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Volume 2, No. 4, pp. 103-228 

December, 1936 





Leonard P. Schultz 





111 \\ 

Given in /J/ / 

Memory < 

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CDaniel Jitrriman 

Crew Member on 

the maiden voyage 
of the R /V Atlantis 

Corporation Member, 


Trustee, 19^-6^- 

Honorary Trustee e? 

Corporation Member, 

1979- 8? 

■''■■" '"i 

Oceanographer, Writer, 
Editor, Fisherman, / 

Educator, Mentor 

— ^-X*^^?, 

Woods Hole «=E 



Institution ^ 





Volume 2, No. 4, pp. 103-228 

December, 1936 





Leonard P. Schultz 


W. H. C U. 








Index to the families 107 

Introduction. How to use the keys 109 

Artificial key to the families of fishes of 

Washington and Oregon Ill 

Artificial keys to the genera and species of fish in 
Washington, Oregon and in closely adjoining 
regions 130 

Glossary : Explanation of terms, counts and measurements 

most frequently used in keys and descriptions 198 

Index to common names 215 

Index to scientific names 221 



Fam. Page 

No. No. 

Acipenseridae 16 133 

Acrotidae 57 161 

Agonidae 70 182 

Alepisauridae 34 152 

Alepocephalidae 19 133 

Alopiidae 7 131 

Ameiuridae 31 150 

Ammodytidae 75 191 

Anarrhichthyidae 81 195 

Anoplopomidae 64 170 

Argentinidae 24 142 

Atherinidae 49 160 

Aulorhynchidae 47 159 

Bathymasteridae 76 191 

Batrachoididae 86 197 

Bothidae 43 156 

Bramidae 54 160 

Brotulidae 85 197 

Catostomidae 29 142 

Carchariidae 5 13 1 

Centrarchidae 59 161 

Cetorhinidae 9 131 

Chauliodontidae 26 142 

Chimaeridae 15 132 

Clinidae 78 192 

Clupeidae 17 133 

Coregonidae 21 139 

Coryphaenoididae 38 154 

Cottidae 68 172 

Cyclopteridae 71 186 

Cyprinidae 30 145 

Dalatiidae . 

11 131 

Embiotocidae 73 189 

Engraulidae 18 133 

Eptatretidae 1 130 

Erilepidae 65 1 70 

Esocidae 35 152 

Gadidae 39 154 

Galeorhinidae 6 131 

Gasterosteidae 46 159 

Gobiesocidae 87 197 

Gobiidae 74 191 

Gonostomidae 27 142 

Hexagrammidae 66 171 

Hexanchidae 3 130 

Icosteidae 56 161 

Fam. Page 

No. No. 

Lamnidae 8 131 

Lampridae 42 156 

Liparididae 72 186 

Macrouridae 38 154 

Melamphaidae 45 159 

Microstomidae 25 142 

Molidae 88 197 

Moronidae 60 163 

Myctophidae 33 151 

Nemichthyidae 28 142 

Novumbridae 36 152 

Oneirodidae 89 197 

Ophiodontidae 67 172 

Osmeridae 23 140 

Otolithidae 61 163 

Paralepididae 32 151 

Percidae 58 161 

Percopsidae 40 156 

Petromyzonidae 2 130 

Pholididae 79 192 

Pleuronectidae 44 157 

Ptilichthyidae 83 195 

Rajidae 13 131 

Rhamphocottidae 69 182 

Salmonidae 20 133 

Scomberesocidae 37 154 

Scombridae 51 160 

Scorpaenidae 63 163 

Scylliorhinidae 4 131 

Scytalinidae 82 195 

Somniosidae 11 131 

Sphyraenidae 50 160 

Squalidae 10 131 

Squatinidae 12 131 

Stichaeidae 80 192 

Stromateidae 55 161 

Sudidae 32 151 

Sygnathidae 48 160 

Thunnidae 52 160 

Thymallidae 22 140 

Torpedinidae 14 132 

Trachipteridae 41 156 

Trichodontidae 62 163 

Trichiuridae 53 160 

Zaproridae 77 191 

Zoarcidae 84 195 


Keys to the Fishes of Washington, Oregon and 
Closely Adjoining Regions 


Leonard P. Schultz 


This publication contains keys for the identification of the ma- 
rine and freshwater fishes reported to have been taken or expected 
to occur in the waters of the states of Washington and Oregon 
and neighboring waters. It originally appeared in mimeographed 
form, October, 1931, University Bookstore, Seattle, Washington, 
and was designed especially for use in the ichthyology laboratory 
of the University of Washington, School of Fisheries. During the 
last few years we have carefully checked the keys with specimens 
in the collection of fishes, School of Fisheries, University of Wash- 
ington. The illustrations include several original drawings, made 
by Arthur D. Welander or the author. Certain portions of the keys 
have been modified after publications by Jordan, Evermann, Starks, 
Gilbert, Hubbs, Burke, and Parr, whose contributions are acknowl- 
edged as footnotes in the proper places. 

How to Use the Keys 
The statements are arranged so one must consider ALTER- 
NATIVE CHARACTERS. One character is given under a desig- 
nation as "la" and the contrasting character as "lb." In some cases 
three or four alternatives are given as "lc" and "Id." If in using 
the key the characters under the first alternative, for example "la" 
do not agree with the specimen at hand try the next alternative, in 
this case "lb." When the characters do fit, read on down as long 
as they continue to fit, never progressing under designations that are 
not true for the specimen at hand. For example in running down 
a salmon to the family, use lb, 3b, 15b, 16a, 17b, 19a, 20a, 21a, 22b, 
24a, 25a, 26b, 27a, before you finally find the name at the end of the 
paragraph under 28a, "Salmon and Trout." 20. Salmonidae p. 134." 
The number "20" preceding the family (all families end in idae) 
refers to the 20th family, and the "p. 134" refers to the page on 
which the key to the genera and species of this family occurs. The 
keys to the genera and species should be used in exactly the same 
manner as the family key, continuing until the name of the fish is 
found at the end of a paragraph under a certain symbol as "15a." 


110 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

To be more certain of your identification, the specimen at hand 
should be compared with a description of that species. Good de- 
scriptions and some figures of most of the American fishes may be 
found in the publication "Fishes of North and Middle America" by 
Jordan and Evermann, 1896 to 1900, Bulletin 47, Parts I to IV, 
United States National Museum. 

No bibliography of the fishes of Washington and Oregon is 
given in this publication. However, if the reader is interested in ob- 
taining a nearly complete list of papers on the fishes of this area it 
may be found in the Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institute 
which appears as a section of the Mid-Pacific Magazine for 1935 
and 1936, entitled "Fishes of the American Northwest. A catalogue 
of the fishes of Washington and Oregon with distributional records 
and bibliography" by Leonard P. Schultz and Allan C. DeLacy. 

In the preparation of keys as complicated as these, it is likely 
that mistakes were made. Though they have been used for several 
years by students of ichthyology at the University of Washington, 
should errors be found the author will be pleased to have the op- 
portunity of correcting them. 


Schults: Keys to Fishes 



la. Mouth a sucking disk, without jaws, but with teeth on the disk; a single 
median nostril ; body eel-shaped with gill openings pore-like, 6 to 15 in 
number on each side. Fig. 1. 


Fig. 1. A diagram showing the arrangement of the teeth in the buccal cavity or 
mouth cavity of lampreys. Dk — disk teeth; Ling — lingual teeth; Lt — lateral teeth; Info — 
infraoral teeth; Oe — oral opening leading to the oesophagus; Pap — papillae of lips; Sp — 
supraoral teeth. 

Fig. 2. Prionace glauca, showing the five gill openings on the side of the body, and 
two dorsal fins without spines. Modified after Jordan and Evermann. 

Fig. 3. The lunate keeled tail of a "tiger shark." Ke — keel on caudal peduncle. 

2a. Eyes covered by skin and aborted; gill openings 10 to 15 in number on 
each side and remote from head. 
Hagfishes 1. Eptatretidae, p. 130 

2b. Eyes developed in adult but concealed in the larvae ; gill openings close 
behind head and 7 in number on each side. 
Lampreys 2. Petromyzonidae, p. 130 

lb. Mouth normal, agape, with well developed jaws; nostrils not single or me- 
dian but paired. 

a Certain parts of this key were modified after E. C. Starks, 1921, Fish. Bull. No. 5, 
California Fish and Game Commission. 

112 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

3a. (See 3b, p. 114.) Gill openings 5 to 7, not covered by a large flap of skin 
or bones (the operculum) ; skeleton cartilaginous. Fig. 2. 

4a. (See 4b, p. 113.) Gill openings wholly on the side of the body; body not 
depressed into a disk but normal in form. Fig. 2. 

5a. Gill openings 6 or 7 on each side ; a single dorsal fin. 

Cow Sharks 3. Hexanchidae, p. 130 

5b. Gill openings 5 on each side ; 2 dorsal fins, the 2nd sometimes small. 

6a. Anal fin present ; dorsal fins not provided with spines. 

7a. First dorsal over or behind the pelvic fins. 

Cat Sharks 4. Scylliorhinidae, p. 131 

7b. First dorsal in advance of the pelvic fins. 

8a. Caudal fin not lunate ; side of caudal peduncle without keel ; 
head and tail normal. Fig. 2. 

9a. Caudal fin forming less than l /z of the total length of the 
fish; 1st dorsal nearly equal distance between space from 
pectoral base to pelvic fin base; eye with a nictitating mem- 

10a. Spiracles obsolete ; distance from tip of snout to origin 
of 1st dorsal is greater than the distance from origin of 
1st dorsal to posterior margin of 2nd dorsal so that the 
former distance extends a little beyond the 2nd dorsal fin. 
Gray Sharks 5. Carchariidae, p. 131 

10b. Spiracles present; the distance from tip of snout to origin 
of 1st dorsal a little less than distance from origin of 1st 
dorsal to posterior margin of 2nd dorsal so that the for- 
mer distance extends only to middle of 2nd dorsal fin. 
Oil Shark. Soup-fin Shark.. 6. Galeorhinidae, p. 131 

9b. Caudal fin forming more than y 2 of the total length. 

Thresher Sharks 7. Alopiidae, p. 131 

8b. Caudal fin lunate, side of caudal peduncle with a well developed 
keel. Fig. 3. 

11a. Dorsal fin just behind pectorals; gill slits about as long 
as snout, not extending up the whole side of head ; gill 
rakers short, not long and slender. 
Mackerel Sharks 8. Lamnidae, p. 131 

lib. Dorsal fin about midway between pectorals and pelvics; 
gill slits more than twice as long as snout, extending 
up the whole side of head ; gill rakers long and slender, 
resembling whale bone. 
Basking Shark 9. Cetorhinidae, p. 131 

6b. Anal fin absent. 

12a. Dorsal fins each with a stout spine. 

Dogfish Sharks 10. Squalidae, p. 131 


Schidts: Keys to Fishes 


12b. Dorsal fins without spines. 

Sleeper Sharks 11. Somniosidae, p. 131 

4b. Gill openings wholly on lower side of body or in a deep notch at the 
"neck" ; body much depressed. Figs. 4 and 5. 

13a. Spiracles less than Vz length of snout behind the eyes, usually almost 
bordering on the eyes ; snout longer than interorbital space. 

Fig. 4. The ventral side of a male skate, 
Raja binoculata, showing the position of the 
mouth, gill clefts, and the pelvic fins with- 
out the notch. A — anus; Cla — clasper; GC 
— gill clefts; Mo — mouth; PF — pelvic or 
ventral fins; Ros — Rostral cartilage. Drawn 
by A. D. Welander. 

Fig. 5. A sketch of an Angel Shark 
showing the gill openings in the "neck." 
After Starks. 

14a. Disk very broad and circular anteriorly; no spines or prickles 
anywhere; dorsal fins 2, the 1st dorsal anterior to the posterior 
tips of pelvics ; jelly-like electric gland present at base of pec- 
torals on dorsal side. 

Electric Rays 14. Torpedinidae, p. 132 

14b. Disk not evenly circular anteriorly ; spines and prickles present ; 
origin of dorsal fin far back of tips of pelvic fins (claspers are 
not fins) ; no electric gland is developed. 
Skates and Rays 13. Rajidae, p. 131 

13b. Spiracles from z / 2 to Y<\ length of snout behind the eyes ; interorbital 
space longer than the snout; origin of 1st dorsal at extreme pos- 
terior tips of pelvic fins. Fig. 5. 
Angel Shark 12. Squatinidae, p. 131 

114 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

3b. A single external gill or opercular opening; the gills are covered by a 
fleshy or bony covering, the operculum. 

15a. Gill cover composed of flesh or soft cartilage, not hard bones ; tail 
tapers to a fine point ; skin without scales ; snout blunt ; teeth rat-like ; 
1st dorsal with a long sharp spine. 
Ratfish 15. Chimaeridae, p. 132 

15b. Gill cover bony, composed of opercular elements (bones). 

16a. (See 16b, p. 129.) Gill openings in front of or above base of pectoral 
fin, never behind it ; no "bait" above on anterior part of head. 

17a. Dorsal fin preceded by short free spines, not connected by mem- 
branes and none of which is developed into "bait" or luminous 
organs, Fig. 6. 

Fig. 6. Free spines before the dorsal fin. 

18a. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and to 2 soft rays; 2 to 15 free spines 
before the soft dorsal ; snout not prolonged and not tubular. 
Sticklebacks 46. Gasterosteidae, p. 159 

18b. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and 4 soft rays; more than 15 spines 
before the soft dorsal. 
Many-spined Sticklebacks 47. Aulorhynchidae, p. 159 

17b. Dorsal fin not preceded by free spines, if spines are present these 
connected by membranes except when specialized into long fila- 
ments or into "bait." 

19a. (See 19b, p. 120, and 19c, p. 126.) Pelvic fins present, abdom- 
inal in position, the pelvic girdle not connected by bones with 
the pectoral or shoulder girdle. Fig. 7. 

20a. (See 20b, p. 117.) Dorsal fins 1 or 2 (the 2nd adipose) pres- 
ent on back, finlets not included as these are detached soft 
rays; if 1 dorsal fin is present, photophores are present. 

21a. (See 21b, p. 117.) The anterior dorsal fin composed of 
rays ; the posterior fin chiefly adipose or if an adipose fin 
is absent the body has photophores. 

22a. Body scaleless. 

23a. Head with barbels on chin and snout; teeth rather 
small and not fang-like; pectorals each with a strong 
spine. Fig. 8. 
Catfishes 31. Ameiuridae, p. 150 

23b. No barbels on head ; dorsal fin long and high ; teeth 
fang-like ; no spine in pectoral fin. 
Lancet Fishes 34. Alepisauridae, p. 152 


Schults: Keys to Fishes 


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116 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

22b. Body covered with scales. 

24a. Origin of dorsal fin little if any behind middle of 
25a. Sides of body without photophores or luminous 
spots; head without scales. 

26a. Dorsal and anal each with 1 or 2 spines. 

Trout Perches 40. Percopsidae, p. 156 

26b. Dorsal and anal of soft rays only. 

27a. Pelvic fin with a scaly appendage above its 
base ; stomach with more than 1 1 pyloric caeca ; 
dorsal fin base, shorter than length of head. 

28a. Maxillary extending to posterior edge of, or 
behind eye in adult ; dentition strong ; mouth 
deeply cleft; scales in more than 115 oblique 
rows on side of body. 

Salmon and Trout 

20. Salmonidae, p. 133 

28b. Maxillary not extending behind eye, usually 
ending before or just at anterior edge of 
eye ; dentition weak ; scales in fewer than 
105 oblique rows on side of body. 

29a. Dorsal fin of fewer than 17 fin rays. 

Whitefishes 21. Coregonidae, p. 139 

29b. Dorsal fin of 20 to 24 fin rays. 

Grayling 22. Thymallidae, p. 140 

27b. Pelvic fin without a scaly appendage above its 
base; stomach with 11 or fewer pyloric caeca. 

30a. Mouth large, the maxillary reaching un- 
der eye; both jaws with teeth; tongue 
with teeth on upper surface. 
Smelts 23. Osmeridae, p. 140 

30b. Mouth small, maxillary not extending un- 
der eye ; premaxillary toothless ; tongue 
toothless except probably fine teeth on 

31a. Branchiostegals about 6. Fig. 12. 

24. Argentinidae, p. 142 

31b. Branchiostegals 3 or 4. Fig. 12. 

25. Microstomidae, p. 142 

25b. Sides of body with photophores; head without 
scales. Fig. 9. 

32a. Pseudobranchiae present. 

Lantern Fishes . . .33. Myctophidae, p. 151 

32b. Pseudobranchiae absent ; teeth canine-like. 

33a. Opercles incomplete, interopercle rudimen- 
tary; fig. 10; origin of dorsal in front of 
base of pelvic fin; gill rakers absent. 

Viper Fishes 

26. Chauliodontidae, p. 142 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 117 

33b. Opercles complete ; origin of dorsal behind 
base of pelvic fins ; gill rakers present and 
long ; adipose fin absent. 
Viper Fishes . .27. Gonostomidae, p. 142 

24b. Front of dorsal considerably behind middle of body. 
32. Sudidae, p. 151 

21b. The anterior dorsal fin composed of spines connected by 
membranes, the posterior dorsal fin composed of soft 
rays ; no adipose fin present ; pectoral fins entire, the low- 
er 5 to 8 rays not detached, not prolonged, and not fila- 

34a. Teeth strong, canine-like, unequal ; lateral line pres- 
ent ; branchiostegals 7. 
Barracudas 50. Sphyraenidae, p. 160 

34b. Teeth weak ; lateral line absent ; branchiostegals 
5 or 6. 
Silversides 49. Atherinidae, p. 160 

20b. Dorsal fin single; no adipose fin and no photophore present. 

35a. Dorsal fin followed by a series of detached soft rays 
or finlets. Fig. 11. 
Sauries 37. Scomberesocidae, p. 154 

35b. Dorsal fin not followed by finlets, nor preceded by dis- 
connected spines ; no adipose fin present. 

36a. Upper lobe of caudal fin much longer than lower 
lobe and tail heterocercal ; body with large bony 
plates, each with a sharp keel or spine. 
Sturgeons 16. Acipenseridae, p. 133 

36b. Upper lobe of caudal fin not longer than lower and 
tail homocercal ; body without plates as above. 

37a. Head with scales ; anal and dorsal fins placed 
in the posterior 3rd of the body ; origin of dorsal 
fin nearly over the origin of anal. 

38a. Lateral line present; jaws shaped much like a 
duck's bill and prolonged; teeth strong. 
Pikes or Pickerels 35. Esocidae, p. 152 

38b. Lateral line wanting; jaws normal and not pro- 
longed; teeth not strong or canine-like. 
Mud Minnows 36. Novumbridae, p. 152 

37b. Head without scales ; dorsal fin placed in middle 
3rd of the body except in the Alepoceplialidae ; origin 
of dorsal much in advance of anal origin, less so 
in the Alcpocephalidae. 

39a. Branchiostegals 6 to 15; gill membranes not 
joined to isthmus ; fig. 12. 

40a. No lateral line ; gill rakers long and slender. 


University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 






1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 119 

Fig. 8. The head of a catfish showing the pectoral spine and the location of the bar- 
bels; Ba — barbels; Pec Sp — pectoral spine. 

Fig. 9. A lantern fish, Myctophidae, showing the arrangement and names applied to 
the photophores. Aao — anterior anal organs; Pao — posterior anal organs; Pco — precaudal 
organs; PI — posterior lateral organs; Sbp — suprapectoral organ; Spa — supra-anal organs; 
Spcs — supracaudal luminous scales; Spp — suprapectoral organ; Spv — supraventral organ; 
Th — thoracic organs; Veo — ventral organs. Modified after Parr. 

Fig. 10. A sketch showing the arrangement and names of the opercular bones in 
Sebastodes caurimis. Ope — operculum; I Ope — interoperculum; P Ope — preoperculum; 
S Ope — suboperculum. 

Fig. 11. The Pacific Saury, Cololabis saira, showing the finlets behind the dorsal and 
anal fins. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. 

Fig. 12. The ventral side of the head of Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus to show 
the free fold of the gill membrane across the isthmus. Br. — branchiostegal ray; Br Mem — 
branchiostegal or gill membranes broadly joined to each other; Fo 1st — gill membranes 
forming a free fold across the isthmus by being unattached along their margins; Pec — 
pectoral fin; Ve — ventral or pelvic fin. Modified after Jordan and Evermann. 

Fig. 13. The ventral side of the head region of Catostomns macrocheilus, the Colum- 
bia River coarse-scaled sucker, showing the corners of the mouth without the notches in 
the lips. Br 1st — branchiostegal or gill membranes broadly joined to the isthmus; Inc — 
incision in the lower lip; Mo — mouth. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. 


Fig. 14. A diagram of a hypothetical flatfish, Plenronectidae, to show the various 
modifications of the lateral line and the asymmetry of the head. Ar Lat — a distinct arch 
in the lateral line; Db Lat — dorsal branch of the lateral line; N Ar Lat — no distinct arch 
in the lateral line. 

41a. Mouth terminal ; not excessively large ; 
maxillary not nearly reaching to gill open- 

Herrings and Shad 

17. Clupeidae, p. 133 

41b. Mouth inferior, below a tapering snout ; 
mouth very large, the maxillary reaching 
nearly or quite to gill openings. 
Anchovies 18. Engraulidae, p. 133 

40b. Lateral line present; dorsal fin in posterior 
3rd of body. 
19. Alepocephalidae, p. 133 

39b. Branchiostegals 3 ; gill membranes united to 
the isthmus; fig 12; gill rakers not long and 
slender; lateral line usually present. 

120 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

42a. Pharyngeal teeth many more than 9 and in 
1 row arranged like the teeth of a comb ; 
mouth usually directed downward, exces- 
sively protractile and sucker-like with or 
without papillous lips. Fig. 13. 
Suckers 29. Catostomidae, p. 142 

42b. Pharyngeals few in number, less than 9 
and in 1 to 3 rows, not comb-like ; mouth 
not especially directed downward, without 
papillous lips. 

Minnows. Chubs. Dace 

30. Cyprinidae, p. 145 

19b. (See 19a, p. 114, and 19c, p. 126.) Pelvic fins thoracic (placed under or 
just a little behind the pectorals, and internally connected with the 
shoulder girdle, with exceptions), or jugular (placed in front of the 
pectorals) ; the rays are not modified into round pads forming a sucking 
disk. Figs. 16 and 17. 

43a. Both eyes on the same side of the head. Fig. 14. 

44a. Pelvic fins symmetrical in position or nearly so, neither located on 
the median ridge of abdomen. 
Flounders. Halibut 44. Pleuronectidae, p. 157 

44b. Pelvic fin of eyed side located on median ridge of abdomen; eyes 
and color on left side. 
Sand Dabs 43. Bothidae, p. 156 

43b. Eyes normal, each eye on opposite side of the head. 

45a. A bony stay (suborbital stay) extending from below eye backward 
across the cheek just under the skin, or else the side of the head is 
mostly covered with bony plates. Fig. 15. 

46a. Head and body mostly covered with bony plates in 8 to 12 long- 
itudinal rows. 
Sea Poachers 70. Agonidae, p. 182 

Fig. 15. A sketch showing the 
position of the bony suborbital 

46b. Head and body not covered with bony plates arranged in rows. 

47a. Gill openings not extending to opposite lowest pectoral ray; 
slit behind the 4th gill reduced to a mere pore or wanting. 
Northern Sea Horse 69. Rhamphocottidae, p. 182 

47b. Gill opening extending down to at least lowest pectoral ray. 

48a. Body wholly or partly naked, or covered with prickles but 
never completely covered with scales ; when the body is par- 
tially scaled, the scaleless areas occur between the bands of 
Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 

1936] SchuUz: Keys to Fishes 121 

48b. Body uniformly and evenly covered with scales in local species. 

49a. Slit behind 4th gill a mere pore or wanting; anal spines 
III, dorsal spines XII to XVII ; preopercle with 5 or 6 
strong spines. Fig. 10. 
Rockfish. Rock Cod 63. Scorpaenidae, p. 163 

49b. Slit behind the 4th gill larger than a pore, an obvious slit; 
preopercle without 5 or 6 strong spines. 

50a. Nostril single on each side and the second if present re- 
duced to a mere pore ; dorsal fins contiguous or con- 
nected often with a deep notch between the spines and 
soft rayed portion. 

51a. Mouth smaller, the maxillary not reaching or barely 
reaching to orbit; jaws without strong canine teeth. 
Greenlings 66. Hexagrammidae, p. 171 

51b. Mouth large, the maxillary reaching beyond orbit; 
jaws with strong canine teeth. 
Ling Cod 67. Ophiodontidae, p. 172 

50b. Nostrils 2 on each side and of nearly equal development. 

52a. Dorsal fins widely separated ; dorsal rays XX to 
XXII, 16 to 18; anal 15 to 17. 
Skilfish. Black Cod.. 64. Anoplopomidae, p. 170 

52b. Dorsal fin deeply notched; dorsal XIV-I, 15; anal 
Priest Fish 65. Erilepidae, p. 170 

45b. No bony suborbital stay or plates on side of head as in 45a. 

53a. Pelvic fins completely united with each other ; fig. 16, the 
rays being normal and not modified into round pads as in the 
Liparididae ; fig. 17. 
Gobies 74. Gobiidae, p. 191 

53b. Pelvic fins separate, not united. 

54a. Body covered with scales. 

55a. (See 55b, p. 123.) Pelvic fins definitely I, 5, the spine some- 
times grown fast to the first soft ray ; pectoral fin entire. 

56a. Dorsal and anal each followed by finlets. Fig. 11. 

57a. There is no middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, 
only the small pair of keels dorsally and ventraliy ; 1st 
dorsal separated from 2nd dorsal by an interspace as 
long as or longer than snout ; color on back of almost 
vertical stripes. 
Mackerels 51. Scombridae, p. 160 

57b. There is a middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, 
and a small keel above and below the large one. 
Tunny and Albacore 52. Thunnidae, p. 160 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

IVol. 2. 

56b. Dorsal and anal not followed by finlets. 

58a. Vomer with teeth. Fig. 18. 

59a. Dorsal fin, without pungent spines, continuous (un- 
notched) ; dorsal fin not beginning on head; caudal 
rounded or truncate. 

60a. Lateral line running high, not far from the dorsal 
fin base and not reaching the caudal fin (lateral 
line incomplete). 
Ronquils 76. Bathymasteridae, p. 191 

60b. Lateral line if present not high on back, but reach- 
ing to caudal fin. 
Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 





Fig. 16. The ventral side of the goby, Rhinogobiops nicholsii, showing the modification 
of the pelvic fins into the sucker. Ve Su — ventral or pelvic fins modified into the sucking 
disk. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. 

Fig. 17. A diagram of the ventral side of a sea snail, Liparididae, showing the mod- 
ification of the pelvic fins into a sucking disk. Ddk — width or diameter of the disk. 

Fig. 18. A diagram to show the approximate positions of the teeth bearing bones in 
the roof of the mouth of many fishes. Max — maxillary; Pal — palatine; Prem — premaxil- 
lary; Vo — vomer. 

Fig. 19. The fringe-like "teeth" of the Sandfish, Trichodon trichodon. Fr — fringes 
of lips (not true teeth). 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 123 

59b. Dorsal fin or fins with pungent spines anteriorly and 
soft rays posteriorly. 

61a. Dorsal fins 2, entirely separated or slightly joined 
together when a spine is present in the 2nd fin, 
preceding the soft rays. 

62a. Anal III, 11 or 12; dorsal IX-I, 12; body with 
very narrow longitudinal stripes in local species. 
Bass 60. Moronidae, p. 163 

62b. Anal I or II, 7 or 8; dorsal VI to XVI, 12 or 
13 in local species. 
Perches 58. Percidae, p. 161 

61b. Dorsal fin single (deeply emarginate in Aplitcs) ; 
body with not more than 1 longitudinal stripe ; anal 
normally III to VI (rarely II), 10 to 19; dorsal 
VI to XI, 11 to 15. 
Bass and Sunfishes ..59. Centrarchidae, p. 161 

58b. Vomer without teeth. Fig. 18. 

63a. Scales just before middle of body, 3 or 4 times 
deeper vertically than longer horizontally. 
Pompreys 54. Bramidae, p. 160 

63b. Scales not as above. 

64a. Dorsals and anals without distinct spines. 

Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 

64b. Dorsal and anal with spines. 

65a. Anal spines I or II in local species. 

Croakers or Sea Bass 

61. Otolithidae, p. 163 

65b. Anal spines III. 

Viviparous Perch 

73. Embiotocidae, p. 189 

55b. Pelvic fins definitely not I, 5. 

66a. Pelvic fins with more than 5 soft rays and with or with- 
out a spine. 

67a. Numerous nearly round light spots, about the size of 
the pupil or smaller occur all over the body; dorsal 
fin single, very long, elevated, falcate in front, of 49 
to 55 rays, without distinct spines ; anal fin long and 
low, not elevated or falcate in front, of 33 to 41 rays; 
in life all fins are scarlet in color ; pelvic fins of 14 to 
17 rays, and about as long as head; pectorals nearly as 
long as head; depth of the compressed body l-)4 in 
standard length. 
Moonfish 42. Lampridae, p. 156 

67b. Characters not as in 67a. 

68a. Dorsals and anals without spines. 

69a. Tail not tapering to a point, dorsal and anal fins 
separate from the distinct caudal fin. 
Cods and Hake 39. Gadidae, p. 154 

124 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2 

69b. Tail tapering to a point, the dorsal and anal fins 
confluent, there being no caudal fin. 
Grenadiers 38. Coryphaenoididae, p. 154 

68b. Dorsal spines III. 

45. Melamphaidae, p. 159 

66b. Pelvics with fewer than 5 soft rays, and with or with- 
out a spine. 

70a. Body covered with bony plates. 

Sea Poachers 70. Agonidae, p. 182 

70b. Body not covered with bony plates ; the body either 
naked or covered with scales. 

71a. Dorsal composed of soft rays only. 

72a. Body tapering to a blunt point behind ; dorsal 
and anal continuous around the caudal ; gill mem- 
branes joined to isthmus. 
Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 

72b. Body not tapering to a blunt point ; the caudal 
fin distinct. 
Brotulids 85. Brotulidae, p. 197 

71b. Dorsal composed of spines anteriorly with or with- 
out soft rays posteriorly. 

73a. Dorsal fin with at least 1 soft ray but less than 
20, usually 5 to 13 in local species ; vertebrae 
52 or fewer ; lateral line arched high above 
the pectoral, if present. 
Blennies 78. Clinidae, p. 192 

73b. Dorsal fin without soft rays (except in Ccbi- 
dichthys which has 40 to 44) ; vertebrae usual- 
ly more than 53. 

74a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th 
spinous ray of dorsal fin; body ribbon-like 
and never with multiple branched lateral 
lines ; all vertebrae with haemal arches. 
Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 

74b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd 
spinous ray of the dorsal fin; body round 
and not ribbon-like except in Phytichihys 
which has multiple branched lateral lines and 
II (rarely III) anal spines; only the caudal 
vertebrae with haemal arches. 
Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 

54b. Body naked and smooth, or armed with tubercles, prickles, 
scattered bony plates, or scales in rows between which are 
naked areas, never uniformly covered with scales. 

75a. Breast with a sucking disk. Fig. 17. 

76a. Gill membranes free from isthmus ; a single soft dorsal 
placed posteriorly. 
Cling-fishes 87. Gobiesocidae, p. 197 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 125 

76b. Gill membranes joined to isthmus. 

77a. Skin smooth ; dorsal somewhat hidden by the lax skin, 
long and continuous or with a short portion anteriorly 
more or less separated by a notch. 
Sea Snails or Rock Suckers.. 72. Liparididae, p. 186 

77b. Skin with strongly developed tubercles or spines ; dorsal 
fins 2, well separated and about of equal length. 
Lump Suckers 71. Cyclopteridae, p. 186 

75b. Breast without a sucking disk. 

78a. Dorsal and anal followed by detached rays or finlets. 
Fig. 11. 

79a. There is no middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, 
only the small keels, 1 above and 1 below ; 1st dorsal 
separated from 2nd dorsal by an interspace as long as 
or longer than snout ; color on back of almost vertical 
Mackerels 51. Scombridae, p. 160 

79b. A single median keel on each side of caudal peduncle 
and a small one above and below the large one. Fig 3. 
Tunny and Albacore 52. Thunnidae, p. 160 

78b. Dorsal and anal without finlets. 

80a. A bony stay (suborbital stay) extending from below 
eye backward across the cheek just under the skin, 
or else the side of the head is bony. 

81a. Gill opening small, not extending below the lower 
edge of the pectoral fin. 

Northern Sea Horse 

69. Rhamphocottidae, p. 182 

81b. Gill opening extending at least to lower edge of 
pectoral fin. 
Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 

80b. No suborbital stay or bony cheeks. 

82a. Body tapering to a blunt point behind ; the dorsal 
and anal continuous around caudal ; gill membranes 
joined to isthmus. 
Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 

82b. Body not tapering to a point. 

83a. Anal fin absent; caudal fin directed obliquely 
Ribbon Fishes 41. Trachipteridae, p. 156 

83b. Anal fin present ; caudal normal. 

84a. Dorsal spines soft and ray-like. 

85a. Both jaws of about the same length; head 
about 4 in length ; depth about 3 ; lateral 
line and fins with prickles ; body not long 
and not ribbon-like. 
Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 

126 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

85b. Lower jaw longest; head about 7 to 8 in 
length ; depth 6 or more in length ; body 
ribbon-like ; skin naked without scales or 
Cutlassfishes ... .53. Trichiuridae, p. 160 

84b. Dorsal spines stiff and sharp. 

86a. Lips with long teeth-like fringes ; mouth 
when closed nearly vertical. Fig. 19. 
Sand Fishes.. 62. Trichodontidae, p. 163 

86b. Lips without fringes ; mouth often oblique 
but not vertical. 

87a. Dorsal with only I or II very short spines 
just behind head; body with many small 
luminous organs or photophores arranged 
in series. 

Toad Fishes 

86. Batrachoididae, p. 197 

87b. Dorsal with many spines; body often rib- 

88a. Dorsal fin with at least 1 soft ray but 
fewer than 20, usually 5 to 13 in local 
species ; vertebrae 52 or fewer ; lateral 
line, if present, arched high above the 
Blennies 78. Clinidae, p. 192 

88b. Dorsal fin without soft rays (except in 
Cebidichthys which has 39 to 44) ; ver- 
tebrae usually more than 53. 

89a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 
55th spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; 
body ribbon-like and never with mul- 
tiple branched lateral lines ; all verte- 
brae with haemal arches. 
Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 

89b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 
32nd spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; 
body round and not ribbon-like except 
in Phytichthys which has multiple 
branched lateral lines and II (rarely 
III) strong anal spines; only the cau- 
dal vertebrae with haemal arches. 
Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 

19c. (See 19a, p. 114, and 19b, p. 120.) Pelvic fins absent or modified into 
sucking disks. Fig. 17. 

90a. Gill membranes united to the isthmus, Fig. 12, (gill opening some- 
times reduced to a small slit high on the side). 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 127 

91a. Jaws long, very slender, almost thread-like, diverging to form a 
snipe-like beak. Fig. 20. 
Snipe Eels 28. Nemichthyidae, p. 142 

Fig. 20. The snipe-like jaws of Ne- 
michthys avocetta. Modified after Jor- ^*>^^ ^i£s 7 — < &&/////////// 

dan and Evermann. 

91b. Jaws not as above. 

92a. Snout elongate and tubular, bearing very small toothless jaws at 
the end ; covering of body of bony plates. 
Pipe Fishes 48. Syngnathidae, p. 160 

92b. Snout not tubular ; mouth and body covering not as above. 

93a. Breast with a sucking disk. Fig. 17. 

94a. Skin smooth and lax ; anal fin with more than 20 rays. 

Sea Snails 72. Liparididae, p. 186 

94b. Skin thick and firm, smooth or covered with tubercles or 
broad plates bearing spines ; anal fin of fewer than 20 rays. 
Lumpsuckers 71. Cyclopteridae, p. 186 

93b. Breast without a sucking disk. 

95a. Skin very loose and lax, without scales ; gill opening above 
pectoral or not extending below the base of the middle ray 
of the pectoral fin. 
Sea Snails 72. Liparididae, p. 186 

95b. Skin firm, normal, with or without scales, never loose and 
lax; gill opening extending down below the base of the 
middle ray of pectoral fin. 

96a. Body elongate not short and deep and not truncate be- 
hind ; dorsal fin single, extending along nearly the whole 
back ; gill openings in front of the pectorals. 

97a. Jaws and vomer with some coarse molar or pebble-like 
teeth ; body tapering to a slender point behind in local 
Wolf Fishes 81. Anarrhichthyidae, p. 195 

97b. Teeth not as above, or not molar-like. 

98a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous 
ray of dorsal fin ; body ribbon-like and never with 
multiple branched lateral lines ; all vertebrae with 
haemal arches. 
Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 

98b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous 
ray of the dorsal fin ; body round and not ribbon-like 
except in Phytichthys which has multiple branched 
lateral lines, and II (rarely III) anal spines; only 
the caudal vertebrae with haemal arches. 
Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 

128 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

96b. Body oblong, short and deep, compressed, truncate be- 
hind so there is no caudal peduncle ; dorsal not extending 
along the back as in 96a; gill openings in front of the 
pectoral as is usual in fishes. 
Head Fish. Ocean Sunfish 88. Molidae, p. 197 

90b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus or with a wide free fold across 
isthmus, or continuing forward before becoming joined. Fig. 12. 

