. Among magnificent trees is UNIVERSITY HALL, 
built in 1874, a three-story brick structure with a Greek Revival portico. 
Memorial Hall, built in 1883 to commemorate the 100th anniversary 


of the founding of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky, is a men's 
dormitory. Outstanding among new buildings is the Coates Adminis- 
tration Building, designed in the Renaissance style. It contains the 
Hiram Brock Auditorium which has a seating capacity of 1,760. The 
library of John Wilson Townsend, historian and author of Kentucky in 
American Letters, was purchased by the school in 1930. This includes 
one of the largest and best collections of books and pamphlets written 
by Kentuckians about Kentucky. Many of the works are autographed 
first editions, accompanied by letters relating .to the contents. 

In the Courthouse Square is the PIONEER MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, 
erected 1906. Surmounting the tapering shaft is a bronze bust of a 
pioneer wearing the traditional coonskin cap. The fountain was the 
gift of David R. Francis, Governor of Missouri (1889-1893), a native 
of Richmond. 

In the RICHMOND CEMETERY (R), on US 25, is the GRAVE OF GEN. 
GREEN CLAY, that of his son, Cassius Marcellus, and of his grandson, 
Brutus J. The Irvine Monument marks the GRAVE OF CAPT. CHRIS- 
TOPHER IRVINE, the Indian fighter, and the GRAVE OF COL. WILLIAM 
IRVINE, his brother who was the hero of EstilPs Defeat, 1782. The 
Miller Monument stands at the GRAVE OF COL. JOHN MILLER, donor 
of the site of Richmond. 

IRVINETON (open), Lancaster Ave., was built in 1820 by Dr. A. Q. 
Rollins and came into the possession of the Irvine family in 1829. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Susan Irvine, at her death in 1918, left the house to 
the Medical Society of Kentucky which, in conjunction with the U.S. 
Public Health Service, uses it as a hospital for the treatment of 
trachoma. Old paintings and heirlooms of the Irvine family remain in 
the building, whose bay windows and other alterations belie its age. 

Crowning a wooded hill at 27.9 m. is WOODLAWN (R), a brick house 
of Georgian Colonial design built in 1822 by Gen. Green Clay for his 
daughter, the wife of Col. William Rodes. A small one-story balus- 
trated porch is flanked by four Palladian windows, two on each side. 
The doorway, with fanlight and side lights, opens into a wide hall. A 
carved arch, supported by twin columns, spans the hall, and the chair 
rail, carved in flowers, still shows old colors faded rose and gray. The 
semicircular headings of the cupboards on each side of the mantel in the 
back parlor are exquisitely carved. The cut glass doorknobs resemble 
old bridle buttons. John Fox, Jr., wrote a description of this house 
in his novel Crittenden. Woodlawn was occupied by both Federals and 
Confederates during the War between the States. 

Richmond is at the junction with US 227 (see Tour 17 A). 

Left from Richmond on State 52 to the WACO AND BYBEE POTTERIES, 
8 m. (open to public), established almost a century ago by John Corneilson to 
supply his neighbors with brick, tile, and earthenware; the enterprise continues to 
employ old-fashioned methods of production. The present owner, Webb Corneil- 
son, specializes in the production of blue earthenware of his own design and color- 
ing. The local clay used for this pottery is mixed by mule power, fashioned by 
hand on the potter's wheel, and then "fixed" a process taking in all about a week. 

TOUR 4 269 

CASTLEWOOD (L), 30.1 m., was designed and erected in 1820 by 
Gideon Shryock, Kentucky architect, for James Estill, Jr., on a part 
of the 15,000-acre tract surveyed and owned by Capt. James Estill, a 
Revolutionary soldier and pioneer. This two-story house of modified 
Georgian Colonial design and built of brick, contains some of the finest 
hand-carved woodwork in Kentucky; the mantels, especially, illustrate 
the skill of the pioneer craftsman. 

On US 25 at 31.1 m., is the point where Boone's Trace (see Tour 
4 A) from North Carolina turned to follow Otter Creek to the south 
bank of the Kentucky River, where Fort Boonesboro (see Tour 17 A) 
was built. The trail entered Madison County over the crest of Big Hill, 
the landmark on the Jackson County line, and went down the hills to 
the headwaters of Otter Creek. 

MOUNT ZION CHURCH (R), 32.7 m., is a small rectangular brick 
building erected in 1852. It has two small entrances and lacks orna- 
mentation but its simplicity is attractive. The Battle of Richmond 
in 1862 began at this point. 

BEREA, 41.6 m. (943 alt., 1,827 pop.), in the foothills of the South- 
ern Highlands, is the seat of BEREA COLLEGE (student guides at Boone 
Tavern), founded in 1853; this is the oldest and largest of the moun- 
tain schools in Kentucky. The 85 well-equipped brick and stone build- 
ings of the college, and its unusually beautiful campus of about 300 
acres, comprise a large part of the village. The FEE MEMORIAL 
CHURCH, of Greek Revival design, stands almost in the center of the 
campus. People of 23 denominations worship together in this church. 
The BEREA COLLEGE CHAPEL, a red brick building with Greek Revival 
features, was presented to the college in 1904 by an anonymous donor 
on condition that it be erected by student labor. In the chapel tower 
a former president of the college, and were presented in 1917 by the 
same benefactor. John G. Lee, Cassius M. Clay, and John A. R. 
Rogers, cofounders of Berea, were opposed to slavery, and the college 
admitted both white and Negro students till 1904, when the State 
enacted prohibitive legislation. The school's endowment was then 
divided; Lincoln Institute (see Tour 16), near Louisville, was pro- 
vided for Negro students and Berea became a co-educational school for 
white students. Berea's purpose is to contribute "to the spiritual and 
material welfare of the mountain region of the South, affording to young 
people of character and promise a thorough Christian education, ele- 
mentary, industrial, secondary, normal, and collegiate, with opportuni- 
ties for manual labor as an assistant in self-support." Berea, now 
(1939) under the leadership of Dr. William James Hutchins, had an 
enrollment of 1,692 in 1937. 

While the college entrance requirements are high, lack of pre-college 
training is no barrier to the ambitious student. Both boys and girls 
live under a dormitory system that provides comfortable living condi- 
tions at the minimum cost. All students pay at least Dart of their 


expenses by labor in some of the schools. Varied activities include 
weaving, spinning, the manufacture of furniture, and the operation of 
a broom factory, a college laundry, a bakery, a store, a printing shop, a 
farm, and a hotel. 

On the outskirts of Berea are (L) the CHURCHILL WEAVERS (loom 
house and display room open to public). Since 1922, when it was 
founded, this institution has grown to be one of the largest of its kind 
m the country, operating more than 40 looms. After D. C. Churchill, 
the founder, graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
as an engineer, he spent some time in India, where he studied the art 
of weaving. He designed a loom and took first prize for both speed 
and quality of cloth in an all-India competition. He came to Berea, 
at the invitation of President Hutchins, to take the chair of physics and 
motor mechanics. Three looms, including one he had designed for his 
wife who soon displayed unusual ability in combining and blending 
colors and a hastily constructed loom-house were the first plant of 
the present Churchill Weavers, now working in well-equipped, well- 
lighted buildings. The looms are all of Churchill's design and were 
made in the plant shop. Many of the designs used follow the patterns 
traditional among the Kentucky mountaineers. 

Left from Berea on State 21, an improved road, to INDIAN FORT MOUN- 
TAIN, 3 m., a prehistoric stronghold with more than 200 acres inside its defenses. 
Seventeen stone walls and barricades defend the summit. Caves and rock houses 
contain the graves of warriors who once held this mountain. 

Left 0.5 m. from Indian Fort Mountain to BASIN MOUNTAIN, another pre- 
historic fortification on a smaller flat-topped knob. Two stone walls guard the 
summit, which is 18 acres in extent. This mountain is named for the two basins 
that were hollowed out on its crest to hold water for the defenders of the fort. 
Both fortifications are in a strategic position near the Warriors Path (see Tour 4A), 
which passed through Boone's Gap, three miles south of the present site of Berea. 

A marker (L), 45.1 m., commemorates Daniel Boone's Trail (Boone's 
Trace) which was blazed from North Carolina into Kentucky in 1775 
(see Tour 4 A). 

MOUNT VERNON, 59.6 m. (1,150 alt., 939 pop.), seat of Rock- 
castle County, was incorporated in 1817 and is in the foothills of the 
Cumberland Mountains, a region in which isolated knobs and ridge tops 
rise to a height of 1,500 to 2,500 feet. 

Immediately back of the courthouse is the old LANGFORD HOUSE 
(open), built in 1790 as a blockhouse for defense against the Indians. 
Although the front of the building has been weatherboarded, and win- 
dows have been cut where there were formerly only loopholes, the 
interior is little changed. This house became a hotel in stagecoach 
days, and later was a station on the Underground Railroad. 

On court day, which is observed regularly in Mount Vernon, country- 
folk from the surrounding region come in wagons and on horseback 
to trade, talk, and drink a little. 

Fox, coon, and 'possum hunting are favorite sports in this region 
where most farmers own three or four hounds apiece. Each hunter 

TOUR 4 271 

bets on his own dogs, and the hunt usually lasts from one to three days. 
According to a local sportsman, when the dogs announce by loud barks 
that a coon has been "treed," the hunters gather under the tree to wait 
till morning when they "either chop the tree down or shoot the coon 

At 65.7 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Left on this road to the GREAT SALTPETER CAVES, 4 w., which were mined exten- 
sively for material to manufacture gunpowder during the War between the States. 

LIVINGSTON, 69.7 m. (858 alt., 912 pop.), on Rockcastle River, 
is a weather-beaten hamlet in a setting of natural beauty. It was 
formerly a shipping center for coal mined in the surrounding region. 

South of Livingston is a rugged, hilly area, where the scenery is 
particularly attractive. 

US 25 crosses Rockcastle River, 77.4 m. t so named because of its 
characteristic large rocks and cliffs. In the NARROWS extending for 
half a mile near the mouth of the river the water is 10 to 100 feet deep 
and so blocked with enormous rocks that in many places a canoe cannot 
pass. This river is a favorite hunting and fishing ground, and has long 
been celebrated for the wild, romantic character of its surroundings. 
Mineral springs, for which therapeutic value was claimed, occur near 
the lower waters of Rockcastle. 

LONDON, 92.4 m. (1,209 alt., 1,950 pop.), in a mountain valley, 
is the seat of Laurel County and the shopping center for owners of 
small mines and for corn and tobacco farmers, many of whom still live 
as did their ancestors in eighteenth century England (see Tours 1, 18, 
and 19). It has a five-block business street, a Federal building where 
court is held, a Methodist college, hotels, and a motion picture house. 

County court day here is the second Monday of each month, and at 
this time every man in the county who can comes in to "Jockey Lot" 
to talk and trade. Near election time politicians are everywhere. 
Guns, watches, knives, harness, wagons, horses, mules, dogs anything 
and everything that can be "swapped" or sold is "fetched in." One 
can trade extensively on court day without a cent of money; the best 
currency is a young filly or a foxhound. The story is told of a penni- 
less young farmer who arrived afoot one court day, leading a pair of 
well-matched foxhounds. Late in the evening he returned home in 
state, riding a frisky two-year-old, with sugar and coffee for his family 
in the saddlebags. In explaining the situation to his admiring neigh- 
bors, he exclaimed, "Y6u see hit's all erlong ov my bein' sich er dog- 
goned good jedge uv er anermule." In small Kentucky county seats 
women seldom appear on the crowded streets on court day, though 
occasionally a farm-wife comes to exchange her butter and eggs for 
coal oil and calico, and, if she dares, to keep an eye on "pa." The 
farmer tells his wife, "Court day hain't no fit'n time f'r women folk 
to be draggin' roun' town nohow." 


SUE BENNET COLLEGE (co-educational), within the corporate limits 
of London, was established in 1896 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. It has six modern red brick buildings on a 26-acre campus and 
is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges. 

In the FEDERAL BUILDING is the office of the district Forest Ranger 
who is in charge of Sublimity Farms. 

London is at the junction with State 80 (see Tour 18). 

Right from London on a hard-surfaced road to the Forest Service's SUBLIMITY 
FARMS, 2.1 m., a 583-acre area divided into 52 part-time and 14 full-time farm 
units, a community pasture, and a community woodlot. Designed as a demonstra- 
tion in proper land use, this project contains 59 new houses and 7 renovated 
houses all with modern plumbing and electricity, root cellars, barns, and coal 
sheds. These units are rented by the Government under contracts which encourage 
the homesteaders to follow the scientific farming and home managing plans worked 
out for them by an agronomist and a home economist whose headquarters are in 
London. The adjacent Cumberland National Forest supplies employment for those 
living on the part-time farms. 

STATE PARK (adm. 10$, overnight camping 25$; fishing and swim- 
ming, 25$ each), is at 95.6 m. In 1784, 40 pioneers, traveling over 
the Boone Trail, stopped for the night here on the Little Laurel River. 
They were attacked by Indians in what has been called the Defeated 
Camp Massacre, and all but three of the company were slain or taken 
captive; two of the survivors hid in a hollow tree. The grandchildren 
of Levi Jackson, Revolutionary soldier who received land here for war 
services, gave the State more than 300 acres of this site to commemorate 
the slain pioneers. Improvements made by the National Park Service, 
utilizing CCC labor, include water, sewerage and lighting systems; 
roads, foot and bridle trails; a reproduction of a pioneer's two-story 
log dwelling housing a museum ; shelter houses ; picnic facilities ; a look- 
out tower ; a bridge across the Laurel River ; and the planting of several 
thousand trees and shrubs. 

At 105.8 m. is the junction with US 25W, now the route, and with 
US 25E (see Tour 4 A). 

CORBIN, 107.5 m. (1,046 alt., 8,026 pop.), a busy railroad center 
in a level part of the Cumberland Plateau, is surrounded by a generally 
mountainous area with large tracts of timber. Coal mining is the chief 
occupation with farming and stock raising second in importance. In 
1775, when Daniel Boone cut his trace, which later became a part of 
the Wilderness Road (see Tour 4 A), into Kentucky, he turned north 
at this place. The land on which the town stands was granted to Alex 
McClardy, one of Boone's associates, in 1798, but remained little more 
than a wilderness until 1883 when the main line of the L. & N. R.R. 
was built. It is now one of the three major supply points of the system 
and furnishes such materials as coal and timber. 

Corbin is the junction with State 90 (see Tour 4B). 

The GATLIFFE FISH HATCHERY (R), 124.6 m., was built in 1929, 
and operated by the Kentucky State Fish and Game Commission. 

TOUR 4 273 

Eleven of the plant's 30 acres are in ponds supplied with water from 
Watts Creek by means of a levee. Largemouthed, smallmouthed, and 
Kentucky bass are raised here at the rate of 1,000,000 a year for dis- 
tribution into streams throughout the State. 

Approaching Williamsburg from the north the highway winds down 
cliffs in a succession of curves that reveal fine views of the town. 

WILLIAMSBURG, 209.1 m. (975 alt., 1,826 pop.), as well as 
Whitley County, of which it is the seat, is named for Col. William 
Whitley, a pioneer renowned as an Indian fighter. Surrounded by a 
coal-mining and agricultural region it is on a low spur merging into the 
flood plain of a wide meander of the Cumberland River, and is walled 
in by steep winding ridges that rise to a height of 1,900 feet. To the 
southwest, uplands adjacent to Pine Mountain rise to an elevation of 
2,500 feet. In this region, which is on the Indians' great southern 
trail, scientists have found numerous remains of towns and mounds. 
The artifacts include .unusually fine specimens of flints, commonly 
known as "chunkee stones." 

Williamsburg 's site was selected at the county's first term of court 
held in 1817 at the house of Samuel Cox, who agreed to give the county 
half the proceeds from the sale of lots for the town, if a site on his land 
which included a fine spring were chosen for the county seat. The 
records of this offer and its acceptance are stored in the old brick 
WHITLEY COUNTY COURTHOUSE in the center of the public square. 

CUMBERLAND COLLEGE, founded in 1889 by the Baptist Church, has 
an endowment of $500,000. It is a co-educational junior college offer- 
ing vocational and preprofessional courses. The school owns a 15-acre 
campus with nine buildings, including a library, and has an enrollment 
of 500 students. 

KING'S MILL, on the Cumberland River, 300 yards from the court- 
house, has been in use for more than 100 years. Its dam is a popular 
fishing hole. 

Participants in the annual community "sing" (1st Sun. in July) 
bring basket dinners and spend the whole day at the gathering. Local 
and visiting choral groups contribute to the program of hymns and 

South of Williamsburg US 25W winds near the towering JELLICO 
MOUNTAINS (R) and through quiet river valleys. 

In JELLICO, 139.6 m. (937 alt., 405 pop.), US 25W crosses the 
Tennessee Line, 67 miles north of Knoxville, Tenn. (see Tenn. Tour 5). 


Tour 4A 

Junction with US 25 Pineville Middlesboro Cumberland Gap 

(Tazewell,Tenn.); US 25E. 

Junction with US 25 to Tennessee Line, 54.4 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route throughout. 

All types of accommodations in towns; limited elsewhere. 

Through Cumberland Gap at the southern end of US 25E, and over 
the route now followed in part by US 25E, came the first western surge 
of Kentucky pioneers, singly or in small groups, attracted by tales of 
fertile land yet unclaimed, of springs and brooks and rivers, of plentiful 
game and endless adventure. 

Daniel Boone and his companions, sponsored by Col. Richard 
Henderson, became the advance guard for this westward movement, 
when in 1775 they marked the way to the site of what was to become 
Fort Boonesboro (see Tour 17 A). Boone's Trace was not a new trail 
through the wilderness; it was a combination of paths long used by the 
buffalo and Indians, and later by French hunters and trappers. North 
of Cumberland Gap, for about 50 miles, Boone followed the Warriors 
Path which extended from the Shawnee villages on the Ohio and 
Scioto Rivers to the Cherokee country of the south then selected a 
buffalo trace that took him westward to Rockcastle River, up Round- 
stone Creek, through the gap in Big Hill, and down Otter Creek to 
the Kentucky River. 

In the same year Benjamin Logan marked and improved a trail to 
the site of St. Asaph (see Tour 3), a track that branched westward 
from Boone's Trace at Rockcastle River, extended to the site of present 
Crab Orchard, and on to the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville). Logan's 
trail, which became more important than Boone's Trace, was referred 
to as "the road through the great wilderness," and finally the Wilder- 
ness Road. As early as 1779 the Virginia Assembly passed an act 
providing for improvement of the Wilderness Road. Similar acts were 
passed by the Kentucky Legislature in 1795 and 1797, but it remained 
little more than a pack road until 1818, when definite steps were taken 
to widen it and to improve the fords. 

The southern section of the Wilderness Road (paved US 25E) still 
passes through a land of mountains veined with mineral deposits, of 
rivers and ravines, of woods and flowers. But generations of white 
men have cleared and cultivated much of its fertile land and mined its 













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Ji IB 
















TOUR 4A 275 

ore. Their rail fences trail along the highway, enclosing cornfields that 
interspace the timber; cabins are perched on the hillsides; and busy 
manufacturing cities or drab mining towns deface the mountains and 

US 25E branches southeast from its junction with US 25 (see Tour 
4), m., on the northern outskirts of CORBIN (1,046 alt., 8,026 pop.) 
(see Tour 4), and, passing between rugged cliffs and towering moun- 
tains, traverses an area in which coal mining is the chief industry. 

At 16 m. is the junction with old US 25E. 

Right on old US 25E to BARBOURVILLE, 1.4 m. (975 alt., 2,375 pop.), seat 
of Knox County, in a broad valley of the winding Cumberland River. It is sur- 
rounded by thickly forested ridges that rise in the southern part of the county 
to a height of 2,000 feet. The soil, a sandy loam and clay, is productive and well 
adapted to agriculture. When Knox County was created in 1799, it included 5,000 
acres belonging to Richard Barbour, a Virginian. By 1800 the land had passed 
into the possession of James Barbour, a kinsman, who gave this town site to the 
county and persuaded it to donate half the proceeds from the sale of lots to a 
fund for erecting public buildings. The town was named in his honor. 

UNION COLLEGE (co-educational), a Methodist institution housed in plain red 
brick buildings, was founded in 1879. It is accredited by the Southern Association 
of Colleges, and has an enrollment of 400 students. The college library contains 
approximately 11,000 volumes. Dahlia growers from a wide area participate in a 
Dahlia Show, held each October in the Union College Gymnasium. 

The GEORGE OWENS COLLECTION (open on request), Knox St., contains arrow- 
heads, pipes, tomahawks, beads, bone objects, fossil remains, pottery, and other 
Indian relics and objects of archeological interest. 

In an old frame building (open) on Liberty St. (R), built in 1846, were the 
Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1862-1890). Woodson was Governor 
of Missouri (1873-1875). This small, one-story building has never been altered 
and is (1939) in need of repair. 

Joseph Eve, a circuit judge and the only American minister sent to the Republic 
of Texas (1841), lived in Barbourville. 

Right 0.1 m. from Barbourville on State 6 to junction with State 11; L. 4.6 m. 
on State 11 (Thomas Walker Memorial Highway) to the 12-acre DR. THOMAS 
the site of the dwelling built in 1750 by Dr. Walker, a surveyor and physician, 
who was born in Virginia in 1715. He and several companions had been sent on 
an exploration into Kentucky by the Loyal Land Company of London. They 
cleared the land near the site of Barbourville and built a cabin here on this roll- 
ing hill that overlooks the river named by Dr. Walker for the Duke of Cumber- 
land, son of George II. The park acreage was acquired and the memorial cabin 
built by the Barbourville Post of the American Legion. The reproduction of the 
old one-room cabin is built of round logs with wide chinked joints and a small end 
chimney, curiously "framed in" at the base with notched logs. 

On State 6 is DISHMAN SPRINGS HOTEL (R), 6 m., a summer resort on a moun- 
tain lake in the foothills of Cumberland Mountains. (Golf, tennis, fishing, swim- 
ming, canoeing for hotel guests; small fee to others.) 

At 2.7 m. on old US 25E is the junction with 25E. 

At 18.5 m. on the new US 25E is the junction with State 225. 

Right on this road to (L) the MINTON HICKORY FARM AND STABLES (open on 
request), 0.4 m., where the Minton Hickory saddle horses are trained. From this 
stable have come such champions as the Feudist, Vendetta, Mountain Echo, Etta 
Kett, Mountain Laurel, Fiery Crags, and Maiden Blush. 


The MINTON HICKORY MILL (R), 1.1 m., manufactures golf shafts, broom han- 
dles, and canes. Hickory grown in the Kentucky Mountains is a standard material 
for golf clubs. This factory, which has become widely known, has a yearly output 
of 1,500,000 shafts. 

FLAT LICK, 27.9 m. (986 alt., 500 pop.), straggling along the road, 
was one of the old salt licks and a center of life in pioneer times. 

PINEVILLE, 36.9 m. (1,025 alt., 4,000 pop.), a growing mining 
town and the seat of Bell County, lies within a bend of the Cumber- 
land River at a gap in Pine Mountain called the Narrows. In 1797 
the Kentucky Legislature appropriated 500 pounds sterling for the 
repair of the Wilderness Road and for the erection of a tollgate at the 
Narrows. This tollgate, around which early Pineville developed, was 
the first ever established in the State and the first to be abandoned 
(1830). The newer part of the town is built around CUMBERLAND 
FORD (L), where the trail crossed the Cumberland River. 

The Indians who visited this region and camped here for long sea- 
sons left many remains. Near Cumberland Ford is an INDIAN MOUND, 
10 to 15 feet in height and 100 feet in circumference, which was a pre- 
historic burying ground. 

An Indian effigy carved out of yellow pine was found on a cliff near 
Pineville in 1869. This, believed to be the only thoroughly preserved 
wooden prehistoric image found in Kentucky, is now in the Museum 
of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City. 

Pineville is now a shipping point for lumber and for four large coal 
fields that are within a short distance of the town. 

Schools, bands, and bugle corps, representing a large section of coun- 
try around Pineville, meet here for the annual Cumberland Valley 
Music Festival (May). Contests as well as concerts feature the pro- 

A winding foot path leads from Pineville to one of the best-preserved 
INDIAN ROCK SHELTERS in Kentucky. This enormous structure, tradi- 
tionally an ancient habitation, is near the top of the mountain (R) 
overlooking the town. 

At 37.3 m. is the junction with US 119 (see Tour 19). 

At 38.2 m. is the entrance (R) to 4,000-acre PINE MOUNTAIN 
STATE PARK (adm. y 10$; overnight camping, 25$; lodge; picnic 
facilities, boating and swimming). Established in 1928, this was the 
first State park in Kentucky. Within the park the PINNACLE OF 
PINE MOUNTAIN (2,200 alt.) is accessible by a road. The plant 
life is characteristic of the Cumberland Range; on the uplands are 
holly, spruce, pine, wahoo, dogwood, scarlet chestnut, oak, red maple, 
spicebush, wintergreen, mountain laurel, rhododendron, azaleas, and 
many varieties of wild flowers and ferns. Black willows, river birch, 
blue beech, and giant sycamores grow along the banks of Clear Creek, 
which winds through about 60 acres of the lowlands. Chimney Rock, 
Sharktooth Rock, and Candlestick Rock are among the most interest- 
ing of the park's geologic formations. 

TOUR 4A 277 

Near the center of the reserve is LAUREL COVE, a natural amphi- 
theater in which the Mountain Laurel Festival is held annually (two 
days in May or June). A stone cliff is the backdrop of the stage 
constructed of local stone and banked on each side with laurel and 
rhododendron bushes and giant wahoo trees. Mountain ballads are 
played and sung, original plays presented, and folk dances performed 
by the mountain people. A queen selected from the college girls of 
the State is crowned with mountain laurel by the Governor of Ken- 
tucky. With the exception of the Kentucky Derby, this festival is 
the most important annual event in the State. 

At 38.6 m. is the junction with State 190. 

Right on this road to CLEAR CREEK SPRINGS 2 m., a recreational center 
and religious resort within Pine Mountain Park. It was established by members 
of the Baptist churches of Pineville and Middlesboro who hold encampments and 
schools here during the summer months. 

MIDDLESBORO, 50.9 m. (1,150 alt., 10,350 pop.), trading center 
and largest town of southeastern Kentucky, was named for the iron 
city of the English Midlands. Though the first settlers had entered 
Kentucky through near-by Cumberland Gap, they were seeking fertile 
lands easy to cultivate, and this deep circular valley, surrounded by 
mountains seamed with coal, limestone, and deposits of iron, was ig- 
nored for nearly a century. In 1885 Col. Alexander Allen Arthur, a 
Scottish-Canadian mining engineer, surveyed the region and realized 
its industrial possibilities. 

British investors supplied the capital, a large tract was bought, and, 
in 1889, settlers began to arrive. Within a year 6,000 people were 
leveling forests and clearing fields, and two railroads, the Louisville & 
Nashville, and the Southern, were being built to the new city whose 
wide streets bore the names of English shires. By 1890 Middlesboro 
had 10,000 inhabitants. Hotels, stores, and churches had been com- 
pleted as well as an artificial lake and one of the first golf courses in 
the United States. 

But with the fall of the great London banking house of Baring 
Brothers and Company, in 1893, Middlesboro, as well as its other proj- 
ects, was abandoned. At the same time money was tight in this coun- 
try and the banks nearly paralyzed. Middlesboro's streets were de- 
serted, its hotels and stores empty. Recovery was slow, but eventually 
the coal mines brought about prosperity. Today there are modern 
schools, fine homes, handsome churches, theaters, clubs, and banks. 
The importance of coal in the development of Middlesboro is pub- 
licized by the COAL HOUSE (open), on Cumberland Ave., the office of 
the Middlesboro Chamber of Commerce, built of solid blocks of local 

BARTLETT-RHODES PARK (R), near the southern outskirts of 
the town, has a recreation hall, a swimming pool, and tennis courts. 

FERN LAKE (boating and fishing $1), 20th St. extended, approxi- 
mately one mile south of the business center of Middlesboro, is the 


source of the city's water supply. The lake is surrounded by mountains 
whose gentle slopes, rising from the water's edge, are covered with a 
dense growth of hardwood trees and shrubs, interspersed with pine, 
spruce, and hemlock. Ferns grow in great profusion along the banks 
which are gay in the spring with the snowy white, deep rose, and lilac 
blooms. The winding lake is two and one-half miles long and is fed 
by mountain springs and streams issuing from massive sandstone ledges, 
along a seven-mile watershed. It has been converted into a wild-game 

The MIDDLESBORO COUNTRY CLUB (open for a small fee), at the 
western outskirts of the city, has an unusually sporty golf course that 
is kept in excellent condition. The view from the veranda of the club- 
house is unsurpassed in this section. 

Right from Middlesboro on State 74, hard-surfaced, to a junction with an im- 
proved road, 12 m.; R. here to HENDERSON SETTLEMENT SCHOOL, 20 m., founded 
by H. M. Frakes. This school has transformed the surrounding isolated region 
from one notable for lawlessness to a quiet, peace-abiding community. Here both 
boys and girls from an inaccessible mountain region receive training, part of which 
they earn by manual labor. Activities include cooking, farming, dairying, weav- 
ing, spinning, woodwork, and allied crafts and occupations. 

CUMBERLAND GAP, 53.8 m., on the dividing line of Virginia and 
Kentucky on the north, and Tennessee on the south, is a trough be- 
tween hills thickly covered with laurel and rhododendron. It was 
through this pass in the Appalachians, called by the Indians Quasioto 
(pronounced Wah-see-o-to ; the mountains where deer are plenty) that 
Dr. Thomas Walker entered Kentucky in 1750. Hunters, explorers, 
and pioneers followed Dr. Walker, and in 1769 John Finley led 
Daniel Boone into this uninhabited western region. Two years later 
Boone, in his own words, Returned to my family, being determined to 
reside in Kentucky which I esteemed a second paradise." He returned 
in 1775, and behind him, through Cumberland Gap and over the brow 
of Pinnacle Mountain, came pioneers from the settled East with toiling 
oxteams and horses laden with household goods for their new homes 
in the wilderness. It is recorded that as many as 20,000 passed through 
in one season. 

About 1850 Henry Clay, riding from his home near Lexington to 
speak to the mountain people, halted at the gap. Someone asked him 
why he lingered. "I am listening," he said, "to the tread of the coming 

In the gap is the junction with the Skyland Highway. 

Left on Skyland Highway (adm. 40$ each person; 40$ each car), which reveals 
alluring vistas at every turn as it gradually ascends to the PEAK OF PINNACLE 
MOUNTAIN (2,860 alt.), 2 m. From this point on clear days is a view extending 
for 50 miles over a sea of blue-crested timbered ridges, jagged cliffs, ravines, and 
Fern Lake. Here also are the RUINS OF FORT LYON. During the War between 
the States this was one of the strategic points held in turn by the contending Con- 
federate and Union Armies, and, as the tides of battle moved eastward, abandoned 
by both. 

TOUR 4B 279 

Left from the saddle of the gap on a trail that leads to SOLDIERS' CAVE (permis- 
sion to visit obtained at L.M.U., at Harrogate, Tenn., 2 m. S. of Cumberland 
Gap), 0.5 m., now owned by Lincoln Memorial University. Soldiers' Cave, said 
to have been discovered by Confederate soldiers while digging a rifle pit, has war 
reminiscences cut on the walls and into the stones. 

KING SOLOMON'S' CAVE (permission to visit obtained at L.M.U. ), 3 m., has a 
series of apartments or smaller caves that follow the contour of the mountain in 
a horizontal direction. Within, a river rushes over a cataract 20 to 30 feet high. 

Among the many smaller caves in this section are LEWIS CAVE, WELL HOLE, and 
SALTPETER CAVE where early inhabitants obtained saltpeter for making gunpowder. 

At 54.4 m. US 2SE crosses the Tennessee Line, 14 miles north of 
Tazewell, Tenn. (see Tenn. Tour 3). 

Tour 4B 

Corbin Cumberland Falls State Park Parker's Lake; 30.2 m. State 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Good accommodations at Cumberland Falls State Park. 

State 90 branches west from US 25 (see Tour 4) at CORBIN, m., 
(1,046 alt., 8,026 pop.) (see Tour 4), and passes through a primitive 
sparsely settled region of great natural beauty. The road, winding 
over low hills, offers far-reaching views of purple and blue-green moun- 
tains and short fertile valleys. 

From LOOKOUT POINT (R), 15.6 m., an elevation surrounded by 
walls of natural stone, is a wide view of row upon row of distant blue 
peaks and deep, thickly wooded gorges. 

CUMBERLAND FALLS STATE PARK, 18.6 m. (open May 15- 
Oct. 1; adm. 10$; hotel accommodations, $1.50 and up; furnished 
cabins, $1 a day; overnight camping 25$; bathhouses, picnic facilities). 

This park, covering 500 acres of virgin forest, was the gift in 1930 
of T. Coleman duPont, a Kentuckian. It is rough mountainous coun- 
try cut by the Cumberland River, which threads its way over a rocky 
course through the rugged hills. 

CUMBERLAND FALLS, 68 feet high and 125 feet broad, has an 
average flow of 3,600 cubic feet of water a second. Immediately be- 
hind the falling sheet of water is a recess in the rock wall, which makes 
it possible to go almost across the river through the arch formed on one 
side by the rock and on the other by the flashing waters. Below the 
falls are many whirlpools and rapids in the river as it flows for seven 
miles through a boulder-strewn gorge, whose cliffs are 300 to 400 feet 


A winding trail leads from the falls, half a mile down the river to 
LITTLE EAGLE FALLS, small but picturesque, surrounded by heavily 
wooded hills. It is said that this spot was regarded as a sacred place 
by the Indians who guarded it day and night and even fought a battle 
(the Indian Battle of Shiloh) in its defense. On the south side of 
the river is a CLIFF WALK, a narrow ledge high above the water, which 
winds around the shoulders of the hill until it reaches a shelter house 
at the top. 

