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The Construction of Social Reality 

By: John R. Searle 

Copyright © 1995 by John R. Searle. 

AU rights reserved 



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El Gabalaya St. Opera House, El Gezira, Cairo. 
E-mail: egyptcouncil@yahoo.com Tel: 27354524 Fax: 27354554 



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(HJ-LiUl t>) it4l^A 



.OH ^ , JjLJI ^jJLI (Y) 
lan Hacking, Why Does Language Matters to Philosophy?, Cambridge University(t) 
Press, 1997, eh. 13. 

. \\\ ^ .J^L»^! <jjjua (i) 

. o -A j o «T, (j^t^LJI j-*ji) (o) 
lan Hacking, p. 96 ("\) 

John R. Searle, Philosophers of Language, Wikipedia, the Free En eyelopedia. (v) 
http://en.vvikipedia.org 

phildept?berkeley.edu, University of California, Berkeley, Searle+s homepage (A) 
at U C Berkeley 

J. Fodor, Representations, MIT Press/Bradford Books: Cambridge Mass., 1981. (\) 
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Correspondence Theory of Truth -Truth (s-) 

Theories. 

- lan Hacking, p. 68. 

J. R. Searle, The Rediscovery of Mind, Cambridge, Mass., 1992. p. 52. (u) 

- Nick Fotion, John Searle (Philosophy Novv), Intenationality of Mind and 
Language, Acumn.U.K., 2000, p. 6. 



21 



. m - u\ ^ 

Ernest Lepore and Robert Van Gulick, eds., John Searle and His Critics, Taylcr (\rj 
Burg, U.K., 1993, part2, 

- Internet Dictionary of Philosophy MHTML-Philosophy of Mind-Wikipcdia l'rce 
Encyclopedia, Cognitive science. 

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Phenomenology. (U) 

Nick Fotion, eh. 5. (10) 

J. R. Searle, Intentionality, An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind, Cambridge (n) 
University Press, 1983. 

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Philosophy of Language - Wittgenstein (w) 

- Philosophers of Language. Problem of Meaning. 

.HV - V Y ^ys ((jjijjjj j£j~i i "2j£ I i-iJliij w » L_pL>- ( \ A) 
Nick Fotion, ch. 5. (u) 

J. R. Searle, the Rediscovery of Mind. (r-) 

Nick Fotion, ch. 7. (yi ) 

J. R. Searle, Intentionality, An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind. (rr) 

(jLftj :4JJl ju-c al mr.j . Y • • i iojjbl2]\ n_a!iLl>.VI Sj^j : Ijijjj dJL». : =lUI a>c a! ..->r (YY) 

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Ian Hacking, pp. 79 - 80. (Yi) 

J. L. Austin, Hovv to Do Things vvith Words, Harvard University Press, 1981 (yo) 
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Speech Act Theory. (ri) 

J. R. Searle, Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge /(yv) 
University Press, 1969. 

- Armin Bukhardt and De Gruyter, ed., Speech Acts, Meaning an Intentions: Critical 
Approach to the Philosophy of John Searle, Berlin, 1990. 

. \^"\ [S^jfcLoJI i4£.ljjlj (Laj^iLs - (_£^ilJI ili-L>JI : JU«JI JU^ejJ (YA) 

Kevin Halion, Deconstruction and Speech Act Theory: A Defence 29 Kevi (y^ 

Halion, Deconstruction and Speech Act Theory: A Defence of the Distinction 
betvveen Normal and Parasitic Speech Acts. Kevin Jospeh Halion, September 1989, 



22 



- Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Syslcms Principia Cybemelics Wch, IW|. 
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Stanford Encyclopedia ol" Philosophy - (v • ) 
Internet 

Dictionary of Philosophy, "Theories of Truth", "Correspondcnce Theory of 
Truth", "Verification Principle", "Deflationary Theory of Truth", "Reflection 
Theory of Language", "Causai Relations", "Negative Truth", "Redundancy 
Theory", "Disquotational Theory", "Frege", "Ramsey", "Ayer", "Quine", 
"Dummett", 

- Michael, Devitt, Realism and Truth, Princeton University Press, 1984. 

Ernest Lepore and Robert Van Gulick, eds., pp. 90- 101. (n) 

■ • A ^, .J^l f, i ..j 4jjj2 (YY) 
John R. Searle, The Construction of Social Reality, Penguin, 1995. (rr) 

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (r i) 

Internet 

Dictionary of Philosophy, Google, Search Engin.: Stravvson, Hagerman, Grice, 
Austin, pragmatic, semantic, relevance theory, verification principles, semanties, 
conceptual role semanties. 

- John R. Searle, Language and Social Ontology, Seminar i n Center of Theoretical 
Studies, Department of Philosophy, UCLA and Academy of Science, Czech 
Republic, Prague, 1 1-10-2007 - (Jj+u, o_h- t» j'-J^j *k^>) 

Ian Hacking, pp. 96-1 17, p. 123. (To) 

,£j|^J| J.^AIt iJ^Ui J 4jjjL3(Y"\) 

Ernest Lepore and Robert Van Gulick, eds., pp. 229-231. (ty) 

- Ian Hacking, p. 76. 

. o Y • - o U L ya <(^l!Ul i_jLJI iJj£,UjjI 4jj-lsj 

- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Communication and Representation. 

- John R. Searle, "Collective Intentionality and Action", in Intentions in 
Communications, ed. P. Cohen , in J. Morgan and M. E. Pollack, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1990, p. 401. 

23 



- Kalic Walcs, A Dictionary ot' Slylislics, Longman, 1989, - "communicalion", 

"represenlalion". 

- A. G. Greimas - J. Courtes, Semiotics and Language, An Analylical Diclionary, 

Indiana University Press, 1982,- "communication", "represenlalion". 
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - "Prima Facie Statemenl Deonlic" ( 1981), (\ A) 
"Alethic Modal Logic". 

. Y • • \ iSjjkLUI 

(jJjjJI j-s-jjJU JLa-£l jlJl^SLJI Sjjjji (ji jjj^ajjl JajIjJiJI: Jj_«_*_a «^ua-uJI Aif, iJ-ou^vj 

.n- -ror^.r oi>j;! .y- -t s^i^ji l( ^j^l j^^jwi 

- Salvva M. El-Avva, Textual Relations in Quran, aThesis Submitted of PhD Degree, 
University of London, 2001. 

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Social Interaction and Language, meaning (t-) 
and social structures, metasemantics. 

lan Hacking, p. 76. (n) 

511 -517.U- -YTA^.J^U^j ajjjLs 
Ernest Lepore and Robert Van Gulick, eds., pp. 90 - 101. (iY) 

Ibid.,part6, (tr) 

- Stephen P. Turner, Review:Sear!e's Social Reality, History and Theory, Vol. 38, 

No. 2. (May, 1999), pp. 21 1 -231. 

. 347.YYY -Tl^ .J^U^I A^j^(it) 
Richard Rorty, What's it all about? John Searle's Intentionality, An Essay iri (io) 
the Philosophy of Mind, Cambridge, 1983, London Revievv of Books, May 17 - June 
6 1984, pp. 3-4. 

J. R. Searle, "Hovv to Derive 'Ought' from 'Is'?", Philosophical Revue, January (n) 
1973. 

- Earnest Lepore and Robert Van Gulick , eds., part 4. 

- Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 

Dictionary of Philosophy MHTML - "Realism/Anti Realism", "Reality". 
- John R. Searle, The Construction of Social Reality, eh. 9. 

Ibid., eh. 4. (iv) 

Ibid., eh. 5. (iA) 



24 



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. Y * • \ iS^jbLSjl ijjpjc j\ j njjjjj ijljlll 

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25 



AUSTIN, J. L. 1981. Hovv to DoThings with Words. Harvard Univcrsity Press. 

EL-AWA, Satwa. 2001. Textual Relations in Quran. a Thesis Submiltcd of PhD 

Degree, University of London. 

BUKHARDT, Armin and DE GRUYTER, ed. 1990. Speech Acts, Meaning an 

Intentions: Critical Approach to the Philosophy of John Searle, 
Berlin. 

DEVITT, Michael. 1984. Realism and Truth. Princeton University Press. 

FODOR, J. 1981. Representations. MIT Press/Bradford Books: Cambridge Mass. 

FOTION, Nick. 2000. John Searle (Philosophy Novv), Intenationality of Mind and 
Language, Acumn.U.K. 

GRE1MAS, A. G. - COURTES, J. 1982. Semiotics and Language, An Analytical 
Dictionary. Indiana University Press. 

HACK1NG, Ian. 1997. Why Does Language Matters to Philosophy? Cambridge 

University Press. 

HALION, Kevin. 1989. Deconstruction and Speech Act Theory: A Defence of the 
Distinction betvveen Normal and Parasitic Speech Acts. Kevin 

Jospeh Halion. 

LEPORE, Ernest and VAN GULICK, Robert, eds. John Searle and His Critics, 
Tayler Burg, U.K. 

RORTY, Richard. 1983. What's it all about? John Searle's Intentionality, An Essay 
in the Philosophy of Mind. Cambridge. London Revievv of Books, May 17 - June 
6,1984. 

26 



SEARLE, J. R. 1990. "Collcclivc Inlcnationalily and Aclion", in Iiilcnlions in 
Communications, ed. P. Cohcn , in J. Morgan and M. L. 
Pollack, Cambridge, Mass. 

SEARLE, J. R. 1995. The Construction of Social Reality. Penguin. 

SEARLE, J. R. 1973. "How to Derive 'Ought' from 'Is'?", Philosophical Revue, 

January. 

SEARLE, J. R. 1983. Intentionality, An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind. Cam- 
bridgeUniversity Press. 

SEARLE, J. R. 2007. Language and Social Ontology. Seminar in Center of 

Theoretical Studies, Department of Philosophy, UCLA and 
Academy of Science, Czech Republic, Prague. 

SEARLE, J. R. Philosophers of Language, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 

SEARLE, J. R. 1992. The Rediscovery of Mind, Cambridge, Mass. 

SEARLE, J. R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. 
Cambridge University Press. 

TURNER, Stephen P. 1999. Review:Searle's Social Reality, History and Theory, 
Vol. 38, No. 2. 

WALES, Katie. 1989. A Dictionary of Stylistics. Longman. 

Encyclopedies, vveb dictionaries, websites: 

- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 

- Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia: Internet Dictionary of Philosophy - MHTML 

27 



Web Diclionary <>f C'ybcrnclics and Syslcms Principia Cybernetics Web. 
phildept?berkeley.edu, University of California, Berkeley, Searle's homepage 
at U C Berkeley 



28 



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5njU,jJI" a j (j n o ^ JiiU^ (^lj Ruth Millikan (jLSbJLyj cj_ajJj .^L^uL^Vt _»*Vl 
ajlc (_yLc. jl^^uo^l (jp<i ^^Jl (jrLc < 1 j_j_a_«J >l^l 4Jt j_lj proper function 5 _, i ir S }\ 

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R. G. Millikan , Language , Thought, and Other Biological Calegories : New Foundations (*) 
for Realism ( Cambridge? Mass.: MIT Press, 1984 ). In R. G. Millikan, In Dcfense of the 
Proper Funetions," in The Philosophy of Sciences 56(1989), 288-302. 



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J. R. Searle, "What is a Speech Act", in Black, Maxed. (\) 

Philosophy in America (Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, London: 
Allen N. Unwin, 1965) 



J. R. Searle, Speech Acts, An essay in the Philosophy of Language (New 
York: Cambridge University Press, 1969) 

G. E. M. Anscombe, "On Brute Facts", (Analysis 18, no. 3 1958) 

John R. Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind (Cambridge, 
Mass., London: MIT Press, 1992). 

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L. Wright, "l-'unctions" in The I'liilosophical Rcvievv 82, no. 2 ( Api i I (T) 

1973), 137-68. 

P. Achinstein, "Functional Explanation" in The Nature of Explanation (New 
York: Oxford University Press 1983), pp. 263-90. 

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Ijiojl t»lLl JajjjJLl ln»1l Ju^al] ^£. jjL^Jl i-ojliijJl i_p=>3 f-_jj j^-^" ^1^. f ^UoMJ (0) 

Searle, Intentionality, An Essay in the Phiiosophy of Mind, 

.(JLo-a i^S> \-XJb (jfA I ■'■"•< (_>5i^ljl C\) 

John R. Searle, "Collective Intentions and Actions" in 
Intentions in Communication, P.Cohen, J. Morgan, and M. E. 
Pollack, eds. Cambridge, Mass.: Bradford Books, MIT Press, 
1990). 

l£>>-l f&j-ifcLLa 3JlC tliLi^J . I gjlf (_p3ljJl£.l Vj I jj'g Jl-^?- V (^4'j^ u' o'^j"'^.' o' A3' ^ (^) 

M. Gilbert, On Social Facts (London: Routledge, 1989); M. 

Bratman, "Shared Cooperative Activity", Philosophical Revievv 101, no. 2 
(1992), 327-412; 

R. Tuomela and K. Miller , "We-intentions", Philosophical Studies 53 
(1988), 367-89. 

Searle, Speech Acts. (A) 
J. Rawls, "T wo Concepts of Rules", Philosophical Review 64 (1955). 



63 



Antony Giddens, The Constitutions of Society: Outline of the Theory of 
Structuration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), pp. 19ff. 



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: CjI uh nj-lL) Jo-ljjj (JLSLoIjI (jjo 4-ji^ mi 1 II 5'a.l Pi",ll [_a ( J£U c, 1 1 tl 4Ja2_i ( _ ? jk lillj .«(aAjjJaJ! 
i^j-i l^Jjji L»^ p 4_!L>- ljr ± j^a 4jL!U_i JUu Myj : 4jjL»Jll 4a-l<^3 1 ,j"j i i .'(■V""! (jl Ljjlj jS$ 

.Juu 1 <i 1^ 

c j? 