99a. Caudal fin not widely forked or lunate ; least depth of caudal pe- 
duncle if present fewer than 6 times in greatest depth of body ; depth 
of body more than 2.5 times in the standard length. 

100a. Dorsal rising so gradually from the back that its beginning is 
scarcely evident. 

101a. Dorsal and anal not reaching to caudal; caudal peduncle slen- 
der, caudal fin concave behind. 
Great Ray Fishes 57. Acrotidae, p. 161 

101b. Dorsal and anal connected with caudal fin. 

102a. Tail tapering to a point and with a caudal filament (usually 
broken off preserved specimens) ; head about 16 in length 
without filament. 
Quillfish 83. Ptilichthyidae, p. 195 

102b. Tail rounded; head about 8 in length. 

Burrowing Blennies 82. Scytalinidae, p. 195 

100b. Beginning of dorsal fin evident, rising more or less abruptly. 

103a. Gill membranes broadly united to each other. 

104a. Dorsal fins 2. 

Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 

104b. Dorsal fin single. 

105a. No sucking disk on breast. 

106a. Small imbricated scales on gill membranes, all over 
body and on the fins except the distal third ; dorsal 
fin of very flexible spines ; depth of body about 3 to 
4 1 /- in length. 
Flaccid Fishes 77. Zaproridae, p. 191 

106b. Scales if present usually embedded and never occur- 
ring on gill membranes nor on the fins ; dorsal fin 
spines not flexible ; depth of body more than 5 times 
in the length. 

107a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous 
ray of dorsal fin ; body ribbon-like and never with 
multiple branched lateral lines ; all vertebrae with 
haemal arches. 
Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 129 

107b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous 
ray of the dorsal fin ; body round and not ribbon- 
like except in Phytichthys which has multiple 
branched lateral lines and II (rarely III) anal 
spines ; only the caudal vertebrae with haemal 
Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 

105b. A large sucking disk on breast ; fish tadpole-shaped. 
Cling Fishes 87. Gobiesocidae, p. 197 

103b. Gill membranes free from each other, or nearly so, contin- 
uing far forward under the head ; depth of body about 9 or 10 
times in standard length. 

108a. Body with scales arranged to form oblique folds ; cau- 
dal fin deeply concave. 
Sand Lances or Launces . .75. Ammodytidae, p. 191 

108b. Body scaleless ; sometimes the scales are embedded ; 
dorsal and anal continuous around the tail ; skin rather 
lax, at least not firm. 
Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 

99b. Caudal fin very widely forked, nearly lunate; caudal peduncle small, 
its least depth about 6.5 to 9 times in greatest depth of body ; body 
compressed, its depth 1.9 times in standard length; premaxillaries 
not protractile. 
Pampanos 55. Stromateidae, p. 161 

16b. Gill opening behind the base of the pectoral fin; the spinous dorsal fin 
is represented by a single upright spine, developed into "bait" ; the 
bait consists of a bulb supplied with filaments ; pectoral radials 3 ; ar- 
ticular spines well developed and crossing, that of the quadrate, longer 
than the mandibular. 
Angler Fishes 89. Oneirodidae, p. 197 

130 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 




Family 1. Eptatretidae. Hagfishes or Borers 

la. Head to first gill opening 6.5 times in total length ; gill openings, ventral 
fold and anal not bordered by white. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara 
Islands. Marine. Common. 
Black Hagfish 1. Polistotrema dcani Evermann and Goldsborough 

lb. Head to first gill opening 4.5 times in total length ; gill openings bordered 
by white ring. Range : British Columbia to San Diego. Marine. Common. 
Common Hagfish 2. Polistotrema stoutii (Lockington) 

Family 2. Petromyzonidae. Lampreys 

la. Teeth of the buccal funnel not in distinct radiating series, but in several 
groups ; several enlarged lateral teeth, usually multicuspid, at the edge of 
the oral opening ; a marginal series around edge of disk ; few to many teeth 
on the anterior part of the disk; supraoral broad, the main cusps are sep- 
arated by a bridge. Fig. 1. 

2a. A posterior series of small teeth developed, parallel to the marginal series 
and connecting the last pair of enlarged laterals ; 57 to 74 mytomes be- 
tween last gill slit and anus. Range: Unalaska to southern California. 
Marine and freshwater. Common. 

Three-toothed Lamprey. Pacific Lamprey... 3. Entosphenus tridentatus 


2b. No teeth other than the marginals on the posterior field of the disk ; 3 
enlarged laterals ; myotomes between last gill opening and vent 57 to 70. 

3a. Dorsal fins usually well separated by an interspace except during 
spawning; myotomes between the last gill opening and the vent 63 to 
70 ; all teeth sharp and strong. Parasitic. Range : Eurasia and western 
North America. Freshwater. Locally abundant. 
River Lamprey. Lake Lamprey. .. .4. Lampctra fluviatilis (Linnaeus) 

3b. Dorsal fins separated only by a notch to base ; myotomes between last 
gill opening and vent 57 to 66 ; all teeth weak and blunt, non-functional. 
Non-parasitic. Range : Eurasia and western North America. Fresh- 
water. Common. 
Brook Lamprey 5. Lampetra planeri (Bloch) 

Family 3. Hexanchidae. Cow Sharks 

la. Gill openings 7 on each side. Range : Puget Sound to Monterey Bay. 
Marine. Not rare. 
Spotted Cow Shark. Mud Shark 6. Notorynchns maculatus Ayres 

lb. Gill openings 6 on each side. Range : Mediterranean, North Atlantic and 
North Pacific, Puget Sound to Monterey Bay. Marine. Not rare. 

Mud Shark. Shovelnose Shark 7. Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre) 

(=H. corinus Jordan and Gilbert) 

1936] Schultc: Keys to Fishes 131 

Family 4. Scylliorhinidae. Cat Sharks 

Range: Puget Sound to Gulf of California. Marine. Not rare. 

Brown Shark. Cat Shark 8. Apristurus brunncus (Gilbert) 

Family 5. Carchariidae. Gray Sharks 

Range : Warm seas. Marine. Rare northward. 

Great Blue Shark. Fig. 2 9. Prionace glauca (Linnaeus) 

Family 6. Galeorhinidae. Oil Shark. Soup-fin Shark 

Range: British Columbia to Lower California. Marine. Rare northward. 
Soup-fin Shark 10. Galeorhinus zyopterus Jordan and Gilbert 

Family 7. Alopiidae. Thresher Sharks 

Range : Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Marine, Not rare. 
Fox Shark. Long-tailed Shark. 11. Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre) 

Family 8. Lamnidae. Mackerel Sharks 

Range: North Atlantic and North Pacific. Marine. Common northward. 
Salmon Shark. Tiger Shark 12. Lamm nasus (Bonnaterre) 

Family 9. Cetorhinidae. Basking Sharks 

Range: Arctic seas southward to California, Virginia, and Portugal. Ma- 
rine. Common northward. 

Basking Shark. Elephant Shark. Bone Shark.. . .13. Cetorhinus 

maximus (Gunner) 

Family 10. Squalidae. Dogfish Sharks 

Range : Aleutian Islands to Santa Barbara. Marine. Abundant. 

Grayfish. Dogfish Sharks 14. Squalus suckleyi (Girard) 

Family 11. Somniosidae (=Dalatiidae). Sleeper Sharks 

Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific south to San Francisco. Marine. 
Sleeper Shark.. 15. Somniosus microcephalia (Bloch and Schneider) 

Family 12. Squatinidae. Angel Sharks 

Range : South eastern Alaska and southward. Marine. Rare northward. 

Angel Shark. Fig. 5 16. Squatina calif omica Ayres 

Family 13. Rajidae. Skates and Rays 

dy at each side of the snout convex or stra 
nout to outer tip of pectoral angle passing 
disk. Fig. 4. 

2a. Outline of body undulating, first convex and then concave. 

la. Outline of body at each side of the snout convex or straight ; a line drawn 
from tip of snout to outer tip of pectoral angle passing everywhere inside 
of outline of disk. Fig. 4. 

132 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

3a. Shoulder girdle with about 6 spines ; orbital rim with spines ; width of 
disk about 1.2 in its length; tail is contained about 1.4 times in length 
of disk, 1.7 in width of disk; the tail is shorter than the disk by 24 
length of snout. Range: Unalaska to California. Marine. Not rare. 
Prickly Skate 17. Raja stellnlata Jordan and Gilbert 

3b. Shoulder girdle and orbital rims without spines; width of disk V/ 2 in 
its length ; tail longer than the disk by l / 2 the snout. Range : Central 
Alaska and Santa Barbara in deep water. Marine. Rare. 
Rough-tailed Skate 18. Raja trachura Gilbert 

2b. Outline of body everywhere evenly rounded or convex, the anterior mar- 
gin not undulating ; shoulder girdle with a spine ; tail as long as the disk. 
Range : Puget Sound region. Marine. Rare. 
Black Skate 19. Raja kincaidi Garman 

lb. Outline of body at each side of snout concave ; a line drawn as in la, pass- 
ing at some one point well outside of the outline of the body. 

4a. Pelvic fins with a notch that divides it into 2 distinct lobes when the 
anterior tip is held at right angles to the axis of the tail (often in 
Raja inornata the edge of the fin is deeply concave) ; usually 3 to 10 
hooked orbital spines. 

Sa. A line drawn from tip of snout to outer angle of pectoral touches 
the outline of the body near the middle of this line ; interorbital 
space 3 to 3.4 times in length of snout ; length of tail about equal 
to the disk ; in the young there are 2 or 3 spines in middle line of 
back followed by a space without spines before the continuous 
series begins just anterior to the pelvics. Range: Str. Juan de 
Fuca to San Diego. Marine. Rare northward. 
California Skate 20. Raja inornata Jordan and Gilbert 

5b. A line drawn from tip of snout to outer angle of pectoral passes 
the width of the interorbital space outside the outline of the body 
(except in the young) ; interorbital space 3.5 to 4 in snout; tail 
shorter than disk by 2 /z snout; in the young of rhina there is 1 
strong spine followed by a space before the continuous series on 
mid-line of back begins over the pelvics. Range : Alaska to Pt. 
Loma, California. Marine. Common. 

Long-nosed Skate 21. Raja rhina Jordan and Gilbert 

4b. Pelvic fins without a deep notch, when the anterior tip is held at 
right angles to the axis of the tail the edge of the pelvic fin is nearly 
straight; the hooked spines around the eye number 3 or fewer on 
young and are usually absent on adults; length of disk about 1.1 in 
width; tail about 1.3 in length of disk; in the young there is only a 
single spine in mid-line of back (this may be absent in very young) 
followed by a continuous series which begins over pelvics. Range : 
Sitka, Alaska, to San Diego. Marine. Common. 
Big Skate 22. Raja binoculata Girard 

Family 14. Torpedinidae. Electric Rays 

Range : Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island to San Diego Bay. Marine. Com- 
mon northward. 
Torpedo. Crampfish 23. Tetranarce calijomica (Ayres) 

Family 15. Chimaeridae. Chimaeras 

Range : Alaska to San Diego Bay. Marine. Abundant. 

Ratfish. Chimaera 24. Hydrolagus colliei (Lay and Bennett) 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 133 

Family 16. Acipenseridae. Sturgeons. 

la. Plates between pelvics and anal small, in 2 rows of 4 to 8 ; dorsal rays 44 
to 48 ; anal rays 28 to 30. Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine and fresh- 
water. Common. 
White Sturgeon 25. Acipenser transmontanus Richardson 

lb. Plates between pelvics and anal large, in 1 or 2 rows of 1 to 4 each; dorsal 
rays 33 to 35 ; anal rays 22 to 28. Range : North Pacific southward to Mon- 
terey Bay. Marine and freshwater. Not abundant 
Green Sturgeon 26. Acipenser acutirostris Ayres (=A. medirostris) 

Family 17. Clupeidae. Herrings. 

la. Ventral scutes strong and sharp, the ventral edge of the belly much com- 
pressed ; depth 3^4 in length ; peritoneum white ; about 60 scales in a lateral 
series. Range : Atlantic Coast of U.S. and southeastern Alaska to Monte- 
rey Bay. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. 
Shad 27. Alosa sapidissima (Wilson) 

lb. Ventral scutes not strong, the ventral edge of the belly only a little com- 
pressed ; depth 4 to 5 in length ; peritoneum black or dusky ; about 38 to 55 
scales in a lateral series. 

2a. About 40 rakers on lower arch of first gill ; peritoneum dusky ; vomer 
with teeth ; about 38 to 45 scales ; no striae on the operculum. Range : 
Kamchatka to San Diego. Marine. Abundant. 
Pacific Herring 28. Clupca pallasii Cuvier and Valenciennes 

2b. About 50 to 60 rakers on lower arch of first gill ; peritoneum black ; 
about 53 scales ; opercle with 7 long striae extending downward and back- 
ward. Range : British Columbia to Gulf of California. Marine. Abundant. 
Pilchard. Sardine 29. Sordino ps cacrulea (Girard) 

Family 18. Engraulidae. Anchovies 

Range : Vancouver Island to Lower California. Marine. Abundant. 

Northern Anchovy 30. Engranlis mordax mordax Girard 

Family 19. Alepocephalidae 

Range : Coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. 

Deep Sea Fish 31. Bathytroctes stomias Gilbert 

Family 20. Salmonidae. Salmon and Trout 

la. Anal fin elongate, of 13 to 19 rays (rarely 12 or 18 or 19) ; vomer narrow, 
long, flat, with weak teeth; gill rakers 19 to 40 (rarely 19 or 20) on 1st 
gill arch; branchiostegals 13 to 19; species with or without black spots, 
adults with anal and dorsal seldom spotted. Figs. 21, 22, 23, and 24. 

2a. Scales very small, in about 170 to 231 oblique rows on the side, and us- 
ually 30 to 37 (range 26 to 40) above, and 28 to 35 (range 25 to 40) be- 
low, the lateral line; caudal spots large and oblong; gill rakers 11 to 13 
+ 15 to 18 (usually totaling from 27 to 35) ; anal rays usually 14 to 16; 
young without any trace of parr marks. Range : Northern Japan to 
Alaska, southward to San Francisco. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. 

Pink Salmon. Humpback Salmon 32. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 



University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

2b. Scales in fewer than 160 oblique rows crossing the lateral line, usually 
about 120 to 153. Fig. 25. 

Dorsal fin 
Parr narlcs jL Lateral. line 




Fig. 21. A diagrammatic sketch of a trout to show the names 

of the parts that are used in differentiating species. Parr marks 

occur, with certain exceptions, in immature fish only. After 

Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 

Gill rakers comparatively short and few, 19 to 28 (rarely 29) in num- 
ber on the 1st gill arch. 

Scales usually 19 to 26 (range 19 to 31) above, and usually 15 to 24 

(range 15 to 27 below, the lateral line; anal rays usually 13 to 15; 

gill rakers 7 or 8+11 to 13; pyloric caeca 150 to 180; young with 

rather faint small parr marks mostly above the lateral line. Range : 

Kamchatka to Alaska to San' Francisco. Marine and freshwater. 


Chum Salmon. Dog Salmon. .. .33. Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) 

gill rilaj»nt» 

Fig. 22 

Fig. 22. This diagram illustrates the method employed in 
counting the number of rays in the dorsal and anal fins. The 
first two or three short, unsegmented rays closely crowded to- 
gether are not counted. The first ray counted is unbranched 
and extends nearly as far out as the first branched ray which 
follows. The last ray is usually "double-branched" at the base 
giving the superficial appearance of two rays, and hence is count- 
ed as one ray. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the 
Washington Sportsman. 

Fig. 23. This diagram illustrates the gill rakers on the first 
gill arch, the latter located under the operculum. The gill rak- 
ers, including all rudiments are always counted on the first gill 
arch; those on the upper half of the arch are given first, followed 
by those on the lower half of the arch as 8 + 13 in the draw- 
ing. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington 

Fig. 24. This diagram illustrates 
the approximate positions of the 
various tooth-bearing bones in 
the roof of the mouth of a sal- 
monoid game fish. After Schultz 
and Hanson. Courtesy of the 
Washington Sportsman. 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 


4b. Scales usually 25 to 31 (range 23 to 34) above, and usually 23 to 34 
(range 19 to 39) below, the lateral line. 

Length Kyc 

of diameter 


y Lengtn of 
oauaal peduncle 
rancalostegal rays 

Fig. 25. A diagrammatic drawing of a Rocky Mountain 
Whitefish, illustrating various anatomical characters used in the 
identification of salmonoid game fishes. After Schultz and Han- 
son. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman, 


5a. Anal rays usually 15 to 17; pyloric caeca about 140 to 150; 1st 
2 or 3 anal rays in individuals less than 4 inches long, not extend- 
ing behind or longer than the following rays of anal fin ; gill rak- 
ers 7 to 9+11 to 13; parr marks usually wider than the interspaces. 
Range: Northern China to Alaska to San Francisco. Marine and 
freshwater. Abundant. 

Chinook, King, or Spring Salmon 34. Oncorhynchus 

tshawytscha (Walbaum) 

5b. Anal rays usually 13 to 15 (rarely 16) ; pyloric caeca about 50 to 
80; the 1st 2 or 3 anal rays are characteristically longer than rest 
of anal rays and are margined with white, in individuals less than 
4 inches in length ; parr marks usually narrower than the inter- 
spaces. Range : Japan to Alaska to Monterey Bay. Marine and 
freshwater. Abundant. 
Coho or Silver Salmon 35. Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) 

Gill rakers comparatively long and numerous, 30 to 50 in number, (11 
to 24+20 to 26) ; scales about 130 (125 to 145) in the lateral line, and 
usually 19 to 24 (range 18 to 26) above, and usually 19 to 23 (range 17 
to 27) below, the lateral line; anal rays usually 14 or 15; young with 
rather large round black spots above the lateral line ; sides red at 
spawning. Range : Japan to Alaska to Klamath River, California. Ma- 
rine and freshwater. Abundant. Fig. 26. 
Sockeye or Blueback Salmon. Little Red Fish. Silver Trout. 

Red Salmon 36. Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) 

Fig. 26. Silver Trout. Redfish. Land- 
locked Salmon. Oncorhynchus nerka. Af- 
ter Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the 

Washington Sportsman. 

136 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

lb. Anal fin short, of 9 to 12 rays, rarely 13 ; gill rakers 20 or fewer on 1st 
arch; branchiostegals 10 to 12; dorsal fin black-spotted. 

6a. Species with darkish spots on a lighter background ; fewer than 
190 scale rows crossing the lateral line ; vomer flat, its toothed 
surface plane, teeth on shaft of the vomer in alternating rows or 
in one zigzag row, those on the shaft placed directly on the sur- 
face of the bone, not on a free crest. 

7a. Red dash on dentary (between lower jaw bone and isthmus) 
evident in life; no red spots on side of body; vertebrae 58 to 
62 (usually 60 or 61) ; dorsal rays 9 to 11 (usually 10) ; anal 
rays 9 to 11 ; maxillary on adults extending behind eye, about 
1.6 to 2.25 in head; hyoid teeth (those located behind the patch 
of teeth on tip of the tongue) usually present but few and 

8a. Black spots large and scattered over the body, those on an- 
terior part of the body widely separated, the spots are usually 
absent from belly and almost to the lateral line ; scales above 
and below lateral line 32 to 42 (usually 35 to 38) ; scales 
in the lateral line 156 to 190 (usually about 165 to 170) ; 
gill rakers 6 to 9+10 to 13, totaling 15 to 22. Range: Mid- 
dle and upper Columbia River drainage. Introduced else- 
where. Freshwater. Abundant. Fig. 27. 

Montana Black-spotted Trout 37. Salnw clarkii lewisi 


■Cutthroat- nark 

Fig. 27. Montana Black-spotted Trout. 
Cutthroat Trout. Salmo clarkii lewisi. Af- 
ter Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the 

Washington Sportsman. 

8b. The body is profusely covered with black spots, a few even 
occurring on the belly, the spots about as close together pos- 
teriorly as anteriorly ; scales above the lateral line 35 or 
fewer ; scales below lateral line 35 or fewer ; scales in the 
lateral line 120 to 180 (usually fewer than 160). In the 
Puget Sound drainage 2 types of cutthroat trout have been 
observed. They are distinguishable as follows : Scales 120 
to 140 (usually about 125 to 130) instead of 143 to 180 in 
the lateral line ; scales 25 to 29 instead of 30 to 36 (usually 
31 to 35) above the lateral line; scales below the lateral line 
about 27 to 28 instead of 30 to 34. Recent evidence indicates 
that this great variation in the number of scales may be 
caused by the different temperatures during which early de- 
velopment takes place in the various localities. Range : 
British Columbia to California. Marine and freshwater. 
Fig. 28 

Coastal Cutthroat Trout 38. Salmo clarkii clarkii 

Richardson 2 

'Under this name we are including Salmo clarkii crescentis, the speckled trout of 
Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains. 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 


"Cuttbrotf cart 

Fig. 28. Cutthroat Trout. Coastal Cut- 
throat. Steelhead Cutthroat. Salmo clarkii 
clarkii. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- 
tesy of the Washington Sportsman. 

7b. No red dash on dentary evident in life; dorsal fin rays 10 to 13 
(usually 11 or 12) ; hyoid teeth always absent. 


Vertebrae 56 to 59 (usually 57 to 58) ; color brownish yel- 
low and usually with a few red spots on the sides ; scales 
in the lateral line 118 to 130 (usually about 125) ; scales 
24 to 28 above the lateral line and 22 to 30 below it; gill 
rakers 6 to 9+9 to 10. Range : Introduced into western 
United States. Freshwater. Abundant locally. Fig. 29. 
Brown Trout 39. Salmo trutta Linnaeus 


Fig. 29. Brown Trout. Salmo trutta. 
After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of 
the Washington Sportsman. 

Vertebrae 59 to 65 (rarely 59 or 60), usually 63; color 
not brownish yellow, but gray to bluish above, the reddish 
lateral band usually but slightly interrupted by faint parr 
marks on adults ; no red spots on sides of body ; gill rak- 
ers 7 to 9+9 to 13; maxillary usually 2.0 to 2.5 in head of 
adults, and not extending behind the eye. 

10a. Scales 120 to 138 (usually 125 to 135) in the lateral 
line ; 23 to 30 above and 20 to 26 below the lateral line ; 
body profusely spotted. Range : Coastal region and 
lower and middle Columbia River. Marine and fresh- 
water. Abundant. Fig. 30. 

Coastal Steelhead or Rainbow Trout 

40. Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson 8 

fiefl lateral band 

Fig. 30. Rainbow Trout. Steelhead. Sea- 
run Rainbow. Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii. 
After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the 
Washington Sportsman. 

'Under this name we are including Salmo gairdnerii beardsleei, the blueback trout of 
Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains. 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

10b. Scales 135 to 160 (usually 140 to 150) in the lateral 
line ; 27 to 32 above and 25 to 30 below the lateral line. 
Range : Upper Fraser River basin and the middle and 
upper Columbia River in northeastern Washington. 
Marine and freshwater. Abundant. 

Kamloops Trout. Rainbow Trout 

41. Salmo gairdncrii kamloops Jordan 

6b. Species with light spots (white or gray) on a darker background 
of color ; often with red spots on the sides ; over 190 scale rows 
crossing the lateral line; vomer boat shaped (the shaft de- 
pressed), shaft without teeth. 


Vomer with a raised crest extending backward from 
the head of the bone, this crest armed with strong 
teeth ; species gray spotted, without red spots ; fins 
not markedly bright edged. Range : Northeastern 
United States ; Great Lakes region ; Columbia and 
Fraser rivers. Freshwater. Not common. Fig. 31. 

Lake Trout. Mackinaw Trout 

.42. Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum) 


Fig. 31. Lake Trout. Mackinaw Trout. 
Cristivomer namaycush. After Schultz and 
Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington 

Vomer without a raised crest which extends back- 
ward, head of bone toothed ; species red-spotted in 
life, the lower fins with bright silvery edgings. 

12a. Back unspotted, but strongly mottled with olive 
and black, that is, the spots run together causing 
the mottled appearance ; dorsal and caudal finely 
mottled; body robust or stout, the head heavy. 
Range : Northeastern North America. Introduced 
into the western States. Freshwater. Common. 
Fig. 32. 

Eastern Brook Trout 

43. Salvclinus fontinalis (Mitchill) 

Fig. 32. Eastern Brook Trout. Salvelinus 
fontinalis. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- 
tesy of the Washington Sportsman. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 139 

12b. Back not mottled, but with light spots like those on 
the sides of the body, only smaller and paler ; body 
less robust or stout. Range : Coastal streams from 
Alaska to northern California. Marine and fresh- 
water. Abundant. Fig. 33. 

Western Charr or Bull Trout. Dolly Varden Trout. 
44. Salvclinns malma spectabilis (Girard) 

Fig. 33. Dolly Varden Trout. Bull Trout. 
Salvclinus malma spectabilis. After Schultz 
and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington 

Family 21. Coregonidae. Whitefishes 

la. Upper jaw longer than lower jaw, projecting over the latter; gill rakers 
short, conic, 15 or fewer on lower limb of 1st gill arch; snout pointed; 
maxillary not reaching past vertical line to anterior of eye ; 1 nasal flap be- 
tween the 2 nostrils instead of 2 as in the genus Coregonus. 

2a. Scales in lateral line fewer than 65 ; species small, usually much less than 
8 inches. 

3a. Scale formula 8+60 to 63+6; length of pectoral fin 7 times in standard 
length ; height of dorsal fin 7 times in standard length ; length of head 
4.5 to 5 in standard length. Range: Alaska (L. Aleknagik, Kendall, 
1921) to headwaters of the Columbia. Freshwater. Common. 

Brown-backed Whitefish 

45. Prosopium coultcri (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) 

3b. Scale formula 7+58+4 to 7; length of pectoral fin 4.3 in the standard 
length ; height of dorsal fin 4.6 in standard length ; length of head 
4.0 in standard length; gill rakers 5+10. Range: Lake Crescent, Olym- 
pic Peninsula, Washington. Freshwater. Rare. 
Lake Crescent Whitefish 46. Prosopium snyderi Myers 

2b. Scales in lateral line more than 75, usually 8 to 10+80 to 95+6 to 9. 

4a. Adipose base contained 1 to 1.2 in anal fin base; total length of adi- 
pose fin 1.9 to 2.4 in head. Range: Streams and lakes of western 
slope of Rocky Mountains from Fraser River and Jasper Park south- 
ward to the Truckee River, Lahontan Basin of Nevada and the head- 
waters of the Saskatchewan and Missouri Systems. Freshwater. 
Common. Fig. 34. 
Rocky Mountain Whitefish 47. Prosopium williamsoni (Girard) 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

Fig. 34. Rocky Mountain Whitefish. Pro- 
sopium williamsoni. After Schultz and Han- 
son. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 

4b. The base of the adipose fin is contained from .75 to 1 times in anal 
fin base; total length of adipose fin in head 1.3 to 1.6. Range: Co- 
lumbia River and tributaries. Freshwater. Common in Columbia 
Oregon Whitefish. . .48. Prosopium orcgonium (Jordan and Snyder) 

Family 22. Thymallidae. Grayling 

Range : Rocky Mountain region of northern United States and of south- 
ern Canada. Freshwater. Locally abundant. Fig. 35. 
Montana Grayling 49. Thymallus montanus Milner 

Fig. 35. Montana Grayling. Thymallus 
montanus. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- 
tesy of the Washington Sportsman. 

Family 23. Osmeridae. Smelts 4 

la. Scales of moderate size (fewer than 80 in the lateral line) ; scales on 
sides not forming villous bands in the breeding male although they may be 
enlarged and edematous. 

2a. Teeth on the vomer canine-like, few in number, and not covering the 
whole head of the bone. Fig. 18. 

3a. Vomerine teeth confined to lateral tips of U shaped vomer, fang-like, 
1 to 3 in number on each side, very strong, not deciduous at spawning ; 
pelvic fins inserted distinctly behind origin of dorsal ; gill rakers in 
moderate number, 8 to 10+19 to 23 on first arch; scales 66 to 69 in 
lateral line ; anal fin low, its height contained 2.6 to 3.3 times in head ; 
upper jaw about reaching vertical from posterior margin of eye; spawn- 
ing in streams. Range : Northern China to Alaska. Marine. Abundant. 
Rainbow "Herring" 50. Osmerus dentex Steindacliner 

'Modified after Hubbs 1926, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

1936] Schtdta: Keys to Fishes 141 

3b. Vomerine canine moderate, inserted at front of vomerine arch (often 
flanked on one side by a smaller tooth, other teeth of moderate 

4a. Teeth larger and stronger ; never deciduous ; head sharply pointed as 
seen above ; pelvic fins inserted under or barely in advance of origin 
of dorsal fin; opercles weakly striate; gill rakers longer 10 or 11 
+22 to 26 in number on the first arch ; anal fin of moderate length, 
with 15 to 17 rays; probably spawning in the ocean; pigmentation 
on top of head and chin very fine stippling in the young. Range : 
Str. Juan de Fuca to San Francisco Bay. Marine. Common. 
Whitebait 51. Allosmerus attemiatus (Lockington) 

4b. Teeth smaller and weaker ; deciduous at spawning, the breeding fish 
are almost completely endentulous ; head bluntly rounded anteriorly, 
as seen above ; pelvic fins inserted much in advance of origin of dor- 
sal fin ; opercles strongly striate concentrically ; gill rakers much re- 
duced in size and number, only 4 to 6+13 to 16 on first arch; anal 
fin elongate with 17 to 22 rays (usually 20 or 21) ; spawning in 
freshwater streams. Range: Bering Sea to Klamath River, Califor- 
nia. Marine and freshwater. Common. 

Columbia River Smelt. Eulachon. Oolachan. Candle Fish 

52. Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson) 

2b. Teeth on the vomer not canine-like, rather numerous and forming a con- 
vex series along the entire head of the bone ; teeth not deciduous, all 
small, or scarcely canine-like. Fig. 18. 

5a* Mouth large (as in all preceding genera and species) 1.8 to 2.2 
times in the head ; the maxillary reaching at least to posterior edge 
of the pupil, its upper surface concave; teeth larger, always evenly 
uniserial on vomer and palatine bones. 

6a. Fins less elongate, the pectoral not longer than the head, and not 
reaching pelvic insertion; pectoral fin, 1.25 to 1.4 in head; gill 
rakers 11 to 13+23 to 28; upper jaw, 1.8 to 1.9 in head; eye 
3.6 to 4.4 in head ; head in length to caudal 4.0 to 4.2 ; pigmenta- 
tion on top of head and under chin rather coarse and scattered in 
the young ; spawning at night in ocean surf. Range : La Push, 
Washington, to Monterey Bay, California. Marine. Abundant. 
Night Surf Smelt 53. Spirinchiis starksi (Fisk) 

6b. Fins much enlarged, the pectoral almost as long or longer than 
the head, and often extending beyond the pelvic insertion ; pec- 
toral fin 1.0 to 1.25 in head; gill rakers 11 to 13+28 to 31 ; upper 
jaw 2.0 to 2.15 in head; eye 4.4 to 4.8 in head; head in standard 
length 4.35 to 4.6; spawning in freshwater, the breeding males 
have the rows of scales along the lateral line greatly dilated. 
Range : British Columbia to Tillamook Head, Oregon. Marine 
and freshwater. Common. 

Long-finned Smelt. Puget Sound Smelt 

54. Spirinchiis dilatus Schultz and Chapman 

5b. Mouth much smaller, about 2.5 to 3.0 in the head, the maxillary 
not reaching beyond the middle of the pupil, its upper edge con- 
vex ; teeth minute, in biserial arrangement or nearly so, on vomer 
and palatine bones 

7a. Scales larger than in pretiosus, 54 to 62 along lateral line; 
pelvic fins usually inserted a little before origin of dorsal ; fins 
all larger than in pretiosus, the pectoral reaching more than 

142 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

half-way to pelvic insertion ; color darker ; breeding at small 
size in fresh water. Range : Japan to Alaska southward to 
San Francisco. Spawning in freshwater. Common. 
Freshwater Smelt 55. Hypomesus olidus (Pallas) 

7b. Scales smaller, 66 to 76 along lateral line ; pelvic fins usually 
inserted behind origin of dorsal ; fins all shorter than in olidus, 
the pectoral not reaching half-way to pelvic insertion; color 
more silvery; breeding at larger size in the surf. Range: 
Alaska to central California. Marine. Abundant. 
Silver Smelt. Surf Smelt.. 56. Hypomesus pretiosus (Girard) 

lb. Scales of small size, over 150 in the lateral line; scales on sides forming 
two villous bands in the breeding males ; mouth large, teeth small. Range : 
North Pacific southward to Str. Juan de Fuca, and North Atlantic Ocean. 
Marine. Abundant. 
Capelin 57. Mallotus villosus (Miiller) 

Family 24. Argentinidae. Deep Sea Smelt 

Range : Unalaska, Albatross Station 3330, and to California. Marine. Rare. 
58. Leuroglossus stilbius Gilbert 

Family 25. Microstomidae. Deep Sea Fish 

Range : Coast of Washington in deep water. Marine. Rare. 

59. Bathylagus pacificus Gilbert 

Family 26. Chauliodontidae. Viper Fishes 

Range : Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C, to California. Marine. Not rare. 
60. Chauliodus macouni Bean 

Family 27. Gonostomidae 

Range : Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Oregon to Panama (Jordan, Ever- 
mann, & Clark 1930) 

61. Cyclothone microdon (Giinther) 

Family 28. Nemichthyidae. Thread Eels. Snipe Eels 

Range : Puget Sound, Washington to Oregon. Marine. Rare. 

62. Nemichthys avocetta Jordan and Gilbert 

Family 29. Catostomidae. Suckers 

la. Mouth terminal, lower jaw oblique, lips thin, without papillae. 

2a. Gill rakers short and shaped like the Greek letter Delta, A, with edges 
unarmed and entire ; snout long, the premaxillary spines forming a dis- 
tinct projecting nose; scales about 12-J-80+9; dorsal rays about 11; anal 
9. Range : Klamath Lakes Drainage. Freshwater. Common. 
Lost River Sucker 63. Deltistes luxatus (Cope) 

2b. Gill rakers long and not like the Greek letter Delta, A- 

1936] Schnltc: Keys to Fishes 143 

3a. Mouth inclined at an angle of about 15° ; upper profile of snout smooth 
without conspicuous hump caused by premaxillary spines. Range : 
Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. 
Sucker of Klamath Lake 64. Chasmistes brevirostris Cope 

3b. Mouth inclined at an angle of 40° or over. 

4a. Mouth inclined at an angle of about 40° ; head about 3.9 to 4 in body ; 
snout 2 2 /t, to 2j4 in head ; premaxillary spines more protruding than 
in cope'x. Range : Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. 
Sucker of Upper Klamath Lake 65. Chasmistes stomias Gilbert 

4b. Mouth inclined at an angle of 45°; head 3 2 /$ in body; snout less 
prominent, 2.5 in head; premaxillary spines less protruding than in 
stomias. Range : Upper Klamath Lakes, Oregon. Freshwater. Com- 

Sucker of Upper Klamath Lake 

66. Chasmistes copci Evermann and Meek 

lb. Mouth inferior ; lips thick with many papillae. 

5a. A distinct notch at the corner of the mouth between upper &nd 
lower lips, fig. 37 ; upper lip recurved ; lower lip but little incised, 
3 or 4 rows of papillae crossing the mid-line; edge of jaw inside 
the lower lip with a hard cartilaginous sheath ; scales about 16 
+90 to 100+14; scales before dorsal about 48; fontanelle not fully 
closed, (fig. 36) ; dorsal 10 or 11; anal 7. Range: Columbia River 
basin and Upper Missouri. Freshwater. Common. 
Mountain Sucker 67. Pantosteus jordani Evermann 

5b. No distinct deep notch at the corner of the mouth between upper 
and lower lips, occasionally a very slight indentation appears on 
a few individuals, fig. 13; upper lip not recurved but nearly flat; 
edge of jaw inside the lower lips without a hard cartilaginous 
sheath, the sheath if present rather flexible; fontanelle present or 

6a. Lower lip not very deeply incised, at least 1 or 2 rows of pa- 
pillae are continuous across the mid-line. 

7a. Fontanelle present. Fig. 36. 

8a. Scales 20 to 22+97 to 111 + 19 to 22; scales before dorsal 
53 to 58; dorsal rays 11 to 13 (usually 12) ; peritoneum nearly 
jet black, the color showing through the body wall in the 
young. Range : Columbia River in eastern Washington, Ore- 
gon and Idaho. Freshwater. Abundant. 
Fine-scaled Sucker of the middle and lower Columbia River 
68. Catostomus syncheilus Hubbs and Schultz 

8b. Scales 15 to 19 + 73 to 79+14 to 15; scales before dorsal 
37 to 42; dorsal rays 10 or 11; 2 or more rows of papillae 
cross the mid-line of the lower lip ; peritoneum dusky, not 
jet black. Range: Oregon Lakes and tributaries. Fresh- 
water. Common. 

Coarse-scaled Sucker of Warner Lake Basin 

69. Catostomus warncrensis Snyder 


University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 


Fig. 36. A view of the dorsal side of the head of Catostomus syncheilus, showing the 
fontanelle (dotted) surrounded by ossified bones. Fon — fontanelle. Drawn by Arthur 
D. VVelander. 

Fig. 37. A view of the ventral side of the head of Pantosteus delphinns, showing the 
overhanging upper lip and the notches at the corner of the lips where the upper and 
lower meet. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. 