A fine growth of yellow pine crowns the ridges, while on the steep 
slopes and ravines leading down to the river is a mixed forest growth 
of hemlock, tulip, magnolia, oak, sweetgum, dogwood, and holly, the 
latter especially abundant and of large size. Azalea, rhododendron, 
spicebush, Stewartia, blueberry, St.-John's-wort, and strawberry bush 
are among the many plants. 

The old MOONBOW INN, on a ledge above the falls, is so named be- 
cause in the full of the moon Cumberland Falls has a moonbow, a 
spectrum formed in the mist one of the few to be seen on this conti- 
nent. Moonbow Inn is a rambling two-story frame structure, erected 
in the 1860's, and later restored. The main building forms an ell that 
faces the falls. A two-story porch extends entirely across the fagade 
next to the river. 

DuPoNT LODGE, named in honor of T. Coleman du Pont, stands on 
a ridge overlooking the Cumberland River, one mile from the falls. 
It is built of wood and stone. 

The 900,000-acre CUMBERLAND NATIONAL FOREST, encir- 
cling Cumberland Falls State Park, contains thousands of acres of 
virgin timber and a variety of wild game including deer, black bear, 
and smaller fur-bearing animals, as well as wild turkey, quail, and 

A thickly wooded region of hills lies between the Cumberland River, 
crossed by a ferry (free), and PARKER'S LAKE, 30.2 m. (1,256 alt., 
200 pop.), which is at the junction with US 27 (see Tour 3). 

Tour 5 

Warsaw Frankfort Lawrenceburg Harrodsburg Danville James- 
town Albany (Chattanooga, Tenn.); State 35. 
Warsaw to Tennessee Line, 187.7 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed between Warsaw and Liberty, graveled between Liberty 
and Jamestown, and graded between Jamestown and Tennessee Line. 
Southern Ry. parallels route between Lawrenceburg and Danville. 
All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere. 

TOUR S 28l 

This route runs through a sparsely settled hilly area, fine stock farms 
of the Bluegrass, many small old towns, and the wooded foothills of the 
Cumberland Mountains. 

WARSAW, m. (459 alt., 800 pop.) (see Tour 12), is at the junc- 
tion with US 42 (see Tour 12). 

South of Warsaw State 35 winds across the outer Knobs area, which 
borders the Ohio Valley. Small farms lie in the fertile bottom lands, 
and along the hillsides flocks of sheep graze on the abundant grass 
and clover. The wool produced in this region is of fine quality. 

On almost every farm are patches of burley tobacco, usually two 
acres or larger. The cultivation of tobacco requires such a large 
amount of hand labor that acreage is limited by the amount of help 
obtainable. The average tobacco field, cared for by one man and his 
family, rarely exceeds 10 or 12 acres. Cultivation begins as early as 
February with the burning over of the seedbed to destroy parasites 
and weeds. In March and April the seeds are planted in cold frames 
and protected from wind, hail, and sudden changes in temperature by 
thin white muslin stretched above the beds. In May or June the 
young plants are set in rows in ground that has been fertilized and 
brought into good tilth by plowing and harrowing. The planting is 
usually done with a horse-drawn transplanter that opens a furrow, 
releases water at set intervals, and covers up the roots of the young 
plants, which a man drops into the ground. While the crop is growing 
it is sometimes dusted (though there is danger of the poison remaining 
on the leaves), the worms are removed, and tops and suckers are broken 
off by hand. When the crop is ready for harvesting in August or Sep- 
tember, the tobacco plants are cut by hand and placed six on a stick 
either by splitting the stalk almost to the base and inverting it over 
the stick or by piercing the stalk near the base. To protect the leaves 
from bruises, the tobacco plants are carried to the barn on trucks or 
wagons equipped with frames that hold the sticks horizontally so the 
stalks hang in a vertical position several inches apart. In the barns 
it is hung up to dry, without the aid of artificial heat. After curing, 
the tobacco is stripped and graded into "hands," the term used for a 
marketable unit. The hands are sorted, according to grade, into 
baskets, each of which is sold separately on the tobacco sales floor. 
Droning monotonously in a jargon that is understood by only the 
initiate, the auctioneer walks between the rows of baskets. Buyers 
stand among the crowd of spectators and when ready to buy give a sign 
to the auctioneer who promptly announces, "Sold!" Prices vary widely 
according to grade and general demand. The yield may exceed $500 
an acre, or may not even compensate the farmer for his labor. After 
the auction the purchaser packs the tobacco in hogsheads and stores 
it for aging, a process that sometimes requires two years. The aged 
tobacco is again carefully graded to meet the standards required by 
various brands and purposes. 


In SPARTA, 9 m. (500 pop.), are nurseries specializing in ever- 
green trees and shrubs. Here, too, are the remains of old EAGLE 

At 15.5 m. is the junction (R) with US 227 (see Tour 12 A). Be- 
tween this point and Owenton, State 35 and US 227 are united. 

OWENTON, 22.8 m. (1,000 alt., 975 pop.) (see Tour 12A), is at 
the junction with US 227 (see Tour 12 A) and State 22 (see Tour 13). 

Between Owenton and 23.4 m. State 35 and US 227 are united. 

South of Owenton the highway winds down steep hills and around 
sharp curves to the valley of the Kentucky River, frequently affording 
wide views of blue-green hills and deep waters. 

MONTEREY, 32.9 m. (203 pop.), nestled at the foot of the hills 
in a valley between towering green palisades, is at the confluence of the 
Kentucky River and Eagle Creek (fishing; camp sites). Near Monte- 
rey is POND BRANCH, where the water, rising from springs, flows 
through an old channel of the Kentucky River. 

At 45.9 m. is the junction with a private roadway. 

Left on this road 5 m. to the old INNES HOUSE, on the farm of Joe D. Bradburn, 
Jr. (inquire at farmhouse for permission to visit). This two-story hewn-log house, 
on a stone foundation, was built by Harry Innes during the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Innes subsequently became first U.S. District Judge of Ken- 

The house, now dilapidated, stands on a ridge between two dry forks of Elkhorn 
Creek a vantage point from which the approach of Indians could easily be ob- 
served. Shortly after its completion, Indians went on the warpath in this region 
and the settlers gathered at Innes' Station, as the house was then called, for pro- 
tection. The house was besieged for several hours but its occupants withstood the 
attack without loss of life. Loopholes are plainly visible between the logs of the 
second floor. 

CEDAR COVE SPRING, 51 m. (R), was the source for the first public 
water-supply system in Kentucky, established in 1804. The water was 
transported to Frankfort and the penitentiary in wooden pipes laid by 
Richard Throckmorton. 

FRANKFORT, 52.6 m. (512 alt., 11,626 pop.) (see Frankfort). 

Points of Interest: Old State Capitol, State Cemetery, Liberty Hall, and others. 

Frankfort is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16). 

South of Frankfort State 3 5 ascends a hill from which is an excellent 
view (L) of the town lying in the Kentucky River Valley, the new 
State Capitol, and the Governor's mansion. 

The STEWART HOME TRAINING SCHOOL (open), 56 m., is (L) a 
private institution for the education of backward children. Its main 
buildings, surrounded by a spacious lawn and landscaped gardens, are 
set in 500 acres of bluegrass and forest. 

ALTON, 62.3 m. (112 pop.), was originally named Rough and 
Ready in honor of Zachary Taylor. 

LAWRENCEBURG, 66.7 m. (788 alt., 1,763 pop.) (see Tour 14), 
is at the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14). 

TOUR 5 283 

At 69.2 m. is the junction with the McBrayer Rd. 

Right on this road to BOND'S MILL COVERED BRIDGE, 2.5 m., over the Salt River. 
This is one of the few century-old covered bridges in the State. 

In SALVISA, 75.2 m. (500 pop.), is (R) the SAMUEL McAFEE 
HOUSE (private), built in 1790 by Samuel McAfee. The house, now 
called the Gabe Hall Place, stands on a spacious lawn through which 
a little creek flows. The clapboarded log structure has a deep two- 
story portico and vine-covered end chimneys. 

rectangular brick structure with gabled roof, the gable end being pierced 
by a half moon "sentinel" window that is now boarded up. The long 
rectangular windows and high pilasters accentuate the severe lines. 
This structure, whose construction was begun in 1861 and completed 
in 1864, is the fourth occupied by the congregation since it was founded 
in 1784 by the Reverend David (Father) Rice, a circuit rider, who for 
many years conducted services here at intervals. The McAfee brothers, 
Scotch Presbyterians, contributed the site and erected the first church, 
a log structure, which they opened in 1785, as an offering to Providence 
for saving them in the Indian attack of 1781. 

McAFEE, 79.7 m. (100 pop.), was named for the adventurous 
McAfee brothers. 

Right from McAfee on the Talmadge Pike to the JAMES McArEE HOUSE (open 
by request), 1.2 m. (R), built in 1790 by James McAfee, oldest of the brothers. 
It is a two-story gable-roofed house, said to have been modeled after the builder's 
home in Armagh, Ireland. The walls of the house are built of partly dressed field 
stone in random sizes and are 30 inches thick. The interior woodwork is hand- 
carved. Some of the strap hinges, badly worn, appear to be those on which the 
doors originally swung. 

On the fagade of the McAfee house is a bronze marker erected in tribute to the 
founders of McAfee Station James, George, and Robert McAfee, and James Mc- 
Coun, James Pawling, and Samuel Adams. These pioneers came in July 1773 from 
Botetourt County, Virginia, and surveyed land in Kentucky. Indian wars kept 
them in Virginia during the succeeding year, but 1775 found them again among the 
canebrakes, where they cleared the ground and planted an orchard along Salt River, 
returning the same year to Virginia because of Indian hostilities. 

In 1779 the McAfees returned with their families to Kentucky and built a for- 
tified hamlet on Salt River. The stockade, on the south side, was little more than 
a barricade, and there were but 13 men in the garrison. On May 4, 1781, ignoring 
the uneasiness of the dogs and cattle domestic animals reacted to the smell of an 
Indian as they did to that of a wild beast the stock was turned loose, and four 
of the men went out to work. Two of them with a horse started towards the 
corncrib. About a quarter of a mile from the stockade their path dipped into a 
hollow; here they suddenly came on Indians. At the first fire one of the men was 
killed, and the other who had started running toward home, was intercepted by 
an Indian who leaped into the path directly ahead of him. Though both fired at 
once, the Indian's gun missed and he was killed. The survivor reached the fort in 

When the other two men, who had gone to work in the turnip patch, heard the 
shooting they seized their guns and ran toward the sound but were alarmed by 
the number of Indians and turned back to the fort, trying to drive the frightened 


stock in as they went. One of the men reached the gate safely; the other, being 
cut off, took a roundabout route through the woods. He outdistanced all but one 
of his pursuers, a Shawnee chief whom he finally killed after jumping a fence in 
the cleared ground around the fort and crouching in the weeds till the Indian 
peered over the fence and thus exposed himself to the settlers' fire. 

Those inside the stockade had closed the gate and grasped their rifles the mo- 
ment the first shots were heard. One man who hid under a bed was found by his 
wife, dragged out, and made to run bullets with the women and children. When 
the Indians rushed the fort, they were driven off at once, one of their number 
being killed and several badly wounded, while but one of the defenders was slightly 
injured. In a short time 45 horsemen, headed by Captain McGarry, galloped up 
from Harrodsburg where they had heard the firing. The Indians retreated immedi- 
ately. McGarry halted long enough to allow the McAfee men to bridle their 
horses, then began pursuit. In the fight that followed, the white men dismounted, 
and both sides took shelter behind tree trunks. After two more Indians had been 
killed, the others scattered. 

HARRODSBURG, 86.5 m. (871 alt., 4,029 pop.) (see Harrods- 
burg), is at the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15). 

Between Harrodsburg and Danville the gently rolling highway 
traverses a fertile agricultural region containing many fine old homes. 

It is in this region that the male elite of the villages once gathered 
in the fall of the year, after a few heavy frosts, to enjoy 'possum or 
coon suppers a long-established Kentucky institution. The prepara- 
tion of these dishes was an especial achievement of the old-time black 
mammy who boasted that she could make anybody eat 'possum or 
coon and like it. 

FAIR OAKS (R), 87.6 m., was built about 1845 by Dr. Guilford D. 
Runyon, a Shaker who renounced his vows of celibacy and erected the 
house in anticipation of his marriage to Miss Kate Ferrel, who died 
before the house was completed. Doctor Runyon remained a bachelor 
until his death in 1873. The house, of Georgian Colonial design, is a 
two-story brick structure, with two-story porches on each side. The 
ends of the porches are sheltered by screens; those of the second floor 
are beautifully carved with a willow leaf and tendril motif. A six- 
room wing at the rear and a Greek Revival portico with four massive 
Ionic columns have been added. The doorway is flanked by columns 
of similar order and the fagade is embellished with elaborately carved 
lintels. The two-room brick cottage, still standing, served as the 
kitchen and dining room for the "big house" during the life of Doctor 

The CALDWELL HOUSE (R), 93.4 m., erected in 1823 by Jere- 
miah Clemens for his daughter, Elizabeth Caldwell, is constructed of 
local limestone. A spacious front porch with massive Ionic columns is 
formed by recessing the central portion of the fagade. Some years 
after completion the outer walls were stuccoed and painted white. 

DANVILLE, 96.4 m. (955 alt., 6,279 pop.), on the southern edge 
of the Bluegrass region, is the seat of Centre College and of the State 
school for the deaf. It has wide tree-shaded streets and fine old homes, 
built in the Greek Revival style. It was founded in 1775. Ten years 
later the Supreme Court of Virginia made it the seat of government 

TOUR 5 285 

west of the Alleghenies and ordered court buildings erected here. At 
Danville were held the nine conventions preceding the admission of the 
State into the Union. The most noted of Kentucky's pioneers served 
as delegates. A center of culture in pioneer days, Danville dropped 
from political leadership upon the removal of the seat of government, 
June 4, 1792 the day on which Isaac Shelby was inaugurated as first 
Governor of Kentucky but regained a small measure of prestige by 
the establishment of a district court that operated here from 1 796 until 
1803. From the latter date the town was without a court until Boyle 
County was formed from parts of Mercer and Lincoln in 1842. Dur- 
ing the years of political eclipse, the citizens of Danville turned to 
educational affairs, and early in the nineteenth century established the 
institutions for which it is now noteworthy. 

CENTRE COLLEGE, in the western part of town, a liberal arts school 
endowed for more than $1,000,000, was chartered in 1819, and is under 
the joint management of the northern and southern synods of the Pres- 
byterian Church. The administration building of the college (L) on 
Main St. is a striking example of Greek Revival architecture. Among 
the graduates of Centre are some of Kentucky's illustrious sons, in- 
cluding Beriah Magoffin, Governor of Kentucky, class of 1834; Maj. 
Gen. John C. Breckinridge, Vice President of the United States (1856), 
and defeated by Lincoln for the Presidency, class of 1839; Robert C. 
Wickliffe, Governor of Louisiana, class of 1840; and George A. Vest, 
Senator from Missouri, class of 1848. The Centre College football 
team, known as the "Praying Colonels," astonished the sports world 
in 1920 when it defeated some of the strongest teams in the country. 
The students' annual year-end festival arouses State-wide interest be- 
cause of the age and prestige of the institution and the elaborate char- 
acter of the celebration. The crowning of a carnival king and queen 
is accompanied by a number of allied events covering several days. 
Although Centre College is not co-educational, its president and board 
of trustees also direct in the eastern section of the town a school for 
women formerly called Caldwell College. 

The old DANVILLE COURT SQUARE (R), on Main St. between 1st 
and 2d Sts., was once Virginia's western capitol. 

In the MCDOWELL HOUSE, 123 S. 2d St., on December 25, 1809, 
before the discovery of methods of anesthesia, Dr. Ephraim McDowell 
performed the first successful ovariotomy. 

Doctor McDowell, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, was born in Augusta 
County, Virginia, November 11, 1771. His father, Samuel McDowell, 
one of the judges of the first Kentucky court in 1783 and president of 
the convention that framed the first constitution of Kentucky, took his 
family to Danville when Ephraim was 12 years old. Ephraim studied 
anatomy and surgery with Dr. Alex Humphreys of Staunton, Virginia, 
and in 1793-94 attended the University of Edinburgh, where he was 
for a time the private pupil of Dr. John Bell. He left the university 
without his degree, and returned to Danville, where he began the prac- 
tice of medicine. In December 1809, called to treat Mrs. Jane Todd 


Crawford of Greensburg, Doctor McDowell told his patient an exam- 
ination had convinced him that her only chance for relief was a dan- 
gerous internal operation that he had never before ^performed, but was 
ready to undertake if she would come to his home in Danville. Mrs. 
Crawford, frantic from pain, set out immediately and made the journey 
of 60 miles on horseback in a few days. 

The doctor improvised an operating room in his home. The patient 
was placed on a long wooden table covered with a blanket. She was 
fully dressed and perfectly conscious of every movement of the surgeon 
and his assistants. To restrain her involuntary muscles, and permit 
the surgeon to work, men held down her arms and legs with force. 
During the operation Mrs. Crawford repeated the Psalms. Later Doc- 
tor McDowell reported, "In five days I visited her, and much to my 
astonishment found her engaged in making her bed. I gave her par- 
ticular caution for the future and she returned home as she came, in 
good health, which she continues to enjoy." Mrs. Crawford was 47 
at the time of the operation and died at the age of 78. This operation, 
the first ovariotomy performed in this country, was not considered im- 
portant by McDowell himself. However, after seven years, he was 
persuaded to publish in the Eclectic Repertory and Analytical Review, 
Volume VII, an account of this operation and of several others of 
similar nature which he had performed later. The announcement met 
with indifference, incredulity, and even ridicule, and many years passed 
before his work began to receive recognition. Doctor McDowell con- 
tinued to practice medicine until his death, June 20, 1830. The resi- 
dence, a simple two-story clapboarded structure with its 24-paned win- 
dows and transomed doorway, and the adjoining one-story brick apoth- 
ecary shop, have been restored with the aid of Federal funds. The 
house and grounds were given to the State by the Kentucky Medical 
Association to be administered through the State Park Commission as 
a memorial to Doctor McDowell and to Jane Todd Crawford, his 

MCDOWELL PARK, 5th St., between Main and Market Sts., contains 
a monument to Doctor McDowell and one to Jane Todd Crawford. 

The KENTUCKY DEAF INSTITUTE was founded in 1823. Many 
trades are taught here, including printing and domestic science, as well 
as academic subjects. 

The PHILLIP YEISER HOUSE, 135 Lexington Ave., designed in the 
Classic Revival style and built early in the nineteenth century, is con- 
structed of brick covered with plaster. The house is on a wide, shady 
lawn that is slightly above the street level. The older central unit of 
two stories is flanked by high one-story wings, which have balustraded 
roofs. There is a pedimented portico. 

Central Kentucky's FIRST POST OFFICE, established in 1798, oc- 
cupied the corner of a room in the old house at 310 W. Walnut St. 
This building, now used as a dwelling, has been weatherboarded and 
has an addition of a one-story wing. Originally built of hewn logs, the 
structure was rectangular in plan and a story and a half high. The 

TOUR 5 287 

dormers seem to be part of the original plan. Gen. Thomas Barbee 
was the first postmaster. 

Left from Danville on State 34, an improved road, to PARKSVILLE, 8 m. (228 
pop.), is one of the most important berry -growing sections of the State. Here 
the residents of the village and neighboring farms follow an ancient Indian custom 
of holding a religious ceremony early in the spring to pray for bountiful crops. 
The ceremonial as revived by the Berry Growers' Association, includes music, 
prayer, and scripture reading. The extent to which raspberries are grown in this 
region is a result of several years' effort on the part of the county farm agents, 
who recognized that the hilly, rocky land, on which many of the farmers were 
attempting to make a living, was not suited to the crops they were trying to grow. 

WARRENWOOD (R), 99.3 m., was built approximately in 1847 on part 
of a tract of land owned by Capt. William Warren, who came from 
Virginia in 1776. The two-story house, of brick burned on the grounds, 
is of the Gothic Revival type. Practically all the work was done by 
the slaves of John F. Warren ; he and his brother, Samuel Warren, were 
the first owners and builders. 

JUNCTION CITY, 101.4 m. (731 pop.), is a railroad crossing. 

Left from Junction City on the Stanford Pike, an improved road, to the SITE 
OF TRAVELER'S REST, 3 m., home of Isaac Shelby, first Governor of Kentucky 
(1792-96) who served again in 1812-16. The old house, constructed of stone by 
Thomas Metcalf in 1786, was destroyed by fire a number of years ago and has 
been replaced. The graveyard, in which Shelby and members of his family were 
buried, is near by. 

HUSTONVILLE, 110.1 m. (504 pop.), an old town lying in a rich 
agricultural section, was first called New Store, later renamed Huston's 
Villa, and then Hustonville. 

LIBERTY, 125.1 m. (549 pop.), seat of Casey County, is at the 
headwaters of the Green River in the eastern section of the Pennyrile 
and on the southern edge of the Knobs belt. Liberty was named by 
veterans of the Revolutionary War who came to this section from 
Virginia in 1791. Col. William Casey, a pioneer in whose honor the 
county was named, established a station near Green River for protec- 
tion during the Indian wars. Associated with Colonel Casey was 
Christopher Riffe, who in 1793 bought from the grandfather of Abraham 
Lincoln 800 acres of land in what is now Casey County. 

RUSSELL SPRINGS, 147 m. (1,080 alt., 500 pop.), a resort long 
known as Big Boiling Springs, was ifor many years operated by mem- 
bers of the family of Sam Patterson, first settler. When the spring was 
found to have a high iron and sulphur content, a dozen log cabins, 
called Long Row, were built for the accommodation of visitors. In 
1898 Long Row was replaced by a frame hotel that is still in operation. 
The old cylindrical sandstone capping of the spring has been replaced 
with concrete. 

Russell Springs is at the junction with State 80 (see Tour 18). 

JAMESTOWN, 154.1 m. (950 alt., 410 pop.), seat of Russell 
County, was first called Jacksonville in honor of Andrew Jackson. By 


1826 the Whigs came into power and, resenting the tribute to their 
opponent, changed the name to Jamestown, honoring James Wool- 
dridge who had donated 110 acres for a town site. Along Water and 
Main Sts. in Jamestown are numerous old clapboarded log houses. 
Outstanding among these are the J. R. MCFARLAND HOUSE and the 
OTHA WELLS HOUSE, the oldest structures in the town. An annual 
community singing contest is held in the courthouse on the last Sunday 
in August. 

1. Right from Jamestown on the Greasy Creek Rd., unimproved, to the GREASY 
CREEK WOOLEN MILL, 1 m., an old water-power mill that manufactures cloth and 
knitting yarns. Many farmers bring their fleeces to be processed here, paying for 
the work with a part of the raw wool. Near by is the KARNES GRISTMILL, one 
of four in operation in the county. The mills here were established before the War 
between the States. 

2. Left from Jamestown on the Somerset Rd., unimproved, to INDIAN CAVE, 3 
m., in a bluff 75 feet high. Its entrance pierces the mountain side to a depth of 
about 20 feet in a straight line and then continues in a meandering path for more 
than 300 feet. Several large chambers branch from the main passageway. A 
stream near the cave pours into the Narrows, a gorge that is only two feet wide 
at some points. Near by is the SHINBONE, a peculiarly shaped hill that is about 
100 feet high and averages 30 feet in width at its base. Its rocky sides are covered 
with low-growing bushes. Big and Little Lily Creeks meet about 300 yards above 
the Narrows through which Lily Creek cascades to the Shinbone, which it encircles. 

South of Jamestown the route continues through a hilly region, cross- 
ing Cumberland River by way of a free ferry. 

The name of SEVENTY-SIX FALLS (L), 178.1 m., indicates the 
number of feet down which Indian Creek drops perpendicularly. Near 
the basin into which the creek plunges it sinks into the earth but 
emerges again after a subterranean flow of about one-half mile, only 
to fall another 10 feet into a watermill pond, the dam of which adds 
an additional 15-foot drop. 

The route passes SEWELL MOUNTAIN (1,720 alt.), a spur (L) 
of the Cumberland Mountains. 

ALBANY, 181.9 m. (964 alt., 852 pop.) (see Tour 20), is at the 
junction with State 90 (see Tour 20). 

South of Albany JENNY'S KNOB (L) is visible for miles along 
the highway. 

State 35 crosses the Tennessee Line, 187.7 m. 

Tour 6 

( Indianapolis, Ind. ) Louisville Bardstown Hodgenville Glasgow 
Scottsville ( Nashville, Tenn.) ; US 31E. 
Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 147.8 m. 

TOUR 6 289 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route between Louisville and Bardstown, and 

between Scottsville and the Tennessee Line. 

All types of accommodations in cities ; limited elsewhere. 

US 3 IE, the Jackson Highway, winds over the central part of the 
State, which is rolling or hilly for the most part. Towns of any size 
are far apart, and except for some truck gardening near Louisville, the 
farms along this highway hold to the typical Kentuckian pattern in 
that they chiefly produce corn and tobacco, or are given over to the 
raising of livestock. The winter scene is flat in tone except for the 
evergreens and the orange of sage grass; but in April and May, the 
woods are gay with the bloom of redbud and dogwood, and brilliant 
through the fall with the contrasting colors of the frosted leaves. 

US 3 IE crosses the Indiana Line, m., the north bank of the Ohio 
River, and crosses the river itself on a toll bridge (toll 25$), eight miles 
south of Sellersburg, Indiana (see Ind. Tour 13). 

LOUISVILLE, 0.8 m. (525 alt., 307,745 pop.) (see Louisville). 

Points of Interest: Speed Museum, Memorial Auditorium, Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, Churchill Downs, Cave Hill Cemetery, Cherokee Park. 

Louisville is at the junction with US 31W (see Tour 7), US 60 (see 
Tour 16), and US 42 (see Tour 12). 

The flat country immediately south of Louisville is bare and brown 
in winter, but green with potato plants and other truck-farming vege- 
tables in summer. Farther south the land is rolling and clumps of 
evergreens, fields of corn, and grass pastures appear by the roadside; 
then, at 17.4 m., a series of rounded hills, darkened by a notched 
plume of evergreens, appear on both sides of the highway. These are 
the Knobs that rim the Bluegrass plains. Red cedars and old oak or 
gum trees, the latter often entwined with mistletoe, are common along 
this route. 

FARMINGTON (L), 5.2 m., is the house built in 1810 by John 
Speed who came with his father over the Wilderness Road from Virginia 
to Kentucky in 1782. A long avenue bordered with trees leads to the 
one-and-one-half-story house of brick. The wide recessed entrance 
provides additional space under the portico which has an elliptical 
window in the pediment. The doorway is ornamented on each side 
with four reeded pilasters, side lights, and it has a segmental arched 
fanlight above, all beautifully executed. The wide central hallway 
opens into two large front rooms and into two octagonal rooms behind 
them. The ceilings of the first floor are 15 feet high, the windows 
have nine-paned sashes and in the octagonal rooms are hand-carved 
wooden mantels identical in design and ornamentation, one of the fea- 
tures of which is a gleaming metal eagle. A short distance from the 
house stand the brick smokehouse, the remains of an old stone stable, 
and a stone spring house. James Speed, one of the sons of John Speed, 
was Attorney General under Abraham Lincoln and Joshua, another 
son, was Lincoln's intimate friend at Springfield,. Illinois. In 1841, 


Lincoln, after an early love affair turned out unhappily, spent most of 
the summer and fall here. 

MOUNT WASHINGTON, 20.9 m. (686 alt., 350 pop.), was a flour- 
ishing community on the stage turnpike from Louisville to Nashville 
as early as 1800. The settlement was first known as The Crossroads, 
then as Mount Vernon ; finally, by order of postal authorities, as Mount 

The two-story BRIDWELL HOUSE (R), built in 1797 of rough hewn 
poplar logs, has been little altered since it was constructed. 

In the vicinity of the Salt River, 26.1 m., US 3 IE suddenly comes 
alongside of a great bottom land (L) far below the highway. The 
bottom is zoned out like a model city into neat, flat fields of corn and 
soil-building crops. In the center are two small stands of second-growth 
timber, rivulets cross the entire area, and here and there are a few 
farmhouses and barns. An ornamental stone wall by the roadside 
forms a parking space for those who wish to enjoy the view. 

COX'S CREEK, 32.5 m. (40 pop.), was named for Col. Isaac Cox, 
who, with a small band of settlers, built a fort here in 1775. 

At 37.4 m. is the junction with a road. 

Right on this road to the entrance, 0.3 m., to NAZARETH JUNIOR COLLEGE AND 
ACADEMY (R), a Roman Catholic school established in 1814. The administration 
building, with its imposing portico, is approached by an avenue shaded with oaks 
and maples. The school has a library of more than 15,000 volumes, including sev- 
eral rare ones; a museum with an extensive collection of geological specimens; and 
a number of old paintings, one, ADORATION OF THE MAGI, is a copy of the one in 
Madrid by Peter Paul Rubens and may have been made in his workshop. 

BARDSTOWN, 39.8 m. (637 alt., 1,767 pop.) (see Tour 15), is at 
the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14) and at the northern junction 
with US 68 (see Tour 15). US 3 IE and US 68 are united for 58.5 

The route passes the TOM MOORE DISTILLERY, 40.4 m. (permission 
necessary to mew plant), whose large, silver-painted warehouses range 
along the road (R). AsUS31E climbs a plateau, the land levels back 
from the highway in wide, treeless spaces distantly edged with timber; 
and miles away the dim hills throw a straight dark line against the sky. 
The road then spirals down through a low, attractive group of hills 
green with stands of cedar, sycamore and pine, and passes more knobs 
pointing their cones to the sky. 

NEW HAVEN, 53.7 m. (444 alt., 445 pop.), a quiet, tree-shaded 
town founded in 1820, was first called Pottinger's Landing. Harrod's 
company had established a station on Pottinger Creek in 1781 and 
Col. Samuel Pottinger, one of its members, envisaging this as an im- 
portant shipping point, built a large landing and warehouse here for 
the storage of whisky and other products that were to be shipped on 
flatboats down the Rolling Fork, Salt, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to 
New Orleans. Pottinger renamed his town, it is said, because he ad- 
mired New Haven, Conn. While this village never achieved the posi- 


tion its founder had hoped for, large quantities of whisky, cured meat, 
and timber were shipped from the area. The production of whisky 
remains its foremost industrial activity. 

Left from New Haven on State 52, an improved road, to the ABBEY OF OUR 
LADY OF GETHSEMANE (open to men only, adm. free), 4 m. This Trappist monas- 
tery was founded in 1848, when the chapter of the monastery of Melleray, France, 
fearful of the revolution of that year, determined to find a home in America for 
a part of their crowded community. The Trappists are Cistercians of an order 
that came into existence in 1664 after a housecleaning by Armand J. le B. de Ranee 
at the abbey of La Trappe. The Cistercians themselves were founded after a re- 
form in the Benedictine order, the oldest of the Roman Catholic Church. Various 
independent congregations of Trappists arose after 1664 but all were united in the 
Reformed Order of Strict Observance in 1892. This order fasts continually and 
accepts the discipline of silence. The vow of perpetual silence holds except during 
conference with superiors, when in choir, or on other very special occasions. They 
greet each other in silence, with a bow, and use sign language for any necessary 
communication. One monk, as host to the many who visit the abbey, is released 
from this vow. 

Through the efforts of the Rt. Rev. Joseph Flaget, first bishop of Louisville, a 
1,400-acre tract of land, subsequently enlarged, was purchased, and 40 members 
under the leadership of Dom Proust crossed the Atlantic and began the difficult 
work of clearing land and building a home for the order. 

The abbey, a rambling white stuccoed structure of Gothic design, was completed 
and consecrated in 1866. The buildings form an immense quadrangle, one side of 
which is the church, also of Gothic design; this building, 226 feet long, has a white 
spire rising 166 feet. Within, sharply pointed, cross-ribbed vaults are supported by 
octagonal columns with delicately molded and foliated Gothic caps. 

The porter's building has a wide arched entrance. Within this long low struc- 
ture are a small museum, a post office, and a dressing room for the only women 
ever admitted the wife of the President of the United States and the wife of Ken- 
tucky's Governor. Two walls connect this building with the abbey proper and 
enclose a quadrangular garden. 

Behind the guest house is the cloister garden, containing many rare shrubs and 
plants. In its center is a statue of Our Lady of Gethsemane above a circular 
roofed shelter. 

The library consists of more than 60,000 volumes, including ancient manuscripts 
and rare old liturgical writings. More than 40,000 of its volumes were donated 
in 1901 by Monsignor Batz of the archdiocese of Milwaukee. In the abbot's office, 
adjoining his cell, is a small collection of handwritten and illuminated books. 

The monks are divided into two groups, lay brothers who wear brown cassocks 
and choir religieuse who wear white. Morning devotions begin at 2 A.M. and last 
until 6 o'clock, when there is an hour for meditation, followed by a one-hour mass. 
From 8 until 11:30 the monks do manual labor. Then the one meal of the day is 
served, the food consisting usually of vegetables and milk. The afternoon program 
includes both labor and devotions, and the day is brought to a close by vespers 
at 6. At 7 P.M. the brothers retire to their cells. The lay brothers devote eight 
hours a day to physical labor, the choir religieuse but four. In addition to the 
monastery's market, there are a blacksmith shop, a wheelwright shop, a carpenter 
shop, a tinsmith shop, and a steam sawmill. 

This community is described in James Lane Allen's White Cowl. In 1933 there 
were 44 choir religieuse and novices, 40 lay brothers and oblates. 

