T / o /O-O^i />t^A<>^ £2^2^) C^iyiA^u^^ £ ^/^ J^£^^- UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS IN BIOLOGY Volume 2, No. 4, pp. 103-228 December, 1936 KEYS TO THE FISHES OF WASHINGTON, OREGON AND CLOSELY ADJOINING REGIONS BY Leonard P. Schultz C. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS SEATTLE. WASHINGTON 1936 111 \\ Given in /J/ / Loving" Memory < >f iJLJl fl& CDaniel Jitrriman Crew Member on the maiden voyage of the R /V Atlantis Corporation Member, 194^-79 Trustee, 19^-6^- Honorary Trustee e? Corporation Member, 1979- 8? ■''■■" '"i Oceanographer, Writer, Editor, Fisherman, / Educator, Mentor — ^-X*^^?, Woods Hole «=E Oceanographic T^fcr- Institution ^ V UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS IN BIOLOGY •. Volume 2, No. 4, pp. 103-228 December, 1936 KEYS TO THE FISHES OF WASHINGTON, OREGON AND CLOSELY ADJOINING REGIONS BY Leonard P. Schultz MARINE &&6GIGAL W. H. C U. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS SEATTLE. WASHINGTON 1936 o o TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Index to the families 107 Introduction. How to use the keys 109 Artificial key to the families of fishes of Washington and Oregon Ill Artificial keys to the genera and species of fish in Washington, Oregon and in closely adjoining regions 130 Glossary : Explanation of terms, counts and measurements most frequently used in keys and descriptions 198 Index to common names 215 Index to scientific names 221 (105) INDEX TO THE FAMILIES Fam. Page No. No. Acipenseridae 16 133 Acrotidae 57 161 Agonidae 70 182 Alepisauridae 34 152 Alepocephalidae 19 133 Alopiidae 7 131 Ameiuridae 31 150 Ammodytidae 75 191 Anarrhichthyidae 81 195 Anoplopomidae 64 170 Argentinidae 24 142 Atherinidae 49 160 Aulorhynchidae 47 159 Bathymasteridae 76 191 Batrachoididae 86 197 Bothidae 43 156 Bramidae 54 160 Brotulidae 85 197 Catostomidae 29 142 Carchariidae 5 13 1 Centrarchidae 59 161 Cetorhinidae 9 131 Chauliodontidae 26 142 Chimaeridae 15 132 Clinidae 78 192 Clupeidae 17 133 Coregonidae 21 139 Coryphaenoididae 38 154 Cottidae 68 172 Cyclopteridae 71 186 Cyprinidae 30 145 Dalatiidae . 11 131 Embiotocidae 73 189 Engraulidae 18 133 Eptatretidae 1 130 Erilepidae 65 1 70 Esocidae 35 152 Gadidae 39 154 Galeorhinidae 6 131 Gasterosteidae 46 159 Gobiesocidae 87 197 Gobiidae 74 191 Gonostomidae 27 142 Hexagrammidae 66 171 Hexanchidae 3 130 Icosteidae 56 161 Fam. Page No. No. Lamnidae 8 131 Lampridae 42 156 Liparididae 72 186 Macrouridae 38 154 Melamphaidae 45 159 Microstomidae 25 142 Molidae 88 197 Moronidae 60 163 Myctophidae 33 151 Nemichthyidae 28 142 Novumbridae 36 152 Oneirodidae 89 197 Ophiodontidae 67 172 Osmeridae 23 140 Otolithidae 61 163 Paralepididae 32 151 Percidae 58 161 Percopsidae 40 156 Petromyzonidae 2 130 Pholididae 79 192 Pleuronectidae 44 157 Ptilichthyidae 83 195 Rajidae 13 131 Rhamphocottidae 69 182 Salmonidae 20 133 Scomberesocidae 37 154 Scombridae 51 160 Scorpaenidae 63 163 Scylliorhinidae 4 131 Scytalinidae 82 195 Somniosidae 11 131 Sphyraenidae 50 160 Squalidae 10 131 Squatinidae 12 131 Stichaeidae 80 192 Stromateidae 55 161 Sudidae 32 151 Sygnathidae 48 160 Thunnidae 52 160 Thymallidae 22 140 Torpedinidae 14 132 Trachipteridae 41 156 Trichodontidae 62 163 Trichiuridae 53 160 Zaproridae 77 191 Zoarcidae 84 195 (107) Keys to the Fishes of Washington, Oregon and Closely Adjoining Regions BY Leonard P. Schultz INTRODUCTION This publication contains keys for the identification of the ma- rine and freshwater fishes reported to have been taken or expected to occur in the waters of the states of Washington and Oregon and neighboring waters. It originally appeared in mimeographed form, October, 1931, University Bookstore, Seattle, Washington, and was designed especially for use in the ichthyology laboratory of the University of Washington, School of Fisheries. During the last few years we have carefully checked the keys with specimens in the collection of fishes, School of Fisheries, University of Wash- ington. The illustrations include several original drawings, made by Arthur D. Welander or the author. Certain portions of the keys have been modified after publications by Jordan, Evermann, Starks, Gilbert, Hubbs, Burke, and Parr, whose contributions are acknowl- edged as footnotes in the proper places. How to Use the Keys The statements are arranged so one must consider ALTER- NATIVE CHARACTERS. One character is given under a desig- nation as "la" and the contrasting character as "lb." In some cases three or four alternatives are given as "lc" and "Id." If in using the key the characters under the first alternative, for example "la" do not agree with the specimen at hand try the next alternative, in this case "lb." When the characters do fit, read on down as long as they continue to fit, never progressing under designations that are not true for the specimen at hand. For example in running down a salmon to the family, use lb, 3b, 15b, 16a, 17b, 19a, 20a, 21a, 22b, 24a, 25a, 26b, 27a, before you finally find the name at the end of the paragraph under 28a, "Salmon and Trout." 20. Salmonidae p. 134." The number "20" preceding the family (all families end in idae) refers to the 20th family, and the "p. 134" refers to the page on which the key to the genera and species of this family occurs. The keys to the genera and species should be used in exactly the same manner as the family key, continuing until the name of the fish is found at the end of a paragraph under a certain symbol as "15a." (109) 110 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. To be more certain of your identification, the specimen at hand should be compared with a description of that species. Good de- scriptions and some figures of most of the American fishes may be found in the publication "Fishes of North and Middle America" by Jordan and Evermann, 1896 to 1900, Bulletin 47, Parts I to IV, United States National Museum. No bibliography of the fishes of Washington and Oregon is given in this publication. However, if the reader is interested in ob- taining a nearly complete list of papers on the fishes of this area it may be found in the Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institute which appears as a section of the Mid-Pacific Magazine for 1935 and 1936, entitled "Fishes of the American Northwest. A catalogue of the fishes of Washington and Oregon with distributional records and bibliography" by Leonard P. Schultz and Allan C. DeLacy. In the preparation of keys as complicated as these, it is likely that mistakes were made. Though they have been used for several years by students of ichthyology at the University of Washington, should errors be found the author will be pleased to have the op- portunity of correcting them. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 111 ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF FISHES OF WASHINGTON AND OREGON 1 la. Mouth a sucking disk, without jaws, but with teeth on the disk; a single median nostril ; body eel-shaped with gill openings pore-like, 6 to 15 in number on each side. Fig. 1. Rq.3 Fig. 1. A diagram showing the arrangement of the teeth in the buccal cavity or mouth cavity of lampreys. Dk — disk teeth; Ling — lingual teeth; Lt — lateral teeth; Info — infraoral teeth; Oe — oral opening leading to the oesophagus; Pap — papillae of lips; Sp — supraoral teeth. Fig. 2. Prionace glauca, showing the five gill openings on the side of the body, and two dorsal fins without spines. Modified after Jordan and Evermann. Fig. 3. The lunate keeled tail of a "tiger shark." Ke — keel on caudal peduncle. 2a. Eyes covered by skin and aborted; gill openings 10 to 15 in number on each side and remote from head. Hagfishes 1. Eptatretidae, p. 130 2b. Eyes developed in adult but concealed in the larvae ; gill openings close behind head and 7 in number on each side. Lampreys 2. Petromyzonidae, p. 130 lb. Mouth normal, agape, with well developed jaws; nostrils not single or me- dian but paired. a Certain parts of this key were modified after E. C. Starks, 1921, Fish. Bull. No. 5, California Fish and Game Commission. 112 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 3a. (See 3b, p. 114.) Gill openings 5 to 7, not covered by a large flap of skin or bones (the operculum) ; skeleton cartilaginous. Fig. 2. 4a. (See 4b, p. 113.) Gill openings wholly on the side of the body; body not depressed into a disk but normal in form. Fig. 2. 5a. Gill openings 6 or 7 on each side ; a single dorsal fin. Cow Sharks 3. Hexanchidae, p. 130 5b. Gill openings 5 on each side ; 2 dorsal fins, the 2nd sometimes small. 6a. Anal fin present ; dorsal fins not provided with spines. 7a. First dorsal over or behind the pelvic fins. Cat Sharks 4. Scylliorhinidae, p. 131 7b. First dorsal in advance of the pelvic fins. 8a. Caudal fin not lunate ; side of caudal peduncle without keel ; head and tail normal. Fig. 2. 9a. Caudal fin forming less than l /z of the total length of the fish; 1st dorsal nearly equal distance between space from pectoral base to pelvic fin base; eye with a nictitating mem- brane. 10a. Spiracles obsolete ; distance from tip of snout to origin of 1st dorsal is greater than the distance from origin of 1st dorsal to posterior margin of 2nd dorsal so that the former distance extends a little beyond the 2nd dorsal fin. Gray Sharks 5. Carchariidae, p. 131 10b. Spiracles present; the distance from tip of snout to origin of 1st dorsal a little less than distance from origin of 1st dorsal to posterior margin of 2nd dorsal so that the for- mer distance extends only to middle of 2nd dorsal fin. Oil Shark. Soup-fin Shark.. 6. Galeorhinidae, p. 131 9b. Caudal fin forming more than y 2 of the total length. Thresher Sharks 7. Alopiidae, p. 131 8b. Caudal fin lunate, side of caudal peduncle with a well developed keel. Fig. 3. 11a. Dorsal fin just behind pectorals; gill slits about as long as snout, not extending up the whole side of head ; gill rakers short, not long and slender. Mackerel Sharks 8. Lamnidae, p. 131 lib. Dorsal fin about midway between pectorals and pelvics; gill slits more than twice as long as snout, extending up the whole side of head ; gill rakers long and slender, resembling whale bone. Basking Shark 9. Cetorhinidae, p. 131 6b. Anal fin absent. 12a. Dorsal fins each with a stout spine. Dogfish Sharks 10. Squalidae, p. 131 1936] Schidts: Keys to Fishes 113 12b. Dorsal fins without spines. Sleeper Sharks 11. Somniosidae, p. 131 4b. Gill openings wholly on lower side of body or in a deep notch at the "neck" ; body much depressed. Figs. 4 and 5. 13a. Spiracles less than Vz length of snout behind the eyes, usually almost bordering on the eyes ; snout longer than interorbital space. Fig. 4. The ventral side of a male skate, Raja binoculata, showing the position of the mouth, gill clefts, and the pelvic fins with- out the notch. A — anus; Cla — clasper; GC — gill clefts; Mo — mouth; PF — pelvic or ventral fins; Ros — Rostral cartilage. Drawn by A. D. Welander. Fig. 5. A sketch of an Angel Shark showing the gill openings in the "neck." After Starks. 14a. Disk very broad and circular anteriorly; no spines or prickles anywhere; dorsal fins 2, the 1st dorsal anterior to the posterior tips of pelvics ; jelly-like electric gland present at base of pec- torals on dorsal side. Electric Rays 14. Torpedinidae, p. 132 14b. Disk not evenly circular anteriorly ; spines and prickles present ; origin of dorsal fin far back of tips of pelvic fins (claspers are not fins) ; no electric gland is developed. Skates and Rays 13. Rajidae, p. 131 13b. Spiracles from z / 2 to Y<\ length of snout behind the eyes ; interorbital space longer than the snout; origin of 1st dorsal at extreme pos- terior tips of pelvic fins. Fig. 5. Angel Shark 12. Squatinidae, p. 131 114 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 3b. A single external gill or opercular opening; the gills are covered by a fleshy or bony covering, the operculum. 15a. Gill cover composed of flesh or soft cartilage, not hard bones ; tail tapers to a fine point ; skin without scales ; snout blunt ; teeth rat-like ; 1st dorsal with a long sharp spine. Ratfish 15. Chimaeridae, p. 132 15b. Gill cover bony, composed of opercular elements (bones). 16a. (See 16b, p. 129.) Gill openings in front of or above base of pectoral fin, never behind it ; no "bait" above on anterior part of head. 17a. Dorsal fin preceded by short free spines, not connected by mem- branes and none of which is developed into "bait" or luminous organs, Fig. 6. Fig. 6. Free spines before the dorsal fin. 18a. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and to 2 soft rays; 2 to 15 free spines before the soft dorsal ; snout not prolonged and not tubular. Sticklebacks 46. Gasterosteidae, p. 159 18b. Pelvic fin with 1 spine and 4 soft rays; more than 15 spines before the soft dorsal. Many-spined Sticklebacks 47. Aulorhynchidae, p. 159 17b. Dorsal fin not preceded by free spines, if spines are present these connected by membranes except when specialized into long fila- ments or into "bait." 19a. (See 19b, p. 120, and 19c, p. 126.) Pelvic fins present, abdom- inal in position, the pelvic girdle not connected by bones with the pectoral or shoulder girdle. Fig. 7. 20a. (See 20b, p. 117.) Dorsal fins 1 or 2 (the 2nd adipose) pres- ent on back, finlets not included as these are detached soft rays; if 1 dorsal fin is present, photophores are present. 21a. (See 21b, p. 117.) The anterior dorsal fin composed of rays ; the posterior fin chiefly adipose or if an adipose fin is absent the body has photophores. 22a. Body scaleless. 23a. Head with barbels on chin and snout; teeth rather small and not fang-like; pectorals each with a strong spine. Fig. 8. Catfishes 31. Ameiuridae, p. 150 23b. No barbels on head ; dorsal fin long and high ; teeth fang-like ; no spine in pectoral fin. Lancet Fishes 34. Alepisauridae, p. 152 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 115 So C — c rt r/i o5 u O ," H ? O «T3 " «j-9>*-. 'B" ,a '5 * a >•'!*£* is ? a m -a j c u C_ en <u ^.J o 73 o-S ■*-> n .,. _ a ^ 3 a5 C bC u ca «S bC-£ V. O 4J S ca r-< t^ ^ w .a 5 0: n I ££ E g^ S«^ I o "te£J^ i r- CJ <U ^2 (fl 1-1 ca'S _ r M -'<; v '5 o VI > w^~iC ^_ N Co _, > o -5 J3 ■r* ca '"flr* m rtU .. ta t -|ii £ *- u 5 P M § -V a c §q= bote 3 -2 T J" •- <n o ^.t^lo^l- 0< s3 It's- ^ *- rtl P* c/l V C 4) .-£ O ' kj U M Mm I c bo J o m u C < ; 5iiOWj3U3 116 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 22b. Body covered with scales. 24a. Origin of dorsal fin little if any behind middle of body. 25a. Sides of body without photophores or luminous spots; head without scales. 26a. Dorsal and anal each with 1 or 2 spines. Trout Perches 40. Percopsidae, p. 156 26b. Dorsal and anal of soft rays only. 27a. Pelvic fin with a scaly appendage above its base ; stomach with more than 1 1 pyloric caeca ; dorsal fin base, shorter than length of head. 28a. Maxillary extending to posterior edge of, or behind eye in adult ; dentition strong ; mouth deeply cleft; scales in more than 115 oblique rows on side of body. Salmon and Trout 20. Salmonidae, p. 133 28b. Maxillary not extending behind eye, usually ending before or just at anterior edge of eye ; dentition weak ; scales in fewer than 105 oblique rows on side of body. 29a. Dorsal fin of fewer than 17 fin rays. Whitefishes 21. Coregonidae, p. 139 29b. Dorsal fin of 20 to 24 fin rays. Grayling 22. Thymallidae, p. 140 27b. Pelvic fin without a scaly appendage above its base; stomach with 11 or fewer pyloric caeca. 30a. Mouth large, the maxillary reaching un- der eye; both jaws with teeth; tongue with teeth on upper surface. Smelts 23. Osmeridae, p. 140 30b. Mouth small, maxillary not extending un- der eye ; premaxillary toothless ; tongue toothless except probably fine teeth on sides. 31a. Branchiostegals about 6. Fig. 12. 24. Argentinidae, p. 142 31b. Branchiostegals 3 or 4. Fig. 12. 25. Microstomidae, p. 142 25b. Sides of body with photophores; head without scales. Fig. 9. 32a. Pseudobranchiae present. Lantern Fishes . . .33. Myctophidae, p. 151 32b. Pseudobranchiae absent ; teeth canine-like. 33a. Opercles incomplete, interopercle rudimen- tary; fig. 10; origin of dorsal in front of base of pelvic fin; gill rakers absent. Viper Fishes 26. Chauliodontidae, p. 142 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 117 33b. Opercles complete ; origin of dorsal behind base of pelvic fins ; gill rakers present and long ; adipose fin absent. Viper Fishes . .27. Gonostomidae, p. 142 24b. Front of dorsal considerably behind middle of body. 32. Sudidae, p. 151 21b. The anterior dorsal fin composed of spines connected by membranes, the posterior dorsal fin composed of soft rays ; no adipose fin present ; pectoral fins entire, the low- er 5 to 8 rays not detached, not prolonged, and not fila- mentous. 34a. Teeth strong, canine-like, unequal ; lateral line pres- ent ; branchiostegals 7. Barracudas 50. Sphyraenidae, p. 160 34b. Teeth weak ; lateral line absent ; branchiostegals 5 or 6. Silversides 49. Atherinidae, p. 160 20b. Dorsal fin single; no adipose fin and no photophore present. 35a. Dorsal fin followed by a series of detached soft rays or finlets. Fig. 11. Sauries 37. Scomberesocidae, p. 154 35b. Dorsal fin not followed by finlets, nor preceded by dis- connected spines ; no adipose fin present. 36a. Upper lobe of caudal fin much longer than lower lobe and tail heterocercal ; body with large bony plates, each with a sharp keel or spine. Sturgeons 16. Acipenseridae, p. 133 36b. Upper lobe of caudal fin not longer than lower and tail homocercal ; body without plates as above. 37a. Head with scales ; anal and dorsal fins placed in the posterior 3rd of the body ; origin of dorsal fin nearly over the origin of anal. 38a. Lateral line present; jaws shaped much like a duck's bill and prolonged; teeth strong. Pikes or Pickerels 35. Esocidae, p. 152 38b. Lateral line wanting; jaws normal and not pro- longed; teeth not strong or canine-like. Mud Minnows 36. Novumbridae, p. 152 37b. Head without scales ; dorsal fin placed in middle 3rd of the body except in the Alepoceplialidae ; origin of dorsal much in advance of anal origin, less so in the Alcpocephalidae. 39a. Branchiostegals 6 to 15; gill membranes not joined to isthmus ; fig. 12. 40a. No lateral line ; gill rakers long and slender. 118 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Pec.Sf>. FiQ.8 Ro.lO Rq.12 Ro.13 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 119 Fig. 8. The head of a catfish showing the pectoral spine and the location of the bar- bels; Ba — barbels; Pec Sp — pectoral spine. Fig. 9. A lantern fish, Myctophidae, showing the arrangement and names applied to the photophores. Aao — anterior anal organs; Pao — posterior anal organs; Pco — precaudal organs; PI — posterior lateral organs; Sbp — suprapectoral organ; Spa — supra-anal organs; Spcs — supracaudal luminous scales; Spp — suprapectoral organ; Spv — supraventral organ; Th — thoracic organs; Veo — ventral organs. Modified after Parr. Fig. 10. A sketch showing the arrangement and names of the opercular bones in Sebastodes caurimis. Ope — operculum; I Ope — interoperculum; P Ope — preoperculum; S Ope — suboperculum. Fig. 11. The Pacific Saury, Cololabis saira, showing the finlets behind the dorsal and anal fins. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. Fig. 12. The ventral side of the head of Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus to show the free fold of the gill membrane across the isthmus. Br. — branchiostegal ray; Br Mem — branchiostegal or gill membranes broadly joined to each other; Fo 1st — gill membranes forming a free fold across the isthmus by being unattached along their margins; Pec — pectoral fin; Ve — ventral or pelvic fin. Modified after Jordan and Evermann. Fig. 13. The ventral side of the head region of Catostomns macrocheilus, the Colum- bia River coarse-scaled sucker, showing the corners of the mouth without the notches in the lips. Br 1st — branchiostegal or gill membranes broadly joined to the isthmus; Inc — incision in the lower lip; Mo — mouth. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. '^>x--\-J3kUt Fig. 14. A diagram of a hypothetical flatfish, Plenronectidae, to show the various modifications of the lateral line and the asymmetry of the head. Ar Lat — a distinct arch in the lateral line; Db Lat — dorsal branch of the lateral line; N Ar Lat — no distinct arch in the lateral line. 41a. Mouth terminal ; not excessively large ; maxillary not nearly reaching to gill open- ings. Herrings and Shad 17. Clupeidae, p. 133 41b. Mouth inferior, below a tapering snout ; mouth very large, the maxillary reaching nearly or quite to gill openings. Anchovies 18. Engraulidae, p. 133 40b. Lateral line present; dorsal fin in posterior 3rd of body. 19. Alepocephalidae, p. 133 39b. Branchiostegals 3 ; gill membranes united to the isthmus; fig 12; gill rakers not long and slender; lateral line usually present. 