'7b. Fontanelle closed in adults and nearly closed in young; at 
most represented by a narrow slit; scales 14 to 18+80 to 93 
+ 11 to 13; scales before dorsal 37 to 52, usually about 40 to 
42; anal rays 6 to 7; dorsal rays 10 to 12; eye 6y 2 to 8 in 
head ; peritoneum dusky ; scales little if any increased in size 

9a. Lower lip deeply incised, so that not more than 1 row of 
papillae extend across the symphysis. Range : Upper Sac- 
ramento River and Goose Lake Drainage. Freshwater. 
Not common. 

70. Catostomus micro ps Rutter 

9b. Lower lip not deeply incised, so that 2 or more rows of 
papillae extend across the symphysis. Range : Rouge and 
Klamath rivers, Oregon and California. Freshwater. Com- 

Fine-scaled Klamath River Sucker 

71. Catostomus rimiculus Gilbert and Snyder 

6b. Lower lips very deeply incised, no row of papillae crossing the 
mid-line or at most only a rudiment of a row ; fontanelle present. 

10a. Fewer than 80 scales along the lateral line. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 145 

11a. Species of the Columbia River and coastal streams 
of Washington and Oregon except the Klamath ; 
scales 12 to 16+65 to 79+8 to 10; scales before 
dorsal 30 to 40; dorsal rays 12 to 15 ; caudal peduncle 
very slender in young and half grown ; peritoneum 
white to dusky, the color not showing through the 
body wall in the young as observed in syncheilus. 
Range : Puget Sound drainage, Columbia River, 
Coasts of Oregon and Washington as far south as 
the Sixes River, Oregon. Freshwater. Abundant. 

Coarse-scaled Sucker of Columbia River 

72. Catostomus macro chcilus Girard 

lib. Species of the Klamath River basin; scales 13 to 14 
+ 69 to 77+10 to 11 ; scales before dorsal about 32; 
dorsal rays about 11; caudal peduncle not slender in 
young and half grown. Range: Klamath Basin, Ore- 
gon. Freshwater. Not common. 

Coarse-scaled Sucker of Klamath River 

73. Catostomus snyderi Gilbert 

lie. Species of the Goose Lake drainage and the Sacra- 
mento River; scales 13 to 17 (usually 14 to 16) +62 
to 75 (usually 64 to 72) +8 to 10; scales before dor- 
sal 29 to 36; dorsal rays 11 to 15 (usually 12 or 13) ; 
this species is very much like macrocheihis from 
which it may not be distinct. Range : Goose Lake and 
tributaries. Freshwater. Common. 
Coarse-scaled Sucker of Goose Lake and Tributaries 
..74. Catostomus occidentalis lacus-anserimis Fowler 

10b. Scales in the lateral line 95 to 115; 18 to 21 scales 
above and 15 to 18 scales below the lateral line; dorsal 
rays 9 to 11; peritoneum dusky, seldom whitish, but 
never jet black. Range: Upper portions of the Missouri, 
Saskatchewan, and Columbia rivers. Freshwater. Com- 

Long-nosed Sucker 

75. Catostomus catostomus griseus Girard 

Family 30. Cyprinidae. Minnows. Dace. Chubs 

la. A spine, usually serrated, is developed at front of dorsal and anal fins ; the 
dorsal fin is very long, usually the anterior rays much longer than those 
behind middle of fin. 

2a. Barbels in 2 pairs on the side of the upper jaw. Range: Introduced into 
North America. Freshwater. Abundant. 
Common Carp 76. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 

2b. No barbels on the side of the upper jaw. Range: Introduced into North 
America. Freshwater. Abundant. 
Common Goldfish 77. Carassius auratus (Linnaeus) 

lb. No spines developed in the dorsal or anal fins ; sometimes in very large 
specimens the first simple ray is very hard but it is not a sharp spine. 

146 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

3a. More than 100 scales along the lateral line ; a barbel terminal on pos- 
terior tip of maxillary. Range : Introduced into the Columbia River 
system, Puget Sound drainage and Vancouver Island. Freshwater. 
Tench. Green Tench. Yellow Tench 78. Tinea tinea (Linnaeus) 

3b. Fewer than 100 scales along the lateral line. 

4a. A single row of pharyngeal teeth, the lesser row never developed. 

5a. Lower jaw with a conspicuous, broad, straight-edged, horny plate; 
alimentary canal at least twice the length of body, with more than 
1 main loop ; teeth usually 4-5, seldom 5-5, hooked and short ; per- 
itoneum jet black; young with a black spot at the base of the cau- 
dal fin rays in the mid-line. Range : Lower Columbia River sys- 
tem, and Malheur Lake drainage, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. 

Chiselmouth. Square Mouth 

79. Acrocheilus alutaccus Agassiz and Pickering 

5b. Jaws without straight edged horny plate as above ; alimentary canal 
about equal to or shorter than length of body, with but a single 
main loop. 

6a. Scales with radii on all fields appearing like the spokes of a 
wheel; 8 to 9 (usually 9) short blunt gill rakers on first gill 
arch ; origin of dorsal fin posterior to base of pelvic fins ; head 
about 4.7; depth 4.7; eye in head 4.6; scales 12 to 15+54 to 61 
+8 ; dorsal 8, anal 7 ; scales before dorsal 32 to 38 ; pharyngeal 
teeth usually 4 on right side and 5 on the left; peritoneum black 
to dusky. Range : Streams tributary to the north end of Goose 
Lake. Freshwater. Common. 
Northern Roach 80. Hcsperoleucns mitrulus Snyder 

6b. Scales without radii in all fields, if radii are present ; 13 to 20 
gill rakers on first arch, not very blunt ; origin of dorsal fin 
above base of pelvic fins ; peritoneum dusky to white ventrally ; 
(the species of Siphateles usually recognized are not clearly dif- 
ferentiated except by drainage systems ; the differences when 
studied statistically are probably significant). 

7a. Individuals inhabiting the Columbia River and Malheur Lake 
drainage; scales 11 to 13 (11.6) +41 to 53 (46) +5 to 7 (6) ; 
scales before the dorsal 24 to 29 (26); anal 8 to 9 (8.2). 
Freshwater. Common. 

Roach of the Columbia River System 

81. Siphateles bicolor columbianns (Snyder) 

7b. Individuals inhabiting the Klamath River and Klamath Lakes 
drainage systems; scales 10 to 12 (10.6) +43 to 53 (48) +5 
to 7 (6.2) ; scales before the dorsal 22 to 27 (25) ; anal 7 to 
8 (7.7). Freshwater. Common. 

Roach of the Klamath System 

82. Siphateles bicolor bicolor (Girard) 

7c. Individuals inhabiting the Sacramento-San Joaquin system, 
Goose Lake and tributaries; scales 10 to 13 (11.0) +44 to 54 
(49) +5 to 7 (5.8) ; scales before the dorsal fin 22 to 28 (25) ; 
anal 7 to 9 (8.4). Freshwater. Common. 

Roach of the Sacramento System 

83. Siphateles bicolor fornwsus (Girard) 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 147 

7d. Individuals inhabiting the lakes of southeastern Oregon, name- 
ly lakes Abert, Summer, Silver, Alkali, Warner, and their trib- 
utaries ; scales 11 to 14 (12.2) +45 to 60(52)+6 to 9 (6.8); 
scales before dorsal fin 24 to 33 (29); anal 7 to 11 (7.8). 
Freshwater. Common. 

Roach of Southeastern Oregon Lakes 

84. Siphatclcs bicolor orcgonensis (Snyder) 

7e. Individuals inhabiting the lakes and streams of the Lahontan 
Basin; scales 12 to 16+50 to 60 (usually 53 to 56) +7 to 8; 
scales before the dorsal 27 to 33 (usually 29 to 31) ; gill rak- 
ers 8 to 20 (usually 10 to 18) ; anal rays 7 to 8; dorsal 8. 
Freshwater. Common. 

Roach of the Lahontan Basin 

85. Siphatclcs bicolor obesus (Girard) 

4b. Pharyngeal teeth present, in 2 rows, the lesser row occasionally 
absent on one side. 

8a. Teeth in main row blunt, molar or stump shaped in adult, 
but often slightly hooked in the young; the teeth never ta- 
pering evenly to a hooked point as in 8b. 

9a. Premaxillary not protractile but bound to snout by a fre- 
num ; no barbels on maxillary ; scales between occiput and 
dorsal fin 45 to 55; (found only south of Oregon). Range: 
Sacramento River system. Freshwater. Abundant. 

Hardhead. (Sacramento River system) 

86. Mylopharodon conoccphalus (Baird and Girard) 

9b. Premaxillary proctractile ; barbel present on maxillary ; 
28 to 35 scales between occiput and dorsal fin ; peritoneum 
dusky to black in very young; young without a jet black 
spot at base of caudal fin rays as found in Ptychochcilus, 
the spot in Mylochcilus at most is very pale. Range : 
Drainage systems from the Columbia to the Fraser. 
Freshwater. Common. 

Columbia River Chub 

87. Mylochcilus caurinus (Richardson) ° 

8b. Teeth in main row hooked and usually compressed, tapering 
to a more or less hooked point ; never blunt and without 
grinding surface. 

10a. A barbel on the posterior angle of maxillary, usually 
small and seldom obsolete except on very young in- 

11a. Premaxillary protractile. 

12a. Between occiput and dorsal fin 16 scales ; 35 to 40 
scales in the lateral line. Range : Willamette and 
Umpqua rivers. Freshwater. Common. 

Oregon Chub or Minnow 

88. Oregonichthys crameri (Snyder) 

12b. Between occiput and dorsal fin 28 to 34 scales and 
more than 43 scales in the lateral line. 

"Reasons for changing name see Hubbs and Schultz 1931, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Mich. No. 232: 1-6. 

148 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

13a. Barbel just anterior to tip of maxillary ; 55 to 
58 scales in the lateral line; 10 to 11 scales above 
and 6 to 8 below the lateral line ; teeth 2 :4-4 :2. 
Range : Stuart Lake, headwaters of Fraser Riv- 
er, B. C, and Lake Pend d'Oreille, Idaho. 
Freshwater. Abundant. 

Chub Minnow. Lake Chub 

89. Couesius greeni Jordan 

13b. Barbel terminal on maxillary ; 43 to 90 scales in 
the lateral line (usually 52 to 75) ; 13 to 15 
scales above and 9 to 11 below the lateral line; 
teeth 2:4-4:2 to 0:4-4:1. 

14a. Dorsal fin with the distal edge concave, some- 
times strongly falcate ; innerside of rays of 
ventral fins with more or less conspicuous 
membraneous stays joining them to the body; 
sides of body with blackish-brown blotches, 
sharply contrasting with lighter color of body. 

15a. Scales 63 to 70 in lateral line ; least depth of 
caudal peduncle more than half postrostral 
length of head. Range : Columbia River ba- 
sin east of Cascade Range and in Payette 
and Salmon rivers, Idaho. Freshwater. Com- 

Dace 90. Apocope umatilla 

(Gilbert and Evermann) 

15b. Scales 50 to 57; least depth of caudal pe- 
duncle less than half postrostral length of 
head. Range : Columbia River Basin east of 
Cascade Range. Freshwater. Locally abun- 

Dace 91. Apocope falcata (Eigenmann 

and Eigenmann) 

14b. Dorsal fin with the distal edge not concave and 
never falcate, instead rounded; sides of body 
without large dark blotches, instead the sides 
are speckled with numerous small brownish- 
black spots which cover about 2 or 3 scales. 

16a. Scales 47 to 70 in the lateral line. 

17a. Intense dark lateral band; streams of 
coastal area. Range : Lower Columbia 
River and coastwise streams of Washing- 
ton and Oregon. Freshwater. Common. 
Black-nosed Dace. Black-sided Dace.... 
92. Apocope oscula nubila (Girard) 

17b. Lateral band faint ; body speckled ; streams 
east of the coast range, usually in non-for- 
est areas. Range : Middle and upper Co- 
lumbia River basin, the Great Basin, and 
Coast Range of southeastern Oregon. 
Freshwater. Abundant. 

Speckled Dace 

93. Apocope oscula carringtoni Cope 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 149 

16b. Scales 68 to 80 in the lateral line. Range: 
Klamath basin. Freshwater. Common. 

Klamath Dace 94. Apocope klamnthensis 

(Evermann and Meek) 

lib. Premaxillary not protractile, a broad frenum pres- 
ent binding it to the snout; mouth inferior, the snout 
projecting over the mouth; teeth 1:4-4:1. 

18a. Dorsal rays 9 or 10; scales 57 to 59 in lateral 
line ; depth of caudal peduncle 10 times in standard 
length. Range: Umpqua River, Oregon. Fresh- 
water. Common. 

Long-nosed Dace of Umpqua River System 

95. Rhinichtkys evermanni Snyder 

18b. Dorsal rays 8, seldom 9; scales 62 to 75 in lateral 
line ; depth of caudal peduncle about 8.3 in standard 
length. Range: Streams of northwestern United 
States. Freshwater. Abundant. 

Long-nosed Dace 

96. Rhinichtkys cataractae dulcis (Girard) 

10b. No barbel on maxillary; premaxillary always protrac- 

19a. Anal rays 7 to 10; mouth terminal, horizontal. 

20a. Eye 1 times in the length of snout; scales 13 to 
15+60 to 67+7; body less slender, the dorsal con- 
tour more arched; depth 3^4 in length; eye 5 to 
Sy 2 in head; dorsal 8; anal 7 to 9; about 9 short 
blunt gill rakers; peritoneum black; mouth 3% to 
2>y 2 in head; maxillary barely reaches to vertical 
below front of eye; interorbital much convex. 
Range : Klamath Lake and tributaries. Freshwater. 
Not rare. 
Chub 97. Tigoma bicolor Girard 

20b. Eye \ l / 2 in snout; eye 7 l / 2 in head; interorbital 
flattened; scales 13 to 24+67 to 86+7 to 9; head 
and body long and tapering; dorsal outline not 
abruptly curved or arched; depth 4.6 to 5.2 in 
standard length; dorsal 10; anal 8; 5 to 8 short 
blunt gill rakers on first gill arch; teeth scarcely 
hooked, but strong and set wide apart; always 2 
teeth in the lesser row as 2:5-4:2; peritoneum sil- 
very and usually speckled with black ; mouth deep- 
ly cleft, the maxillary reaching to under the eye; 
young with a jet black spot at base of caudal fin 

21a. Scales fewer than 45 (usually 36 to 41) on back 
before the dorsal fin; scales 13 to 15 above the 
lateral line. Range: Sacramento River system. 
Freshwater. Common. 

Sacramento Pike. Squawfish 

98. Ptychocheilus grandis (Ayres) 

150 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

21b. Scales more than 45 on the back before the dor- 
sal fin; 16 to 24 scales above the lateral line. 

22a. Scales 46 to 56 before the dorsal; 16 to 20 
above the lateral line and 67 to 75 scales in the 
lateral line. Range : Puget Sound drainage, 
Columbia River drainage and coastal streams 
of Oregon and Washington. Freshwater. Abun- 

Squawfish. Oregon Pike 

..99. Ptychocheilus orcgonensis (Richardson) 

22b. Scales 55 to 68 before the dorsal; 19 to 24 
(21) above the lateral line; 73 to 85 (75) in 
lateral line. Range : Coastal streams of Ore- 
gon — Siuslaw and Umpqua rivers only. Fresh- 
water. Common. 
Squawfish. 100. Ptychocheilus umpquae Snyder 

19b. Anal rays 10 to 22; mouth oblique; depth 3% to 4^4 
in standard length; eye 3 to 4 in head; scales 13+55 
to 63+6; head 4 to 4 l / 2 in length; body much com- 
pressed with a wide lateral band of blackish color 
between two silvery streaks. 

23a. Anal rays 10 to 13, usually 11 or 12. Range: 
Palouse River of eastern Washington; Bo- 
vill, Idaho ; above falls of the Snake River ; 
and Salt Lake drainage of Utah. Fresh- 
water. Abundant. 

Red-sided Shiner or Bream... 101. Richard- 
sonius balteatus hydrophlox (Cope) 

23b. Anal rays 13 to 22, usually 14 to 18. Range : 
Columbia River system; streams of Wash- 
ington, of Oregon, and Fraser River. 
Freshwater. Abundant. 

Red-sided Shiner or Bream... 102. Richard- 
sonius balteatus balteatus (Richardson) 

Family 31. Ameiuridae. Catfishes 

la. Caudal fin deeply and sharply forked. Range: Mississippi and Great Lakes 
drainage. Probably introduced into the Columbia River system. 
Channel Cat 103. Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) 

lb. Caudal fin emarginate to rounded. 

2a. Anal rays 17 to 21 (including rudiments) usually 18 to 20; pectoral 
spines at all ages entire or only slightly roughened behind ; outer 2 /z of 
inter-radial membranes of anal fin uniformly pigmented, always darker 
than the rays, the fin never mottled or barred or uniformly pigmented 
on both membranes and rays as in ncbulosus. Range : Introduced into 
western United States. Freshwater. 
Black Catfish. Horned Pout 104. Ameiurus mclas (Rafinesque) 

2b. Anal rays 19 to 24, usually 20 to 23; pectoral spines in the young with 
long sharp barbs on posterior edge, their length more than half the diam- 
eter of the spine, (barbs increasing in number and desceasing in relative 
size with age) ; black pigment on anal fin typically densest on the mem- 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 151 

branes near their margin, or in spots forming an obscure longitudinal bar 
near base of fin, or in faint mottling s on both rays and membranes (in 
pale and unmottled specimens, membranes and rays about equally pig- 
mented). Range: Introduced into most of the streams and lakes of 
United States. Freshwater. Common. 

Catfish. Horned Pout 105. Amciuriis nebulosus (LeSueur) 

Family 32. Sudidae (=Paralepididae) 

Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 

Pelagic Fish 106. Arctozenus coruscans (Jordan and Gilbert) 

Family 33. Myctophidae. 6 Lantern Fishes 

la. Luminous scales absent or present in varying numbers and positions ; but no 
large infra.- or supra.- caudal plates, the median luminous tissues or 
glands above and below the caudal peduncle are, when present, always 
divided into separate organs, each occupying the space and position of only 
one single normal scale, in an overlapping series ; or the entire tissue may 
in some cases be confined to the space of only 1 single scale altogether, but 
never expands as an undivided organ beyond the size of a scale. Fig. 9. 

2a. (See 2b and 2c.) Only 2 precaudal organs, usually well separated from 
the posteroanal series, very rarely confluent with the latter, median lu- 
minous scales often present infra.- and supra.- caudally, according to the 
sex, but only rarely found in both positions on the same specimen ; no 
luminous scales on any other part of the fish, antorbital organs not con- 
spicuously enlarged ; photophores without a black dividing septum. 

3a. Ventral organs 6 ; posterior-lateral organ 1 ; anal organs in 2 separate 
groups ; suprapectoral organ above base of pectoral fins ; scales ctenoid. 
Range : Washington to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 
107. Myctophum crenulare Jordan and Gilbert 

3b. Ventral organs 4 ; postero-lateral organ 1 ; anal organs in 2 separate 
groups ; supra-anal organs 3 ; supra-pectoral organ above base of pec- 
toral fin; 2nd ventral organ in a line with rest of the series; scales 
smooth (cycloid) ; supra-anal organs angulate ; anterior supra-anal or- 
gan approximately on the same level as second supra-anal organ, the 2 
organs being on a more nearly straight line with the supraventral or- 
gan, than with the last (superior) supra-anal organ. Range: Wash- 
ington to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 
108. Myctophum californiense Eigenmann and Eigenmann 

2b. (See 2a and 2c.) Precaudal organ, when separate from the postero-anals, 
present in the numbers of 3 to 6, never 2 only ; the lower precaudals may, 
however, in many forms be quite confluent with the posterior anals, in 
which case their numbers can not be made out ; median series of luminous 
scales usually present both infra.- and supra.- caudally in the same speci- 
men; similar scales are also common on other parts of the body, partic- 
ularly along the bases of dorsal and anal fins ; the 2 subpectoral organs 
rarely or never form a straight series with the 1st thoracic organ; antor- 
bital organs not conspicuously enlarged ; photophores without dividing 
septum; 4th thoracic organ elevated considerably above the rest of this 
series; subpectoral organs not above the pectoral fin base; luminous scales 
sometimes found at or before the adipose dorsal fin, but otherwise only 
on the caudal peduncle; no dorsal glands. 

"This key has been modified after the publication by A. E. Parr (1928), Bull. Bing- 
ham Oceanographic Collection. 

152 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

4a. No photophores on cheeks or on shoulder ; only 2 to 4 precaudal or- 
gans, often confluent with the anal organs (always count the last 
4 organs in these series as precaudals) ; pectorals very small or ves- 
tigial, not reaching beyond the base of the pelvics, sometimes absent ; 
33 or more scales in lateral line ; dorsal 12 to 19 ; anal 14 to 25. 

5a. Usually 5 ventral organs ; only 2nd ventral organ elevated ; head 
3 to 3 l / 2 in standard length ; supra-anal organs in a straight, oblique 
series. Range : North Pacific Ocean in deep water. Marine. Rare. 
109. Lampanyctus nannochir (Gilbert) 

5b. Usually 4 ventral organs ; supra-anal organs in a straight, oblique 
series ; head 3.6 to 3.8 in standard length ; eye 3.5 in head. Range : 
Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Rare. 
110. Lampanyctus leucopsarus (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) 

4b. No photophores on shoulder, one or many minute ones on each cheek ; 
supra-ventral organ twice as far from the base of the pelvic fin as 
from the lateral line ; eye about 5j4 in head ; about 37 or 38 scales 
in lateral line ; numerous minute photophores on each cheek and a 
somewhat larger organ in the lower posterior corner ; anal organs 
8+7 to 8; 4 precaudal organs. Range: Coast of Washington. Ma- 
rine. Rare. 
111. Lampanyctus regalis (Gilbert) 

2c. (See 2a, and 2b.) Precaudal organs 4, usually or always distinctly sep- 
arate from the posteroanals ; no supra.- and infra.- caudal luminous scales, 
except in a few species ; luminous scales are also probably always present 
at the suprapectoral organ, but never along the bases of dorsal and anal 
fins ; the 2 subpectoral organs always form an approximately straight series 
with the 1st thoracic organ; antorbital organs often greatly enlarged, 
each of the photophores on the body is divided by a black septum into 
an upper and a lower part, but this feature may be difficult to make out 
in poorly preserved specimens. Range : Alaska to San Diego in the Pa- 
cific. Marine. Not rare. 
112. Diaphus rafinesquei (Cocco) 

Family 34. Alepisauridae. Handsawfishes. Lancet Fishes 

Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. Marine. Not rare. 

Lancet Fish 113. Alcpisaurus jerox Lowe 

Family 35. Esocidae. Pickerels 

Range : Mississippi River and tributaries of Great Lakes. Probably intro- 
duced into Washington. Freshwater. Locally abundant in eastern 
Little Pickerel 114. Esox vermiculatus LeSueur 

Family 36. Novumbridae. Western Mud-minnow 

Range : Chehalis River at Satsop, Washington. Freshwater. Rare. 

Western Mud-minnow. Fig 38 115. Novumbra hubbsi Schultz 


Schults: Keys to Fishes 



University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

Family 37. Scomberesocidae. Sauries 

Range: North Pacific, Japan to Alaska and to California. Marine. Not 
Pacific Saury 116. Cololabis saira (Brevoort) 

Family 38. Coryphaenoididae (=Macrouridae). Grenadiers. Rat Tails 

la. Pectoral 20; eye 3 l /> in head; head 4^4 in total length; dorsal about XI, 
111+ ; anal 94+. Range: Alaska to Monterey, California. Marine. Not 
117. Macrurus acrolcpis Bean 

lb. Pectoral 17; eye A]/ 2 to 5 in head; head 6 in total length; dorsal about X, 
128; anal about 121. Range: Off the coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. 
118. Albatrossia pcctoralis (Gilbert) 

Family 39. Gadidae. Cods 

la. Dorsal fins 3 ; anal fins 2. 

2a. Lower jaw included (upper jaw extends beyond the tip of the lower 
jaw) ; barbel present at tip of the chin, always more than */4 the diam- 
eter of the pupil; gill rakers on 1st gill arch 16 to 29; caudal fin slightly 
concave or truncate. 

3a. Barbel equal to or longer than the diameter of the eye ; transverse 
processes of vertebrae not swollen at tips; vertebrae 51 to 56; de- 
pressed 1st dorsal scarcely reaching to origin of 2nd dorsal; length 
of depressed 1st dorsal less than the distance from eye to insertion of 
1st dorsal ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes under middle of 
2nd dorsal ; arch in lateral line evenly curved ; anus located under base 
of 2nd dorsal fin (usually near its origin); peritoneum blackish; all 
vertical fins with their margins whitish, the proximal portion of the 
fins being pigmented ; air bladder with a pair of short horns anteriorly, 
extending toward the mid-line, with an arm curved forward and a 
rudimentary tip curved inward. Range : Bering Sea, south to the coast 
of Oregon. Marine. Abundant. 
Pacific Codfish. Gray Cod 119. Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius 

3b. Barbel equal to or less than the diameter of the pupil (rarely longer 
than the pupil). 

4a. Transverse processes of vertebrae swollen into hollow balls at tips, 
the 1st occurring on the 9th abdominal vertebra; vertebrae 60 to 62; 
1st dorsal with the posterior margin rounded; depressed 1st dorsal 
scarcely reaching to origin of 2nd dorsal ; peritoneum silvery, stip- 
pled with black ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes under 

Fig. 39. Arctic Cod. Elcginus gracilis. After Schultz and Welander. Courtesy of Copeia. 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 


origin of 2nd dorsal; arch in lateral line flat-topped; anus located 

under the posterior edge of 1st dorsal fin base or under interspace 

between 1st and 2nd dorsal fins. Range: Siberia to Alaska. Marine. 


Northern Cod. Wachna Cod. Fig. 39.. 120. Eleginus gracilis Tilesius 

4b. Transverse processes of vertebrae flattened and unswollen at tips ; 
vertebrae 55 to 58; 1st dorsal with the posterior margin truncate; 
depressed 1st dorsal extending for about l /~, its length beyond the 
origin of 2nd dorsal ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes 
below the posterior % of the 3rd dorsal fin; arch in lateral line 
evenly curved ; anus located under the posterior 4th of the 1st dorsal 
fin base. Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine. Common. 
Pacific Tomcod. Fig. 40 121. Microgadus proximus (Girard) 

Fig. 40. Pacific Tomcod. Microgadus proximus. After Schultz and Welander. Cour- 
tesy of Copeia. 

2b. Lower jaw equal to or longer than the upper jaw; the barbel very small 
or absent on the tip of the chin ; always less than Y2 diameter of pupil ; 
gill rakers on first gill arch more than 30; caudal fin distinctly forked 
or concave behind. 

5a. Teeth in upper jaw slender, wide set, in 1 or 2 series ; subopercle 
and postclavicle normal (similar to the other opercular bones), not 
swollen nor ivory-like in adults ; distance from posterior tip of 
2nd dorsal to origin of the 3rd dorsal y 2 the diameter of the eye ; 
caudal fin forked; gill rakers 9 to 11 above the angle on the 1st 
gill arch. Range : Arctic Sea, Greenland to Alaska and northern 
Russia. Marine. 
Arctic Cod 122. Borcogadus saida (Lepechin) 

5b. Teeth in upper jaw in a villi form band, the outer ones somewhat 
enlarged and rather wide set ; subopercle and postclavicle swollen 
and ivory-like in the adults (but normal in the young) ; distance 
from posterior tip of 2nd dorsal fin to origin of 3rd dorsal from 
2 /j, as long as to a little longer than eye; caudal fin slightly con- 
cave; gill rakers 5 to 7 above the angle on the 1st gill arch. 
Range : Puget Sound and coast of Washington and British Colum- 
bia. Marine. Abundant. 

Puget Sound Pollack. Whiting 

123. Theragra chalcogramrna fucensis (Jordan and Gilbert) 

156 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

lb. Dorsal fins 2; anal fin single. 

6a. Anal fin notched. 

7a. The 2nd dorsal and anal fin emarginate ; caudal fin truncate 
behind; barbel absent; teeth in jaws canine-like and depres- 
sable on hinge-like ligament; lower jaw longer. Range: Alas- 
ka to Gulf of California. Marine. Common. 
Pacific Hake 124. Merluccius productus (Ayres) 

7b. Dorsal fin scarcely if any emarginate ; barbel short, equal to 
about l /z diameter of eye ; snout flat, depressed, and keeled on 
sides. Range : North Pacific Ocean off Queen Charlotte Is- 
lands in deep water. Marine. Rare. 
125. Antimora microlepis Bean 

6b. Anal fin not notched ; the 2nd dorsal and anal very long but not 
emarginate ; caudal fin rounded ; barbel present and longer than 
the eye; teeth in jaws forming a broad villiform band; lower 
jaw included. Range : Eastern and central United States, Co- 
lumbia River system and north to Arctic waters. Freshwater. 
Ling. Burbot. Lake Lawyer.. . .126. Lota maculosa (LeSueur) 

Family 40. Percopsidae. Trout Perches 

Range : Columbia River in lower portions. Freshwater. Not common. 

Columbia River Trout-perch 

127. Columbia transmontana Eigenmann and Eigenmann 

Family 41. Trachipteridae. Ribbon fish 

Range : Washington to southern California. Marine. Rare. 

Ribbon Fish . 128. Trachiptcrus rex-salmonorum Jordan and Gilbert 

Family 42. Lampridae. Moonfish. Opah 

Range : Open seas north to Newfoundland and north to Yakutat, Alaska. 
Moonfish. Opah 129. Lampris regius (Bonnaterre) 

Family 43. Bothidae. 7 Sand Dabs 

la. Dorsal rays 88 to 102; anal rays about 71 to 81 ; vertebrae 38 to 39; inter- 
orbital space wide, concave, scaly with a high bony ridge above lower eye ; 
gill rakers on lower arch l2 to 16. Range: Kiska Island, Alaska, to Cerros 
Island, Lower California. Marine. Common. 
Mottled Sand Dab 130. Citharichthys sordidus (Girard) 

lb. Dorsal rays 79 to 89; anal rays 59 to 70; vertebrae 34 to 37; no high bony 
ridge above the lower eye ; interorbital space not concave and not wide ; 
gill rakers on lower arch 8 to 9. Range : Prince William Sound, Alaska, 
to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 
Speckled Sand Dab 131. Citharichthys stigmacus Jordan and Gilbert 

'Some of the fin ray and vertebra counts have been taken from L. D. Townsend 
(1936) Report No. 11, International Fisheries Commission. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 157 

Family 44. Pleuronectidae. 7 Halibuts and Flounders 

la. Mouth large, symmetrical, dentition of jaws equal on eyed and blind side 
or nearly so ; length of maxillaries on eyed side contained fewer than 3 
times in the head. (Hippoglossinac, subfamily, halibut tribe.) 

2a. Lateral line with either a distinct arch in front or an accessory dorsal 
branch or both. Fig. 14. 

3a. Lateral line with a distinct arch in front, but without accessory dorsal 
branch; anterior dorsal rays not elongate or fringe-like; dorsal rays 91 
to 107; anal rays 69 to 80; vertebrae 49 to 51. Range: Japan, to Alas- 
ka, to northern California. Marine. Abundant. 
Pacific Halibut 132. Hippoglossus stcnolcpis Schmidt 

3b. Lateral line without distinct arch in front, but with accessory dorsal 
branch; eyes small; interorbital space very wide; 1st 10 dorsal rays 
elongated and fringe-like ; dorsal rays 72 to 85 ; anal 53 to 62 ; ver- 
tebrae 37 to 39; scales about 112. Range: Alaska to Monterey. Ma- 
rine. Common. 
Sand Sole 133. Psettichthys melanostictiis Girard 

2b. Lateral line without distinct arch in front or accessory dorsal branch. 

4a. Mouth very large, the maxillary reaching to below the posterior mar- 
gin of lower eye; teeth in jaws arrow-shaped in adults; dorsal rays 
95 to 111; anal rays 81 to 99; scales about 135; vertebrae 47 to 49. 
Range : Bering Sea to San Francisco. Marine. Common. 

Arrow-toothed Halibut 

134. Atheresthcs stomias (Jordan and Gilbert) 

4b. Mouth moderately large, the maxillary reaching only to about the 
center of the orbit of the lower eye. 

5a. Upper jaw with a single series of small sharp conical teeth; scales 
small, about 110 to 120 in the lateral line (88 to 92 pores); no 
scales directly on lateral line ; dorsal rays 72 to 90 and anal 57 to 
71 ; vertebrae 42 to 46 ; principle caudal rays 18. Range : Alaska to 
Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 

Sole. Flathead. 135. Hippoglossoides elassodon Jordan and Gilbert 
5b. Upper jaw with a double row of conical teeth. 

6a. Scales large, about 68 to 73 in the lateral line; scales located 
directly upon lateral line contain pores ; dorsal rays 72 to 88 ; 
anal 57 to 64; vertebrae 42 to 45. Range: Alaska to San Diego, 
California. Marine. Common. 
Rough Sole 136. Lyopsetta exilis (Jordan and Gilbert) 

6b. Scales small, about 88 to 100 along lateral line ; no scales lo- 
cated directly upon the lateral line ; dorsal rays 87 to 101 ; anal 
rays 67 to 79; vertebrae 41 to 44; principle caudal rays usually 
19, seldom 18 or 20. Range: Puget Sound to San Diego Bay. 
Marine. Common. 
Sole. English Sole 137. Eopsctta jordani (Lockington) 

lb. Mouth asymmetrical, dentition and cleft extending much further on blind 
side than on the eyed side ; total length of maxillaries on eyed side usually 
contained more than 3 times in the head. (Pleuronectinae, subfamily ; floun- 
der tribe). 

158 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

7a. An arched lateral line and accessory dorsal branch present; 
dorsal rays 67 to 82; anal 51 to 62; vertebrae 38 to 41. 
Range : Japan, Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abun- 
Rock Sole. Flounder 138. Lcpidopsetta bilineata (Ayres) 

7b. Arch of lateral line absent, accessory dorsal branch present. 

8a. First 5 to 10 dorsal rays on blind side; body covered with 
smooth scales, mostly cycloid ; scales not imbricated, scarcely 
touching each other ; interorbital space narrow and very 
high ; anal rays 46 to 56 ; dorsal rays 66 to 77. 

9a. Origin of dorsal fin on blind side on a level with the up- 
per lip, the 1st 5 or 6 dorsal rays occur on the blind side ; 
dorsal rays 65 to 78 ; anal 46 to 55 ; vertebrae 36 to 38. 
Range: Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. 
Sole. "C-O" Sole... 139. Plenronichthys coenosus Girard 

9b. Origin of dorsal on blind side on a level with the lower 
lip, the 1st 9 rays occur on the blind side ; dorsal rays 68 
to 79; anal 46 to 52; vertebrae 37 to 39. Range: Alaska 
to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Common southward. 

Sole. Turbot 

140. Plcuronichthys decurrens Jordan and Gilbert 

8b. Origin of the dorsal fin either on the mid-line or slightly 
on the eyed or blind side, not more than 1 or 2 of the 1st 
few dorsal rays occur slightly on the blind side. 

10a. Scales smooth, mostly cycloid, closely imbricated, 
about 94 to 104 along the lateral line ; upper eye situ- 
ated on dorsal outline ; interorbital space narrow and 
low ; dorsal rays 72 to 89 ; anal 54 to 70 ; vertebrae 42 
to 44. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. 
Sole. English Sole 141. Parophrys vetulus Girard 

10b. Scales rough ctenoid on one or both sides of the bod}'. 

11a. Dorsal rays 65 to 76; anal rays 50 to 61; scales 76 
to 86. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 

Bastard Sole. Hybrid Sole 

142. Inopsetta ischyra 8 (Jordan and Gilbert) 

lib. Dorsal rays 84 to 90; anal rays 63 to 68; scales about 
87 to 90. Range : Puget Sound to Point Conception. 
Marine. Common. 

Rock Sole. Scaly-finned Flounder 

143. Isopsctta isolcpis (Lockington) 

7c. Lateral line with neither an anterior arch over pectoral fin nor 
an accessory dorsal branch. 

12a. Body covered with ordinary smooth fine scales, not 
stellate; body elongate; scales about 130 to 145. 

13a. Pectoral fins very long, that of the eyed side 
longer than length of head ; dorsal rays 87 to 
110; anal rays 79 to 93; vertebrae 62 to 65; op- 
ercular opening extending much above pectoral 

8 Schultz, L. P., and Smith, R. T., have found this to be a hybrid between Platichthys 
and Parophrys. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 159 

fin base. Range : North Pacific south to San 
Pedro Bay. Marine. Common. 

Rex Sole. Long-finned Sole 

144. Glyptocephalus zachirus Lockington 

13b. Pectoral fin much less than length of head; dor- 
sal rays 94 to 116; anal 80 to 96; vertebrae 51 
to 54 ; opercular opening barely extending above 
pectoral fin base ; body less elongate. Range : 
Alaska to San Diego, California. Marine. Com- 

Slippery Sole. Chinese Sole. Slime Sole 

145. Microstomas pacificus (Lockington) 

12b. Body with rough scattered stellate tubercles ; bases 
of dorsal and anal on each side with a single row 
of stellate tubercles ; no stellate scales on lateral 
line ; vertical fins marked with wide black bars ; 
dorsal rays 52 to 66; anal 38 to 47; vertebrae 34 
to 37. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara County, 
California. Marine. Common. 