Lj-jwjJj U 'i j l (j^s j»j_fl_j La jUol (^ ljr c.\ a" -k^I ^aljJI rjJiJ (J\ (sr l\ cJJl^_j o-^-J 

(jl (jJj <L>-Ltj (j^e-i tilijo r'J-ij tjr^-Lj • < ^J : *'J-^3^ 'j 4-ulj aj*Ntlj <jjUI *L_i}U «LljjLjiI 
(^1 (<u i?iJlj^JI_j dl\ a U (^J i(JLij>JI_3 diLjjj^>JI (jja ^-a- 1 l^- 1 ^' (J '-'■"' l' JaiJI Ttjuoaj 
Jjii i llj 4 j «j^.mi" II CjLLl^JI lLLSJ J_»_i jj^ ^-^d Cj-^* - '4-L}-a->JI jin mi II i—ij^-C JubLui^a 
j_4 xjij^>JLI (jyJ] Cj\ j < j 1 l^ 1 1 (j^a , i ~ «1 t, I ^_tii^>JI (_ y i£. t _ J 1 m j ^j-JI jl 1 11 U (j|. CjUq^L>JI| o 
tiU j (jr^ - f«-i-uL>Jl JjuLIIj (L^ic. J-JJLJJ j-atjJiJI jjin"<j (j^>- LyC^JJ ^C-LiJjJl 4j>-jJjJI 
(j^o (^ycLaJsJl (_, lii » II 1 > i/-> n 'l 4_i (»J-aJ La j_& ^fcl p "-v I )<J3l_J x_Lc£> ^^^ (JlLaJiJLl - >,i g,-»JI 
L* (jl • (jla^flJl lili J (jjp (j^o d lijhjJI liiij i_^JJj (jl L4J (jl£ La «Lj-il (ji^. 4-ajiij u^_>9 



74 



\ ', , „j \ -»X — j U, tl d i r, La "i-».*!^ I ^jLit)JI i_lLL) L t'i-i ,_)-■■> Lju uCjJlj- ^uu ,j-.a LU ija^vj 

Jia (jjs — 2 ...... ,j\.\ «JsLsjJI dllj jjjj (_,!>■ - 0L1SJJI LiljLlS a, I i bua (^La-V JjuLa ^.lt. 

f l_ui^l tiilll (jl^ La i AM Ujt ,_»_«_>. t _yzj£ /ya 4_i j^jJi-s La J-& — 7r'j!>^'j «LjSJULI^ JjJLJl 

i_y\£. tilljj , 5_M jj _ A tl 3 i ■» j j U 1 1 5_j_al_JL I I ^"m m < i i ^ j2 £yt J < A , A .,t .Lajl^j L^jjjj j' 
JSLi (jU'j r-JLaJJl i^^JLj jj^ . .cjIjL.m! II j 4_j^L^>J! jUiLsJJj «JaljjJl ,_ya ^u^jJI 

(Jj9 J ' *■"» * ' ' d A i U» J jjjj 2 3 'l "* a 4_)_jjj Laj I (J I I U (J J J I II (j' f l4-J_3jjjl Cj^M_«jJI » '_lS^J 

. dJUJu («^J 7-j i n i /<J jjl ojLloJL^ 

JtjLJSj » *■ i^ (jjj iLi-t-a j - Luajj9 c_iuLlojJl (_p3j_fl (j^a (Jl A"r Q <U (^^j-uLui I j i^t i « 1 1 (j J 
i_3a_o/ I i ■» n -w. LSlj-il 4£jJlJ _ La <Ld_tlij 4_i j .--."" — J-^J iS^J^ J-* '^ ' " ' "j-^~ LiajJ^J 

rjJLlj c^al-> La status functions L» 2-Jj-i-a u i>>"i"<\ ^ <jip ,^iJI «JtjUijJI iiil3j_L-l 

2 A ,U j \ ' \ . -t - * _iaJL>jL) (V^LiJl T/Jo^a-iJI (_y3.Pi 1 'r i ntl i_ajUiaJI (jja «LuoLi. 4x3 jUaj (_L>IJ 
Aj tj\-x^2 'ijj-aj pj-uaj-a (__JI Jj^so JL^itiijLj>Jl_3 ! |_£-3La fj-Jaj-a Jj^-J (j-3 « ~« J , i ml 

(jl j^L ilLjLsJI Lg_> -»La ^yjJI I (j 1 n A \ 3 li j U jJ I (_jj_p (jl jjJl^JI ^ j^j-iJLa . jjjl>JI 

(_ys (jSLajJ <LLj_k>jJI_) (j 1 1 "1 1 Lajl (_^ol_>. J-*^=J Lili j L^_A_loj_i jL^O-^U ( _ ;r cLitJ>Jl t±Jlj-22M 

jls La *(j-iJ ^a_UjU «j^jjl in the extreme case j! j_aVl j_Lj j^ Jj .Lg_i ^Ln II 

<_<jSs3j i ljU>- /ya d A .U. tl !j\j lJy 3\j^. lLdLijjz <- i-lu->.j Lg-il-iLi r*^-2-i d A jloj-i 1 In njji 

3_Lj_«JI jj U*i SLuaLJ». - \j A ; U r-jj^ i_LaLj-J LJj-C-3 7*1 '^J^l dv 5 "^dJ-^J .4 j «jj U II 4"i j i t 
ijJL^ 2_llA (^JL: JIjj»! : JjVl : 9I3JI 4j^Ij , JLU d^-^i L7 *s^jX\ Jj-Jjil ^>«J -^jjJ' 

:^ y jliijlj i4_<tJ-3 <Jlil j I j ■ .. A1 d_«JL_uJl (j2 . IjjjOJ .(u jj^aj t4 aj g dil j Julj ii_<jlijjl JlLa jjj» 
/ -Lg-dj I Jj^£. (JiL«3 L4JV A aj^ CjI j JUu (3j>" U"" ? " q U-° U3^-^ JaJic. 4 nt (jjJ^ ij'>*' 
Mj 3_>j_j£L>JI I *ji .--.") 3 j. i A', 3'jj' ^LUlj u.,.AJl)L£ A aj^ 5 < I ,m l gl aL>J jJsjJLi 
MlLa |__;j^jJ.I lilLJL^ jl d_a^SL>Jl^ 3 j a mij 3^>. t"< ilf.l (3jjJI ^j^a^L^ 3 ij- 4 U3^^ (*LLai 
f IjjVI o Ju4 (jrjj 2Ja}L*JI (j 'i? I (^J-^ 7^'<a""i aLs ii_ilJi (j_a «jijJLij . Jj^jjl A. < i j~A L4J jl 
JLalU JULI 3JLs- (^ .JLaU Ij>u3 L4K L^JLa Jjl=cj La j^aVl 3Jlj_3jv ^ ^..ojl V J i3ii>liJ| 

31l& jjtill JUI 3JL> ^ Lal '2 -ija cil j L^j^? JjI ."li lU^i.,^ jljjl j-ujlj i«JLcJl 3Jja 
. JjLiU i.Wli i ..j I4JV 3^j^ cjI j (j^Sj jIjJLI (jLa -^LW: ojj-i- <-JUl JIjjVl 