Also on State 52, in the part of Kentucky that early became a field of Roman 
Catholic immigration to the West, is LORETTO CONVENT AND ACADEMY (open), 
13 m., the outgrowth of a little school opened on Hardin's Creek, Marion County, 
by Anne Rhodes early in 1812. She, with four other women who soon joined 
her, became the nucleus of the Sisters of Loretto, founded by the Reverend Charles 
Nerincx. The first home of the order, about six miles from the present mother- 


house, was a log cabin furnished with a table and wooden benches. Sister Anne 
Rhodes became the first mother superior; by 1816 the Sisterhood had grown to 26 
members. In 1824 the convent was moved to St. Stephen's Farm, former home of 
the Reverend Theodore Badin, cofounder with Father Nerincx of Roman Catholi- 
cism in Kentucky. In 1888 the institution completely outgrew its quarters, so new 
buildings were erected, quite in contrast with the original log houses of pioneer 
days. Brick buildings at the mother house stand in the midst of a large farm, 
with orchard, gardens, and fields for raising grain and other food products. The 
Sisterhood has numerous branches throughout the South and West. Teachers for 
these are provided by a normal school at Loretto. This convent is the locale for 
James Lane Allen's "Sister Dolorosa," contained in his book, Flute and Violin and 
Other Kentucky Stones. 

South of the Rolling Fork of Salt River, 56 m., the terrain is con- 
siderably broken, though there are many areas of good farm land. 

On the SITE OF THE KNOB CREEK FARM (open), 57 m., where the 
Lincoln family lived between Abraham's fourth and eighth years, is a 
REPRODUCTION OF LINCOLN'S BIRTHPLACE; the original log cabin is 
now at Lincoln Memorial National Park. 

In 1813 Thomas Lincoln and his family moved from the barren 
Sinking Spring farm to this region, where fish and game were plentiful 
and the soil unusually fertile. In a letter written in 1860 to Samuel 
Haycraft, Abraham Lincoln said: "My earliest recollections are of the 
Knob Creek place." For approximately three months of the sojourn 
here Abraham Lincoln trudged to school with his sister, Sarah, but 
his teachers were inadequately qualified and the schooling was of little 
practical value. At other times the boy helped his father with the 
farming (sometimes carrying corn seven miles to Hodgen's mill to be 
ground), hunted rabbits, fished, and climbed the rugged hillsides with 
his companions. 

HODGENVILLE, 65.1 m. (720 alt., 1,104 pop.), seat of Larue 
County, is one-half mile below the confluence of the three branches of 
Nolin River. In 1789 Robert Hodgen erected a mill on his land. In 
addition to operating his mill and farm, he conducted a tavern or 
"ordinary," in which many notables were entertained, including the 
French botanist Michaux, in January 1797, and the royal travelers, 
Louis Philippe and his brothers, in April 1797. Hodgen died in 1810, 
and soon afterward the settlement that had sprung up near his tavern 
was named for him. In the public square is a bronze STATUE OF 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN by Adolph A. Weiman, erected in 1909 through 
National and State appropriations. 

the old Sinking Spring Farm (R), the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln. 

Crowning an eminence within the park is the LINCOLN MEMORIAL, 
an austere square structure approached from a plaza by a long flight 
of steps, 30 feet wide, flanked by hedges and trees. SINKING SPRING, 
its waters still sweet and clear, is protected by stone walls and flagging 
at the foot of the knoll. 

The memorial, designed by John Russell Pope, is built of Connecti- 
cut pink granite and Tennessee marble. Across the front are six 

TOUR 6 293 

granite Doric columns; similar columns frame three grilled openings on 
each side. Over the entrance is carved "With Malice Toward None 
with Charity for All." On the rear inside wall are inscribed the life 
stories of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. 

Marble tablets bear quotations from Maurice Thompson and Edwin 
Markham and Lincoln's simple one-paragraph autobiography. 

In the center of the building stands the log cabin that is believed to 
have been the BIRTHPLACE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. When the cabin 
was restored and placed within the walls of the Memorial Building, its 
size was reduced slightly. It is now 12 feet wide and 17 feet long and 
its walls are 11 logs high. The spaces between the logs are chinked 
with clay, and a clay-lined log chimney stands at one end. A small 
window gives the only light, and the doorway is so low that a man of 
average height must stoop when entering. 

Abraham Lincoln, the grandfather, came to Kentucky from Virginia 
between 1782 and 1784 (see Tour 16). His son, Thomas Lincoln, and 
Nancy Hanks were married at Beechland in Washington County in 
1806 (see Tour 15 and Harrodsburg), and set up housekeeping at Eliza- 
bethtown (see Tour 7). 

In December 1808 Thomas Lincoln purchased this farm on the South 
Fork of Nolin River, and came here with his wife and daughter. In 
the short time he lived on it, he farmed a few acres, hunted, and did 
carpentry work for other farmers. Hardin County tax records show 
that he was taxed for possession of a few horses. On February 12, 
1809, Abraham Lincoln was born, and in 1811 another son, Thomas, 
was born and died. In 1813, possibly because of a dispute over title to 
the land, the Lincoln family moved to a Knob Creek farm where they 
lived until they moved to Indiana. 

In 1894 Alfred Denett of New York purchased 110^ acres of land, 
including the site of the log cabin in which Abraham Lincoln is believed 
to have been born. This was all but 10 acres of the Lincoln tract. The 
log cabin was moved from place to place for exhibition purposes ; it was 
shown at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition at Nashville, in New 
York City's Central Park, and at the Pan-American Exposition in 
Buffalo. About 1904 it was stored in the basement of the Poffenhaufen 
mansion at College Point on Long Island. 

These exhibitions aroused widespread interest, and, as a result, the 
Reverend Jenkin Lloyd Jones of Chicago proposed that the Federal 
Government buy the farm. His son, Richard Lloyd Jones, who was 
managing editor of Collier's Weekly, interested Robert Collier, the pub- 
lisher, in the proposal, and other publications took up the cause. The 
Lincoln Farm Association was organized to raise money for buying 
both the farm and the cabin and to erect a memorial to Lincoln. By 
1905 the organization had obtained sufficient contributions, mostly in 
small amounts, to purchase the farm and cabin. The cornerstone of the 
memorial was laid by former President Theodore Roosevelt on February 
12, 1909, the centenary of Lincoln's birth, and the completed structure, 


containing the log cabin, was dedicated by former President Taft on 
November 9, 1911. 

A company, including former President Woodrow Wilson, gathered 
here on September 14, 1916, when the property, together with an en- 
dowment fund of $50,000, was received by the Secretary of War, New- 
ton D. Baker, on the part of the United States, as a gift to the Nation. 
In 1933 the property was transferred to the control of the Department 
of the Interior. 

South of Knob Creek Farm for about 15 miles, the land is roughly 
level or mildly rolling, with occasional stands of timber by the roadside 
and fields of corn or tobacco between large pastures. Sage grass makes 
a green or orange ripple (depending on the season) across the open 
fields and hillsides. A few small frame shacks are passed, and some old 
log cabins. The road then winds through and around some high hills 
well covered with woods, and crosses, at 86.2 m., the Green River whose 
deep emerald waters are bordered by low corn bottoms and large 

The Green River country, of the subsistence farming type, is often 
poor or depleted, and a Kentuckian who is trying to describe an angular 
woman will say, "She's as bony as the hips of a Green River cow." 
Natives add to their income through the sale of handicraft articles. 
Along US 3 IE in the vicinity of Green River are roadside displays of 
baskets, colored pottery, quilts, bedspreads, and embroidered cushions. 
The quilts and bedspreads have designs in bright colors. 

South of the Green River, US 3 IE winds through hills overlooking 
small valleys, meets several small trading centers where blue-shirted, 
overalled school boys play along the highway, and then enters open 
rolling country. This is a cave region and sinkholes called "goose 
nests" by the natives small caves, and sinking streams are prevalent. 

At 98.3 m. is the southern junction with US 68 (see Tour 15). 

ADAIRLAND (R), 104.7 m., is a large stock farm whose rolling pas- 
tures spread back from the highway for a considerable distance, latticed 
at regular intervals by the white fences enclosing a dozen or more grass 
fields. A long, white-fenced lane leads straight to a two-story frame 
house, also painted gleaming white, with a high portico. Large white 
barns stand nearby. The red roofs of the house and the barns contrast 
pleasantly with the green of the pastures and the white of the buildings 
and paddocks; landscape and architecture combine to form a scene of 
geometrical orderliness and beauty. Adairland is more suggestive of 
the Lexington horse farm area than any other farm along this route. 

GLASGOW, 112.1 m. (780 alt., 5,042 pop.), a lively, bustling town, 
is the business center of a petroleum-producing field. It was named 
for Glasgow, Virginia, in 1799. This area was settled by Virginians 
who, after the Bluegrass section of Kentucky had been filled, moved 
farther west into the Barrens, then an almost treeless plateau. Long 
before the advent of the white man, the forests of this region had been 
burned; the abundance of grass on this prairie provided an excellent 
grazing ground for big game. The trees of the area are younger and 

TOUR 6 295 

therefore smaller than those of the eastern section of the State. Maj. 
John Gorin, a soldier of the Revolutionary War, was the first to settle 
here on a land grant awarded for Revolutionary services. A good 
spring was the deciding factor in his selection of a site for his home- 
stead. Soon other settlers, most of them veterans of the Revolutionary 
War, came to take up land grants. After the formation of the county 
Major Gorin gave a 50-acre tract, including the spring, as a town site 
and the settlement grew up about the courthouse square. Early in 
1800 the Kentucky Legislature authorized a State road between Lex- 
ington and Nashville, Tennessee, passing through Glasgow. The first 
stage traversed this road in 1836. 

Among early settlers from Virginia was Alexander E. Spottswood, a 
general in the Revolutionary Army and the first lawyer to live here. 
He was the grandson of a Colonial Governor of Virginia who married 
Elizabeth Lewis, niece of Martha Washington. In addition to the 
land grant that General Spottswood received for his war services, he 
purchased land in Glasgow, where he built (L) the SPOTTSWOOD HOUSE, 
N. Race St., two blocks from the courthouse. It was said to have 
been the town's first brick building; it is Georgian Colonial in style, 
has 28-inch walls, and contains eight rooms and a basement that was 
used as slave quarters. During the War of 1812 much saltpeter was 
produced in Barren County. In 1813 a powder mill was erected on 
Coon Creek and the manufactured product was transported by wagon 
through Lexington to Philadelphia. An old battery, erected during the 
War between the States, is on the western edge of the town. 

Glasgow is at the junction with State 90 (see Tour 20) and State 80 
(see Tour 18). 

South of Glasgow, US 3 IE continues through a countryside that is 
rolling to hilly. Many excellent farms skirt the highway. In this 
section much land is devoted to the culture of berries and other fruit 
for northern markets. Cotton has been grown successfully. 

After crossing Peters Creek, 124.7 m., with its old frame mill and 
dam (L), the highway passes a file of sycamores (R) and then crosses 
Barren River, 126.7 m., flush with a low corn bottom. As Scottsville 
is approached, gray, dilapidated two- or three-room board shacks of 
poor farmers are seen by the roadside. 

SCOTTSVILLE, 137.3 m. (750 alt., 1,867 pop.), seat of Allen 
County, looks like many other county seat towns in southern Ken- 
tucky. It is spread over a central hill surrounded by other hills. The 
old red brick courthouse stands in the center of a round public square 
encircled by the highway; on its outside bulletin board are pasted 
numerous legal notices. Dozens of overalled farmers or workingmen 
mill about the place, exchanging small talk or laying down their opin- 
ions. Scottsville was named for Gen. Charles Scott, fourth Governor 
of Kentucky; the county's name was selected as a tribute to Col. John 
Allen, who fell in the Battle of the River Raisin. Scottsville was 
raided by guerrillas in December 1863. 


Opie Read, lecturer and writer, was once editor-owner of the Scotts- 
ville Argus (see Literature). 

US 3 IE crosses the Tennessee Line, 147.8 m., -51 miles north of 
Nashville, Tennessee (see Tenn. Tour 7). 

Tour 7 

(New Albany, Ind.) Louisville Elizabethtown Munfordville Horse 
Cave Bowling Green Franklin (Nashville, Tenn.); US 31W, the 
Dixie Highway. 
Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 150.9 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route throughout. 

Accommodations chiefly in cities. 

Taking a course through west central Kentucky, US 31W runs near 
the river for a time, approaches it, and then goes up the Salt River 
Valley. It enters the Knobs region where the countryside lumps up 
into small round hills streaked with ravines. Near the south-central 
part of the State the route makes a great elbow curve through the 
cavernous limestone region containing Mammoth Cave and many other 
subterranean wonders, then, below Bowling Green, runs through the 
Pennyrile. Few cities or towns line this highway. Corn, tobacco, and 
livestock production is the chief interest of the countryside. 

The route follows the general course of the old Louisville-Nashville 
stagecoach road. Prior to the completion (1859) of the Louisville & 
Nashville R.R., travel over this road was greater than over any other 
road in Kentucky. Stephen McMurtry, a Vine Grove farmer who 
lived within sight of the pike, often had as many as 25 freight wagons, 
stagecoaches, and other vehicles rolling by in view at the same time. 
In 1825 Bayard Taylor made a journey over this road to Mammoth 
Cave, admired the scenery at the mouth of the Salt River, and picked 
up an explanation of the phrase, "going up Salt River." The story he 
got was that in earlier days, when the saltmakers up Salt River were 
the terror of the countryside, the steamboat captains subdued unruly 
members of their crew by threatening to send them up Salt River 
among the rowdy saltmakers. According to other sources, the phrase 
originated in 1832 when Henry Clay, who had an engagement to speak 
in Louisville during his campaign against Andrew Jackson, was per- 
suaded by a Jackson man to take a packet trip up Salt River. While 
the boatman was delaying the excursion so that Clay could not arrive 
in Louisville until the day after the rally, Jackson apologists for Clay's 

TOUR 7 297 

absence were explaining to the crowd at Louisville that he had gone 
up Salt River and had been unavoidably detained. After Clay had 
been beaten by Jackson in the election, defeated candidates were said 
to have gone "up Salt River." 

US 31W crosses the Indiana Line, m., eight miles south of Sellers- 
burg, Indiana (see Ind. Tour 13), by way of a bridge (toll 25$) over 
the Ohio River. 

LOUISVILLE, 2 m. (525 alt., 307,745 pop.) (see Louisville). 

Points of Interest: Speed Museum, Memorial Auditorium, Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, Churchill Downs, and others. 

Louisville is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), US 3 IE 
(see Tour 6), and US 42 (see Tour 12). 

Between Louisville and TIP TOP, 30.6 m. (793 alt., 50 pop.), US 
31 W and US 60 are united (see Tour 16). US 31W branches south- 
west from the junction at Tip Top. 

FORT KNOX, 34 m. (760 alt., 500 pop.), is a 33,000-acre military 
reservation on both sides of US 31W. The tract, including the town 
of Stithton, was purchased by the U.S. Government in 1917 for a 
World War training camp and named for Henry Knox, an artillery 
commander during the Revolutionary War. In 1932 the War Depart- 
ment designated the camp a permanent military post and changed the 
name to Fort Knox. In 1933 the 1st U.S. Cavalry, mechanized, was 
stationed at the post, and two years later work on the first permanent 
structures was completed. Subsequently the 13th Cavalry, mechanized, 
has been stationed here, the two regiments forming the 7th Cavalry 
Brigade, mechanized. 

In 1936 the Treasury Department built the GOLD BULLION DE- 
POSITORY (R) in which to store about nine million pounds of the 
Federal gold reserve. The treasure house, 100 feet square, is of bomb- 
proof construction ; its walls and roof are faced with huge granite blocks. 
Atop each corner of the building are machine-gun turrets where guards 
keep vigil against intruders who might attempt the risk of scaling the 
high iron fence. Interlaced steel coils with openings too small to admit 
a man's hand are set in the concrete of the walls as an added protec- 
tion. Constant inspection of the interior of the two-story vault, which 
is 60 feet long and 40 feet wide, is maintained by means of an open 
space under the floor and one over the ceiling; mirrors and brilliant 
lights make every corner visible. Supersensitive microphones in the 
vault are connected with the central guardroom. In addition to the 
vault, the building contains offices and dormitories. 

Bird-dog field trials are held in the vicinity of Fort Knox semi- 
annually on varying dates in March and November. The trials last 
three days, usually at a week end; the spring meets are generally more 
popular than those held in the fall. 

South of Fort Knox, US 31W lopes off among tall, ragged cliffs and 
gorges. It winds through countryside splotched with stands of cedar, 


pin oak, and scrub pine. Daisies line the roadside, and gentian and 
trumpet vine break the pattern of the near-by fields. This is good 
country for hunting rabbit, squirrel, and quail. 
At 41 m. is the junction with an unimproved road.~ 

Left on this road to MILL CREEK CEMETERY, 7 m., in which are the LINCOLN 
FAMILY GRAVES ; here lies the dust of Bersheba Lincoln, Abraham's paternal grand- 
mother, and of Mary Lincoln Crume and Nancy Lincoln Brumfield, his aunts. 

At 52 m. is the junction with an unmarked, road. 

Left on this road to a PREHISTORIC MOUND, 10 m., which has never been exca- 
vated. Near by in a line of cliffs along Rough Creek are two ROCK SHELTERS (R) 
on the Hugh Yates farm. The dirt-and-pebble floors of these shelters have yielded 
IS human skeletons and hundreds of artifacts arrowheads, tomahawks, beads, 
pottery, and utensils. Most of these objects are in the Museum of Archeology of 
the University of Kentucky (see Lexington). 

ELIZABETHTOWN, 52.5 m. (708 alt., 2,590 pop.), is a county 
seat laid out in wheel pattern. The hub is a red brick courthouse that 
looks like a modern rural school building. Around it runs a narrow, 
traffic-packed street broken at four places by the highways that enter 
the town amidst the two-story shops that surround the circle. Beyond 
this central business section the radiating streets pass neat, well-spaced 
dwellings with spreading old trees on the roomy lawns. 

Elizabethtown is a busy trading center for a rather large rural area 
in which livestock, tobacco, and grain are produced. On county court 
days, if the Hardin County farmer has caught up with his chores, he 
generally comes to town to listen in during the court sessions. On 
Saturdays he puts the family into the old car, or the jolt wagon, along 
with farm products he wants to trade, and they all come to town and 
spend the day selling their wares, buying groceries and dry goods, and 
wandering around with their neighbors. 

In the fall of 1780 Capt. Thomas Helm, Col. Andrew Hynes, and 
Samuel Haycraft arrived from Virginia and built three stockades a 
mile apart at the points of a triangle. In 1793 Colonel Hynes had a 
town plat made of his land, and named it in honor of his wife. 

A familiar figure on the streets of Elizabethtown in its early days 
was "Old General Braddock," a Negro belonging to the Vanmeter 
family. Soon after their arrival, a band of Indians began to snipe at 
the settlement. The slave took down a rifle and killed nine of them. 
His good aim discouraged the other Indians, who fled. The Vanmeters 
were so grateful that they gave him his freedom. 

During the War between the States several skirmishes took place 
here and on December 26, 1862, the town was shelled by the Con- 
federate cavalry leader, Gen. John Hunt Morgan. The town was 
strongly garrisoned with a regiment of Illinois troops, and its defenses, 
brick warehouses with loopholes, seemed adequate; but Morgan took 
Elizabethtown without much trouble. 

According to local tradition, Thomas Lincoln lived here as early as 

TOUR 7 2Q9 

1796. However that may be, county records show that in 1804-05 
he served on juries here, guarded prisoners, and was assessed for a 
horse. He found time to court Sarah, daughter of Christopher 
Bush, but she preferred Daniel Johnston to Thomas Lincoln. So in 
1806 he married Nancy Hanks (see Tour 15 and Harrodsburg), and 
they set up housekeeping in a log cabin and here their first child, 
Sarah, was born. In 1808 Lincoln bought Sinking Spring Farm (see 
Tour 6) and moved his family there. Following the death of Nancy 
Hanks in 1818, Lincoln came back to Elizabethtown to see whether 
his former love, Sarah, now a widow, would reconsider her refusal of 
him. The widow Johnston accepted the widower Lincoln, and, ac- 
cording to records in the Hardin County Courthouse, they were married 
on December 2, 1819. Sarah Lincoln was a kind and devoted step- 
mother to Thomas Lincoln's children, and Abraham cared for her lov- 
ingly after his father's death. 

There is a story that in 1813, when Thomas Lincoln was living on 
his Knob Creek farm, 20 miles away, a man destined to precede his 
son Abe in the Presidency stayed awhile in Elizabethtown. James 
Buchanan, Sr., had a lawsuit pending in the local courthouse, and he 
sent for his son, James, Jr., a vigorous young lawyer practicing in 
Pennsylvania, to come West and assist him. James, Jr., represented 
his father through several months of litigation. It was the younger 
Buchanan who became fifteenth President of the United States. 

As early as 1806 Elizabethtown, with 22 lawyers, had a reputation 
as a legal center. Of the 22, Felix Grundy later became a United 
States Senator from Tennessee (1829-38); Thomas Buck Reed, United 
States Senator from Mississippi; John Rowan, United States Senator 
from Kentucky (1824-30); Ninian Edwards, Territorial Governor of 
Illinois (1809-18); and W. P. Duvall, Territorial Governor of Florida 

Duff Green, later of Andrew Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet, arrived here 
from Fairfax County, Virginia, and became the merchant-partner of 
Maj. Ben Helm, son of Capt. Thomas Helm. As a child, Abraham 
Lincoln often helped his stepmother do her shopping in the Green- 
Helm store. They were served by John B. Helm, a nephew of Ben 
Helm who was to become a Hannibal, Missouri, judge. When Lincoln 
visited Hannibal in 1860 he searched out Judge Helm. After remark- 
ing about the changes 40 years had made, Lincoln introduced Judge 
Helm to his companions simply as "the first man I ever knew who 
wore store clothes all the week . . . who fed me on maple sugar, when 
as a small boy I sat upon a nail keg in his uncle's store." 

Another member of the local Helm family, John L. Helm, was Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky (1850-51, re-elected in 1867). Gen. Ben Hardin 
Helm commanded the 1st Kentucky Cavalry, dubbed the "Orphan 
Brigade" of the Confederate Army because so many of its officers were 
killed in action. General Helm became Abraham Lincoln's brother-in- 
law by marrying Mary Todd's sister, Emily. At the outbreak of the 


War between the States, Lincoln offered to appoint General Helm 
Paymaster of the U.S. Army, but Helm declined, and became instead 
a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army. He was killed at the 
Battle of Chickamauga, September 20, 1863, while leading an infantry 
brigade" in Gen. J. C. Breckinridge's division. 

Elizabeth town's last contribution to the list of successful sons was 
John Young Brown, Kentucky Governor from 1891 to 1895. 

The city has two outstanding private collections of Indian artifacts 
found in Kentucky; one is owned by Bell Smoot, on Public Square, and 
the other by Ben Ailes, of Poplar Street. These collectors also have 
about 3,000 old firearms. 

In the HARDIN COUNTY COURTHOUSE is a room (adm. free) housing 
Lincolniana. These records escaped the fire of 1932 which partly de- 
stroyed the old courthouse. After the structure was rebuilt in 1936, 
they were collated and placed in the new building by WPA workers. 

In the SMITH HOTEL, formerly the old Eagle House, erected early 
in the nineteenth century, Jenny Lind appeared on April 5, 1851. The 
crowd that gathered to hear her sing was so large that gracious Jenny 
went to Aunt Beck Hill's Inn, now the Brown-Pusey Community House, 
where she sang to the townspeople from the stone steps. 

The BROWN-PUSEY COMMUNITY HOUSE (open), cor. N. Main and 
Poplar Sts., was presented to the city by Drs. W. A. Pusey and Brown 
Pusey of Chicago. It was a stagecoach inn and called the Hill House; 
Aunt Beck Hill, great-aunt of the community house donors, was the 
proprietor. The simple two-story brick building, erected in 1818, has 
a low-pitched gable roof and inside end-chimneys. The lower two- 
story ell in the rear borders the side street. The front of the building 
has long 18-light windows in the first story with segmental arch head- 
ings, a deeply recessed paneled entrance door with square transom and 
simple frame, and a small entrance stoop with twin transverse flight 
of steps and a simple wrought iron railing. The interior of the house 
has been little changed and many of the furnishings have been restored. 
The garden behind the house is planted in flowers particularly popular 
in pioneer days. 

Gen. George Custer lived next door to the community house (1871- 
73) while writing My Life on the Plains. His stay was comparatively 
quiet but in memory he was having a stirring time. As his biographer 
remarked, "All rifles were trusty to Custer, all comrades gallant, and 
a horse was always a noble steed." 

Elizabeth town is at the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14). 

South of Elizabethtown the road winds between the knobs; some of 
these lumpy outcroppings are denuded of everything except grass, 
others have small stands of timber near their crowns. In summer- 
time the light green of tall cornstalks blends with the darker green 
of the tiny tobacco patches and rough fields; but with fall's coming, 
dun-colored wigwams of shocks stretch across the fields of stubble, the 
truncated tobacco plants make a dark brown stain upon the clay, and 
large plots of broom sage ripple over the fields and hillsides. 

TOUR 7 301 

South of the Nolin River 62.5 m., is a small area of livestock farm- 
ing with substantial houses and multiple fodder ricks bunched in the 
fields that are separated from the highway by dense clusters of honey- 

The thick, dark shadow of a sizable evergreen woods falls across 
US 31W as it winds up and around hills to UPTON, 69.8 m. (402 
pop.), a trading center that looks to the Louisville & Nashville R.R. 
for its life. Some quarrying is carried on in the vicinity. 

Just south of Upton a few ramshackle frame houses appear one- 
story affairs with one or two rooms, feebly lit through small-paned 
windows. They suggest a farm's outbuildings rather than dwelling 
places. The small plots surrounding these places are littered with 
sundry articles, and the hand plow is sometimes seen in use. Here 
live poor white families who eke out a borderline existence. They 
are not representative of the region, and their number is small. 

The highway dips up and down as it penetrates a cheerless country 
with jumbled contours, veined by steady erosion. Cornfields and pas- 
ture lands are plotted irregularly over the terrain; here and there a 
bared stretch of dark red soil stands on a drab hillside. The railroad 
tracks along the road (R) seem like an intruder in this nearly primi- 
tive landscape where the dwellings are log cabins and big, black mules 
take the place of horses. 

At 73 m. is the junction with Ridge Rd., unimproved. 

Right on this road to WILLIAM CAVE FARM (L), 13 m., on which are many 
rocks pitted with holes, several feet deep, made when the Indians used them as 
mortars in grinding corn. In the vicinity are beds of flint fragments splintered off 
during the making of weapons and implements. 

BONNIEVILLE, 77 m. (846 alt., 27 pop.), consists of a few old 
frame houses, on whose porches are displayed the split white oak, 
hickory and willow baskets often found on sale in the South. 

South of Bonnieville the road occasionally moves close to the hills, 
where rocks jut forward like crude gargoyles. In other places strug- 
gling corn patches waver over the rolling land ; a tangled thicket spreads 
along a section of the route; and the roadside embankments, stripped 
of grass, are red clay. The road passes log cabins and frame shacks, 
peopled by families who till their poor acres for all they will yield. 
They also make excellent baskets and chairs from split white oak; for 
several miles south of Bonnieville, all kinds of basketry are displayed 
by the road or on the little porches of the houses. Near Munfordville, 
Negroes are seen strolling up or down the road. They live in the 
raffish cabins and box-like houses near the highway. 

At 82 m. is the junction with an unimproved road. 

Left on this road to GLEN LILY (visitors welcome) 9 m., the birthplace of Simon 
Bolivar Buckner (1823-1914), standing solitary in the woods alongside Green River. 
The crude two-story rectangular house is of hewn logs, with a tin roof and a nar- 
row gallery extending along three sides. The front faqade is broken at the center by 
a clapboarded section probably a closed-in breezeway, or dog-trot. It stands on 


what was formerly a farm of 1,000 acres. Near by on the riverbank are the moss- 
covered ruins of the old IRON FOUNDRY built by General Buckner's father in 1823. 
For two years after his graduation from West Point, in 1844, Simon Buckner 
served as an instructor at the institution. He resigned to take part in the Mexican 
War; when the War between the States broke out, he was made commander of 
the Kentucky Militia and soon espoused the Confederate cause, rising to the rank 
of lieutenant general. After the Battle of Fort Donelson he surrendered to General 
Grant, who had been his friend for many years before the war. During Grant's 
last illness General Buckner visited him, and he was a pallbearer at Grant's funeral. 
Buckner was a Governor of Kentucky (1887-91) and a candidate for the Vice- 
Presidency in 1896. 

MUNFORDVILLE, 83.8 m. (571 alt., 649 pop.), named for Richard 
I. Munford, member of the House of Representatives in 1820, 1822, 
and 1827, is high on the northern bank of Green River. It is the seat 
of Hart County, named for Capt. Nathaniel G. T. Hart, a Revolution- 
ary officer. The courthouse, of the familiar red brick schoolhouse 
type, is on one of the knolls that crop up on the rough ground that 
is the town site. 

The major event in the history of the town was the so-called Battle 
of Munfordville. The Union fort here and 4,000 men under Colonel 
Wilder, together with supplies, artillery, and ammunition, were cap- 
tured by Confederate General Bragg on September 17, 1863, three 
days after an abortive attempt to take the town. Bragg succeeded 
in reaching Munfordville in advance of Union General Buell, who was 
racing towards Louisville to protect it from the advancing Confederates. 
Having captured Munfordville, Bragg was in a position either to fight 
the oncoming Union forces or to march into Louisville ahead of them. 
He did neither; instead he marched away to the east, leaving Buell 
free passage to Louisville. The withdrawal from Munfordville, and 
the indecision shown by Bragg from that time until his final retreat into 
Tennessee, were strongly condemned by the Southern press and public. 

OLD FORTIFICATIONS (R) are visible from the highway. The MUN- 
FORD INN, Main St., is a two-story frame structure erected in 1806 
along an old buffalo trace that had become a highway. 

1. Right from Munfordville on State 88, a partly improved road, to CUB RUN, 
14 m. (760 alt., 89 pop.). Left from Cub Run 1 m. on an unimproved road to 
the CASTLE, a curiously shaped rock shelter. The presence of a hominy hole, 
kitchen midden, arrowheads, flint chips, and flint and bone tools attest Indian 
occupancies. Practically all of these relics are in the Museum of Archeology of the 
University of Kentucky. 

Right from State 88 at the Castle, 4 m., on a road that leads to the GEORGE 
WADDLE FARM, near which is a row of 15 ROCK SHELTERS, high above the valley 
of Little Dog Creek. The dirt floors have yielded flint chips, arrowheads, scrapers, 
and human bones. 

In a line of cliffs on the W. A. Bracher farm, across the road, similar relics were 
uncovered. The arrowheads from this site have serrated edges and unusually broad 
shoulders. A sandstone hominy hole rock weighing two tons was moved from 
here to the University of Kentucky. 

2. Left from Munfordville on State 88 to CUB RUN CAVE, 2 m., in which lay 
three human skeletons. One was that of a child about 10 years old. 

TOUR 7 33 

The highway runs on a long trestle, 84.1 m., high above a broad 
corn bottom before crossing Green River. Floored with rough, loose 
planks that rattle loudly every foot of the way, and weakly guarded 
along the sides by low wire fencing, this rickety structure calls for 
slow driving. 

At 85.9 m. is the junction with State 335, an improved road. 

Left on this road is MAMMOTH ONYX CAVE (adm. $2), 3 m., containing some 
of the most beautiful formations in the cave area. The entrance is practically on 
a level with the surrounding terrain, and the floor slopes almost imperceptibly. 
Among the many huge high-ceiled chambers is Paradise Garden, in which are onyx 
trees, flowers, human figures, and porticos. A giant Tree of Life, in onyx of many 
hues, translucent and fine-grained, covers one whole wall of another chamber. 

At 4 m. in the corner of a lonely pasture is a lone, unmarked GRAVE OF AN UN- 
KNOWN CONFEDERATE, a 16-year-old Mississippi boy who served under General 
Bragg. While marching to Munfordville to reinforce the main body of Bragg's 
troops, a detachment of Confederates stopped for a drink of water at a cool spring 
near by. Worn out by the pressed march, a young soldier scarcely of shaving age 
sat down to await his turn at the water. By accident he kicked the trigger of 
his gun, shooting himself. 

A wide, saw-toothed sweep of hills rims the horizon at 88.8 m. Trees 
scallop their crests above small cultivated fields. 

HORSE CAVE, 91.4 m. (603 alt., 1,259 pop.), most of which is 
scattered away from the road and from a curious L-shaped business 
section, is said to have been so named because Cherokee used a near-by 
cave as a corral for stolen horses. Another story is that the cave 
gained its name when a horse fell into it. A part of the town is built 
over HIDDEN RIVER CAVE (adm. $2), which has a continuously flowing 
underground river with pearly white "eyeless" fish, and the largest 
known domes in the area. Its entrance is more than 250 feet wide 
and 450 feet long. Hidden River Cave has never been extensively 

Between Horse Cave and Bowling Green US 31W and US 68 (see 
Tour 15) unite. 

A dozen or more WIGWAMS (R), 94.7 m., arranged in an oval, offer 
a novel variation from the usual tourist cabins. 

CAVE CITY, 95.5 m. (613 alt., 775 pop.), is at the junction with 
State 70, leading to Mammoth Cave (see Tour 7 A). 

Between Cave City and Bowling Green, US 31W bears west-south- 
west with the hills (R), a third of a mile away, a series of humps. As 
the route progresses southward, the hills (R) are darkly green with 
thick masses of evergreens, striped in summer by the lighter green of 
oak trees brownish in the winter. The land gradually levels out for 
a long stretch with hills furrowing the skyline (R). 

Scores of signs, arrows, and billboards southwest of Cave City in- 
sist that it is only so many miles to this or that cave. This is cave 
country, and dozens of cave-owners, in spite of the near-by Mammoth 
Cave, do a good business. Roadside stands sell large and small rock 
formations from the caves. 


