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Full text of "Keramic studio"

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Keramic Studio 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE FOR THE 

POTTER, DECORATOR AND 

CRAFTSMAN 



Volume Ten 

MAY 1908 to APRIL 1909 INCLUSIVE 



KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO. 

SYRACUSE N. Y. 



{All %ights -lieserved) 



XlA-i'^^ 



RERAMIC STUDIO- Index 

NATURALISTIC 



MAY 1908 

Fleur-de-lis, photograph by Helen Pattee 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit photograph by do 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit, photograph by do 

Fleur-de-lis Amy F. Dalrymple.. 

Pittosi)orutri Edith Alma Ross 

Fleur-de-lis, photograph by Helen Pattee 

JULY 190S 

Yellow Colic Root Alice Willits 

Virginia or Common Day Flower 
Pink Flower and Mexican Primrose 
Light \'iolets Flower Xo. 2 . 

While Flower No. 1 
White Flower No. 2 

False Dragon Head 

Iris Prismatica 

Light Violet Flower No. 1.. 

Carolina \'etch 

Dee]) \"iolet Flower No. 3 



Partridge Pea 
Texas Star 



do 
do 
do 

do 
do 
do 
do 
do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

AUGUST 190S 



Cherries Maud E. Hulbert... 

Hydrangea Panel Hannah Overbeck 

Maple Leaves 

Snap Dragon 

\'erbena 



Mariam L. Candler 

Maud E. Hulbert 

,. Ida M. Ferris 

SEPTEMBER 1908 

Henrietta Barclay Paist.. 

do 

Freezia Edith Alma Ross 

Peaches Sarah Reid McLaughlin.. 

OCTOBER 1908 



Apples 
Strawberries 



Wistaria Panel 

Raspberries 

Cherries 

Currants 

Decorati\e Panel, Grapes 

Pen Studies of Grapes 

Daisy and Narcissus 

Bouncing Bets 

White Asters 



Henrietta Barclay Paist.. 
Maud E. Hulbert 

do 

do 

Frank Ferrell 

Alice Witte Sloan 

.Patty Thuin 

Edith Alma Ross 

Maud E. Hulbert 



NOVEMBER 1908 

Nasturtiums Henrietta Barclay Paist.. 

Borders, Elderberries Ida M. Ferris 

Elderberries do 

Baneberry and White Lilies Edith Alma Ross 

\\'ild Cucumber Mary Burnett 



PAGE 
3 
5 

9 
13 

14 

18 

53 
55 
50 
57 
59 
61 
62 
62 
63 
64 
65 
67 
68 
71 

75 
77 
85 
89 
90 

103 
108 
109 
113 

125 
130 
131 
131 
132 
132 
137 
138 
141 



149 
149 
151 
155 
158 



Cup and saucer Edith Alma Ross . 

Virginia Creeper Maud E. Hulbert 

Pittosporum and Haws Edith Alma Ross.. . 

DECEMBER 1908 

Poppies Charles Wiard 

Poppies (color plates) Mary Louise Davis. 



PAGE 
160 
161 
163 



do 

Ida M. Ferris 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 
do 

Edith Alma Ross 

Henrietta Barclay Paist. 



Poppy 

Crabapples 

Grapes 

Haws 

Holly 

Poppy 

Detail Drawings of Poppies Mary Louise Davis 

Mountain Ash Henrietta Barclay Paist.. 

JANUARY 1909 

Dahlia .Study Maud E. Hulbert 

Narcissus Henrietta Barclay Paist . 

Detail Drawings of Dahlias Maud E. Hulbert 

Cherries Paul Putzki 

Matrimony Vine -. Edith Alma Ross 

Choke Cherries do 



167 

.170, 175, 178 
171 

173 

181 

184 

184 

185 

186 

187 



FEBRUARY 1909 

White Hawthorne Henrietta Barclay Paist ." 

Working designs for supplement Matilda Middleton and May 

McCrystle 

Orange Lilies Hannah Overbeck 

MARCH 1909 

Study of Peanut Alice Willits Donaldson 

Peaches Edith Alma Ross 

Study of Snowball in Grey Greens Alice B. Sharrard 

Study of Mullein Hannah Overbeck 

Fruit Plate Emma A. Ervin 

Crabapples Henrietta Barclay Paist 

Study of Fish in Greens Henrietta Barclay Paist 



193 
195 
196 
197 
202 
203 



215 

224 
225 



237 
240 
241 

241 
242 
243 

245 

Tomato Plates Jeanne M. Stewart 246, 247, 248 

Lonicera or Honeysuckle Edith Alma Ross 250 

Detail Drawings of Devil's Paint Brush. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 250 

Chrysanthemums Blanche Van Court Schneider.. 254 

Thistles Austin Rosser 255 



APRIL 1909. 

Nasturtium (photograph) Helen Pattee 

Nasturtiums Mrs. Motz 

Details of Magnolia Fig Alice Willits Donaldson. 

Magnolia Fig do 

Study of Cotton do 

Petunias Mary Burnett 

Fleur-de-lis Alice Willits Donaldson. 

Study of Plums Paul Putzki 



259 
263 
264 
265 
266 
269 
275 
276 



CONVENTIONAL 



MAY 1908 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit Design for Plate Henrietta Barclay Paist.. 

Mustard Pot in Gold, Ivory and Grey Charles Babcock 

Rose design for Salad Plate in Pink, 

Grey and Gold Alice B. Sharrard 

Salad Bowl in Pink, Grey and Gold do 

Bowl Lucia Jordan 

Cup and Saucer Charles Babcock 



JUNE 1908 

Landscape Teapot Stand Caroline Hofman 

Salad Bowl Elizabeth Mason 

Bowl, Flower Motif do 

Cup and Saucer, and design for Salt and 

Pepper May McCrystle . 

Tea Jar, Crocus Motif Jetta Ehlers 

Tankard, Conventional Grape Motif... do 

Pitcher Helen Walsh 

Tea Jar do 



12 
23 



26 
27 



28 
28 
29 
31 
33 



Plate and Border Anna B Leonard 

Plate, Narcissus Henrietta Barclay Paist.... 

Jar, Dragon Fly do 

Bowl Design S. Evannah Price 

Bowl Border and Plate Charlotte KroU 

Plate, Chinese Design Matilda Middleton 

Plate - Margaret E. Armstrong 

Vases ; Edith Penman 

Chocolate Pitcher Elizabeth Hardenbergh 

Platycodon Design for Panel of Jar Mary M. Hicks 

Bowl F. M. Scammell 

Plate Design Alida Lovett 

Rose Design for Plate Dorothea Warren 

Bowl Joanna M. Hibler 

Bird Designs for Placques Mrs. Hoyt 

Jardiniere in Violet and Purple Minna Meinke 

JULY 1908 
Bowl, Virginia or Common Day Flower 

design Adelaide Alsop-Robineau.. 



33 
35 
35 
36 
37 
38 
40 
41 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
44 
47 
48 



54 



RERAMIC STUDIO— Index ']\l 



CONVENTIONAL— Corz/rnuec/ 






Chocolate Pot with Motif of White 

Flower No. 1 Adelaide Alsop-Robineau.. 

Plate Design from Study, of White 

Flower No. 2 Adelaide Alsop-Robineau.. 

Bowl Design, Milk Pea Motif Adelaide Alsop-Robineau.. 

Peppers and Salts Adelaide Alsop-Robineau.. 

AUGUST 1908 

Hydrangea Design for Bowl Hannah Overbeck 

Border Designs, Hydrangea do 

Plate in Grey Blues Oreon Page Wilson 

Border Design in Greys E. Chadeayne.. 

SEPTEMBER 1908 

Butterfly Border A. F. Dalrymple 

Design for Porridge Bowl Carl F. Groveman 

Suggestions for "All Over" Patterns for 

Ceramic Decoration 

Decorative Landscape Henrietta Barclay Paist... 

Puff Box and Cover Alice B. Sharrard 

Comb and Brush Tray do 

Child's Bowl Marie Crilley Wilson 

Scrub Pine Bowl Jessie Underwood 

Water Lily Plate Edith Alma Ross 

OCTOBER 1908 



PAGE 

58 

60 
64 
66 

77 
78 
88 
89 

101 
102 

105 
106 
106 
107 
108 
108 
112 



Persian Plate (South Kensington Muse- 
um) copy by Dorothea Warren 127 

Six Plates in Japanese Design Emma A. Ervin 128-129 

Conventionalized Butterfly Borders Charles Babcock 136 

Cup Design, Bouncing Bets Motif Hannah Overbeck 139 

Beetle Design for Large Bowl Chas Babcock 139 

Vase Design in Olive Browns Henrietta Barclay Paist 140 

Child's Mug Jessie LTnderwood 140 

NOVEMBER 1908 

Border, Pine Cone Motif Jessie Underwood 144 

Steins Helen Smith 146 

Teapot Design Anne L. B. Cheney 147 

Tile Designs for Underglaze Painting. Ruth Kentner 147 

Mayonnaise Bowl Helen K. Taylor 148 

Salad Plate Marie Crilley Wilson 153 

Six Plates in Japanese Design (con't)..Emma A. Ervin 156-157 

Vase D. M. Campana 158 

Child's Plate and Pitcher (Geese) Marie Crilley Wilson 159 

Holly Cup and Saucer Alice Witte Sloan 162 



DECEMBER 1908 

Poppy Bowl Mary Louise Davis.^ 

Poppy Plate do 

Grape Steins Luella R. DeLano... 

Designs for Fruit Plates Catherine Osia 

Poppy Plate Mary Louise Davis,. 



174 
179 
180 
180' 
182 



Fruit Borders Alice B. Sharrard 

Poppy Design for Plate Henrietta Barclay Paist. 

Tea Pot (Raffia Handle), Sugar and 

Creamer Ina C. Britton 

Tobacco Jar and Tea Caddies Ruth C. Kentner 



PAGE 
185 
186 



188 
189 



JANUARY 1909 

Steins Helen Smith 198 

Tree Design for Vase in Over or Under- 
glaze Frances G. Hazel wood 199 

CofTee Set, Rose Motif Henrietta Barclay Paist 200-201 

Vase, Dandelion Motif lone Wheeler 202 

Detail Drawings and Conventionaliza- 
tions, Asters Mary Louise Davis 204 

Landscape Ophelia Foley 205 

Six Plates in Japanese Design Emma A. Ervin 206-207 

Plate Design Helen B. Smith 211 

Bowl Design, Dandelion Motif \'irginia Mason 211 

Bowl Border Edith Alma Ross. . 212 

Golden Rod Design for Tea Pot Stand. Elsie Duden 212 

FEBRUARY 1909 



Conventionalizations of Peacock 

Feathers Drucilla Paist 

Figure Tile Alice E. Woodman.. 

Conventional Peacock Feathers Alice E. Woodman 

Peacock Pattern for Tiles do 

Peacock Pattern for Tile Virginia Mason 

Peacock Medallions Alice E. Woodman. 

Peacock Designs for Vase or Stein C. Bridwell 

Plate, Peacock Feather motif Edith Alma Ross 



226 
227 
228-229 
230 
230 
231 
232 
233 



MARCH 1909 

Designs for Coffee Pot, Cup and Saucer. Evelyn Beachy 238-239 

Design for Plate do 244 

Steins Helen Smith 249 

APRIL 1909 

Six Plates in Japanese Design Emma A. Ervin 260-261 

262 

267 

268 

26S 



Nasturtium Borders Mr. Motz 

Design for Vase Virginia Mann 

Cup and Saucer May McCrystle 

Mayonnaise Bowl Helen K. Taylor 

Details and conventionalizations of 

the Nasturtium Hannah Overbeck 

Salad Bowl in Nasturtiums Anne Tyler Korn 

Border for Punch Bowl Anna B, Leonard 

Iris Design for Tile Virginia Mann 

Iris Design for Cylindrical Vase Virginia Mann 

Design for plate Evelyn Beachey 

Stein, Nasturtium Hannah Overbeck 

Tea Tile in \'i(ilet and Green Elsie Duden 



270 



271 



.1 o 

?74 



MISCELLANEOUS 



MAY 1908 



Hap])y Study Hours The Hapjjy Worker 

Exhibition of the Newark Society of 

Keramic Arts 4-0 

History of the Newark Club 7 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes (con't) I,(]uis I'mnchet 10-12 

Lancastrian Lustre Pottery in Uic 

Mctro])olitan Museum of Art 

Design for Ihe Decoration of China (3d 

paper) CaroliiU' lh)riiian 



UNI'", I9()S 

llrilxil 1. Hull, M, I> 



Appreciation of I'^orni 

Marhleliead I'otlery 

Tile Decorative Treatuient of Tiir 

Mantels Maiy C. .Saulei 

Modeling at tile Y.W.C. A. Art Sclinol 

Moiiograins vSara Wood SalToi 

List of Members of New Vorl< Society of 

Keramic Arts 



Underglaze Gold Charles Xolkiuar.. 

r)_Q Tlfe ■ Development of Polyolironiatic 
l']-\terior Glaze Decoration 



1 I 
15-17 



JULY HH)> 

Design foi the Decoration of China (,ltli 

papei ) Caiolinc llol'nian 



AUGUST 1>H)S 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes (con'l),.. l.ouis iM.uioliet 

l{xliil)itioii of National League of Min- 
eral PaiiUeis 

2ti l{xliihition of Kansas City Keramic 
30 lil Chill 

I'Muluiion ol HulTalo Society of .Min 

,'i2 I'l.il r.iinU'i-^ 

;i 1 IvsliiUiiiou I'l' (.■liic.ii;o Ceramic An .U 
li'.i socialion 

Design for the Pecoiation of China i,.">ili 
15 papei") . Caroline Hofman 



16 

lo i: 



74-76 77 
79 SO 
SO M 
M >J 
.><3 ^1 
NO "^7 



-^ ' ■ - IT I 11 ' 



riEKAMIC STUDIO—Index 

MISCELLANEOUS— Continued 



SEPTEMBER 1908 



PAGE 



PAGE The Artistic Decoration of Grand Feu 



98-100 



Studies in Flesh Painting L. Vance Phillips 

Edelweiss (Figure) A. Seiffert 

Design for the Decoration of China (6th 

pajier) Caroline Hofnian 104-105 

"Spotting" as Motif in China Decora- 
tion Martha Feller King 110-111 

OCTOBER 1908 

Bernard Palissy 

\'intat;e Carl J. Blenner 

Design for the Decoration of China (7th 

paper) Caroline Hofnian 133-134 

Tiles 134-135 

NOVEMBER 1908 

Swedish Model Carl J. Blenner 145 

China and Glassware of the Balkans Felix J. Koch 150-156 

Painting in Underglaze Frank Ferrell 160 

DECEMBER 1908 

Keramic and Other Arts of the Persians. Randolph I. Geare 166-169 

Hajjpy Study Hours 172-176-177 

JANUARY 1909 



Gres Louis Franchet 192-194 

99 Chinese Porcelains in the National Mu- 
seum Waldon Fawcett 



.208-210 



FEBRUARY 1909 

The Decoration of Artistic Grand Feu 

Gres (continued) Louis Franchet 214—216 

122-128 Tl^^ Richmond, Indiana, Class in Design 217-221 

123 Ceramics at the National Society of 

Craftsmen Exhibition 222-223 

MARCH 1909 

The Decoration of Grand Feu Gres 

(continued) Louis Franchet 226-245 

Ceramics at the Art Institute, Chicago 251—253 



APRIL 1909 

Pottery Class F. H. Rhead 

X. Y. S. K. A. Exhibition 

Decoration of Grand Feu Gres (con't).. Louis Franchet 
Los Angeles Keramic Club Exhibition 



The Maiolica of Mexico.. 



191 Xg\y Sevres Soft Porcelain. 



257 

257 

258-262 

264 

276 



MAY 1908 

Making of a Metal Box (continued) Edmund B. Rolfe 

Art in Pewter (continued) Jules Brateau 

Exhibition of Handicrafts in Brooklyn 

JULY 1908 

Making of a Metal Box (concluded) Edmund B. Rolfe 
Handicraft Exhibition at Greenwich 

House 



THE CRAFTS 



19-21 
21-23 
23-24 



69-70 



Guild of Book ^^'orkers 



AUGUST 1908 

^^'ork of the Students of Pratt Institute, 

Brooklyn, . 

Y. \V. C. A. Art Exhibition 



91-93 
93-95 



SEPTEMBER 1908 
70 Art in Pewter (continued) Jules Brateau 11-1—119 



COLOR SUPPLEMENTS 



Jack-in-the-Pulpit Nancy Beyer May 1908 Color Plates 

Hydrangea Maud M. Mason June 190S' Narcissus 

Texas Wild Flower Alice Willits July 1908 Plate 

Hollyhocks Paul Putzki August 1908 Peacock Plate 

Yellow Rose Spray Sara \\'ood Safford September 1908 Blackberries . 

Wistaria F. B. Aulich October 1908 Cotton 

Daisies Ida M. Ferris November 1908 



Mary Louise Davis December 1908 

Teana McLennan January 1909 

May McCrystle / 

Tr .ij Ai-jji . V February 1909 

Matilda Middleton... .) 

Jeanne M. Stewart March 1909 

Alice Willits Donaldson April 1909 




^^ 




The entire tontents of this Magaeine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted 'without special permission 

CONTENTS FOR MAY 1908 



— -*-iiSB«Boaas^~-*-^ 



Editorial Notes 

League and Stadio Notes 

Happy Study Hours 

Fleur de lis 

Jack in the pulpit — design for plate 

Jack in the pblpit design (Color Supplement) 

Exhibition of the Newark Society of Keramic Arts 

History of the Newark Society of Keramic Arts 

Jack in the pulpit 

Mustard Pot in gold and ivory 

Salad Plate and Bowl 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes — continued. 

Lancastrian Lustre Pottery 

Bowl 

Fleur de lis 

Pittosporum 

Design for the Decoration of China — 3d paper 

Fleur de lis 

The Crafts 

Making of a Metal Box — continued 
Art in Pewter — continued 
Exhibition of Handicraft in Brooklyn 

Design for Cup and Saucer 

Answers to Correspondents 



H. B. Paist (from photo by Helen Pattee) 
H. B. Paist 
Nancy Beyer 

Mrs. W. L. Smith 
Helen Pattee 
C. Babcock 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Louis Franchet 

Lucia Jordan 
Amy F. Dah-ymple 
Edith Alma Ross 
Caroline Hofman 
Photo by Helen Pattee 

E. B. Rolfe 
Jules Brateau 



PAGE 

I 

I 

2-3 

3 

4 

4 

4-7 

7 

5 and 9 

7 

8 

10-12 

n 

12 
13 
14 
15-17 
18 

19-21 

2J-23 

23 

23 

24 






X 



IK 



A REQUEST 

We desire to get an expression of opinion from our subscribers and inquirers 
on the subject of a new magazine which we are about to publish, devoted to WATER 
COLORS, OIL, PASTEL, CHARCOAL AND PENQL, AND CRAFTS; in fact, we want to 
know how much support we will get from teachers and students. 

It will be edited along practical lines similar to that of KERAMIC STUDIO, 
will have technical treatments of each study and also contain a color supplement, 
either landscape, figure or study of still life which will be d. great interest to teachers 
of art and undoubtedly of great assistance to them in their lessons. 

It is our purpose to have it strongly edited in all departments. 

Do you know of five or more of your friends who might become subscribers to 
such a magazine? If so please send us their names and addresses and we in return will 
send you one of our "color studies for the china painter." To avoid duplication kindly 
state your first and second choice. The Blackberry study by Miss Stewart is out of print. 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

The first number will be issued in October; price same as Keramic Studio — $4 
per year. Send in your order now, same to be due in September. The two in 
combination, $7. 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Our Latest 

Combination 

Offer 

Keramic Studio 
$4.00 

Second Rose Book 
$3.00 

Fruit Book 

$3.00 

All for $9.00 

POSTPAID 



»;x»;»;xxK»^xi8[X3<»^xxxxxxxx»:»^ !}»»«x»;»!X»:!^£Kik»[ 



Vol, X. No. I 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



May, 1908 




ODAY we are wishing ourselves 
and our subscribers "Many Happy 
returns of the Day." With the 
May anniversary number Ker- 
AMic Studio enters on its tenth 
year. We are promising ourselves 
that the next year shall show a 
steady advance over the past. 
One new feature of the coming 
year will be the transferring of 
the Crafts department to the new 
practical magazine for the art student and crafts worker 
which will be issued the first of October. Keramic Studio 
will then be devoted entirely to ceramics, the space at pres- 
ent occupied by Crafts being devoted to the Happy Study 
Hours department and other subjects connected with cer- 
amic work. Several special numbers are in preparation. 
Among these is a sei-ies devoted to the flowers of different 
states. The Texas wild flower number by Miss Willits will 
be the first of these, followed by "A New England Garden," 
depicted by Mrs. Sara Wood Safford. "'^"Father Knicker- 
bocker's Posy Patch" will have its exponent in the editor. 
Other special numbers will be announced later. 

The Keramic Studio announces a design competition 
for December as follows : 

The best naturalistic study in color of any subject suita- 
ble for ceramic purposes, accompanied by detail draw- 
ings in black and white. $20.00 $10.00 

The best decorative study in color of any subject suitable 
for ceramic purposes, accompanied by detail drawings 
in black and white. $20.00 $10.00 

The best design applied to a ceramic form. $10.00 $5.00 

The best drawing of some natural form with details and 
conventionalizations. $10.00 $5.00 

Questions in regard to colors and other materials 
will be answered in "Answers to Correspondents." If your 
letters to the Happy Study Hours Department arc not 
answered in the current article, look in the "Answers to Cor- 
respondents" column. Technical information will be found 
there. The Happy Study Hours will deal more with general 
topics such as "ways and means", "methods of study", 
practical suggestions of all kinds. 

The June number of Keramic Studio will Ik- 
devoted to work by the New York vSociety of Keramic Arts 
and will be in every way a valuable number. Our natural- 
istic friends will please bear with us, since there will be only 
conventional work. The following issue, July, will he filled 
with Texas wild flowers from the brush and ])eneil of Miss 
Alice Willits, formerly of Cincinnati, and conuecti'd with 
the Rookwood pottery. 

Many letters have been received asking about the 
marketing and criticism of designs for china am! the other 
crafts. vSucli drawings may be snbniitted to the editors 
of the Keramic Studio. — Study Horn IhJHDlnu itl . 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

The National League of Mineral Painters is a Society 
composed of individuals and clubs, the latter when duh' 
accredited, being represented by delegates on its Advisory 
Board. Its object is the advancement of Ceramic Art, the 
evolution of a higher standard and more purposeful work. 

The League was founded in 1892 and the first exhibi- 
tion was accorded a place at the World's Fair, Chicago, in 
1903. Since then an annual exhibition has been held and 
the Society has exhibited with honor at every national ex- 
position, and also at the Paris Exposition in 1900. One of 
the aims of the League is to encourage the individual by 
helpful suggestions and intelligent criticism, and to this 
end the study course was formulated and in 1902 a com- 
parative exhibition organized. The use of clays and the 
artistic development of form has been largely represented 
in recent years and has added much to the interest of the 
annual exhibition. So also has overdecoration given way 
to simplicity and a following of more dignified design. 

Medals have been offered from time to time, stimulat- 
ing members to earnest and original work, thereby awaken- 
ing latent possibilities, and bringing before the public truly 
artistic and highly meritorious conceptions in form and 
color. 

Too much commendation cannot be given the stud)^ 
course, and its far reaching educational value. Clubs and 
individuals from Maine to California are working out the 
same problems and have the benefit of careful discrim- 
inating criticism from Miss Bennett of the Art Institute, 
Chicago. 

It is only by seeing and knowing what others are doing 
that we progress and in the League's comparative exhibition, 
going as it does from one club to another throughout the 
United States, a vast store of knowledge is brought together 
that in its scope is invaluable. 

In 1902 the Board rendered a decision that any re- 
sponsible club outside the League desiring the exhibition 
may receive it by paying Sio into the League treasury, 
assuming the packing expense for re-shipment and paying 
receiving and dispatching expressage. Each administra- 
tion has added something to the League worthy of re- 
membrance, in the faithful discharge of dut\- and the at- 
tainment of higher ideals. The fire has been kept alive, 
and enthusiastic efforts have brought forth frnit that shall 
lend its influence to greater things. 

The first president was Mrs. S. S. Frackleion; Socoir.l, 
Madame S. E. L'.^ Prince; thinl, Mrs. Worth Osgood; fourth, 
Mrs. Vance IMiillii)s; lifili. Mrs. In-lle Ivinictt Vesey; sixth. 
Mrs. William II. Farriiigton. 

Miwiic C. Cim.ns, 
474-' Iv\a!is .Vve. Tro.isuici X. I. M. \\ 

if rr 
STUDIO NOTES 

Mrs. S. l'.\aiiuali I'rici.^ lieKl a suecessrul exhilHtion 
of lur work in china painting and w.iicr colors on .\piil ,^1 
and |tli in her studio, -\^ West : \\\\ St., Xew Vo: k City. 

The studio of Mis. M. .\. Xeal, 14J5 Hroailway. X. V. 

Cil \ w ill be opru ,ill stunuu-r. 



tlEKAMlC STUDIO 




HAPPY STUDY HOURS 

I'M so glad I gave you some "pot boiler" suggestions 
last month, for more than one subscriber has written 
to the effect that in her desire to study with teachers "whose 
very names meant inspiration even pot boilers have become 
glorified as a means to an end" — and the better our pot 
boilers, the shorter the road to that work in design which 
each writer has said was her ambition. Not one has said 
she was content with that which she already knew, and each 
letter tells of a struggle against such odds that one feels he 
cannot pass on his little knowledge soon enough. One 
worker who cannot go away to study this summer asks if 
she may send for cricitism somiC drawings of the wild flowers 
that grow so abundantly in her State. Indeed she may, 
and all others who are interested to make such drawings. 
She adds: "I really can do hard work if I just knew how." 
She asks only for a little guidance and is willing to work. 
This is just what we need in our Ceramic world — students 
who love their work, who are willing and anxious to de- 
velop something for themselves and not merely blindly copy. 
Even if the copy work must be done for a time, it will be 
done with much more understanding if one at the same 
time is studying to interpret nature in his own way, or 
to make a pattern from some part of a flower growth per- 
haps undiscovered until now. 

Another worker writes that she doesn't know when 
she's right. Few of us do — but there are certain laws of 
design which we try to work by, that have come to us from 
masters whose work has stood the test of time and constant 
association. "The principles discoverable in the work of 
the past belong to us, not so the results. It is taking the 
end for the means." Study the art of other times and 
other nations, make tracings of designs that please you, 
and carefully note the spacing and spotting of color, but 
remember that these honest old workers used the material 
about them and made it significant of their own time and 
country. They drew the thing they were familiar with 
and in which they had learned to see beauty. Knowing 
and appreciating the true beauty of that which had been 
created for them, they in turn tried to make even the 
every day articles of utility beautiful by adding some simple 
pattern developed from plant or animal life. Never did 
they destroy the utility function of the object decorated ; 
the decoration was secondary, and was a loving torch 
added to an already lovely form. If every worker would 
only remember this. 

In selecting a shape to decorate, think to notice 
if it has any bumps or beads or curves that will 
interfere with its practicability, if it's to be for a 
practical purpose, for alas! many of the forms offered 
to the China painters for decoration are impossible. 
They have no beauty to start with, and no one 
could make them beautiful, but now we are getting 



fine new shapes and the worker can start with the right 
thought, that is, to add interest and beauty to some- 
thing already good. Watch yourself closely that you do 
not overdecorate — that is a fault of most of us. It is much 
harder to keep a piece fine and simple, than to make of it an 
elaborate ornate thing. Even in your naturalistic work, 
this thought of subordinating the design to the shape can be 
observed. You will be surprised to see how far a little 
decoration will go, if, before you touch the brush, thought 
is given to spacing the stems, leaves and buds upon a sur- 
face so that the lines of the design will be in harmony with 
the structural lines of the form. Haven't we all drawn lines 
(thinking of stems as lines) on a surface, and noticed that 
the piece at once looked queer and wobbly? 

\\'ith the drawings of the wild flowers, send drawings 
of a shape with a design suggested upon it. I'm sure help 
can be given you, and at first, perhaps in this way you will 
be led to a better understanding of design principles than 
by trying to produce more formal or abstract patterns. 

I'm suggesting some more pot boiling ideas, and natur- 
alistic though they are, there is yet law and order in the 
arrangement. In the drawing of the rose wreath, you will 
notice that the unit (marked) can be spotted five or six times 
around a plate. Use as many of the extra small rose links 
as may be needed to make a continuous border. Paint 
the design and fire without any background. In a second 




working wash over the entire surface with a good Ivory, 
but do not cover the heart or lights of the rose, only its edges. 
If clean crisp modeling has been done in the first painting, 
ver}^ little detail need be added unless it be an accent to a 
stem or leaf here and there. A contrast can be had by tint- 
ing the space between the rose wreath and the edge of the 
plate a deeper tone of Ivory than that washed over the 
center surface, or inside the border may be left clear white 
china. Try white roses showing soft yellow centers and 
bands of Silver for a dainty ice-cream plate. The upright 
rose design can be carried out in the same colors or the 
roses may be made pink with soft nicely grayed leaves. 
Let this unit divide the plate into three, five, six or seven 
parts as may make pleasing spacing, and let the trailers be 
the link. The little orange is another motif to be used in 
the same way. Try this on fruit plates, sherbet cups and 



^r^ 



*-*-'?r^'V'^^*"^' 




REKAMIC STUDIO 



the like. A good Ivory for this is made of 
two parts Yellow Brown and one of Yellow 
Green applied thinly and pounced. These are 
what we call "compromise" designs, and you 
w ho have trouble in converting your patrons to 
a more reserved kind of decoration on their 
table china, will, I feel very sure, satisfy their 
demand for the naturalistic, and at the same 
time be influencing their minds, quite un- 
consciously, in favor of what you want most 
to do and to give them. — simple formal border 
designs on their tableware. Let us all try to 
get our minds in condition to receive the best, 
and trust that we may be ready and able to 
recognize it when it comes. 

— The Happy Worker. 
•^ if 

FLEUR DE LIS 

Phofogi'aiih by Hplpii Paftee 

H. Barclay Paist 

COLORS for flowers, mix Air Blue, Carmine 
53 (or use Rose) for the pale portions. 
Dark Blue and Ruby Purple for the strong 
color. Albert Yellow for the tuft of yellow on 
the three lower petals of the flower, blend 
gently down into the petal to meet the violet 
color. For shadows in the petals wash deli- 
cately with Grey Green for second fire. Paint 
the leaves with Grey Green, Olive Green and 
Dark Green according to the values. Copen- 
hagen Grey makes a pleasing background. 

JACK-IiSr-THE-PULPIT (Pages 5 and 9) 

Photograi)hs by Helen Pattee. 

H. Barclay Paist, 

THE colors for this decorative flower are 
Olive Green, Dark Green and Violet of 
Iron. The flower is a pale green streaked 
with Violet of Iron and green pistil. The 
stems very pale green, leaves modeled with the 
two greens. Follow the values in the photo- 
graph for the modeling, with the exception 
of the stemis which appear darker than we 
would show them in color. A background of 
soft Olive Green or Neutral Yellow will be the 
most harmonious. 

TREATMENT FOR CYLINDER VASE - 
SAGITTARIA 

April Number, ])age 281.* 

llenvicila Barclay Paisl. 
For the design use three tones of Olive 
Green or Grey Green. The flowers arc white. 
The spots (stamens) yellow. The paths around 
the design of Green (V)l(l or Silver. Outline all 
with Violet of Iron, Dark Green or Black. 

>" *•" 
SHOP NOTE 

Owing to the hirge increase in business, 
Dorn's Ceramic Supi)ly Store, S;in iM-aneiseo, 
have opened a retail branch al 1 -'(x; Sutter St. 

*'l'li(' l,r(';i.|,iii('iil. f.i;i\cn in April Xiinilicr lur (his di'sinii 
vviis n, niisl.'ikc iiiul we ^ixi' lii'i'i' llic rinlil I r-c.i I inciil . 




FLEUR DE LIS-PHOTOGRAPH BY HELEN PATTEE 



»>-■ ^ 'I-- 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT (Supplement) 

Nancy Beyer. 
TREATMENT FOR CHINA 
FIRST FIRE. 

BACKGROUND— Gray Yellow. Lily— Gold Gray, light 
tone of Moss Green for the green touches in it. Leaves — 
Copenhagen Blue, Grey for Flesh, Blood Red toned with a 
little Black. 

SECOND FIRE. 

Mixture of Pearl Grey and Black carried over the Copen- 
hagen Blue as well. 

THIRD FIRE. 

Very thin enveloping tone, Pearl Grey and Dark Yellow 
Brown; if 'after the enveloping tone has been gone over 
the color has fared out, retouch with the colors used for 
first fire. 

WATER COLOR TREATMENT 

Tone paper with Gamboge Black and Burnt Sienna, 
a warm brown tone (not too dark), the lightest note 
being the touches on the leaves; flower and stem should 
have a wash of Gamboge and Prussian Blue, the darkest 
note, a warm dark grey obtained by mixing warm colors 
with black ; where the top of the flower turns over it is blue 
violet, made with Madder, Lake-Deep and Prussian Blue, the 
lower part of the flower red violet made with Madder, 
Lake Deep, Prussian Blue and Raw Sienna, also a touch of 
the same color on the lower part of the stem. The stripes 
on the inside of the flower are pure Burnt Sienna. Finally 
wash over the entire background Raw Sienna and Black, 
bringing it lower in tone than the highest note which is 
the touches of yellow green; when dry scrub lightly. 



FLEUR DE LIS (Page 13) 

Amy F. Dalrymple 

IN the study of the fleur de lis, which was from nature, 
the upper and lower left hand flowers with bud attached 
were a delicate violet with rich violet lines on lower petals. 
The right hand flower and the bud above it were yellow 
with tawny yellow brown lines on lower petals and bud. 
In painting these lines use Yellow Red with the Yellow 
Brown. The greens close to the flowers and buds need 
quite a little yellow and yellow brown, and where shadowed 
by the blossoms some rich brown green. The other greens 
cooler with Apple and Shading Green. The writer found 
some delightful tones of gray for the background by blend- 
ing the different shades of violet with Myrtle Green. Use 
quite a bit of blue with the violet and you will have an 
agreeable color and one that will bring out the yellow 
flower and the centers of tht other two. Use two careful 
paintings to bring out the realism of light and shade, but 
for the third painting blend and soften all edges possible. 
To allow the color of blossom or bud to pass right over 
surrounding surfaces, either background or foliage, adds 
much to the beaut)^ of finished work. 

EXHIBITION OF THE NEWARK SOCIETY OF KERAMIC 

ARTS 

THE first exhibition of the Newark Society of Keramic 
Arts was held at Keer's Art Galleries in Newark from 
March i6th to 21st the inclusive. The members responded 
to the call of the Club to work hard and well that their first 
exhibit might not only be a help to themselves but convince 
their townspeople that really good work was being done in 
their midst. Mr. Keer, returning after an absence abroad, 
seeing the exhibit only at its close, said: "1 expected to see 




Hr-;^ 



JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT DESIGN FOR PLATE— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

Tint the plate all over with a light touch of Neutral Yellow and fire. Trace the design, tint the panels again with Neu- 
tral Yellow, lay Olive Green on leaves, bands and flowers, fire again. Wash the upper part of the flowers with 
Violet of Iron. Lay the Green on again if it appears weak. Outline all strongly with Violet of Iron. 




JACK IN THE PULPIT-PHOTOGRAPH BY HELEN PATTEE 



( 1 riMlnu-iil r.ijjc 3) 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 




Mrs. Waterfieki 
Mrs. Wiiterfield Mrs. Waterfleld 

Mrs Hyerson 

Mrs. A. Van Ness 



Mrs. VVaterKeld 

Mrs. King 
Mrs. Granl)erry 



only flower painting but this kind of work is on a thoroughly 
artistic line and is like what one sees abroad in the arts and 
crafts shops." 

The Club as a whole has given much time to the study 
and designing of table service, and many members con- 
fined their exhibits to that work. No one showed more 
versatility, strength and charm in her work than Miss 
Jetta Ehlers. A tankard with a grape motif was a hard 
problem splendidly handled, but for charm and an all the 
year round joy to live with, the afternoon tea set in blue 
and white was chosen as the choicest part of her exhibit. 
To make a perfect setting for it, the design was repeated 
in the same blue on a linen tea cloth. Miss Ehlers also 
showed some fine figure and miniature work on porcelain. 

Mrs. Carpenter's punch bowl, with its design frankly 
adapted from historic ornament, was a splendid piece of 
work in design, color and technique. Mrs. Woodruff showed 
a set of cereal bowls and plates in white and gold, done with 
nice thought and feeling. Mrs. English had a tea jar which 
in its quaint charm seemed more to express herself than 
did her wall plaques. Mrs. William Smith's exhibit in- 
cluded, besides some interesting plates, a bowl in red and 



Mi6s Ehlers Mrs. Hawkins Mrs. Woodruff 

Mrs. Harrison 
Mrs. Itoljert Madison Miss Crane 

Miss McKenzie 

Mrs. Walerfield Miss McDoiigail 

Mrs. N. H. Carpenter 



HONOR TABLE— SOME OF THE BEST THINGS SELECTED 




Miss Elilers Mrs. \oorhees 

Miss McKenzie 
Miss Helen Jeplison Mrs Smitli 

Mrs. Wm. Woodruff Mrs. Woodruff 

Mrs. J. N. Waterfield Miss Elilers 
Mrs. Voorhees 



Mrs. Wm. L. Smith 

Miss Ehlers 
-Mrs. English 
Miss Harrison 




Miss Harrison 
Miss Witter 

Mrs. Smith 
Mrs. King 



Mrs. Carpenter 

Mrs. Tillman 

Mrs. English 
Mrs. Cuniniing.s 



Mrs. \'an Ness 



Miss Leach 



gold which was finely handled in a pleasing, snappy way. 
Mrs. Waterfield had a large exhibit of vases and jars, done 
after fine models, but of her own; a bouillon cup in red and 
gold was the best and gave a nice staccato note to her exhibit. 

Miss McKenzie proved herself to be a good worker, 
showing a chocolate set in white and gold, and a tea set in 
tones of blue, but her nicest bit was a tea jar with simple 
conventionalized flower decoration. Miss Harrison's work 
was worthy of a quiet study by those who are inclined to 
ignore technique; her plates and bowls for the table and 
designs for milk pots were all satisfying and appropriate 
and executed with exquisite feeling. 

Miss Jephson had handled successfully the difficult 
problem of a punch bowl with a grape design in Persian 
red, silver and black. Mrs. Hawkin's vase in tones of 
brown was nicely thought out and her large panel of the 
interior of the Antwerp Cathedral was splendidly handled. 
One of the newer members, Mrs. Voorhees, showed by her 
work that she will be one of the strong workers in the Club. 
Her vase in greens showed nice feeling for line and color, 
and a little bonbon cover with rose motif was a lovely bit. 



RURAMIC STUDIO 




Afternoon Tea Set by Miss Ehlers 

Mrs. Van Ness proved herself to be with the real 
workers, showing a dainty breakfast set in greens. 

Some of the members had only one or two pieces, but 
these were worthy of mention. Among these were Mrs. 
King, Mrs. Ryerson, Mrs. Madison, Mrs. Granberry, Mrs. 
McDougal, Miss Crane, Miss Wittle, Mrs. Tillman, Mrs. 
Gumming, Miss Perriam and Miss Leach. Many have done 
no studying aside from the working out of the monthly 
Club problem, but work they all do toward better design 
and better home decoration. 

HISTORY OF THE NEWARK CLUB 

Mrs. Wm. L. Smith. 

THE Newark, (N. J.) Society of Keramic Arts has cele- 
brated its fourth anniversary by a first exhibition of 
the work of the club members. 

This recalls the time when each worker worked alone, 
lacking the inspiration and help which members alone can 
give and wishing that in some way China Decorators might 
get together. Two members of the New York Club, but 
residents of Newark, Mrs. Carrie Wood Rosegrant and Miss 
Jetta Khlers sent out invitations to those who would be 
interested in the founding of a club and the result was 
twenty workers anxious to form the Club. It was then and 
there decided that the Club should be a study Club and all 
who were willing to make their own designs, to work out 
their own salvation with faith and diligence, were eligible 
for membership. The result has been an unusual number of 
unusually original designs, and that many of those who liad 





Miss Ehlers 

done but little and who felt they could do nothing are among 
the best workers. 

The success of the Club is largely due to Mrs. Sara \\'ood 
SafFord who was almost sole critic for two years and now 
comes to the Club in that capacity more frequenth" than 
any other artist, although much help has been received from 
Mr. Marshal Fry, Mr. Hugo Froehlich, Miss Maud Mason, 
Miss Caroline Hofman, Mrs. L. Vance Phillips, Miss Mira 
Burr Edson. 

The first officers of the Club were : Miss Jetta Ehlers, 
president; Mrs. Carrie Wood Rosegrant, vice-president, 
Mrs. W. L. Smith, corresponding secretary; Mrs. F. N. Water- 
field, recording secretary; Mrs. A. Van Ness, treasurer. 

The present incumbents are: Mrs. N. H. Carpenter, 
president; Miss Jetta Ehlers, vice-president; Miss Mary 
Harrison, recording secretary; Mrs. Francis King, Jr., cor- 
responding secretary; Mrs. S. Warren Granberr}^ treasurer. 

A yearly banquet in May, a social meeting in December 
give an opportunity for the making of friendships. 

The meetings are held the last Thursday of every 
month in a beautiful room in the Free Pul:)lic Library and 
all the resources of the Librarv are at the disposal of the 
Club. 




MUSTARD POT IN GOLD. IVORY AND GREY-C BABCOCK 



I .VI '«^ ia 



ry^r^'^t ^ I iy.g. ^ L A^.i^r\A\nir>-t .^l^'l i t f 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




ROSE DESIGN FOR SALAD PLATE IN PINK, GREY AND GOLD— ALICE B. SHARRARD 




I 



SALAD BOWL IN PINK, GREY AND GOLD-ALICE B. SHARRARD 



heramic studio 




s 



JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT -PHOTOGRAPH BY HELEN PATTEE 



(Trc.it lUiMit p.ikji" 3) 



■L. I u rv Av n I r .^ 



lO 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



METALLIC DEPOSITS ON GLAZES 
(continued) 

Louis fnuiclui 
APPEARANCE OF METALLIC DEPOSITS 

The deposits obtained in the redueinj^ atmosphere may, 
aceording to circumstances, present altogether different 
aspects. Glaze No. 2a, for instance, may give a smooth 
metallic surface, with a coppery appearance, .without any 
iridescence; or a metallic iridescent surface; or perhaps one 
face only of the vase will be mdescent, the other face having 
a smooth surface. If the vase is submitted to another re- 
duction, the smooth metallic surface may come out with 
iridescence, and inversely the surface which was iridescent 
after the first firing, may take a smooth metallic appearance, 
after the second reduction. If a vase showing one face 
smooth and the other iridescent, receives a second reduc- 
tion, there will often be inversion, that is, the iridescent 
face will become smooth and the smooth face, iridescent. 

I must call attention to another phenomenon. Very 
often the metallized surface, instead of being glossy, comes 
out mat but always a glistening mat. In my experiments 
to determine the causes of this phenomenon, I have mostly 
used iridescent glazes. A vase with one of these glazes, 
will, after reduction, come out with three different aspects: 
1° every face may be glossy; 2° one face glossy, the 
other mat; 3° every face mat. Sometimes many consecu- 
tive firings in the same muffle with the same glaze applied 
over the same body, will give pieces constantly mat, then 
with still another firing, the mat effect will disappear and 
be replaced by a very glossy finish; or, in the same muffle, 
there will be a mixture of mat and gloss, as well on pieces 
in the center of the muffle as on those on the sides. 

The glossy or mat finish of a piece is generally caused 
by its degree of vitrification, and it seems strange that this 
will vary on the same piece, placed in the center of the 
muffle, where the temperature is generally the most even. 
This phenomenon however is frequent and is undoubtedly 
due to special chemical combinations under the influence of 
reducing gases. This is shown by the fact that iridescent 
glazes containing bismuth oxide come out mat more fre- 
quently than any others, while the reverse should be the 
case, since this oxide gives to glazes a great fusibility. 

My researches having been made with glazes, the ab- 
solute vitrification point of which is 970° C. (cone 09), I 
have tried, in order to obtain glistening mat effects, to in- 
corporate metallic oxides into glazes developing but com- 
ing out mat at that temperature, the point of vitrification 
having been delayed by the addition to the glaze of zinc 
oxide, titanium oxide and specially alumina. I have ob- 
served that in such experiments not only the metallic deposit 
was formed with difficulty, but that nearly every time there 
was none, while on bright glazes fired at the same time the 
metallic deposits were formed quite easily. 

It seems then that there is a relation between the action 
of reducing gases and the degree of vitrification of the glaze, 
the gases acting with much more energy over bright glazes. 
It seems also that carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons have 
a strong action only over glazes which are glossy at the 
time the reduction begins, and that the devitrification is 
really due to the gases. I have often withdrawn a piece 
from the muffle before the reduction was complete or after 
it had been too prolonged, but I have never obtained a speci- 
men of mat effect. In the first case the iridescence was 
little developed, in the second case it was destroyed and 
the glaze had become exceptionally glossy. Inversely it is 



when the reduction has been carried on as regularly as 
possible that the greatest number of mat pieces is obtained, 
in some cases the whole kiln giving mat pieces. 

I have made experiments also to find out if the more 
or less high temperature reached had some effect on the 
mat aspect. I have fired glazes la to 6a, successively and 
on different bodies, at 950° C, 920° C, and 890° C. (the 
normal degree being 970° C.) At 950° C. there was no ap- 
preciable change in the appearance and intensity of the 
iridescence; at 920° C. the mat tone was very similar to 
that obtained at 970° C, but the iridescence was not so 
marked; at 890° C. the metallic coat was somewhat rough 
because of insufficient firing; the iridescence, although weak, 
was, however, noticeable in glazes containing copper and 
bismuth oxides, while there was almost none with the silver 
mixtures. 

Before concluding these remarks on metallic deposits 
obtained by reduction, it seems necessary to disprove a 
legend to which much faith has sometimes been given : I 
mean the story of metallic reflections under the glaze. It 
has been claimed that the famous Italian iridescent faiences 
were covered with a translucent glaze under which the 
metallic deposit was. This assertion is absolutely false, as 
the mode of formation of the deposit would make the opera- 
tion impossible. In fact the glaze then should be very fus- 
ible and sufficiently rich in lead and alcalies for the point of 
devitrification not to be above 950° C. This glaze would 
have to be fired in an oxidizing fire, in a reducing fire the 
lead would be reduced and the alcalies would form on the 
surface a white efflorescence. An oxidizing firing being 
necessary for this covering glaze, the iridescent deposit 
would be destroyed. There are other reasons why this 
application would be impossible, but it is not necessary to 
go into more details here. 

IRIDESCENT GLASS 

One may obtain on glass, as well as on pottery glazes, 
a metallic iridescence of great richness, by incorporating 
either into the glass itself, or into a relief enamel applied 
over it, the same metals which I have described for faience 
work. It is also possible to apply ochre mixtures, as is 
done with faience, but this process is difficult because of 
the nature of glass; besides, the iridescence thus obtained 
is seldom very marked. 

When the metals are introduced into the glass, the 
latter is worked according to the usual process of glass man- 
ufacture, it is then reheated to a lower temperature than 
the point of devitrification, but high enough to make possible 
the action of reducing gases. If one has to deal with a trans- 
lucent glass, colorless or slightly colored, one may bring 
the gas current inside, with a tube. Iridescence is then 
produced but generally of weak tones. 

It is much better, and this is the process generally used, 
to incorporate the metals into a fusible enamel which is ap- 
plied on the glass, either as background, or in drops, spots 
or streaks. The firing is done at 620° C. (cone 021) exactly; 
then the kiln is left to cool down to 450° C. at most, when 
the reduction is given as for metallic deposits on faience. 

An enamel fired on glass must not crackle when cool- 
ing, nor cause the breaking of the glass; both must have the 
same coefficient of expansion. The following is an enamel 
which will act well with glasses such as are generally found 
in the trade, and which will stand the addition of coloring 
oxides without hardening in any appreciable way : 
Quartz 19 

Red lead 73 

Boric acid 8 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



II 




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12 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



These ingredients should be thoroughly mixed, fritted, 
then ground wet. 

The salts of silver, copper and bismuth are added by 
simple grinding and in the same proportions as for glazes 
I a to 6(Z. 

Iridescence on glass is specially noticeable because of 
the beauty of tone which is given by the translucency of 
the material on which it appears. Metallic deposits on 
faience are influenced by light only on one face, while, in 
deposits on glass, the light rays penetrate the whole mass 
and determine the development of tones of a variety and 
brilliance which are modified by the color of the glass and 
its refractive properties. 

B — METALLIC DEPOSITS OBTAINED WITHOUT REDUCTION 

We have seen that, under the action of carbon mon- 
oxide and hydrocarbons, glazes could be covered wdth 
metallic deposits of a glistening nature, the aspect of which 
could be modified at will. As the process presents diffi- 
culties, ceramists have tried and have partially succeeded 
in obtaining similar effects in an oxidizing fire. But if the 
metallic eft'ects are somew^hat similar, the physical and 
chemical phenomena which are so characteristic of re- 
duced deposits, will never be found in the oxidizing series. 
In the latter, the metallic or glistening effect is only due to 
the more or less marked division of molecules, while in the 
former there is a chemical reaction accompanied by physical 
phenomena due to a molecular grouping which can be modi- 
fied ad infinitum. 

In oxidized deposits there is not, as in the case of re- 
duction, a combination of the elements of the glaze with 
the metal which produces iridescence; the metal here is 
simply deposited over the surface of the glaze, either in a 
finely divided state which is obtained by solution in some 
essence, or in a concentrated state which produces a smooth, 
non-glistening covering. The best example of this class is 
gold in the particular form w^hich is called by ceramists 
liquid bright gold and which w^e will study later on, also 
platinum which, in the form of protochloride, is soluble in 
fat essences, and consequently may be applied in thin coats 
over the glaze. 

When one wishes to produce metallic deposits over 
glaze or glass, in an oxidizing atmosphere, it is necessary 
to add to the metal a certain quantity of bismuth oxide 
(about lo'/t), which will act as a flux, otherwise there would 
be no adherence of the metallic deposit, as the metal does 
not combine with the silica or other elements of the glaze. 
In deposits produced under the action of reducing gases, 
not only is the addition of bismuth oxide unnecessary 
for this purpose but this metal is used only to obtain 
the blue color, or the green color when combined with 
silver. 

Metals in the state of organo-metallic compounds must 
always be dissolved in some fat essence (turpentine, lavender, 
etc.); the solution is applied over the glaze with a brush, 
then the firing is done at about 650° C. (cone 020) ; organic 
inatters are destroyed, and the metals appear, either w4th 
a smooth and brilliant finish, or in the iridescent state, ac- 
cording to the degree of concentration of the solution. 
These dift'erent aspects however are always stable, and can- 
not be modified, either by a change of atmosphere, or by 
any increase of heat ^vithin the normal limits, that is, any- 
where below the point of fusion of the underlying glaze. 
We have seen that conditions were entirely different with 
deposits obtained by reduction; these we could produce, then 
destroy, to see them reappear, modifying shades and aspects 



at will, simply by changing the length of firing and reduc- 
ing conditions. It is important to insist on this point, as 
it shows absolutely that metallic deposits possess entirely 
different properties according to the nature of the gases 
which produce them. 

It is possible in many ways to make metallic combina- 
tions which will be soluble in essences, but there are some 
unavoidable causes which prevent the metallic coat from 
having the intense tones which may be observed in reduced 
deposits. One of these causes is the lack of great solubility 
of the organo-metallic compounds in the essence; another, 
and the more important, is the difficulty of combining a 
sufficient quantity of the metal with an organic sub- 
stance. 

However an exception should be made for platinum 
and gold. The latter is now most generally used in the 
shape of organic combination for the gilding of porcelain, 
faience and glass. It remains over vitrified substances in 
a very brilliant state and does not need to be burnished. It 
is known in industry under the name of liquid bright 
gold or gold lustre. Its preparation is too well known to 
be fully described here. The different processes used vary 
but little : the gold salt to which bismuth oxide is added 
is generally dissolved in balsam of sulphur, and to the 
compound thus obtained is added turpentine or oil of 
lavender. The method which consists in dissolving the 
precipitate of ammoniate of gold in the essence is not used 
any more. 

The state of concentration of the gold solution is a 
very important point. If the solution is concentrated, the 
gold forms over the vitrified surface a perfectly uniform 
coat, opaque, brilliant and non-glistening; if it is very 
diluted, there remains only a purplish or pinkish coloring, 
translucent, and with w^eak iridescence, which is called 
Burgos lustre. 

Silver in organic solution gives a yellow or brown color- 
ing over a w'hite glaze; but, over a cobalt blue glaze it pro- 
duces a green iridescence and this lustre is known as can- 
tharis lustre. If the lustre is in the presence of lead oxide 
it produces a great variety of iridescent effects and is called 
litharge lustre. 

The shades of color may be varied ad infinitum by 
mixing several metals in the same solution, or by super- 
imposing over the glaze solutions of various composi- 
tions. 

In order to prepare platinum lustre, it is sufficient to 
grind the protochloride of platinum with fat essence. 
(to be continted) 




,2BL^>«sSt^ 




BOWL— LUCIA JORDAN (Newcomb CoHege) 

In several shades of blue and grey, all outlines and handles in gold. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



13 




FLEUR DE LIS AMY F. DALRYMPLE 



(Tri-.jttiicnt page 4) 



,. ^ ,.^ U) .' J "J:.,^!,'-.'^^-^^ 



'4 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




'^\ /i""'^/?^>/' 



PITTOSPORUM— EDITH ALMA ROSS 



(Treatment page 18) 




JACK I N 



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PUL_PIT NANCN BEYER 



MAY I90a 

SUPPLliMEINI lO 

KERAMIC STUDIO 



COPY RIOHT Ittoa 
KERAMIC STUDIO PUB 
SYRACUSE, N ^ 



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nilRAMIC STUDIO 



>5 



DESIGN FOR THE DECORATION OF CHINA 
THIRD PAPER 

Caroline Hofman 

TO teach color when you have a class before you and 
can show them beautiful examples of color is one thing, 
and to teach it to persons miles away, by written words, is 
quite another and more difficult matter. So we must con- 
sider this more in the character of a talk upon the subject, 
which is intended to give suggestions for study, than in any 
way a definite exercise such as the former papers have been. 

In practising color harmonies it is much better to be- 
gin with colors which are "toned," that is, slightly grayed; 
and not attempt to combine brilliant colors until we have 
trained our eyes to distinguish those that are harmonious. 
Color has, first of all, "hue"; that is, one of the distinct hues 
of the spectrum; red, violet, orange, etc.; next it has "in- 
tensity"; it may be so vivid as to fairly dazzle our eyes, and 
that is "full intensity," or it may be so dull as to be scarcely 
distinguished from grey, and that is very low intensity. 
Third it has "value"; a color may be very intense and yet 
as dark in value (against white) as a very dark grey would 
be, or it may be very intense and almost as light as white 
itself. You can prove these propositions for yourselves, 
as we have only time here for a statement of the facts. 

There are schools that believe color-harmony can be 
taught as a science, instead of being the result of training 
in appreciation, but personally I do not believe that they 
have yet proved their theories or produced colorists in that 
method. 

Color appreciation is a thing to be cultivated like any 
other fine taste; and those who are not actually color-blind 





PERSIAN BOWL 

Design adapted from old Persian lustre ware bowl in the Metropolitan Museum. 
Color Scheme — General tone, including everything in the design which has photo- 
graphed in the lightest tone, soft grey-orange. All the medium grey of the design 
represents a clear blue green, very soft in quality. The darkest tone in the design 
represents a very dark warm grey, almost black, but softer in quality. 

can cultivate it to good result if they are really eager to do 
so. As students then, seeking a knowledge of color, let 
us try our first exercises with those that are toned; and for 
simple work along this line the cheap "water-color crayons" 
of French manufacture, which come in round boxes, are 
excellent. 

For suggestions in color harmony we find of late many 
color prints; those of Professor Dow, which he calls the 
Ipswich Prints being especially beautiful and simple in th^ir 
color and composition, while some reproductions of Japa- 
nese and of English prints, are also used as suggestions by 
designers in planning "color schemes".* We have to choose 
our color models very carefully, or, if we doubt our own 
judgment in the beginning, appeal to some one whom we 
know to be a good judge of color harmony when we come 
to make our selections. 

Another, and an endless source of study in seeking 
color schemes is nature herself; but here the begiimor is 
liable to some confusion unless he realizes that nature 
must be interpreted rather than copied. Suggestions slie 
gives us lavisJily, — l)iU we nuist not be too literal in following 
them. 

A flower, a leal" and the stem of a plant will \ i-rv often 
give us valuable hints as to colors which harmoni/e; but 
in the leaf, especially, we must alUnv more grev (lian we 
at first suppose, as leaves rellect the sky, ov an\' li>;h( color 
around them, so (hat tlu-ii' greens are ne\er harsh and 
"edgy" in color. 

With this in mind we can make ni.nn a coloi harinon\- 
from the lloweis abont ns. A d.ilTmlil, for in^t.mee would 
giw ns : 

rails oj riaiil i'olois \(iluiS 

leaxes l>lne green il.iik 

Mower wUow ami oiange light 

yelU>w green modiuni 

oian>'e (like dull ImiwviO tncdiuiu 



calx \ and stem 
bract 



i! 



CoMiposili 



)n II SlinwiiiK Milt ili-uoriidvi' Ircul iiu'iil lui |i..M'i'luiii .-.liili 



* \\ (■ li:i\(' irnl --poKcii lu'l'c ol olvl .l.ip.iiu-M- prilH-s, ;us tlu\V ;»IX> <|.'iU:lll.V 
Ion \.ilu:il>li' lo It wiilim I hi- rcMch of ;lll .•<tutK>nt.s. 






^* TT 1-r 



16 



nURAMIC STUDIO 



As nature portions the amounts, we have the largest of 
hhie-green; next yellow; and third, dull orange-brown and 
least of all of the yellow-green. 

The bract of the daffodil comes sometimes very near 
being of a violet quality, and there is much in the way that 
we feel these colors that gives us quality in our color work. 
If the color-reproduction of our little landscape is success- 
ful you will recognize its having been suggested by an iris, 
the colors having been somewhat toned, and a violet grey 
added because in landscape w^e always need something of 
the grey quality, unless the material is stained glass, in 
which case the black leading around the glass gives us relief 
from the bright colors. An important thing for us to re- 
member in our color harmonies as well as in the dark and 
light arrangements is the principle of subordination. We 
must not have all of one color in one spot but must break 
it into areas of different sizes, as you will appreciate from 
studying a good oriental rug. 

Perhaps you will think that this is not nature's way of 
arranging color, but if you will consider for a few moments 
you will realize that this is exactly what she does, although 
it is often less apparent than in a rug pattern. 

A flower, for instance, has several petals; which arrange- 
ment breaks the color somewhat, and usually we see one 
or more buds near it, showing smaller touches of the same 
color; then the leaves are in different shaped masses of one 
green, while the stems and calyxes give us smaller shapes 
of another, usually a yellower green, with sometimes a little 
red violet running into the colors. And if you follow up 
this line of study you will be surprised at the beautiful 
abstract color schemes you can glean from it. 

If you have only time to make tables of color in a way 
like this, you will soon have a great deal of valuable mater- 
ial for your decorative work, suggested perhaps by a grow- 
ing flower, a beautiful sunset, a colored stone, or any of 



Blue-green 



Yellow 



Re<l-\ iolet 



Oraiige-bnnvii 




Green- grey 




Color scheme arranged in chart form for a memorandum. 



Composition I — Taken from landscape by Hobbema. To be translated into quite 
flat tones (as in Composition II), and colored according to suggestions. 

the thousand and one lovely color schemes which nature is 
constantly showing us. 

These tables or diagrams of color were, I think, first 
used by Professor Dow in his teaching, and have been of 
great value to many students of design. 

In planning a color scheme to be used on china there 
are several good ways of working, but for directness I have 
found nothing better than the crayons, (sometimes called 
colored chalks, although they are the size and shape of slate 
pencils) referred to before. If you will pin a piece of char- 
coal paper upon your drawing-board I will try to give some 
suggestions as to the handling of them. Use first upon the 
paper a very light tone of soft charcoai, lightly rubbed 
smooth with a cotton rag. Then, with the crayon that 
is of a yellow-ochre color rub a light tone over the charcoal. 
To make this even you may need one of the small grey-paper 
stumps sold by art dealers for a few cents a dozen, and 
called "tortillons." 

You will find that a tone of color rubbed in this way 
looks much darker than when it lays more on the surface of 
the paper, but you will soon learn to allow for this. 

If you want the tone a little warmer (redder and yel- 
lower), touch in, here and there, the color you require and 
work it lightly into the paper in the same way. 

Now you have a small sheet of toned paper ready for 
your design. Upon this you will trace some design that 
you have made, or it would be better to make two outlines 
of the design on the toned paper, so that you can try differ- 
ent color schemes. 



HlEramic studio 



17 



As a china painter you no doubt have many "test- 
pieces" upon which you have painted samples of mineral 
colors and fired them, and as, with a little practice, you can 
imitate these colors very closely with your crayons it will 
make your design much more practical to have these beside 
you to compare, as you work out a color scheme suggested 
by a print or some other good model. 

If you will fill in, very flatly, the design you have traced, 
with two harmonizing colors that are of the same value, 
and enough darker than your tone to show the design in 
good firm spaces when you look at it across the room, you 
will have reached a successful result. For you can deter- 
mine at once just how your design will look in mineral colors, 
which you can not do by the use of washes of water-color. 
(I will speak, further on, of another water-color process 
which is most useful.) 

Always try to keep the edges of your design very firm 
without using an outline, but if you must fall back upon the 
use of an outline be sure that it is a good line ; wide enough to 
have some character; and not of a staring black, but rather 
of a clear dark gray. 

The fact of working our colors over a toned paper gives 
them something in common and makes them easier to 
harmonize; and when trying to harmonize two colors that 
are at odds with each other we can often mix a little of the 
one color with the other. There is danger, in doing this, of 
getting them "muddy" — dingy and disagreeable in qual- 
ity, — but if done carefully it is a very useful resource. 

One small box of the crayons will give us an endless 
variety of colors, by drawing one into another, and by gray- 
ing and darkening, when necessary, with charcoal, and even 
with a black crayon. The assortment is usually we_ak in 
yellow greens and in strong yellow, but these can be bought 
in the soft pastels (that are sold by the stick), and used 
in connection with the others. 

While water-colors, handled in the "scrubbed" manner, 
undoubtedly give us most charming and useful effects for 
china designers (as they can be followed out almost exactly 
in mineral colors) , it is a somewhat slower and more difficult 
process, and so I have not suggested it for beginners in color 
designing. 

Oil-colors are easier to handle for this purpose and are 
used by many designers; for oils are more opaque, and a 
color that is slightly off what one wants can be painted out 
at once, and thus the whole idea of the painter be executed 
while it is freshly in mind. 

For this work a medium canvas or academy-board is 
used, and these, too, are always improved by having a 
tone of soft yellowish gray rubbed into them before the de- 
,sign is drawn. For the tone a little White, Yellow Ochre, 
Madder Lake, and a touch of Black will make c[uite a range 
of tones to select from, and must be first mixcd^with a pal- 
ette knife and then rubbed in with a big brush, using a great 
deal of turpentine to make the color flow. With your brush 
work it back and forth, up and down, over the surface until 
you have a smooth even tone of almost transparent thin- 
ness, liven if you should want to represent a white back- 
ground for your china design it will be a softer and more 
interesting white for l)eing over this warm tone than il 
woifld be over the ordinary cold gray of the canvas. .As 
I have said in regard to the work in colori'd ciaNons, we 
have, above all things, to keep onr designs clear and llal 
in color or they will not work out satisfaclorilN . W i' lia\i' 
to mix all our colors first on the [)alette, with a knifc\ and 
to be sure that there is enough of each to last (hroughoiit 
the design. In applying the oil colors kerosene oil makes 




LANDSCAPE WITH POPLARS 

(This did not reproduce in the flat tones of the original scrubbed water color; in 
copying it each tone should be kept flat to give the effect intended.) 

Color Scheme, Suggested by Purple Iris — Trees of foreground and middle- 
distance soft greyish violet (Blossoms of IrisJ. Dark spaces in foreground and sward 
of middle distance, blue green of soft quality (Leaves of Iris). Koad and light spaces 
in foreground, warm brownish grey (Bract of Iris). Trees and sward in distance. l>lue 
grey (Reflected sky-color in\ leaves of Iris). Sky, pale greenish yellow with soft clear 
orange (Centre of Iris) This is to suggest how each color in the growing plant can be 
used in some part of landscape, but the colors must be used in a low key and not in 
(he full intensity of the colors in the Hower. 

an excellent vehicle; keep a little in the palette-cup and 
dip your brush into it occasionalh. 

We are so rich in our range of inineral colors, we have 
so many hues and tints and tones which can be applied to 
china, that a careful study of the way in which to use them 
with taste and relinement is surely demanded of us for that 
very reason. 

If often takes eonsideral)le experience \o convince 
oursehes that there is much nu)re heant)- in cinnbining 
just two colors tluit are caiel'nll> clu>sen and harmoni/ed 
than there is in a riot of ct)lor where many colors, each 
beautiful in itself, are tiuarelling for supremec\-. 

The qicai masters in any art use \'er\- sitnyile ineaiw o\ 
expression, but wonderfully well chosen i>nes 
(III HI-: coNTlM'icn) 

EXHIBITION NOTE 

Tlif .\rts and Crafts Socielx oi I'ortlaiul, OiegiMi. will 
hold an r\!iil)it it)n of geneial .\rts ami Crafts objects, bo- 
giiining i\Ia\ islli aiul continniiiL; iov tliree weeks. ICx- 
liihits should he dilixeud to \\w Aits and Ciafls Stviet V. 
All nuisi'um, roill.iiul, not Liter th.m M.i\ loth, with 
charges prepaiil. Ueluin chaiges will be \\\\(\ In the v^i>c 
'w\.\ , or work will be placeil on petnianeut exhibit ii>u and 
sale in the Societ\'s uu)in. if ilesiied. 



"s^;^ ■«-. 



i-r. i-F>^ 



A .''■■IJT 



.1, lA n I r — T- 



i8 



HERAMIC STUDIO 



PITTOSPORUM (Page 14) 

Ediih Alma Ross. 

THIv pittosporum is a native of Japan and in that coun- 
try j^^roW-s into a small tree. \\'ith us, it is cultivated 
as a shrub for its dainty fragrant blossoms. The flowers 
open out white but change in a day or two to a sulphur 
yellow, as some species of honeysuckles do. The leaves 
are evergreen and the flowers are borne in sessile clusters 
at the ends of the branches and are follo\ved by bunches 
of berries. 

The treatment for water colors will need a dainty grey 
green background with a violet tinge. Olive Green, Ant- 
werp Blue, and Crimson Lake will give this color. 

For leaves, use Olive Green, Hooker's Green, Aureolin, 
and Antwerp Blue. 



The flowers will need Aureolin and Burnt Sienna for 
the yellow ones, and greenish shadows for the white blos- 
oms. 

The centers are a decided dark green. The stems 
which are woody, will need Vandyke Brown, Crimson Lake, 
Black and Burnt Sienna. 

The treatment for mineral colors is similar to that for 
water colors: Egg Yellow, Deep Blue Green, Olive Green 
and Dark Green will give the leaves. Egg Yellow and 
Yellow Brown for the flowers; Brown Green and Deep 
Blue Green for the centers; Ruby Purple, Black and Yel- 
low Brown for the branches. 

A monochrome treatment in greens and white or 
Copenhagen Blue and white would also be very eft'ective 
for this study in the Japanese style. 




FLEUR DE LIS— PHOTOGRAPH BY HELEN PATTEE 



(Treatment page 3) 



THE CRAFTS 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 2J2 East 2yth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must he received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

MAKING OF A METAL BOX a piece of tin and some wire will soon show when to stop. 

Edmund B. Rolfe. When the tin is cold, remove the flux with a brush and 

(continued) warm water. 

TTTT-- 1 ^r^i, 4^i4--uij Anneal the piece of copper by heating it with the gas 

HE pme used as a support for the metal strip should ^ ^ . . ..^.^ . , , ^^, / ^ -^ ■ ^ 

1, ■, r r ■ ■ ou J 1 foot blower until it is dark red, then plunge it into water, 

be clear and tree from gramme, buch woods as oak _ -i ,i- ■ ■, i ti,ii iri 

u .uu ^ I. 14- 4. ?4. J u J eu • ii, J fJry it by rubbing with sawdust. It should bend freelv 

or ash, that have alternate soft and hard fibres in them, do j./ , .-^ ** 

.L • -ff * 1, 4-1, 1- 4-u vu after this treatment, 

not give an even enect when the lines are run on them with t . i . i • r • i ■ i 

,1 , . ^ 1 T- 1 • -11 ^ 11 J I^ay the copper on the piece of tm, over the wire work, 

the chasing tool, bven, clear pine, will not allow as deep ^ •/ -.i • j- ^ ■ i i ^i j j -^i i 

. 1 °. ^1 • -^t -^ T,r, -,1 Cover it with a piece of I- 1 6 inch sheet lead, and with a round 

an indentation across the gram as with it. Where possible, , , , , „ , t^- i • ^l 

„ ,. .^, ,1 . ^ headed or ball pene hammer. Fig. 14, drive the copper into 

run all lines with the gram. . . n-u 1 1 ^ ^ Vt, r u • ■ • j 

.,.,,. r J ,.■ r .u ^ 1 ^u ^ the wires. The lead protects the copper from being injured. 

Nail strips of wood over sections of the metal that ,^ -i ^1 i-j j .l 1 j 

,,. 1, J. •> ij -J. ^ 1- 1 T^- Use an anvil or other solid ground to work on and 

are not being worked on, to hold it hrnilv in place, l^ig. 9. j . -i -n 1 , 1 . . t^ . ..i.- £ 

^ A- 1- 1, ij xi, .L 1 u .L ' .Li: .u u J every detail will be brought out. Repeat this process for 

To run the lines, hold the tool between the thumb and , -^ . 1 j^n 1 

n . 1 1 4.1 • J ^ 4.1. 11 £ ^- each space to be filled. 

first, second and third fingers, the small finger resting on a • ^- r ^1 1 ^1 j • ^ .v i- r 

, -r^. . ■ r I- -i^ u. ■^^ I- • A variation of the above method is to carve the relief 

the metal. Fig. 10. A series of slight taps with a chasing . , , j j • .u ^1 •.. 1 n 

, T^. * , ^1 ^, , , c ^i on a. piece of brass and drive the metal over it, also small 

hammer. Fig. 1 1 , and a gentle pressure on the back of the • ri 1 j j j • l- ..• -^i 

, ' , , .^ . J- .• 1 Tjr V pieces of brass can be carved and used m combination with 

tool, should run it m any direction you may choose. If it ^ . , ^1 ^• 

1 . 4- -1 • .Li / 1 .L 1, J J -4- • wire work on the tm. 

does not run, you are striking the tool too hard and it is iv,r i. r ^u u 1 j u • .uu i • 

,, ^ ^ r ^i.-j^i- xuxiu 4. Much of the old work was done bv carving the design 

unable to mount from the indentation, or the tool has not ■ , ^, , j j • ■ ■ ^1. " -..r. ft 1 j t4. 

, .. xu 4. 1 1-4-41 into the brass and driving in the copper with the lead. It 

been made rounding enough. Inclining the tool a little . , , , r 1 • u 1 j 'n, 14. 

.,, 1 ° T^ ° ^ , r^, 1 ^ requires a knowledge of working backward. I he results are 

backwards will help. Even strokes of the hammer must ^ , rr t. .. u .u 1 4 -41, 4.1 

.- JT.-1-JA1 u J very sharp. If care has not been taken to carve with the 

be given, if an even effect is desired. A rule can be used -^ ^ 

to mark all straight lines, which will be a help. It is 

better not to attempt giving the full relief to the lines at 

once but successively repeating the movement over the 

metal until the desired effect is reached. With tools of 

various sizes, it is possible to give relief of varying kinds. '^ -f/i=(/e& 9 - 

If you wish to fill some of the spaces with a repeating 
motif, as for example a Celtic design of interwoven ,.*t«p/,,(^ 

lines, you will save much time by using the following method : _^^^ 

Take a piece of roofing tin or a piece of an old can, a ^^^^^^^^%|imwi;«\,, 

little larger than the space you wish to fill on the box. This ,--=^^ — ^ ^=..\;v^ 

so-called tin is sheet iron, with a coating of tin on both sides. , <^)^^^$^^^^^^^||H|iHH^t Kk 

Scrub it on one side with a hard brush and finely powdered '''^'il«Ml\l\vi^W ^W^^/ 

pumice or whiting. A^^S^^^i^^d:^^^'^ 

When clean, mark on it with a sharp point the size of ^^^^«|N|,|,™n,j^ -n^, 
the space to be filled. This will help in the proper placing ^^lljiP^''^,^^ 

of the decoration. ^KMir ^=s \\ 

Take some annealed iron wire and scrape it on all sides 
until bright. See that the hands are free from dirt and "■- 

grease. Weave the wire into knots, spirals or interwoven -fic-um.^ 0- 

motifs, anything in a line design that will be in harmony 
with the idea you have in mind. Keep it flat on the tin and 
see that it pro])erly fills the space. 

Make some of the following flux : 

Chloride of /^inc i pari 

vSal Ammoniac \, part '^<jt#^ ~f, ii- "^ 

Water 4 P-irts 

Keep it in a wide mouthed bottle, and use a brush ^_./.f»; 

c|uill holder for applying. A metal one would corrode. ^V 

Paint the wire and llic tin under it with tlu' llux. /^^V, "^'A \ 'Vl^nK^'""^!^^\ 

Gradually heat the tin from beneath with a gas blowpipe /•'~'^Os:^^ / ^\VVS^Sl^'*fr'!^ 

and foot bellows, iMgs. 12-13, or a spirit lamp, until the (/ ^^^^^^X^ ^r^/ W^K^V^^'M''" 

li(|ui(l iu the flux has evaporaled. Soon aftiT this, tlir I in ^^^OvN ''"^'5^^ X^MAm^ 

will couimeiice to li(|uify, the watery appeaniiUH' of it dis /ij. /^> ^— ^ \X^VL.\ 

closing I lie facl. 11" I he iron wire was clean, llir (in will <!!!^^ ' ^ ^.^ 

solder it to tlic sheet. If healed loo inueh, the tin will ^^ ^-< 

oxidise and will not hold tlu' wiri. .\ little e\|HTiiiu'(' with -/^^/o" 






>-. i\ n i-i — r^^ 



20 



nURAMIC STUDIO 



right amount of atmosphere, the rehef will generally be 
hard in feeling. 

Driving the metal over a relief gives a softer effect, as 
all hard edges are rounded, but the relation of the planes 
are still the same. It requires the less actual knowledge of 
the two methods. 

For the car\'ing, make some chisels from tool steel, in 
the wav described for chasing tools, except that the ends 
are shaped like Fig. 15. In order to be hard enough to 
hold their edges, harden and temper to a yellow color. 
Make a series of these chisels, round nose, square nose and 
\'-pointed, Fig. 15, and of varving sizes as they will be 
useful in many kinds of carsing. Do not hesitate to make 
a new tool if you haven't one to fit into the place you are 
car\-ing. Making one now will probably save time on some 
future work. 