75 



L_iuiSL!l <JLSLoLj 1-i i ,,jJI j j ui 1 1 (^ Ljji (jr^ 4_»J3j^JI «UjulII jj U "i 1 Jijiki j_jlHJ| jl 
fJlJej V (jL£ ,jlj i4lr*_u3 (jlsp3l i_3j_u, .4i>Li!l f-laJVI LiilJ <jrJJ 4j rtUill ol3>UJ1 ^£. 
J l.g'ntj 4 j".U 'a ota^Lc. (j-L^ i-i,i.LLrr ^ JJ 1 1 tiDj * u"\ (ji ♦".< »1 Lajji «lJL>JI LLlaI^^ 
j»I aitljjil (jl ijj la"i II I j_4 J3-«l CjjLoi <— Oj^ (jVI ltSljJj .5_jJtJjLlII 4_3J_!I i^i-C JLojjlj 
ujitlj (jJJ-ll JSLAII ,j V t 4 i^ijIaa j_a^/I 4jLuL>. ^ 3^b 4 if-inllj t_<JijJ^ 4_jm » |,,„Tl 
Ji j) <i 'r M 4 iij In^j j»J-aj 4J.4 (J£_u4~j (jJJ-ll j-t<a-L«JL5 tiUjJ .4_ax3 Ii 4 i n ii i jjfc JutJ jj rr j II 
Uj9 4joLc L^j CjJ-iaj (jill 4 t jjIt.II uJJjj i I i», 1 -n. j 4_ulj^jii II 4t_i lUl) (j^a <._i i ui J i. 1 1 u,."»-'^ 

L^jV Vi4 <> j > oli 4 j j a>jdl o>La_*JlJ3 t±UJJ .<_JuLiiaJI u^ii t ,LJ9 (jjs I gj I c o^j-s 

4jLa-»JI jj^3 3-L>-lj^JI 4 « U ". U i 4_^oLpJI 4_c_ijjJlj ii. J>i jjl (jja 4^.jj_Lua_o L^J^J (_)j '"'N " ** 
,»Lj-"JI i- lA'\ 11 ^ ir^ ir (_ylc tj&jJu (j-*-> •<- utillJI (jja '1-J-Lt (J.hTlmU La *^a LaL*J ^jl i n"<" 
4 ii j h jj I (j^? .j-uoLL*JI (j^o fjj-Lll lilli <jJM"-«1 (_yfl ^-i-tjj LJV 4 oj rt.tLj 4_i^L>- 4 A _■ U. j i 
4 n j h j i_H=J-3 i_U-^-> (j' J <3 ' " II lV'J it-uiJJI (_^-Lc- JaJJLs C luaj-S JL3 4 <i j ii ILi 4_noL>Ji 
(jl L^jIjJ (j>a JU^j iL&Lj^SJLiI 4_~yjia oJUfcj . 4 i jiilu 4_i^3L>JI 4 .ijjnjjl ^yi lj) i^\ Jj).2i II 
tjj J »7 llh d a^3 i4_jjLU 4"tj i \n (jjo t i 1 1 n t 4 njfl I j (JjlAJL) i_<jijjl (jj, lt-i (jaiLiJI jV: (Jj-oJ 

\ .JjLiU IUji.ij 4j^xU 

t 4J t ajLail i_3JL^_i *.LuiVI 4_i5 a, 1 ■fr"< i,<ij (JjLuJl 4jjijl {jA Lalh'i LijjJ J-^>o Lut (j^J 
i L^jli (j^S L^J lj)ii«. i"i JL9 (j^-« (JJJ3SL1 V JL3 sLuiVI flJuk (jjjlajej (j^a jl jj^a ^CjJL (^."1^- 
(jLil (JjLuJI (_j\l*^j) i <i II jL>uVI (^ OJlt>- La I JUfc 4 1 mi j j . L^-oi.\ -r" ml (■d^flj^j (j^^a jl 
(Jji ij l . 2lLojlJI 4jj_Laj jj^jJjUI jjLtj-u i.. .I t* i"ijln^. Jiifl 1 ^ ^^ \ j ^ A^ • aLc ojLtgJI 

^pjl <_ajl ii I II t * M ~i 'g . (ji_L>.jJU jj_o p j . ., a *t 1 -j_a IjjJ_j5Lj /«J jjj (^l>- L4J ^ajJI (jj/LlJI 
oLaLaJj j_)Lauji (^jjI l jj ■ r (jll-il '4 a j Uj 1 a 1 j n 5 1 L^-JJ ' ' • -i i3jj>JIj ^ .j "i 1 1 C^-y ?«-a_>ij 

. (J^LpJl 1 Viji nj l^jlr (JlIoJ i > i-ui <i 4jLiij \ jjlr. (_p3,>-3 4 rt _it->j}J I i (,U"t (J^J (,* .'"'^ 

JL»-j (jLS-aL (jL? 4Jj ,Jjj3 J_2J .Uj mjjl j in y II ,j^ Lijjl (^ Jj3^-Lll 4 1^1^ (j^i Lal 

( - u t . ' l I I (JjLS^o ijr^3 'U^-al (j"- 4 c^ e ^-Lf. dai iitII oj)_ij_Jtjj i_ut jjl IjAjil (j I (jJj)J_JI 

I ^ ii .» r"> j_i (J, <n" .,i n* (jl ol jl^ mi II o j^J (jSLaJLl (j^a (jl^ aj (jjaj. (j-\-CJj)jJJ oljl#-i"/ IjjJ^al 

.c^jiJJI (jii Mjju obi fli n II t^JLSi .4 mrt'i (- ^» JJ I »^i (jLuiJl jL? La^ tj^l riil I U _. , „j 

4j| ^& (jSLaJLI (jja (jLS 4J2 <4.o j i* II jjLwa^a (j^a lj, I <^i a I j A . ,-, j 1 4_LoL? 4_t3l Jl^sjs L^Jj 



76 



SJLiiij jSLi ^ jm.<»Li,i J< ni ^ JUL Jju^J I jlSLj» .L4J i_<_a>JL)l J U r. ,.,1 4_L»^»J 

(jJLJll Jl o "ir^M JLoj-J (j t LlLfdai 4JI La (j-^^- ■"■ ' * ■^■"^1 LaJLJuC. 3 Jl5 ^j U -^. CjJLS 
j^Clluj (j I CjLI^j i ii II jjlSLaL AiJ La ti <iK*tll ^j^j LjJL) Lo <3_ta3 CjI jLgjji j' i ' ««-«n d t->l - .. ij 

4£.Ljj>JI tjLa i5x.Lu>Jl Ls_tlc 1 f' • '^j '** jls 1^'^jU.j CjjsIj Laj u_cAJl!I 4_ajJo^j j»LJL!l ^^b 

5, 1 ii II oj v-» ■yj la .i _ 1 ft\ y\\ d_jj>->L<^3 '"'l ^ j ■ ■■ I ' ^jj s ^ . .. JULi LtSa ' ' J I p ■ a (_—^ ji"" ■■* n 
,jl MjjJc Li_oj (j^/LlJI (Jjj (jj t "i i nl JL3j — La u^ ■> ■". L-i-iliSI LajLLc. <-<jJ_-w «LJLlJI 
jjjjuJI I i tj t j *' . ' 1 n~»-_a CjLI jj 1 iilL 1 h ii~i "e-ij i_tjl jjl j_al ^_, m m (j I l_LJLS-aL ^jl— lj A •""■>) 
SjLiVI ^j-fl-S .(jVI o, \ $ i"i i ^JJI s-LisjJI _Jjk_a cLlSjjJI Cj}La_*Jl 4_L>-j_a LiA-L JL3 0>^-J 