120 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 42a. Pharyngeal teeth many more than 9 and in 1 row arranged like the teeth of a comb ; mouth usually directed downward, exces- sively protractile and sucker-like with or without papillous lips. Fig. 13. Suckers 29. Catostomidae, p. 142 42b. Pharyngeals few in number, less than 9 and in 1 to 3 rows, not comb-like ; mouth not especially directed downward, without papillous lips. Minnows. Chubs. Dace 30. Cyprinidae, p. 145 19b. (See 19a, p. 114, and 19c, p. 126.) Pelvic fins thoracic (placed under or just a little behind the pectorals, and internally connected with the shoulder girdle, with exceptions), or jugular (placed in front of the pectorals) ; the rays are not modified into round pads forming a sucking disk. Figs. 16 and 17. 43a. Both eyes on the same side of the head. Fig. 14. 44a. Pelvic fins symmetrical in position or nearly so, neither located on the median ridge of abdomen. Flounders. Halibut 44. Pleuronectidae, p. 157 44b. Pelvic fin of eyed side located on median ridge of abdomen; eyes and color on left side. Sand Dabs 43. Bothidae, p. 156 43b. Eyes normal, each eye on opposite side of the head. 45a. A bony stay (suborbital stay) extending from below eye backward across the cheek just under the skin, or else the side of the head is mostly covered with bony plates. Fig. 15. 46a. Head and body mostly covered with bony plates in 8 to 12 long- itudinal rows. Sea Poachers 70. Agonidae, p. 182 Fig. 15. A sketch showing the position of the bony suborbital stay. 46b. Head and body not covered with bony plates arranged in rows. 47a. Gill openings not extending to opposite lowest pectoral ray; slit behind the 4th gill reduced to a mere pore or wanting. Northern Sea Horse 69. Rhamphocottidae, p. 182 47b. Gill opening extending down to at least lowest pectoral ray. 48a. Body wholly or partly naked, or covered with prickles but never completely covered with scales ; when the body is par- tially scaled, the scaleless areas occur between the bands of scales. Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 1936] SchuUz: Keys to Fishes 121 48b. Body uniformly and evenly covered with scales in local species. 49a. Slit behind 4th gill a mere pore or wanting; anal spines III, dorsal spines XII to XVII ; preopercle with 5 or 6 strong spines. Fig. 10. Rockfish. Rock Cod 63. Scorpaenidae, p. 163 49b. Slit behind the 4th gill larger than a pore, an obvious slit; preopercle without 5 or 6 strong spines. 50a. Nostril single on each side and the second if present re- duced to a mere pore ; dorsal fins contiguous or con- nected often with a deep notch between the spines and soft rayed portion. 51a. Mouth smaller, the maxillary not reaching or barely reaching to orbit; jaws without strong canine teeth. Greenlings 66. Hexagrammidae, p. 171 51b. Mouth large, the maxillary reaching beyond orbit; jaws with strong canine teeth. Ling Cod 67. Ophiodontidae, p. 172 50b. Nostrils 2 on each side and of nearly equal development. 52a. Dorsal fins widely separated ; dorsal rays XX to XXII, 16 to 18; anal 15 to 17. Skilfish. Black Cod.. 64. Anoplopomidae, p. 170 52b. Dorsal fin deeply notched; dorsal XIV-I, 15; anal ii+11. Priest Fish 65. Erilepidae, p. 170 45b. No bony suborbital stay or plates on side of head as in 45a. 53a. Pelvic fins completely united with each other ; fig. 16, the rays being normal and not modified into round pads as in the Liparididae ; fig. 17. Gobies 74. Gobiidae, p. 191 53b. Pelvic fins separate, not united. 54a. Body covered with scales. 55a. (See 55b, p. 123.) Pelvic fins definitely I, 5, the spine some- times grown fast to the first soft ray ; pectoral fin entire. 56a. Dorsal and anal each followed by finlets. Fig. 11. 57a. There is no middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, only the small pair of keels dorsally and ventraliy ; 1st dorsal separated from 2nd dorsal by an interspace as long as or longer than snout ; color on back of almost vertical stripes. Mackerels 51. Scombridae, p. 160 57b. There is a middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, and a small keel above and below the large one. Tunny and Albacore 52. Thunnidae, p. 160 122 University of Washington Publications in Biology IVol. 2. 56b. Dorsal and anal not followed by finlets. 58a. Vomer with teeth. Fig. 18. 59a. Dorsal fin, without pungent spines, continuous (un- notched) ; dorsal fin not beginning on head; caudal rounded or truncate. 60a. Lateral line running high, not far from the dorsal fin base and not reaching the caudal fin (lateral line incomplete). Ronquils 76. Bathymasteridae, p. 191 60b. Lateral line if present not high on back, but reach- ing to caudal fin. Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 'eSo >D4K Fiq.17 F19.I8 Fig. 16. The ventral side of the goby, Rhinogobiops nicholsii, showing the modification of the pelvic fins into the sucker. Ve Su — ventral or pelvic fins modified into the sucking disk. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. Fig. 17. A diagram of the ventral side of a sea snail, Liparididae, showing the mod- ification of the pelvic fins into a sucking disk. Ddk — width or diameter of the disk. Fig. 18. A diagram to show the approximate positions of the teeth bearing bones in the roof of the mouth of many fishes. Max — maxillary; Pal — palatine; Prem — premaxil- lary; Vo — vomer. Fig. 19. The fringe-like "teeth" of the Sandfish, Trichodon trichodon. Fr — fringes of lips (not true teeth). 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 123 59b. Dorsal fin or fins with pungent spines anteriorly and soft rays posteriorly. 61a. Dorsal fins 2, entirely separated or slightly joined together when a spine is present in the 2nd fin, preceding the soft rays. 62a. Anal III, 11 or 12; dorsal IX-I, 12; body with very narrow longitudinal stripes in local species. Bass 60. Moronidae, p. 163 62b. Anal I or II, 7 or 8; dorsal VI to XVI, 12 or 13 in local species. Perches 58. Percidae, p. 161 61b. Dorsal fin single (deeply emarginate in Aplitcs) ; body with not more than 1 longitudinal stripe ; anal normally III to VI (rarely II), 10 to 19; dorsal VI to XI, 11 to 15. Bass and Sunfishes ..59. Centrarchidae, p. 161 58b. Vomer without teeth. Fig. 18. 63a. Scales just before middle of body, 3 or 4 times deeper vertically than longer horizontally. Pompreys 54. Bramidae, p. 160 63b. Scales not as above. 64a. Dorsals and anals without distinct spines. Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 64b. Dorsal and anal with spines. 65a. Anal spines I or II in local species. Croakers or Sea Bass 61. Otolithidae, p. 163 65b. Anal spines III. Viviparous Perch 73. Embiotocidae, p. 189 55b. Pelvic fins definitely not I, 5. 66a. Pelvic fins with more than 5 soft rays and with or with- out a spine. 67a. Numerous nearly round light spots, about the size of the pupil or smaller occur all over the body; dorsal fin single, very long, elevated, falcate in front, of 49 to 55 rays, without distinct spines ; anal fin long and low, not elevated or falcate in front, of 33 to 41 rays; in life all fins are scarlet in color ; pelvic fins of 14 to 17 rays, and about as long as head; pectorals nearly as long as head; depth of the compressed body l-)4 in standard length. Moonfish 42. Lampridae, p. 156 67b. Characters not as in 67a. 68a. Dorsals and anals without spines. 69a. Tail not tapering to a point, dorsal and anal fins separate from the distinct caudal fin. Cods and Hake 39. Gadidae, p. 154 124 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2 69b. Tail tapering to a point, the dorsal and anal fins confluent, there being no caudal fin. Grenadiers 38. Coryphaenoididae, p. 154 68b. Dorsal spines III. 45. Melamphaidae, p. 159 66b. Pelvics with fewer than 5 soft rays, and with or with- out a spine. 70a. Body covered with bony plates. Sea Poachers 70. Agonidae, p. 182 70b. Body not covered with bony plates ; the body either naked or covered with scales. 71a. Dorsal composed of soft rays only. 72a. Body tapering to a blunt point behind ; dorsal and anal continuous around the caudal ; gill mem- branes joined to isthmus. Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 72b. Body not tapering to a blunt point ; the caudal fin distinct. Brotulids 85. Brotulidae, p. 197 71b. Dorsal composed of spines anteriorly with or with- out soft rays posteriorly. 73a. Dorsal fin with at least 1 soft ray but less than 20, usually 5 to 13 in local species ; vertebrae 52 or fewer ; lateral line arched high above the pectoral, if present. Blennies 78. Clinidae, p. 192 73b. Dorsal fin without soft rays (except in Ccbi- dichthys which has 40 to 44) ; vertebrae usual- ly more than 53. 74a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous ray of dorsal fin; body ribbon-like and never with multiple branched lateral lines ; all vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 74b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous ray of the dorsal fin; body round and not ribbon-like except in Phytichihys which has multiple branched lateral lines and II (rarely III) anal spines; only the caudal vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 54b. Body naked and smooth, or armed with tubercles, prickles, scattered bony plates, or scales in rows between which are naked areas, never uniformly covered with scales. 75a. Breast with a sucking disk. Fig. 17. 76a. Gill membranes free from isthmus ; a single soft dorsal placed posteriorly. Cling-fishes 87. Gobiesocidae, p. 197 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 125 76b. Gill membranes joined to isthmus. 77a. Skin smooth ; dorsal somewhat hidden by the lax skin, long and continuous or with a short portion anteriorly more or less separated by a notch. Sea Snails or Rock Suckers.. 72. Liparididae, p. 186 77b. Skin with strongly developed tubercles or spines ; dorsal fins 2, well separated and about of equal length. Lump Suckers 71. Cyclopteridae, p. 186 75b. Breast without a sucking disk. 78a. Dorsal and anal followed by detached rays or finlets. Fig. 11. 79a. There is no middle keel on each side of caudal peduncle, only the small keels, 1 above and 1 below ; 1st dorsal separated from 2nd dorsal by an interspace as long as or longer than snout ; color on back of almost vertical stripes. Mackerels 51. Scombridae, p. 160 79b. A single median keel on each side of caudal peduncle and a small one above and below the large one. Fig 3. Tunny and Albacore 52. Thunnidae, p. 160 78b. Dorsal and anal without finlets. 80a. A bony stay (suborbital stay) extending from below eye backward across the cheek just under the skin, or else the side of the head is bony. 81a. Gill opening small, not extending below the lower edge of the pectoral fin. Northern Sea Horse 69. Rhamphocottidae, p. 182 81b. Gill opening extending at least to lower edge of pectoral fin. Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 80b. No suborbital stay or bony cheeks. 82a. Body tapering to a blunt point behind ; the dorsal and anal continuous around caudal ; gill membranes joined to isthmus. Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 82b. Body not tapering to a point. 83a. Anal fin absent; caudal fin directed obliquely upward. Ribbon Fishes 41. Trachipteridae, p. 156 83b. Anal fin present ; caudal normal. 84a. Dorsal spines soft and ray-like. 85a. Both jaws of about the same length; head about 4 in length ; depth about 3 ; lateral line and fins with prickles ; body not long and not ribbon-like. Ragfishes 56. Icosteidae, p. 161 126 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 85b. Lower jaw longest; head about 7 to 8 in length ; depth 6 or more in length ; body ribbon-like ; skin naked without scales or prickles. Cutlassfishes ... .53. Trichiuridae, p. 160 84b. Dorsal spines stiff and sharp. 86a. Lips with long teeth-like fringes ; mouth when closed nearly vertical. Fig. 19. Sand Fishes.. 62. Trichodontidae, p. 163 86b. Lips without fringes ; mouth often oblique but not vertical. 87a. Dorsal with only I or II very short spines just behind head; body with many small luminous organs or photophores arranged in series. Toad Fishes 86. Batrachoididae, p. 197 87b. Dorsal with many spines; body often rib- bon-like. 88a. Dorsal fin with at least 1 soft ray but fewer than 20, usually 5 to 13 in local species ; vertebrae 52 or fewer ; lateral line, if present, arched high above the pectoral. Blennies 78. Clinidae, p. 192 88b. Dorsal fin without soft rays (except in Cebidichthys which has 39 to 44) ; ver- tebrae usually more than 53. 89a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; body ribbon-like and never with mul- tiple branched lateral lines ; all verte- brae with haemal arches. Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 89b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; body round and not ribbon-like except in Phytichthys which has multiple branched lateral lines and II (rarely III) strong anal spines; only the cau- dal vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 19c. (See 19a, p. 114, and 19b, p. 120.) Pelvic fins absent or modified into sucking disks. Fig. 17. 90a. Gill membranes united to the isthmus, Fig. 12, (gill opening some- times reduced to a small slit high on the side). 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 127 91a. Jaws long, very slender, almost thread-like, diverging to form a snipe-like beak. Fig. 20. Snipe Eels 28. Nemichthyidae, p. 142 Fig. 20. The snipe-like jaws of Ne- michthys avocetta. Modified after Jor- ^*>^^ ^i£s 7 — < &&/////////// dan and Evermann. 91b. Jaws not as above. 92a. Snout elongate and tubular, bearing very small toothless jaws at the end ; covering of body of bony plates. Pipe Fishes 48. Syngnathidae, p. 160 92b. Snout not tubular ; mouth and body covering not as above. 93a. Breast with a sucking disk. Fig. 17. 94a. Skin smooth and lax ; anal fin with more than 20 rays. Sea Snails 72. Liparididae, p. 186 94b. Skin thick and firm, smooth or covered with tubercles or broad plates bearing spines ; anal fin of fewer than 20 rays. Lumpsuckers 71. Cyclopteridae, p. 186 93b. Breast without a sucking disk. 95a. Skin very loose and lax, without scales ; gill opening above pectoral or not extending below the base of the middle ray of the pectoral fin. Sea Snails 72. Liparididae, p. 186 95b. Skin firm, normal, with or without scales, never loose and lax; gill opening extending down below the base of the middle ray of pectoral fin. 96a. Body elongate not short and deep and not truncate be- hind ; dorsal fin single, extending along nearly the whole back ; gill openings in front of the pectorals. 97a. Jaws and vomer with some coarse molar or pebble-like teeth ; body tapering to a slender point behind in local species. Wolf Fishes 81. Anarrhichthyidae, p. 195 97b. Teeth not as above, or not molar-like. 98a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous ray of dorsal fin ; body ribbon-like and never with multiple branched lateral lines ; all vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 98b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; body round and not ribbon-like except in Phytichthys which has multiple branched lateral lines, and II (rarely III) anal spines; only the caudal vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 128 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 96b. Body oblong, short and deep, compressed, truncate be- hind so there is no caudal peduncle ; dorsal not extending along the back as in 96a; gill openings in front of the pectoral as is usual in fishes. Head Fish. Ocean Sunfish 88. Molidae, p. 197 90b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus or with a wide free fold across isthmus, or continuing forward before becoming joined. Fig. 12. 99a. Caudal fin not widely forked or lunate ; least depth of caudal pe- duncle if present fewer than 6 times in greatest depth of body ; depth of body more than 2.5 times in the standard length. 100a. Dorsal rising so gradually from the back that its beginning is scarcely evident. 101a. Dorsal and anal not reaching to caudal; caudal peduncle slen- der, caudal fin concave behind. Great Ray Fishes 57. Acrotidae, p. 161 101b. Dorsal and anal connected with caudal fin. 102a. Tail tapering to a point and with a caudal filament (usually broken off preserved specimens) ; head about 16 in length without filament. Quillfish 83. Ptilichthyidae, p. 195 102b. Tail rounded; head about 8 in length. Burrowing Blennies 82. Scytalinidae, p. 195 100b. Beginning of dorsal fin evident, rising more or less abruptly. 103a. Gill membranes broadly united to each other. 104a. Dorsal fins 2. Sculpins 68. Cottidae, p. 172 104b. Dorsal fin single. 105a. No sucking disk on breast. 106a. Small imbricated scales on gill membranes, all over body and on the fins except the distal third ; dorsal fin of very flexible spines ; depth of body about 3 to 4 1 /- in length. Flaccid Fishes 77. Zaproridae, p. 191 106b. Scales if present usually embedded and never occur- ring on gill membranes nor on the fins ; dorsal fin spines not flexible ; depth of body more than 5 times in the length. 107a. Origin of anal fin under the 34th to 55th spinous ray of dorsal fin ; body ribbon-like and never with multiple branched lateral lines ; all vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 79. Pholididae, p. 192 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 129 107b. Origin of anal fin under the 12th to 32nd spinous ray of the dorsal fin ; body round and not ribbon- like except in Phytichthys which has multiple branched lateral lines and II (rarely III) anal spines ; only the caudal vertebrae with haemal arches. Blennies 80. Stichaeidae, p. 192 105b. A large sucking disk on breast ; fish tadpole-shaped. Cling Fishes 87. Gobiesocidae, p. 197 103b. Gill membranes free from each other, or nearly so, contin- uing far forward under the head ; depth of body about 9 or 10 times in standard length. 108a. Body with scales arranged to form oblique folds ; cau- dal fin deeply concave. Sand Lances or Launces . .75. Ammodytidae, p. 191 108b. Body scaleless ; sometimes the scales are embedded ; dorsal and anal continuous around the tail ; skin rather lax, at least not firm. Eel Pouts 84. Zoarcidae, p. 195 99b. Caudal fin very widely forked, nearly lunate; caudal peduncle small, its least depth about 6.5 to 9 times in greatest depth of body ; body compressed, its depth 1.9 times in standard length; premaxillaries not protractile. Pampanos 55. Stromateidae, p. 161 16b. Gill opening behind the base of the pectoral fin; the spinous dorsal fin is represented by a single upright spine, developed into "bait" ; the bait consists of a bulb supplied with filaments ; pectoral radials 3 ; ar- ticular spines well developed and crossing, that of the quadrate, longer than the mandibular. Angler Fishes 89. Oneirodidae, p. 197 130 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. ARTIFICIAL KEYS TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF FISH IN WASHINGTON, OREGON AND IN CLOSELY ADJOINING REGIONS Family 1. Eptatretidae. Hagfishes or Borers la. Head to first gill opening 6.5 times in total length ; gill openings, ventral fold and anal not bordered by white. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Common. Black Hagfish 1. Polistotrema dcani Evermann and Goldsborough lb. Head to first gill opening 4.5 times in total length ; gill openings bordered by white ring. Range : British Columbia to San Diego. Marine. Common. Common Hagfish 2. Polistotrema stoutii (Lockington) Family 2. Petromyzonidae. Lampreys la. Teeth of the buccal funnel not in distinct radiating series, but in several groups ; several enlarged lateral teeth, usually multicuspid, at the edge of the oral opening ; a marginal series around edge of disk ; few to many teeth on the anterior part of the disk; supraoral broad, the main cusps are sep- arated by a bridge. Fig. 1. 2a. A posterior series of small teeth developed, parallel to the marginal series and connecting the last pair of enlarged laterals ; 57 to 74 mytomes be- tween last gill slit and anus. Range: Unalaska to southern California. Marine and freshwater. Common. Three-toothed Lamprey. Pacific Lamprey... 3. Entosphenus tridentatus (Gairdner) 2b. No teeth other than the marginals on the posterior field of the disk ; 3 enlarged laterals ; myotomes between last gill opening and vent 57 to 70. 3a. Dorsal fins usually well separated by an interspace except during spawning; myotomes between the last gill opening and the vent 63 to 70 ; all teeth sharp and strong. Parasitic. Range : Eurasia and western North America. Freshwater. Locally abundant. River Lamprey. Lake Lamprey. .. .4. Lampctra fluviatilis (Linnaeus) 3b. Dorsal fins separated only by a notch to base ; myotomes between last gill opening and vent 57 to 66 ; all teeth weak and blunt, non-functional. Non-parasitic. Range : Eurasia and western North America. Fresh- water. Common. Brook Lamprey 5. Lampetra planeri (Bloch) Family 3. Hexanchidae. Cow Sharks la. Gill openings 7 on each side. Range : Puget Sound to Monterey Bay. Marine. Not rare. Spotted Cow Shark. Mud Shark 6. Notorynchns maculatus Ayres lb. Gill openings 6 on each side. Range : Mediterranean, North Atlantic and North Pacific, Puget Sound to Monterey Bay. Marine. Not rare. Mud Shark. Shovelnose Shark 7. Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre) (=H. corinus Jordan and Gilbert) 1936] Schultc: Keys to Fishes 131 Family 4. Scylliorhinidae. Cat Sharks Range: Puget Sound to Gulf of California. Marine. Not rare. Brown Shark. Cat Shark 8. Apristurus brunncus (Gilbert) Family 5. Carchariidae. Gray Sharks Range : Warm seas. Marine. Rare northward. Great Blue Shark. Fig. 2 9. Prionace glauca (Linnaeus) Family 6. Galeorhinidae. Oil Shark. Soup-fin Shark Range: British Columbia to Lower California. Marine. Rare northward. Soup-fin Shark 10. Galeorhinus zyopterus Jordan and Gilbert Family 7. Alopiidae. Thresher Sharks Range : Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Marine, Not rare. Fox Shark. Long-tailed Shark. 11. Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre) Family 8. Lamnidae. Mackerel Sharks Range: North Atlantic and North Pacific. Marine. Common northward. Salmon Shark. Tiger Shark 12. Lamm nasus (Bonnaterre) Family 9. Cetorhinidae. Basking Sharks Range: Arctic seas southward to California, Virginia, and Portugal. Ma- rine. Common northward. Basking Shark. Elephant Shark. Bone Shark.. . .13. Cetorhinus maximus (Gunner) Family 10. Squalidae. Dogfish Sharks Range : Aleutian Islands to Santa Barbara. Marine. Abundant. Grayfish. Dogfish Sharks 14. Squalus suckleyi (Girard) Family 11. Somniosidae (=Dalatiidae). Sleeper Sharks Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific south to San Francisco. Marine. Common. Sleeper Shark.. 15. Somniosus microcephalia (Bloch and Schneider) Family 12. Squatinidae. Angel Sharks Range : South eastern Alaska and southward. Marine. Rare northward. Angel Shark. Fig. 5 16. Squatina calif omica Ayres Family 13. Rajidae. Skates and Rays dy at each side of the snout convex or stra nout to outer tip of pectoral angle passing disk. Fig. 4. 2a. Outline of body undulating, first convex and then concave. la. Outline of body at each side of the snout convex or straight ; a line drawn from tip of snout to outer tip of pectoral angle passing everywhere inside of outline of disk. Fig. 4. 132 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 3a. Shoulder girdle with about 6 spines ; orbital rim with spines ; width of disk about 1.2 in its length; tail is contained about 1.4 times in length of disk, 1.7 in width of disk; the tail is shorter than the disk by 24 length of snout. Range: Unalaska to California. Marine. Not rare. Prickly Skate 17. Raja stellnlata Jordan and Gilbert 3b. Shoulder girdle and orbital rims without spines; width of disk V/ 2 in its length ; tail longer than the disk by l / 2 the snout. Range : Central Alaska and Santa Barbara in deep water. Marine. Rare. Rough-tailed Skate 18. Raja trachura Gilbert 2b. Outline of body everywhere evenly rounded or convex, the anterior mar- gin not undulating ; shoulder girdle with a spine ; tail as long as the disk. Range : Puget Sound region. Marine. Rare. Black Skate 19. Raja kincaidi Garman lb. Outline of body at each side of snout concave ; a line drawn as in la, pass- ing at some one point well outside of the outline of the body. 4a. Pelvic fins with a notch that divides it into 2 distinct lobes when the anterior tip is held at right angles to the axis of the tail (often in Raja inornata the edge of the fin is deeply concave) ; usually 3 to 10 hooked orbital spines. Sa. A line drawn from tip of snout to outer angle of pectoral touches the outline of the body near the middle of this line ; interorbital space 3 to 3.4 times in length of snout ; length of tail about equal to the disk ; in the young there are 2 or 3 spines in middle line of back followed by a space without spines before the continuous series begins just anterior to the pelvics. Range: Str. Juan de Fuca to San Diego. Marine. Rare northward. California Skate 20. Raja inornata Jordan and Gilbert 5b. A line drawn from tip of snout to outer angle of pectoral passes the width of the interorbital space outside the outline of the body (except in the young) ; interorbital space 3.5 to 4 in snout; tail shorter than disk by 2 /z snout; in the young of rhina there is 1 strong spine followed by a space before the continuous series on mid-line of back begins over the pelvics. Range : Alaska to Pt. Loma, California. Marine. Common. Long-nosed Skate 21. Raja rhina Jordan and Gilbert 4b. Pelvic fins without a deep notch, when the anterior tip is held at right angles to the axis of the tail the edge of the pelvic fin is nearly straight; the hooked spines around the eye number 3 or fewer on young and are usually absent on adults; length of disk about 1.1 in width; tail about 1.3 in length of disk; in the young there is only a single spine in mid-line of back (this may be absent in very young) followed by a continuous series which begins over pelvics. Range : Sitka, Alaska, to San Diego. Marine. Common. Big Skate 22. Raja binoculata Girard Family 14. Torpedinidae. Electric Rays Range : Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island to San Diego Bay. Marine. Com- mon northward. Torpedo. Crampfish 23. Tetranarce calijomica (Ayres) Family 15. Chimaeridae. Chimaeras Range : Alaska to San Diego Bay. Marine. Abundant. Ratfish. Chimaera 24. Hydrolagus colliei (Lay and Bennett) 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 133 Family 16. Acipenseridae. Sturgeons. la. Plates between pelvics and anal small, in 2 rows of 4 to 8 ; dorsal rays 44 to 48 ; anal rays 28 to 30. Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine and fresh- water. Common. White Sturgeon 25. Acipenser transmontanus Richardson lb. Plates between pelvics and anal large, in 1 or 2 rows of 1 to 4 each; dorsal rays 33 to 35 ; anal rays 22 to 28. Range : North Pacific southward to Mon- terey Bay. Marine and freshwater. Not abundant Green Sturgeon 26. Acipenser acutirostris Ayres (=A. medirostris) Family 17. Clupeidae. Herrings. la. Ventral scutes strong and sharp, the ventral edge of the belly much com- pressed ; depth 3^4 in length ; peritoneum white ; about 60 scales in a lateral series. Range : Atlantic Coast of U.S. and southeastern Alaska to Monte- rey Bay. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Shad 27. Alosa sapidissima (Wilson) lb. Ventral scutes not strong, the ventral edge of the belly only a little com- pressed ; depth 4 to 5 in length ; peritoneum black or dusky ; about 38 to 55 scales in a lateral series. 2a. About 40 rakers on lower arch of first gill ; peritoneum dusky ; vomer with teeth ; about 38 to 45 scales ; no striae on the operculum. Range : Kamchatka to San Diego. Marine. Abundant. Pacific Herring 28. Clupca pallasii Cuvier and Valenciennes 2b. About 50 to 60 rakers on lower arch of first gill ; peritoneum black ; about 53 scales ; opercle with 7 long striae extending downward and back- ward. Range : British Columbia to Gulf of California. Marine. Abundant. Pilchard. Sardine 29. Sordino ps cacrulea (Girard) Family 18. Engraulidae. Anchovies Range : Vancouver Island to Lower California. Marine. Abundant. Northern Anchovy 30. Engranlis mordax mordax Girard Family 19. Alepocephalidae Range : Coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. Deep Sea Fish 31. Bathytroctes stomias Gilbert Family 20. Salmonidae. Salmon and Trout la. Anal fin elongate, of 13 to 19 rays (rarely 12 or 18 or 19) ; vomer narrow, long, flat, with weak teeth; gill rakers 19 to 40 (rarely 19 or 20) on 1st gill arch; branchiostegals 13 to 19; species with or without black spots, adults with anal and dorsal seldom spotted. Figs. 21, 22, 23, and 24. 2a. Scales very small, in about 170 to 231 oblique rows on the side, and us- ually 30 to 37 (range 26 to 40) above, and 28 to 35 (range 25 to 40) be- low, the lateral line; caudal spots large and oblong; gill rakers 11 to 13 + 15 to 18 (usually totaling from 27 to 35) ; anal rays usually 14 to 16; young without any trace of parr marks. Range : Northern Japan to Alaska, southward to San Francisco. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Pink Salmon. Humpback Salmon 32. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum) 134 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 2b. Scales in fewer than 160 oblique rows crossing the lateral line, usually about 120 to 153. Fig. 25. Dorsal fin Parr narlcs jL Lateral. line Caudal fin 3a. 4a. Fig. 21. A diagrammatic sketch of a trout to show the names of the parts that are used in differentiating species. Parr marks occur, with certain exceptions, in immature fish only. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Gill rakers comparatively short and few, 19 to 28 (rarely 29) in num- ber on the 1st gill arch. Scales usually 19 to 26 (range 19 to 31) above, and usually 15 to 24 (range 15 to 27 below, the lateral line; anal rays usually 13 to 15; gill rakers 7 or 8+11 to 13; pyloric caeca 150 to 180; young with rather faint small parr marks mostly above the lateral line. Range : Kamchatka to Alaska to San' Francisco. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Chum Salmon. Dog Salmon. .. .33. Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) gill rilaj»nt» Fig. 22 Fig. 22. This diagram illustrates the method employed in counting the number of rays in the dorsal and anal fins. The first two or three short, unsegmented rays closely crowded to- gether are not counted. The first ray counted is unbranched and extends nearly as far out as the first branched ray which follows. The last ray is usually "double-branched" at the base giving the superficial appearance of two rays, and hence is count- ed as one ray. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Fig. 23. This diagram illustrates the gill rakers on the first gill arch, the latter located under the operculum. The gill rak- ers, including all rudiments are always counted on the first gill arch; those on the upper half of the arch are given first, followed by those on the lower half of the arch as 8 + 13 in the draw- ing. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Fig. 24. This diagram illustrates the approximate positions of the various tooth-bearing bones in the roof of the mouth of a sal- monoid game fish. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 135 4b. Scales usually 25 to 31 (range 23 to 34) above, and usually 23 to 34 (range 19 to 39) below, the lateral line. Length Kyc of diameter Snout Preoiax y Lengtn of oauaal peduncle rancalostegal rays Fig. 25. A diagrammatic drawing of a Rocky Mountain Whitefish, illustrating various anatomical characters used in the identification of salmonoid game fishes. After Schultz and Han- son. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman, 3b. 5a. Anal rays usually 15 to 17; pyloric caeca about 140 to 150; 1st 2 or 3 anal rays in individuals less than 4 inches long, not extend- ing behind or longer than the following rays of anal fin ; gill rak- ers 7 to 9+11 to 13; parr marks usually wider than the interspaces. Range: Northern China to Alaska to San Francisco. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Chinook, King, or Spring Salmon 34. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum) 5b. Anal rays usually 13 to 15 (rarely 16) ; pyloric caeca about 50 to 80; the 1st 2 or 3 anal rays are characteristically longer than rest of anal rays and are margined with white, in individuals less than 4 inches in length ; parr marks usually narrower than the inter- spaces. Range : Japan to Alaska to Monterey Bay. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Coho or Silver Salmon 35. Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) Gill rakers comparatively long and numerous, 30 to 50 in number, (11 to 24+20 to 26) ; scales about 130 (125 to 145) in the lateral line, and usually 19 to 24 (range 18 to 26) above, and usually 19 to 23 (range 17 to 27) below, the lateral line; anal rays usually 14 or 15; young with rather large round black spots above the lateral line ; sides red at spawning. Range : Japan to Alaska to Klamath River, California. Ma- rine and freshwater. Abundant. Fig. 26. Sockeye or Blueback Salmon. Little Red Fish. Silver Trout. Red Salmon 36. Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) Fig. 26. Silver Trout. Redfish. Land- locked Salmon. Oncorhynchus nerka. Af- ter Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 136 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. lb. Anal fin short, of 9 to 12 rays, rarely 13 ; gill rakers 20 or fewer on 1st arch; branchiostegals 10 to 12; dorsal fin black-spotted. 6a. Species with darkish spots on a lighter background ; fewer than 190 scale rows crossing the lateral line ; vomer flat, its toothed surface plane, teeth on shaft of the vomer in alternating rows or in one zigzag row, those on the shaft placed directly on the sur- face of the bone, not on a free crest. 7a. Red dash on dentary (between lower jaw bone and isthmus) evident in life; no red spots on side of body; vertebrae 58 to 62 (usually 60 or 61) ; dorsal rays 9 to 11 (usually 10) ; anal rays 9 to 11 ; maxillary on adults extending behind eye, about 1.6 to 2.25 in head; hyoid teeth (those located behind the patch of teeth on tip of the tongue) usually present but few and scattered. 8a. Black spots large and scattered over the body, those on an- terior part of the body widely separated, the spots are usually absent from belly and almost to the lateral line ; scales above and below lateral line 32 to 42 (usually 35 to 38) ; scales in the lateral line 156 to 190 (usually about 165 to 170) ; gill rakers 6 to 9+10 to 13, totaling 15 to 22. Range: Mid- dle and upper Columbia River drainage. Introduced else- where. Freshwater. Abundant. Fig. 27. Montana Black-spotted Trout 37. Salnw clarkii lewisi (Girard) ■Cutthroat- nark Fig. 27. Montana Black-spotted Trout. Cutthroat Trout. Salmo clarkii lewisi. Af- ter Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 8b. The body is profusely covered with black spots, a few even occurring on the belly, the spots about as close together pos- teriorly as anteriorly ; scales above the lateral line 35 or fewer ; scales below lateral line 35 or fewer ; scales in the lateral line 120 to 180 (usually fewer than 160). In the Puget Sound drainage 2 types of cutthroat trout have been observed. They are distinguishable as follows : Scales 120 to 140 (usually about 125 to 130) instead of 143 to 180 in the lateral line ; scales 25 to 29 instead of 30 to 36 (usually 31 to 35) above the lateral line; scales below the lateral line about 27 to 28 instead of 30 to 34. Recent evidence indicates that this great variation in the number of scales may be caused by the different temperatures during which early de- velopment takes place in the various localities. Range : British Columbia to California. Marine and freshwater. Fig. 28 Coastal Cutthroat Trout 38. Salmo clarkii clarkii Richardson 2 'Under this name we are including Salmo clarkii crescentis, the speckled trout of Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 137 "Cuttbrotf cart Fig. 28. Cutthroat Trout. Coastal Cut- throat. Steelhead Cutthroat. Salmo clarkii clarkii. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- tesy of the Washington Sportsman. 7b. No red dash on dentary evident in life; dorsal fin rays 10 to 13 (usually 11 or 12) ; hyoid teeth always absent. 9a. Vertebrae 56 to 59 (usually 57 to 58) ; color brownish yel- low and usually with a few red spots on the sides ; scales in the lateral line 118 to 130 (usually about 125) ; scales 24 to 28 above the lateral line and 22 to 30 below it; gill rakers 6 to 9+9 to 10. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Abundant locally. Fig. 29. Brown Trout 39. Salmo trutta Linnaeus 9b. Fig. 29. Brown Trout. Salmo trutta. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Vertebrae 59 to 65 (rarely 59 or 60), usually 63; color not brownish yellow, but gray to bluish above, the reddish lateral band usually but slightly interrupted by faint parr marks on adults ; no red spots on sides of body ; gill rak- ers 7 to 9+9 to 13; maxillary usually 2.0 to 2.5 in head of adults, and not extending behind the eye. 10a. Scales 120 to 138 (usually 125 to 135) in the lateral line ; 23 to 30 above and 20 to 26 below the lateral line ; body profusely spotted. Range : Coastal region and lower and middle Columbia River. Marine and fresh- water. Abundant. Fig. 30. Coastal Steelhead or Rainbow Trout 40. Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson 8 fiefl lateral band Fig. 30. Rainbow Trout. Steelhead. Sea- run Rainbow. Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 'Under this name we are including Salmo gairdnerii beardsleei, the blueback trout of Lake Crescent, Olympic Mountains. 138 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 10b. Scales 135 to 160 (usually 140 to 150) in the lateral line ; 27 to 32 above and 25 to 30 below the lateral line. Range : Upper Fraser River basin and the middle and upper Columbia River in northeastern Washington. Marine and freshwater. Abundant. Kamloops Trout. Rainbow Trout 41. Salmo gairdncrii kamloops Jordan 6b. Species with light spots (white or gray) on a darker background of color ; often with red spots on the sides ; over 190 scale rows crossing the lateral line; vomer boat shaped (the shaft de- pressed), shaft without teeth. 11a. Vomer with a raised crest extending backward from the head of the bone, this crest armed with strong teeth ; species gray spotted, without red spots ; fins not markedly bright edged. Range : Northeastern United States ; Great Lakes region ; Columbia and Fraser rivers. Freshwater. Not common. Fig. 31. Lake Trout. Mackinaw Trout .42. Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum) lib. Fig. 31. Lake Trout. Mackinaw Trout. Cristivomer namaycush. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Vomer without a raised crest which extends back- ward, head of bone toothed ; species red-spotted in life, the lower fins with bright silvery edgings. 12a. Back unspotted, but strongly mottled with olive and black, that is, the spots run together causing the mottled appearance ; dorsal and caudal finely mottled; body robust or stout, the head heavy. Range : Northeastern North America. Introduced into the western States. Freshwater. Common. Fig. 32. Eastern Brook Trout 43. Salvclinus fontinalis (Mitchill) Fig. 32. Eastern Brook Trout. Salvelinus fontinalis. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- tesy of the Washington Sportsman. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 139 12b. Back not mottled, but with light spots like those on the sides of the body, only smaller and paler ; body less robust or stout. Range : Coastal streams from Alaska to northern California. Marine and fresh- water. Abundant. Fig. 33. Western Charr or Bull Trout. Dolly Varden Trout. 44. Salvclinns malma spectabilis (Girard) Fig. 33. Dolly Varden Trout. Bull Trout. Salvclinus malma spectabilis. After Schultz and Hanson. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. Family 21. Coregonidae. Whitefishes la. Upper jaw longer than lower jaw, projecting over the latter; gill rakers short, conic, 15 or fewer on lower limb of 1st gill arch; snout pointed; maxillary not reaching past vertical line to anterior of eye ; 1 nasal flap be- tween the 2 nostrils instead of 2 as in the genus Coregonus. 2a. Scales in lateral line fewer than 65 ; species small, usually much less than 8 inches. 3a. Scale formula 8+60 to 63+6; length of pectoral fin 7 times in standard length ; height of dorsal fin 7 times in standard length ; length of head 4.5 to 5 in standard length. Range: Alaska (L. Aleknagik, Kendall, 1921) to headwaters of the Columbia. Freshwater. Common. Brown-backed Whitefish 45. Prosopium coultcri (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) 3b. Scale formula 7+58+4 to 7; length of pectoral fin 4.3 in the standard length ; height of dorsal fin 4.6 in standard length ; length of head 4.0 in standard length; gill rakers 5+10. Range: Lake Crescent, Olym- pic Peninsula, Washington. Freshwater. Rare. Lake Crescent Whitefish 46. Prosopium snyderi Myers 2b. Scales in lateral line more than 75, usually 8 to 10+80 to 95+6 to 9. 4a. Adipose base contained 1 to 1.2 in anal fin base; total length of adi- pose fin 1.9 to 2.4 in head. Range: Streams and lakes of western slope of Rocky Mountains from Fraser River and Jasper Park south- ward to the Truckee River, Lahontan Basin of Nevada and the head- waters of the Saskatchewan and Missouri Systems. Freshwater. Common. Fig. 34. Rocky Mountain Whitefish 47. Prosopium williamsoni (Girard) 140 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Fig. 34. Rocky Mountain Whitefish. Pro- sopium williamsoni. After Schultz and Han- son. Courtesy of the Washington Sportsman. 