Starry Flounder 

146. Platiclithys stellatus rugosus Girard 

Family 45. Melamphaidae. Deep Sea Fishes 

la. Dorsal III, 13; anal II, 9; scales 23. Range: Alaska to Oregon. Marine. 
147. Plectromus cristiceps (Gilbert) 

lb. Dorsal III, 15; anal I, 8; scales 26. Range: Bering Sea to Panama. Ma- 
rine. Rare. 
148. Plectromus lugnbris (Gilbert) 

Family 46. Gasterosteidae. Sticklebacks 

la. Dorsal fin with fewer than 12 separate spines. 

2a. Dorsal fin with 2 to 4 spines. 

3a. Body wholly covered with plates on sides. Range : Europe, Asia and 
North America. Marine, brackish and entering freshwater. Common. 

Three-Spined Stickleback 

149. Gastcrosteus aculeatiis aculeatus Linnaeus 

3b. Body with no plates or only a few developed anteriorly. Range : 
Europe, Asia, and North America. Freshwater. Common. 

Three-Spined Stickleback 

150. Gastcrosteus aculeatus microcephalus Girard 

2b. Dorsal fin with 8 to 11 spines. Range; Europe and northern North 
America. Freshwater and brackish water. Common. 
Northern Stickleback 151. Pungitius pungitius Linnaeus 

Family 47. Aulorhynchidae. Marine Sticklebacks 

Range: Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abundant. 

Tube-snout. Many-spined Stickleback 

152. Aulorhynchus flaindus Gill 

160 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Family 48. Syngnathidae. Pipefishes 

Range: Southeastern Alaska to Monterey Bay, Marine. Common. 

Pipefish 153. Syngnathus griseo-lineatns Ayres 

Family 49. Atherinidae. Silversides 

la. Teeth bifid at tip, forked, on premaxillaries ; about 63 scales in the lateral 
series. Range: Northern Oregon to southern California. Marine. Com- 
Bay-smelt 154. Atherinops affinis oregonia Jordan 

lb. Teeth all normal, the tips not divided into horns; about 75 scales in a 
lateral series. Range: Northern Oregon to Lower California. Marine. 
Jack Smelt 155. Atherinopsis californicnsis calif omicnsis Girard 

Family 50. Sphyraenidae. Barracudas 

Range: Puget Sound to Gulf of California. Marine. Common southward. 
Barracuda 156. Sphyracna argentea Girard 

Family 51. Scombridae. Mackerels 

Range : Prince William Sound, Alaska to Lower California. Marine. 
Common southward. 
Pacific Mackerel 157. Pneumatophorus diego (Ayres) 

Family 52. Thunnidae. Tunny and Albacore 

la. Pectoral fin reaching to anal fin or beyond ; pectoral fin longer than the 
head. Range : Puget Sound to Lower California. Marine. Common south- 
Albacore 158. Gcrmo alalunga (Gmelin) 

lb. Pectoral fin not reaching to anal fin and shorter than the head. 

2a. Color markings of longitudinal stripes on upper half of body; dorsal of 
about XVIII-I, 12 and 8 or 9 finlets; anal II. 11 and 6 finlets. Range: 
Puget Sound to Chile. Marine. Common southward. 
Bonito. Skipjack 159. Sarda chilcnsis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

2b. Color of body without conspicuous stripes ; dorsal XII to XV-I, 13 and 
8 to 10 finlets ; anal I, 12 and 8 finlets. Range : Oregon to Guadalupe 
Islands. Marine. Common southward. 
Tuna. Bluefin Tuna 160. Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) 

Family 53. Trichiuridae. Hairtails. Cutlass Fishes 

Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Marine. Not common. 

Cutlassfish. Hairtail 

161. Benthodesmus atlanticus Goode and Bean 

Family 54. Bramidae. Pomfret 

Range : Alaska to Santa Catalina Island. Marine. Not common. 

Pomfret 162. Bratna raii (Bloch) 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 161 

Family 55. Stromateidae 

Range : Puget Sound to San Diego. Marine. Common southward. 

California Pampano 163. Peprilits simillimus (Ayres) 

Family 56. Icosteidae. Ragfishes 

Range: British Columbia to California. Marine. Rare. 

Ragfish 164. Icostcus acnigmaticus Lockington 

Family 57. Acrotidae. Pelagic Fish 

Range : Petersburg, Alaska to San Pedro, California. Marine. Not rare. 
Ragfish 165. Acrotus zvilloughbyi Bean 

Family 58. Percidae. Perch 

Range : Eastern United States, introduced into the western United States. 
Freshwater. Common. 
Yellow Perch 166. Perca flavescens (Mitchill) 

Family 59. Centrarchidae. Bass and Sunfish 

la. Body not elongate but sunfish-shaped, depth about Yi to 2 /s the standard 
length; scales 35 to 55; pyloric caeca unbranched, 5 to 11; anal spines 
strong, the longest more than half as high as the soft fin. 

2a. Anal III (rarely IV), 8 to 12; anal fin less than half as long as dorsal; 
dorsal IX to XII, 9 to 13; ctenii of scales well developed. 

3a. Tongue, hyoid and pterygoids toothed ; preorbital serrate ; the upper 
jaw extending beyond middle of eye; supplementary maxillary well 
developed ; lower pharyngeal narrow, with conic teeth ; operculum 
scarcely produced, with stiff margin ; caudal vertebrae 17 ; gill rakers 
well developed. Range : Introduced into western United States. Fresh- 
water. Not common. 
Warmouth Bass. 167. Chaenobrythis gulosus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

3b. Tongue, hyoid, and pterygoids toothless ; preorbital strickly smooth ; 
mouth smaller, the upper jaw not extending to middle of eye; supple- 
mentary maxillary reduced or absent. 

4a. Upper jaw extending nearly to (rarely a little beyond) middle of 
eye; supplementary maxillary well developed; ctenii of scales ob- 
solescent ; anal spines low, little more than half as high as the soft 
fin ; lower pharyngeals narrow, with conic teeth ; operculum scarcely 
produced, with stiff margin; caudal vertebrae usually 17; gill rakers 
about x /2 as long as eye ; usually a blackish spot on posterior part of 
soft dorsal. Range : Introduced into western United States. Fresh- 
water. Common. 
Green Sunfish 168. Apomotis cyancllus (Rafinesque) 

4b. Upper jaw not nearly reaching to middle of eye; supplementary 
maxillary variously reduced or absent; ctenii of scales well devel- 
oped; anal spines higher, more than 2 /$ as high as the soft fin. 

5a. Lower pharyngeals narrow, the width about Ys the length of the 
toothed portion, the outer margin straight or nearly so, the teeth 
long, slender and more or less conic ; operculum more or less pro- 

162 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

duced as a flap, the latter thin and flexible toward the margin; 
membranous border without a distinct red spot ; pectoral fins 
pointed, about as long as head; caudal vertebrae usually 17, gill 
rakers about Vi as long as eye. Range: Introduced into western 
United States. Freshwater. Common. 
Bluegill Sunfish.169. Helioperca incisor (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

5b. Lower pharyngeals broad, about y 2 the length of the toothed por- 
tion, the outer margin strongly gibbous, the teeth short, broad 
molars ; operculum scarcely produced, the margin stiff, contrast- 
ing sharply with the membraneous border, which always bears a 
conspicuous red spot; caudal vertebrae 18, gill rakers rudimentary. 
Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Com- 
Pumpkinseed Sunfish 170. Eupomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus) 

2b. Anal V to VII, 16 to 19; anal fin about as long as dorsal; dorsal V 
to VIII (rarely IX), 13 to 16; tongue, hyoid, and pterygoids toothed; 
mouth large ; supplementary maxillary well developed ; preopercle strong- 
ly serrate on entire lower margin as well as around angle; gill rakers 
long and slender, more than 20. 

6a. Dorsal VI (rarely V or VII); caudal vertebrae usually 18; 
origin of dorsal farther back so that a line perpendicular to upper 
jaw passes in front of 1st dorsal spine; dark markings arranged 
to form vertical bands. Range : Introduced into western United 
States. Freshwater. Common. 
White Crappie 171. Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque 

6b. Dorsal spines VII or VIII (usually VII), rarely VI, IX, or X; 
caudal vertebrae usually 19; origin of dorsal farther back so 
that a line perpendicular to upper jaw passes behind the third 
dorsal spine ; dark markings not forming bands. Range : Intro- 
duced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. 
Black Crappie 172. Pomoxis sparoides (Lacepede) 

lb. Body elongate, bass-shaped, the depth about Vz the length; scales small, 
60 to 85 along the lateral line; pyloric caeca 11 or more; anal spines III 
(rarely II or IV) and very small, the longest less than y 2 the longest soft 
ray ; opercle bilobed ; supplementary maxillary well developed. 

7a. Pyloric caeca typically unbranched ; preopercle scaleless ; fins 
better scaled ; dorsal fin shallowly emarginate, the shortest 
spine more than 2 /z as long as longest, the top of the spinous 
portion being gently rounded; dorsal soft rays 14 (rarely 13 
or 15) ; caudal vertebrae 17 (rarely 16) ; scales on cheek much 
reduced in size; mouth of moderate size (the upper jaw ex- 
tending beyond middle of pupil but not to hind margin of eye) ; 
color pattern consisting chiefly of short vertical bars. Range : 
Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Not com- 
Small-mouth Black Bass. .173. Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede 

7b. Most of the pyloric caeca in any one fish always bifid; pre- 
opercle partially scaled ; dorsal and anal scaled only at very 
base; dorsal soft rays 12 or 13; caudal vertebrae 17 or 18; 
scales on cheek only moderately reduced in size ; mouth large 
(upper jaw extending beyond hind margin of eye in adult) ; 
color pattern consisting chiefly of a dark lateral streak. Range : 
Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. 

Large-mouth Black Bass 

174. Aplitcs salmoidcs Rafinesque (=H«ro floridana LeSueur) 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 163 

Family 60. Moronidae. Sea Bass 

Range : Introduced on Pacific Coast ; northern Oregon to southern Cali- 
fornia. Marine and Freshwater. Common. 
Striped Bass 175. Rocctts saxatilis (Walbaum) 

Family 61. Otolithidae 

Range : Coast of California, occasionally taken as a visitor as far north as 
southeastern Alaska. Marine. Rare northward. 
White Sea Bass 176. Atractoscion nobilis ( Ayres) 

Family 62. Trichodontidae 

Range : Kamchatka to Oregon. Marine. Common northward. 

Sand Fish 177. Trichodon trichodon (Tilesius) 

Family 63. Scorpaenidae. 9 Rockfish 

la. Dorsal spines XIV to XVII; top of head scaly; vertebrae 29; palatine 
teeth present ; anal III, 5 ; pectorals with lower rays broadened or pro- 
longed into linguiform lobe. 

2a. Dorsal spines XV to XVII (usually XVI) gill rakers 18 to 22 on 1st gill 
arch ; longest spines of dorsal, the 4th or 5th are contained 2.9 to 3.5 in 
head ; light vertical lines or rows of spots across the dark pectoral 
blotch ; branchiostegals naked. Range : Alaska to California. Marine. 
Not common. 

Spiny-headed Rockfish. Lobe-finned Rockfish 

178. Sebastolobus alascanus Bean 

2b. Dorsal XIV to XVI (usually XV) ; gill rakers 21 to 24 on 1st gill 
arch; longest spine of dorsal, the 3rd, is contained 1.7 to 3.0 in head; no 
light vertical rows or lines of spots across the dark pectoral blotch; 
branchiostegals scaly. Range : Aleutian Islands to San Diego in deep 
water. Marine. Not common. 

Spiny-headed Rockfish. Lobe-finned Rockfish 

179. Sebastolobus altivelis Gilbert 

lb. Dorsal spines XIII (very rarely XIV) ; vertebrae 27; palatine teeth pres- 

3a. Interorbital space more or less convex (never concave), broad, less 
than 3 l /2 in base of skull ; cranial ridges very low or obsolete, the 
spines when present, delicate ; base of skull strongly curved, meseth- 
moid processes not elevated (not directed upward), ventral process 
of basisphenoid rudimentary (or fairly developed only in young) ; 
anal rays III, 6 to 9 ; gill rakers usually long and slender ; snout, pre- 
orbitals and jaws more or less scaly. 

4a. Cranial ridges (except parietal) all obsolete or very slightly de- 
veloped, cranial spines absent or very inconstant and minute (regu- 
larly present only in young; preocular spines usually present in 
mystinus) ; lower jaw much projecting. 

5a. Parietal bones not meeting; mesethmoid processes weak and de- 
pressed ; scales small, in 90 to 100 transverse series above lateral 
line, 65 to 80 tubes; lower jaw much projecting, entering profile, 

"Modified after Jordan and Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S.N.M. 1896-1900, and after Hubbs 
and Schultz, Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 1932. 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

a large symphyseal knob, directed forward; peritoneum white or 
with dark dots; depth about 2> 2 /t, length; anal rays III, 9; color 
light olivaceous-red ; young olivaceous, somewhat mottled. Range : 
Barclay Sound, B. C., to San Diego. Marine. Common southward. 
Bocaccio. Grouper 180. Scbastodcs paucispinis (Ayres) 

Fig. 41. A view of the dorsal 
side or top of the head of a rock- 
fish, Sebastodcs, showing the ar- 
rangement of the cranial spines 
and ridges. Cor — coronal spine; 
Nas — nasal opening; Nas Sp — Orb- 
nasal spine; Hum — humeral 
spines; Nuch — nuchal spine; 
Parie — parietal spine or ridge; 
Pre Sp — preocular spine; Post — - 
postorbital spine; Supra — supra- 
ocular spine; Sym — symphyseal 
knob; Tym — tympanic spine. 
Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. 

— How 

5b. Parietal bones usually meeting; mesethmoid processes better de- 
veloped, straight, not elevated; smaller symphyseal knob. Fig. 41. 

6a. Peritoneum white to dusky; dorsal fin deeply emarginate. 

7a. Body usually more slender (depth in adult 2.9 to 3.5 in stand- 
ard length) ; snout sharply pointed; symphyseal knob conspicu- 
ous; lower jaw strongly and sharply projecting; pectoral rays 
17 or 18 (rarely 19 in fiavidus) ; dark specks on body few and 
relatively inconspicuous, and not extended onto the dorsal fins ; 
light blotches near base of dorsals well developed ; caudal 
fin more or less yellow ; anal fin truncated ; unbranched pector- 
al rays less thickened than in melanops; no light band along 
mid-sides; size moderate, usually less than 15 inches long; 
adults living offshore ; young not normally inhabiting the tide 

8a. Tips of nasal spines concealed (except rarely) ; occipital 
ridges very inconspicuous ; spinous dorsal long and low 
(highest spine 2.8 to 3.0 in head) ; dorsal soft rays 15 or 16; 
anal 9, rarely 8; pectoral 17 or 18, usually 17; unbranched 
pectoral rays 8 or 9, usually 8 ; body usually more slender 
(depth 3.2 to 3.5), and anterior profile less steep; profile of 
snout more arched ; upper profile of symphyseal knob form- 
ing an angle of about 45° with horizontal axis; eye smaller 
(in adults about one foot long 1.3 in snout, 1.2 in interorbital 
and 4.5 in head) ; color much darker, blackish olive on head 
and back ; dark specks on body difficult to discern ; light 
blotches along dorsal base usually more conspicuous ; vertical 
fins not margined with blackish ; caudal fin blackish olive- 
yellow. Range : California, from San Francisco to Mexican 
boundary. Marine. Common. 
181. Scbastodcs scrranoides Eigenmann and Eigenmann 



Fig. 42. Yellowtail Rockfish. Sebastodes fiavidus. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy 
of University of Washington Publications. 

Fig. 43. Sebastodes columbianus. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy of the Uni- 
versity of Washington Publications. 

Fig. 44. Black Bass. Sebastodes melanops. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy of 
University of Washington Publications. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 165 

8b. Tips of nasal spines exposed and sharp; occipital ridges 
moderately well developed ; spinous dorsal higher (highest 
spine 2.4 to 2.7 in head) ; dorsal soft rays 14 or 15; anal 8 
rarely 7; pectoral 17 to 19, usually 18; unbranched pectoral 
rays 7 to 10, usually 9; body usually less slender (depth 
2.9 to 3.3 usually about 3.0) ; anterior profile steep ; profile 
of snout less arched ; upper profile of symphyseal knob form- 
ing an angle of much less than 45° with horizontal axis; 
eye larger (in adults about one foot long about equal to 
snout or interorbital, 4.0 in head) ; color much lighter, 
brownish on head and back ; dark specks distinctly evident ; 
light blotches along dorsal base usually less conspicuous ; 
vertical soft fins usually margined with blackish ; caudal fin 
bright yellow. Range : Washington to Lower California. 
Marine. Common. 
Yellowtail Rockfish. Fig. 42.. 182. Scbastodcs flavidus Ayres 

7b. Body usually deeper (depth in adult, 2.6 to 2.9 in standard 
length); snout blunter; symphyseal knob less conspicuous; 
lower jaw less strongly and more bluntly projecting; pectoral 
rays 19, rarely 18 or 20; dark specks on body numerous and 
very conspicuous, and extended onto vertical fins ; light blotches 
near base of dorsal inconspicuous ; caudal fin dusky, not yel- 
low ; tips of nasal spines exposed ; upper profile of symphy- 
seal knob forming an angle of 45° or more with the horizon- 
tal axis. 

9a. Body more ovate, the anterior profile steeper ; eye (in larg- 
est available adults) smaller, 4.7 to 4.9 in head; interor- 
bital space averaging narrower, 4.0 to 4.3 in head; dorsal 
spines higher (highest 2.3 to 2.6 in head) ; anal truncate 
behind ; unbranched pectoral rays less thickened and 
leathery, and fewer, 8 to 10 (usually 9) ; soft rays of ver- 
tical fins averaging fewer (dorsal 14, sometimes 13; anal 
7 or 8) ; color much paler; dark spots smaller; no light 
band along mid-sides ; larger, commonly about 20 inches 
long ; inhabiting sandy river mouth ; young not occurring 
in tide pools of reefs. Range : Columbia River mouth. 
Marine. Not rare. Fig. 43. 
183. Sebastodes columbianus Hubbs and Schultz 

9b. Body more elliptical, the anterior profile less abrupt ; eye 
(in largest available adults) larger, 4.1 to 4.2 in head; 
interorbital space averaging wider 3.8 to 4.2 in head; 
dorsal spines lower (highest 2.6 to 3.1 in head) ; anal 
rounded with 8, rarely 7 or 9 soft rays ; unbranched pec- 
toral rays thick and leathery, typically 10 (rarely 9 or 
11) ; soft rays of vertical fins averaging more numerous, 
dorsal 13 to 16, most frequently 15 ; color very dark, al- 
most black above ; a rather prominent light band along 
mid-sides (just below lateral line anteriorly, along lateral 
line posteriorly) ; smaller adults usually less than 15 inches 
long, inhabiting rocky shores ; the young developing in the 
tide pools. Range : Southern Alaska to Pt. Arguello, 
California. Marine. Common. 

Black Bass. Fig. 44... 184. Sebastodes melanops (Girard) 

166 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

6b. Peritoneum dusky to black; colors dusky, fins blackish, dorsal 
fin not very deeply emarginate ; anal rays III, 9; preocular ridges 
present, usually ending in spines, frontal region between them 
bulging ; color blackish. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. 
Black Bass 185. Sebastodes mystinus (Jordan and Gilbert) 

4b. Cranial ridges somewhat developed ; preocular, postocular, tympanic, 
and parietal spines usually present, delicate (supraocular also pres- 
ent in some species); fig. 41; lower jaw projecting; parietal bones 
usually not meeting. 

10a. Lower jaw much projecting; scales rather small; lat- 
eral line 50 to 75; anal rays III, 7 to 9; dorsal fin not 
deeply emarginate, soft dorsal low; 2nd anal spine not- 
ably longer than 3rd ; peritoneum black or dusky. 

11a. Supraocular spines usually present; body elongate, 
depth more than 3 in length; pores of lateral line 
50 to 52; pectorals reaching vent; anal III, 8; body 
dusky above, with faint traces of darker blotches 
along back. Range : Bering Sea to Santa Barbara, 
California. Marine. Not common. 

Long-jawed Rockfish 

186. Sebastodes alutus (Gilbert) 

lib. Supraocular spines absent, body rather elongate; 
anal III, 7; color chiefly red; lateral line with about 
52 to 55 pores, vertical scale rows about 100 to 110. 
Range: Puget Sound to San Diego. Marine. Not 

Red-striped Rockfish 

187. Sebastodes prorigcr (Jordan and Gilbert) 

10b. Lower jaw little projecting; anal III, 6 or 7. 

12a. Supraocular spine present ; scales 45 to 55 in 
lateral line ; anal 7 ; color red or orange. 

13a. Scales on mandible smooth ; color chiefly orange. 
Range : Hecate Str. to Lower California. Ma- 
rine. Common. 

Orange Rockfish. 188. Sebastodes pinniger (Gill) 

13b. Scales on mandible very rough ; color chiefly 
brick red, color above, deep vermilion, mottled 
with flesh color on sides, belly light red. Range : 
Oregon to San Diego. Marine. Common. 

Vermilion Rockfish 

..189. Sebastodes miniatus (Jordan and Gilbert) 

12b. Supraocular spine absent ; scales 41 to 45 in the 
lateral line; anal III, 7, the 2nd spine longer than 
3rd. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 
190. Sebastodes cmphaeus Starks 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 167 

3b. Interorbital space flat or slightly concave, of medium width; meseth- 
moid processes but little or not at all elevated, ventral process of ba- 
sisphenoid rudimentary; cranial ridges and spines moderately strong; 
lower jaw moderately or not much, sometimes not at all, projecting; 
gdl rakers usually long and slender; anal III, 6 to 8; deep water 

14a. Supraocular spine absent; base of skull strongly curved. 

15a. Premaxillaries without prominent dentigerous knobs ; lower jaw 
somewhat projecting; parietals not meeting. 

16a. Gill rakers 10+22 to 23, the longest 2 /$ orbit; dark bars on 
sides faint becoming obsolete with age; lower jaw much pro- 
jecting; peritoneum black. Range: Southeastern Alaska and 
southern California. Marine. 
Olive-backed Rockfish 191. Sebastodes saxicola (Gilbert) 

16b. Gill rakers 10+21, slender, 2^ in orbit; no distinct dark 
cross bars; lower jaw scarcely projecting; peritoneum dark 
brown. Range : Coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. 
192. Sebastodes crameri Jordan 

16c. Gill rakers 12 or 13+29 or 30, the longest l / 2 orbit; anal III, 
6 or 7 ; peritoneum black. Range : Swif tsure Shoal, B. C., to 
Monterey, California. Marine. Not common. 

193. Sebastodes wilsoni Gilbert 

15b. Premaxillaries with prominent dentigerous knobs, between 
which the tip of the lower jaw fits; mandible not projecting; 
gill rakers very long and slender, y 2 orbit, 9 to 11+22 to 25. 
Range: Nanaimo, B. C, to Coronado Islands. Marine. Not 

Lobe-jawed Rockfish 194. Sebastodes diploproa (Gilbert) 

14b. Supraocular spine present, fig. 41, quite strong; coronal and nu- 
chal spines usually present ; 2nd anal spine equaling 3rd in length ; 
anal III, 7; lining of mouth and gill cavity largely black. Range: 
Bering Sea to Santa Barbara, California. Marine. 
Alaskan Red Rockfish 195. Sebastodes introniger (Gilbert) 

3c. Interorbital space as a rule concave and narrow ; the cranial ridges and 
spines well developed ; base of skull straight or nearly so ; mesethmoid 
processes directed upward; ventral processes of basisphenoid well de- 
veloped; gill rakers usually short. 

17a. Supraocular spine present; interorbital space concave. 

18a. Second anal spine scarcely longer than 3rd; color red, nearly 
plain ; cranial ridges broken and armed with accessory spines, 
except in the young (the ridges begin to break up into sep- 
arate spines at about 20 cm. standard length) ; interorbital 
space nearly flat in adult (ridges smooth, interorbital space 
concave in young, as in Sebastodes rosaceus) ; peritoneum 
white; the distal y 3 to l / 2 of the ventral, anal, and caudal 
fins of the young are black in color, fading proximally; the 
pectorals and soft dorsal fins are generally blackish; the black 
color of the fins is still evident on 20 cm. specimens. Range : 
Southeastern Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. 

Red Rockfish. Red Rockcod. Red Snapper 

196. Sebastodes ruberrimus Cramer 

168 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

18b. Second anal spine much longer, usually stronger than 3rd; 
cranial ridges smooth ; fins of young without the dense black 

19a. Color more or less rosy, with 3 to 5 round blotches of pink 
on sides of back; dorsal spines usually low, the highest 
less than ^ the length of head ; no small green spots on 
sides of back ; body without stellate spots ; mandible naked ; 
pale blotches on sides surrounded by purple shades ; head 
with purplish above ; supraorbital ridge rather high with 
spines ; peritoneum blackish ; nuchal spines absent. Range : 
Puget Sound to Cerros Island, Lower California. Ma- 
rine. Common. 
197. Scbastodes rosaceus (Girard) 

19b. No round blotches of pink on sides of back, nuchal spines 
present ; peritoneum black. Range : Southeastern Alaska 
and Cerros Island, Lower California. Marine. 
198. Scbastodes rupestris (Gilbert) 

17b. Supraocular spine wanting, fig. 41 ; interorbital space some- 
what concave. 

20a. Mandible scaly ; peritoneum dusky to black. 

21a. Lower jaw only slightly projecting; peritoneum jet 
black ; roof of mouth, dusky posteriorly, buccal and 
branchial cavities otherwise white ; dorsal XIII, 14 
or 15; anal III, 7 or 8. Range: Puget Sound to Santa 
Barbara, California. Marine. 
199. Scbastodes zacentrns (Gilbert) 

21b. Lower jaw much projecting and entering profile; per- 
itoneum dusky ; roof of mouth, buccal and branchial 
cavities whitish ; sides above with irregular horizontal 
interrupted olive-green bands; dorsal XIII, 12 or 13; 
anal III, 6 or 7. Range: Puget Sound to Lower Cal- 
ifornia. Marine. Not common. 

Green-striped Rockfish 

200. Scbastodes elongatus (Ayres) 

20b. Mandible naked ; peritoneum pale or white ; body usually 

22a. Scales on head mostly cycloid; lower jaw project- 
ing ; head large, pointed ; 2nd anal spine 2 l / 2 in head, 
much stronger than 3rd ; color pinkish white, banded 
with deep crimson. Range : British Columbia and 
southern California. Marine. 

Spanish Flag 

..201. Scbastodes rubriznnctus (Jordan and Gilbert) 

22b. Scales on head ctenoid; lower jaw usually included; 
2nd anal spine little enlarged. 

23a. Nuchal spines absent ; body not barred with black ; 
interorbital space widening markedly from before 

24a. Coronal spines usually present, color brownish, 
mottled. Range : Puget Sound to San Martin, 
Lower California. Marine. 

Brown Rockfish 

202. Scbastodes auriculatas (Girard) 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 169 

24b. Coronal spines none ; ridges with entire edges. 

25a. Gill rakers much higher than wide; dorsal 
spines high over y 3 of length of head; inter- 
orbital somewhat convex posteriorly, so that 
the postocular spines do not enter the profile; 
profile but slightly indented behind nasal 
spines; mouth small, upper jaw usually not 
extending beyond vertical from hind border of 
orbit, and contained 5.3 to 5.7 times in stand- 
ard length; ridges of head narrower; dorsal 
spines scarcely excised posteriorly; a pale 
area along posterior f$ of lateral line more or 
less distinctly evident. Range: Sitka, Alaska, 
to Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Marine. Common. 

Yellow-backed Rockfish 

203. Sebastodes canrinus (Richardson) 

25b. Gill rakers and dorsal spines the same as in 
25a; interorbital more or less concave, so that 
the postorbital spines may enter the profile 
(tips of spines sometimes not entering profile 
in maliger) ; profile deeply and widely indent- 
ed behind nasal spines. 

26a. Interorbital only moderately concave; the 
orbital rims not greatly thickened and ele- 
vated, not abruptly entering the profile; 4 
posterior interspinal membranes of dorsal 
rather deeply incised to about l /z or J4 height 
of spine; body deep and ovate; depth 2.3 to 
27 in standard length; caudal peduncle de- 
cidedly more than half as deep as long; tips 
of caudal fin broadly rounded; interorbital 
with median pair of ridges inconspicuous; 
most conspicuous element of color pattern 
consisting of pale wedge (more or less dis- 
rupted) below first dorsal; anterior parts 
usually heavily spotted with orange, brown 
in preserved specimens; opercular blotch 
merely dusky ; cheek stripes pale ; no oblique 
bands on pectoral fin; no blackish spots on 
pectoral or caudal fin rays, these spots may 
occur on base of pectorals ; no dark-bordered 
light streak along lateral line posteriorly; 
size large, to 20 inches. Range : Sitka, Alas- 
ka to Monterey, California, in moderate 
depths. Marine. Common. 

Speckled or Brown Rockfish. Orange-spot- 
ted Rockfish 

204. Sebastodes maliger (Jordan and Gilbert) 

26b. Interorbital deeply concave ; the orbital rims 
greatly thickened, and sharply elevated, 
abruptly entering profile ; 4 posterior inter- 
spinal membranes of dorsal scarcely incised ; 
body deep and ovate; depth 2.3 to 2.75 in 
standard length; size medium; rarely ex- 
ceeding 12 inches. 

170 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

27a. Spines of head less strong; parietal ridges 
less elevated ; anal rays 6 ; pale blotches 
on sides not forming a continuous lateral 
band ; body and fins not speckled with pale ; 
fin spines stronger; highest dorsal spines 
distinctly less than half as long as head; 
unbranched pectoral rays greatly thick- 
ened; dark markings black; light mark- 
ings orange. Range: Central California. 
Said to range from Puget Sound to San 
Diego but we know of no northern record. 

Black and Yellow Rockfish 

205. Sebastodes chrysomelas (Jordan and 


27b. Spines of head stronger ; parietal ridges 
very high ; anal rays 7 ; pale blotches on 
sides forming a very conspicuous and con- 
tinuous streak along the lateral line ; body 
and fins profusely speckled with pale ; fin 
spines very strong; highest dorsal spine 
usually nearly half as long as head; un- 
branched pectoral rays excessively thick- 
ened ; dark markings black ; light mark- 
ings yellow. Range : Vancouver Island to 
central California. Marine. Common. 
Chinese Rockfish. Yellow-spotted Rock- 
fish.... 206. Sebastodes nebulosus (Ayres) 

23b. Nuchal spines present, sometimes coalescent 
with parietals ; cranial ridges high, arranged 
nearly in a straight line on each side of the 
narrow top of head ; the cranial ridges with 
the surface broken and spinous ; frontal 
ridges elevated ; color bright red, with black 
bands or cross bars overlaid by red, some 
red at least on head. Range : Alaska to Mon- 
terey, California. Marine. Common. 

Black-banded Rockfish 

207. Sebastodes nigrocinctns (Ayres) 

Family 64. Anoplopomidae 

Range : Alaska to southern California. Marine. Common. 

Sablefish. Skil Fish. Coalfish. Black Cod 

208. Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) 

Family 65. Erilepidae 

Range: Alaska to Monterey, California. Marine. Not common. 

Giant Sea Bass. Priest-fish. . .209. Erilcpis sonifer (Lockington) 


Schults: Keys to Fishes 


Family 66. Hexagrammidae. Greenlings. Rock Trout 

la. Anal fin with 3 spines. 

2a. Gill membranes very narrowly joined together, but free from isthmus; 
2nd dorsal spine very high and long; a black streak before eye; dermal 
flaps on top of head small or absent ; color of body not of vertical stripes. 
Range : North Pacific southward to San Diego, California. Marine. 

Long-spined Greenling. 

Broad-finned Greenling 

210. Zaniolepis latipinnis Girard 

2b. Gill membranes broadly united ; 2nd dorsal spine not long ; no black streak 
before the eye ; 2 pair of dermal flaps on head ; 6 vertical stripes on body. 
Range : Puget Sound to San Miguel Island, Lower California. Marine. 
Convict Fish. Painted Greenling 211. Oxylebius pictus Gill 

lb. Anal fin without spines ; gill membranes broadly united ; 4 or 5 lateral lines 
on each side. 

3a. Dermal flaps 2, 1 above eye, the other small and located on each side 
of the nape. Range: Kodiak Island to Pt. Conception. Marine. Com- 
Kelp Greenling 212. Chiropsis decagrammns (Pallas) 

3b. A single pair of dermal flaps above eye only. 

4a. Fourth lateral line ends at about middle of anal fin base ; supraocular 
flaps large ; least depth of caudal peduncle equal to distance from tip 
of snout to about posterior edge of eye. Range : Bering Sea to Mon- 
terey Bay, California. Marine. Common. Fig. 45. 
Red Greenling 213. Lcbius supcrciliosus (Pallas) 

Fig. 45. A view of the ven- 
tral side of the head region 
of a greenling, Hexagrammos, 
showing the possible positions 
of the 4th and Sth lateral 
lines. Br 4th Lat — ventral 
fin branch of the 4th lateral 
line; 4th Lat — fourth lateral 
line; 5th Lat — fifth lateral 


_4f/. Lat 

-5TU Lot 

172 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

4b. Fourth lateral line ends near middle of length of ventral fin rays. 

5a. Fourth lateral line unbranched ; dermal flaps 2 times in diameter 
of eye. Range : Kamchatka to San Francisco. Marine. Common. 
Greenling 214. Hexagrammos stelleri Tilesius 

5b. Fourth lateral line branched, lower branch running to base of ven- 
tral fin insertion, the other continuing to about under the middle of 
pelvic fin rays ; a pigment spot above base of pectoral ; dermal flaps 
less than 2 times in the eye. Range : Alaska, westward to Petro- 
paulski and Robben Islands. Marine. Common. 
Alaska Greenling 215. Hexagrammos octogratnmus (Pallas) 

Family 67. Ophiodontidae. Ling Cod 

Range: Alaska to San Diego, California. Marine. Abundant. 

Ling Cod. Cultus Cod 216. Ophiodon elongatus Girard 

Family 68. Cottidae. Sculpins. Bullheads 

la. Spinous dorsal not evident, its spines slender and hidden in loose skin or 
indistinguishable from soft rays ; head and body hidden in smooth lax skin ; 
gill membranes broadly joined to the isthmus; no teeth on vomer or pala- 
tines ; ventrals I, 3 the base adnate to body. 

2a. Spinous dorsal of short, slender flexible spines entirely embedded in the 
skin and not visible without dissection. Range : Kodiak Island to Puget 
Sound. Marine. Common. 
Tadpole Sculpin 217. Psychrolutes paradoxus Giinther 

2b. Anterior spinous dorsal rays not bound down by the skin of body, the 1st 
apparent ray nearly over gill opening. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. 
218. Gilbertidia sigalutes (Jordan and Starks) 

lb. Spinous dorsal evident and not concealed in the flesh or hidden by loose 
skin ; spines, bones, or tubercles of head not all hidden in lax skin. 

3a. Pelvic fins entirely absent; skin perfectly smooth; no slit behind the 
4th gill ; gill membranes free from isthmus ; teeth on vomer and pala- 
tines. Range: Sitka, Alaska to Fort Bragg, California. Marine. Com- 
219. Ascelichthys rhodorns Jordan and Gilbert 

3b. Pelvic fins present and well developed. 

4a. Pectoral fins continuous around the throat and joined together; back 
with spinous scales ; gill membranes free from isthmus ; no slit be- 
hind last gill ; teeth on vomer and palatines ; preopercle with a short 
bifid spine ; ventrals inserted far back. Range : Vancouver Island 
and Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 
Manacled Sculpin 220. Synchirus gilli Bean 

4b. Pectoral fins not continuous around the throat and not joined to 
each other. 

5a. Pelvic fin rays I, 5 ; vomer and palatines with teeth ; gill mem- 
branes broadly united but free from the isthmus. 

6a. Body more or less scaly above, or with rough plates or prickles. 

1936 ] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 



7a. Dorsal fin very long, with about 17 spines ; no slit behind last 
gill arch; back with rough scales; sides with oblique ser- 
rated folds ; ventral fins well behind pectorals. Range : Puget 
Sound to central California. Marine. Not rare. 

221. Jordania conope Starks 

7b. Dorsal fin of XII or XIII spines; body very long, sides of 
back with rough plates. 

8a. Chin with 2 barbels; last gill arch without slit behind it 
Range: Off Oregon to Cortez Banks. Marine. Rare. 
222. Paricelinns hopliticus Eigenmann and Eigenmann 

8b. Chin without barbels; last gill arch with slit behind it 
Range: Northern California. Marine. Rare. 
223. Alcidea thobumi (Gilbert) 

Body covered with smooth skin, a slit behind 4th gill; dorsal 
spines XI ; body very robust. Range : Washington to San Diego. 
Marine. Common. 

Blue Cod. Marbled Sculpin. Bull Cod 

224. Scorpaenichthys marmoratus (Ayres) 

5b. Ventral rays not I 5, usually I, 2, I, 3, or I, 4; spinous dorsal 
with tewer than XIII spines and always shorter than soft dorsal. 

9a. Body definitely more or less scaly above, the scales sometimes 
arranged in bands, or sometimes modified as bony plates these 
usually placed along the lateral line or at base of dorsal fin ; in 
no case is the skin entirely naked. 

10a. Sides of body below lateral line with oblique serrated folds 
of skin; vomer with teeth; palatines without teeth; last gill 
arch with a distinct slit or pore behind it; preopercular 
spines small, simple or bifid; gill membranes wholly free 
from isthmus; spinous dorsal not emarginate; body slender. 