43jjJI Ljl>.I jJ 4JI j^j <j«jjl13I ajjL^J^I LiJj.Li.ll (^Ll^-I 4_L«_c. Jj'jj' cj-^c- <JjJdl 

LiaJLS Lul (^jJal (jSL!j . CjIj^jJlJI (j_a LgJjl ■ nj La LjLaL>J CxJl3Jl! dJ_4JjJI (jrJI 4_iJlLJI 

SjLjji 9 (JjLoII fj^ Lil (jjjtajj <_ibj_cu .U . ,^U 1 | jL^a Ij^fjJ ,jjj —^ 2 ij^» > j -■_' La LjJ 

.*• -MjVjJ ^jjjjjiuC Ig 'i o j^ 4JljJJI {ya i^J^* 1 ' 
[p 4JUk. ^3 jj^a <L)Li*J JUu (j-/) AjJ-SjJI Ajuj^ail : Iri, i m i.mtUI O^ljJiJI 

Constitutive Rules : X counts as Y in C 

jLlj i i a g g _^J J ■>< g} j^t_Li J_j_S_L!l j_a_LLLl |_£j^*j La fi^fl.) (j I ,j£La_U jj^i d_j| (jlsl 

* i 1 n J i(_*jL>- jjja(jji_u^l ^ ir-yYa CjLa_a_aJll J-3JJ lP^' - Jlc 'I>^-^ l^S 1 ' ^ 'J "' {jr^^ 'LS^LJI 

4jj^ojJI 4- n i,l -i .i,.u ULl I 4j_li^3 (j I Cjj^j JLflJ . J^ i 1— «-iLw j^ys dini 11JJ.L lLjjjJJ (jt-^' ?->L9aJ! 

locutionary SjLuJl dilj jjti'm j^luit^ul t ^£J ; "^3JL>- ^ ^^ 4jLi*j jl*j ^ ^ 

CjLc.j_uojJ.Ij d i n i "j-lL 4_La_jJjjJi,l »_lL3jJI {ya 4-£.jji_3e_a JJLx_> ^jl i ■ ■ "-»■ ^ j_<k 4JI mi (jj« 

o? (jifi. 3jMc .^^(t^u) >^..i.*..JI «uk. JiLL LS^JUJI 5_l«j_lLJ1 4_jjli! cjL«^JI ±j^* 

_j^tj l^-C: L«-^>J t (_jl n « ll J if-i n II dil o 1 n (jji d <) 1 n (_yJ-C [jl Inj d_)LLa-) J_jlj 3jLx. Jjj-LaJLa 
4jtjj_uaJI i_juLlijJI jj^s 4j (jjajij Laj Jt-uajjl jjLejj C^o- i^LijJaj 4_i Jajjjj j«-loj jj^sj^ 
(edJJJ . 4 j < j 1 U 1 1 4_jjUI CjLg.j-iJ3j o II L4J (»LiJl j_al 1 1 1 1 u j (jl qSL<u (jjJl ' ^"' 1 Ujtl Liiij 
Jj_a3 ( _ JT U_I1 CjIjLuiJI (jjs (jj^Lj jjJ 4_jJ_ajJ! 4juj-uaJI tijlj a t,» -V" 1 11L1 i JLjJ.1 Jj j i n ^yic 
Juu La (jr^V mi [j^/jJL>J (7i a, 1 -r "i 1 iilj Ci„a..<.t<o (jy-'J' «Ljl/^fl ^jl J j ^ ' (j! 4j i n 1 1 nG SjLcLa 



77 



£ _ 3 _iS_) ((jj) j-ajJ\ >-3>J ij' • Jl - s ^ j 'y" " '*" ^ ' ' * ^ a 4-o_li l — ^i>-*-J O-* 4JV JLcLLja 4_iLL<ij 
l^jja ( fi ii^itl I. i *■ j-t-CJ l_4iOj jl 4^a^Lc !_^j <u OJi£.LaJI l.Ji n^i" Zj ,_$j-ojJI J-^JJ-3 (JJuaJLl 
Lj» (j uj,l>l I J-^Jj .4 j ■„ujuiLill JlcIjJLJI £ys 4_jj_4jjl 4 «-j<^ II <jJL4> i~( mjl'g tdjjj i«L_iiVI 
lJ2 i Jt£.l_5_a 4_i I "i «u JL*J 4_Lu*_) JSjIu Lljl j sLulil jl JjJi-l iji 4j i ».j i nG 3.JLC.L3 jj£. j. i »-J 

(_£l (j^. Ji^jl^j Lg-j aLlaJi j_«I L4JI 1 i 1 h 1 ^' (1h-* j "-&> c*L)-^J' 1^ jl^*' u - ^ »"<j ct-*-" <— fljLli^Jl 

(j I o-' 1 1 ■■'<-< *v.gj ((JLSLtu^/l jjjfl «LIjjlj ^*> i~i ^ L-LiuYl aJL^J _jl . (_£jLIIi ^If. ^jjLiJI (j_« (JLaji 
(Jjjb LaJiic (jSLlj -j-=*-l jnVi'i (_£l 4_Llaj l_4X. jJojJI (jn« j i L-^jS I ,j ii i^j-J L^-sjJsjj-uj 
4j_^aj 4>,nr-> t>=tj "-y- 1 -' <J3~ -3j) rii II <Lx3 (j>i j^^ 4__j3_}_jJI « U ^11 jj^a ilLLsj <3Ji_4> Jiua (j I 
* Uii !1 (]_pa l£JlLj o J_& jl ojLuJl ^yS (o-u) j-^°>" J-SjJ U^ <4 ^h.mj.liiLIJI J^ljJiJI j_a Jju 
JUA^tllL) (j-Uu jl (u-«) _^*>^' jlSLaLi Vj < I .IjJL) Lg-La (JjtJtjJ 4 1 n n M <_,^J ^ *^»jAj^J I 
JjLojI jj- 1 Aj> ^ ' 4 iijhj-1 p>ij ii.jl j^a I ^ 'X ^ * 1 ^ A *C"ij) if .\ j ,",^?| lillj Jj_>-jJ jj-o tZ)La_<_u 

(_,!£. :4_iJLjJI cj! g i. 1. 1 1 4 j mcji.hLLII 3jl£,LSJI (j^iU't f^^ic l^uj^u I JigJj . LgJ j 1 g ^It* ^Li!! 