4b. The base of the adipose fin is contained from .75 to 1 times in anal fin base; total length of adipose fin in head 1.3 to 1.6. Range: Co- lumbia River and tributaries. Freshwater. Common in Columbia River. Oregon Whitefish. . .48. Prosopium orcgonium (Jordan and Snyder) Family 22. Thymallidae. Grayling Range : Rocky Mountain region of northern United States and of south- ern Canada. Freshwater. Locally abundant. Fig. 35. Montana Grayling 49. Thymallus montanus Milner Fig. 35. Montana Grayling. Thymallus montanus. After Schultz and Hanson. Cour- tesy of the Washington Sportsman. Family 23. Osmeridae. Smelts 4 la. Scales of moderate size (fewer than 80 in the lateral line) ; scales on sides not forming villous bands in the breeding male although they may be enlarged and edematous. 2a. Teeth on the vomer canine-like, few in number, and not covering the whole head of the bone. Fig. 18. 3a. Vomerine teeth confined to lateral tips of U shaped vomer, fang-like, 1 to 3 in number on each side, very strong, not deciduous at spawning ; pelvic fins inserted distinctly behind origin of dorsal ; gill rakers in moderate number, 8 to 10+19 to 23 on first arch; scales 66 to 69 in lateral line ; anal fin low, its height contained 2.6 to 3.3 times in head ; upper jaw about reaching vertical from posterior margin of eye; spawn- ing in streams. Range : Northern China to Alaska. Marine. Abundant. Rainbow "Herring" 50. Osmerus dentex Steindacliner 'Modified after Hubbs 1926, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 1936] Schtdta: Keys to Fishes 141 3b. Vomerine canine moderate, inserted at front of vomerine arch (often flanked on one side by a smaller tooth, other teeth of moderate strength). 4a. Teeth larger and stronger ; never deciduous ; head sharply pointed as seen above ; pelvic fins inserted under or barely in advance of origin of dorsal fin; opercles weakly striate; gill rakers longer 10 or 11 +22 to 26 in number on the first arch ; anal fin of moderate length, with 15 to 17 rays; probably spawning in the ocean; pigmentation on top of head and chin very fine stippling in the young. Range : Str. Juan de Fuca to San Francisco Bay. Marine. Common. Whitebait 51. Allosmerus attemiatus (Lockington) 4b. Teeth smaller and weaker ; deciduous at spawning, the breeding fish are almost completely endentulous ; head bluntly rounded anteriorly, as seen above ; pelvic fins inserted much in advance of origin of dor- sal fin ; opercles strongly striate concentrically ; gill rakers much re- duced in size and number, only 4 to 6+13 to 16 on first arch; anal fin elongate with 17 to 22 rays (usually 20 or 21) ; spawning in freshwater streams. Range: Bering Sea to Klamath River, Califor- nia. Marine and freshwater. Common. Columbia River Smelt. Eulachon. Oolachan. Candle Fish 52. Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson) 2b. Teeth on the vomer not canine-like, rather numerous and forming a con- vex series along the entire head of the bone ; teeth not deciduous, all small, or scarcely canine-like. Fig. 18. 5a* Mouth large (as in all preceding genera and species) 1.8 to 2.2 times in the head ; the maxillary reaching at least to posterior edge of the pupil, its upper surface concave; teeth larger, always evenly uniserial on vomer and palatine bones. 6a. Fins less elongate, the pectoral not longer than the head, and not reaching pelvic insertion; pectoral fin, 1.25 to 1.4 in head; gill rakers 11 to 13+23 to 28; upper jaw, 1.8 to 1.9 in head; eye 3.6 to 4.4 in head ; head in length to caudal 4.0 to 4.2 ; pigmenta- tion on top of head and under chin rather coarse and scattered in the young ; spawning at night in ocean surf. Range : La Push, Washington, to Monterey Bay, California. Marine. Abundant. Night Surf Smelt 53. Spirinchiis starksi (Fisk) 6b. Fins much enlarged, the pectoral almost as long or longer than the head, and often extending beyond the pelvic insertion ; pec- toral fin 1.0 to 1.25 in head; gill rakers 11 to 13+28 to 31 ; upper jaw 2.0 to 2.15 in head; eye 4.4 to 4.8 in head; head in standard length 4.35 to 4.6; spawning in freshwater, the breeding males have the rows of scales along the lateral line greatly dilated. Range : British Columbia to Tillamook Head, Oregon. Marine and freshwater. Common. Long-finned Smelt. Puget Sound Smelt 54. Spirinchiis dilatus Schultz and Chapman 5b. Mouth much smaller, about 2.5 to 3.0 in the head, the maxillary not reaching beyond the middle of the pupil, its upper edge con- vex ; teeth minute, in biserial arrangement or nearly so, on vomer and palatine bones 7a. Scales larger than in pretiosus, 54 to 62 along lateral line; pelvic fins usually inserted a little before origin of dorsal ; fins all larger than in pretiosus, the pectoral reaching more than 142 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. half-way to pelvic insertion ; color darker ; breeding at small size in fresh water. Range : Japan to Alaska southward to San Francisco. Spawning in freshwater. Common. Freshwater Smelt 55. Hypomesus olidus (Pallas) 7b. Scales smaller, 66 to 76 along lateral line ; pelvic fins usually inserted behind origin of dorsal ; fins all shorter than in olidus, the pectoral not reaching half-way to pelvic insertion; color more silvery; breeding at larger size in the surf. Range: Alaska to central California. Marine. Abundant. Silver Smelt. Surf Smelt.. 56. Hypomesus pretiosus (Girard) lb. Scales of small size, over 150 in the lateral line; scales on sides forming two villous bands in the breeding males ; mouth large, teeth small. Range : North Pacific southward to Str. Juan de Fuca, and North Atlantic Ocean. Marine. Abundant. Capelin 57. Mallotus villosus (Miiller) Family 24. Argentinidae. Deep Sea Smelt Range : Unalaska, Albatross Station 3330, and to California. Marine. Rare. 58. Leuroglossus stilbius Gilbert Family 25. Microstomidae. Deep Sea Fish Range : Coast of Washington in deep water. Marine. Rare. 59. Bathylagus pacificus Gilbert Family 26. Chauliodontidae. Viper Fishes Range : Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C, to California. Marine. Not rare. 60. Chauliodus macouni Bean Family 27. Gonostomidae Range : Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Oregon to Panama (Jordan, Ever- mann, & Clark 1930) 61. Cyclothone microdon (Giinther) Family 28. Nemichthyidae. Thread Eels. Snipe Eels Range : Puget Sound, Washington to Oregon. Marine. Rare. 62. Nemichthys avocetta Jordan and Gilbert Family 29. Catostomidae. Suckers la. Mouth terminal, lower jaw oblique, lips thin, without papillae. 2a. Gill rakers short and shaped like the Greek letter Delta, A, with edges unarmed and entire ; snout long, the premaxillary spines forming a dis- tinct projecting nose; scales about 12-J-80+9; dorsal rays about 11; anal 9. Range : Klamath Lakes Drainage. Freshwater. Common. Lost River Sucker 63. Deltistes luxatus (Cope) 2b. Gill rakers long and not like the Greek letter Delta, A- 1936] Schnltc: Keys to Fishes 143 3a. Mouth inclined at an angle of about 15° ; upper profile of snout smooth without conspicuous hump caused by premaxillary spines. Range : Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. Sucker of Klamath Lake 64. Chasmistes brevirostris Cope 3b. Mouth inclined at an angle of 40° or over. 4a. Mouth inclined at an angle of about 40° ; head about 3.9 to 4 in body ; snout 2 2 /t, to 2j4 in head ; premaxillary spines more protruding than in cope'x. Range : Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. Sucker of Upper Klamath Lake 65. Chasmistes stomias Gilbert 4b. Mouth inclined at an angle of 45°; head 3 2 /$ in body; snout less prominent, 2.5 in head; premaxillary spines less protruding than in stomias. Range : Upper Klamath Lakes, Oregon. Freshwater. Com- mon. Sucker of Upper Klamath Lake 66. Chasmistes copci Evermann and Meek lb. Mouth inferior ; lips thick with many papillae. 5a. A distinct notch at the corner of the mouth between upper &nd lower lips, fig. 37 ; upper lip recurved ; lower lip but little incised, 3 or 4 rows of papillae crossing the mid-line; edge of jaw inside the lower lip with a hard cartilaginous sheath ; scales about 16 +90 to 100+14; scales before dorsal about 48; fontanelle not fully closed, (fig. 36) ; dorsal 10 or 11; anal 7. Range: Columbia River basin and Upper Missouri. Freshwater. Common. Mountain Sucker 67. Pantosteus jordani Evermann 5b. No distinct deep notch at the corner of the mouth between upper and lower lips, occasionally a very slight indentation appears on a few individuals, fig. 13; upper lip not recurved but nearly flat; edge of jaw inside the lower lips without a hard cartilaginous sheath, the sheath if present rather flexible; fontanelle present or absent. 6a. Lower lip not very deeply incised, at least 1 or 2 rows of pa- pillae are continuous across the mid-line. 7a. Fontanelle present. Fig. 36. 8a. Scales 20 to 22+97 to 111 + 19 to 22; scales before dorsal 53 to 58; dorsal rays 11 to 13 (usually 12) ; peritoneum nearly jet black, the color showing through the body wall in the young. Range : Columbia River in eastern Washington, Ore- gon and Idaho. Freshwater. Abundant. Fine-scaled Sucker of the middle and lower Columbia River 68. Catostomus syncheilus Hubbs and Schultz 8b. Scales 15 to 19 + 73 to 79+14 to 15; scales before dorsal 37 to 42; dorsal rays 10 or 11; 2 or more rows of papillae cross the mid-line of the lower lip ; peritoneum dusky, not jet black. Range: Oregon Lakes and tributaries. Fresh- water. Common. Coarse-scaled Sucker of Warner Lake Basin 69. Catostomus warncrensis Snyder 144 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. ON Fig. 36. A view of the dorsal side of the head of Catostomus syncheilus, showing the fontanelle (dotted) surrounded by ossified bones. Fon — fontanelle. Drawn by Arthur D. VVelander. Fig. 37. A view of the ventral side of the head of Pantosteus delphinns, showing the overhanging upper lip and the notches at the corner of the lips where the upper and lower meet. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. '7b. Fontanelle closed in adults and nearly closed in young; at most represented by a narrow slit; scales 14 to 18+80 to 93 + 11 to 13; scales before dorsal 37 to 52, usually about 40 to 42; anal rays 6 to 7; dorsal rays 10 to 12; eye 6y 2 to 8 in head ; peritoneum dusky ; scales little if any increased in size posteriorly. 9a. Lower lip deeply incised, so that not more than 1 row of papillae extend across the symphysis. Range : Upper Sac- ramento River and Goose Lake Drainage. Freshwater. Not common. 70. Catostomus micro ps Rutter 9b. Lower lip not deeply incised, so that 2 or more rows of papillae extend across the symphysis. Range : Rouge and Klamath rivers, Oregon and California. Freshwater. Com- Fine-scaled Klamath River Sucker 71. Catostomus rimiculus Gilbert and Snyder 6b. Lower lips very deeply incised, no row of papillae crossing the mid-line or at most only a rudiment of a row ; fontanelle present. 10a. Fewer than 80 scales along the lateral line. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 145 11a. Species of the Columbia River and coastal streams of Washington and Oregon except the Klamath ; scales 12 to 16+65 to 79+8 to 10; scales before dorsal 30 to 40; dorsal rays 12 to 15 ; caudal peduncle very slender in young and half grown ; peritoneum white to dusky, the color not showing through the body wall in the young as observed in syncheilus. Range : Puget Sound drainage, Columbia River, Coasts of Oregon and Washington as far south as the Sixes River, Oregon. Freshwater. Abundant. Coarse-scaled Sucker of Columbia River 72. Catostomus macro chcilus Girard lib. Species of the Klamath River basin; scales 13 to 14 + 69 to 77+10 to 11 ; scales before dorsal about 32; dorsal rays about 11; caudal peduncle not slender in young and half grown. Range: Klamath Basin, Ore- gon. Freshwater. Not common. Coarse-scaled Sucker of Klamath River 73. Catostomus snyderi Gilbert lie. Species of the Goose Lake drainage and the Sacra- mento River; scales 13 to 17 (usually 14 to 16) +62 to 75 (usually 64 to 72) +8 to 10; scales before dor- sal 29 to 36; dorsal rays 11 to 15 (usually 12 or 13) ; this species is very much like macrocheihis from which it may not be distinct. Range : Goose Lake and tributaries. Freshwater. Common. Coarse-scaled Sucker of Goose Lake and Tributaries ..74. Catostomus occidentalis lacus-anserimis Fowler 10b. Scales in the lateral line 95 to 115; 18 to 21 scales above and 15 to 18 scales below the lateral line; dorsal rays 9 to 11; peritoneum dusky, seldom whitish, but never jet black. Range: Upper portions of the Missouri, Saskatchewan, and Columbia rivers. Freshwater. Com- mon. Long-nosed Sucker 75. Catostomus catostomus griseus Girard Family 30. Cyprinidae. Minnows. Dace. Chubs la. A spine, usually serrated, is developed at front of dorsal and anal fins ; the dorsal fin is very long, usually the anterior rays much longer than those behind middle of fin. 2a. Barbels in 2 pairs on the side of the upper jaw. Range: Introduced into North America. Freshwater. Abundant. Common Carp 76. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 2b. No barbels on the side of the upper jaw. Range: Introduced into North America. Freshwater. Abundant. Common Goldfish 77. Carassius auratus (Linnaeus) lb. No spines developed in the dorsal or anal fins ; sometimes in very large specimens the first simple ray is very hard but it is not a sharp spine. 146 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 3a. More than 100 scales along the lateral line ; a barbel terminal on pos- terior tip of maxillary. Range : Introduced into the Columbia River system, Puget Sound drainage and Vancouver Island. Freshwater. Abundant. Tench. Green Tench. Yellow Tench 78. Tinea tinea (Linnaeus) 3b. Fewer than 100 scales along the lateral line. 4a. A single row of pharyngeal teeth, the lesser row never developed. 5a. Lower jaw with a conspicuous, broad, straight-edged, horny plate; alimentary canal at least twice the length of body, with more than 1 main loop ; teeth usually 4-5, seldom 5-5, hooked and short ; per- itoneum jet black; young with a black spot at the base of the cau- dal fin rays in the mid-line. Range : Lower Columbia River sys- tem, and Malheur Lake drainage, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. Chiselmouth. Square Mouth 79. Acrocheilus alutaccus Agassiz and Pickering 5b. Jaws without straight edged horny plate as above ; alimentary canal about equal to or shorter than length of body, with but a single main loop. 6a. Scales with radii on all fields appearing like the spokes of a wheel; 8 to 9 (usually 9) short blunt gill rakers on first gill arch ; origin of dorsal fin posterior to base of pelvic fins ; head about 4.7; depth 4.7; eye in head 4.6; scales 12 to 15+54 to 61 +8 ; dorsal 8, anal 7 ; scales before dorsal 32 to 38 ; pharyngeal teeth usually 4 on right side and 5 on the left; peritoneum black to dusky. Range : Streams tributary to the north end of Goose Lake. Freshwater. Common. Northern Roach 80. Hcsperoleucns mitrulus Snyder 6b. Scales without radii in all fields, if radii are present ; 13 to 20 gill rakers on first arch, not very blunt ; origin of dorsal fin above base of pelvic fins ; peritoneum dusky to white ventrally ; (the species of Siphateles usually recognized are not clearly dif- ferentiated except by drainage systems ; the differences when studied statistically are probably significant). 7a. Individuals inhabiting the Columbia River and Malheur Lake drainage; scales 11 to 13 (11.6) +41 to 53 (46) +5 to 7 (6) ; scales before the dorsal 24 to 29 (26); anal 8 to 9 (8.2). Freshwater. Common. Roach of the Columbia River System 81. Siphateles bicolor columbianns (Snyder) 7b. Individuals inhabiting the Klamath River and Klamath Lakes drainage systems; scales 10 to 12 (10.6) +43 to 53 (48) +5 to 7 (6.2) ; scales before the dorsal 22 to 27 (25) ; anal 7 to 8 (7.7). Freshwater. Common. Roach of the Klamath System 82. Siphateles bicolor bicolor (Girard) 7c. Individuals inhabiting the Sacramento-San Joaquin system, Goose Lake and tributaries; scales 10 to 13 (11.0) +44 to 54 (49) +5 to 7 (5.8) ; scales before the dorsal fin 22 to 28 (25) ; anal 7 to 9 (8.4). Freshwater. Common. Roach of the Sacramento System 83. Siphateles bicolor fornwsus (Girard) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 147 7d. Individuals inhabiting the lakes of southeastern Oregon, name- ly lakes Abert, Summer, Silver, Alkali, Warner, and their trib- utaries ; scales 11 to 14 (12.2) +45 to 60(52)+6 to 9 (6.8); scales before dorsal fin 24 to 33 (29); anal 7 to 11 (7.8). Freshwater. Common. Roach of Southeastern Oregon Lakes 84. Siphatclcs bicolor orcgonensis (Snyder) 7e. Individuals inhabiting the lakes and streams of the Lahontan Basin; scales 12 to 16+50 to 60 (usually 53 to 56) +7 to 8; scales before the dorsal 27 to 33 (usually 29 to 31) ; gill rak- ers 8 to 20 (usually 10 to 18) ; anal rays 7 to 8; dorsal 8. Freshwater. Common. Roach of the Lahontan Basin 85. Siphatclcs bicolor obesus (Girard) 4b. Pharyngeal teeth present, in 2 rows, the lesser row occasionally absent on one side. 8a. Teeth in main row blunt, molar or stump shaped in adult, but often slightly hooked in the young; the teeth never ta- pering evenly to a hooked point as in 8b. 9a. Premaxillary not protractile but bound to snout by a fre- num ; no barbels on maxillary ; scales between occiput and dorsal fin 45 to 55; (found only south of Oregon). Range: Sacramento River system. Freshwater. Abundant. Hardhead. (Sacramento River system) 86. Mylopharodon conoccphalus (Baird and Girard) 9b. Premaxillary proctractile ; barbel present on maxillary ; 28 to 35 scales between occiput and dorsal fin ; peritoneum dusky to black in very young; young without a jet black spot at base of caudal fin rays as found in Ptychochcilus, the spot in Mylochcilus at most is very pale. Range : Drainage systems from the Columbia to the Fraser. Freshwater. Common. Columbia River Chub 87. Mylochcilus caurinus (Richardson) ° 8b. Teeth in main row hooked and usually compressed, tapering to a more or less hooked point ; never blunt and without grinding surface. 10a. A barbel on the posterior angle of maxillary, usually small and seldom obsolete except on very young in- dividuals. 11a. Premaxillary protractile. 12a. Between occiput and dorsal fin 16 scales ; 35 to 40 scales in the lateral line. Range : Willamette and Umpqua rivers. Freshwater. Common. Oregon Chub or Minnow 88. Oregonichthys crameri (Snyder) 12b. Between occiput and dorsal fin 28 to 34 scales and more than 43 scales in the lateral line. "Reasons for changing name see Hubbs and Schultz 1931, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. No. 232: 1-6. 148 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 13a. Barbel just anterior to tip of maxillary ; 55 to 58 scales in the lateral line; 10 to 11 scales above and 6 to 8 below the lateral line ; teeth 2 :4-4 :2. Range : Stuart Lake, headwaters of Fraser Riv- er, B. C, and Lake Pend d'Oreille, Idaho. Freshwater. Abundant. Chub Minnow. Lake Chub 89. Couesius greeni Jordan 13b. Barbel terminal on maxillary ; 43 to 90 scales in the lateral line (usually 52 to 75) ; 13 to 15 scales above and 9 to 11 below the lateral line; teeth 2:4-4:2 to 0:4-4:1. 14a. Dorsal fin with the distal edge concave, some- times strongly falcate ; innerside of rays of ventral fins with more or less conspicuous membraneous stays joining them to the body; sides of body with blackish-brown blotches, sharply contrasting with lighter color of body. 15a. Scales 63 to 70 in lateral line ; least depth of caudal peduncle more than half postrostral length of head. Range : Columbia River ba- sin east of Cascade Range and in Payette and Salmon rivers, Idaho. Freshwater. Com- mon. Dace 90. Apocope umatilla (Gilbert and Evermann) 15b. Scales 50 to 57; least depth of caudal pe- duncle less than half postrostral length of head. Range : Columbia River Basin east of Cascade Range. Freshwater. Locally abun- dant. Dace 91. Apocope falcata (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) 14b. Dorsal fin with the distal edge not concave and never falcate, instead rounded; sides of body without large dark blotches, instead the sides are speckled with numerous small brownish- black spots which cover about 2 or 3 scales. 