11a. A series of bony tubercles along back a short distance 
away from base of dorsal fin ; breast naked with cross folds 
of skin, containing mucous tubes ; lower pectoral rays little 
extending beyond membranes; dorsal rays about X or XI 
23 to 26 ; anal 24 to 26. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound.' 
Marine. Common. 

225. Triglops beani Gilbert 

lib. Back without bony tubercles along or near base of dorsal 
fin ; breast not as above ; lower rays of pectoral much pro- 
duced beyond membranes; dorsal rays about XI, 29; anal 
about 29. Range : British Columbia and Puget Sound. Ma- 
rine. Not common. 

226. Prionistius macelhis Bean 

10b. Sides of body below lateral line without oblique serrated 
folds of skin. 

12a. Vomer with teeth; palatines without teeth; if rows or 
bands of scales occur along the back they do not meet each 
other in front of the spinous dorsal fin. 

174 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

13a. Preopercular spine simple, very long and strong, longer 
than eye; body robust, its greatest depth less than 4 
times in standard length ; gill membranes broadly united 
to isthmus; dorsal rays VIII, 9; anal rays 9. Range: 
Alaska to Pt. Conception, California. Marine. Abun- 
Buffalo Sculpin 227. Aspicottus bison Girard 

13b. Preopercular spine bifid (sometimes simple) shorter than 
eye; body long and slender, its greatest depth about 8 
to 9 in the standard length; dorsal VIII to X, 21 or 22; 
anal 23 or 24. 

14a. Eye small 3^3 in head ; interorbital space scaly. Range : 
Puget Sound to Santa Catalina Island. Marine. Rare. 
228. Radulinus boleoides Gilbert 

14b. Eye larger 2.6 to 3.3 in head; interorbital space naked. 
Range : Puget Sound to Farallon Islands, California. 
Marine. Common. 
229. Radulinus asprellus Gilbert 

12b. Vomer with teeth; palatines with teeth. 

15a. Body with 2 separate bands of coarse rough scales, 
the dorsal band meeting its fellow in front of spinous 
dorsal ; last gill arch with distinct slit or pore behind 
it ; lateral line without bony plates ; spinous dorsal 
notched; preopercular spine shorter than eye. 

16a. Gill membranes not wholly free from isthmus, there 
being only a broad fold across it, which is not at- 
tached ; upper band of scales in about 4 rows ; skin 
in interspace firm and thick. Range : Kamchatka to 
Monterey Bay, California. Marine. Common. 

Red Irish Lord 

230. Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus (Tilesius) 

16b. Gill membranes wholly united to isthmus, not form- 
ing a free fold across it (sometimes the skin is 
shriveled and forced forward artificially making it 
appear like a fold on poorly preserved fish) ; upper 
band of scales in about 7 rows at its widest part; 
skin in interspace thin and lax. Range : Cape John- 
son, Washington to Santa Barbara Islands, Califor- 
nia. Marine. Common. 

Yellow Irish Lord 

231. Calycilepidotus spinosus Ayres 

15b. If 2 or fewer rows or bands of scales occur on the 
body, the dorsal band does not meet its fellow in front 
of the spinous dorsal fin ; last gill arch without slit or 
pore behind it (a minute pore may occur in Astro- 
lytcs) ; gill membranes united but free from the isth- 

17a. Preopecular spine with 1 to 5 enlarged hooks or ant- 
ler-like processes above, besides the 2 on the tip. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 175 

18a. Back above lateral line evenly scaly; spinous dor- 
sal emarginate, III-VII, 15; anal 14; pelvic fin 
rays I, 3. Range: Puget Sound to San Diego, 
California. Marine. Common. 

Rough-backed Sculpin 

232. Chitonotns pugetcnsis (Steindachner) 

18b. Back above lateral line with a series of enlarged 
plates or scales, the space above and below this 

19a. Lateral line armed with a series of bony plates 
which catch on the finger when the latter is run 
forward; preopercular spines more than 3 (1 
at the angle is long with from 2 to 4 strong 
spines or barbs directed upward and 2 or 3 
spines on the lower margin of the preopercle 
which are directed downward). 

20a. Dorsal fin with 1 or more of the anterior 
spines elevated and filamentous ; scattered 
plates behind axil of pectoral fin; pelvic fin 
rays I, 2. 

21a. First 2 dorsal spines filamentous, about 
equally produced; dorsal series of plates 
much longer than head, reaching end of soft 
dorsal ; nasal filament present ; dorsal rays 
X, 16 to 17; anal 14 or 15. Range: Alaska 
to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Not rare. 

Long-rayed Sculpin 

..233. Tarandichthys filamentosus (Gilbert) 

21b. First dorsal spine filamentous, the 2nd little 
if at all produced; dorsal series of plates 
usually shorter than head, not reaching mid- 
dle of soft dorsal; no nasal filament; dor- 
sal rays X, 17 to 19; anal 15 to 17. Range: 
Alaska to southern California. Marine. Not 

234. Tarandichthys tenuis (Gilbert) 

20b. Dorsal fin without filamentous spines ; no 
plates behind axil of pectoral; preopercular 
spine with 3 or 4 antler-like processes; pelvic 
fin rays I, 2. 

22a. Dorsal series of scales continuous and joined 
together behind soft dorsal fin; the lower 
edge of preopercle with 2 small spines; the 
lower one longest and sharpest pointing 
downward and curved forward above a 
smaller spine directed downward ; rarely an 
obsolete spine above these 2 strong ones; 
nasal spines well developed and nasal ten- 
tacles present, slender. Range: Alaska to 
Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 

235. Icclinus borealis Gilbert 

(=/. strabo Starks) 

176 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

22b. Dorsal series of scales ending 1 to 3 rays 
before end of soft dorsal and never meeting 
its fellow behind ; the lower edge of the pre- 
opercle with 3 well developed spines ; the low- 
er strong one directed downward and curved 
forward; the middle one pointing backward 
and downward ; the upper one directed back- 
ward ; nasal spines short and obscure ; nasal 
tentacles obsolete. Range : Alaska to Santa 
Barbara Islands. Marine. Rare. 

236. Icelinus burchami Evermann and 


19b. Lateral line with scales unarmed ; body robust ; 
no filamentous spines ; top of head scaly ; preop- 
ercular spines 3 or fewer (that is, 1 small one 
in addition to the bifid tip) ; outer margin of 
preopercle with 1 blunt spine or only small prom- 
inences covered by skin. 

23a. Dorsal band of scales meeting its fellow be- 
yond the dorsal fin; 31 to 35 oblique rows in 
the longitudinal series along base of fin ; a 
small pore behind 4th gill arch ; pectoral rays 
IS or 16. Range: Unalaska to San Francisco 
Bay. Marine. Common northward. 
237. Astrolytes fenestrates (Jordan and Gilbert) 

23b. Dorsal band of scales not meeting its fellow 
posteriorly, not extending beyond dorsal fin; 
no pore behind the 4th gill ; pectoral rays 16. 
Range : Str. of Juan de Fuca southward to 
southern California. Marine. Rare northward. 
238. Parastrolytes notospilotus (Girard) 

17b. Preopercular spine bifid or simple, without the extra 
hooks or antler-like processes above the bifid or 
simple spine at tip of preopercle. 

24a. Back with a distinct band of scales on each side 
above the lateral line ; the interorbital space flat or 

25a. Top of head depressed; lateral profile somewhat 
pointed anteriorly ; scales in 26 to 29 oblique se- 
ries along base of dorsal but not meeting behind 
dorsal fin. Range : British Columbia to Pt. Con- 
ception, California. Marine. Common. 
239. Artcdius lateralis (Girard) 

25b. Top of head not depressed ; lateral profile 
bluntish; scales in 31 to 60 oblique series at base 
of dorsal. 

26a. Scales in 31 to 35 oblique rows in the longi- 
tudinal series of scales along the base of dor- 
sal fin ; ventral side of chin unmarked. Range : 
Unalaska to San Francisco Bay. Marine. 
Common southward. 
237. Astrolytes fenestralis (Jordan and Gilbert) 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 177 

26b. Scales in 40 to 60 oblique rows in the longi- 
tudinal series of scales along the base of dor- 
sal fin. 

27a. Preorbital cirrus (on front of rim of eye) 
a large plumose tentacle about twice length 
of eye ; postorbital cirrus about H eye ; dor- 
sal IX, 16; anal 13; pectoral 14. Range: 
Vancouver Island. Marine. Rare. 
240. Pterygiocottus macouni Bean and Weed 

27b. Preorbital cirrus less than diameter of the 
eye ; postorbital cirrus very small ; under 
side of chin marked with cross bars ; dorsal 
IX to X, 17 to 18; anal 13. Range: Van- 
couver Island to Monterey Bay, California. 
Marine. Common. 

241. Axyrias harringtoni Starks 

24b. Back covered with rough scales above lateral line ; 
spinous dorsal without a notch; head very rough; 
preopercular spine more or less evidently bifurcate ; 
a small cirrus above eye; dorsal X, 14; anal 12. 
Range: Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 
242. Ruscarins meanyi Jordan and Starks 

9b. Body not definitely scaly above and no bony armature to the 
lateral line; the skin smooth, prickly, villous, or with scattered 
scaly processes. 

28a. First dorsal not elevated in front, all the spines of about the 
same length as those following; the skin smooth or velvety, 
sometimes warty but not covered generally above and below 
lateral line with stiff prickles. 

29a. Gill membranes united to the isthmus and not forming a 
free fold across it. 

30a. Head weakly armed, the preopercular spine simple at the 
angle or absent. 

31a. Palatine teeth absent, or weakly developed in males. 

32a. Preopercular spines absent, the preopercle entire, 
without spines. 

33a. Soft dorsal with 17 rays, anal 12. Range: Wood 
River, Shoshone, Idaho. Freshwater. Not common. 
243. Cottus leiopomus Gilbert and Evermann 

33b. Soft dorsal with 21 to 23 rays; anal 16 to 18. 
Range : Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Fresh- 
water. Not common. 

244. Cottus princeps Gilbert 

32b. Preopercular spines present. 

34a. One spine at angle of preopercle, none below this 
one or at most only an elevation where spine usu- 
ally occurs. 

178 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

35a. Anal rays 18; soft dorsal 21. Range: Lost River, 
tributary to Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. 
Not common. 
245. Cottus evcrmanni Gilbert 

35b. Anal rays 10 to 15, soft dorsal 15 to 20 (usually 
15 to 19) ; depth in the length 3.5 to 5.5. 

36a. Posterior nostril not at all tubular ; anal rays 
11 to 14 (usually 12 or 13) ; body smooth; cau- 
dal vertebrae 20 to 23. Range : East of Cas- 
cade Mountains in the Columbia River drain- 
age and south to Lake Lahonton. Freshwater. 

Smooth Bullhead 246. Cottus bcldingii 

Eigenmann and Eigenmann 

36b. Posterior nostril tubular. 

37a. Caudal vertebrae 20 to 23 (usually 21 or 22). 

38a. Anal rays 11 or 12 (seldom 13) ; soft dor- 
sal rays 16 or 17. Range : Tributary of 
Clearwater River near Bovill, Idaho. 
Freshwater. Not common. 
. .247. Cottus tubulatus Hubbs and Schultz 

38b. Anal rays 13 to 16 (usually 15) ; soft dor- 
sal rays 17 to 20 (usually 19). Range: 
Klamath River system, Oregon. Fresh- 
water. Not common. 
248. Cottus klamathcnsis Gilbert 

37b. Caudal vertebrae 25 or 26; anal rays 12 to 
16 (usually about 14) ; dorsal rays usually 
about 18 or 19. Range : Coastal streams 
from Unalaska to Monterey, California. 
Freshwater. Common. 
249. Cottus aleuticus Gilbert 

34b. Preopercular spine single at angle, and 1 or 2 be- 
low ; posterior nostril not tubular. 

39a. Depth in length 7 times ; pelvics I, 3. Range : 
Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Not 
250. Cottus tenuis (Evermann and Meek) 

39b. Depth in length 4 to 5.5 ; caudal vertebrae 21 to 
23 (usually 22 or 23). 

40a. Pelvics I, 4; anal rays 14 to 17 (usually 15 
or 16) ; soft dorsal rays 17 to 20 (usually 18 
or 19). Range: Alaska to California. Fresh- 
water. Common. 
Bullhead 251. Cottus gulosus (Girard) 

40b. Pelvics I, 3; anal rays 14 to 16 (usually 15) ; 
soft dorsal rays 17 to 19, (usually 18). Range: 
Mill Creek and Walla Walla River, Washing- 
ton. Freshwater. Common locally. 
252. Cottus marginatus (Bean) 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 179 

31b. Palatine teeth present and strong. 

41a. Soft dorsal rays 20 to 23 (seldom 19) ; caudal ver- 
tebrae 25 to 29 (usually 25 or 26) ; preopercular 
spine at angle less than l / 2 diameter of eye; lateral 
line complete ; caudal peduncle of the round con- 
stricted type, little if any compressed ; anal rays 16 
to 19 ; body and head usually with prickles. Range : 
Coastal streams from Alaska to Ventura County, 
California. Freshwater and in brackish water. 
Prickly Bullhead 253. Cottits aspcr Richardson 

41b. Soft dorsal rays 14 to 20; caudal vertebrae 20 to 23. 

42a. Preopercular spine at angle long and slender, its 
length contained from l / 2 to 2 /z in the diameter of 
the eye ; lateral line complete ; pelvic fin rays com- 
monly I, 3 and I, 4; anal rays 11 to 14 (usually 
12) ; body and head usually with prickles ; dorsal 
rays VII to VIII, 15 to 17 (usually 16) ; anus 
behind middle of body ; caudal peduncle only mod- 
erately compressed ; width of mouth about l /i 
length of head, rather large as in rhothens. Range : 
Rattlesnake Creek near Camp Harney, Oregon. 
Freshwater. Common. 
254. Cottus bendirei (Bean) 

42b. Preopercular spine at angle shorter and heavier, 
and less than l /i diameter of the eye; pelvic fin 
rays I, 4, rarely I, 3. 

43a. Lateral line complete, occasionally 2 or 3 pores 
absent on caudal peduncle ; no definite black spot 
in the spinous dorsal ; mouth large ; anal rays 
12 to 14; caudal peduncle round and slender; 
posterior nostril slightly elevated and slightly 
tubular. Range : Puget Sound drainage, Colum- 
bia River, and Kootenay River, British Colum- 
bia. Freshwater. Common. 
Bullhead. .. .255. Cottus rhotheus (Rosa Smith) 

43b. Lateral line incomplete, ending under soft dor- 
sal; anal rays 11 to 13 (usually 12) ; usually a 
black spot in the spinous dorsal ; caudal peduncle 
of the moderately compressed type and about 
equal to the diameter of eye ; dorsal VII to 
VIII, 16 to 18. Range: Headwaters of the Co- 
lumbia and Missouri Rivers and the Green River 
of the Colorado system. Freshwater. Common. 

Rocky Mountain Bullhead 256. Cottus 

punctulatus (Gill) [=C semiscaber (Cope)] 

30b. Head strongly armed, the preopercular spine not simple, 
but with 2 spines or more, or else the skin is loose and 
lax and nearly obscures the spinous dorsal except the 
tips of the spines. 

180 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

44a. Vomer and palatine with teeth ; preopercular spines 
antler-like ; head depressed ; skin smooth and firm. 
Range : Kodiak Island to San Diego, California. Ma- 
rine. Abundant. 
Bullhead 257. Leptocottus armatus armatus Girard 

44b. Vomer and palatine without teeth ; preopercular spines 
not antler-like, but short, there being 2 diverging spines 
at angle of preopercular bone ; skin loose and lax ; 
head of normal shape. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. 
Not rare. 
258. Malacocottus kincaidi Gilbert and Thompson 

29b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus or else forming a 
broad fold across it. 

45a. Palatine without teeth; vomer with teeth. 

46a. Maxillary reaches to under pupil but not to the pos- 
terior margin of the eye; skeleton spongy; lower jaw 
equal to upper or a little projecting; preopercular 
spines 3 or 4, the one at the angle sharp and curved 

47a. Dorsal IX, 15; anal 13; pelvics I, 3; head with bony 
tubercles ; body with bony tubercles along base of 
dorsal. Range : Bering Sea to Puget Sound. Ma- 
rine. Not rare. 
Woolly Sculpin 259. Dasycottus sctiger Bean 

47b. Dorsal VI or VII, 13; anal 8 to 11; pelvics I, 2; 
pectoral 20; body and head smooth, no granulations, 
tubercles, or filaments present. Range : Bering Sea, 
Alaska and in great depths off California. Marine. 
260. Zcsticelus profiindorum (Gilbert) 

46b. Maxillary reaches beyond eye ; skeleton hard and firm ; 
lower jaw equal to or a little shorter than upper, in- 
cluded ; preopercular spines straighter, the one at the 
angle without a distinct upward curve. Range : Bering 
Sea to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 

Great Sculpin. Fig. 12 

261. Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalu-s (Pallas) 

45b. Palatine teeth present ; vomer with teeth. 

48a. Anus immediately in advance of the anal fin (in very 
young Blennicottus globiceps the anus is located about 
Yi of the distance in front of the anal fin between the 
origin of the anal and the insertion of the pelvic fin) ; 
penis very slender and flexible ; the first 1 to 3 anal 
rays enlarged in the male. 

49a. Preopercular spine unbranched. 

50a. Body covered with prickly scales at all ages ; head 
pointed anteriorly ; cirri of head single or rarely 
doubled ; no cirri on body above lateral line ; dorsal 
spines IX; first 2 anal rays of male enlarged, sub- 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 181 

equal, not separated from the other rays. Range: 
British Columbia to Monterey County, California. 
Marine. Not rare. 

262. Rusciculus rimensis Greeley 

50b. Body naked ; head very blunt anteriorly ; (young 
of this species). Range: Kodiak Island to Pt. 
Conception, California. Marine. Common. 

Round-headed Sculpin 

263. Blennicottus globiceps (Girard) 

49b. Preopercular spine branched; body scaleless at all 
ages ; dorsal spines usually VIII, cirri of head mul- 

51a. First 3 or 4 anal rays of male enlarged, subequal, 
grading into and not separated from the normal 
rays; body without developed cirri above lateral 
line ; snout slightly blunter ; nasal spines somewhat 
weaker ; preopercular spine bifid or rarely trifid ; 
soft dorsal rays 16 or 17. Range: Okhotsk Sea 
and southern Alaska to near Tunitas, San Mateo 
County, California. Marine. Common. 

Tide Pool Johnny 

264. Oligocottus maculosus Girard 

51b. First anal ray of male much larger than the 2nd, 
the 2nd ray not at all enlarged but normal, wholly 
separated from rest of fin in adult ; membrane be- 
tween the 1st 2 rays thin and little folded; soft 
dorsal usually 17 to 19; preopercular spine nor- 
mally bifid (rarely trifid) ; light spots on throat 
conspicuous. Range: Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia, to Pt. Loma, San Diego County, 
California. Marine. Common. 

Cirrated Sculpin 

265. Dialarchus snyderi Greeley 

48b. Anus in advance of normal position before anal fin, lo- 
cated in middle l /z of distance between orgin of anal 
and insertion of pelvic fin ; penis thick and more rigid, 
conic or cylindric; lateral line with a slight anterior 

52a. Intestine short and little coiled; teeth of jaws conic, 
without definite arrangement ; head rather sharply 
pointed anteriorly ; mouth terminal with wide lateral 
gape; skin not especially thickened. 

53a. Penis conic, without terminal appendages ; anus of 
female about midway between origin of anal and 
insertion of pelvic fin ; dorsal spines usually IX ; 
body scaleless; preopercular spines small and sim- 
ple; banner-like flaps never developed on dorsal 
spines ; cirri mossy, on body reduced to a series 
along the anterior portion of the lateral line; not 
developed along preopercular margin. Range: 
Aleutian Islands to Pt. Lobos, California. Ma- 
rine. Not common. 
. . . .266. Allocottus embryum (Jordan and Starks) 

182 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

53b. Penis cylindric, bearing at its end a pair of short 
lateral horns anteriorly and a median horn be- 
tween them ; anus of female much nearer pelvic in- 
sertion than anal origin; dorsal spines usually 
VIII, preopercular spine simple; banner-like flaps 
usually developed on dorsal spines ; cirri on lateral 
line not mossy. Range : Aleutian Islands south to 
Sausalito, Marine County, California. Marine. 
267. Oxycottus acuticeps (Gilbert) 

52b. Intestine elongate and considerably coiled; teeth of 
jaws triangular, more or less definitely arranged in 
straight rows ; head very blunt and broadly rounded, 
suborbital decidedly narrower than orbit ; mouth in- 
ferior, with restricted lateral gape ; skin leathery ; 
penis cylindric abruptly constricted into a slender 
median appendage at tip; anus in adult nearer ana' 
origin than pelvic insertion ; dorsal spines IX ; nasa 
spines moderately strong ; preopercular spine un 
branched, well developed and curved upward; cirri 
of head and scapular region dense and mossy. Range 
Kodiak Island to Pt. Conception, California. Ma- 
rine. Common. 

Round-headed Sculpin 

263. Blennicottus globiccps (Girard) 

28b. First dorsal with the 1st 2 or 3 spines elevated, at least or 
more than twice the length of the longest of the last 3 dorsal 
spines ; skin rough with small bluntish prickles almost every- 
where except in small but well defined areas. 

54a. Gill membranes free from isthmus ; pelvics small ; spinous 
dorsal deeply notched. Range: Alaska to San Francisco. 
Marine. Common. 
Silver Spot 268. Blepsias cirrhosns (Pallas) 

54b. Gill membranes united to the isthmus ; pelvics long ; spinous 
dorsal not notched. Range : Alaska to Monterey, California. 
Marine. Common. 
Sailor Fish 269. Nautichthys oculofasciatus (Girard) 

Family 69. Rhamphocottidae 

Range : Sitka, Alaska, Puget Sound to Monterey, California. Marine. 
Common in Puget Sound. 

Northern Sea Horse. Gruntfish 

270. Rhamphocottus richardsotiii Giinther 

Family 70. Agonidae. Sea Poachers. Alligator Fishes 

la. Dorsal fins 2. 

2a. Gill membranes free from the isthmus. 

3a. Body short and high, compressed; vomer and palatines without teeth; 
dorsal fin long and high. Range : Bering Sea to Puget Sound. Marine. 

Four-horned Sea Poacher 

271. Hypsagonus quadricornis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 183 

3b. Body elongate, more or less depressed. 

4a. Snout produced into a tube; single long barbel on tip of lower jaw; 
plates of body slightly keeled, without spines; dorsal VI to IX 
(VII or VIII), 6 to 9 (average 7 or 8) ; anal 10 to 14 (average 11 
or 12) ; pectoral 10 to 13 (average 11 or 12) ; plates in front of 
pelvics 2 or 3 (usually 2). Range: Aleutian Islands, Puget Sound 
to coast of Oregon. Marine. Common. 
272. Pallasin-a barbata aix Starks 

4b. Snout not produced into a tube. 

5a. Teeth on vomer and palatines ; plates on breast large. Range : 
Cold Bay, Alaska, to Oregon. Marine. Not common. 

273. Occa verrucosa (Lockington) 

5b. No teeth on vomer and palatines ; no median rostral plate ; breast 
prickly. Range : Coast of California and Oregon. Marine. Not 
274. Stellerina xyosterna (Jordan and Gilbert) 

2b. Gill membranes joined to isthmus, often with a free fold across isthmus. 

6a. Tip of snout without median plates or spine, but with paired plates 
or spines. 

7a. Vomer and palatines without teeth ; mouth located on ventral 
side ; gill membranes without barbels. Range : Alaska to Puget 
Sound. Marine. Common. 

Sturgeon Sea Poacher. Alligatorfish 

275. Podothecus acipcnserinus (Tilesius) 

7b. Vomer and palatines with teeth; eye with 4 or 5 (usually 4) 
spines anteriorly and 1 triangular shaped spine posteriorly ; 
branchiostegal rays with cirri or small dermal tentacles ; the 
tentacles on branchiostegals not present in young which have 
a large knife-like spine over middle of eye (named by Jordan 
and Starks Xystcs axinophrys) . Range: Alaska, Puget Sound 
to Monterey, California. Marine. Common. Fig. 48. 

Window-tail Sea Poacher 

276. Averruncus emmelane Jordan and Starks 

6b. Tip of snout with median plate, and with paired spines or plates 
besides the median plate ; teeth on jaw, vomer and palatines. 

8a. Tip of snout with median plate without a spine ; occipital 
pit deep, nearly y 2 as deep as head. Range : Vancouver 
Island, Puget Sound and coast of Washington. Marine. Rare. 
277. Bothragonns swanii (Steindachner) 

8b. Tip of snout with terminal rostral plate bearing one or 
more spines directed upward; occipital pit if present not l /z 
depth of head. 

9a. A single upright spine on terminal rostral plate, besides 
the lateral ones. 

10a. Occiput with pit with longitudinal division ; dorsal 
ridges not converging in front of dorsal fin ; no spines 
below eyeball ; 4 or 5 plates on branchiostegal mem- 
branes under the chin ; pectoral fin rays not exserted. 
Range : Alaska to Pt. Loma, California. Marine. 
Common. Fig. 46. 

278. Odontopyxis trispinosus Lockington 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 

10b. No occipital pit as above. 

11a. Cheek below suborbital crest naked, without plates; 
only 1 spine developed on preopercular margin ; gill 
membrane with a wide free fold ; 3 to 5 spines on 
eyeball ; spinous dorsal with distal margin of mem- 
brane black. Range : Washington to San Diego, 
California. Marine. Common. 
279. Xeno pyxis latifrons (Gilbert) 

lib. Cheek below suborbital crest with 3 plates; 2 pre- 
opercular spines developed ; gill membranes without 
free fold ; no spines on eyeball. Range : Washington 
to off San Diego. Marine. Common. 
280. Xcncretmus triacanthus (Gilbert) 

9b. Upright spines on rostral plate 3, besides the 2 lateral 

Fig. 46. A dorsal view of Odontopyxis trispinosus. 

Fig. 47. The rostral plate of Asterotheca infraspinata. 

Fig. 48. The rostral plate of Averruncus emmelane. 

Fig. 49. A cross-section of the plates in the region of the caudal peduncle. 

Fig. SO. A cross-section of the plates in the region of the dorsal fin. 

Diagrams showing the anatomical features of the sea poachers, Agonidae. Drawn by 

Arthur D. Welander. 

Do — dorsal fin; Do La — dorsal lateral series of plates; Do Sr — dorsal series of 
plates; Lo La — lower lateral series of plates; Nas Sp — nasal spines; Oc P — occipital pit; 
Pre — preorbital; Ros PI — rostral plate; Up La — upper lateral series of plates; Ve Lat — 
ventral lateral series of plates. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 185 

12a. Lower jaw produced beyond maxillaries; lower 4 
or 5 rays of the pectoral fin not thickened and not 
separated from the other rays by a notch. Range : 
Aleutian Islands to coast of Washington. Marine. 

Black Sea Poacher 

281. Bathyagonus nigripitinis Gilbert 

12b. Lower jaw not produced beyond maxillaries ; ter- 
minal rostral plate with 5 small spines ; origin of 
1st dorsal on 8th plate of dorsal series. 

13a. Plates on cheeks thick, inflexible, immovably 
united with each other and with the interopercle ; 
lower 5 pectoral rays thickened ; a single median 
pair of plates in front of pelvics, the remaining 
plates of median series unpaired, (the plates of 
the 2nd pair fused) 10 

14a. Margin of preorbital not spinous, ventrolateral 
series of plates smooth throughout (without 
spines) ; spines of lower lateral series weak 
or obsolescent, this especially marked on cau- 
dal peduncle ; deep nuchal depression ; space 
between dorsal ridges deeply concave ; plates 
on cheeks, in adults, without spines or tuber- 
cles ; gill membranes without posterior free 
margin ; lower pectoral rays much exserted 
beyond the membrane, a distinctly deeper 
notch between the two portions of the fin. 
Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Com- 

Gray Star-snout 

282. Astcrotheca alascana (Gilbert) 

14b. Lower margin of preorbital strongly spinous 
in adults; anterior plates of ventrolateral se- 
ries with short but evident spines ; lower lat- 
eral plates all strongly spinous, figs. 49 and 
50, except the anterior 5 or 6, which are 
smooth as in other species ; plates on cheeks 
with minute spines ; nuchal depression shallow ; 
space between dorsal ridges shallowly concave ; 
gill membranes with a narrow free margin 
posteriorly ; lower pectoral rays comparatively 
little exserted, no conspicuous notch between 
the 2 portions of the fin. Range : Washington. 
Marine. Common. Fig. 47. 
283. Asterothcca infraspinata (Gilbert) 

13b. Plates on cheeks thin, flexible, not fused, read- 
ily movable, all (or the posterior 2) bearing each 
a strong backwardly directed spine ; ventrolateral 
series of plates sharply spinous throughout as is 
the lower lateral series, with the exception of 
the first 5 or 6 ; 2 median pairs of plates in front 
of pelvics ; lower 4 pectoral rays thickened, a 
deep notch between the two portions of the fin ; 
eye very large ; spines on eyeball weak or obso- 

10 This part of the key is modified after C. H. Gilbert (1917), Proc. U.S.N.M. 

186 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

lescent; palatine patches of teeth narrower than 
those on mandible. Range : Str. of Juan de Fuca 
to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 
284. Asterothcca pcntacantha (Gilbert) 

lb. Dorsal fin single (spinous dorsal absent). Range: Alaska to Columbia 
River Mouth. Marine. Common. 
Smooth Sea Poacher 285. Anoplagonus inermis (Giinther) 

Family 71. Cyclopteridae. Lumpsuckers 

la. Head and body nearly naked, only a few scattered spines over it; dorsal 
V, 7 ; anal 6 ; color red in life. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 

Smooth Lumpsucker or Lumpfish 

286. Eumicrotremus vinolentus (Jordan and Starks) 11 

lb. Head and body covered with spiny conical tubercles, the largest in a group 
of 7 or 8 on the flank behind the pectorals; dorsal VI to VII, 9 to 11; 
anal 8 to 10. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 
Spiny Lumpsucker 287. Eumicrotremus orbis (Giinther) 

Family 72. Liparididae. 12 Sea Snails. Rock suckers 

la. Nostril double ; pseudobranchiae present ; pectoral typically with more rays 
than anal. 

2a. Pyloric caeca fewer than ISO (not matted) ; probably always fewer than 
100; peritoneum pale or silvery, usually with scattered brown or black 

3a. Caudal free from the dorsal or connected for not more than ]/$ its 

4a. Dorsal notched; gill opening either above the pectoral or extending 
down in front of not more than 6 rays ; anal fewer than 30 rays ; 
dorsal not more than 35. 

5a. Gill slit above the pectoral, sometimes appearing to extend down 
in front of the upper ray. 

6a. Disk 2 or less in head; pyloric caeca less than 50 (15 to 37) ; 
anterior dorsal rays often elevated ; pectoral rays 30 to 33 ; a white 
bar across base of caudal fin. Range : Alaska to Oregon. Ma- 
rine. Not rare. 
288. Liparis rutteri (Gilbert and Snyder) 

6b. Disk more than 2 in head. Fig. 17. Range: Aleutian Islands to 
Washington. Marine. Common. 
289. Liparis callyodon (Pallas) 

5b. Gill slit extending down in front of 3 to 5 pectoral rays. 

7a. Body deepest below origin of 1st dorsal ; disk more than half 
as long as head ; anus nearer anal fin than disk ; eye 5 to 7 
in head; 1st dorsal fin is low and broadly rounded, not incised 
behind. Range: Cape Johnson to central California. Marine. 
290. Liparis mucosus Ayres 

•'Probably this is the young of some species of Lumpsucker. 
"This key is modified after V. Burke (1930), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 187 

7b. Body deepest below front part of 2nd dorsal ; disk less than 
half as long as head; anus nearer disk than anal fin; eye 8 
to 9 in head ; 1st dorsal a high, distinct lobe, incised behind. 
Range : Vancouver Island to Monterey County, California. 
Marine. Abundant. 
291. Liparis florae Jordan and Starks 

4b. Dorsal unnotched, or if notched the gill slit extends down in front 
of more than 6 pectoral rays. 

8a. Pectoral with 29 to 32 rays, and less than the number of 
dorsal rays ; gill slit in front of 10 or fewer, usually 3 to 
5, pectoral rays. Range : Alaska to Washington. Marine. 
Common in Puget Sound. 
292. Liparis cyclopus Giinther 

8b. Pectoral 37 to 43 with more rays than dorsal ; gill slit in 
front of 12 to 16 pectoral rays. Range: Alaska to Crescent 
• City, California. Marine. Common. 
293. Liparis fucensis Gilbert 

3b. Caudal connected to the dorsal for more than ]/$ and less than 94 of 
its length ; the number of pectoral rays greater than the number of 
anal rays ; pectoral usually notched in adult and young ; gill slit ex- 
tending down in front of more than 10 pectoral rays ; caeca fewer than 
55 ; dorsal 37 to 40 ; no prickles. Range : Alaska to Washington. Ma- 
rine. Common. 
294. Liparis dennyi Jordan and Starks 

3c. Caudal connected to the dorsal for ji or more of its length ; pectorals 
notched; the number of pectoral rays equal to or fewer than the num- 
ber of anal rays ; gill opening above pectoral or in front of 1 to 4 rays ; 
dorsal rays 48 to 53; anal 40 to 41. Range: Alaska to California. 
Marine. Common. 
295. Liparis pulchellus Ayres 

2b. Pyloric caeca more than 150, probably always more than 200 and matted 
or close together ; dorsal rays 40 or fewer ; anal 30 or fewer ; pectoral 37. 

9a. Color light brown with the epidermis removed ; gill slit 
either above the pectoral or in front of 1 to 4 rays ; dorsal 
connected to less than Y% the caudal fin. Range : Alaska 
to Puget Sound. Marine. Not common. 
296. Polypera greeni (Jordan and Starks) 

9b. Color pale gray ; gill opening above the pectoral or in 
front of the upper ray. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. 
297. Polypera beringianus (Gilbert and Burke) 

lb. Nostril single ; pseudobranchiae present ; coloration not variegated ; pec- 
toral typically with fewer rays than anal ; dorsal unnotched or if notched 
the pupil is round. 

10a. Disk present ; disk perfect ; gill slit well developed ; 
no barbels on snout ; pupil round or but slightly oval, 
never reduced to a horizontal slit ; no color blotches on 
the body ; dorsal unnotched ; teeth elongate, slender, 
simple, sometimes arrow-shaped, the lateral lobes hard- 
ly evident ; peritoneum pale or black. 

188 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

11a. Gill slit above the pectoral; pectoral with more than 
25 rays ; disk smaller than the eye, rarely equal to it ; 
usually distinctly cupped or triangular. 

12a. Caudal not forked ; pectoral distinctly notched ; 
peritoneum black, rarely silvery and dotted; mouth 
and gill cavity dusky to black ; no prickles. Range : 
British Columbia to southern California. Marine. 
Not rare. 
298. Careproctus melanurus Gilbert 

12b. Caudal forked ; pectoral notch hardly evident ; depth 
4.5 in length ; pyloric caeca 29. Range : Okhotsk 
Sea, Bering Sea to off coast of Washington. Ma- 
299. Careproctus cypselurus (Jordan and Gilbert) 

lib. Gill slit extending down in front of the pectoral fin. 

13a. Disk well developed, not over 4 in head; depth 
of body not over 4 in length ; vent near disk. 
Range: Off Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C. Ma- 
rine. Rare. 
300. Careproctus ovigerum (Gilbert) 

13b. Disk small, 7 to 9 in head; gill slit in front of 
10 or more pectoral rays. Range : Southeastern 
Alaska and British Columbia. Marine. 
301. Careproctus gilberti Burke 

10b. Disk absent. 

14a. Branchiostegals 6 ; vent vertical ; gill slit at 
least partly above the pectoral fin. 

15a. Snout without barbels. 

16a. Teeth trilobed ; gill slit in front of 4 pec- 
toral rays ; pyloric caeca 13 to 18 ; pec- 
toral rays 30 or more. Range : Alaska and 
California. Marine. Rare. 
302. Paraliparis dactylosus Gilbert 

16b. Teeth simple, conical and in bands ; mid- 
dle pectoral rays not rudimentary; pector- 
al with fewer than 30 rays. 

17a. Mouth horizontal; middle pectoral rays 
widely spaced. 

18a. Gill slit extending down in front of 
10 pectoral rays ; dorsal 56 ; anal 46. 
Range: Alaska and California. Rare. 
303. Paraliparis dcani Burke 

18b. Gill slit above pectoral fin ; pectoral 
25 ; the upper edge on a level with the 
upper margin of the eye ; color black, 
including mouth and gill cavity. 
Range: Bering Sea and Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Marine. 
304. Paraliparis ulochir Gilbert 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 189 

17b. Mouth oblique. 

19a. Snout to vent 5.5 times in length ; 
pectoral 14 ; the upper edge of the 
pectoral fin above the angle of the 
mouth ; symphysis behind the front 
of the eye. Range : Bering Sea to 
Gulf of California. Marine. Rare. 
...305. Paraliparis cephalus Gilbert 

19b. Snout to vent 9.8 times in length ; 
pectoral 16 ; depth 6 times in length ; 
the upper edge of the pectoral fin 
below the angle of the mouth ; 
symphysis in front of the eye. 
Range : Washington to California. 
Marine. Rare. 
306. Paraliparis mcnto Gilbert 

15b. Snout with barbels. 