(jfA (Jjua-oJ (Jj-3 (j^ 1 (J» nlLt 4j (jS>J r«J I JljJL>- L t -uaj g^j.Lull (ji^. (jls^-aj (jl j_yo juua_L»JI 
t(_y« <^ > - (J_9-J-3 cj^^f' (j^ - j' 't^' 4 -^ (3'-^' J J-^J U"^ ^^-3 • ' , ' ^n>-J (o^) J '-^ '* ^' J-^>i 

4jjIuI cj! <i,in Jl (jL^ (LiLlJ ^yJ-c 3j!>Lcj. » i^i^JI I .'i j ' (jjJLSJj (_;^JI 3 a j b> j 1 1 3JLv ^ 

4ilxuJ,l 4jLjib^JI ^fi-s.1 (j ^i^i j La L4JI J-J J-^JJ ^> (o") J ""'' * Cr^ '-■■''><^ lt^' d -*J '^^ 
i-ajUo^Jlj JUa^>JI j-Ua^JI (jLfl iL^_l ,*Lj-3JI J~al (o") (jr^i ■>'""! (jJ-II (o- 3 ) J-"*» '« ^ (^ 

ijV (luJjlS • L;7 £.L«_>JI (J^j-oJI jl ^LIjVI 4J 4 1 11 1 >>j_j L«ui (jjio (j i < t '*»--< 4j (j j " ^~ (-UI 

V 4rtjlAjJLi >lj-flJI (_jj r-L*jJI tjl <i «>il (j-u j-^j-!! LiJJL»J ( _ r lJI 4jj(_LjiaJI 4jjUI CjLajjJI 

1— 3i^jj£.I jl (jju-t*. J3J-3 J^^j (j-^ jlOLs io,.\ '1 1 1,1 U d ^j j 3^"*" ' jv"" L« L^jl ju j-3jj 

^,3 ^LstUI tjSLa! U Vjj L^Lp-M-uajJ LjJ >l jiill ^al I.Lml JL^ ^^Lll 4 iijh_a.ll 4_i I c Lgj 

<}JLa (j^ij ^jl (<^l) iLsjLujiI j«j (jt^' 4 n j U_aJ I __5ric j""'*' U' M^>* (j^J *^J • W^ i*Lj-^^ 

. 4 cijiili 4juJIX. OjL-a Vjj Ijjj'n i I ^ ii 1 ^->_aj I j 1 ■ * > Jiaj (jl j>i JLi^La ! -ia-iiJ «L1J0VI 

J-jl^J rljJtlLiail f_j3 lit ^Lk. (4£,jLl 4l_p. Jl c<Jj^X-lm J '/»'■!■ 4_4J 4JU [j ni[ni>-j (j| 
tjiJ 4^^L*JI (j^a 1 1 <i,r<.i.aa (juil i.i-wVI I -LA i4 i^1L>JI 4jtj__-juaJ I JtjL3jJI (_^>-l^ /ya d ■■ ... ..j a 
i .»- L ' " 3 Lu ( 3 - LO j 'ifj 4_jjLa jul. 4^^>Lc I4JL1 ( <li n " l " L ^ll\ _ ((_K>) j i.aJ*Jlj ((j-u) jj^a-L«JI 
j < <n 'i%M 1 fiiir-i j^a «Lx»i VI 4-Iol 1 n j j L^ofl (3*-^?° Lr*^l 4 jj 1 \ I i _ i.fij2 J^-l^ _ .LfiiJjrvj (^ 



78 



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^jjLtll Jj^a-ill (_^u-4l^a> 



John R. Searle, Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of (^) 
Speech Acts (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 
chap. 1. 

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John R. Searle, "Collective Intentions and Actions", in Intentions in Com- 
munication, P. Cohen, J. Morgan, and M. E. Pollack, eds. (Cabridge, Mass: 
Bradford Books, MIT Press, 1990). 

W. Koehler, The Mentality of Apes, 2d ed. (London: Kegan Paul, Trench 
andTurbner, 1927). 

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E. O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, Mass. Har- 
vard University Press, 1975), p. 73. 

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Werner Kummer, Primatc Sociek's (('lucufjo: AUIiiu\ l'J7l), p. IIX. (i) 

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(1) Donald M. Broom, The Biology of Behavior: Mechanisms, Func- 
tions and Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 
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(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 

John R. Searle, Expression and Meaning: Study in the Theory of 
Speech Acts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979). 



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N. Chomsky, Reflections on Language (New York: Pantheon, 1975) p) 
J. "A. Fodor, The Language of Thought (New York: Crowell, 1975). 
J. A. Fodor, The Language of Thought : >tul ^iUiili ^ ju>Lj (T) 

(New York: Crowell, 1975). 

John R. Searle,The Rediscovery of the : j-tiJl ^1 7i'A\ ^ ju)J,j (t) 

Mind, (Cambridge, Mass MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London, 1992), 

x_)LuJl (J i^ Atl 

John R. Searle, Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of (1) 

Mind (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983), .JjjL-J! «^.jJLlj 

John R. Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind, *^\ ,., !t J -^ * H (o) 

Robyn Carston, "Implicature, Explicature and Truth-Theoretic Semantics", 
in S. Davis, ed., Pragmatics: A Reader (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
1991), pp. 33-51. 



187 



Luilwig Willguisk'iu, l'lulosopliual Invesligalions (Oxloid: (V) 

Basil Blackwcll, 1953), pari II, scc.xi. 

Ibid., Part I, para. 201. (A) 

Ibid., Part I, para. 324ff and passim. (*\) 

Daniel Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT p') 
Press, J 987). 



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:^^jl .jj^jLLajJI 4jj_taj Ijjuailj (jjJJl «LoLaljJI 4 ti i n^L3 £ya (JjjjjjI^Iujj ^>jjJ O ) 

P. Strawson, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supplementary volume 
24(1950)."Truth". 

H. Putnam, Realism with a Human Face (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Uni- 
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N. Goodman, Of Mind and Other Matters (Cambridge, Mass.: University 
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Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores, Understanding Computers and Cogni- 
tion (Norewood, N.J.: Ablex, 1986), 



218 



G. Levine, "Looking f o r thc Real: Hpistemology m Science (o) 

and Culture, "in G. Levine, ed., Realism and Representation: Hssays on Ihc 
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J. Derrida, Limited Inc. (Evanston, 111.: Northwestern ("\) 

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Putnam, Realism with a Human Face, p. 96ff. H. Putnam, The (V) 

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N. Goodman, Of Mind and Other Matters, p. 36. (A) 

Putnam, Reason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge (*\) 

University Press, 1981), p. xi. 

'(sr* 2jLu«JI <-^J>£j -^Sj 

The Many Faces of Realism, p. 1. 

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations (Oxford: ' ) 

Basil Blackwell, 1953), part. 1, para. 464 . (^^Ia^j j^) 

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J. L. Austin, Sense and Sensibilia (New York: Oxford University Press, 
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268 



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^->-T (_^aie_i!u ^1 jl j '• j -»- j '■ 1 ' d i^-<L>JI jtjUs^JI «_a LoLaj 4-)l mm"~> jl i5tJ-jjL) d_uol_isJ! 
(jLjj^LSLiLa (JtOjlsI^JI (jOL& (jl_> jl n" f ^M jLsJl (j^s JJljj (jl ^ fr. I Jl (jja itiU JU <jL-<i 

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269 



(*)\ -. 



[j^-Hlj] J-u/ljJt Jiflfltl i _yu»^^ 



:> Ja:i Tarski's Convention J 1^ <-,,., .i^ _> Jw; l^l (T) 

Alfred Tarski, "Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den formal isierten Sprachen", Stu- 
dia Philosophica (1935) 261 - 405; translated as "The Concept of Truth in 
Formalized Languages" in Alfred Tarski, Logic, Semantics, Meta- 
mathematics (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956). 

J. L. Austin, "Truth", and P. F. Strawson, "Truth", Proceedings of the (r) 

Aristotelian Society 34 (1950). Reprinted in Pitcher, ed., Truth (Englewood 
Cliffs: N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1964). 

Strawson, in Pitcher, Truth, p. 32. (t) 

Ibid., p 40,. (o) 

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (London: (i) 

Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1922). 