16a. Scales 47 to 70 in the lateral line. 17a. Intense dark lateral band; streams of coastal area. Range : Lower Columbia River and coastwise streams of Washing- ton and Oregon. Freshwater. Common. Black-nosed Dace. Black-sided Dace.... 92. Apocope oscula nubila (Girard) 17b. Lateral band faint ; body speckled ; streams east of the coast range, usually in non-for- est areas. Range : Middle and upper Co- lumbia River basin, the Great Basin, and Coast Range of southeastern Oregon. Freshwater. Abundant. Speckled Dace 93. Apocope oscula carringtoni Cope 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 149 16b. Scales 68 to 80 in the lateral line. Range: Klamath basin. Freshwater. Common. Klamath Dace 94. Apocope klamnthensis (Evermann and Meek) lib. Premaxillary not protractile, a broad frenum pres- ent binding it to the snout; mouth inferior, the snout projecting over the mouth; teeth 1:4-4:1. 18a. Dorsal rays 9 or 10; scales 57 to 59 in lateral line ; depth of caudal peduncle 10 times in standard length. Range: Umpqua River, Oregon. Fresh- water. Common. Long-nosed Dace of Umpqua River System 95. Rhinichtkys evermanni Snyder 18b. Dorsal rays 8, seldom 9; scales 62 to 75 in lateral line ; depth of caudal peduncle about 8.3 in standard length. Range: Streams of northwestern United States. Freshwater. Abundant. Long-nosed Dace 96. Rhinichtkys cataractae dulcis (Girard) 10b. No barbel on maxillary; premaxillary always protrac- tile. 19a. Anal rays 7 to 10; mouth terminal, horizontal. 20a. Eye 1 times in the length of snout; scales 13 to 15+60 to 67+7; body less slender, the dorsal con- tour more arched; depth 3^4 in length; eye 5 to Sy 2 in head; dorsal 8; anal 7 to 9; about 9 short blunt gill rakers; peritoneum black; mouth 3% to 2>y 2 in head; maxillary barely reaches to vertical below front of eye; interorbital much convex. Range : Klamath Lake and tributaries. Freshwater. Not rare. Chub 97. Tigoma bicolor Girard 20b. Eye \ l / 2 in snout; eye 7 l / 2 in head; interorbital flattened; scales 13 to 24+67 to 86+7 to 9; head and body long and tapering; dorsal outline not abruptly curved or arched; depth 4.6 to 5.2 in standard length; dorsal 10; anal 8; 5 to 8 short blunt gill rakers on first gill arch; teeth scarcely hooked, but strong and set wide apart; always 2 teeth in the lesser row as 2:5-4:2; peritoneum sil- very and usually speckled with black ; mouth deep- ly cleft, the maxillary reaching to under the eye; young with a jet black spot at base of caudal fin rays. 21a. Scales fewer than 45 (usually 36 to 41) on back before the dorsal fin; scales 13 to 15 above the lateral line. Range: Sacramento River system. Freshwater. Common. Sacramento Pike. Squawfish 98. Ptychocheilus grandis (Ayres) 150 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 21b. Scales more than 45 on the back before the dor- sal fin; 16 to 24 scales above the lateral line. 22a. Scales 46 to 56 before the dorsal; 16 to 20 above the lateral line and 67 to 75 scales in the lateral line. Range : Puget Sound drainage, Columbia River drainage and coastal streams of Oregon and Washington. Freshwater. Abun- dant. Squawfish. Oregon Pike ..99. Ptychocheilus orcgonensis (Richardson) 22b. Scales 55 to 68 before the dorsal; 19 to 24 (21) above the lateral line; 73 to 85 (75) in lateral line. Range : Coastal streams of Ore- gon — Siuslaw and Umpqua rivers only. Fresh- water. Common. Squawfish. 100. Ptychocheilus umpquae Snyder 19b. Anal rays 10 to 22; mouth oblique; depth 3% to 4^4 in standard length; eye 3 to 4 in head; scales 13+55 to 63+6; head 4 to 4 l / 2 in length; body much com- pressed with a wide lateral band of blackish color between two silvery streaks. 23a. Anal rays 10 to 13, usually 11 or 12. Range: Palouse River of eastern Washington; Bo- vill, Idaho ; above falls of the Snake River ; and Salt Lake drainage of Utah. Fresh- water. Abundant. Red-sided Shiner or Bream... 101. Richard- sonius balteatus hydrophlox (Cope) 23b. Anal rays 13 to 22, usually 14 to 18. Range : Columbia River system; streams of Wash- ington, of Oregon, and Fraser River. Freshwater. Abundant. Red-sided Shiner or Bream... 102. Richard- sonius balteatus balteatus (Richardson) Family 31. Ameiuridae. Catfishes la. Caudal fin deeply and sharply forked. Range: Mississippi and Great Lakes drainage. Probably introduced into the Columbia River system. Channel Cat 103. Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) lb. Caudal fin emarginate to rounded. 2a. Anal rays 17 to 21 (including rudiments) usually 18 to 20; pectoral spines at all ages entire or only slightly roughened behind ; outer 2 /z of inter-radial membranes of anal fin uniformly pigmented, always darker than the rays, the fin never mottled or barred or uniformly pigmented on both membranes and rays as in ncbulosus. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Black Catfish. Horned Pout 104. Ameiurus mclas (Rafinesque) 2b. Anal rays 19 to 24, usually 20 to 23; pectoral spines in the young with long sharp barbs on posterior edge, their length more than half the diam- eter of the spine, (barbs increasing in number and desceasing in relative size with age) ; black pigment on anal fin typically densest on the mem- 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 151 branes near their margin, or in spots forming an obscure longitudinal bar near base of fin, or in faint mottling s on both rays and membranes (in pale and unmottled specimens, membranes and rays about equally pig- mented). Range: Introduced into most of the streams and lakes of United States. Freshwater. Common. Catfish. Horned Pout 105. Amciuriis nebulosus (LeSueur) Family 32. Sudidae (=Paralepididae) Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Pelagic Fish 106. Arctozenus coruscans (Jordan and Gilbert) Family 33. Myctophidae. 6 Lantern Fishes la. Luminous scales absent or present in varying numbers and positions ; but no large infra.- or supra.- caudal plates, the median luminous tissues or glands above and below the caudal peduncle are, when present, always divided into separate organs, each occupying the space and position of only one single normal scale, in an overlapping series ; or the entire tissue may in some cases be confined to the space of only 1 single scale altogether, but never expands as an undivided organ beyond the size of a scale. Fig. 9. 2a. (See 2b and 2c.) Only 2 precaudal organs, usually well separated from the posteroanal series, very rarely confluent with the latter, median lu- minous scales often present infra.- and supra.- caudally, according to the sex, but only rarely found in both positions on the same specimen ; no luminous scales on any other part of the fish, antorbital organs not con- spicuously enlarged ; photophores without a black dividing septum. 3a. Ventral organs 6 ; posterior-lateral organ 1 ; anal organs in 2 separate groups ; suprapectoral organ above base of pectoral fins ; scales ctenoid. Range : Washington to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 107. Myctophum crenulare Jordan and Gilbert 3b. Ventral organs 4 ; postero-lateral organ 1 ; anal organs in 2 separate groups ; supra-anal organs 3 ; supra-pectoral organ above base of pec- toral fin; 2nd ventral organ in a line with rest of the series; scales smooth (cycloid) ; supra-anal organs angulate ; anterior supra-anal or- gan approximately on the same level as second supra-anal organ, the 2 organs being on a more nearly straight line with the supraventral or- gan, than with the last (superior) supra-anal organ. Range: Wash- ington to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 108. Myctophum californiense Eigenmann and Eigenmann 2b. (See 2a and 2c.) Precaudal organ, when separate from the postero-anals, present in the numbers of 3 to 6, never 2 only ; the lower precaudals may, however, in many forms be quite confluent with the posterior anals, in which case their numbers can not be made out ; median series of luminous scales usually present both infra.- and supra.- caudally in the same speci- men; similar scales are also common on other parts of the body, partic- ularly along the bases of dorsal and anal fins ; the 2 subpectoral organs rarely or never form a straight series with the 1st thoracic organ; antor- bital organs not conspicuously enlarged ; photophores without dividing septum; 4th thoracic organ elevated considerably above the rest of this series; subpectoral organs not above the pectoral fin base; luminous scales sometimes found at or before the adipose dorsal fin, but otherwise only on the caudal peduncle; no dorsal glands. "This key has been modified after the publication by A. E. Parr (1928), Bull. Bing- ham Oceanographic Collection. 152 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 4a. No photophores on cheeks or on shoulder ; only 2 to 4 precaudal or- gans, often confluent with the anal organs (always count the last 4 organs in these series as precaudals) ; pectorals very small or ves- tigial, not reaching beyond the base of the pelvics, sometimes absent ; 33 or more scales in lateral line ; dorsal 12 to 19 ; anal 14 to 25. 5a. Usually 5 ventral organs ; only 2nd ventral organ elevated ; head 3 to 3 l / 2 in standard length ; supra-anal organs in a straight, oblique series. Range : North Pacific Ocean in deep water. Marine. Rare. 109. Lampanyctus nannochir (Gilbert) 5b. Usually 4 ventral organs ; supra-anal organs in a straight, oblique series ; head 3.6 to 3.8 in standard length ; eye 3.5 in head. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Rare. 110. Lampanyctus leucopsarus (Eigenmann and Eigenmann) 4b. No photophores on shoulder, one or many minute ones on each cheek ; supra-ventral organ twice as far from the base of the pelvic fin as from the lateral line ; eye about 5j4 in head ; about 37 or 38 scales in lateral line ; numerous minute photophores on each cheek and a somewhat larger organ in the lower posterior corner ; anal organs 8+7 to 8; 4 precaudal organs. Range: Coast of Washington. Ma- rine. Rare. 111. Lampanyctus regalis (Gilbert) 2c. (See 2a, and 2b.) Precaudal organs 4, usually or always distinctly sep- arate from the posteroanals ; no supra.- and infra.- caudal luminous scales, except in a few species ; luminous scales are also probably always present at the suprapectoral organ, but never along the bases of dorsal and anal fins ; the 2 subpectoral organs always form an approximately straight series with the 1st thoracic organ; antorbital organs often greatly enlarged, each of the photophores on the body is divided by a black septum into an upper and a lower part, but this feature may be difficult to make out in poorly preserved specimens. Range : Alaska to San Diego in the Pa- cific. Marine. Not rare. 112. Diaphus rafinesquei (Cocco) Family 34. Alepisauridae. Handsawfishes. Lancet Fishes Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. Marine. Not rare. Lancet Fish 113. Alcpisaurus jerox Lowe Family 35. Esocidae. Pickerels Range : Mississippi River and tributaries of Great Lakes. Probably intro- duced into Washington. Freshwater. Locally abundant in eastern Washington. Little Pickerel 114. Esox vermiculatus LeSueur Family 36. Novumbridae. Western Mud-minnow Range : Chehalis River at Satsop, Washington. Freshwater. Rare. Western Mud-minnow. Fig 38 115. Novumbra hubbsi Schultz 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 153 154 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Family 37. Scomberesocidae. Sauries Range: North Pacific, Japan to Alaska and to California. Marine. Not rare. Pacific Saury 116. Cololabis saira (Brevoort) Family 38. Coryphaenoididae (=Macrouridae). Grenadiers. Rat Tails la. Pectoral 20; eye 3 l /> in head; head 4^4 in total length; dorsal about XI, 111+ ; anal 94+. Range: Alaska to Monterey, California. Marine. Not common. 117. Macrurus acrolcpis Bean lb. Pectoral 17; eye A]/ 2 to 5 in head; head 6 in total length; dorsal about X, 128; anal about 121. Range: Off the coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. 118. Albatrossia pcctoralis (Gilbert) Family 39. Gadidae. Cods la. Dorsal fins 3 ; anal fins 2. 2a. Lower jaw included (upper jaw extends beyond the tip of the lower jaw) ; barbel present at tip of the chin, always more than */4 the diam- eter of the pupil; gill rakers on 1st gill arch 16 to 29; caudal fin slightly concave or truncate. 3a. Barbel equal to or longer than the diameter of the eye ; transverse processes of vertebrae not swollen at tips; vertebrae 51 to 56; de- pressed 1st dorsal scarcely reaching to origin of 2nd dorsal; length of depressed 1st dorsal less than the distance from eye to insertion of 1st dorsal ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes under middle of 2nd dorsal ; arch in lateral line evenly curved ; anus located under base of 2nd dorsal fin (usually near its origin); peritoneum blackish; all vertical fins with their margins whitish, the proximal portion of the fins being pigmented ; air bladder with a pair of short horns anteriorly, extending toward the mid-line, with an arm curved forward and a rudimentary tip curved inward. Range : Bering Sea, south to the coast of Oregon. Marine. Abundant. Pacific Codfish. Gray Cod 119. Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius 3b. Barbel equal to or less than the diameter of the pupil (rarely longer than the pupil). 4a. Transverse processes of vertebrae swollen into hollow balls at tips, the 1st occurring on the 9th abdominal vertebra; vertebrae 60 to 62; 1st dorsal with the posterior margin rounded; depressed 1st dorsal scarcely reaching to origin of 2nd dorsal ; peritoneum silvery, stip- pled with black ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes under Fig. 39. Arctic Cod. Elcginus gracilis. After Schultz and Welander. Courtesy of Copeia. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 155 origin of 2nd dorsal; arch in lateral line flat-topped; anus located under the posterior edge of 1st dorsal fin base or under interspace between 1st and 2nd dorsal fins. Range: Siberia to Alaska. Marine. Abundant. Northern Cod. Wachna Cod. Fig. 39.. 120. Eleginus gracilis Tilesius 4b. Transverse processes of vertebrae flattened and unswollen at tips ; vertebrae 55 to 58; 1st dorsal with the posterior margin truncate; depressed 1st dorsal extending for about l /~, its length beyond the origin of 2nd dorsal ; lateral line breaking up into separate tubes below the posterior % of the 3rd dorsal fin; arch in lateral line evenly curved ; anus located under the posterior 4th of the 1st dorsal fin base. Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine. Common. Pacific Tomcod. Fig. 40 121. Microgadus proximus (Girard) Fig. 40. Pacific Tomcod. Microgadus proximus. After Schultz and Welander. Cour- tesy of Copeia. 2b. Lower jaw equal to or longer than the upper jaw; the barbel very small or absent on the tip of the chin ; always less than Y2 diameter of pupil ; gill rakers on first gill arch more than 30; caudal fin distinctly forked or concave behind. 5a. Teeth in upper jaw slender, wide set, in 1 or 2 series ; subopercle and postclavicle normal (similar to the other opercular bones), not swollen nor ivory-like in adults ; distance from posterior tip of 2nd dorsal to origin of the 3rd dorsal y 2 the diameter of the eye ; caudal fin forked; gill rakers 9 to 11 above the angle on the 1st gill arch. Range : Arctic Sea, Greenland to Alaska and northern Russia. Marine. Arctic Cod 122. Borcogadus saida (Lepechin) 5b. Teeth in upper jaw in a villi form band, the outer ones somewhat enlarged and rather wide set ; subopercle and postclavicle swollen and ivory-like in the adults (but normal in the young) ; distance from posterior tip of 2nd dorsal fin to origin of 3rd dorsal from 2 /j, as long as to a little longer than eye; caudal fin slightly con- cave; gill rakers 5 to 7 above the angle on the 1st gill arch. Range : Puget Sound and coast of Washington and British Colum- bia. Marine. Abundant. Puget Sound Pollack. Whiting 123. Theragra chalcogramrna fucensis (Jordan and Gilbert) 156 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. lb. Dorsal fins 2; anal fin single. 6a. Anal fin notched. 7a. The 2nd dorsal and anal fin emarginate ; caudal fin truncate behind; barbel absent; teeth in jaws canine-like and depres- sable on hinge-like ligament; lower jaw longer. Range: Alas- ka to Gulf of California. Marine. Common. Pacific Hake 124. Merluccius productus (Ayres) 7b. Dorsal fin scarcely if any emarginate ; barbel short, equal to about l /z diameter of eye ; snout flat, depressed, and keeled on sides. Range : North Pacific Ocean off Queen Charlotte Is- lands in deep water. Marine. Rare. 125. Antimora microlepis Bean 6b. Anal fin not notched ; the 2nd dorsal and anal very long but not emarginate ; caudal fin rounded ; barbel present and longer than the eye; teeth in jaws forming a broad villiform band; lower jaw included. Range : Eastern and central United States, Co- lumbia River system and north to Arctic waters. Freshwater. Common. Ling. Burbot. Lake Lawyer.. . .126. Lota maculosa (LeSueur) Family 40. Percopsidae. Trout Perches Range : Columbia River in lower portions. Freshwater. Not common. Columbia River Trout-perch 127. Columbia transmontana Eigenmann and Eigenmann Family 41. Trachipteridae. Ribbon fish Range : Washington to southern California. Marine. Rare. Ribbon Fish . 128. Trachiptcrus rex-salmonorum Jordan and Gilbert Family 42. Lampridae. Moonfish. Opah Range : Open seas north to Newfoundland and north to Yakutat, Alaska. Moonfish. Opah 129. Lampris regius (Bonnaterre) Family 43. Bothidae. 7 Sand Dabs la. Dorsal rays 88 to 102; anal rays about 71 to 81 ; vertebrae 38 to 39; inter- orbital space wide, concave, scaly with a high bony ridge above lower eye ; gill rakers on lower arch l2 to 16. Range: Kiska Island, Alaska, to Cerros Island, Lower California. Marine. Common. Mottled Sand Dab 130. Citharichthys sordidus (Girard) lb. Dorsal rays 79 to 89; anal rays 59 to 70; vertebrae 34 to 37; no high bony ridge above the lower eye ; interorbital space not concave and not wide ; gill rakers on lower arch 8 to 9. Range : Prince William Sound, Alaska, to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. Speckled Sand Dab 131. Citharichthys stigmacus Jordan and Gilbert 'Some of the fin ray and vertebra counts have been taken from L. D. Townsend (1936) Report No. 11, International Fisheries Commission. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 157 Family 44. Pleuronectidae. 7 Halibuts and Flounders la. Mouth large, symmetrical, dentition of jaws equal on eyed and blind side or nearly so ; length of maxillaries on eyed side contained fewer than 3 times in the head. (Hippoglossinac, subfamily, halibut tribe.) 2a. Lateral line with either a distinct arch in front or an accessory dorsal branch or both. Fig. 14. 3a. Lateral line with a distinct arch in front, but without accessory dorsal branch; anterior dorsal rays not elongate or fringe-like; dorsal rays 91 to 107; anal rays 69 to 80; vertebrae 49 to 51. Range: Japan, to Alas- ka, to northern California. Marine. Abundant. Pacific Halibut 132. Hippoglossus stcnolcpis Schmidt 3b. Lateral line without distinct arch in front, but with accessory dorsal branch; eyes small; interorbital space very wide; 1st 10 dorsal rays elongated and fringe-like ; dorsal rays 72 to 85 ; anal 53 to 62 ; ver- tebrae 37 to 39; scales about 112. Range: Alaska to Monterey. Ma- rine. Common. Sand Sole 133. Psettichthys melanostictiis Girard 2b. Lateral line without distinct arch in front or accessory dorsal branch. 4a. Mouth very large, the maxillary reaching to below the posterior mar- gin of lower eye; teeth in jaws arrow-shaped in adults; dorsal rays 95 to 111; anal rays 81 to 99; scales about 135; vertebrae 47 to 49. Range : Bering Sea to San Francisco. Marine. Common. Arrow-toothed Halibut 134. Atheresthcs stomias (Jordan and Gilbert) 4b. Mouth moderately large, the maxillary reaching only to about the center of the orbit of the lower eye. 5a. Upper jaw with a single series of small sharp conical teeth; scales small, about 110 to 120 in the lateral line (88 to 92 pores); no scales directly on lateral line ; dorsal rays 72 to 90 and anal 57 to 71 ; vertebrae 42 to 46 ; principle caudal rays 18. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Sole. Flathead. 135. Hippoglossoides elassodon Jordan and Gilbert 5b. Upper jaw with a double row of conical teeth. 6a. Scales large, about 68 to 73 in the lateral line; scales located directly upon lateral line contain pores ; dorsal rays 72 to 88 ; anal 57 to 64; vertebrae 42 to 45. Range: Alaska to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. Rough Sole 136. Lyopsetta exilis (Jordan and Gilbert) 6b. Scales small, about 88 to 100 along lateral line ; no scales lo- cated directly upon the lateral line ; dorsal rays 87 to 101 ; anal rays 67 to 79; vertebrae 41 to 44; principle caudal rays usually 19, seldom 18 or 20. Range: Puget Sound to San Diego Bay. Marine. Common. Sole. English Sole 137. Eopsctta jordani (Lockington) lb. Mouth asymmetrical, dentition and cleft extending much further on blind side than on the eyed side ; total length of maxillaries on eyed side usually contained more than 3 times in the head. (Pleuronectinae, subfamily ; floun- der tribe). 