Melt some good pitch in an iron pot and stir in brick- 
dust, or plaster of Paris. Dry earth colors may be used as 
\'enetian Red, Yellow Ochre, etc. Pitch is too brittle by 
itself and needs to be tempered with something else. Any 
degree of plasticity can be given by adding tallow. Heat 
the end of a block and smear the pitch on or fill an iron 
bowl with it. The small sheet iron bowls used by chemists 
for sand baths can be used if you first melt up some lead 
in the bottom and let it cool in it, to give it steadiness. 
It is then set on a sand bag or sand ring, sold by dealers 
in engraver's supplies. 

\\'arm the brass and stick it on the pitch, allowing some 
to run up the edges to hold it securely in place. With the 
aid of the chisels carA'e the brass into the desired relief. 

When this has been done, go over the surface with 
chasing tools and give it any degree of modeling you wish. 

It is now laid on the anvil, covered with copper and the 
sheet lead and a proof taken. If satisf actor}", cover it with 
the copper strip and lead and make the impress in its 
proper place. 

To keep the relief from being damaged if struck, flow 
soft solder into the hollows on the back of the metal. To 
do this, make a brush by hammering the end of a small stick. 
Heat the copper underneath with the blowpipe. AMth the 
wooden brush, paint the indentations with flux. If the 
heat is too high, the wood of the brush will turn brown. If 
but gently heated, it will be possible to clean the metal, 
with the flux. 

The solder will only hold where the metal is clean, so 
care should be used to clean only where the solder is wanted. 

^^'hen the metal is well cleaned, raise the temperature 
by bringing it nearer the flame and when the flux dries, 
touch the copper with some soft solder* and it will immedi- 
ately nm wherever the metal is hot enough. Continue add- 
ing the solder until all indentations are full. It is then al- 
lowed to cool. 

Place the wooden box on a sheet of copper of the 
same gauge that was used for the sides and run a line around 
it to mark off the bottom. 

A quarter inch lap is allowed on each side. Cut or saw 
outside the quarter-inch lap, taking away the small squares 
from each corner at the same time. Fig. 16. 

Xext, a piece of 5-16 round bar steel is taken and the 
head rounded to make a doming punch. Fig. 17. Harden it 
and temper to a purple color. Drive it into the end of a 
block of wood, which will leave a cup shaped cavity. Lay 



successiveh' each corner of the bottom sheet above the hole 
and gently drive the metal into it. This will make four 
small hemispherical feet, to raise the box above whatever 
it is set on, and keep the corners from scratching. Each 
cavity is then filled with solder. 

The laps are beaten into shape and left till later. 

It will be necessary to line the inner surfaces of the box. 
A piece is cut with the snips, Fig. iS, for the bottom, allow- 
ing laps of J inch and the comers removed as the outer bot- 




tom piece was made. A strip is cut for the inner sides but 
no lap left on the upper edge. A lap is left on one end, 
Fig. 19. 

Fit the outer and inner covering in place and when thev 
are ready, remove and "tin" all joints and laps that are to 
be soldered. This is done by carefully heating the metal and 
rubbing the wooden brush, only where the solder is to run, 
then raising the heat and touching the heated metal with 
solder till aU the clean parts have an even coat of tin. If 
too much accumulates in one spot, it can be evened bv 
wiping quickly while hot, with a rag. "\Mien all joints are 
nicely tinned, fit the sides to the bottoms, and with the aid 
of wooden blocks and iron wire, tie together. See that the 
laps touch each other on the tinned siu-faces. Heat a solder- 
ing iron (copper), Fig. 20, hot, but not red, and lay on the 
joint until the metal under the soldering copper is warm 
enough for the solder to run. 

This can be learned by watching the edge of the joint 
and noting the reflection of light on the solder. AMien the 




*Xote. Soft solder is composed of varj-ing parts of tin and lead. It is 
commonly called plumbers' solder and may be obtained at most plumbing 
shops or hardware stores. Tin alone can Le used on copper. 




-fiq-aQ- 



IlERAMIC STUDIO 



21 



solder is solid the color is white but when melted it has a 
liquid appearance which can be soon distinguished. 

Move the soldering to a new part as soon as the solder 
runs. If the joint does not fill, additional solder may be 
applied to the joint and be drawn in, if the metal is hot 
enough. 

When the sides of each lining are joined and the bot- 
toms soldered on, the next step is to fit in between them 
the wooden frame. 

(TO BE continued) 

ART IN PEWTER 

Jules Brateau 

(CONTINUED) 

Now, tipping the mould on the table, the founder re- 
moves the pincers holding the caps. The one at 
the base, forming the foot of the goblet, comes away almost 
of itself. He removes the other core forming the interior 
of the goblet by inserting a piece of hard wood into the hole 
previously occupied by the dowel which held it centered 
with the small core of the foot. With light strokes of the 
mallet he presses upon the large core to loosen the shapes. 
He removes them one by one, by the wooden handles. 
The pewter issues from the mould beautiful and brilliant 
with its channels and the three seams. The founder grasps 
it with his hand protected by felt, and places it carefully on 
a soft bed of cloth, for while the object is hot, a blow will 
shatter it. 

The detailed description of the casting is much longer 
than the operation itself, and, as in all trades in which 
manual labor plays a great part, the sight of the processes 
is more instructive than the best explanations. 

In casting successive goblets the details above described 
must be scrupulously observed. 

The casting of a tray is less complicated, because 
the mould is more simple in construction. 

In order to cool the mould after casting, [it is 
immersed gradually and almost wholly in a tub of hot water, 
instead of being pressed with a cloth. In this case, the 
mould, beside being held in the pincers applied for the pur- 
pose of handling it easily, must be clamped at various points 
of its circumference, as otherwise, during the immersion, it 

would burst open and 
allow the metal to es- 
cape. 



rale^v 




etain repousse, 
d'cnfant. 




Fig, 24^ — Page from an exhibition catalogue, in wliicli each exhibitor had to submit 
a design concerning liis work and tools. A, mould of tray: B. steel clamps; 
C, wood handle; Ul), ladles to pour pewter; 10, neck: F, braces; G, feet. 

Let us now return to the goblet, in order to finish it and 
make it ready for service. The jet, or run, is cut at its 
base by sharp pincers, shears, or saw. A soldering iron 
may also be used (Fig. 25, B B), and when there are many 
jets to be cut, the tise of the gas iron is proforable, since it 

sinii)lillos the ope- 
ration (Fig. 25, E). 
Nothing remains 
to mar the exterior 
oi the gol>let but 
the traces of the 
seams of the three 
sections, which ;ip- 





Ulus. r.7. r.S and .Ml r.uicriis puuiln;; p.uln nilo mhuII luouUh h.1,1 h.lu.'rn llir Uiiees Uroiu Siilmoi.'s liviiti.>io. 17SS>, 



"V "g" »««^-'^-. »WA .»J»T A.'t , > L.T'^y i. J-TT 



22 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




lUus. 60 and 61. — Pewter trays^ by Jules Brateau. obtained by the rounding process descril)ed in tliese pages. 



pear as fine',^ lines running from the top to the edge of the 
standard of the piece, dehcate in proportion as the mould 
has been well adjusted, but in all cases plainly visible. The 
founder is rarely able to obliterate these seams, and when 
they traverse a decorative detail, the hand of the engraver 
alone can repair the injury thus effected. If, however, they 
follow their course over a fiat surface, the ordinary work- 
man can erase them with sharp scrapers (Fig. 26). 

At the points where the channels, have remained on 
the piece, and are too thick to be removed with the scraper, 





as at the funnel of the "neck," an ecouenne, a sort of rasp, 
is used. This instrument, unlike a file, cuts squarely, 
and its end may be sharp, blunt, half round, or bent 
(Fig. 27, ABBCD). 

At the bottom of the goblet there is a hole at the junc- 
tion of the core of the body with that of the foot; the hole 
having been produced by the dowel which served to center 
and hold them. This must be closed with pewter of the 
same alloy, taken from the crucible with a small ladle. To 
do this, the body of the goblet is filled w^ith a tampon of 
felt, or a bag of sand, the piece is turned up- 
side down, and molten pewter poured into 
the hole. The adjacent parts have been pre- 
viously cleansed and scraped, since even the 
small quantity of glazing liable to remain 
on the section, would prevent the complete 
union which this precaution and the red 
heat of the metal assure. 



Fis 



-DifFerent kinds of solderint; irons. .A. pewter cast after founding; BH, soldering irons in copper: 
{'('C, soldering irons in .ron; I), wood handle: K. soldering iron in copi)er for gas heat. 



A 



Fig. 26. — Different kinds of scrapers for pewter vyork. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



23 



The interior of the goblet, however well cast, requires 
further care. It must be put on the hand or foot- 
lathe, which is an indispensable part of the founder's equip- 
ment. It is turned by a pedal, or by a crank, acting upon 
a fly-wheel, which itself, by means of a tense cord of cat-gut, 
transmits rapid motion to the lathe. 

At the end, or "chuck," of the lathe is placed a round, 
hollow receptacle, technically called a "mandrel" (Fig. 28,B). 

This box is made of well seasoned alder, beech or elm; 
it is sawed into slits at equal points of the circumference, 
and encircled by a broad outside ring (Fig. 28, D), by means 
of which it is able to expand and contract, as the ring ap- 
proaches or recedes from the edge of the box; allowing the 
goblet to be inserted, or removed. 

The workman, leaning a chisel with rounded head and 






Fit?. -7. — Different l^iiids of files for pewter wortc. 

wooden handle upon the support at the front of the lathe, 
applies this tool to the mouth of the goblet. With a light, 
firm stroke, and careful to avoid scratching, he inserts his 
sharp tool and forces it to the bottom of the goblet, cutting 
away a very slight quantity of metal, as the goblet was 
made of the desired thickness, and was nearly perfect be- 
fore this last process. The workman now fixes a tampon of 
woolen fabric at the end of a stick, dips it in oil, fine pumice, 
and rotten stone, and with this mixture effaces the marks 
of the chisel. This done, he burnishes the piece to give a 
brilliant surface. 



Fig. 28. — A, chuck of the lathe: J-i, mandrel open; C, mandrel closed; 
D. metal ring (often in pewter). 

The burnisher is a sort of round, curv^ed hook of pol- 
ished steel which is rubbed from time to time upon chamois 
skin sprinkled with red polish, or upon pewter in order to 
keep it in good condition. 

The burnisher should lightly pass over the whole inside 
of the goblet; the latter being dampened with soap suds to 
prevent it from adhering to the burnisher. 

Beside turning, a variety of round brushes of iron, 
copper, nickel, bristle and even chamois, are attached to 
the lathe, and used according to the requirements of spe- 
cial cases; the object to be polished being held in the hand 
and in front of the brush. 

. The foot of the goblet is also finished on the lathe. 

At this point, a metal wire hairbrush chosen according 
to the work, and dipped in pumice and rotten stone, is at- 
tached to the lathe and lightly swept over the whole dec- 
orated surface. Then, the goblet is brushed with soap suds, 
and dried in saw dust, and the long work is at an end. 

(TO BE continued) 

EXHIBITION OF HANDICRAFTS IN BROOKLYN 
The Handicrafters held their spring exhibition from 
April ist to nth at the Pratt Art Club, Brooklyn. This 
exhibition was the largest and the most successful they 
have had. There was quite a collection of Indian baskets 
and silverwork from the Navajo Indians, hand wovcd linen 
from Italy, and embroidery and lace from the Italian school 




CUP AND SAUCER C. BABCOCK 



lyight ;iii(l (l;iik gri') bhir (Usigii, \vA\r i-liiii;i while 01 cream with l\oi\ l'.l;i/r to wliicli i^ .iddrJ ,1 hide WlUnv Imowu 



, Jj ir 



24 



nilKAMIC STUDIO 



in Macdougal street, New York City. The Greenwich 
House sent woven rugs, the basket shop of Bellefontaine, 
Pa., beautifully made Ixiskets. Miss A. Dewitt sent some 
very artistic baskets treated in an unusual way. The 
Rokesly shop of Cleveland had an excellent exhibit of 
jewelry. Miss Emily F. Peacock some very simple and 
interesting silver chains and cuff links. Miss Ivins a carved 
ring in gold and some unique cuff buttons carved in silver. 
Mr. Cheney sent a very beautifully wrought copper vase, 
and some jewelry. Miss J. Huston sent some wood carving 
and a carved horn comb. Miss J. Hoagland pottery. Miss 
M. Behr stencils, and the Minneapslis Guild a very well 
chosen exhibit of the different handicrafts. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Mrs. a. H. M. — If the acid of the lemonade discolored the grapes on your 
bowl and the paint could be scraped off, it was badly underfired. 

Mrs. C. W. M. — \\'e refer you to the articles on gold and raised paste in 
the Class Room Ker.\mic Studio. Dec. 1905. Your paste was probably 
insufficiently fired so the gold burnished off or the gold was too thin or else, 
which liowever, is doubtful, it was overfired, in which case it would give a matt 
ochre effect. The only thing would be to regild and refire. Possibly there 
was something wrong with your gold or the method of putting on. 

Mrs. E. B. K. — If your gold and sometimes carmine rub ofT as well as the 
pink you mention there is no doubt that your cliina is underfired. In regard 
to painting roses see articles on flower painting in Ker.\mic Stijdio Class 
Room July and Aug. 1907. Carnation 1 and 2 make a good salmon pink 
when tinted. 

A -p 'T^ C^CW OXrV BOOTHBAY HARBOR 
rVlV 1 V><Wl^Wi>l 1 ON THE COAST OF MAINE 
Rest, Recreation and Study. Six Instructors. Write to 

A. G. Randal, Art Club, Providence, R. I. 



STUDIO APARTMENT TO RENT, FURNISHED, during July, 
August and Sept. Rent $40 per month. Studio 28x17, 
north light, 2 bedrooms, kitchen and bathroom. Apply to 
E. F. Peaoock, 232 East 27th Street, New York City. 



CHINA PAIINTERS 




If you want to get more merit into your painting and pro- 
duce work that sells, send at once for a copy of Colors and 
Coloring in China Painting. This book contains more pointers and information than 
are found in half a dozen ordinary books on china painting. It contains the essence of 
a $20 course of instruction. Price 25 cents, postpaid. Address 

KER/\M1C SUPPLY CO., 658 Lemcke. Indianapolis. Ind. 

^- WOULD YOU SKETCH FROM NATURE? Best instruction 

in Oil. Water Color and Charcoal. With pleasantest vaca- 
^- ' tion surroundings. Terms include board and room. 

Cos'^eshall Camp and Sludio, on the beautiful Cape Ann shore. 
Write for booklet. "Co^^eshail," 473 Beacon S(., Lowell, Mass 

THREE CENTS EACH BY MAIL 

Shirt waist buttons any size, oval, round or heart-shape, in fine white china to deco- 
rate, delivered at your home for three cents each. An elegant assortment of French 
and and Austrian china for decorating. No catalogue. We do not substitute if we are 
out when you order. Belt, bar and hat pins with china to tit, complete, 15c each. 
Hudson Crockery Company, 349 South Salina Street. Syracuse, IN. Y. 

OUGA CELEBRATED FINE ART STUDIES 

Latest complete illustrated Catalogue 30c. New Flower, Fruit, Figure, Land- 
scape and Animal Studies — suitable for Oils. Water Colors, China, etc. Dis- 
counts given in Catalogue. M. G. PRICE, 357 W. 118(h St., New York. 

Onhj one-and two-^ent stamps accepted. 



V 



n 



-H 



POTTERY SCHOOL — Second Year 

Matt Glazes, Underglazc Decoration, Mold Making, etc. 
Term opens June 29. Send for Catalogue. 

Badger Summer School of Pottery 

Madison, Wisconsin 



■plRST Supplement to Catalogue D, Color Studies and Designs, might interest you 
■•■ Mailed free on request. Keramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 



ARE YOU GOING 

To the Third International Congress on 
Art Education in London, August, 1908? 

.\ll information is given in the Official Organ 
of the .\rnerican Committee the latest Congress 

THE dCnOOL ARTd BOOK 

the foremost illustrated monthly magazine for supervisors and teachers of drawing. 

THE DAVIS PRESS, Worcester, Mass. 



.St. .50 per copy. 
15 cents per copy 



White China 



Before buying White China call at 165 

Tremont Street and see the choice line of 

f r\ ^- i.;^ . French, Austrian and Belleek, Mrs. H. E. 
for Decorating Hersam carries. 

All china left before 9:30 MTS. H. E. HERSAM 
will be fired and ready to ^._ ^ .4.4. T>r»CT^rkXT 

deliver at 3:30 p. m. 165 Tremont St., BOS 1 UJN 

THE HANDICRAFT GUILD OF MINNEAPOLIS. SCHOOL OF AP 
PLIED DESIGN. Summer Session, June 15 to July 17, 1908. 
Ernest A. Batchelder, Director. Address FLORENCE WALES, Sec'y, 

TheHandicraft Guild, Minneapolis. 

A, B, Cobden's Ceramic Art School 

COBDEN'S SPECIAL CERAMIC COLORS m Powder 

COBDEN'S PURE ROMAN GOLD First Quality Only 

Medium, Brushes and all materials for China Decorating. 

Price List containing "Hints on China Painting ' free on request. 

4^ent for Revelation Kilns. 

13 S. 16th Street - • PHILADELPHIA. PA. 

Spt-cial Agent for H.eramic Stvidio Publications 



I White China 
I for Decorating 

♦ 

I D.& CO. 

FRANCE 



♦ 
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If you want the best Quality, Shapes, Results 
in Firing 

L8E Tni8 yiXKt or chsna 



New Catalogue jtist issued, will be sent on application. Goods must 4 
be ordered through nearest local dealer. * 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE UNTFED STATES 

Endemann £> Churchill 



Send for our free booklet 



The Crafts „ 



interested ! 



I 50 Murray St. New York t 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO., Syracuse, N. Y. I^^^— ^♦♦♦♦♦^♦♦^♦♦^♦♦^^^^V^^^^^^ 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



\>^: 




The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted 'without special permission 



CONTENTS FOR JUNE 1908 



Editorial Notes 

Hydrangea Panel (Supplement) 
Landscape Teapot Stand 
Color Notes 
Appreciation of Form 
Bowls 

Cup and Saucer and Salt and Pepper 
Tea Jar — Crocus Motif 
Tankard — Conventional Grape Motif 
Marblehead Pottery- 
Pitcher 

Decorative Treatment of Tile Mantels 
Plate and Border 
Tea Jar (treatment page 48) 
Modeling at the Y. W. C. A. Art Schoo' 
Plate — Narcissus 
Jar — Dragon Fly 
Bowl Design 
Bowl Border and Plate 
Plate — Chinese Design 
Monograms 
Plate 
Vases 

Chocolate Pitcher 
Platycodon Design for Panel 
Bowl 

Plate in Shades of Green 
Conventional Rose Plate 
Bowl 

New York Society of Keramic Arts 
Ceramic Shapes 
Underglaze Gold 

Development of Polychromatic Exterior Glaze Decoration 
Jardiniere in Violet and Purple 



Maud M. Mason 
Caroline Hofman 
Caroline Hofman 
E. Mason 
E. Mason 
May McCrystle 
Jetta Ehlers 
Jetta Ehlers 
Herbert J. Hall, M. D. 
Helen Walsh 
Mary C, Sauter 
Anna B. Leonard 
Helen Walsh 
Sophia A. Walker 
S. Evannah Price 
Henrietta B. Paist 
Henrietta B. Paist 
Charlotte KroII 
Margaret E. Armstrong 
Matilda Middleton 
Sara Wood Safford 
Edith Penman 
Elizabeth Hardenbergh 
Joanna M. Hibler 
Mary M. Hicks 
Fannie- M. Scammell 
Alida Lovett 
Dorothea Warren 

M. M. Mason 
Charles Volkmar 
Herman A. Plusch, M. Sc. 
Minna Meinke 



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X 



PALETTE AND BENCH 

A Magazine for the Art Student and Craftsworker 

We desire to get an expression of opinion from our subscribers and inquirers 
on the subject of the new magazine which we are about to publish, devoted to WATER 
COLORS, OIL, PASTEL, 'CHARCOAL AND PENQL, AND CRAFTS; in fact, we want to 
know how much support we will get from teachers and students. 

It will be edited along practical lines similar to that of KERAMIC STUDIO, 
will have technical treatments of each study and also contain a color supplement, 
either landscape, figure or study of still life which will be of great interest to teachers 
of art and undoubtedly of great assistance to them in their lessons. 

It is our purpose to have it strongly edited in all departments. 

Do you know of five or more of your friends who might become subscribers to 
such a magazine? If so please send us their names and addresses and we in return will 
send you one of our "color studies for the china painter." To avoid duplication kindly 
state your first and second choice. The Blackberry study by Miss Stewart is out of print. 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

The first number will be issued in October; price same as Keramic Studio — $4 
per year. Send in your order now, same to be due in September. The two in 
combination, $7. 



X 
X 
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Our Latest 
Combination 

Offer 

Keramic Studio 
S4.00 

Second Rose Book 
S3. 00 

Fruit Book 

S3. 00 

All for $9.00 

POSTPAID 



XXX5<XXX>5X!H;XX^J«X5«3«X3«5<[XX3«X5«J«X5SJ«X50fiXX^ 5«XSX3»»C5^X3«XX 




Vol. X. No. 2 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



June, 1908 




HE Keramic Studio and its Ed- 
itor, Adelaide A. Robineau, who 
is also a member of the New York 
Society of Keramic Arts, 'take 
great pleasure in presenting in this 
issue the work of that society. 
Although but a third of its mem- 
bers are represented the readers of 
Keramic Studio will be able to 
form a very representative idea of 
its work. 



>h 



A design of conventional rose for plate was published 
in April number with the signature B. H. P., the name of 
the designer having been lost. This design is by Miss 
Bessie H. Proctor, 215 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Manual Arts Press of Peoria, 111., has just pub- 
lished an interesting brochure by Frank Forrest Frederick 
on "The Wash Method of Handling Water Color," a method 
which is little used now except in the art trades. Its ar- 
tistic possibilities are clearly brought out by Mr. Frederick 
and well illustrated with some of his own water colors. 

In presenting this number of the Keramic Studio, 
it is our wish to give some idea of the work and ambition 
of the New York Society of Keramic Arts, in the hope of 
enlisting the help and interest of our large army of ceramic 
workers in the Society's undertakings. 

The "object of the Society is to develop and foster 
Ceramic Art in America" by setting a standard of artistic 
excellence in the productions of both the potter and over- 
glaze decorator, and by showing to the public in annual ex- 
hibitions the finest productions of ceramic art for the sake of 
study and comparison. Its aim is not to establish a school 
of Ceramic Art but to encourage individual endeavor and to 
create a demand for work of merit. 

Its membership is drawn from all parts of the United 
States and it is the desire and pleasure of the Society to 
welcome any one to its circle who is interested in the develop- 
ment of the art. There is a strong fraternal feeling among 
its members and great enthusiasm is brought to bear in their 
endeavor to establish a higher standard than has been that 
of the ceramic worker heretofore. It li()i)es to j)roniotc a 
general interest in the study of design and the prineii)l("s of 
decoration and to help the workers in this art as well as 
the public to an appreciation of what is suitable and line in 
ceramics. 

For the past three or four years the N. Y. vS. K. A. has 
exhibited no naturalistic painting, not loi- the reason that 
the vSoeiety debars all such work, but because the jnr\- eon 
sidered such naturalistic ])ieees sul)niilled as not of stillieient 
excellence for the i)uriK)se. 'iMie Society does not, how 
ever, and no society with a knowledge of the p'incipK's of 
eu't in decoration ever could, stand foi- or exhil)il nahualislie 
painting of llowers or figures on ohjrcis of nlilil\ sueii as 



tableware, vases, etc. When the above mentioned motifs 
are artistically treated on panels or tiles for decoration they 
are eligible for any exhibition. Of recent years, the So- 
ciety's annual exhibitions have been very beautifully pre- 
sented in the galleries of the National Arts Club with a large 
showing of the work of the representative overglaze decora- 
tors as well as of the leading makers of pottery. The last 
exhibition was one of unusual interest, showing a distinct 
advance in the work, and an increased interest in the study 
of design by its members. What was most gratifying also 
was the show of interest in the Society's work, by the large 
potters and tile makers, and the desire on their part to co- 
operate in the work by exhibiting the best productions of 
their establishments. It might be of interest to add that 
this was financially also the most successful exhibition for 
several years. 

Maud M. Mason, 
Pres. N. Y. S. K. A. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts is making 
great strides in the way of increasing its membership and 
advertising as well as selling the work of its members. 

A most successful auction sale was held at the store 
of M. T. Wynne recently and to Miss Wynne, who is an 
associate member of the Society, much is due for the success 
of the sale. At a special meeting of the executive, arrange- 
ments were made to place the work of the society on sale 
at Newport, R. I., during the summer months. 



THE HYDRANGEA PANEL (Supplement) 

Maud M . Mason 

THE study has necessarily been reduced for reproduc- 
tion and would be nuich more elTeetive if enlarged to 
twice its size. 

In carrying out the stud)' keej) all the tones quite Hat, 
matching the values as well as the colors as nearlv as possi- 
ble. 

After sketching the design in ink paint in the darks of 
the leaf masses, also the trees, shadows uniler them and the 
bush with Royal Blue and a little Dark CTreen, then paitU the 
shadows of the llowers witli Hrown, I'ink ami a lillle \'iolet 
and the trunks and branches of the \n\^\\ with the same ei^lor 
used somewhat stronger. 

The light grei-n of the ground, also of thr large Inisli, are 
painted with Albert Yellow and VelU)w toeen Pnst entire 
snrfaei' when dr\- with I'earl C.rey ami tiir. 

in the sreoml painting tone the panel with a tint oi 
Yellow Hiown, padding it ver\ light o\er the llowers and 
when (h\ again dust with Pearl tMe>' and the. In the next 
])ainling earrv a wash of Wllow I'.ieen ami Yellow mer all 
the foliage of the large bush, also over the guMuid. a wash of 
Blue or X'iolel over the distant trees and huge shadows, as 
the>' unw lecjuiir, and also a lint o\ ronip.uKnn o\ ei all llu- 
llower masses. 

Repeat the abo\e tiwilnienl initil the desiud colors 
and \alms an.' olil. lined. 



26 



nERAMlC STUDIO 




LANDSCAPE TEAPOT STAND IN TWO COLORS AND 
THREE TONES 

Caroline H of man 

TRACE the design upon the china and fill in all the out- 
lines with special tinting oil into which a very little 
Black has been rubbed. 

Let it stand, where no dust can reach it, for two or three 
hours and then dust with Ivory Glaze into which one-fourth 
proportion of Aztec Blue has been thoroughly ground. Fire. 

Second fire — Envelop entire piece in special tinting 
oil, as before, pad thoroughly, and dust with a mixture of 
equal parts Russian Green, Yellow Green, and Aztec Blue, 
to which has been added as much Ivory Glaze as will equal 
the amount of the three colors. 

Third fire — Treat all the darkest portions of the design 
with tinting oil as for first fire, and dust with Ivory Glaze 
to which has been added one-fourth its bulk of Copenhagen 
Blue and the same amount of Aztec Blue. 

COLOR NOTES 

Caroline H of man 

BECAUSE of having been asked to write a short article 
on the use of bright-color harmonies in overglaze 
decoration, the writer has made an attempt to express a 
few theories (and practices) along this line. Perhaps you 
Avill agree with them, perhaps disagree; they only stand for 
sincere opinions, with no intention of being dogmatic. 

So many articles which we decorate are unsuited to 
brilliant coloring that we all revel when the opportunity 
comes to use full color-harmonies. 

We women often feel, when looking at our color boxes, 
as we do when planning the new hat in the midst of a tempt- 
ing display of flowers; there are so many possibilities. And 
yet, for that very reason, we must sternly resolve to select 
only the choicest color-scheme, and the simplest. 

Every full harmony must contain some contrast; if 
your color-scheme seems tame and uninteresting it may be 
because the colors you have used are too similar in their 
natures. Think what would be a distinct contrast to the 
largest mass of color in your design^ and introduce it in two 
or three small spaces, 



Students beginning the study of color often make the 
mistake of planning but one spot of the color which is to 
brighten the whole scheme. They remember to break up 
the other masses of color so as to have an interplay, but 
then bang in goes their most striking color all in one spot, 
with the alarming result that it stands out in alarming 
prominence, declining to have anything to do with the rest 
of the color scheme. Every space of any color needs at 
least one subordinate sized space of the same to support 
it in the design; usually it needs more than one. 

Study the methods of the oriental carpet weaver; he 
understands how to combine brilliant colors into one har- 
monious whole, by breaking and inter-spacing them, thus 
getting a play of the different bright colored spaces, one 
through another. 

It is as much a study of proportion as it is of color- 
qualities, this combining of colors. Often a certain color 
which is unpleasant in one proportion may go very well in 
the scheme if you use less of it, or more. 

We can dispense with red, in making our color schemes, 
much better than we can with either yellow or orange. 

The most brilliant colors, out of doors, are harmonized 
by distance, the atmosphere veiling their intensity. Often 
an enveloping tone of soft gray is all that is needed to har- 
monize the color scheme that has come from the kiln harsh 
and "edgey". 



APPRECIATION OF FORM 



E. Mason 



WHEN we compare ceramic thought, and what is more 
convincing still, ceramic work, with that of a few 
years ago, there can be no doubt in our minds that there 
has been a salutary change. That it is a salutary one, that 
our point of view is a better one, and that work and thought 
in keramics is progressing, no one with a knowledge of the 
principles of decoration can deny. As a matter of fact, it 
is from a growing knowledge of these principles among our 
ceramic workers that the change has been wrought. 

In no way is this more marked than in the difference 
in form of the articles used now and previously. Indeed, it 
would not be too strong a statement to make that the growth 
of appreciation for what is fine in decoration might be traced 
by the change in the shapes used during the evolutionary, 
or, if you prefer it, the revolutionary years. 

If this does not in every sense hold good, it is due largely 
to the fact that manufacturers of the wares used have not 
kept pace with the decorators. This discrepancy would 
have undoubtedly been much more marked had not some 
of the ceramic workers, who had an appreciation of form 
as well as the needs of the average ceramist, helped the manu- 
facturers to a better imderstanding of the situation. This 
they did by designing for them forms, which besides being 
fine in themselves were suited to the practical application 
of designs. 

Another reason, too, why form may have failed to quite 
keep pace with the forward march in design, may be due to 
the fact that an appreciation of the subtleties of form is the 
result of a ripe growth, rather than a feeling for decoration. 

Granting, however, these two objections, we can still 
hold to our first statement, that the change in the thought 
about ornament has led to an improvement in forms. With 
the desire for a simpler and more restrained decoration 
came immediately the demand for that indispensable ad- 
junct — forms suitable for the expression of such 
thought. 



heramic studio 



27 




SALAD BOWL— ELIZABETH MASON 



SALAD BOWL 

Elizabeth Mason 

OUTLINE the design in ink, a very fine line is much the 
best. Indeed, if the worker is accustomed to do this 
sort of thing, the best result is really to be had by simply 
using the tracing without going over it in ink. In either 
case paint in the design in Empire Green with a little Brown 
Green added. When dry dust with Empire Green. 

For the lower part of the bowl use the mixture of Em- 
pire Green and Brown Green for a tint, matching the value 
in the study. 

For the second fire, tint the entire piece with Light 
Green Lustre, and repeat the same lustre for the third fire 
in the same way. 

For the fourth fire if desired it may be outlined in gold, 
but is quite complete without it. 

This is a very simple color scheme and an equally simple 
treatment, but makes a very pleasing and suitable decora- 
tion. 



TANKARD IN CONVENTIONAL PATTERN OF GRAPES 
AND LEAVES (Page 29) 

Jeita Ehlers 

FIRST painting — Tint tankard with Grey Green, medium 
strength. Pad very smooth and even. Paint handle 
with Black and paint also the bands at the top and bottom 
with Black. Fire. 

Second painting — Place design with India ink. Paint 
grapes with Vance-Phillip's Rich Blue, keeping the shapes 
very decided. Leaves are painted with Fry's Empire 
Green. Stems and branches are done in Black keeping all 
forms clean cut and snappy. Fire. 

Third painting — Envelop entire piece with a thin wash 
of Finishing Brown. Pad until perfectly even and rofiro. 

Fourth painting — Go over grapes and leaves with tliin, 
even wash of same colors used in first painting. Touch up 
stems and lines with Black. Retouch handles and bands. 
There are no outlines used in the treatment ot this 
design. 




BOWL, FLOWER MOTIF— ELIZABETH MASON 



TRACIv the design in llic panels, and piiiiil this and I hr h'oi t hr siroinl liiiui;, linl the entire piece with CIhiu-m- 

bands with Black. I'or the parts in thr iiii(hlle Gneii ;iiul ihist w it li the snme (.■i>loi . 
tones of grey, use Banding Blue tinted on i'\tnl\ . Wlun h'or the thinl tiling tint the wluile piece with Pi-.ul Imcv 

dry, dust the whole with Persian iihie. inside and oiu and thist with tlu- s.inie. 



ft Til 



28 



REKAMIC STUDIO 





CUP AND SAUCER, AND DESIGN FOR SALT AND PEPPER— MAY MCCRYSTLE 



CUP AND SAUCER, AND DESIGN FOR SALT AND PEPPER 

May McCrystle 

HANDLE, edge line and line on inside of cup are gold. 
The outside line is dark blue. Leaves and round 
forms are outlined in black made of two-thirds Ivory Black 
and one-third Dark Blue. The same black outline is used in 
little stem between cross lines on form between wavy lines, 
and the cross lines are made in dark blue enamel. Round 
forms are also of dark blue enamel. Leaves are of bright 
green enamel, and wavy lines on either side of leaves 
are of brownish lavender enamel. Dark blue is made of 
dark blue tone with Brunswick Black and Deep Purple, one- 
eighth Aufsetzwciss. Green is Apple Green toned with 
Brunswick Black and Deep Purple, one-eighth Aufsetzwciss. 
Brownish lavender is made of equal parts of Dark Blue and 
Light \^iolet of Gold toned with Yellow Brown and Brown 
4 or 17 to make quite brown, one-eighth Aufsetzwciss. 
Mix outline and enamel colors with turpentine only, using 
enamel colors quite thin and vary the thickness so as to 
give shading to leaves and round forms. All colors are La 
Croix excepting Brunswick Black and Yellow Brown, which 
are Miiller & Hennig. 

The same colors and mixtures are used in design for 
salts and peppers. Gold lines and top is of Gold. Design 
is outlined in black and dots around the round form on border 
and design are of the same black. Round form is dark 
blue enamel. Center lines in between round forms are 
brownish lavender and shorter lines on either side are of 
green. In the tall growth the flower is of dark blue and the 
small round forms are brownish lavender. In the shorter 
growth the flower is brownish lavender and small round 
forms are dark blue. All leaves are bright green and center 
of all flowers are Capucine Red. 








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TEA JAR, CROCUS MOTIF— JETTA EHLERS 
(Treatment page 32) 



HlEramic studio 



29 




TANKARD IN CONVENTIONAL PATTERN OF GRAPES AND LEAVES lETTA EHLERS 

(Trotiiu-iit Page 27) 



» -■ r tr. 



]t F-. M W IF ^ ^ILII. II. 1 WKt 



30 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




Vase. Design of ships and waves in tones of 

grey and blue. Designed by A. E. Baggs 

and A. I. Hennessey. 



Vase. Conventionalized peacock 
feather in blue and blue green. 
Designed by A. E. Baggs. 



MARBLEHEAD POTTERY 



Herbert J. Hall, M. D. 

MARBLEHEAD" is a new^ name in the field of American 
Keramics. After three years of experimental prog- 
ress this pottery is just making its bow to the public , hav- 
ing finally assumed characteristics which individualize it 
and which would seem to justify its existence. 

The new ware is made under unusually pleasant condi- 
tions. The buildings are situated directly on the water- 
front of the harbor. To those who know old Marblehead 
this will mean much, for the little harbor is as remarkable 
for its beauty as is the old town for its well preserved 
Colonial architecture and for the crookedness of its streets. 

The pottery plant is a very small one. It contains one 
kick wheel, a turning lathe and a six-burner kerosene kiln, 
besides well lighted spaces for designers and decorators and 
room for storage of pottery in the various stages of construc- 
tion. There are three designers, one decorator and a thrower 
besides a kiln man who attends to all the firing and stacking. 
This represents the entire crew and yet there is a weekly 
output of over two hundred pieces including decorated tiles. 
This output represents a value of about five hundred 
dollars per week. As the plant is so small, it is possible 
to maintain a remarkable degree of co-operation. The 
designers themselves plan and decorate the individual 
pieces and personally direct their progress through the various 




necessary stages. Not a shape is made, not a 
decoration applied, which has not run the gaunt- 
let of the friendly criticism of the entire working 
force. The products therefore are essentially crafts- 
man's products and they have the human interest 
and personal touch which can hardly be attained 
in a large pottery and which are usually not seen ex- 
cept in the product of individual workers. It 
would seem that these are facts of considerable 
economic and artistic significance. Do they not 
point to the desirability of small plants not only in 
pottery but in other true arts and crafts fields? 
Somewhere between the factory and the individual 
craftsman lies a point where it should be possible 
to meet expenses without cheapening the product. 
The factory with its heavy payroll must turn out 
such quantities of "goods" that the craftsman spirit 
is lost. On the other hand, the individual worker 
must give so much time to unimportant details that 

his products can rarely command the price that in point of 

time alone they are really worth. 

Perhaps the example of this small plant and the mutual 

helpfulness of its workers may do something toward solving 




Vase with peacock feather spots designed by A. E. Bag 
designed by A. I. Hennessey. 



Other two vases 



Vases in tones of green, with designs in olive brown and black. Tall vase and jar 
designed by Miss Maude Milner. Small vase and bowl designed by A. I. Hennessey. 




Jardiniere with four handles. Dark grey glaze. Designed by A. E. Baggs. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



31 




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Four tiles in colored matt glazes. Designed by A. E. Baggs. 

for our craftsmen the very perplexing but very insistent 
problem of making a living without the sacrifice of ideals. 

• The Marblehead ware has met with instant approval 
wherever it has been exhibited during the past year. Es- 
pecially gratifying is the praise and recognition accorded by 
the various Arts and Crafts societies into whose salesrooms 
it has been freely admitted. Although the shapes are con- 
servative and simple, and although the decoration is severely 
conventionalized and carefully used, it is evident that the 
uninitiated public approves, for the calls for the product are 
far in excess of the possible output. 

Readers of the Studio may be interested to know that 
the Marblehead Pottery is part of a group of industries 
known as the Handcraft Shops. The group comprises hand 
weaving, wood carving and metal work. The whole estab- 
lishment was started about three years ago by the writer, 
who is a physician in general practice and who wished to 
have an industrial plant where he could send his nervously 
worn out patients for the blessing and privilege of quiet 
manual work, where as apprentices they could learn again 
gradually and without haste to use the hand and brain in a 
normal, wholesome way. Fortunately it was seen at the 
outset that unless the teachers were the best craftsmen who 
could be found, the work would have no moral nor commer- 
cial nor artistic value. As it is, the standard in all these 
departments is exceedingly high, for the teachers when they 
are not teaching are turning out excellent products of their 
own. 




SliUi(lii,i-(l lor clcclric l:un|). Crccii willi dcsiKn in olive. Dfsi^jiu-d l>,v A, lO, Uim^s. 

The wood work and (lie IkuuI weaving lia\c pioxi'd 



medical plan entirely and to give it full professional swing 
unhampered by the requirements of teaching. Too much 
praise can not .be given to the well trained men and women 
who have developed the pottery. 

Mr. Arthur E. Baggs, now well known in Keramic circles, 
is the leading spirit. His strong and sure touch is seen 
everywhere and his attainments in matt glaze decorations 
are the sine qua non of the pottery. The other designers are 
Mr. A. I. Hennessy and Miss Maude Milner. The decorator 
is Mrs. E. D. Tutt, the thrower Mr. John Sv^-allow and the 
kiln man Mr. E. J. Lewis. 

There are two artists not of the staff but friends of the 
pottery who occasionally contribute a clever and effective 
design or suggestion; they are Miss Annie E. Aldrich and 
Miss Rachel Grinwell. Mrs. John Swallow sometimes 
assists during rush times at especial detail work. 

Finally, it may be said that the spirit of the place is 
delightful, that mutual respect and co-operation combine 
with a friendly rivalry to produce results which, in the 
writer's somewhat prejudiced opinion at least, cannot be 
secured so surely in any other way. 




PHCHHR-HHLHN WALSH 



most useful from the nuHhcal \irw point, and llu'\- ha\i' 'T^llKS design wwxy hv carried oiu in tones v>r ,«;iveii or ol 

beeji very useful indeed. A l)hu\ I'or the former, gromul la\ the p.ittern with (.".lex 

The technical requirements of an adecinalc pottery Cnen, and foi the moimuI tiling, the entire surface with 

production i)roved so exacting that sinci- tlu' lirst \ear it C.reen (Ua/e. Peheatc bhu-s max W ol^tained with Uand- 

has seemed wise to separate this department from the ing lUue and A/nie r.la/e. 



32 



nURAMIC STUDIO 




Fcj- 5. 




THE DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF TILE MANTELS 

Mary C. Sauter 

IN the designing of a single tile, or group of tiles for a 
specific purpose such as a mantel-piece, the designer 
is limited in his scheme of decoration only by the thought of 
the use to which the tile may be put, or by the environment 
of the group or mantel-piece. Thus fitness to purpose must 
suggest in this, as in all other forms of design, the dominant 
chord around which all other chords must play, and into 
which they must finally resolve. This is true first in the 
general form, the ensemble, second in color, and last but 
not least in design; last, perhaps, because occupying usu- 
ally a relatively small part of the whole, it must conform 
itself to, and at the same time accent the general character 
of the whole, and not least, because the inharmonious dec- 
oration of even a good thing will utterly destroy its char- 
acter. 

If the general contour conforms to the architecture of 
the room, and a harmonious color scheme has been chosen, 
then the mind is left free to consider the design. 

Should simplicity be the prevailing characteristic, mak- 
ing the plain tone seem almost sufficient in itself, then the 
design must not only conform to, but be greatly subordin- 
ated to the effect of the ensemble. This suggests a simple 
line treatment, which shall band in the edges, and strengthen 
without destroying the effect. Fig. i suggests such a treat- 
ment of the top and sides of a mantel-piece. It is carried 
out by means of an incised line which gives a deeper tone 
to the plain matt glaze. Under certain surroundings so 
simple a border would be inadequate, and something of a 
more decided character would seem necessary to correspond 
with the general character of the room. 

Fi3. 2 suggests a simple motive arrived at by spotting 
well related shapes rather than by any conscious thought of 
flower conventionalization. The tile may be in one color by 
incising the design, thus accenting the form and deepening 
the color, or it may be in two or three well related colors or 



tones, by incising the outline. Such a tile could be carried 
across the top and down the sides, or be placed with plain 
tiles of the same color to produce an all-over effect. 

Fig. 3 is more suggestive of actual flower form. It is 
capable of yet another development in tone, that is a greater 
contrast between flower and leaf, giving at once a decided 
feeling of border, if used along the top and down the sides 
of the mantel-piece as in Fig. i . 

A scheme of Interior Decoration may need a deeper 
border across the top to give a richer effect. Such a scheme 
as given in Fig. 4 might be a little more full of meaning, and 
at the same time be no more varied in color. The border 
is of two tones of soft grey green, and is supported by per- 
fectly plain tiling of a deeper grey green, giving a sense of 
solidity and of harmony. 

Fig. 5 has left the strictly conventional, and at the 
same time avoids the naturalistic. It is carried out in flat 
tones of matt glaze. Its color is a rhythm of greens and 
blue greens. The lines hold in principle to the original 
idea, though the application so evolves itself as to be ap- 
propriate to an entirely different scheme of Interior Dec- 
oration. 

TEA JAR, CROCUS MOTIF (Page 28) 

Jetta Ehlers 

FIRST painting — Tint entire jar with warm ivory tone. 
Pad very evenly and fire. 

Second painting — Place design with India ink and paint 
the crocus with Bischoff's Yellow Brown. The long centre 
stem effect is done with Shading Green, and the shorter 
lines with a yellow Moss Green. Top and bottom, a rim of 
Shading Green. Ornament on top of cover; background is 
Shading Green and small figure is Yellow Brown. No out- 
lines on this design. Fire. 

Third painting — Retouch all weak'places, repaint bands 
and knob the same as in second process and fire. 














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RERAMIC STUDIO 



33 



PLATE DESIGN 



Anna B. Leonard 



THIS plate border may be carried out in various color 
schemes. In blue and grey, also in grey tones, or 
any two or three tones. It is very pleasing in grey tones; 
for the first firing Copenhagen Grey and Pearl Grey. 

For the second firing wash a very light tone of Carmine 
No. 3 (Lacroix) on the roses and a very pale tone of Apple 
Green on the leaves which form the square unit. The centre 
panel is left grey. The design is intended to be used with- 
out an outline as the color should be dusted on. This may 
be done by transferring the design upon the china, using the 
graphite paper without turpentine having been previously 
rubbed on the surface of the china. 

Paint in the design with Special Tinting Oil (colored 
with Grey for Flesh) using the greatest care to get the 
edges straight and smooth, putting on the oil very thin 
without dabbing. Let this stand half a day before dusting 
on the color. 

With a little practice this may be done without the ne- 
cessity of cleaning the edges, as the color should be put on 
with a soft pointed shader, and there should be no color 
elsewhere but in the design proper. 

^ ^e 
BORDER FOR BOWL 

Anna B. Leonard 

THIS simple little border is intended for a bowl to be 
carried out in gold and white, or grey blue, made by using 
Dark Blue (Lacroix) with a very little Night Green (Lacroix) 
and a touch of Black. Add one-eighth flux to give it a fine 
glaze. 




TEA JAR— HELEN WALSH 




PLATE AND BORDER— ANNA B. LEONARD 



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34 



KHRAMIC STUDIO 




No. 3 



MODELING AT THE Y. W. C. A. ART SCHOOL 

Sophia Antoinette Walker, Director 

TWO years ago the Keramic Studio placed before its 
readers a comer of our Art Embroidery room and a 
line of vases made by the same fingers which hold the needle ; 
so its readers will remember that our clay work is not an end 
in itself but one means of helping a girl to find her artistic 
bent. 

The class are first year girls. Only four of their twenty 
school hours per week are spent in modeling; the rest go 
for the History of Art, tracings and enlargements of historic 
ornament, color, cast and mechanical drawing, wood-carv- 
ing and flat design. We have no potter's wheel nor ex- 
pensive equipment, and each student keeps her own clay 
moist until it is finished just as she may continue to do at 
home. We mean to make everv' part of our course react 
on every other part, and as advanced and inter- 
esting modeling is done in the four hours as could be ac- 
complished in the twenty given to one study; students 
more advanced than ours may specialize to advantage. 

Miss Florence Leonard modeled the round jar (No. i), 
and also the jardiniere (No. 2) with its original composi- 
tions representing Mowgli and his jungle friends. This is 



in part a result] of charcoal compositions made in the 
second year after reading aloud some story, and 
the transition is made easily to relief composition. Even 
in the first year modeling is connected with flat illustra- 
tion by black-board exercises when each draws in front, 
side and oblique views bruin or bunny, — the particular 
animal she has drawn or modeled from the cast. 

The lantern (No. 3) by Miss Janette Bosworth and the 
sconce by Miss Lulu Macher, first and second year's work, 
are applications of Moorish ornament and Acanthus design. 
The lantern has actually been fired and it was no easy task 
to model it in shape to go through the fire and to carry to 
Long Island, for we have no kiln of our own. It is about 
fourteen inches high and the cover has a hole in the top 
allowing it to slip up and down on a suspending chain not 
yet attached. 

Although the advantages of keramic work as a part of 
a regular Art Course are not generally recognized, they are 
obvious after a minute's reflection. The great draughts- 
men from Michel-Angelo to Sir Frederick Leighton have 
modeled, — Meissonier made and maneuvered cavalry in 
wax before he painted "Friedland." 

And in the beginnings of Art Study, when it is most 
difficult to make two similar curv^es on an axis, what a 
comfort to build up a vase by hand and, when its opposite 
contours are finally balanced and conquered, to have fruit 
of the Conquest to exhibit ! 

It is an open question whether so called "modeling" on 
a flat drawing with charcoal, etc., carried far, is of great 
value while the real modeling shows a student why a surface 
catches and intercepts the light, and proves to him that 
light and shadow mean form in three dimensions which can 
be suggested only in two dimensions. Holbein stopped at 
the suggestion in his drawings and it is said that Mr. C. 
Howard \\"alker teaches his students to do so at the Boston 
Art Museum. 

Art is long and it is of the greatest importance to make 
the road to it as direct as possible; it may lead, this way of 
modeling, even to goals of illustration, portrait or mural 
painting. It is certainly a "primrose way" bordered with 
flowers of "finger happiness." 






No. 3 



No. 1 



Sconce 




z 


1/1 

< 
1 

1 

Q 

D 
< 

< 
liJ 

o 

z 
< 
a. 

Q 

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I 



u ir 
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RERAMIC STUDIO 



35 




PLATE, NARCISSUS— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

Tint the panel stems with Grey Green. When nearly dry dust a little dry color over to deepen centres of flowers, 
Albert's Yellow. Lay the band in Gold (two coats). Outline with Dark Green for the third fire. 




JAR. DRAGON jFLY— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

TINT all over with Neutral Yellow and liii'. .\llrr (r;u- \viii>;s with NeiUial Yrllow one tone dai kn th.in the lu^dv 
ing the design tint the band and dust. Tiiis will dI' the jar; paiiu liir bodies and K->;s with Park nu>wn. 
make it two tones darker than the rest ol" the jar. bay (he This tua> Ik- e.inieil onl in tones of gieen it desiied. 



» .. r ) ;■ ^ I J . »■! L [ , I 



_j_L ii B-j_r_ -S ■- 



36 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




BOWL DESIGN— S. EVANNAH PRICE 



THIS design is for the Willets Belleek bowl, No. 607, and lay in the remaining spaces with gold and lire. Touch up 
is very beautiful carried out in dark blue, light green the gold and outline with Black, 
and gold with black outlines or in the grey and yellow color 
scheme. 

To make the design grasp the shape well, carry the 
darkest color used over the base, through the design and 
well over the top edge of the bowl. 

Draw the design carefully with ink and ground lay the 
entire surface of the bowl with Royal Blue. Wipe out all 
spaces except the very darkest. 

Paint the narrow medium grey bands with Apple 
Green to which a bit of Albert's Yellow has been added and WILLETS BELLEEK BOWL NO. 607 





'*? 




38 



RURAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE, CHINESE DESIGN— MISS M. MIDDLETON 



OUTIylNE design in Ivory Black, two-thirds, and Dark 
Blue, one-third, using turpentine only. 

After outlining has been fired, tint background with 
Satsuma color making centre of plate very light and back- 
ground of design several shades darker. Clean out design 
leaving tint in background only. For Satsuma color use 
Silver Yellow, Brunswick Black, Deep Purple and Brown 
4 or 17. 

For leaves use Apple Green toning with Brunswick 
Black and Deep Purple adding one-sixteenth Aufsetzweiss. 
For large flowers use Capucine Red and Pompadour Red 23, 
equal parts, use a little fat oil and pad each petal on the 
edge with a very small pad doing one petal at a time and 
working from the centre out. The small petal in centre of 
flower and under same are in yellow, using two shades and 



blending same, making the edges of the lighter shade. The 
other small flowers are in the same yellows, using enamels in 
same way. 

The yellow mixture is Silver Yellow toned with Deep 
Purple for the light shade. The dark yellow is Silver Yel- 
low, Orange Yellow toned with Deep Purple. The colors 
should be added to the enamel mixture, which is Aufsetz- 
weiss, two-thirds, and Hancock's Hard Enamel, one-third, 
using fat oil of turpentine to mix the powder. The yellows 
should be a rich brownish yellow when fired. The stems 
and band around edge of plate are Dark Blue toned with 
Brunswick Black and Deep Purple. The band around 
center is in flat gold with lines in red over same. The colors 
used are Da Croix with the exception of Brunswick Black 
and Pompadour Red 23, which are Miiller and Hennig. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




MONOGRAMS- 



SARA WOOn SAl-FORO 



I' I ' ^-^^^" ^^^^^^^ 



40 



nURAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE— MARGARET E. ARMSTRONG 
To be executed in two tones of Brown and Yellow Brown, or any other color scheme. 



heramic studio 



41 





IMMR^ 




VASE— EDITH PENMAN CHOCOLATE PITCHER— ELIZABETH HARDENBERGH 

Coil built by hand in clay. Design modeled in low Coil built. Design modeled in low relief. Color, blue 

relief. Color, copper green and grey. One firing only re- over copper green, 
quired. 




VASE. WITH HANDLES. COIL BUILT-EDITH PENMAN 
Design modeled in low relief, or paintetl in underglaze color. Ci>l«)i. blue over brnwn. 



> . ' I 



42 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



I 




PLATYCODON DESIGN FOR PANEL OF JAR- 
MARY M. HICKS 




BOWL— F. M. SCAMMELL 

AFTER accurately putting design on with pencil or 
India Ink paint very smoothly with Fry's Special 
Tinting Oil, borders, top and bottom, also animal form in 
centre. Let stand two or three hours, dust with two Copen- 
hagen Blue, two Copenhagen Grey, one Banding Blue 
thoroughly mixed dry with palette knife. Now paint 
smoothly with same oil the small design in border also, 
form or spots around animal. Let stand two or three hours 
and then dust with two parts Ivory Glaze, one part Tea 
Green, i part Yellow Green. 

•f -f 
PLATYCODON DESIGN FOR JAR 

Mary M. Hicks 

FIRST fire — Outline design with Copenhagen Blue. 
When dry, paint background of panel with two parts 
Copenhagen Blue and one of Banding Blue. When dry 
dust with same and paint leaves, buds and stems, with two 
parts Shading Green, one part Apple Green. Fire. 

Second fire — Cover entire design with a mixture of 
three parts Pearl Grey, two parts Copenhagen Grey, one 
part Deep Blue Green. Poimce well and when dry dust 
with the above. Fire. 




PLATE IN TWO SHADES OF GREEN— ALIDA LOVETT 



% 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



43 




CONVENTIONAL ROSE PLATE— DOROTHEA WARREN 



CONVENTIONAL ROSE PLATE 

Dorothea Warren 

FIRvST fire — Outline design in paste exeept roses and 
leaves. Roses are not outlined. Leaves outlined 
with Outlining Blaek and one-sixth Pearl (irev. 

vSeeond fire Cover ])aste with Cold. Use I'ink luiainel 
for Roses, Green Ivnaniel No. 1 for le:i\'es. 

BOWL BORDER AND PLATE (page 37) 

( 'hiiilollc Kroll 
Ul'v l)order design may l)e c-arried out in the difi'ereiU 



the jilate with Neutral Wllow. For the ilesign annnul the 
edge of the phxiv use a soft blue, ccMupi^seil oi Handing Hlue 
mixed witli a littk- Hiaek, while the dark line through it is 
of Royal Blue mixed with a little Hlaek. The rest of the 
desiuii is earrieil out in a soft green. 

CLUB NOTE 

At (he iri;ulai monlhh meeting oi the CdifiMiiia ker 
amie C-Mnh, Mondax , .\|iiil .m, ii)'iS, the follow im; iWVuvrs 
well' rkeled tor the ensuing term: 

I'lesident, Mis I. I'eitiei; l-'iist \ iee Piesidenl. Mi^s 11 
shades of blue. A pleasing eoior seheiin' for i)lale is O'Malley; Second \ iei- I'lesidenl, Miss M. Thompson; Tieas 
a eombination of lU'iUral ncIIow and bhu' and i^reen. TiiU nii-r, Miss I.. Willetts; Seeielai\', Mrs. \\. \\. llai\e\ 



T 



r^r 



W I ^ ■■ 



44 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




BOWL— JOANNA M. HIBLER 



ni 



TREATMENT FOR INSIDE OF BOWL 
FIRST FIRE 

UPPER part of ornament equal parts of Copenhagen Blue, 
Banding Blue, Grey for Flesh. 
Lower part of ornament, equal parts of Copenhagen 
Blue, Grey for Flesh, Sea Green. 

Mix the above with medium and a drop of clove oil, 
paint on flat. 

SECOND FIRE — THE ENVELOPE 

Mix with special tinting oil, a little Deep Blue Green, 
set aside for several hours; dust with three parts Pearl Grey, 
two parts Copenhagen Grey, one part Sea Green. 



THIRD FIRE 

Outline all with equal parts of Sea Green and Band- 
ing Blue; dust outline with Copenhagen Blue, two 
parts; Banding Blue, one part. 

OUTSIDE OF BOWL 

Mix a little Grey for Flesh with special tinting oil, set 
aside for several hours; dust with three parts Pearl Grey, 
three parts Copenhagen Grey, one part Sea Green. 

FOURTH FIRE 

Mix with special tinting oil a little Deep Blue Green, set 
aside several hours; dust with three parts Pearl Grey, one 
part Copenhagen Grey, one part Sea Green. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



45 




SHAPES DESIGNED BY MAUD M. MASON 



NEW YORK SOCIETY OF KERAMIC ARTS 

President — Mr. Charles Volkmar. 
First Vice-President — Miss E. Mason . 
Second Vice-President — Mrs. A. B. Leonard. 
Third Vice-President — Mr. Marshal Fry. 
Treasurer — Mrs. A. F. Sherman. 
Chairman of Art — Miss E. Penman. 
Chairman of Finance — Miss M. M. Mason. 
Corresponding Secretary — Miss Helen Walsh. 
Recording Secretary — Miss E. Hardenbergh. 
Chairman of Printing and Press — Miss E. Christianson. 
Chairman of Eligibility Committee — Miss C. Hofman. 
Chairman of Extension — Mrs. E. Price. 
Chairman of Entertainment — Mrs. E. B. Proctor. 

ElST OK Mrmber.s 

Adams, Miss E. C, 853 Second Ave., Lansingburgh, N. Y. 

Armstrong, Miss M. C, 311 Washington Ave., Brooklyn. 

Baggs, Mr. A. E., Marlilehead, Mass. 

Beach, Miss Martha, Fairfield Ave., Bridgc])or(, Conn. 

Brenner, Mr. Victor, (i-12 Ma(H.son Ave. 

Campana, Mr. D. M., 112 Auditorium, Cliicago, 111. 

Christianson, Miss IC, 'Mf) W, 21st St. 

Clark, Miss H., 48 rue des Pelils Champs, Paris, I'raniv 

Collins, Mr. Geo. J., West Rutland, Vt. 

Culp, Mrs. S. v., 2G07 Virginia St , Berkeley, Cal. 

Fillers, Miss J. V., 42 IC. Kinney St., Newark, N. j. 

Fry, Mrs. 1', M., r,H West (Kith St. 

Fry, Mr. Marshal 'P., 58 West (Kith .St. 

Gardin, Mrs. A. T., 202 West 103(1 St. 

Hardenbergh, Mi.ss E. R., !)3i) Ivightli Ave. 

Iliblcr, Mrs. W. P., 134 West Olst St. 

Hicks, Mrs. K. H., 32S Sanl'ord Ave,, I'lusliin;.;, \'. V. 

Hinsdale, Mrs. S. K., Woodl)ridge, N. .|. 

Hofman, Miss Caroline, 120 West Kith St. 

Hoyt, Mrs. J. R. C, Country Club Grcnnids, Westcliesler, N. V. 

Ivory, Mi.ss J. E., 207 iMflii Avenue. 

Kerwin, Mr. Henry, 30 West 2isl Si 

Kroll, Miss Cliarlotte, 51 Ivast I2llh Si 

Leonard, Mrs. Anna H., 71 Irving I'huc 

Leonard, Mrs. E. IJ., I,a\vrenee I'ark, ltii>iix\illf N \' 



Le Prince, Mme. S. G., Edgecombe Road and 170th Street. 

Le Prince, Miss Marie, Egdecombe Road and 170th Street. 

Leykauf, Mr. G., 47G Brush St., Detroit, Mich. 

Long, Mrs. A. H., 400 Manhattan Ave. 

Lovett, Miss A. K., Little Silver, N. J. 

Macdaniel, Miss F., Garden City, .^^ Y. 

Mason, Miss M. M., 4S East 2()th St. 

Mason, Miss Elizabeth, 48 East 2Gth St. 

McCrystle, Mrs. M., 20 E. \'an Buren St., Chicago, 111. 

Meinke, Miss B. M., Rockville Centre, N. Y. 

Middleton, Miss M., 26 H. \'an liuren St., Cliicago, 111. 

Neal, Mrs. M. A., 1425 Broadway. 

Paist, Mrs. H. B., 22!)8 Coniii oiiwcalili .\ve., St. .\nlhony Park. Minn. 

Penman, Miss Edith, !)3() ICighth Ave. 

Perley, Mrs. M. Iv, Hlancliard Hall, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Plusch, Mr. Herman A., Rocky Hill. N. J. 

Price, Mrs. S. E., 23 West 24tli St. 

Proctor, Mrs. K. P., I 13 ICast ISth St. 

Roi)ineau, Mrs. A. A., Roi)ineau Road, Syracuse, N. V. 

Roscgrant, Mrs. W. C, Beacon Hall, New Rociielle, N. V. 

.SalTord, Mrs. S. W,, PJ() luisl 2,3rd St. 

.Saiiler, Miss Mai\- C , lioousville. Mo. 

.Scammell, Miss 1'. M., 13 West 27lh St. 

SharacHii, Mr. H. W., PJl \. .Sixtli Si . Rculiiii.;, P.i. 

Siiermaii, Mrs. A. Iv, 1115 West 82.1 St. 

Sinclair, Miss Catharine, 201 Park Place, Piooklvn, N V 

.StimiIi, Miss .\iii\-, i.'u\s.u'kir. \ \' 

Suwail, Mis II. P., 77 ll.iimllon .\\i- . \\ liilc Pl.iiiis, N \', 

Shall, ill. Ill, Mrs. N., lliCeiili.il P.iik West, 

\ail .SirUii, Mis I S . 171 West I II si Si, 

X'nlkniai, Ml (."li.is . Mimu-Iuii. N 1 

X'dlkiiiai, Mi, I. con, Metiidieii, N, 1 

X'oorhees, Miss M., (15 Paleisou .S| , Ni-u Pimiswick, \, J. 

Walker, Miss S. A,, 7 I'asI 15lli Si, 

Walsh, Miss Hi4eii, 70 Edgeciuiilu- .\ve, 

Warren, Miss Uoioilua. 32 West 2ltli Si 

Waterlield, Mrs l\ N., M l.iiuleii Ave,. lrviiij;lon, \ |, 

WhealUy, Mi T J , 2132 Reading Road, Cincimiuti, Ohin. 

Williams, Mis Jessie. Glens I'alls, N V 

Wilson. Mrs, W, II,. I lit Clifton Ave,, \e«..ik. \ |. 

W \ii.ml. Miss II , Roclulle Paik, New Ro.lulle, N V 

U Mine. Mi.ss M. T. 3'.) Wesi Jlsi St 



TT 



ngrn- 



46 



HEIRAMIC STUDIO 




t'lms. Volkmar 



UNDERGLAZE GOLD 

Charles Volkmar 

IT was at the Paris Exposition of 1878 that Theodore 
Deck, the French ceramic expert, exhibited his first 
results in underglaze gold. It is not so much the technical 
difficulties met with in its application, as the expense, that 
prevents it being brought into general use. 

The gold that is to be employed should be perfectly 
pure, and in leaf form like that used by gilders or frame 
makers, only that it should be at least twenty-five times the 
thickness. 

Theodore Deck, in his book "La Faience" gives the fol- 
lowing method for applying underglaze gold. He first advises 
that the surface of the object to be treated be given a coat- 
ing of enamel mixed with a coarse fire sand ; then this coat- 
ing of enamel is fired in the usual clay fire. After this pro- 
ceeding the surface of the object has a rough sandy nature 
from the fire sand, on account of its not melting. Coarse 
ground fire brick is also good for this purpose . 

The surface must now receive a coating of quince seed 
jelly on which is then applied the gold, using a stiff hard 
brush for the purpose of attaching it well. The jelly, you 
will understand, acts as a medium to make the gold leaf ad- 
here more securely. In this latter operation great care must 
be used that all places are well covered and that the -gold 
is firmly fastened, for if it should move during the applica- 
tion of the glaze all would be lost, as no reparation is possi- 
ble after the final development of the glaze. With regard 
to the glaze, it is applied by means of spraying. 

Deck used his gold treatments mostly as background 
for the decorative heads, principally on flat surfaces and 
painted in the underglaze process. The sanded gold effect 
in contrast with the rich quality of the underglaze coloring 
of the face and drapery is very harmonious. 

A sanded surface is not always desirable, and in time 
may become monotonous. I have obtained a smooth effect 
in the following manner. The surface to be gilded ought 
to be treated with a coating of enamel tinted similar to a 
gold color, which is fired in the clay fire. The advantage in 
this is that in case the gold fires out thin in places, it will 
not be so easily noticed. To obtain the proper surface nec- 
essary for laying the gold successfully, remove the gloss 
with hydrofluoric acid or sand blast. Then on the surface 
so prepared I lay my gold in a similar manner to that given 
by Deck. 

It is understood that the glaze to be used in gold decora- 
tion should not require more than 2,000° Fahr. to develop 
it, and be of an acid nature. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLYCHROMATIC EXTERIOR 
GLAZE DECORATION 

Herman A. Plusch, M. Sc. 

ALL who are interested in architecture and the ceramic 
arts are familiar with the growth and development 
of glaze decoration. The porcelain tower at Nankin, built 
833 B. C.,was one of the best examples of exterior poly- 
chromatic glaze decoration. The Assyrians, Egyptians, 
Italians, and Spaniards have all left many beautiful examples 
of what has been done with colored glazes applied to build- 
ing exteriors and interiors — some of them date back to 
3000 B. C. 

The glazes mostly used by the Ancients and during 
Mediaeval times were the transparent lead, and in some 
cases — as in Lucca Delia Robbia's work — the opaque tin 
enamels. The best examples of polychromatic glaze work 
are to be found in the Mediterranean countries. The clear 
air, colored skies and changing waters furnished inspiration 
for the early Ceramists and they have handed down to pos- 
terity records of color which will neither fade away nor be 
destroyed by the ravages of time. 

The Greeks, not satisfied with monochrome for their 
beautiful marble temples and public buildings, embellished 
them with various colored paints — it almost seems a sacrilege 
to us; but what was the effect? They have stood the 
architectural criticism of centuries, and are now being re- 
produced in more durable material. 

Terra Cotta modeled in every conceivable design, 
glazed with every known color and texture, is within the 
reach of every architect, and there is no reason why, with 
all of our advanced methods of manufacture and the dis- 
covery of the lost arts of glazing, more monuments of archi- 
tectural beauty, such as the Academy of Music in Brooklyn, 
will not be erected. 

This building of Byzantine architecture, modeled in 
high relief and glazed in oriental tones, covers a city block. 
While the glaze color treatment on this building has been 
criticised by som.e, this is no reason why polychromatic 
glazed exteriors should be condemned. Those who criti- 
cise this sort of work, with an idea toward condemning it, 
stand in the way of architectural and ceramic progress — 
and incidentally in their own light. This is the only means 
of beautifying our cities with a sanitary, fire proof and 
weather proof material. 




Chas. Volkmar 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



47 



\ 



^-'■~i^' 






PLAQUES— MRS. HOYT 



The pyramids are crumbling and the hieroglyphics are 
being lost while the history of the world and religion remain 
for us intact on records of burnt clay. 

Now a word in more detail concerning polychromatic 
exterior glaze decoration in its present state of development 
as found in the United States. Most of the examples of this 
work are to be found in the Eastern states. The Parkhurst 
church in New York was the first large polychromatic ex- 
terior to be used in that city. This building is scarcely five 
years old. The color scheme on it while attempted in a 
very conservative manner is nevertheless good; but one 
must approach the building very closely to get the beautiful 
effect of green and old-gold in combination. Deep blues, 
yellows and creams melt into each other and on the whole 
produce a very quiet, sombre, and still refined effect. 

Go across to Brooklyn and look at the St. Ambrose 
Church and see bright blues, greens, yellows, reds, siennas 
and white used with less conservatism. Is the effect any 
the less attractive? The synagogue in Pittsburg in yellow, 
green and blue and with its colored dome is a gem of archi- 
tectural beauty in the residential section of that city. The 
Elephant House now being erected in the Bronx Park \vill be 
a revelation in glazed exteriors with its shaded old-gold and 
deep green, its various l)lues and creams. The whole elTect 
will be oriental in the extreme and in keeping with lli.' pur- 
pose and surroundings of the building. 

Much more could be written on the artistic \iiluc of 
glazed polychromatic exteriors, but this article wouid not 
be complete without a word regarding the architcctuial and 
connnercial value of the same. Clay, yielding itself to the 
hand of the modeler, is easily made to express the feeling 
of the lunnan mind; coml)ine with this advantage the ease 
of securing a sanitary, weather and lire resisting matt'rial — 
to cover and protect such modeling— selected with ;i \iew 
toward producing the best color values, and we h;i\r a 
building material unsurpassed by anything e\'er at the dis 
posal of the ancients. Our present day terra cotta is struc 
turally eflicicnt, and our glazes defy the .sevi-re nuchanii-al 
stresses exerted U])oii them, the physical action of heat aiul 
cold, and the cheniical at'lion uf our atiuospluie. 



With such durable materials at hand the reputation of 
the architect who successfully employs colored glazes for 
exteriors will be assured and lasting. Glaze composition, 
texture, and the degree of fusibility are very vital points 
which need consideration in connection with exterior work. 
The soft, porous and heavily applied mat glazes so desirable 
for interior decorations must not be considered for exteriors, 
hard glazes, and those well incorporated with the body are 
essential, not necessarily lustrous glazes although they pre- 
sent some advantages. 

Tone nmst also be carefully handled — while the material 
for interior work changes very little in tone after being 
placed, exteriors must necessarily become softened by time — 
consequently a structure when erected in soft tones when 
aged will not produced the desired etTcct ; whereas the more 
or less aggressive color scheme will eveiUually tone down to 
what was originally intended. 

It behooves us to use our best judgment in expressing 
our opinions on these attempts at old world restorations in 
our new country, and judging from the successful attempts 
made in this last decade the employment of colored glazes 
on building exteriors has a future of interest to all. especially 
to the lover of architecture, the architect and the ceramist. 

As a progressive race we have adopted that which i> 
best in old world culture, science, art, literature, anil nnisic. 
We have also adojUed a great deal ol old world architecture. 
Now come polychromatic glazed exteriors to he ileveKiped 
in accordance with .\merican taste and by .\inerican archi- 
tects and ceramists. 

^ iT 
STUDIO NOTES 

Miss (urtrude Ivstabrooks will return to hei Chicago 
studio, Moj ;, .VuilitoriiUM 'I\nvii. on |nl\ isi 

Miss l'\uniie M. Scamniell, .it pieseut te.ichiiiv; in 
I'ortlanil, Maine, w ill latn l>e .it *.Mi,int.uu|u.i IKi \e\\ 
\'ork address is ii ,S Waverly IMace until luithei notice 

Miss Mariani 1. Candler. Detroit, Mich , h.is removed 
iirr studio fioni The l'"iue .\ils Huildinj., ti> S5 ruln.ini 
>\\\ nue. 



48 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 




JARDINIERE IN VIOLET AND PURPLE— MINNA MEINKE 

FIRST fire — Paint design with Fry's Special Tinting Oil. 
After three hours dust with Royal Purple. 
Second fire — Paint all over with Fry's Special Tinting 
Oil and a touch of black. After twenty-four hours dust 
with five parts Pearl Grey, one psrt Violet No. 2, and one- 
half part Royal Purple. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR TEA JAR WITH ABSTRACT DESIGN 

(Page 33) 

Helen Walsh 

IF colors are desired choose a dull olive green for the body 
of the jar. Lay the band in Neutral Yellow and the 
design in Old Blue and Dull Red. It is pleasing, however, 
as a monochrome in Green, Olive Green, with design in 
Dark Green, or Olive Green with design in Black. 



BUSINESS FOR SALE 

FINE retail white china business for sale. Only 
store of kind in city. Controlf city trade, also 
large out-of-town trade. Studio in connection. 
Good reason for selling. For particulars address 
RETAIL WHITE CHINA 

care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 



DORN'S 

CERAMIC SUPPLY STORE 

Larr^est Store on Pacific Ooast 

Devoted Exclvisively to "WKite CKina, BeleeK 
and CKina Decorator's Supplies 

(>-4'7 McAllister Street. San Krancisco, Cal. 

Agentx for Keramic Studio publications: "Keramic Studio 
Magazine," "The Fruit Book," "The Rose Book," "Studies 
for the China Painter," etc., etc. Catalogue in preparation. 



COOLEY'S 



GOLDS, BRONZES 
AND OILS 

and every requisite for China Painting. 

WHITE CHINA FROM ALL COUNTRIES FOR DECORATING 

Send for Catalogfue. Agent for Revelation tlilns. 

BOSTON CHINA DECORATING WORKS. 

L. COOLEY. Prop.. 38' Tennyson St.. Boston. EstablisKed 1660 



The PERFECTION and DRESDE-N ttlLNS 
Have been on tHe marKet for t^wenty years. 




JAMES F. HALL, ^ ^ CHINA FAINTER AND DECORATOR 

Nf anvifactxirer of 

HALL'S ROMAN GOLD AND BRONZES 

DRESDEN MINERAL TRANSFERS. 

Oils, Brushes, China, 



Bnaiufil Color for overglaze in Powder and prepared In Tubes 
Medallions and Buttons in great variety. 
CKina Tired Daily. 
Send for Cataloj^viva >>w it* *.^ui k/i*. 



116 N, I5th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



KILNS 

We nxaKe tHem. Get catalog'ue and prices. 

WESTERN MALLEABLE & GKEY IRON MANUFACTURING CO. 

Mil-waviKee, Wis. 



For Teachers Only ! 



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JperTO ALL ADVERTISERS: 

Send your copy for the July issue to reach us on or before 

June 1 0th. 

oeWILLETS' BELLEEK CHINA ^ 

For Amateur Painters can be had of 
Dealers in over 600 different shapes. 
Catalogue sent on receipt of three cents postage. 