270 



Sduwson, iu l'ilclKT, hudi, p. .<K. (V) 
op. cil., p. 41. (A) 

Gottlob Frege, "TheThought", in P. F. Strawson, ed., Philosophical Logic 
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967), p. 35. 

Strawson, in Pitcher, Truth, p. 38. (\ •) 

d ..... 1 I jUjul ** *^' ■ ■■ t /3*- * * > — ■] .3 (*yfl 

:<ys jj^i *jjk ^ JtfuVi >Ja:i (n Y) 

F. P. Ramsey, "Facts and Propositions", Proceedings of the Aristotelian So- 
ciely, supp. vol. 7 (1927), 

\ iJr Ji i t ila JLt£.l 

l'ilchcr, ed., Truth; P. Horwich, Truth (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990), and 
W. V. O. Quine, Pursuit of Truth, rev. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Uni- 
viT.sity Press, 1992). 

tjjajl ij^ud\ jjJ^Ji » J-& t>s JU3-I.I (ji£. f-M-kMJ ( > Y) 

J. R. Searle, Intentionality (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 1983), p. 13. 



: L$l4^j ^_4jjiJli3j L^aLu ^^ill 4jt»J| «^Lk ( \ t) 

Davidson: Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation (Oxford: Clarendon 
Press, 1984), p. 42. 

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271 



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* II II 

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. 4J3_sLu3 SjLlC ^V 

ijl t n" r I j i'LjaJblJJjl pM2II 4-J>-ii» (jL^J-J o-^i '"'<? >J l_p-" CjIjLIjJ^I £y> JJLC liJLijfc (^ 0) 

t^ ojm ^>tiJ S^^j (jjl L^ij^t 
J. Barvvise and J. Perry, Situations and Attttudes (Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 198 

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274 



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UJLUuaH ^UJJJ 



abilities ... cAjISLaI - c^lj-i"a 

accessible LUjUla ^ -j-cu-lLo 

inaccessible ^b- 5 ! _ ^3^ j^y 

agenti ve none agenti ve f unctions — S jlio^ j^L /l.u,,,* <_iSLLbj 

ambiguity o^j-*^ - (_^Liitl 

arbitrariness ^Ij^»- 

arithmetic ^^juJI l_jL^>JI 

aspectual Lo jl^ 5^>.j ^y> 

assigned . ... . o^S* ~ -^i 

attitudes J^-w - <_aJal>4 

autopoietic ...... a^ ir-»*SI LMiJI 5 « u;t< , d , „ h\ f.LL> ojju 

Background 4jiL>Jl 

Behaviorism a^yLJi 5x.jlll 

Blind Ji^ - *La£. 

brute facts — • • •-■■ ^*j>^ jj^j ^iM (5jL^>- 

brute force 3_uare^> i*j^a S^a 

brute physical force \j^>^a - 4-*j>j-3 4jjLs S>s 



Building blocks..- 



*iUj 



275 



Burcau ol Iviigravin^ aiu! I'iinliii),', iLuJI clL^ 4_*A<-iJ 

capacitics <^LsL!o - cjI jjls 

dramatic catcgorics 3_lJjjl!I o^^U.1 

causality \^-^ 

causal functioning of institutional ^jjjVI JLa^V Su^ijJI a_uLJijJI <_iL_ljiVI 

structures - ■ ■ L^ijUojj f-L2li a^u-ujlb iio-Pjil 

central bank liA-W «^J' 

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circularity ■ ic^^ s^b ^ g^Jb^Jt 

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cogniti vc science cA^I ^b J )" i^t^= 

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conditions . . J^j^ 

connectionist model of cognition tkjljjl ^a^tll <-4!>i)M jtj>o 

connection strengths 3 m.,-><1I lLjjJI cjLbcji ^^ 



276 



comicclionism i.uLUAJI .IijjJI A*.^ 

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count as a.^ ^£j - j^ 

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creating ^UjI - ^ 



277 



( 'ri.sscmssiiig clisliiiclions ajiLLIU (jj^j 

critcria jLjjw 

critcria of asscssmenl (*^j j^H" 

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definition <-<>i>*J 

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Jj-L re..". .ILi Vj t <J ->.j-Jj U ij^l jj^vjJLi 

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entries in books -ijl^Jt j^s j 

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epistemology <2jjd\ £^y> 



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cpislcmic-objeclivily/subjeclivily ■■■■ io^^^u^jVI ijiljJI / i-ui^jJLI 

Essential iZj- 1 *^ - lt^' 

ethics k^jlu. cjUa!>UJ 

Facts jjLla. - j-jI^j 

Real facts ^.uLia.-*- jjIjsj 

brute facts 4jjLi jjjLi». - 4j«j>^ jjI^j 

institutional facts - 3 , ,,,...,. jl L Sa^jj^ jjtej 

False <^kU- - <-ijlj - »-j Jl^ 

fallacy . ^jj - SlaJLLs 

fields of forces ■ ■ 4^LLJI J^i». ^jiJl - «JaLLaJI c/tfLt^ 

formal structure 4jj>^aJi k^hil - 4_uJI JSLi 

TOrmula <JjLx<j — 4aJiia_L« «LtiaLji 4jjjsj 4jljju3 

propcr function — a^i.^ Vl <^t>^J| 

derivcd proper function <xL»Vl 4-^kjl' &* s.^y....* <ijlij 

Game Theory i^UI^I Sj^ 

hierarchy c-"^ jrj-^ 

hierarchial i_jt^l« 

honorific status <^>^ 5J>U 

identtcal JjLk* 

identify i -aj j y 

self identification «a I j ^Jj^ Jju 



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inclinations cjVLv) 

indieating dcvices SjLiVI ^a 

Individualism ^J^l itjjJI 

infinite regress «.aj (jte. jj£. - <£.jJu* SjjIj ^ obi- 1 -" 

input /output — «L>.j^>J.I olJLuJI /iLs-Ail olJLJI 

institution i^^'^i 

institutional reality IL^^^ILj Jajjjil jjl^ll 

instance jubLS, 

intellectual ,Sj&> 

intelligibility o-° <^"M 6^°! 

Intensionality o-j-S-i o' Ll iS L< j V <i^>- SjLiiV! j»LLcl 

01 ^j J1L4-4J Jl jdl Jjlu^. 6' ^ J J^ijJLl 

LjjjLiuJ La SjLjjuLj JJLljjjiJ 

intentions 

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Collecti ve Intentionality (^lU^JI ulUI jL^ill 

intrinsic — i^A^' _ iSj*>*>- 

intuiti ve ■ ■ <a\ jj - ^^j^ - <t-,j..,i 

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macrolevel (jAta^JI ^jl^JI ^^ 

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locutionary Ij ia2ii\ Jj^kUI 

illocutionary J*ij ^LaiJ «u^ju ^LJI ^^ac. jjJJ.1 ^M£J! 

perlocutionary <CuL*liJj j^LJI jifcj 3nU".U jLaVl 

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alethic modal logic (Jo^cjjl^t^)V2ja>«^jCiVUb-V! jlai* 

quantificational logic ■ • — oJ-^l i>l=>-UI 

logical relations a^ikla cjLaiLc. 