158 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 7a. An arched lateral line and accessory dorsal branch present; dorsal rays 67 to 82; anal 51 to 62; vertebrae 38 to 41. Range : Japan, Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abun- dant. Rock Sole. Flounder 138. Lcpidopsetta bilineata (Ayres) 7b. Arch of lateral line absent, accessory dorsal branch present. 8a. First 5 to 10 dorsal rays on blind side; body covered with smooth scales, mostly cycloid ; scales not imbricated, scarcely touching each other ; interorbital space narrow and very high ; anal rays 46 to 56 ; dorsal rays 66 to 77. 9a. Origin of dorsal fin on blind side on a level with the up- per lip, the 1st 5 or 6 dorsal rays occur on the blind side ; dorsal rays 65 to 78 ; anal 46 to 55 ; vertebrae 36 to 38. Range: Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. Sole. "C-O" Sole... 139. Plenronichthys coenosus Girard 9b. Origin of dorsal on blind side on a level with the lower lip, the 1st 9 rays occur on the blind side ; dorsal rays 68 to 79; anal 46 to 52; vertebrae 37 to 39. Range: Alaska to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Common southward. Sole. Turbot 140. Plcuronichthys decurrens Jordan and Gilbert 8b. Origin of the dorsal fin either on the mid-line or slightly on the eyed or blind side, not more than 1 or 2 of the 1st few dorsal rays occur slightly on the blind side. 10a. Scales smooth, mostly cycloid, closely imbricated, about 94 to 104 along the lateral line ; upper eye situ- ated on dorsal outline ; interorbital space narrow and low ; dorsal rays 72 to 89 ; anal 54 to 70 ; vertebrae 42 to 44. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. Sole. English Sole 141. Parophrys vetulus Girard 10b. Scales rough ctenoid on one or both sides of the bod}'. 11a. Dorsal rays 65 to 76; anal rays 50 to 61; scales 76 to 86. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Bastard Sole. Hybrid Sole 142. Inopsetta ischyra 8 (Jordan and Gilbert) lib. Dorsal rays 84 to 90; anal rays 63 to 68; scales about 87 to 90. Range : Puget Sound to Point Conception. Marine. Common. Rock Sole. Scaly-finned Flounder 143. Isopsctta isolcpis (Lockington) 7c. Lateral line with neither an anterior arch over pectoral fin nor an accessory dorsal branch. 12a. Body covered with ordinary smooth fine scales, not stellate; body elongate; scales about 130 to 145. 13a. Pectoral fins very long, that of the eyed side longer than length of head ; dorsal rays 87 to 110; anal rays 79 to 93; vertebrae 62 to 65; op- ercular opening extending much above pectoral 8 Schultz, L. P., and Smith, R. T., have found this to be a hybrid between Platichthys and Parophrys. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 159 fin base. Range : North Pacific south to San Pedro Bay. Marine. Common. Rex Sole. Long-finned Sole 144. Glyptocephalus zachirus Lockington 13b. Pectoral fin much less than length of head; dor- sal rays 94 to 116; anal 80 to 96; vertebrae 51 to 54 ; opercular opening barely extending above pectoral fin base ; body less elongate. Range : Alaska to San Diego, California. Marine. Com- mon. Slippery Sole. Chinese Sole. Slime Sole 145. Microstomas pacificus (Lockington) 12b. Body with rough scattered stellate tubercles ; bases of dorsal and anal on each side with a single row of stellate tubercles ; no stellate scales on lateral line ; vertical fins marked with wide black bars ; dorsal rays 52 to 66; anal 38 to 47; vertebrae 34 to 37. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara County, California. Marine. Common. Starry Flounder 146. Platiclithys stellatus rugosus Girard Family 45. Melamphaidae. Deep Sea Fishes la. Dorsal III, 13; anal II, 9; scales 23. Range: Alaska to Oregon. Marine. Rare. 147. Plectromus cristiceps (Gilbert) lb. Dorsal III, 15; anal I, 8; scales 26. Range: Bering Sea to Panama. Ma- rine. Rare. 148. Plectromus lugnbris (Gilbert) Family 46. Gasterosteidae. Sticklebacks la. Dorsal fin with fewer than 12 separate spines. 2a. Dorsal fin with 2 to 4 spines. 3a. Body wholly covered with plates on sides. Range : Europe, Asia and North America. Marine, brackish and entering freshwater. Common. Three-Spined Stickleback 149. Gastcrosteus aculeatiis aculeatus Linnaeus 3b. Body with no plates or only a few developed anteriorly. Range : Europe, Asia, and North America. Freshwater. Common. Three-Spined Stickleback 150. Gastcrosteus aculeatus microcephalus Girard 2b. Dorsal fin with 8 to 11 spines. Range; Europe and northern North America. Freshwater and brackish water. Common. Northern Stickleback 151. Pungitius pungitius Linnaeus Family 47. Aulorhynchidae. Marine Sticklebacks Range: Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abundant. Tube-snout. Many-spined Stickleback 152. Aulorhynchus flaindus Gill 160 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Family 48. Syngnathidae. Pipefishes Range: Southeastern Alaska to Monterey Bay, Marine. Common. Pipefish 153. Syngnathus griseo-lineatns Ayres Family 49. Atherinidae. Silversides la. Teeth bifid at tip, forked, on premaxillaries ; about 63 scales in the lateral series. Range: Northern Oregon to southern California. Marine. Com- mon. Bay-smelt 154. Atherinops affinis oregonia Jordan lb. Teeth all normal, the tips not divided into horns; about 75 scales in a lateral series. Range: Northern Oregon to Lower California. Marine. Common. Jack Smelt 155. Atherinopsis californicnsis calif omicnsis Girard Family 50. Sphyraenidae. Barracudas Range: Puget Sound to Gulf of California. Marine. Common southward. Barracuda 156. Sphyracna argentea Girard Family 51. Scombridae. Mackerels Range : Prince William Sound, Alaska to Lower California. Marine. Common southward. Pacific Mackerel 157. Pneumatophorus diego (Ayres) Family 52. Thunnidae. Tunny and Albacore la. Pectoral fin reaching to anal fin or beyond ; pectoral fin longer than the head. Range : Puget Sound to Lower California. Marine. Common south- ward. Albacore 158. Gcrmo alalunga (Gmelin) lb. Pectoral fin not reaching to anal fin and shorter than the head. 2a. Color markings of longitudinal stripes on upper half of body; dorsal of about XVIII-I, 12 and 8 or 9 finlets; anal II. 11 and 6 finlets. Range: Puget Sound to Chile. Marine. Common southward. Bonito. Skipjack 159. Sarda chilcnsis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 2b. Color of body without conspicuous stripes ; dorsal XII to XV-I, 13 and 8 to 10 finlets ; anal I, 12 and 8 finlets. Range : Oregon to Guadalupe Islands. Marine. Common southward. Tuna. Bluefin Tuna 160. Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) Family 53. Trichiuridae. Hairtails. Cutlass Fishes Range : North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Marine. Not common. Cutlassfish. Hairtail 161. Benthodesmus atlanticus Goode and Bean Family 54. Bramidae. Pomfret Range : Alaska to Santa Catalina Island. Marine. Not common. Pomfret 162. Bratna raii (Bloch) 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 161 Family 55. Stromateidae Range : Puget Sound to San Diego. Marine. Common southward. California Pampano 163. Peprilits simillimus (Ayres) Family 56. Icosteidae. Ragfishes Range: British Columbia to California. Marine. Rare. Ragfish 164. Icostcus acnigmaticus Lockington Family 57. Acrotidae. Pelagic Fish Range : Petersburg, Alaska to San Pedro, California. Marine. Not rare. Ragfish 165. Acrotus zvilloughbyi Bean Family 58. Percidae. Perch Range : Eastern United States, introduced into the western United States. Freshwater. Common. Yellow Perch 166. Perca flavescens (Mitchill) Family 59. Centrarchidae. Bass and Sunfish la. Body not elongate but sunfish-shaped, depth about Yi to 2 /s the standard length; scales 35 to 55; pyloric caeca unbranched, 5 to 11; anal spines strong, the longest more than half as high as the soft fin. 2a. Anal III (rarely IV), 8 to 12; anal fin less than half as long as dorsal; dorsal IX to XII, 9 to 13; ctenii of scales well developed. 3a. Tongue, hyoid and pterygoids toothed ; preorbital serrate ; the upper jaw extending beyond middle of eye; supplementary maxillary well developed ; lower pharyngeal narrow, with conic teeth ; operculum scarcely produced, with stiff margin ; caudal vertebrae 17 ; gill rakers well developed. Range : Introduced into western United States. Fresh- water. Not common. Warmouth Bass. 167. Chaenobrythis gulosus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 3b. Tongue, hyoid, and pterygoids toothless ; preorbital strickly smooth ; mouth smaller, the upper jaw not extending to middle of eye; supple- mentary maxillary reduced or absent. 4a. Upper jaw extending nearly to (rarely a little beyond) middle of eye; supplementary maxillary well developed; ctenii of scales ob- solescent ; anal spines low, little more than half as high as the soft fin ; lower pharyngeals narrow, with conic teeth ; operculum scarcely produced, with stiff margin; caudal vertebrae usually 17; gill rakers about x /2 as long as eye ; usually a blackish spot on posterior part of soft dorsal. Range : Introduced into western United States. Fresh- water. Common. Green Sunfish 168. Apomotis cyancllus (Rafinesque) 4b. Upper jaw not nearly reaching to middle of eye; supplementary maxillary variously reduced or absent; ctenii of scales well devel- oped; anal spines higher, more than 2 /$ as high as the soft fin. 5a. Lower pharyngeals narrow, the width about Ys the length of the toothed portion, the outer margin straight or nearly so, the teeth long, slender and more or less conic ; operculum more or less pro- 162 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. duced as a flap, the latter thin and flexible toward the margin; membranous border without a distinct red spot ; pectoral fins pointed, about as long as head; caudal vertebrae usually 17, gill rakers about Vi as long as eye. Range: Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. Bluegill Sunfish.169. Helioperca incisor (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 5b. Lower pharyngeals broad, about y 2 the length of the toothed por- tion, the outer margin strongly gibbous, the teeth short, broad molars ; operculum scarcely produced, the margin stiff, contrast- ing sharply with the membraneous border, which always bears a conspicuous red spot; caudal vertebrae 18, gill rakers rudimentary. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Com- mon. Pumpkinseed Sunfish 170. Eupomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus) 2b. Anal V to VII, 16 to 19; anal fin about as long as dorsal; dorsal V to VIII (rarely IX), 13 to 16; tongue, hyoid, and pterygoids toothed; mouth large ; supplementary maxillary well developed ; preopercle strong- ly serrate on entire lower margin as well as around angle; gill rakers long and slender, more than 20. 6a. Dorsal VI (rarely V or VII); caudal vertebrae usually 18; origin of dorsal farther back so that a line perpendicular to upper jaw passes in front of 1st dorsal spine; dark markings arranged to form vertical bands. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. White Crappie 171. Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque 6b. Dorsal spines VII or VIII (usually VII), rarely VI, IX, or X; caudal vertebrae usually 19; origin of dorsal farther back so that a line perpendicular to upper jaw passes behind the third dorsal spine ; dark markings not forming bands. Range : Intro- duced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. Black Crappie 172. Pomoxis sparoides (Lacepede) lb. Body elongate, bass-shaped, the depth about Vz the length; scales small, 60 to 85 along the lateral line; pyloric caeca 11 or more; anal spines III (rarely II or IV) and very small, the longest less than y 2 the longest soft ray ; opercle bilobed ; supplementary maxillary well developed. 7a. Pyloric caeca typically unbranched ; preopercle scaleless ; fins better scaled ; dorsal fin shallowly emarginate, the shortest spine more than 2 /z as long as longest, the top of the spinous portion being gently rounded; dorsal soft rays 14 (rarely 13 or 15) ; caudal vertebrae 17 (rarely 16) ; scales on cheek much reduced in size; mouth of moderate size (the upper jaw ex- tending beyond middle of pupil but not to hind margin of eye) ; color pattern consisting chiefly of short vertical bars. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Not com- mon. Small-mouth Black Bass. .173. Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede 7b. Most of the pyloric caeca in any one fish always bifid; pre- opercle partially scaled ; dorsal and anal scaled only at very base; dorsal soft rays 12 or 13; caudal vertebrae 17 or 18; scales on cheek only moderately reduced in size ; mouth large (upper jaw extending beyond hind margin of eye in adult) ; color pattern consisting chiefly of a dark lateral streak. Range : Introduced into western United States. Freshwater. Common. Large-mouth Black Bass 174. Aplitcs salmoidcs Rafinesque (=H«ro floridana LeSueur) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 163 Family 60. Moronidae. Sea Bass Range : Introduced on Pacific Coast ; northern Oregon to southern Cali- fornia. Marine and Freshwater. Common. Striped Bass 175. Rocctts saxatilis (Walbaum) Family 61. Otolithidae Range : Coast of California, occasionally taken as a visitor as far north as southeastern Alaska. Marine. Rare northward. White Sea Bass 176. Atractoscion nobilis ( Ayres) Family 62. Trichodontidae Range : Kamchatka to Oregon. Marine. Common northward. Sand Fish 177. Trichodon trichodon (Tilesius) Family 63. Scorpaenidae. 9 Rockfish la. Dorsal spines XIV to XVII; top of head scaly; vertebrae 29; palatine teeth present ; anal III, 5 ; pectorals with lower rays broadened or pro- longed into linguiform lobe. 2a. Dorsal spines XV to XVII (usually XVI) gill rakers 18 to 22 on 1st gill arch ; longest spines of dorsal, the 4th or 5th are contained 2.9 to 3.5 in head ; light vertical lines or rows of spots across the dark pectoral blotch ; branchiostegals naked. Range : Alaska to California. Marine. Not common. Spiny-headed Rockfish. Lobe-finned Rockfish 178. Sebastolobus alascanus Bean 2b. Dorsal XIV to XVI (usually XV) ; gill rakers 21 to 24 on 1st gill arch; longest spine of dorsal, the 3rd, is contained 1.7 to 3.0 in head; no light vertical rows or lines of spots across the dark pectoral blotch; branchiostegals scaly. Range : Aleutian Islands to San Diego in deep water. Marine. Not common. Spiny-headed Rockfish. Lobe-finned Rockfish 179. Sebastolobus altivelis Gilbert lb. Dorsal spines XIII (very rarely XIV) ; vertebrae 27; palatine teeth pres- ent. 3a. Interorbital space more or less convex (never concave), broad, less than 3 l /2 in base of skull ; cranial ridges very low or obsolete, the spines when present, delicate ; base of skull strongly curved, meseth- moid processes not elevated (not directed upward), ventral process of basisphenoid rudimentary (or fairly developed only in young) ; anal rays III, 6 to 9 ; gill rakers usually long and slender ; snout, pre- orbitals and jaws more or less scaly. 4a. Cranial ridges (except parietal) all obsolete or very slightly de- veloped, cranial spines absent or very inconstant and minute (regu- larly present only in young; preocular spines usually present in mystinus) ; lower jaw much projecting. 5a. Parietal bones not meeting; mesethmoid processes weak and de- pressed ; scales small, in 90 to 100 transverse series above lateral line, 65 to 80 tubes; lower jaw much projecting, entering profile, "Modified after Jordan and Evermann, Bull. 47, U.S.N.M. 1896-1900, and after Hubbs and Schultz, Univ. Wash. Pub. Biol. 1932. 164 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. a large symphyseal knob, directed forward; peritoneum white or with dark dots; depth about 2> 2 /t, length; anal rays III, 9; color light olivaceous-red ; young olivaceous, somewhat mottled. Range : Barclay Sound, B. C., to San Diego. Marine. Common southward. Bocaccio. Grouper 180. Scbastodcs paucispinis (Ayres) Fig. 41. A view of the dorsal side or top of the head of a rock- fish, Sebastodcs, showing the ar- rangement of the cranial spines and ridges. Cor — coronal spine; Nas — nasal opening; Nas Sp — Orb- nasal spine; Hum — humeral spines; Nuch — nuchal spine; Parie — parietal spine or ridge; Pre Sp — preocular spine; Post — - postorbital spine; Supra — supra- ocular spine; Sym — symphyseal knob; Tym — tympanic spine. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. — How 5b. Parietal bones usually meeting; mesethmoid processes better de- veloped, straight, not elevated; smaller symphyseal knob. Fig. 41. 6a. Peritoneum white to dusky; dorsal fin deeply emarginate. 7a. Body usually more slender (depth in adult 2.9 to 3.5 in stand- ard length) ; snout sharply pointed; symphyseal knob conspicu- ous; lower jaw strongly and sharply projecting; pectoral rays 17 or 18 (rarely 19 in fiavidus) ; dark specks on body few and relatively inconspicuous, and not extended onto the dorsal fins ; light blotches near base of dorsals well developed ; caudal fin more or less yellow ; anal fin truncated ; unbranched pector- al rays less thickened than in melanops; no light band along mid-sides; size moderate, usually less than 15 inches long; adults living offshore ; young not normally inhabiting the tide pools. 8a. Tips of nasal spines concealed (except rarely) ; occipital ridges very inconspicuous ; spinous dorsal long and low (highest spine 2.8 to 3.0 in head) ; dorsal soft rays 15 or 16; anal 9, rarely 8; pectoral 17 or 18, usually 17; unbranched pectoral rays 8 or 9, usually 8 ; body usually more slender (depth 3.2 to 3.5), and anterior profile less steep; profile of snout more arched ; upper profile of symphyseal knob form- ing an angle of about 45° with horizontal axis; eye smaller (in adults about one foot long 1.3 in snout, 1.2 in interorbital and 4.5 in head) ; color much darker, blackish olive on head and back ; dark specks on body difficult to discern ; light blotches along dorsal base usually more conspicuous ; vertical fins not margined with blackish ; caudal fin blackish olive- yellow. Range : California, from San Francisco to Mexican boundary. Marine. Common. 181. Scbastodcs scrranoides Eigenmann and Eigenmann UNIV. WASH. PUBL. BIOL. VOL. 2 [SCHULTZ] PLATE 5 Fig. 42. Yellowtail Rockfish. Sebastodes fiavidus. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy of University of Washington Publications. Fig. 43. Sebastodes columbianus. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy of the Uni- versity of Washington Publications. Fig. 44. Black Bass. Sebastodes melanops. After Hubbs and Schultz. Courtesy of University of Washington Publications. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 165 8b. Tips of nasal spines exposed and sharp; occipital ridges moderately well developed ; spinous dorsal higher (highest spine 2.4 to 2.7 in head) ; dorsal soft rays 14 or 15; anal 8 rarely 7; pectoral 17 to 19, usually 18; unbranched pectoral rays 7 to 10, usually 9; body usually less slender (depth 2.9 to 3.3 usually about 3.0) ; anterior profile steep ; profile of snout less arched ; upper profile of symphyseal knob form- ing an angle of much less than 45° with horizontal axis; eye larger (in adults about one foot long about equal to snout or interorbital, 4.0 in head) ; color much lighter, brownish on head and back ; dark specks distinctly evident ; light blotches along dorsal base usually less conspicuous ; vertical soft fins usually margined with blackish ; caudal fin bright yellow. Range : Washington to Lower California. Marine. Common. Yellowtail Rockfish. Fig. 42.. 182. Scbastodcs flavidus Ayres 7b. Body usually deeper (depth in adult, 2.6 to 2.9 in standard length); snout blunter; symphyseal knob less conspicuous; lower jaw less strongly and more bluntly projecting; pectoral rays 19, rarely 18 or 20; dark specks on body numerous and very conspicuous, and extended onto vertical fins ; light blotches near base of dorsal inconspicuous ; caudal fin dusky, not yel- low ; tips of nasal spines exposed ; upper profile of symphy- seal knob forming an angle of 45° or more with the horizon- tal axis. 9a. Body more ovate, the anterior profile steeper ; eye (in larg- est available adults) smaller, 4.7 to 4.9 in head; interor- bital space averaging narrower, 4.0 to 4.3 in head; dorsal spines higher (highest 2.3 to 2.6 in head) ; anal truncate behind ; unbranched pectoral rays less thickened and leathery, and fewer, 8 to 10 (usually 9) ; soft rays of ver- tical fins averaging fewer (dorsal 14, sometimes 13; anal 7 or 8) ; color much paler; dark spots smaller; no light band along mid-sides ; larger, commonly about 20 inches long ; inhabiting sandy river mouth ; young not occurring in tide pools of reefs. Range : Columbia River mouth. Marine. Not rare. Fig. 43. 