Though the land may seem poor to out-of-Staters, farming is the 
occupation of most of the people in this region. Corn, tobacco, and 
livestock are the principal products. There is a cornfield every few 
hundred yards, on a low, level stretch when possible, but otherwise on 
rolling swells. Every farm has its tobacco patch of one to six or eight 
acres. While maturing in summer, the oblong leaves of the plant make 
a green spread across the fields; after harvest, the stalks, left in the 
ground, remain upright, richly brown through the winter. Large pas- 
tures hold grazing cattle, a few horses, mules, and sometimes sheep in 
large numbers. Each farmer usually raises a few hogs for home con- 
sumption. Most farms have a water pond near the road, 15 to 50 or 
more feet in diameter, where the animals drink, and several low hay 
stacks, with an exposed center pole, where they can chew when the 
pasturage is poor. A farmer in this region may own 400 or 500 acres 
of land, but timber stands and unproductive sections prevent the cul- 
tivation of a good part of it. Barns, seldom painted, take on a gray, 
weather-worn appearance, that deepens with the years. Most of them 
are substantial enough, but here and there a barn along the way is a 
good subject for a woodcut romanticizing decay, and the narrow dirt 
lanes that sometimes spiral their way across a hilly farm make good 
backgrounds. Farming, however, is relatively prosperous, and the 
houses are the typical two-story frame structures. 

GLASGOW JUNCTION, 101.8 m. (623 alt., 374 pop.), another 
town whose chief concern is the tourist and his interest in caves, was 
first called Three Forks, then Bell's Tavern. The second name came 
from an inn built in the 1820's and operated by Col. William Bell 
of Virginia. 

Within sight of the highway, near the railroad station, stand the 
RUINS OF BELL'S TAVERN (L). The first structure, a rambling wooden 
affair, built in the 1820's and added to from time to time as patronage 
grew, was noted for the hospitality dispensed by its owner, Col. William 
Bell, a Revolutionary officer from Virginia. The service was lavish and 
the fare testified to the epicurean taste of the owner. Colonel Bell 
himself prepared his favorite appetizer, peach brandy and honey, a 
beverage of exhilarating potency, and he was generous in dispensing 
it. Coffee was served from a silver coffeepot that was carried from 
table to table by Shad, the "blackest little Negro with the whitest 
teeth anyone had ever seen." Shad is buried under an apple tree in 
the old orchard. 

Bell's Tavern was a favorite meeting place for the leading politicians 
of the day. Henry Clay, the Marshalls, the Humphreys, Judge Rowan, 
and Aaron Harding were among the frequent guests. Nathaniel 
Silsbee, Senator from Massachusetts (1826-35), wrote to a friend who 
contemplated the journey to Nashville: 

"Stop for a day or two at the famous Bell's Tavern. Should you 
arrive late at night and find the yard filled in with rough carts and 
wagons, with perhaps uncouth men or maybe Indians stretched upon 


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TOUR 7 305 

porch and hall floors, keep up good heart; there will be a comfortable 
bed for you, and at breakfast such a breakfast as you have seldom 
sat to you will have for company men, learned men, not unlikely a 
prince or a potentate, a world famous actor or a prima donna; it may 
be all of these. But mark you, should none of these fall to your share 
you will find in your host a cultivated, charming gentleman who can 
keep up his end of the conversation with even you. There is no other 
hostelry of its like upon the length of the continent." 

After the death of Colonel Bell, his son's widow, Mrs. Robert 
Slaughter Bell, maintained the tavern's reputation until it was de- 
stroyed by fire about 1858. Mrs. Bell planned to build a magnificent 
stone structure, whose proportions and appointments would be worthy 
of the tavern's reputation, and she began construction though friends 
warned her of the gathering war clouds. The building, which was never 
completed, was to be 105 feet in length and about 60 feet wide. The 
massive walls of dressed stone had reached a height of 15 feet or so 
before the work was stopped. The vine-covered walls, arched windows, 
and moss-grown steps attest the magnificence of Mrs. Bell's plans. 

Right from Glasgow Junction on a graveled road to DIAMOND CAVERNS (adm. 
$1 to $2 including guide service), 2 m., one of the smaller caves of the area but 
one of the most beautiful. It is illuminated with floodlights and the trip through 
it requires from one to two hours. 

At 107.3 m. is the junction with State 65. 

Right on this road, across which scamper many animals from the near-by Mam- 
moth Cave National Park Game Refuge, is BROWNSVILLE, 11 m. (537 alt., 359 
pop.), seat of Edmonson County, on the left bank of Green River in an area of 
mediocre farm lands where nature has lived untouched and its wild-life flourishes. 
Brownsville's old homes stand beneath magnificent trees, and in almost every yard 
are beds of hollyhocks, larkspur, and asters. The town still lives along the grooves 
of the 1850's. Everybody hereabouts is a good story teller. Barn-raisings, quilt- 
ing parties, bran-hullings, apple peelings, logrollings, and singing parties are a major 
part of its social life. Square dances are as common as the tales of "hants" in 
Edmonson County, which is rich in folklore. Brownsville is so quiet that the tinkle 
of the cow bells going to pasture in the morning and coming back to the barn in 
the evening is as significant to its residents as reveille and taps are to soldiers. 

appointment). Practically all of the specimens were found within the county. 

At Brownsville is the junction with Indian Hill Road. 

Right on this road to INDIAN HILL (628 alt.), 1 m., below which slide the 
waters of Green River, Indian Creek, and Nolin River. Indian Hill continues to 
yield flint artifacts. 

At 111.4 m. is the junction with State 101. 

Left on this road to SMITH'S GROVE, 4 m. (607 alt., 718 pop.), where a Gov- 
ernment emergency landing field is maintained. In the Smith's Grove Cemetery is 
the GRAVE OF SUSAN MADISON, sister of Patrick Henry and wife of Thomas Madi- 
son, a brother of George Madison former Governor of Kentucky. 

At 118.7 m. is the junction with State 80 (see Tour 18). 


BOWLING GREEN, 125.4 m. (469 alt., 12,348 pop.), seat of War- 
ren County, rides the uplands along the Barren River. The city rises, 
in a series of narrow streets, up to a central square with a thinly 
planted park as its core; it rises farther to the top~of a hill on which, 
occupying a fort site, is the Western State Teachers' College. On an- 
other hill is a reservoir. From these elevations it is seen that the 
city is speckled with quite large and ornate houses among the trees 
and shrubs that tone down the industrial color of Bowling Green. 

The city has taken full advantage of surrounding natural resources. 
Asphalt rock from along Barren River is brought here by barge, 
crushed, and reshipped to various points for road building. Near-by 
oil pools, in the decade after the World War, gave Bowling Green its 
one boom era; although these pools still produce, the output has 
dropped off appreciably. Tobacco, both dark and burley, is a cash 
crop that contributes much to the prosperity of the city; the tobacco 
warehouses are the most interesting places in town during the auction 
sales in the late fall and early winter. Strawberries are prominent 
among the products produced for the market; Bowling Green was 
formerly the foremost strawberry market in the State, and still attracts 
numbers of pickers during berry season. Men, women, and children 
arrive on freight trains, in mule-drawn buggies, in model-T Fords, in 
jolt wagons, and afoot, to tent in the strawberry fields for a fort- 
night or so, and then move northward to continue the work in other 
berry-growing areas. 

In 1780 Robert and George Moore, with some associates from Vir- 
ginia, established a settlement here in the Barrens, a treeless plain. 
The town site was chosen because of its proximity to an excellent 
spring, and the navigability of the Barren River up to this point. 

The Moore brothers provided land for the first log courthouse. 
Until its erection in 1797, the county court had held its sessions in the 
home of Robert Moore. The visiting lawyers and court officials long 
used the yard about Moore's house as a green for playing bowls, as 
did many people in the town. From this custom Bowling Green de- 
rived its name. The growth of the town was gradual and constant 
until the War between the States. Immediately after the outbreak of 
the war, the town became a center of attention because of its impor- 
tance as a railroad center and river shipping point, and because of its 
position on the chief western wagon road between the North and the 
South. Further hardship was faced by the city because of the divided 
sympathy of its people a large part of whom favored the Union. 

In November 1861 Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, in command of a 
body of Kentuckians from Camp Boone in Tennessee, occupied the 
town. He was followed by a division of the Confederate Army led by 
Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, the Confederate commander in the West, 
who immediately commenced to fortify the place as a permanent head- 
quarters from which to operate in Kentucky. These plans were shat- 
tered by the reduction of forts Henry and Donelson in 1862. The 

TOUR 7 307 

Confederates evacuated the city and Federal soldiers moved in and 
completed the fortifications. 

the eminence occupied by the fort. Earthworks and some of the 
equipment are preserved on the campus. In 1813 the General Assem- 
bly established Warren Seminary in Bowling Green. Six years later 
legislative approval was given for the establishment here of the South- 
ern Normal School, a private institution. A few years later Potter 
College for young ladies was opened. These schools were highly suc- 
cessful until the War between the States; afterwards Warren Seminary 
became Warren College, and was later renamed Ogden College. In 
1928 Ogden College leased its property to the Western Kentucky 
State Teachers' College which had developed from the Southern Nor- 
mal School and ceased to function. 

On the campus of the college, which covers 60 acres, are cottage 
dormitories, a model rural school, and athletic fields. Honeysuckle 
Lane, a broad flagstone walk, winds through what was the fort. All 
buildings of major importance are on College Heights from which 
there is an excellent view of the beautiful Barren River Valley with 
hills behind it to the north and west. The Administration Building 
is constructed of red face brick with limestone trim. The Cedar House 
Club, a broad one-story structure of cedar logs, is the center of social 
life on the campus. 

The Kentucky Building, faced with brick and trimmed with lime- 
stone, is of Georgian Colonial design. In it is the KENTUCKY LIBRARY 
OF FOLKLORE (open) and a museum containing Indian and early Ken- 
tucky relics and collections of old furniture, papers, documents, and 
oddities of natural science. 

An Italian Garden, on the old Ogden Campus, contains a group of 
Florentine statuary and a heroic statue of Apollo. Near by is the Ex- 
perimental Farm of 149 acres, used for demonstration. 

owned institution, is an accredited senior college that offers a four-year 
course in business, administration, finance, and commerce. Its gray 
brick building contains an auditorium, classrooms, and offices. The 
library, a frame structure immediately back of the main building, con- 
tains about 16,000 volumes. 

Bowling Green is the home of Mrs. Eliza Calvert Hall Obenchain 
(1856- ), author of Aunt Jane oj Kentucky, and Sally Ann's Ex- 

Bowling Green is at the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15). 

Right from Bowling Green on State 67 to the junction with a dirt road, 3 ra.; 
R. on this road to the C. A. SMITH FARM, 4 m., where large beds of flint frag- 
ments and numerous artifacts have been found. The quantities of kitchen midden 
near by on the same farm indicate that this was long an Indian village site. 

At 128.4 m. is (L) LOST RIVER CAVE (adm. 10^), a large rock 
chamber whose ceiling forms a natural bridge on which the highway 


runs. The cave was so named because of the short, deep stream that 
starts 350 feet above the mouth of the chamber, tumbles in a water- 
fall at its entrance, then disappears entirely. A gristmill was operated 
here prior to the organization of Warren County^ in 1796. On the 
levels now used as dance floors Indian skeletons and relics have been 
found, indicating that this place was once an Indian burial ground. 
Soldiers camped here during the War between the States, and John 
Morgan hid in the cave while Federals were looking for him when 
he burned the depot at Shakertown. The notorious James boys are 
said to have made their hideout here in 1868 after they had robbed 
the Russellville bank. The cave has been developed as a night club 
and picnicking spot, with tourist cabins available near the entrance. 
Between Lost River Cave and Franklin, the land levels out into broad 
fields used for pasturage and the production of corn, tobacco, straw- 
berries, and livestock. Ponds are by the roadside, and broom sage 
waves greenly across the fields until frost turns it russet. All through 
this region, fine Georgian Colonial homes with gracious porticos alter- 
nate with ordinary frame farmhouses and gray, weathered shacks; jolt 
wagons drawn by plodding mules share the road with automobiles. 

FRANKLIN, 145.8 m. (717 alt., 3,058 pop.), tightly hugs a central 
courthouse square rimmed with low brick buildings, each of which has 
a hitching post. It was founded in 1820, named for Benjamin Franklin, 
and is the seat of Simpson County, which was named in honor of Capt. 
John Simpson, whose company of riflemen joined the first Kentucky 
troops that marched to reinforce General Hull at Detroit during the 
War of 1812. Captain Simpson was killed in the Battle of the River 

The ONE-SUCKER TOBACCO MARKET here is unusually large. The 
growing plant is trimmed of all except a single sucker on the main 
stem, thus producing a superior quality of tobacco. A municipally 
owned MINERAL WELL in the public square has water of a high sulphur 

The people in this remote hilly region have songs, superstitions, and 
customs that belong to eighteenth-century England (see Tours 1, 18, 
and 19). Children are admonished never to pluck mistletoe from an 
oak. Though it is believed to attach itself naturally to any other tree, 
it is supposed to be held in place on an oak by the druids, and to break 
their hold would bring calamity upon the "hull relation." An expres- 
sion often heard here, "as thick as fiddlers in hell," undoubtedly sprang 
from the mouths of early reformers. 

South of Franklin is rolling farm country, where the highway passes 
orchards and fields of corn. Honeysuckle and brier mesh the fences. 

A favorite legend of GEDDES, 149.3 m. (688 alt.), a roadside com- 
munity, is a variant of the popular Barbara Frietchie story. It is said 
that when Gen. John Hunt Morgan crossed the Tennessee Line near by, 
a few days before Christmas in 1862, his command encountered a Union 
flag flying over the farmhouse of an aged widow. A member of the 

TOUR 7 309 

advance guard started to climb to the roof to haul down the colors, to 
the ire of the old lady who soundly berated him, telling him that she 
loved the flag and would rather die than see it in the hands of "rebels." 
Morgan had ridden up during the altercation, ordered the man to come 
down, and told the woman to take the flag down; he allowed her to 
keep it. This courtesy from the much dreaded "raider" so impressed 
the Union sympathizer that she offered to serve all the food she could 
"rake and scrape" and all the "parched corn coffee they could hold." 
But Morgan declined, saying that his men would feast at Christmas on 
the pigs and turkeys held by the Union commissaries, which they were 
going to capture. 

At 150.9 m. US 31W crosses the Tennessee Line, 37 miles north of 

Tour 7 A 

Cave City Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Cave; 9.6 m., 
State 70. 

Accommodations at Mammoth Cave National Park: Open day and night through- 
out year ; guides compulsory ; adm. (includes any chosen route through the old 
cave) adults, $2; for each route thereafter, $1; children, 8-12 yrs., $1; children 
under 8 yrs., no charge. De Luxe Route, adults, $4, children 8-12 yrs., $2; Star 
Chamber and Mummy Combination Route, $3; children $1.50; lunch in Snowball 
Dining Room, 60^. Two modern hotels, rates from $1 ; horseback riding, boat- 
ing, hiking, tennis, croquet, and dancing. 

State 70 branches west from US 31W (see Tour 7) at CAVE CITY, 
m. (613 alt., 773 pop.) (see Tour 7). 

introduces the visitor to a 49,000-acre area of forested rolling hills, 
deep valleys, and streams, with Mammoth Cave as the chief attraction. 
The profusion of local flora is well illustrated by the fact that here are 
more than 180 varieties of plant life, of which 109 are shrubs and trees. 
A project now under way (1939) will make this park part of a scenic 
loop route embracing the Great Smoky Mountain National Park of 
North Carolina and Tennessee and the Shenandoah National Park of 

Mammoth Cave is a product of geologic action and of erosion, a 
process that began many million years ago. In the ancient period a 
shallow sea covered the region that is now central Kentucky. Within 
these waters coral shellfish and other forms of marine life grew in pro- 
fusion. The sea floor gradually sank, and as it sank reefs, built up 
in the same manner as those off the coast of Florida, grew to a thick- 
ness at this point of more than 325 feet. Then the subsidence stopped. 


Sand was deposited over the marine sediments. Finally the waters 
receded and Green River began cutting its present valley, a process that 
took millions of years. Underground water, coming in contact with 
the limestone strata, acted physically, as an erosive agent, and chem- 
ically, as a solvent, and over periods of time inconceivable to the mind 
of man, carved out the giant tunnel. 

The rock mass, within which the cave has been carved, is now above 
the stream level of Green River, into which the subterranean waters 
of the cave flow. The cave itself, with its five levels, covers an area 
approximately 10 miles in circumference. Its explored passageways, 
325 of which have been mapped, extend to an estimated length of 150 
miles. These passageways lead visitors to three rivers, a lake, and 
numerous rooms and domes. 

The principal attractions are reached over six routes, some of them 
electrically lighted and all free of danger. A natural phenomenon is 
the "in-breathing" or movement of air from the outside when the sur- 
face temperature is below the cave's constant temperature of 54 F., 
and the "out-breathing" when the surface temperature is above that of 
the cave. 

The cave has six entrances, two natural, the other four man-made. 
The natural entrance, called the Historic Entrance, is 194 feet above 
the level of the valley and 118 feet below the crest of the overhanging 
bluff. The other principal entrance has a man-made stairway descend- 
ing to the level of Frozen Niagara. 

Mammoth Cave was first discovered by white men about 1800; 
claims have been made for 1794, 1802, and 1809. Since 1811, when 
the nitrate deposits in the cave were first mined, explorations, some 
planned and some accidental, have broadened knowledge of the cave 
to its present but still incomplete extent. During the second war with 
Great Britain, two men, one named Wilkins and another Benjamin 
Gratz, were owners of the property. The latter was prominent in early 
Kentucky history (see Lexington). They sent Archibald Miller from 
Philadelphia to take charge of the saltpeter works. After the conclusion 
of the war the property was sold to James Moore of Philadelphia. 
Later a man named Gatewood, who had previously owned the prop- 
erty, came into possession of it again and he opened it to the general 
public as a commercial attraction. In 1837 Frank Gorin purchased the 
land surrounding the single natural entrance and began development 
of the cave as a tourist attraction. Stephen Bishop, the first guide, 
and Matt Bransford, who, upon Bishop's death in 1859, succeeded 
him as chief guide, spent their lives exploring the passages and caverns. 
Both were slaves and men of unusual daring. Their knowledge of the 
cave has been transmitted in direct line to the guides who now con- 
duct visitors through the underground wonders. 

The fame of Mammoth Cave early spread to Europe where a young 
physician of Louisville, Dr. John Croghan, was traveling. In 1839, 
when he returned to America, he purchased the property and 10 years 

TOUR 7A 311 

later it passed to his heirs, the sons and daughters of Col. George 
Croghan and Gen. T. S. Jesup. 


The Historic Entrance is the natural opening through which the cave was first 
found. It is reached by a path that leads from the summit of the bluff. Stone 
steps lead to the vestibule. 

The SALTPETER VATS are relics of the operations carried on during the War of 
1812, when saltpeter was in great demand for the manufacture of gunpowder. The 
cave is rich in this mineral. The material was placed in these vats, hopper-like 
structures similar to the vats used in early days for the leaching of ashes to make 
the potash used in soap making. Water was poured over the material and the 
solution containing saltpeter in suspension was filtered into containers. It was 
boiled and again leached, this time through wood ashes. The saltpeter in crystalline 
form was shipped, by boat and wagon, overland to powder factories. 

The CORKSCREW EXIT is a short and narrow but rough and winding passage to 
the surface discovered in 1870 by William Garvin, the guide. It makes unnecessary 
the physical difficulties of a return journey through the 18-inch passageway known 
as FAT MAN'S MISERY. Garvin noticed the bats inhabiting the cave disappear, 
and by following them he reached the surface of the earth. 

GORIN'S DOME is over the spot where an exciting adventure of F. J. Stephenson, 
an English visitor, ended in 1863. Accompanied by Nick Bransford, he descended 
to the water level where today, filled with sand, lies the flatboat they used on their 
journey. They descended the sluggish stream to a point where Stephenson left the 
guide and boat and went on alone. Records say that when he was attempting to 
catch some "eyeless fish," his lamp went out, his matches became wet, and he was 
left in utter darkness. Despite that fact, he returned safely three hours later. The 
next day, his appetite for exploration still strong, Stephenson again descended the 
stream with Nick. Again Stephenson left the guide and went exploring alone, and 
again he returned safely. 

The BOTTOMLESS PIT, discovered a century or more ago, was long believed to 
deserve its name. Actually it is about 200 feet deep. Above it, rising 140 feet, is 
SHELBY'S DOME, named for the first Governor of Kentucky. 

The BRIDGE OF SIGHS is a stone arch so named because of a fancied resemblance 
to the Bridge of Sighs in Venice, Italy. 

FAT MAN'S MISERY is a 200-foot passage that narrows in places to 18 inches. It 
is the only way by which the visitor can go farther into the cave. 

RIVER HALL, believed to extend for miles underground, is the place where the 
waters from various caverns and galleries gather. The DEAD SEA is a still pool 
beneath a 60-foot cliff. 

The RIVER STYX was named for the mythical Greek river across whose dark 
waters Charon transported the spirits of the dead. 

ECHO RIVER, first crossed in 1837 by the guide and cave explorer, Stephen 
Bishop, flows at the lowest cave level, 360 feet below the earth's surface, on its 
way to near-by Green River. Here are facilities for a subterranean water journey 
on a stream like Coleridge's, which flowed "through caverns measureless to man, 
down to a sunless sea." Along this underground stream sounds are echoed with an 
unusual lengthening and blending. Echo River contains a translucent blind fish 
best known of the Amblyopsidae family interesting illustrations of evolution under 
unusual conditions of life. This underground fish, mistakenly spoken of as "eye- 
less," has vestigial eyes, but is totally blind. 

Nathaniel P. Willis (1806-67), the journalist, described one of these fish: "In 
size, he was like the larger size of what boys call a 'minim' say an inch and a 
half long but very different in construction and color. His body was quite white, 
translucent, and wholly without intestinal canal. His stomach (what there was of 
it) was directly behind the brain (if brain there was) and all the organs of the 


system were forward of the gills, the head alone having blood or other discolora- 
tion. Under the chin he disposed of what was superfluous in his nourishment. He 
was curiously corespondent indeed to the poetized character of the place like was 
a fish in process of becoming a fish in spiritland. Nothing could be more purely 
beautiful and graceful than the pearly and spotless body which had 'heavenlified' 
first, leaving the head to follow." These fish apparently derive all nourishment 
from the chemical content of water. In the course of an experiment a captive 
blind fish lived a year in a bowl of water without food. When a few crumbs were 
introduced the fish died within 24 hours. 


The FROZEN NIAGARA ENTRANCE is a man-made opening cut in 1924, at a point 
about 3.5 miles southeast of the main entrance. 

RAINBOW DOME has a wide range of color in its walls and ceilings. To the left 
is the huge stalactite called Onyx Pyramid. 

CRYSTAL LAKE (boats), a body of clear water, is 2 to 38 feet deep. The boat 
landing is called Plymouth Rock. A stairway leads to a higher level affording a 
view of the lake. 

The RADIO ROOM has had a radio since 1925. No aerial is used and the recep- 
tion is unusually good. 

FROZEN NIAGARA, 75 feet high, is a deposit of onyx bearing a striking resemblance 
to a waterfall. Indirect lighting creates a spectacular effect. Fancy has vested its 
immediate surroundings with names. One formation is thought to resemble a to- 
bacco leaf, others are the Golden Fleece, the Arizona Giant Cactus, the Chinese 
Idol, and the Chinese Family. 

From the ceiling of THANKSGIVING HALL hang stalactites that are supposed to 
resemble turkeys and other viands that grace the Thanksgiving board. 


The ROTUNDA, a vast hall about 1 mile from the Historic Entrance, is beyond 
the iron gates that exclude unguided visitors. Flares are employed to demonstrate 
the extent of this underground chamber. 

AUDUBON AVENUE recalls the memory of John James Audubon, noted Kentucky 
ornithologist to whose life clings the legend that he was in reality the son of Louis 
XVI, the Lost Dauphin of France, who disappeared during the Reign of Terror. 

The METHODIST CHURCH, with its resemblance to a chancel, at one end of which 
is a formation resembling a rostrum and pulpit, was occasionally used in early days 
by itinerant ministers or so the legend runs. 

BOOTH'S THEATER is a natural auditorium from the stage of which it is recorded 
that Edwin Booth once recited his favorite "To be, or not to be," from Hamlet. 

Someone believed that the PILLARS OF HERCULES resembled the rocky headlands 
that face each other across the Strait of Gibraltar. 

The BRIDAL ALTAR, bearing a striking resemblance to a small temple, was formed 
by the union of four pairs of stalactites and stalagmites. Numerous marriage cere- 
monies have been performed here. 

ELBOW CREVICE is a water-fluted dome from which the musical murmuring of 
unseen waters is heard. 

The GIANT'S COFFIN is a block of stone, 40 feet long, beside the trail. 

The CONSUMPTIVES' CABINS recall a tragic delusion of medical science during the 
1840's. Some doctors believed that conditions within the cave were favorable to 
recovery from "consumption," as pulmonary tuberculosis was then called. In this 
belief, these stone cabins were built, and for a considerable time a group of tuber- 
cular people lived here in a vain quest for health. 

The STAR CHAMBER is a vast room in the ceiling of which are crystals of black 
oxide of manganese that under artificial light look like stars. For the diversion of 

TOUR 7A 313 

visitors, the guides extinguish all lights. The intense darkness is broken as the stars 
appear one by one. As an added touch, the twittering of birds is reproduced. 

The MARTHA WASHINGTON STATUE, apparently a female figure in silhouette, is 
created in part by the use of lights. 


This tour begins at FROZEN NIAGARA (see Route 2). 

The large ROOSEVELT DOME, named in honor of former President Theodore 
Roosevelt, is 130 feet from apex to base. 

GRAND CENTRAL STATION is so called because of the many routes that intersect 

The NEW YORK HIPPODROME, a room 200 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 68 feet 
high, is said to be directly below Frozen Niagara Hotel. 

FAIRY CEILING, 100 feet long, is notable because of its smooth surface. 

COLLEGE HEIGHTS AVENUE is named in honor of Western State Teachers' College 
in Bowling Green, Ky. 

Thanksgiving Hall, September Morn, Crystal Lake, Onyx Colonnade, and Rain- 
bow Dome (see Route 2) are also included in this tour. 


This route combines Routes 1 and 2, the chief points of Route 3, as well as the 

OLE BULL'S CONCERT HALL named for the Norwegian-born violinist who played 
in it. 

The PASS OF EL GHOR marks the point from which three early-day cave ex- 
plorers, Charles and Abraham Merideth and F. M. De Monbrum, made their way 
into a vast cavern that no one has since been able to re-discover. 

MARY'S VINEYARD has a stalactite that winds from ceiling to floor and resembles 
a grapevine. Nodules of limestone coated with black oxide of iron heighten the 
resemblance to a vine loaded with grapes. 

The SNOWBALL DINING ROOM, 267 feet below the surface, is a lunch room for 
cave visitors. Its ceiling is festooned with "snowballs" of gypsum. 

BOONE AVENUE is a rough pass, noted for the coloring of its walls. 

The MAMMOTH GYPSUM WALL, bordering Kentucky Ave., contains formations 
resembling celery stalks and flowers. 

The GRAND CANYON, a large water-eroded channel, was so named because of a 
fancied resemblance in miniature to the great gorge of the Colorado River. 

The remainder of the route is Route 2. 


This route is Route 2, with the addition of the following: 

PROCTOR'S ARCADE is an enlargement of the main cave that, in early days, was 
coupled with the avenue known as Kynney's Arena. It has passages with high 
ceilings and well-proportioned arches. 

The INDIAN RELICS torches made out of bundles of reeds, wooden bowls, woven 
sandals, and the ashes of fires were found in a room of the cave and attest to 
the presence of the natives long before the white man discovered these wonders. 
Archeologists agree that these relics are those of a race that preceded the Indians 
living in Kentucky when the earliest whites appeared. 

WRIGHT'S ROTUNDA was the name first given to Chief City. It is now applied 
to this T-shaped hall, and honors Dr. C. A. Wright, a Louisianian who published 
one of the earliest histories of the cave. 


CHIEF CITY, a single room two acres in extent, is awe-inspiring. Its ceiling, un- 
supported by pillars, is smooth. In this room were found a large number of relics 
of prehistoric man. Archeologists believe that both the Indian of historic times 
and his predecessor used this room for special purposes, as a tribal gathering place, 
or as a place for religious ceremonies. 

The CATARACTS is a cascade where waters seeping through the porous rocks 
gather into a stream that plunges downward over a cliff. Following heavy rains, 
or the melting of deep snows, the cascade becomes a noisy torrent. 

WALDACH'S DOME commemorates Charles Waldach of Cincinnati, Ohio, an early 
photographer whose pictures gave the cave wide publicity. 

The BODY OF PREHISTORIC MINER, near Waldach's Dome, is preserved in a glass 
case where it was found in 1935. The so-called miner had been caught beneath 
a slab of stone. 

On MUMMY LEDGE was found the mummified body of a woman about five feet 
ten inches tall, who was killed by a stab beneath the heart. The body was dis- 
covered by the miners of 1812. According to legend, her skin was dark and her 
close-cropped hair had a reddish tint; she was dressed in clothing woven from 
linden (basswood) fibers and a robe of deerskin bearing traces of formal designs. 
Feather headdresses, one for each day in the week, were found beside her body, 
and a tiny musical instrument resembling a flute lay in her hand. Small beads and 
a necklace made of fawn's hooves, together with the claws of an eagle, adorned 
her. The exceptional care with which the body had been prepared for burial indi- 
cates that the woman had been a person of importance. This find, which has dis- 
appeared, passed into the possession of a Bostonian, who, according to the tale, 
gave it to a museum. No museum has reported such a possession. 

HAINES' DOME was named in honor of Ben Haines, an early photographer of 
New Albany, Indiana, who devoted much of his time and effort to exploration of 
the cave and to photographing its features. 

In the SNOW ROOM deposits of Epsom salts hang like hoarfrost from the walls 
and ceiling. The slightest vibration of the air will cause a shower of this snow- 
like substance to fall. Early settlers collected the salts for medicinal purposes. 

ULTIMA THULE was named before the beginning of the twentieth century, when 
it was supposed to be the end of the cave. 

VIOLET CITY was discovered in 1918 by Max Kaemper, a German scientist, who 
with Edwin Bishop, a guide, found the "crawl-way" connecting Ultima Thule with 
Kaemper's Hall and all that part of the cave now called Violet City. Kaemper's 
Hall is 160 feet long, 120 feet wide and 60 feet high. ELIZABETH'S DOME was 
named, according to local legend, for Kaemper's sweetheart. GRAND PORTAL, 60 
feet wide and 50 feet high, is reached by an imposing stairway. The MARBLE 
TEMPLE, its wall studded with many-colored onyx, glows under electric lights. The 
CHIMES are slender reeds made in the meeting of hollow stalactites and stalagmites, 
and resemble organ pipes. When struck, they emit musical tones. 

The man-made exit at this point is 3.5 miles southeast of the Historic Entrance. 

At Mammoth Cave archway is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to GREAT ONYX CAVE (adm. $2, combination route $3, guides; 
hotel, rates Jrom $1); 3 m., one of the principal caves in this region. Great Onyx 
Cave contains miles of avenues leading into corridors and spacious chambers with 
great fluted columns of onyx, draperies of translucent alabaster, and a gleaming 
garden of lilies, daisies and chrysanthemums reproduced from snow white gypsum. 

Near the entrance to the cave a winding pathway bordered with ferns and 
flowers leads among stately trees to the shores of Green River, an ideal place for 
swimming, boating, and fishing. 

At 4.3 m. is FLOYD COLLINS CRYSTAL CAVE (adm. $2), within the Mammoth Cave 
National Park. This cave, one of the largest in the area and only partly explored, 
was discovered in December 1917 by Floyd Collins while making a round of the 
traps on his father's farm; it has two well-defined routes. In them is a dazzling 
display of delicate formations of gypsum, crystal, and onyx, resembling lilies, 

TOUR 7A 315 

chrysanthemums, peonies, and asters white, gold, pale yellow, and pink. Many of 
the rare bush-like helectite formations, as yet of undetermined origin, ornament 
small alcoves on each side of a passage more than a mile long. GRAND CANYON 
AVENUE, an imposing chamber 200 feet high, 110 feet wide, and 700 feet long, con- 
tains the tomb of Floyd Collins, who lost his life in 1925 in an effort to discover 
a new entrance to Crystal Cave from the highway at Sand Cave. During the 
period when searchers were frantically trying to find the lost man, the whole Na- 
tion waited for daily reports. 

Tour 8 

( E vansville , Ind . ) Henderson Madisonville Hopkinsville Guthrie 
(Nashville, Tenn.); US 41 and 41E, Dixie B-Line. 
Indiana Line to Tennessee Line, 114.5 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. roughly parallels US 41 throughout. 

All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere. 

This route follows an old Indian trail that ran between the Great 
Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. It was first made by the great herds 
of buffalo in their seasonal migrations from South to North and back 
again. Their trails, always following the least difficult routes, have 
become main roads throughout the State. Meriwether Lewis, while 
Governor of Upper Louisiana Territory, once had occasion to traverse 
this trace and recorded that he and his companions were so engrossed 
with its rugged beauty as to relax from their eternal lookout for lurking 
Shawnee and Wyandotte. 

Between Henderson and Nashville this route was long a post road, 
called the Buttermilk Road, because farmers along the route set aside 
crocks of buttermilk and dippers, from which travelers might freely 

In Kentucky, US 41 passes throughout the entire Pennyrile, a region 
whose name was derived from pennyroyal, a herb of the mint family. 
The Pennyrile has rather vague boundaries but extends from the low 
wooded hills of the Ohio River on the north to the rich coal fields of 
southwestern Kentucky, a pastoral land cut through by deep winding 

US 41 crosses the Indiana Line, m., 2 miles south of Evansville, 
Ind. (see Ind. Tour 16). 

BADE PARK (L), 1 m., was built by James Ellis in 1922, on the 
part of Henderson County that was cut off on the north when the Ohio 
River changed its course. Races are held here for a period of 28 days, 
usually in August. 