20a. Gill slit extending down in front 
of 5 pectoral rays ; pyloric caeca 
7. Range : Bering Sea, Okhotsk 
Sea and California. Marine. 

307. Rhinoliparis barbulifer 


20b. Gill slit above pectoral fin ; py- 
loric caeca 12. Range : Bering Sea 
and Monterey Bay. Marine. Rare. 
308. Rhinoliparis attenuatus Burke 

14b. Branchiostegals 5 ; vent forward on throat, 
opening forward ; gill slit restricted to in 
front of the pectoral fin ; pectoral lobes separ- 
ated. Range : North Pacific from Hokkaido, 
Japan, to southern California. Marine. Rare. 
309. Nectoliparis pelagicus Gilbert and Burke 

Family 73. Embiotocidae. Viviparous perches. Surf-fishes 
la. Scales large, about 38 (36 to 50) in lateral line. 

2a. Lower lip without frenum ; dorsal fin IX or X, 18 to 21 ; caudal peduncle 
short and slender, least depth about S l / 2 in body. Range : Southern Alaska 
to Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. Marine. Common. 

Perch. Shiner. Viviparous Perch 

310. Cymatogaster aggregatus Gibbons 

2b. Lower lip with frenum; dorsal fin VIII, 15 ; least depth of caudal peduncle 
7 in body; depth 3 in body; head 3.3 in body. Range: Vancouver Island 
to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 
311. Brachyistius frenatus Gill 

lb. Scales small, more than 50 in the lateral line. 

3a. Lower lip with a frenum, the groove not continuous across the tip of 
chin; dorsal fin X or XI. 

190 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

4a. Gill rakers 15 or 16 below angle of first arch (seldom 14) ; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 6 l / 2 to 7j4 times in body; scale formula 
about 10+65+20; body with numerous narrow almost parallel blue 
lines. Range: Vancouver Island to San Benito Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia. Marine. Common. 
Blue Perch 312. Tacniotoca lateralis (Agassiz) 

4b. Gill rakers fewer than 14 below angle of 1st arch (usually 11 to 13). 

5a. Dentigerous surface of lower pharyngeals convex; dorsal X, 21 
to 24; anal III, about 25 to 29; dark blotch below posterior corner 
of jaw just back of maxillaries ; gill rakers 13 below angle (rarely 
12) ; least depth of caudal peduncle about 7 to 8 in body ; scales 
about 8+56 to 64+18. Range: Vancouver Island to Todos Santos 
Bay, Lower California. Marine. Common. 

Pile or Silver Perch 313. Damalichthys vacca Girard 

(=£?. argyrosomus) 

5b. Dentigerous surface of lower pharyngeals flat or concave; dorsal 
X or XI, 22 to 26; anal III, 29 to 34; no dark blotch just behind 
maxillaries; least depth of caudal peduncle 8 to 9>4 in body; gill 
rakers about 11 or 12 below angle of 1st arch; scales 66 to 69 in 
lateral line. Range: Vancouver Island to San Diego, California. 
Marine. Common. 

Splittail Perch. White Surf -fish. Forktail Perch 

314. Phanerodon fnrcatus Girard 

3b. Lower lip without a broad f renum, the groove continuous across chin ; 
dorsal spines VIII to X (usually IX). 

6a. Gill rakers 15 or more below angle of 1st arch. 

7a. Below angle of 1st arch 15 to 19 rakers; 65 scales in lateral 
line ; eye Yz head ; anal III, 29 to 35 ; dorsal IX or X, 25 to 
29. Range : Cape Johnson, Washington to southern California. 
Marine. Common. 
Silver Perch or Porgy. . .315. Tocichthys cllipticiis (Gibbons) 

7b. More than 20 rakers below angle of 1st arch; 72 scales in the 
lateral line; eye 2 /s head; anal III, 32; dorsal IX, 27; charac- 
teristic black tips to pelvic fins. Range : Columbia River mouth 
to Lower California. Marine. Common. 

White Perch. Wall-eyed Perch 

316. Hyperprosopon argent earn Gibbons 

6b. Gill rakers fewer than 15 below angle of 1st arch, usually 6 or 
7+11 to 13; about 60 to 69 scales in the lateral line; anal III, 
26 to 30 ; about 9 to 10 orange to brassy colored vertical bars on 
sides of body. Range : Washington to Monterey, California. 
Marine. Common. 
Porgy 317. Holconotus rhodoterus Agassiz 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 191 

Family 74. Gobiidae. Gobies 

la. Pelvics united to form a sucking disk but free from the belly posteriorly. 
Fig. 16. 

2a. Dorsal IV or V, 14 to 17; anal 15 to 17 soft rays; scales 45 to 70 and 
about 18 in a transverse series. 

3a. Cutaneous flaps 2 or 3 on inner edge of shoulder girdle; anal 15; scales 
in about 50 cross series. Range : Vancouver Island to Guaymas, Sonora. 
Marine. Not rare. 
318. Quietula y-cauda (Jenkins and Evermann) 

3b. No cutaneous flaps as above; anal 16 or 17; scales in about 70 cross 
series. Range : Vancouver Island to San Diego, California. Marine 
and in brackish water. Common. 
319. Clevelandia ios (Jordan and Gilbert) 

2b. Dorsal VI or VII, 12 to 18; anal 10 to 15 (rarely 16) ; scales if present 
in more than 70 or in fewer than 45 cross series. 

4a. Anal 10 or 11 ; dorsal VI, 12 or 13 or VI-I, 12 to 14; scales if pres- 
ent in fewer than 40 cross series, or indistinct ; no dermal flaps on 

5a. Eye 6 or 7 in head ; interorbital space larger than eye. Range : 
Puget Sound to Guaymas, Sonora. Marine. Not rare. 
Long-jawed Goby 320. Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper 

5b. Eye 3 or 4 in head ; interorbital space about equal to pupil. Range : 
British Columbia to southern California. Marine. Not rare. Fig 16. 
321. Rhinogobiops nicholsii (Bean) 

4b. Anal 15; dorsal VII, 16 to 18; scales about 86 in lateral line; shoul- 
der girdle with 2 to 4 dermal flaps under gill cover. Range : Vancou- 
ver Island to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 
322. Lepidogobius lepidus (Girard) 

Family 75. Ammodytidae. Sand Launces or Lances 

Range : Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abundant. 

Sand Launce 323. Ammodytcs tobianus personatus Girard 

Family 76. Bathymasteridae. Ronquils 

Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 

Ronquil 324. Ronquilns jordani (Gilbert) 

Family 77. Zaproridae. Flaccid Fishes 

Range : Sitkalidak Island, Alaska, to Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 

Highbrow 325. Zaprora silenus Jordan 

192 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Family 78. Clinidae. Blennies 

la. Dorsal rays XXXIV to XXXVI, 5 to 8 ; a slight emargination at about the 
5th spine; anal II, 23 to 28. Range: Vancouver Island and southern Cali- 
fornia. Marine. Common in California. 
Spotted Kelpfish 326. Gibbonsia elegans montereyensis Hubbs 

lb. Dorsal rays V-XXXIII, 13 ; a deep notch following the 5th spine ; anal 
rays II, 34. Range: British Columbia and southern California. Marine. 
Common in California. 
Kelpfish 327. Hetcrostichns rostratus Girard 

Family 79. Pholididae. Blennies 

la. Anal spines 2, small and unmodified ; origin of anal fin under the 34th to 
the 41st dorsal spine; pelvic fins present, but small. 

2a. Dorsal spines LXXX to LXXXIX; anal soft rays 40 to 44; head less 
than % total length ; pectoral fin about 2.5 in head. Range : Coast of 
Washington to Del Norte County, California. Marine. Common. 

328. Pholis™ 

2b. Dorsal spines LXXIV to LXXIX ; anal soft rays 33 to 37 ; head more 
than l /s total length. 

3a. Black markings along base of dorsal, ornate spots as ( ) ; pectoral 
fin 2.4 to 3.0 in head. Range : Alaska to Del Norte County, California. 
Marine. Common. 
Bracket Blenny 329. Pholis laetus (Cope) 

3b. Black markings along base of dorsal more spread apart ventrally as 
) ( ; pectoral fin 2.0 to 2.3 in head. Range : Alaska to San Francisco. 
Marine. Common. 
Saddled Blenny 330. Pholis omatus (Girard) 

lb. Anal spine single, enlarged, recumbent and fitting into a dermal sheath ; 
origin of anal fin under the 42nd to 55th dorsal spine; pelvic fins wholly 

4a. Anal spine single, very large and channeled along the anterior edge ; 
origin of anal fin under about the 45th or 46th dorsal spine ; dorsal 
about XC to XCIV; anal soft rays about 40 to 42; vertebrae 97 or 
98. Range : Southeastern Alaska to Pt. Conception. Marine. Common. 
Blenny 331. Apodichthys flavidus Girard 

4b. Anal spine small, not channeled, (another smaller spine is usually 
obsolete) ; origin of anal fin under about the 53rd to 55th dorsal 
spine; dorsal about LXXXIV; anal about 36. Range: Puget Sound 
to San Clemente Island. Marine. Not rare. 
Fucus Blenny 332. Xerepes jucorum (Jordan and Gilbert) 

Family 80. Stichaeidae. Northern Blennies 

la. Pelvic fins present. 

2a. Gill membranes broadly united, free from the isthmus, the gill slit not 
continued forward below. 

"This species appeared as a nomen nudum in the check-list by C. L. Hubbs (1928) 
Jour. Pan-Pacific Research Inst., and again in this key when first mimeographed. It 
is to be described by Hubbs in the near future. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 193 

3a. Top of head covered with many fleshy cirri ; origin of anal fin under 
the 12th to 15th dorsal spine ; no anal spines ; head blunt. 

4a. Snout 6 to 8 in head; the fleshy cirri of head extend to the origin of 
dorsal fin but they are not developed on the rays, cirri smaller and 
less mossy than in decoratum. Range : Washington to Fort Bragg, 
California. Marine. Not common. 
Ornamented Blenny. .333. Bryostemma litigator Jordan and Williams 

4b. Snout 4 to 5 in head; the fleshy cirri of head extend back to the 6th 
dorsal spine. Range : Bering Sea, Petersburg, Alaska to Puget 
Sound region. Marine. Not rare. 
Decorated Blenny. . .334. Bryostemma decoratum Jordan and Snyder 

3b. Top of head without cirri; origin of anal fin under the 19th to 21st 
dorsal spines ; 2 anal spines ; head pointed. Range : Washington and 
Oregon. Marine. Not common. 
Barred Blenny 335. Plcctobranchus evides Gilbert 

2b. Gill slit carried forward below, the gill membranes joined to isthmus with 
or without a free fold across it. 

5a. Pectoral fin with the lower rays longer than middle and upper 
rays; teeth on vomer and palatines. Range: North Atlantic; North 
Pacific southward to Puget Sound. 
336. Leptoclinus maculatus (Fries) 

5b. Pectoral fins with the lower rays not as above, the middle rays 
are longer than upper or lower rays. 

6a. Anal spine I ; sides of body with black markings on a lighter 
background of color. 

7a. Dorsal spines about LXXII, anal soft rays 45 to 50 ; about 
21 gill rakers on 1st arch; gill membranes without a free fold 
across isthmus ; no teeth on vomer, those on palatines small 
or wanting. Range : Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Com- 

Snake Eel 337. Lumpenus angiiillaris (Pallas) 

7b. Dorsal spines XLIX; anal soft rays 31; gill rakers present; 
gill membranes with free fold across isthmus ; no teeth on 
vomer or palatines. Range : Nanaimo, B. C. Marine. Rare. 
338. Allolumpenus hypochromic Hubbs and Schultz 

6b. Anal spines III to V ; sides of body plain or with white cross 
bars on a dark background of color ; anal soft rays 38 to 42. 

8a. No teeth on vomer or palatines ; body without white cross 
bars ; dorsal spines LXII to LXXI ; gill rakers about 16 
or 17; snout long and fleshy overhanging the premaxillary. 
Range : Alaska to Nanaimo, B. C. Marine. Not common. 
339. Lumpenella longirostris (Evermann and Goldsborough) 

8b. Vomerine and palatine teeth present ; sides of body with 10 
to 12 narrow white cross bars ; dorsal spines LVII to LX ; 
gill rakers rudimentary ; snout normal. Range : Alaska to 
San Diego. Marine. Rare. 
340. Poroclimis rothrocki Bean 

194 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

lb. Pelvic fins absent. 

9a. Gill membranes attached to the isthmus. 

10a. Eye small, 10 to 13 in the head. 

11a. Maxillary extending behind orbit, a distance equal 
to 3 or 4 times the diameter of the eye ; depth 7 in 
length. Range : Alaska to southern Oregon. Marine. 
"Congo Eel" 341. Delolcpis giganteus (Kittlitz) 

lib. Maxillaries ending below or before the orbit; depth 
14 or 15 in length. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget 
Sound. Marine. Not common. 
Red Devil 342. Lyconectcs aleutensis Gilbert 

10b. Eye in head 4 to 6 times ; origin of dorsal about over 
the insertion of pectoral fin ; evident crest of flesh on 
top of head ; dorsal about LVI ; anal 36 to 40. Range : 
Southeastern Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Com- 

Crested Blenny 

343. Anoplarchus purpurescens purpurescens Gill 

9b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus. 

12a. Anal spines present, distinct. 

13a. Dorsal with soft ravs posteriorlv, XXII to 
XXV, 40 to 43; anal I or II, 41 or 42. Range: 
California. Marine. Common. 
344. Cebidickthys violaccus (Girard) 

13b. Dorsal without soft rays, LXIX to LXXIV ; 

anal II (rarely III), 40 to 50. Range: British 

Columbia to central California. Marine. Common. 

Belted Blenny. .. .345. Phytichthys chirus chints 

(Jordan and Gilbert) 

12b. No anal spines. 

14a. Pectoral slightly longer than diameter of eye ; 
median teeth of premaxillary canine-like and 
separated by smaller teeth between the 2 large 
ones ; dark color bands below and posterior to 
eye bordered by a black line. Range : South- 
eastern Alaska to central California. Marine. 
346. Xiphister mucosus (Girard) 

14b. Pectoral slightly shorter than eye ; median 
teeth of premaxillary canine-like but not sep- 
arated by smaller teeth between the 2 canines ; 
dark color bands on cheek and head bordered 
by narrow whitish lines. Range : Alaska to 
Santa Barbara. Marine. Common. 

Rock Blenny 

....347. Epigeichthys atropurpureus (Kittlitz) 

19361 Schultz: Keys to Fishes 195 

Family 81. Anarrhichthyidae. Wolf Fishes 

Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine. Common. 

Wolf Eel 348. Anarrhichthys occllatus Ayres 

Family 82. Scytalinidae. Burrowing Blennies 

Range : Aleutian Islands to Monterey County, California. Marine. Not 

Burrowing Blenny 349. Scytalina cerdale Jordan and Gilbert 

Family 83. Ptilichthyidae 

Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. 

Quill Fish 350. Ptilichthys goodei Bean 

Family 84. Zoarcidae. Eel Pouts 

la. Pelvics present ; upper jaw overlaps mandible. 

2a. Vomer without teeth ; palatines without teeth. 

3a. Body slender, depth 12 to 16 in length ; lateral line short, faint, and 
ventral in position, incomplete; upper jaw greatly overlaps lower; 
cheeks much projecting laterally, a series of 7 pores along mandible 
and preopercle, series of 7 or 8 pores extending from snout alongside 
of head above premaxillary ; lateral line single, faint, running obliquely 
downward to near base of anal, thence backward, not reaching base of 
caudal; lining of mouth, gill cavity, and peritoneum jet black; a broad 
light band across head behind eyes extending to cheeks. Range : North 
Pacific and off Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Rare. 
351. Embryx crotalimis (Gilbert) 

3b. Body more robust, depth 8 to 9 in length ; upper jaw about twice the 
horizontal diameter of orbit; lateral line lateral in position; pelvics 
l /2 length of orbit; pectoral */> length of head; small embedded scales 
on body and vertical fins; upper jaw slightly overlaps mandible; mouth 
and gill cavity lined with dark epithelium; peritoneum black; no scales 
on head, nape and axil of pectoral ; vertical fins margined with black, 
scales paler than skin. Range: Central Alaska to central California. 
Marine. Common. 
352. Lycodopsis pacificus (Collett) 

2b. Vomer and palatines with teeth. 

4a. Lower jaw included, the upper overlapping lower less than l / 2 pupil; 
middle rays of pectoral fin longest; pelvic fins about 1 to 1.5 in eye; 
dorsal rays about 116; anal rays about 93; no vertical color bars 
evident (at least on adults) ; margins of vertical fins darker than rest 
of fin ; scales lighter than general color of body giving the appear- 
ance of white specks. Range : Southeastern Alaska and northern 
California. Marine. Rare. 
353. Ly codes jordani Evermann and Goldsborough 

4b. Lower jaw included, the upper overlapping the lower as much as or 
more than the diameter of the pupil. 

196 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

5a. Peritoneum, jaws and gill cavity, jet black or nearly so; middle 
rays of pectoral shortest ; lateral line ventral and single ; pectoral 
rays 20 or 21 ; pelvics short and inserted under middle of opercle ; 
scales small, embedded, and covering entire body and vertical fins ; 
eye large only 3 to i 2 /z in head ; whitish color bars, if present usually 
double and expanding ventrally like an inverted V ; second color 
bar behind origin of dorsal fin. Range: Unalaska to California. 
Marine. Not rare. 
354. Furcimanus diaptents (Gilbert) 

5b. Peritoneum reddish slightly dusky to white, never jet black; middle 
rays of pectoral longest. 

6a. Pelvics minute, about 3 in eye ; dorsal rays about 85 ; anal rays 
about 74 ; peritoneum reddish or pale in preserved specimens ; 
upper jaw overlaps mandible about Ys horizontal distance of or- 
bit ; labial folds fairly conspicuous ; narrow light band across 
nape, and 9 to 11 across back, which become obscure in adults; 
the 2nd bar being behind the origin of dorsal fin ; the dorsal and 
anal have dark margins. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound. 
Marine. Not common. 
355. Lycodes brevipes Bean 

6b. Pelvics longer, about equal to diameter of eye ; dorsal rays 105 ; 
anal rays 90 ; peritoneum pinkish or pale in preserved specimens ; 
upper jaw greatly overlaps lower, equal to Y$ horizontal diameter 
of orbit ; labial folds very conspicuous (membranous lobes on 
middle of each mandible) ; 14 to 16 light vertical color bands 
across body except sometimes absent in adults ; the 2nd bar is in 
front of the origin of dorsal fin. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. 
Marine. Not common. 
356. Lycodes palcaris Gilbert 

lb. Pelvics wanting, teeth on vomer, palatines and jaws. 

7a. Body without scales; peritoneum, gill cavity, and mouth jet 
black; iris silvery; mouth oblique, lower jaw slightly the 
longer; skull thin, papery, translucent; dorsal and anal joined 
with caudal ; dorsal rays about 82 to 85 ; anal rays 70 to 74. 
Range: Southeastern Alaska to Gulf of California. Marine. 
Not common. 
357. Lycodapus fierasfcr Gilbert 

7b. Body with scales. 

8a. Two distinct lateral lines, the anterior running high on sides, 
parallel with back, discontinued at a point about 1 orbital 
diameter behind vent, the posterior line beginning below and 
slightly in advance of this point and running along middle of 
sides to the tail; dorsal rays about 107 (without caudal); 
anal rays about 92; pectoral about 17; gill rakers 3 + 15. 
Range : Alaska to California. Marine. Not common. 
358. Lycogramma brunnea (Bean) 

8b. Lateral line if present single, usually obscure, not double as 

9a. Dorsal rays about 112 (without caudal) ; anal about 94; 
pectoral 13 to 16; gill rakers 4+15; pectoral rays exserted 
at tips. Range: Washington to California. Marine. Rare. 
359. Bothrocara remigera Gilbert 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 197 

9b. Dorsal rays 100 to 105 (to middle of caudal) ; anal 89 to 
95 (to middle of caudal). Range: Queen Charlotte Islands 
and southern California. Marine. Rare. 
360. Bothrocara mollis Bean 

Family 85. Brotulidae. Brotulid Fishes 

Range: Puget Sound to San Pedro, California. Marine. Not common. 

361. Brosmophycis marginatus (Ayres) 

Family 86. Batrachoididae. Toad Fishes 

Range: Sitka, Alaska to Gulf of California. Marine. Common. 

Singing fish. Midshipman 362. Porichthys notatus Girard 

Family 87. Gobiesocidae. Clingfishes 

Range: British Columbia to Pt. Arguello, California. Marine. Common. 
Clingfish 363. Caularchus macandricus (Girard) 

Family 88. Molidae. Headfishes 

Range : Temperate and tropical seas of Atlantic and Pacific, and north- 
ward to southeastern Alaska. Marine. Common southward. 
Ocean Sunfish 364. Mola mola (Linnaeus) 

Family 89. Oneirodidae. Angler Fishes 

Range : Santa Barbara Islands. 

Angler Fish 365. Dolopichthys acanthias (Gilbert) 

198 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 


Explanations of Terms, Counts and Measurements Most 
Frequently Used in Keys and Descriptions 

Abdomen. Belly, the cavity containing the digestive and reproduc- 
tive organs. 

Abdominal. Pertaining to the belly; said of the ventral fins of fishes 
when inserted considerably behind the pectorals, the pelvic 
bones to which the ventral fins are attached having no connec- 
tion with the shoulder girdle. 

Abortive. Remaining or becoming imperfect. 

Accessory caudal rays. Short, procurrent rays on the upper and 
lower (rather than posterior) part of the caudal peduncle. 

Accessory pelvic scale. An enlarged scale or fleshy appendage on the 
upper side at the base of the pelvic fin. 

Actinosts. A series of bones at the base of the rays of the paired 

Acuminate. Tapering gradually to a point. 

Acute. Sharp-pointed. 

Adipose fin. A fleshy fin-like projection behind the rayed dorsal fin, 
on the back of certain fishes, usually lacking typical fin rays. 

Adnate. Adhering or grown together. 

Adidt. A mature animal. 

Agape. In a gaping state. Jaws open. 

Air bladder or swim bladder. A sac filled with gas situated in the 
body cavity beneath the backbone and corresponding to the 
lungs of higher vertebrates. 

Alisphenoid. A small bone on the anterior lateral wall of the brain 

Ammocoetes. A name applied to the larval form of lampreys. 

Amphicoelian. Double-concave ; concave at both ends ; said of verte- 

Anadromous. Running up ; said of marine fishes which run up riv- 
ers to spawn; used in a broader sense any fish entering fresh 
water or going from deeper water to shallow water for the 
purpose of spawning. 

Anal. Pertaining to the anus or vent. 

Anal fin. The fin on the ventral median line behind the vent. 

Anal fin III, 10 etc. — three spines and ten soft rays. 

Anal papilla. A protuberance in front of the genital pore and behind 
the vent in certain groups of fishes, corresponding to the penis 
of higher vertebrates. 

Anchylosed. Grown firmly together. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 199 

Angular. A small bone on the posterior end of the mandible. 

Antrorse. Turned forward. 

Anus. The external opening of the intestine; the vent. 

Arterial bulb. The muscular swelling, at the base of the great artery. 

Articular. The bone of the mandible supporting the dentary and at- 
tached to the quadrate. 

Articulate. Jointed ; said of soft fin rays. 

Atlas. The first vertebrae. 

Atrophy. Non-development. Diminutive in size. 

Attenuate. Long and slender, as if drawn out. 

Auditory capsule. The ventrolateral swelling of the skull, and con- 
taining part of the inner ear. 

Axil, as "no scales in axil." The region under or behind the pectoral 
fin base. 

Barbel. An elongate, fleshy projection, usually about the head. 

Basal. Pertaining to the base ; at or near the base. 

Base of skull. The lower or ventral portion of the cranium ; the ven- 
tral outline of the parasphenoid is said to represent the "base 
of the skull" in Sebastodes. 

Basioccipital. A median posteriorily and ventrally located bone of 
the skull to which the atlas is attached. 

Basis cranii. A structure formed by shelves of bone developed from 
the inner sides of the prootics which meet and form a roof to 
the myodome and a floor to the brain cavity. 

Bicolor. Two-colored. 

Bicuspid. Having two points. 

Brachial ossicles. See Actinosts. 

Branchiae. Gills, the respiratory organs of fishes. 

Branchial. Pertaining to the gills. 

Branchiostegals. The bony rays supporting the branchiostegal mem- 
branes, under the head of fishes and below the opercular 
bones behind the lower jaw, and attached to the hyoid arch. 

Breast. The region on the ventral side of the head, anterior to the 
ventral fins and posterior to the isthmus. 

Bristle. A stiff hair or hair-like structure. 

Buccal. Pertaining to the mouth. 

Caducous. Falling off early or easily. 

Caecal or coecal. Of the form or a blind sac. 

Caecum, (pi. caeca). An appendage of the form of a blind sac, con- 
nected with the alimentary canal at the posterior end of the 
stomach, or pylorus. 

200 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Canines. The teeth behind the incisors — the eye teeth ; in fishes any 
distinctly enlarged conical teeth longer than others. 

Cardiform teeth. Teeth coarse and sharp, and arranged like the 
spikes on wool cards. 

Carinate. Keeled ; having a ridge along the middle line. 

Catadromous. Running down ; said of fresh-water species which 
run down rivers to spawn in the sea. 

Caudal. Pertaining to the tail. 

Caudal fin. The fin on the tail of fishes. 

Caudal peduncle. The tapering portion of the body behind the base 
of the last ray of the anal fin. Its length is taken from that 
point to the base of the mid-caudal rays. The least depth of 
the caudal peduncle is taken at its slenderest part. 

Cavernous. Containing cavities, whether empty or filled with mu- 
cous secretion. 

Centrum. The body of a vertebra. 

Cephalic fins. Pertaining to fins on the head as in certain rays ; a 
detached portion of the pectoral. 

Ceratobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches just below their 

Ceratohyal. One of the hyoid bones. 

Chiasma. The union of the trunks of the optic nerves, in ganoid 
fishes. In teleostean fishes the optic nerves cross or interlace 
without uniting to form a solid chiasma. 

Chin. The space between the rami of the lower jaw. 

Chondrocranium. The rudimentary cartilaginous cranial skeleton, 
corresponding to the primitive skull of cartilaginous fishes, of 
which traces remain in bony forms. 

Ciliated. Fringed with eyelash-like projections. 

Cirrus, pi. cirri. Fringes; tendril-like flexible tufts of skin; hair- 

C las per s. Organs attached to the ventral fins in the male of sharks, 
etc., the myxopterygia. 

Compressed. Flattened laterally or side to side. 

Conus arteriosus. A muscular and contractile bulb between the ven- 
tricle and the root of the aorta. It is furnished interiorly with 
one or more transverse rows of packet-shaped valves to pre- 
vent a backward flow of the blood. 

Coracoid. The principal posterior bone of the shoulder girdle in 
fishes supporting the pectoral radials. 

Cranial. Pertaining to the cranium or skull. 

Ctenoid. Rough-edged ; said of cycloid-like scales having the pos- 
terior margin minutely spinous, or pectinated, or toothed. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 201 

Cycloid. Smooth-edged ; said of scales concentrically striate, with- 
out any trace of minute spines. 

Deciduous. Temporary; falling off. 

Decurved. Curved downward. 

Dcntary. The anterior bone of the lower jaw or mandible, usually 
bearing teeth. 

Dentition weak. Teeth scarcely evident. 

Dentition strong. Teeth very easily observed and highly developed. 

Denticle. A little tooth. 

Depressed. Flattened vertically, like the skates and rays. 

Depth. The vertical distance through the body at its deepest part, 
not including the fins. 

Dermal. Pertaining to the skin. 

Diaphanous. Translucent. 

Disk (of skate). The more or less roundish body of the skate ex- 
cluding the tail, ventral fins, claspers. The pectoral fins which 
form a part of the body of the skate are a part of the disk. 

Distal. Remote from point of attachment. 

Dorsal. Pertaining to the back. 

Dorsal fin. The fin on the back, in front of the adipose if that is 
present. In counting the fin rays, the anterior rudimentary 
rays are omitted in certain groups of fishes such as Cyprinidae, 
Catostomidae, Salmonidae, etc., or are given separately as sim- 
ple rays in the following formula, 2 + 10, the simple rays be- 
ing given first. Rudimentary rays are those rays, in general, at 
the beginning of the fin which are unbranched, membraneless, 
closely appressed the one to the other, and in ordinary cases 
not more than half the length of the fully developed rays. The 
last ray of the dorsal or anal fins is often split nearly or quite 
to the base and appears as two rays, although counted as one. 
In all cases, the last two rays are counted as one. In descrip- 
tions, etc., Arabic numerals are used to indicate soft rays and 
Roman numerals to indicate spines. A dash" — " separates ele- 
ments not connected ; a comma those connected. 

Emarginate. Slightly forked or notched. 

Endoskeleton. The skeleton proper; the inner bony framework of 
the body. 

Enteron. The alimentary canal. 

Epibranchials. The bones directly above the angle of the branchial 

Epihyal. One of the hyoid bones. 

Epipleurals. Rays of bone attached to the ribs and anterior verte- 

202 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Erectile. Susceptible of being raised or erected. 

Ethmoid. A median anterior bone of the skull, above the vomer. 

Exoccipitals. Two bones of the skull ; one on each side of the for- 
amen magnum. 

Exoskeleton. Hard parts (scales, scutes, bony plates) on the sur- 
face of the body. 

Exserted. Projecting beyond the general level, as fin rays beyond 
the membranes. 

Extralimital. Beyond the limits (of this key). 

Eye. The diameter of the eye, called "eye" in descriptions, is meas- 
ured lengthwise (horizontal diameter), the form of the orbit 
not always being round. Most investigators use the greatest 
diameter of the eye, if the latter is not circular. 

Eye in snout. The diameter of the eye is measured in the length of 
the snout. 

Facial. Pertaining to the face. 

Falcate. Scythe-shaped, long, narrow and curved. 

Falciform. Curved, like a scythe. 

Fauna. The animals inhabiting any region, taken collectively. 

Filiform. Any thread-like, slender structure. 

Fin height. The height of a fin is the length of the longest ray. 

Fin length. The length of a fin is measured along its base unless the 
length of the depressed fin is specified. The latter is measured 
from its origin to the most posterior point of the fin. 

Finlets. A series of specialized fin rays, usually separate from each 
other and occurring posteriorly to the dorsal or anal fins. 

Fontanel. An unossified space on top of the head, between the par- 
ietals, covered with a membrane. 

Foramen. A hole or opening. 

Foramen magnum. The aperature in the posterior part of the skull 
for the passage of the spinal cord. 

Forehead. Frontal curve of the head. 

Forficate. Deeply forked, furcate. 

Fossa (nasal). Groove in which the nostril opens, a shallow depres- 

Frcnum. A small piece of flesh binding the lip to the edge of the 

Frontal bone. Anterior bone on the top of the head, usually paired. 

Fulcra (singular fulcrum.) Rudimentary spine-like projections ex- 
tending on the anterior rays of the fins of the ganoid fishes. 

Furcate. Forked. 

Fusiform. Spindle-shaped, tapering toward both ends, but more 
abruptly forward. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 203 

Ganoid. Scales or plates of bone covered by enamel. 

Gape. Opening of the mouth. 

Geniculate. Having knee-like bends or joints or protuberances. 

Gibbous. Sharply convex or rounded. 

Gill arches. The bony arches to which the gills are attached. 

Gill membranes. The thin wall of skin, supported by the branchios- 
tegals, and closing the gill cavity below. 

Gill membranes free from the isthmus. Not connected to the isth- 
mus so that a needle can be run across the isthmus and under 
the membranes if the right and left sides are connected. 

Gill openings. Opening leading to or from the branchiae or gills. 

Gill rakers. A series of bony appendages, variously placed along the 
anterior edges of the gill arches. The gill rakers are counted 
on the first gill arch only, unless otherwise specified. The num- 
ber of rakers is counted both above and below the angle or 
bend of the gill-arch, the upper number being mentioned first. 
All rudiments are counted. The formula, 15 + 25, for exam- 
ple, indicates 15 rakers on the upper and 25 on the lower limb. 

Gill slit. The openings between the gill arches. The "slit behind the 
4th gill arch" may be pore-like, absent, or a small slit. If pore- 
like it is a tiny round opening like the letter "o", but if a small 
slit, it is a small elongate opening. In both cases this opening 
is very close to the bony arch and not in the loose membran- 
eous tissue behind the 4th arch. 

Gills. Organs for breathing the air contained in water. 

Glabrous. Smooth. 

GlossoJiyal. The tongue bone. 

Graduated spines. Progressively longer backward, the third ele- 
ment being as much longer than the second as the second is 
longer than the first, etc. 

Granulated. Rough with small prominences. 

Gnlar. Pertaining to the gula, in fishes the region between the chin 
and isthmus. 

Gidar plate. A single hard plate or plates between the dentary bones 
of the lower jaw. 

Haemal arch. An arch between the haemal spines, for the passage 
of blood vessels. 

Haemal canal. The series of haemal arches as a whole. 

Haemal spine. The ventral spine of a caudal vertebra in fishes. 

Head length. Usually called "head" in descriptions. The length of 
the head is measured from the tip of the snout to the extreme 
hinder margin of the bony portions of the opercle. It includes 
the opercular spines in percoid fishes, etc., and the opercular 
membrane in most fishes. 

204 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Head width. Measured at the widest part. 

Height. Vertical diameter. 

Heterocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when vertically unequal, the 

backbone deflected upward into the upper lobe. 
Hispid. Rough with stiff hairs or bristles. 
Holotype. See type. 
Homocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when not externally unequal, 

the last vertebrae fusing into a more or less symmetrical plate, 

the hypural plate. 
Humeral spine. A spine above the base of the pectoral fin, attached 

to the pectoral girdle and directed posteriorly. 
Humerus. Bone of the upper arm. 
Hyoid. Pertaining to the hyoid bone or arch. 

Hyoid apparatus. Formed by a series of bones supporting the tongue. 
Hyomandibidar. A bone by which the posterior end of the suspen- 

sorium is articulated with the skull ; the supporting element of 

the suspensorium, the mandible, the hyoid apparatus, and the 

opercular apparatus. 
Hypercoracoid. The upper of the two bones attached to the cleith- 

rum or clavicle, indirectly bearing the pectoral fin. 
Hypurals. The modified plate-like last few vertebrae supporting the 

caudal fin rays. 
Hypobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches below the cerato- 

Hypocoracoid. The lower of the two bones attached to the clavicle 

Hypohyals. Small bones, usually 4, by which the respective sides of 

the hyoid apparatus are joined. 

-id (suffix). Indicating membership in a family, thus percid, a mem- 
ber of the Percidae. 

-idae (suffix). The family name always ends in idae, as Percidae, 
Cyprinidae, etc. 

Imbricate. Overlapping like shingles on a roof. 

Imperforate. Not pierced through. 

-inae (suffix). The subfamily name always ends in inae, as Pcrcinae, 

Inarticulate. Not jointed. 
-ine (suffix). Indicating membership in a subfamily, thus percine, a 

member of the Percinae. 
Incisors. Front teeth compressed to form a cutting edge. 
Inferior pharyngeals. Synonymous with pharyngeals. Main bones 

of pharyngeal arch. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 205 

Infraoral. Below the mouth. The teeth of the mouth or disk be- 
low the oral opening, in lampreys. 

Infraorbitals. A chain of small bones below the eye. 

Insertion of fin. A term applied to the point where the paired fins 
begin or arise from the body. 

Interhacmal spines. Elements supporting the anal fin rays. 

hiterhaemals. See interhaemal spines. 

Interhyal. Upper hyoid bone attached to hyomandibular. 

Inter maxillaries . The premaxillaries. 

Interneural spines. Elements supporting the dorsal fin rays. 

Interneurals. See interneural spines. 

Interopercle. Membrane bone between the preopercle and the 
branchiostegals, usually anterior to subopercle when latter is 

Interorbital space. The distance between the eyes on the top of the 
head. The bony interorbital space is measured unless other- 
wise specified. 

Interspinous bones. The interneurals and interhaemals. 

Isocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when the last vertebrae progres- 
sively become smaller and smaller and end in the median line 
of the caudal fin, the hypural plate being nearly obsolete. 

Isthmus. The region just anterior to the breast of a fish where the 
gill membranes converge. The fleshy interspace between gill 

Jugular. Pertaining to the lower throat; said of the ventral fins 
when placed in advance of the attachment of the pectorals. 

Keeled. Having a ridge along the middle line. 

Lacustrine. Living in lakes. 

Lamellae. Plate-like processes like those inside the bill of a duck. 

Larva. An immature form, which must undergo change of appear- 
ance before becoming adult. 

Lateral. Pertaining to the side. 

Lateral line. A series of sensory tubes opening to the exterior or a 
sensory canal along the sides of a fish, sometimes single, some- 
times multiple. 

Lateral line with an arch in front. The lateral line has a distinct ele- 
vation over the pectoral fin in the form of an abrupt arch, 
not a mere curve. 

Lateral line with an accessory dorsal branch. An extra dorsal branch 
begins on the head and runs posteriorly off the main lateral 

Lateral processes. See parapophyses. 

206 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Lateral Teeth. See teeth lateral. 

Laterally. Sidewise. 

Length of upper jaw. Often referred to as "maxillary" in descrip- 
tions, measured from tip of the upper jaw (premaxillary sym- 
physis) to the posterior end of the maxillary. 