183. Sebastodes columbianus Hubbs and Schultz 9b. Body more elliptical, the anterior profile less abrupt ; eye (in largest available adults) larger, 4.1 to 4.2 in head; interorbital space averaging wider 3.8 to 4.2 in head; dorsal spines lower (highest 2.6 to 3.1 in head) ; anal rounded with 8, rarely 7 or 9 soft rays ; unbranched pec- toral rays thick and leathery, typically 10 (rarely 9 or 11) ; soft rays of vertical fins averaging more numerous, dorsal 13 to 16, most frequently 15 ; color very dark, al- most black above ; a rather prominent light band along mid-sides (just below lateral line anteriorly, along lateral line posteriorly) ; smaller adults usually less than 15 inches long, inhabiting rocky shores ; the young developing in the tide pools. Range : Southern Alaska to Pt. Arguello, California. Marine. Common. Black Bass. Fig. 44... 184. Sebastodes melanops (Girard) 166 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 6b. Peritoneum dusky to black; colors dusky, fins blackish, dorsal fin not very deeply emarginate ; anal rays III, 9; preocular ridges present, usually ending in spines, frontal region between them bulging ; color blackish. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. Black Bass 185. Sebastodes mystinus (Jordan and Gilbert) 4b. Cranial ridges somewhat developed ; preocular, postocular, tympanic, and parietal spines usually present, delicate (supraocular also pres- ent in some species); fig. 41; lower jaw projecting; parietal bones usually not meeting. 10a. Lower jaw much projecting; scales rather small; lat- eral line 50 to 75; anal rays III, 7 to 9; dorsal fin not deeply emarginate, soft dorsal low; 2nd anal spine not- ably longer than 3rd ; peritoneum black or dusky. 11a. Supraocular spines usually present; body elongate, depth more than 3 in length; pores of lateral line 50 to 52; pectorals reaching vent; anal III, 8; body dusky above, with faint traces of darker blotches along back. Range : Bering Sea to Santa Barbara, California. Marine. Not common. Long-jawed Rockfish 186. Sebastodes alutus (Gilbert) lib. Supraocular spines absent, body rather elongate; anal III, 7; color chiefly red; lateral line with about 52 to 55 pores, vertical scale rows about 100 to 110. Range: Puget Sound to San Diego. Marine. Not rare. Red-striped Rockfish 187. Sebastodes prorigcr (Jordan and Gilbert) 10b. Lower jaw little projecting; anal III, 6 or 7. 12a. Supraocular spine present ; scales 45 to 55 in lateral line ; anal 7 ; color red or orange. 13a. Scales on mandible smooth ; color chiefly orange. Range : Hecate Str. to Lower California. Ma- rine. Common. Orange Rockfish. 188. Sebastodes pinniger (Gill) 13b. Scales on mandible very rough ; color chiefly brick red, color above, deep vermilion, mottled with flesh color on sides, belly light red. Range : Oregon to San Diego. Marine. Common. Vermilion Rockfish ..189. Sebastodes miniatus (Jordan and Gilbert) 12b. Supraocular spine absent ; scales 41 to 45 in the lateral line; anal III, 7, the 2nd spine longer than 3rd. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 190. Sebastodes cmphaeus Starks 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 167 3b. Interorbital space flat or slightly concave, of medium width; meseth- moid processes but little or not at all elevated, ventral process of ba- sisphenoid rudimentary; cranial ridges and spines moderately strong; lower jaw moderately or not much, sometimes not at all, projecting; gdl rakers usually long and slender; anal III, 6 to 8; deep water species. 14a. Supraocular spine absent; base of skull strongly curved. 15a. Premaxillaries without prominent dentigerous knobs ; lower jaw somewhat projecting; parietals not meeting. 16a. Gill rakers 10+22 to 23, the longest 2 /$ orbit; dark bars on sides faint becoming obsolete with age; lower jaw much pro- jecting; peritoneum black. Range: Southeastern Alaska and southern California. Marine. Olive-backed Rockfish 191. Sebastodes saxicola (Gilbert) 16b. Gill rakers 10+21, slender, 2^ in orbit; no distinct dark cross bars; lower jaw scarcely projecting; peritoneum dark brown. Range : Coast of Oregon. Marine. Rare. 192. Sebastodes crameri Jordan 16c. Gill rakers 12 or 13+29 or 30, the longest l / 2 orbit; anal III, 6 or 7 ; peritoneum black. Range : Swif tsure Shoal, B. C., to Monterey, California. Marine. Not common. 193. Sebastodes wilsoni Gilbert 15b. Premaxillaries with prominent dentigerous knobs, between which the tip of the lower jaw fits; mandible not projecting; gill rakers very long and slender, y 2 orbit, 9 to 11+22 to 25. Range: Nanaimo, B. C, to Coronado Islands. Marine. Not common. Lobe-jawed Rockfish 194. Sebastodes diploproa (Gilbert) 14b. Supraocular spine present, fig. 41, quite strong; coronal and nu- chal spines usually present ; 2nd anal spine equaling 3rd in length ; anal III, 7; lining of mouth and gill cavity largely black. Range: Bering Sea to Santa Barbara, California. Marine. Alaskan Red Rockfish 195. Sebastodes introniger (Gilbert) 3c. Interorbital space as a rule concave and narrow ; the cranial ridges and spines well developed ; base of skull straight or nearly so ; mesethmoid processes directed upward; ventral processes of basisphenoid well de- veloped; gill rakers usually short. 17a. Supraocular spine present; interorbital space concave. 18a. Second anal spine scarcely longer than 3rd; color red, nearly plain ; cranial ridges broken and armed with accessory spines, except in the young (the ridges begin to break up into sep- arate spines at about 20 cm. standard length) ; interorbital space nearly flat in adult (ridges smooth, interorbital space concave in young, as in Sebastodes rosaceus) ; peritoneum white; the distal y 3 to l / 2 of the ventral, anal, and caudal fins of the young are black in color, fading proximally; the pectorals and soft dorsal fins are generally blackish; the black color of the fins is still evident on 20 cm. specimens. Range : Southeastern Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Common. Red Rockfish. Red Rockcod. Red Snapper 196. Sebastodes ruberrimus Cramer 168 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 18b. Second anal spine much longer, usually stronger than 3rd; cranial ridges smooth ; fins of young without the dense black pigmentation. 19a. Color more or less rosy, with 3 to 5 round blotches of pink on sides of back; dorsal spines usually low, the highest less than ^ the length of head ; no small green spots on sides of back ; body without stellate spots ; mandible naked ; pale blotches on sides surrounded by purple shades ; head with purplish above ; supraorbital ridge rather high with spines ; peritoneum blackish ; nuchal spines absent. Range : Puget Sound to Cerros Island, Lower California. Ma- rine. Common. 197. Scbastodes rosaceus (Girard) 19b. No round blotches of pink on sides of back, nuchal spines present ; peritoneum black. Range : Southeastern Alaska and Cerros Island, Lower California. Marine. 198. Scbastodes rupestris (Gilbert) 17b. Supraocular spine wanting, fig. 41 ; interorbital space some- what concave. 20a. Mandible scaly ; peritoneum dusky to black. 21a. Lower jaw only slightly projecting; peritoneum jet black ; roof of mouth, dusky posteriorly, buccal and branchial cavities otherwise white ; dorsal XIII, 14 or 15; anal III, 7 or 8. Range: Puget Sound to Santa Barbara, California. Marine. 199. Scbastodes zacentrns (Gilbert) 21b. Lower jaw much projecting and entering profile; per- itoneum dusky ; roof of mouth, buccal and branchial cavities whitish ; sides above with irregular horizontal interrupted olive-green bands; dorsal XIII, 12 or 13; anal III, 6 or 7. Range: Puget Sound to Lower Cal- ifornia. Marine. Not common. Green-striped Rockfish 200. Scbastodes elongatus (Ayres) 20b. Mandible naked ; peritoneum pale or white ; body usually deep. 22a. Scales on head mostly cycloid; lower jaw project- ing ; head large, pointed ; 2nd anal spine 2 l / 2 in head, much stronger than 3rd ; color pinkish white, banded with deep crimson. Range : British Columbia and southern California. Marine. Spanish Flag ..201. Scbastodes rubriznnctus (Jordan and Gilbert) 22b. Scales on head ctenoid; lower jaw usually included; 2nd anal spine little enlarged. 23a. Nuchal spines absent ; body not barred with black ; interorbital space widening markedly from before backward. 24a. Coronal spines usually present, color brownish, mottled. Range : Puget Sound to San Martin, Lower California. Marine. Brown Rockfish 202. Scbastodes auriculatas (Girard) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 169 24b. Coronal spines none ; ridges with entire edges. 25a. Gill rakers much higher than wide; dorsal spines high over y 3 of length of head; inter- orbital somewhat convex posteriorly, so that the postocular spines do not enter the profile; profile but slightly indented behind nasal spines; mouth small, upper jaw usually not extending beyond vertical from hind border of orbit, and contained 5.3 to 5.7 times in stand- ard length; ridges of head narrower; dorsal spines scarcely excised posteriorly; a pale area along posterior f$ of lateral line more or less distinctly evident. Range: Sitka, Alaska, to Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Marine. Common. Yellow-backed Rockfish 203. Sebastodes canrinus (Richardson) 25b. Gill rakers and dorsal spines the same as in 25a; interorbital more or less concave, so that the postorbital spines may enter the profile (tips of spines sometimes not entering profile in maliger) ; profile deeply and widely indent- ed behind nasal spines. 26a. Interorbital only moderately concave; the orbital rims not greatly thickened and ele- vated, not abruptly entering the profile; 4 posterior interspinal membranes of dorsal rather deeply incised to about l /z or J4 height of spine; body deep and ovate; depth 2.3 to 27 in standard length; caudal peduncle de- cidedly more than half as deep as long; tips of caudal fin broadly rounded; interorbital with median pair of ridges inconspicuous; most conspicuous element of color pattern consisting of pale wedge (more or less dis- rupted) below first dorsal; anterior parts usually heavily spotted with orange, brown in preserved specimens; opercular blotch merely dusky ; cheek stripes pale ; no oblique bands on pectoral fin; no blackish spots on pectoral or caudal fin rays, these spots may occur on base of pectorals ; no dark-bordered light streak along lateral line posteriorly; size large, to 20 inches. Range : Sitka, Alas- ka to Monterey, California, in moderate depths. Marine. Common. Speckled or Brown Rockfish. Orange-spot- ted Rockfish 204. Sebastodes maliger (Jordan and Gilbert) 26b. Interorbital deeply concave ; the orbital rims greatly thickened, and sharply elevated, abruptly entering profile ; 4 posterior inter- spinal membranes of dorsal scarcely incised ; body deep and ovate; depth 2.3 to 2.75 in standard length; size medium; rarely ex- ceeding 12 inches. 170 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 27a. Spines of head less strong; parietal ridges less elevated ; anal rays 6 ; pale blotches on sides not forming a continuous lateral band ; body and fins not speckled with pale ; fin spines stronger; highest dorsal spines distinctly less than half as long as head; unbranched pectoral rays greatly thick- ened; dark markings black; light mark- ings orange. Range: Central California. Said to range from Puget Sound to San Diego but we know of no northern record. Marine. Black and Yellow Rockfish 205. Sebastodes chrysomelas (Jordan and Gilbert) 27b. Spines of head stronger ; parietal ridges very high ; anal rays 7 ; pale blotches on sides forming a very conspicuous and con- tinuous streak along the lateral line ; body and fins profusely speckled with pale ; fin spines very strong; highest dorsal spine usually nearly half as long as head; un- branched pectoral rays excessively thick- ened ; dark markings black ; light mark- ings yellow. Range : Vancouver Island to central California. Marine. Common. Chinese Rockfish. Yellow-spotted Rock- fish.... 206. Sebastodes nebulosus (Ayres) 23b. Nuchal spines present, sometimes coalescent with parietals ; cranial ridges high, arranged nearly in a straight line on each side of the narrow top of head ; the cranial ridges with the surface broken and spinous ; frontal ridges elevated ; color bright red, with black bands or cross bars overlaid by red, some red at least on head. Range : Alaska to Mon- terey, California. Marine. Common. Black-banded Rockfish 207. Sebastodes nigrocinctns (Ayres) Family 64. Anoplopomidae Range : Alaska to southern California. Marine. Common. Sablefish. Skil Fish. Coalfish. Black Cod 208. Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) Family 65. Erilepidae Range: Alaska to Monterey, California. Marine. Not common. Giant Sea Bass. Priest-fish. . .209. Erilcpis sonifer (Lockington) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 171 Family 66. Hexagrammidae. Greenlings. Rock Trout la. Anal fin with 3 spines. 2a. Gill membranes very narrowly joined together, but free from isthmus; 2nd dorsal spine very high and long; a black streak before eye; dermal flaps on top of head small or absent ; color of body not of vertical stripes. Range : North Pacific southward to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. Long-spined Greenling. Broad-finned Greenling 210. Zaniolepis latipinnis Girard 2b. Gill membranes broadly united ; 2nd dorsal spine not long ; no black streak before the eye ; 2 pair of dermal flaps on head ; 6 vertical stripes on body. Range : Puget Sound to San Miguel Island, Lower California. Marine. Common. Convict Fish. Painted Greenling 211. Oxylebius pictus Gill lb. Anal fin without spines ; gill membranes broadly united ; 4 or 5 lateral lines on each side. 3a. Dermal flaps 2, 1 above eye, the other small and located on each side of the nape. Range: Kodiak Island to Pt. Conception. Marine. Com- mon. Kelp Greenling 212. Chiropsis decagrammns (Pallas) 3b. A single pair of dermal flaps above eye only. 4a. Fourth lateral line ends at about middle of anal fin base ; supraocular flaps large ; least depth of caudal peduncle equal to distance from tip of snout to about posterior edge of eye. Range : Bering Sea to Mon- terey Bay, California. Marine. Common. Fig. 45. Red Greenling 213. Lcbius supcrciliosus (Pallas) Fig. 45. A view of the ven- tral side of the head region of a greenling, Hexagrammos, showing the possible positions of the 4th and Sth lateral lines. Br 4th Lat — ventral fin branch of the 4th lateral line; 4th Lat — fourth lateral line; 5th Lat — fifth lateral line. -Br4tbUt _4f/. Lat -5TU Lot 172 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 4b. Fourth lateral line ends near middle of length of ventral fin rays. 5a. Fourth lateral line unbranched ; dermal flaps 2 times in diameter of eye. Range : Kamchatka to San Francisco. Marine. Common. Greenling 214. Hexagrammos stelleri Tilesius 5b. Fourth lateral line branched, lower branch running to base of ven- tral fin insertion, the other continuing to about under the middle of pelvic fin rays ; a pigment spot above base of pectoral ; dermal flaps less than 2 times in the eye. Range : Alaska, westward to Petro- paulski and Robben Islands. Marine. Common. Alaska Greenling 215. Hexagrammos octogratnmus (Pallas) Family 67. Ophiodontidae. Ling Cod Range: Alaska to San Diego, California. Marine. Abundant. Ling Cod. Cultus Cod 216. Ophiodon elongatus Girard Family 68. Cottidae. Sculpins. Bullheads la. Spinous dorsal not evident, its spines slender and hidden in loose skin or indistinguishable from soft rays ; head and body hidden in smooth lax skin ; gill membranes broadly joined to the isthmus; no teeth on vomer or pala- tines ; ventrals I, 3 the base adnate to body. 2a. Spinous dorsal of short, slender flexible spines entirely embedded in the skin and not visible without dissection. Range : Kodiak Island to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Tadpole Sculpin 217. Psychrolutes paradoxus Giinther 2b. Anterior spinous dorsal rays not bound down by the skin of body, the 1st apparent ray nearly over gill opening. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 218. Gilbertidia sigalutes (Jordan and Starks) lb. Spinous dorsal evident and not concealed in the flesh or hidden by loose skin ; spines, bones, or tubercles of head not all hidden in lax skin. 3a. Pelvic fins entirely absent; skin perfectly smooth; no slit behind the 4th gill ; gill membranes free from isthmus ; teeth on vomer and pala- tines. Range: Sitka, Alaska to Fort Bragg, California. Marine. Com- mon. 219. Ascelichthys rhodorns Jordan and Gilbert 3b. Pelvic fins present and well developed. 4a. Pectoral fins continuous around the throat and joined together; back with spinous scales ; gill membranes free from isthmus ; no slit be- hind last gill ; teeth on vomer and palatines ; preopercle with a short bifid spine ; ventrals inserted far back. Range : Vancouver Island and Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Manacled Sculpin 220. Synchirus gilli Bean 4b. Pectoral fins not continuous around the throat and not joined to each other. 5a. Pelvic fin rays I, 5 ; vomer and palatines with teeth ; gill mem- branes broadly united but free from the isthmus. 6a. Body more or less scaly above, or with rough plates or prickles. 1936 ] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 173 6b. 7a. Dorsal fin very long, with about 17 spines ; no slit behind last gill arch; back with rough scales; sides with oblique ser- rated folds ; ventral fins well behind pectorals. Range : Puget Sound to central California. Marine. Not rare. 221. Jordania conope Starks 7b. Dorsal fin of XII or XIII spines; body very long, sides of back with rough plates. 8a. Chin with 2 barbels; last gill arch without slit behind it Range: Off Oregon to Cortez Banks. Marine. Rare. 222. Paricelinns hopliticus Eigenmann and Eigenmann 8b. Chin without barbels; last gill arch with slit behind it Range: Northern California. Marine. Rare. 223. Alcidea thobumi (Gilbert) Body covered with smooth skin, a slit behind 4th gill; dorsal spines XI ; body very robust. Range : Washington to San Diego. Marine. Common. Blue Cod. Marbled Sculpin. Bull Cod 224. Scorpaenichthys marmoratus (Ayres) 5b. Ventral rays not I 5, usually I, 2, I, 3, or I, 4; spinous dorsal with tewer than XIII spines and always shorter than soft dorsal. 9a. Body definitely more or less scaly above, the scales sometimes arranged in bands, or sometimes modified as bony plates these usually placed along the lateral line or at base of dorsal fin ; in no case is the skin entirely naked. 10a. Sides of body below lateral line with oblique serrated folds of skin; vomer with teeth; palatines without teeth; last gill arch with a distinct slit or pore behind it; preopercular spines small, simple or bifid; gill membranes wholly free from isthmus; spinous dorsal not emarginate; body slender. 11a. A series of bony tubercles along back a short distance away from base of dorsal fin ; breast naked with cross folds of skin, containing mucous tubes ; lower pectoral rays little extending beyond membranes; dorsal rays about X or XI 23 to 26 ; anal 24 to 26. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound.' Marine. Common. 225. Triglops beani Gilbert lib. Back without bony tubercles along or near base of dorsal fin ; breast not as above ; lower rays of pectoral much pro- duced beyond membranes; dorsal rays about XI, 29; anal about 29. Range : British Columbia and Puget Sound. Ma- rine. Not common. 226. Prionistius macelhis Bean 10b. Sides of body below lateral line without oblique serrated folds of skin. 12a. Vomer with teeth; palatines without teeth; if rows or bands of scales occur along the back they do not meet each other in front of the spinous dorsal fin. 174 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 13a. Preopercular spine simple, very long and strong, longer than eye; body robust, its greatest depth less than 4 times in standard length ; gill membranes broadly united to isthmus; dorsal rays VIII, 9; anal rays 9. Range: Alaska to Pt. Conception, California. Marine. Abun- dant. Buffalo Sculpin 227. Aspicottus bison Girard 13b. Preopercular spine bifid (sometimes simple) shorter than eye; body long and slender, its greatest depth about 8 to 9 in the standard length; dorsal VIII to X, 21 or 22; anal 23 or 24. 14a. Eye small 3^3 in head ; interorbital space scaly. Range : Puget Sound to Santa Catalina Island. Marine. Rare. 228. Radulinus boleoides Gilbert 14b. Eye larger 2.6 to 3.3 in head; interorbital space naked. Range : Puget Sound to Farallon Islands, California. Marine. Common. 229. Radulinus asprellus Gilbert 12b. Vomer with teeth; palatines with teeth. 