The highway crosses the Ohio River on the Henderson-Evansville 
(Audubon Highway) Bridge, 2 m. (toll 30<j>). 


AUDUBON MEMORIAL STATE PARK (L), 4.1 m., is a 400-acre 
tract donated by citizens of Henderson County in memory of John 
James Audubon (1785-1851), the ornithologist, who roamed through 
Kentucky from 1808 to 1826. It includes one of his favorite haunts, 
Wolf Hill, where he hunted, studied the birds, and sometimes cut his 
name on trees. Here, too, though the exact spot is unknown, is the 
GRAVE OF LUCY AUDUBON, his little daughter. Shelters, roads, sanitary 
facilities, and offices have been built; trails have been developed, some 
of them following old trails probably used by Audubon. 

A reproduction of a FRENCH NORMAN INN, with a cobbled courtyard 
for tables, serves as a gatehouse just off the 100-foot road that traverses 
the park. It contains, in addition to a lunchroom, a banquet hall, 
dormitories for hikers, and quarters for the caretaker. In the FRENCH 
GARDEN is a small stone pavilion; also two bird baths formed from the 
old millstones found on the site of Audubon's "infernal mill" on the 
Ohio at Henderson. These millstones, called French burr, were brought 
from France. 

The AUDUBON MUSEUM houses a collection of Audubon prints. On 
the second floor is a collection of stuffed birds, books, and portraits. 
Also on the first floor is a Kentucky Room holding relics of Daniel 
Boone and other pioneers, and a Transylvania Room. The French 
Norman style of architecture was chosen for this building because of 
Audubon's French ancestry, and because it permitted the round tower 
that contains holes in the masonry for nesting birds. 

At 5.2 m. is the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), which is united 
with US 41 between this point and HENDERSON, 6.6 m. (382 alt., 
11,686 pop.) (see Tour 16). 

Between Henderson and Dixon the road passes through rolling lands 
covered with orchards and tobacco fields. 

The highway passes HARPE'S HEAD ROAD (R), 29.6 m., so 
named because Big Harpe, a notorious outlaw of early days, was slain 
here July 22, 1806, and his head placed on a pole near an oak tree by 
the roadside. The initials, H. H. ( Harpe 's Head) cut into the bark of 
the tree, were legible for more than 60 years. 

The Harpes Micajah (Big Harpe) and Wiley (Little Harpe) 
traveled with three women, two of whom were described as the wives 
of Big Harpe. The gang is believed to have come into Kentucky from 
North Carolina in 1802. Their appearance was first noted near Stan- 
ford in Lincoln County. A few days later came the first of the crimes 
with which they blazed their way to the Green River country. In the 
Rockcastle hills along the Wilderness Road a young Virginian named 
Langford disappeared. A posse caught the Harpes near by and carried 
them into Stanford; in their possession were the Virginian's fine shirts, 
one of them bullet-pierced and stained with blood. After the bandits 
had been transferred to Danville for trial, they broke jail and escaped. 
Rumors of atrocities flew thick and fast through the settlements, and 
when the small son of Captain Trabue disappeared in Adair County 

TOUR 8 317 

the parents and neighbors blamed the gang; many years later the bones 
of a small child were found in a sinkhole near which the child was last 
seen. Terror mounted, however, and all the murders and robberies that 
were common at the time on the frontier, were laid to the Harpes. 

One night the Harpes arrived at the home of a man named Stigall; 
they said they were Methodist preachers and asked for a night's 
shelter. Another traveler was already there but Mrs. Stigall felt no 
fear in her husband's absence and, with the usual frontier hospitality, 
took them in. The next morning Stigall returned to find his home in 
ashes; in the ruins were the bodies of his wife and children and that 
of a stranger, all showing evidence of murder. Stigall ran to the home 
of his neighbor, Capt. John Leeper, who immediately called out other 
men to help find the Harpes, who were suspected of being in the 
vicinity. It was agreed that Leeper should have the honor of killing 
Big Harpe and Stigall should shoot Little Harpe. The party soon 
found the women who traveled with the Harpes; the men had left 
them behind when they fled. The Kentuckians continued the chase and 
at length caught up with the bandits at this place. Leeper fired at 
his chosen target, who was on horseback. Both man and horse went 
down, the horse on top. Harpe screamed for release and mercy, but 
Leeper waited until Stigall arrived, then shot Big Harpe, cut off his 
head, and placed the trophy on a tree as a warning to other outlaws. 

Little Harpe escaped and when next heard of had joined two land- 
pirates, Mason and Mays, who were terrorizing travelers on the Natchez 
Trace. A price had been set on Mason's head; one day when Mason 
was dividing a particularly large amount of loot, Little Harpe and Mays 
shot him, cut off his head, carried it into Natchez, and attempted to 
claim the reward. They were recognized and arrested but managed to 
escape. They were again captured at old Greenville and hanged ; their 
heads were placed on poles along the trace, one at each end of town. 

There is the usual legend in the neighborhood of Harpe's Head Road 
that large sums of "treasure" were buried here by bandits; none has 
ever been found. 

DIXON, 31.8 m. (544 alt., 650 pop.), seat of Webster County, is a 
quiet town named for Archibald Dixon, Lieutenant Governor of Ken- 
tucky 1844-48, and member of the United States Senate 1852-55, when 
he filled the unexpired term of Henry Clay after Clay's death. 

Many large Revolutionary War bonus-grants lay in this vicinity. 
Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution who speculated so dis- 
astrously in soldiers' grants, held a tract of several thousand acres be- 
tween Dixon and the Tradewater River. These grants were allowed 
to lapse, and some years later the land was regranted to settlers. The 
town of Dixon was laid out on the land of Ambrose Mooney, who gave 
the land on which the courthouse stands. 

What is left of what was the HALFWAY HOUSE, on Dixon St., once 
a stagecoach inn, has been weatherboarded and is now a filling station. 
In 1794 William Jenkins, the town's earliest promoter, constructed the 


log hostelry within the stockade "for the shelter of those who may 
become residents of this rich and beautiful land, and for the rest and 
comfort of travelers passing over the main trail leading from the great 
trading posts of the North to Natchez Trace, far to the South." Soon 
after its erection, Jenkins was captured by a band of Cherokee who 
came to like him and kept him for several years. They were so fearful 
of losing him that they plucked his hair out to keep a neighboring tribe 
from scalping him. When Jenkins at last returned, he enlarged the inn, 
in 1816 built the first frame house here, and yet later established a 
cotton gin. The rates of the Halfway House appear in an old day 
book: "Meals, 4.s each; bed, 4.s, for each person; whisky, l.s the 
drink. Exchange 1 bu. corn for 1 gal. whisky." The menu was game, 
corn pone, pork, and hominy. Shuck mattresses were used on the 
beds, and the rule of the inn was that not more than four persons might 
occupy one bed. The only guest who did not sleep on a shuck mattress 
was Meriwether Lewis. The Governor, in spite of his military and 
exploring experiences, liked his feather bed and deep pillows; so, when 
he arrived, the slaves went scurrying about the village to borrow these 

Alfred Townes, eccentric friend of Audubon, was the first to mine 
and use coal in Webster County. This coal was an outcropping on a 
hillside at the edge of town, just off the old Indian Trail. During his 
development of the coal industry, Townes made an attempt to build a 
railroad into the section. In the enterprise he utilized the labor of his 
slaves and spent $125,000 of his own money but he failed because his 
financial backers withdrew their support. Audubon described it as a 
"fine dream that will some day be true." 

On the court square is the SITE OF THE PRISON PEN where Confed- 
erate prisoners were confined after the skirmishes of Slaughters (1862) 
and Providence (1864). As the story goes, after the Providence skir- 
mish 30 Confederate prisoners, who happened to be clad in unusually 
good uniforms, were stripped of their garments, clothed in odds and 
ends, and placed in this log pen, from which they promptly escaped. 
At the close of the war, when the survivors of the group marched 
through Dixon on their way home, and saw their uniforms on the home 
guards, they were so amazed that they not only took the uniforms but 
compelled the guards to carry the logs from the pen to the county jail, 
where several Confederates were still held. The prisoners were freed 
and the logs were used to set the jail on fire. 

The RICE HOUSE, on Main St., at the southwestern end of town, is 
the birthplace (1872) of Cale Young Rice, the Kentucky poet. In 
1934 the Webster County Historical Society planted a FRIENDSHIP 
GARDEN around the house. Each tree, shrub, and flower bed is a 
tribute from some Kentucky admirer. 

Between Dixon and Madisonville US 41 passes through farming and 
mining country. 

TOUR 8 319 

MADISONVILLE, 55.6 m. (470 alt., 6,908 pop.), named for James 
Madison, is in the center of the plateau between the Pond and Trade- 
water Rivers, a region of hills, rivers, and creek bottoms, where it is 
said "any thing grown in the temperate zone will grow." Tobacco is 
the money-crop, this town being one of the principal loose-leaf tobacco 
markets in western Kentucky. Large quantities of hardwood timber 
are also shipped from here. 

In this section a great many Indian artifacts and relics have been 
found along the creeks and rivers. It is believed that in the group of 
HOMINY HOLES near Government Schoolhouse, milling was carried on 
by mechanical means. As archeologists have decided, six of these round 
holes in the hard sandstone, which are 30 to 40 inches in diameter and 
10 to 14 inches deep, were used to hold corn that was crushed by large 
stone pestles, operated by spring poles and counterweights. 

The DANIEL McGARY HOUSE, built of brick in 1817, is a one-story 
structure with a gabled roof and an ell. Facing the street and occupy- 
ing a large part of the angle of the ell is a vine-hidden porch, added in 
recent years. 

South of Madisonville US 41 traverses coal fields. 

EARLINGTON, 59.7 m. (422 alt., 3,309 pop.), a railroad junction, 
is the heart of the coal fields. On Saturday the streets are filled with 
miners and their families from near-by settlements. On the southern 
outskirts of the town is the ATKINSON ARBORETUM (open), containing 
a variety of trees and shrubs. 

EARLINGTON LAKE, 60.7 m. (open to public), offers excellent 
boating, swimming, and fishing. 

In MORTON'S GAP, 63.4 m. (451 alt., 1,068 pop.), is the THOMAS 
MORTON HOUSE, built by the town's founder in 1804. It is a rectangu- 
lar, two-story, gable-roofed structure with two rooms on each floor; 
various additions, including a porch, now give it a rambling appearance. 
The different colors of the brick, which range from light yellow to deep 
red, are the result of the differences in the amount of heat used in the 
process of burning. The crack between the front windows was made 
by the earthquake in 1811. 

At NORTONVILLE, 66.7 m. (429 alt., 829 pop.) (see Tour 14), is 
the junction with US 62 (see Tour 14). 

South of the coal fields of Hopkins County the highway passes 
through stretches of level pasture lands and rugged picturesque hills. 

HOPKINSVILLE, 91.4 m. (541 alt., 10,746 pop.), one of the lead- 
ing dark-fire tobacco markets of the country, gives evidence of long 
prosperity in its large comfortable old houses on wide lawns and in 
its tree-shaded streets and many stores. In 1797 Bartholomew Wood 
gave some of his land to the county to bring the county seat to the 
settlement here; court opened in November in a log house 20 feet 
square quite large enough for the business of the very thinly settled 
region. The town was incorporated in 1804, about the time the rush 
of settlers from Virginia and North Carolina began. The settlement, 


renamed to honor Gen. Samuel Hopkins, a hero of the War of 1812, 
grew slowly but steadily, serving the people of a wide section of the 
southern Pennyrile. In the early days, a visit to Hopkinsville was a 
visit to a great city for those who lived on the scattered farms and in 
the hills. 

The town is still the center of business and culture in the region. On 
Saturday the downtown streets are filled with dusty cars and slow- 
moving streams of shoppers or those who make shopping an excuse 
to visit the movies and to see crowds. During November, December, 
and January, however, farmers are seen on the streets every day of 
the week. It is then that the trucks and wagons bring in dark-fire 
and burley tobacco to the 21 large warehouses, and stand in long lines 
as the farmers wait their turns to unload. After the unloading the 
trucks stand empty along the streets for hours as their owners celebrate 
their relief after the months of toil, exchange gossip and surmises on 
prices, pay their accumulated bills, and buy the necessities whose pur- 
chase has been deferred for want of cash. 

Hopkinsville is the headquarters of the Farm Security Administra- 
tion's Christian-Trigg Farms, a project covering more than 8,000 acres 
in Christian, Trigg, and Todd Counties. It was designed to provide 
small farms they average 67 acres for a selected group of tenants 
and sharecroppers in these counties as well as families removed from 
near-by areas that were submarginal for farming. Each unit includes a 
house, barn, smokehouse, and poultry house. Forty-eight of the 103 
farms planned were occupied in October 1938 and the homesteaders, 
advised by Federal agents, had worked out a diversified crop plan by 
which the families raise the major portion of their food and the feed for 
their stock (chickens, hogs, and milk cows), plant legumes to enrich 
the soil, and produce tobacco and cotton for cash crops. 

The KNIGHT HOUSE, 1810 S. Main St., is a one-story brick house 
of the Classic Revival style built about 1832 on a high basement. The 
structure has had numerous alterations and additions that have changed 
its original lines. When first built it was apparently a one-story dwell- 
ing with a recessed entrance in the front gable end. The sill of the old 
entrance is now several feet above the floor of the simple pedimented 
portico, which has five square columns and a rectangular window in its 
pediment. A new entrance has been built in one corner of the fagade 
at a much lower level than the old one. On one side is a frame wing 
and on the other a porch entered from the higher floor level and set 
on tall brick pillars. 

The STITES HOUSE, 714 E. 7th St., is a spacious two-story low-roofed 
frame structure built about 1850. Its two-story pedimented central 
portico of modified Greek Revival style has only two square columns. 
The corners of the structure are pilastered and the enframement of the 
windows and side-lighted entrance has a restrained elegance. 

The Ross DILLARD HOUSE, corner of Main and 14th Sts., built about 
1856, is known as the "steamboat house" because of its resemblance to 

TOUR 8 321 

the river craft of the mid-nineteenth century, left high and dry. It is 
of frame construction, two stories high. At the corners of the low 
fagade heavy white pilasters rise to a classic frieze. A long, shallow, 
one-story semicircular porch, its floor only slightly above ground level, 
has a paneled balustrade around its deck roof, which is supported by 
five round tapering columns on high square bases. Two large windows 
in the low second-story opening onto this deck give the illusion of a 
pilot house. The low sloping roof is pierced by two stack-like chimneys 
some distance from the low gable ends. 

Tradition is that prior to the War between the States, Dillard, a 
farmer, was so impressed by the steamboat in which he traveled to New 
Orleans that on his return he had an architect build this house for him, 
a memorial to the floating palace. During the War between the States 
this home became for a time military headquarters of the Federal forces 
of occupation. 

The WALTER DOWNES HOUSE, 15th and Main Sts., is a large two- 
story brick structure built in the 1840's. It has brackets under the eaves 
and tall chimney pots possibly later additions but the details of the 
trim and the four tall, fluted, Ionic columns of the broad pedimented 
portico have a Greek Revival refinement. An unusual feature is the 
paneled balustrade of the small balcony over the side-lighted entrance 

The main building of BETHEL WOMEN'S JUNIOR COLLEGE, a Baptist 
institution founded in 1854, is three stories high, built of brick in the 
Greek Revival style. 

The STATE ARMORY, corner Main and 5th Sts., is owned jointly by 
the State, county, and city. 

Hopkinsville is at the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15). 

1. Right from Hopkinsville on State 107 to SWALLOW SPRING, 5 m. (open to 
public), an ordinary-looking sinkhole in a field by the side of the road, sur- 
rounded by fertile land. At intervals, sometimes several years apart, this sinkhole 
becomes a boiling spring that fills the valley with a lake several acres in extent. 
After remaining for months, the water eventually subsides, often leaving a large 
number of fish. The roadway has been raised at this point to avoid the overflow- 
ing waters. 

2. Right from Hopkinsville on US 41 W to EDGETON, 16.7 m., on the Ten- 
nessee Line, 59 miles north of Nashville, Tenn. (see Tenn. Tour 8A). 

South of Hopkinsville US 4 IE, now the route, crosses many meander- 
ing streams as it traverses a region with great stretches of level pasture 
lands, spacious homesteads surrounded by orchards, gardens, and groves 
of beech, walnut, and oak. 

GUTHRIE, 114 m. (1,272 pop.), is a railroad center named for 
James Guthrie, president of the Louisville & Nashville R.R. in 1867, 
when the town was incorporated. The LOUISVILLE & NASHVILLE TIE- 

US 41E crosses the Tennessee Line, 114.5 m., 52 miles north of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. (see Tenn. Tours 8 and 9). 


Tour 9 

(Metropolis, 111.) Paducah Mayfield Fulton (Martin, Tenn.); 
US 45. Illinois Line to Tennessee Line, 53 Am. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

Illinois Central R.R. parallels route throughout. 

All types of accommodations in towns, limited elsewhere. 

This route crosses the western section of the State, which is called 
the Jackson Purchase because the United States, on October 19, 1818, 
through its commissioners, Gen. Andrew Jackson and Gov. Isaac Shelby, 
purchased from the Chickasaw Indians, for the sum of $300,000, 8,500 
square miles of desolate wilderness, west of the Tennessee River. Today 
that territory comprises eight counties in the westernmost section of 
Kentucky and 20 counties in Tennessee, and is among the most fertile 
sections in both of these States. The surface of the region is gently 
undulating with a few ridges along the highway. The area yields such 
a quantity of fruits and vegetables that huge trucks loaded with straw- 
berries, dewberries, apples, peaches, and tomatoes, lumber over the high- 
ways day and night during the growing season. Tobacco and corn are 
also raised in quantities and, in the southernmost section, cotton is 
grown. In the southwestern part are still many fine stands of poplar, 
hickory, and oak. Near the Tennessee Line trees and shrubs border the 

US 45 crosses the Illinois Line, m., 13 miles southeast of Metropolis, 
111. (see III. Tour 3), on the Brookport-Paducah Bridge (toll 50$) over 
the Ohio River. 

PADUCAH, 4.5 m. (341 alt., 33,541 pop.) (see Paducah). 

Points of Interest: Paduke Statue, Tilghman Memorial, Irvin Cobb Hotel, Mc- 
Cracken County Courthouse, Nobel Park, and others. 

Paducah is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), US 62 (see 
Tour 14), and US 68 (see Tour 15). 

MAYFIELD, 30 m. (421 alt., 8,177 pop.), seat of Graves County, 
like many other Southern cities, is built around the courthouse which 
is in the center of a block known as Court Square. 

A man named Mayfield, according to local legend, journeyed from 
Mississippi to Mills Point (now Hickman) in 1817 to attend the races. 
There he was captured by a band of ruffians who carried him to the 
banks of a near-by creek to rob him. After carving his name on a tree 
near the stream, Mayfield attempted to escape by crossing the creek 

TOUR 9 323 

on a log, but was shot and fell into the water. Afterward the creek was 
called Mayfield, and when this town was organized in 1823 the name 
was applied to the town. 

In MAPLEWOOD CEMETERY (L), within sight of US 45 in the north- 
ern outskirts of the city, are the WOOLRIDGE MONUMENTS. These me- 
morials were erected by Henry C. Woolridge, who accumulated a large 
fortune in Mayfield as a horse trader and breeder. All facing toward 
the east and surrounding the vault, where the body of Woolridge now 
lies, are the life-sized stone statues. The standing figure of Woolridge 
was carved in Italy of marble. Those of his mother, his brothers, two 
girls who were friends of his youth, his favorite dogs, a deer that heads 
this procession, a fox, and a sculpture of Woolridge mounted on his 
favorite horse, Pop, are the work of a stonecutter from Paducah. At 
the rear of the lot are figures of his sisters made by a third sculptor. 

Near the northern limits of Mayfield is (L) the PET MILK COMPANY 
PLANT (open), which employs 50 men, and pays to farmers an average 
of $37,000 monthly for milk. The MERIT CLOTHING COMPANY FAC- 
together employ 1,800 men and women in the manufacture of men's 
and boys' suits and overcoats. 

On Mule Day ( 3rd Mon. in Feb.) mules are brought to the city in 
droves or by truck and offered for sale in the "swapping ring," a re- 
served portion of the street around the public square. The ring pre- 
sents a lively scene, thronged with mules and buyers, traffickers, and 
speculators who dicker for anything from a mule to a pocketknife. 

Mayfield is in the center of a large area that produces dark fire- 
cured tobacco. During the loose-leaf sales season (Dec.-May) from 
15 to 20 million pounds of tobacco are sold from the sales floors here 
(see Tour 5). Representatives of manufacturing and exporting firms 
from many parts of the country attend these sales. 

Thousands of tons of clay are dug annually between Mayfield and 
the Tennessee Line an area noted for the variety of its clays and 
sent from Mayfield to other parts of the country for utilization in the 
manufacture of ceramic ware. The largest of these mines, the KEN- 
TUCKY-TENNESSEE CLAY COMPANY MINE (open), 32 m. (L), has been 
continuously worked for more than 40 years, and produces ball clays 
of high type. The production of ball clays in the United States began 
in 1891, when a deposit of exceptional quality was revealed near this 
mine by the digging of a water well. 

At 44 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Left on this road to a monument, 1 m., marking the SITE OF CAMP BEAUREGARD, 
named in honor of Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, commander of the western depart- 
ment of the Confederate Army. This camp was established in August 1861 as a 
recruiting station and assignment base for the Confederate troops. In November 
1861, 6,000 Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi troops arrived 
here; inclement weather and lack of accommodations brought on an epidemic of 
measles, meningitis, typhoid, and pneumonia. During the month over 1,500 burials 
were made, and the survivors were removed. Camp Beauregard continued to be 


used as an assignment base until January 7, 1862, when it was captured by Gen. 
C. F. Smith and his Union forces. 

WATER VALLEY, 46.3 m. (351 pop.), contains a canning plant 
that furnishes employment to a large number of people during the 

Between Water Valley and the Tennessee Line is the northern border 
of the South's cotton-growing region. 

FULTON, 52.5 m. (357 alt., 3,503 pop.), named for Robert Fulton, 
consists really of two towns, being on the border line between Kentucky 
and Tennessee. The Tennessee section, with a population of 2,000, is 
called South Fulton. Each has its own city government and school 
system, but the single post office is on the Kentucky side. Three lines 
of the Illinois Central System converge at Fulton, attracting numbers 
of people from the North as well as the South. The average monthly 
payroll of employees in the railroad yards is approximately $40,000. 
Poultry and milk plants belonging to Swift & Company also provide 
employment. The city also has a COTTON GIN. 

Fulton is at the junction with US 51 (see Tour 10). 

US 45-51 crosses the Tennessee Line, 53.4 m., 10.8 miles north of 
Martin, Tenn. (US 45, see Tenn. Tour 10) and 10.9 miles north of 
Union City, Tenn. (US 51, see Tenn. Tour 11). 

Tour 10 

( Cairo, 111. ) Wickliffe Bardwell Clinton Fulton ( Memphis, 

Tenn.); US 51. 

Illinois Line to Tennessee Line, 45 m. 

Illinois Central R.R. parallels the route. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed. 

All types of accommodations in towns ; limited elsewhere. 

US 51, in crossing the westernmost tip of Kentucky, passes through 
an area rich in agricultural products and replete with historical asso- 
ciations. Along the roadside are level fields of grassland interspersed 
with tobacco, corn, and, in the southern extremity, cotton. Back from 
the highway, extending from the Ohio River to Tennessee, is a chain of 
attractive small lakes fringed with cypress. Along the high bluffs over- 
looking the Mississippi River are ancient barrows, remains of stone 
forts, fortified towns, and a paved canal, last traces of the prehistoric 
people who preceded the Indians in this region. 

US 51 crosses the Illinois Line, m., on the west bank of the Ohio 
River, almost a mile south of Cairo, 111. (see III. Tour 4), on a bridge 

TOUR 10 325 

(toll, 75$; combination toll for this and Mississippi River bridge, $1) 
over the Ohio River. 

Between this point and Wickliffe, US 51 and US 60 are one route 
(see Tour 16). 

WICKLIFFE, 5.1 m. (332 alt., 1,108 pop.) (see Tour 16), is at the 
junction with US 60 (see Tour 16). 

The SITE OF OLD FORT JEFFERSON (R), 5.9 m., is on a hill overlook- 
ing the Mississippi River. In 1780 Gen. George Rogers Clark, under 
orders of Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, constructed a 
stockade at this point. It was later abandoned because of its isolated 

BARDWELL, 14 m. (390 alt., 1,139 pop.), seat of Carlisle County, 
last established county of the Jackson Purchase, derived its name from a 
bored well here, which supplied trains with water. The town is a retail 

Right from Bardwell on State 123, an improved road, to COLUMBUS, 11.5 m. 
(513 pop.), first seat of Hickman County, and COLUMBUS-BELMONT MEMO- 
RIAL STATE PARK (adm. 10$, picnic grounds, shelter houses), 12.1 m., on the 
bank of the Mississippi River at the old town site of Columbus. 

The site was named Iron Banks by early French explorers, who discovered the 
iron deposits that made the great bluffs rust-colored at this point. In 1784 when 
Virginia, in order to pay off its soldiers in the Revolutionary Army, issued warrants 
for lands along the Mississippi River, a group of Gen. George Rogers Clark's vet- 
erans took up land in this area. A military post was here in 1804, when Federal 
troops were rushed to this place at the time of the Burr conspiracy. A settlement 
grew up and a courthouse and jail, the first in the Purchase, were built in 1823. 
The purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803 and the burning of the Capitol at 
Washington in 1814 caused real estate speculators to proclaim this place as the ap- 
proximate center of the Nation and to start propaganda to remove the seat of the 
national government to this less vulnerable spot. Engineers laid out plans for a 
city to be named Columbus. The promoters were unsuccessful, but the name re- 
mained. The plan of the development is among the early records in the court- 

During the War between the States, Columbus again sprang into the national 
picture. The Northern program for conquest of the South involved, as its major 
Western feature, the opening of the Mississippi. To checkmate that strategy Gen. 
Leonidas Polk, C.S.A., seized and heavily fortified the bluff at the point known as 
Iron Banks. Although this act was the first official violation of Kentucky's avowed 
neutrality, both sides had been recruiting and propagandizing in the State from the 
very beginning of the war. General Polk's move was dictated by the fear that 
Union troops might forestall them in seizing this strategic position. A great chain 
more than a mile long was stretched across the river to prevent further passage 
southward of the Union gunboats. Its links weighed 15 pounds each; the chain 
was attached on the Kentucky shore to a six-ton anchor bedded deep in the side 
of the bluff. One hundred and forty guns, so placed as to sweep the river, were 
arranged at four elevations 40, 85, and 97 feet above water, and crowning the 
200-foot top of the bluff. This formidable array of artillery was protected by mas- 
sive earthworks against the gunfire of the fleet, and, by an intricate system of 
trenches, parapets, redoubts, and abatis, against attack by land. The Missouri 
bank of the river at Belmont was also held by a small Confederate force. 

In November 1861 Gen. U. S. Grant moved south from Cairo and landed his 
army on the Missouri side of the river. He overwhelmed the Confederate forces, 
and burned the Confederate camp at Belmont. General Polk sent troops across 
the river that struck at the Union force, driving it back to its transports, and a 


Union disaster was narrowly averted. Realizing that Columbus was impregnable, 
Grant swung eastward, captured the Confederate position at Fort Henry, forced 
the surrender of General Buckner at Fort Donelson, fought the bitter battle of 
Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh, and by this surrounding movement forced the evacua- 
tion of Columbus. Some of the guns were spiked and thrown into the river; 
others were taken to the next Confederate defensive position at Island Number 10. 
The battle of Belmont was the beginning of the great Western struggle that con- 
tinued without interruption until Vicksburg had fallen, and the armies of the 
North swept eastward to the sea. 

When, in 1927, the high water of that year forced the citizens of Columbus to 
abandon their homes, the American Red Cross built a new town on the higher 
land to the east. All persons securing home sites in the new town, conveyed their 
former lands back to the city, which in turn deeded these lands, together with the 
streets and alleys, to the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Other lands were acquired 
by purchase and a total of 331 acres was made available as a site for the present 
State park, built since July 1934 by CCC labor, to commemorate the struggle that 
took place here between Union and Confederate forces. 

The restored FORTIFICATIONS AND TRENCHES approach, in their completeness of 
detail, those built during the World War. The great SEA ANCHOR with links of 
the huge chain are among the show pieces of the park. A blockhouse, similar to 
the one erected in 1780 by Gen. George Rogers Clark, houses many of the smaller 
relics gathered from the trenches. Roads and a lookout tower afford views of the 
winding river and fortressed hill. 

CLINTON, 29.2 m. (389 alt., 1,204 pop.), seat of Hickman County 
since 1829, and retail trade center for a fertile agricultural region, is an 
attractive small town with beautiful homes and spacious lawns. The 
town was platted in 1826 by James Gibson and incorporated in 1831 
after the seat of county government had been moved here from Co- 
lumbus. Cotton growing and cotton ginning early occupations have 
steadily grown in importance. An article by Don Singletary, M.D., 
gives an excellent picture of Clinton in the early nineteenth century: 

"When I first saw Clinton it was a very small crossroad village. . . . 
Professors George and Marion Ray had built Clinton Academy and had 
filled it with pupils from four or more States. Up to 1850 our county 
was mostly wooded where grew great oaks, whose acorns fed and fat- 
tened our hogs, and we lived on hog and hominy the fat of the land. 
Cattle kept fat in the woods all summer and early fall, and even did 
fairly well by nosing under great beds of dry leaves and getting dry 
green grass and acorns in winter. We lived well: Milk and butter, 
chickens and eggs were abundant. Eggs were sold at 5 and 6 cents a 
dozen, and large fat hens at 25 cents each. Money was scarce, but we 
did not need much. Our clothes grew by special hand work. I re- 
member well our cotton and flax patches, and sheepfold. We picked 
and de-seeded our cotton by hand and carded and spun our thread for 
sewing, and wove our own cloth. We cut, fitted and made beautiful 
clothes. Women folks were also experts in cloth dyeing. Walnut, oak, 
and hickory bark and elder berries made a variety of lovely colors. 
The spinning wheel and the old loom come back in memory. I see the 
shuttle fly and hear the wheel hum right now. We also treated our 
wool in like manner. We were warmly dressed in winter, and also had 

TOUR 10 327 

blankets galore. Our shoes grew up at home and were home-made, 
after a year's tanning." 

Along the entire course of Bayou De Chien Creek, which runs 
through Hickman County and a corner of Fulton County, is a series 
of mounds, camp sites, and burial fields that have yielded unusual and 
beautiful artifacts covering a wide range of subjects and designs. 

At 39 m. is the junction with State 94, a paved road. 

Right on this road to the CASEY JONES MONUMENT, 6.9 m., a limestone slab that 
bears a bronze tablet showing a bas-relief of the Cannon Ball the engine Jones 
was driving at the time of his death. John Luther Jones, later known to fame as 
"Cayce" or "Casey" Jones, was born March 14, 1864, at Jordan, Kentucky, the 
son of a schoolteacher. At the age of 17 he grew restless, walked the ties to Cayce 
and there got his first job. Promotion came rapidly: before he was 30 Jones had 
passed successively from helper for a Mobile & Ohio telegraph operator through 
all the steps to passenger engineer on the Illinois Central, an important job in those 

He settled in Jackson, Tennessee, while still with the Mobile & Ohio, and his 
proud boast was that he always got his train through on time. Casey had been 
given the crack assignment, Old 382, the Cannon Ball, in the early morning of 
April 30, 1900, and while driving through a thick fog near Vaughn, Mississippi, he 
saw a freight train a few feet ahead on his track. He ordered his Negro fireman 
to jump, stuck to his cab, and though he was unable to prevent a crash, kept his 
load on the rails, and saved the passengers in the 12 coaches. His scalded body 
was removed from the tangled wreckage and buried at Jackson, Tennessee. It be- 
came the custom for engineers to salute his grave with a whistle as they passed the 
cemetery. Before long doggerel celebrating the engineer was being recited and 
sung. It is believed that a Negro worker in Memphis first gave the ballad wide 
popularity. Eddie Newton scored it and had it published. Every singer felt free 
to add a verse or two, some of which were none too complimentary to Casey's 
widow who at length appealed to law to restrain public performers from singing 
the slanderous additions. 

CAYCE, 7.3 m. (131 pop.), was the boyhood home of "Casey" Jones. 

At 14.3 m. on State 94 is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road, 2 m., to the junction with an unimproved dirt road beside 
an Indian fortification, on a high bluff known locally as Indian Hill, and to arche- 
ologists as O'Byam's Fort. It is believed to be one of the most ancient mounds in 
the Mississippi Valley. This site, from which many artifacts have been taken, has 
been partially obliterated by cultivation and by the grading of a road. 

Right 4 m. from the Indian fortification on the unimproved dirt road, which 
follows Bayou De Chien Creek, to the FORT BAYOU DE CHIEN MOUNDS, locally 
known as the Roberts Mounds and believed to be very old. The seven large 
mounds that form the group average IS to 20 feet in height, 50 to 100 feet in 
diameter, are grouped rather closely together in an area of about five acres, and 
are built upon an elevated artificial plateau rising 10 to IS feet above the surround- 
ing plain. The largest three mounds are quadrangular, while the others are cir- 
cular. One high mound stands like a sentinel dominating the entire scene. 