THE WILLETS M'F'G CO., Manufacturers 
TRENTON, NEW JERSEY. 



f 




The entire eonients of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted 'Ofithoat special permission 

CONTENTS FOR JULY 1908 * 



Editorial Notes 
League and Studio Notes 
Design for the Decoration of China- 
Wild Flowers from Texas 



-Fourth Paper 



Yellow Colic Root 

Virginia or Common Day Flower 

Pink Flower No. 6 

Mixican Primrose 

Light Violet Flower No. 2 

White Flower No. I 

White Flower No. 2 

False Dragon Head 

Iris Prismatica 

Light Violet Flower No. I 

Carolina Vetch 

Deep Violet Flower No. 3 

Nigger Head 

Partridge Pea 

Texas Star 
Design for Bowl — Virginia Flower 
Chocolate Pot, Motif of White Flower No. I 
Plate Design from Study of White Flower No. 2 
Bowl Design Milk Pea Motif 
Peppers and Salts from Texas Flower Motifs 
Answers to Correspondents 
The Crafts 

The Making of a Metal Box (concluded) 

Handicraft Exhibition at Greenwich House 

Guild of Book Workers 
Answers to Inquirers 



Caroline Hofman 
Studies by Alice WiUits 
Treatments by Sara Wood Safford 



Adelaide Alsop Robineau 



E. B.Rolfe 



PAGE 

49 

49 

50-53 



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55 
56 
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59 
61 
62 
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63 
64 
65 
67 
68 
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60 
64 
66 
66 

69-70 
70 
70 
71 



I PALETTE AND BENCH I Our Latest 

X A Magazine for the Art Student and Craftsworker « tiOmbmation 

S V Offers 

55 We desire to get an expression of opinion from our subscribers and inquirers 55 . <-^. ,. ^. ,. ^ .. , .. ^ .. ^ ^ vriidci 

JLx on the subject of the new magazine wliich we are about to publish, devoted to WATER V ir . Cj. J» 

55 COLORS, OIL, PASTEL, CHARCOAL AND PENQL, AND CRAFTS; in fact, we want to Jv ""* "^^^ ^llICllO 

Jj know how much support we will get from teachers and students. JJ ^rt»\JU 

V It will be edited along practical lines similar to that of KERAMIC STUDIO, S SeCOnd RoSS Book 
[^ will have technical treatments of each study and also contain a color supplement, 5([ $S* 00 
^ either landscape, figure or study of still life which will be of great Interest to teachers ^* F'ririf f^fioli 

KX of art and undoubtedly of great assistance to them in their lessons. xjc <« ^ ^^ 

X It is our purpose to have it strongly edited in all departments. 5£ 

«J Do you know of five-, or more of your friends who might become subscribers to sj 

KA such a magazine? If so please send us their names and addresses and we in return will kk A.I1 lOr v|)lI*UU 

A send you one of our "color studies for the cfiina painter." To avoid duplication kindly ^X POSTPAID 

state your first and second choice. The Blackberry study by Miss Stewart is out of print, es 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO., S ■ '-.-iZZZZZE-z 

Syracuse, N. Y. X 

Tu . ,„,,„, „ , , 3? KERAMIC STUDIO $4.00 

g The fest number wH be ,s„,ed .n Octob«, price .ame as K«amic SW1^$4 g p^^^^jj, ^^^ 

KM per year, bend m your order now, same to be due m September. The two in V 

V combination, $7. g To one address $7.00 




Vol. X. No. 3 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



July, 1908 




HE Texas wild flowers sketched 
by Miss Willits are not only in- 
teresting in themselves but show 
what can be done with local ma- 
terial. A good suggestion to 
workers at summer resorts who 
can decorate their porcelains in 
such a way as to make them 
valuable as local souvenirs. 

The simple style of Miss Wil- 
lits' studies showing the natural growth and construction 
of the plant makes them particularly valuable as material 
for design. A few applications are given to show how the 
material may be utilized. 

So much exhibition material has been received that 
not having space for all we have decided to make the 
August issue an exhibition number. We have received 
illustrations from the N. T. M. P., Chicago Ceramic Associa- 
tion, Kansas City Club, Buffalo Ceramic Club and Y. W. C. 
A. If any other clubs would like to show their winter's 
work we will receive photos and articles up to the fifth of 
July. Not more than six illustrations should be sent and 
we would suggest that a selection should be made of the 
very best, so that the groups will not be too crowded and 
small. A few fine things, in good size, make a better im- 
pression than a crowd of small ones illy seen. 

We would remind our designers of the Christmas 
Competition the notice of which is on the third page of the 
cover. It is so long since we have had a competition that 
it ought to bring out much new and original work and 
many more workers. 

LEAGUE NOTES 

The annual meeting was held in the Egyptian room of 
the Art Institute, Chicago, May 5th. Full reports of the 
year's work were made by President, Recording vSccretary, 
Treasurer, Auditors and Chairman of lvxliil)ition ConuniUee. 
These reports are filed with League papers, also the letters 
sent by affiliated Clubs and Advisory Board members. 

The League has passed through a most successful year, 
and its influence has been far-reaching. Thirteen afliliated 
clu])s were reported and twenty-five individual members 
who have taken active interest in the League, and these 
earnest workers, scattered as they are through so iiiaii\ 
vStates, arc greatly influencing American ceramics. The 
result of the year's work was shown in the annual exliil)ition 
of the National League of Mineral Painters at the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. A well planned study coin-se was carried 
out and the work resulting from the c<)ni])U'ti()n of the >'ear's 
study was remarkable and of nunsual (inalily. The stand 
an! of decorated porcelain is being slowly but surely raised. 
The advance is steady and the workers are in(ensel\ in 
terested. 

'I'wo new clubs have been added lo (he Roll t»l' Clul)s 
and four of the other ehibs have added U) llu' nnniber of 



their League members. Two clubs have resigned this year. 
Two names were added to the list of Honorary Members, 
Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau, Editor of Keramic Studio, 
and Miss Bessie Bennett, of Art Institute, Chicago; and a 
vote of thanks and appreciation was extended to both for 
the aid and encouragement given the League. 

Six individual members have joined the League in the 
past year. They are : Mrs. Josephine Hurst, of BloomingtOn, 
111. ; Mrs. C. H. Shattuck, of Topeka, Kansas; Brideen ]\Iotter, 
of Baldwin, Kansas; Elizabeth Hood, of St. Paul, Minn. 
Mrs. O. M. Hatch, of Helena, Mont. ; Mrs. Mildred R. Bur- 
son, of Brookfield, 111. 

The traveling exhibition during the 5'ear visited the 
following cities in the order named and was entertained by 
the local Club : Chicago, 111.; Pittsburg, Pa.; Augusta, Me.; 
Portland, Me.; Boston, Mass.; Springfield, Mass.; Denver, 
Colo.; Baldwin, Kansas; Los Angeles, Cal.; San Francisco, 
Cal. ; Portland, Oregon. 

The League is in sound financial condition. The 
treasury had on hand a balance of $270.24 May 5th, and 
the League is able in consequence to ofTer for the coming 
year the study course to members without charge as has 
been done in previous years. Printed outlines of this will 
be mailed with instructions to each member as soon as pos- 
sible. An excellent course of study has been planned ; 
one that if carried out in full, will be of inestimable advantage 
to all ceramic decorators. 

It was also voted, hereafter not to send any work with 
the traveling exhibition that did not pass the jury. It was 
also voted to allow members to send for the annual exhibi- 
tions of the League any of the shapes pre^"iously selected 
by the League for the problems, but criticisms on designs 
will be given only on the shapes selected for this year. 

The proposed amendments were voted on favorably 
and added to the by-laws. The six new ad\isory boaril 
members elected for the year are as follows : 

Miss Isabel Hampton, 1200S. Figners St.. Los Angeles, 
Cal.; Mrs. Marie Witner, 1012 Western Ave., Topeka, Kan.; 
Miss Ida Failing, 1041 .\eonia St., Oenver, Colo.: Miss 
Perces M. Martin, ;(> State St., .\ugusla, Me.; Miss Mvra 
Boyd, McPherson .\i)ts., Pittsburg. Pa.; Mrs. h:velyn H. 
Beachey, Chicago, 111. Mrs. Nellie .\. Cross. 1217 Farwell 
Ave., Chicago, was appointed Chairman of the ICxhibitiiMi 
Conunittee, and Mrs. Cieo. I. Heruen, Chairnuin of ihe Tran-^ 
portation Conunittee; Mrs. I{\el\ii JH-achey. Chaii man o\ the 
Printing and Press Committee, antl Miss M. l\llen Icleli.iil. 
Chairman of I'Mueational Connnit l(.'e. 

Respeelfnlh' submitted. 

M \K\ I. CiUi.riCK, Reo. Sec. 

STUDIO NOTES 

Mis. .\ima I>, l.eon.ud, who is t.ikius; .1 test in the 
(|uaint harbor oi 1','ast (.ilmieester. Mass., will have el.isses 
in Cincinnati dnriiii; liil\' and in Louisville dtuinc .\ugust. 

Miss Jeanne M. Stew.nt i^ .going to tlu- I'.ieilic Coast 
lo in. ike new studies of California fruit ai\d llowers Diir- 
iuL; Iiei .ibsenee her Chicago studio will remain open under 
the iliieetion of hei assistant, Miss Jane Lauiviice. 



H U H I F ^ 



50 



heramic studio 




DESIGN FOR THE DECORATION OF CHINA 

Caroline H of man 
FOURTH PAPER 




E^ 



*VERY designer needs an active imagi- 
nation in order to create beautiful 
things, and also the appreciation of beauty 
and originality wherever he encounters 
them. 

These can be cultivated by anyone, and it is the object 
of this chapter to suggest to beginners in design certain 
books and designs that have been helpful to others travel- 
ing the same road. 

Many of the china-painters for whom these articles are 
written are situated where they cannot easily reach museums, 
or the rare and beautiful things collected by individuals, — 
such things as stir the imagination and make us long to 
create. But there are still many ways by w^hich, if he 
wishes it, some of the best decorative work that has ever 
been done may reach the most distant student. 

It is probable that every State library in the country 
has some good books which relate to decorative art, and 
these libraries Avould no doubt buy other books for the same 
purpose if the 3^ were asked to do so. Thus, where the local 
library does not contain what we want for our study, there 
is still opportunity to find it in circulation elscAvhere. 

Now let us consider a list of books that will be of use 
to us. 




Those that are absolutely tech- 
nical are often not at all what the 
decorative designer needs. He wants 
pictures of beautiful things that have 
been done in a finely decorative way, 
—the description of how they were 
done is of secondary importance. The 
designer will find that what is appre- 
ciative and imaginative in his own 
spirit will be brought out by seeing 
beautiful things. 

Did you ever see any particularly 
line piece of design or handicraft 
without wishing, with your whole 
heart, to go right to work and try 
to make something beautiful of your own ? 

It is more the scholar's point of view than the artist's 
to seek long descriptions as to just how a thing has been 
created; to the artist it is sufficient that it has been done, 
and that things as beautiful may be done again. 

Among books that are helpful to the designer because 
they give us compositions that speak to us even without 
the aid of text are those illustrated by William Nicholson, 
Carleton Moore Park, Maxfield Parrish, Frank Brangwyn 
(illustrations from this artist can be found in reproductions 
of his paintings published in current art magazines), Ed- 
ward Penfield, Walter Appleton Clark, Arthur Rackham, 
Joseph Pennell, Elizabeth Shippen Green, Jessie Wilcox 
Smith and Jules Guerin. 

Some of these illustrators, you will notice, are among 
the magazine contributors of the present time (this is a 
very great period, by the way, in magazine illustration), 
so that anyone can have many good decorative composi- 
tions by carefully watching the magazines from month to 
month and gathering from them the best they have to give us. 










These artists help us to realize what the decorative 
spirit means; and although their work, taken literally, could 
not be applied to ceramics, yet we can see that if such feel- 
ing for spacing, and such charm of line were brought into 
our over-glaze work (the spirit, mind you, not the letter), 
our china would glow with all the beauty of the best periods 
of ceramic art. 

Is it not well worth our while to study and learn to 
love and appreciate this fine spirit of decoration? 

Among books which a good public library might supply 
are Pugin's "Gothic Architecture;" also "Architecture in 
Italy from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century" (Fisher 
Unwin, London); "Ornament in European Silks;" and 
L'Art de L'Imprimerie" (Lamson Wolffe and Co., Boston). 

To turn to the consideration of good abstract designs, 
which every craftsman may possess if .he will, I want to 
speak of the photographs which the Metropolitan Museum is 



heramic studio 



^i 




getting out for educational pur- 
poses. 

Already many examples of the 
metal- work, laces, ceramics and 
weavings have been photographed, 
and it is intended that others shall 
follow until all the collections owned 
by the museum, including much 
that is rare and beautiful, can be 
had in these low-priced photographs. 
Another useful source of sugges- 
tion to the china-painter is found in pictures of old Chinese 
wares; and I remember that the "Knglish Magazine of Fine 
Arts" for July, 1906, contained some good illustrations of 
these, printed in blue.* 

We ourselves do not want to paint at all in the Chinese 
way, — either ancient or modern, — but we can study the 
good arrangement of design in these old pieces greatly to 
the advantage and improvement of our original work. 
How the smaller masses of growth subordinate to the more 
important ones; how we feel the crisp spring and fine sure 
drawing of every stem and tendril; above all let us note the 
beauty of the background spaces, just clear white shapes, 
they are, left by the design painted in dark against them; 
but these background spaces are as good in form and pro- 
portion as any part of the plant-growth relieved by them. 
Do we not feel our imagination touched by classical 
things of this sort, even though, as I have said, we do not 
want to imitate the oriental craftsmen? 

Turning our attention now from the Chinese to the 
most beautiful style which European design has ever given 
us, — the Gothic, — we can find among examples of this or- 
nament innumerable suggestions for ceramic decoration. 

Any good, or, rather, well illustrated, book on Gothic 
ornament will help us wonderfully in catching the spirit of 
the best space-art; so grand, so simple, so impressive was 
that great period in Art history. 

*This magazine is now out of print, but can be had of the publishers 
for one dollar, at the present time. 





Itlllillll I'llilMK'H |>lll(|tl<'H I'ol I III' .hIIIiI> III I 



I IikIiI. 



Coptic design from Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

I have seen a pottery bowl, beautiful in shape and 
proportion; the decoration (in very slight relief) done in 
the Gothic spirit. It is judged, by critics, to be one of the 
most beautiful pieces of modern pottery that have been done. 
There is simply no end to the good designs which the 
spirit of the old Gothic ornament will suggest. 

Try spacings for dift'erent pieces of porcelain, either on 
the piece itself or on paper, taking your idea from the Gothic 
style. Keep the idea of proportion steadily in mind in 
planning the space divisions, and do not let the main inter- 
est of your design "scatter," and see whether you do not 
get beautiful results. This is the best way to use "historic 
ornament", as it is so often called. Where the historic orna- 
ment is really good in line and feeling we try to put the same 
feeling into our own work; but where it is heavy or 

pretentious, or where it fritters into 
a lot of detail that is not decorative 
(as in the decadent periods^ wo may 
perhaps notice it as students of his- 
tory, but as designers we pass 
it i)v. 

There was also a period 1 luive 
not yet mentioned, when the Persian 
hislred ware, and the Rhmlian ware, 
were \er\' good in shajK' and decora 
lion, and some of our ujost atlvaiioeti 
teachers of eeramie design have been 
calling the atteiUiiMi of their classes 
to these examples. 
In the library of the Metropolitan Museum is a volunie. 
containing nian\- illustrations of these wares, entillevl 
le Goodman Ct)!Ieetit>n of Thirteenth Century l.ustreil 
\ases; ' ami aiioliiei oi "Thirteenth Century l.ustred 
Tiles," wliieli an \ir\ usiiul to the wt)ikei in eeraniics. 

vSouii- can I nil \ silieted .uul photographed ilosiglls 
I'loiu tile Japanese are pulilished nn«K'r the title. "(Vani 
niai of |ai)anesi' OrnanieiU and Hesign," which v^ive us 
inspiration in oni woik \\\ iu>l showiiii; us ni.uu pictures 
of what till' deeoiatixe spirit ran mean in the h.inds of a 
people who intiodnci- it eoiistaiuh into e\er\ilav livins; 
.\n(l Ihiiv is also a nnuh nioie elal>oi.ite j.ip.inese publica 



jt n I f- ■^- 



52 



heramic studio 



tion, called "The Kokka," containing a 
mine of riches for the designer. These 
are reproductions of many of the best 
things that Japanese artists have pro- 
duced in many periods. A full set of 
these delightful publications can be 
found in the library of the Metropolitan 
Museum; but there are so many num- 
V| bers of it, and it is so rare, that few 
\j) libraries possess it. The Coptic designs 
which are given with our text are from 
photographs of embroideries and weav- 
ings done by this early Christian people. 
They are given here because they show 
the same feeling for spacing which we 
want in our china design, and as a re- 
minder to us all that in the best art 
there is no nationality. Coptic, Japa- 
nese, Rhodian, Gothic or modern Ameri- 
can , the whole question is : Is it well designed ? 

Because a thing is of a certain period or country that 
is no sign that it is either good or bad; both kinds are being 
(lone all the time. 

If we, as beginners, think that it is diflficult to judge 
which of the many designs we see are good and which are 
poor, that we cannot as yet trust our individual taste, we 
may be glad to know that there are certain "touchstones" 
which students find helpful, that can be applied to each 
design we either make or see. 

Here are the most useful ones: we can ask ourselves 
the question, in judging a design, is it effective in its mass- 
ing, in its largest space division? When we look at it from 
a little distance does it give us the impression of unity, of 





Vase taken from "The Kokka.'' 



one thing, simply from the shapes and proportions of its 
masses? We soon recognize the fact that a design cannot 
do this if we have more than one part of it very important; 
two points of equal interest in a design are as sure to make 
dissension as are two kings in one kingdom. Neither the 
kingdom nor the design can be "composed" under such 
trying circumstances. 

Next comes the question : Is the shape of each mass in 
the design a graceful one, or are there uncouth forms here 
and there that look awkward and clumsy? 




COPTIC WEAVINGS FROM THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 




RERAMIC STUDIO 



53 



No matter what the design, from a landscape to a 
repeat pattern, it must have no form that is ugly or ill-pro- 
portioned in itself. The student learns to see this and to 
have it more or less consciously in mind, not only when he 
himself is designing, but also when looking at paintings, 
illustrations and abstract designs, — for the law is the same 
in them all. 

Good designs do not contain clumsy shapes any more 
than the sky clumsy clouds, or the sea awkward waves. 

Let us measure our efforts by the highest standards, 
and so carry on our work in the humble and reverent spirit 
which gave the craftsman of earlier times his wonderful skill. 

Don't let us feel satisfied to do just one or two little 
exercises that are suggested by a teacher, but let us get 
into the spirit of decoration; fill our minds so full of the 
beauty of the best that has been done that we are uncon- 
sciously guided to do good work of our own. 

You can do it, — anyone can do it who raises his ideals 
higher and always higher, and then works willingly to 
reach them. 

If we care enough to do this we will find the time and 
the strength for it, notwithstanding the almost universal 
necessity among craftworkers to "keep the pot boiling." 

Now shall we not, at once, put into execution some 
suggestion from the designs given here, of different times and 
peoples? Then, if we will test the designs we have made 
by the touchstones mentioned, we shall find that we are 
growing in appreciation, and that our work is taking on 
more interest and charm as a result. 

(to be continued) 

WILD FLOWERS FROM TEXAS 

Designs by Alice Willits — Treatments by Sara Wood Safjord 

WHITE FLOWERS 

White Flower No. i. — Name not identified (page 59) 

We are sorry not to be able to give these lovely white 

things a name, numbers seem so cold and indifferent. Call 

No. I any name you like the sound of, when you work from 

it, and paint the flowers a delicate greenish white with 

deeper grey green for shadows and warm sepia brown 

tips. The stems are like the flowers in color and value, 

while the leaves are a cool blue green 

Flowers and stems: Grey Green, Grey Green and Blue 
Violet. Leaves: Grey Green with Blue Green warmed with 
Blue Violet, Shading Green with Blue Violet in shadows. 

White Flower No. 2 — Name not identified (page 61). 
Thesjj flowers are white with yellow green tips and 
petals and light yellow bracts. 'I'he leaves and stems are 
warm yellow green. 

I' lowers: Yellow (Trcen greyed with Blue Violet, Albert 
Yellow for centers. Leaves ami stems: Yi'llow (ireeii witli 
Blue Violet, Olive Green. 

PINK FLOWERS 
Mn<K I'EA (Siip])k'nieiil ) 
vSoft slirini]) i)iiik in color, witli \v;inii iiitlicr rit'lil\- 
tinted leaves. 

Flowers: Carnation. Leaves and sit-ins: WIImw Green 
greyed with Blue Violet. Brown Green willi I).irk Green. 
Seed pods and tender buds: Olive (ireeii gre\i'(l witli lUue 
Viok'l, 

C.\ROLIN.\ VlCTCH (l):ige 0|) 
'I'liese llowers are iniiisual in color, hiil olTei splemiid 
decorative suggestions. Tlu' pi'iniliar lit ( le heaii like i; row t lis 
are a hrillianl sliriuip pink, while llu' stems liaxc mkih' hI' 



the crimson tone. The leaves are quite a warm olive green. 
Flowers: Carnation. Stocks: Carnation or Blood Red 
with touch of Ruby. Leaves: Olive Green, Brown Green 
with Shading Green gre}^ed with Blue Violet, Olive Green 
with Carnation for tender stems and buds. 




(1 riMliiiiiil p.iy;i' (■>(■>) 



VKLLOW COLIC KOOF ALICE WILLITS 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




PINK FLOATERS— Continued 

Grays Saxafrage 'Supplement < 

"? - ^ More dainty little posies than 

these could not be. A soft rose 

\ pink in color with buds more 

\ deeply tinted. The leaves are 

I warm and deep in color with 

the undersides rather grey, light- 

. ^ er in value. The midribs and 

^^ ^^^,-^ stems are a soft grey pink. 

Flcmers and buds: Peach 
Blossom. Tender Green stems. 
Leaves: Yellow Green \vith Shading Green greyed with 
Blue A'iolet. Olive Green greyed with Blue Molet. Stetns 
aud midribs: Olive Green with Carnation. 

Mexican Primrose (page 56) 

Both flowers and buds are a soft rose pink, which 
repeats in the stems. The centers are yellow. The leaves 
and stems at the base are rather cool in tone. 

Flouers: Special Rose with Peach Blossom, Albert 
Yellow for centers. Leaves and stetns: Olive 'Green greyed 
with Blue A'iolet. Shading Green with OHve Green greyed 
with Blue \'iolet, Carnation with Blue Violet into Olive 
Green. 

Texas Star (page 71) 
"\'er\- deep rose pink are these Starrs* little blossoms 



with light yellow centers. The vmopened buds have orange 
pink tips, the leaves and stems are cool. 

Flouers: Special Rose with Peach Blossom, Peach 
Blossom with a touch of Yellow Brown for simple buds, 
-Albert Yellow centers. Leaves and stems: Olive Green 
greyed with Blue \'iolet, OUve Green with Dark Green and 
Blue ^'iolet. 

PixK Flower No. 6 (page 56) 
There is something in this growth that reminds one 
of the California poppy, but the color is a purple pink. 
The greens are cool. 

Flowers: Special Rose with Peach Blossom, Peach 
Blossom, Special Rose with Peach BIdssooi and Blue Vio- 
let for purple shadows, Albert Yellow for centers. Leaves 
and stems: Olive Green with Blue Violet, Olive Green and 
Shading Green greyed with Blue Molet. 

BLUE FLOWER 
ViRGIXLA OR COMMOX DaY FlOTS'ER 

These blossoms might be called Yale blue in color, 
they are so brilliant and ringing in tone. The centers are 
light yellow and the leaves a warm oHve green with grey 
pink edges and tips. The stems are olive in tone touched 
with pink where the leaves join. Flowers: Banding Blue. 
Albert Yellow for centers. Leaves and stems: Olive Green, 
OHve Green with Blue Molet for a grey green, Carnation 
greyed with Blue Violet. 




^: 



\^[C 






-^ 




I 



BOWL- VIRGINIA OR COMMON DAY FLOWER DESIGN— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 
F a bowl of celadon ware can be obtained it would 



can 
make a fine foundation for this design. Lacking 
this tint your bowl inside and out with Celadon, draw vour 
design with an outline of old blue and fire. Paint the 
flowers in the medallions and border in a grey blue, not too 
deep in tone. The background of the medaUions, the 



bands, and fret in border with a darker tone of blue, 
strengthen the darker blue outline and fire. Then retint 
the outside of the bowl with celadon wiping out the flowers 
and background of medallions and fire again. The smaller 
medallion isto be used in center of bowl and the border 
inside the rim. 



REIRAMIC STUDIO 



55 




VIRGINIA OR COMMON DAY FLOWER-ALICE WILLITS 



S6 



iii:ramic studio 




PINK FLOWER, No. 6- ALICE^^WILLITS 



(Treatment page 54) 




ilAtXlC&N PRIMROSE 
W-OT 



MEXICAN PRIMROSE-ALICE WILLITS 



(Treatment page 54) 



liERAMIC STUDIO 



57 




LIGHT VIOLET FLOWER No. 2 ALICE WILLITS 



(TriwtiiUMit p.isji" f"-^ 



S8 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




CHOCOLATE POT WITH MOTIF OF WHITE FLOWER No. I— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 

This design may be executed in gold or an ivory lustre ground with top and base in yellow brown lustre, or, 

it mav be carried out in grey blues and white. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



59 




WHITE FLOWER. No. I -ALICE WILLITS 



(TriMtinrnt y.\^c i>S) 



6o 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE DESIGN FROM STUDY OF WHITE FLOWER No. 2— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 



THIS design must be executed in a delicate manner or 
it will look "spidery." 
Tint all over a cream tone, draw the outline in Grey 
Green and fire. Paint in the background with Grey Green, 



the centers in a deep tone of the color used for tinting; 
give the design a second wash of the cream tone. If de- 
sired a third fire can be given tinting the entire border with 
the cream tone to give a softer, deeper effect. 




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41 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



6i 




WHITE FLOWER No. 2 ALICE WILLITS. Orcatincnt pa^c b3) 



62 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




Light Violet Flower No. i. 

Three more nameless ones. No. i blossoms are warm 
blue violet in tone with deep yellow centers. The buds 
show only a cream white tone to the tips, which are a deli- 
cate mauve. The greens are tender and light at buds 
and flowers, but cooler and stronger in leaves and stems. 

Flowers: Blue Violet, Blue Violet with Banding Blue, 
Albert Yellow deepened with Yellow Brown for centers. 

Leaves and stems: Olive Green, Olive Green with Blue 
Violet, Shading Green with Brown Green. 

Light Violet Flower No. 2. (page 57) 

This nameless one belongs to the pea family, I am 
sure. The blossoms are a very delicate mauve pink with 
blue lights, the leaves and tender stems of rich warm green, 
touched with red for the heavier stems. 

Flowers: Blue Violet with Peach Blossom, Blue Green 
with Blue Violet. 

Leaves: Olive Green greyed with Blue Violet, Shading 
Green with Brown Green. 

Stems: Olive Green, Olive Green with Blood Red. 

Iris Prismatica. 

A really "Royal" purple are these flowers with yellow at 
the centers, and warm rich green leaves and stems. 

Flowers: Ruby with Blood Red, Ruby 2 parts. Band- 
ing Blue I part for high lights, Albert Yellow for centers. 

Leaves and stems: Olive Green, Shading Green with 
Brown Green greyed with Blue Violet. 



FALSE DRAGON HEAD— ALICE WILLITS 

LIGHT VIOLET FLOWERS (light mauve pink and purple) 
False Dragon Head. 

Light Violet No. i — Name not identified. 
Light Violet No. 2 — Name not identified. 
Deep Violet No. 3 — Name not identified (page 68) 
Iris Prismatica. 

False Dragon Head. 

If you can hold a delicate violet pink through the 
defiferent firings you will have the lovely color of these 
flowers. The stems are warmly tinted with red and the 
leaves are a deep warm green. 

Flowers: Blue Violet, Blue Violet with Carnation. 

Leaves: Oliv^e Green, Olive Green and Shading Green. 

Stems: Olive Green for the delicate little stem, with 
Blood Red for the stronger stocks. 




IRIS PRISMATICA— ALICE WILLITS 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



63 




LIGHT VIOLET FLOWER No. i-ALICH WILLITS 



64 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




BOWL DESIGN— MILK 
PEA MOTIF 



T' 



*HIS is to be a pink 
bowl for a special 
color effect but of course 
other color schemes may be 
used. A very nice effect 
can be obtained by using 
the border with the flower 
and leaf ornament on the 
outside and on the inside 
the medallion in center with 
band at top and a light line 
below. The bowl is to be tinted outside Pearl Grey also 
on the inside border band and medallion. The design may 
be outlined in Grey Green for leaves, stems and bands, in 
Carnation light for blossoms. After firing the darker band 
border may be tinted with Carnation, the blossoms also. 
The leaves, stems and bands maybe painted in Grey Green. 
After firing tint again lower part outside of bowl, inside band 
and medallion. Wipe out the pink flowers and strengthen 
the outline if necessary. 

ip ^ 

DEEP VIOLET FLOWER No. 3 

These flowers are a deep rich violet in color, the closed 
buds are very pink in tone, the leaves and stems a warm 
dark green. 

Flowers: Blue Violet, Blue Violet with Peach Blossoms 
(high lights), Banding Blue 2 parts Ruby i part for rich 
shadows. Buds: Albert Yellow into Blue Violet with 
Peach Blossom. Leaves and stems: Olive Green greyed with 
Blue Violet, Shading Green with .Brown Green. 





CAROLINA VETCH— ALICE WILLITS 
(Treatment page 53) 




BOWL DESIGN— MILK PEA MOTIF— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



65 




DEEP VIOLET FLOWER No. 3 ALICE WILLITS 



66 



PLERAMIC STUDIO 







So o 








PEPPERS AND SALTS— ADELAIDE ALSOP-ROBINEAU 



PEPPERS AND SALTS 

Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 

THIS design with colic root motif may be executed in 
natural colors with a brown outline on a white or 
cream ground. The design from the "Nigger Head" may 
be in gold on white with black outlines to petals and black 
centers to flowers and a tinting of yellow brown lustre on 
top and base with the horizontal lines also black, or the 
flower petals may be in yellow brown lustre and the entire 
design in gold. 

The design of saxafrage may be executed in flat enamels 
The blossom pink, the sepals, stems, and buds light green 
on a white ground, the outlines brown and the dots yellow 
brown or banding blue. Either of the last two designs 
might be executed in blue and green schemes. The colors 
should be rather brilliant to give an old fashioned effect; 
or, for the Nigger Head the petals might be in orange; stems, 
green; centers of flowers, a reddish purple; and dots band- 
ing blue. The saxafrage might have blue flowers and yellow 
brown dots, or yellow flowers with purplish blue dots; 
stems and buds green. 

TREATMENT FOR PARTRIDGE PEA (page 68) 

Sara ]]'ood Safford 

One cannot help refering to the leaves first, they are 
so lovely and fern like. Soft, light and dark olive they 
are, from stems of the same tone at the base to a more 
russet green near the flowers. The flowers are soft yellow 
with deeper orange touches. Flowers: Albert Yellow, Al- 
bert Yellow greyed with Olive Green, Yellow Brown for 
center touches. Leaves and stems: Olive Green greyed with 



Blue Violet Olive Green and Brown Green greyed with 
Blue Violet, Yellow Green and Yellow Brown for tops of 
stems, deepen with Yellow Brown and Brown Green. 

YELLOW FLOWERS 
Nigger Head 

In color very much like the "oxeye daisy," but with 
deeper tints of the petals, some of them being almost a 
nasturtium red. The centers are a rich brown, the leaves 
and stems a warm olive in tone. 

Flowers: Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, Yellow Brown 
with Carnation, Yellow Brown with Auburn Brown for 
centers, grey some of the tips with Olive Green. 

Leaves and stems: Olive Green, Olive Green greyed with 
Blue Violet, Brown Green with Yellow Brown greyed with 
Dark Green. 

Yellow Colic Root (page 53) 

The little blossom parts of this growth are a grey yel- 
low in tone, the stems and leaves of rather grey olive green. 

Flowers: Albert Yellow, Albert Yellow greyed with 
Auburn Brown, Albert Yellow and Yellow Brown. 

Stems and leaves: Olive Green greyed with Blue Vio- 
let, Brown Green with Yellow Brown greyed with Dark 
Green. 

if -f 
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

A. N, H. — We do not know of any gold lustre sold under that name which 
is iridescent green in color. An iridescent green may be obtained by firing 
dark green lustre over ruby lustre or overfired and scoured gold. You might 
try these two combinations on small samples to find out if they are what you 
wish ; light green over rose gives a lighter iridescent effect or yellow over rose 
giving pearly reflections. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



67 




NIGGER HEAD ALICE WILLITS 



68 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




PAIURIPSI: m- 



PARTRIDGE PEA— ALICE WILLITS 



(Treatment page 66) 



THE CRAFTS 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 2j2 East 2yth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 



All questions must he received before the ICth day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors -will answer questions only in these columns. 



Please do not send 



THE MAKING OF A METAL BOX 

(CONCIvUDED.) 

E. B. Rolfe 

TWO slots are cut in the covering to insert the hinges, 
Fig. 21. Cut each corner on the upper edge of the 
hning, Fig. 22. The covering is cut as Fig. 23. This will 
allow the two joints, when the laps are bent, to be di- 
rectly over each other. Bend the laps into place and find 
where the holes over the lock will come. Drill or punch a 
small hole in them and remove the necessary metal with 
the piercing saw. Fig i. 

Tin the laps where they will be in contact and replace 
them on the wooden frame. 

If you are unable to procure copper hinges, the brass 
or iron ones can be coppered by being immersed in a solu- 
tion of copper sulphate. Add to this a small amount of 
sulphuric acid, and be sure that the solution is "acid." Lay 
the hinges on a strip of zinc and leave until the proper 
amount of copper is deposited; a few minutes will suffice. 

Wash them and dry in saw dust. Insert them in the 
slots of the covering and screw them securely to the wood. 
Bend the laps into place and solder. 

From the foregoing it will not be difficult to see how 
the cover has the metal applied. 

A scraper is needed to finish the soldered parts ; to make 
this, heat a piece of one-eighth square tool steel to a red 
color. Bend one-fourth inch of the end at a right angle, 
shaped as in Fig. 24. Harden and temper the steel to a 
straw color, then put it into a handle and sharpen the cutting 
edge on an India stone. This tool is used to remove the 
surplus solder that may have extruded from the joints of 
the box. It is drawn toward the worker and scrapes the 
extra solder away in small shavings. The end of this tool 
is shaped in accordance with the nature of the surface to 
be worked on. This tool can also be used to remove any 
sharp edges on the copper that are out of the reach of a file. 

The box must now be gone over carefully and any de- 
fects corrected. Probably it will not lock. The two thick- . 
nesses of metal over the lock may interfere with the tongue 
of the lock reaching in far enough to allow the bolt to be 
thrown. In this case, enlarge the lower end of the hole on 
each tongue until the box will lock. Fig. 25. 

The box is then ready for the finishing and coloring. 
To keep the wood from being wet in the subseciuent wash- 
ings and dippings, warm some wax by working it l)etween 
the fingers and stop up all the holes in the copper. 

Brush the box till it is bright and clean with a stiff 
bristle brush and powdered pumice and water. Wash and 
then dry it in warm saw dust. 

To color copper any of the i\\m following methods niay 
be used: 

No I — vSulphide of Potassium 3 0/.. 
26% Annnonia ■'> o/.. 

Water i gal. 

The sulphide is dissolved in the water and (he iimmonia 
added. Warm the solution and immerse (hi' box. Tlie 
color is first brownish (o iridescent and (hni hhie bhu-k. 
Remove the I)()x when tlie desired shade is iiaehed. Wash 
it in running water, and dry in saw dust. 

No. 2 — Dampen the box with vva(er and phux- i( 011 a 



saucer. Fill the saucer with concentrated ammonia and 
cover all with an inverted jar or crock. The fumes of the 
ammonia will attack the dampened metal and produce 
shades of brown and black with greenish tones. If under 
a glass jar the process can be watched. When the desired 
shade is reached take out the box and dry it in the air. 
No. 3 — Ammonium Chloride 124 grains 
Sodium Chloride 124 grains 

Ammonia, liquid 4^ drams 

Water 16 ounces 

Dip the articles in the solution or paint it on them with 
a soft brush. This method gives a pale bluish green color. 
No. 4 — Cream of Tartar i ounce 

Ammonium Chloride i ounce 
Carbonate of Copper 3 ounces 
Sodium Chloride i ovmce 

Acetate of Copper i ounce 

Vinegar 8 ounces 

The above gives a deep rich olive green if it is painted 
on and left to dry in the air. Repeat the operation until 
the desired shade is reached. Before using, the heavy 
precipitate should be filtered off and the liquid used alone. 
No 5 — Ammonium Carbonate 900 grains 
Ammonium Chloride 300 grains 
Water 16 ozs. 

Always dissolve the chemicals in the water in the order 
they are named, and paint the solution on the copper with 
a flat brush. 

Most colors on metal can be enriched and preserved by 
coating them with some transparent medium that is not of 
itself injured by contact with the air. Coloring can also be 
added to the covering and often a poor color can be improved 
in this way. Lacquer is sometimes used, but gives too 
much gloss. Beeswax dissolved in turpentine gives the 
best effect. Warm the turpentine and add the wax to it. 
Wlien this has dissolved and is well mixed apply it on tlie 




-fjCyS."^- 




"f/CjU^JLf^ I 




-fj^ s.:) 







'flC-rli)- 



70 



KIIRAMIC STUDIO 



metal with a brush and rub it well with a soft cloth. Apply 
some of the wax to a cork and dip in powdered pumice. 
Rub the highest parts of the metal with the cork; this will 
remove some of the coloring and bring out more of the 
underlying metal color. The darker tones of the coloring 
will act as a foil for the decoration when the lights are 
brought up. 

Some colorings will resist wear better than others, but 
no color on a smooth surface will resist the constant wear of 
daily handling. A texture on the metal will do much to 
prolong the life of the color put on, but the only safe way 
is to arrange the decoration with the proper proportion of 
reliefs and hollows to hold enough color to give the best 
efifect to the piece as a whole. 

Wear will bring out in the reliefs the true copper color. 

Finally, powdered pumice mixed with oil will remove 
the coloring from any part that is too dark or would suffer 
most by constant handling. 

The color in the hollows should balance with the bare 
copper on the relief. If not, more color should be applied 
to the article. 

The object of coloring is to hasten or imitate the patina- 
tion that copper and its alloys, bronze and brass, naturally 
receive by contact with the atmosphere. 

The brown and black tones so often seen on copper are 
caused by varying amounts of red and black oxides of cop- 
per that form in contact with the oxygen of the air. The 
greens come from salt-laden air which forms chlorides. 
Even the small amount of carbonic acid in the air will cause 
the green carbonate of copper to form in sufficient quanti- 
ties to be seen after a few years. Ammonia causes blue 
greens in damp atmospheres, while cyanides, acetates and 
other chemicals cause their own shades of blue or green. 

Many copper articles that have been long buried, where 
they have been in contact with carbonates, ammonia, 
acetates, etc., have a very beautiful patina, but for a box 
with modern decoration it seems much more appropriate 
to choose one of the beautiful nut brown colors of the first 
two methods of coloring given than to try to reproduce 
these. 

«<• -f 

STUDIO NOTES 

The Handicraft Guild of Minneapolis announce their 
Summer School of Design and Handicraft, from June 15th 
till July 17th. Ernest A. Batchelder, Director; Courses of 
study include Design and Composition, E. A. Batchelder; 
Metal work, D. Donaldson; Jewelry, Mrs. I. P. Conklin; 
Pottery, F. D. Willets; Leather, N. Murphy; Bookbinding, 
E. Griffith; Wood Block printing, B. Nabersberg; Stencilling, 
E. Morris; Water Color, M. E. Roberts. 

The Nordkraft weavers, the Misses Glantzberg, held an 
exhibition of their artistic and practical hand weavings, 
including hangings, curtains, nursery friezes, table covers, 
etc., suitable for summer cottages, in the Members' room. 
National Society of Craftsmen, for a week beginning April 
20th. 

Mr. John Getz gave a very interesting lecture the even- 
ing of the 28th of April in the Galleries of the National Art 
Club, on the Ceramic Art of Persia. The lecture was 
beautifully illustrated by color slides specially made by 
the new Lumiere process. 

The National Society of Craftsmen will have a summer 
exhibition and sale under the direction of Mr. J. W. Fosdick, 
at Sugar Hill, White Mountain, N. H. They will also have 



lectures on the Arts and Crafts movement and classes in 
design and handicraft. 

Miss Emily F. Peacock will work and teach at Narra- 
gansett Pier, R. I., this summer. 

HANDICRAFT EXHIBITION AT GREENWICH HOUSE 

The native arts of the immigrant peoples in New York 
City, were exhibited at Greenwich House, 26 Jones Street, 
under the auspices of the Art Committee of the Neighbor- 
hood Workers' Association, on May 27 and 28th. The 
major part of the exhibit was of textiles, covering a wide 
variety of materials and design from many countries. 
There were rugs and laces from Ireland and Italy, peasant 
costumes of many obscure provinces, and a very complete 
collection of Jewish ceremonial robes and altar cloths; 
brass and copper work, jewelry and wood carving, and one 
elaborate piece of tapestry. The management distinguished 
in its cataloguing between articles made abroad and articles 
made here by immigrant workers, in an endeavor to giv^ 
sharp point to the cultural loss America suffers in failing to 
utilize the manual skill and inherited art sense of many 
of its newer citizens — the object which Chicago has daily 
before its eyes in the Hull House Labor Museum. 

The settlements who were the largest contributors are 
as follows : 

Bohemian Embroidery, Normal College Alumnae House ; 
Norwegian carved wood and brasses, The Nurses' Settlement; 
Brasses and Roumanian Embroidery, University Settlement. 

The beautiful bedspread was sent by Deaconess Gardiner 
of the Grace Church Neighborhood House, and is owned by 
an Italian family. 

^ -^ 

GUILD OF BOOK WORKERS 

THE second annual exhibition of the Guild of Book 
Workers was held in the old Tiffany Studios from 
April 22d to the 25th. There was a small but excellent 
showing of work. 

Mr. Cobden Sanderson exhibited two books. Paradise 
Lost and Emerson's Essays. Paradise Lost was an espe- 
cially fine example of his work ; it was bound in red seal and 
tooled in gold. In the same case, which was devoted to 
professional work, was a wonderful piece of technical skill 
by Otto Zahn. It was a binding of white and pinkish red 
mosaic on a background of dull blue. The edges of the 
book were painted and goffered. Mr. 2ahn's execution is 
almost perfect, but his design and color scheme left much 
to be desired. His own book on the Art of Binding was so 
much more attractive, for all the exquisite qualities of his 
workmanship were shown with restraint and gained thereby. 

Miss L. Averill Cole of San Francisco, who has studied 
with M. Jacobs of Brussels, the most accomplished of the 
Belgian binders, showed a couple of books as excellent in 
their forwarding as in their finishing, and reaching a very 
high standard in both. 

Miss Preston exhibited an old copy of the English Poets 
in a binding thoroughly in harmony with the contents and 
beautifully executed. Miss H. S. Haskell an excellent and 
well designed binding for Hewlett's Earth Works Out of 
Tuscany. Miss O. Holden of San Francisco a copy of the 
Cathedral Cities of England in leather with carved wood 
sides, Gothic in design. 

Miss D. P. Edwards sent two volumes of "La Mort 
D 'Arthur" by Morley, bound in dark green, full crushed 
levant with very fiat backs, the only decoration being 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



71 



the title in gold. The titles were designed by Miss M. 
Morris, the daughter of William Morris. These volumes 
attracted a good deal of special notice. 

Among other exhibits of excellent work were those of 
Miss A. M. Sarret, S. W. Togan, H. Forbes, Miss Dudley, 
Miss Weir, the Misses Kendall, and Miss McQuade. 

Other features of the exhibition were the attractive 
books bound in half leather by students during their first 
three months' work. 

Some of the simple clear type designed by Cobden 
Sanderson and Emery Walker from the Doves Press, a case 
of illuminated manuscripts by Mrs. Gotthold. 

. The Bookworkers' Guild was organized in November, 
1906, and has a very large membership. Fourteen different 
states in this country are represented, also England, France 
and Russia. E. F. P. 

•p if 

ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES 

Textiles — In the Norwegian tapestries the wool nearly always shows a 
mixture of different tints in one and the same color. A few strong colors are 



chosen and the wools dyed in these colors are mixed together before they are 
spun into yarn. It is precisely the theory of decomposition of tone so modern 
in its application to painting. Every inch of the yarn is woven especially for 
the place where it is to stand in the fabric as every tint is especially mbced for 

the painters' brush. 

I. B. H. — Try the Aniline dyes in powder form; those are soluble in 
water for leather work. Red, blue, yellow and brown will give you many 
combinations. Wm. Tinsser & Co., 197 William St., New York City, will 

supply you with a catalogue of these dyes on application. 

M. N. M. — Shellac is the best cement for jet; warm the shellac and mix 
it with a little lamp black or smoke it before applying it to the article. 

T, V. — Gum wood is the best for wood blocks that are to be used for 
printing, though basswood is also used. They are cut from the end of the 
wood sometimes, but it is not necessary. 

STUDIO NOTES 

Mr. F. B. Aulich of Chicago has left his studio for a 
fishing trip in Northern Michigan, but will resume classes 
again in July. 




TEXAS STAR-ALICE WILLITS 



(Treatment page 54) 



The SCHOOL ARTS BOOK 



Volume VII, complete with the .luiie 
number, contuiiiN O.'iO pages of text mid 
illuHdation, treiitini? all bniiicheH of 
public Hchool (iiawing and manual arts. 

More limn fifty men and womi'U, supcr- 
\isiirM iuid teachers, who ai-(^ dniriK I hf 
filings Ihcy talk about . have fuinishcd 
I his nnil(;iial. 

.\ew, practical, usable, inspirinx these 
panes have hel|iod more teachers of 
drawing than any other Binnle publica- 
tion. 



And it has cost but .<? 1 ..■)ll — ten nuni 
bers, Septendjer to .luiie. I'liis KreMi 
quantity of nuileiiiil could not be ilu 
plicated for numy timi's that amount. 

'I'eaidiers wlioarenot usiuK t he St'lUX >I- 
.\I!I'S HOOK are missiuK one of the 
Kreatest helps of t hi. day. 

"It is never too lute to iiu>nd." Send 
JL.'^.I) .NOW. and secuie this nuiKaluie 
for HIDS mi. bi-KinniiiK ,*^epleml)er I. 
which will 111' better than Volume \ II. 



Published by 

The Davis Press, - Worcester, Mass. 



Ol'R NF.W Pl'BI.lCX'nON 



PALETTE AND BENCH 

A praitii-.il iu;iKa/.iiu> for tho An .StmltMit aiul O.ift.sworktT 
will luniii in OrtobiM with tin- follow inv: stuff: 

Adcliiidc Alsop-RobiiiCiW. Editor 



Co-FAlltDis: Chii'hy <:. Cumin. 

Uhinlii IMiiu'f Nhhitlls. 
Emily F. I'vacock. 

S„ .1,,. :,. Ke.an.u' Studio IVehuici.1 inMilmP-Hi. Bivcii for llir «uid:.i..e ..f teucK 

iiuil Klmleuls. iiMil a t'nh.r Sm.ly Kj»rh Monlli. 



<MI C."«i*o>'.« <tfii< l>r,m-lnu 



S 4 per rriir Sht^U' Copies 4(k- 

Situl for l'rii.\pfitti.\ 

Keramic Stuilio Pub. Ca)., 



Samp I,- Cxpy 2<K 

Svr.Kusc. N. ^ . 



7- 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



VIENNA CHINA 




Vase, No. 111-681, 13 in. 
Bonbon, No. 1 Ruth, 4i in. 
Whisky Jug, No. 1052, Hi in. 



IN WHITE 

FOR DECORATING 

Fires perfectly. Exquisite shapes. Low priced. 
Sold by the leading merchants throughout the U.S. 

Have you our white china catalogue? 

BAWO & DOTTER 

MANUFACTURERS— IMPORTERS 

26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 



(Acid Etched Blank China 

For gold encrusting without the use of acids, and with 
very little gold. 

Gold Band China 

for monogram work, and at one-half the price the gold can 
be put on by decorators in this country. 

Royal Satsuma Japanese China 

in vases, bowls, rose jars, tea sets, etc. Prices 20c to $2.50 
each. This is the real article. 

Klondike Gold 50c 

Special prices in 50 box and 100 box lots. 

Ten Cent Colors 

Finest imported German and French colors in small 
vials — all at loc per vial. 

Also Palettes, Palette Knives, Brushes, etc. 

The above items are a few of the thousands which will 
appear in our new 1908 catalogue to be issued in August. 
Send us your name and catalogue will be sent you free of 
charge. 

Agent for Revelation Kilns 

W. A, Maurer, - Council Bluffs, lo^wa 



Ot'COV^t 



(sack 0/ the toUQw^inxt 'itntt'nct^^ contuin4 

alt itie Uiteti oJTthf ciL/>haUt, 

The Citown Pox jurnira cjuicK over iKc lojy cfoo 

^oKn MfempoKijed c^oitl^ly five tow uchq^ . 

— P«cJC nrvy foK wll"!! ^ive dojjfth lic^uor s 

— Fop coniferttlonat work use Campona's 
Kin^ dividers. 3-rIr\^s-Jct 10* . ^ O-U^ * 

— 45 oil fferent color^^ en flood a^ «rvy, conf«in 
0(oui-Fe r|ucinti^y of I04 coIoks, sell dhly i^'^eocK 



T^ T |-^ X T r THE TEACHER OF CBINA PAINTING, by D. M. Gampana. 

r^k^ \-\ \l\l Better than six months lessons. Mistakes in firing, glaz- 
X. ^ I -< 7 T ing, grounding, painting, thoroughly explained. Funda- 
mental principles of conventional decorations; gold re- 
ceipt; lessons in flowers, figures, etc.; practically all; also silk painting, oil, 
ate. 75 cents per copy, postage S cents. 

Samples of Campana's Colors mailed on receipt of business card. 

D. M. CAMP ANA, 112 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 

]\T Tr\A7 ^^^ LUSTRE COLORS, combinations with all the latest colors 
V r"^ y y Many new treatments and how to make them. A very interest 
^ ' ing variety of colors, schemes and effects, by D. M. Campana 
Price 45 cents, mail, 2 cents. 



ATTENTION! 

An opportunity to purchase fine French and German china 
at a price lower than 40% off. 

Clearing Sale Price-List 

Fully illustrating all the staple items, mailed free to your address. 

Our Monster New "China Catalogue" 

Showing all the new styles and shapes now arriving on import 
from the most reputable factories of Europe, is now on the press 
and ready to mail in a few weeks. Write for it to-day. 

Discounts to Teachers 

Erker Bros. Optical Co. 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Established 1880 



China Decorators Choose 

from our stock of some five thousand items. 

We fill orders complete on day received. Our prices, with spe- 
cial discounts to teachers and academies, are the lo^vest. 

^^.^.^ ^e Sell "^ ^^^^ 

Hasburg's Gold for $7.20 per dozen. 

La Croix Colors, 335^ discount from manufacturer's list. 

and all goods at prices in proportion. 

Ask especially for illustrated list of our New American Ware, 
^va^^anted to fire. 

Vases as low as 30c. Large Tankards, $1.00 

Let us surprise you with catalog and prices. 

The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 







m 



The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted without special permission 

CONTENTS FOR AUGUST 1908 



Editorial Notes 

Metallic Deposits on Glazes — Continued 

Cherries 

Hydrangea Panel and Design for Bowl 

Hydrangea Border Designs 

National League of Mineral Painters (1 6th Annual Ex.) 

Exhibition of the Kansas City Keramic Qub 

Buffalo Society of Mineral Painters 

Chicago Ceramic Art Association 

Maple Leaves 

Design for the Decoration of China — 5th paper 

Hollyhocks (Supplement) 

Plate in Grey Blues '' 

Snap Dragon 

Border Design in Greys 

Verbena 

The Crafts — The Work of the Students of Pratt Institute, Brook- 
lyn 

Ex. of the Y. W. C A. of New York 

Answers to Correspondents 



Louis Franchet 
Maud E. Hulbcrt 
Hannah Ovcrbeck 
Hannah Overbeck 



Mariam L. Candler 
Caroline Hofman 
Paul Putzki 
Oreon Page Wilson 
Maud E. Hulbert 
E. Chadeayne 
Ida M. Ferris 



PAGE 

73 

74-76 

75 

77 

78 

79 

80-81 

81-82 

83-84 

85 

86-87 

88 

88 

89 

89 

90 

91-93 

94-95 

78 



^ PALETTE AND BENCH 

A Magazine for the Art Student and Craftsworker 



We desire to get an expression of opinion from our subscribers and inquirers 
on the subject of the new magazine which we are about to publish, devoted to WATER 
COLORS, OIL, PASTEL, CHARCOAL AND PENQL, AND CRAFTS; in fact, we want to 
know how much support we will get from teachers and students. 

It will be edited along practical lines similar to that of KERAMIC STUDIO, 
will have technical treatments of each study and also contain a color supplement, 
either landscape, figure or study of still life which will be of great interest to teachers 
of art and undoubtedly of great assistance to them in their lessons. 

It is our purpose to have it strongly edited in all departments. 

Do you know of five or more of your friends who might become subscribers to 
such a magazine? If so please send us their names and addresses and we in return will 
send you one of our ''color studies for the china painter." To avoid duplication kindly 
state your first and second choice. The Blackberry study by Miss Stewart is out of print. 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB. CO., 
Syracuse^ N. Y. 

The first number will be issued in October; price same as Keramic Studio — $4 
per year. Send in your order now, same to be due in September. The two in 
combination, $7. 

%^ ^k^ ^^ ^^ «*IM ^k^ ^^ ^b^ ^^ ^^ M^ ^^ Mi^ MH n^ n^ MM MJK MM MM M^ MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM MM Ml 




Our Latest 
Combination 

Offers 

Keramic Studio 
$4.00 

Second Rose Book 
S3.00 

Fruit Book 

$3.00 

All for $9,00 

POSTPAID 



KERAMIC STUDIO $4..00 

PALETTE AND BENCH $4.00 

To one address $7.00 



Vol. X. No. 4 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



August, 1908 




HE illustrations of the recent ex- 
hibit of the Chicago Ceramic Art 
Association show, more than any- 
thing we have seen of late, the 
marked advance in ceramic design 
since the early days of Keramic 
Studio. There does not seem to 
be a slavish following of one per- 
son's individuality, but independ- 
ent work in several directions. 
We are unable to judge of the color work or finish as the 
values do not reproduce and doubtless the designs do not 
subdue themselves to the form as they may in reality, 
seen in the original color tones. 

It is altogether an exhibit of which they may well be 
proud as an association; compared with the illustrations 
given in past issues of Keramic Studio they have made 
a vast stride forward. 

The illustrations of the work of the National League 
are always interesting and instructive, being gathered 
from so many sources and selected with care. One can 
expect to become acquainted with the best that 
is being done in this direction. 

The Buffalo society illustrates for the first time the 
work of its members. Buffalo not long since was one 
of the nurseries of Keramic Art under the encourage- 
ment of Mr. Glenny. It has for some time rested on its 
laurels so that we welcome the hopeful sign in its coming 
to the front to try its work beside that of other clubs. 

The Kansas City Club also seems to be quite in the 
forward movement. The tableware especially is in good 
taste and attractive design. 

The Y. W. C. A. and Pratt Institute exhibitions are 
instructive and full of valuable suggestions for crafts work. 

Keramic Studio Pubeishing Company in response to 
frequent inquiries and requests for instructive books on 
china painting has decided to issue a series of books on 
"Ceramic Overglaze Decoration" under the general title of 
"The Class Room." The subjects will be "A Color Palette 
and its Use," "Flower Painting," "Backgrounds," "Conven- 
tional Decoration," "Gold, Paste and Enamels," "Lustres," 
"Figure Painting," "Firing," "Art of Teaching." These 
books will be uniform in size with The Rose Book and 
contain color studies and working designs selected from the 
best published by Keramic Studio since the first issue. 
The instruction will be thorough, condensing all the value- 
able material on each subject found in Keramic Studio 
up to date. Altogether the series will form a valuable 
working library of Ceramic Decoration. The dilTerent 
subjects will be sold separately, as well as combined. "The 
Book of iHower Painting", ten color plates and twenty half 
tone studies of flowers with thorough instruction from all 
our best writers, will be ready by Sept. i.sth. Price the 
same as for the Rose Book, $3.00. The illustrations will 
all be different from those contained in the Rose and I'Vuit 
Books and selected from the best issued in nnie \ears of 
Kijkamic vSthdio. 



PALETTE AND BENCH 

THE first issue of PalETTE and Bench, our new maga- 
zine, will be the October number and will appear 
September 15th. The color supplement will be a still life 
by Wm. H. Chase, "The Pewter Jug." It will also contain 
the first papers of the following series of valuable articles, 
well and fully illustrated : 

Oil Painting — Materials, etc., by Charles C. Curran, 

Water Colors — Materials, etc., Rhoda Holmes Nicholls. 

Still Life Painting — Emil C arisen. 

Modeling — Charles J. Pike. 

Illumination — Florence D. Gotthold. 

Miniature Painting — Wm. J. Baer. 

Japanese Arrangement of Flowers — Mary Averill. 

We have also secured for later issues the following con- 
tributions from well known artists : 

Portrait Painting, Irving Wiles; Landscape, Ben Foster; 
Cast Drawing, Fred. Van Vliet Baker; Composition, Frank 
DuMond; Home Course in Drawing for Children, James Hall; 
Pen and Ink Illustration, Will. H. Drake; Scrub Method in 
Water Color, Henry B. Snell; Dutch Water Color, Mrs. E. 
M. Scott; Water Color on Dry Paper, Mrs. Freda V. Red- 
mond; The Use of Water Color in Decoration, Mrs. Charles 
Weaver Parrish; Color, etc., Emily Noyes Vandcrpool; 
Permanency of Colors, James Cantwell; Color and Light, 
Childe Hassam; Rapid Sketching, Helen Turner; Study of 
Trees Bare of Foliage, Wm. Coffin; Carved Leather, Mrs. 
Florence T. Humphreys; Stencil, Miss Nancy Beyer; Cross- 
stitch, Mertice McCrea Buck; Built-in Furniture, Elizabeth 
Saugstad; Wrought Iron, Gesso, etc., Katherine C. Biidd; 
Fire Etching, Wm. Fosdick; Tempera Painting, Emil Carl sen. 
And we have been promised contributions by Colin Campbell 
Cooper, Charles Warren Eaton, Mrs. Henry B. Snell, Mrs. 
C. B. Conan, W. Castle Keith, Violet Oakley and others. 

The magazine will be uniform in size with Keramic 
Studio, which will thereafter be exclusively devoted to 
ceramics. The department of Crafts, which has been a 
feature in that magazine for five years, will be transferreil 
to Palette and Bench. 

The subscription price is to be $4.00 a year. Single 
copies, 40 cents; sample copies, 25 cents. The conibineil 
subscription to Keramic Studio and Palette and Bench 
will be $7.00 a year, and this allowance in the subscription 
price of PalETTE and Bench will be nuule to all present 
subscribers of Kicramic Studio. 

DESIGN COMPETITION 

We again call lite attenlion o\ o\\\ >ul>seribeis lo llie 
design eoni|)e(ilii>u for oui l>ei\Mnber looS nuniluM-. Tlie 
competition cU).ses on October ist.. 

See back cover for subjects anil list of prizes \ai\ iug 
tioni S5.00 to $20.00. 

l>i'signs wliieli will not be awaidrd ]>ri/es but will 
show im-iil, will he eiuisiiKieil lot purchase. 



74 



heramic studio 




;*^ 



Lancastrian Lnstre Pottery. Design by Lewis F. Day and Walter Crane. 
By courtesy of tlie Pottery Gazette. 

METALLIC DEPOSITS ON GLAZES 



(continued) 



Louis Franchet 



RESINATES 

The combination of metals with resins gives special pro- 
ducts .soluble in essence of turpentine, and which consequently 
may be used to obtain metallic deposits over glazes and 
glasses. The formulas which are given in special treatises 
on the subject, I have generally found of little use in prac- 
tice; and there are not any which will give compounds rich 
enough in metal to produce the intensity of iridescence 
which is obtained by reduction. The process generally 
advocated consists in precipitating the alcoholic solution 
of a metallic acetate with an alcoholic solution of resin; be- 
sides being applicable only to some metals, this process has 
the disadvantage of giving a combination containing very 
little metal, because of the weak solubility of acetates in 
alcohol; it is much better to precipitate the alcaline resin- 
ates with a metallic salt. 

A soap soluble in water is prepared by treating colo- 
phony in fusion with caustic soda. As colophony varies 
much in composition, it is difficult to indicate a definite 
proportion of alcali and resin. There will be perhaps some 
uncombined soda which will prevent one obtaining a pure 
resinate; the latter being then mixed with the oxide of the 
the metal which has been precipitated by the excess of soda, 
the final product will not be entirely soluble in essence, and 
consequently will not be suitable for an even formation of 
iridescence over the glaze, as this iridescence appears only 
as a result of the complete decomposition of the organo- 
metallic solution. 

It is much better to use the following method; the 
watery solution of the salt is precipitated with a watery 
solution of the resinous soap; this precipitate is washed, 
dried at 70° C. and treated with ether which dissolves only 
the resinate, leaving the oxide formed by the excess of soda. 
The solution is filtered and to the clear liquor is added al- 



cohol at 90° which precipitates the resinate; after filtering, 
this resinate is rapidly washed with alcohol, dried, then dis- 
solved in a fat essence. After 10% of bismuth resinate has 
been added to the solution, it is applied over the glaze or 
the glass, which are heated to 640° C. at most (cones 021- 
020). In order to increase the intensity of iridescence, it is 
advisable, in many cases to add a salt of gold besides bis- 
muth, but in very small quantity. 

When the resinate is precipitated in ether, and when 
the precipitate is washed, one must be careful not to use 
too much alcohol, which would then dissolve some of the 
resinate. 

I ought to speak here of a resinate formula which is 
given in some Ceramic publications and is called Brianchon 
lustre, as in my experiments I found it of very little prac- 
tical value. Into this recipe enter the following ingredients : 
Cristallised nitrate of bismuth 10 
Arcanson resin 30 

Lavender essence 75 

The nitrate is mixed with the resin in fusion and forty 
parts only of essence are then added. When the mixture 
has become homogeneous, the other thirty-five parts of 
essence are added, and the mixture is ready to use. 

I do not see how this process can be of practical value, 
as I have obtained a product which, at the ordinary temper- 
ature, proved nearly as hard as resin itself, so that it could 
not be apphed over the glaze with the brush. To use it, 
it is necessary to keep both it and the enamel over which it 
is applied at a temperature of 60° C. ; not only it is not prac- 
tical to work under such conditions, but the vapors emitted 
by both the resin and the essence at this temperature, mod- 
ify the composition of the product. The whole could be 
ground in a great quantity of essence, but then the propor- 
tion of metal, which is already small, would become insigni- 
ficant. Anyway the product thus obtained, whatever the 
metal used, gives to the glaze iridescent effects which are 
hardly noticeable. 

Resinates are not the only products which will produce 
in an oxidizing firing an iridescent deposit over vitrified 
substances; this property belongs to all organo-metallic 
compounds soluble in fat essences. Some writers have 
given the following process, which, for the intensity of 
iridescence, has no more value than the others. Cristallis- 
ed carbolic acid is liquified at 35° C. and to it is added a 
metallic salt in the form of chloride or nitrate. The mix- 
ture is left to digest at the ordinary temperature for twenty- 
four hours when it is slightly heated and the product is 
found to be soluble in fat essence of turpentine. This solu- 
tion is applied over the glaze and fired to cone 020; but, like 
resinates, it gives only a weak iridescence. 

C ACTION OF METALLIC VAPORS 

In 1844 Brongniart demonstrated that copper oxide 
thrown into a moderately heated muffle, emitted vapors 
which were deposited over glazes in metallic coats; chloride 
of silver produces similar effects; but, in both cases, it is 
necessary to operate in a reducing atmosphere; we have 
then to deal with the same class of deposits as those studied 
in the first part of this treatise. 

However, it is possible to obtain, in an oxidizing at- 
mosphere, iridescent effects of great intensity and conse- 
quently very different from the weak iridescence obtained 
with resinates. In order to produce them, one may use 
either the protochloride of tin or the tetrachloride of titan- 
ium, the former being preferable, as, unlike the titanium 
salt, it does not emit abundant vapors at the ordinary 
temperature. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



75 




W 

pq 
w 

Q 

W 
I— I 

W 

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CO 

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76 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




Lancastrian Lustre Pottery. Design by Lewis F. Day and Walter Crane. 
By courtesy of the Pottery Gazette. 



The protochloride of tin may be used alone ; but, as the 
formation of vapors is ven^ violent as soon as the tempera- 
ture reaches the red glow, in order to better regulate the 
operation, it is advisable to mix it with some inert substance 
which will temporarily retain part of the volatilised salt. 
I generally use for this some chalk which I work up with 
about one-tenth in weight of tin salt, Sn CP. The mix- 
ture is placed in a cupel deposited at the back of the muffle, 
the door of which must be left open so that the temperature 
will remain constant and moderate. In front of the cupel 
is placed the vase which is to receive the iridescent deposit. 
As soon as the vapors begin to form, the operation must be 
watched with the greatest care, as the iridescence which will 
develop over the glaze will pass through three successive 
stages before being destroyed, and cannot form again if it 
has once passed away. 

First stage — ^The glaze becomes covered with a lustrous, 
brilliant coat, looking like mother of pearl, but without iri- 
descence. 

Second stage — With a greater formation of vapors new 
deposits are formed in the shape of ver\^ thin sheets which, 
by superimposing each other, decompose the light rays and 
determine the formation of an iridescence, very weak at 
first, but soon acquiring a remarkable intensity. This 
marks the point at which the operation should be stopped. 

Third stage — If the piece is left longer under the in- 
fluence of the vapors, the deposit will soon become ver\^ 
thick, mat and turning a dirty yellow color; the iridescence 
then gradually decreases until complete disappearance. 

When the iridescence has reached the maximum of 
intensity, that is, at the end of the second stage, the cupel 
containing the tin salt is withdrawn, and the vase is left in 
the muffle, then fired to about cone 012 (890° C.) This 
firing seems to give a greater adherence to the metallic 
deposit, a ver\- interesting phenomenon, since the forma- 



tion of vapors takes place at the much lower temperature 
of 670° C. It would seem natural to expect that by heat- 
ing the vase to cone 012 the deposit will be destroyed, but 
this is not the case. It is probable that it combines in 
some way with some of the elements of the glaze. 

I have studied the action of vapors from protochloride 
of tin and tetrachloride of titanium over glazes and enamels ^ 
of different compositions, and I have noticed a great varia- 
tion in the intensity of iridescence, the maximum being 
obtained with feldspathic glazes of porcelain and gres, 
without lead, and fusible at 1410° C. for the former, and 
1290° C. for the latter. Over glazes and enamels fusing at 
low temperatures, from 600° C. to 1100° C. the iridescence 
lacks brilliancy and the general appearance has not the 
mother-of-pearl eS^ect which is obtained with feldspathic 
glazes. I do not think that this inferiority is due to the 
presence of lead, as I have used glazes in which lead was re- 
placed by bismuth, also boric compounds, alcaline com- 
pounds and fluor-spar, and I have always noticed the same 
lack of intensity in iridescent effects. 

Iridescence obtained in a reducing firing is affected by 
the underlying glaze and modified by the color of this glaze. 
Iridescence formed by the protochloride of tin or the tetra- 
chloride of titanium, not only is not modified by the color 
of the imderlying glaze, but is weakened if this glaze is 
colored, so that, in order to judge of the intensity of the 
iridescence produced by these salts, it is necessary to operate 
over a colorless feldspathic glaze. 

GENERAL REMARKS 

The study which we have made of the different modes 
of formation of metallic deposits has shown such a difference 
in their properties that it seems impossible to include them 
in the same class and under the same term, whether they 
are produced in a reducing or ordinary atmosphere. In the 
first case we obtain deposits having a real and powerful 
metallic appearance, with iridescent effects which we can 
modify at will, and which wiU reappear easily if we have 
destroyed them. Whether iridescent or not, they display 
properties which we never find when the deposits have been 
obtained in the oxidizing fire. 

The deposits left by resinates over vitrified surfaces, 
are not properly metallic deposits, but only a slightly iri- 
descent coloring the molecular grouping of which cannot be 
modified, while we can produce these modifications in the 
reduced deposits simply by changing the atmospheric con- 
ditions of the kiln. It may be objected that gold, and some- 
times copper, leave not only a coloring but a true metallic 
coat, which can be affected by the burnisher. However 
this does not constitute an exception to the general rule; 
these metals, when thus freed from their organic solutions 
and left in the shape of a brilliant coat, are never iridescent 
and possess an absolutely stable molecular state. 

It is easy to understand why deposits by reduction 
differ absolutely from deposits by oxidation; being pro- 
duced only by the action of carbonmonoxide and hydro- 
carbons, they are destroyed in the presence of oxygen, while 
the oxidizing deposits require only a low heat sufficient to 
volatilise the organic matter which retains the metal or to 
reduce into vapor the chloride of tin and titanium. 

These two different kinds of deposits should have par- 
ticular names, in order to avoid the confusion caused at 
present by the application of the term lustres to both of 



The term glaze should properly be used for the translucent vitrified coat- 
ing with which ceramics are covered, and the term enamel for the same 
coating when it is made opoque by stannic acid,borate of lime, cryolite 
or any other opaque matter. 



heramic studio 



77 




HYDRANGEA PANEL— HANNAH OVERBECK 



them. It is not necessary to create new terms. I will 
call "metallic iridescence" the deposits which are formed 
in a reducing atmosphere, as this is the name which is gen- 
erally applied to the iridescent Hispano-Moresque and Italian 
faiences. I will call "lustres" the deposits obtained in an 
oxidizing atmosphere, as this name has been given to the 
coating which is left by organic solutions in the low muffle 
firing, such as gold lustre, bismuth lustre, litharge lustre, 
etc. Besides, this term seems better suited to these deposits 
because of their extreme thinness. 

These two different terms will be conventional words 
used to mark the difference between two products of a differ- 
ent nature, there being no meaning in the terms themselves 
indicating the different properties of each of these products. 

THE END 

VERBENAS (Page 90) 

I. M. /''(ins 

If these arc done in white, pale lavender, shading to 
deep violet it makes a pleasing combination, and it ma>- 
also be done in shades of pink. I'\)r the former color sclienie 
use Yellow shading to (ireeii in the open centers of clusters, 
Grey for Roses for white flowers with a wash of Violet where 
they come near the purple ones. Wash in the vioK-t shaiK's 
flat for the first lire, using considerable Blue and takr out 
lights. A warm background iiiadi' of warm grcrii, I^iowii 
(MTeii and a little Yellow Brown, will l)e in liaiinoiiN . 



HYDRANGEA PANEL 

Hannah thrrbcck 

THIS design is a conventional spray of hardy hydran- 
geas. Trace very carefully and outline in India Ink, 
dust, and with a sharp brush handle wrapped tight with 
cotton, wipe out the entire design and tire. The design 
can be treated in greyish greens or grey blues with 
flowers done in pule yellow brown. It should be tired at 
least four times. 

,r iT 

HYDRANGEA DESIGN FOR BOWL 

Hainiah ( ''icrlhck 

FLOWRRS, \'iolet of Iron; green hand and stems, 
Dark (ireen and a little (irass (^.reen; grey in border. 
Neutral Grey; body of bowl lighter tone i>f Neutral C^.rex 
with a little Yellow Ochre. 





78 




nERAMIC STUDIO 






tJ 



^vi;r==f%z±£7 \irrrrf^=i^ 






BORDER DESIGNS, HYDRANGEA— HANNAH OVERBECK 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

H. J. S. — You will find full information in regard to the manipulation of 
matt colors in the Class Room (August, 1906). Putting matt black over the 
shiny fired black will subdue it somewhat. There is however the danger, if 
too much color is appUed, that the glaze may chip. 

Mrs. F. H. — You will find in our teacher's column the information you 
wish in regard to teachers of figure and miniature. As far as we know the 
colors we advertise are all good and one make is quite as reliable as the others. 
We will publish a complete chart of colors of different makers in our new 
Class Room Booklet, "A Color Palette and its use." which will be issued in 
the Fall. We expect to publish a series of these booklets, see editorial page. 
Tube colors have their advantages but powder colors are preferable in most 
cases. Any fresh color if fired too hard will come out yellowish. A cameo 
eflfect on china can be obtained by modelling with white enamel over fired 
dusted color, see Class Room "Enamels." 

R> H. K. — If you wish to use the gold crowns from teeth to make gold 
for china proceed just as for ribbon gold. If your Aufsetzweis runs or flat- 
tens in firing it is certainly too oily. Take it out on blotting paper, and 
then mix up with oil of lavender according to directions in the Class Room 
articles on enamels. 








UudTin jea 







BORDER DESIGNS, HYDRANGEA— HANNAH OVERBECK 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



79 





lone Wheeler 



Lulu C. Bergen 
Lulu C. Bergen 



H. Barclay Paist 



Mary J. Coulter Isabell W. Hampton Mary J. Coulter 

Lulu C. Bergen Isabell W. Hampton 



NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

The sixteenth annual exhibition of the National League 
of Mineral Painters opened at the Chicago Art Institute, 
April 28th, continuing to June 7th, 1908. This is by far 
the best exhibition of Ceramic Art ever given by the League. 

To quote from the Art Notes in Chicago Record Herald : 

"Tuesday night of the past week saw the opening of 
three important shows in the galleries of the Art Institute. 
They were the American Water Colors, an exhibit by the 
National League of Mineral Painters, and the annual dis- 
play of the Chicago Ceram^ic Art Association. Of these 
the last two, possibly, engage our interest more than the 
first named, for the reason that they manifest evidences of a 
greater amount of growth artistically than the pictorial 
productions do. Indeed, the rate at which Ceramics have 
forged ahead in Chicago for the past few years is causing 
them to assume an important position among art products. 

"Not long ago 'hand painted china' with its realistic 
floral decoration was the best representative of this class of 
art, and quite recently frank" copies of published designs or 
adaptations from historic ornament found their way into 
public exhibitions. 

"These examples, moreover, were received with a certain 
amount of satisfaction by the public until it learned to ex- 
pect such work as is now being executed — entirely original, 
clever productions in dignified conventional decoration." 

The high standard set by the National League in 
order to procure the best results from the members has 



given the League admission to some of the most important 
art exhibitions in this country and Europe. 

A cleverly handled decoration is the lily-of-the-valley 
motif on a Wheeler vase. The vase is tinted in pale green 
with a fine interlacing line decoration. The artist who 
decorated this piece, Mrs. Lula C. Bergen, is represented 
by two other good pieces, a crab-plate abstract motif, also 
chop plate, Rose motif. 

A crab plate abstract motif, also a bowl, is shown by 
Mrs. Mary J. Coulter, both pieces good in design; in fact all 




.'\n(lrc\v ,1. Molzfcldt 



Mrs. I'. 11. SluilluoU 



Ni'llii- A. I'rKS.-; 





Mrs C, II. Slijlluck Mrs. V- II, SiKilluck 

Aiulrrw J. Mot^felilt 



.li'iiiuiollc K. Simpson .\. .1, Mol/.frlill 

Miiy K, Hruiioinoyox 



loin- W Iuh'Ut 



8o 



nURAMIC STUDIO 




Miss Gertrude Seamans 

Mrs. W. T. Timlin 
Mrs. E. J. Edwards Miss Ruby Thompson 
Mrs. Nutter 



Mrs. J. E. Wintermote 
Miss J. Somers 



Miss Jameson 



Mrs. Timlin 

Mrs. G. F. Todd 



Miss Somers Mrs. Nutter 
Mrs. G. T. Todd 



Mrs. Wintermote 
Miss Lillian G. Dickey 

Mrs. G. T. Todd 
Miss Barnum 

Mrs. 0. E. Todd 



Mrs. Edwards 

Miss Thomson 



EXHIBITION OF THE KANSAS CITY KERAMIC CLUB 



of Mrs. Coulter's work has a certain refinement in design, 
color and finish. 

Mrs. lone Wheeler sends a bowl in yellow and greens, 
the orange conventionalized, also a plate in blue and green, 
the spiderwork motif; good pieces in color and design. 