Iogical necessity <ui!aia Sjj>^> 

logical positivists ■ ■ • o$±*-^>^ <2JaLHI 

marginal Ji-lolj -^ j - i -n 3 ^U <,<a ^ ^Jslj - (j^ioaL* 

mammals cLyjUI 

mathematical <ajL^>JI c^L^Lj^JI 

medium of exchange JjLiII > U i ,„ ^ 

military power ^SLuaJI l^21\ 



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Miniworld ^jLuaJLl j>*^I 

Morals l^,,,,,,! - 3>U.Vl ^jL- 

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neuronal net modeling a^,,^.t l b>UJl 4£Lui, £o>«u 

HOCle 1^ i a f- j n" j<u CjljLJii^l I j;' a ^.rt'^'i 4 In li 'i 

(j.,1,^11 LMJJ1 ^ US) 

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normati ve/formati ve cr^^J • i$j . 

normative componenls ^jW" ^tjj£>» 

noun phrase 4j*lJ SjLi. 

material object upUI £>^>U 

objective/subjective ■•■ cr 5 '^ lijr^y^y 

obligations • • • cjUIj^JI 

observers oj$j-±i o-* " Oi^^ 0-* 

observer relative <j Lijt>! 4lu=> C3 _Lc- ^| j^j ^ 

old federal reserve board SujjlKI ^jU^VI ^Lu^VI <L>x. jjljjl 

ontology *j>-jtt <*^L 

operation t ,^, _ ^^ 



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ordinary .., jU. - ^jLc 

ordinary sense jIi*JU - ^LLAJi ^jjl ^^L 

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out there Ujj^j ^c j-lalll o^L, . Lo-jU. (.i^jj 

paradigm ^Li^l g-j^l 

paradigmatic ^1 ol jlvjJL L^aMu ^ SjjilJl 5jl>.jJ( 

syntagmatic ^1^-jJL. L^>U Ji ^jjJlUI Sjuv>JI 

perceptions 2....^ ^k,^ 

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pervasive i_JLc. - jJ^Ia 

Phenomenology ^jl^aliaJl - Lp-^J^UiiJl 

phenomenological idealism 4_Jliii <jjl^jtLli»JI 

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point of vievv jj^-.JIj j$\.<\\\ sT^ ^ ^UiJI l^L^Ij 

political offices 3 j" .1 jm i (..u^LLa 



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Poslulatc ^yHu - _i (U—j 

powcr 3 j jls - jj-aj - <LlL« - 3^3 

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practices • • ■ oLu,jU-« 

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preliminary ^.^«fi 

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primacy ^i^j! 

primary ^\ 

primitive - ■ - <jjljb 

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priority iJjl - 4 uLn»! 

private and public ,. ^Ltll j^-oLiJl 

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proceed ^ £jJ*i 

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mathcmatical rcalism 4juu>\jj1\ i-u^l^JI 

real world t^'>" ^Lc 

deep reason iSj-*j*- v^"- 

recognize ^j-^y ^ 1 -^> | y 

recursive jcjIjJI Jjnl-ViH JjUs 

redundant M^»! 

refer , o-Ij >«A3 

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self-referentiality, Jj-b i>» aLim , u'h .._> V «olj ^Jl J-l*j 

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A <t j °. (Jjjcjj aj (j-aj i<fLiJLSLj 4jJI Ijl mi a 
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ref ute l^*- 1 ^ ~ J - i A? 

relational ■ ■ — ■ ■ - ■ L^jI Ju a 1 ii" . n a ^jc — ukl^tuj <jiLCL« 



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representations ^j -~ 'j pJLJI L&j <JS_^ ^^Lil JK *,^l 

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constitutive rules S jL i u. ubJl jlcI^JI 

regulative rules 5 u i-Ja- C Jl Acl^iJI 

satisfying ■ • ■ 4jJI u-"j-i L-"-* 1 j-±i-*zM JajLHi <j£ j)~ ■ ".' 

schematic , (^J^ikicj 

selectional advantage of cooperative (jjUlJL ^ In 'l\ ^J^JI ^ «LaiVI <jj^ 

behavior 

sentient ■■ ■ ■ — ^'y cjI%L>JI 

sensibility ty^l 

sensitivity • ■ ■-- — >jt^' <cj^u ^nJ.n-^JI 

slava veritate • '■ AjalSU jl-ilaVI j( (4^>JI ^^oJ L^J 

social construction (^UcL^VI 4_LJJI) 4j^L»i>J ajlI^o 

social reality . . . (^cUl^Vt jJal^JI 

Solipisism • • Jj-^j (_£ j "Ljf" <S3-^ J j-»->* «o-" ^ <>• 

Speech Acts Theory ijj>Jt (y* ij>. ^ 3 «j»M£JI JL»s! <j>kj 

speech event c^t^Jl 



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Standard ol trulh j-u^ o-L^" 

Standard Tcxtbook Account of Money JU! j^li ^ ^ji^il u_iL£JI 

(to) state j r>uoj - ^k. ^^L 

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statement 4j n, ,i1> S^jLia - <J^ia - SjLui 

states of affairs fLijVl ji oVUJl 

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status indicators *Ax> ~ ^J^ u 1 ^ ^ ^bA?^ 

deontic status ^jJ^La Jilj) lj3>Li.Vl - iajjVl ajA£ll 

pure status j ^ ^ u j i ^l j ^11 (j'—j ^" (ji jjj^ <j y_L3 jij-jcjo 

stipulated , ^.v.,„ i 

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structure j^ _ ^^ - <^ 

supply of money ^ jLl ^, 

symbolic tij^j 

symbolization ^\ ^ll^ _ ^^ 



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systernic - oj ts;^ Ly o\S. 

systematic u^^ ~ i>^*s 

systems of constituti ve rules ■ • • • • a^cuj^bJI -l^IjiJI <L*feJ! 

taxonomy ■••••••? ■- 'u^ai Jp^'-> ' <""•> 

teleology • ; • ■ • • • ■ ■ . ■ . i^UJ I 

tendencies ;•••■•■ — J>±° ~ olM^ol - LaSI>a 

tender (jlUu ) j^«j 

legal tender for all debts OiJjJ! jI^—j Jj£& 4<h3 

terms .....•• • cj!j<i , it " — dla-lUi^* 

technical terms *±13j - 3^ cjLtlk«v» 

tectonic — ■ l^pl\ ^Ja^^ 

termi nology • — • ■ • ■ ^!>U^uaV! 

thesis ■••••■■•■ : 4^^ 

title deeds cjIS'jUI^ t Jyjy 4j>\> oL*>U 

tokens j^iijl ^ Vjy SjS^^.^JI 

type-tokens •-....... 5^4*5 1 «Lj>«>JI 4-a^U?! 4a*i 

transaction _, ^La-» l^| 

transcendental U U"* ^i-M j* - JjjLia - JU+« 

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(ruth value Jjjl^JI <L*Jk 

universal grammar (,_, < , „ a^A:) l^KJI ^i\ 

utterances UjIc ^yay^l» /i iSjIaia J I $31 

valid <S3-^r jj 

values (c^iJI 

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wampum j-*^JI \j ■ a ^ la>»-ii»--"t.<.uj i-a.ii^-ill ^ SjMJs 



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.constative ib^iJij performative AjSjVI <»M£LJI JLxat ^ \}-yv> "oLKIL 6 LuiVl 
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