A short distance from the mound group a PREHISTORIC CANAL, locally 
known as Lake Slough, connects Bayou De Chien Creek with Obion Creek, at the 
northern end of which is another group of mounds representing a prehistoric vil- 
lage site locally known as McLeod's Bluffs Mounds. The canal, approximately five 
miles in length, is believed to be entirely artificial and to have been used as a 
waterway for the passage of canoes between the two ancient cities that were sepa- 
rated by an almost impenetrable jungle. The ancient Bayou De Chien, unlike the 
present stream whose course was changed by the earthquake of 1811-12, found its 
way to the Mississippi by way of Reelfoot Lake at a point southwest of the lake. 
Canoes making the river trip had to make a dangerous 100-mile voyage in order 


to reach a point five miles away. Within a primeval forest here are unexplored 
mounds and fortifications which, according to scientists, present the richest oppor- 
tunity for archeological research in southwestern Kentucky. This site was men- 
tioned by Rafinesque in his Ancient History of Kentucky, written in 1824. 

In HICKMAN, 15.9 m. on State 94 (306 alt., 2,321 pop.), is one of the two 
seats of Fulton County, a river town that serves the surrounding agricultural re- 
gion as a shipping point. In the town are some small manufacturing plants includ- 
ing several cotton gins. Hickman is built on three levels of a great bluff over- 
looking the Mississippi River; the bottoms contain the business section; on top 
of the bluff, 200 feet above the second level of the town, is the main residential 
section with churches, schools, a library, and a courthouse, from which there is an 
exceptionally fine view. In his Life on the Mississippi, Samuel L. Clemens men- 
tioned Hickman as one of the most beautiful towns along the river. A concrete 
sea wall, erected by the U.S. Government in 1934 to protect the low-lying business 
district, withstood the flood of 1937. This site, known first as Mills Point, was 
settled in 1819 by James Mills whose cabin home became a shipping point for the 
Mississippi River trade. Long ox trains rolled laboriously over the roads to Mills 
Point bearing the produce of farms to be shipped to the markets. Returning, they 
carried merchandise to the inland towns and supplies to the settlers. To Mills 
Point pioneers came in their covered wagons and ferried over the Mississippi to 
settle Missouri and Arkansas. In the days of the great Ohio and Mississippi river 
packets, this was the metropolis of an extensive area. In 1834 a large part of the 
area was purchased by a Tennessee settler who named it Hickman in honor of his 
wife's family. Early accounts of the village reprinted in the Hickman Courier in 
1885 record that in 1840, when the town's population was only 500, its exports 
included 50,000 bushels of wheat, 200,000 bushels of corn, 3,000 hogsheads of to- 
bacco, 2,000 bales of cotton, and 30,000 dozen turkeys and chickens. 

Fulton County, especially the rich flat alluvial land south and west of Hickman, 
raises much of the cotton grown in Kentucky. The land in this region is held 
mostly in large tracts, still called plantations, and is worked mainly by Negro ten- 
ants and sharecroppers (see Labor). The landowners live in town and drive to 
their plantations each day. Groups of pickaninnies play about the doors of the 
tiny cabins scattered along the roadside and in the fields of cotton, corn, and 
alfalfa. During the cotton-picking season, in September, the snowy fields are full 
of Negro men, women, and children, often dressed in bright colors; they pick the 
fleecy bolls, which are dropped into long canvas bags that are dragged behind 
them across the hot fields. The picking is often done to the drone of the tradi- 
tional songs. 

The northern end of REELFOOT LAKE (hunting and fishing) is on 
State 94 at 29 m. This lake, most of which is in Tennessee, was created 
by sudden inundation by the Mississippi River during the New Madrid 
earthquake of 1811-12. Twenty miles in length, and varying from one 
to five miles in width, the lake covers a submerged forest that lifts 
skeleton arms above the surface of the water. Wild game, ducks, geese, 
and other waterfowl inhabit the region, and the deep pools abound with 
game fish. In Tennessee the lake is a part of a State preserve. 

FULTON, 44.1 m. (357 alt., 3,503 pop.) (see Tour 9), is at the 
junction with US 45 (see Tour 9). 

At 45 m. US 51-45 crosses the Tennessee Line, 10.8 miles north of 
Martin, Tenn. (US 45, see Term. Tour 10) and 10.9 miles north of 
Union City, Tenn. (US 51, see Tenn. Tour 11). 

TOUR II 329 

Tour 11 

South Portsmouth Vanceburg Maysville Alexandria; 109.7 m. 
State 10. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Chesapeake and Ohio R.R. roughly parallels this route. 

Hotels chiefly in cities. 

State 10, called the Mary Inglis (or Ingles) Trail, runs along the 
Ohio River most of the way between South Portsmouth and Vanceburg, 
makes a detour to the outer Knobs plateau, comes back to the river at 
Maysville, and then relegates itself again to the back country, though 
at several places it is fairly close to the Ohio in point of miles. 

At one time the slopes of the billowing plateau that rears up beside 
the Ohio were densely wooded. Besides the common maples and syca- 
mores, this region had a good deal of poplar and some scrub pine. 
Then, in the early nineteenth century, lumbering took away the best 
timber, leaving the land scraggly and subject to erosion. All the top- 
soil was soon carried off down the river. Attempts to till the badly 
wornout land have almost completely ruined it, and today it climbs 
bare to a meager tree line. 

Except for Vanceburg and Maysville, the communities along the 
route are tiny, and cluster beside the highway or along the railroad 
tracks. The road is seldom out of sight of habitation, which is usually 
a frame house that has somehow managed to remain erect. The people 
eke out a slender existence by farming and have a few mangy dogs, 
cattle, and horses, but they go out hunting 'possum and rabbits during 
the fall season and at all times seem less unhappy than the stranger 
expects them to be. 

Life along the route is closely tied up with the river and the road; 
the traveler is conscious of one or both throughout his journey. From 
1780 to 1815, the period when the wave of Western settlement crossed 
the Alleghenies and penetrated the Ohio River region, the river brought 
boatloads of restless immigrants down to Limestone (now Maysville), 
then picked them up again and took them westward. Some people re- 
mained in Limestone and along the Kentucky shoreline. Except at 
Limestone, Vanceburg, and Augusta, the succeeding era of great river 
traffic brought little prosperity to the immigrants scattered along the 
river and among the near-by knobs. 

When the Maysville & Big Sandy R.R. rushed up to compete with 
the steamers in the early 1880's, the towns became sprightly and hope- 
ful. But the C. & O. R.R. bought the Maysville & Big Sandy in 1888, 


and made it merely a coal-bearing branch of the main road terminating 
at Russell, Ky. When the development of the steel industry in north- 
eastern Ohio shifted importance to roads cut through eastern Kentucky 
to the coal fields, Russell became a great freight terminal and Ashland 
a steel center; the rest of the Kentucky side of the river languished. 

SOUTH PORTSMOUTH, m. (660 alt., 500 pop.), a scattering of 
frame houses looking at Portsmouth on the Ohio side of the river at 
the mouth of the Scioto, is on THE SITE OF LOWER TOWN, the first 
white village in Kentucky. The group of log cabins was established by 
French traders with the help and protection of Shawnee many years 
prior to the French and Indian War (1753). An entry in Christopher 
Gist's journal of 1751 tells of his visiting the French traders who lived 
in the Shawnee town built on both sides of the Ohio at the mouth of 
the Scioto River. In July 1765 Col. George Croghan, then an agent of 
the British Government, also visited the place and noted in his journal: 

"On the Ohio, just below the mouth of the Scioto, on a high bank, 
near forty feet, formerly stood the Shawneese town called Lower Town 
which was all carried away, except three or four houses, by a great 
flood. I was in the town at the time. Although the banks of the Ohio 
were so high, yet the water was nine feet over the top, which obliged 
the whole town to take to their canoes and move with their effects to 
the hills. They returned to the south bank of the Ohio, but abandoned 
the settlement because of fear of the Virginians during the French and 
Indian War." 

South Portsmouth is at the junction with US 23 (see Tour 1). 

Between South Portsmouth and Vanceburg the road crawls along at 
the foot of the Kentucky hills, usually not far from the river and the 
railroad. Sometimes the river is lost beneath an intervening terrace, 
but it always comes in sight again, its muddy waters spreading toward 
the Ohio shore. For most of the distance the traveler sees more of Ohio 
than of Kentucky, because the Kentucky hills crowd the road. 

In the summer, back from the river a short distance, the wild straw- 
berry shines like red tufts on a new green carpet; the wild blackberry 
grows in great, thorny tangles; the pawpaw is plentiful in hillside 
thickets; and the persimmon bears fruit for the coon and 'possum, 
which boys hunt at night. 

The road passes houses scattered in the hills and "hollers" and along 
the railroad tracks. The farms are ravined and water-cut, and the farm- 
yards littered with discarded objects for which the farmer still hopes to 
find some use. A few scraggly cornfields labor up the slopes. 

The people back in the hills here still prefer the square dance, play 
the fiddle, and sing songs such as: 

There was an old nig in Kentuck brake, 
He made the woods all 'round him shake, 
And this was the song he used for to sing, 
'Ree, raw, my Dinah gal, 
Can't you git along, my darlin'? 

TOUR II 331 

The highway closely follows the trail taken by Mary Inglis in her 
escape from Indians in 1756. During that year a war party of Mingos 
living on the north side of the Kanawha attacked a settlement within 
the present limits of Westmoreland County, Virginia. Mrs. Inglis, two 
of her children, and a sister-in-law were captured and taken to the 
Mingo villages. Her children were taken away, and her sister-in-law 
was forced to run the gauntlet, but Mrs. Inglis, because of her skill in 
cooking, won the respectful interest of the natives. When a band of the 
Indians set out for Big Bone Lick (see Tour 12) to make salt, they 
took with them Mrs. Inglis and an old Dutch woman also a prisoner 
who thus became the first white women to step into what is now the 
State of Kentucky. 

At Big Bone Lick, the two women escaped from the Indians, traveled 
through what is now Kenton County to the southern shore of the Ohio, 
and finally reached Big Sandy River. They crossed this stream on a 
floating log and continued up the Ohio until they reached the Kanawha, 
which they followed toward Mrs. Inglis' home in the mountains. Be- 
fore reaching civilization, the Dutch woman, crazed by her privations, 
attempted to kill Mrs. Inglis, who swam the Kanawha and escaped. 
Finally, after 40 days of wilderness travel, Mrs. Inglis reached her 
friends in the frontier settlement. 

At 19 m. the road leaves the river and cuts into the hills. The scene 
changes swiftly; tall hills rise suddenly with great topsy-turvy stretches 
of slope etched haphazardly by trees and hillside fences. Then again 
the route comes out to the river, affording a sweeping view up and down 

VANCEBURG, 22.4 m. (523 alt., 1,388 pop.), stretches finger-like 
along the river beneath a barrier of steep hills. The town presses 
tightly against the road, which passes rickety frame houses, then more 
substantial dwellings before reaching a compact business section along 
one side of which is a line of similar two-story brick buildings connected 
with the curb by a porch roof supported by hitching posts. Old wooden 
signs, nearly all white lettered on black, announce the wares hard- 
ware, furniture, dry goods, clothing, shoes, groceries. The store selling 
sodas, powders, and patent medicine has no sign. On the opposite side 
of the street are a bank; the office of the county agricultural agent, 
with a dentist's office above; a barber shop; a feed, grain, and farm 
tools establishment; a garage; a restaurant; and a poolroom. Just 
across the rail tracks is a hotel. Here in a capsule is the economic 
center of the average small Kentucky town, in an area small enough to 
be photographed in a single picture. 

Vanceburg was a port of entry in pioneer days for hunters from Penn- 
sylvania and the East who came down the Ohio in search of game in 
the wild hills and well- watered valleys to the south. Later, as the 
packets plied the Ohio River, Vanceburg started to take on the propor- 
tions of a town. Since it was never an important steamboat stop, the 
community saw a good deal more of the sad aspects of river life than 


of the gay. For example, on June 2, 1832, it saw the paddlewheeler 
Hornet, captained by a man named Sullivan, struck broadside by a 
southwest gale. When it capsized, 20 passengers drowned. The over- 
turned boat was pulled ashore by the Guyandotte. - 

Vanceburg took on life in 1865, when a legislative act made it the 
seat of Lewis County and lawyers, adventurers, and business opportu- 
nists arrived. 

Left from Vanceburg, on State 59, a graveled road, to KINNICONNICK (fur- 
nished camps, $10 per week), 6 m., where there is excellent fishing, swimming, and 
boating. Kinniconnick Creek, whose clear waters are well stocked with bass, winds 
for many miles past old mill sites and through quiet green valleys. 

At Vanceburg, the road cuts back into the hills again, to ride the 
ridges, coast down into hollows, and make whiplash turns; when snow 
and ice cover it in winter, the road is as dangerous as a toboggan slide. 
Small, unpainted houses are visible on the hills and in the valley 
notches, and here and there a high catwalk over a creek gives access to 
a remote farmhouse. The soil is fairly good for pasturage, and mul- 
tiple hay stacks, nosed by cattle and sheep, squat in the fields. 

HUNTER HOUSE, 25 m., a small log structure now weatherboarded, 
was built by W. B. Parker for use on his annual hunting expeditions in 
the early nineteenth century. 

Tips of far-off hills make a hedgerow on the horizon as the route 
twists through several villages bent by the road. The complete lack of 
filling stations and roadside advertisements is conspicuous. 

At 36.8 m. is CABIN CREEK, spanned by an old covered bridge. 
From the mouth of the creek, marauding Indians once forded across the 
Ohio River. Leading out from the creek mouth to the Upper Blue 
Licks were a lower war road and an upper war road, along which the 
trees were marked with crude drawings of wild animals, the sun, and 
the moon. 

MAYSVILLE, 52.1 m. (448 alt., 6,557 pop.) (see Tour 15), is at 
the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15) and US 62 (see Tour 14). 

Above Maysville, State 10 rises to a point offering a fine view of the 
river, its boats, the lanky new steel bridge connecting Maysville with 
Aberdeen, Ohio, and flat bottomland along the Ohio shore. Most of the 
Ohio River is under Kentucky jurisdiction. When the Northwest Ter- 
ritory was carved out by the United States, the low-water mark was its 
southern limit. After Kentucky and West Virginia were split from Vir- 
ginia, the Ohio River bordering Kentucky was included in its territory. 

This stretch of the river was at one time crowded with river craft 
(see Tour 12). In those days a river steamer was a floating palace, 
glistening with white paint and gilding. It had thick carpets, tiny white 
beds, glittering chandeliers, fine music, and an elegant table, set with 
all the delicacies of the season in lavish profusion. Eating went on all 
day. At the bar, mint juleps and planters' punch were mixed by wiz- 
ards with shiny black faces and white aprons. Always lolling near by 
was the cardsharp. 

TOUR ii 333 

Defective boilers and a mania for speed often ripped open the boat 
hulls, set them afire, and took many lives. The races between the 
Handy and the Phaeton led up to such calamity. On June 28, 1881, as 
both boats were running side by side for Brook's Bar near the Mays- 
ville bend of the river, the boiler of the Phaeton blew up, tore off the 
pilot house and smokestacks of the Handy, threw the pilot onto the 
Ohio shore, and killed several deckhands. A few years later one of the 
through mail packets, the Bostonia, took fire while discharging cargo at 
the Maysville wharf. Its cargo of cattle stampeded. Cut loose, the 
boat drifted to a near-by bank and burned to the water's edge. These 
mishaps sometimes had comic relief. Some panicky passengers even 
took life-belts to bed with them. After a false alarm one buxom lady 
in a white nightgown constrained by a deflated belt, burst breathlessly 
from the ladies' cabin. "Blow me up," she shrieked. "For God's sake, 
won't somebody blow me up!" 

At 56.9 m. is the junction with State 8, a graveled road. 

Right on this road to MINERVA (127 pop.). In an old cemetery here is the 
GRAVE OF LEWIS CRAIG (1737-1825), pioneer Baptist minister, who brought the 
Traveling Church from Spotsylvania County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 (see 
Tour 3). The BRACKEN CHURCH at Minerva was built by Craig, who was a 
stonemason as well as a preacher. Craig was the pastor of this church from 1793 
through 1807. 

The FRAZEE HOUSE (open on request), 64.8 m., is a one-and-a-half 
story gray-painted brick house (R) with outside chimneys and a long 
veranda built in 1795 by Samuel Frazee, Indian fighter and scout under 
Gen. George Rogers Clark. The land upon which the building stands 
was said to have been bought from the Indians for several hundred 
bushels of salt. 

GERMANTOWN, 65.2 m. (490 alt., 283 pop.), is a sizable town 
drawn out along several sharp turns in the highway. It was laid out 
by Whitfield Craig in 1784, called Buchanan Station, and later settled 
by Pennsylvania Germans. The Germantown Fair and Horse Show 
has been held annually since 1854 during the last week in August. 
Livestock, horses, poultry, and many kinds of farm products and handi- 
crafts are exhibited, and prizes awarded to the winners. 

Between Germantown and Brooksville the road runs through open 
hilly terrain punctuated by tree clumps. Most of this is pasture land, 
but a few frugal fields of tobacco vary the monotony of the agricul- 
tural pattern. 

BROOKSVILLE, 72 m. (925 alt., 615 pop.), seat of Bracken County 
since 1832, centers about a small row of shops with hitching post 
porches, a larger row strung along a sidewalk several feet high, and a 
huge open space on which stands the yellow brick courthouse with its 
clock tower. The region about Brooksville, first known as Woodward's 
Crossroad, chiefly produces burley tobacco. 

Right from Brooksville on State 19, a paved road, to AUGUSTA, 9.5 m. (444 
alt., 1,675 pop.), beautifully situated on a high bank of the Ohio River. It has an 


excellent harbor and is an important shipping point for tobacco. Augusta College, 
one of the first Methodist schools, was here as early as 1799. When the large 
forest trees were cleared for the village site in 1792, numerous skeletons and arti- 
facts were found, indicating that this was a prehistoric burial ground. 

During the War between the States, Augusta was the scene of a battle between 
Morgan's cavalry, led by Gen. Basil W. Duke, and Federal Home Guards under 
Col. Joshua T. Bradford. Many of the Home Guards were Southern sympathizers 
who had been impressed for service by Colonel Bradford. Since the Home Guards 
were using the brick houses of the town as garrisons, the fighting took place in the 
streets. General Duke had to burn many of the buildings to dislodge the Federal 
troops, who finally surrendered. Two gunboats had been stationed at the landing 
for the protection of the town, but as soon as General Duke's guns were turned 
on them, they steamed off upriver. This was a Pyrrhic victory for Duke: the 
heavy loss in officers and men defeated his original purpose to ford the Ohio 
River below Augusta and march toward Cincinnati. 

POWERSVILLE, 75.4 m. (103 pop.), a mere sprinkling of houses, 
was settled about 1783 by Capt. Philip Buckner, soldier of the Revo- 
lutionary War. The GRAVE OF CAPTAIN BUCKNER, near the western 
limits of the town, has been enclosed with an iron fence. 

At WILLOW, 76.1 m. (500 alt., 12 pop.), is a junction with State 22 
(see Tour 13). 

The route wanders about among hills that fall into gullies; the land 
stretches away in endless wrinkles to a far horizon. 

As the highway goes north, it touches the outer Bluegrass, and at 
105.5 m. leads down between hills flanked everywhere by spare, softly 
molded hills with long slopes. Clumps of trees decorate a landscape 
green in summer, bleak and brown in winter. 

ALEXANDRIA, 109.7 m. (513 alt., 424 pop.) (see Tour 3), is at 
the junction with US 27 (see Tour 3). 

Tour 12 

(Cincinnati, Ohio) Covington Warsaw Carrollton Louisville; US 
42. Ohio Line to Louisville, 106.9 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Accommodations of all kinds available ; hotels chiefly in cities. 

US 42, the down-river route between Cincinnati and Louisville, 
swings cross-country at Covington and does not meet the Ohio River 
again until Warsaw is neared. In most places between this point and 
a short distance beyond Carrollton, highway and river run side by side 
accompanied by the rolling Kentucky hills with their masses of foliage 
and, across the river, by the low bottomlands and low hills of Indiana. 

TOUR 12 335 

The route once more strays away from the river, though closely parallels 
it all the way to Louisville. 

Numerous villages and a few small county seats lie along the route. 
But pastures, corn fields, patches of tobacco, livestock, and grass- or 
tree-covered hills are seen more frequently. 

US 42 and US 25 (see Ohio Tours 16 and 22) are united as they cross 
the Ohio Line, m., at the north side of the Ohio River, by way of the 
Suspension Bridge (toll 15$). 

COVINGTON, 0.5 m. (513 alt., 65,252 pop.) (see Covington). 

Points of Interest: Carneal House, Monte Casino, Devou Park, Birthplace of 
Frank Duveneck, Latonia Race Track, and others. 

Covington is at the junction with US 25 (see Tour 4). 

Between Covington and FLORENCE, 9.8 m. (935 alt., 450 pop.), 
US 42 is united with US 25 (see Tour 4). 

The highway crosses a countryside with low, sloping hills tumbling 
back on both sides of the road. Cornfields alternate with clumps of 
elms, maples, and oaks. 

At 20.4 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road to BIG BONE LICK, 3 m. (20 pop.), whose few scattered 
houses, a church, a deserted hotel, and a somewhat bedraggled lake in a 100-acre 
valley, is one of the Nation's outstanding prehistoric boneyards. Long ago the 
sulphur springs and salt formations of this valley attracted hordes of mastodons 
and other gigantic mammals. Many of them mired in the soft soil of this area, 
or died otherwise, and their bones were preserved through millenniums. Later, 
Indians from as far north as Lake Erie came here to kill the deer, buffalo, and 
other game that habitually visited the lick in large numbers; the place was appar- 
ently a neutral hunting ground for many tribes, as no relics of Indian battles have 
ever been found here. In 1739 the French-Canadian explorer, Charles de Langueil, 
arrived at the lick, probably led by Indian guides. Celeron de Blainville is thought 
to have stopped here in 1749, while engaged in his mission of burying lead plates 
at various points along the Ohio River, claiming the Ohio Valley for France. It 
was from Big Bone Lick that Mary Inglis and an old Dutch woman made their 
successful escape from the Indians in 1756 (see Tour 11). When Col. George 
Croghan made a trip here in 1765, he wrote in his Journal of the large quantities 
of bones scattered about the springs. James Douglas, a Virginian, who visited here 
with a party in 1773, found the valley covered with the bones of huge animals, 
some of them half buried in the bog, others lying in a heap where they had fallen. 
The visitors used mastodon ribs for tent poles, and vertebrae for seats. When 
they left they carried with them mastodon teeth weighing 10 pounds each, tusks 11 
feet long, and four- and five-foot thigh bones. 

As the fame of the great bones spread, more and more expeditions came here 
to collect them. In 1805 Thomas Jefferson, as an official of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, had a party gather one of the most complete collections ever 
taken from the lick (an ignorant servant later caused the entire collection to be 
ground into fertilizer). A Dr. William Goforth of Cincinnati, at his own expense, 
dug up a number of notable specimens, among them the bones of an enormous 
three-toed sloth. In 1840 it was estimated that the bones of 100 mastodons, 20 
Arctic elephants, and numerous other mammals had been removed. Specimens 
were still plentiful two years later when the English geologist, Lyell, came here; 
but the hunt for bones went on until they were all gone. Museums in Europe 
and America now exhibit some of Big Bone's ancient visitors. 

In the period preceding the War between the States, Big Bone Lick became a 


fashionable watering place for young ladies who had gone into "declines" and for 
men and women who ate too much and exercised too little. A hotel was built to 
accommodate those who came here to drink sulphur water. Other fads and more 
fashionable resorts caused the local spa to disappear; the abandoned hotel is its 
only relic today. 

US 42 now runs a course between high hills whose long slopes have 
cornfields staggering up to their tops. Here and there phalanxes of 
young, slim trees march down from the hillcrest to the road. For a 
mile the route crosses the top of the plateau, then sinks down between 
the hills once more. At 30.6 m. the road moves to the bank of the Ohio 
River, which makes a big bend at this point. The Kentucky hills bare 
occasional rock outcroppings above the highway. With a few brief in- 
terruptions, road and river move side by side, paced by low, broad bot- 
tomlands on the Indiana side that run back to a continuous chain of 
far hills. 

WARSAW, 35.6 m. (459 alt., 800 pop.), on a level terrace overlook- 
ing the Ohio River, was once a prominent river port. A little coal is 
brought here by boats, and a side-wheel ferry makes cross-river trips to 
the Indiana shore; but the Warsaw of today depends upon its position 
as a trading center and county seat for its life. The town boasts that 
poverty is unknown in it and that its county jail is seldom occupied. 
The JAIL (L), on the second floor of a small brick building, with thick 
vertical bars of stone across the front, is sufficiently forbidding to dis- 
courage the most obstinate wrong-doers. 

In the center of the public square is the dun-colored, two-story GAL- 
LATIN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, erected in 1838, with a bell tower. It was 
remodeled in 1938-39. PAYNE MANOR, at the western end of town 
(R), overlooking the river, is a brick Greek Revival structure of two 
stories, painted white, that was built in 1850 by the son of Gen. John 
Payne, an officer of the Revolutionary War. Four Corinthian columns 
ornament the small portico, and a balcony is below the front upper 
story windows. In the hall hangs a painting of the steamer, Jacob 
S trader, which plied the Ohio in the fifties. 

Warsaw is at the junction with State 35 (see Tour 5). 

At 36.1 m. is (L) an EMERGENCY LANDING FIELD for airplanes. The 
broad, level grass plot runs back from the road to the rim of hills. 

Between Warsaw and Carrollton US 42 twists and turns with the 
Ohio, sometimes dipping out of sight of it for a brief period; the hills 
are always near. 

The towns along the way Warsaw, Ghent, and Carrollton are 
called river towns because they once depended on the Ohio for their 
existence. Today steamers and barges loaded with steel, sand, or stone 
pass them but do not stop; dredges sometimes pause to clean the river 
channel of its silt and debris, then move on ; even the shanty boats make 
a brief stay. Main St. is now the paved highway back from the river 
front several blocks, and only some old houses along Front or River 
St. remain to show the once-intimate relationship of town and river. 

TOUR 12 337 

These old houses, or their predecessors along the banks, saw the pag- 
eantry of river traffic in all its mutations: the canoe used by the In- 
dians, trappers, and explorers; the flatboat or Kentucky "broadhorn," 
carrier of cargo and settlers downriver for fifty years; the keel-boat that 
could go up-stream as well as down; after 1811 the steamboat, which 
became more magnificent with each new decade. Individual steamers 
acquired distinct personalities up-river and down, based on their speed, 
showiness, captain, crew, cuisine, musicians, the splendor of the ball- 
room, and the gaiety of the entertainment. There were also floating 
stores, stocked with groceries, dry goods, and endless bric-a-brac, tieing 
up at cobblestoned levees to be met by a bevy of excited women. And 
by the river bank was the wharf boat, which served as a wharf, freight 
house, exchange, and gathering place for the lusty roustabouts. When 
the showboats came, life along the river reached its height. 

Before the railroads finally took over the river's commerce, towns like 
Warsaw, Ghent, and Carrollton each had landing places, warehouses, 
creaking drays, odorous drinking taverns. All the river towns received 
their foodstuffs, clothing, furniture, raw materials, from the boats, and 
by them shipped out their farm and garden produce, livestock, lumber, 
and whatever products they manufactured. They became so identified 
with the river that they took on some of the color and light-heartedness 
characteristic of the rough men who manned the boats and rousted the 
freight. A small cannon was fired when a steamer, often racing with 
another boat beside it, was approaching a town. On his deck would be 
the captain, preening himself in a fancy suit. In half-an-hour or an 
hour the freight would be taken care of and the boat would be off, hell- 
bent for the next stopping place. Not until their boat put up some- 
where could the rivermen resume their boasting, their drinking of 
whisky that was like greased lightning, and settle old scores with wres- 
tling and gouging matches. 

Mike Fink was one of them. "I can hit like fourth-proof lightnin' 
an' every lick I make in the woods lets in an acre o' sunshine. I can 
out-run, out-jump, out-shoot, out-brag, out-drink, an' out-fight rough- 
an'-tumble; no holts barred ary man on both sides the river from 
Pittsburgh to New Orleans an' back ag'in to St. Louie," Mike said. 
The river encouraged boasting. Every boatman liked to think that his 
was the fastest boat, under the finest captain, manned by the best crew. 
The boats were so light in draft that, as one captain said, "we can pass 
over a heavy mountain dew." The shallowness of the river in places 
was the reason. 

GHENT, 44.9 m. (389 pop.), lies below a rim of hills on a small 
plain looking down at the river. Its houses reflect its age and settled 
ways of life. Ghent was founded in 1809 by 13 families from the Rap- 
pahannock River region of Virginia, and named in 1814 by Henry Clay 
for the Belgian city where the peace treaty between the United States 
and Great Britain was signed. 


The BAPTIST CHURCH (L), erected in 1843, is the fifth church the 
congregation has had since its organization in 1800 as a result of the 
great revival at the mouth of the Kentucky River. The red brick, story- 
and-a-half structure is Greek Revival in style and has curved brick 
columns on its portico. When subscriptions were being taken to erect 
the present church, the donations included sheepskins, bags of wool, 
bales of hay, and several barrels of whisky. It is said that in the early 
years of the church, whenever the preacher "went for dinner," the 
whisky bottle was always set on the table. The FOURTH BAPTIST 
CHURCH, now a residence, is on Sanders Pike (L), opposite the ceme- 
tery. It is a small story-and-a-half brick structure, painted white. 

John Taylor who attended the revival meeting at the mouth of the 
Kentucky River was constrained to write: 

"From the dull feelings of my heart, I took the text which suited 
my own state 'Lord, help me." I continued but a short time, for I 
felt myself very worthless. After which they continued on, in prayer, 
praise, and exhortation, with much noise, at times, till late at night. 
Some were rejoicing, having lately obtained deliverance; others groan- 
ing in tears, under a pensive load of guilt. My own heart was so barren 
and hard, that I wished myself out of sight, or lying under the seats 
where the people sat, or trodden under their feet. Many of the people 
tarried all night." 

At the western limits of the village is (L) a three-story brick building 
with tall, narrow windows, the FORMER GHENT COLLEGE, once a well- 
known institution. An elementary school is here now. 

RIVERVIEW (L), 48.6 m., is a two-story Greek Revival house over- 
looking the river from a hill. Built in 1805 from brick burned on the 
place, the handsome white structure has Ionic columns in front of its 
small recessed portico. 

In 1781, when Benjamin Craig I came from Virginia with his 
brother Lewis and members of the congregation who formed the Trav- 
eling Baptist Church (see Tour 3), he brought with him his wife and 
three small children. In the journey across the mountains some of the 
men usually traveled ahead to clear the trail and scout for Indians. 
The older children drove the cattle and tried to prevent them from 
straying off the trail. Next came the women on horseback; the chil- 
dren and bedding were strapped with willows in panniers on the sides 
of the horses. 

One morning Mrs. Craig laid the baby on a bed of leaves while help- 
ing to make ready for the day's journey. After she had mounted her 
horse, her four-year-old daughter asked if the baby might ride in the 
basket with her. This the mother granted and went on her way. After 
an hour's journey through the forest, Mrs. Craig looked back and saw 
only two children in the panniers. She quickly gave the alarm, and the 
baby's father with several of the men hurriedly rode back in search of 
the baby. After several hours, the child was found sleeping on the bed 
of leaves. This child was Benjamin Craig II, for whom Riverview was 

TOUR 12 339 

The GEORGE CRAIG HOUSE, directly across the Ohio River in Indiana, 
and plainly visible from the highway, was built in 1807 by the brother 
of Benjamin Craig II. 

At 51.6 m. is the junction with US 227 (see Tour 12 A). 

CARROLLTON, 52.6 m. (484 alt., 2,409 pop.), stretching along the 
river bank, is a quiet old town of tree-shaded streets and old houses of 
considerable charm. The town was incorporated in 1794 under the 
name of Port William. In 1838 it was renamed in honor of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, Maryland, signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The town was platted by Benjamin Craig I, who donated the 
land upon which the courthouse was built. The tiny stone CARROLLTON 
JAIL (R), with a high iron fence around it and vertical stone bars across 
its front, looks like something out of Dumas. 

High on a slope (R) overlooking Highland Ave. (US 42) is the 
BUTLER HOUSE, a one-story Georgian Colonial structure of brown brick 
with a foundation of Kentucky marble. Front and side entrances have 
gracious fanlighted doorways with side lights. A large central hall leads 
back to a spacious library with windows overlooking a court from which 
there is a fine view of the river. The house was built in 1825 by 
Charles Stringfellow for Maj. Gen. William Orlando Butler (see Tour 
12 A), who, with other members of the Butler family, is buried in the 
Butler Memorial State Park (see Tour 12 A). 

On Highland Ave. (L), standing close to the sidewalk, is the DAR- 
LING HOUSE, erected prior to 1850. Pilasters ornament the fagade of 
this gray-painted brick house. 

The road crosses the KENTUCKY RIVER at 53 m., near its con- 
fluence with the Ohio, on a high-arched bridge. An advertisement from 
the Cincinnati Centinel of the North-West Territory tells of the open- 
ing of business on the Kentucky River: 

Notice the subscriber informs the gentlemen, merchants, and emi- 
grants to Kentucky, that he will be at the mouth of the Kentucky River 
on the first day of February next, with a sufficient number of boats to 
transport all goods, etc., which they may think proper to entrust him 
with, up the river. He will also keep a store-house for the reception of 
any goods which may be left with him. Carriage of goods to Frankfort 
50 cents per hundred, to Sluke's warehouse 75 cents, to Warwick 100 
cents, Dick's River 125 cents. 

Mouth of Kentucky, Jan. 15, 1795. ELIJAH CRAIG, JR. 

At 54.2 m. is the junction with State 36, a paved road. 

Left on this road, which follows the course of the Ohio River, to the HOAGLAND 
HOUSE, 6.9 m., a one-story structure, Georgian Colonial in style, erected in Hunt- 
er's Bottom in 1838. This time-mellowed house contains many old furnishings. 

MILTON, 11 m. (450 alt., 347 pop.), was established in 1789 by the Virginia 
Legislature, three years before Kentucky became a State. Milton is opposite Madi- 
son, Indiana, with which it is connected by a bridge (toll 20$). 