Mrs. C. H. Shattuck of the Topeka Club is represented 
by three very good productions: a coupe shape plate of an 
unusual combination of color; rich tones with elaborate 
simplicity of leaf and flower constitute a certain fascination. 
The rose motif is used for this and one other plate, beauti- 
ful in design and execution. 

Isabel W. Hampton, of Los Angeles Keramic Club, 
sends two pieces : a chop plate with blue monochrome 
design is well executed, as is also a modest sugar receptacle 
in another type of dainty color — silver and grey and white ; 
yes, silver and grey and white, old simple colors, but how 
difficult to deal with. Note the clever adaptation of design 
to the handles and to the spaces to be decorated. 

May E. Brunemeyer of Aurora, 111., sends an odd 
little bowl good in color and design, a most interesting ex- 
hibition piece. 



Henrietta Barclay Paist, St. Paul, sends a charming 
low bowl with a well handled rose border in harmonizing 
tones of dull pink, green and gold on soft toned ivory back- 
ground. J. Ellen Simpson, Pasadena, a chop plate, moun- 
tain ash conventional design in pleasing color. 

Mr. Andrew J. Motzfeldt, Chicago, exhibits three pieces 
all equally well painted: a chop plate with a lobster and 
seaweed motif; a vase, crab and seaweed. Mr. Motzfeldt 's 
work is suggestive of Japanese decoration, particularly 
the tall slender vase of beautiful rich greens which has a 
difficult problem quite successfully carried out. The clever 
massing of swiftly gliding fish with a sea weed occasionally, 
though purposely placed to explain the decorative story, 
are successful because treated as flat conventional forms 
on an unyielding hard surface. The style of fish, seaweed 
and water is so well understood that they convey much 
more than the realistic attempt at copying fish in water 
and weeds growing, could ever do. ' 

Nellie A. Cross, 
Chairman Exhibition of the N. L. of M. P" 
Chicago, 111., 1 21 7 Farwell Ave. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



8i 




Miss Sarali Banuim Miss Lillian G. Dickey 

Mrs. E. J. Edwards Miss Gertrude Seniaiis Mrs. Gertrude Todd 

Mrs. L. U. Nutter Miss Semans 

Mrs. G. T. Todd Mrs. Timlin 

Mrs. Nutter Miss Anna Jameson Mrs. McCamish 

Miss Barnum 



Mrs. C. E. Todd Mrs. G. T. Todd 



Mrs. Wm. T. Timlin 
Mrs. Nutter 



Miss Jennie Soniers 



Mrs. Nutter Miss Jameson 

Mrs. W. H. McCamish 



EXHIBITION OF THE KANSAS CITY KERAMIC CLUB 



EXHIBITION OF THE KANSAS CITY KERAMIC CLUB 

THE Keramic Club held its twelfth exhibition at Swan's 
Fine Art Store, from April 21 to 25 inclusive. 

Having studied design as applied to porcelain, the 
past year, the Club decided to have for the main feature 
of the exhibition a dinner service, each piece designed and 
executed by the different members of the Club, green and 
gold being the scheme of color. 

Other pieces of the collection varied, some being purely 
decorative, while others showed the Japanese, Chinese and 
British influence. 

A breakfast set of original design, spiderwort motif, 
proved interesting, also a dinner set in gold. 

More originality was shown in the work than formerly, 
and the Club's many friends and visitors did not hesitate 
to express their appreciation of the higher standard of work 

<f if 

BUFFALO SOCIETY OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

THE Buffalo Mineral Painters recently held the liiiesl 
Ceramic lixhibilion ever held in Buffalo. 

A new member of the vSociely, Mrs. Herlling, had a 
most interesting exhibit, entirely of steins in coiu-eiilional 
designs; each finished in workmanship, original, and rich 
and beautiful in coloring. 

I'^ach year Miss h'rances Williams has shown some of 
the gems of the entire collection, and this year is no i-xcep 
tion. A Tnrkish coffee ])()t in oiieiital design ai. ' color 
ing; a cordial set, consisting of dc-canter and six tii cups, 
were exciuisite in design and finish, fit to hold the lectar 



of the gods. They were painted in pale green lustre, 
jewels and little roses. 

Miss Nellie Jackson is another of the exhibitors, whom 
the Club as a whole delight to honor. The eternal fitness 
of things was shown in her decoration of a plain Belleek 
bowl, and six plates: medallions holding dainty Japanese 
figures, surrounded by intricate design, and an inner band 
of gold, finished at edge with finely wrought gold design. 
Nothing more exquisite ever came out of Nippon. The 
egg-shell transparency of tlie ware was heantifullx' liron,L;lu 
out by the decoration. 

Mrs. Alison Weber had sonic strong and anibitions 
work, as usual. One of the things talked about, and which 
you were told to be "sure and see," was a lamp shade of 
wrought iron, each of the four sides set with large mcilallion 
painted in Dutch figures and landscape; a row of small 
medallions, in like decoration, entire!\- surrouiuled tlie 
shade at the bottom. 

Mi.ss Dakin, the Prt'sidcnl o\ the Chib, sln>weil a U>v- 
ing cup done in red poppies, dark meeii and gt^hi; a Chinese 
bowl in a con\entional design of lotns blos.^tnns, ami a rose 
plate, which is a tine siieeiinen o\ ,i;old wtM"k. 

Mrs. Norman had a tea set in gold, ami coral jewel 
work, v'^he also showed st)ine elexer potteix' effects, partie 
ularh after I he Rookwooil eolorinj; 

Mrs. Draegeil showed a large vase, m stunning decora- 
tion of the peacock in all its rich metallic cohering. I'Mre 
and pnn- gold, eoiipei, rubies and einei.ilds seenu-d li> be 
alixi' in the gla/i'. .\ chocolate set. oi pot and six en]>s ,md 
saucers, was most effect i\el\ ami appropriatelx painleil in 



82 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




Mrs. Shuler Mrs. Denny Mrs. Fritz Mrs. Denny 

Mr.s. Filkins Miss Jackson Mrs. Shuler Mrs. Filkins 

Miss Jackson Miss Milsom Mrs. Shuler 



^L^UkM. 





Mrs. Dakin Miss F. Williams Mrs. Fritz Miss D9,kin Mrs. Fritz 

Mrs. Draegert Miss Williams Miss Williams Miss Milsom 

Mrs. Fritz Mrs. Draegert Mrs. Bertling 




Mrs. A. Weber 
Miss Hayden Miss Dakin 
Mrs. Fritz 



Mrs. A. Webei 
Mrs. Shuler 



Mrs. Finucane 

Mrs. Denny 
Miss Hayden 



Mrs Filkins 
Mrs. Greiner Mrs. Norman Mrs. Booth 
Miss Tilde Mrs. Fritz 



Mrs. Milsom 
Miss Milsom Mrs. Norman 
Mrs. Bertling 




Mrs. Alison Weber 



matt dark red-brown background, with 
broad gold band at top, inset with acorns 
and leaves in natural coloring. 

Miss Jennie Hayden 's work is always 
interesting, and two vases, one in narcis- 
sus, and another in jonquils, admirably 
painted, attracted attention. 

Mrs. Fritz's entire exhibit was of 
such a high order of excellence that it is 
hard to particularize. One of the most 
unique and elegant, perhaps, was a tea 
set, of the three pieces usual, done in 
much silver, with softest greys and pinks. 
Miss Milsom had a stein in matt ground, 
with broad gold band at top, inset with 
brilliant butterflies, wing to wing, and 
a fine vase in oriental design. Among the 
noticeable things in Mrs. Denny's collec- 
tion was a tobacco jar with lions' heads; 
in Mrs. Greiner 's, a large vase in matt 
color, and Mrs. Booth had some dainty 
toilet pieces. 

Miss Tiede exhibited a claret and a 
chocolate set that showed ambition and 
creditable work, while Mrs. Shuler "was 
to the fore" with a beautiful salad set. 

The out of town members showed up 




Mrs. Bertling. Stein made tor Buffalo Camera Club. 



ri:ramic studio 



83 




May Brunemeyer 



Mary Mason 



Lulu C. Bergen 





Helen M. Haines 

Mary S. Coulter 



M. Ellen Iglehart 



M. Ellen Iglehart 
Hilga Peterson 




Eleanor Stewart Mary J. Coulter 

lone Wheeler Lulu C. Bergen May Brunemeyer Cora B. Randall 



livelyn B. Beachey 





M. 1:. Iglehart 



Lulu C. Bergen 
Nellie A. Cross 



Evelyn Beachey 



l.ulu (', Bert 



('.Ma li. Kaiulall 
Mary Mason 



M:ir\ .1. I ,.uli,i 



EXHIBITION OF THE CHICAGO CERAMIC ART ASSOCIATION 



bravely, and had the earnest thanks of local nieinhers for in »Spanish fij^nres; also a daintx lea scl. 

interest shown at much personal inconvenience. The most .^ratifyinj; ihiui; to the Cliili is tiie i;ii-al im- 

Mrs. Finucane, of Nunda, showed two lari^e cylinder proxenient shown in almost all iii I he ditTereiit exhibits 

vases; one in evening landscape, the other hollyhocks of over the exliil)ition of two \ears ai^o. I'hen se\eral mem 

soft pink, with j^rey 1)ackj.;Tound. A Helleek bowl in con- bers shone conspicuous by their superit>rit\ ; in this latest 

ventional lotus bud border, and several plates made an in- showin,-;. the general excellence oi all is so marked that it 

teresting exhibit. Ut places the Clul) in llie fmiit rank of .ill Tlie work ol th.e 

Miss Carrie Williams, of Dimkirk, had one of the bt'st Club tiie past two years has tended to this end, as each 

things of the whole exhil)it, in a panel representing "The meeting has had its "nemonstratit^u" 1)\ some t>!ie oi the 

guests are gone" from bongfellow's "'i'lie Hanging of the iiu'ml)eis; she ,L;i\inj; a piaclical lesson \\ ith bi u-^h ami paint. 

Crane." She also showed a set of \t'r\' beautiful dinner teacliiiiL; to the otheis some specialt\ W'eie a prize Inin- 

plates. "^■' t" ''^' awaided to the Club that dwelK toi^ether in per- 

Mrs. Pixley, of Medina, had a very i)rettv salad set, fi'cl amil\, 1 am sine tlu' b S M P wouKl l>e entitled 

and Mrs. Wallis, of Niagara (''alls, showed a tankard painted to llu' iH-nnant. C C 1' 



84 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



CHICAGO CERAMIC ART ASSOCIATION 

THE sixteenth annual exhibition of the Chicago Cer- 
amic Art Association was held at the Art Institute, 
Chicago, from April 28th to June 7. Works accepted by the 
juries and exhibited at the Art Institute, Chicago, always 
have approved merit and this year the pieces accepted for 
the Chicago Ceramic Art Association Exhibit are so numer- 
ous and so good that it is hard to single .out pieces for il- 
lustration. As usual examples of two styles of decoration 
are shown. One for the decoration of sets and one for 
single pieces for decorative purposes only. 

The work of Mrs. Evelyn B. Beachey shows origin- 
ality and strength both in design and color. A coffee pot 
in lively green and blue is very attractive. The design and 
color would be particularly appropriate for the decoration 
of a set to use on the green willow porch table. 

An oatmeal set shows a thoroughly successful use of 
bright rich red, the direct design being happily adapted to 
the pitcher, deep dish and plate, and would make a cheery 
little set for one's morning cereal. Among other things 
shown by her are a jardiniere, coffee set, and some plates 
decorated in Japanese style are unusual and good. 

A beautiful colonial style tea set and plate very dainty 
in color is shown by Miss M. Ellen Iglehart, who also exhibits 
two most successful decorative pieces. One a jardiniere of 
strong design, rich color and sturdy build, the other a lovely 
vase which rears its stately height in perfect harmony with 
its decorative details. On the warm but delicately sug- 
gestive background shows forth a conventional larkspur, 
its sturdy basic growth suggested by the almost geometric 
forms in the base of the design. No band above or touch 
mars the feeling of the flower's head rising, as in nature, in 
the limitless spaces of warm light and air to which is due 
its creation of beauty. A flower's strength is due mainly to 
the soil, its beauty to the zephyrs and glow from above. 
This is beautifully suggested in the decoration of this lovely 
vase. 

Among the many beautiful pieces shown by Mrs. Ber- 
gen is one particularly deserving of enthusiasm — a tall odd 
shaped vase showing a conventional spiderwort. This 
shape has probably never been more successfully decorated, 
the relation of the color mass with the white ground being 
exceedingly fine. The color scheme and also the use of 
this particular flower is good. A small satsuma vase is one 
of the few small pieces we see successfully decorated. The 
design is strong, well proportioned and lovely in color, 
while the plate and oblong platter showing a rose motif 
are among the best pieces shown. 

Mrs. Nellie A. Cross exhibits several pieces of Cross- 
ware consisting of some pleasing little pottery tiles, vases, 
bowls and a most refined green pottery fern dish. A plain 
undecorated form should always be a refined form, a gra- 
cious direct form, and this unpretentious fernery comes well 
within the requirements. 

Mrs. Cora A. Randall has some well designed pieces, 
among them a chop plate and oat meal set in pleasing color; 
also a sugar bowl and cream pitcher with an interesting 
pattern and green and gold which holds well together. 
These with a small jar richly decorated in green and blue 
are good exhibition pieces. 

A good plain practical dinner service is suggested by a 
well executed chop plate, by Mrs. Mary J. Coulter, in the 
much prized green and gold. A broad low bowl in dainty 
color which shows the utmost simplicity in the design is 
most commendable, as are several other pieces which show 
excellence in design, workmanship and color. 



A sturdy lemonade set by Mrs. lone Wheeler attracts 
merited attention. The difficulties met with when the 
design must be carried out both on a heavy set rounding 
surface like the jug and a tall straight narrow one like the 
cups are here well overcome and the result is a most inter- 
esting decoration subtly suggesting the use of the set. 

In the oblong platters and round plates, parts of sets 
shown in this exhibition, we see the results of the ever diffi- 
cult problem of the adaptation of a design to the round and 
the oblong. 

In the examples shown by Miss Mary Mason very 
pleasing results are shown and the coloring should be ex- 
cellent on the table; a bread and milk set also shows good 
design and is full of snap in its thoroughly conventional use 
of flower and stems. 

Miss May Brunemeyer also shows a design adapted to 
the round and oblong. It is a curious but clever use of 
gold and incidental color. A stately set this for a rich 
dinner or for special service. Among other pieces of her 
work may be mentioned an oatmeal set that has an old 
timey quaint atmosphere with its suggestions of colonial 
buff and staid basket medallions. 

Miss Eleanor Stewart is represented by a chop plate 
in a Japanese motif and a platter showing a fine use of large 
flowers in close relation in several tones of blue. 

Miss Helen M. Haines shows a plate with an interest- 
ing pattern of interlacing strap work, a good design for a 
set for special service, as a salad set. 

Miss Hilga Peterson has several pieces admirable in 
design and execution, among them a cunning little almond 
dish which, though small, deserves special attention, the 
design so well recognizes the constructive element. 

Miss Clarice I. Colson shows some pottery of good form 
and color ; one interesting piece is a blue and green toned 
jar with crackled surface. 

If we could only see the pieces exhibited here and in 
the exhibitions of other clubs with the proper surround- 
ings and suggestively placed, how greatly it would add to 
oiir pleasure in seeing them. 

Mary H. Farrington. 

MOTHER-OF-PEARL WORKERS OF BETHLEHEM 

The chief industry of Bethlehem in Judea is that of 
the mother-of-pearl workers. The shells are brought 
from the Red sea, and in the hands of native artisans are 
polished and carved, the larger into elaborate designs; 
the smaller are cut up for rosaries and crosses. 

The work is all done by hand, and the methods are 
amazingly primitive to a spectator from the home of 
steam and electric power. But the results are extra- 
ordinary. 

The largest shell we saw was carved in scenes from 
the birth of Christ, the Agony in the Garden and the 
Crucifixion, and had the general effect of delicate frost work. 
Under the magnifying glass every detail was seen to be 
perfect in outline and in finish. It was executed to order 
for a wealthy American, and was to cost $160. 

About 150 people make a living by this industry, 
which is 500 years old. In the shops the workmen sit 
upon the floor, their benches in front of them; the air is 
full of whitish dust, and the light, admitted by the single 
window and open door, so dim that the exquisit tracery of 
the wrought shells is a mystery even before the visitor 
notes how few, simple and crude are the instruments em- 
ployed. — Lippincotts. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



85 




(Treatment page 89) 



MAPLE LEAVES— MARIAM L. CANDLER 



86 



tiERAMlC STUDIO 




SKETCH FOR BONBON 



DESIGN FOR THE DECORATION OF CHINA 



FIFTH PAPER 



Caroline Hojman 



OF our craft itself, the actual work of the hand, we have 
thus far said very little; but execution is so closely 
related to design that we cannot consider this to be the least 
interesting side of the question to the practical china-painter. 

Is it not true that the floral, realistic decoration can 
be done so quickly, — we could decorate so many pieces of 
china in a given length of time, — that we, perhaps, hesitate 
before the question of abstract ("conventional") design, 
thinking it to be slower work? 

May we not say, frankly, we are many of us dependent 
upon our work, and we feel that we must do that which will 
repay us? Let us look again at some of the designs illus- 
trating these articles. They do not look, many of them, 
as though they had been tedious for the designers to do, do 
they? The little dessert-plate with the present article, for 
instance, never was designed on paper or on anything else, 
except the plate itself. 

It was brushed in at the end of a day's work, (and a 
hot summer day, at that,) with some colors that were left 
on a palette. A scrap of carnation; a little apple green and 
blue green rubbed together, some banding blue with a 
touch of the old fashioned "deep purple," and the color 
scheme was conposed; done flatly on the clear white of the 
china. 

A careful outline drawing of fall anemones, taken al- 
most at random from, a portfolio, and the motive was at 
hand. Thus the actual decorating of the piece was done 
very quickly, and was much fresher and simpler for having 
been done so. What lay back of it was a sense of decorative 
treatment, eyes trained to judge proportion and spaces, and 
a hand that could draw a fairly crisp curve quickly. 

But this piece is only one of many which I have seen, 
that were brushed in by some one who had studied and 
thought, and who knew how. 

Now anyone of us may acquire this training, just as 
we acquired the training in naturalistic flower decoration; 
and thoce who have done the best work in the realistic 
painting ought to do the best in abstract decoration, be- 



cause appreciation of form and line and color are the de- 
signer's best possessions. 

Let us not suppose for a moment that an abstract 
treatment of flowers ever means the distortion of nature. 
It means a synthesis of nature; a simplifying and inter- 
preting, a seizing of the whole charm and character, and 
adding to that a human inventiveness. 

Let us look at the designs our articles have been dis- 
cussing; we do not see any distortion or clumsiness in them. 
Neither is Nature, nor design, more beautiful ; they are 
different; and yet we find design in all nature, and can trace 
nature in all design. 

When we, as students, (and I am talking only to stu- 
dents,) have practised and thought enough to give a beau- 
tiful abstract interpretation of nature; when we recognize 
the wonderful design in all her forms and phazes, then we- 
shall find it comes easily to our imagination and can be done 
quickly by our fingers. It is this result we are looking for 
when we keep repeating : appreciate. For nature has spring 
and life in every line, and we must not force "design" into 
lank forms and lackadaisical curves, nor yet into shapes 
suggestive of building-blocks. Compare any design about 
which you have doubts with some good Gothic, Japanese 
or early Florentine pattern, and see whether it seems to 
you to have the right spirit of decoration. Why not use 
some such "touchstones" as those mentioned in the last 
chapter upon every design before you accept it as good ? 

Practise, whenever you have a scrap of time, designing 
decoration on small porcelain articles, with a brush full of 
mineral color. For our first experiments just some black, 
or dark grey, will do; it is cheap and plentiful, and can be 
wiped off if the design is unsatisfactory, while, if it pleases 
you, you can fire it in, and then put a tone of some soft, 
clear color over the whole piece. 

You may not care much for the first few pieces you do 
in this way, but you will find that you are learning space- 
art rapidly, and your later work will be more satisfactory 
in consequence. 

Don't understand me to be recommending this method, 
— i. e. making your designs right on the china, for all our 
work. 

Design is a matter for care and patience and exactness, 
as well as for careful handling of colors. We all know from 




SKETCH FOR CUP 



IIERAMIC STUDIO 



87 




'riic ilcsijiii ilseir is of coiiisi' rcpi'ad'd ainuiKl I In- |ila(i' 



» 



experience that no handiwork is tnore exactin*;- than china All <;oo(l art is (he natural utterance ol" it^ own people 

painting, and in none does lixhiiique have more weight and in its own da>'s. Ri(ski)i. 

importance. 

But an artist makes sketches as well as studies and 
hnished paintings. These arc our sketches in design, and C.ood ait al\\a\s consists ol' two ilungs: liist {\w 

will train us better for our elaborate work the inori' \\r obsnxation of fact; second! \. ilu' uianilVsting ol" luuuaii 

make of them, in an earnest thoughtrul wa>'. di-sign and authoritx in tiir \\.i\ tlu- tact is toKi, tueiU 

h^or cjuick decoration of pieces for sale tlu'\- ari' usnall\ and good art must uuiir itir two; it camiot cxisl for a mo- 
very successful, presenting, as tlu'N- do, a i-iTlain fii-slnu'ss miMit but in their unit\ ; it consists o\ the two as essentially 
and individuality, just as all sketches do. as water consists of t)\ygen and hxdiogeu 01 marhle of lime 
(to niC coNTlNi'ivi)) and carbonic acid. Ixuskin. 



88 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




PLATE IN GREY BLUES— OREON PAGE WILSON 



HOLLYHOCKS (Supplement) 

Paul Putzki 

THESE flowers come in a great variety of colors and are 
well adapted for tall vases or panels. Treat the ac- 
companying study in the following manner: 

For the white blossoms use Putzki 's Grey with a touch 
of Light Violet for the shadows, leaving the high lights 
white, but here and there toned with Carmine. The center 
should be laid in with Albert Yellow and Yellow Green to 
get the depth. Lay in the darker blossoms with Dark Car- 
mine shaded to Ruby Purple, treating the center the same 
as in the white flowers. 

Paint some of the leaves with Dark Green blended to 
yellowish green and shaded with Brown Green. The yellow- 
ish green is gotten by mixing four-fifths of Dark Green and 
one-fifth Canary Yellow. 



Use the same colors in painting the background. 

WATER COLOR TREATMENT 

The same study of hollyhocks is painted in water colors 
in the following manner : 

In the white blossoms use Payne's Grey for the shadows, 
leaving the high lights showing the white of the paper, get- 
ting here again the pink effect in Rose Madder. Put in 
the center with Gambodge and Sap Green, shaded with 
Olive Green. Paint the dark flowers with Carmine shaded 
with Burnt Carmine and the center the same as the white. 

Mix Cobalt Blue and Sap Green for some of the leaves, 
shading with Olive Green and a touch of Prussian Blue. 
Get other leaves with Sap Green with a touch of Gambodge 
shaded with Olive Green. The best effects in background 
can be obtained by using many of these same colors. 




AUGUST I90a 

SUPPLEMENT TO 

KERAMIC STUDIO 



HOLLYHOCKS — PAUL PUTZKI 



copvmoMi iBOH 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB CO. 

SYRACUSE. N. Y. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



89 



BORDER DESIGN IN GREYS— E. CHADEAYNE 



SNAP DRAGON 

Maud E. Hulhert 

LEMON Yellow is a good color for the snap 
dragons, shaded with Warm Grey and in 
the buds with Brown Green used very thin, some 
Yellow Ochre may be used in painting the blos- 
soms. The leaves are quite a grey green. Use 
Yellow Green, Shading and Brown Greens. The 
ground, if it is to be kept light, might be Old Blue 
and Copenhagen Grey or if a strong ground is re- 
quired, Shading Green and Copenhagen Grey. 

if ^ 

CHERRIES (Page 75) 

Maud E. Hulbert 

A GOOD palette for the cherries would be Car- 
nation No. I, Blood Red, Pompadour, 
Violet of Iron, Brunswick Black and Deep Blue 
Green. For the stems Finishing Brown and for 
the leaves Yellow Green and Shading Green, Moss 
and Brown Greens. In the background Copen- 
hagen Grey and Violet of Iron. 

MAPLE LEAF DESIGN ON TANKARD (Page 85) 

Mariam L. Candler 

THIS study may be treated in the Autumn 
tints, using the following colors: Model 
the upper and promient leaves with Brown Green 
and Yellow Brown, using for the lighter tones 
Yellow Green and a touch of Deep Red Brown. 
In the lower foliage, model with rich tones of reds, 
yellows and browns, the background partaking of 
the same tones as the leaves, the upper part being 
Ivory and gradually flushing into the rich red 
brown tones. Model the seedlings with Brown 
Green and Yellow Brown. This study may also 
be treated very effectively by using Grey Green 
for the background and the following colors for 
the foliage: Model the leaves and seedlings with 
tones of green. For the prominent leaves use 
Brown Green, Yellow Brown, using Yellow Green 
for the lighter tones, and Royal Green with a little 
Black for the darker foliage. Maple seedlings 
borders in (ireens. 





SNAP DRAGON MAUD H. HULBERT 



90 



RERAMIC STUDIO 










VERBENA— IDA M. FERRIS 



(Treatment page 77) 



THE CRAFTS 

Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 2j2 East 2jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 





Mr. Gardiner 



Miss CuUen 
Miss C. Jones 
Miss Tliompson 



Miss Underwood 



Mr. Jolionnot 



Mr. JohoniiDt 
Mr. Gardiner 



Mr. Johonriot 




M(Ml,.le.l i...atli.T Sent, Mis« RukkIo.s. »c>i>k Cnvor. Mi«s .\. .1. Unry 

Cut Lentlior Hiik, MIhh Iliiisdiilo. 



HI. III! \Ik> l,.« khiiu W liiir \\»».l ria.\ MiN,- Walirliiiri 

CinMtl l!i>\ Mks Marli'.v 



WORK OF THE STUDENTS OF PRATT INSTITUTE. BROOKLYN 



92 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 




Piintecl Tc-xlile. 11. Uciiock 



Printed Textile. Mi.s.s McNeily 



Printed Textile. .Mi>. Gre^nwiikl 




rW^^r wlw W jEi/ mf w W w W ' 




Printed Textile. Miss B. Hadley 




Piinted Textile, M. Lyon 




Carved Wood Tra.v and Book Racks 
H. C. Jeffery 
Miss A. Bratea Miss Hinsdale Miss Harris 



-M^MMMm^^i 

i ^i »<?. »?< *?< <P?i »?. »^tT^ 




f # 4f^ ^k^ ^ ^f ^^f ^A?# 4i^ 

Printed Textile. Miss Broderick 




Printed Textile. Mrs. Hoff 




Printed Textile, G. Osburu 



WORK OF THE STUDENTS OF PRATT INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



93 




Oak Writing Table — Miss K. E. Maloney Scrap Basket — Miss E. Fitch 
Maliogany Table — Miss E. L. Long 




Etched Bowl — Mr. Gardiner Enameled Copper Buckle— Miss Sutherland 

Brass Cake Bowl — Miss Sutherland Etched Bowl — Mr. Lewis 



WORK OF THE STUDENTS OF PRATT INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN 



PRATT INSTITUTE EXHIBITION 

AT the annual exhibition of students' work of Pratt Insti- 
tute, Brooklyn, the Normal Art and Manual Training 
classes showed some very interesting work in the Applied 
Arts — basketry weaving, elementary and advanced work 
in wood, leather, hammered metal and bent iron. Special 
mention should be made of the scrap basket illustrated, 
made of oak, with brass panels, these were etched in a very 
delightful way and colored to harmonize with the wood. 
Also should be mentioned the book racks and blotter ends, 
etc, illustrated. There was not a great deal of leather work, 
but that exhibited showed improvement over the work of 
former years. 

The classes in Composition and General and Applied 
Design exhibited a great deal of thoughtful and varied work. 
There were schemes of decoration for stained glass, mosaics, 
interior decoration, and designs for posters, magazine and 
book covers, lamps, textiles, and furniture. But the designs 
for, and applied to textiles were the most delightful. There 
was such a right feeling for the proper spacing of a motive 
color and harmony. Some of those illustrated were printed 
with a wood block, others were stenciled, and occasionally 
some embroidery stitches were used to give more character. 
There were some charming covers for books shown also. 
Always one of the most attractive exhibits at the Institute 
is the work in the Metal Department. The hammered work 
in copper was particularly good, and beautiful in color, it 
all showed thought and splendid workmanship. 

The jewelry attracted much attention from professionals 
It seemed almost impossible to them that a student, not 
having any previous knowledge of the work could in llu- 
first year accomplish such creditable results. 

The work of Mr. Carl Johonnot was carried out in the 
true craftsman's spirit, it was simple and refined in design 
and beautifully wrought. His silver ladle was a iiiosl de- 
lightful bit of silversniilhing. Mr. Johonnot received the 
silver medal given by Albert M. Kohii, ji'weler, New York 
City, lo the most prorieieiil sUkUiiI in ihe ji'weh \ c-!;iss. 



Y. W. C. ART EXHIBITION 

THE art students of the Young Women's Christian 
Association held their annual exhibition Ma}' 20th, 
in the studios of the building 7 East 15th St., New York 
City. 

As is usual, the year's work of each student was arranged 
in groups showing the various branches of art they had 
studied, as design, modeling in clay, wood car\ang, drawing 
from the cast, historic ornament, mechanical drawing, char- 
coal and water color. 

In the pottery the hanging lanterns in intricate open- 
work design were good examples of patience and skill. 

A series of sun dials were very interesting; these were 
worked out geometrically according to latitude. There 
were several large pieces of wood carving. The oak chest 
illustrated was designed and executed by Miss L. Cooke, 
one of the first year students. A copy of an old gilt mirror 
frame was successfully reproduced by Miss K. Rath- 
bone. 

One of the most attractive exhibits was the four long 
curtains made by the students in the second year class under 
Miss H. M. Turner. These curtains were stencilled and 
printed in dull reds and greens, on fine white \-oille. The 
design and color scheme were taken from an old Indian 
hanging that had been given to the school !>>■ Mr. de 
Forrest. 

Special mention must be made of I he work in embroidery, 
for it was good in design and wtirkuianship. textile iiualily 
and harnioin- of color. The enibroilery bags ilhistrated 
were all ver\- charming, e\er\- detail had been so carel'iilly 
thought out. 

Till- handwoven linen beil spread, illustrateil. designeil 
and exiH-uted b\- Miss V. Hrainenl, was also ver\- beautifully 
worked with ;m underlay o( Russian linen. iMrst year 
seholarshiiis wne awarded to Miss j. Hosworth and Miss L. 
'I'ienken; lion. Mention, Miss M. I{. (lessner; J^eeonil year 
scholarship was awaided lo Miss R WiU it and Hon. Mention 
to Miss 1', Hiaiiuid. 



94 



CERAMIC STUDIO 




Sun Dial 





Bag designed and embroidered by Pauline Brainerd on greenisli blue linen, in heavy 
piiikish brown thread, with touches of orange, and outlined in black. The same 
color was used in the cord and tassels. 



EXHIBITION 

OF THE 

Y. W. C. A. 

NEW YORK 




Bag designed and embroidered by Edith Terrill on greenish blue linen, in pale i)ink and 
green silk outlined in dark blue green. The tassels were also made of the linen. 



Bag designed and embroidered by Gertrude Minicus on heavy pale yellow linen with 
darker yellow brown, dull olive green linen floss with black outline. These same 
colors were introduced in the cord and tassels. 





Scarf designed and embroidered by Edith Terrill on soft tan colored linen scrim with 
Scarf designed and embroidered by Pauline Brainerd on tan colored linen scrim, with twisted silk, in shades of dark blue green, very light blue green, and grayish pink, 

twisted silk in blue green, and light yellow green. the background was darned in orange. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 





Cushion cover designed and embroidered by Olga Silverton on Russian crash with heavy Cushion cover designed and embroidered by Gertrude Minicus on Russian Crash with 
finished liTien floss: tlie light spots in the design were pale lilue green outlined in black. filoselle in sliades of yellow green, soft brown with an outline of blacli. 




Hand woven Linen Bed Spread with an underlay design of Roman crasli, designed and eNecule<l liy Miss K. Demorost 




Carved Wood Hellows designed iiiid cxeculcd by Miss I'\ Scouiird 





Oid^ Miicu (Micsi i-iiivc'c! Ii\ Miss I'.. r\M(;gs 



EXHIBITION 

OF THE 

Y. W. C. A. 

NEW YORK 



liiii; drsiiMiiMl Mild iiul.r.iidiTed li\ OltfH SllvorlOII oti dlirk till) IhUMl III IIkIiI .Vi'llow IllH-ll 

ll.is- \Mili loui Ins 111 blinU. piilr Kifi'ii iHul pull' oninciv 



96 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



VIENNA CHINA 




Vase. No. 111-681, 13 in. 
Bonbon. No. 1 Kutli, 4i in. 
Wiiisliy Jug, No. 1052, Hi in. 



IN WHITE 

FOR DECORATING 

Fires perfectly. Exquisite shapes. Low priced. 
Sold by the leading merchants throughout the U.S. 

Have you our white china catalogue? 

BAWO & DOTTER 

MANUFACTURERS— IMPORTERS 

26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 



Special Notice i^ 



ina decorators 



throughout the country: 



We wish to call your attention to the special net bargain sheet 
which we issue every month ; prices of which are only good during 
the month of issue. Items which we have an extra large stock of 
we place on bargain sheet, and are all of exceptional value. Drop 
us a postal each month if you wish one, and you will be more 
than well satisfied with the result. 




Samples taken from July sheet 





G2102 Hd. Bonbon 7", 21c ea. G1714 Cream 15c ea. G1713 Sugar 32c ea. 

W. A* Maurer, - Council Bluffs, lo'wa 

Established 1880 

Agent for Revelation Kilns 



The SCHOOL ARTS BOOK 



Volume VII. complete with the June 
number, contains 950 pages of text and 
illustration, treating all branches of 
public school drawing and manual arts. 

More than fifty men and women, super- 
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things they talk about, have furnished 
this material. 

New, practical, usable, inspiring — these 
pages have helped more teachers of 
drawing than any other single publica- 
tion. 



And it has cost but SI. 50— ten num- 
bers, September to June. This great 
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Teachers who are not using the SCHOOL 
ARTS BOOK are missing one of the 
greatest helps of the day. 

"It is never too late to mend." Send 
$1.50 NOW. and secure this magazine 
for 1908-09, beginning September 1, 
which will be better than Volume Vll. 



Published by 

The Davis Press, - Worcester, Mass, 



InlU YOU FORGET TO SEND FOR PROSPECTUS OF THE SECOND ■ 
U ROSE BOOK? Keramic Studio Pub. Co.. Syracuae, N. Y. | 




•W«(«Wl««M|lL'ff*Mi«^ 



NEW 



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easier to work 
and cost less. Three dividers in set. 10c mail Ic. 

Remember Ihat Campana's 43 Colors at 13c each coDlains several times as much powder as an; 
10c color, and are heller qualily. 

D. M. CAMPANA, 112 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 



ATTENTION! 

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Showing all the new styles and shapes now arriving on import 
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Discounts to Teachers 

Erker Bros. Optical Co. 

St. Louis, Mo. 



China Decorators Choose 

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Ask especially for illustrated list of our New American Ware, 
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The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



The tnMre contents of this NUgasine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles most not be reprinted 'without special permission 



CONTENTS FOR SEPTEMBER 1908 



EditorJal 

National League of Mineral Painters 

Studies in Flesh Painting 

Edelweiss 

Butterfly Border 

Design for Porridge Bowl 

Apples 

Design for the Decoration of China — 6th papar 

Decorative Landscape 

Puff Box and Cover 

Comb and Brush Tray 

Strawberries 

Child's Bowl 

Scrub Pine Bowl 

Freezia 

''Spotting" as Motif in China Decoration 

Water Lily Plate 

Peaches 

The Crafts — Art in Pewter 

Answers to Correspondents 

Yellow Rose Spray (Supplement) 



L. Vance PhtlUpe 
A. Seiffert 
A. F, Dalrymple 
Carl F. Groncman 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Caroline Hofman 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Jessie Underwood 
Edith Alma Ross 
Martha Feller King 
Edith Alma Ross 
Sara Reid McLaughlin 
Jules Brateau 

Sara Wood Safford 




THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze and Color Tone. 



No. 2 8i?e 14x12 in $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16x19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts. 



Gaa Eila 2 eizes 



Cbarcoal KUn 4 sizee 



' No. 1 Size 10 X 12 in $15.00 

I No. 2 Size 16x12 in 20.00 

No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



b 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



PAGE 

97 

97 

98 

99 

lOI 

102 

103 

104 

106 

(06 

107 

108 

108 

108 

109 

no 

112 
(13 
((4 
((9 

J(9 



THE OLD RELIABLE HzEH FITCH KILNS 



The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 




o) 



Vol. X. No. 5 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



LSeptembCT, 1 90S 




to do - 

are not lul- 



T .'.ill not be long before the 

j"":r vacation will be past 

i ' .: studios open again for 

;r..:r'5 work. Have 3^011 

' ie the best of your oppor- 

vr.ities by gathering yourport- 

'>s full of material for the 

/rr/rr/: year? Have you seen 

r - urc in some new phase, and 

orded it? Are you planning 

rzrtt? There is still time, if you 

;>; a har^.'est. 



The first number of "Palette axd Bench", the new 
magazine for t'v: art student and crafts worker, will be 
issued September 15. This issue will contain: Color print. 
The Pe-Ater Jug, ' Wm, A. Chase; Class in oil painting: 
materials, etc., Charks C. Curran and Grace A. Curran; 
Class in water colors; materials, etc., Rhoda Holmes Xicholls; 
Cast Drawing, Fredk. C. Baker; Modeling, Charles J. Pike; 
Still Life Painting, Emil Carlsen; Illumination, Florence 
D. Gotthold; Miniature Painting. Wm, J. Baer; Japanese ar- 
rangement of Flowers, Mary Averill; Stendl, Xanc>- B?^yer; 
Finger Rings, Emilj^ F. Peacock. 



NATIONAL IZ- 



PAi:*TEP.S 



STUDY CoUiiSE fOJt i90&-X909. 

Problem i. Due October ist — ^Facts from flowers, 
&iapdragon Trumpet-Creeper or Poppy. 

Pro'>.^" 2. Due November ist — BeUeek vase No. 5617 
r ;' ' American china No. 5901. 

.r...-r.. J uc December ist — Chocolate Pot No. 

4528- 

Probkm 4- Due Januar>- ist — Ou ... : : rawing for a 
Jar that may or may not have cover and may be with or 
without handle. To be made of day not less than se\^en 
inches in Jjeight. 

Problem 5. Due February- ist— Powder Vjx No. S^So 
or Japanese almond bowl No, 5890. 

Problem 6. Due ilarch ist. The Cross Jio r \ .//.]. 

To obtain the best results it is ne cessar) 10 r.a .e all 
the im]^ements required for the work. We thiB suj^est 
iTCinilla paper, soft and hard pencils, compass, transparent 
triangle, rules, sharp knife, tracing pap<-r ^ ^>fi and hard 
eraser, thumb tacks and drawing board 

One design can be submitted for each proJykra, exe- 
cuted on paper in dear distinct pencil lines, as only this 
medium gives Miss B. Bennett an oppOTtunity to make 
any corrections. Address aU papers for criticism to the 
President of the League M^- \\"11i^Tn r-.rr'::-ion iiJ2 
Perr\- Ax-e., Chicago, lU. 

In Problem i. Facts from Flowers, draw ^Ji-i cart Liit 
upright and cross section erf leaf, bud, stem and root. In 
the poppy, the stem with its sjJendid examjrfe of the curve 
of force and the petiokr of the leaf will admit of careful 
study. The richly cok>red raceme of the snap dragon with 
its personated corolla. Do not k-t escape, unobserved. 



the bee throne with its wonderful construction and the vai- 
usual seed pod of the Trumpet Creeper. 

Problem 2 is to be decorated in geometrical design and 
conventional flower ornament 

The dec-oration of a piece like this which is used for 
decorative purpose only and is seen at various angles of 
vision and at ^-ar\-ing distances may be stronger in color 
and design than one would use for the decoration of a table 
piece or one which is always viewed from a certain posi- 
tion or distance. While it is not obligator)', it is suggested 
that in the decoration of this vase one of the flowers in 
Problem i be conventionalized and used for a motif combined 
with the geometrical design. This form suggests a decora- 
tion from the top or possibly the mass of decorative forms 
on that part. 

As a chocolate pot is but a part of a set the effect of 
repetition must be kept in mind, as the same design would 
be used for the tray, cups and saucers. Keep the design 
simple in color, and direct in form. 

In submitting outline drawing for Problem 4, if the 
idea is to make a design for a piece of china to be manu- 
factured for decoration one should consider the use and 
purpose for which it is designed, also whether it will require 
a one, two or three piece mould, as the difficulty of manufac- 
turing and the expense must be considered. But if it is Uj 
be made in pottery the shape must be the principal consider- 
ation. 

For Problem 5 the Jaj^nese almond dish was selected, 
not only for its usefulness as a receptacle, which always makes 
an article more salable, but it also offers a different problem 
from any given before in the League Study Course, the 
bowl calling for some decoration as well as the rim. A com- 
mercial line in the shape should always have some recogni- 
tion. 

The powder box may be used if preferred, this havin;: 
the two surfaces, the top of the box suir:- '-^ - an all -over 
or border design , and the box, which must •- same dec- 

oration as the top or the unit modified so as to adapt itself 
to the vertical surface. 

In Pr<^jlem 6 it is suggested that the design used for the 
decoration of the flower bowl which was made from the 
outline drawing in last year's study course *- .----.^.-' ^ 
monochrome on the finished pi*-'^ but th*- d- 
for criticism must be in pencil 

This year, as previous ^- ..,,,,. . 

Leagtie members on the n in th«-««^ 

problems. But any shapes that have trnxn used 
League may be decorated and sub"-"--' •'--' -^ 
pmposes this year, and it is hoped th 
of these that the size and imponanoe at 

be greatly increased, as many have 

for lack of linK- they were unabi*- »'» 

\ hook of the numbers . 
pnnted . ■ - 1 
League 
the League. 



of 



Majioak 



-r I' 



■ r- I att 4 Lr T 



100 .\udilorium BuiiduiK, c 



lU. 



98 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



STUDIES IN FLESH PAINTING 
DECORATIVE AND PICTORIAL 

L. Vance Phillips. 

THE study of flesh on porcelain is expected to result 
in a more finished, a more nearly perfect performance 
than the same study in pastels, water colors or oils. The 
value of the porcelain and the expense of the process, to- 
gether with the permanence of the result, makes this ob- 
vious dift'erence. The two first mentioned materials are 
inexpensive, the third of some value, but its repeated use 
is not only possible but of advantage. Sir Joshua Reynolds 
was wont to say to a customer, "There are, on the canvas 
before you, six paintings, some better and some worse 
than the one you now see." Therefore the porcelain 
student must at once face the fact of the permanent char- 
acter of his color when fired, and know that his rrtodel must 
be in a finished state before him. This model or drawing 
may, happily, be his own if he has had requisite training, 
taken in a school equipped for the purpose, and in an at- 
mosphere where study is pre eminent. 

The private studio is a place for individual study and 
for obtaining specific results, in distinction from the art 
school where training is the object, and the sole object. 
The trained student, therefore, as well as the untrained 
goes to the private studio to learn methods of expressing 
ideas, and to obtain specific results. The method being 
the point, the selection of a masterly drawing is a most 
desirable thing. 

To copy the drawing of the ceramic instructor at the 
studio selected, is of no more advantage to the student 
than to copy the drawing of an acknowledged master, the 
balance being usually in favor of the master. 

When technical skill and familiarity with color have 
been acquired, the student, who has ideas and who can 
draw, should, in some material that admits of correction, 
produce his own composition in a perfected state, and 
from that study reproduce on the porcelain that which 
will endure. This is the ideal. 

Decorative Treatment of A Figure. 

The figure reproduced from a painting by A. Seiftert 
would be effective painted on a slender panel or adapted 
to a tall vase with straight or simple lines. 

Painted in monochrome, for a student of limited ex- 
perience, this study would be charming. By employing 
three colors, a study in browns or a study in gray blues 
could be produced with fine eft'ect. A figure placed well 
up on a vase gains in dignity and importance. Draw or 
trace the figure in lightly, after which secure the drawing 
with delicate touches of India ink. Paint the figure before 
laying in the background, which should, if possible, be done 
while the flesh and drapery are still moist, the whole being 
accomplished in a single sitting. The rocky background 
should be painted in quite simply, yet vigorously, leaving 
free brush strokes and obtaining, as perfectly as possible, 
a sense of rock form. In eft'ect, have the background dark 
at the top, grading . through medium tones in the center, 
and fading to almost white at the bottom. 

In subsequent firings paint the background in a flat 
graduated wash from dark to light beginning at the top. 
This will leave the brush strokes of the first painting slightly 
obscured or buried, yet retaining the character given. If 
in the first painting of the rocky background a wholly 
satisfactory effect has not been obtained it is quite admis- 
sible to repaint for a second fire before laying the flat wash. 



which would in this case be done for the third fire, yet it 
is always desirable to secure the background eft'ect in a 
first vigorous, characteristic free treatment. 

A brown scheme having been selected, paint the figure 
and background throughout with Meissen Brown, de- 
creasing the color toward the lower part of the figure, in 
order to harmonize with the background scheme. This 
will give strength in color and contrast the top with the 
delicacy and mystery of the lower portion. After this 
first painting has been completed some three or four or 
more hours, according to kind and amount of oil used, 
and when not quite hard dry, but just beyond the "tacky" 
condition Meissen Brown in powder may be rubbed in 
with cotton. This will soften and deepen the tones, yet 
leave the brush strokes, and should be used only on the 
background in this painting. This rubbing in of color 
will be most effective if the background is painted a few 
inches each side of the figure, and from that point melted 
into an even tint at the back, grading from dark down 
to light with merely oil at the very bottom. Use a silk 
dabber to obtain an even surface, discontinuing its use 
in approaching the painting each side of the figure, yet 
melting the two at a desirable distance from the figure. 
In rubbing in the powder fade it gently, losing a sense of 
color about one-third of the distance from the bottom of 
the vase. To give variety of tone in the third or fourth 
fire, apply special tinting oil evenly. Into the center rub 
Meissen Brown and Pearl Gray, two to one, fading this 
down into Pearl Gray and Yellow Ochre, two to one, if a 
soft brilliance is desired or Pearl Gray alone if a low key 
is personally more pleasing. From the center up graduate 
the color into Meissen Brown alone, and finally into Meissen 
Brown and Finishing Brown, tw^o to one. 

In the final fire, or in any fire after the drapery and 
feet are sufficiently modeled (which result can easily be 
secured in two fires). Pearl Gray or Yellow Ochre can 
be tinted up one-third of the surface and from there 
faded into a thin wash of oil, covering that part of the 
figure included in this section and producing a misty half 
buried effect. This treatment will lend value to the more 
vigorous painting of the face and shoulders. 

The upper portion of the figure will require three 
paintings to insure depth of tone and secure satisfactory 
modeling, at the same time preserving transparency of 
tone, in itself always a reason for repeated fires. 

In painting the flesh use an open oil, after washing in 
the general values with a square shader, and further model- 
ing with a pointed brush, the strokes may be softened by 
the deft use of a slant stippler. Keep all edges soft and 
in painting the features realize that the full depth of color 
is not required in the first fire. Holding this thought, a 
hard and labored eft'ect is avoided and transparency is 
courted if not actually won. 

Using a square shader and taking advantage of its 
breadth for washes and its square comer for accents, paint 
the drapery broadly, simply, and crisply with constant 
attention and due consideration of the form beneath. 
In the third painting Finishing Brown may, if desired, be 
added to the Meissen Brown in painting the hair, which 
should in value relate to the background. In the first 
painting of the flesh and drapery endeavor to see three 
values, light, medium and dark. In later paintings seek 
to get the subtle variations which will come quite natur- 
ally after the drawing and general tone masses are estab- 
lished. 

In order to lay in the vase for a 'first fire in a single 



ki:ramic studio 



99 




t 
I 



EDELWEISS— A. SEIFFERT 



lOO 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



sitting, the figure and drapery should be painted deh- 
cately, holding the drawing definitely yet with little detail 
and very little modeling. While still moist, thoroughly 
and thoughtfully paint in the background. 

A rapid vet correct rendering of this subject is made 
possible onlv bv studying all parts of the figure, both ex- 
posed and concealed, before attempting the drawing. 
Continue this study while carefully noting with delicate 
line all the important and vital points in both drapery 
and figures. Refer to the study while fixing the drawing 
with India ink. Endeavor to make this line so delicate 
that it will be scarcely stronger than the tracing secured 
by the use of graphite paper. 

A delicate drawing, through unconscious sympathy, 
results in a delicate rendering of the subject in color. A 
heaw, careless drawing, not only invites a similar handling 
of color, but almost invariably results in unexpected amounts 
of color clinging to the heavy touches of ink. This serious 
defect will probably be unobser^^ed until after the fire, 
hence this added caution as to a careful beginning. 

Decorative Treatment in Gray Blue. 

This figure ma}' be treated in grays and blues. A 
good selection being Pearl Gray, Gray for Flesh and 
Copenhagen Blue. 

Accomplish the modeling of the figure with two parts 
Gray for Flesh and one part Copenhagen Blue. Use this 
combination at the top of the vase, shading down through 
Copenhagen Blue into Pearl Gray at the bottom. Later 
Pearl Gray may be painted over the lower part of the figure 
as previously described and with equally good effect. In 
one of the later paintings, perhaps the very last, this vase 
should have an entire dusted ground. If little color is 
secured in one treatment give another in the same manner 
that the result may be a burying of the figure in a gray 
mist. For this use special tinting oil for thin dusted 
grounds, coloring it a little with Gray for Flesh. Lay 
evenly with a broad grounding brush, covering the entire 
surface Avith a generous amount, that it may flow and settle 
with a degree of evenness. After a few minutes pad with 
a silk dabber, using three or four different ones to absorb 
the excess of oil, which excess was necessary for the given 
reason. The moderate amount of oil remaining should 
be "tacky" — nearly dry — in four or five hours in a warm 
room, and may be in this condition over night if kept in a 
cool closed place. It is now ready for the rubbing in of 
dry color. The evenness of the color will depend somewhat 
upon the clearness of the application of the powder — the 
ability to skillfully pass from one color to another, but 
\vill depend far more upon the evenness of the padding of 
the oil which should be accomplished by a swift overlap- 
ping movement of the pad, using the same strength of 
touch continually and lifting the pad but a short distance 
from the surface that you may secure evenness of touch. 
Carry the pad gradually from top to bottom and bottom 
to top, also the movement may circle the vase. This 
preparation may require 20 or 30 minutes of intelligent 
application and the perfection of the process will only be 
absolutely known when the powder is applied. Of this 
h?ve a gercrous amount. Begin at the bottom with a 
large quantity of Pearl Gray on either cotton or wool, 
rubbing gently and using color generously, using all the 
oil will take and carrying the color just beyond the center 
where it is faded at the final point to a small amount. In 
fact a gradual lessening of color to a final vanishing point. 
Begin anew with a moderate amoimt of Copenhagen Blue, 



starting at the center, where the gray is thin, and working 
softly down, going entirely around the vase, using the cotton 
or wool more softly as the color decreases, until the blue 
is wholly lost in the gray. Recharge the cotton moder- 
ately as needed and each time begin at center and fade 
down securing evenness in this way. After this begin at 
the center with plenty of blue and fade upwards, decreas- 
ing the color until lost just below the top of vase. With 
well charged cotton bring the dark color (Copenhagen 
and Gray for Flesh) from the top fading with skill into the 
blue. A slight suggestion of this gray may be over the 
head if the color seems to end naturally there. However, 
apply the color regardless of figure, after having settled 
upon general places of joining the different tones. 

This process is the enveloping of a figure in a film of 
color and admits of infinite variety in treatment. It may 
be used over a figure painted in warm tones provided the 
colors have a gold base and so can live in the fire even 
under grays and blues. Meissen Brown and Ruby, ground 
thoroughly, form a good combination resisting well the 
eating qualities of blues and grays. Should this mixture 
have a tendency to grain in modeling the figure add a little 
Dresden thick oil to the usual medium, the heavy oil 
counteracting the tendency of mineral particles to gather 
in groups. 

The regular flesh palette may be used in a vase treat- 
ment and a full color scheme developed. The suggested 
treatments, however, will be more decorative and satis- 
fying on a vase since the result is an almost flat effect, 
the envelope of color producing an underglaze effect. 

GENERAL HINTS FOR BRUSH WORK 

Xot all ceramic workers know the true or entire value 
of a large square shader. 

In charging have in it just enough oil to prevent the 
separation of the hairs. The oil is effective for this pur- 
pose near the quill rather than below. The end of the 
brush should carry turpentine more freeh" than oil. Colors, 
being mixed with oil, need more turpentine than oil for 
actual brush work (not the laying of backgrounds) for 
the securing of a crisp touch. By the over free use of oil 
the fresh crisp touch melts ver\' soon, the spirited effect 
vanishes and dust attaches itself readily to the surface. 
The square shader used broadly gives one effect while by 
slightly lifting one comer, the other gives a small touch 
quite as effective as could be given with a pointed shader. 
By charging one side with heavy and the other with ,thin 
color, either the same color or different colors, a fine effect 
can be secured for a band or border, a rose petal, a fold of 
drapery, or the blocking in of an arm. It often happens 
that the first simple free brush strokes laid in the lighter 
portions of the composition for the first painting could 
be wisely kept as the keynote, never repainted, 3'et possi- 
bly washed over with a flat tint, to give color quality or 
tone value. 

In order to lav in a piece at a single sitting, acquire 
the habit of planning to paint some one part thoroughly, 
other parts with merely a wash, and still others by merely 
a broad massing of the deepest shadows. Continue with 
each painting to select a different part to which to give 
chief attention. In the final fire all will come together 
as a complete whole, and be accomplished not only in a 
short time but in a masterly manner. This method should 
prevent a tendency towards that petty overworked and 
labored style which is acquired by consciously, diligently 
and thoroughly painting ever}' part for every fire. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



lOI 




BUTTERFLY BORDER— A. F. DALRYMPLE 

In grt't'ii ;iii(l violet willi gold edge. nackgrouud ol l)oi(K'r, yellow with hl.iek outlines. 



I02 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




DESIGN FOR PORRIDGE BOWL IN IVORY, YELLOW BROWN LUSTRE AND GOLD— CARL F. GRONEMAN 



APPLES 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

COLORS — Copenhagen Grey, Copenhagen Blue, Olive 
Green, Dark Green, Moss Green J, Violet of Iron, Hair 
Brown (or a similar Brown), Pompadour Red. 

If the study is used as a, pan el make the background a 
soft Olive Green, flat. If used on a cider pitcher shade the 
background from Olive Green at the top to Brown Green and 
Dark Green at the base; flushing Violet of Iron over when 
the fruit is massed. Mix the Copenhagen Grey and Blue to 



a soft Blue Grey for the under side of leaves and for the ex- 
treme light on the apples. Model the apples with Olive 
Green and Violet of Iron. Make the little blossom end of 
Dark Brown. Use Copenhagen (mixture) for the lights on 
the stem and model with Violet of Iron and Brown. Make 
one or two of the apples redder by shading when it is dark- 
est with Pompadour Red. 

Repeat and fire. If one understands "dusting", the 
red in the background may be rubbed on over the greens 
when nearly dry. The colors can be blended beautifully in 
this way. 



i^. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



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I04 



HERAMIC STUDIO 






DESIGN FOR THE DECORATION OF CHINA 



SIXTH PAPER 



Caroline Hojman 



THESE sketches of design, or experiments in design I 
might call them, are only adapted for use on very plain 
and simple shapes in china; it is such a waste of time to at- 
tempt good design on a piece whose shape is bad. Haven't 
we all seen shapes in china intended to be "decorated," 
(Heaven save the mark!) that were not only badly propor- 
tioned, but were distorted beside; unpleasant from every 
point of view? 

Proportion alone is a most important quality in a piece 
of china to be decorated, (or in any thing else, for that 
matter,) but there are so many more good shapes in the 
market now than there were a few years ago that we feel 
the time coming when the ugly ones will all be banished to 
the attic or thrown on the waste-heap. 

There has been such demand for good plain shapes, — 
owing to the earnest efforts of many of the ceramic clubs 
all over the country, that manufacturers have produced, 
and even sought for shapes modeled by well known china- 
painters. 

In selecting china to decorate we have to judge it by 
proportion first of all. If it is a piece which stands upright, 




TO ILLUSTRATE STUDY OF LINE AND PROPORTION 



like a pitcher, stein or tea-pot, we must first decide whether 
the height is well-proportioned to the width, and then care- 
fully consider the proportion of the handle. 

Is the handle too heavy for the apparent weight of the 
piece, or does it seem light and flimsy in proportion? 

The second question is that of line. Between the top 
and bottom of a piece of china you can plan the sides to 
curve in anyway you please. (Or rather the man who 
made the china could have done so.) Now curves are either 
pleasant or unpleasant, and our study of Nature gives us 
judgment as to what good curves are. Don't the various 
curves in the little outlines of teajars look as though they 
had just grown that way? It is a good test for any curve; 
does it look like something that Nature herself might do ? 

Just look at her wonderful curves in fruit, for instance, — 
melons, plums, all sorts of pods and seed vessels, — and look, 
too, at the way in which the stems spring out of the larger 
fruits. Every handle to a piece of china ought to give us 
that same sense of having grown there, — ought to look 
comfortable and natural. It is a pity to have to admit that 
handles of this sort are hard to find. That nature, never 
gives us either an exact circle nor a curve that is part of a 
circle, we soon discover by studying her. Even the moon 
isn't precisely round, and no artist would ever think of 
drawing the moon with compasses. 

Plates? Well, yes, plates must be round, though they 
never are, exactly. But our study of shape, when it comes 
to plates, is in the question of proportion, — a very impor- 
tant question it is. 

A plate with a rim too wide for the proportion of centre 
looks heavy and uninteresting; while too narrow a rim is 
apt to give the plate a trifling look. The angle, too, at 
which the rim stands in relation to the flat centre has to be 
carefully considered; and we find that a rather flat rim is 
usually better than one that has much slant. 

The depth of the plate, or "shoulder," as the groove 
between the rim and the bottom is called, also enters into 
our question. 

There are well-proportioned plates in the market, 
and very poor ones, so it behooves the decorator to dis- 
criminate wisely. When a designer is planning decoration 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



io5 




TO ILLUSTRATE STUDY OF LINE AND PROPORTION 



for a plate he tries to see in what variety of ways it may be 
treated. Aside from the dark and light spacing of the 
design itself you will soon find that you need not, at all, 
make your border design the full width of the rim. Often 
you can get very charming effects with quite a narrow band 
of "trimming" at the edge, with, perhaps, a line or two 
farther in. 

You will think of a great variety of ways in which a 
plate may be decorated, once your thoughts are set in that 
direction and your faculty for designing is aroused. 

Before closing this chapter I want to speak of one of 
the best possible ways of studying proportion and line, — 
and that is by modeling in clay. 

We need not go into the work elaborately, nor with 
any expectation of becoming potters ; but with a few pounds 



of pottery clay, (even a tool is not an absolute necessity) 
you can make experiments in line and proportion that Avill 
be a real delight, and will teach you more about them than 
you could gather in the same length of time by any other 
means. 

There is nothing difficult in the working of clay, — one 
soon learns to know when it is too stiff or too soft, and 
remembers to wrap it in wet clothes, or cover it tightly 
from the air in some way to keep it from drying when he 
is not working with it. The first efforts are likely to look 
somewhat childish, of course, but one gets what he aims 
for, — a study in proportion. 

Soon the worker needs no suggestion, but teaches him- 
self from his very love of form. 

(to be continued) 





SUGGESTIONS FOR "ALL OVER" PATTERNS FOR CERAMIC DECORATION 



>-m 



io6 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




PUFF BOX AND COVER-ALICE B. SHARRARD 



DECORATIVE LANDSCAPE- 
HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



TRAY AND PUFF BOX— CORNFLOWER DESIGN 

GROUND, opal lustre. Flowers, rich deep blue. Leaves, 
blue green. Center of flowers, black or gold. Outline, 
black or gold. Rim to edge of border, gold. In box bor- 
der use same colors, except in spaces where the leaf forms 
join — this can be same tint of flowers, or two washes of 
Gray Blue lustre. 



RilRAMlC STUDIO 



107 



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nEKAMIC STUDIO 




STRAWBERRIES— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



FOR the berries, paint for the first fire with Blood Red, the 
seed markings with darker color (mix Blood Red and 
Black) . The smaller berries are greenish — use Moss Green 
and tinge slightly with Deep Red Brown or Pompadour. Paint 
the leaves with Brown Green and Dark Green, leaving 
the lights to be glazed with Moss Green in second fire, touch the 



edges and around worm holes or irregular places with Sepia 
and Blood Red. Glaze the berries with Deep Red Brown or 
Pompadour. Use Blood Red, Yellow Brown, Dark Brown 
and Yellow Ochre in the Background, painting strongly 
around the lower parts with Blood Red and Dark Brown and 
shading gradually into Yellow Brown and Ochre. 




CHILD'S BOWL-MARIE CRILLEY. WILSON 
In grey browns and olive. 



SCRUB PINE BOWL— JESSIE UNDERWOOD 
In olive greens or browns. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



IC9 




FREEZIA EDITH ALMA ROSS 



no 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




Figure I. Suggestive page of "spottings' 



"SPOTTING" AS MOTIF IN CHINA DECORATION 

Martha Feller King , 

DOUBTLESS when children we often passed a rainy fore- 
noon with brush, inkpot and pad of soft paper, watching 
with interest the ever varying forms assumed by a blot of ink 
when the paper was folded across it and tightly squeezed. 
Let us consider briefly the suggestiveness of these forms 
as motifs for china decoration. 

First let us experiment by throwing blots on a few 
scrap pieces of paper and so obtain for ourselves the material 
with which we will work. A stiff glazed paper is the best, 
as the ink is not absorbed so quickly. Later we may 
substitute blots of water color for the ink, and so obtain sug- 
gestive color effects. 

Let us select as a motif for a plate design a spotting 
which appeals to our imagination. Perhaps A (Fig. i) 
will answer our purpose. We will outline the mass with 
straight lines, eliminating all slight irregularities of form 
(Fig. II). This gives us a unit with which to begin our work. 




Figure II. 




Figure III 



heramic studio 



1 1 1 





affip<ir"'r!~«)j 





A 



B 



D 



Figure IV 



Taking our Keramic Studio Plate Divider let us di- 
vide our plate into fourteen sections. The problem which 
now confronts us is the modifying of our motif so that it 
fits the space (Fig. III). 

A rectangular section of mirror, bound on three edges 
with passe-par-tout tape is a great help in this work. By 
holding the unbound edge on the radius of the circle we get a 
reflection of the unit showing us the next section as it 
would appear if drawn. This device saves many a tire- 
some erasure, as we get the effect of the mass spotting at 
once and can make necessary changes before going further. 

Let us study our work carefully at this stage. Do 
the lines break our space in a pleasing manner? Is the 
eye carried along the border in an easy manner with no " 
unpleasant jars? Is there a continuity of line which flows 
rhymically? If not, let us alter our work until these re- 
sults are obtained. 

We will now work for color massing. By working 
out two or three combinations we can readily decide which 
effect is best suited for our purpose. 



In A (Fig. IV) we can readily see that the white mass 
is too large; on the other hand, in B (Fig. IV) the white 
mass is not large enough to give the motif its proper sup- 
port. C (Fig. IV) corrects these faults but there is little 
relation existing between the border and inner circle. D 
(Fig. IV) breaks the inner circle to conform to. the shape 
of the motif, and as we see by the aid of our mirror, gives 
us a pleasing flow of line throughout. 

Now let us take a piece of paper and carefully sketch 
a half section of our plate design. The added line break- 
ing the white space between the units tends to hold the 
masses together and gives us a pleasing accent note. 

We now have a piece of work which expresses our 
individuality. It is surprising what growth we may make 
by devoting a half hour each day to the practice of this 
lesson. Let us fight the tendency to appropriate another's 
work to our needs, for by so doing we check our own growth, 
and have, at best, a "decoration" which does not decor- 
ate, for only by the expression of ourselves can wc create 
beauty. 




KiKurc \' 



I 12 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




WATER LILY PLATE— EDITH ALMA ROSS 



THIS semi-conventional design was prepared especially 
for the beginner in china painting. There are no 
straight lines or difficult geometrical figures which require 
a careful treatment. 

The background is a blue green tint and should not 
be too smooth, as such a tint lacks character; rather it should 
be darker in some places and lighter in others, which will 
give a vibration of color. 

The dark lines on the inside of the band are a dark 
green and the light lines are a very pale green or gold. 



The water lilies are painted in natural colors with 
greenish tints and shadows melting into yellows and orange 
for the centers with a touch only of bright red right in the 
heart of- the blossom. 

Another scheme for treatment would be to have the 
border tint a soft pink with the lines a maroon and the 
flowers white daintily shaded with pink. The centers 
would be green with yellow and crimson. 

A monochrome treatment in blues and greens is also 
good for this design. 







ih.,. 




'4 



PEACHES SARAH REID MCLAUGHLIN 



.?■ 



The crafts 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 2j2 East 2yth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 




Illus. 68. — Example of a pewter ewer in fig shape, made in complexed moulds. Designed and executed by J. Brateau. 



ART IN PEWTER 
TECHNICAL PART 

(continued) 



Jules Brateau 



GOLD, SILVER, NICKEL AND COPPER PLATING 

As it is necessary to please the taste of the purchaser, 
the pewterer must sometimes plate his work with gold, sil- 
ver, nickel or copper. Since the introduction of the 
galvanic process, the gilding of pewter has become quite 
general. It was not so before this useful discovery. But, 
nevertheless, there may be seen in the Cluny Museum, gilded 
pewter pieces dating from the sixteenth century. The altar 
vessels serving the Roman ritual, were of necessity so 
treated; because the rubrics demanded that the interior of 
the chalices and of the patens which covered them, should 
be faced with gold. In the rules of the guilds to which we 
have referred ("The History of Pewter"), special mention 
is made of gilding, and of the instances in which it was 
authorized. 

Gradually the rules came to be neglected, certain in- 
novations were tolerated, and finally a royal decree per- 
mitted the pewterers to gild their works according to their 
own pleasure. 

This gilding could be obtained only by the gold-leaf 
process, such as is still used upon wood. 

The pewter was first brightened by scratching with a 
cluster of metal wires firmly tied together; the brush being 
scrubbed in all directions over the surface to be gilded, and 
producing upon it an infinite number of fine lines. 

The piece having been slowly heated over a clear fire 
and preserved from finger-marks on the part prepared to 
be gilded, the gold-leaf was applied in double thickness. 



Then, placing the object on his knees, or on a cushion, 
and holding it in his left hand in a chamois skin, or paste- 
board, the gilder, with his right hand, applied the gold-leaf; 
using a burnisher made of a wolf's tooth, mounted upon a 
handle. Aided by the heated metal, and by dint of hard 
rubbing, he succeeded in making the gold adhere, and in 
giving the object a brilliant polish. 

According to the period, and in different workshops, 
gold-leaf was applied to the pewter object by means of 
various fixatives; such as gum, garlic, white of e.gg, etc. 
But at the present time we have advanced far beyond all 
these methods which are fortunatety replaced by electricity. 

A manufactory equipped with steam power, electrical 
appliances, and all the advantages of a modem plant, pos- 
sesses great facilities for rapid production . Such an es- 
tablishment is scarcely consistent with the primitive sim- 
plicity C)f the processes described in this article, but it is 
nevertheless true that the objects there produced, must 
pass through the phases above indicated, no smallest detail 
being omitted. 

Up to the present point of our article we have limited 
our consideration to cylindrical moulds, or to round trays 
requiring the indispensable use of the lathe. We have 
described the production of articles by such means. But 
without the service of the lathe there can be made an infinite 
quantity of pieces whose shapes are alone limited by the 
imagination of the artist. 

Of such the theoretical description would be long and 
the limits of our study do not allow further extension. 

VARIOUS OTHER METHODS OF WORKING IN PEWTER 

The processes which we have thus far described, are 
not the only ones applicable to pewter, which is easy to 
work, is of varying malleability, according to the alloy given 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



»i^ 




Illus. 63. — Beer set on tray, by J. Brateau. 

and would rank above all other metals, were it not that it 
lacks the single important quality of hardness. 

It is easy to weld, when the parts of an object are to be 
assembled. It may be trimmed, flattened, cut, stretched, 
melted, stamped, engraved, and chased. In a word, it is 
susceptible to all treatments to which metals may be sub- 
jected. 

We have stated that sculptors sometimes have their 
works reproduced in small, in this material. Such repro- 
ductions are obtained by a process quite dififerent from the 
one which we have described. 




lUus. 65. — Pewter statuette by Jules Desbois, sculptor. Hade 
in sand mold. 



To obtain a statuette it is sufficient to give a good 
plaster model to the founder, who makes a sand-mould of 
the object, and then proceeds as if he were casting in bronze; 
simply pouring molten pewter, instead of copper into his 
hollow moulds. 

The figure is cast in separate parts, trunk, arms, and 





Ulus. 01. —I'owU'r mask executed 111 naturiil .size by .hilcs li<s 
bois.sculptor. Mad(! in saiul mold. 



llliis. Oii. — Tniy for liiiT Nit . |:\ium|iI<' nl iiii olijivl nmdr In ii mould. in>i iiinu'd on \\\r lmll<', lV»!i||Slu>d luul 

I'M'eiiU'd l>,\ J, Miulcmi, 



ii6 



nERAMIC STUDIO 



legs; the draperies and accessories having the same alloy 
as the body, so that when the founder shall have effaced 
the seams and joints, the entire piece may have one general 
tone. A new sand mould is made for each successive re- 
production, as the mould must be destroyed to allow the 
removal of the cast (See plates Desbois, Leden, etc.)- 

Plates 97 and 98 give dift'erent views of an ewer, the 
mould of which, if made in one piece, would be too compli- 
cated. Its form, like that of a flattened figure, forces the 
cast of the body to be made in two halves, which are after- 
ward joined and welded by the founder. One mould is 
necessary for the handle, two for the spout, one for the 
base, one for the hinge, and one for the lid. The work of 
assembling the pieces is therefore a complicated one, and, 
to be satisfactory, requires the aid of the goldsmith. 

The hand lavatory here illustrated, is also composed of 
various pieces, which must be assembled and welded to- 
gether. 

A casket, a coffee-pot, a teapot and a chocolate pot, 
richly decorated, may be cast in single pieces, but there 
must be separate moulds for the handles, covers, and spouts, 
which must be welded to the bodies. 

Sheet pewter, like gold, silver, and copper, 
is worked with the hammer, and may be fash- 
ioned into any desired shape. It is even used 
occasionally by the joiner, or cabinet maker, out 
of which to construct small pieces of furniture. 

The uses to which pewter may be applied, 
have therefore no limits except such as are fixed 
by good sense, for objects in infinite variety can 
be made from it. 

Heretofore, we have but made allusion to 
the large quantity of pewter table-plate pro- 
duced in the eighteenth century. We now sub- 
join the description of the process by which the 




us. 66. — Naiad on shell, by Mr. Ledrii, sculptor. Made in sand mould. 
Museum, reproduced by courtesy of Mess. Sussp. pub. 



In Galliera 





lUus. 67. — Mischief maker. Vase in pewter by Mr. Ledru, sculptor. 
Made in sand mould. Reproduced by courtesy of Mess. Susse. pub. 



Illus. 69. — Hand lavatory in pewter, by Mr. Alexandry Charpentier, sculptor, in the Galliera Museum. 

Made in parts soldered together. 



heramic studio 



117 




Illus. 72. — Pevvterers hammering trays, XVIII century. From Salmon's Treatise, 178S. 




Illus. 71. 



trays, platters and trenches then so widely used, were 
made. 

Such objects, whether round, or oval, were, in no 
instance, cast in their final form. The border and the bot- 
tom were, it is true, of a single piece; but the flat part of 
the bottom was always on a level with that of the concave 
moulding at the inner edge of border, whatever the depth 
or the shape desired for the object. 

After the plaque called the rondelle or rouelle, was taken 
from the mould, it was polished on the lathe and its thick- 
ness equalized. 

Then the metalsmith placed the plaque upon a kind of 
anvil, of which there were many different forms. He 
smeared both sides of the plaque lightly with tallow, as 
also the table of the anvil, and the surface of his hammer, so 
that his tools might not become plated with the pewter 
chips produced during the course of the work. 

In the historical section of the present article we have 
given the reasons which induced the French pewterers in 
the reign of lyouis XV to have their 
metal hammered by journeymen, gold 
and silversmiths. 



-Coffee pot, cast, soldered, and finished 
with the liammer. 



With light strokes, and reserving a space more or less 
broad for the concave moulding at the inner edge of the 
border, according to the purpose for which the object was 
destined, the metalsmith began to work at the circumfer- 
ence, making the circuit of the piece, and narrowing his 
concentric circles until he reached the center. 

Then, by a series of special methods of beating, ending 
in smoothing, he gave his piece its final form. It still re- 
mained for him to polish it, for its surface was as yet in the 
rough, and completely covered with the marks of the ham- 
mer. 

The smith then covered his anvil with a buck, chamois, 
or beaverskin stretched tightly. He wiped the piece and 
powdered it carefully with whiting". Then with light 
strokes he succeeded in absolutely effacing the traces of 
his work upon the surface of the metal, wliich became 
smooth and shining:. 





lllllS. ir,. 'I'hr SlMSdllS, |icw|cT Cillilcl, li.\ .1. Illlllriui 



Illus.,.;. I', vMrrcrs I'liKniviii!; ih-h. ■. .\ \ 1 1 1 v .iiiur.v. Kroiu Sttlinon's TivuiiM- iT.-^s. 



ii8 



REIRAMIC STUDIO 




Illus. 7ti. — Tray, example of iihiqiie or rondclle casting, final shape given on anvil. 

The same process was used for all utensils whose shapes 
allowed this kind of work, which was altogether unsuited to 
objects in relief. 

The advantage resulting from this process was light- 
ness in weight; decreased thickness, together with increased 
resistance obtained through the hardening effect of the 
hammer on the cold metal. 

The skill and the tool of the engraver were employed 
to lend attraction to the work, but with doubtful success 
and for a limited period. 

Soup-tureens, gravy-boats, and other similar dishes, 
after having been cast in the shell, that is to say, in forms 
rendering their general outlines, were assembled and welded, 
and then hammered, according to need, in order to raise 
the flat parts into convex curves and flutings. 

In giving the preceding explanations, we come too 
closely to the processes of the chaser and modeler to avoid 
speaking of them. Adepts in these artistic crafts 
have held and still occupy an important place. 
Therefore, we must give at least passing mention 
to the method by which flat objects may be so 
variously decorated, provided that the metalsmith 
has rendered them susceptible to the final treatment 
by making them from pure and fine material. 




The craftsman who models and chases, is possessed of 
extraordinary skill. He works with equal ease upon flat 
surface, or circular contour, embossing at any point chosen 
for decoration, if only he may find an opening large enough 
in which to introduce a tool specially adapted to this kind 
of work. He produces convexities, and models and shapes 
them with exquisite taste and delicacy. 

The object brought into being by his skillful fingers, 
aided by the hammer, and by various chasing-tools adapted 
to work beneath the surface of the metal, or upon it, is per- 
fected gradually. 