Length of body (standard length). Usually this length is measured 
from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal rays (end 
of the last vertebra or hypural plate). 

Lingual. Pertaining to the tongue. 

Lunate. Form of the new moon ; having a broad and rather shallow 

Mandible. Lower jaw. 

Marbled. Variegated ; clouded. 

Maxilla or maxillary. Upper jaw. See length of upper jaw and see 

Maxillaries. Outermost or hindmost bones of the upper jaw ; in 

fishes they are joined to the premaxillaries in front or below, 

and usually extend farther back than the latter. They often 

lie above the premaxillaries. 
Mesocoracoid. Median bone in the form of an arch in front of the 

coracoids, found only in certain soft rayed fishes. 
Mesethmoid. See ethmoid. 
Mesopterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium. 
Metapterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium, supporting the lower 

Molars. The grinding teeth; posterior teeth in the jaw; flat topped 

Mottled. Color spots running together, blotched. 
Mouth inferior. The mouth is located ventrally and a little behind 

the tip of the projecting snout. 
Mouth oblique. The mouth is a modified terminal one in which the 

jaws usually lie at an angle of about 40 degrees or more to the 

anterior-posterior axis of the body. 
Mouth ventral. The mouth is located much behind and below the 

tip of the snout, usually a distance equal to or more than 

length of snout. 
Muciferous. Producing or containing mucus. 
My comma (pi. Mycommata). A septum between two myotomes. 
Myodome. Cavity under the brain cavity for reception of the rectus 

muscles of the eye. 
Myotomes. Muscle segments. 
Myxopterygia. See claspers. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 207 

Nape. Upper part of the neck, next to the occiput. 

Nares. Nostrils, anterior and posterior. 

Nasal plate. Plate in which the nostrils are inserted. 

Neural arch. The dorsal arch of a vertebra for the passage of the 

spinal cord. See neural spine. 
Neural canal. The cavity of the neural arch as a whole. 
Neural processes. Two plates rising vertically, one on each side of 

the centrum of the vertebra, which unite toward their ends 

and form a spine. 
Nictitating membrane. The third or inner eyelid. 
Nuchal. Pertaining to the nape or nucha. 
Nuchal spine. Posterior to and in line with the parietal spine (at 

posterior edge of parietal ridge) occurs the nuchal spine. If 

one of these spines is absent it is the nuchal spine. 

Obsolete. Faintly marked, scarcely evident. 

Obtuse. Blunt. 

Occipital. Pertaining to the occiput. 

Occipital condyle. That part of the occipital bone modified to ar- 
ticulate with the atlas. 

Occiput. Back of the head. In fishes, specifically the cross line sep- 
arating the fleshy nape from the head. 

Ocellate. With eye-like spots, generally roundish and with contrast- 
ing borders. 

-oid (suffiix). Like; as percoid, perch-like. 

Opercle or operculum. Gill cover; the posterior membrane bone of 
the side of the head, in fishes. 

Opercular flap. Prolongation of the upper posterior angle of the 

Opisthocoelian. Concave behind only, said of vertebrae with ball and 
socket joints. 

Opisthotic. A bone of the skull with which the lower limb of the 
posttemporal usually articulates. 

Orbicular. Circular. 

Orbit. Eye socket, (see length of eye). 

Origin of fin. The term applied to where the median fins begin on 
the body. 

Osseous. Bony. 

Otolith. A bone of the inner ear of fishes lying in the sacculus. 

Oviparous. Producing eggs which are developed and hatched after 
exclusion from the body, as in all birds and most fishes. 

Ovovoviparous. Producing eggs, usually with much yolk. Usually 
hatching occurs before exclusion. 

Ovum. Egg. 

208 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 

Palate. The roof of the mouth. 

Palatines. Membrane bones of the roof of the mouth, one on each 
side extending outward and backward from the vomer. 

Palustrine. Living in swamps. 

Papilla. A small fleshy projection. 

Papillose. Covered with papillae. 

Parapophyses. The lateral projections on some of the abdominal ver- 
tebrae for the support of ribs. 

Parietal. A bone on the top and back side of the head. 

Parotic process. A posterior lateral process of the skull formed by 
the pterotic and opisthotic bones. 

Parr marks. The vertical color bars found on Salmonoids. 

Pectinate. Having teeth-like projections as in a comb. 

Pectoral radials. See actinosts. 

Pectoral fins. The anterior or uppermost of the paired fins, in fishes, 
corresponding to the anterior limbs of the higher vertebrates. 

Pelagic. Living on or in the high seas. 

Pelvic girdle. The bones supporting the ventral or pelvic fins. 

Pelvic fin. See ventral fin. 

Perforate. Pierced through. 

Peritoneum. The membrane lining the abdominal cavity. 

Pharyngeal bones. Bones behind the gills and at the beginning of the 
oesophagus of fishes. They are of various forms and almost al- 
ways provided with teeth. 

Pharyngeal teeth. In Cyprinidae the main row of teeth on each phar- 
yngeal bone contains 4 or 5 teeth (seldom more or less) ; inside 
of this main row is a so-called "lesser row" which may contain 
1 or 2 teeth or none, in the latter case being designated in 
the formula, as for example, teeth 2:4-4:0 means 4 teeth in 
each main (outer) row, and 2 teeth in one lesser row of one 
side and teeth in the other lesser (inner) row. 

Pharyngobranchials. Upper elements of the branchial arches with 

Pharyngognathous. Having the lower pharyngeal bones united. 

Photophores. Small bead-like organs, light colored, for production 
of light. 

Physostomous. Having the air bladder connected by a tube with the 

Physoclistic. Having no open duct to air bladder. 
Pituitary body. A small organ in the ventral part of the brain. 
Plicate. Folded ; showing transverse folds or wrinkles. 
Plumbeous. Lead colored ; dull bluish gray. 

1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 209 

Polygamous. Mating with more than one female. 

Polyphyodont. Said of teeth which are shed and new ones immedi- 
ately take their place from beneath. 

Postclavicle. A ray-like bone composed of one or two elements at- 
tached to the inner upper surface of the clavicle and extending 

Postorbital. Behind eye. In measurments, the greatest length of head 
between hindermost edge of orbit and opercular edge. 

Postrostral. Behind the snout. 

Post-temporal. The bone by which the shoulder girdle is suspended 
to the cranium in fishes. 

Precoracoid arch. See mesocoracoid. 

Prefrontals. Bones forming lateral projections on the anterior mar- 
gins of the orbits. 

Premaxillaries. The bones, one on either side, forming the front of 
the upper jaw in fishes. 

Preocular. Before the eye. 

Preopercle. The membrane bone lying in front of the opercle, near- 
ly parallel with it. 

Preorbital. The large membrane bone before the eye, in fishes. 

Procoelian. Concave in front only. 

Procurrent fin. With the lower rays inserted progressively farther 

Profile. The curve from the front of the dorsal fin to the tip of the 

Projectile. Capable of being thrust forward. 

Prootic. A bone forming an anterolateral ossification of the brain 

Protractile. Capable of being drawn forward. 

Proximal. Nearest; basal. 

Pseudobranchiae. Small gills developed on the inner side of the oper- 
cle near its junction with the preopercle. 

Pterotic. A bone at the posterior lateral process of the skull. 

Pterygoids. Bones of the roof of the mouth in fishes, behind the 

Pubic bones. Same as pelvic bones 

Pulmonary. Pertaining to the lungs. 

Punctate or punctulate. Dotted with points; either of color or struc- 

Pyloric caeca or coeca. See caecum. 

Pylorus. Passage from stomach to intestine. 

210 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Quadrate. A bone of the suspensorium on which the mandible is 

Quincunx. Arrangements in sets of 5, thus, 

Ray. One of the cartilaginous rods supporting the membranes of the 
fin. Rays are either spiny or soft, the latter are simple or branch- 

Recurved. Curved upward or backward. 

Reticulate. Marked with a network of lines. 

Retrorse. Turned backward. 

Rictus. The posterior corner of the mouth. 

Rostral plate. A small terminal plate on the tip of the snout. 

Rudimentary. Undeveloped. 

Rugose. Rough; wrinkled. 

Scales above the lateral line. The number of scales is counted for- 
ward in an oblique row beginning at lateral line and running 
anteriorly to just before the dorsal fin. 

Scaly appendage. The accessory scale which is a fleshy triangular 
projection just dorsal to the ventral fin base on certain fishes. 

Scales below lateral line. The number of scales is counted in an ob- 
lique row beginning at the anterior margin of the ventral fin 
base and running forward or backward to the lateral line. 

Scale formida. A conventional formula, "scales 7+65 + 12", for ex- 
ample, indicates seven scales in an oblique row above the lat- 
eral line, sixty-five scales in the lateral line, and twelve in an 
oblique series below the lateral line. 

Scales in lateral line. Usually the number of scales bearing tubes in 
the lateral line or the number of oblique series (rows) along 
the side of the fish. The scales are counted, beginning just a- 
bove the opercular opening, to the end of the hypural plate of 
the vertebral column, omitting the scales on caudal fin rays. 

Scapida. Shoulder blade ; in fishes, a bone of the shoulder girdle, the 
upper bone of coracoid series. 

Scapidar arch. Shoulder girdle. 

Scute. Any external bony or horny plate, usually more or less spiny 
or keeled. 

Second dorsal. The posterior of two fins, usually the soft rayed dor- 
sal fin of "spiny rayed" fishes. 

Septum. Thin partition. 

Serrate. Notched like a saw. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 211 

Sessile. Without a stem or peduncle ; attached. 

Setaceous. Bristly. 

Setiform. Bristle-like; like bristles of a brush. 

Shoulder girdle. Bony structure posterior to the head, pectoral girdle 

to which the anterior limbs are attached, the pectoral fin. 
Snout. The portion of the head which projects beyond the eyes. The 

snout is measured from the tip of the upper jaw to the anterior 

margin of the orbit. 
Soft dorsal. The part of the dorsal fin in fishes composed of soft or 

articulated rays. 
Soft rays. Fin rays which are articulated like bamboo fish poles. 
Spatulate. Shaped like a spatula. 
Sphenotic. A lateral bone of the skull. 
Spine. A sharp projecting point ; of fin rays, technically inarticulated, 

unpaired (median) rays, regardless of whether or not they are 

stiff and pungent. 
Spinous. Stiff or composed of spines. 
Spinous dorsal. Anterior part of dorsal fin of spinous rays ; dorsal 

fin composed of inarticulated rays. 
Spiracles. Respiratory openings in the head and neck of sharks and 

rays and certain other fishes. 
Standard length. The distance from the tip of the snout to the base 

of the caudal fin rays. 
Stellate. Star-like, with radiating ridges. 
Striate. Striped or streaked. 
Sub-. Less than ; somewhat, not quite, under, etc. 
Subcaudal. Under the tail. 

Subopercle. First bone below the opercle, suture often hidden by 
scales or skin. 

Suborbitals. See infraorbitals. 

Suborbital stay. One of the suborbital bones in certain fishes, extend- 
ing across the cheek, to or toward the preopercle. 

Subidate. Awlshaped. 

Sucking disk. A sucking organ, usually modified paired fins, used for 
clinging to rocks, etc. 

Superpharyngeals. Upper pharyngeals or sometimes a synonym of 

Supplemental maxillary. A small bone or bones lying along the up- 
per edge of the maxillary in some fishes. 

Supraclavicle. Bone interposed between clavicle and post-temporal. 
The word cleithrum is in common usage. 

Supra-. Above. 

212 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 

Suprascapular, or supracleithrum. A bone lying between the post- 
temporal and the cleithrum of the shoulder girdle. 

Supraorbital spine. The spine above the eye, between the preorbital 
spine and the postorbital spine. If only two spines are present, 
the supraorbital is absent in Sebastodes. 

Supraoral teeth. Teeth on the supraoral plate or lamina of lampreys. 

Suspensorium. The chain of bones from hyomandibular to the pala- 

Suspensory bones. Bones by which lower jaw is fastened to the skull. 

Suture. Line of union of two ossified bones. 

Symphysis. Point of junction of the two parts of lower jaw; tip of 

Symplectic. The bone that keys together the hyomandibular and 

quadrate posteriorly, in fishes. 

Synonymy. A list of technical names applied to a certain genus or 

Swim bladder. See air bladder. 

Tail. The part of the body posterior to the body cavity ; in fishes ap- 
lied to the caudal fin only. 

Teeth bifid or bicuspid. With two projections. 

Teeth deciduous. Said of teeth which are shed. On certain fishes the 
teeth are shed during spawning season. Certain pharyngeal teeth 
are attached by flesh or cartilage to the pharyngeal bone and 
are called deciduous although they may replace the normal teeth 
when the latter are lost. 

Teeth lateral. Said of the series of teeth on each side of the oesopha- 
geal opening of lampreys. 

Teeth midticuspid. Many cusps or projections on the teeth. 

Teeth supraoral. See supraoral teeth. 

Terete. Cylindrical and tapering. 

Terminal. At the end. 

Tessellated. Marked with little checks or squares, like mosaic work. 

Thoracic. Pertaining to the thorax or chest ; ventral fins are thoracic 
when attached immediately below the pectorals, the bones being 
attached to the shoulder girdle. 

Transverse. Crosswise. 

Transverse processes of vertebrae. Lateral processes of the verte- 
brae (abdominal) to which the ribs are attached. 

Trenchant. Compressed to a sharp edge. 
Truncate. Abrupt, as if cut squarely off. 
Tubercle. A small excresence, like a pimple. 

1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 213 

Type. The particular specimen upon which the original description 
of a species was based or the species upon which was based the 

Type locality. The particular place or locality at which the type was 

Ultimate. Last or farthest. 

Unicolor. Of one single color or shade. 

Vent. The external opening of the alimentary canal. 

Ventral fins. Paired fins corresponding to posterior limbs, or pelvics. 

Ventral fins, I, 5; I, 4 ; I, 2, etc.; one spine (Roman) and five soft 
rays (Arabic), etc. 

Ventral plates. A row of plates along the belly between throat and 

Ventricle. One of the thick-walled chambers of the heart. 

Versatile. Capable of being turned either way. 

Vertebra. One of the bones of the spinal column. 

Vertebrae, Abdominal. Anterior vertebrae which occur dorsal to the 
body cavity and to which the ribs are attached. They lack the 
haemal arch and canal, and the haemal spines on their ventral 

Vertebrae, caudal. Posterior vertebrae which possess an arch, canal 
and spine on the ventral side. 

Vertical. Up and down or dorso-ventrally. 

Vertical fins. Fins on median line of the body ; median fins, the dor- 
sal, caudal and anal. 

Villiform. Said of the teeth of fishes when slender and crowded in- 
to velvety bands, or compact patches. 

Viscous. Slimy. 

Viviparous. Bringing forth living young. Usually the mother con- 
tributes food to the growth of the embryos. 

Vomer. In fishes, the front part of the roof of the mouth ; a bone ly- 
ing immediately behind the premaxillaries, and usually bearing 

Width. The width of a fish is taken at the widest part of the body. 

Weberian ossicles. A chain of small bones developed in connection 
with the modified anterior vertebrae and connecting the air blad- 
der with the ear in the Ostariophysi, such as suckers, carps, cat- 
fishes, minnows, chubs, etc. 

Zygapophyses. Points of bone affording to the vertebrae more or 
less definite articulation with each other. 

1936 J 

Schult::: Keys to J'ishcs 




Alaska greenling 172 

Alaska red rockfish 167 

albacore 160 

alligatorfishes 182 

anchovy, northern 133 

angel shark 131 

angler fish 197 

arctic cod 154, 155 

arrow- toothed halibut 157 

barracuda 160 

barred blenny 193 

basking shark 131 

bass 161 

black 162, 164, 165, 166 

large-mouth 162 

sea 163 

small-mouth 162 

striped 163 

warmouth 161 

white sea 163 

bastard sole 158 

bay-smelt 1 60 

belted blenny 194 

big skate 132 

black bass .164, 165, 166 

black catfish 150 

black cod... 170 

black crappie 162 

black hagfish 130 

black sea poacher 185 

black skate 132 

black and yellow rockfish 1 70 

black-banded rockfish 1 70 

black-nosed dace 148 

black-sided dace 148 

black-spotted trout, Montana .... 136 

blennies 192 

barred 193 

belted 194 

bracket 192 

burrowing 195 

crested 194 

decorated 193 

fucus 192 

northern 192 

ornamented 193 

rock 194 

saddled 192 

blue cod 173 

blue perch 190 

blueback salmon 135 

blueback trout 137 

bluefin tuna 160 

bluegill sunfish 162 

bocaccio 164 

bonito 1 60 


bone shark 131 

borers 130 

bracket blenny 192 

bream, red-sided 150 

broad-finned greenling 171 

brook lamprey 130 

brook trout 138 

brotuloidfish 197 

brown-backed whitefish 139 

brown rockfish 168, 169 

brown shark 131 

brown trout 137 

buffalo sculpin 174 

bull cod 173 

bull trout 139 

bullheads 172, 178, 179, 180 

prickly 179 

Rocky Mountain 179 

smooth 178 

burbot 156 

burrowing blenny 195 


pampano 161 

skate 132 

candlefish 141 

capelin 142 

carp 145 

cat sharks 131 

catfish 150, 151 

black 150 

channel cat 150 

charr 139 

chimaeras 132 

Chinese sole 159 

Chinese rockfish 1 70 

chinook salmon 135 

chiselmouth 146 

chubs 145, 149 

Columbia River 147 

lake 148 

Oregon 147 

chub minnow 148 

chum salmon 135 

cirrated sculpin 181 

clingfishes 197 

C-Osole 158 

coal fish 170 

coarse-scaled suckers 143, 145 

Columbia River 145 

Goose Lake 145 

Klamath River 145 

Warner Lake basin 143 

coastal cutthroat trout 136 

coastal steelhead trout 137 

cods 154 

arctic 154, 155 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


black 170 

blue 173 

bull 173 

cultus 172 

gray 154 

ling 172 

northern 155 

Pacific tomcod 155 

Wachna 155 

codfish, Pacific 154 

coho salmon 135 

Columbia River 

smelt 141 

chub 147 

trout perch 156 

Congo eel 194 

convict fish 171 

cow shark 130 

crampfish 132 

crappies 162 

black 162 

white 162 

crested blenny 194 

cultus cod 172 

cutlass fishes 160 

cutthroat trout 136, 137 

coastal 136, 137 

Montana black-spotted 136 

steelhead 137 

dace 145, 148 

black-nosed 148 

black-sided 148 

Klamath 149 

long-nosed 149 

speckled 148 

Umpqua River 149 

decorated blenny 193 

deep sea fish 133, 142, 159 

deep sea smelt 142 

dog salmon 135 

dogfish shark 131 

dolly varden trout 139 

eastern brook trout 138 

eels 195 

Congo 194 

snake 193 

snipe 142 

thread 142 

wolf 195 

eel pouts 195 

electric rays 132 

elephant shark 131 

English sole 157, 158 

eulachon 141 

fine-scaled suckers 143, 144 

Columbia River 143 

Klamath River 144 

flaccid fishes 191 

flathead 157 


flounders 157, 158 

scaly-finned 158 

starry 159 

forktail perch 190 

four-horned sea poacher 182 

fox shark 131 

freshwater smelt 142 

fucus blenny 192 

giant sea bass 170 

gobies 191 

goldfish 145 

gray cod 154 

gray shark 131 

gray star-snout 185 

grayfish 131 

grayling, Montana 140 

great blue shark 131 

great sculpin 180 

green-striped rockfish 168 

green sturgeon 133 

green sunfish 161 

green tench 146 

greenling 171,172 

Alaska 172 

broad-finned 171 

kelp 171 

long-spined 171 

painted 171 

red 171 

grenadiers 154 

great sculpin 180 

grouper 164 

gruntfish 182 

hagfishes 130 

black 130 

common 130 

hairtails 160 

hake, Pacific 156 

halibuts 157 

arrow-toothed 157 

Pacific 157 

handsawfishes 152 

hardhead 147 

headfishes 197 

herring, Pacific 133 

highbrow 191 

horned pout 150, 151 

humpback salmon 134 

hybrid sole 158 

Irish lord 174 

jack smelt 160 

Kamloops trout 138 

kelp greenling 171 

kelpfish 192 

king salmon 135 

Klamath dace 149 

Klamath sucker 143 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 



lake chub 148 

Lake Crescent whitefish 139 

lake lawyer 156 

lake trout 138 

lamprey 130 

brook 130 

lake 130 

Pacific 130 

river 130 

three-toothed 130 

lancet fish 152 

land-locked salmon 135 

lantern fishes 151 

large- mouth black bass 162 

ling 156 

ling cod 172 

little pickerel 152 

little red fish 135 

lobe-finned rockfish 163 

long-finned smelt 141 

long-finned sole 159 

long-jawed goby 191 

long- jawed rockfish 166, 167 

long-nosed dace 149 

long-nosed skate 132 

long-nosed sucker 145 

long-rayed sculpin 175 

long-spined greenling 171 

long-tailed shark 131 

Lost River sucker 142 

lumpfish 186 

lumpsuckers 186 

smooth 186 

spiny 186 

mackerel, Pacific 160 

mackerel shark 131 

Mackinaw trout 138 

manacled sculpin 172 

many-spined stickleback 159 

marbled sculpin 173 

marine stickleback 159 

midshipman 197 

minnows 145, 147 

Montana black-spotted trout 136 

Montana grayling 140 

Moonfish 156 

mottled sand dab 156 

mountain sucker 143 

Mountain whitefish, Rocky 139 

mud-minnow 152, 153 

mud shark 130 

night surf smelt 141 

northern anchovy 133 

northern blennies 192 

northern cod 155 

northern roach 146 

northern sea-horse 182 

northern stickleback 159 


ocean sunfish 197 

oil shark 131 

olive-backed rockfish 167 

oolachan 141 

opah 156 

orange rockfish 166 

orange-spotted rockfish 169 

Oregon chub 147 

Oregon pike 150 

Oregon whitefish 140 

ornamented blenny 193 

Pacific codfish 154 

Pacific hake 156 

Pacific halibut 157 

Pacific herring 133 

Pacific lamprey 130 

Pacific mackerel 160 

Pacific saury 154 

Pacific tomcod 155 

painted greenling 171 

pampano, California 161 

pelagic fish 151, 161 

perch 161 

blue 190 

forktail 190 

pile 190 

porgy 190 

shiner 189 

silver 190 

splittail 190 

trout 156 

viviparous 189 

wall-eyed 190 

white 190 

yellow 161 

pickerels 152 

pike, Oregon 150 

pike, Sacramento 149 

pilchard 133 

pile perch 190 

pink salmon 134 

pipefish 1 60 

pollach, Puget Sound 155 

pomf ret 1 60 

porgy 190 

prickly bullhead 179 

prickly skate 132 

priest fish 170 

Puget Sound smelt 141 

Puget Sound pollach 155 

pumpkinseed sunfish 162 

quillfish 195 

ragfishes 161 

rainbow "herring" 140 

rainbow trout 137, 138 

ratfish 132 

rat tails 154 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


rays 131, 132 

ray, electric 132 

red devil 194 

red Irish lord 174 

red fish, little 135 

red greenling 171 

red rockcod 167 

red rockfish 167 

red salmon 135 

red-sided bream 150 

red-sided shiner 150 

red snapper 167 

red-striped rockfish 166 

rex sole 159 

ribbon fish 156 

river lamprey 130 

roaches 146, 147 

rock blenny 194 

rock sole 158 

rock suckers 186 

rock trout (see greenlings) 171 

rockcod (see rockfish) 163, 167 

rockfish 163, 164 

Alaskan red 167 

black and yellow 170 

black-banded 170 

brown 168, 169 

Chinese. 170 

green-striped 168 

grouper 164 

lobe-finned 163 

long-jawed 166, 167 

olive-backed 167 

orange 166 

orange-spotted 169 

red 167 

red-striped 166 

speckled 169 

spiny-headed 163 

vermilion 166 

yellow-backed 169 

yellow-spotted 170 

yellowtail 164, 165 

Rocky Mountain bullhead 179 

Rocky Mountain whitefish 139 

ronquil 191 

rough sole 157 

rough-backed sculpin 175 

rough-tailed skate 132 

round-headed sculpin 181, 182 

sablefish 170 

saddled blenny 192 

sailor fish 182 

salmon 133 

blueback 135 

chinook 135 

chum 135 

coho 135 

dog 135 

humpback 134 


king 135 

land-locked 135 

pink 134 

red 135 

silver 135 

sockeye 135 

spring 135 

salmon shark 131 

sand dabs 156 

mottled 156 

speckled 156 

sand fish 163 

sand lances 191 

sand launces 191 

sand sole 157 

sardine 133 

sauries 154 

scaly-finned flounder 158 

sculpins 172 

buffalo 174 

cirrated 181 

great 180 

long-rayed 175 

manacled 172 

marbled 1 73 

rough-backed 175 

round-headed 181, 182 

tadpole 172 

wooly 180 

sea bass 163 

giant 170 

white 163 

sea horse, northern 182 

sea poachers 182, 183 

sea snails 186 

shad 133 

sharks 130, 131 

angel 131 

basking 131 

bone 131 

brown 131 

cat 131 

cow 130 

dogfish 131 

elephant 131 

fox 131 

grayfish 131 

great blue 131 

longtail 131 

mackerel 131 

mud 130 

oil 131 

salmon 131 

shovelnose 130 

sleeper 131 

soup-fin 131 

spotted cow 130 

thresher 131 

tiger 131 

shiner, red-sided 150 

shovelnose shark 130 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 



silver perch 190 

silver salmon 135 

silver smelt 142 

silver spot 182 

silver trout 135 

silversides 160 

bay-smelt 160 

jacksmelt 1 60 

singing fish 197 

skates 131 

big 132 

black 132 

California 132 

long-nosed 132 

prickly 132 

rough-tailed . . 132 

skilfish 170 

skipjack 1 60 

sleeper shark 131 

slime sole 159 

slippery sole 159 

small-mouth black bass 162 

smelts 140 

bay 160 

candle fish 141 

capelin 142 

Columbia River 141 

deep sea 142 

eulachon 141 

freshwater 142 

jack 160 

long-finned 141 

night surf 141 

oolachan 141 

Puget Sound 141 

rainbow herring 140 

silver 142 

surf 142 

whitebait 141 

smooth bullhead 178 

smooth lumpsucker 186 

smooth sea poacher 186 

snake eel 193 

snipe eel 142 

sockeye salmon 135 

soles 157 

bastard 158 

C-0 158 

Chinese 159 

English 157, 158 

hybrid 158 

long-finned 159 

rex 159 

rock 158 

rough 157 

sand 157 

slime 159 

slippery 159 

soup-fin shark 131 

Spanish flag 168 

speckled dace 148 


speckled rockfish 169 

speckled sand dab 156 

spiny lumpsucker 186 

spiny-headed rockfish 1 63 

spotted cow shark 130 

spotted kelpfish 192 

splittail perch 190 

spring salmon 135 

square mouth 146 

squawfish 149, 150 

Columbia River 150 

Umpqua River 150 

Sacramento River 149 

starry flounder 159 

steelhead trout 137 

stickleback 159 

many-spined 159 

marine 159 

northern 159 

three-spined 159 

striped bass 163 

sturgeons 132 

green 132 

white 132 

sturgeon sea poacher 183 

suckers 1 42 

coarse-scaled 143, 145 

fine-scaled 143, 144 

long-nosed 145 

Lost River 142 

Klamath Lake 143 

Klamath River 145 

mountain 143 

rock 186 

Upper Klamath Lake 143 

sunfish 161, 162 

bluegill 162 

green 162 

ocean 197 

pumpkinseed 162 

surf-fishes 189 

surf-smelt 142 

night 141 

tadpole sculpin 172 

tench 146 

green 146 

yellow 146 

thread eels 142 

three-spined stickleback 159 

three- toothed lamprey 130 

thresher sharks 131 

tide pool johnny 181 

tiger shark 131 

toad fishes 197 

tomcod, Pacific 155 

torpedo 132 

trout 133 

blueback 137 

brook 138 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


brown 137 

bull 139 

charr 139 

coastal cutthroat 136 

coastal steelhead 137 

cutthroat 136 

dolly varden 139 

eastern brook 138 

Kamloops 138 

Lake 138 

Mackinaw 138 

Montana black-spotted 136 

rainbow 137, 138 

rock 171 

silver 135 

steelhead 137 

trout perch, Columbia River 156 

tube-snout 159 

tuna, bluefin 160 

tunny 1 60 

turbot 158 

vermilion rockfish 166 

viper fish 142 

viviparous perches 189 

Wachna cod 155 

wall-eyed perch 190 


warmouth bass 161 

Washington mud-minnow 153 

western charr 139 

western mud-minnow 152 

whitebait 141 

white crappie 162 

whitefish 139 

brown-backed 139 

Lake Crescent 139 

Oregon 140 

Rocky Mountain 135, 139 

white perch 190 

white sea bass 163 

white sturgeon 133 

white surfhsh 190 

whiting 155 

window-tail sea poacher 183 

wolf eel 195 

wolf fishes 195 

woolly sculpin 180 

yellow Irish lord 174 

yellow perch 161 

yellow tench 146 

yellow-backed rockfish 169 

yellow-spotted rockfish 170 

yellowtail rockfish 164, 165 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 




acanthias, Dolopichthys 197 


acutirostris 133 

medirostris 133 

transmontanus 133 

Acipenseridae 133 

acipenserinus, Podothecus 183 

Acrocheilus alutaceus 146 

acrolepis, Macrurus 154 

Acrotidae 161 

Acrotus willoughbyi 161 

aculeatus aculeatus, Gasterosteus. 159 
aculeatus microcephalus, 

Gasterosteus 159 

acuticeps, Oxycottus 182 

acutirostris, Acipenser 133 

aenigmaticus, Icosteus 161 

affinis oregonia, Atherinops 160 

aggregatus, Cymatogaster 189 

Agonidae.. 182, 184 

aix, Pallasina barbata 183 

alalunga, Germo 160 

alascana, Asterotheca 185 

alascanus, Sebastolubus 163 

Albatrossia pectoralis 154 

Alcidea thoburni 173 

Alepisauridae 152 

Alepisaurus ferox 152 

Alepocephalidae 133 

aleutensis, Lyconectes 194 

aleuticus, Cottus 178 

Allocottus embryum 181 

Allolumpenus hypochromus 193 

Allosmerus attenuatus 141 

Alopias vulpinus 131 

Alopiidae 131 

Alosa sapidissima 133 

altivelis, Sebastolobus 163 

alutaceus, Acrocheilus 146 

alutus, Sebastodes 166 

Ameiuridae 150 


melas 150 

nebulosus 151 

Ammodytes tobianus personatus . . 191 

Ammodytidae 191 

Anarrhichthyidae 195 

Anarrhichthys ocellatus 195 

anguillaris, Lumpenus 193 

annularis, Pomoxis 162 

Anoplagonus inermis 186 

Anoplarchus purpurescens 

purpurescens 194 

Anoplopoma fimbria 170 

Anoplopomidae 170 


Antimora microlepis 156 

Aplites salmoides 162 


falcata 148 

klamathensis 148 

oscula carringtoni 148 

nubila 148 

umatilla 148 

Apodichthys flavidus 192 

Apomotis cyanellus 161 

Apristurus brunneus 131 

Arctozenus coruscans 151 

argentea, Sphyraena 160 

argenteum, Hyperprosopon 190 

Argentinidae 142 

argyrosomus, Damalichthys 190 

armatus armatus, Leptocottus. . . . 180 

Artedius lateralis 176 

Ascelichthys rhodorus 172 

asper, Cottus 179 

Aspicottus bison 174 

asprellus, Radulinus 174 


alascana 185 

infraspinata 184, 185 

pentacantha 186 

Astrolytes fenestralis 176 

Atheresthes stomias 157 

Atherinidae 160 

Atherinops affinis oregonia 160 

Atherinopsis californiensis 

calif orniensis 1 60 

atlanticus, Benthodesmus 160 

Atractoscion nobilis 163 

atropurpureus, Epigeichthys 194 

attenuatus, Allosmerus 141 

Rhinoliparis 189 

Aulorhynchidae 159 

Aulorhynchus flavidus 159 

auratus, Carassius 145 

auriculatus, Sebastodes 168 

Averruncus emmelane 183, 184 

avocetta, Nemichthys 142 

axinophrys, Xystes 183 

Axyrias harringtoni 177 


Richardsonius balteatus 150 

Richardsonius, hydrophlox 150 

barbata aix, Pallasina 183 

barbulifer, Rhinoliparis 189 

Bathyagonus nigripinnis 185 

Bathylagus pacificus 142 

Bathymasteridae 191 

Bathytroctes stomias 133 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


Batrachoididae 197 

beani, Triglops 173 

beardsleei, Salmo gairdnerii 137 

beldingi, Cottus 178 

bendirei, Cottus 179 

Benthodesmus atlanticus 160 

beringiannus, Polypera 187 

bicolor bicolor, Siphateles 146 

columbianus, Siphateles 146 

formosus, Siphateles 146 

obesus, Siphateles 147 

oregonensis, Siphateles 147 

Tigoma 149 

bilineata, Lepidopsetta 158 

binoeulata, Raja 132 

bison, Aspicottus 174 

Blennicottus globiceps 181, 182 

Blepsias cirrhosus 182 

boleoides, Radulinus 174 

borealis, Icelinus 175 

Boreogadus saida 155 

Bothidae 156 

Bothragonus swanii 183 


mollis 197 

remigera 196 

Brachyistius frenatus 189 

Brama raii 160 

Bramidae 160 

brevipes, Lycodes 196 

brevirostris, Chasmistes 143 

Brosmophycis marginatus 197 

Brotulidae 197 

brunnea, Lycogramma 196 

brunneus, Apristurus 131 


decoratum 193 

nugator 193 

burchami, Icelinus 176 

caerulea, Sardinops 133 

californica, Squatina 131 

Tetranarce 132 

californiense, Myctophum 151 

californiensis californiensis, 

Atherinopsis 1 60 

callyodon, Liparis 186 

Calycilepidotus spinosus 174 

Carassius auratus 145 

Carchariidae 131 


cypselurus 188 

gilberti 188 

melanurus 188 

ovigerum 188 

carpio, Cyprinus 145 

carringtoni, Apocope oscula 148 

cataractae dulcis, Rhinichthys. . . . 149 

Catostomidae 142 


catostomus griseus 145 

macrocheilus 145 

microps 144 

occidentalis lacus-anserinus . ... 145 

rimiculus 144 

snyderi 145 

syncheilus 143, 144 

warnerensis 143 

Caularchus maeandricus 197 

caurinus, Mylocheilus 147 

Sebastodes 169 

Cebidichthys violaceus 194 

Centrarchidae 161 

cephalus, Paraliparis 189 

cerdale, Scytalina 195 

Cetorhinidae 131 

Cetorhinus maximus 131 

Chaenobryttus gulosus 161 

chalcogramma fucensis, Theragra. 155 
Chasmistes. . 