Right from Milton, 5 m., on Peck's Pike, an unimproved road, to the PRESTON 
HOUSE, a Greek Revival structure built by Col. John Preston. This structure, 
among fine old trees, faces the river; it is of brick, later plastered and weather- 
boarded, and contains 15 rooms. A spiral stairway leads to the second floor. The 
woodwork is embellished with a narrow stripe of gold leaf, -which still glistens with 
its former luster. On the walls are the original painted decorations. The SMOKE- 
HOUSE, in the yard, is a tall brick building with four tiers of poles, designed to hold 
100 hogs. In the center of the dirt floor is a pit where hickory logs were kept 
burning until the meat was satisfactorily cured. NORFOLK SCHOOL, the brick build- 
ing now a tenant house, was built by Mrs. Preston as a chapel and school. 

Left from Milton on State 37, which becomes the main side route, to LOOKOUT 
POINT on MILTON HILL, 12 m., which affords a sweeping view of the Ohio 
River, Hunter's Bottom, and of Madison, Indiana. 

At 23.2 m. on State 37 is Bedford. 

West of Carrollton US 42 breaks away from the river and winds be- 
tween high hills, close to the highway, that are dotted with sparse clus- 
ters of trees. This is farming country and cattle and sheep are seen on 
hillside pastures. The road climbs up to a plateau, a rolling highland 
presenting spacious vistas of fields, farmhouses, and ravines with ever- 

BEDFORD, 65.1 m. (892 alt., 286 pop.), seat of Trimble County, 
was incorporated in 1816. The town is surrounded by valley farms 
producing tobacco, grain, and livestock. 

Bedford is at the junction with State 37. 

Still crossing the plateau that reveals tiers of hills rising to a wide, 
tree-hazed horizon (L), the highway makes a sweeping curve and passes 
(L) KENTUCKY TAVERN, 70.1 m., a long, low story-and-a-half structure 
that was an important stopping place in stagecoach days. Half frame 
and half brick, the white building has dormers. 

SLIGO (10 pop.) is met at 73.8 m.; then tourist cabins soon appear 
along the way, some of them of whitewashed logs. The route continues 
over high, choppy terrain, passing farmsteads, pastures, little log pig 
pens, and clumps of oak, evergreen, and sycamore. 

US 42 descends into PROSPECT, 93.9 m. (484 alt., 30 pop.), in the 
Louisville metropolitan area. The place was settled in 1783 by people 
from Virginia. It is said to have received its name about 60 years ago, 
when the narrow gauge railroad, which was being built along the river, 
seemed a long time in reaching the community. 

Between Prospect and Louisville, a four-lane highway runs through 
a well-to-do metropolitan area with many new houses. 

The TOMB OF ZACHARY TAYLOR, 99.7 m., is in a parklike area (R), 
once part of the Taylor farm and now in the custody of the Federal 
Government. Adjoining the park is (R) the TAYLOR HOUSE (private), 
where the twelfth President of the United States grew to manhood. 
The two-and-a-half-story house, built of brick, is on ample grounds 
extending along the west side of the TAYLOR MEMORIAL CEMETERY, 
where members of the Taylor family are buried. A driveway, bordered 
with shrubbery and century-old pine, maple, and walnut trees, leads 
around the house to the entrance. Across the front and sides of the 

TOUR 12 341 

building are wide porches, evidently later additions. Two paneled 
doors give entrance to a wide central hall with two rooms on each side. 
A winding stairway leads to four bedrooms on the second floor. The 
original four-inch ash flooring is still in good condition. 

In 1785 Col. Richard Taylor, a native of Virginia and soldier of the 
Revolution, brought his family to this place, where he built a log house. 
Several years later the present building, designed in Virginia, was built 
and the log cabin was moved to the rear to house slaves. This building, 
painted white, still stands. 

Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), born in Virginia, was nine months old 
when the family came here. As a boy he roamed the fields near by and 
hunted along Beargrass Creek. He went to school in a little log school- 
house near his home before entering William and Mary College. In 
1808 he was appointed a first lieutenant in the 7th Regiment of the 
United States Infantry. Except when he was away on military duty 
and in the White House, the farm here was always his home. General 
Taylor's daughter, Knoxie, much against her father's wishes, became 
the wife of Jefferson Davis, later President of the Confederacy. 

LOUISVILLE, 106.9 m. (525 alt., 307,745 pop.) (see Louisville). 

Points of Interest: Speed Museum, Memorial Auditorium, Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary, Churchill Downs, Cave Hill Cemetery, Cherokee Park, and 

Louisville is at the junction with US 3 IE (see Tour 6), US 3iW 
(see Tour 7), and US 60 (see Tour 16). 

Tour 12A 

Junction with US 42 Butler Memorial State Park Owenton Junc- 
tion with State 40; 61.1 m. US 227. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Branch of Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route between Carrollton and 

Worth ville. 

All types of accommodations in towns; limited elsewhere. 

This route runs between the Ohio River and the Bluegrass region, 
traversing hilly farm lands and fertile green valleys. 

US 227 branches southeast from its junction with US 42, m. (see 
Tour 12), 0.5 miles east of Carrollton. 

BUTLER MEMORIAL STATE PARK (adm. 10$, boating, fishing, 
overnight camping 25$ each; furnished cabins, couple, $2), 2 m., 350 
acres of hills and valleys on both sides of the road, was named for 


William Orlando Butler (1791-1808). A native of Carroll ton, Butler 
served as a captain in the War of 1812 and was breveted a major for 
distinguished service in the Battle of New Orleans. He later practiced 
law at Carrollton, and was a member of the Kentucky House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1817-18, and a Representative in Congress 1839-43. In 
June 1846 he was appointed major general of volunteers raised to sup- 
port General Taylor in his invasion of Mexico. In 1848 he succeeded 
General Scott in the chief command of the United States forces in 
Mexico. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Vice President of the 
Democratic Party in 1848, and in 1855 declined appointment as Gov- 
ernor of Nebraska Territory. 

The work of developing the park, begun in 1934, has been carried on 
by the Civilian Conservation Corps. A 30-acre lake has been created 
by construction of a dam in the upper stretches of the valley. There 
are two lodges of stone for the caretakers, shelter houses, cabins, and 
many winding roads and trails. The majority of the one- and two-room 
cabins are of stone; a few are of logs with stone chimneys. 

LOOKOUT POINT, a rough stone tower built in irregular terraces, com- 
mands a sweeping view of the Ohio River. Within the park is the 
THOMAS BUTLER HOUSE (adm. 25$), now a museum. It is a two-and- 
one-half-story brick structure shaded by tall elms and surrounded by 
a terraced wall of stone. The house was designed in the Georgian 
Colonial style with wide central halls upstairs and down, flanked on 
each side by two large square rooms. A winding stairway leads to the 
upper floor. The kitchen wing is separated from the rest of the house 
by a dog-trot. The house is furnished in the style of the 1860's. It 
was originally the home of Thomas L. Butler (1789-1879), the eldest 
son of Percival Butler, and aide to General Jackson at the Battle of 
New Orleans. 

In the little BUTLER CEMETERY near the house are the graves of 
members of the Butler family. Thomas Butler, born in Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, April 8, 1720, had five sons, all of whom attained eminence in 
America. The five brothers and their immediate descendants saw mili- 
tary service in all of the contemporary wars of this country. General 
Lafayette said of the family, "When I wanted a thing well done, I 
ordered a Butler to do it." Among others is the GRAVE OF GEN. 
PERCIVAL BUTLER, one of the five sons of Thomas Butler and the father 
of William Orlando and of Thomas L. Butler. 

South of the park, the road passes through an undulating, well- 
watered region whose limestone soil is well suited to stock raising. Pas- 
tures with grazing sheep and cattle alternate with fields of tobacco, 
buckwheat, corn, and barley. 

From the top of the hill at 13 m. is a widespreading view of the 
countryside and of the Kentucky River valley. 

NEW LIBERTY, 19.7 m. (190 pop.), once an important trading 
center for a productive farming area, has been decreasing in population 
for many years because of the impoverishment of the soil in the region. 

TOUR I2A 343 

The BAPTIST CHURCH (L) was established here in 1801, 18 years be- 
fore the county was formed. The old bell in the tower has been in 
constant use since 1841. 

At 23.1 m. is the junction with State 35 (see Tour 5) ; US 227 and 
State 35 are united for 7.9 miles. 

OWENTON, 30.4 m. (1,000 alt., 975 pop.), and Owen County, of 
which it is the seat, are named for Col. Abraham Owen, an early settler 
who was prominent in the War of 1812. He was killed in the Battle 
of Tippecanoe. The stately old OWEN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, built of 
brick in the Greek Revival style in 1850, was occupied by Federal 
troops during the War between the States. 

Owenton is at the junction with State 22 (see Tour 13) and State 
35 (see Tour 5). State 35 and US 227 are united for 2.1 miles south 
of Owenton. 

1. Right from Owenton on an unmarked road to the THOMAS LAKE FISHING 
CLUB (open), 2 m. The clubhouse, of logs taken from another building, has an 
appearance of age. The lake and the building, erected as a PWA project, are 
municipally owned. 

2. Left from Owenton on an improved road to LUSBY'S MILL, 10 m. (30 
pop.), on Eagle Creek. A FISHING CAMP (open) provides fishing, swimming, and 
tennis. During the War between the States a recruiting station was established 
at this place by Gen. Humprey Marshall. 

At 31 m. State 35 (see Tour 5) leaves US 227, and at 32.4 m. State 
22 (see Tour 13) leaves US 227. 

In BEECHWOOD, 43 m. (540 alt., 32 pop.), are mineral springs 
of asserted therapeutic value, from which water is bottled and shipped. 
The hotel that formerly stood on the grounds was burned down several 
years ago and has never been rebuilt. 

STAMPING GROUND, 55.6 m. (341 pop.), was so named because 
the herds of buffalo that came here for salt water, tramped or stamped 
down the soil for a great distance around the lick. Lindsey's stockade 
was built here in 1790. BUFFALO SPRINGS (R), a new modern dis- 
tillery, has been built on the site of the old spring, again bringing pros- 
perity to the little town. 

At 58 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road to BLUE SPRING, 0.5 m., named for Blue Spring Creek, and 
formerly the estate of Col. Richard M. Johnson (1781-1850), distinguished states- 
man and soldier in the War of 1812. Colonel Johnson was a Representative in 
Congress from 1807 to 1819, United States Senator for two terms beginning in 
1819, and was elected Vice President of the United States in 1836. Blue Spring 
is the SITE OF A CHOCTAW INDIAN SCHOOL, established by Johnson in 1825 and 
operated by the Federal Government for 40 years. Several of the old buildings 
still stand. 

GREAT CROSSINGS, 60.6 m. (80 pop.), was named for the buffalo 
trace from the interior of Kentucky to the confluence of the Ohio River 
and Elkhorn Creek. Johnson's Fort was built here in 1783 by Robert 


Johnson, an early Kentucky statesman. CROSSINGS CHURCH belongs 
to a Baptist congregation organized here May 28, 1785; this was the 
mother church from which sprang the religious organizations at McCon- 
nell's Run (later Stamping Ground), Dry Run, and Georgetown. 

At 61.1 m. is the junction with State 40 (see Tour 17), 2.6 miles 
west of Georgetown. 

Tour 13 

Willow Falmouth Owenton New Castle Junction with US 60; 
116.4 m. State 22. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 
Accommodations limited. 

The route, following roughly the base of a triangle, two sides of 
which are formed by the Ohio River, passes through a rolling-to-hilly 
region that frequently affords superb views of the hills and river valleys. 
Tobacco of especially fine quality is produced in this area. 

State 22 branches west from State 10 (see Tour 11) at WILLOW, 
m., and at 12.1 m. passes the forks of the Licking River. 

FALMOUTH, 12.4 m. (525 alt., 1,876 pop.) (see Tour 3), is at the 
junction with US 27 (see Tour 3). 

Between Falmouth and 15.5 m. State 22 and US 27 are united. 

WILLIAMSTOWN, 29.3 m. (943 alt., 917 pop.) (see Tour 4), is at 
the junction with US 25 (see Tour 4). 

Between Williamstown and DRY RIDGE, 33.2 m. (929 alt., 500 
pop.) (see Tour 4), State 22 and US 25 are united. 

At 52.3 m. is the junction with US 227 (see Tour 12 A) ; between 
this point and OWENTON, 54.4 m. (1,000 alt., 975 pop.) (see Tour 
12 A), State 22 and US 227 are united. Owenton is also at the junction 
with State 35 (see Tour 5). 

GRATZ, 63.5 m. (139 pop.), a deserted river town on the western 
bank of the Kentucky River, was once a bustling and important ship- 
ping point. For more than 50 years steamers stopped at this landing 
to load and unload produce and receive passengers for Louisville or 
Cincinnati. A SULPHUR WELL (R), near the river, is 1,200 feet deep. 

Right from Gratz on a dirt road to an old LEAD MINE, 1 m., which has not been 
worked for many years. 

At 64 m. on State 22 is the junction with State 83, an improved 

TOUR 13 345 

Right 0.4 m. on this road to a lane leading to CASA BIANCA (Ital., white house), 
the home of Adjt. Gen. Charles E. Marshall, great-grandson of Chief Justice John 
Marshall. The one-and-a-half -story house, of Greek Revival style, is on a 1,000- 
acre farm and commands a wide view of the Kentucky River and adjacent valleys. 

At 6.8 m. on State 83 is DRENNON SPRINGS, 7 m., in the center of an 
amphitheater of hills. Indians and buffalo had worn paths from every direction 
to the lick many years prior to July 1773, when Jacob Drennon and Matthew 
Bracken, directed by an old Delaware Indian, reached this place. Drennon gave 
his name to the creek and the spring, but neither he nor Bracken ever attempted 
to secure title to the property. In 1779, George Rogers Clark obtained a deed to 
a 400-acre tract that included the spring. In the closing years of the eighteenth 
century, salt was made here in large quantities, but the crude, slow process of boil- 
ing the water in huge iron kettles over wood fires lasted only as long as the price 
of salt (20 shillings a bushel) made the manufacture profitable. The reputed 
medicinal quality of the water began to attract invalids, and by 1840 a popular 
summer resort, a few crude log cabins, had been established; a large hotel known 
as the North and South House was later erected, with cottages adjoining. The 
resort was honored by the attendance of 13 State Governors at one notable social 
function. In the 1850's the Western Military Academy was established here; James 
G. Blaine was one of the instructors in this school. During the War between the 
States the buildings were used as a recruiting station for the Federal Army. In 
1864 all of the buildings were destroyed by fire and never replaced. 

West of the Kentucky River Valley the highway follows an undulat- 
ing upland plateau. 

At 78.8 m. is the junction with State 146, an improved road. 

Left on this road to EMINENCE, 2.6 m. (1,323 pop.), an enterprising town 
known for the registered breeding stock produced on neighboring farms. Many of 
the Hereford cattle in this country can be traced to sires owned within a few miles 
of Eminence. Beau Donald, Perfection, Prince Rupert, Beau Roland, Britisher, 
and Acrobat, names familiar to stockmen throughout America, were raised here, 
and today their progeny are being shipped to South and Central America, Cuba, 
and the Hawaiian Islands. 

nence, is a spacious, two-story brick structure erected in 1916. It cares for the 
aged and infirm members of the two orders. The entrance to the farm is through 
a tree-banked stone gateway. 

At Eminence is the GRAVE OF ZACH F. SMITH, educator and historian, born in 
Henry County in 1827. He served as president of Henry Female College, New 
Castle, and was State superintendent of public instruction and curator of Transyl- 
vania University for 50 years. 

Left from Eminence on State 55, an improved road, to the HAYS HOUSE, 5 m., 
a two-story frame structure, erected early in the nineteenth century by John F. 
Hagan for Squire Helm. The eight-room house, designed in the Greek Revival 
style, has hand-carved woodwork and a paneled stairway. The doors have the 
original brass knobs and locks, and the floors are of white ash. 

The POLLARD HOUSE (R), 79.4 m., erected about 1790, is built of 
brick and is a story and a half high. The long slope of its roof is 
pierced by dormers, and in recent years a front porch has been added. 
Originally the structure had two-story wings, but these have been razed 
as have the stone barns that once stood behind the house. This section 
of State 22 was once a part of the old Frankfort-Milton Post Road, 
and at that time the house with its spacious wings was a tavern. 
James G. Blaine was a frequent guest here while he taught at the 
Western Military Academy (1850-51) in Drennon Springs. 


On the night of December 1, 1863, Pollard, the owner, admitted two 
strangers who appeared to be cattle buyers. One of the men saw on 
the table a copy of the Cincinnati Enquirer, considered a "Copperhead" 
publication, that bore headlines announcing the escape of Gen. John H. 
Morgan and other Confederate officers from the Ohio Penitentiary at 
Columbus. Pollard's possession of this paper revealed his sympathy for 
the Confederacy and prompted the younger of the two guests to men- 
tion his having heard that General Morgan and Captain Hines were on 
their way south through Kentucky. "And you are Captain Hines?" 
Pollard asked. Hines admitted his identity and introduced General 
Morgan. The two officers spent the night there, and after breakfast 
the following day, Pollard arranged to take them to Judge W. S. Pryor 
of New Castle for assistance. 

NEW CASTLE, 83.5 m. (825 alt., 447 pop.), is the third oldest in- 
corporated town in the State. Many old houses border the quiet streets 
radiating from the public square. 

Confederate Gen. Kirby Smith conducted a military school in a house 
here, still standing, built in 1800. The Henry County Male and 
Female College, a popular school for several decades, attracted stu- 
dents from many southern States. 

Near the center of New Castle is the THOMAS SMITH HOUSE (L), a 
two-story structure of red brick. Designed in the Georgian Colonial 
style, it has a fanlighted doorway and a wide entrance hall with a 
winding stairway of cherry. All of the woodwork is hand-carved, and 
the walls of the hall are decorated with murals. The house was built 
in 1818 by Thomas Smith, who made his money in Henry County in 
the produce business. Smith is said to have owned 40 percent of all 
the land in Henry and Shelby Counties and was one of the builders of 
the Louisville & Nashville R.R. in 1830-35. When he died in 1850, at 
the age of 51 years, he left an estate valued at more than a million 

The PRYOR HOUSE, a two-story brick building, is Georgian Colonial 
in style. Its interior trim of cherry and white pine is elaborately 
carved. Ornate plasterwork lends much to the charm of the first floor 
rooms, which are high, with 10-foot doors. Judge W. S. Pryor, who 
built this house in 1859 and lived in it until his death in 1914, was an 
ardent Confederate. During the War between the States the Union 
soldiers who came to New Castle to buy cattle and hogs and stayed 
overnight in the town's hotel were invariably tormented or frightened 
by the pranks of Judge Pryor 's slaves, acting under his instructions. 
Pryor, made chief justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals on Sep- 
tember 6, 1871, was the first Confederate named to the court after 
the War between the States. 

On Main St., standing flush with the sidewalk, is an old gray brick 
house (R) known as BUCKLEY TAVERN, which was a popular place in 
stagecoach days. 

TOUR 13 347 

Reuben T. Durrett, Kentucky historian and eminent lawyer of Louis- 
ville, was born near New Castle in 1824. From 1857 to 1859 he was 
editor of the Louisville Courier and he founded the Filson Club of 
Louisville and the Louisville Public Library. 

On the outskirts of New Castle is the one-and-a-half-story GRAVES 
HOUSE, built of gray brick in 1820. A fanlighted doorway gives en- 
trance to a wide hall in which is a circular stairway with balustrade of 
cherry. William Jordan Graves was a Member of Congress from 1835 
to 1841, and a prominent lawyer of Louisville. On February 24, 1838, 
he fought a duel at Bladensburg, Maryland, with Jonathan Cilley, a 
Member of Congress from Maine. The weapons were rifles, and the 
distance was 80 yards. Cilley was killed at the third shot. The duel, 
which created a Nation-wide sensation, was the last in which men of 
prominence were involved, and was partly responsible for the outlaw- 
ing of this custom. Cilley had risen in Congress to denounce an anony- 
mous gossip article accusing a colleague of immorality; he had blamed 
the article on a Member of Congress from Virginia. Graves had chal- 
lenged him in defense of the Virginian. 

LA GRANGE, 96.5 m. (850 alt., 1,121 pop.), seat of Oldham 
County, was named for the French estate of General Lafayette. 

The ROBERT MORRIS HOUSE (open), 110 Washington St., a simple 
two-story frame house (L), is preserved as a memorial to the man who 
established the order of the Eastern Star in 1850. Born in Massachu- 
setts in 1818, Morris became a traveler and writer often referred to as 
the "Poet Laureate of Free Masonry." He died here in 1888. 

The D. W. GRIFFITH HOUSE (L), cor. 4th and Madison Sts., is a 
spacious, two-story frame house built by the motion-picture producer. 
David Wark Griffith, son of Confederate Lt. Col. Jacob Wark Griffith, 
was born in this town on January 16, 1880. He was educated in the 
local public school and in time became a reporter on the Louisville 
Courier- Journal. He left this position to join the Louisville Stock Com- 
pany. After a succession of theatrical engagements, he went to work 
in a foundry at Tonawanda, New York. In 1908 he was engaged by 
the Biograph Company of New York City to write scenarios and that 
same year directed the highly successful picture, The Adventures of 
Dollie. As a producer Griffith has been notable for the spectacular and 
sentimental character of his films; his most popular pictures are The 
Birth of a Nation and Hearts of the World. 

The new MEDIUM SECURITY PRISON (R), 98.3 m., is being erected 
(1939) on a 200-acre tract to replace the antiquated prison at the State 
capital (see Frankfort). When completed this prison will comprise a 
hospital, gymnasium, library, industrial buildings, and dormitories, 
erected according to modern standards of penology, with emphasis on 
corrective treatment. 

CRESTWOOD, 105.3 m. (300 pop.), is a residential village. 

1. Left from Crestwood on an improved road to FLOYDSBURG, 1 m. (200 
pop.)> named for Col. John Floyd, who was sent out in 1774 by Patrick Henry 


and other prominent Virginians to hunt choice lands in this vicinity. In the ceme- 
tery is the DUNCAN MEMORIAL CHAPEL, erected in 1937 by a former resident, Alex- 
ander Edward Duncan, a banker of Baltimore, Maryland, in memory of his wife, 
Flora Ross Duncan. The chapel, at the entrance to the Duncan family burial 
ground, now a public cemetery, is of stone with white oak interior trim; it is 
Gothic in style and has an unusually slender central spire. The stone, gray from 
age, came from old buildings and fences in the neighboring countryside. An ell- 
shaped extension at the rear, connected with the chapel by a loggia, contains living 
quarters for the caretaker. The interior of the building is lined with cut Indiana 
limestone. The altar carving, suggested by Da Vinci's The Last Supper, was exe- 
cuted by F. Pescosta, formerly of Oberammergau, Germany. A grapevine motif 
is carved on the pews, lectern, pulpit, and around the altar. The stained-glass win- 
dows are outstanding examples of modern work ; the two lower medallions over the 
altar were designed by Henry Lee Willett of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and were 
exhibited in the 1937 Paris Exposition. The electrically operated chimes play every 
half-hour during the afternoon on Sunday and holidays. Around this chapel, which 
is non-sectarian and for the use of the community, are old tombstones, trees, and 
a landscaped garden with a lake, carefully tended walks, and rose beds. 

2. Right from Crestwood on an improved road to the CLORE HOUSE, 1 m., built 
by Richard Clore and his wife, Narcissa, early in the nineteenth century. The old 
one-and-a-half-story house, of brick burned on the place by slave labor, is on the 
site of the cabin that was the first Kentucky home of Richard Clore. The slave 
quarters stand in the yard. 

PEWEE VALLEY, 106.6 m. (582 pop.), is a quiet suburban village 
with attractive old homes on spacious lawns. The streets are tree- 
shaded. In 1852 this was Smith's Station; the name was changed to 
Pewee Valley because of the great number of phoebes or pewees in 
the region. 

The BEECHES (open on request), a large two-story white frame struc- 
ture (R) with a wide porch across the front, was the home of Annie 
Fellows Johnston (1863-1931), author of the Little Colonel stories for 
children; it is now occupied by the author's daughter, Mary Lee John- 
ston. Annie Fellows Johnston acquired this property in 1911 on the 
death of the widow of Gen. Henry W. Lawton, captor of the Apache, 
Geronimo, and division commander at El Caney in the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War. After General Lawton's death in the Philippine campaign, 
this house had been purchased by Nation-wide subscription and given 
to Mrs. Lawton. Practically all of Mrs. Johnston's writing was done 
here, and many of her characters were neighbors. Hattie Cochran, 
granddaughter of the Confederate Col. George Weissinger, was the 
Little Colonel, and Craig and Billy Culbertson were the Two Little 
Knights of Kentucky. 

The CRAIG HOUSE (L), directly opposite the Beeches, is a two-story 
gray brick structure built in 1861 by Walter N. Haldeman (1821- 
1902), founder of the Louisville Courier and Times. This house is the 
locale of Two Little Knights of Kentucky. 

The JENNIE CASSEDAY REST COTTAGE (R), 107.1 m., a vacation 
home for young working women, was established in 1897 by Jennie 
Casseday of Louisville. The rambling plantation-type house is of wood, 
painted white, and has an ell with broad porches and several bays; it 

TOUR 13 349 

is surrounded by a large shady lawn, part of the 56-acre tract owned 
by the institution. Miss Casseday, who inherited a considerable for- 
tune from her father, was an invalid for more than 40 years. She pro- 
vided a small legacy for Rest Cottage, the maintenance of which was 
then undertaken by the King's Daughters. It is now under Community 
Chest supervision. The 40 young women who can be accommodated 
at the cottage are allowed to stay two weeks, at a total cost of $5. There 
is a large recreation room, a library, and equipment for volleyball, 
tennis, ping pong, croquet, and other games. 

In the 1860's Rest Cottage was the home of Catherine A. Warfield, 
best known as the author of Feme Fleming and its sequel, Cardinal's 

ANCHORAGE, 111.5 m. (564 pop.), with beautiful estates and 
winding lanes, shaded by giant trees, is a residential suburb of Louis- 
ville. It was first called Hobb's Station in honor of E. D. Hobbs, 
president of the Louisville & Lexington R.R. When the town was in- 
corporated, in 1876, it was renamed for the estate of Capt. J. W. 
Goslee, a steamboat pilot, who, when he retired and built his home at 
Hobb's Station, said he wished "to anchor there for life." An ANCHOR 
(R) on the lawn of the Louisville & Nashville R.R. station is said to 
have been presented to the town by Captain Goslee. The anchor, sur- 
mounted with a gilded eagle, was used for many years as a fire alarm. 
The alarm was sounded by striking the anchor with an iron instrument. 
The CAPTAIN GOSLEE HOUSE, Evergreen Ave., is a two-story, red brick 
structure with a steep gable roof, built before the War between the 
States. The slave quarters remain in the yard. 

In 1916 the offices of the Southern Pacific R.R. were moved to 
Anchorage, and the little village suddenly found itself the home office 
of a corporation controlling 13,000 miles of track, not one foot of 
which was near Kentucky. When corporation laws in the State were 
made more stringent, the railway offices moved away. 

HOSPITAL, founded in 1870, largest State institution for the insane. 
Two farms are maintained. One here, comprising 900 acres, is worked 
in part by patients. The other, a 375-acre farm at Pine Bluff, Shelby 
County, includes a large dairy and is operated by about 40 patients 
who live there on a cottage plan. An average of 2,000 patients are 
cared for here. 

The hospital was erected here because of the water supply, the lake 
for which the place is named being fed by a spring. 

The HITE HOUSE, adjacent to the institution, now a dormitory for 
employees of the hospital, was erected about 1800 by Jacob Kite. The 
house, built of local brick, has walls 18 inches thick and carved wood- 
work. An old brick walk near the house leads down to a cave, which 
contains a spring and was formerly used for cold storage. 

ORMSBY VILLAGE (L), 113.1 m., the Louisville and Jefferson 
County Children's Home, is a model institution built and conducted on 


the cottage plan. The wards of the village are committed to its care 
in cases of neglect, ill treatment, delinquency, or undesirable home con- 
ditions. The home has evolved from the old House of Refuge, later 
the Industrial School of Reform, which was established in 1865 at 
Third and Shipp Sts. in Louisville on what is now the campus of the 
University of Louisville. The institution was moved to this place in 

The KENTUCKY CHILDREN'S HOME (R), 114.2 m., is conducted by 
a society founded in 1895 by Judge R. H. Thompson of Louisville. 
The work began in a modest frame house- in Louisville. By 1922, 
through State, county, and municipal aid as well as private gifts, the 
society was able to erect this $500,000 plant. Approximately 8,000 
children have been sheltered here and many of them have been placed 
in homes in the State under supervision of the society. An average of 
350 children are cared for in the home at one time. 

KENTUCKY MILITARY INSTITUTE (R), 114.3 m., a private military 
academy, was founded in 1845 by Robert .T. P. Allen, graduate of 
West Point and veteran of the Seminole War. A broad macadamized 
driveway, bordered on both sides by maple trees and bluegrass meadows, 
leads to the entrance, a massive arch, supported by ivy-covered columns 
of limestone. Along the driveway is a lake (L), fed by springs, which 
is used for recreational purposes. The campus is noted for its fine 
old trees, thick hedges, and grassy lawns. Facing a drive-encircled 
oval of grass, trees, shrubbery, and flowers, is the Administration Build- 
ing, once the home of Stephen Ormsby (1765-1846), brilliant Ken- 
tucky statesman. This stately two-story building is of stuccoed brick, 
in the Greek Revival style. The pediment of its broad portico is sup- 
ported by four massive columns of the Ionic order. Edison Science 
Building, named for Thomas A. Edison, is a two-story rectangular 
brick building with gable roof. The two are of Georgian Colonial 
design. Railed porches extend the entire length of each floor. The 
gymnasium, also of Georgian Colonial design, erected in 1928, is of 
white brick veneered over a reinforced concrete wall. The junior school 
is in Fowler Hall, a white one-story hipped-roof structure, forming an 
open quadrangle at the rear of the campus. 

During the War between the States the institute furnished both the 
Federal and Confederate Armies with officers. After the Christmas 
holidays the entire cadet corps goes into the institute's winter quarters 
at Venice, Florida. Student enrollment during 1936-37 was 225. 

LYNDON, 115.2 m. (250 pop.), is a small suburban village. 

Right from Lyndon on Herr Lane to the junction with Wesport Rd., 1 m. Here 
is the HERR HOUSE (L), built in 1789 by Captain Edwards, and sold in 1814 to 
John Herr, a settler from Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The house, one of the earliest 
built of brick in the State, is shown on the map of John Filson, published in 1784. 
The bricks were burned on the place and laid in Flemish bond; the walls 
are 24 inches thick. The ash and walnut used in the construction came from the 
estate. The Herr homestead became a center of social life in the old German set- 
tlement; quilting parties and corn huskings were frequently held here. John Herr 

TOUR 13 351 

is said to have been the best shot and the best corn shucker in the community. 
This home also played an important part in early religious life, for it was here 
that Alexander Campbell and Elder John Smith ("Raccoon John") conducted some 
of the first meetings of the Christian Church (see Tour 15). 

At 116.4 m. is the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), 8 miles east 
of Louisville. 

Tour 14 

(Aberdeen, Ohio) Maysville Georgetown Versailles Bardstown 
Elizabethtown Central City Paducah; US 62. 
Ohio Line to Paducah, 358.9 m. 

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 

Illinois Central R.R. roughly parallels route between Elizabethtown and Paducah; 

Southern Ry. between Georgetown and Versailles. 

All types of accommodations in larger towns; limited elsewhere. 

This route, a pleasant alternate to the more congested and commer- 
cialized highways across the State, traverses the steep hills along the 
Ohio River, the rich bottomlands of the Licking River Valley, and 
the rolling pasture lands of the Bluegrass. Between Springfield and 
Leitchfield it winds through the Knobs area; between Leitchfield and 
the Cumberland River it skirts undulating farm lands of the Pennyrile 
local variant of pennyroyal, a pungent, aromatic plant of the mint 
family that grows in abundance along the banks of the streams. Be- 
tween the Cumberland River and Smithland the route passes through a 
semibarren region that forms a watershed between the Cumberland and 
Ohio Rivers. These diverse physical features have produced a cor- 
responding diversity of modes and conditions of life. 

Section a. OHIO LINE to ELIZABETHTOWN; 170 m. US 62 

US 62 crosses the Ohio Line, m., on the north bank of the Ohio 
River; the river is crossed on a toll bridge (toll 25$), at Aberdeen, 
Ohio (see Ohio Tour 3). 

MAYSVILLE, 0.5 m. (448 alt., 6,557 pop.) (see Tour 15), is at the 
junction with US 6& (see Tour 15) and State 10 (see Tour 11). 

Between Maysville and WASHINGTON, 4.6 m. (500 pop.) (see 
Tour 15), US 62 and US 68 are one route (see Tour 15). 

Southwest of Washington US 62, extending along one of the high, 
rolling ridges that jut northward from the Bluegrass plateau, affords 
frequent far-reaching views of quiet green valleys and wooded hills, 
deep blue in the distance. The road winds through a sparsely settled 


agricultural area, where tobacco and fruit are the principal crops and 
stock raising is a leading occupation. 

The SITE OF MCKINLEY'S BLOCKHOUSE (L) is at 7 m. The first 
wheat in Mason County was grown on the McKinley farm. It is said 
that half the men of the station stood guard to ward off Indian attacks 
while the remainder harvested the wheat. 

The SHANNON METHODIST CHURCH (R), 9 m. t a small rectangular 
brick structure, belongs to a congregation formed in 1801. The burying 
ground contains many headstones with old-fashioned inscriptions, some 
bearing dates as early as 1824, and a large Indian burial mound. The 
size of the two tall pine trees growing on this mound indicate that its 
origin was in prehistoric times. 