In order to master with ease his material and work, he 
uses a cement melting at a low temperature for preserving 
the forms given to the object. If he possesses a thorough 
knowledge of his art, the chaser evidences the same control 
over objects cast in sand-moulds, as over those made from 
a thin metal sheet, and decorated with embossed designs. 
He is also able to carve from a solid mass of cast pewter, by 
the aid of a skillfully directed tool, an object of simple or 
complex relief, which is worthy of cultured admiration, just 
as the sculptor in stone, or wood, carves his statues from a 
more usual medium. 

It would be nteresting to treat this special art as to its 
past and its present aspects, and also as to its processes, but 
unfortunately we can not do this without going beyond the 
limits of the general subject. 

In the sixteenth century, pewter had its place with 
ivory and other highly prized materials in the decoration 
of muskets, cross-bows, harquebuses, and other portable 
weapons. 

In the seventeenth century, Boule and his rivals in 
cabinet-making enriched their sumptuous furniture with 
inlaid work, in which pewter figured with gold and tortoise- 
shell; the first named being preferred to silver which so 
easily oxidizes. 

Finally, if we look toward the Orient, we find pewter 




Illus. 76. — Psyche and Zephyr, pewter goblet. 



Illus. 74. — Bowl in soft pewter, first planed with the hammer, then modeled in repousse 
with chasing tools, by J, Brateau. 



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nilRAMIC STUDIO 



.19 



most effectively used in the decoration of a great variety of 
objects, such as jewel-caskets, small tables, pipes, narghilis, 
etc. 

We have previously stated that there are no limits to 
be set for the use of pewter. And this we repeat, for we 
have not considered here its industrial applications and 
possibilities which offer a field varied and extensive. 

LIGHT YELLOW ROSE (Supplement) 

Sara Wood Safford 

THIS sketch was made on a grey paper, as the background 
suggests. If the worker wishes to break the solid 
background effect, do so by letting in soft yellow lights. 
In painting for a first fire, try doing just the design with- 
out any background, softening the edges with an oiled pad 
if they look hard. For a second fire, consider the back- 
ground color, washing it lightly over the edges of the 
roses and leaves, and perhaps delicately tinting with 
soft yellow the hearts of the roses, and touching the leaves 
in places with pure green. In a third painting, add the 
sharp detail touches and strengthen background where 
needed. 

Colors for roses — For grey shadows use Violet and 
Yellow and Pearl Gray. For deep warmer shadows use Yellow 
Brown "touched" with Carnation, and Violet. For the 
delicate yellow tints on the rose petals use Albert Yellow, 
and Albert Yellow with Peach blossom for the flush of 
the rose. In the hearts, add Carnation and Brown Green 
to Yellow Brown. 

Colors for leaves and stems — In the first painting, 
grey all the greens with Violet, and add to Blood Red a 



touch of Violet for the main grey leaves. Pure Green 
may be washed over the leaves in a second or third 
painting. Use Yellow Green, Blue Green, Brown Green, 
Brown Green with Blood Red, Shading Green and Dark 
Green. Paint the stems in a light green and accent with 
Brown Green and Blood Red. 

For the background use Pearl Grey, Pearl Grey with 
Violet, Pearl Grey with Yellow Green, Shading Green and 
Violet, Pearl gery with yellow. These color combina- 
tions will make light and dark tones of grey yellow 
harmonies. 

^ if 
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

B, M. — The Satsuma ware should stand~the same fire as other wares for 
decoration. Fire it in the cooler part of your kiln, and if you find if does 
not glaze sufficiently, fire again in the hotter part. 

M. N. C. — For catalogue of glass for decoration write to Higgins & Seiter, 
West 22d St., New York, Dealers in China and Glass. Any designs in flat 
or raised gold found in Keramic Studio will be suitable for glass. The 
work is exactly the same on glass as on china. See article on glass decoration, 
Keramic Studio. The firing is the most particular part. Try some broken 
bits in your kiln until you learn the exact point to stop firing, which should 
be at a faint rose heat. We do not know of any one who teaches glass decor- 
ation except our advertisers. Write to them. Use Roman gold for china, 
on the raised paste. Use Hancock, s paste for china. The flat gold and 
enamels must be bought specially prepared for glass. Write our adver- 
tisers. 

STUDIO NOTES 

Mrs. Sara Wood Safford will re-open her classes, in 
new and larger studios, at 350 West 23d Street, New York, 
September ist. 




£^ Mark" 




TTie fMshinq touch is thAt inde finable finAlity 
of artistic effort iifuch gi'vcs PouvAi chin.i its 
endurmg cUim to supremAcy. E^cry passing 
season 'wiinesses a steady increase in the Amer- 
ican demand for the best that the Touyat factory 
produces. 

We are keenly alive to the importartct of this 
demand, and ive respond to it %uith due appre- 
ciation. _ 

TAROUTAUD & WATSON 

37 and 39 Murray Street, Ne-w York 



When writiiiu to .idvirrliscrs plc.isc iiu-iilioi> thus in.i^.\;iiu-. 



120 



Ki:RAMlC STUDIO 



VIENNA CHINA 




Vase, No. 111-681, 13 in. 
Bonbon, No. 1 Ruth, 4J in. 
Whisky Jug, No. 1052, 11* in. 



IN WHITE 

FOR DECORATING 

Fires perfectly. Exquisite shapes. Low priced. 
Sold by the leading merchants throughout the U.S. 

Have you our white china catalogue? 

BAWO & DOTTER 

MANUFACTURERS— IMPORTERS 

26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 




e^OQ^e^c^oa^^^^eii 



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I CLIMAX ROMAN GOLD 

^^ Registered U. S. Patent Office 

P|5 Climax Roman Gold is a chemically pure brown gold, of 
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^m Climax Gold is put up in large sealed boxes, and is for sale by 
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S^ Quantity the same as high-priced inferior golds. 

43c per box $5 per dozen boxes 
Climax Liquid Bright Gold 30c 



m 



Per 
Vial 



1 



If your dealer cannot supply you with Climax Gold, write to 
us sending his name and address. We w^ill see that he gets 
it. We fill all orders promptly, none too small or too large 
for us. Sample w^ill be sent on receipt of 5c in postage stamps. 

Special prices to teachers on lots of 50 boxes or more. 

Prices quoted to dealers on request. ...... 



M. Climax Ceramic Co., - Chicago, 111. 
y 206 Clark Avenue 



ORIGINAL MANUFACTURERSof KLONDIKE ROMAN GOLD 




NEW; 



THE TEACHER OF CHINA PAIPiTING, By D. M. Campana- 

Better than six montlis lessons. Mistalces in firing, glazing' 
grounding, painting, thoroughly explained. Fundamenta 
principles of conventional decorations; gold receipt: lessons in fiowers' 
figures, etc.; practically all; also silk painting, oil, etc. 75 cents per copy- 
postage 5 cents. 



NEW 



CAMPANA'S RING DIVIDERS ^'^ Practical 

easier to work 
and cost less. Three dividers in set. 10c mail Ic. 

Remember thai Campana's 45 Colors at 13c each cooiaios several times as much powder as ao; 
10c color, and are belter quality. 

D. M. CAMPANA, H2 Auditorium Building, CHICAGO 




Catalogue No. 24 



%>in be mailed 
this month 

Have 'we your name ^ecefe* one?""'?} 

not, send us a postal and this Handsome "Blue and Gold" 
124 page Catalogue will be mailed you free of charge. 

It Kvill save you money 

Our prices are lower than any other catalogue house in 
the country. Variety distinguishes this catalogue above 
that of our competitors. Royal Satsuma in white for 
decorating. Acid Border in white for decorating. Gold 
Band China for monogram work. Monogram outfits and 
letters. Ten cent colors equal to any others. 

Klondike Gold @ 50c, Special price in quantities. 

W, A. Maurer, - Council Bluffs, lo'wa 

Established 1880 

Agent for Revelation Kilns 



Send for our free booklet 



The Crafts „ 



interested ! 



KERAMIC STUDIO PUBLISHING CO., Syracuse, N. Y. 



^s 



China Decorators Choose 

from our stock of some five thousand items. 

We fill orders complete on day received. Our prices, with spe- 
cial discounts to teachers and academies, are the lowest. 

=^= ^e Sell = 



Less than one dozen, 
65 cents per box 



Hasburg's Gold for $7.20 per dozen 

La Croix Colors, 335^ discount from manufacturer's list. 

and all goods at prices in proportion. 

Ask especially for illustrated list of our New American Ware, 
w^arranted to fire. 

Vases as low as 30c. Large Tankards, $1.00 

Let us surprise you w^ith catalog and prices. 

The A. B. Closson, Jr. Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



r 





le entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Hvithout special permission 

CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER 1908 



Editorial Notes 

League, Studio and Shop Notes 

Vintage by Carl J. Blenner 

Bernard Palissy 

Wistaria Panel 

Persian Plate 

Wistaria (supplement) 

Six Plates in Japanese Design 

Raspberries 

Currants — Cherries 

Decorative Panel — Grapes 

Pen Studies of Grapes 

Design for the Decoration of China 

Conventionalized Butterfly Borders 

Daisy and Narcissus 

Bouncing Bets 

Cup and Saucer— Bouncing Bets Motif 

Beetle Design for large Bowl 

Vase Design 

Child's Mug' 

White Asters 







PAGE 






I2l 






121 




L. Vance Phillips 


J 22 
I22-J28 




Henrietta Barclay Paist 


125 




Copy by Dorothea Warren 


J27 




F. B. Aulich 


128 




Emma A. Ervin 


I28-J29 




Maud E. Hulbert 


{30 




Maud E. Hulbcrt 


131 




Frank Ferrell 


132 




AUce Witte Sloan 


132 




Caroline Hofman 


133-135 




Chas. Babcock 


136 




Patty Thum 


137 




Edith Alma Ross and Hannah Overbeck 


138 




Hannah Overbeck 


J 39 




Chas. Babcock 


139 




Henrietta B. Paist 


140 




Jessie Underwood 


140 




Maud E. Hulbert 


I4J 


MiHIII 








THE OLD RELIABLE l^m FITCH KILNS 




The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Gla.tc and Color Tone. 




No. 3 Size 14.x 12 In $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16 x 19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts. 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



No. 1 Size 10 X 12 in. $15.00 

No. 2 Size 16 x 12 in 20.00 

No. 3 Size 16 x 15 In 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



^ 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



y 



VoIJX. No. 6 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



October 1908 




HE Design Competition closes 
the first of this month, we are 
looking forward to a feast of good 
designs, as it is now nearly two 
years since our last competition. 
Much has been done in this 
time in the way of study and 
practice and never before has 
there been so much good instruc- 
tion in ceramic design. 
The summer is over and the harvest gathered, it re- 
mains only to learn the value of the summer's gleanings and 
to transmute the golden grains of summer jottings into the 
bread of winter work. There is still for belated students 
much to learn, here and there, of seed pod, fruit, of late 
Autumn flowers and leafless trees. Many color schemes to 
gamer from Autumn landscape and atmospheric effects. 

We call attention to the set of six arrangements for 
china of birds and flowers in Japanese style decoration, by 
Miss Emma A. Ervin. We are giving each in three sizes 
to facilitate the use of these designs on various size articles. 
The simplicity, directness and good spacing of these studies 
are worthy of notice. 

"A Study in Grey and Pink" referred to in the study of 
Vintage by Mrs. Vance Phillips will appear in the November 
issue. 

We regret that the "Happy Study Hours" have had 
to be omitted so long on account of illness of the author. 
If nothing further intervenes, they will be resumed in the 
November issue. 

The first (October) number of Palette and Bench, 
younger sister to Keramic Studio, was issued the 20th of 
September. It was well received and promises to be still 
more successful than Keramic Studio. The November 
issue will contain, besides the color supplement "Dutch 
Interior" by Castle Keith, and the regular instruction in 
oils by Mr. Curran and water color by Mrs. Nicholls, Cast 
Drawing, Frederick Baker; Modeling, Charles Pike; Study 
of Trees Bare of P'oliage, Wm. Coffin; Miniature Painting, 
Wm. J. Baer ; Japanese arrangement of flowers, Mary Averill ; 
Illumination, Florence Gotthold ; Stencil, Nancy Beyer; 
Finger Rings, Emily Peacock; and Cross Stitch Ivnibroidery, 
Mertice McCrea Buck. 

if ^ 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

TIIIv lime has come when League members if thcN' wish 
to gain the greatest benefit from membershij) must 
work out the problems given in the study course, which 
has i)een mailed to every member whose name :ii)pears on 
our Roll. 

Our Chairman of Education has compiled this lit lie 
booklet containing the necessary information in regard to 
the League, the study course and the shapes to be used so 
carefully that it would seem there could be no possible 
misunderstanding and it is hoped that every mnuhn will 



take advantage of the criticisms offered by the League. 
The League officers have done their part, now it is the 
members turn to work. Ruskin says, "Never depend upon 
your genius; if you have it, industry will improve it. If you 
have none, industry will supply the deficiency." 

Some persons have undoubtedly a natural apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful in line_andcolor_ harmony but with 
most of us the faculty must be developed. To any one 
however a knowledge of the fundamental principles of 
design will bring greater pleasure and an increased jo}- of 
living. This knowledge cannot be gained without work 
and to those who have solved the first problem "Facts from 
flowers" has come a better realization of what this factual 
representation of nature means to the designer, each one 
having interpreted these facts according to his own percep- 
tions and therefore having something entirely his own for 
future use. 

Those who have not yet solved this first problem will 
have a few days in which it may be done after receiving 
this number of Keramic Studio. 

Every member is entitled to the study course booklet 
and a copy of "hints to beginners" and the year book. If 
for any reason you have not received yours send in your 
name at once and receive it by return mail. 

Send all designs for criticism to President of the League. 

Mary A. Farringtox. 
41 12 Perry Ave., Chicago. 
^ If 
STUDIO NOTES 

Miss Jeanne M. Stewart will, on October ist, open a 
studio at 437 Arcade Building, Seattle, \\'ash. and will 
teach there during the coming year. Instruction will be 
given in her Chicago studio, and studies rented, by Mi-^s 
Jane Laurence. 

Mrs. Henrietta Barclay Paist will, on October ist, open 
a Department of Keramic Art in the St. Paul Institute of 
Arts and Sciences. It is gratifying to see Art Schools thus 
give special courses of ceramic instruction. 

Mrs. H. A. Magill of Magill &• Ivory, New York, will 
sail October ist for Paris and will remain abroad for a 
few months. Miss Jessie L. l\cMy has purchaseil the inter- 
est of Mrs. Magill, and will continue the business at Jo; 
Fifth Avenue. 

Miss Fannie M. Seauuiull has lemowd her studio Irom 
I iS Wa\erl\- Placr to 1 ,so iMfth A\enue. room 407. 

SHOP NOTES 
.\ n])rrs(.ntati\e ol' the kiCKAMic J~^Tlin(.> reeentlx' called 
upon Reusehe i^- Co., and foinid that Mr. Ueusche, Sr.. luul 
just returned from l^urope with man\ lunelties in the way 
oi" glazes, crystalli/.aliiMis, etc. The e\liiliitii>n sIumiKI be 
ol' git'at interest to all teachers ol k'lTamic Ait Ttuxi' 
spieialtirs brought owi b\- Mr. Keuselie lepusrnt tlir 
i'ottriN Industiies o( iManee and i'."nv;laud and the til.i^v 
and I'otterx Industries of (.'.ermauN . lU>hemia ami Austria 
and range Ifom tlu- littU" nohemian Olass up to the larger 
sliaprs in pot lei y . 



122 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



VINTAGE, BY CARL J. BLENNER 

L. Vance Phillips. 

BY allowing the tokay grape to suggest the color scheme 
there will be a play from a deep tawny red through 
a violet-red half-tone into transparent yellowish reflected 
lights. The last named will be the background note used 
lighter and greyer than in the grapes. The hair will be a 
dark red, which, in painting, will take on the reflected 
yellowish color in the lights, a red Auburn in the deepest 
shadows, suggesting the deepest red of the grapes, while 
the violet half-tones complete the color scheme. The 
cool tones find their natural place in the medium shadows 
where the violet, which is a blend of blue and red, con- 
tains the element of coolness so pleasant to find in all half 
tones. A clear creamy flesh tone will be in fine harmony. 
The darkest color note will be the rich drapery in a deep 
violet red of a specially warm tone. 

Either a panel or plaque will be suitable for this head, 
certainly a flat piece of china, since it is essentially a wall 
piece, a picture and not a decorative study. A delicate 
tracing can be secured by the use of Italian tracing paper, 
graphite transfer paper and India ink. On the dull side 
of the tracing paper draw in outline the chief features, the 
general masses of shadow in the hair, the important folds 
in the drapery and indicate the subtle touches which sug- 
gest the form of the hands. With adhesive paper fasten 
the drawing at the upper edge and under this lay the trans- 
fer paper, dark side down. Over the rather dark surface 
place white tissue paper that the line of the drawing may 
be clearly seen. 

To the usual flesh palette add Blood Red Ruby, Blue 
Violet, Pearl Grey, Yellow Ochre, Meissen Brown and Brown 
Green. Use the last two in connection with Pearl Grey 
in the background. In the white drapery Pearl Grey, 
with the deepest shadows of Violet and Blood Red or 
Violet and Carnation. The high lights of the dark drapery 
Blood Red, half tones Blood Red and Violet and the deep- 
est shadows Meissen Brown and Ruby, the former predom- 
inating. The same colors will find place in the same man- 
ner in the grapes with Pearl Grey and Brown Green in 
the leaves. The background mainly Pearl Grey and 
Yellow Ochre, shading into Brown Green at the left and 
Brown Green and Blood Red at the right. This to repeat 
the leaf color at the left and the drapery tone at the right. 
The color should be so managed that there is no limit of 
abruptness in color or line where the background approaches 
the figure, and this in order to keep the attention directed 
to the face, where the chief interest should be. This in- 
terest is sustained by the clearest and purest colors being 
used in the face and hair and a brown tone, produced by 
the use of greys and violets, being the accessories. 

Three or more fires are needed to develop this study. 
The management and the selection of oils together with 
the laying of color and the general ideas of the amount to 
be accomplished at a sitting is given in detail in the treat- 
ment of the decorative figure. A study of these para- 
graphs will aid the student in all but the laying of the 
flesh tones. This will be found in "A Study in Grey and 
Pink,"* the one difi"erence in the treatment of the flesh 
being that ochre should be washed in in one of the flesh 
paintings in "Vintage" to gain that added warmth needed 
to make a complete harmony of warm tones. 

*This study will appear in the November Keramic Studio. 

The Bouncing Bets designs without title on page 1 38 are by 
Hannah Overbeck. 




Palissy cistern in the South Kensington Museum. From French Pottery and Porcelain 

by Henri Frantz. 

BERNARD PALISSY. 

It is an undeniable fact that the work of modern 
craftsmen is, with a few striking exceptions, inferior to the 
work of the artisans of the past. This is true in all crafts, 
and in ceramics it is much to be wondered at, because of 
the tremendous progress of scientific as well as practical 
knowledge. Ceramic secrets of the past are rapidly melt- 
ing away under the searching light of modern investiga- 
tion, and it is not to so-called lost secrets that the infer- 
iority of the present work is due, but perhaps, in a great 
measure, to the ease with which every artist, with the help 
of an elementary instruction in the manipulation of clays, 
can develop good bodies and glazes, so that being satis- 
fied with tolerably good and artistic first results, he does 
not strive for the production of real works of art. There 
is also the difficulty of getting for handicraft a remunera- 
tive price when factories are turning out by machinery and 
with the help of ordinary workmen, so much work of real 
artistic merit, if not of great technical value. If individ- 
ual artists are dependent on their art for a livelihood, the 
problem of making their work pay, while striving for a 
perfection in workmanship which can be acquired only 
after years of labor and experimenting, is not a problem 
to be solved very easily. These difficulties will have to be 
overcome, according to circumstances, either by carrying 
on two different kinds of production, one purely com- 
mercial, the other purely artistic, so that the profits of the 
first will cover the expenses of the second, until such time 
as the art work reaches the degree of technical perfection 
which will insure financial returns, as well as glory and 
reputation. Or, when possible, such leisure time as can 
be taken from a regular occupation, will be devoted to art 
work, and the mind being free from financial worry, the 
object will not be to produce much, but to produce 
something technically as w^ell as artistically beautiful. 
However this may be, patience and the determination to 
thoroughly master the technical difflculties of the work 
will be required. Old craftsmen often spent a lifetime 
experimenting at haphazard to obtain certain results and 
during this long period they became such experts in the 
technique of the work that, when the goal was finally 
reached, works of perfect workmanship were produced. 
To-day results are in a way obtained much more easily 
and rapidly, too easily perhaps, artists cease striving for 
improvement before perfection has been reached and the 
work remains work that could be done by almost every- 
body. 

One of the greatest figures in the history of cer- 
amics is Bernard Pahssy, "the- potter of Saintes." 
His strange and erratic career, his distressing failures in 



nERAMIC STUDIO 



23 




VINTAGE— BY CARL J. BLENNER 



l-'iiiin ;i r(i|il('.\ I'niil ('iip,\ 1 ii'lil I'.Hil li,\ I'lii'li.s A ('uiin'rnii. HosUiii. 



124 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



the research of a white enamel which he thought would 
make a perfect pottery, the great reputation he finally 
acquired as a potter, although he had not found the ideal 
susbtance which he strove for so many years to discover, 
all these are so many lessons to craftsmen of all ages. 

Born in 1510, Palissy was a painter of stained glass 
and a land surveyor by profession. During the early 
part of his life he travelled through the different provinces 
of France, as was the custom among skilled artisans who 
wished to become familiar with all the processes and 
materials used in their handicraft. He settled at Saintes 
about 1542 and Ijegan his researches into the composition 
of enamels. 

"Twenty-five years ago," he writes in his Memoirs, 
"I was shown an earthen cup turned and enamelled, so 
beautiful that from that moment I entered into dispute 
with myself, remembering many things that certain persons 
had told me, making mock of me, when I was painting 
pictures. Now, seeing that these were no longer much 
wanted in the part of the country where I dwelt, and that 
neither was glass painting in great request, I began to think 
that if I found out the invention of making enamel, I could 
. make vessels of clay and other things of comely favour, 
as God had granted me to understand somewhat of port- 
raiture; and from thenceforward, without care that I 
knew nothing concerning argillaceous earths, I set myself 
to search out enamels like a man who gropes in darkness." 

And during fifteen years he continued to grope in 
darkness and there is no reason to believe that he ever 
found what he was working for, but he learned to produce 
work of absolutely individual character and strong origin- 
ality and of great technical perfection. 

Palissy does not give any description of this beautiful 
cup he had seen, which filled him with such enthusiasm 
and transformed the glass painter into a pdtter. Some 
critics have supposed that it was an Italian faience. 
Henri Frantz in his "French Pottery and Porcelain" 
thinks it was one seen in Germany, perhaps at the Hirsch- 
vogels' in Nuremberg. But it is doubtful if any of these 
wares with which Palissy must have become familiar 
during his travels, would have made such a strong impress- 
ion upon him. Tin enamels were then made in Italy and 
Germany, opaque enamels at Limoges and specimens 
could not have been such great rarities. It seems more 
natural to conclude with L. Solon, in his "French Faience" 
that this wonderful cup was one of the then very rare 
Chinese porcelains which were beginning to find their way 





Palissy dish. Ciillection of Geo. Salting. Esq. l-'ioni French .Pottery and Prjrcelaiii by 

Henri Frantz. 



Palissy dish with reptiles and shells. Froni M. L. Solon's French Faience. 

to Europe and could occasionally be found in the houses 
of nobles and princes. The marvelous translucency and 
whiteness of the ware was undoubtedly what impressed 
Palissy so strongly, but he made the mistake of believing 
that these qualities were due to an enamel of special purity 
and whiteness, a mistake which prevented his experiments 
from ever resulting in success. However there is no doubt 
that he developed glazes of wonderful limpidity and bril- 
liancy. 

"Upon which," he relates, "another misfortune befell 
me, causing me great annoyance; which was that, running 
short of wood, I was obliged to burn the palings which 
maintained the boundaries of my garden, the which after 
being' burnt I had to burn the tables and the flooring of 
my house in order to cause the melting of the second com- 
position. I was in such agony as I cannot express, for I 
was utterly exhausted and withered up by my work and 
the heat of the furnace; during more than a month my 
shirt had never been dry upon me. Even those who ought 
to have helped me ran crying through the town that I was 
burning the planks of the floors, so that I was made to 
lose my credit, and was thought to be mad. Others said 
that I was trying to coin false money, and I went about 
crouching to the earth, like one ashamed." 

And further "The mortar in the walls of my furnace 
being full of flinty pebbles, these felt the strength of the 
heat (where my enamels were beginning to liquefy), and 
split into many pieces, making many outbursts and many 
explosions in the said furnace. Now as the fragments of 
the pebbles flew against the stuff on which I was working, 
the enamel, which was now liquefied and in a glutinous 
state, took in the said pebbles and attached them with 
itself over all the parts of my vessels, which otherwise would 
have been found beautiful." 

"Palissy," says Henri Frantz, "had put his last re- 
sources into this batch; he had borrowed the wood to fire 
it; he had engaged the services of a potter for whose keep 
he was responsible and whose wages he owed, and he had 
his own wife and children to feed. After being at first ill 
with grief he plucked up all his energy again, and having 
earned a little money by the exercise of his trade of glass 
making, he attempted another batch, which in its turn 
failed, cinders having stuck to the pieces. To obviate 
this he invented a sort of earthen lantern, still in use at 
the present day under the name of sagger, and thus he at 
last achieved the production of his first faiences, covered 
with a marbled enamel; later his rustic basins or dishes, 
ornamented with snakes, frogs, lizards, fishes and all those 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



125 




WISTARIA PANEL HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



1 tiMl llUlll p.lj^i" US'! 



1^ 



126 



ni:RAMIC STUDIO 



adtnirable rustic pieces to which he owes his great renown. 
His chief preoccupation was then to imitate Nature with 
a touching reaUsm and an extraordinary care for truthful- 
ness. Speaking of his Hzards, Pahssy writes that real 
lizards often came and admired them; and concerning a 
dog that he had made he says that "many other dogs began 
to growl on seeing it, thinking it to be alive." 

There are slight differences of opinion about the 
nature of the glaze used by Palissy. According to Solon, 
he had given up all hope of producing a pure white enamel, 
and used to the end nothing else than the "galena" or lead 
ore used then for all common pottery such as was made 
near Saintes by numerous earthenware makers, a thick 
glaze of a light yellowish tint. Brongniart believed that 
there was a small amount of tin in his enamel, but Deck 
maintains that he used tin but rarely and only to tone down 
the crudity of some colorings. 

According to this author, his glaze was composed of 

Sand 30 

Minium (lead oxide) 35 

Potassium 10 

Borax ■ ■ 25 

and he added to it 

for his yellow enamel; protoxide of iron, 10 

for violet ; oxide of manganese 4 

for blue ; oxide of cobalt 3 

for green ; oxide of copper 4 

and for yellow brown ; 

oxide of manganese 2 

oxide of cobalt 3 

Some of the most valued Palissy pieces are decorated 
with figures for the modeling of which he probably employed 
sculptors of great talent. He also took moulds direct 
from original works in chased metals. It is thus that he 
reproduced some of the famous pewter plateaux and 
ewers of Francois Briot. But his most popular and best 
known dishes are the rustic dishes decorated with fishes, 
reptiles, shells, etc., always molded direct from nature, 
M. Andre Pottier has discovered in a manuscript of the 
1 6th Century and thus describes Palissy 's mode of pro- 
cedure : 

"To prepare the motifs of the composition a sheet of 
tin was used, upon which was fixed by means of Venetian 
turpentine the bed of delicately veined leaves, of pebbles 
or of petrified substances, that constitutes the usual ground 
of his compositions; upon this was arranged the principal 
subject, the animals, reptiles, fishes and insects being 
fastened down by very fine threads passed through small 
holes made with an awl in the metal sheet. Finally when 
the whole had been brought to a point of perfection by the 
execution of a crowd of details which varied according to 
circumstances, a layer of fine plaster was run over it all 
in order to form the mould. The animals were afterwards 
carefully withdrawn from their plaster envelope, so that 
nothing hindered their being used immediately again in 
the composition of some other subjects." 

In 1588 Palissy was arrested for his religious opinions 
and thrown in the Bastile where he died in 1590 at the age 
of eighty, but in the last part of his life he was 
rewarded for his early failures by ever increasing fame. 
This fame has grown ever since, and when the rare Palissy 
dishes which are not buried in Museums come out for sale 
in the auction of private collections they bring enormous 
prices. The following high prices were paid in recent years ; 

Temperance dish, from the pewter plateau by Francois Briot 
(De Lafaulotte collection sold in 1886) $5,140 




1 alissy dxsh. A reproduction of Francois Briot's famous pewter ijlateau "Temperance" 
Collection of Geo. Salting Esq. From French Pottery and Porcelain by 
Henri Frantz. 

Two cups on pedestals with monograms of Henri II, Catherine 
de Medicis and Diane de Poitiers, one in green enamel, the 

other in marbled enamel, i ach .- . 2,300 

(Baron Seilleres collection sold in 1890) 

The Water, rectangular bas relief (for the Louvre) 5,400 

Large dish, marine deities 2,000 

Large dish, Diana 2,160 

Two ewers, helmet shape, Pomona and a Spring, in different 

colors, each 3,900 

Salt cellar, Neptune Standing upon the Waves 1,400 

(Spitzer collection sold in 1893) 

Large circular dish, Diana Seated 3,220 

(Ch. Stein collection sold in 1899) 

and there is Httle doubt that, if some of these rare dishes 
were offered for sale to-day, they would fetch much higher 
prices. 

What then makes the value of a Palissy dish, of a 
faience d'Oiron, an old Sevres or Dresden vase, of the 
Italian, French or Dutch faiences of past centuries, also of 
the old Chinese masterpieces and of all wares for which 
collectors and Museums are willing to pay such fabulous 
figures? Is it simply their age and rarity? This certainly 
accounts for a good part of the price, but not all, for a 
common piece of pottery, however old or rare, will bring 
very little money. Neither can it be said, in the case of 
many of these high priced wares, that their artistic merit 
is one of the main causes of their value. . A number of the 
old Sevres and Dresden vases, if judged from the modern 
standard of artistic merit, will be found to be sadly wanting 
in regard to shapes as well as decoration, /ind there is 
nothing in the Palissy decorations which should appeal 
very much to modern taste. The loading of dishes with 
bugs, lizards, fishes, shells, etc., is hardly to be commended, 
however true to nature the animals may be. Palissy may be 
said to have been the founder of this school of natural- 
istic decoration which has had an extraordinary vogue 
until to-day and is fortunately giving place to a better under- 
standing of the rules of design. 

But if the Palissy ware is not to be highly commended 
from an artistic standpoint, it will be found to have, in 
common with all wares which are greatly valued by con- 
noisseurs, a quality which is the fundamental quality by 
which all craftswork should be judged, and that is tech- 
nical excellence, perfection of workmanship. If Palissy 
used only a common clay and an ordinary lead glaze, he 
used these common materials with such skill that the nu- 
merous imitations of his ware have always been easy to de- 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



127 




PERSIAN PLATE (Sotith Kensington Museum)-Copy by DOROTHEA WARREN 
Color scIkiuc in soft sjrccii browns, ^■cIlo\v and hhu'. 



128 



rtERAMIC STUDIO 



tect, although some of the reproductions made by clever 
craftsmen of the beginning of the 17th Centur}- are almost 
equal to the productions of the master. 

The lesson which the past teaches us should not be 
lost sight of by craftsmen of the present day. It seems to 
be better understood in France than in this country. There 
individual artists strive for technical excellence and such 
men as Lalique, Thesmar, Doat, Naudot and many others 
produce \\ork which can compare favorably with the work 
of the past. In this country our many schools and guilds 
of crafts seem to work more for artistic effects than tech- 
nical skill. This is not a true and durable standard of 
merit because taste in decoration changes from one genera- 
tion to another and from' one country to another. 

Works of art should have technical merit first, whether 
their artistic qualities appeal to the taste of our generation 
and of our country or not. Then only will they live. 




WISTARIA (Supplement) 



F. B. Aulich. 



SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN 



FIRST mark the position of the bunches with a 
crayon then with a large tinting brush. Wash in 
the background with W^arm Green shading with Olive Green 
and a few marks with Pompadour. 

Put in the leaves with the same color and wipe out the 
lights with a pointed brush (digger). 

With a rag put over forefinger, rub out the flowers from 
the background and paint them with Blue Violet, Deep 
Violet and Turquoise Blue, for mixing the blue violets, 
a little Lemon Yellow for the centers. 

The second fire is a repetition of the first treatment, 
only put in the drawing of the flowers w4th your fine brush 
and stemmer. 



^-W'^'»; 



I 




XI'' 




Emma A^ Ervin. 
N all these designs the greatest care should be taken 
to get accurate drawing, studying^[carefully the 
shading of line and handling every part in the most deli- 
cate and careful manner, giving crisp little touches where 
indicated, especially in the drawing of birds. I would 
suggest that for the first firing the drawing be made in 
Outlining Black, allowing it to be grey where the lines are 
less accentuated. By doing this first you can more easily 
detect mistakes. In the next firing_tint the backgrounds, 
keeping them ver}^ light and blending the colors as you see 
in Japanese prints. Then wipe out where necessary and 
fill in color. 

In No. I the background is tinted 
from a pale yellow into blue. The flowers 
are white with }-ellow centers and pink 
buds. The bird has a white breast with 
yellow and grey touches where it comes in 
contact with dark parts. The head is 
black shading into deep blue. The tree 
trunk is all grey and black. 

(to be continued) 

WISTARIA PANEL (Page 125) 
H. Barclay Paist 

BEGIN by tinting the panel or vase with 
a mixture of Copenhagen Grey 
three-fourths, and Copenhagen Blue one- 
fourth. After firing trace on design. 
Model flowers delicately with same mix- 
ture on the light side of the bunch, and 
add more Copenhagen Blue and Aulich' s 
Blue Violet to model the darker side of the 
bunch. Leave the background for the 
lightest places, model very simply follow- 
ing the values in the study. Use Grey 
Green for the leaves and stems. Go over 
the work twice if necessary and in out- 
lining for last fire. Use Copenhagen Blue 
and Blue Violet mixed for the flowers and 
Olive or Dark Green for leaves and 
stems. 





^■- h 



OCTOBER I90a 

SUPPLEMENT TO 

KERAMIC STUDIO 



WISTARI A^ F B. AULICH 



COPVMIOMT IttOM 
KERAMIC STUDIO PU M 
SYRACUSE. N. ^ 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



129 



4' '? 






■7 "" ''?^^> \.- ■'*'' 



-// 







i.^^i:~. 







Ah-^ 




>^ 



PLATE, JAPANESE DESIGN— EMMA A. ERVIN 



130 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




/'y^-^^. 




RASPBERRIES— MAUD E. HULBERT 



RED RASPBERRIES 

Maud E. Hulbert 

PAINT the berries with a square shader to show the 
Hght and shade, using Deep Blue Green and Warm 
Grey in the hghts and Ochre and Pompadour in the shadows. 
While wet work them up with a pointed shader, using Pom- 
padour and a little Blood Red and picking out the lights. 

Wash the leaves in with Deep Blue Green, Yellow Green. 
Moss Green, Shading Green and Brown Green. 

Use Brown Green and Finishing Brown in the stems 
and Copenhagen Grey and Violet of Iron in the shadow 
leaves and berries. 

Paint the grotmd under the leaves and berries with 
Chestnut Bro^^ii. Tint with Ivory glaze. 

In the second and third firing use the same palette, 
model the berries and leaves more and wash over some of 
them with the colors in the ground. 

¥' -f 
CURRANTS 

Maud E. Hulbert 

TREATMENT BY JEANNE M. STEWART* 

AFTER sketching design and tracing lightly in India 
Ink, lay in the background with flat ^[grounding 
brush, shading from Ivory Green to Yellow Green, and Shad- 



ing Green and Black Green in darkest tones, leaving" strong 
dashes of Ivory in sharp lights. Carefully wipe out the 
prominent berries and leaves, and the lights of those in 
shadow while the background is still wet that they may be 
softly blended and merely suggested. Lay in currants in 
Temon Yellow and Yellow Red in light tones; Pompadour 
Red and perhaps a little Ruby Purple (if more of a ruby red 
is desired) in dark; wiping out high lights with a fine pointed 
shader while color is still open and touching Chestnut Brown 
on blossom end. Lay leaves in simply in Yellow Green, 
Blue Green, Olive Green, Shading Green and Brown Green, 
omitting detail. Use Ivory Yellow, Yellow Green, Chestnut 
Brown and Pompadour in stems. Suggest cool shadow 
leaves in Yellow Green and Grey for flowers; warm ones in 
Pompadour and Grey for flowers; shadow berries in a light 
tone of Pompadour. These may not be put in until the 
second fire. 

In the second painting strengthen dark tones in back- 
ground, prominent leaves and berries and bring out detail 
with same colors as in first fire. Sometimes a third fire is 
necessary^ to give sufficient depth of color and softness of 
outline. 

*iMrs. Hulbert's treatment having been mislaid, we give here the treat- 
ment of a currant study by Miss Stewart, formerly published in Ker.^mic 
Studio. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 





CHERRIES— MAUD E. HULBERT 

PAINT the cherries with Dark Blue Green, very thin Chestnut Brown, Deep Blue Green and Finishing 

in the high lights, and Carnation No. i; Blood Brown in the branches; Deep Blue Green, Moss Green, 

Red and Violet of Iron in some of the more shadowy Brown Green and Shading Green in the leaves and stems, 
ones. Always give fruit at least three firings. 





»i 



CURRANTS- MAUD E. HULBERT 



132 



ri:ramic studio 




DECORATIVE PANEL— GRAPES— FRANK FERRELL 



PEN STUDIES OF GRAPES— ALICE WITTE SLOAN 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



133 



r' 



i/ 



'■( 

''H.I 



X 




N 



From "The Kokka". To show how fine a quality of design a naturalistic arrangement 
of fJowers may express. 

DESIGN FOR THE DECORATION OF CHINA 



Caroline H of man 



SEVENTH PAPER 



WE all study for the satisfaction of knowing , to keep in 
touch with the times; and that what we do may meet 
the increasing public demand for more and more beautiful 
craft-work. 

For we recognize that the work we do in our studios 
expresses our own taste, and that it must be both beautiful 
and useful enough to make others wish to possess it. 

I^et us see, then, how our fellow craftsmen are meet- 
ing these questions, and we can be guided by them as well 
as by our own experience. 

We sometimes hear china-painters complain that they 
are forced into doing a style of work which they themselves 
do not approve; that "people will have it" and they must 
comply. 

No doubt this does sometimes occur, but isn't it pos- 
sible that there is less necessity for continuing this em- 
barrassing situation than they seem to think? 

Isn't the fact this: — that the work which a given dec- 
orator can do most skillfully is oftenest demanded of him? 

This would mean that each china decorator (every 
craftsman, for that matter), can grow into just whatever 
line of work he wishes to. 

We can see that it is no longer an experiment, but is 
liorne out by common experience among progressive workers, 
that when they have taken some portion of their time to 
become familiar with design, and have kept the principles 
in mind whenever they were at work, they have been able 
to interest a great many more people in their work, and to 
teach much more efficiently. Their decorative work brings 



Tlic ihciik'Hv i.r llic iMcho|Mililnn Mii.s.'Uin ..I Ail, A lillii' >iii.l> i" s|.Mrim;. 



them greater returns, and takes on a much more vital mean- 
ing to themselves. 

It is the general belief among those who have considered 
the question, that the higher the aims are of the individual 
china-painter to-day the more successful and firmly estab- 
lished he will become; for china-painters are only beginning 
to realize how great a future their art is capable of, by 
studying more closely its greatness in the past. 

Our work is taking on more dignity as an art, and more 
importance as a craft, day by day. 

And with this increased breadth of outlook comes, to 
every serious worker, the desire to understand, and to 
make use of, the fundamental principles of design. 

For there must be knowledge of design before even the 
most skillful hand can make its work interesting; those 
principles which are an adjustable handle to fit the tools 
of any craft. Metal workers, embroiderers, weavers, those 
who do lettering and illuminating, — all craft workers in 
fact, need just this knowledge of design that we have been 
discussing; — the governing laws of space — art. Have they 
not, these principles, seemed very simple, and surprisingly 
few? (Remember we have only dealt with the broadest 
ones, and have not digressed into other divisions of the 
study.) But these few alone lie at the foundation of every 
work of art. 

May we review them here, in closing this series of articles 
which has kept us in touch with our readers for so long? 
We have been trying to demonstrate that beauty depends 
upon suitable construction, good proportion, and grace of 
line; — that design depends upon a good proportion of dark 
and light masses, good shapes in the masses of both dark 
and light, and in keeping one main interest, — all other parts 
of the design being kept entirely subordinate to it. 

Even if we are to do something in natural treatnunt 
of flowers let us keep the arrangement (the "design") well 





I'l.wu iilii'loiinipli »f ;in oiirly I'loiviilino volwt 



I 



134 



nUKAMIC STUDIO 




than fault-finding ever can. And now, for the sake of mak- 
ing beauty a part of our lives, and of other lives, by express- 
ing it in our daily work, shall we not all fall to and do our 
share heartily} 

THE END. 



The property of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. A chair of the Chippendale period 
illustrating design in household furniture. 



under control of these laws, keep our coloring fiat, and 
perhaps we shall achieve something as charming and dec- 
orative as the little bowl in our illustration (which is, by 
the way, one of the illustrations used by Mr. Fenellosa in 
his delightful lectures on Chinese and Japanese art) . 

And now, since we have begun studying design, are' we 
not going to look for it in everything, out of doors and in, 
simply for our own interest and pleasure? 

Have you ever taken any special notice of the moldings 
aroimd your doors and windows? Study them a bit, to 
see whether they are well-spaced, and are proportioned in 
width to the size of the opening. Some one designed those 
moldings, and now he is being judged as to whether his work 
was well done or not. 

What of the chair you are sitting in? Is it graceful, 
well proportioned? Has it "style" in the sense of being 
well designed? 

The carpet and the wall-paper about you may be of 
your own choosing, and are, no doubt, simple and harmo- 
nious ; but doesn 't the spacing of the figures in them interest 
you more than it did before? 

Then, there is the new dress, or perhaps a new tie, to 
be judged with the eyes and from the standpoint of a 
student of design. 

Is the clock well-proportioned? And what decoration 
supports it on the mantel-piece? Someone has, perhaps 
unconsciously, made a composition by placing those things 
on the mantel-shelf, and it will either meet our "touch- 
stones" or it will not. 

Everywhere about you you will begin to see designs; 
you will notice the pattern on your table-cloths, the shape 
of your spoons, in a way perhaps you have not done before. 
And it may be that some bit of bric-a-brac, — which you 
never liked, but could not say why before, — will show its 
character more clearly now, and be banished in consequence. 
I/Ct us not allow ourselves to find fault too liberally, 
however; it is appreciation of the beautiful we are seeking, 
and Emerson says something to the effect that we are "not 
to bark against the bad" but are at all times to "chant the 
praises of the good." 

And surely such "chanting" will help the world more 




The property of theiMetropolitan Museum of Art. An illustration of good proportion 

of dark and light. 

•f <^ 

CONCERNING TILES 
That thoughtful writer, Mr. Eewis F. Day, thinks it 
is a question how far tiles are fitted for the purpose of 
panels in cabinets and the like. In most cases, he says, 
panels of wood, carved, inlaid, or even painted, would 
be preferable; but if tiles are used they should at least ap- 
pear to belong to the piece of furniture in which they are 
framed: "For example, blue and white tiles set in dark 
wood attract the eye to the tiles instead of to the cabinet. 
If it is desirable that some one tone should pervade a room, 
still more necessary is it that one general tone should 
characterize a piece of furniture. Splendid things have 
been done in ebony inlaid with ivory, it is true, but the 
most harmonious results have been obtained by distributing 
the ivory, in somewhat minute detail, pretty evenly over 
the surface of the object, and allowing it only to culminate 
in patches where prominence was desired. So with tiles 
in furniture; though they may be the culminating points 
of color, they should be no more than the culmination of 
the color about them. It was a common practice some 
years ago to stick oval plaques of Wedgwood ware in the 
centres of ebonized cabinet doors, and the first things hat 
you saw on entering a drawing-room was usually this star- 
ing plaque of white and unpleasant gray. The figure may 
or may not have been delicately modeled after Flaxman, 
but there was no doubt whatever of the fact that the panel 
put an end to all possibility of repose in the effect of the 
furniture. Tiles that assert themselves are certainly mis- 
placed. Another simple means of economy, and one which 
is not often enough employed, is to arrange tiles in such a 
manner that the simpler and less expensive serve as a frame 
to more important ones, which, being "few, we may afford 
to pay for at the price of art." 



HERAMIC STUDIO 



135 



fes^t'SS^* 




FROM PAVEMENT OF THE BAPTISTERY AT FLORENCE 



136 



KHRAMIC STUDIO 





F^ t 





CONVENTIONALIZED BUTTERFLY BORDERS 

Chas. Babcock 

NO I — Black part on wings and body, and bands, gold. 
Light part of wing, pale grey green. Diamond 
shape in wing, deep dull blue. Background, cream color. 
Fine outlines, black. 

No. 2 — Dark part of wing, light shade Auburn Brown. 
Light part of wing, pale Yellow Brown. Body, Yellow. 
Small squares and triangular spots, Pompadour Red. 
Square space back of butterfly. Warm Grey. All outlines 
brown. 

No. 3 — Dark spot in lower wing, mixed Ruby Purple and 
Black. Light part in lower wing, light pink made with 
light wash of Deep Red Brown. Light part in upper wing, 
thin wash of Auburn Brown. Body and outer edge of wing. 
Deep Brown. 

No. 4 — Dark bands on winds, gold. Little spots in 



band. Turquoise Enamel . Dark spot in lower wing, Dull 
Olive. Light part of wings, pale Yellow Brown. Body 
same tone deeper. Outlines, fine black. Flower, pale Olive 
with dull yellow center. Background, pale Buff. 

No. 5 — Outline all in black first, and fire. Dark parts 
of wing. Gold, fired, burnished, then covered with Dark 
Green Lustre. Dark spot in body. Black. Light parts of 
wing, Yellow lustre. Light part surrounding butterfly. 
Gold. Dark blocks in background. Yellow Brown lustre. 
Or carry out design in olive green and dull yellows, outlin- 
ing with deep dull green. 

No. 6 — Dark background, Silver; light background, 
pale Grey Green. Butterflies and bands in two shades of 
Violet. Outlines, black. 



RURAMIC STUDIO 



137 




DAISY AND NARCISSUS 

Patty Thum. 

THERE is no flower more suitable for the beginner 
in painting- than the white daisy or marguerite, be- 
cause of its absolute simplicity of structure. Although 
l)otanically it belongs to the order of the Conipositae, 
as a designer sees it, it is the least complicated of flowers. 
The straight, white petals, the yellow center, the grace- 
fully balanced slender green stem and the feathery green 
leaves are what you see when you look at this blos.som. 

Would you paint it naturalistically, the background 
and leaves and stem might all be a harmony in greens. 
Or the background might shade from lavender bhie to 
green blue, darkest at the top in order to l)riiig out by 
contrast the purity of the white blossom. 

To retain this purity the color of the shadows on the 
white ix'tals should be kept clear and (rue. Von will 
find on observing a white blossom or ;i while g;iriiuiil that 
the colorof white in shadow is not bhick and wliite merely, 
but that its tint partakes of its .surroundings and the re 
flections cast \\\)o\\ its whiteness. These sliadows aie 



bluish possibly, or blue green or yellowish green, pinkish 
blue, or some modification of these tints. 

Or, the drawing might be treated as a decoration, 
perspective and distance in a measure eliminated. The 
lines of the design then should be emphasized by being 
delicately outlined in brown red or green brown. The 
background any chosen tint, the leaves an even tint of 
green, the white flowers left white, with yellow centers. 

The very next blossom I would choose for a beginner 
in painting to represent (were she painting from nature), 
after the daisy design, would be the narcissus, because 
the problems which it presents are just one step further 
in modeling. You observe that the petals are wider than 
those of the daisy. They curve and turn more, conse- 
quently they must be modeled and deftly shaded more. 
The centers also are cup shaped instead of yellow buttons, 
so these narcissus centers need to be modeled also to ex- 
press their shape. There will be in their depths greenish 
yellow shadows. 

The leaves of the narcissus in this design, as is natural 
to the narcissus, hold themselves up in balanced grace 
suggesting the lyre of Apollo — the music changed to perfume. 

The tints of these green leaves are very lovely. They 
range from bluish white where the light strikes upon the 
green to yellow green where the light shines through the 
translucent leaf. 




-X^ V^ 



138 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




"IMjr^a 



BOUNCING BETS 
NATURALISTIC AND CONVENTIONALIZED 
EDITH ALMA ROSS 



m 



-^^•^'Sjgr 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



139 




CUP DESIGN, BOUNCING BETS MOTIF— HANNAH OVERBECK 




BEETLE DESIGN FOR LARGE BOWL -CHAS. BABCOCK 

BACKCrROUND of dcsinn, Yellow Brown Lustiv; i)arts ol l)o\vl oulsiik-. Ivoiy T-hi/r. Tin iU>i-u oik h,.., 

edges of band gold; llowers, pale Yellow; foliage, foot below edge of Innvl. Inside of howl, Mt»tlier of IVatl 

Auburn or vShading Brown. Heetle, ('.old and Hlaek willi l.ustuv All, .minus lUaek, Run perpendicular Inu- to 

Deep (ireen Lustre over Cold in shaded pail. All otiiei !.,.( loni ol Ih.u I. 



140 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




'^^^^^n^'e./^^r^a^ci^^.r^^^^^ 



VASE DESIGN IN OLIVE BROWNS-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



H 



CHILD'S MUG 

"simple design for beginner" 

Jessie Underwood. 

AT, sand, and band around base. Light Yellow. Hair, 
Yellow Ochre. Sky and water, Deep Blue Green 
and Apple Green. Flesh, Pink and Yellow Ochre. Dress 
Blood Red. Band at top of mug, base and handle, Dark 
Green, also lettering and outline. Handle, band and 
lettering in gold if preferred. Might also be done in one 
color. Delft Blue, Brown or Green. 

WHITE ASTERS 

Maud E. Hulbert 

FOR the flowers use Brown Green very thin (or Grey 
for Flowers), in the shadows, Lemon Yellowy Yellow 
Ochre and Orange Red for the centers, and very light 
washes of Deep Blue Green for the lightest parts of the 
petals and some Warm Grey washes in the second firing for 
the shadows. Yellow Green and Shading Green, Deep Blue 
Green and Brown Green for the leaves. 

It would also be pleasing if used for a vase, to paint it 
with Copenhagen Grey and Blue giving the effect of a 
monochrome. 




HERAMIC STUDIO 



141 





^ .n i 




-y 







. i 



WHITE ASTERS— MAUD HULBERT 



142 



ftERAMIC STUDIO 




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SAME STYLE AS THE FOLLOWING: 






EXPLICIT INSTRUCTIONS TO APPLY THE 
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TRATED PAMPHLET. 



Wheo writins to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



y 




The entire conients of thit Magsutne ar* a^^trta by the gvnfral copyright, and the attieies mast not be reiprintea tvithomt special permission 

CONTENTS FOR NOVEMBER 1908 



Ec&torial 

National League Notes 

A Study in Grey and Rnk 

Steins 

Teapot Design 

Tile Designs for Underglaze Painting 

Mayonnaise Bowl 

Nastarti«nis 

Elderberries 

Pine Cone Motif 

White Lillies 

China and Glassware of The Balkans 

Salad Plate 

Baneberry 

Six Plates in Japanese Design — No. 2 

Daisies (Supplement) 

Wild Cacomber 

Conventionalized Stork Design 

Pitcher and Child's Plate — Geese 

C«p and Saucer 

Painting in Underglaze 

Virginia Creeper 

Holly Cup and Saucer 

Ptttosporum 

Haws 



L. Vaoce Phillips 
Helen Smith 
Anne L. B. Cheney 
Ruth Kentncr 
Helen Taylor 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Ida M. Ferris 
Jessie Underwood 
Edith Alma Ross 
Felix J. Koch 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Edith Alma Ross 
Emma A. Ervin 
Ida M. Ferris 
Mary Burnett 
D. M. Campana 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Edith Alma Ross 
Frank Ferrell 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Alice Witte Sloan 
Edith Alma Ross 
Edith Alma Ross 



PAQK 
(43 
143 

t44 
S46 

H6-J47 
J47 
148 

I48-J49 

I48-J49-J5I 

148 

148 

I 50- J 56 
153 
155 

156-157 
156 
158 
158 
159 
160 
t6I 

162-163 
162 

162-163 

I62-J63 



THE OLD RELIABLE ilzEJl FITCH KILNS 




Tfxe thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 




INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE, 



The only fuels wJiich give perfect results in 
Glaze and Color Tone. 




No. 2 Size 14x12 in $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16x19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts, 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



'No.l Sizel0xl2in $15.00 

I No. 2 Size 16x12 in 20.00 

INo.S Size 16x15 in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



b 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



sf 



Vol. X. No. 7 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



November, 1908 




HE Christmas competition which 
has just closed has been a most 
satisfactory one in every way ex- 
cept for naturahstic studies. It 
is evident that very few of the 
more experienced workers are now 
making paintings of naturahstic 
subjects. Since almost all of thr 
advanced workers have deserted 
the naturalistic field for the con- 
ventional, they have confined themselves rather to detail 
drawings with color notes rather than to completed natur- 
alistic paintings. This is rather unfortunate for the lovers 
of flower paintings since we cannot procure for them the 
flower pictures which would be an inspiration. The prizes 
were awarded after much work and time consumed in 
selection. So many good things were submitted that one 
hundred and fifty dollars has been spent in extra prizes 
and in purchasing meritorious designs. Even thus, many 
designs of merit were of necessity returned to the senders 
since we are already much overstocked. Never before 
have we had such a stock of good things to offer our ceramic 
workers. 

The prizes were awarded as follows : 
Naturalistic Study — First prize, no study considered 
sufficiently worthy. Second prize, Alice Willits, Friends- 
wood, Texas. Third prize, Charles Leo Wiard, Wauke- 
gan, Illinois. Mentions, Henrietta Barclay Paist, St- 
Anthony, Minn.; Maud E. Hulbert, Birmingham, Mich.; 
Ray E. Motz, Monassen, Pa.; Bessie C. Lemley, Jackson, 
Miss. 

Decorative Study — First prize, Mary Louise Davis, 
Toledo, Ohio. Second prize, Nettie W. King, San Francisco, 
Cal. Third prize, Ophelia Foley, Owensboro, Ky. Men- 
tions, Nancy Beyer, Punxsutawney, Pa.; Henrietta Bar- 
clay Paist, St. Anthony, Minn.; Hannah Overbeck, Cam- 
bridge City, Ind. 

Design applied to keramic form — First prize, Mathilda 
Middleton, Chicago, 111. Second prize, Henrietta Barclay 
Paist, St. Anthony, Minn.; Third prizes, Mary McCrystle, 
Chicago, 111. and lone Wheeler, Chicago, 111. Mentions, 
Nancy Beyer, Punxsutawney, Pa.; Mary Louise Davis, 
Toledo, Ohio; Frances Hazlewood, Newport, Ky. . 

Drawing of natural form with details — First prize, Nettie 
W. King, San Francisco, Cal. Second prize, Mary Louise 
Davis, Toledo, Ohio. Third prizes, Hannah Overbeck, 
Cambridge City, Ind. and Drucilla Paist, St. Anthony, Minn. 
Mentions, Alice B. vSharrard, Louisville, Ky.; Georgia Spain- 
hower, Danville, 111.; Ray E. Motz, Monassen, Pa. 

COLORS FOR BELLEEK WARE 

We would call llie allciilion of our ri adc is w lio air (Kroi 
alors of Helleek, to the bookkl offered Uw hv .Mr. l.riiox 
of tlic Lenox pottery of 'I'rentou, N. j. ll will sa\r iiiiieh 
(rouble in the handling of colors and gold on llial ware. 
It olTtrs a list of colors pupared especially for Helleek wair 
which are said lo gi\'e also sui)crior resuUs on other cliina. 



SPECIAL DESIGN COMPETITION 

WE announce on the inside back page of cover a special 
design competition, to close on December ist. This 
is a new departure. The competition will be for conven- 
tional designs to be used on commercial tableware. 

Very simple designs, well conceived and well adapted 
to the shapes, will be as liable to receive the prizes as the 
more elaborate ones, as it will be noticed that the shapes are 
simple. We advise our friends to try to submit de- 
signs, which although thoroughly artistic, will appeal to 
the pubHc taste, to the taste of the many who now look 
for factory tableware showing a better style of decoration 
than the usual sprays of naturalistic flowers. 

We hope that all our good designers will submit one 
or more designs, as it may very well mean, for the successful 
ones, more important orders in the future. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MINERAL PAINTERS 

WHEN this number of Keramic Studio reaches League 
members it will be almost time to send in designs for 
Problem two for criticism. Problem two is the vase which 
may be had in Belleek china No. 5617 Abbot's catalogue or 
in American China, No. 5901. It is "to be decorated in geo- 
metrical design and conventional flower ornament. " This 
combination it seems has puzzled a number of our members 
as many have written letters of inquiry in regard to it. We 
have referred them to pages in back numbers of Ker.\mic 
Studio which contain many examples of this style of orna- 
ment. Two excellent ones which show the design clearly 
may be seen in the August number, in the pictures of the 
exhibition of the Chicago Ceramic Art Association, one by 
Miss Iglehart showing a conventional Larkspur and another 
by Mrs. Bergen showing a conventional Spidcrwort com- 
bined with geometric design. \\'e are pleased at the inter- 
est this problem has aroused and the solution of it will be 
found of great benefit particularly to those members who 
up to now have confined tliiii elTorts to siiii])lcr forms of 
design. 

Since our annual nireliiig eight new names have been 
added to our list of indixidual nienibers. They are as fol- 
lows: Mrs. Theodore L. von Kanieeke, Mrs. E. L. Dewex', 
Mi.ss Bessie C. Lemley, Mrs. T. R. Ray. Miss l-li/abeth White. 
Mrs. Dea Carr Smith, Mrs. C. Iv ileiilelberg, Mrs. W. H. 
Ilollingswortli. 

Our Corres])on(ling Seerelaiy who ha^ also served the 
League well as Chairman of Transiiortation Ci>uiiuiliee lia^ 
resigned from both {)ositions, it i)eing matle necessary b\- the 
fact that she is going to CoU>rado to li\e. Her resignation 
was accepted with rt'gret b\ tlie .\il\isor\- Hoard, who .ip 
pointed Miss lone Wheelei, loj; Imiic .\its lUhKling. as 
Corresponding Secie(ar\- for the reiuaiiuler of the term. 
CorresiK)ndents of the l.(.\iL;iie will please make a note ot 
this change of otVicers ami also of the change of adihvss for 
(lu> Winter of the Piesident K^i llu- I.eai^ne. Mail designs 
foi ei ilieisiiis lo 

.Makn .\. lv\ui\t;To\. 

idSi. Hanx .\ve,. Chicago. 



144 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




PINE CONE MOTIF— JESSIE UNDERWOOD 

A STUDY IN GREY AND PINK 

L. Vance Phillips 

THE most desirable palette is a small palette of colors, 
each of which is an old friend, not only of the painter, 
but each of the other, to the extent that no one of them 
will aggressively seek to annihilate another in the fire. 
Greys, greens, blues, and gold pinks are for the most part 
agreeable, and in this^study of cool grey should be most 
friendly throughout. 

The manner of drawing in a head has been explained 
in a previous article. 

When a head is to be painted against a dark background, 
it is a good plan to lay in the background first and only 
slightly develop the head against this for a first fire, reserv- 
ing the important modeling for later fires. 

In the case of a light background begin at once on the 
flesh. Also in the case of an inexperienced painter, follow 
the last named plan, as the color or oil which goes beyond 
the line can be readily absorbed in the background if it is 
laid in at once. If not convenient to paint in the background 
at once the color or oil may be removed after it is dry in 
one of the three following methods: with a curved steel 
eraser; with cotton slightly moistened with turpentine; with 
clove oil, a quick and delightful cleaning process, of great 
value in conventional work. With a square shader lay on 
the clove oil, deftly using the comer of the square shader 
to touch into sharp turns and curves, always carrying the 
clove oil cleanly up to the line of the sketch. The clove oil 
will have moistened the color or oil in from two to five 
minutes, after which use a dry muslin cloth to wipe the 
moistened portions back from the head or design — always 
back from the portions to be preserved. One touch of the 
muslin will leave an absolutely clean surface, with a firm 
edge, for the clove oil will not eat beyond the line where 
it has been placed. 

In setting the flesh palette place Blonde Flesh, Pompa- 
dour, Reflected Light, Cool Shadow, of a blue tone, and a 
little Warm Shadow. 

Over the face lay evenly with a square shader an open 
oil, carrying it well into the hair, that the latter may be 
softly carried back from the flesh later on. Into this oil 
lay a thin wash of flesh color over the high lights, and Re- 
flected Light over the plane of shadow. Leave the shadow 
of the cheek and the lips free from color in order that Pompa- 
dour, pure, ma}'^ be used to suggest the natural coloj. On 
the cheek the Pompadour may be laid with a square shader 
in a wash, or painted in hatching touches with a pointed 
shader. The Cool Shadow is best handled by hatching it 
with a pointed shader into the Reflected^Light. This proc- 
ess is merely using the color thinly, in parallel strokes, 
similar to those used in etchings and in pen and ink draw- 
ings. The space between the curved strokes should be 



slightly wider than the stroke itself. The direction of these 
parallel strokes should be such as to best round and model 
the features. Any color hatched in for modeling should be 
moistened with turpentine in the brush, not oil, in order 
that the even surface of oil may be retained, for upon this 
evenness depends the quickness and perfection of the blend- 
ing — the gently uniting of the different tones — when the 
modeling is completed. The Cool Shadow should be modeled 
into all the half tones except on the cheek and used in round- 
ing the flesh color into the Reflected Light. The amount of 
color used in difi^erent places should vary with the depth of 
tone required to the end that where the least Cool Shadow 
is used the Reflected Light tone shines up with more strength 
and gives that luminous depth that suggests life. By this 
hatching touch the general tone of Reflected Light is not 
materially disturbed, and wells up in a manner not obtain- 
able by a flat wash including both tones. 

In the very few dark shadows of the face a little Warm 
Shadow is used. On the whole the high light is the local 
color, the half tones are of varying degrees of coolness, while 
the few dark shadows express warmth. 

In stippling or blending use the largest size convenient 
to do the work and select always a slant stippler, as it will 
more deftly unite the different tones than the square variety. 
Touch lightly from light into medium tones and finally 
into the deepest shadows using after the manner of a silk 
dabber, yet even more daintily and evenly if possible. If 
this tool is used when the oil is too wet the modeling is 
quickly melted and lost. If too dry the hatchings will not 
disappear and the color must be laid again. If done at the 
happy moment the line touches will melt into the general 
wash, leaving some places truly cool, and others of readily 
apparent warmth. 

Blonde Hair may be laid in with Yellow Ochre very 
thin in the lights, Meissen Brown with a little Blue Violet 
in the general shadows and Meissen, pure, in a few dark 
shadows. 

The background may be laid sketchily with Pearl 
Grey to which is added Apple Green and Rose. In some 
places at the left, a pink grey and at the right a green 
grey. 

The dress should be Pearl Grey shaded through Pearl 
with a little Turquoise in the half tones and in the few deep 
shadows a wash of Pearl and Meissen with a tint of Ruby. 

The scarf a pink grey — Pearl with a little Rose and the 
deepest shadows the same as those of the dress. 

Render the high lights of the rose by an absence of 
color, the half tones with Apple Green and Rose and the 
deepest touches with Rose. In the last painting of the 
rose a thin wash of Light Yellow will be a happy note. 

In repainting the flesh for a second and third fire do 
not plan to duplicate the first painting, but rather study to 
add those colors here and there that seem needed to make 
the face ideal in color and expression. Perhaps the high 
lights will need no more color. Perhaps the addition of a 
little more blue at the temples near the hair, and of a little 
Apple Green in the cool shadows used in modeling the neck 
may bring variety in the flesh and harmony in a cool color 
scheme. 

A delicate pink wash over the scarf when 'nearly com- 
pleted may be the little touch of color you desire. 

For ideas about tinting and rubbing in dry color and 
for advice relative to not painting^^every^part every time 
read the paragraphs relating to this in my article on the 
decorative treatment of a figure. 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



145 




-.«*'' 

r 



■<--!<^- 



r ■■' Y Ttfn-ilMTfr^'-'Yr 



SWEDISH MODEL- CARL J. BLENNER 



146 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




TEAPOT DESIGN 

Anne L. B. Cheney 

DARKEST part — Grounding oil, padded 
evenly; and dusted in one hour with 
Empire Green to which has been added a 
very little Black. 

Light portions — vSpecial oil for tinting, 
padded and dusted with Albert Yellow. 
Gold can be used with good effect in the 
bands and veins of the leaves. Divide the 
lower portion of tea pot into three sections, 
and use two coats of Eight Green Eustre in 
the panels, using gold bands to divide sec- 
tions. Outline in Black. 

STUDIO NOTES 

Miss M. Helen E. Montfort has reopened 
her studio on Thursday, October ist, 1908, at 
318 Eenox Ave., New York City. 

Miss Eaura B. Overly has removed her 
studio from 27 West 26th St., to 297 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. 

Miss lone Wheeler has opened her new 
studio at 1026 Fine Arts Building, Chicago. 



STEINS 



Helen Stnith. 



THE stein designs may be treated in a 
number of ways. The steins should be 
made of a hard, white body and either a clear 
white glaze or a white mat glaze may be used. 

The borders should be applied in clear, 
flat colors and not more than three or four 
colors should be used. Perhaps the simplest 
treatment and also an effective one is to 
carefully trace the design on the stein in black 
overglaze color and when the outline is per- 
fectly dry, fill in the spaces with rich colors, 
using a bright green, scarlet and yellow with 
perhaps a touch of dark blue. 

If a softer effect is desired the spaces of 
the border may be painted in a grayish green, 
light blue and a soft yellow, and if this color- 
scheme is used the outlines should be left 
white. 

If the steins have first a deep cream- 
color applied for a background the borders 
would look well in three or four tones of one 
color, using a very dark tone for the outlines. 
Tones of brown, blue or a warm green may 
be used. 

It will not be found difficult to trace bor- 
ders of this character if one section is care- 
fully outlined first and then a pounce made 
from this to use in repeating by rubbing pow- 
dered charcoal over it. 




RERAMIC STUDIO 



147 




TEAPOT DESIGN— ANNE L. B. CHENEY 




TILE DESIGNS FOR UNDERGLAZE PAINTING RUTH KFNTNHR 



148 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




MAYONNAISE BOWL— HELEN K. TAYLOR 



MAYONNAISE BOWL 

Helen K. Taylor 

BLUE — one part Aztec Blue, one part Ivory Glaze. 
Green — two parts Copenhagen Gre)^, one part Sea Green, 
one part Yellow Green. Grey — one-half Grey Yellow, three 
Pearl Grey. Red — three parts Yellow Red, one Pearl 
Grey. Yellow— three parts Albert Yellow, one Pearl Grey. 

NASTURTIUMS 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

IX using this study either for panel or vase, first tint 
the entire piece with Xeutral Yellow and fire. The 
design is then traced on. Use for the flowers Lemon or 
Albert's Yellow, Fry's Imperial Ivory and Yellow Red, 
Avith Dark Brown for the markings of the red one and Yel- 
low Brown for the lighter ones. Use Grey Green or Olive 
Green for the leaves and stems. Lay all colors flat and 
outline for last fire with Dark Brown and Dark Green, 
brown for flowers and green for foliage. 

ELDERBERRIES (Page 151) 

Ida M. Ferris 

FOR the berries use Banding Blue, Royal Purple and 
Black. Keep the lightest and the darkest ones quite 
flat and simple, giving reflected lights to onl}' a few. 



The leaves are a dull warm green, mostly Brown Green, 
with a little Dark Green in darkest tones, with shadow 
leaves in light washes of colors used in berries. 

The background is more pleasing if it is in warm tones, — 
Aulich's AA^arm Green with some Albert Yellow, in the very 
lightest places, behind the top and left cluster, with colors 
of the leaves in darkest places. 

PINE CONE MOTIF (Page 144) 

Jessie Underwood 

PAINT overglaze cone and panels Light Yellow out- 
lined in Brown, or Chestnut Brown tint outlined deeper 
the same. 

WHITE LILIES (Page 155) 

Edith Alma Ross 

THE coloring for this study is ver\- simple, drawing 
must be accurate and lines carefully preser\'ed. 
The green is any good green, say Shading Green or 
Grass Green with a touch of Brown Green and Dark Green. 
The stems should be yellow with a faint shading of 
green. 

Egg Yellow, Albert Yellow or Jonquil Yellow will give 
the right color and A'ellow Brown the stamens. Shade care- 
fullv and retouch with Brown Green. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



149 




NASTURTIUMS— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 




BORDERS- ELDERBERRIES IDA M. FERRIS 



J 



I^O 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




CHINA AND GLASSWARE 
OF THE BALKANS 

Notes of Travel by Felix J. 
Koch 



T 



CORNER or CROCKERY SHOP. 
BUDAPEST 



^HE examples of the pot- 
ter's art which southern 
and notably southeastern Eu- 
rope presents are interesting, 
if only for the proof they 
offer, constantly, that all the 
world is akin, and that in 
Darkest Turkey there are em- 
ployed many things identical 
with those to be found in our 
most cosmopolitan cities. 

The east Adriatic at the 
outset presents many of these 
specimens. 

Miramar, the home of 
Maximilian of Mexico, being a 
royal chateau, is, of course, 
expected to house rarities, but 
aside from a porcelain-topped 
table in the reception room, stoves of china in the ser^'ants' 
quarters, and heavy crystal chandeliers, there is little here 
to attract the notice. Quite a few of the rooms have the 
double-doors of glass, however, and something of an oddity 
exists in the floor of the second story, in the form of a heavy 
circular pane of glass through which one may look into the 
apartment below. 

Northward in Istria, among the salt workers of Capo 
d'Istria there are in use dishes of a heavy blue pattern, 
reminding one at once of Delft. This similarity is increased 
the more by reason of the fact that the dishes repose be- 
hind slats along the walls, as the}' do in the Dutch peasant 
homes. 

Beginning with Rovigno, one meets everywhere in 
this section a plain glass decanter holding just a liter and 
equally plain water glasses. Wine is actually cheaper 
than water in these lands — for drinking water is sold — 
and with the wine, which comes in the liters, there 
are the tumblers, one for water, to dilute, and the other 
for the mixed beverage. Zara, however, has brought to 
the world a glass of its own, the original maraschino 
vessel, for this is the home of the maraschino par ex- 
cellence. In Zara they drink the liquor in a little glass 
the shape of the old-fashioned tapering champagne glass, 
but standing not two inches high. Onto the top of the 
glass a pasteboard cover is laid, to retain the aroma, when 
serving. Old porcelain bowled pipes of German style and 
great water jugs borne from the town-fountain by the 
men, are other features of street life in this place. In the 
cafes, a tiny pitcherlet of white porcelain, matching the 
maraschino glasses in size, stands at each place, contain- 
ing the coffee, while a great pitcher holds the cream, for 
in this region one drinks milk with coffee in the proportion 
that we usually take coffee with milk. 

Among the Albanians of Erizzio, the dishes are like- 
wise kept behind wooden slats along the walls. In the 
cemeteries of these people, against each stone there is set 
a glass case, bearing wreaths of beadwork, and now and 
then a picture of the deceased. The grog-shops of this 
region have solved the problem of breakage by replacing 



the "stein" with a broad, three-spouted pitcher of metal, 
more useful than ornamental, and from these the customers 
drink direct. Lotto is a govemmenti^monopolyt^in^Austria 
and very popular, but, curiously enough, the lotto glasses 
are not employed, gravel from the highway serving for 
markers. 

Along the Dalmatian coast, Spalatro, which is built 
inside an old Roman imperial palace, contains, in its museum, 
some interesting examples of urns, for holding human ashes 
after cremation, dug up from Roman tombs. These urns 
are of a pale blue translucent glass, that is filled with slag 
and other impurities, and were kept inside stone jars. A 
magnificent vase of alabaster, too, has been exhumed and 
set in this collection. 

In the back country of Dalmatia, Trau and Canali, a 
curious object in each home, is a huge decanter, — two or 
three feet high, — that serves to hold the gin for the family, 
and stands in some sheltered comer of the home. From 
it tiny maraschino glasses are filled, and then passed to 
the guests. A native sherry on the other hand is served 
in water glasses, and these full to the top, being accompanied 
by a cake, which is presented on a great colored platter. 

Cetinge, the capital of Montenegro, presents little of 
interest except that all windows are built double, a pane 
at either side the sill, against the bitter winter. 

To the north, in Hungary, at Fiume, glass panes serve 
to form little oratories along a hill of pilgrimage, that is 
one of the interesting points on a trip through Magyardom. 
Fiume is noted for its oddities in the form of miniatures, 
and among the most unique of these are tiny aquariums of 
glass and of a shell of the vicinity, which are meant to be 
worn as watch charms. Paper weights, too, of the finest 
crystal glass, enclosing a real butterfly; little pocket mir- 
rors in queer design and with the back of an iridescent 
shell, and the like, also fill the stores. 

At Abbazia, a neighboring summer resort, on the 
Gulf of Fiume, the water-glass is used for serving coffee. 

In Croatia old men in the villages have the typical 
German pipe of curved porcelain bowl. In the gardens, 
too, among the flowers, mounted on short sticks, are bril- 
liantly colored balls of glass, such as we mount on our 
Christmas trees, that lend their color effects to the whole. 

On the market at Agram, capital of Croatia, unlike 
most European markets, cheeses are not set on the stalls 
themselves, but on clean plates, while milk is made equally 
appetizing by being sold in jugs of white, with heavy brown 
mottling. Eggs, too, are sold from similar jugs. 

Beyond the cathedral of Agram, famous tor its hand- 
some, narrow stained windows, reminding one of St. Chap- 
elle of Paris, in the Museum, there is preserved quite a 
lot of ancient Croat pottery, among the lot there being 
especially notew^orthy a painting of Saint John's head, upon 
a plate. Stores in this city sell tiny bottles, perhaps two 
or three inches high, containing a single canned fruit, — 
one peach or plum, etc., while the porcelain shops have, 
for specialty, a deep navy-blue faience, sandy to the touch 
and eye, and worked into all manner of figures. Stoves 
throughout the city, even to the cloak room of the Land- 
tag or Parliament, are made of porcelain. 

In the back country, at Somobor, each house is fitted 
with a balcony of glass, a sort of sun parlor, at its rear, 
but this is employed as storehouse for rubbish almost ex- 
clusively, so that one wonders instinctively why it was 
built. At Sissek, a neighboring city, .shop windows are 
no larger than dwelling windows, while the doors to- the 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



Kl 




ELDERBERRIES-IDA M. FERRIS 



(Tro.Umciil p.ijiji- I IS 



152 



heramic studio 




PORCELAIN BOWLED PIPES OF CROATIA 

stores) are of glass, and are reached from a little vestibule 
indented in the wall. 