brevirostris 143 

copei 143 

stomias 143 

Chauliodontidae 142 

Chauliodus macouni 142 

chilensis, Sarda 160 

Chimaeridae 132 

Chiropsis decagrammus 171 

chirus chirus, Phytichthys 194 

Chitonotus pugetensis 175 

chrysomelas, Sebastodes 170 

cirrhosus, Blepsias 182 


sordidus 156 

stigmaeus 156 

clarkii clarkii, Salmo 136, 137 

crescentis, Salmo 136 

lewisi, Salmo 136 

Clevelandia ios 191 

Clinidae 192 

Clupea pallasii 133 

Clupeidae 133 

coenosus, Pleuronichthys 158 

Colliei, Hydrolagus 132 

Cololabis saira 154 

Columbia transmontana 156 

columbianus, Sebastodes 164, 165 

Siphateles bicolor 146 

conocephalus, Mylopharodon 147 

copei, Chasmistes 143 

Coregonidae 139 

corinus, Hexanchus 130 

coruscans, Arctozenus 151 

Coryphaenoididae 154 

Cottidae 172 


Schultz: Keys to fishes 



aleuticus 178 

asper 179 

beldingii 178 

bendirei 1 79 

evermanni 178 

gulosus 178 

klamathensis 178 

leiopomus 177 

marginatus 178 

princeps 177 

punctulatus 1 79 

rhotheus 179 

semiscaber 179 

tenuis 178 

tubulatus 178 

Couesius greeni 148 

coulteri, Prosopium 139 

crameri, Oregonichthys 147 

Sebastodes 167 

crenulare, Myctophum 151 

crescentis, Salmo clarkii 136 

cristiceps, Plectromus 159 

Cristivomer namaycush 138 

crotalinus, Embryx 195 

cyanellus, Apomotis 161 

Cyclopteridae 186 

cyclopus, Liparis 187 

Cyclothone microdon 142 

Cymatogaster aggregatus 189 

cypselurus, Careproctus 188 

Cyprinidae 145 

Cyprinus carpio 145 

dactylosus, Paraliparis 188 

Dalatiidae 131 

Damal ichthys 

argyrosomus 190 

vacca 190 

Dasy cottus setiger 180 

deani, Paraliparis 188 

Polistrotrema 130 

decagrammus, Chiropsis 171 

decoratum, Bryostemma 193 

decurrens, Pleuronichthys 158 

Delolepis giganteus 194 

delphinus, Pantosteus 144 

Deltistes luxatus 142 

dennyi, Liparis 187 

dentex, Osmerus 140 

Dialarchus snyderi 181 

Diaphus rafinesquei 152 

diapterus, Furcimanus 196 

diego, Pneumatophorus 160 

dilatus, Spirinchus 141 

diploproa, Sebastodes 167 

dolomieu, Micropterus 162 

Dolopicthys acanthias 197 

dulcis, Rhinichthys cataractae. . . . 149 

elassodon, Hippoglossoides 157 

elegans montereyensis, Gibbonsia . 192 


Eleginus gracilis 154, 155 

ellioticus, Tocichthys 190 

elongatus, Ophiodon 172 

Sebastodes 168 

Embiotocidae 189 

embryum, Allocottus 181 

Embryx crotalinus 195 

emmelane, Averruncus 183, 184 

emphaeus, Sebastodes 166 

Engraulidae 133 

Engraulis mordax mordax 133 

Entosphenus tridentatus 130 

Eopsetta jordani 157 

Epigeichthys atropurpureus 194 

Eptatretidae 130 

Erilepidae 170 

Erilepis zonifer 170 

Esocidae 152 

Essox vermiculatus 152 


orbis 186 

vinolentus 186 

Eupomotis gibbosus 162 

evermanni, Cottus 178 

Rhinichthys 149 

evides, Plectobranchus 193 

exilis, Lyopsetta 157 

falcata, Apocope 148 

fenestralis, Astrolytes 176 

ferox, Alepisaurus 152 

fierasfer, Lycodapus. 196 

filamentosus, Tarandichthys 175 

fimbria. Anoplopoma 170 

flavescens, Perca 161 

flavidus, Apodichthys 192 

Aulorhynchus 159 

Sebastodes 164, 165 

florae, Liparis 187 

floridana, Huro 162 

fluviatilis, Lampetra 130 

fontinalis, Salvelinus 138 

formosus, Siphateles bicolor 146 

frenatus, Brachyistius 189 

fucensis, Liparis 187 

fucensis, Theragra chalcogramma . 155 

fucorum, Xerepes 192 

furcatus, Phanerodon 190 

Furcimanus diapterus 196 

Gadidae 154 

Gadus macrocephalus 154 

gairdenerii, beardsleei, Salmo .... 137 

Salmo gairdnerii 137 

kamloops, Salmo 138 

Galeorhinidae 131 

Galeorhinus zyopterus 131 

Gasterosteidae 159 


acuelatus aculeatus 159 

aculeatus microcephalus 159 

Germo alalunga 1 60 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 


Gibbonsia elegans montereyensis. . 192 

gibbosus, Eupomotis 162 

giganteus, Delolepis 194 

gilberti, Careproctus 188 

Gilbertidia sigalutes 172 

gilli, Synchirus 172 

Gillichthys mirabilis 191 

glauca, Prionace 131 

globiceps, Blennicottus 181, 182 

Glyptocephalus zachirus 159 

Gobiesocidae 197 

Gobiidae 191 

Gonostomidae 142 

goodei, Ptilichthys 195 

gorbuscha, Oncorhynchus 133 

gracilis, Eleginus 154, 155 

grandis, Ptychocheilus 149 

greeni, Cousesius 148 

Polypera 187 

griseo-lineatus, Syngnathus 160 

griseus, Catostomus catostomus . . 145 

Hexanchus 130 

gulosus, Chaenobryttus 161 

Cottus 178 

harringtoni, Axyrias 177 

Helioperca incisor 161 

Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus 174 

Hesperoleucus mitrulus 146 

Heterostichus rostratus 192 

Hexagrammidae 171 

Hexagrammos 171 

octogrammus 172 

stelleri 172 

Hexanchidae 130 

Hexanchus 130 

corinus 130 

griseus 130 

Hippoglossinae 157 

Hippoglossoides elassodon 157 

Hippoglossus stenolepis 157 

Holconotus rhodoterus 190 

hopliticus, Paricelinus 173 

hubbsi, Novumbra 152, 153 

Huro floridana 162 

Hydrolagus colliei 132 

hydrophlox, Richardsonius 

balteatus 150 

Hyperprosopon argenteum 190 

hypochromus, Allolumpenus 193 

Hypomesus olidus 142 

pretiosus 142 

Hypsagonus quadricornis 182 


borealis 1 75 

burchami 176 

strabo 175 

Icosteidae 161 

Icosteus aenigmaticus 161 

Ictalurus punctatus 150 

incisor, Helioperca 161 


inermis, Anoplagonus 186 

infraspinata, Asterotheca 184, 185 

Inopsetta ischyra 158 

inornata, Raja 132 

introniger, Sebastodes 167 

ios, Clevelandia 191 

ischyra, Inopsetta 158 

isolepis, Isopsetta 158 

Isopsetta isolepis 158 

jordani, Eopsetta 157 

Lycodes 195 

Pantosteus 143 

Ronquilus 191 

Jordania zonope 173 

kamloops, Salmo gairdnerii 138 

keta, Oncorhynchus 134 

kincaidi, Malacocottus 180 

Raja 132 

kisutch, Oncorhynchus 135 

klamathensis, Apocope 149 

Cottus 178 

lacus-anserinus, Catostomus 

occidentalis 145 

laetus, Pholis 192 

Lamna nasus 131 

Lamnidae 131 


leucopsarus 152 

nannochir 152 

regalis 152 

Lampetra fluviatilis 130 

planeri 130 

Lampridae 156 

Lampris regius 156 

lateralis, Artedius 176 

Taeniotoca 190 

latifrons, Xenopyxis 184 

latipinnis, Zaniolepis 171 

Lebius superciliosus 171 

leiopomus, Cottus 177 

Lepidogobius lepidus 191 

Lepidopsetta bilineata 158 

lepidus, Lepidogobius 191 

Leptoclinus maculatus 193 

Leptocottus armatus armatus. ... 180 

leucopsarum, Lampanyctus 152 

Leuroglossus stilbius 142 

lewisi, Salmo clarkii 136 

Liparididae 186 


callyodon 186 

cyclopus 187 

dennyi 187 

florae 187 

fucensis 187 

mucosus 186 

pulchellus 187 

rutteri 186 


Schultz: Keys to Fishes 



Lota maculosa 156 

longirostris, Lumpenella 193 

lugubris, Plectromus 159 

Lumpenella longirostris 193 

Lumpenus anguillaris 193 

luxatus, Deltistes 142 

Lycodapus fierasfer 196 


brevipes 196 

jordani 195 

palearis 196 

Lycodopsis pacificus 195 

Lycogramma brunnea 196 

Lyconectes aleutensis 19-4 

Lyopsetta exilis 157 

macellus, Prionistius 173 

macouni, Chauliodus 142 

Pterygiocottus 177 

macrocephalus, Gadus 154 

macrocheilus, Catostomus 145 

Macrouridae 154 

Macrurus acrolepis 154 

maculatus, Leptoclinus 193 

Notorynchus 130 

maculosa, Lota 156 

maculosus, Oligocottus 181 

maeandricus, Caularchus 197 

Malacocottus kincaidi '. 180 

maliger, Sebastodes 169 

Mallotus villosus 142 

malma spectabilis, Salvelinus 139 

marginatus, Brosmophycis 197 

Cottus 178 

marmoratus, Scorpaenichthys . ... 173 

maximus, Cetorhinus 131 

meanyi, Ruscarius 177 

medirostris, Acipenser 133 

Melamphaidae 159 

melanops, Sebastodes 164, 165 

melanostictus, Psettichthys 157 

melanurus, Careproctus 188 

melas, Ameiurus 150 

mento, Paraliparis 189 

Merluccius productus 156 

microcephalus, Gasterosteus 

aculeatus 159 

Somniosus 131 

microdon, Cyclothone 142 

Microgadus proximus 155 

microlepis, Antimora 156 

Micropterus dolomieu 162 

microps, Catostomus 144 

Microstomidae 142 

Microstomus pacificus 159 

miniatus, Sebastodes 166 

mirabilis, Gillichthys 191 

mitrulus, Hesperoleucus 146 

Mola mola 197 

Molidae 197 


mollis, Bothrocara 197 

montanus, Thymallus 140 

montereyensis, Gibbonsia elegans. 192 

mordax mordax, Engraulis 133 

Moronidae 163 

mucosus, Liparis 186 

Xiphister 194 

Myctophidae 151 


californiense 151 

crenulare 151 

Mylocheilus caurinus 147 

Mylopharodon conocephalus 147 


polyacanthocephalus 180 

mystinus, Sebastodes 166 

namaycush, Cristivomer 138 

nannochir, Lampanyctus 152 

nasus, Lamna 131 

Nautichthys oculofasciatus 182 

nebulosus, Ameiurus 151 

Sebastodes 170 

Nectoliparis pelagicus 189 

Nemichthyidae 142 

Nemichthys avocetta 142 

nerka, Oncorhynchus 135 

nicholsii, Rhinogobiops 191 

nigripinnis, Bathyagonus 185 

nigrocinctus, Sebastodes 170 

nobilis, Atractoscion 163 

notatus, Porichthys 197 

Notorynchus maculatus 130 

notospilotus, Parastrolytes 176 

Novumbra hubbsi 152, 153 

Novumbridae 152 

nubila, Apocope oscula 148 

nugator, Bryostemma 193 

obesus, Siphateles bicolor 147 

Occa verrucosa 183 

occidentalis lacus-anserinus, 

Catostomus 145 

ocellatus, Anarrhichthys 195 

octogrammus, Hexagrammos 172 

oculofasciatus, Nautichthys 182 

Odontopyxis trispinosus 183, 184 

olidus, Hypomesus 142 

Oligocottus maculosus 181 


gorbuscha 133 

keta 134 

kisutch 135 

nerka 136 

tshawytscha 135 

Oneirodidae 197 

Ophiodon elongatus 172 

Ophiodontidae 172 

orbis, Eumicrotremus 186 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


bi color Siphateles 147 

Ptychocheilus 150 

oregonia, Atherinops affinis 160 

Oregonichthys crameri 147 

oregonium, Prosopium 140 

ornatus, Pholis 192 


nubila, Apocope 148 

carringtoni, Apocope 148 

Osmeridae 140 

Osmerus dentex 140 

Otolithidae 163 

ovigerum, Careproctus 188 

Oxycottus acuticeps 182 

Oxylebius pictus 171 

pacificus, Bathylagus 142 

Lycodopsis 195 

Microstomus 159 

Thaleichthys 141 

palearis, Lycodes 196 

pallasii, Clupea 133 

Pallasina barbata aix 183 


jordani 143 

delphinus 144 

paradoxus, Psychrolutes 172 

Paralepididae 151 


cephalus. 189 

dactylosus 188 

deani 188 

mento 189 

ulochir 188 

Parastrolytes notospilotus 176 

Paricelinus hopliticus 173 

Parophrys vetulus 158 

paucispinis, Sebastodes 164 

pectoralis, Albatrossia 154 

pelagicus, Nectoliparis 189 

pentacantha, Asterotheca 186 

Peprilus simillimus 161 

Perca flavescens 161 

Percidae 161 

Percopsidae 156 

personatus, Ammodytes tobianus. 191 

Petromyzonidae 130 

Phanerodon furcatus 190 

Pholididae 192 


laetus 192 

ornatus 192 

Phytichthys chirus chirus 194 

pictus, Oxylebius 171 

pinniger, Sebastodes 166 

planeri, Lampetra 130 

Platichthys stellatus rugosus 159 

Plectobranchus evides 193 


cristiceps 159 

lugubris 159 


Pleuronectidae 157 

Pleuronectinae 157 


coenosus 158 

decurrens 158 

Pneumatophorus diego 160 

Podothecus acipenserinus 183 


deani 130 

stouti 130 


Myoxocephalus 180 


beringianus 187 

greeni 187 


annularis 162 

sparoides 162 

Porichthys notatus 197 

Poroclinus rothrocki 193 

pretiosus, Hypomesus 142 

princeps, Cottus 177 

Prionace glauca 131 

Prionistius macellus 173 

productus, Merluccius 156 

profundorum, Zesticelus 180 

proriger, Sebastodes 166 


coulteri 139 

oregonium 140 

snyderi 139 

williamsoni 139 

proximus, Microgadus 155 

Psettichthys melanostictus 157 

Psychrolutes paradoxus 172 

Ptervgiocottus macouni 177 

Ptilichthyidae 195 

Ptilichthys goodei 195 


grandis 149 

oregonensis 150 

umpquae 150 

pugetensis, Chitonotus 1 75 

pulchellus, Liparis 187 

punctatus, Ictalurus 150 

punctulatus, Cottus 179 

pungitius, Pungitius 159 

purpurescens purpurescens, 

Anoplarchus 194 

quadricornis, Hypsagonus 182 

Quietula y-cauda 191 


asprellus 174 

boleoides 174 

rafinesquei, Diaphus 152 

raii, Brama 160 


binoculata 132 

inornata 132 


Schults: Keys to fishes 



kincaidi 132 

rhina 132 

stellulata 132 

trachura 132 

Rajidae 131 

regalis, Lampanyctus 152 

regius, Lampris 156 

remigera, Bothrocara 196 

rex-salmonorum, Trachipterus . ... 156 

Rhamphocottidae 182 

Rhamphocottus richardsoni 182 

rhina, Raja 132 


cataractae dulcis 149 

evermanni 149 

Rhinogobiops nicholsii 191 


attenuatus 189 

barbulifer 189 

rhodorus, Ascelichthys 172 

rhodoterus, Holconotus 190 

rhotheus, Cottus 179 

richardsoni, Rhamphocottus 182 


balteatus balteatus 150 

balteatus hydrophlox 150 

rimensis, Rusciculus 181 

rimiculus, Catostomus 144 

Roccus saxatilis 163 

Ronquilus jordani 191 

rosaceus, Sebastodes 168 

rostratus, Heterostichus 192 

rothrocki, Poroclinus 193 

ruberrimus, Sebastodes 167 

rubrivinctus, Sebastodes 168 

rugosus, Platichthys stellatus. ... 159 

rupestris, Sebastodes 168 

Ruscarius meanyi 177 

Rusciculus rimensis 181 

rutteri, Liparis 186 

saida, Boreogadus 155 

saira, Cololabis 154 


clarkii clarkii 136, 137 


crescentis 136 

lewisi 136 


beardsleei 137 

gairdnerii 137 

kamloops 138 

trutta 137 

salmoides, Aplites 162 

Salmonidae 134 


fontinalis 138 

malma spectabilis 139 

sapidissima, Alosa 133 

Sarda chilensis 160 

Sardinops caerulea 133 


saxatilis, Roccus 163 

saxicola, Sebastodes 167 

Scomberesocidae 154 

Scombridae 160 

Scorpaenichthys marmoratus 173 

Scorpaenidae 163 

Scylliorhinidae 131 

Scytalina cerdale 195 

Scytalinidae 195 


alutus 166 

auriculatus 168 

caurinus 1 69 

chrysomelas 170 

columbianus 164, 165 

crameri 167 

diploproa 167 

elongatus 168 

emphaeus 166 

flavidus 164, 165 

introniger 167 

maliger 169 

melanops 164, 165 

miniatus 166 

mystinus 166 

nebulosus 170 

nigrocinctus 170 

paucispinis 164 

pinniger 166 

proriger 166 

rosaceus 168 

ruberrimus 167 

rubrivinctus 168 

rupestris 168 

saxicola 167 

serranoides 164 

wilsoni 167 

zacentrus 168 


alascanus 163 

altivelis 163 

semiscaber, Cottus 179 

serranoides, Sebastodes 164 

setiger, Dasy cottus 180 

sigalutes, Gilbertidia 172 

silenus, Zaprora 191 

simillimus, Peprilus 161 


bicolor bicolor 146, 147 

columbianus 146 

formosus 146 

obesus 147 

oregonensis 147 

snyderi, Catostomus 145 

Dialarchus 181 

Prosopium 139 

Somniosidae 131 

Somniosus microcephalus 131 

sordidus, Citharichthys 156 


University of Washington Publications in Biology 

[Vol. 2. 


sparoides, Pomoxis 162 

spectabilis, Salvelinus malma 139 

Sphyraena argentea 1 60 

Sphyraenidae 1 60 

spinosus, Calycilepidotus 174 


dilatus 141 

starksi 141 

Squalidae 131 

Squalus suckleyi 131 

Squatina calif ornica 131 

Squatinidae 131 

starksi, Spirinchus 141 

stellatus, Platichthys rugosus . ... 159 

stelleri, Hexagrammos 172 

Stellerina xyosterna 183 

stellulata, Raja 132 

stenolepis, Hippoglossus 157 

Stichaeidae 192 

stigmaeus, Citharichthys 156 

stilbius, Leuroglossus 142 

stomias, Atheresthes 157 

Bathytroctes 133 

Chasmistes 143 

stouti, Polistotrema 130 

strabo, Icelinus 175 

Stromateidae 161 

suckleyi, Squalus 131 

Sudidae 151 

superciliosus, Lebius 171 

swanii, Bothragonus 183 

syncheilus, Catostomus 143, 144 

Synchirus gilli 172 

Syngnathidae 160 

Syngnathus griseo-lineatus 160 

Taeniotoca lateralis 190 


filamentosus 175 

tenuis 175 

tenuis, Cottus 178 

Tarandichthys 175 

Tetranarce californica 132 

Thaleichthys pacificus 141 

Theragra chalcogramma fucensis. . 155 

thoburni, Alcidea 173 

Thunnidae 160 

Thunnus thynnus 1 60 

Thymallidae 140 

Thymallus montanus 140 

thynnus, Thunnus 160 

Tigoma bicolor 149 

Tinea tinea 146 

tobianus personatus, Ammodytes. 191 

Tocichthys ellipticus 190 

Torpedinidae 132 


Trachipteridae 156 

Trachipterus rex-salmonorum . . . . 156 

trachura, Raja 132 

transmontana, Columbia 156 

transmontanus, Acipenser 133 

triacanthus, Xeneretmus 184 

Trichiuridae 160 

Trichodon trichodon 163 

Trichodontidae 163 

tridentatus, Entosphenus 130 

Triglops beani 173 

trispinosus, Odontopyxis 183, 184 

trutta, Salmo 137 

tshawytscha, Oncorhynchus 135 

tubulatus, Cottus 178 

ulochir, Paraliparis 188 

umatilla, Apocope 148 

umpquae, Ptychocheilus 150 

vacca, Damalichthys 190 

vermiculatus, Esox 152 

verrucosa, Occa 183 

vetulus, Parophrys 158 

villosus, Mallotus 142 

vinolentus, Eumicrotremus 186 

violaceus, Cebidichthys 194 

vulpinus, Alopias 131 

warnerensis, Catostomus 143 

williamsoni, Prosopium 139 

willoughbyi, Acrotus 161 

wilsoni, Sebastodes 167 

Xeneretmus triacanthus 184 

Xenopyxis latifrons 184 

Xerepes fucorum 192 

Xiphister mucosus 194 

xyosterna, Stellerina 183 

Xystes axinophrys 183 

y-cauda, Quietula 191 

zacentrus, Sebastodes 168 

zachirus, Glyptocephalus 159 

Zaniolepis latipinnis 171 

Zaprora silenus 191 

Zaproridae 191 

Zesticelus profundorum 180 

Zoarcidae 195 

zonif er, Erilepis 170 

zonope, Jordania 173 

Zyopterus, Galeorhinus 131 


The University of Washington Publications are offered in exchange for similar pub- 
lications issued by universities, scientific societies and other institutions. These papers 
contain the results of research work in various departments of the University. They are 
issued in separate monographs numbered in several series. There is no stated interval of 
publication. All inquiries and all matter sent in exchange should be addressed to the 
University of Washington Library, Seattle, Washington. Inquiries regarding purchase of 
these publications should be addressed to the Publications Editor, University of Washing- 
ton, Seattle, Washington. 

(O.P. — Indicates that publication is out of print.) 


Volumes I, II, III, and IV completed. Volume V in progress. 

Vol. 1. 1. The Whaling Equipment of the Makah Indians, by T. T. Waterman 
(formerly Vol. 1, No. 1 of the University of Washington Publications 
in Political and Social Science, discontinued). Pp. 1-67. June, 1920... O.P. 

2. The Distribution of Kinship Systems in North America, by Leslie Spier 

Pp. 69-88. Maps 1-9. August, 1925 $ .50 

3. An Analysis of Plains Indian rarfleche Decoration, by Leslie Spier. 

Pp. 89-1 12. August, 1925 25 

4. Klallam Folk Tales, by Erna Gunther. Pp. 113-170. August, 1925 50 

5. Klallam Ethnography, by Erna Gunther. Pp. 171-314. January, 1927.. 1.25 
Vol. 2. 1. Adze, Canoe, and House Types of the Northwest Coast, by Ronald L. 

Olson. Pp. 1-38. November, 1927 50 

2. The Ghost Dance of 1870 among the Klamath of Oregon, by Leslie Spier. 

Pp. 39-56. November, 1927 25 

3. Some Tales of the Southern Puget Sound Salish, by Arthur C. Ballard. 

Pp. 57-81. December, 1927 25 

4. The Middle Columbia Salish, by James H. Teit. Edited by Franz Boas. 

Pp. 83-128. June, 1928 50 

5. A Further Analysis of the First Salmon Ceremony, by Erna Gunther. 

Pp. 129-173. June, 1928 50 

6. Northwest Sahaptin Texts, 1, by Melville Jacobs. Pp. 175-244. June, 1929 .75 
Vol. 3. 1. Growth of Japanese Children Born in America and in Japan, by Leslie 

Spier. Pp. 1-30. July, 1929 35 

2. Mythology of Southern Puget Sound, by Arthur C. Ballard. Pp. 31-150. 
December, 1929 1.00 

3. Wishram Ethnography, by Leslie Spier and Edward Sapir. Pp. 151-300. 
Illustrated. May, 1930 1.50 

Vol. 4. 1. The Indians of Puget Sound, by Hermann Haeberlin and Erna Gunther. 

Pp. 1-84. September, 1930 1.00 

2. A Sketch of Northern Sahaptin Grammar, by Melville Jacobs. Pp. 85-292. 

1 Map. March, 1931 2.00 

3. Plains Indian Parfleche Designs, by Leslie Spier. Pp. 293-322. Illus- 
trated. December, 1931 35 

Vol. 5. The Sanpoil and Nesplem: Salishan Peoples of Northeastern Washington, 

by Verne F. Ray. Pp. 237. Illustrated. November, 1932 2.00 


Vol. 1. 1. The Spiders of Washington, by Leonard G. Worley. Pp. 1-64. August, 

1932 50 

2. Coleoptera of Washington: Chrysomelidae, by Samuel Beller and Melville 

H. Hatch. Pp. 65-144. Plate 1. August, 1932 50 

3. Coleoptera of Washington: Silphidae, by Melville H. Hatch and William 
Rueter, Jr. Pp. 147-162. September, 1934 15 

Vol. 2. 1. A New Catostomid Fish from the Columbia River, by Carl L. Hubbs and 

Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 1-14. October, 1932 15 

2. Descriptions of Two New American Species Referable to the Rockfish 
Genus Sebastodcs, with Notes on Related Species, by Carl L. Hubbs and 
Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 15-44. Plates 1, 2. July, 1933 25 

3. The Age and Growth of Atherinops affinis oregonia Jordan and Snyder 
and of other subspecies of Baysmelt along the Pacific Coast of the United 
States, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 45-102. Plates 3, 4. December, 1933 .50 

4. Key to the Fishes of Washington, Oregon and Closely Adjoining Re- 
gions, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 103-228. Illustrated. December, 
1936 75 

Vol. 3. Key to the Rusts of the Pacific Northwest, by J. W. Hotson. Pp. 1-194. 

Illustrated. November, 1934 150 

Vol. 4. 1. Oligochaeta of Washington, by Luther Clare Altman. Pp. 1-137. Illus- 
trated. May, 1936 75 

Vol. 5. A Botanical Survey of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, by George 

Neville Jones. Pp. 1-288. Illustrated. June. 1936 2.00 


Volumes I and II completed. 

Vol. 1. 1. Preserved Pickled Herring, by Clarence Louis Anderson. Pp. 1-64 

March, 1925 1.00 

2. Field Characters Identifying Young Salmonoid Fishes in Fresh Waters of 
Washington, by Donald R. Crawford. Pp. 12. April, 1925 25 

3. Synostosis in the Spinal Column of the Rainbow Trout, by Donald R. 
Crawford. Pp. 8. April, 1925 25 

4. A Study of the Gases in Canned Foods, by Ray W. Clough, Oscar E. 
Shostrom, Ernest D. Clark. Pp. 86-100. September, 1925 25 

5. Notes on the Presence of Indol in Sea Foods and Other Food Products, 
by Ray W. Clough, Oscar E. Shostrom, Ernest D. Clark. Pp. 101-108. Sep- 
tember, 1925 25 

6. Iodine Content of the Pacific Coast Salmon, by Norman Donald Jarvis, 
Ray William Clough, Ernest Dunbar Clark. Pp. 109-138. February, 
1926. Reprint. December, 1928 25 

7. Biochemical Study and Proximate Composition of Pacific Coast Crabs, by 
Carl R. Fellers and Clarence T. Parks. Pp. 139-156. February, 1926... .25 

8. Bacteriological Investigations on Raw Salmon Spoilage, by Carl R. Fel- 
lers. Pp. 157-188. July, 1926 25 

9. Canned Salmon: A Five-Year Correlation Study of Certain Quality 
Factors, by Carl Raymond Fellers, Ernest Dunbar Clark and Ray William 
Clough. Pp. 189-204. August, 1926 25 

10. Fish Preservation by Hypochlorites, by Tung Pai Chen and Carl R. 
Fellers. Pp. 205-227. September, 1926 25 

11. Non-gaseous Spoilage in Canned Marine Products, by Carl R. Fellers. 

Pp. 229-238. October, 1927 25 

12. Iodine Content of Pacific Coast Sea Foods, by Norman D. Jarvis. Pp. 
239-250. November, 1928 25 

Vol. 2. 1. Ecto-Parasitic Infusoria Attacking Fish of the Northwest, by John E. 

Guberlet. Pp. 1-16. October, 1926 25 

2. Studies on the Control of Gyrodactylus, by John E. Guberlet, Harry A. 
Hanson and Jean A. Kavanagh. Pp. 17-29. December, 1927 25 

3. Notes on a Species of Argulus from Gold-Fish, by John E. Guberlet. 

Pp. 31-42. December, 1928 25 

4. Check-list of the Fresh-water Fishes of Oregon and Washington, by 
Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 43-50. January, 1929 25 

5. Fish Meals as Food for Young Salmonoid Fishes, by Donald Russell 
Crawford and Ahamedur Rahman Nizam. Pp. 51-71. June, 1929 25 

6. Description of a New Type of Mud-Minnow from Western Washington 
with Notes on Related Species, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 73-82. Plates 

1, 2. July, 1929 25 


Volumes I and II completed. Volume III in progress. 

Vol. 1. 1. Tertiary Faunal Horizons of Western Washington, by Charles E. Weaver. 

Pp. 1-67. Plates 1-5. February, 1916 1.00 

2. Paleontology of the Oligocene of the Chehalis Valley, by Katherine E. 

H. Van Winkle. Pp. 69-67. Plates 6 and 7. January, 1918 50 

3. Fauna from the Eocene of Washington, by Charles E. Weaver and 
Katherine Van Winkle Palmer. Pp. 1-56. Plates 8-12. June, 1922.. .50 

4. Foraminifera from the Eocene of Cowlitz River, Lewis County, Washing- 
ton, by G. Dallas Hanna and Marcus A. Hanna. Pp. 57-64. Plate 13. 
October, 1924 50 

Vol. 2. The Geology of the San Juan Islands, by Roy Davidson McLellan. Pp. 

185. Illustrated. 1 map 27"x33". November, 1927 2.00 

Vol. 3. 1. The Geomorphology and Volcanic Sequence of Steens Mountain in 

Southeastern Oregon, by Richard E. Fuller. Pp. 1-130. Illustrated 

November, 1931 1.50 

2. The Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, by Howard A. Coombs. 

Pp. 131-212. Illustrated. July, 1936 75 


Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VII completed. 

Vol. 1. The Poems of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, by Frederick Morgan 

Padelford. Pp. 238. October, 1920. See Vol. 5. 
Vol. 2. 1. Spenser's Use of Ariosto for Allegory, by Susannah Jane McMurphy. 

Pp. 1-54. November, 1923 75 

2. Thomas Dekker: A Study in Economic and Social Background, by Kate 
L.Gregg. Pp. 55-112. July, 1924 75 

3. A Bibliography of Fifteenth Century Literature, by Lena Lucile Tucker 
and Allen Rogers Benham. Pp. 113-274. March, 1928 1.00 

Vol. 3. A Critical Edition of Ford's Perkin Warbeck, by Mildred Clara Struble. 

Pp. 216. 1 Map. January, 1926 2.00 

Vol. 4. 1. A Bibliography of Chaucer, 1908-1924, compiled by Dudley David 

Griffith. Pp. 1-148. March, 1926 1.00 

2. Adam, translated by Edward Noble Stone. Pp. 159-193. March, 1926 
Reprint. December, 1928 75 

3. A Translation of Chapters XI-XVI of Pseudo-Augustinian Sermon 
Against Jews, Pagans and Arians, Concerning the Creed, also of the 
Ordo Prophetarum of St. Martial of Limoges, by Edward Noble Stone. 

Pp. 195-214. March, 1928 25 

4. Roman Surveying Instruments, by Edward Noble Stone. Pp. 215-242. 
Illustrated. August, 1928 75 

Vol. 5. The Poems of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, by Frederick Morgan 

Padelford. Pp. 284. 2 illustrations. October, 1928. Revised Edition. 

Cloth, $3.00; paper 2.00 

Vol. 6. 1. The Political Thought of Roger Williams, by James E. Ernst. Pp. 230. 

March, 1929 2.00 

Vol. 7. The Nature of Poetic Literature, by Louis Peter de Vries. Pp. 246. 

November, 1930. Cloth, $2.50; paper 1.50 

Vol. 8. 1. The Origin of the Griselda Story, by Dudley David Griffith. Pp. 1-120. 

September, 1931 75 

2. Presiding Ideas in Wordsworth's Poetry, by Melvin M. Rader. Pp. 

121-216. November, 1931 75 

Vol. 9. A Reference Guide to the Literature of Travel, by Edward Godfrey Cof. 

Pp. 416 2.25 

The Publications in Language and Literature are designed to include studies in the 
various languages and literatures, ancient and modern, represented at the University. 
The series replaces and absorbs The Publications in English of which the following vol- 
umes have appeared: 
Vol. 1. Uno Linderlof's Elements of the History of the English Language, 

translated by Robert Max Garrett. Cloth O.P. 

Vol. 2. The Political and Ecclesiastical Allegory of the First Book of the Faerie 

Queene, by Frederick Morgan Padelford. Cloth 75 

Vol. 3. Johannes Steenstrup's The Medieval Popular Ballad, translated by Ed- 
ward Godfrey Cox. Cloth 1.75 

Vol. 4. 1. The Pearl: An Interpretation, by Robert Max Garrett. Paper. Pp. 45.. .50 


Volume I completed. Volume II in progress. 

Vol. 1. 1. An Arithmetical Theory of Certain Numerical Functions, by Eric Temple 

Bell. Pp. 1-44. August, 1915 O.P. 

2. Cyclic-Harmonic Curves: A Study in Polar Coordinates, by Robert E. 
Moritz. Pp. 1-58. June, 1923 1.00 

3. Five Studies in Mathematics: Modular Bernoullian and Eulerian Func- 
tions, by E. T. Bell; Point-Line Correspondences Associated with the 
General Ruled Surface, by A. F. Carpenter; On the Sum Products 
of n Consecutive Integers, by Robert E. Moritz; Some Finite Linear 
Non- Associative Algebras, by L. I. Neikirk; The Ternary Hesse Group 
and Its Invariants, by R. M. Winger. Pp. 1-80. June, 1926 75 

Vol. 2. 1. Six Studies in Mathematics: A Postulational Introduction to the Four 
Color Problem, by J. P. Ballantine; Electrical Oscillations in a Non- 
Uniform Transmission Line, by W. H. Ingram; Quintuples of Curves 
in Four-Space, by A. R. Jerbert; Sufficient Conditions in the Problem 
of Lagrange of the Calculus of Variations with One Variable End 
Point, by L. H. McFarlan; A Class of Continuous Curves Defined by 
Motion Which Have No Tangent Lines, by L. I. Neikirk; A Class of 
Totally Discontinuous Functions, by L. I. Neikirk. Pp. 1-68. Decem- 
ber, 1930 1.00 

2. Four Studies in Mathematics: The Theory of dk Differences with Ap- 
plications to the Numerical Solution of Differential Equations, by J. P. 
Ballantine; Ruled Surface Symbionts, by A. F. Carpenter; Methods of 
Solving the Euler Equations for the most Simple Problem of the Calculus 
of Variations in the Parametric Form, by L. H. McFarlan; Self-Projec- 
tive Rational Octavics Invariant under a Dihedral Collineation Group 
of Order Twelve, by J. A. Carlson. Pp. 1-65. April, 1934 1.00 


Vol. 1. 1. Seasonal Distribution of Plankton at Friday Harbor, Washington, by 

Martin W. Johnson. Pp. 1-38. Figs. A-C. November, 1932 3S 

2. Seasonal Distribution and Occurrence of Planktonic Diatoms at Friday 
Harbor, Washington, by Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 39-81. Figs. A-E. 
January, 1933 35 

3. Vertical Distribution of Diatoms in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, by Lyman 

D. Phifer. Pp. 83-96. Figs A-C. November, 1934 IS 

4. Phytoplankton of East Sound, Washington, February to November, 1932, 

by Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 97-liO. Figs. A, B. November, 1934 IS 

5. The Plankton and the Properties of the Surface Waters of the Puget 
Sound Region, by Thomas G. Thompson and Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 
111-134. Figs. A-E. March, 1936 35 

Vol. 2. 1. Seasonal Settlement of Shipworms, Barnacles, and other Wharf-Pile Or- 
ganisms at Friday Harbor, Washington. By Martin W. Johnson and 
RoVrt C. Miller. Pp. 1-18. Fig. 1. March, 1935 20 

Vol. 3. 1. The Distribution of Phosphates in the Sea Water of the Northeast Pacific. 
By Iver Igelsrud, Rex J. Robinson and Thomas G. Thompson. Pp. 1-34. 
Figs. 1-10. March, 1936 25 


Volumes, I, II, III, V, VII and IX completed. Volumes IV, VI and VIII in progress* 

Vol. 1. 1. Studies in Matriculation Statistics, Intelligence Ratings and Scholarship 

Records at the University of Washington, by Alexander Crippen Roberts. 

Pp. 68. January, 1924 75 

2. Causation and the Types of Necessity, by Curt John Ducasse. Pp. 

69-200. February, 1924 1.50 

Vol. 2. 1. Tiberius Caesar and the Roman Constitution, by Olive Kuntz. Pp. 1-78. 

August, 1924 75 

2. The Logical Influence of Hegel on Marx, by Rebecca Cooper. Pp. 
79-182. October, 1925 1.00 

3. A Scale of Individual Tests, by Stevenson Smith. Pp. 183-204. May, 
1927 50 

Vol. 3. 1. A Study of Mobility of Population in Seattle, by Andrew W. Lind. 

Pp. 1-64. 2 Maps. October, 1925 75 

2. History and Development of Common School Legislation in Washington, 

by Dennis C. Troth. Pp. 65-260. 2 Maps. February 1, 1927 1.50 

Vol. 4. 1. John III, Duke of Brabant and the French Alliance, 1345-1347, by 

Henry Stephen Lucas. Pp. 1-64. May, 1927 75 

Vol. 5. 1. Suicides in Seattle, 1914 to 1925, by Calvin F. Schmid. Pp. 1-94. 

Illustrated. October, 1928 1.00 

2. Pupil Mobility in the Public Schools of Washington, by John E. Cor- 
bally. Pp. 95-180. 1 Map. July, 1930 1.00 

3. The Unemployed Citizens' League of Seattle, by Arthur Hillman. Pp. 
181-270. February, 1934 50 

4. County Finances in the State of Washington. Pp. 271-374. 26 illustra- 
tions. February, 1935 1.00 

Vol. 6. 1. History of Early Common School Education in Washington, by Thomas 

William Bibb. Pp. 1-154. June, 1929 1.50 

Vol. 7. Utah and the Nation, by Leland Hargrave Creer. Pp. 276. 2 Maps. 

July, 1929. Unbound, $2.00. Bound 3.00 

Vol. 8. 1. The Cost of Municipal Operation of the Seattle Street Railway, by Harry 

Leslie Purdy. Pp. 1-28. August, 1929 65 

2. A Plan for Regional Administrative Districts in the State of Washington, 

by Selden C. Menefee. Pp. 29-80. December, 1935 50 

3. Seasonal Unemployment in the State of Washington, by William S. 
Hopkins. Pp. 81-168. Illustrated. December, 1936 60 

Vol. 9. An Introduction to Some Problems of Australian Federalism, by Kenneth 

O. Warner. Pp. 1-312. November, 1933. Cloth, $2.75; paper 1.75 


Vol. 1. Paleontology of the Jurassic and Cretaceous of West Central Argentina, 

by Charles E. Weaver. Pp. 1-596. Plates 1-62. March, 1931 15.00 


Vol 1. Digests of Doctoral Theses: 1914-1931. Pp. 265 1.25 

The Publications of the Engineering Experiment Station Series include bulletins of 
information and investigation concerning engineering and scientific problems. 

The Extension Service Series includes monographs of interest and value to the lay- 
man. While authentic, they are not written in highly technical terms with which the 
general public is unfamiliar.