In MOUNT OLIVET, 23.8 m. (419 pop.), a quiet village, is the 
ROBERTSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, erected in 1867. This was, until 
recently, the only brick building in the county. At the old tobacco 
house in Pinhook, an early settlement in Robertson County, originated 
the term "pinhooker," which is applied to the tobacco brokers who 
refuse to buy until the prices are low and the farmers are at their 
mercy, then resell to the warehouse for a higher price. 

KENTONTOWN, 29.7 m. (100 pop.), established in 1795, was 
named in honor of Simon Kenton (see Tour 15), one of the first to 
explore and hold land in this region. 

Right from Kentontown on an unimproved road to two METCALF HOUSES, 1 m., 
built prior to 1829 by Thomas Metcalf one for himself and one for his son (see 
Forest Retreat, Tour 15). These story -and-a-half houses, still in good condition, 
are of stone ; they are basically Georgian Colonial in design, though they lack many 
of the Georgian details. 

CLAYSVILLE, 35.7 m. (75 pop.), on the Licking River at the 
mouth of Beaver Creek, was laid out by Alex Curran about 1800. In 
its early years it was a flourishing commercial village and shipping 
point, but since the building of the railroad the population and com- 
mercial activity have steadily declined. A COVERED BRIDGE just out- 
side the town spans Middle Fork of Licking River. Built in 1874, it 
is still in excellent condition. 

CYNTHIANA, 50.6 m. (718 alt., 4,386 pop.) (see Tour 3), is at the 
junction with US 27 (see Tour 3). 

An OLD COVERED BRIDGE, 50 m., over the South Fork of Licking 
River, is 275 feet long. Erected about 1837, it has been in constant use 
ever since. The piers are of stone, the timbers oak and poplar, held 
together with hand-wrought spikes. The original wood shingles of 
the roof were made by hand. An old county court order book in the 
courthouse at Cynthiana records that: 

"In January 1837 Samuel McMillain, James Finley, Wm. Stephenson, 
Wm. Moore and Josephus Perrin were appointed commissioners to draft 
a plan for a Bridge across South Fork of Licking, opposite the Town 
of Cynthiana, to fix on the eligible place for said bridge to cross said 
fork, for the materials of which it shall be made, and to open sub- 

TOUR 14 353 

scriptions to raise money to defray a part or the whole of the expense 
of erecting said Bridge." 

In July 1837 a report was made showing subscriptions amounting to 
$500. Bids for building the bridge were "advertised in the Palladium 
and such other places as seemed proper," the "undertaker" being re- 
quired to keep the bridge in repair for seven years after completion.. 
The structure, built at a cost of $1,594, was ready for the passage of 
wagons in December 1837. This bridge played an important part in 
General Morgan's raid on Cynthiana during the War between the 

At 71.4 m. is the junction with State 40 (see Tour 17) ; between this- 
point and Georgetown, US 62 and State 40 are united. 

GEORGETOWN, 72.5 m. (866 alt., 4,229 pop.) (see Tour 4), is at 
the junction with US 25 (see Tour 4) and State 40 (see Tour 17). 

Between Georgetown and a point at 73.6 m. US 62 and State 40 are 

Between Georgetown and Versailles are undulating fields, covered 
with either bluegrass or tobacco ; in season wild roses and trumpet vines, 
hide the old stone fences, and in many places rows of honey locusts 
form an arch over the roadway. 

PAYNES DEPOT, 76 m. (50 pop.), is a railroad junction and ship- 
ping point. 

MIDWAY, 83.7 m. (830 alt., 808 pop.), with its tree-shaded streets, 
old houses, and well-kept lawns and flower gardens, gives an impression, 
of gracious living. The name refers to General Francisco's log house 
built here in 1795, midway between Lexington and Frankfort. Chief 
Justice John Marshall referred to Midway as "the asparagus bed o 
the garden spot of Kentucky," and the sobriquet has survived. Ac- 
cording to tradition this place furnished local color for Mary J. Holmes' 
Tempest and Sunshine. 

NUGENTS' CROSSROADS, 87.7 m. } is named for members of the 
Nugent family who operate the general store (L) on the corner. Op- 
posite stands (R) an OLD TAVERN (unoccupied) built of red brick; 
in stagecoach days this was one of the important stopping places for 
rest and refreshment on the journey between Cincinnati and Louisville. 

STONE WALL (L), 88.7 m., is the stock farm of the Viley family. 
The wall that suggested the name of the farm was built in 1863 of 
field stone without mortar, like many of the older walls throughout 
the Bluegrass region. During the reconstruction period (1865-75) the 
grove of walnut trees, near the house, was the scene of political meet- 
ings and barbecues, attended by such men as James D. Beck and 
J. C. S. Blackburn, who was United States Senator from Kentucky, 
1885-97 and 1901-07. After service in the Senate, Blackburn was. 
made Isthmian Canal Commissioner. 

The old-fashioned barbecue was attended by people from the entire 
countryside, who gathered to hear fiery political speeches and consume 
quantities of burgoo. This delectable concoction is still regarded as a 
requisite to every large gathering in Kentucky; no political campaign' 


can be launched or thoroughbred sale conducted without this as the 
main dish. Burgoo is a rich, thick soup or broth made with beef, 
chicken, and vegetables. Huge caldrons containing the highly seasoned 
mixture are fitted snugly over ditches in which wood fires have been 
built. Burgoo must be stirred continuously, and the process of making 
it requires 24 hours. 

There is a tradition that Gus Jaubert, a French member of Gen. 
John Morgan's cavalry, originated burgoo at a time when food was so 
scarce that all men but the officers had to eat blackbirds. He prepared 
a mixture with blackbirds as the main ingredient, and the story is that 
the officers, upon sampling the dish, liked it so much that very little 
was left for the troopers. 

The secret of the seasoning of burgoo was passed on by Jaubert to 
J. T. Looney, named the Burgoo King by Col. E. R. Bradley (see 
Lexington). Looney always prepared the burgoo served at Col. Brad- 
ley's annual Charity Day race meet, held for the benefit of Kentucky 
orphans. To honor Looney, Colonel Bradley gave this name to a colt 
that won the Kentucky Derby in 1932. 

GLEN ARTNEY (R), opposite Stone Wall, was for a time the home 
of Carry Moore (1846-1911), who, as Mrs. Carry Nation, became a 
notable prohibition crusader (see Tour 3). Her father, George Moore, 
owned the farm, called Lota Wana at the time. 

At 90.4 m. is the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16) ; between this 
point and VERSAILLES, 91.7 m. (923 alt., 200 pop.) (see Tour 16), 
US 62 and US 60 are united. 

At 91.9 m. is the junction with the McCoun's Ferry-Soards Ferry 

Right on this road to the SCOTT HOUSE, 7.1 m., built of logs in 1784 and now 
weatherboarded. This was the home of Gen. Charles Scott, Revolutionary soldier, 
commander of Kentucky troops in the War of 1812, and Governor of Kentucky 
(1808-12). The house was built on Kentucky River and was known as Scott's 

At 95.7 m. is the junction with the Shryock's Ferry Rd., hard-sur- 

Left on this road to Grier's Creek, 2 m., from which an unimproved road and 
a footpath wind up a high hill to the MULDROW HOUSE (open on request). This 
late Georgian Colonial style house, which has been much admired by architects, 
was built in 1817 by Col. Andrew Muldrow, a leading citizen of his day, who was 
by turns a miller, distiller, legislator, and churchman. Colonel Muldrow served in 
the Kentucky Legislature (1822-29). 

The graceful arched portico is reached by seven semicircular steps. The front 
door is flanked by. side lights and topped with a fan transom of frosted glass in 
scroll design. There are handsome Palladian windows on each side of the portico 
and in each end of the second story. The house is two rooms in depth with a 
central hall 20 feet wide; a kitchen is connected with the main house by an open 
passage. The carved woodwork of the interior, notably the chair rails, the man- 
tels in the two front rooms, and the arch that divides the hall with its twin reed 
columns and pilasters, are of unusually fine craftsmanship. The caps of the col- 

TOUR 14 355 

umns and pilasters are lightened by pierced work in graceful design; the trim of 
the arch, embellished with a classic egg-and-dart motif, stars, and dentils, is 
crowned with a reeded keystone. 

JOE BLACKBURN BRIDGE (toll 50<f), 97.7 m., spanning the Kentucky 
River, is a concrete structure 175 feet in height. The approaches are 
curved, giving it the appearance of a huge S. The bridge was dedicated 
in June 1932 and the name honors J. C. S. Blackburn, United States 
Senator (1885-97, 1901-07). It affords an exceptionally fine view of 
the river and palisades. 

The center of YOUNG'S HIGH BRIDGE (L), visible from the Joe 
Blackburn Bridge, is 265 feet above low water; the bridge is 1,665 
feet long and carries railroad tracks. 

TYRONE, 98.7 m. (120 pop.), named for County Tyrone in Ire- 
land, is primarily dependent on the T. B. RIPY DISTILLERY (L). 

LAWRENCEBURG, 101.8 m. (788 alt., 1,763 pop.), seat of Ander- 
son County, was named in honor of Capt. James Lawrence, commander 
of the Chesapeake, whose last words were "Don't give up the ship." 
It has wide, tree-shaded streets and comfortable homes with well-kept 
lawns. The ANDERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (L), with its tall clock 
tower, is constructed of local limestone and designed in the French 
Renaissance style. The first settler of Lawrenceburg was a Dutchman 
named Coffman, who arrived in 1776 with his family from western 
Pennsylvania. He built a double log house, which later served as a 
stopping point between Harrodsburg and Frankfort and became known 
as Coffman's Station. Lawrenceburg, incorporated in 1820, prospered 
early, chiefly by the production of fine whisky. 

The song "Oh, Mr. Johnson, Turn Me Loose" was written by Ben 
Harney while he was a prisoner in the Lawrenceburg jail. Harney's 
plea was meant for Jesse M. Johnson, the mayor. 

Lawrenceburg is at the junction with State 35 (see Tour 5). 

WALNUT GROVE FARM (open on request), 104 m., is a stock farm 
widely known for its saddle horses. 

SINAI, 111.6 m. (45 pop.), is the post office for the little settlement 
of Shiloh, called Dogwalk in pioneer days. The little community was 
renamed to commemorate the Battle of Shiloh. 

BLOOMFIELD, 132 m. (455 pop.), on Simpson Creek, was founded 
in 1799 by Dr. John Bemiss of Rochester, N.Y., but was not incor- 
porated until 1819. The section of the town lying on the western 
side of the dividing creek was known as Gandertown because in early 
days the young men in this region indulged in gander pulling. A post 
set in the ground had a revolving crossbar from which a gander with a 
soaped neck was suspended by the feet. The men, mounted on horse- 
back, rode at full speed past the post, attempting to seize the gander's 
neck as they went by. The prize was awarded to the contestant who 
succeeded in jerking off the head. 

The D. Y. DAVIS HOUSE (L), on Main St., built of brick and de- 
signed in the Georgian Colonial style, has a recessed doorway with 


hand-carved woodwork and silver doorknob. The MINOR HOUSE (R), 
on Main St., an unusual Georgian Colonial house with a recessed two- 
story portico, stands on an eminence overlooking Simpson Creek. The 
house, of brick painted white, was built in 1813. - 

WICKLAND (small fee), 142.5 m., known as the "Home of Three 
Governors," (R) stands among stately trees. The estate once belonged 
to Dr. Walter Brashear, the Bardstown and Lexington surgeon who 
performed the first successful hip-joint amputation of record. On 
moving to Lexington in 1813, Dr. Brashear sold the property to Charles 
A. Wickliffe, who at once built the present house on the designs of the 
architects John Marshall Brown and John Rogers, to whose skill Ken- 
tucky owes many of its fine old homes. 

The two-and-a-half -story house, has a low two-story ell and contains 
14 rooms. The foundation is of limestone and the walls are of locally 
burned brick. Especially noteworthy are the fine doorways with side 
lights and large fanlights, the hand-carved woodwork, and the carved 
mantels, showing in their decoration the Adam influence. A graceful 
stairway rises from the well-proportioned entrance hall. A wide window 
on the stairs offers an excellent vista of the rolling landscape. 

Charles A. Wickliffe, Governor of Kentucky (1830-40), was first of 
three Governors to reside here. The second was Robert Charles Wick- 
liffe, Governor of Louisiana in 1855, and one of the leading criminal 
lawyers of the South. The third Governor was John Cripps Wickliffe 
Beckham, grandson of Charles A. Wickliffe; he was born here, and 
was the chief executive of his State (1900-07). 

At 143.8 m. is the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15), which unites 
with US 62 between this point and Bardstown. 

BARDSTOWN, 144.1 m. (637 alt., 1,767 pop.) (see Tour 15), is at 
the junction with US 68 (see Tour 15) and US 3 IE (see Tour 6). 

West of Bardstown, US 62 proceeds gradually into the Knobs belt, 
a region of rounded hills. 

ELIZABETHTOWN, 170 m. (708 alt., 2,590 pop.) (see Tour 7), 
is at the junction with US 31W (see Tour 7). 

Section b. ELIZABETHTOWN to PADUCAH; 188,9 m., US 62 

US 62 turns (R) at the courthouse in ELIZABETHTOWN, m., 
and runs southwest through the Knobs. 

CLARKSON, 25.9 m. (356 pop.), is at the junction with State 88. 

Left from Clarkson on State 88 to GRAYSON SPRINGS, 2 m., a collection of 
numerous white sulphur springs that vary in temperature. 

LEITCHFIELD, 30.4 m. (635 alt., 950 pop.), was named for Maj. 
David Leitch, who owned the land on which this county seat was set- 
tled. Leitch's land was adjacent to a 5,000-acre tract claimed by 
George Washington. 

West of Leitchfield the land is much dissected by the tributaries of 

TOUR 14 357 

Rough and Nolin Rivers, the most crooked waterways in the State. 
The general course of the highway is over the watershed between these 
two streams. Along the roadside are coal mine workings. 
At 66.3 m. is the junction with State 71. 

Right on State 71 to HARTFORD, 4 m. (425 alt., 1,106 pop.), seat of Ohio 
County, on the bank of Rough River, surrounded by hills that rise 650 to 700 feet. 
At the time of its founding in 1790, Hartford was called Deer Crossing, from 
which "hart-ford" was evolved. The COMMERCIAL HOTEL in Hartford, established 
in 1797, was first known as the Lyon Inn. 

BEAVER DAM, 67.2 m. (1,036 pop.), is an important mining center 
of the western Kentucky coal fields. Excellent strawberries are grown 
in this region, and in early June at the close of the picking season 
Beaver Dam is the scene of an annual strawberry festival. 

A ferry (toll 50$) crosses the GREEN RIVER at 77 m. (good 
muskellunge fishing), the narrowest stream in the State that can be 
navigated for any distance by steamboats; six locks and dams provide 
a constant five-foot channel. Its stillness, deep color, and closely over- 
hanging trees produce a peaceful effect. It is believed that Green 
River was once a subterranean stream, and that through the ages the 
ceiling above wore away and caved in, bringing the stream to the sur- 
face. In this region have been found numerous shell mounds of a type 
exceedingly rare in Kentucky. 

At 77.4 m. is the junction with Paradise Rd., unimproved. 

Left on this road to the SITE OF AIRDRIE, 4 m., a ghost town. On the nar- 
row strip of land between Green River and the hill upon which Airdrie was built, 
is a vine-covered furnace stack among the cedars and sycamores. More than 50 
feet in height, the stone stack has a cylindrical section on a square base. Near by 
is the old fortlike, three-story machinery house of dressed sandstone, now without 
floors, roof, or window frames. On the wall is a stone bearing the legend, "Air- 
drie, 1855." Shaded by trees and covered with Virginia creeper are 60 stone steps 
on the SITE OF THE ALEXANDER HOUSE, destroyed by fire in 1907. 

Robert Alexander, founder of Airdrie, was born in Frankfort in 1819. He was 
educated in Scotland and, upon the death of his uncle, Sir William Alexander, suc- 
ceeded him to the title. Several years later Alexander came back to Kentucky and 
bought about 17,000 acres of land along this section of Green River, where a de- 
posit of ore had been discovered. Here he built an iron furnace, a mill, a large 
stone house, a hotel, and a number of houses for the iron workers that he had 
brought from Scotland. He called the place Airdrie, for his Scotch home. The 
venture was unprofitable, and, in 1857, Alexander abandoned the furnace and re- 
tired to his estate near Lexington. 

In 1866 Gen. Don Carlos Buell bought 1,000 acres of land, including the Airdrie 
furnace, to prospect for oil. He found more coal and iron than oil, however, and 
began to work those deposits. But freight rates on Green River, his only outlet, 
were so high that he also abandoned the works. Buell lived here until his death 
in 1898. 

West of the junction with Paradise Rd., US 62 continues through a 
comparatively desolate broken area, much dissected by the many small 
tributaries of Green River. 


CENTRAL CITY, 85.6 m. (462 alt., 4,321 pop.), a mining town 
in a basin among the hills, has an air of industrialism because of the 
smoke and noise from its railroad yards. The community was long 
known as Morehead's Horse Mill, having been built on land once 
owned by C. S. Morehead, who operated a gristmill propelled by horse 
power. After the building of the Illinois Central R.R. in 1870, the 
name was changed. 

At Central City is the junction with State 81. 

Right on State 81, which passes through a region -where large amounts of coal 
are produced. The ruins of many old furnaces are evidence that mining and the 
smelting of iron ore was formerly a flourishing industry here. 

BREMEN, 9 m. (255 pop.), is a community settled by German immigrants, who 
named it for the German seaport. 

In 1861 SACRAMENTO, 14 m. (327 pop.), was the scene of an engagement be- 
tween Confederate troops under Col. Nathan B. Forrest, and a company of Fed- 
erals under Capt. Robert G. Bacon. The Confederates were victorious. 

RUMSEY, 25 m. (392 alt., 262 pop.), mainly a residential village, is connected 
with Calhoun by the JAMES BETHEL GRESHAM MEMORIAL BRIDGE (toll 25$), which 
spans Green River and was named in honor of one of the first three American 
soldiers to fall in the World War. Gresham, a corporal in the 16th Infantry, was 
killed at Batelmont, France, on November 3, 1917. 

CALHOUN, 26 m. (392 alt., 683 pop.), seat of McLean County, on the north 
bank of Green River, was known as Fort Vienna in 1788, when it was founded by 
Solomon Rhoades. A granite marker (L) commemorates the SITE OF FORT VIENNA 
and indicates the hillside where the early settlers dug caves for refuge during In- 
dian attacks. 

John Calhoun, for whom the town was named, was the first circuit judge of 
old Fort Vienna, and United States Congressman for one term (1835-39). 

Right 8 m. from Calhoun on State 138 to LIVERMORE (1,573 pop.), on the 
north bank of Green River. Logs are rafted down to Livermore for use by two 
chair factories. The industry exists also on a home production basis, and new 
rattan-bottom chairs are displayed on porches and in the yards of many dwellings. 

South of Central City, US 62 traverses a country of scrub timber, 
denuded hillsides, and areas heavily brush-grown. There are many 
small coal mines along the highway; one of them, now abandoned, is 
the Dovey Mine. To it in the summer of 1881 came a stranger, appar- 
ently in search of employment. He casually inquired as to when the 
railroad pay train was due in Central City, was informed that it had 
passed through the morning before, and that William Dovey, who had 
gone for the money, would return some time during the night. The 
next morning three strangers appeared at the Dovey store. Two of 
them stood outside as guards ; the third, with cocked pistol, entered the 
building and demanded the contents of the safe. Their holdup was 
successful, but because William Dovey had been delayed in bringing 
back the pay-roll money, the only loot was $13 in cash and a gold 
watch engraved with John Dovey 's name. When Jesse James was 
killed a year later, the Dovey watch was among the things found in 
James' possession and was returned to its owner. 

GREENVILLE, 93.1 m. (538 alt., 2,451 pop.), is the seat of Muhlen- 
berg County, named for Gen. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (1746- 

TOUR 14 359 

1807), a Lutheran minister of Virginia, who left his pulpit at the be- 
ginning of the Revolutionary War to become a military officer. Al- 
though General Muhlenberg made two trips to Kentucky in 1784, he 
never visited the section that bears his name. Greenville is the un- 
official capital of the Black Belt, an area that produces a large quantity 
of coal and most of the State's output of dark tobacco. Substantial 
dwellings with wide verandas and spacious, shady lawns reflect the 
leisure of the retired farmers who live here. 

The WEIR HOUSE, 206 Main St., a two-story brick structure, built 
in the early 1840's, incorporates many Georgian Colonial features. Its 
entrance has an especially fine fanlight and side lights containing the 
greenish glass that was in common use when this house was built. The 
HENRY C. LEWIS HOUSE, a two-story Georgian Colonial style structure, 
was erected for the Presbyterian Academy in 1852 and used by it until 
1873. In 1856 this school was placed under the supervision of Dr. 
James K. Patterson, who subsequently became president of the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky. The Greenville school district now owns and 
uses the two large brick buildings that formerly housed Greenville 
College, a school that flourished from 1875 to 1890. 

At 93.6 m. is the junction with State 107. 

Left on this road to the RUINS OF BUCKNER FURNACE, 5 m., erected in 1837 by 
Aylette H. Buckner, father of Gen. Simon B. Buckner (see Tour 7), to refine the 
surface iron ore of southern Muhlenberg County. A pile of dressed rock in a 
thicket is all that remains of the stack, which stood intact until 1907, when it was 
dynamited by people seeking the iron that remained in it. The stack, a conical 
tower 80 feet high, 40 feet wide at the base, and 25 feet across the top, had a 
double wall of sandstone, hooped with six iron bands. To the north of the stack 
were the cabins of Buckner's miners and wood choppers, but all traces of these 
have now disappeared. 

The three large stone chimneys about 300 yards east of the stack are the ruins 
of the two-story log house used by Buckner as a residence, office, and store. It is 
said that it took three yoke of oxen to haul Buckner's private library from Glen 
Lily (see Tour 7) in Hart County to this place. Opposite the southern end of the 
house in the hillside was the stone milk house over a spring. The spring still 
flows from under the crumbling walls. 

West of Greenville there is a gradual improvement in the quality of 
the farm lands and the character of farm buildings. 

On the bank of POND RIVER (R), 104.5 m., near the highway 
bridge, is a ledge of rock bearing the imprint of horses' hoofs. Sections 
of this rock have been taken to the St. Louis Museum. 

NORTONVILLE, 111.5 m. (429 alt., 829 pop.), a coal-mining com- 
munity, is on the site (R) of a prehistoric village from which many 
artifacts have been recovered. These have been widely scattered, but 
good specimens are preserved in the museum of the University of Ken- 
tucky (see Lexington). 

Nortonville is at the junction with US 41 (see Tour 8). 

DAWSON SPRINGS, 125.7 m. (436 alt., 2,311 pop.), on the west- 
ern edge of the coal fields, has noted mineral springs and resort hotels. 


At the southern edge of Dawson Springs is a fine view of the meander- 
ing Trade water River. 

Left from Dawson Springs on State 109 to DAWSON SPRINGS STATE PARK, 
3 m. This 500-acre tract, which has been reforested, includes a custodian's lodge, 
water system, trails, bridges, shelter houses, picnic areas, and improved roads. 

In OUTWOOD, 4 m., is the UNITED STATES VETERANS HOSPITAL (open daily 9-4), 
in a densely wooded reservation of 5,000 acres. The 27 modern buildings, chiefly 
of brick, stone trimmed, occupy a landscaped plot of about 20 acres. These were 
erected at a cost of approximately $2,250,000. Reforestation and the reclamation 
of eroded tracts has been carried on. 

West of Dawson Springs US 62 crosses the Tradewater River. 

PRINCETON, 137.8 m. (484 alt., 4,764 pop.), an industrial and 
retail center and the seat of Caldwell County, is widely known for its 
beautiful tree-shaded streets and well-kept old homes. Fluor-spar min- 
ing is carried on in the vicinity. Underneath the town flows a sub- 
terranean stream that is the town's water supply. At BIG SPRING 
BOTTOMS, two blocks from the courthouse, the stream comes to the 
surface, and here the first settlers built their rude log cabins. 

On county court day (see Tour 4), held the third Monday of each 
month, the streets are filled with county folk visiting and trading. A 
farmer was once heard to remark that in "his best trading days" he 
had often taken a horse or mule to Jockey Street, "swapped around a 
spell," and at evening had gone home with the same animal and $100. 

West of Princeton, tobacco fields dominate a countryside in which 
are some coal mines and old workings. 

The old FLOURNOY HOUSE (R), 138.1 m., a two-story frame dwell- 
ing of eight or nine rooms, has been unoccupied for nearly 20 years, 
but is kept in excellent condition. It was built early in the nineteenth 
century by the first of the Flournoys to settle here. Though weird 
stories of ghosts in the house began to circulate in 1890, the site and 
the splendid construction of the building attracted buyers who scoffed 
at "hants" but never remained long. Several groups of the most skep- 
tical persons in the community each determinedly spent a night in the 
house but never cared to repeat the experience. Some asserted that 
they had heard the rattling of chains and soft footfalls that approached 
and passed; others insisted that they had heard the slow music of a 
funeral march. Verses were written in blue crayon on the walls by 
unseen hands. The verses were always about battles of the War be- 
tween the States, the Spanish-American War, and the assassination of 
Gov. William Goebel. During the gubernatorial election of 1899 (see 
History) William Goebel, Democratic contestant, had been shot by an 
assassin whose identity was never learned. Among the doggerel that 
appeared on the walls was: 

Remember the Maine 

Goebel the same, 

A humble man of moral ways, 

TOUR 14 361 

Lies murdered in his greatest days. 

As long as they stand these walls proclaim 

The glory of his shining name. 

Who disturbs these lines shall find 

The bounty of this curse in rhyme . . . 

Chains shall bind thee, bats shall tear 

Out your eyes, nest in your hair: 

Oh guard thee well these thoughts of mine, 

Ye haunts that lived in Goebel's time. 

EDDYVILLE, 150.7 m. (436 alt., 1,990 pop.), seat of Lyon County, 
on the bank of the Cumberland River, was so named because of eddies 
in the river above and below the city. 

The STATE PENITENTIARY (visited by application 9-3 daily), often 
referred to by prisoners as the Castle on the Cumberland, has a grim, 
feudal appearance accentuated by the central entrance tower and the 
stone wall that encloses 12 of the 37 acres in the prison tract. The 
old stone structure received its first prisoners in 1885. Since then 
several wings have been added, including two cell blocks, a mess hall, 
and in 1938 a recreational center. Between 1911 to 1935, 84 prisoners 
were electrocuted here. In May 1938 the prison held 1,473 convicts. 

KUTTAWA, 153.4 m. (436 alt., 833 pop.), is chiefly remembered 
for the beautiful trees that border the highway. 

Right from Kuttawa on State 93 to the ruins of KELLY'S IRON FURNACE, 1 m., 
where William Kelly (1811-88) invented the air -boiling process, later known as the 
Bessemer process of making steel. Kelly was born in Pennsylvania and about 1846 
settled in Eddy ville where he engaged in the iron business ; here he accidentally dis- 
covered the revolutionary process of converting pig and cast iron into steel, but 
because of insufficient blast pressure he was only partly successful in making steel. 
From 1851 to 1856 he built experimental converters and worked secretly; through 
his tests he learned that when an air blast blew directly on the molten iron a 
greater heat was produced as a result of the more rapid decarbonization of the 
cast iron. Although his family and friends feared he was losing his mind, and at- 
tempted to persuade him to abandon his work, two Englishmen, whom Kelly had 
hired to assist in the experiments, greatly encouraged him. He therefore concealed 
nothing from them. When both Englishmen, who were familiar with his processes, 
disappeared one night, Kelly traced them to Pennsylvania, then to New York, 
where he learned that they had taken passage to England. In 1856 Sir Henry 
Bessemer of England was granted a United States patent on the perfected process. 
Upon hearing this, Kelly also applied for a patent and convinced patent officials of 
the priority of his process. On June 23, 1857, he was granted the patent and de- 
clared the original inventor. Fourteen years later Kelly's patent was renewed for 
seven years, while Bessemer was refused a renewal. 

The contest between Kelly and Bessemer was settled by the formation of a 
corporation that united an ironworks company near Detroit, which manufactured 
iron under Kelly's process, with another in Troy, New York, which used Bes- 
semer's patents. Kelly retired soon afterward, and only Bessemer's name be- 
came identified with the process. 

KUTTAWA MINERAL SPRINGS PARK (amusement charges 5$ to 25$), 2m., 
is a well-shaded tract of 165 acres. Kuttawa's seven springs produce crystal-clear 
tasteless mineral water. Within the park are a hotel, cafe, cabins, open-air audi- 
torium, tennis courts, ballground, and a swimming pool that is supplied with water 


from the spring at the rate of 150,000 gallons a day. A D.A.R. monument near 
the hotel commemorates Cobb's Battery, an artillery organization prominent in 
the War between the States. 

At IUKA, 160.9 m. (381 alt., 55 pop.), US 62 crosses the Cumber- 
land River by ferry (toll 50$) and passes through the narrow hilly 
strip of land that forms a watershed between the Cumberland and Ohio 
Rivers. Here tobacco and corn are the chief products. 

Between SMITHLAND, 172.8 m. (286 alt., 519 pop.) (see Tour 
16), and Paducah, US 62 and US 60 are one route (see Tour 16b). 

PADUCAH, 188.9 m. (341 alt., 33,541 pop.) (see Paducah). 

Points of Interest: Paduke Statue, Tilghman Memorial, Irvin Cobb Hotel, Mc- 
Cracken County Courthouse, Noble Park, Marine Ways, Brazelton House, Illinois 
Central House. 

Paducah is at the junction with US 60 (see Tour 16), US 68 (see 
Tour 15), and US 45 (see Tour 9). 

Tour 15 

( Aberdeen, Ohio ) Maysville Lexington Harr odsburg B ardstown 
Hodgenville Cave City Bowling Green Paducah; US 68. 
Ohio Line to Paducah, 381.8 m. 

Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels this route between Maysville and Lexington 
and between Cave City and Paducah. 
Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout. 
Accommodations chiefly in towns. 

Section a. OHIO LINE to LEXINGTON; 63.8 m. US 68 

Between the Ohio and the Licking Rivers, US 68 follows an old 
buffalo trail that was used by Simon Kenton and other early travelers. 
It was known as Smith's Wagon Road, because in the summer of 1783 
a Lexington man named Smith took a wagon over it for the first time. 
The route by 1816 was a part of a national post road between Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, and Florence, Ala. 

New scenes unfold along the way at almost every turn. From the 
hills along the Ohio River there is a gradual transition to the rolling 
bluegrass meadows, where the farms are larger and the houses, stand- 
ing back from the road at the end of avenues bordered with fine old 
trees, are more spacious. Along the roadside are stone fences, some- 
times old and crumbling but usually, in the Bluegrass region, trim and 

TOUR 15 363 

smooth. Behind them splendid stallions or complacent mares with 
their long-legged colts graze under tall oaks. Stretching for miles along 
the highway in the vicinity of Lexington, the Bluegrass capital, are 
broad estates with stately pillared mansions the property of some of 
the leading horse breeders and racers of America. 

US 68 crosses the Ohio Line, m., at the edge of Aberdeen, Ohio 
(see Ohio Tour 23), passing over the Ohio River on a bridge (toll 25$). 

MAYSVILLE, 0.2 m. (448 alt., 6,557 pop.), as seen from the Ohio 
side of the river, resembles an Italian hill town, having been built on 
the steep slope of the riverbank, terrace on terrace, with gray walls and 
red roofs against a green background. The town, at the mouth of Lime- 
stone Creek, on a narrow flood plain, is leisurely and mellow, preserving 
the atmosphere of the old river days. Many of the handsome well- 
kept homes, on the sides of the bluffs, command a wide view of the 
sweeping bends of the river and the green hills and fields of southern 
Ohio. The town, first known as Limestone, was established by the 
Virginia Legislature in 1787, and by 1792, had become the leading 
port of entry of the State "well laid out and flourishing." Maysville's 
wealth was not in its land-property, but in the steamers on the river 
and the traffic they brought to it; and its industrial activity was en- 
tirely confined to shipping and ship building. In those days mer- 
chandise came down the Ohio on barges to Maysville and most of it 
was hauled into central Kentucky, where the settlements were. The 
town changed its name from Limestone to Maysville to honor John 
May of Virginia, on whose land it had grown up. 

At one time, probably in the spring of 1786, Daniel Boone and his 
wife opened a tavern here. They remained for three years, Mrs. Boone 
conducting the hostelry, while Daniel hunted and trapped as usual, and 
traded up and down the Ohio. 

Maysville has been the seat of Mason County since 1848, when the 
growth of river traffic caused it to forge ahead of Washington, the first 
county seat. 

The MASON COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Court and 3d Sts., is an imposing 
building, erected in 1838. It was built as a city hall and served as 
such until 1848, when the seat of county government was moved to 
this place. The clock in the tower of the building, made by a black- 
smith of Flemingsburg, Kentucky, in 1850, was constructed almost 
entirely of wood and is still in good condition. 

The small one-story brick building at the corner of 2d and Wall Sts. 
was the FIRST MAYSVILLE THEATER. John Palmer, in Travels in the 
United States in 1817, said that the building was adequate but "the 
scenery and performance were miserable." Junius Booth and many 
other important actors trod its boards. 

The PUBLIC LIBRARY, Sutton St., contains a curio room in which are 
kept many relics of early settlers. Back of the library is the town's 
first graveyard. 

As a boy, Ulysses S. Grant attended the Rand and Richardson School 


here for one year. The library has a minute book of the school debat- 
ing society bearing his name. In his memoirs he speaks of making 
frequent trips to this place during his youth from his home at George- 
town, Ohio, 17 miles away. 

The COCHRAN HOUSE, 16 W. 3d St., the home of Federal Judge 
A. M. J. Cochran, was built in 1838 by Judge Cochran's grandfather, 
Andrew McConnell. The two-story building is constructed of brick 
with stepped gable ends and a smal