Far to the south, in Bosnia, beginning with Banja- 
luka, the bazaars afford many things of interest, both old 
friends and new. On the shelves of some the pickle jars 
are prominent, and cheap pottery is equally plentiful in 
others. Bazaars of a sort are grouped together, and prices 
and wages are the same throughout a given town. Nor will 
the shop keeper of this section bargain, but if one attempt 
to underbid, he replaces the object on the shelves, stating 
that he sees the buyer does not really wish it. In the 
kavanas, or Turkish cafe-houses, which are as ubiquitous 
as saloons in Chicago, from this point on over the Balkans, 
there are employed tiny deep saucers, perhaps two inches 
in diameter at the top, and in these the cofTee is served, 
from metal flagons or pitchers, two glasses for water always 
accompanying an order. Usually the little cups are of 
plain white china, though now and then a band of pink 
and of gold, or a slight floral pattern will be added. 

In the neighboring Trappist monastery there are, 
likewise, the china stoves, and in addition, at the junction 
of the arms on the crucifix in each cell a glass for water is 
set. At each monks' place in the refectory one finds a 
cup of the cheapest white china, enwrapped with a napkin, 
and a tall, equally coarse pitcher of crockery, from whose 
contents each brother washes his own dishes when through 
with the meal. Other dishes, however, are of metals, 
usually tin. Two little jugs, one for beer and one for water, 
are likewise at each plate. 

Along the trails from this city to Rjeka, in the cafes, 
the handleless coffee cups are quite generally of white 
with a pattern of red and blue. Rjeka, whose pride is a 
pavilion of colored glass panes, from which one may over- 
look the falls, has in its kitchens some interesting things. 
Bottles containing the dirty milky vinegar are in one 
corner, dishes of white china, with blue and red flower 
pattern, are stacked in another. In the bedroom, on a 
tall old chest, there stands a variety of bric-a-brac, while 
on the cupboard's top is placed pottery and decanters, 
and, in each home, an apple of porcelain, pierced about 
with slits, into which little pewter fruit knives fit. Glasses 
for the slivowitz, or prune brandy, and coffee cups, such as 
sell at two and two-fifths cents on the bazaars, are other 
inevitables. 

Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, is the city of bazaars, 
par excellence, set at either side the cobbled floors of in- 
numerable arcades, and each with its moslem owner sitting 



cross-legged at the edge of the shop beside his silver water 
bottle with coffee or cigarettes to his lips. Everything al- 
most will be sold in some of the bazaars, from bric-a-brac 
to bolts of gay colored cloths and boots, though usually 
each will have its specialties arranged, either in the most 
exacting order or else the greatest confusion. 

Among these bazaars the drinking water vender passes 
with a set of ordinary tumblers in his belt. 

Sarajevo having a brewery, has, likewise, a consider- 
able demand for bottles imported from the north, for de- 
spite the fact that these are packed in straw for shipment, 
travel on burro back is rather hard on glassware. The 
National Museum of the city contains quite a lot of sam- 
ples of ancient pottery, with which the old Bosniacs were 
buried, and almost as old are certain distaffs, with little 
mirrors set in the handles. This museum, in addition to 
its cases and jars, has employed great mirrors as floors 
for the "swamps" among which its reed birds are exposed, 
a novelty that produces the desired effect of water, and 
is well worthy of emulation. 

Lanterns of glass are features of the parade in honor 
of the Emperor's birthday in this city, when folk throng 
the cafes, both for the drinks and to indulge in the Turk- 
ish water pipes. Of the latter objects there is a great market 
in the city, the pipes consisting of a base of glass, whence 
a rod rises to the top where the tobacco is placed, sur- 
rounded by a protective metal gauze and a top piece; 
while a hose is attached in such wise that the smokers do 
not receive the nicotine, which is lost when the fumes pass 
through the water. 

At a Turkish wedding dishes are the usual gift of the 
father of the bride. 

At Mostar as over the Herzegovina, and, in fact, Bosnia 
generally, the little handleless coft'ee cup, more like a tiny 
bowl of white china, with a rim of pink, or a few bands of 
gold, is on sale, and in use everywhere, the Turk swilling 
coffee the day through. Larger bowls are employed for 
a peculiarly flavored punch of this locality, while in the 
lunch rooms, over the capital, still greater ones contain 
the meat balls and stewed meats, from which the customer 
is served. At the great vineyards, outside the city, grapes 
are served on plates, rather than platters, as is the true 
Turkish fashion. 

Even into the sandchak of Novipazar, the darkest 
part of European Turkey, this demand for the coffee cups 
has crept, these and the beer glasses, which are used like- 
wise in most of the inns. For glass beads, too, there is 
demand, since the peasants are inordinately fond of deck- 
ing their wagon horses with long strings of blue or red 
varieties. 

At Plevje, the capital of the district, however, the 
pasha, whose salary is ten thousand dollars a year and 
innumerable perquisites, has not enough dishes to go 
round at his banquets, and so guests wait, between courses, 
while dishes are being washed, and should the coating of 
lamb-fat with which everything is here cooked, still adhere, 
no one seems to mind. At the little Christian church 
here, the icon of the Virgin is preserved beneath glass, 
that the devout peasants may kiss it without fear of in- 
jury. 

In the strangers' bedroom of the Austro-Hungarian 
fort at Priboj, in this part of Turkey, the stove is of por- 
celain. Glassware, however, is largely limited, hereabouts, 
to an occasional mirror, and to a single show case at the 
front of each bazaar, in which the choicer articles of the 
man's stock are kept. The people of the locality turn out 



KEKAMIC STUDIO 



153 




SALAD PLATE— MARIE CRILLEY WILSON 

PAINT leaves and bands willi Tinlin^i; Oil, let it stand It" a white haek^ronud to desii^ii is i)iel"eireil the leaves 

several hours, then dust with ecjual i)arts Hrown and hiinds mav he of ( we\ t uivn antl Hrown t ween, dnstetl 

Green, New Green and Ivory (Maze. The flowers are of with Inoin (da/e. 

Albert Yellow to whieli a toueh of Yellow Hrown has been Anolhn snital)le eoior seheine \Vi>nld be to iKiint tlu 

added. Let this color be very delicate. After lirini^ ai)i)ly iiiiin' drsiu;n with e(|nal parts Copenliai;eii lUne and A/teo 

envelope to entire border. Slightly color Special Tintint; Hlne, meiel\ ontlnnn- llouei witli ihe same, bjiveloiv 

Oil with Grey for Flesh; after standinj^ some time, imtil it dusted witli two paits CoiHidia-m l^ux ami one n.iii IVarl 

becomes tacky, dust with Hrown Green and IVarl Gii'V. Cmi-n . 



154 



he:ramic studio 




CAFE POTTERY. BOSNIA 

a crude earthen-ware, left uncolored save for the necks 
of the vases and bottles, which are usually painted in the 
sacred color, green. 

For serving the candied rose-leaves to favored guests a 
glass bowl is also employed by the mayors of these little towns. 

Travelers in this part of Turkey one and all equip 
themselves with a flask for water, since it is often weary, 
warm miles between streams, and likewise between places 
where any liquid refreshment can be obtained. 

At Budapest, the capital of Hungary, the semi- 
official touristry bureau, where all excursions are planned 
and all theatre tickets sold, sells typical peasant wares, 
pottery among the number, and by attractive cases fosters 
sales that encourage the peasants to further efforts. No- 
where, however, is the art of mending china well under- 
stood in this city, and when something dainty is broken it 
remains so. 

iVmong the barbers of this city there is employed a 
plain white plate, made with a notch out on one side, so 
as to fit the chin. In washing, after shaving, the towel 
is made very wet, the water streaming into the dish. 

A characteristic of the china stores in this city is a 
queer red ware, iridescent purple, from which all manner 
of unique figures are made. 

In the north of Hungary, the town museum contains 
native pottery of the locality, largely a creamy white, 
heavily glazed ware, with gaudy flower patterns. Great 
glass jars, for containing specimens in alcohol, have a great 
sale among these civic museums. In this part of Europe 
coffee is served in glasses rather than in cups. 

Among the Slovaks at Hervad, the inn tables are 
laden with the dishes and earthen -ware, as well as crocks, 
as though to display the entire stock. In the latter towels 
are placed, and then, inside these, the dough is set to rise, 
after having been kneaded in the family cradle. 

Among the Schmecks cities wandering glaziers are 
features of the roadsides, the men bearing their frames of 
glass on the back and smoking their pipes and bearing 
the long walking-stick, trudge on, weary miles. Here 
at Alt-Schmecks, the coffee is likewise served in glasses, 
and these accompanied by tiny pitcherlets of white por- 
celain, the one containing milk, the other the coffee itself, 
that the two may be mixed in the glass. American bath- 
tubs of porcelain are features of the baths in this region. 

At Csorba, for the mountain ascents, flasks of a green 
glass are sold the tourists. Wine bottles, too, are much 
in evidence, being placed on tables in the inns that folk 
may be tempted to buy of the beverage. Heavy glass 
paper weights, containing a picture of some local scene, 
are favorite souvenirs of the locality. 



At the Magyar capital, in addition to selling glass 
beads for the children to string, bisque dolls are greatly 
in vogue. At funerals here the wreaths are likewise usually 
of a glass bead work. Among the baker shops, tiny vials 
for fruit juices and more ordinary glass jars of preserves 
help to ornament the windows. Little buckets of a trans- 
lucent glass and silvered rim, for washing grapes at the 
table when served, are other commonplaces of the shops. 

At the annual art exposition at Belgrade, Servia, plain 
porcelain * dishes are employed for receiving the money of 
the visitors. 

Peasants in this section are exceedingly fond of a series 
of red and yellow beads worn on the front of the coat of hide. 

On the market, great green crocks are hawked, being 
used by the peasants for innumerable purposes. 

Lunch stands use as symbol a number of plates heaped 
high with a rather dirty hash. 

In the homes of Servia it is the custom to have on the 
top of a tall wardrobe a great accumulation of cups and 
saucers, vases, trays and the like, one and all, however, so 
high above the heads of the tenants as scarcely to be seen 
save from afar, and owing to the shakiness of the chiffonieres, 
causing the larger pieces to be in imminent danger of top- 
pling upon the smaller. 

A crystal chandelier is the favorite ornament to a great 
hall in Servia, such as the national theatre at Belgrade. 

At funerals here the cortege is preceded by a boy carry- 
ing a plate, upon which, later on, the funeral cake is to be set. 

In connection with the blessing of the regalia at a 
Serb coronation, the folk in the church one and all kiss a 
glass pane over a small sacred icon, placed to one side the 
aisle. 

At great balls of state, ladies of the Serb nobility deck 
themselves with glass beads set about the little ornamental 
fez, and made in imitation of great pearls. 

On these occasions, also, the plates and cups and saucers 
respectively, are stacked high on the buffet, each guest help- 
ing himself to them. The champagne glasses, however, re- 
main in the charge of attendants, who hand them out al- 
ready filled. 

Interesting, on the table of Prince Milosh of Servia, at 
the royal chateau at Terpschidor, is a small glass vial con- 
taining a morsel of bread, which was walled in, as a memento 
when the chateau was built, and later found in the course of 
a remodeling. 

In the Serb cemeteries wreaths of glass flowers are 
favorite ornaments to the graves. 

In Bucarest, capital of Roumania, the houses of the 
city are characterized by the fact that above the main 
window-panes there is always a smaller pane of glass, of a 
pale blue shade, while the great windows are all of this 
lavender hue. 

In the dirty inns on the "obor," or market-place here, 
one and all, the customers dine from a single dish. Here 
the great bazaars of native crockery, — little salt and pepper 
holders of plain grass green patterns; crocks of green and 
white divided by bands of coarse, and yet rather odd and 
hence interesting other colors, — form a picture gayer than 
can be imagined, especially when the warm summer sun 
sets the colors to playing. 

A feature of the agricultural exposition of Roumania, 
at Bucarest, is the exhibition of jugs of all sorts: china- 
ware; more of the green crockery mottled in brown; ovens 
of porcelain, sold by one Jones of America, who has added 
a "c«t" at the end of his name to conform, with local nomen- 
clature, and little glasses of pale green, or blue, and the 



nURAMIC STUDIO 



iSS 




BANEBERRY 



Edith Alma Ross 



THIS dainty plant is botanically called Aciaea alha; 
the common name being" baneberry or cohosh. 

It is related to the columbine, buttercup, anemone, 
clematis and other interCvSting- flowers belonging to the large 
order of Ranunculaceai. 

In April and May the tiny blossoms appear in tliick 
racemes and later are followed by the showy puiv wliiU' 
waxen l)erries I)orne on scarlet stems. 

This makes a decorative study for Ihi' eliiiui painter 
ushig it as it api)ears in nature or decoralivi'l\' healing it. 

Ivcave the china while for Ihe l)erries and use Capucin 
Red and Red Brown for (lie sUins. The leaves iikin also 
be in shades of red and brown to harmoni/e. 

For a decorative clVecl have the berries in siKer and 
stems and leaves in green bronze on a pale green ground. 
Outline all in black including the tiny dot in each berry. 




WHITE LILIES-EDITH ALMA ROSS 
^.Trcatiucnt p.iRC 148^ 



156 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



proverbial small brown jug, all make their appearance at 
the Fair. 

In the Roumania villages, tiny decanters, holding just 
one gulp, are employed for prune brandy, and the owner 
drinks directly from the mouth of the flask. 

At the side of the inn door, in these poverty-stricken 
inns, a huge decanter has its place, while the window ar- 
rangement is always a series of wine bottles of red or blue- 
colored waters, then a row of empty bottles, and above that 
of bottles containing a yellow licjuid. 

In the peasant homes, the chimney shelf contains an 
aggregation of coarse white plates of cheap pattern, as 
well as of blue pitchers. Then there will be another shelf 
of plates alone, and, on a third wall or in another room, still 
one more shelf, with toy dogs of porcelain, and imitation 
apples of china, and cups for fresh flowers. 

At Rustchuk, the metropolis of Bulgaria, candy is 
sold in thick, clear glass forms such as a long bean and the 
like in the shops. 

The people of Timova, in the interior of Bulgaria, are 
inordinately fond of doors almost wholly of glass, these 
leading out both on the street and upon balconies. At 
this place our ordinary cup, rather than the handless bowl 
employed by the Turks, is used for coffee. Glass saucers, 
such as were once fashionable for ice cream with us, are here 
employed, with a tumbler for water, for serving the pre- 
serves or jelly with which each guest is greeted. 

At Plevna, the crockery stores, like all the rest, have 
great strings of red peppers on the exterior, drying for 
winter use. 

Other stores here expose great quantities of cheap 
blue or green bracelets of glass, which the women wear in 
large numbers on the wrist. 

Here it is the fashion to keep the spectacles in the cap 
when not in use. 



On the bazaars they sell a two-handled cup, but of tin, 
and fitted with spout from which the water is allowed to 
trickle down the drinker's throat, — those being filled from 
a great jug, kept on the bureau in the home. 

At funerals two boys bear tin platters of cake at the 
head of the cortege, while at the foot of the coihn, inside 
the church, two glass decanters likewise have place. 

At the depot at Plevna is sold a cjueer wine bottle, the 
glass coated with a preparation in imitation of bark, and 
the whole filled, costing a matter of thirty cents. 



.f^' 

'i >>^.. 



\ 








N 




SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN— Continued 

Evima A. Ervin 

O. 2. Tint the background same as No. i. The birds 

have Olive Green heads, wings and tails with Yellow 

close around the eye. The feet are Shading Green and the 

breasts Yellow Ochre with a tiny bit of Dark 

Green to grey it. The leaves are painted 

with Dark Green, Yellow Ochre, Pompadour, 

and just a little Light Blue and Green used 

in the two farthest from the birds. 

DAISIES (Stipplement) 

Ida M. Ferris 

SKETCH your flowers broadly, leaving in- 
dividual leaves to be brought out by 
the background. Shade flowers with Grey 
for roses, centers, Albert Yellow and Yellow 
Brown. 

Leaves and stems in grey greens. In 
the light grey background Lavender Glaze 
may be used in lighest tones as it has a warm 
tint and is more pleasing than so much blue. 
Back of the flowers use Turquoise Blue, 
toned with the grey in flowers. 

Lower part of background use Lemon 
Yellow and a grey tone of green. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

We remind readers who wish elementary 
instruction, that they have only to write 
and ask and they will be answered in the 
correspondents column. That page is es- 
pecially for. beginners although it is also 
open to advanced workers. 




NOVEM BER I 903 

SUPPLEMENT TO 

K E RAM IC STU DIO 



DAISIES-- IDA M. FERRIS 



KEMAMIO SlLim>.l PUH CO. 
SYRACUSE. N. Y 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



11 








\ • 



\ 




SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN NO. 2 EMMA A. ERVIN 



158 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



WILD CUCUMBER 

Mary Burnett. 
HE flowers are greenish 
white. The leaves and 
seed pods are a soft Hght green. 
Use darker greens in shad- 
ows and background. 



T 




CONVENTIONALIZED STORK 
DESIGN 

D. M. Campana. 

THIS odd design is painted in 
a cold color combination . The 
appearance of the whole is a grey- 
ish claret tone, going toward violet. 
The background and outlines are 
in Peacock Green mixed with one- 
half of Ruby Purple, and applied 
dry. The lighter parts of the 
Stork are in Pearl Grey dusted with 
Rose. The flowers on top are Light 
Grey nearly white, and the top 
band in Copenhagen Blue, dusted 
with Rose. The whole effect is 
warm, odd and new. 







^ 




VASE— D. M. CAMPANA 



WILD CUCUMBER— MARY BURNETT 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



159 




PITCHER— GEESE— MARIE CRILLEY WILSON 




CHILD'S PLATE— MARIE CRILLEY WILSON 

To be exccuk'd in li'jlil \i\cv\\ ami ilark l)lue. 



i6o 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 




CUP AND SAUCER— EDITH ALMA ROSS 



PAINTING IN UNDERGLAZE 

Frank F err ell 

ALL Color Stains must be mixed with a Color Body, 
both to be ground together till they will pass freely 
through a 150 mesh sieve. 

Apply color in the same manner as in oil painting. 
Apply the colors heavily and lay them on smoothly be- 
cause of burning off in the fire. 

The grounding and decorating must all be done in 
the green state while the vase is yet wet. 

The following colors should first be made up and 
placed in bowls or jars. The colors work much better 
after standing. 

COLOR BODY 

White — English Ball Clay, 29; Flint, 32; English China 
Clay, 36. 

COLOR STAINS 

Light Yellow — No. 82 Dark Yellow, i; Color Body, 12. 

Dark Yellow — No. 82 Dark Yellow, i; Color Body, 3. 

Light Green — Grass Green, i ; Color Body, 5. 

Pale Green — Grass Green, i : Color Body, 10. 

Dark Green — No. 68 Dark Green, i ; Color Body, 3. 

Black — Best Black, i ; Color Body, 7. 

Pale Blue — Mat Blue, i ; Color Body, 15. 

Dark Green — Cobalt, i ; Color Body, 6. 

Magenta — No. 47 Magenta, i ; Color Body, 3. 

Purple — Purple, i ; Color Body, 3. 

Salmon — No. 25 Salmon Red, i ; Color Body 3. 



Purple may be lightened with Magenta. Do not use 
White, because it will turn Purple to a blue gray. 

After firing once, ware should be dipped thinly in 
the following glaze and retired : 

Transparent Mat G/a2;e— Feldspar, 30; English China 
Clay, 40; Flint, 28.5; Chalk, 20. 

These color stains can be obtained from The 0. Wum- 
mel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., and B. F. Drakenfeld & 
Co., New York. 

VIRGINIA CREEPER 

Maud E. Hulbert 

THE Virginia Creeper is well adapted to a vase that is 
larger at the top than at the base. 

Mass the leaves and berries at the top and use for a 
background Brown Green fading into Copenhagen at the 
bottom. For the last firing tint the whole vase with Ivory 
Glaze. 

The darker leaves should sink into the ground and 
should be painted with Brown Green, Shading Green, Fin- 
ishing Brown and Chestnut Brown. 

The little leaves are often a bright scarlet and some of 
the leaves are yellow; have on your palette Brown and 
Orange Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Yellow Red, Pompadour and 
Violet of Iron, Moss Green and Yellow Green. 

For the berries, Rose, Deep Blue Green, Deep Violet 
of Gold, Deep Violet, and Brunswick Black. The little 
stems of the berries are Pompadour. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



i6i 




VIRGINIA CREEPER MAUDE E. HULBERT 



i6z 



RIIRAMIC STUDIO 




HOLLY CUP AND SAUCER— ALICE WITTE SLOAN 

Tint Holly cup and saucer with dark border of Shading Green with Pale Yellow in center, or make border of 

Apple Green with Capucine Red in center. 



VASE— PITTOSPORUM 

Edith Alma Ross 

THE flowers are white and those which have been open 
a dav or t^vo are yellow. Leave the china white for 
the white blossoms and shade the centers with Ivon,^ Yel- 
low and Apple Green. 

Paint the yellow flowers with Albert Yellow, Light 
Brown and a little Brown Green. Those in shadow will need 
Brown Green and Yellow Brown. 

The centers are quite a dark green and give much char- 
acter to the blossoms. 

Paint one of the clusters of flowers in pinkish shades b}' 
using English Pink and Y'ellow Brown. The leaves sur- 
rounding this cluster also make a pinkish color with Yellow 
Brown, Red Brown and Dark Brown. 

The leaves are painted with Shading Green, Deep Blue 
Green, Brown Green, and Dark Green. 



Stems are Y^ellow Brown, Brown yi and Deep Red 
Bro"\^'n. 

There are soft shadows under the flowers on the china of 
^A^arm Grey, Bnmswick Black, Deep Blue Green, Violet of 
Gold, Dark Green and Yellow Brown. 

HAWS 

Edith Alma Ross 

FOR the berries that are ripe, paint with Capucine, 
Albert Yellow, Deep Red Brown and a little Ruby. 
Those which are still green or turning may be painted 
with Albert Yellow and Y'ellow Green with a little Deep Red 
Bro's^-n. 

The leaves are painted with the usual greens, and those 
which are beginning to mature and turn brown will need 
Yellow Brown, Brown Green, Pompadour, Deep Red Brown, 
and Brown M or io8. 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



163 










S 



PITTOSPORUM— EDITH ALMA ROSS 





•=««ik«!feu-. 



HAWS-EDITH ALMA ROSS 




"ELARCO" 
ROMAN GOLD 

In Patented Porcelain Jars 







Your special attention is called to the improved manner of packing "Elarco" Roman Gold. The screw-top porcelain 
jar affords the great convenience to keramic artists of having at all times at hand a fresh, moist, always-read3"-for-use 
preparation of unsurpassed quality, purity- and durability. This jar is patented and no other gold is put up in this manner. It 

Keeps the Gold Moist and Fresh 
Keeps the Gold Clean and Free from Dust 
Keeps the Gold in Good Condition Indefinitely 
Prevents Waste of Gold — therefore Economical 




(The empty jars may be used for ready mixed colors.) 




Exact size of jar — closed 



Exact size of jar— open 



"ELARCO" SILVER 

Have you ever used "Elarco" Silver? It is extremely white and smooth. 



Being importers and manufacturers we carr}^ a large stock of all the famous brands of 

CERAMIC COLORS 

We do not sell colors in vials— we want bulk business, and solicit orders from bottlers of colors. 

L. Reusche & Co. 

6 PARK PLACE - One Door from ^roadu-ay - NEW YORK CITY 




The finishtng touch is thai indefinable finality 
of artistic effort •which gives Pouyat china its 
enduring claim to supremacy. Ehery passing 
season •witnesses a steady increase in the Amer- 
ican demand for the best that the Vouyat factory 
produces. 

We ire keenly alive to the importune* of thia 
demand, and toe respond to it vuith due appre- 
ciation. 

'PAROUTAUD & WATSON 
37 and 39 Murray Street, Nem) York 



ssBBE^a^ia 



When writing to advertifen pfeue mention tbi* magazine. 



The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted iviihoui special permission 

CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER 1908 



Editorial 

League Notes 

Keramic and other Arts of Persians 

Poppies 

Poppy 

Poppies (color studies) 

Happy Study Hours 

Crab Apples 

Poppy Bowl 

Poppy Plates 

Grape Steins 

Berry Design for Fruit Plate 

Cherry Design for FruitPIate 

Grape Panel 

Holly 

Haws 

Holly Treatment 

Haws Treatment 

Fruit Borders 

Poppy 

Detail Drawings of Poppies 

Poppy Seed Design for Plate 

Mountain Ash 

Teapot, Cream Pitcher and Sugar Bowl, Raffia Handle 

Tobacco Jar 

Tea Caddies 

Exhibition and Studio Notes 

Answers to Correspondents 



Randolph I. Geare 
Charles Wiard 
Mary Louise Davis 
Mary Louise Davis 

Ida M. Ferris 
Mary Louise Davis 
Mary Louise Davis 
Luella R. DeLano 
Catherine Osia 
Catherine Osia 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Edith Alma Ross 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Jeanne M, Stewart 
Maud Hulbert 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Mary Louise Davis 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Ina C. Britton 
Ruth C. Kentner 
Ruth C. Kentner 



PAGE 

165 
165 
166 
J 67 
I7J 
170, 175, 178, 183 
172, J 76, J 77 
173 
J 74 
179, 182 
180 
180 
180 
181 
184 
184 
J85 
185 
J85 
185 
186 
186 
187 
188 
J 89 
J 89 
189 
189 



fO 



THE OLD RELIABLE MM FITCH KILNS 



^ 




The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities* 



THE OBIGINAL PORTABLE 



n 




INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze and Color Tone. 




No. 2 Size 14x12 in $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16 x 19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts, 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

No. 2 Size 16 x 12 in....... 20.00 

No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in .50.00 



w> 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



SPRINGFIELD, OHIO 



^ 



Vol. X. No. 8 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



December, 1908 




E give as a special Christmas 
greeting this year, four pages in 
color in place of the regular sup- 
plement. These illustrate the first 
prize decorative study of Poppies 
by Mary Louise Davis. The ap- 
plied designs by her printed on 
the same page are not given in the 
original color schemes which will 
be found elsewhere in the text. It 
seems to us that these color prints will be a source of inspi- 
ration to lift our decorators out of the old ruts and encour- 
age them to use new color schemes on porcelain. These 
color schemes used either on a white or tinted ground can 
be applied to almost any design with new and interesting 
effect. Try them. 

The Christmas number of PalETTE and Bench will 
be found an unusually attractive one to painters of fig- 
ure on porcelain. A color supplement "Peonies", a young 
woman with flowers, full of fine color, is an object lesson 
worthy of study, besides which will be found several figure 
panels in which the decorative feeling is so prominent as to 
make them appeal strongly to figure painters seeking new 
subjects, notably "The Peris," "The Perfume of the Flow- 
ers," "In the Orchard" and "Girl with Lilies." Other 
articles of especial interest besides the regular contributions 
on oil and water color painting, drawing and modeling 
are "Study of Trees Bare of EoHage", William A. Coffin; 
"Miniature Painting," Wm. J. Baer; "Illumination," Flor- 
ence Gotthold; "Use of Water Color in Flower Painting," 
Frieda Voelker Redmond; "Built-in Furniture," Mrs. Olaf 
Saugstad; "Finger Rings", Emily F. Peacock; and "Cross 
Stitch Embroidery," Mertice MacCrea Buck. 

In announcing the results of last competition, two 
mistakes were made. A design of trumpet flower for jar- 
diniere, by Martha Feller King of Indianapolis, was wrongly 
attributed to Miss Bessie Lemly; and a design by Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth DeL. Christophel, of Chicago, which also received a 
mention, was omitted in the list. 

We have on hand four lots of designs to be returned, 
but either names or addresses of designers cannot be found. 

The Frederick A. Stokes Co. has just made an addition 
to its popular series of Chats on china, old fiu-niture, etc. 
The new volume is "Chats on Oriental China" by J. F. 
Blacker, and it wiU be found a valuable guide for the col- 
lector of Chinese porcelains who has not at his disposal the 
many more expensive works published on this subject, and 
needs a reference book obtainable at a reasonable price. 
The volume is profusely illuslrated with very good sptnn- 
mens of the many styles of decoration used by the Chiiic-se 
at different times. The evolution of Chinese porcelain 
through the most famous periods of its nianufactiuv is 
thoroughly described, and good chapters are given to the 
explanation of the mythological meaning of IIk' decora- 
tion, and to marks and emblems. 



Mr. Blacker 's book is written from the standpoint of 
the Occidental collector. Although American and European 
collectors are learning more and more to distinguish between 
what is best in Chinese porcelain and what is ordinan.^ and 
although we are far from the time when the magnificent 
Chinese monochrome vases, imported to England, were 
redecorated, gilded and disfigured by Enghsh painters, 
many confused notions about glazes and decorative proc- 
esses still exist in the minds of our collectors, and they 
show much less understanding of the technique of the 
potter's art, and much less knowledge of its difficulties than 
their Chinese or Japanese brethren. Mr. Blacker's volume 
will help to dispel many erroneous ideas, but still some 
confusion exists in his description of technical points, and 
many statements would be decidedh'- objected to by potters. 

Mr. Blacker's book closes Mdth a chapter devoted to 
old Japanese potter}^ and porcelain, and a list of the sale 
prices of the Louis Huth collection in England, the top 
price being ^6,195, or over $30,000, for a blue and white jar 
with cover, decorated with branches of the flowering prunus. 

It is to be noticed that Chinese collectors, although ap- 
preciating^the fine quality of the blue in the best of these 
sugar and ginger jars, do not place on them the fantastic 
values which our collectors do. They far prefer, and not 
without reason, a small but choice specimen of the soft 
paste blue and white, or of hard paste egg shell. 

The Frederick A. Stokes Co. also issues a good hand- 
book on "Delftware, Dutch and English" by N. Hudson 
Moore, author of "The Lace Book," "The Old China Book," 
"The Old Furniture Book," and other valuable and inex- 
pensive collectors' handbooks. This little volume is a 
comprehensive and thorough resume of all that has been 
discovered and written on the famous and artistic Delft 
faience. 

LEAGUE NOTES 

The drawings for problem one have been returned to 
members. The general criticism on the work given by onv 
critic, Miss B. Beimett, is one which every menibor will do 
well to study; it was as follows: " Lack of snap or direct- 
ness in penciling and lack of style in the general results. 
The llowers all have planes as well as the statues or hiunan 
figures, audit is a mistake to slur over the coming together 
of two planes or to add to the alread>- itlentiftil indentations 
of the edges. 

"If you slur or round otT jiarts that ;ue Kvbc vigorous 
and distinctive (as at the junction o{ these j>l;\nes't you lose 
the stxle of the plant. These faults in rejMtnluctiou an» 
eonnnon e\en to il.w ami the l\'\\ \\\\o do make giMnl flower 
studies are 'lew and far JHiween'. The lieauty oi the 
ilowi'i- is its snbtle st\le in conjunction with its coKm'. 
Snhlilitx demands I'xtensive knowledge and minute sharp 
observation tor n-pr(Mlucti\"e purposes." 

Di^sii^ns for problem two are now in theeritie's hamls. 
nesii;ns loi pioblem three, the ehoeolale pot. will he due 
Di-eembei isl Memluis .lie iei|nesled to lead "lliiU^ to 



1 66 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



beginners" before making this design. Measure accurately 
your china and map out the exact size and shape of the space 
you wish to decorate, make your design fit this space and 
then you will have no difificulty in applying it to the china. 
The changing of the width of a line often makes a vast dif- 
ference in the beauty of the design. 

The following excerpt from our year book may be inter- 
esting to those who contemplate joining us in the near future : 

The Study Course 

"It is the aim of the N. h. M. P. to have its yearly 
exhibitions admitted to the exhibition galleries of Art in- 
stitutions of the highest rank, and, as any jury appointed by 
such institutions is opposed to naturalistic work on porcelain 
in any form, the League no longer encourages that style of 
ornament. Hereafter no work which has not passed a jury 
will be shown in any League exhibition. 

"In 1902 a Study Course was started by the League, and 
in 1904 criticisms were offered members on the designs for 
the problems to lessen the possibilities of the finished work 
being rejected. These criticisms have been given each 
year since then and are again offered this year. While the 
League does not promise a finished, complete design for 
every drawing submitted, it does promise such helpful 
criticism as will enable everyone to readily correct the worst 
defects in the design, and suggestions for its improvement 
are made. Members taking the course gain a practical 
knowledge of design adapted to ceramic forms that is in- 
valuable. The League to-day is the largest and strongest 
organization of Mineral Painters in the United States. To 
be able to say you are a member of and exhibitor with such 
an organization gives, many times, a standing in the opinion 
of outsiders, which would be hard to attain by individual 
effort." 

Send designs for criticism to President of the League. 

Mary A. Farrington, 
1 65(1 Barry Ave., Chicago. 





No. 1. — Helmet, Nadri Shah (1688-1747), incrusted with gold. 



No. 2. — Cruche pitcher) — Nadri Shah 16S8-1747), incrusted with gold. 

KERAMIC AND OTHER ARTS OF THE PERSIANS 

Randolph I. Geare. 

nr^HE technique of Persian artists is well expressed in 
-■- their decorated pottery, especially in the kind known 
as "Kashee," which was first introduced into Persia by 
Chinese artisans, who knew how to give it lightness of 
touch and a few suggestive strokes characteristic of blue 
chinaware, interwoven with quaint bits of landscape and 
lovely floral patterns, in a conventional but thoroughly 
decorative style. This ware, it may be added, is an ex- 
cellent faience, either polychromatic or of prevailing black 
or blue-blacks tints. 

In later years, when the Persians had developed a 
keramic art of their own, the designs of the Chinese work- 
men were modified by native ideas, resulting in a ware 
entirely distinct and national. One of the chief differences 
between these two wares is that while the Persian pottery 
is lighter and can be scraped or cut with sharp steel, the 
Chinese blue ware is as hard as flint. White porcelain of a 
translucent milky tint was also made in Persia in the early 
days. This effect is believed to have been produced by 
shaping the inner and outer shells over a mold of wax, which 
in melting left a hollow space between. The glaze is hard 
and pearl-like. Examples of this ware are now very seldom 
seen. 

In general, Persian faience is characterized by an azure 
blue or golden yellow ground, generally covered with figures, 
birds, foliage and other ornaments traced in white. The 
wares of Persia, Rhodes, and Asia Minor are"similar in char- 
acter, and there is no sure criterion by which ^to ^distinguish 
them. These wares are generally rather similar to por- 
celain. The color and ornamentation are most brilliant and 
of great beauty. 

Perhaps the highest expression of Persian art is found 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



167 




POPPIES -CHARLES WIARD 



(,TiiMtnu-nt p.Jiji' 172) 



i68 



RERAMIC STUDIO 







No. 4. — Ancient Persian Tiling. Bv courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York. 

in its architecture, and history shows that the artist of that 
country has gone on century after century working hand 
in hand with the architect and builder. The Persian artist 
seems to have always had the remarkable faculty of adapt- 
ing himself to circumstances. In the southern provinces, 
where stone and marble are largely used in the construction 
of houses, these materials are naturally employed as the 
agencies for the expression of art-ideas. On the other hand, 
in the Caspian region, where wood is the chief building ma- 
terial, the piazzas, mullions, and casements are gorgeously 
decorated with designs to which that material best lends 
itself, but in a manner strictly in harmony with Persian con- 
cepts. Even in the most humble dwellings, a broad window 
with a beautifully decorated casement is no uncommon 




sight. In the capital city, Teheran, the materials commonly 
used for house-building are sun-burned — or sometimes kiln- 
dried — bricks, and mud toughened with straw "cargel," but 
even under rather uninviting conditions one can see ample 
proof of the Persian genius for decoration; and, indeed, by 
the use of plaster-of- Paris these mud houses are often con- 
verted into really beautiful works of art. 

Excellent examples of the early keramic art of Persia 
have been found in the lowest of the three buried and super- 
imposed palaces at Susa, the ancient Shushan, in south- 
western Persia. Among them are a number of glazed tiles 
in polychromatic design which are unique in manufacture 
and stand out prominently among the most striking art ob- 
jects of the world. The manufacture of these enamelled 
tiles dates back from the tenth century. The walls of the 
ruined mosque at Sultaneat were cased with them. They 
were deep blue in color with yellow and white scrolls and 
devices, and were generally made in arabesque patterns, 
sometimes mingled with flowers and animals, which later 
characteristic distinguished them from Arabic patterns. 

At Susa, too, have been discovered examples of a form 
of keramic painting borrowed from Chaldaea, and including 
such objects as a painted lion, and a procession of figures 
representing the "Immortals." This art has been perpetu- 
ated, and as late as the reign of Shah Abbass (i 600-1 630) 
pictorial plaques were made which rival the keramic designs 
of Susa that were executed two thousand years earlier. 

The glazed tiles, of which mention has been made, 
were decorated with an endless variety of designs, and were 
used for incrusting floors and walls, especially in and around 
Teheran, where the absence of a marble suitable for the pur- 
pose afforded an opportunity to push the manufacture of 
tiles into extraordinary prominence. The interior of Per- 
sian baths is often completely covered with such tiles, as 
well as the outer surface of the domes of mosques, minarets, 
city gates, etc. An American writer, speaking of this old 
Persian tile -work, which was far more beautiful than the 
more modem product, believes that the special influences 
which have exerted a powerful effect in directing the art- 
progress of Persia, were the conversion of the country to 
Mohammedanism; the consolidation of the legends of Persia 
into a popular form, thus reviving interest in art and stimu- 
lating the fancy of the people at a time when the arts were 
entering on a new phase of expression; the induction into 
power of the Sefavean dynasty; and the importation of 
Chinese and Indian artisans into Persia. 

Tile-making had two distinct periods. The most in- 




No. 3. — Vase, Nadi Shah (1688-1747 ),incrusted with gold 



No. 5. — Ancient Persian Tiling. By courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



169 




No, 6. — \'eiy OIU Kellet Tilu, the property of the National Museum, Washington. D. C. 

teresting kind of tiles produced was called "reflet" on ac- 
count of its marvellously iridescent glaze. "The entire 
surface, "writes a connoiseur, "gleams with a massive polish 
or glaze, which, in a broad, front light, gives the efifect of 
polished marble, while a glancing side-light reveals myste- 
rious opalescent flashes." The secret of compounding those 
intense blues and this wonderful glaze seems to have be- 
come one of the lost arts of Persia, although there is a tradi- 
tion that gold entered into its composition.* 

The art of making iridescent glazes is believed to have 
been invented in Persia before the Mohanuncdan conquest, 
and it is probable that the city of Rhei (or Rliages), which 
was destroyed some six hundred years ago, and was a large 
city long before the Christian era began, was one of the most 
important centers for the manufacture of the "rcllet" tiles. 
After the conquest by the Arabs, the making of iridescent 
ware was still further develoiK-d until it became one of the 
most widely practised arts in Persia. vSome of these tiles, 
now in the nniseum at vSevres, I<Vanee, are about nine 
inches sciuare and are most brilliant in color. They are ol 
a blue pattern on a white ground, smaller oblong tiles forni^ 
ing the border. The tiles were not always made of the same 
length, for .some have been found ineasnring ei.ulit l\v( each 
in length. 

*Tliis inidilion has n.. rc.il luiiuiLiliMi, inlact. Mmlnii U'si-:m-lu-s mi 
iridescent hUv/.l-s sliow that only copper an. I silver eiiler i.ilo llieii ouuposi 
lion and that gold has no action whatever. Pint. 



The glazes were of different kinds, each one iridescent 
"like the mystic spark of the opal, or the shifting splendor 
of the dying dolphin," and yet each having a chromatic 
tone entirely its own. The secret of preparing these lus- 
tres, which was known to the master workmen of Xatanz, 
Kashan, Rhei, Nain and other cities, seems to have been 
lost in Persia about two centuries ago, but it is said that near 
Guadalajara, Mexico, there are some potters who know the 
secret, which, they claim, their ancestors learned in Spain 
from Persian artisans employed by the Moors ; and it is also 
a fact that Messrs. Edward and William L3'cett, of Atlanta, 
Georgia, who have during the last twenty years been study- 
ing the Persian reflets, have actually produced a glaze which 
they assert to be an exact duplication of the Persian ware. 

During the reign of Shah Abbass (1600- 1630;, various 
forms of art were revived, and several of the cities became 
prominent for the production of special objects displaying 
a high order of skill and aesthetic talent. The manufac- 
ture of reflet pottery again became prominent in his reign, 
and continued to flourish up to the time of the disastrous 
invasion of Mahmood, the Afghan. 

In the later days of the Sefavean monarchs the sacred 
tombs were redecorated with a species of "reflet" tile, re- 
sembling the iridescent ones of earlier times, but generally 
more fanciful in shape and with a greater variety of tints. 
Under their rule, too, the walls of palaces and pavilions were 
incrusted with pictured tiles of two classes : the first, mosaic 
in pattern and of wonderfully vivid colors, including a deep 
lapis-lazuli blue, which cannot be reproduced even in Persia 
at the present time. Tiles of the second class were em- 
blazoned with fancifully grotesque designs in relief. 

So admirable an impression has Persian ^\are produced 
at all time that English pottery-makers introduced what 
they called "Persian ware" only a little more than twenty 
years ago, in which decoration was freely applied. It was 
modeled in low relief with a semi-transparent glaze which 
appears darker in color where it is thickest, as in the hollows, 
and lighter on the projections. 

CRAB APPLES (Page i73) 

Ida M. Ferris. 

THESE apples were a very dark red variety and had 
no yellow on them, but a few of the more prominent 
ones might be made with a little Yellow and Yellow Brown. 
Use Yellow Red for first fire, and paint them light and 
bright for a foundation. Tlie sinnnier kwves arc rather 
dull, mostley Brown Green and Hark Green, InU some 
brighter Greens may be u.sed for first fire. 

A background of grey tones hanuonizes well with 
the red and dull greens of the fruit. Use Lavender glaze 
for lightest color and grev made with Albert Yellow and 
lirown Green incR'asing [\\v latUi in d.irkest places. 




No, 



l.yeill-* nprmliullon of iiiu-lviu ■•M<irrl>Muv 



I JO 



REKAMIC STUDIO 




POPPIES— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 




KERAMIC STUDIO 



171 




POPPY— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 



I: 



172 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



POPPIES 

THE designs from Poppy Motif by Miss Mary Louise 
Davis are to be executed in the various color schemes 
given in the color panels except the bowl on page 178 and 
the vases on pages 170 and 183. 

The color scheme for bowl page 178 is as follows: Inside 
tint a Dull Ivory — inside'border, flat enamels, darkest tones 
a 'dull warm Purple. Color next the smallest dark form 
in truncated cone shape, Dull Orange Red. Other forms 
Dark Apple Green. Outside tint a Light Dull Pinkish 
Violet. Border lines Dark Apple Green, darkest spots same 
Dark Purple as inside, surrounded by truncated cone shape 
of Dark Orange Red. Ground of Medallion Dull Ivory, 
flower forms and inside of bud, also flower forms on sup- 
porting ornaments outside the medallion, Dark Orange 
Red. Border of medallion and 'darkest stems and leaves 
Dark Purple. Balance of design Dark Apple Green. 

VASE (page 170) 

Olive Grey ground. Flower two shades of Pale Pink. 

Leaves and stems Dark Apple Green and Black. Same 

colors in border^Dark Apple Green outlines to leaves 
and stems. 

VASE (page 183) 

Dull Purplish Grey ground. Flowers Pink, dark leaves 
Black, balance Dark Apple Green, Gold or Dull Yellow 
Brown outlines. 

HAPPY STUDY HOURS 

(lUostrations pages 176-177) 

CHRISTMAS pot boilers"— this is frankly what these 
little drawings and suggestions are intended for. There 
isn't time or room for us to talk over our Summer study or 
our Winter plans. We are aU getting ready for Christ- 
mas and the most serious student of design may be obliged 
to paint a few "posies" in a naturalistic way, or else go 
without the money which would pay for another season's 
study, a new kiln perhaps, or the dear Christmasy things 
we aU love to buy. Will the worker not be justified in giv- 
ing her patrons the roses and violets which they understand, 
if she paints them in an orderly way, thereby not ignoring 
all laws of design? But all this has been said before, and 
we all know what we should do, but will you not all try to 
do the best "pot boilers" ever, this season? If, for instance, 
you are asked to do a set for a dressing table — the room is 
pink and gold, or perhaps old ivory and pink, and roses 
your patron will have or nothing. Isn't the wreath of 
roses a suggestion for the tops of powder boxes, hair receiver, 
small round trays, backs of mirrors, brushes and the like? 
Wouldn't you like to decorate the candlesticks with the 
larger rose wreath at the base and the smaller one at the 
top, if there is a place for it there? Doesn't the border 
decoration of this page suggest a treatment for the trays? 
The space between the decoration and the edge of the 
piece may be filled in solidly with gold or tinted in a deep 
old ivory tone. If gold is used, do not bring it always hard 
against the design; instead, leave a bit of light between 
the gold and the tips of leaves and petals. A light tint 
of ivory can be laid on the plain undecorated surface of 
the china. 

If it is left with you to do "something different" in 



the way of these sets, try one with a decoration of white 
roses with warm hearts, and silver instead of gold. The 
same delicate ivory tint can be used over the clear china 
surface. 

The violets can be used with the same ivory and gold 
color scheme. Do not paint them too strongly; they will 
be more pleasing on a dressing table if kept in rather a 
"high key." Have you ever tried to paint white double 
violets? Try them, with a touch of yellow to warm their 
hearts, and a delicate flush of violet over the tips of the 
petals here and there. Silver or gold can be used happily 
with them. 

The little wild aster can be used on so many things — 
but this design is given with the thought of spacing it 
three times on the rim of a plate. For a first fire, tint the 
rim a rich old ivory and pounce till wax-like in texture. 
Paint the edge and the shoulder just inside the rim with 
gold. After firing, space the design, and paint it delicately 
on top of the tint. The first allover tone and the thought- 
ful spacing and spotting is bound to make for good har- 
monious color and restful design. A touch of Peach Blos- 
som with Blue Violet makes a pleasing color for the warmly 
tinted asters. Blue Violet with Deep Blue Green, and 
Blue Violet with Banding Blue are good color combinations 
to use for painting the cooler and darker blossoms. 

The little "tags" of holly we are giving you just be- 
cause it is Christmas, and we know someone will ask you 
to do it, — perhaps on candlesticks, little bonbon; boxes, 
olive dishes and the like. If you are going to do the little 
boxes used for favors, try one this waj^ For a first fire, 
tint with light Green Lustre; pounce till fine and firm in 
texture. After firing paint the holly spray on top of the 
lustre. Do not fire over hard after this painting, as the 
red of the holly berry is difficult to hold through the fires 
with the lustre. L^se Carnation for painting the brilliant 
berries, and Carnation with Blood Red for the darker 
ones. The box and cover can be lined with gold or ivory 
lustre. 

A happy and successful Christmas season to you all! 
May the New Year bring cheer and opportunity to every 
student, and in each day may there be a "rest spot" free 
from care and the "grind" where one may find, and ex- 
press himself, in his better work ! Happy days ! 



POPPY STUDY (Page 167) 

Charles M. Wiard. 

CAREFULLY draw in the design and then wash in 
background of Blue Green toned with Lilac. 

The upper poppy is white shaded with Grey for White 
Roses, with stamens in Yellow and Brown. 

The upper right hand poppy and the lower ones are 
in Rose very delicate shaded with Grey and the stamens 
in Brown. The other two are in Poppy Red and Rosa, 
a little Pompadour in the darkest parts. Stamens black 
and Brown. 

Paint the leaves and stems of Yellow Green and Blue 
Green shaded with Olive Green. 

Second fire: Wash over background with Blue Green 
and Lilac adding shadowy leaves. Work up the flowers, 
deepening the shadows. In the darkest^'spots of green 
use Black Green. Put in the veins and the stickers. In 
finishing stems add a touch of Pompadour. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



173 







"'^ 



CRABAPPLES-IDA M. FERRIS 



(.Tredtmcnt p.iyjo \t>'^) 



I 



174 



iii:ramic studio 




POPPY BOWL— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 




INSIDE VJEW OF BOWL 



OUTSIDE VIE:w Or BOWL 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



^7S 



POPPIES— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 





176 



flERAMIC STUDIO 








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RERAMIC STUDIO 




POPPIES— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 




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KERAMIC STUDIO 



179 




POPPY PLATE-MARY LOUISE DAVIS 



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RERAMIC STUDIO 




GRAPE STEIN— LUELLA R. DE LANO 



STEIN IN GRAPES 

Luella R. DeLano 

THIS design is taken from an old Japanese print, and 
should be done in flat washes. Repeat three times around 
the stein. Design is outlined in Black. Background 
can be either in Grey Green or Ivory (Yellow with touch 
of Black). Grapes Violet of Gold. 

Leaves and stems, first fire four parts Grey Green, 
one-half part New Green. Second fire equal parts Black 
Green, New Green. Handle corresponds with background. 

BERRY DESIGN FOR FRUIT PLATE 

Catherine Osia 

BACKGROUND of plate, Light Green. Leaves, dull 
darker green. Berries, Gold. Stems, Dark Green 
and Brown Green. 






B 



CHERRY DESIGN FOR FRUIT PLATE 

Catherine Osia 

ACKGROUND, Neutral Yellow. Berries, Red. Leaves, 
Green. Stems, Gold. Outlines (if desired) Black. 



GRAPE PANEL 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

LIGHT Dull Coffee ground. Grapes in shades of Purple. 
Brown stems and tendrils. Grey Green shades in 
leaves. 

^ if 

MOUNTAIN ASH (page 187) 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

AS arranged this study could only be used on panel or 
vase. The entire piece should first be tinted with 
Masons Neutral Yellow and fired. The study is painted 
with Olive Green for leaves Pompadour Red or Capu- 
cine Red for berries, and a mixture of Olive Green and 
Violet of Iron for stem. The whole outlined with Black. If 
Frys Olive Green is used add Black and Yellow Ochre to 
warm. The berries are laid in in two values but not modeled. 



fJH 




GRAPE STEIN— LUELLA R. DE LANO 



KlEramic studio 



i8: 




GRAPES HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



82 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 




POPPY PLATE— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



183 



POPPIES-MARY LOUISE DAVIS 





1 84 



tVIlKAMlC STUDIO 





HOLLY— EDITH ALMA ROSS 




HAWS-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



1 



nURAMIC STUDIO 



185 



HOLLY BERRIES— EDITH ALMA ROSS 

Treatment by Jeanne M. Stewart. 

LAY in the berries first in a tone composed of equal 
parts of Yellow Red and Pompadour No. 23 shaded 
with Pompadour No. 23. The darker berries and those 
in shadow with Stewart's Pompadour with ^ Ruby Pur- 
ple. The leaves which are very dark and glossy in Yel- 
low Green, Turquoise Green, Olive Green and Shading 
Green. Care should be taken with the sharp narrow 
points of the leaves which are often tipped with a faded 
brown. Chestnut Brown to which a little Pompadour has 
been added makes a good color. The background in soft 
greens and greys is added in the second fire, shading from 
Ivory Yellow to the dark tones under the leaves, made 
with Shading Green and Stewart's Grey, Brown, Green, 
Pompadour and Ruby Purple. 

The bright reds should not be touched in the second 
fire but in the third the whole design should be brightened 
and strengthened and shadows added. 

Pompadour and Grey in equal parts, forms an ex- 
cellent shade for the shadows. These reds should be given 
careful firing as much depends upon this for a bright, 
brilliant red. 

HAWS HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

Treatment by Maud Hulbert. 

PAINT the rose hips with Yellow Ochre, Orange Red, 
Pompadour and Blood Red or Carnation No. i and 
No. 2. The ripest ones are a dark red while some of the 
more undeveloped ones are quite yellow. 

The leaves are a bright green; use Yellow Green for 
the lightest ones and Brown Green and Shading Green 
for the dark ones. 

If you wish a dark ground use Shading Green, but 
add a little Orange Red to soften it and use some Violet 
of Iron in the shadowy leaves that go under the tint. 

If you wish to use a light ground, Copenhagen Grey 
and Brown Green will be good. Sometimes the rose leaves 
have turned to the autumn colors, yellows, reds and russet 
browns, when the rose hips are ripe. 





FRUIT BORDERS— ALICE B. SHARRARD 



POPPY HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



RERAMIC STUDIO 







POPPY DESIGN FOR PLATE-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 
Grey Green (two shades) . Poppies in Pink. Gold outlines. 



REKAMIC STUDIO 



1^7 




MOUNTAIN ASH-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



^TrcatinciU F''R»-" ^SO 



88 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




TEAPOT, RAFFIA HANDLE, SUGAR AND CREAMER— INA C. BRITTON 
RAISED DECORATION, HAND BUILT, GLAZED IN MEDIUM GREEN 




RERAMIC STUDIO 



189 



.S45fe-s 




TOBACCO JAR— RUTH C. KENTNER 
Dull Blue on Coffee Brown tint. 





B^EIE 



TEA CADDIES 

Rnlh C. Kcnhuy. 
SQUARE. 

GROUND, a coffee brown. Flower forms dull red, 
also center dots and fom- center petals on top and 
three small forms at top and Ijottom of side desii^n, fne 
center leaf forms on side panels, also four dots between 
petals on top and corner lines olive i;reen. Balance of 
desi<;n W\\\ Dark Blue. 

ROUND 

Ciround A coffee brown design i" dull blue with 
dull red top. 



EXHIBITION NOTE 

Mrs. lone L. Wheeler of the Ceramic Association has 
placed a case of decorated ceramics in Burley's. The work 
is particularly interesting to members of the ceramic societies 
and those painting china because it covers the various stjdes 
now in vogue, shaping, as it were, an evolution from the 
beautiful simplicity of luster and plain colorings to the con- 
ventionalized flower design, and the interlacing line pat- 
terns requiring considerable skill to paint in perfection. In 
addition to new pieces a number of those exhibited at the 
Art Institute have been assembled to give a wider sur^'ey of 
the art, 

«*• t^ 
STUDIO NOTES 

Miss Ada D. Murray has moved her studio from 151 
West 140th St. to Florentine Court, 166 West 129th St. 
Cor. 7th Ave. Her telephone number has been changed 
to 1 1 83 Morning. 

Mr. Charles Frank Ingerson, formerly -with Miss Jeanne 
M. Stewart in Chicago, has opened a Studio at 132 1 Sutter 
St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Mrs. A. D. B. Cheney has removed her studio from 82 
Broadway to 1784 Broadway, Detroit, Mich. 

if if 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Mrs. W. H. Y. — Paste for raised gold cracks off after tiring for several 
reasons. If it is undefired it crumbles or rubs off; if too much fat oil is 
used it cracks or scales off, or if put on too heavily on a hard French china. 
Color cracks or scales off if put on too thick. It rubs off if underfired or has 
not enough flux. Most tube colors should be fluxed \ for painting, \ for 
tinting — except Apple Green, Pearl Grey and Mixing Yellow. If liquid gold 
scales off, it was put on too heavily. It rubs off if underfired. In putting 
a raised gold monogram on a tinted border the tint must be put on first. 
Beginners would be surer of success if the)* fired the tint before putting on 
the monogram — later one can easily put the raised gold on the unfired paste. 
"The Class Room" is the title of a series of articles on every possible sub- 
ject in overglaze decoration given in recent numbers of Ker.vmic Stidio. 
We are publishing them in book form but the back numbers can be bought 
more cheaply, as the published books will be illustrated and revised and 
quite a little more expensive. The back numbers are 35 cts. each. The Class 
Room occupies seventeen numbers, but three are out of print. The Class 
Room books probably will be published in four volumes at S3. 00 each. 

C. W. — "Envelope" is a term used in ceramics to mean a tint put over 
all the piece to bring design and background together. This is sometimes 
"dusted on", a tinting of oil having been applied beforehand and padded, or 
dusted color is sometimes applied to a tinted envelope in which case tlie oil 
or lint is allowed to become almost dry before applying the junvder c<>lor. 
The powder color for dusting is drawn or pushed over (ho surfaix' with a bit 
iif absorbent cotton or surgeon's wool 



"Favorite'' 

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VIII 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




If^c are importers and manufacturers, and carry 
a large stock of all the world-renowned brands of 

CERAMIC COLORS 

We desire "bulk" business, and 
do not sell colors in -vails. Orders 
from bottlers of colors solicited. 



Visit our shoiurooms luhen in 
Neiv York — a 'vertiable bureau 
of information. Send for ency- 
clopredic catalogue. 









"ELARCO" 
ROMAN GOLD 

In Patented Porcelain Jars 

Your special attention is called to the improved manner of 
packing "ElaRCO" ROMAN GOLD. The screw-top porce- 
lain jar affords the great convenience to Keramic artists of 
having at all times a fresh, moist, always-ready-for-use prepar- 
ation of unsurpassed quality, purity and durability. This jar is 
patented and no other gold is put up in this manner. It 



Keeps the Gold Moist and Fresh 

Keeps the Gold Clean and Free 
from Du^ 



Keeps the Gold in Good Con- 
dition Indefinitely 

Prevents Wa^e of Gold there- 
for Economical 



MANUFACTURED BY 

L. REUSCHE & CO., 6 Park Place, New York 
^^^agS^jts favor, RUHL & CO., 





NEW YORK 



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TTie finishing loach is thui indefina.ble finality 
of artistic effort ivhich gives Pouyat china, its 
enduring claim to supremacy. Ebery passing 
season ivitnesses a steady increase in the Amer- 
ican demand for the best thstt the 7ouyaf factory 
produces. 

We are keenly alive to the importanee of this 
demand, and tve respond to it Koith due appre- 
ciation. 

'PAROUTAVD & WATSON 
37 and 39 Murray Street, Neiv York 



3Bxa 



Whea wHting to advertiser* pfeaie meotion this tnasaziQ^ 



The entire contents of this NUgazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted 'without special permission 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY 1909 



-^-■^■-sasBsisoaijaBg*— •"•' 



Editorial Notes 

The Maiolica of Mexico 

League Notes 

The Decoration of Artistic Grand Feu Gres 

Dahlia Study 

Narcissus 

Detail drawings of Dahlias 

Cherries 

Steins 

Tree Design for vase in over or under glaze 

Coffee set 

Vase, Dandelion Motif 

Matrimony Vine 

Choke Cherries 

Detail drawings and conventionalizations, Asters 

Landscape 

Plates in Japanese design 

Answers to Correspondents 

Chinese Porcelains in the National Museum 

Plate Design 

Bowl Design, Dandelion Motif 

Bowl Border 

Golden Rod design for Teapot Stand 



Louis Franchet 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Paul Putzki 
Helen Smith 
Frances G. Hazelwood 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
lone Wheeler 
Edith Alma Ross 
Edith Alma Ross 
Mary Louise Davis 
Ophelia Foley 
Emma A. Ervin 

Waldon Fawcett 
Helen B. Smith 
Virginia Mason 
Edith Ahna Ross 
Elsie Duden 



PAGE 
191 
191 
I9J 

192-194 
193 
J 95 
196 
J 97 
J 98 
199 

200-201 
202 
202 
203 
402 
■^ 205 

206-207 
206 

208-210 

in 

2U 
2J2 
212 



6" o\ 

THE OLD RELIABLE i!zE!!»! FITCH KILNS 



The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 




THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze and O>lor Tone. 




No. 2 Size 14 X 12 in. 



.$30.00 



No. 3 Size 16x19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts, 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



'No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

INo. 2 Size 16x12 in.. 20.00 

I No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

I No. 4 Size 18x28 in 50.00 



b 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



IBSRi 



9 



Vol. X. No. 9 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



January, J 909 




HE Christmas hurry is over and 
the time approaches for serious 
study. Through the long winter 
months work out designs from 
your summer's notes, and keep in 
the comer of your cupboard some 
experiments to be tried before 
preparing your exhibition pieces. 
Now is the time to work on these, 
your master pieces, on which will 
rest your reputation. Do not grudge any amount of work 
upon them. Possibly they will not sell, but they will sell 
your cheaper pieces and call the attention of the pubHc to 
your work. 

The exhibitions of Arts and Crafts are now on. It is 
still too early to give any account in this issue, but the Feb- 
ruary number will contain all that can be gathered about 
ceramics both at the National Society of Craftsmen, New 
York, and the Art Institute of Chicago. 

We are arranging for a series of helpful articles on simple 
designs for beginners and salable little things for "pot 
boilers." We hope to begin them in the March issue. 
February Keramic Studio will be devoted for the greater 
part to designs and motifs drawn from the peacock. The 
color supplement will be a reproduction in small of two plates 
by Miss Middlelon and Mrs. McCrystle of Chicago. Inside the 
magazine will be found reproduction in black-and-white of 
full size sections of these beautiful plates. 

THE MAJOLICA OF MEXICO 

There is no better authority on the various subjects 
which interest collectors of old wares found on this conti- 
nent than Mr. Edwin A. Barber, the indefatigable Curator 
of the Pennsylvania Museum. His books on Pottery and 
Porcelain of the United States, on Anglo-American Pottery, 
American Glassware, Tulip Ware of Pennsylvania, etc., are 
standard books which collectors absolutely need in their 
researches. To the already voluminous series Mr. Barber 
has just added a most interesting volume on the Maiolica 
of Mexico. 

It is a remarkable fact that tin enamelled vessels and 
tiles were made in Puebla, about a hundred miles from 
Mexico City, as far back as 1575, their manufaclurc being 
extensively carried out during the 17II1 and iStli Centuries, 
that numerous examples of this interesting ware exist to- 
day, many ancient structures and ohurohes being profusely 
decorated with Puebla tile-work, and that niitil a lew years 
ago it was not even suspected that the ware was of Mexican 
origin. It was called "Takivera" from the name of the 
place in Spain where it was supposed to ha\i' l)ecn 
made. 

The researches made by Mr. Harber in Mc-xiv-o in the 
Fall of 1907 have conclnsively estabhshed (hat this interest- 
ing maiolica was made in Tnchia, and tlie l\inis\ i\ ania 



Museum possesses to-day a most valuable and character 
istic collection of the ware, many specimens of which are 
illustrated in the book. 

The Puebla maioHca does not differ in general characters 
from the European and especially from the Spanish maiohca. 
The tin enamel is of similar composition; the decoration is 
sometimes blue and white, sometimes polychrome. Many 
pieces show Spanish, others Chinese influence, and a curious 
series of blue and white tiles, acquired by the Museum, re- 
veals in a marked degree the influence of early Aztec art and 
may be the work of a native Indian decorator. Most inter- 
esting are the illustrations of old Mexican churches with the 
inside decoration and sometimes the whole facade in Puebla 
tiles. 

There is a good demand now for this old American 
pottery^ and travelers to Mexico will undoubtedlv keenly 
watch for good specimens. But they should not overlook 
the fact that there is manufactured in Puebla a ware in 
imitation of the old blue and white, the use of a creamy 
enamel, the chipping of edges and the artificial tinting of 
the exposed body giving to pieces the appearance of age. 
Mr. Barber thoroughly explains how to detect these forg- 
eries. 

The cost of the book is $2.10 delivered. 



LEAGUE NOTES 

Problem 4 due January first, 1909, is an outline draw- 
ing for a jar not less than seven inches high, with or with- 
out handles. This is to be made later in clay and may be 
built, moulded or thrown on wheel. If a drawing of a 
new and practical shape is submitted it will be maiuifac- 
tured and used for one of the Problems in next vear's study 
course and will be named for the designer. The shapes 
designed by and named for the League members in the past 
are among our most desirable and popular shapes foimd in 
any catalogue. We hope to have next month an article 
from our corresponding secretary, Mrs. lone Wheeler, 
telling us something about the decoration and firing o{ the 
Wheeler vase which some members have found ciillicnlt 
to accomplish without cracking the vase. 

Now the Christmas rush is over every member slionld 
go to work on exhibition pieces for our annual ICxliilMtion 
at Art Institute. If every member wtmUl lielp at tliat 
time by sending onh- one piece we shouKl have the most 
important exhibition of Ceramics ever seen in this conn- 
try. This year (lie exhibition work is not conlineii to the 
shapes used for (his year's study course, but anv shapes 
may be selected from those used in previous vears bv the 
League. 

We will in responsi> to a geiUMal reijuesi accept tlie 
(hawings of designs for riohlein ,; witli rrobleni .j ami 
\\\v\ will be accepted as late as the tenth of Januarv. This 
will help the inenilHTs who ha\r been nisluHi by Christmas 
work to L;(i llu' eiiti^-isnis 011 ilir IVeember proi)leni. 

Si'ud I III' designs foi eiilieisni to Piesideiit of the Ix'ague. 

M \K\ A !■■ \KKi\r.To\, 

I (i-io l>,ii 1 \ .\\ r , CliieasJi). 



192 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




STONEWARE JEANNENEY 

THE DECORATION OF ARTISTIC GRAND FEU ORES 

Louis Franchet 

GRES is, like porcelain, a vitrified body, but instead 
of being translucent, it is absolutely opaque. It may 
be white, if the elements which constitute it are free from 
any of the metallic oxides which are so often found in 
clays and sands; such as the oxides of iron and manganese, 
and also from titanic acid which is sometimes found in 
stoneware clays in the shape of rutile, a common mineral 
with which iron is always associated. 

A clay suitable for gres nmst have the property of vit- 
rifying and this property is due to the presence of a variety 
of mica called muscovite, a potassic silicate of alumina 
having the chemical formula K^Q, aAPQs, eSiO^, 2H20. 
The fusibility is caused not only by the content of mica but" 
by peroxide of iron when the clay contains this substance.* 
Generally gres is colored either yellow by iron, or grey 
by a mixture of iron and manganese. 

The Sevres Manufactory has discovered a porcelain 
which has the great advantage of firing at the same tem- 
perature as gres, both being decorated with the same glazes. 
This porcelain, now known everywhere, is called Porcelaine 
Nouvclle, and can be prepared as follows: 

Kaolin 53,86 

Pegmatite . . : 54,4i 

Pegmatite (or Cornwall Stone) should not be con- 
founded with feldspar. It is a rock much richer in silica 
and less fusible than feldspar. 

The kaolin and pegmatite which I have used, came 
from Limoges and had the following compositions : 

Kaolin Pegmatite 

Silica 46,27 74,37 

Alumina 39, H 15,12 

Oxide of iron 0,03 0,43 

Lime 0,09 1,32 

Magnesia 0,05 0,07 

Soda 0,32 3,83 

Potash '..... 2,19 4,56 

Water and loss 1 1,89 0.31 

*The chief substance which influences the fusibility of a clay is not mica 
but feldspar, which occurs in the form of fine powder in almost every clay. 

— Proj. Chas. F. Binns. 



It is useless to give any composition for a gres body, 
as ever}' potter will use a stoneware clay such as can be 
obtained within easy reach of his establishment. The 
main point is that the body be well vitrified, and conse- 
quently non-porous, at the temperature of i3io°-C. (Seger 
cone 9). 

The vitrified nature of the body being the same in 
every case, gres are not classified like the bodies of faience 
but according to their use and their decoration. There are 
two distinct classes : 

i°-Unglazed gres coated with a salt gloss: Stoneware 
for household use. Receptacles for acids. Chemical ap- 
paratus. Sewer pipe. 

2°-Glazed gres: Sanitary stoneware (wash stands, etc.). 
Architectural gres. Artistic gres. 

All these wares, whatever their use and nature, are 
fired at Seger cone 9, that, is, they constitute at that tem- 
perature the most perfect type of vitrified and opaque 
ceramic products. I do not propose to study here the 
gres bodies fired at Seger cones 3 and 4 (ii9o°-i2io°-C.) 
which have been lately placed on the market. The only 
point in which this class of gres differs from the other, is 
in the preparation of more fusible glazes. 

II. 

Before describing the different styles of decoration 
which may be applied to gres, it is necessary to speak of 
the firing, as, according to the atmospheric conditions in- 
side the kiln during the petit feu and grand feu periods, 
the glazes acquire entirely different tones. For instance, 
a glaze containing copper oxide will be colored green in an 
oxidizing atmosphere and red in a reducing fire; titanium 
oxide will give blue, and iron will give the celadon color 
only under intensely reducing conditions. 

Two different kinds of kiln may be used: ist, a small 
laboratory kiln; 2d, the regular potter's kiln with fire 
mouths. 

FIRING IN A LABORATORY KILN 

The best laboratory kiln in France is the Perrot kiki, 
the fuel for which is illuminating gas. It is possible to 
reach, in this kiln, a temperature of i350°-C., provided the 
firing is well regulated, for, if there be not a perfect har- 
mony between the amount of gas introduced and the draft 
of the kiln, it will be difficult to go to a higher temperature 
than iooo°-to iioo°-C. The minimum pressure of the 
gas at its entrance into the kiln must be 45 millimeters, 
and, if possible, should not exceed 50 millimeters. This is 




STONEWARE 



SCHOOL OF PRAGUE 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



193 




DAHLIA STUDY— MAUD E. HULBERT 



(, Tro.it nu-nt pajjc 1^) 



194 



RERAMIC STUDIO 





STONEWARE 



SO in French text. The draft is regulated by means of a 
damper in the chimney pipe. The burner is suppHed with 
a shutter, which makes it possible to prevent the entrance 
of air and to obtain a reducing flame. Even in a reducing 
fire, however, it will be necessary to allow some air to enter 
the kiln, as a too incomplete combustion would prevent the 
temperature from rising. 

The Wiesnegg firm, in Paris, constructs six sizes of Perrot 
kilns, Nos. o to 5 ; and four models of burners. The best kiln 
is No. 3 with a 9 beak burner, and its cost is 335 francs ($67) . 

The Perrot kiln has been modified by the German 
chemist, Seger, who constructed one on the same principle, 
that is, with double circulation and down draft, but added 
to it a recuperator which permits a higher temperature 
than is possible in the Perrot kiln. HoAvever, as the firing 
of gres does not recjuire a higher temperature than i3io°-C., 
the Seger kiln does not seem to have any particular ad- 
vantage. It has been copied by some manufacturers each of 
whom has given it his own name. Its cost is 500 francs ($100) • 

The laboratory kilns heated with illuminating gas are 
the best with which to obtain all degrees of oxidation and 
reduction. But in localities which are not supplied with 
gas it has been necessary to use, in France, the Sainte 
Claire Beville kiln, which is fed with heavy oils. A tem- 
perature of i3oo°-C. can be reached in this kiln and its 
cost with the oil tank is 150 francs ($30.) In the United 
States the oil kiln manufactured by H. J. Caulkins of De- 
troit, Mich., seems to have replaced the Sainte Claire Be- 
ville advantageously for the firing of porcelain and gres. 

I have also made a few experiments with an electric 
kiln, but the results have not been satisfactory, because 
the rise of temperature was so rapid, that, even with the 
greatest care in firing, the glaze was completely vitrified 
before the body was thoroughly fired, and the latter re- 
mained porous. The vitrification of the body is produced 
by the combination of its various elements, and this com- 
bination under the influence of heat can only be effected 
in a certain length of time. Having placed in an electric 



DAMMOUSE 

kiln a small piece of gres, I reached in 12 minutes the tem- 
perature of i3io°-C., as shown by a Le Chatellier pyrometer. 
The texture of the body had not been modified in a marked 
degree and it showed no trace of vitrification. However, 
interesting researches might be made in this line, as to whether 
a process could be found by which the temperature would 
rise slowly and gradually and could be controlled at will. 

I would not advise anybody who wishes to establish 
a ceramic manufacture to draw definite conclusions from 
experiments made in a laboratory kiln, for results thus 
obtained may differ considerably from results obtained 
in a regular fire-mouth kiln. For instance, a copper glaze 
which, in a fire -mouth kiln, will give a fine flanime red under 
reduction, may come out green in a Perrot, Seger, or any 
similar kiln. Inversely I have obtained red in a Perrot 
kiln with a glaze which came out green after burning in a 
fire-mouth kiln. This, of course, is not a rule. These 
differences are evidently due to the time of firing and the 
nature of the gases, which cannot be exactly the same in 
both kinds of kiln. (To be continued) 




POTTEEY 



Y. W. C. A., NEW YORK 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



195 




Jtv*' 



NARCISSUS -HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



(.Trcitmcnt p.»>:i" I'^b^ 



196 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




DETAIL DRAWINGS OF DAHLIAS— MAUD E. HULBERT 



DAHLIAS (Page 193) 

Maud E. Hulbert 

COLORS— Silver Yellow, Orange Yellow, Yellow Ochre, 
Pompadour, Warm Grey, Blood Red, Violet of Iron, 
Copenhagen Grey, Brown Green, Deep Blue Green, Moss 
Green, Shading Green, Violet of Gold. 

Paint the white dahlias with thin washes of Brown 
Green and Copenhagen Grey in the shadows, very thin 
washes of Deep Blue Green over som.e of the lights. Silver 
Yellow near the centers and Silver Yellow and Orange 
Yellow for the centers with deeper touches of Brown Green. 
Use Warm Grey and a little Pompadour for the flower 
turned away at the top of the study, and Blood Red, some 
Ochre, and Violet of Iron with the Pompadour for the one 
at the side. Warm Grey, Pompadour and Brown Green 
for the light flowers, and Pompadour, Warm Grey, Ochre 
and Blood Red for the lower one. For the ground make a 
Grey of Pompadour, Deep Blue^Green and Violet of Gold 
to use for the deeper tones and use Copenhagen Grey and 
Yellow Ochre also in the grotmd. Give the piece at least 
three firings, wash over with the colors in the background 
some of the flowers to make them recede and to soften 
the effect. 



NARCISSUS (Page 195) 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

THIS study should be used for slender, straight vase. 
The color scheme is Green and Wliite. The colors used : 
Grey for Flowers, Copenhagen Grey, Moss Green, Dark 
Green, Albert Yellow and Pompadour Red. Model for 
the first fire with Grey for Flowers and Copenhagen Grey, 
laying in the Dark Green at the top. For the second fire 
glaze modeling of the petals, especially those in shadow, 
with Yellow, thin, or a Yellow Green such as White Rose. 
Strengthen the foliage with Grey and the Green at the top, 
blending the two colors gradually towards the center of 
the vase. For the last fire flush the foliage with Moss 
Green blending gradually into the Copenhagen Grey at the 
base. 

NARCISSUS (Supplement) 

Teana McLennan Hinman 

WATER COLOR TREATMENT 

LEMON Yellow, Payne's Grey, and Hooker's Green. 
Leaves — Hooker's Green No. i, Payne's Grey and 
Emerald Green, with Lemon Yellow for high lights. 

SHOP NOTES 

The Excelsior Kiln, formerly manufactured by H. B. 
Lewis of Detroit, is to be manufactured hereafter by the 
Hinz Mfg. Co. of that place. Factory and office are both 
located in Detroit. 




DETAIL DRAWINGS OF DAHLIAS— MAUD E. HULBERT 




JANUARY 1909 

SUPPLEMENT TO 

KER AM IC STU DIO 



NARCISSUS- TEANA Mi-LtNNAN 



COI"V«IOW 1 
KERAMIC STUDIO t»UM. CO. 
• YKACUaa, N. N 



J 



II 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



197 




CHERRIES— PAUL PUTZKI 



TAKIv Albert Yellow and blendinj; into Yellow Red for \\v(\. 'Vhv lea\es are Park ('.miii, W lldw r.iieii. sluuiinii 
the lij^lil elierries take a liij^li li.t^lit oiil with a pointed with Hrown Creen. l'\)i l)aeki^n)und tlie sanu' eolors make 
brush, for the darker ones use Carnation shading into Hiood a j)leasin<; elTeet. 



198 



ni:RAMIC STUDIO 



f 



fM:0^ 



If 




CONVENTIONALIZED TREE 
DESIGN FOR VASE 

Frances G. Hazelwood 

FIRST firing — Trace design on 
vase carefully. If it is put on 
with ink or pencil, let it be very light. 
Tint from bottom to one-third the 
distance up, with Mat Green No. 2. 
A lighter green the other third of the 
distance by mixing a little Mat White 
with the green, and at the very top 
use the clear Mat White. Use a dif- 
ferent pad for each third and when 
even, wipe out design. 

Second Firing — Go over it all the 
same as in the first fire, only, with the 
tinting pad used for the white parts, 
touch lightly over the design. Get it 
all beautifully even. 



STEIN— HELEN SMITH 



STEINS 



Helen Smith 



THE stein designs ma}'- be treated in a 
number of ways. The steins should be 
made of a hard, white body and either a clear 
white glaze or a white mat glaze may be 
used. 

The borders should be applied in clear, 
flat colors and not more than three or four 
colors should be used. Perhaps the simplest 
treatment and also an effective one is to 
carefully trace the design on the stein in black 
overglaze color and when the outline is per- 
fectly dry, fill in the spaces with rich colors, 
using a bright green, scarlet and yellow with 
perhaps a touch of dark blue. 

- If a softer effect is desired the spaces of 
the border may be painted in a greyish green, 
light blue and a soft yellow, and if this color- 
scheme is used the outlines should be left 
white. 

If the steins have first a deep cream- 
color applied for a background the borders 
would look well in three or four tones of one 
color, using a very dark tone for the outlines. 
Tones of brown, blue or a warm green may 
be used. 

It will not be found difficult to trace bor- 
ders of this character if one section is care- 
fully outlined first and^then a pounce made 
from this to use in repeating by rubbing pow- 
dered charcoal over it. 




STEIN— HELEN SMITH 



tfj 



PLERAMIC STUDIO 



199 




TREE DESIGN FOR VASE IN OVER OR UNDERGLAZE FRANCES G. HAZEL WOOD 



200 



RERAMIC STUDIO 






COFFEE SET, ROSE MOTIF-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



201 



♦ 




COFFEE SET, ROSE MOTIF 

llciiiictta I^aniav Piiist 

THIS is the well ki'ow:! Umpire set, ami if ilie InUeek 
is chosen the china may be left imtinleci. If a tint 
is wished use Old Ivory or Mason "s Neutral Yellow. After 
firing", trace on design. Use Capucine Red for the pink of 
the rose, Grey Green for leaves antl Neutral Yellow with 
a touch of Black and Yellow lir(n\ n for the stems. Fire 
and llu'u outline with imlluxed t^iold, using same Gold 
for handles, base and knobs, if Belleek. RomaTi (."iold if 
hard gla/c china. The hamlles will iei]uire two coats. 




202 



ri:ramic studio 



VASE, DANDELION MOTIF 

lone Wheeler 

THE following is the color scheme for Wheeler vase 
decorated in dandelion motif: 
First fire — Outline design in black. 
Second fire- — Light Green lustre for leaves, stem, bands 
and buds. Nasturtium thin for flowers. 

Third fire — Yellow lustre over all (ground and design). 




VASE, DANDELION MOTIF— lONE WHEELER 



MATRIMONY VINE— EDITH ALJVIA ROSS 



nERAMIC STUDIO 



203 




CHOKE CHERRIES— EDITH ALMA ROSS 



CHOKE CHERRIES 

Edith Alma Ross 

THIS tall shrub which grows on the rocky shores of 
the northern lakes is laden in August with beautiful 
bunches of rich fruit. 

Those which are still unripe shade from amber to deep 
claret color and tlie ripe ones from a royal red to deep 
purple. 

All the colors used in painting grapes will l)e needed 
for the berries — Banding Blue, Ruby Purple, Blue X'iolet 
and Black for the purple berries, and Yellow Brown and 
English Pink with Violet of (^lold for the half ripe ones. 

Those which are still (|ui(e green are ]);un(ed willi Ivgg 
Yellow, Yellow Red, Pomjjadour, Brown C.reiii and vSlKidim; 
Green . 

The greens used in painting the ii'axcs are v'^liadiiig 
Green, Brown Green, Kgg Yellow, Dark Griiii and lUrp 
Blue Green. 

Some of the leaves which are turning are paiiiled \\i(h 
Yellow Brown, Pompadoiu', Ivgg Yellow and Hiowii M 01 
108. 



MATRIMONY VINE 

Edith Alma Ross 

THE botanical name for llie Matrimon\- \'ine is I.yeium 
Vulgare, so named from the country Lycia. 

It is a shrub often found in old-fashioned ganlens. In 
June and jidy the plant is einered with delicate sujall 
mauve flowers. 

Tater in the season ihe long racenu^s oi o\al fruit ap- 
pear at tile end of the hianches. These are a briglu t>rungv 
red and are ver\- decorative and striking. 

To paint the berries about thi- same colors aiv rei|uired 
as for till' Iiawthoriie. Ahu it Wllow and Capueiue l\i"vl or 
Pompadour with a touc-h oi Ueep Red Hrown. Paini some 
of (he berries mori- yellow anil some rather green to \arv 
I he eoloi ing. 

Tile w(Hul\ stems are rather pur|^Iish and will tuid 
\'ioIel of Iron in additiiMi to browns and i;ieens. 

The lea\i-s are in I lie iisii.il greens foi' a n.itm.ilistic 
coloring. 

.\ii elTeeti\i' monoehroiiu' I'oloiing max be li.id 1>\ us- 
im; X'eliow Kiown, lliowii M .iiid Hark Bmwii with \.\w 
benii's in (lir \ello\\i^!i In owns wiih a sli'.;lu toneli of leil. 



204 



MIR AM I C STUDIO 






»f*n<^'>'^. 








Ovv. 



tl- 



•6> ips*- 




..^ci:^ 



^S^ 




DesI^ Competition Por» December Problem Iff €SS ASTERS 

DETAIL DRAWINGS AND CONVENTIONALIZATIONS, ASTERS— MARY LOUISE DAVIS 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



205 





N>^# >aV< 



c« x^ 




LANDSCAPE— OPHELIA FOLEY 



I'lrst iirc UuUiiic vvilli Grey for Klcsli. Second luv Dislaiil tuvs: . \uAvl Xo. .<, 1 A/tcr UUiv > Ivorv Gl-m- 
I'oreground trees: i Sea Green, . I'earl (mvv, ,; Iv..rv (;ia/,e. 1 Xru Cvcm. (\unuu\ : , Grev Wliovv , h-orv ' 
Glaze, J Grey for Flesli. TliiKirnr I'jivrlopr: 1 1 Vai 1 (^ivv. j Ivoi v cUa/.e. Kourdi lire -Wa'sli 
in cloud Jonus willi I^'Miou Vellow, and tiindxs of iurs witli Vrllt)\\ Kid. 



2o6 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN, No. 3 

Emma A. Ervin 

NO. 3. Background, very light yellow green and yellow 
ochre shading into grey at top. The birds are 
painted black in the first firing, paint yellow bills and a 
touch of red about the eyes. The rice and grass are green. 

BOWL BORDER— (Page 212) 

Edith Alma Ross 

THIS design was made for an engraved border to a 
metal bell but can be easily adapted to a bowl, cup 
and saucer and plate. Tint the back- 
ground Ivory lustre, the design Yellow 
Brown lustre, outline with gold. 



TEAPOT STAND (Page 212) 

Elsie Duden 

TINT the background a Celadon or 
Grey Green ; paint the design in Old 
Blue with strong outlines; after firing tint 
all over with Pearl Grey f , Grey Green \. 
Strengthen Old Blue and outlines if nec- 
essary. For Old Blue use Banding Blue §, 
Black i. 



C. M. C. — Conventionalized Stork design, Keramic Studio, November 
I9O8. The darker part of stork is Copenhagen Grey dusted with Rose 
For a reddish purple flower showing through a grey blue ground paint the 
flower in Ruby then dust with the Grey Blue. For a soft green use Grey 
Green and for a dull jnnk dust your Pink (Pompadour and Rose) with Pearl 
Grey. 

M. E. S.— -We answer questions only in these columns; it is of no use to 
send stamped envelope. This is our rule. For the mayonnaise bowl, H. K. 
Taylor, November Keramic Studio, 1908, outside band, leaves and stems, 
Green — other bands. Grey. Dark spots in lattice effect, Blue, dots in centers, 
Yellow, flowers, Red. Colors are explained in the directions. 

\V. G. — For poppy panels in color December Keramic Studio 1908 
No. 1 — Ground Grey Green. Flower, stem, and bud are Albert Yellow, leaves 
and stems Banding Blue. Red spots on poppy. Pompadour. Balance of 
design Black. Dry dust lightly with Pompadour and fire. Second fire, 
strengthen colors where needed and dry dust background with Pompadour, 
Grey Green, or Albert Yellow, according to the tone desired. The Blue 
green leaves and stems will need to be painted with Yellow. You will have 
to use your judgment as to what is needed to get the desired shade and dry 
dust before firing. If necessary the colors can be gone over in a 
third fire. 

No. 2 — Background tinted with Pompadour. Flower and bud painted 
with the same. Brown Green on leaf and stems Violet at base of flower. 
Balance of design Black. Dust with Pearl Green. 

No. 3 — Background Banding Blue. Flower, Albert Yellow and Pompa- 
dour. I-ight leaves and stems, Moss Green light, balance of design Black. 
Dust with Pompadour. For second fire strengthen where necessary and dust 
with Yellow or any needed color. 

No. 4 — Background, Grey Green. Flowers, Albert Yellow, stems and 
spots on poppy, Olive Green. Balance of design Black. Dust with Pom- 
padour. Second fire strengthen and dust with necessary colors. If it needs 
to be yellower, use Albert Yellow, if greener, use the Green, if more orange 
use Pompadour over Yellow, etc., etc 

B. D. — -There is a very good banding wheel made by A. H. Abbott & 
Co., Chicago. The Western decorators use this wheel very much, and con- 
sider it the best on the market. 

O. G. — Our new book. Flower Painting on Porcelain, is a most suitable 
holiday or birthday gift to a china decorator. 



9?" ^ 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Mrs. W. J. T. — The illustrations to "Happy Study 
Hours" are by Mrs. Sara Wood Safi'ord. Lustres re- 
quire the same fire as colors. They can be put on in 
repeated coats fired between. They should have 
opalescent tones in a play of color. Probably you did 
not fire either your lustre or j'our colors hard enough 
since your colors feel rough after firing. Fire hard 
enough to get a good even glaze all over. Then pass a 
fine sand paper (00) over the colors to remove any 
grainy particles which may have adhered. Any good 
paste for gold can be dried thoroughly in the oven 
(but not till after it has dried enough to be dull) then 
it can be gilded before firing, but it is safer for the 
amateur to fire before gilding. No, an amateur can 
not glaze rough edges on jjorcelain, it needs too hard a 
fire to develop glaze. Try a little sand paper, or select 
good smooth pieces of china. 




SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN, NO. 3— EMMA A. ERVIN 



^1 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



207 







-■PH '/ 



I • 



SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN. NO. 3-EMMA A. ERVIN 



208 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




CHINESE PORCELAINS IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Waldon Fawcett 

ALL specimens of Chinese porcelains shown in the ac- 
companying^photographs are 
from the collection made by Mr. 
Alfred E. Hippisley, Commissioner 
of the Imperial Maritime Customs 
Service of China, and deposited by 
him in the National Museum 
(Smithsonian Institution) at Wash- 
ington, D. C, where these various 
specimens at present repose. 

No. I. White K'anghsi porce- 
lain. Medallion : Lung Wang, King 
consortof the queen of the fairies, 
is handing a baby the Elixir of life 
while another of the sages is hold- 
ing the curved baton carved in 
jade and representing the power of 
the Buddhist faith. 

No. 2. Famille Verte Garden 
Scene. Seven worthies of the 
bamboo grove playing chess, music 
writing on the rocks. On neck is 
a fishing scene. 

Vases of White Chienlung Porce- 
lain Nos. 3, 4 and 5. 

No. 3. From a small stand ver 
milion color bearing a geometrical 
scroll pattern in gold, springs the 
vase gently bulging to two-thirds 
height when it contracts to form 
everted neck. The body is of dull 



light blue on which are conven- 
tional flowers in various shades of 
pink and yellow with foliage in 
green. The decoration at base of 
neck consists of a bulging band of 
yellow, bearing flowers of various 
shades of pink and yellow. Inside 
pale sea green. 

No. 4. Vase of white Chienlung 
porcelain shaped as gourd con- 
tracted at the middle. Entirely 
covered with an elaborate design of 
trailing gourds of the same shape as 
the vase with scroll-like leaves and 
bats outlined in gold and shaded 
partly in gold and partly in silver 
upon a dull olive green of "tea- 
dust" ground . Height of this spec- 
imen 8 inches. 

No. 5. Vase of same porcelain 
of double thickness at neck, the 
outer layer of paste terminating 
below in an everted scallop-edged 
ruffle curving outward and down- 
ward. Ornamentation consists 
of roses and chrysanthenmms 
painted in deep blue under thick 
transparent glaze leaving three 
medallions of pure milk white in 
which as open work chrysanthe- 
mums and bamboos, roses and 

2 plum blossoms are molded with 

great delicacy in relief under 

thick white glaze. Round the projecting edge at neck 

runs a foliated scroll engraved in relief under a white glaze. 

Height 5 inches. 




RERAMIC STUDIO 



209 




Teapot and cups Nos. 6, 7 and 8. 

Tea-pot is of pure white porcelain of globular shape 
and covered with brilliant vitreous glaze upon which are 
very beautifully painted groups of white and pink lotus 
flowers and leaves crinkled into many but quite natural 
shapes, showing the dark upper and light lower sides with 
buds and seed-pods. On cover are groups of the same 
flowers and leaves arranged in three clumps around the 
knob. 

The cups are of the same porcelain and bear exactly 
the same decoration. 



No. 9. Pencil holder of dull opaque white Ku Yueh- 
hsuan vitreous ware of cylindrical shape. Decorated with a 
group of the Seven Worthies of the Bamboo Grove con- 
versing together or examining a scroll, bearing a landscape 
with pine trees on a green sward edged with rocks and 
flowering trees. 

No. 10. Wine cup small of same ware. Around the 
foot a band of delicate red scroll-work on a yellow ground 
with a very narrow band above of the white foliate pat- 
tern on a black ground. This and a broader foliate pat- 
tern at rim of the dull white color of the glass carefully 




lU 



2[0 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




12 



13 



shaded with a straw-yellow upon a very pale green ground 
confine the body of the cup on which a yellow scrollwork 
forms two landscape panels. The intermediate spaces, 
slightly smaller than the panels themselves, are completely 
filled with peonies, chrv'santhemums, asters and other 
flowers. 

No. II. Of same ware. Around foot a band of same 
pattern as on the last with an arabesque design above in 
carmine on a pink ground. Within this and a similar 
band around brim are delicate foliate patterns of the dull 
white color of the glass shaded with light brown on a ground 
of the same color which confine the body of the cup. Here 
on a ground of the natural color of the ware is a fine damask 
of olive-green supporting four panels confined by yellow 
scroll work. 

No. 12. Vase of pure white Yungcheng porcelain. 
In shape a half globe with tall slender everted neck rising 
from center. Decoration consists of a genii in long flow- 
ing yellow robe. The decoration embodies delicate shades 
of green, brown, blue and pink. 

No. 13. Small vase of white porcelain of delicate 
shape somewhat resembling a pear, decorated with a group 
of peonies, springing from a mass of rockery, boldly painted 




15 



in deep blue under a glaze which has a yellowish tint owing 
to the closeness of the crackle. 

No. 14. Pendant to the above and bearing a decora- 
tion difi"ering only in details. 

No. 15. Of delicate white Yungcheng porcelain with 
everted brim. Decorated inside with a group of three 
fresh lichees, a peach and a yellow lily beautifully painted 
in enamel colors of natural shade above glaze. The outside 
is entirely colored with a deep rose which imparts a blush 
to the white inside. This is an admirable specimen of 
the famous "rose back" plates. 

PLATE DESIGN— HELEN B. SMITH 

USE a soft bluish green, two tones of lilac color and 
light yellow, making the space between the border 
and the edge of the plate and also the diamond-shaped 
spaces a light grey. 

The outlines of these borders may be made in black 
or gold or silver, or may be omitted, in which case great 
care should be taken not to leave the edges of the color 
spaces ragged. 

To put the monogram or the interlaced initials in the 
center of a plate gives to it a touch of individuality. 

WHITE CHINA 

THERE are many evidences that the market of \vhite 
china for decoration is broadening, that both in va- 
riety of shapes and quality of glaze decorators can make 
far better selections than they could a few years ago. 

They do not confine themselves now to French china, 
although it still is their main source of supply. The glaze 
of French china is hard and for this reason is not suitable 
for all kinds of decoration, especially for enamel decoration. 
Enamel decorators more and more tend to use softer wares. 
To the Belleek of American manufacture are added now 
some English and German chinawares. An important new 
acquisition, which will be on the market in a short time, is a 
line of Bavarian china, of a hard body, but of softer glaze 
than the French, which seems to be of excellent quality, 
with new but simple and artistic shapes-. 



IIERAMIC STUDIO 



21 I 




PLATE DESIGN— HELEN B. SMITH 




BOWL DESIGN, DANDELION MOTIF VIRGINIA MASON 
Petals of ilowcrs, (U'licatc ncHow; Umxcs and strius, k>*.\v .-;ivcii; l)aok.i;n>uii.l. Acc\h-\ toiu-s ol -uru, 

and gold band at loji oi \)o\\\. 



-i>Kl outliiu' 



212 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




BOWL BORDER— EDITH ALMA ROSS 



(Treatment page 206) 




GOLDEN 



ROD DESIGN FOR TEAPOT STAND-ELSIE DUDEN (Treatment page 206) 




4 



the entire contents of this Migasine ire covered by the general copyright, »nd the articles must not be reprinted Hoithout special permission 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY 1909 



Editorial Notes 

League Notes 

The Decoration of Artistic Grand Feu Gres (2d paper) 

White Hawthorne 

Studio Notes and Exhibition Notes 

Richmond, Indiana, Qass in Design 

Ceramics at the National Society of Craftsman Exhibition 

Peacock Plate (Supplement) 

Chop Plate (Supplement) 

Working Designs for Supplement 

Orange Lilies 

Conventionalizations of Peacock Feathers 

Figure Tile 

Conventional Peacock Feathers 

Conventional Peacock Patterns for Tiles 

Conventional Peacock Pattern for Tile 

Conventional Peacock Medallions 

Peacock Designs for Vase or Stein 

Peacock Feather Motif for Plate 

Sneeze Weed 





PAGE 




213 




213 


Louis Franchet 


2J4 


Henrietta Barclay Paist 


215 




216 


Margaret Overbeck 


217-221 




222 


Matilda Middleton 


222 


May McCrystle 


222 


May McCrystle and Matilda Middleton 


224 


Hannah Overbeck 


225 


Drucilla Paist 


226 


Alice E. Woodman 


227 


Alice E. Woodman 


228-229 


Alice E. Woodman 


230 


Virginia Mason 


230 


Alice E. Woodman 


23t 


C. Bridwell 


232 


Edith Alma Ross 


233 


Nancy Beyer 


234 



6 ^\ 

THE OLD RELIABLE l^Em FITCH KILNS 



The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities* 




*e 



THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze and Color Tone. 




No. 2 Siie 14 i 12 in $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16x19 In 40.00 

Write for Discounts. 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

I No. 2 Size 16 x 12 in 20.00 

I No. 3 Size 16 x 15 in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



^ 



Vol. X. No. 10 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



February, 1909 




HK Peacock as a motif in design 
has been much exploited but there 
seems to be an endless inspiration 
to be drawn from this source. We 
have had an imusual opportunity 
to gather a number of designs and 
conventionalizations of both bird 
and feather and present them in 
this issue of Keramic vStudio, 
together with a fine application 
of the motif in the plate in color by Miss Middleton. This 
plate is perhaps too ambitious for the average decorator 
but it is full of inspiration and suggestions. The plate by 
Mrs. McCrystle also is capable of being used in part as well 
as a whole. 

We would call attention to the work of the class in 
design under the instruction of Miss Margaret Overbeck. 
The most striking point to a careful observer is that each 
pupil has kept her marked individuality, instead of copying 
the style of the teacher as usually happens. As class work 
it is very unusual and many things are clever. 

i> 

The prizes in the competition for a design to be adapted 
to commercial china were awarded as follows: First prize, 
$25.00, Mrs. Anna M. Sessions; second prize, $15.00, Mary 
Louise Davis; third prize, $10.00, Eleanor Chadeayne. 

Flat Enamel Decoration on China is the title of a book- 
let by Mrs. LeRoy T. Steward, of Chicago, the founder of 
the Atlan Club. The remarkable work done in Chicago these 
last years, in fiat enamels, especially on soft Satsuma pot- 
tery, but also on chira, has attracted attention everywhere. 
Many examples of this fine work will be illustrated in both 
February and March issues of Keramic Studio. Students 
will find Mrs. Steward's book an invaluable addition to 
their library. Its price is only $1.00. 

The Van Nostrand Co., of New York, has just issued a 
book on Glass Manufacture by Walter Rosenhaim, Super- 
intendent of the department of Metallurgy at the National 
Physical Laboratory. This book is written in a simple, 
comprehensive way and has been kept as non-technical as 
possible. It covers all the different processes of glass manu- 
facture which are in existence to-day. The only regret 
readers will have will be due to the lack of illustrations. 
It seems that in a publication of this kind, illustrations of 
the different glass products as well as of the processes of 
manufacture would have made the book much more at- 
tractive. But illustrations would of course have increased 
the cost considerably, while the book is placed on the mar- 
ket at a very moderate price, $2.00 net. 

EXHIBITION NOTE 

The New York Society of Keramic .\rts will hold an 
lixhibition in the Galleries of the National .\rls Cliih, 1 k) 
East lytli St., from March 24 to April 10, 1909. Hlaiiks 



for the Exhibition will be sent on application. All articles 
must reach the Galleries by Saturday, March 20th. Cor- 
respondence should be addressed to Miss Edith Penman, 
939 Eighth Avenue, New York City. 

LEAGUE NOTES 

THE decoration of porcelain, though much abused and 
misunderstood in .the past, is now fast gaining the 
recognition as a fine art that it deserves. One of our ablest 
art critics writes: "It is only within recent ^^ears that 
painting on china or porcelain has been accepted among the 
fine arts." And yet, the very origin of china painting was 
to give permanence to the artists' work by using colors 
which would not fade and be lost with time. 

The field for work of the designer and decorator of 
porcelains is enlarging and those who fail to keep up with 
the times by studying conventional ornament will find their 
occupation growing less remunerative. 

Interior decorators are beginning to see the incon- 
gruity of Dresden china dinner sets in colonial dining rooms, 
and are now having the design carried out on the china, in 
keeping with the other decoration of the room. The prob- 
lem due March first, of the Cross flower bowl will admit of 
some very interesting work and should result in a ver}' at- 
tractive finished piece. 

This bowl has been manufactured from outline in last 
year's study course and is now on the market. As it is 
designed to hold cut flowers or a small growing plant it 
would be well to bear in mind the suggestion of the Chair- 
man of Education that the finished design be executed in 
monochrome. 

A design too glaring in color would not suitably frame 
the plant. The relative importance of the plant and its 
holder should not be forgotten. 

This is the last problem in this year's study course and 
members are requested to send the designs in promptly, so 
that they may be returned in time for use in decorating a 
piece for our Annual Exhibition, May i ith. 

Our President has requested a few words on the means 
of firing the Wheeler Vase, as so man>- of The League mem- 
bers have been imfortunate in having the vase crack across 
the corners in the firing. There is no difficulty in firing this 
or any other piece of Belleek, if the piece is inverteil on 
strips of platan instead of the regular stilts which would mar 
the exposed edge. 

If the platan is unobtainable in yoni locality it can 
easily be made of plaster of Paris mixed with saw-ihist ; the 
latter will hre out and leave the rest quite porous. It is 
easily cut in strips and iierfectly safe to use umler any 
Belleek. 

At the last .Advisory Hoard Meeting the name ot .Mi.s.s 
1 Kill ill la Pang, netroit, Michigan, was proposed ami ac- 
cepti'd as an individual member of the League. Copies of 
the stiub course and a short history of tlu- League will be 
promptU niaileil to any t^iie intiTested who sends sell-atl- 
dussed stani])cd envelope lor same. 

loNi'; \\iii:i:i.i:k. Coi, See. N. 1,. M. P.. 
u)j() h'ine .\rls, Chicago. 



214 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



THE DECORATION OF ARTISTIC GRAND FEU ORES 
(continued) 

Louis Franchet 

FIRING IN A FIRE-MOUTH KILN 

The simplest kiln is the best, and I will not undertake 
to describe the extravagant complications which have 
been designed under the pretext of improvements. 

As the manufacture of artistic gres, such as we are 
studying here, will never be conducted on a large scale, I 
will take as a type a small kiln, having about one and a 




Fig. 1 

half cubic meter capacity. Among the different systems 
which I have tried I have adopted a down draft kiln with 
three fire mouths. The kiln is one and a quarter meter 
wide, and one and three-quarters high in the center, with 
a baking chamber one meter and seventy centimeters high.* 
The ware is placed in saggers and the firing is done 
with coal in a maximum time of eighteen hours. A circular 
shape is the best because circular kilns fire more evenly 
than others and there is less space wasted. 

Without describing the various systems of fire mouths 
which have been tried, I will describe that which gave me 
the best results (fig. i) : 

In this very simple fire mouth the fuel is introduced 
at A, and during the grand feu period it must not go above 
the level marked by the line NN'. The coal must not be 
fed in too small pieces or in dust, but in pieces about as 
big as both fists together. A coal should be used which 
produces a long flame and is not sulphurous. 

Such a fire mouth is easily regulated and consumes 
comparatively little fuel; in this kiln I fire to cone 9 in i8 
hours with only 1,400 lbs. of coal. Attempts have been 
made to improve the design by producing recuperation, with 
the idea that the cold air entering under the grates must 
delay or impede combustion. There is more truth in this 
in theory than in practice, because when the air comes in 
contact with the fuel it has already been considerably 
heated up by the radiation from the lower part of the fire 
mouth; it is in fact very warm air which comes in under 
the grates. However, the following arrangement has been 



*M. Franchet does not explain the difference between the "baking cham- 
ber" and the "kiln." The kiln which he is describing is built in two stories. 
In the lower one the firing proper is done, while in the upper are placed the 
clay wares to undergo a preliminary "baking." The temperature of this 
upper compartment is much less severe than that of the kiln. 

— Prof. Chas. F. Binns. 



tried (fig. 2) : the air comes under the grates after having 
passed through the metallic box B which is pierced with 
holes; besides, on each side of the fire mouth a hole is left 
which opens into the pipes C which are placed in the walls. 
These communicate with the fire mouth at A. The air 
which passes through them is rapidly heated up and thus 
the coal is in contact only with warm air, from whatever 
side it comes. In theory, therefore, the combustion is 
made more complete. 

This system has been tried in many establishments, 




among them at Sevres, and from plans given to me the^*^ 
I have myself built three kilns. In every case I found that 
the results of these costly experiments were unsatisfactory. 
There was no economy of fuel and it was almost im- 
possible to regulate the kiln so as to obtain a reducing 
or oxidizing atmosphere at will. I would therefore ad- 
vise ceramists to be extremely careful when trying such 
a system of fire mouths. 

The simple fire mouth which is shown in fig. i is the 
one which I recommend. I have used it successfully both 
with coal and wood firing. For wood firing I simply place 
the grates close to each other, leaving only space enough 
for the fall of ashes. It is unnecessary to construct a 
special fire mouth for wood. 

It is well known that in the process of firing there are 
two distinct periods which French ceramists call petit feu 
and grand feu. In an ordinary stoneware or porcelain 




Cone 9 Stoneware in mat glazes — -Prof. Chas. F. Binns 



nilRAMIC STUDIO 



215 




WHITE HAWTHORNE-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



2l6 



RE-RAMIC STUDIO 




Richmond Qass, No. I — Maud Kaufman Eggemeyer 

fabrication, the only object of the petit feu period is to 
bring about the dehydration of the siHcate of alumina 
without causing cracks in the ware, but in the development 
of colors imder reducing conditions, the petit feu plays 
another important part. It is only during this period 
that reduction can be applied with good results, that is, 
before the glaze begins to fuse. Reduction during the 
grand feu period is not advisable; besides, no thorough 
reduction is then possible, as gases are reducing only when 
the combustion is incomplete, and an incomplete com- 
bustion would prevent the rise of temperature necessary 
for the proper burning of the ware. 

A reducing firing should be regulated as follows: dur- 
ing the petit feu period coal may be used, but wood, which 
I have always used, gives a much more regular reduction 
and consequently finer results. Both the upper and lower 
parts of the fire mouth are closed with heavy iron plaques, 
and sticks of very dry wood are thrown in. These sticks 
should be heavy enough to bum very slowly, and in the 
kiln which I have described three or four sticks about every 
half hour will be required for each fire mouth. In about 
8 or lo hours the temperature will reach Seger cone 013 
(850°-C.). At this point the grand feu period begins, the 
iron plaques are removed and from now on the kiln may 
be fed with coal by filling the fire mouth up to line NN' 
(fig. i). This quantity of coal will last about one and a" 
half hours, but of course it is left to the judgment of the 
firer to decide when the supply should be renewed. After 
about four hours it will be found necessar>^ to remove with 
a poker the clinkers which have been left by the combustion 
of coal and which obstruct the grates. With certain kinds 
of coal this cleaning of the grates may have to be done 
oftener. 

It will be noticed that when describing the petit feu 
process, I did not mention the chimney damper, which, 
however, is absolutely necessary. In most of the down 
draft kilns, which are in general use to-day, the dampers 
are on the pipes leading to the baking chamber, and about 
one meter above the floor of the kiln. But in my many 



experiments I have found that with such dampers a perfect 
regulation of the firing is impossible. I much prefer a 
single damper above the baking chamber and right at the 
base of the chimney. This makes possible a perfect control 
of the reducing and oxidizing atmospheres. 

How much the damper should be closed during the 
petit feu period depends entirely on the draft. It should 
be left open wide enough to permit the consumption of 
gases by the kiln, not more. 

The nonnal consumption of gases by the kihi is also 
the only rule which can be given for the regulation of the 
grand feu firing, and in this case much will depend upon 
the outside atmospheric conditions. With too active a 
draft there will be a loss of heat through the chimney and 
the temperature will not rise as it should. With too 
slow a draft the combustion will be incomplete, reducing 
gases will be produced and again the temperature will 
remain stationary. These matters should be left to the 
judgment of the firer. 

I insist again on the point at which in a gr^s firing 
to cone 9 the reduction period should stop. M. Taxile Doat 
in "Grand Feu Ceramics,"* page 143, says that the reduction 
should be carried up to cone 06 instead of cone 013, but 
this kind of reduction can be applied only to hard porce- 
lain, not to gr^s, and even in the case of the porcelaine 
nouvelle of Sevres, I do not see any advantage in carrying 
the reduction further than cone 013. In fact when this 
limit is exceeded it generally occurs that flamme reds of 
copper are smoky or of an unpleasant brownish tone. 

TO BE CONTINUED 



*Grand Feu Ceramics, by Taxile Doat — Published by Keramic Studio 
Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 1905. 




1 \ L urn A ^ r \ B^m n r mm 

l\fl] imM/HIMA/?lll 



Richmond Qass, No. 2 — Kathryn Retty 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



217 




RICMHOND CLASS, No. 3— MAUD KAUFMAN EGGEMEYER 



THE RICHMOND, INDIANA, CLASS IN DESIGN 

Margaret Overbeck, Instructor 

THE collection of designs given in this issue is of the 
work of an interesting summer class that met onee 
each week in a quiet, cool place in Richmond, Indiana — 
interesting because they were striving intelligently for 
originality and individuality in their work instead of heiu.L; 
content with second hand material. 

The movement grew out of the Keraiuic League, a 
young hut thrixing organization; though the class in 
Composition and Design was not eonliiu'd lo (his braneli, 
but included some proiicieni in vniious hiu's of line art as 



well as crafts. This, however, was the beginning oi eon 
certed work in original tlesigii — a beginning with much 
promise. 

The results of (he sununer's work were pariieularlv 
gra(irying to the teacher because of the growing eiithu- 
siasni.and (he fael (h;i( ihr v\\<\ of the season's study showed 
no waning ol intrrrst luU rather (he opposite. I\aeh 
worki'd with a delinite ptnpose— il not that of practical 
application of design, as was trur in most cUvSes, it was as 
;i basis for future wiMk, ;uid with .m nuderstanding of the 
\;due of the creative eleiuiiit in tliis line i>f stuily. and 
(liat to make art vital and endiuing it nnist be .dive. 
De Pauw University, (.^.reencastle. Ind. 



2l8 



RERAMIC STUDIO 





No. 4 Border — Georgia Potter 




No. 5. Border — Constance Bell 




No. 6. Pitcher and Bowl 
— Kathryn Retty 




No. 7. Plate— Mrs. Mansfield 



DESIGNS BY RICHMOND, INDIANA, CLASS— MARGARET OVERBECK, INSTRUCTOR 



.«! 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



219 



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No. 8. Border — Maud Kaufman Eggemeyer 




No. 9. Border — ^Maud Kaufman Eggemeyer 




No. 10. Border— Mrs. Mansfield 



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No. 11. Border — Georgia Potter 



No. 13. Border — Bessie Whitridge 




No. II. Bordi-r Coiist.UKO Hell 

DESIGNS BY RICHMOND, INDIANA, CLASS- MARGARET OVERBECK, INSTRUCTOR 



2 20 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




RICHMOND CLASS, No. 15, PLATE, No. 16 VASE— KATHRYN RETTY 



COLOR SUGGESTIONSJFOR DESIGNS 
BY MISS OVERBECK'S CLASS 

No. I — Ground, grey green. Stems and leaf forms, 
olive green. Flower and upper triangle of bud, green blue. 
Dark spots, orange or terra cotta. 

No. 2 — Ground, Ivory or Satsuma color. White forms, 
White Enamel. Second tone of grey, Yellow Brown. 
Darker grey, Capucine Red. Two darkest square spots and 
parallel bars, also outlines. Red Brown or Gold. 

No. 3 — Satsuma or greyed Ivory tone fired over all. 
Lightest grey, Apple Green tint. Second grey, mixed tint 
of Apple and Royal Green. Third shade of grey, Royal 
Green with touch of Banding Blue. Darkest tone. Banding 
Blue with a touch of Royal Green. 

No. 4 — Tint of Pearl Grey and Albert Yellow mixed. 
Flower spots, Violet. Stem and leaf forms, Green. 

No. 5 — Carved or incised, most appropriate to pottery 
in mat blues and greens or dull greys, yellows and browns. 

No. 6 — Ivory, Yellow Brown, Gold. 

No. 7 — Most appropriate for pottery design incised and 
with mat glaze. 

No. 8 — Ivory tone fired first, then grovmd, three tones 



of grey. Pearl Grey with Black, Blue and Green added to 
deepen. Bands and triangular spots, two shades of Band- 
ing Blue with touch of Royal Green. Eyes, a darker shade 
of same. Semi-circle about eye, also triangular spot at 
top, Yellow Brown. Balance of design, olive brown made 
of Yellow Brown and Royal Green. 

No. 9 — Groim'd, Ivory. Flowers, Yellow. Center and 
outline. Yellow Brown. Leaves and stems, Olive Green. 

Nos. lo, II, 12 and 13 — Blue, or green, or blue and 
green. 

No. 14 — Appropriate for potter}^ design in mat glazes 
and incised lines. 

No. 15 — Groimd of border, Violet. Flower forms, Yel- 
low with Yellow Brown centers, red outlines. Leaves, 
Olive Green, wdth darker outline. Ivory, tint in center of 
plate. 

No. 16 — Ground, Ivory. Design in colored golds with 
black or red outlines. 

No. 17 — Tint, Pearl Grey. Band, light blue. Dark 
spots and edge, dark blue. Diamond shape, medium green. 
For blue and green, use Banding Blue, Royal Green and 
Black, changing proportions of Blue and Green. 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



221 




RICHMOND CLASS. No. 17, PLATE— MAUD KAUFMAN EGGEMEYER 



222 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



CERAMICS AT THE NATIONAL 

SOCIETY OF CRAFTSMEN 

EXHIBITION 

THE National Society of 
Craftsmen held their second 
annual exhibition in the galleries 
of the National Arts Club, 1 19 E. 
19th St., New York City, during 
December. 

There was a large exhibit of 
pottery, Grueby, Rookwood, Van 
Briggle, Mr. C. Volkmar and 
the Marblehead Pottery con- 
tributing quite a number of in- 
teresting tiles. 

Mr. Walrath had an inter- 
esting vase in yellow crystalline 
glaze; Mrs. C. L. Poillon some 
new experiments in color, and 
the Markham Pottery a num- 
ber of one fire pots, designed especially for flowers. 

The exhibit of over glaze decoration was small and 
very good. Miss Caroline Hofman had a very noteworthy 
exhibit in delightful color combinations. Miss M. Middleton 
and Mrs. McCrystle of Chicago, some of their beautiful 
work in fiat enamels. The cover of a Satsuma bonbon 
dish was exquisite in color and wonderful in technique. 

Mrs. A. B. Leonard had a very interesting exhibit; 
among other things a number of pieces in slightly raised 
gold work; a bowl in blue and green enamel and a teapot 
in enamel, Chinese motif. 

Mrs. S. W. Safford, a quaint individual tea set, of 
three pieces in gold and copper. 

Miss Maud Mason, some tea jars suggesting the Coptic 
in very harmonious combinations of color and a pitcher in 
greens, very Japanesque. 

CHOP PLATE (Supplement) 

May McCrystle 

THE flower forms in red and the center of yellow flower 
forms are the same color. Pompadour Red in 
powder, any good dark Pompadour will do, mixing it with 
fat oil of turpentine and thinning with turpentine. Paint it 
on smoothly, padding each petal with very small pad, 
working from the center of the flower out, and making the 
edge of each petal almost white, shading down to a real red. 
This is the only flat color; all the rest are used with enamels 
and I use a mixture for hard china of one-third Hancock's 
Hard White Enamel to two-thirds German Relief White, 
using just enough fat oil to hold them together and thin 
with turpentine so as to ground smooth. That is the enamel 
I^shall refer to in mixing the following colors. The light 
yellow is very little Silver Yellow toned with Deep Purple 
added to the enamel to quite a light shade and the darker 
yellow is the same adding a very little Orange Yellow and 
more Deep Purple to the light mixture. Green for leaves is 
Apple Green toned with Deep Purple and Brunswick Black, 
adding one-eighth enamel. Keep the colors well mixed with 
turpentine and do not lay the green thick; shade the leaves 
by not applying evenly, making some parts of the leaf very 
thin. The blue is Dark Blue toned with Brunswick Black 
and Deep Purple; add a little enamel to this mixture for 
the darkest blue and more for the other shades making the 
almost white. Blend two shades together where 




T' 



lightest 



Bowl and Tea Jar— Marbleliead Pottery Gruebs' Tile Jar, crystal glaze — F. E. Walrath 

NATIONAL SOCIETY OF CRAFTSMEN EXHIBITION 



you see them used. The outline is of course the first work 
in painting the plate. I use Ivory Black, two-thirds; Dark 
Blue, one-third for outline; and equal parts of Ivory Black, 
Dark Blue and Brunswick Black for black lines. All colors 
are La Croix except Brunswick Black, which is the Dresden. 
Colors that are used with enamels should not be painted on, 
but should be kept well mixed with turpentine only, and using 
a pointed brush, float the color on the place with the point 
of the brush. If the plate is to be tinted it should be done 
after the outline is fired, mapping out the design; and 
Turtle Dove Grey in La Croix colors makes a very good tint, 
using it very thin indeed in the plain part of plate and more 
color back of the design. 

1^ J." 

PEACOCK PLATE (Supplement) 

Matilda Middleton 

^HE band back of the heads of peacocks, the breasts 
and wings of same and the center of plate are one 
color in different tones, the color being what I call Satsuma. 
It is composed of Silver Yellow, Brunswick Black (German), 
Deep Purple and Brown 4 or 17. When mixed properly it 
should have a dark brown color. 

The red used is Capucine Red and Pompadour Red 23 
(German), equal parts and toned with Brown 4 or 17. 

Yellows: Silver Yellow, a little Orange Yellow toned 
with Deep Purple and Brown 4 or 17, using more enamel 
in the lighter shades. 

Brownish lavender is made by using Light Violet of 
Gold, Dark Blue, Yellow Brown (German) and Brown 4 or 
17, adding enamel according to color desired. 

Greens : Apple Green toned with Brunswick Black and 
Deep Purple. 

The eyes in tails of birds are the same green as used for 
leaves adding enamel to make them much lighter. 

The blue for the peacock is Dark Blue toned with Bruns- 
wick Black and Deep Purple, put on with a thin wash over 
the outline (which was fired in) also using same green in 
flat washes for the back and tail to give a greenish blue 
eft'ect. 

The dotted background done in gold holds the design 
together, and while it seems a long and tedious piece of work 
it is really very quickly done. 

Enamels used are composed of two-thirds Aufsetzweis 
and one-third Hancock's Hard Enamel. ■ 




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RERAMIC STUDIO 



223 




Bonbon box in flat enamel — Miss Middleton Tray — C. Hofman 

Teapot in copper and gold, Mrs. S. W. Safford 



Bowl — E. Stewart 




Water pitclier — Miss M. M. Mason Salad bowl — Mrs. .\. B. Leonard 



Water jut,' — Caroline Hofman 




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C'li..|. rinl.- .\li,v A II 1. .■in 



Pliilo Miiy Mi'Cry.'llo 



IVii Ji»i — MnuU Mnmii 



NATIONAL SOCIETY OF CRAFTSMEN EXHIBITION 



224 



KHRAMIC STUDIO 




SECTION OF PLATE (Supplement)— MATILDA HIDDLETON 




SECTION OF PLATE (Supplement)— MAY McCRYSTLE 




CENTER MEDALLION OF PLATE (Supplement)— MAY McCRYSTLE 



ri:ramic studio 



225 




ORANGE LILIES— HANNAH OVERBECK 



226 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



CONVENTIONALIZATIONS OF PEACOCK 
FEATHER 

THE conventionalizations of the Peacock 
feather motif by Miss Drucilla Paist 
can be carried out in any of the color schemes 
suggested elsewhere in the magazine. It is 
suggested, however, that for most designs 
one of the following color schemes would 
prove most effective: i. Ground, Ivory; 
design in Yellow Brown and Gold ; or ground 
Yellow Lustre; design, Orange Lustre and 
Gold; Black or Brown outlines. 2. White 
ground; design in a Purple Blue and Blue 
Green with or without a Yellow Green added. 
3. Satsuma color for ground; design in 
Gold, Green and Capucine Red with Red 
outlines. 




CONVENTIONALIZATIONS OF PEACOCK FEATHERS— DRUCILLA PAIST 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



227 




NO. I FIGURE TILE ALICE E. WOODMAN 



NO ,._pigurc Tile — ^Lustres— Ground Ivory; flesh in 
mineral colors; draperies in Yellow over Rose; 
trinnninK, Ruby over Dark Green; use Gold in ornaments 
with Hlaek outlines. , I' or peacock use Iridescent Blue, 
Ruby over Dark Green, and Yellow Brown; Black onthnes. 
No. 2 These designs and convenlioualizaLions oi" the 



peacock and peacock leather l)y Miss Woodman can be 
carried out in any ol" the coK>r schemes ,i;iven for Miss(>ver- 
beck's class desis^ns. Color schemes iov some oi llic con 
xentionali/atiiins are given on page jji>. These color ellecls 
c;m be applied to an\- design, but the decorator is al 
libertN to use an\- color scheme which max suggest ilselt. 



228 



nERAMIC STUDIO 








SS 












CONVENTIONAL PEACOCK FEATHERS— ALICE E. WOODMAN 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



229 





conweriTiori/iL 

P€fl-CoCK 
Fcffi'HeRS 

CONVENTIONAL PEACOCK FEATHERS -ALICE E. WOODMAN 



N.v ;; 



230 



hERAMIC STUDIO 





PEACOCK PATTERN FOR TILE— ALICE E. WOODMAN 



PEACOCK PATTERN FOR TILE— ALICE E. WOODMAN 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

A. M. W. — Flux is added to mineral colors to aid in incorporating the 
color with the glaze. It gives a higher glaze than the color alone; if too much 
is used it fades the color. The Iron colors are difficult to fuse with the glaze 
so the flux is a great aid to them. The Iron colors are Reds, such as Pompa- 
dour, Carnation, Capucine, Orange and Blood Red; also Browns. Olive, Moss, 
Royal and Brown Green all fire badly on Belleek as do some other greens. 
The Lenox Ct)., Trenton, N. J., send out a booklet on the ])roper colors to 
use with Belleek; write tc) them mentioning Ker.-mviic Studio. 

M. E. C. — Opal glass can be decorated the same as china but it needs 
special care in firing. Try a broken bit first, firing till the kiln is red only on 
the bottom; if this is underfired try again a little higher, or if overfired a little 
less red in kiln. 

Mrs. L. a. P. — Lustre decoration is still used extensively though not as 
much a fad as some time ago. "The Class Room," Ker.'\mic Studio, 1906, con- 



tained thorough instruction in this medium. Keramic Studio Pub. Co. ex- 
pect soon to publish a book on this subject. Many simple and effective 
decorations can be made in this medium for the minimum of work, which 
command quite a fair price. 

J. H. — For banding plates ])repared Roman Gold should be mixed with 
a mixture of oil of lavender one-half, spirits of turpentine one-half. The 
consistency should be that of cream; it should receive a good rose heat in the 
kiln. The initial or monogram is best on the rim just below the band. 

Mrs. C. D. \\'. — Not being familiar with the American ware you men- 
tion, it would be impossible to give exact advice, but as it blisters with the 
same fire as French china receives, we should suggest that you give it less 
fire. Do not go by the time but by the color of the kiln. When paste begins 
to chip off it is hopeless to try to repair it; ever}' successive fire will chip more. 
Liquid Bright Gold can not be used over paste but it can be used over fired 
Dresden Aufsetzweis. Paste should not be put on until the next to the last 
fire. Repeated fires are bad for it. 





PEACOCK PATTERN FOR TILE— ALICE E. WOODMAN 



PEACOCK PATTERN FOR TILE— VIRGINIA MASON 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




231 



No. 5 







No. 8 






No. 4 




No. 1) 





No, li 




PEACOCK MEDALLIONS ALICE E. WOODMAN 



232 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




PEACOCK DESIGN FOR VASE OR STEIN, No. I— C. BRIDWELL 




PEACOCK DESIGN FOR VASE OR STEIN, No. 2— C. BRIDWELL 




PEACOCK DESIGN FOR VASE OR STEIN, No. 3— C. BRIDWELL 



PEACOCK DESIGNS FOR VASE OR STEIN 

C. Bridwell 

NO. I — Head of bird, deep blue. Body of bird, apple 
green, black spots. Eyes of feathers, apple green and 
royal purple. Tail and top-nots, gold. Bands, dark 
olive green. Body of vase, deep ochre. Black outlines. 

No. 2 — Design in gold with black outlines. Eyes, 
apple green, shading green and royal purple. Body of 
vase, Copenhagen blue. 

No. 3 — To be done in gold, with eye in apple green 
and royal purple. Body of stein a deep olive or new green. 
Black outlines. 

PEACOCK FEATHER MEDALLIONS 

Alice E. Woodman 

1. Eye white — black or very dark blue spot — wing 
shapes, grey yellow. Feather dark green blue at top shad- 
ing to light green blue at base ; line around eye and down 
center, medium green blue; line around wing shapes, dark 
apple green; white lines between horizontal feather lines, 
dark apple green at top, shading to pale green at bottom. 

2. Black or very dark blue diamond shape, double 
triangle above, apple green with dark blue green outline — 
feathers dark green blue with medium blue green between 
horizontal feathers. 

3. Three triangles with feathers below, also section 
of circle at base, dull green blue; eye, apple green with black 
or dark blue spot, two small triangles black or dark blue — 
outline around three large triangles, around eye and section 
of circle, dull red. 

4. Eyes white, black spot; truncated triangle yellow 
with black outline; two black spots below balance of de- 
sign, two shades of greenish grey. Or truncated triangle 
grey blue with red outline, balance of design dull dark 
blue on a dull olive ground. Or truncated triangle dull 
olive yellow, red outlines, balance of design two shades 
of dull blue. 

5. Eye, black or dark blue spot, on white, with dark 
blue outline surrounded by apple green space with dull 
red outline, two oblong spots at base apple green, balance 
of design dull blue on blue grey groimd. 

6. Bye white, black or dark blue, apple green; bal- 
ance of design two shades of blue grey, except two black 
spots and two olive spots between feather and eye. 

7. Eye black, apple green, pale buff, green outlines, 
balance of design two shades of greenish blue with black 
outlines. 

8. Eyes white and black, light green outline, yellow 
grey heart shapes with dull red outline, balance of design 
dark green blue on light green olive groimd. 

9. Bye, dark blue on apple green, moon shape above 
dull greenish blue grey, dark blue outlines, dull red square 
below, balance of design dark blue on dull apple green 
ground. 

PEACOCK TILE (Page 227) 
Various shades dull blue green, grey, dull blue and 
dull green, touch of dull olive yellow on beaks and claws. 

SHOP NOTES 

Miss A. H. Osgood's book on china painting, "How to 
apply, etc." has been one of the most successful books pub- 
lished on the subject. The nineteenth edition has just been 
issued. 



nERAMIC STUDIO 



233 



STUDIO NOTES 



Miss Beyer at No. 310 Woodland Ave., Pimxsutawney, Pa. 

Miss Gertrude Estabrooks of Chicago, 111., sails on Janu- 

Miss Arrie E. Rogers and Miss Nancy Beyer are open- ary 30th for an extended trip abroad returning to this 

ing up a studio in the Garrison Bldg., comer of Wood St. country about August ist. All correspondence will be 

and 3rd Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. Miss Rogers was formerly at forwarded to her from her present address, 1103 Auditorium 

602 McCance Bldg. comer 7th Ave. and Smithfield St.', and Tower. 




PLATE, PEACOCK FEATHER MOTIF EDITH ALMA ROSS 

rint of grey ivory all over, Yellow Ocluv, oiu' linir, rmrl (mvv, one luill. IVsign in tliuv sIkuIos of guvn. Royal 

Green, Uuxv i"oinilis, lUiii' Green, oiu' I'ouitli, or cany out ihe ilesigii in tluvc shades i>l" Yellow Hiowu 



234 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



GOLD! GOLD! GOLD! 

We challenge the world to produce a Ceramic Gold which 
will have, and retain, the working qualities of 

Climax Roman Gold 

Registered U. S. Patent Office 

Why pay from 65c to $1.00 for gold that does not amount to much, 
when you can get the Best Gold in the World — Climax! at 

45c single box $3.00 doz. boxes 

Chemically Pure Brown Gold. Quantity fully guaranteed, never varies. 

Finest ■ Smoothest ■ Richest 

Insist on Climax. Your work will show improvement. 

Ask for it at your dealer's. If he cannot supply you we will. Sample 
sent on receipt of three two-cent stamps. 

CLIMAX CERAMIC CO., - CHICAGO, ILL. 

206 CLARK AVENUE 



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PALETTE AND BENCH. 

-"Palette and Bench," a monthly for 
art students, started last fall in Syra- 
cuse, N, .Y., has secured a good footing 
from' sheer merit. It is largely addressed 
to young students in water color, oils, 
sculpture, black and white drawing, por- 
trait painting, miniature painting, leather 
worlf and interior house furnishings. 
Prominent artists are contributors with 
text and picture reproductions of their 
work. In the January number, for in- 
stance, Irving R. Wiles instructs readers 
In "Portrait Painting." as to his meth- 
ods of work. Charles C. Curran in- 
structs a "class" monthly in this period- 
ical in oil painting, while Frieda Voelker 
Redmond and Rhoda Holmes Nicholls do 
the same in water color?, supplying illus- 
trations, some of them in color. Charles 
J. Pike instructs in modeling; F. Van 
Vliet Baker, in black and white drawing; 
W. J. Baer, in toiniature painting: Nel- 
bert Murphy in tooled leather; Mrs. O. 
Sangstad, in furniture, and Colin Camp- 
bell Cooper tells how he painted his 
noted "Skyscraper" pictures. 




Seventy 
;nue. Matt 



rSfbTiefian 
sV**»^^n'i Fifteenth 
local tlotereet w«»re- 



LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 
317 South Hill Street 



SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 
809 Second Avenue 



RAILSBACK-CLAREMORE COMPANY 

Importers and Decorators of White China 
Artists' Materials, Gold, Kilns, Etc. 

We are pleased to announce to our many patrons 
on the Pacific Coast that for their better accomn'odation 
we have opened a branch supply house in Seattle where 
we expect to carry as soon as possible a complete line of 

"EVERYTHING FOR THE CHINA DECORATOR" 

Our prices are no more than those of Eastern dealers 
and we are much nearer to you which means a saving 
in both time and freight. Photographs ol china from 
which to make selections will be mailed upon application. 



ElnglisK WKite CKina 

the: royal coleston china 

(Manvifactured by- Colling-wood Brothers. Ltd.. 
StaffordsHire, £n^land) 

t|This is one of the finest china wares manufactured in England. 
It has a pure white body and a rich, soft glaze admirably adapted to 
the requirements of the china painter, giving the painting a high 
glaze at Rose-color-heat " and capable of being fired any practical 
number of times. 

^Paintings on this ware will command double the price they would 

sell for on any other white china obtainable. 

^ Write for full particulars and prices at once. 

^Also ask for particulars of Crabtree's unfired Ceramic Photographs 

which can be painted on before firing and give results not otherwise 

possible, with one firing. 

Address: 
THE PHOTO-CERAMIC DECORATING CO 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



WHITE CHINA 

And CKina Decorating Materials 



CELERY DIPS 

One Dozen 

By Mail 

40c. 




Send for 
ILLUSTRATED 
CATALOGUE 
Free :■ 



^VRIGHT. TTNDALE (Sl VAN RODEN 

1212 Chestnut Street, PHiladelpKia 



Anglo-French Art Co. Kansas City, -- Mo. 

"All! i)er£ectly delighted ^Tith the paint I bought of you" 

3IISS A. R. HIVELY, Easton, Pa. 

Anglo-French Art Co. Kansas City, - - Mo. 

"Received my order promptly, T»as very much pleased that we are 
able to secure Colors at a price within our reach." 

MRS. E. A. HOYT, Waverly, N, Y. 
Anglo-French Art Co.Kansas City, - - Mo. 

"I am very much pleased ^vitli the prompt attention my order re- 
ceived, and also very ^vell satisfied «ith the Colors. They have given 
perfect satisfaction." MRS. E. L. MAYNARD, L,os Angeles, Calif. 
Anglo-French Art Co.Kansas City, - - Mo. 

"I want to thank you sincerely and truly for your kind information 
regarding your Art Supplies. I never in all my life was more delighted 
than ^vheu I received your T»-onderful proposition. It's wondrful to se- 
cure supplies at such a price. I have been paying 30, 40, 50 and 75c a 
xial. I teach, so «ill be delighted for my pupils to use your goods." 
MISS STELLA P. DUFFY', North Madison, Ind. 



Keramic Studio 
Publications 

Keramic Studio Palette & "Bench 

Flower Painting on Porcelain 

The Fruit Book The %pse Book 

Grand Feu Ceramics 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 



When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



CP' 



H 



F^l 



f\^L^ I V^l 



CONTRIBUTORS 



EVELYN BEACHEY 

ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 

EMMA JERVIN 

Xbuis FRANCHET 

Hannah ovERBEGK 

HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 

A. A. ROBINEAU 

AUSTIN ROSSER 

EDITH ALMA ROSS 

JEANNE M/ STEWART 

HEmN SMITH 

BLANCHE VAN COURT SCHNEIDER 

ALICE SHARRARD 



MARCH MCM'X Price 40c. Yearly Subscription $4.00 



A ndriTHLY nmmi for in e potter and decorator 



The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted 'without special permission 

CONTENTS FOR MARCH 1909 



Editorial l^otes 

The Decoration of Grand Feu Gres — Chapter III 

Study of the Peanut 

Designs for Coffee Pot, Cup and Saucer, etc. 

Peaches 

Study of Snow-ball 

Study of Mullein 

Fruit Plate 

Crabapple 

Design for Plate 

Study of Fish 

Tomato Plates 

Steins 

Honeysuckle 

Devils Paint Brush 

Blackberries, Supplement 

Ceramics at the Art Institute of Chicago 

Chrysanthemums 

League Notes 

Thistle 

Answers to Correspondents 



Louis Franchet 
Alice Willets Donaldson 
Evelyn Beachey 
Edith Alma Ross 
Alice Sharrard 
Hannah Overbeck 
Emma Ervin 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Evelyn Beachey 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Jeanne M. Stewart 
Helen Smith 
Edith Alma Ross 
A. A. Robineau 
Jeanne M. Stewart 

Blanche Van Court Schneider 

Austin Rosser 



PAGE 

235 
236 
237 
238, 239 
240 
241 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246-247-248 
249 
250 
250 
250 
251-253 
254 
254 
255 
255 



6" 



THE OLD RELIABLE Il!J]!5 FITCH KILNS 




The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



'e 



The only fuels which give perfect results in _,^_— ^^^M^^S 

Glaze and Color Tone. ^^m^^W^^iB*^ 

No. 2 Sirel4xl2ln $30.00 ) / No. 1 Size 10 x 12 in $15.00 

No.3 Sizel6xl91n 40.00 r^^^"° ^ sizes Charcoal KUn 4 sizesP^" 2 Size 16 x 12 in 20.00 

' J No. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

Write for Discounts, 'no. 4 size is 1 28 in 50.00 

STEARNS, FITCH & CO., SPRINGFIELD, OHIO 



^ 




Vol. X. No. 1 1 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



Harch, 1909 




OME questions have lately been 
sent to the editor which we will 
answer here, as it may be of 
interest to others of our readers. 
"What constitutes design?" De- 
sign is the creation of ornament by 
the arrangement of line and mass, 
dark and light, and sometimes 
color, to fit a given space. Dec- 
orative design is the application 
of design to articles of utility in such manner as to enhance 
the beauty and emphasize the structural lines of the object 
decorated. Only such objects should be decorated as are, 
by association, pleasant to contemplate in leisure moments. 
The tools and implements of toil are not fit subjects for 
decoration, since we have no time to regard them except 
as being useful or useless, moreover such objects are liable 
to daily loss or deterioration. To objects of utility pure 
and simple then decorative design is not appropriate. Ob- 
jects that we use or contemplate in our hours of relaxation 
are fit subjects, and among these objects, the ceramics, 
which serve to hold refreshment in the form of flowers or 
food, are especially adapted to ornament. This ornament 
should be conventionalized, otherwise it would not conform 
to the rule and meaning of decoration, i. e., to emphasize 
the structural lines of the object decorated. 

Decorative conventional design, as applied to ceramics, 
is a study in itself. So many points should be considered: 
the shape to be decorated, the use to which the object is 
to be put, the place it is to occupy, the color scheme it is 
to enhance. If tall and slender, there should be vertical 
structural lines in the decoration, imless the object is too 
tall to be in good proportion, then a horizontal decoration 
or a diaper pattern, combined with the vertical lines, will 
serve to break the height. If too low, vertical lines, in 
combination with horizontal lines, will serve to lend dignity. 
But if a low effect is desired, nothing is better than decora- 
tion in horizontal lines. Simple shapes are best, not only 
because it simplifies the problem of decoration, but because 
complexity has an element of unrest and the object of decor- 
ation is to charm our resting moments. 

A plate to be used on the table should be decorated 
simply on the rim, with possibly a conventional ornament 
in the center for some use such as a service plate. A plate 
for wall decoration should be decorated as a whole, should 
serve as a placque, a spot of color. A vase for flowers 
should be simple and unobtrusive, should have the elTect 
of one color when holding flowers. A vase for the cabinet 
can be elaborated to any desired extent, as long as the 
decoration is in good taste, does not detract from the form 
of the vase, and conforms to the laws of good design. Then 
occasionally pieces are made for some si)ecinl phxcv and 
must conform both in design and color to its surronndings. 
"Why are not realistic flowers, on china where /lowers 
themselves would not be amiss, as suitable as conventional 
flowers?" The first part of this article gives one reason 
why naturaHstic painting is not suitable, i. c, it dois not 
conform to the shajjc of the article decorated nor eniphasi/e 
its structural hues, in fact cannot be used without attract 



ing the eye from the form to the painting. Then the surface 
of a vase or other cylindrical form is not suitable to the 
painting of flowers because they are seen in a distorted 
perspective. If you wish a painting of flowers, they should 
be put on a panel or placque, where they could be seen as a 
whole and form a picture. There is no form of china where 
the flowers themselves would not be amiss as a decoration. 
On tableware they would be decidedly in the way and one 
shudders to think of them dripping with tea, cofi"ee, gra\^' 
and soup. Flowers in a vase are at their best, they could 
not be put on a vase. They are best seen in a vase which 
is subordinate, a color tone merely. The painting of flowers 
on a vase holding flowers would suffer by comparison and 
at the same time detract from the beauty of the flowers 
themselves. When real flowers are used on or in china, 
the piece of porcelain immediately becomes subordinate 
— a holder — , and should be decorated as such. Decoration 
must always be subordinate to the shape and use of the 
article decorated. Real flowers can never be subordinate, 
neither can their naturalistic representation. 

Clay Work, a Handbook for Teachers — The Manual 
Arts Press of Peoria, Ih., has issued a book on clay work by 
Katherine Morris Lester, which will be of invaluable assist- 
ance to teachers in Manual Schools, or to the many stu- 
dents of pottery in the studio. We have had numerous 
inquiries lately for a book of this character. We have 
published in Keramic Studio a series of excellent articles 
by Prof. Binns on "Clay in the Studio" but the issue con- 
taining instructions for hand built pottery is out of print 
and we have many times been unable to fill orders for it. 
Miss Tester's book covers this subject fully; in fact it speaks 
only of the hand modeling of clay, and docs not refer to 
the other pottery processes, casting, pressing or throwing. 
It is specially written for the teaching of clay modeling to 
children, but will be welcomed by all craftsmen who wish to 
take up this fascinating work, without undertaking pottery 
work on a more elaborate scale. 

+ 

The bowl design on i)age 211 oi January Kh"K.\MiC 
Studio, and the peacock motif tile on page 230 in February 
were by mistake given as designed by X'irginia Mason. 
The designer is Miss A'irginia Mann of Cinciiniati. 

-i- 

In the account of the National Society of Craftsmen 
exhibition in hVbntarv Kek.'\mic Studio, a tea jar by Miss 
Caroline llofnian, was l)y mistake attributed 10 Mrs. Anna 
H. beonard. ••^■> ^^ 

SHOP NOTE 
Mr. (1. I{. Dorn of ihe San iMancisco lK>in Supplv 
Co. was recentlv in New York selecting the new china for 
I'\ill ini[)oi 1 . ^^ ^> 

STUDIO NOTES 

Miss Canii- \\. Williams oi Punkiik. .\. V. s[K-uds one 
day lach week at WestlieM. where siie has a large class 
doing good woik aiou;; cou\ riHioual lines. 

.\fter a long absence, Mis. M. i{. IVrley has openeil 
her stuilio at 1 -\; l\asl h'ourlh St.. l.os .\ngeles. Calit. 



236 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




THE DECORATION OF 
GRAND FEU ORES 

Louis Franchet 



I 



Vase in Mat and Crystalline Glazes 

Cone 9 porcelain. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau 



III 

MUST here say a 
few words about the 
process of salt glazing. 
Stoneware for domestic 
uses, for chemical in- 
dustries, pipes, etc., is 
not glazed, but its surface 
is made vitreous by the 
use of common salt 
(sodium chloride). This 
process called in French 
' ' salting ' ' is improperly 
called in EngHsh "salt 
glazing." When the fir- 
ing is done and cone g has 
been reached, the draft is 
reduced to a minimum and 
through holes made in 
the vault salt is thrown 
into the kiln, in the pro- 
portion of about 2 kilo- 
grams per cubic meter 
capacity. The point of 
volatilization of salt is 
85o°-C, and as the tem- 
perature of the kiln at 
the end of firing is from 1310° to i35o°-C, the salt is rapidly 
decomposed into chlorine and sodium. Chlorine unites with 
the hydrogen of the water vapors produced by combustion, 
and forms hydrochloric acid which is carried away through 
the chimney. Sodium combines with the oxygen to form 
soda which unites with the silica of the gres pieces in the 
shape of a thin coat of silicate, giving to the ware a glossy 
jSnish sometimes as fine as that of a glaze. 

This process of throwing the salt into the kihi is the 
one most generally used, but for my part I prefer to throw 
it into the firemouths, after having withdrawn the fuel 
which may be left in them at the end of the firing. 

Whatever the method in use, it is important not to 
throw in the salt all at once, but in successive doses, be- 
cause its rapid decomposition causes a sudden drop of 
temperature, which might darnage the fired pieces. 

Salt glazing may be done with coal firing as well as 
wood, notwithstanding the opinion of some ceramists who 
have probably not sufficiently experimented with both 
fuels. 

I have described salt glazing at length, although it is 
generally used for wares which do not come within the 
hmits of this study, because among artists who do statuary 
work in ceramics, few realize the resources with which this 
process provides them. The metallic oxides contained in 
gres clays give them, under the influence of salt glazing, 
very warm tones, sometimes having the appearance of 
pebbles. This effect is very suitable to statuary work, 
while the glazing of such pieces will seldom give truly ar- 
tistic results. Glazes are too thick and tend to destroy 
the details of modeling which often constitute the real 
value of the work, while the bright coating given by salt 
is extremely thin and cannot injure the modeling. It would 
be well also for sculptors to avoid very ferruginous clays, as 
they bum with a dark brown tone taking on the appearance 



of common clays. The best gres clays are those which 
bum with a grey or grey blue tone. 

Salt glazing will also be found effective for the decor- 
ative motifs of large architectural pieces in gres, the usual 
glazes of which are of altogether too violent a tone. 

IV 

GLAZED GRES 

The only decoration used to-day for glazed gres is 
found in the application of colored glazes, and these may 
be subdivided into two groups : 

I — Colored glazes which develop in an oxidizing at- 
mosphere. 

2 — Colored glazes which develop in a reducing atmos- 
phere. 

Bright glazes 
Mat glazes 

Craquele glazes of the Chinese 
[ Relief enamels of the Chinese. 



First group 



Second group 



< 



( Flammes (red of copper and blue of 
titanium) 
Celadons of iron 
[ Glazes with metallic iridescence. 



All these glazes have for fomidation colorless glazes 
to which one or more metallic oxides are added to produce 
the colors. 

The colorless glazes are silicates of alumina more or 
less alkaline and calcareous. They are composed of five 
principal substances which, however, need not be used sim- 
ultaneously. These are: Quartz, feldspar, pegmatite, kao- 
lin and lime stone. 

Quartz is one of the most common minerals; it is prac- 
tically pure silica, SiO^ but in ceramics silica is used under 
different forms according to the deposits which are found 
close to the works. Quartz is the purest form of silica, 
next come the nodules of flint which are found in chalk 
banks; and finally, sand. But, if quartz and flint are 
generally pure, it is not so with sand, the composition of 
which varies greatly; it should therefore be analyzed before 
being used for ceramic work. Sand may be quartzy, 
calcareous, aluminous or fermginous, at least in the most 
common varieties, and other minerals are foimd associated 
with it in some localities. 

Quartzy sand is the only one which should be used in 
gres glazes and it must contain no impurity. Aluminous 
sand is used in some faience glazes; calcareous and ferrug- 
inous sands are suitable only for the fabrication of inferior 
products such as common pottery, bricks, etc. 

Feldspar is a very common mineral comprising two 
varieties : orthoclase and albite. 

Orthoclase feldspar is a potassic silicate of alumina, 
K2O, AI2O3, 6Si02. It is always found in a crystalline 
form. Feldspar is of a flesh-pink color, or sometimes yel- 
lowish white. In a ceramic formula the word feldspar 
generally means orthoclase. 

Albite feldspar is a sodic sihcate of alumina, Na^O, 
AI2O3, eSiOg. It is white, possesses nearly the same prop- 
erties as orthoclase and may be used in its place in the 
preparation of glazes. 

Pegmatite is a feldspathic rock in which the feldspar is 
mixed with quartz crystals in the average proportion of 
75 feldspar and 25 quartz. It is used in the glaze of hard 
porcelain. 



REKAMIC STUDIO 



237 




STUDY OF THE PEANUT-ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 



238 KERAMIC STUDIO 

Cornwall stone for Cornish stone) is nothinjj; but a 

disintegrated pegmatite. .^^^/^^^\. 

I give in the following table the composition of these ^^ f ^K^f^^V 

feldspars and rocks as they are often used by ceramists ^ A ^Jl^^Jf A 

without taking into account their different points of fusion. M ^^ ^^^WM^ 

Orthoclase and albite feldspar being much less siliceous m .^^^^^i^^ l^^^S^^*^^ 

than pegmatite and Cornwall stone, are much more fusible. ■ ^ ^S^l^^^^^^^^^53^ 

Orthoclase Albite Limoges Cornwall K^^ ^^ ^^S^^^^^^Km^^^^^ 0A 

feldspar feldspar Pegmatite stone m ^ ^^^^^^^BpB^nBBiBi^^ "^^^ 

Silica 66,59 66,27 74,37 74,38 W-^^^Tt ijbjS^*^*^ 

Alumina 18,25 18,92 15,12 16,04 ^L^ k]^V4j5^^ 

Iron oxide 0,78 1,14 0,43 0,57 ^^ ^ ik/M^ 

Lime 0,74 0,62 1,32 1,31 ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Magnesia 0,17 0,11 0,07 0,13 ^^- ^' 

Potash 12,43 1,34 3,83 3,06 

Q ,^ ,Z:^ , , V- fL . c^ LID OF COFFEE POT— EVELYN BEACHEY 

boda : . 1,08 11,67 4.56 3,95 

Loss at red heat 0,31 0,54 

FIRST GROUP — GLAZES FOR OXIDIZING FIRE 
100,04 100,07 100,01 99,98 

Now that we know the composition of the principal 

Kaolin is the purest clay used in ceramics; it consists elements of glazes, we can estabHsh one which, although 

in the main of a plastic mineral called kaolinite, hydrated ^^^^ ^^^^P^e, is one of the most perfect which I have tried. 

siUcatelof aluminium, the formula of which is ALO3, 2 SiO„ ^ Pegmatite constitutes, as I have said, the glaze for 

2H0O. .Kaolin however contains impurities' and with ^^l^ porcelam and vitnfies at cone 14. (i4io°-C.) In 

the" kaolinite are associated fragments of the minerals order to vitnfy it at cone 9 (13 io°-C), it must be made more 

among which it is found, such as quartz, feldspar and mica. ^"^^^^^1 ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^°^^^ ^^ "^^^^^^ °^ c^^^^- ^^ 

I have already given the chemical composition of the Limo- '^'^^^ ^^^n prepare the glaze as foUows: 

o^es kaolin. r>i a a \ Pegmatite 85 ,;,• • • ,. ..-, 

» ^j*;-'^^^- ^ ^ ^^ 1 • 1 • Crlaze A''' i r^t, n Mix m grmdmg mill. 

Lime stone is a carbonate of lime, CaO, CO2, which is (L-naiK 15 

found in nature in the most varied forms, but it is used in fhis glaze agrees perfectiy with a great number of 

glazes only in two of these: white marble and chalk. Some g^-^s bodies, and, as it is calcareous, it develops colors well. 

ceramists think that these two substances do not give the At the manufactory of Sevres they use a more com- 

same results, but after a series of minute experiments I plicated glaze, which is the basis of their mat ru tile glazes: 

find that this opinion is not justified. Either marble or 1 t? Irl 

chalk can be used. The chemical composition of each is \ r\ Z 

identical and differences in appearance are simply due to Glaze B ^ ^ .. ''„ Mix in grinding mill 

physical causes. However, as chalk is generally used, it ' pii iv 

is chalk which I will employ in my formulas. L 7)7 

In order to color either of these glazes, one may add to 

them either a simple metallic oxide or a complex coloring. 

In the former case one will obtain 

"^^^^^^H^M -j^^JBBi.^^^^^^. *It is quite remarkable to note the correspondence of this glaze when ex 

)/^^^^^i^59l! ^^SS^^^'7 Cu^ pressed in a formula with that established by Seger. 

( j4^lMlS«W^8^4^vlv.^^'- Seger's porcelain glaze is 

I^^BL^J^jj^^^^^^^Bjl^^v/^^I^HI^^SL^^ Franchet's glaze A, worked from the analysis is 

V^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^L Ca O I 

SAUCER IN BLUE, GREEN, WHITE AND GOLD— EVELYN BEACHEY SAUCER IN BLUE AND GREEN ON WHITE— EVELYN BEACHEY 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



239 




COFFEE POT-EVELYN BEACHEY 

Flowers, blue. Leaves and bands, green; or the blaek part ,uav be Lli wl.ite. lintin, .1,. l>aek,ro,nul in il,. 

border a soft screen . 




BORDER FOR CUP IN WHITE, GREEN 
AND BLUE— EVELYN BEACHEY 



KNOB 




^l^i^ 



BORDER IN BLUE. GREEN AND GOLD 
EVFIVN REAc'HKV 



240 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




PEACHES— E. A, ROSS 



(Treatment page 249) 



by adding 3 parts cobalt oxide 



3 ' 


' nickel carbonate 


5 ' 


' red oxide of iron 


5 ' 


' uranium oxide 


5 ' 


' copper oxide 


' I 


chrome oxide. 



Blue 
Brown 

Yellow brown 
Light yellow 
Light green 
Dark green 

The addition of complex colorings is more difficult, as 
there may be three cases : 
I — The coloring is not fusible at cone 9. 
2 — The coloring is fusible at cone 9. 
3 — The coloring fuses at a lower temperature than cone 9. 

I mean by a complex coloring, one which is obtained 
by the combniation of various substances, as for instance, 
alumina and cobalt oxide for blue; feldspar, quartz, chrome 
oxide and cobalt oxide for bluish green; quartz, tin oxide, 
manganese oxide, iron oxide and alumina, for brown, etc. 

If the coloring is not fusible at cone 9, it will prevent 
the glaze from vitrifying, and a fluxing substance should 
be added. If it is fusible at cone 9 the fusibility of the 
glaze will not be affected. If it fuses at a lower point, a 
refractory substance should be added to the glaze. 

Thus, according to the fusibility of these colorings, 
either a flux or a refractory substance should be added to 



the glaze, and this will be much simpler than to modify 
the colorless glaze which is the basis of all coloring mixtures. 
As a flux, one may use white lead to advantage. For 
instance, if we wish to mix a red glaze by using the chrome 
oxide red, called by English ceramists chrome-tin pink, 
which has the property of hardening glazes, we will use: 



78 



12 Mix in grinding mill. 
I 10 



Glaze A 
Tin pink 
White lead 

If, on the contrary, we wish to use a too fusible color- 
ing, for instance a brown rich in iron oxide and alkalies, 
we will harden the glaze as follows : 

Glaze A f 85 

Brown ; 10 Mix in grinding mill. 

Kaolin |^ 5 

In many cases one may use quartz instead of kaolin, 
but only experimentation will tell when this is advisable, 
as the parts played by these two substances are not yet 
exactly known. 

I will not describe here any of the colors obtained by 
the combination of various substances, as this would not 
fall within the limits of this study. ' Besides, I advise 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



ceramists not to undertake the preparation of their own 
colors, as this requires a special outfit and an extensive 
knowledge of chemistry. Ceramic recipes, as a rule, simply 
give the name of the ingredients which constitute them 
without explaining the method of preparation. For ex- 
ample, the recipe for tin pink, which is one of the most 
frequently used colors in ceramics, is given by M. Taxile 
Doat, in Grand Feu Ceramics, page i68, as follows: 
Tin oxide 

Chalk '■'■'■'■'■'■'.'.''.::::::::::.:.::.'..: 

Bichromate of potash .3 to 5 

but he does not mention two extremely important points 
m the preparation of this color. First, the point of firing 
and second, the process of firing. 

The firing of tin pink is a very delicate operation 
and a good red tone will develop only if the mixture is 
fired at a minimum temperature of i3io°-C (cone 9), and 
not above i350°-C. (cone 11), otherwise the tin pink will 
come out an unpleasant reddish violet tone, or even a 
yellow brown. When firing it it should not be placed in 
a crucible like any other frit, but as large a surface as pos- 
sible should be exposed to the action of an extremely ox- 
idizing fire. The following is the best process: 

The mixture of tin oxide and chalk is ground wet in a 
mill. It is then left to dry and the solution of bichromate 
of potash is poured on the dry powder so as to form a thick 



241 





STUDY OF SNOWBALL IN GREY GRliHNS 
ALICE SHARRARD 



STUDY OF MULLEIN-HANNAH OVERBECK treatment page 255^ 

paste, which is roHrd into miuiU halls ahout owe cciuiiiu-tcr 
in (liaiucter. These balls arc left to lianK-u in thr air and 
are then fired at cone g either in a enieible or a sai^^er 
which is i)laeed in the kiln opposite the exit of the llanie. 
The i'u.sed product is ,i;nMnul and washed niuil the water 
remains colorless. 

I seli'cted this piociss, after inan\ triak. when I \\a> 
niannlaclnring lari^c ciuaniitics oi tin pink t\>r industrial 
purposes, sonietinies as nnieh as 500 kiloi^ranis hein>; burned 
at one time. It gave me splendid reds. 

.\s most colors, in oider to Ih' oi' a line and nnilorni 
lone, re(|uiri' similar care in their preparation, it is cvi- 
tlciU (hat ciaainists shonid depend nptMi pn>tV,ssional ct>lor- 
niakiis |(M ihcii supphcs. ICngl.ind ^cenis, so far, to have 
made more pro:;iess in this line than an\ otlui couiUry, 
and, anion- otheis, llu- riini i^i W'engers. I.nl.. Sloke on 
lieiil, hiMiishes i-xcillcnl piodiicts. 

MAT ULA/.KS. 
vSo lai 1 li.i\c oiiK spoken of i>ri^ht .!.;la/es. Inn other 
glazes, as is well known, ha\e a uuil linisii. Inuniulas t\»r 



242 



nURAMIC STUDIO 




FRUIT PLATE— EMMA ERVIN (Treatment page 250) 

mat glazes were published in 1900 by M. G. Vogt.* M. Titanic acid 97,12 

Taxile Doat has reproduced these and has given in ad- Iron oxide 1,97 

dition some of the formulas now used at Sfevres. I will Manganese oxide traces. 

not repeat them here, nor will I have anything special r^^^ jg f^und in primitive deposits, among granites, 
to say about crystahme glazes. I will simply say a few gneiss, micaschists, pegmatites, quartz, in veins of lime- 
words about the properties of rutile and its action on ^^^^^^ ^f siderite (carbonate of iron), of magnetic iron and 
some metallic oxides. I will also show how bright glazes q£ oUeist iron 

can be rendered mat without the use of rutile. ^^^^ ^^^ile most largely used in Europe comes from 

Rutile IS a mineral composed mainly of titanic acid, Arendal (Norway), where there are large deposits. In 

TiO^ and it always contains some iron. The analysis of America the best known rutiles come from the hmestones of 

the Limoges rutile has given me London Grove. Pa., of Worthington, Mass., Kingsbridge, 

N. Y., Baltimore, Md.; from the pegmatites of Connecti- 

*/^ -if » M *• 1 f w .-■ ^ X A 1 ivT <■ . M ^- 1 cut and Delaware; from the oUgist iron of Sutton, Can., 

*G. Vogt — Notice sur la fabrication des grhs k la Manufacture Nationale . ' ^ . ' ' 

de Sfevres (Published in the Bulletin de I'Union Ceramique et Chaufourniere ^^<^ ^ ^Om pegmatites and quartZ of Brazil. 

de France — Paris, 1900.) The German chemist, Klaproth, was the first to dis- 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



243 




CRABAPPLE-HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



(IiiMtiiuMit p.ijje 250) 



244 



KERAMIC STUDIO 




DESIGN FOR PLATE— EVELYN BEACHEY 

Bands in gold. Fishes, gold, scale outlined in black. Wavy scroll, pale green. 

Outline, black. 



Background, darker green. 



cover, in 1794, that rutile gave a yellow brown tone which 
resisted the hard porcelain firing very well. Rutile was 
not, however, used to any extent until 1894, when it began 
to be used industrially in the decoration of gres. Not only 
does rutile give a mat finish to a glaze but it gives in the 
same glaze a variety of tone which I have thus described 
elsewhere:* "The light brown, reddish brown or dark brown 
tones of rutile are generally broken by vertical lines either 
lighter or darker than the general tone, giving the pieces 
the appearance of flammes. Rutile glazes do not look 
like the glazes made by adding coloring oxides to ordinary 



*L. Franchet — Rutile and its coloring properties (Bulletin de la Societe 
d'Histoire Naturelle d'Autun. 1902.) 



colorless glazes. These are uniform in tone, but with a 
few exceptions the rutile glazes present either straight or 
concentric streaks, or they have a cloudy appearance and 
contain a confusion of tones but always perfectly harmo- 
nious." 

I also called attention at that time to the interesting 
action of rutile over cobalt blue. Cobalt blue gives a rich 
blue and has a coloring power with which no other metallic 
oxide can compare. However, in a reducing fire the tone 
frequently turns to black, sometimes with metallic iri- 
descence. But the addition of rutile to cobalt blue produces 
a very fine bronze green or olive green, without any iri- 
descence, either in oxidizing or reducing firing. This green 
color is of course due to the combination of the yellow of 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



245 



■(■"•"■■■"WW 




li 



STUDY OF FISH IN GREENS— HENRIETTA BARCLAY PAIST 



rutile with the blue of cobalt. Very often the combination 
is not thorough and the surface of the glaze shows an inter- 
esting mixture of green and blue spots. Here is the formula 
which has oftenest given me this curious result : 

Feldspar 27 

Frit C Ouartzy sand 24 Fused, 

Chalk II washed and ground 

Crystallized borax .... 1 5 

The glaze is made of 

Frit C 20 

Rutile I Mixed 

Cobalt oxide 2 

A fine, l:)right ivory tone is obtained as follows: 

I<>it C 90 

Rutile 10 Mixed 

Zinc oxide 4 

and a bright grey brown with : 

Frit C 40 

Rulile 3 Mixed 

Manganese oxide 2 

These three glazes often develop groups ol" suinll ei\ slalli 
zations. 

Titanic acid used alone does not gi\'e au)' nuirki'd 
coloration to a glaze, notwithstaiuHng the claims of sonu' 
ceramists who probably have not sullicieiitlN stiidiid tlie 
question. The presence of oxidi' of iron is iu(.-essaiv to 
give color, and if rulile, which is csseiiliall\ eonii)t)si'il of 



titanic acid, appears to have a coloring power, it is due to 
the oxide of iron which is mixed with it. The intensity 
of the color may be varied by changing the proportions of 
iron. 

This will be easily seen by studying the formulas used 
at Sevres. The following table will show at a glance the 
gamut of tones obtained in rulile glazes: 

Ivory Lis'" RiHldislt I.iglit 

Yellow VoUow Vi-llow Hiown 

Pegmatite 5,^ 5,> 53 5,> 

Kaolin 14 14 14 14 

Ouartzy sand 14,1 14. i 14,1 14,1 

Chalk 25,5 25.5 25,5 25.5 

Rutile D.o i),(i 0.(1 0.0 

IVroxidi' of Iron none -•,.! .),S ().(i 

Thus b\ the increase ot peroxide of iron wc oln.iin a 
gradation of lone from light yellcn\ to bnnvn, whieli thr 
increase of titanic acid ahme would not v;i\e. 

Rutile is not thr onl\ niiiui.d which will puuhuv a 
mat glaze. Many other ingndieiUs nia\ be used, especially 
aliuiiina, kaolin and lin oxiiK- Tlu\ may be addeil lo a 
bright glaze for gr^s as will .is \o a faience glaze. Ahunina 
and kaolin will l)e bi^st in most eases for gres and pi>r<.X'lain, 
but tin oxide will ha\e ti> he used for chnMue reds, pinks 
and \ ioKts, also foi \ellows and thi' ilaik blues oi cvihalt. 
The proportion oi ahunina, k.iolin 01 tin oxide [o mM will 
\ai \ from i ,s to 2 s' , . 

l^Tii mc ci>NriNrKn) 




T 



^> 



TOMATO PL^ 



TWO SECTIONS, FULL SIZE, OF 

HIS design may be carried out in color or monochrorr 
effect. In former case use the following colors f( 
the fruit: Lem.on Yellow, Yellow Green, Yellow Browi 
Yellow Red, Pompadour Red No. 23 and Stewarts' Pon 
peian and Ruby Purple. The tom.atoes should be colore 
in different stages of developement from green to rich dee 
red. 

The leaves are a blue green and Turquoise Green, Ye 





:CED SIZE 



^.PLATE— JEANNE M. STEWART 

Green, Shading Green and Olive Green are used. Same 
•rs in stems. 

For the baekground a me(h"tnn tone of Stewart's CJrey 
<scd, and in the eenter of plate a very light tint of Grey 
I Ivory Yellow. 

' Should the one eolor effeet be preferred, use Stewart's 
Y and one-third Yellow Green. This makes a very 
Ity grey green tone. 




V 




TWO SECTIONS, FULL SIZE, OF TOH,ro PLATE- JEANNE H. STEWART 

THIS design may be carried out in color or monochrome 
effect. In former case use the following colors for 
the fruit: Lemon Yellow, Yellow Green, Yellow Brown, 
Yellow Red, Pompadour Red No. 23 and Stewarts' Pom- 
peian and Ruby Purple. The tomatoes should be colorec 
in different stages of developement from green to rich deep 
red. . I 

The leaves are a blue green and Turquoise Green, 



°" Green, Shading Green and Olive Green are used. Same 
'"Iws in stems. 

, For the background a medium tone of Stewart's Grey 
" Used, and in the center of plate a very light tint of Grey 
""i Ivory Yellow. 

. Should the one color effect be preferred, use Stewart's 
'^y and one-third Yellow Green. This makes a very 
pretty grey green tone. 



248 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




THIRD SECTION OF TOMATO PLATE, FULL SIZE- JEANNE M. STEWART 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



249 



STEINS 

Helen Smith 

THE stein designs may be 
treated in a number of ways. 
The steins should be made of 
a hard, white body and either 
a clear white glaze or a white 
mat glaze may be used. 

The borders should be ap- 
plied in clear, flat colors and 
not more than three or four 
colors should be used. Per- 
haps the simplest treatment 
and also an effective one is to 
carefully trace the design on 
the stein in black overglaze 
color and when the outline is 
perfectly dry, fill in the spaces 
with rich colors, using a bright 
green, scarlet and yellow with 
perhaps a touch of dark blue. 

If a softer effect is desired 
the spaces of the border may be 
painted in a greyish green, light 
blue and a soft yellow, and if 
this color scheme is used the out- 
lines should be left white. 

If the steins have first a deep 
cream color applied for a back- 
ground the borders would look 
well in three or four tones of 
one color, using a very dark 
tone for the outlines. Tones of 
brown, blue or a warm green may be used. 

It will not be found difficult to trace borders of this 
character if one section is carefully outlined first and 
then a poimce made from this to use in repeating by 
rubbing powdered charcoal over it. 





STEIN— HHLHN SMI 1 H 



STEIN— HELEN SMITH 

PEACHES (Page 240) 

Edith Alma Ross 

THE colors required for painting the fruit will be Ivory 
Yellow, Silver Yellow, or Albert Yellow, Pompadour, 
or Capucine Red and Banding Blue. Some of the peaches 

will need a little green where 
they are not quite ripe. 

The leaves are painted witli 
Shading Green, Bro^\Tl Green, 
Apple Green, Albert Yellow or 
Silver Yellow and Deep Blue 
Green . 

Stems are painted wiih Peep 
Rod Brown, Dark Brown, \'io- 
Ict of Iron ami Yellow Brown. 

STUDIO NOTE 

Mr. Imuh/ J. Scliwar/. has re- 
moved his studio from the Fine 
.\rts Building. Chicago. HI., to 
his resilience. 126 So. 04tli .\ve., 
(>.ik Talk. Ill IK' will continue 
to leacli iMgnie ,iiul Miniature 
])aiiiting ini j^orcelain and ivory. 
.dsi> origin. d ei>n\ entional work. 
In addition to the above, Mr. 
."^cluvar/ has opened a class for 
ili.iwing of original designs for 
llu' decoration oi ponvlain. In 
the adviTtising pages of this 
ninnher, direetii>ns aa'*'given for 
le.ieliin-' Mr. Seli\var/"s studio. 



250 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




LONICERA OR HONEYSUCKLE 

Edith Alma Ross 

THE flowers are yellow, but the berries are very efi'ective 
for decoration. They are all shades from orange 
to dark red and at the time of the year when they are ripe, 
the leaves assume rich shades of brown and yellow. 

if -^ 

BLACKBERRIES (Supplement) 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

TO paint this design in china colors the following palette 
is used : Lemon Yellow, Yellow Brown, Ruby Purple 
Stewart's Blackberry, Chestnut Brown, Pompeian, Brown 
Green, Shading Green, Yellow Green, Turquoise Green, 
Ivory Yellow and Grey. 

Three fires are given although the berries are about 

completed in one painting, if laid in in a broad, free manner 

and the high lights picked out with a small pointed shader. 

The background is not applied until after the first fire 

and the shadows are added for the last. 

For painting the blackberries in water colors the fol- 
lowing colors may be used: Crimson Lake, Indigo Blue, 
New Blue, Gamboge, Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna, Sap 
Green, Payne's Grey and Brown Madder. 

^r ^ 
CRAB APPLE (Page 243) 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 

TINT the entire panel or vase with Miss Mason's 
Neutral Yellow or Brown Green. After firing sketch 
the branch, lay leaves with Olive Green to which a little 



Neutral Yellow may be added to soften. (The lighter 
leaves may be laid with Grey Green and Nentral Yellow.) 
The stems Yellow Ochre with a touch of black to make the 
wood color. Apples Lemon Yellow with light side shaded 
with Yellow Brown and Olive Green. Blossom ends same 
as stems. For third fire strengthen where necessary with 
same colors. If used on a vase the drawing of the leaves 
will have to be completed — or repeated in panels (two or 
three times according to size of vase). 



FRUIT PLATE (Page 242) 



Emma Ervin 



TINT the plate Ivory and fire. Paint the leaves and 
inner band tint Grey Green, the background of border 
Ivory and dust with Pearl Grey. Paint the crabapples 
pale Albert Yellow, with perhaps a flush of Pompadour. 
The stems and outer band, also outlines and blossom ends 
of fruit Pompadour over Grey Green. For the third fire 
tint over entire border with either Ivory or Pearl Grey, 
according to tone preferred. 




DEVIL'S PAINT-BRUSH— DETAIL DRAWING BY A. A. ROBINEAU 




^ 



March laoa 

SUPPLEMENT TO 

KERAMIC STUDIO 



BLACKBERRIES — jeanne m stewart 



copvmaHT laoo 

KERAMIC STUDIO PUB, CO 

SYRACUSE, N. Y 



« 



I 



flERAMIC STUDIO 



251 





,>^ 






f 


; 


y' ,-f 


m 















ALICE IN WONDERLAND— TILES 

CERAMICS AT THE ART INSTITUTE, CHICAGO 

THE pottery exhibit was large but confined to a few ex- 
hibitors. A large display was made by both Rookwood 
and Grueby , the former showing some interesting conventional 
designs in mat vellum while Grueby had a large exhibit of 
tiles, among which the Alice in Wonderland Tiles were quaint 
and attractive. A large case of porcelains by Adelaide Alsop 
Robineau aroused much interest. Several new glazes were 
shown among them, for the first time finished pieces in 
rouge flambe, a very translucent lantern in carved ivory 
effect with some touches of color in the main ornaments, and 
a fusele vase, designed from the Summer squash and covered 
with a maize colored crystalline glaze, was perhaps the best 
in line and general finish. Interesting work was shown 

also by Fred Walrath of Me- 
chanics Institute, Rochester. 
This was mostly clever con- 
ventional design executed in 
the mat glazes. The New- 
comb College, Van Briggle 
Pottery Co. and The Handi- 
craft Guild of Minneapolis 
were also among the exhibi- 
tors. 

OvergIvAze; Decoration 
A fine exhibit of overglaze 
decoration was made by the 
Atlan Club and several in- 
dividuals working in the same 
style. Seeing the exhibit al- 
together one was struck with 
the general effect of charm 
and suitability to table service 
of this class of decoration. 



GRUEBY 






Vellum type No. 2 
Harriett I. Wilcox 



ROOKWOOD POTTERY 
Vellum type No. 3 
O. Geneva Reed 



Vellum type No. 4 
Irene Bishop 



Beyond a doubt, delicate and careful work, simple and 
strictly conventionalized motifs, much white porcelain 
showing, makes the most refined and charming decoration 
for tableware, and the ceramic workers of Chicago certainly 
excel in this style. Another point of great interest in con- 
nection with the Chicago overglaze work is the quantity 
and unique shapes of Satsuma ware decorated. The 
Eastern workers would do well to imitate Chicago in this 
respect as well, and find some Japanese importer to secure 



IIAIM) I'OIUM'ILAIN 

AUIOLAIDK A. KOIUNIOAU 
FusoK vase 12 iiicliOH hi(,'li. Mai/.e color Vaso, \ .lluiu i.vp,. No I, D.rorul.d l.y Sumli Siix l.,„u.n._iM prrlo.alr.l roiolaln 
cry.stalline fc'laze UooUwo..,! I'oll.Ty 




\ollo\\. Ilrowii luul iJii'i'U t.Ilu^t>. 



V'trliliiU' .VImi|i K«U)ill(SIII 



252 



nERAMIC STUDIO 





Geometric design in gold over celadon. Tint Howers in lavender and leaves in 
green enamel. No tint behind flowers — Mrs. C. A. Abercrombie 



Mary J. Coulter 




Cora A. Randall 





.\ugusta Barton McCarn 




Mis. A. M. Barothy 



Satsuma Ware — Mabel C. Dibble 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




Octagon Salad Bowl — Satsur 



May McCry.stle 



253 




Satsuma^'Teapot 



-Matilda Middletou 




Eleanor Stewart 




Sat.-iUina IVmiioi 



May Mi-C'rysiile 




c:. I,, w 1,11,1 




^iulsulnll loiiiioi 



M.K.HI.. Mi.i.i,. 1..I. 



254 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



for them these quaint little shapes in Satsuma, Sedj and 
Oribe ware. It is to be regretted that we were unable to 
obtain photos of many of the simpler and finer pieces in 
this ware. It is notable that while the Atlan Club con- 
tinues to follow the principles of decoration learned from 
the study of Chinese and other historic ornament, the de- 
signs are becoming more modem in motif. 

•f -^ 
LEAGUE NOTES 

The travelling exhibition of the National League of 
Mineral Painters will be returned to Chicago for distribu- 
tion the latter part of March. Clubs report a renewed 
enthusiasm among their workers after seeing this exhibition 



and thanks are due those League members who have been 
unselfish enough to let others see and benefit by their work. 

If the good intentions reported in regard to sending 
work for the next exhibition are carried out we should have 
a much more important one to send next May. 

Members who have not already finished their exhibition 
work should begin at once and in earnest. 

Miss Helga M. Peterson, 1652 Buckingham Place, has 
been appointed by the Advisory Board to fill the position 
of Secretary to the President. 

Two new names have been added this month to the 
list of Individual Members; they are Mrs. Lottie L. Marsh, 
1004 Bushnell St., Beloit, Wisconsin, and Miss Clara Wake- 
man, Coscob, Conn. 




CHRYSANTHEMUMS— BLANCHE VAN COURT SCHNEIDER 



FIRST fire — Rosa for chrysanthemums. Leaves in Yel- 
low Green shaded with Brown Green. Wash in 
backgroimd with Ivory; for light tints over flowers use Yel- 
low Green shaded with Brown Green, Brown Green and 
Ruby; darkest parts Dark Green and Ruby. 



Take out lights sharp with brush and finger. Second 
fire — Retouch flowers with Rosa, American Beauty and 
a little Ruby. Soften background with light washes of 
Yellow Green and Yellow Brown, and add strength where 
needed, 



ri:ramic studio 



255 



THISTLES 

Austin Rosser 

THE common thistle blooming in August 
and September is a ball of soft lavender, 
a little deeper in color at the center and often 
thickly spotted with the rounds of white pollen. 
The stems, buds and foliage are a soft grey 
green, the under side of the leaves is a soft 
velvety white. 

•^ -f 

MULLEIN (Page 241) 

Hannah Overbeck. 

OUTLINE study with Yellow Brown with 
a little Finishing Brown and Black. 
Second Firing — Leaves, Ohve Green with 
Deep Blue Green and Black. Flowers, Pump- 
kin Yelljw with Yellow Brown and Black. 
Background same as flowers with the addition 
of Finishing Brown. 

Third Firing — Strengthen all parts neces- 
sary. 

If ¥" 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Mrs. R. — You will find answer to your question in the 
Editorial. 

A. G. — Your inquiry in regard to design is answered on 
the editoral page. 

S. R. S. — Clover as well as nasturtium would be quite ap- 
propriate for a salad set design, but of course a conventional 
or at least semi-conventional design would be better than a 
naturalistic one. 

H. J. H. — If your large plain shape jardiniere has the 
roses painted rather delicately you will have no difficulty in 
covering it with the mat colors. The design for coffee pot, 
page 200, January Keramic Studio, 1909, could be adapted 
to your piece or the wide border, page 139 Keramic Studio, 
October, 1908, by extending lines to the base. The designs 
could be carried out in either color, lustre or flat enamels 
with flat or slightly raised gold outlines, using a mat ground 
for the part below the design and covering the background of 
design with gold or lustre to cover the painting. If neither 
of these designs appeal to you, any bold design can he used. 

Mrs. F. a. H. — We have never heard of ordinary pastels 
being applied to a ceramic surface, but there is a sort of 
crayons made of mineral color which have been advertised 
somewhere, but we do not know from experience whether 
they are reliable or obtainable in this country. 

Texas — When a design is submitted to us for publication 
often there is no treatment in mineral colors, since many 
designers are not china decorators, hence are unfamiliar wilh 
the colors. vSo we publish always the color scheme as sent 
to us. But these color schemes are not arbitrary, often they 
are not even ])leasing when carried out. They are sugges- 
tions only and the decorator must judge for her,self whether 
she will u.se them as they stand or change some part or all. 
You must not allow yourself to be dependent on the descrip 
tion. Tliink for yourself, try the colors and see whether 
they harnKiiiizc, If you do not get just the same effect as 
in the original you may get a better one. You will learn to 
feel when the color is right. Your Problem I. did not conu' 
Willi your letter, so can not criticize. The most helpful 
tiling you can do is to get a lot of nice Ja]xuiesc ])riiils in 
color and save the delightful color prints in many of (lie iiiag- 
a/ini's; after a close ac(juainlaiice with lliem you will begin 
to lecogni/e good color sclioines. There is no law as In whai 
color you shall use for, s;iy pink. Use any loiU' cm shaik' >iiu 
like so long as lln' balance (if (lie design is in lianiioiii/ing 
color; (ry in wa(er color .several i-oiiibiualioiis and lr\- li> 
match the best in mineral colors. 

J. I'. — Stilts will leave marks on china in liring if iIkn inm li 

or the glaze of .soft wares such as Ik'UeoU. W'Ikmc |Iu-\ l.ikr oui 

gla/e or body, (he only ])().ssil)U' remedy is lo lill wil li enamel and | 

F. 1. C. -A broken pieet' of china can be lepaited li\ using 




THISTLES -AUSTIN ROSSER 

he.n \ inloi xaiiiuis oeuii'iils sold foi icpaiiiiig, and tyin>; Ihe piece si-cuidy with aslK-slo.s 

.1 lui ..f ilu lonl and suppoiling it with stills, Oi Aiif.scl/wois o;in soiiK'tinu-s K" iist'tJ 

>ainio\ei ii, very satisfactm il\ Un uiciidiii)'. Miss Idit C, Iviilinn ol I Vnvor.Colorndo, 

some of the li.is a paste foi lillini; chips whioli is very stUisfiiott'i y 



256 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



Annual Clearing Sale 

OF 

WHIl K CHINA 

Prices Reduced }i to }6. 

An Unusual Opportunity to lay 
in a supply for present and future 
use. 

Send at once for Illustrated Sheet No. 9, 
giving full particulars of hundreds of bar- 
gains. Don't delay— Send today, as this sale 
is limited. 

SUNBEAM GOLD, 45 cts. per box, 
one-half dozen boxes $2.50, dozen 
boxes $4.75. 

THAYER & CHANDLER 

Dept. CS62, Jackson Boulevard 
CHICAGO, ILL. 


LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 
317 South Hill Street 504 Union Street 

RAILSBACR-CLAREMORE COMPANY 

Importers and Decorators of White China 
Artists' Materials, Gold, Kilns, Etc. 

We are pleased to announce to our many patrons 
on the Pacific Coast that for their better accommodation 
we have opened a branch supply house in Seattle where 
we expect to carry as soon as possible a complete line of 

"EVERYTHING FOR THE CHINA DECORATOR" 

Our prices are no more than those of Eastern dealers 
and we are much nearer to you which means a saving 
in both time and freight. Photographs of china from 
which to make selections will be mailed upon application. 




WHITE CHINA 

And CHina Decorating Materials 

CELERY DIPS ^^^^_ Send for 
One Dozen B^^^B ILLUSTRATED 
By Mail K^^J CATALOGUE 
^BH^B Free 

WRIGHT. TYNDALE CEl VAN RODEN 

1212 CHestnut Street, Philadelphia 




P A 1 FTTF A IVn RFISIPH ^ magazine for the art student and craftszvorker 
lALiLjllLj Hilli OlJi^ljU, Price same as Keramic Studio. Sample copy 
25 cents. 







GOLD ! GOLD ! GOLD ! 

The Largest Box of the Best Gold in the World 

$3.00 

per doz. boxes 



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•Hi 







Less than one 
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CHEMICALLY PURE 

BROWN GOLD 
It Never Varies 




ACTUAL SIZE 



FAC-SIMIL-E or LABEL 



FINEST SMOOTHEST RICHEST 

Use Climax Gold. Your "worK -will sKow improvement. AsK for it at your Dealer's. 
If He cannot supply you, "we -will. Sample sent on receipt of six cents in stamps. 

CLIMAX CERAMIC CO., ■ 206 Clark Ave., - CHICAGO, ILL 

When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 



K.e^e:.-r 



M 



A-.L-1 



® 



CONTRIBUTORS 



EVELYN BEACHEY 

MARY BURNETT 

ALICE W?LLITS DONALDSON 

ELSIE DUDEN 

EMMA A» ERVIN 

LOUIS FRANCHET 

ANNE TYLER KORN 

ANNA B. LEONARD 

VIRGINIA MANN 

MAY McCRYSTLE 

MRS* MOTZ 

HANNAH OVERBECK 

HELElsr PATTEE 

PAUL PUTZKI 

FREDERICK H. RHEAD 

CORA STRATTON 

HELEN K. TAYLOR 



APRIL MCMIX Price 40c. Yearly Subscription $4.00 ^JUiS&iSBSi 



f\ nonTtt LY nmmwi m in e potter amd decorator 



The entire contents of this Mt^axine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission 

CONTENTS FOR APRIL 1909 



■s^*- 



PAGE 



Editorial Notes 




257 


Pottery Class 


Frederick H. Rhead 


257 


New York Society of Ker amic Art Exhibition 




257 


Book Notes 


- 


257 


The Decoration of Grand Fea Gre» — Chapter V 


Louis Franchet 


258 


Nastartiums, photograph by 


Helen Pattee 


259 


Plates in Japanese Design 


Emma A. Ervin 


261 


Nasturtium Borders 


Mr. Motz 


262 


Nasturtium Designs 


Mrs. Motz 


263 


Los Angeles Keramic Club Exhibition 


' 


264 


Qub Note 




264 


Studies of Magnolia Fig 


Alice "Willits Donaldson 


264-265 


Study of Cotton in Black and White 


Alice Willits Donaldson 


266 


Study of Cotton (Supplement) by Alice Willits Donaldson 


Treatment by Cora Stratton > 


266 


Design for Vase 


Virginia Mann 


267 


Cup and Saucer 


May McCrystle 


268 


Studio Note 




268 


Mayonnaise Bowl 


Helen K. Taylor 


268 


Petunias 


Mary Burnett 


269 


Details and Conventionalizations of the Nasturtium 


Hannah Overbeck 


270 


Salad Bowl in Nasturtiums 


Anne Tyler Kom 




Border for Punch Bowl 


Anna B. Leonard 


271 


Iris Design for Tile 


Virginia Mann 


272 


Iris Design for Cylindrical Vase 


Virginia Mann 


272 


Cattail Fan 




272 


Design for Plate 


Evelyn Beachey 


273 


Stein, Nasturtium 


Hannah Overbeck 


274 


League Notes 




274 


Fleur-de lis Fan 




274 


Fleur-de-lis 


Alice Willits Donaldson 


275 


Plums 


Paul Putzki 


276 


Answers to Correspondents 




276 


Tea Tile 


Elsie Duden 277 



6 



THE OLD RELIABLE !Mm FITCH KILNS 



^ 




The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



THE ORIGINAL PORTABLE KILN 



INEXPENSIVE TO BUY. 
COST LITTLE TO OPERATE. 



The only fuels which give perfect results in 
Glaze aind G}lor Tone. 




No. 2 Size 14x12 In $30.00 

No. 3 Size 16 1 19 In 40.00 

Write for Discounts* 



Gas Kiln 2 sizes 



Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes 



No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

No. 2 Size 16x12 in 20.00 

INo.3 Sizel6xl5in 25.00 

No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



b 



STEARNS, FITCH & CO., 



Springfield, Ohio 



^ 



Vol. X. No. 12 



SYRACUSE, NEW YORK 



April, 1909 




ERAMIC STUDIO, owing to the 
increased interest in pottery mak- 
ing among amateurs, will open 
with this issue a Pottery Class, of 
which all who desire may take ad- 
vantage. The names of the en- 
quiring students will remain con- 
fidential and all workers, beginners 
or advanced crafts workers, are 
cordially invited to ask questions 
and submit work or designs for criticism. This department 
wiirbe in charge of Mr. Frederick H. Rhead, whose name is 
familiar to subscribers of Keramic Studio, as, besides being 
a thorough potter, he is a clever designer and has contributed 
many designs to the Magazine. 

POTTERY CLASS 

Frederick H. Rhead 

The idea is to help the studio potter, to explain methods 
of working in clay, of using glazes, of firing the piles. The 
various processes of decoration from the simple built and 
glazed piece to the more elaborate and delicate underglaze 
work, will be described as fully as space will allow. 

Side by side with the instruction on shape construc- 
tion, design and pottery material, the difficulties most fre- 
quently confronting the amateur will be discussed, reasons 
for their existence given, and remedies suggested. The 
work will proceed in the manner of a class in pottery decora- 
tion. Problems will be given such as the veriest beginner 
with the simplest equipment can carry out, progressing by 
easy stages to the more elaborate decoration. 

Those following the lessons may submit work for criti- 
cism, and are at liberty to ask questions or suggest any sub- 
ject for discussion pertaining to the work of the studio potter. 

A lesson will consist of the description of the process in 
question, necessary explanations and illustrations, showing 
characteristic shapes and decorations. The latter part of 
the lesson will be devoted to criticism, suggestions and dis- 
cussion. The order of process will be determined to a great 
extent by those taking the lessons, marked interest in a 
certain method of decoration will ju.stify a continuance of 
the same subject. 

The methods of decoration will be divided into three 
classes, the first consisting of glaze decorations and dealing 
with built and thrown pottery for mat and other glazes, the 
second class will comprise all clay decorations and will in- 
clude such methods as sgraffito, the raised line decoration, 
the inlaid decoration and painting in colored slip, the first 
three being a trio of the most fascinating, yet simplest jiroc- 
esses known to the potter. The third class will deal with 
decorations done under the glaze on the biscuit. 

If it is thought that enough clay workers are interi'sled, 
a fourth class will be added, consisting ol" deeoralioiis sub- 
ject to a reducing hre. 

Those following tlu' lessons will be encouraged lo do 
original work, not only in design but iu uulliod and treat 
ment. Two .artists, not aping each other, will go alH)ut 
the same process quite (lilTeriutly, in fact they see the i)roc- 
ess from a different point of view, consequently they will 



express themselves in a different manner and produce works 
totally unlike, either in method (even though the process 
is the same), or design. 

The reason why there is so little original work done is 
that there is little serious attempt to do so. A confession 
of inability to design is a confession of lack of individuality. 
Amateurs who do not see this will admit the former and at 
the same time be vers^ shy about accepting the latter. 
While knowledge of the principles of design has to be ac- 
quired, the making of a design is more a matter of instinct 
than anything else. Some people possess this instinct 
more than others, but even so, the persons thought to be 
possessed of the least individuality will express themselves 
in a manner peculiar to themselves, that is, if they are not 
affected. 

To depend upon others for inspiration instead of cultivat- 
ing or developing the design instinct is to court a sure death 
for originality. 

Another thing, sympathy with the method or process 
of decoration is a great factor in suggesting or giving in- 
spiration for original work. Seeing the possibilities of a 
material is the first step toward materializing these possi- 
bilities. 

N. Y. S. K. A. EXHIBITION 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts will hold an 
exhibition in the galleries of the National Arts Club (119 
East 19th Street, New York), from March 24 to April 10. 

Potters and over-glaze decorators have received a 
general invitation to enter their work for this exhibition, 
and the indication is that they will respond heartily. — this 
being the first exhibition of the Societ>- that has been open 
to china-decorators who are not members of the organi- 
zation. During the exhibition the Society will entertain 
its friends at an afternoon reception and tea. for which 
cards are being sent out by the members; and a less in- 
formal entertainment will be the dinner which has been 
arranged by the society, when it is expected that there 
will be .speaking upon topics which interest craftsmen. 

BOOK NOTES 

)olui \\'ile\ cS: vSous, New York, have ju-^l issued llie 
second edition of '•Clays, their Oeeuneuee. l'ri>per(ies and 
Uses" by Ileinrich Ries. Besides general information on 
the different kinds of clays, students in pi>tterv \vi>rk will 
hnd especiallv useful the ilescription of the various clays 
found in all the States of the I iiion. The cost of transpor- 
tation is an importaiU item iu the prinlueliiMi 01 ]H»llery. and 
it will l)e valuable to every jHUter [o know wli.il ui.Uerials 
eau be found iu his <i\vu v^tate. 

•'(uannuarof Let leiiug," 1>> Audiew W . I.vons; ). B. 
Uil)pineotl iS: Co., publishers. .V good hook for those wishing 
to maki' a l)Usiuess of lettering, or for those studying illu- 
luiuatiou. Trofuselv illusliateil willi ue.ub a hundred plates 
ill eoloi and bl.iek and white, besiiles many >ni.Ul cuts. .Ml 
styles of lettering .ue slunvn: tMd luiglish. Bl.iek Text. 
C.othics fioni lothCeiiluix to uiiuleiu limes, Clnueli Text 
and s\ luhoU. A \,du.il>le book ol leteieiiee. 



258 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




^'ase in cone 9 porcelain 

Adelaide A. Robineau 
Showing well developed crystallizations 
of titanium"(rutile). 



THE DECORATION OF 
GRAND FEU GRES 

(continued) 

Louis Franchet 

CRAOUELE GLAZES 

I MUST now come l:)ack to 
brioht glazes and speak 
of some Chinese porcelains 
which were fired at about 
cone 9. Chinese potters 
were the first to use colored 
glazes. It is sometimes 

very difficult to reproduce 
their colors, blues of cobalt, 
greens of copper, etc., not 
because our knowledge is 
inferior to theirs, but be- 
cause, while we use pure 
metallic products, they used 
the ore itself which con- 
tained various oxides in the 
shape of impurities, and 
these oxides affected the tone of the dominant color. 
ing as will be seen later. They have carried the decoration 
in a reducing atmosphere, to a high degree of perfection and 
among the interesting glazes which they have developed in 
reduction are the craquele glazes "which we will study here, 
as they can be obtained in an oxidizing as well as a reducing 
atmosphere. 

A craquele glaze is a glaze which has crazed in every 
direction, thus forming a net the meshes of which vary in 
size. This happens when the glaze and the body have a 
different coefficient of expansion. 

Mr. Lauth has made an interesting study of these 
glazes and has come to the conclusion that the craquele 
effect could be obtained by increasing the silica in the 
glaze in proportion to the alumina. The following glaze 
has given him good results, applied to the new porcelain 
of Sevres. 

Pegmatite 51,50] 

Quartzy sand 38,50 ! j^.^^^ 

j Kaolin 6,501 

'Chalk 5,5oJ 

As compared with the usual glaze which developed 
without crazing on the same body, this glaze shows the 
following variation : 

Craquele Usual 

Glaze Glaze 

Silica 79,42 66,18 

Alumina 11,89 14, 55 

Alkalis 5,81 3,55 

Lime 2,88 15,90 

In order to keep the glaze fusible at cone 9 notwith- 
standing the large increase^^of silica, the alumina, and con- 
sequently the kaolin, must be reduced. 

This shows the line of experiments which potters 
should undertake if they wish to develop the Chinese 
craquele on their gres bodies. The Chinese have succeeded 
in controlling the size of the crackle by mixing the craquele 
glaze with the usual glaze in varying proportions. For 
instance the following mixture will give a fine mesh: 

Craquele glaze D 75 

Usual glaze 25 

and by modifying this proportion, the size of the meshes 



Craquele glaze D 



will also be modified. The lines of the crackle can be ac- 
centuated with India ink diluted in water or with some 
other coloring matter. 

The Chinese generally used the craquele effect on their 
celadon glazes which are developed in a reducing atmos- 
phere. These we will study later on. 

OPAQUE GLAZES. 

In the decoration of gres in an oxidising fire there if 
a problem which we have not yet solved, although the 
Chinese mastered it long ago; I mean the decoration in 
relief with glazes which do not flow under the influence of 
the heat and, consequently, do not injure the design. 

It is first necessary to have a white opaque glaze for 
a basis. The makers of faience obtain this colorless opaque 
glaze by using tin oxide, the molecules of which remain in 
suspension in the vitreous mass of the glaze, thus destroy-, 
ing the translucency. Unfortunately tin oxide does not 
stand high temperatures. At cone 9 it is entirely dis- 
solved and all opacity disappears. 

All attempts made to obtain a good opaque white on 
gres at cone 9 firing have so far proved unsatisfactory. Mr. 
Vogt has given a formula for a white glaze which he describes 
as slightly opaque. Here is this formula and I again re- 
mind students that feldspar is not the same thing as peg- 
matite, being much more fusible: 

( Pegmatite 31 



Glaze E < 



Pure clayey kaolin . 



.40 



Quartzy sand 28,5 

[ Chalk 20 

I prepared 100 kilograms of this glaze and applied it to 
a number of pieces, and I noticed that at cone 9 it came out 
quite glossy and almost always translucent. At cone 8 it 
was more opaque but showed signs that it was insufficiently 
fired. This formula, which might be suitable for the basis 
of mat glazes, is not sufficiently opaque by itself when used 
on gres to take the place of the opaque white of faience. 

The Chinese have for a long time known the solution 
of this problem, but they have kept the secret well. The 
simplest plan of attack seems to be a line of experiments in 
which grog of hard porcelain would be mixed with feldspar 
or pegmatite; if the mixture proves too hard for the re- 
quired firing, some chalk may be added. For instance : 

Formula 1 Formula 2 Formula 3 

i Pegmatite 8o 85 90 

Glazes F ! Chalk ■ 5 5 ^o^^ 

j Porcelam grog. .20 15 10 

These proportions may easily be changed so as to make 
the glaze more or less fusible. 

Porcelain grog plays here the same part which tin oxide 
plays in the opaque glaze of faience. Pegmatite is the 
vitrifying matter in which the particles of porcelain grog 
remain in suspension without being dissolved. 

The composition given by Seger for the preparation of 
his cone 9 produces a good opaque white in rehef ; unfortun- 
ately it has a tendency to bubble because of the large quan- 
tity of lime it contains. 

(Feldspar 83,55] 

Glaze G ' ^^''^''' V ' ' I^'^° > Mixed 

i^iaze u Quartzy sand ... 1 80, 70 1 

(Chalk 35,70' 

If this mixture is too hard and does not develop suf- 
ficiently at the required temperature, it may be softened by 
decreasing the sand (156 instead of 180) and the kaolin 
(64,75 instead of, .77, 70). The idea is to obtain a mixture 
which will begin to vitrify at a given temperature; that is, 



KERAMIC STUDIO 



259 




NASTURTIUM- PHOTOGRAPH BY HELEN PATTEE 



I 



260 



RE-RAMIC STUDIO 




Fritted 

and 
ground 



will become soft and smooth without completely fusing, as 
a complete fusion would bring back the glossy translucency. 
By this method glazes which will fuse only at a high temper- 
ature may be made more or less opaque. 

This opaque white may be colored, like bright glazes, 
with the same metallic oxides or complex colorings, the 
mixture being modified according to the fusibility of the 
coloring matter. But when it becomes necessary to in- 
crease the fusibility, instead of using carbonate of lead, as 
we have done before, it will be advisable to decrease the 
quantity of grog in Glaze F or of quartz and kaolin in Glaze 
G. To harden the glaze, these elements should be increased. 
A clever ceramist may thus be able to prepare a fine series 
of opaque glazes for relief decoration. 

During the last ten years some gres have been placed on 
the market, decorated with opaque relief enamels which 
seemed at first to be a reproduction of the Chinese process. 
But these enamels are not developed at a high temperature. 
They are simply faience glazes applied to gres biscuit and 
burned in the low muffle firing. 

BUBBLED GLAZES 

There are certain glazes made recently by Chaplet and 
called bubbled glazes. Some critics have claimed that they 
constitute an extraordinary progress in the decoration of 
gres. But in my opinion they simply show the decadence 
of an artist who formerly produced wonderful ceramics. 
They are glazes which are applied very thick, about one 
centimeter, and which, after firing, are covered with bubbles 
and roughnesses. Far from being a secret, the production 
of this inartistic effect is remarkably easy. It is only 
necessary to prepare a glaze vitrifying at a higher tempera- 
ture than the point of firing. If for instance the firing is 
done at cone 9, one will use a glaze vitrifying at cone 11, 
and it will be advisable to introduce into its composition 



alkaline carbonates, borax and zinc oxide. 
At a certain temperature the glaze will 
bubble all over under the influence of the 
gases which escape from its mass. This is 
the time when the firing should be stopped, 
as, if carried further, the glaze will completely 
vitrify, and become smooth and glossy again. 
Here are two formulas which will easily 
produce this effect : 

Formula Formula 
H I 

Kaolin 10 15 ^ 

Quartzy sand 50 40 

Carbonate of soda ...15 none 

Borax none 20 

Zinc oxide 25 25 j 

These glazes may be colored by the usual 
process. 

SECOND GROUP-GLAZES FOR REDUCING FIRE 

The oldest of these glazes were originated 
by the Chinese and consist only of two colors, 
celadon and red. 

CELADON GLAZE 

The first study of this glaze was made by 
Ebelmen, who analyzed the Chinese product 
and found: 

Silica 72 

Alumina 6 

Oxide of iron 2,50 

Chalk 10,40 

Alkalies 9,10 

He established also that the Chinese celadon was not, 
like the European celadons, made of chrome and copper 
oxides, but of oxide of iron. "It is very probable," he says, 
"that the color developed by this glaze is due to the silicate 
of lime and iron, and that the bluish tone is developed imder 
the influence of a reducing atmosphere, the oxidation of 
iron being kept at the lowest point." The fact that on 
Chinese wares the celadon is found on the same piece with 
red of copper proves that they were fired tmder the same 
conditions. 

The Sevres chemists have reconstructed the Chinese 
celadon with the following formula which was given to me 
by Mr. Vogt : (To page 262) 




RERAMIC STUDIO 



261 




^. r^ r 




^- ^i 



^P 









V 



V 



SIX PLATES IN JAPANESE DESIGN, NO. 4-EMMA A ERVIN. 

NO. 4. Tint background with Yellow ochre and yrey for ones witli \ello\\ oelne and (>li\e -leeii Tlie liltle l>iul 

flowers with the darker streaks of the same grey has a black head sluuHng into l>hic o\ci the back; breast, 

with a bit of dark green added. 'I'he flowers are jiink. wings and lail pMiiiud in diHc;ite xellow and ncIIow 

The darkest leaves are painted with dark green and lighter ochre. 



I 



262 



khramic studio 




3^8!\3^g?(^g?3^3^ 









j^ I ; ^i -^ 









'<.«■" 



'/K* 







NASTURTIUM BORDERS— MR. MOTZ 



[Quartzy sand 35, 70^ 

Chalk 21,15! 

Glaze J !Peg^.^«tite 13,15! j^-^^^^ 

•^ iKaolm 7,501 

jRed Ochre 2,801 

[p. N. Porcelain grog. .25,80; 

In place of the P. N. grog which may not be available, 
the proportion of kaolin and pegmatite may be increased as 
follows : 

[Quartzy sand 35,7o| 

I Chalk 2 1 , 1 5 j 

Glaze K ! Pegmatite 26,75 > Mixed 

I Kaolin iQ.ioi 

i Red Ochre 2,80 J 

A similar modification has been made by M. Taxile 
Doat who has published the Sevres formula^^without the use 
of P. N. grog. But while he has increased the feldspar (and 
it should be pegmatite instead of feldspar) he has neglected 
to increase the kaolin. Besides he uses twelve parts of 
red ochre, an excessive amount. The proportion of 2,80 
in glazes J and K corresponds to about the amount of iron 
found in the Chinese glazes. 

Here is the Doat formula, which, in my kiln, has been 
found to be altogether too fusible at cone 9 : 

Quartzy sand 33>35 | 

Chalk 19,70 I 

Feldspar 26,30 \ Fritted 

Kaolin 8,60 | 

Red ochre 1 2 ,60 j 



I see no advantage in fritting this glaze, a simple mixture 
by grinding is far better. 

I also call attention to the fact that red ochre varies 
greatly in composition according to the locality from which 
it comes, as it is a mixture in varying proportions of "oligiste" 
(oxide of iron) and clay. It will be necessary, after having 
decided upon a glaze, to always use the same ochre in its 
preparation. 

(to be continued) 
•f if 

TREATMENT FOR NASTURTIUM STUDY 

Mrs. Motz 

BACKGROUND soft grey green, using a little Grey 
with Brown Green. Yellow flowers Ivory, Lemon 
and Golden Yellow. For shadows use your Grey for Flesh 
and Brown Green with the Yellows. Orange flowers Cap- 
ucine or Yellow Red, with Yellow for undertone. Shade 
with same colors, using it stronger in some places and a 
little Grey mixed with it. Pinkish flowers a very thin wash 
of deep Red Brown; shade with same color. Leaves Yel- 
low, Olive, Empire and Shading Green. Best results are 
obtained by giving three firings and paying a great deal 
of attention to the model in the first fire. Marks of the 
flowers are Deep Red Brown and Ruby Purple. The deep 
red flowers are painted with Ruby Purple and Deep Red 
Brown. 




REKAMIC STUDIO 



263 




NASTURTIUM— MRS. MOTZ 




NASTURTIUM- -MRS. MOTZ 



264 



RERAMIC STUDIO 





Mrs. L. S. Guest 



Isabelle W. Hampton 
Mrs. Eleanor Kohler 



Mrs. Harry Andrews 
Jeanette E. Simpson 



LOS ANGELES KERAMIC CLUB EXHIBITION 
The Los Angeles Keramic Club held their annual ex- 
hibition the 28th, 29th and 30th of January in the Assembly 
rooms of the new Young Women's Christian Association 
Building. The handsome and well lighted rooms afforded 
ample space to display the work of the Club in an attractive 
and advantageous manner, small tables being used, giving a 
chance thereby to make each exhibit quite individual. 
The work this year showed great improvement and most 
careful study, all of it being in the geometric design and 
conventional methods. The many beautiful shapes selected 
lent themselves to the appropriate designs wrought thereon, 
and produced a handsome effect. One large table showing 
the work of the National League attracted much attention, 
and gives instruction as well as encouragement to our mem- 
bers. 

In a separate room the Club members displayed one or 
more pieces of work designed especially for table use. The 
beauty of designs and versatility displayed, shows that the 
members have a high appreciation of the quiet simplicity 
that makes the perfect table service such a charm, there 
being nothing displayed but that you would feel that you 
would like to live with. 

Mrs. Isabelle Hampton, the president, is an earnest 





Isabelle W. Hampton Isabelle W. Hampton 
Isabelle W. Hampton 



Mrs. B. .1. Arthur 



Matie Stratton 



worker and designer, and the works shows that she has led 
her co-workers along the correct artistic lines both in useful 
and ornamental decorations. 

'^ ^ 

CLUB NOTE 

The Duquesne Ceramic Club held its annual meeting 
last month in the studio of Miss Nancy Beyer and Miss Arrie 
Rogers. The following officers were elected; President, 
Miss Myra Bovd; first vice-president, Miss Marion Cowan; 
second vice-president, Mrs. Albert Pettit; treasurer, Mrs. 
William C. Moreland, and secretary. Miss Arrie Rogers. 
The five directors elected for one year are Mrs, L. F. Price, 
Mrs. Robert Dabbs, Miss Mabel Farren, Mrs. E. B. Cox, and 
Mrs. William Bilhartz. 

The Duquesne Club is an organization of sixteen years 
standing and is composed of members from towns and 
cities in Eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania. Miss 
Nancy Beyer whose clever designs are familiar to readers 
of Keramic Studio is the instructor in design and reports 
that the Club is doing splendid work and that the members 
are reaching a higher standard of decoration for china than 
they have ever attained before. 




Mrs B. J. Arthur 
Jeannette E. Simpson 



Isabelle W. Hampton 
Mrs N. H. Elliott 



Mrs. H. A. Upton 
Mrs. Eleonor Kohler 



DETAILS OF MAGNOLIA FIG— ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



265 




MAGNOLIA FIG— ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 



<(':i\'cs (laik .i^ici'ii, inukTsidc wlutisli ,i;ii-rii, I'il^s iiiii;i'(l wiili pmk .11 I.ii'^im nul. 



266 



ni:RAMIC STUDIO 




1 



STUDY OF COTTON IN BLACK AND WHITE— ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 



STUDY OF COTTON (Supplement) 

TREATMENT IN CHINA COLORS. 

Cora Stratton 

FOR first firing wash in the leaves with broad wash of 
Moss Green, with Grass Green for darker shadows. 
Stems, Moss Green shaded with Violet of Iron, calyx 
Moss Green, red tones Violet of Iron. Open flowers glazing 
Ivory, shadows Dark or Shading Green. Fading flower 
rose Avith yellowish tones, light wash of Yellow Brown (it 
may be remembered that when the cotton blossom first 
opens it is a pure white turning rapidly to a creamish yellow 
and the second day it partly closes and turns a rose pink). 
For background use Yellow Green and Copenhagen Grey. 



For second firing use same colors as first firing. In the open 
flower a very light wash of Rose may be used on shadowy 
parts of petal. Third firing needs only a few character 
touches to the flowers, leaves and stems, then outline in 
black or gold. 

TREATMENT IN WATER COLORS 

Alice Willits Donaldson 

The reds are Carmine, with Vermihon for warming and 
New Blue for purphng (such as the stems). Hooker's 
Green is used with Gambodge and Antwerp Blue for leaves. 
The white flower is yellowed with Gambodge and a bit of 
Chrome Oran^^e for warmth. 






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a Z 

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J 
Q. 

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o 
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o •■ h 

a 1 < 
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RERAMIC STUDIO 



267 




DESIGN FOR VASE— VIRGINIA MANN 

(^roiiiid, (\vv\) ivory; leaves and sinus, yrllow l)ro\\ii; llowns, aliilc, v;c>KI oullmc; or. ki'ouiuI. dcvp pearl 
grey; leavi'S and slems, soft v^vvy .ureiii; llowns, wind' oullmeN, ,-ie\ ,i;ieeii or silver. 



268 



RERAMIC STUDIO 




CUP AND SAUCER— MAY McCRYSTLE 
In blue and green. Round forms in blue and leaf forms in green with gold lines and handle outlines in black. 









MAYONNAISE BOWL— HELEN K. TAYLOR 



STUDIO NOTE 

Miss Jeanne M. Stewart, who is still in Seattle, Wash- 
ington, has moved from 437 Arcade Building into much 
larger and more convenient studios at 1322 Fifth Avenue. 

PETUNIAS 

Mary Burnett 

KEEP centers of flowers very dark and rich with Ruby 
and Violet of Gold, using a little Banding Blue and 
keeping the tone lighter toward the edge, and have the outer 
part ragged and frilly. 

For the leaves use Shading Green, Brown Green and 
Dark Green. The texture of the leaves should appear soft 
and velvety. 

MAYONNAISE BOWL 

Helen K. Taylor 

BLUE — one part Aztec Blue, one Ivory Glaze. Green — two 
parts Copenhagen Gray, one part Sea Green, one part 
Yellow Green. Orange — two Albert Yellow, one Yellow 
Red, one Pearl Grey, painted on. 

He (the artist) does not confine himself 
to purposeless copying, without thought, each 
blade of grass, as commended by the inconse- 
quent, but in the long curve of the narrow 
leaf, corrected by the straight tall stem, he 
learns how grace is wedded to dignity, how 
strength enhances sweetness, that elegance 
shall be the result. In the citron wing of the 
pale butterfly, with its dainty spots of orange, 
he sees before him the stately halls of fair 
gold, with their slender saffron pillars, and 
is taught how the delicate drawing high upon 
the walls shall be traced in tender tones of 
orpiment, and repeated by the base in notes 
of graver hue. In all that is dainty and 
lovable he finds hints for his own combina- 
tions, and thus is Nature ever his resource 
and always at his service, and to him is 
naught refused. — Whistler. . 



heramic studio 



269 





> ■« 




J'' -^ 




^<^S5^ 




^ 



V 



270 



nURAMlC STUDIO 




I 



I 



M^ 








m^. 





n ^ 




A 






wm 






DETAILS AND CONVENTIONALIZATIONS OF THE NASTURTIUM— HANNAH OVERBECK 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



271 




^/m^/m^/m^/m 



SALAD BOWL IN NASTURTIUMS— ANNE TYLER KORN 
To be executed in varying shades of yellow reds and grey greens, with or without gold. 




BORDER FOR PUNCH BOWL— ANNA B. LEONARD 



THIS design may be used equally well for a border on a 
keramic form or for a textile design either in part or 
as a whole. For a border design on bowl, the color scheme 
may be in gold outlined in Meissen Brown, using a solid 
color for the lower part of the bowl (or vase) such as Grey 
Yellow dusted over with Pearl Grey. 

Or a color scheme of blues and greens would bi- altiac 
tive using the darker blue for the larger i)arts of the design, 
and the lighter blue and green for the smaller parts of the 
design. To gel full beiielit of a design luaki- scNi'ial (rae 



ings on pajK-r ami ii\- dilTerent elTects. .Ml those tracings 
should be kept in .1 inutk for future reference. 

This (iesiqii is usi'liil loi ,1 wmnl liloek eillier in p.ut or 
wlioir. TIu- basket foiius printed here and there make a 
,L;ood surface pattein in connection with the border. 

Usi- Rnssian ciash ,iiiil piint with rermaneut Hlue and 
While ihiniieil with nii])entine. After ilrying use a hoi iron 
(Ml il lo pie\enl Luhnq wlien l.umdered. .\ narrow straight 
li.iiul iniMiiiiL; .iloiii; the siiles o\ llie hnen will improve the 
>\ hole. 



272 



HERAMIC STUDIO 




IRIS DESIGN FOR TILE— VIRGINIA MANN 



T 



IRIS DESIGN FOR TILE 

Virginia Mann 

O be excuted in blue and white or any desired color 
scheme under or over glaze. 



IRIS DESIGN FOR CYLINDRICAL VASE 

Virginia Mann 

TINT background light olive, flowers violet, leaves and 
stems olive green. Alternate ornament olive green 
with three squares of yellow on a light olive ground. Out- 
Hnes in brown. Dust pearl grey all over when finished. 





CATTAIL FAN 



IRIS DESIGN FOR CYLINDRICAL VASE— VIRGINIA MANN 



ftERAMIC STUDIO 



273 




DESIGN FOR PLATE— EVELYN BEACHEY 



Dark part of background, hluc; lij;lit ])art, pale i;rci'U. Hody of bird, orcam; tourli oi ui! 111 \\iiii;s. 

Head, dark grey, beak, redilisli brown. 



274 



nURAMIC STUDIO 




STEIN, NASTURTIUM— HANNAH OVERBECK 

LEAGUE NOTES 

The annual exhibition of the National lycague of Mineral 
Painters will open with an evening reception at the Art 
Institute, Chicago, May nth. The annual exhibition of 
water colors of the Chicago Ceramic Association opens at 
the same time. Invitations are sent out for these exhibi- 
tions by the Art Institute to all its patrons and members 
in addition to those sent by each society. Members of the 
League and their friends can obtain them by applying to 
Miss lone Wheeler, 1027 Fine Arts Building, secretary of 
the League. 

The notice of the annual meeting of the League will ap- 
pear in May number of Keramic Studio. 

Exhibition blanks will be mailed to each member this 
month and they are requested to fill them in and return 
promptly, also to carefully comply with directions sent for 
shipping the china. 

Every member who has been benefited by the League 
this year should try and add to the importance of this ex- 
hibition, thus making it a greater inspiration to members 
of Clubs entertaining it during the year. 

We regret that some Clubs were disappointed last year, 
but it was unavoidable. The League desires to please all. 
Up to the date of writing this article the exhibit of last vear 
has travelled safely and reached the cities at the time 
promised. 

We wish that the next exhibition could represent the 
work of every affiliated Club. It would seem that the ad- 
vantages of exhibiting their work would be as great for the 
decorator of china as for the artist in other lines and that the 
privilege would be as eagerly sought. The question arises: 
are the china decorators awake to their opportunities, or 
are those satisfied to be known as teachers only as success- 
ful as those who prove their ability by having their work 
accepted for exhibition by a critical jury in an institution 
where only good work is accepted for exhibition? 

Mary A. Farrington, 
President of N. L. M. P. 
1650 Barry Ave., Chicago. 



FLEUR-DE-LIS BY ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 

TREATMENT IN WATER COLORS 

Rhoda Holmes Nicholls 

TO make a satisfactory copy of the fleur-de-lis study 
prepare the paper by moistening it and placing it 
over wet blotting paper on a board. Draw with a red sable 
brush with firm point and Cobalt Blue the whole design. 
Then wash in the background using Indigo, Raw Sienna, 
Alizarin Crimson and Hooker's Green No. 2. For the flowers 
use French Blue, Alizarin Crimson, a little Black, Lemon 
Yellow and Carmine and for the leaves Hooker's Green No. 
2, Black, Alizarin Crimson and Lemon Yellow. The sharp 
accents must be applied when the paper is comparatively 
dry. These accents are very important and the life of the 
study depends on them. In case the brilliancy of the pa- 
per has been lost, use Chinese White thickly with a little 
of the local color. 

TREATMENT FOR CHINA 

F. B. Aulich 
For china painting I would advise the study be ap- 
plied to tall shapes or where a long stem can be introduced. 
The fleur-de-lis is also prettier when painted in the natural 
size. The flower is a difficult one to paint, and careful at- 
tention must be paid to the drawing. For the violet tints 
in the upper petals use Turquoise Blue mixed with a little 
Rose, the quantity of both depending on the depths of the 
violet to be desired. If you wish a pale lavender use Air 
Blue instead of Turquoise in the mixture. For the lower 
dark petals use Crimson Purple with Banding Blue. For 
the center and inside parts and the narrow shaped stripes 
down the center of each petal curling downward use Lemon 
Yellow and shade with Albert and Yellow Brown. Do not 
forget the purple veins in the petals which lose themselves 
in the yellow center. The three petals hanging downwards 
are always darker than the others. 

When you paint the white fleur-de-lis use a grey made 
of Yellow Green and Violet, first lay in Lemon Yellow, Blue 
and shade with Grey. There are purple veins in the lower 
petals also. Yellow Green, Blue Green and Shading Green 
can be used in the leaves. For the distant greens use more 
Blue. The general character of the greens in this plant is 
cold in tone, but as in all paintings use warmer colors in the 
leaves, etc. For the first firing you may lay in color scheme 
as given above using colors very oily for the painting of 
backgrounds also. The background is laid in for the second 
firing, which I consider more practical for the less exper- 
ienced painter, as he can change the color scheme and effects 
to suit the individual taste, and if not successful can wipe 
off the tint without destroying the design. The last firing 
I use for finishing and accents and a general rounding up 
of the color scheme and light and shade. 





FLEUR-DE-LIS FAN 



RERAMIC STUDIO 



275 



•TSS 




FLEUR-DE-LIS-ALICE WILLITS DONALDSON 



276 



nERAMIC STUDIO 




STUDY OF PLUMS— PAUL PUTZKI 



PLUMS 



Paul Putzki 



FOR the fruit— Take Light Violet, shaded with Dark 
Violet, and to vary the shade use a small portion of 
Banding Blue mixed with either of above. 

For the leaves — In the lighter shades use three parts of 
Dark Green and one part Canary Yellow, shaded with 
Brown Green. Get deeper effects in leaves by using Green 
No. 7 again shading with Brown Green. 

Put in the stems Avith Dark Brown shaded with Blood 
Red. 

For background — Use these same colors as in design, 
getting deep effects under and below fruit. 

«(* «f* 
NEW SEVRES SOFT PORCELAIN 

ANEW process of great importance to manufacturers of 
porcelain has been discovered by M. Vogt, head of 
the technical department of the famous factory at Sevres, 
says the American Pottery Gazette. 

Since the i8th century the Sevres experts have endeav- 
ored to find means of perfecting the variety known as soft 
porcelain, which enables decorators to obtain extremely 
delicate shades of coloring, but hitherto has failed to resist 
the heat of the furnace, except in the case of small articles. 
When large pieces of china came into fashion in the time of 
Louis XVI, hard porcelain had to be employed, and Sevres 
has not made the soft kind since 1 800. 

M. Vogt now states that he has succeeded in combining 



clay and other substances in such proportions as to make a 
substance comparatively easy to handle during the various 
processes of china making, while giving all the beautiful 
effects seen in the iSth century soft china. M. Vogt says it 
is now practicable to manufacture vases with delicate tints 
and gradations of opal blue, emerald and pink. 

The first table service to be made by the new process 
will be shown at the International Ceramic Exhibition in 
London, which will be under the patronage of King Edward, 
who is an old customer of the Sevres manufactory. Full 
details of the process afterward will be freely given out, in 
accordance with the principle invariably followed at Sevres 
of placing technical discoveries at the public's service. 

Every effort will be made to avoid imitations of iSth 
century designs. The aim will be to produce something 
not only technically, but artistically new. 

t^ ^ 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Mrs. W. H. Y. — Liquid Bright Gold can be used under any metal but the 
color is not so rich. To get the best effect in tinting use the tube colors, add 
one-third flux, except when using Apple Green, Sevres or Mixing Yellow and 
Pearl Grey — use as much fat oil as color and flux together, thin with oil of 
lavender to desired shade, mix thoroughly, put on quickly, blend all over, not 
finishing any one spot, repeating this till the tint is fine, smooth, and even; if 
your tinting is grainy you have not used enough oil. In using powder colors, 
for tinting, rub down with medium first to the consistency of stiff tube colors, 
then proceed as above. For the inside of chocolate cups or pieces with many 
creases or crevices it is better to use large camel's hair dusters. They are 
quite expensive but nothing else will serve as well. The hairs will shed but 



REKAMIC STUDIO 



277 




TEA TILE IN VIOLET AND GREEN ON WHITE— ELSIE DUDEN 



will blend off by degrees We expect to print the entire class-room instruc- 
tion in book form. "Flower Painting" is ready and "Art of Teaching, Color 
Palette and Its Use, and Lustres" will be out this month. 

N. B. S.— We do not advise what designs to use, it is so much a matter of 
taste and we give a great variety for selection in Kbramic Studio. Use un- 
fluxed gold for outlining over color. We would not advise mixing paste for 
raised gold with relief medium although it niigiit work all right. We prefer 
the method given so often in Kkk.mviic .Stiidio both in the "Class Room" 
articles and elsewhere. Mix with fat oil till it just sticks togelhcr, brcallic on 
it and mix, turning it over several times, add oil of lavtiHU'i, hnallu' mi il and 
mix until of a creamy consistency wliich will stay "|iiU'' and iml Ihilli'U. 
Gold can be put on well dried i)aslc before tiring l)ul it is safer to wait for 
another fire. 

Mrs. vS. C. — To fire glass bring the kiln to a rose lieat in liulliiiu of kiln. 
Try first a little gold, paste, enamel and color on sonic broken bits until you 
are sure of just the right color in the kiln to fire without melting the glass and 
fire enough to insure ]jermanencc. 

M. Iv. C. — It is impossible to Hie some hisln-s with sihn wilhcuil Iheii 
being affected. You niiglil try tiring tlie silxer befuic piiliiiii; <<[\ lusiu-s or 
putting on silver after lustres are tired 

D. V. — It is a dillicult matter to lire enamels, eil hn 11 il 01 laised.nn the 
hard glazes of the French porcelains willioiil i-hippiui; Tlic in.uiiit.ui nui s 
tliemselves do not try it. l'\)r enamel woiU siliei a soti «au- like lliii^lisli 
china, Helleek, or tin' |apaiiese wares Ki'ad llir '\'lass Uooiii" ki{K\Mii. 



Studio instruction in enansel work. If you must use French china, use as 
little oil as possible and see that it dries "dead" looking before tiring. 

Mks. j. 8. — Vase, Oreon P. Wilson, March, 190S. Lines in olive green, 
petal forms i)alc Copenhagen Ulue. dark spaces dark Co|HMili;igen IMiie, 
ground white or tinted ivory. 

M. H. H. — We have not had any designs submitted for a dresser set on 
sipiare lines lately but in liack nuudiers of K.Kk.\mic Stidio you will fuul 
several. However, almost any of the conventional designs can l>e easily 
adapted to the straight line if you are at all liamly at aMnjHising a ct.>n>er 
Miii.inuiit \'oii will I'liul the violet toilet set by 1{. A, RosS easily adaptable. 

A. C. K. We .lie not .leipiainieil with the unglayed stein you mention. 
\'oii had luttei wiite to some member of the New York Chih you mention as 
using il. 

Mus. 11, K. To tiansfcr .1 design, outline one .seciion slionglv in Indit* 
ink I lull make a tracing. \'ou can rub powdeietl chan-oal on the >mdei side 
ol I hi ii.uing and after rubbing the china with iui|HMUine (.a tirop of the oil 
Hid spiiiis on a rag) put the charcoal .side next the china antl go o\er desi$;n 
with ,1 pi iu il 01 sharp stick. Mat enamels aie tloated on the china with a 
full biiish. 

i' l>. Ill p. liming pink lo.ses, paint liist with rom|>;idoin and lire iK'fore 
letoiii'liiiii; with Rose iron and goUl nijors ilo not mix. For Re«l Roses \isc 
Uiili\ toi -.iioiul lire, a touch of lUack or iMuisliing Urown in hearts, a little 
li.uiilmv; lUiii I lull in liigh lights 01 Rose. The iron (.H>lors art- Reds and 
l!lo^\ll^, i;oM eolois. Rose, C. limine, Rubv and I'm pie 



256 



nERAMlC STUDIO 




"Favorite" 

WHITE CHINA 



"Favorite" 

WHITE CHINA 



**Favorite'' white china for decorating, rapidly becoming 
known as the most perfect body for the decorator's use, has 
been placed for general distribution with the following 
representative dealers throughout the country: 



Otto Schaffer & Bros Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Roessler's Art Store Columbus, Ohio 

Owens Art Store Cincinnati, Ohio 

C. Q. Erisman & Co LaFayette, Ind. 

D. E. Allen Galesburg, III. 

Favor, Ruhl & Co Chicago, III. 

Geo. F. Peck Galesburg, III. 

E. Schuster & Co Milwaukee, Wis. 

Jos. Kalians Milwaukee, Wis. 

Cole & Williams Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Golden Rule St. Paul, Minn. 



E. Hood St. Paul, Minn. 

J. M. Lyon St. Paul, Minn. 

Lewis- Waller Merc. Co. . Minneapolis Minn. 
Minneapolis Art China Co 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

C. K. & F. M. Otto Mankato, Minn. 

H. Jesse Miller DesMoines, Iowa 

C. H. Becker Co Dubuque, la. 

H. Hardy Co DesMoines, Iowa 

W. A. Maurer Council Bluffs, Iowa 

F. J. H. Abendroth .... Kansas City, Mo. 
F. Weber & Co St. Louis, Mo. 



Geo. D. Peck D. G. Co. . Kansas City, Mo. 

A. S. Aloe & Co St. Louis, Mo. 

The Bennett Co Omaha, Neb. 

Miller & Paine Lincoln, Neb. 

Joshn D. G. Co Denver, Colo. 

Railsback Claremore Co.,Los Angeles, Cal. 

Dorn's Ceramic Supply Store, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Pacific Coast China Co . . . Seattle, Wash. . 
Railsback Claremore Co. . . Seattle, Wash. 
Olds, Wortman & King. . .Portland, Ore, 



GOLD ! GOLD ! GOLD ! 

The Largest Box of the Best Gold in the World 

$3.00 

per dbz. boxes 




Less than one 
dozen 

45c a box 

CHEMICALLY PURE 

BROWN GOLD 
It Never Varies 




XIMAX CERAMIC CQml 
CHICAGO 



ACTUAL SIZE 



rAC-SIMILE or LABEL 



FINEST SMOOTHEST PUREST 

Use Climax Gold. Your worK "will sKo-w improvement. -AsK for [it at yo\ir Dealer's. 
If He cannot supply you, "we -will. Sample sent on receipt of six cents in stamps. 

CLIMAX CERAMIC CO., - 206 Clark Ave., ■ CHICAGO, ILL 

When writing to advertisers please mention this magazine. 




Why? 

do we want you to 
have our 

Monster New 

White China 

Catalogue 

Because 

it is the best, the brightest 
and the biggest ever pub- 
lished. Every china painter 
should have one. The prices 
are right. Discounts to 
teachers. 

Erker Bros. 
Optical Co. 

604 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 



Well Known 

Select 

Powder 

Colors 

For China IRosa) 







The Best Quality 
finely Oround 

Bru»he»aDd Mediums 

fOR SALE BY LEAPING ART STORES 

China and Water Color Studies to Order 

AND TOR RENT 

Mail Orders Promptly Filled Send for Price List 

1 1 04 Auditoriam Tower 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



•nd e-very recfuiaite for CHina Painting. 

WHITE CHINA FROM ALL COUNTRIES FOR DECORATIWa 

Sena for Catalogue. Agent for Ke-velation Ililn.. 

BOSTON CHINA DECORATING WORKS. 

L. COOLEY. Prop., 3S Tennxaon St.. Boston. ElstablisKed ISOO 



WHITE CHINA 

And CKina Decorating Materials 



CELERY DIPS 

One Dozen 

By;MaIl 

40c. 




^m 



' " [Send for] 
ILLUSTRATED, 
CATALOGUE 
Free 



AVRIGHT. TYNDALE: (EL VAN RODEN 

1212 Chestnut Street, PKiladelpHia 



JAMES F, HALL, ^ > CHINA FAINTER AND DECORATOR 

Manvifaoturer of 

HALL'S ROMAN GOLD AND BRONZES 

DRESDEN MINERAL TRANSFERS. 



■nunel Color for overglaze in Powder and prepared In Tubes. Oils, Bnuhes.Ohina. 

Medallion* and Battons in great rariaty. 
China Fired Daily-. 
Send for Catalogues 



116 N. I5th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Dresden^ 





MiiUer&Kennig 

Dresden 



Anglo = French 



We now have on our books ten thousand 
SATISFIED customers who are happy for hav- 
ing purchased and used Anglo-French Colors. 

If you bought of us when we sold our colors 
in the tiny bottles please note that we have 
doubled the size of the smallest bottles and 
55 of our Colors are in large full size drahm 
bottles— AND BETTER COLOR— Royal Meis- 
sen. 

ACTUAL COST. 

It ooHts the hiKb-prtced eolor people NO MORE 
to put up their color than It does n«. For In- 
Htniiee, on a bottle of SOc color the hlich-prieed 
man keeps lOe for himself, slves the Jobber .'«o 
and the dealer V2c — total SOc, and every time yon 
buy a bottle for ."JOc you are paying 2»>o of It for 
profit, and If you buy of ns for lOe you tcrt the 
SAMK qunutlty for 10c and a better eolor. Even 
If you have a MILLION DOLLARS 70* can afford 
to nave this 20. 




?W 



If you will send a dollar bill we will send 

you a 75c Pot O'Gold, Bottle of Liquid Bright 

Gold, Crimson Purple, Crab Apple Pink, and 

Brown Green. Others ask $2 for same quantities as we send, .inci n 

you are not entirely satisfied with ours we will send back your dollar. 

We sell imported Glass Brushes for 10c, M.TrkIng Pencils 5c, 8x10 
Piilktte in Lacquered Tin Box with cover SOc, India Ink 5c, Burniihing 
Sand 5c and 250 Colors at 10c that other* sell for 40, 50, 60, 75 85c. 

NEW— LIQUID ROMAN GOLD— NEW. 
W« have Just received from the house of Her.ieus, Hanau A Main, 
a supply of Liquid Roman Gold, a new product that has aroused the 
keenest interest and found a big market among the entire European 
trade. It Is an interesting and profitable Gold to use for the reason 
that It is always ready for use, no waste, GOES FARTHER, the gild 
Ing is permanent and Irreslstable and after firing Is burnished the 
same as any of the paste Gold. It la certainly worth a trial and for 
35c we will send as much as you buy for 65c in paste Gold and guar- 
antee it to' give you absolute satisfaction or money back. 
BEGINNERS OUTFIT 53.00 
ANGLO-FRENCH ART CO., Kansas City, Mo. 



3 



taammamammnaam 



IMPROVED "EXCELSIOR" KILN 

For Pottery, Glass and China Decoration 

* 

Equipped with New Hinz Kerosene Burner 
or with Gas Burner 

The thin tiling used in our kiln insures quick firing; and the 

tongue and groove construction, the patents of which are 

controlled by us^ reduces, breakage to the mininium 



Improved Kiln B Economical 



New Burner ^ ^^^^^KmJm Durable 




New Design #I1^M^^ Easy to Operate 



NEW NO. 7 EXCELSIOI N)miY IILN 



A new catalogue with instructions and suggestions to deco- 
rators, will be issued soon. Write now and 
one will be sent you free. 



HINZ MANUrACTURING COMPANY 

67 1-673 ATWATER STREET E. 

DETROIT, MICH. 



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