15a. Body with 2 separate bands of coarse rough scales, the dorsal band meeting its fellow in front of spinous dorsal ; last gill arch with distinct slit or pore behind it ; lateral line without bony plates ; spinous dorsal notched; preopercular spine shorter than eye. 16a. Gill membranes not wholly free from isthmus, there being only a broad fold across it, which is not at- tached ; upper band of scales in about 4 rows ; skin in interspace firm and thick. Range : Kamchatka to Monterey Bay, California. Marine. Common. Red Irish Lord 230. Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus (Tilesius) 16b. Gill membranes wholly united to isthmus, not form- ing a free fold across it (sometimes the skin is shriveled and forced forward artificially making it appear like a fold on poorly preserved fish) ; upper band of scales in about 7 rows at its widest part; skin in interspace thin and lax. Range : Cape John- son, Washington to Santa Barbara Islands, Califor- nia. Marine. Common. Yellow Irish Lord 231. Calycilepidotus spinosus Ayres 15b. If 2 or fewer rows or bands of scales occur on the body, the dorsal band does not meet its fellow in front of the spinous dorsal fin ; last gill arch without slit or pore behind it (a minute pore may occur in Astro- lytcs) ; gill membranes united but free from the isth- mus. 17a. Preopecular spine with 1 to 5 enlarged hooks or ant- ler-like processes above, besides the 2 on the tip. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 175 18a. Back above lateral line evenly scaly; spinous dor- sal emarginate, III-VII, 15; anal 14; pelvic fin rays I, 3. Range: Puget Sound to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. Rough-backed Sculpin 232. Chitonotns pugetcnsis (Steindachner) 18b. Back above lateral line with a series of enlarged plates or scales, the space above and below this naked. 19a. Lateral line armed with a series of bony plates which catch on the finger when the latter is run forward; preopercular spines more than 3 (1 at the angle is long with from 2 to 4 strong spines or barbs directed upward and 2 or 3 spines on the lower margin of the preopercle which are directed downward). 20a. Dorsal fin with 1 or more of the anterior spines elevated and filamentous ; scattered plates behind axil of pectoral fin; pelvic fin rays I, 2. 21a. First 2 dorsal spines filamentous, about equally produced; dorsal series of plates much longer than head, reaching end of soft dorsal ; nasal filament present ; dorsal rays X, 16 to 17; anal 14 or 15. Range: Alaska to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Not rare. Long-rayed Sculpin ..233. Tarandichthys filamentosus (Gilbert) 21b. First dorsal spine filamentous, the 2nd little if at all produced; dorsal series of plates usually shorter than head, not reaching mid- dle of soft dorsal; no nasal filament; dor- sal rays X, 17 to 19; anal 15 to 17. Range: Alaska to southern California. Marine. Not 234. Tarandichthys tenuis (Gilbert) 20b. Dorsal fin without filamentous spines ; no plates behind axil of pectoral; preopercular spine with 3 or 4 antler-like processes; pelvic fin rays I, 2. 22a. Dorsal series of scales continuous and joined together behind soft dorsal fin; the lower edge of preopercle with 2 small spines; the lower one longest and sharpest pointing downward and curved forward above a smaller spine directed downward ; rarely an obsolete spine above these 2 strong ones; nasal spines well developed and nasal ten- tacles present, slender. Range: Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 235. Icclinus borealis Gilbert (=/. strabo Starks) 176 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 22b. Dorsal series of scales ending 1 to 3 rays before end of soft dorsal and never meeting its fellow behind ; the lower edge of the pre- opercle with 3 well developed spines ; the low- er strong one directed downward and curved forward; the middle one pointing backward and downward ; the upper one directed back- ward ; nasal spines short and obscure ; nasal tentacles obsolete. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Rare. 236. Icelinus burchami Evermann and Goldsborough 19b. Lateral line with scales unarmed ; body robust ; no filamentous spines ; top of head scaly ; preop- ercular spines 3 or fewer (that is, 1 small one in addition to the bifid tip) ; outer margin of preopercle with 1 blunt spine or only small prom- inences covered by skin. 23a. Dorsal band of scales meeting its fellow be- yond the dorsal fin; 31 to 35 oblique rows in the longitudinal series along base of fin ; a small pore behind 4th gill arch ; pectoral rays IS or 16. Range: Unalaska to San Francisco Bay. Marine. Common northward. 237. Astrolytes fenestrates (Jordan and Gilbert) 23b. Dorsal band of scales not meeting its fellow posteriorly, not extending beyond dorsal fin; no pore behind the 4th gill ; pectoral rays 16. Range : Str. of Juan de Fuca southward to southern California. Marine. Rare northward. 238. Parastrolytes notospilotus (Girard) 17b. Preopercular spine bifid or simple, without the extra hooks or antler-like processes above the bifid or simple spine at tip of preopercle. 24a. Back with a distinct band of scales on each side above the lateral line ; the interorbital space flat or concave. 25a. Top of head depressed; lateral profile somewhat pointed anteriorly ; scales in 26 to 29 oblique se- ries along base of dorsal but not meeting behind dorsal fin. Range : British Columbia to Pt. Con- ception, California. Marine. Common. 239. Artcdius lateralis (Girard) 25b. Top of head not depressed ; lateral profile bluntish; scales in 31 to 60 oblique series at base of dorsal. 26a. Scales in 31 to 35 oblique rows in the longi- tudinal series of scales along the base of dor- sal fin ; ventral side of chin unmarked. Range : Unalaska to San Francisco Bay. Marine. Common southward. 237. Astrolytes fenestralis (Jordan and Gilbert) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 177 26b. Scales in 40 to 60 oblique rows in the longi- tudinal series of scales along the base of dor- sal fin. 27a. Preorbital cirrus (on front of rim of eye) a large plumose tentacle about twice length of eye ; postorbital cirrus about H eye ; dor- sal IX, 16; anal 13; pectoral 14. Range: Vancouver Island. Marine. Rare. 240. Pterygiocottus macouni Bean and Weed 27b. Preorbital cirrus less than diameter of the eye ; postorbital cirrus very small ; under side of chin marked with cross bars ; dorsal IX to X, 17 to 18; anal 13. Range: Van- couver Island to Monterey Bay, California. Marine. Common. 241. Axyrias harringtoni Starks 24b. Back covered with rough scales above lateral line ; spinous dorsal without a notch; head very rough; preopercular spine more or less evidently bifurcate ; a small cirrus above eye; dorsal X, 14; anal 12. Range: Puget Sound. Marine. Common. 242. Ruscarins meanyi Jordan and Starks 9b. Body not definitely scaly above and no bony armature to the lateral line; the skin smooth, prickly, villous, or with scattered scaly processes. 28a. First dorsal not elevated in front, all the spines of about the same length as those following; the skin smooth or velvety, sometimes warty but not covered generally above and below lateral line with stiff prickles. 29a. Gill membranes united to the isthmus and not forming a free fold across it. 30a. Head weakly armed, the preopercular spine simple at the angle or absent. 31a. Palatine teeth absent, or weakly developed in males. 32a. Preopercular spines absent, the preopercle entire, without spines. 33a. Soft dorsal with 17 rays, anal 12. Range: Wood River, Shoshone, Idaho. Freshwater. Not common. 243. Cottus leiopomus Gilbert and Evermann 33b. Soft dorsal with 21 to 23 rays; anal 16 to 18. Range : Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Fresh- water. Not common. 244. Cottus princeps Gilbert 32b. Preopercular spines present. 34a. One spine at angle of preopercle, none below this one or at most only an elevation where spine usu- ally occurs. 178 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 35a. Anal rays 18; soft dorsal 21. Range: Lost River, tributary to Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Not common. 245. Cottus evcrmanni Gilbert 35b. Anal rays 10 to 15, soft dorsal 15 to 20 (usually 15 to 19) ; depth in the length 3.5 to 5.5. 36a. Posterior nostril not at all tubular ; anal rays 11 to 14 (usually 12 or 13) ; body smooth; cau- dal vertebrae 20 to 23. Range : East of Cas- cade Mountains in the Columbia River drain- age and south to Lake Lahonton. Freshwater. Common. Smooth Bullhead 246. Cottus bcldingii Eigenmann and Eigenmann 36b. Posterior nostril tubular. 37a. Caudal vertebrae 20 to 23 (usually 21 or 22). 38a. Anal rays 11 or 12 (seldom 13) ; soft dor- sal rays 16 or 17. Range : Tributary of Clearwater River near Bovill, Idaho. Freshwater. Not common. . .247. Cottus tubulatus Hubbs and Schultz 38b. Anal rays 13 to 16 (usually 15) ; soft dor- sal rays 17 to 20 (usually 19). Range: Klamath River system, Oregon. Fresh- water. Not common. 248. Cottus klamathcnsis Gilbert 37b. Caudal vertebrae 25 or 26; anal rays 12 to 16 (usually about 14) ; dorsal rays usually about 18 or 19. Range : Coastal streams from Unalaska to Monterey, California. Freshwater. Common. 249. Cottus aleuticus Gilbert 34b. Preopercular spine single at angle, and 1 or 2 be- low ; posterior nostril not tubular. 39a. Depth in length 7 times ; pelvics I, 3. Range : Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Freshwater. Not common. 250. Cottus tenuis (Evermann and Meek) 39b. Depth in length 4 to 5.5 ; caudal vertebrae 21 to 23 (usually 22 or 23). 40a. Pelvics I, 4; anal rays 14 to 17 (usually 15 or 16) ; soft dorsal rays 17 to 20 (usually 18 or 19). Range: Alaska to California. Fresh- water. Common. Bullhead 251. Cottus gulosus (Girard) 40b. Pelvics I, 3; anal rays 14 to 16 (usually 15) ; soft dorsal rays 17 to 19, (usually 18). Range: Mill Creek and Walla Walla River, Washing- ton. Freshwater. Common locally. 252. Cottus marginatus (Bean) 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 179 31b. Palatine teeth present and strong. 41a. Soft dorsal rays 20 to 23 (seldom 19) ; caudal ver- tebrae 25 to 29 (usually 25 or 26) ; preopercular spine at angle less than l / 2 diameter of eye; lateral line complete ; caudal peduncle of the round con- stricted type, little if any compressed ; anal rays 16 to 19 ; body and head usually with prickles. Range : Coastal streams from Alaska to Ventura County, California. Freshwater and in brackish water. Abundant. Prickly Bullhead 253. Cottits aspcr Richardson 41b. Soft dorsal rays 14 to 20; caudal vertebrae 20 to 23. 42a. Preopercular spine at angle long and slender, its length contained from l / 2 to 2 /z in the diameter of the eye ; lateral line complete ; pelvic fin rays com- monly I, 3 and I, 4; anal rays 11 to 14 (usually 12) ; body and head usually with prickles ; dorsal rays VII to VIII, 15 to 17 (usually 16) ; anus behind middle of body ; caudal peduncle only mod- erately compressed ; width of mouth about l /i length of head, rather large as in rhothens. Range : Rattlesnake Creek near Camp Harney, Oregon. Freshwater. Common. 254. Cottus bendirei (Bean) 42b. Preopercular spine at angle shorter and heavier, and less than l /i diameter of the eye; pelvic fin rays I, 4, rarely I, 3. 43a. Lateral line complete, occasionally 2 or 3 pores absent on caudal peduncle ; no definite black spot in the spinous dorsal ; mouth large ; anal rays 12 to 14; caudal peduncle round and slender; posterior nostril slightly elevated and slightly tubular. Range : Puget Sound drainage, Colum- bia River, and Kootenay River, British Colum- bia. Freshwater. Common. Bullhead. .. .255. Cottus rhotheus (Rosa Smith) 43b. Lateral line incomplete, ending under soft dor- sal; anal rays 11 to 13 (usually 12) ; usually a black spot in the spinous dorsal ; caudal peduncle of the moderately compressed type and about equal to the diameter of eye ; dorsal VII to VIII, 16 to 18. Range: Headwaters of the Co- lumbia and Missouri Rivers and the Green River of the Colorado system. Freshwater. Common. Rocky Mountain Bullhead 256. Cottus punctulatus (Gill) [=C semiscaber (Cope)] 30b. Head strongly armed, the preopercular spine not simple, but with 2 spines or more, or else the skin is loose and lax and nearly obscures the spinous dorsal except the tips of the spines. 180 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 44a. Vomer and palatine with teeth ; preopercular spines antler-like ; head depressed ; skin smooth and firm. Range : Kodiak Island to San Diego, California. Ma- rine. Abundant. Bullhead 257. Leptocottus armatus armatus Girard 44b. Vomer and palatine without teeth ; preopercular spines not antler-like, but short, there being 2 diverging spines at angle of preopercular bone ; skin loose and lax ; head of normal shape. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Not rare. 258. Malacocottus kincaidi Gilbert and Thompson 29b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus or else forming a broad fold across it. 45a. Palatine without teeth; vomer with teeth. 46a. Maxillary reaches to under pupil but not to the pos- terior margin of the eye; skeleton spongy; lower jaw equal to upper or a little projecting; preopercular spines 3 or 4, the one at the angle sharp and curved upward. 47a. Dorsal IX, 15; anal 13; pelvics I, 3; head with bony tubercles ; body with bony tubercles along base of dorsal. Range : Bering Sea to Puget Sound. Ma- rine. Not rare. Woolly Sculpin 259. Dasycottus sctiger Bean 47b. Dorsal VI or VII, 13; anal 8 to 11; pelvics I, 2; pectoral 20; body and head smooth, no granulations, tubercles, or filaments present. Range : Bering Sea, Alaska and in great depths off California. Marine. Rare. 260. Zcsticelus profiindorum (Gilbert) 46b. Maxillary reaches beyond eye ; skeleton hard and firm ; lower jaw equal to or a little shorter than upper, in- cluded ; preopercular spines straighter, the one at the angle without a distinct upward curve. Range : Bering Sea to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Great Sculpin. Fig. 12 261. Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalu-s (Pallas) 45b. Palatine teeth present ; vomer with teeth. 48a. Anus immediately in advance of the anal fin (in very young Blennicottus globiceps the anus is located about Yi of the distance in front of the anal fin between the origin of the anal and the insertion of the pelvic fin) ; penis very slender and flexible ; the first 1 to 3 anal rays enlarged in the male. 49a. Preopercular spine unbranched. 50a. Body covered with prickly scales at all ages ; head pointed anteriorly ; cirri of head single or rarely doubled ; no cirri on body above lateral line ; dorsal spines IX; first 2 anal rays of male enlarged, sub- 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 181 equal, not separated from the other rays. Range: British Columbia to Monterey County, California. Marine. Not rare. 262. Rusciculus rimensis Greeley 50b. Body naked ; head very blunt anteriorly ; (young of this species). Range: Kodiak Island to Pt. Conception, California. Marine. Common. Round-headed Sculpin 263. Blennicottus globiceps (Girard) 49b. Preopercular spine branched; body scaleless at all ages ; dorsal spines usually VIII, cirri of head mul- tifid. 51a. First 3 or 4 anal rays of male enlarged, subequal, grading into and not separated from the normal rays; body without developed cirri above lateral line ; snout slightly blunter ; nasal spines somewhat weaker ; preopercular spine bifid or rarely trifid ; soft dorsal rays 16 or 17. Range: Okhotsk Sea and southern Alaska to near Tunitas, San Mateo County, California. Marine. Common. Tide Pool Johnny 264. Oligocottus maculosus Girard 51b. First anal ray of male much larger than the 2nd, the 2nd ray not at all enlarged but normal, wholly separated from rest of fin in adult ; membrane be- tween the 1st 2 rays thin and little folded; soft dorsal usually 17 to 19; preopercular spine nor- mally bifid (rarely trifid) ; light spots on throat conspicuous. Range: Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, to Pt. Loma, San Diego County, California. Marine. Common. Cirrated Sculpin 265. Dialarchus snyderi Greeley 48b. Anus in advance of normal position before anal fin, lo- cated in middle l /z of distance between orgin of anal and insertion of pelvic fin ; penis thick and more rigid, conic or cylindric; lateral line with a slight anterior curve. 52a. Intestine short and little coiled; teeth of jaws conic, without definite arrangement ; head rather sharply pointed anteriorly ; mouth terminal with wide lateral gape; skin not especially thickened. 53a. Penis conic, without terminal appendages ; anus of female about midway between origin of anal and insertion of pelvic fin ; dorsal spines usually IX ; body scaleless; preopercular spines small and sim- ple; banner-like flaps never developed on dorsal spines ; cirri mossy, on body reduced to a series along the anterior portion of the lateral line; not developed along preopercular margin. Range: Aleutian Islands to Pt. Lobos, California. Ma- rine. Not common. . . . .266. Allocottus embryum (Jordan and Starks) 182 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. 53b. Penis cylindric, bearing at its end a pair of short lateral horns anteriorly and a median horn be- tween them ; anus of female much nearer pelvic in- sertion than anal origin; dorsal spines usually VIII, preopercular spine simple; banner-like flaps usually developed on dorsal spines ; cirri on lateral line not mossy. Range : Aleutian Islands south to Sausalito, Marine County, California. Marine. Common. 267. Oxycottus acuticeps (Gilbert) 52b. Intestine elongate and considerably coiled; teeth of jaws triangular, more or less definitely arranged in straight rows ; head very blunt and broadly rounded, suborbital decidedly narrower than orbit ; mouth in- ferior, with restricted lateral gape ; skin leathery ; penis cylindric abruptly constricted into a slender median appendage at tip; anus in adult nearer ana' origin than pelvic insertion ; dorsal spines IX ; nasa spines moderately strong ; preopercular spine un branched, well developed and curved upward; cirri of head and scapular region dense and mossy. Range Kodiak Island to Pt. Conception, California. Ma- rine. Common. Round-headed Sculpin 263. Blennicottus globiccps (Girard) 28b. First dorsal with the 1st 2 or 3 spines elevated, at least or more than twice the length of the longest of the last 3 dorsal spines ; skin rough with small bluntish prickles almost every- where except in small but well defined areas. 54a. Gill membranes free from isthmus ; pelvics small ; spinous dorsal deeply notched. Range: Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Common. Silver Spot 268. Blepsias cirrhosns (Pallas) 54b. Gill membranes united to the isthmus ; pelvics long ; spinous dorsal not notched. Range : Alaska to Monterey, California. Marine. Common. Sailor Fish 269. Nautichthys oculofasciatus (Girard) Family 69. Rhamphocottidae Range : Sitka, Alaska, Puget Sound to Monterey, California. Marine. Common in Puget Sound. Northern Sea Horse. Gruntfish 270. Rhamphocottus richardsotiii Giinther Family 70. Agonidae. Sea Poachers. Alligator Fishes la. Dorsal fins 2. 2a. Gill membranes free from the isthmus. 3a. Body short and high, compressed; vomer and palatines without teeth; dorsal fin long and high. Range : Bering Sea to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Four-horned Sea Poacher 271. Hypsagonus quadricornis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 183 3b. Body elongate, more or less depressed. 4a. Snout produced into a tube; single long barbel on tip of lower jaw; plates of body slightly keeled, without spines; dorsal VI to IX (VII or VIII), 6 to 9 (average 7 or 8) ; anal 10 to 14 (average 11 or 12) ; pectoral 10 to 13 (average 11 or 12) ; plates in front of pelvics 2 or 3 (usually 2). Range: Aleutian Islands, Puget Sound to coast of Oregon. Marine. Common. 272. Pallasin-a barbata aix Starks 4b. Snout not produced into a tube. 5a. Teeth on vomer and palatines ; plates on breast large. Range : Cold Bay, Alaska, to Oregon. Marine. Not common. 273. Occa verrucosa (Lockington) 5b. No teeth on vomer and palatines ; no median rostral plate ; breast prickly. Range : Coast of California and Oregon. Marine. Not common. 274. Stellerina xyosterna (Jordan and Gilbert) 2b. Gill membranes joined to isthmus, often with a free fold across isthmus. 6a. Tip of snout without median plates or spine, but with paired plates or spines. 7a. Vomer and palatines without teeth ; mouth located on ventral side ; gill membranes without barbels. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Sturgeon Sea Poacher. Alligatorfish 275. Podothecus acipcnserinus (Tilesius) 7b. Vomer and palatines with teeth; eye with 4 or 5 (usually 4) spines anteriorly and 1 triangular shaped spine posteriorly ; branchiostegal rays with cirri or small dermal tentacles ; the tentacles on branchiostegals not present in young which have a large knife-like spine over middle of eye (named by Jordan and Starks Xystcs axinophrys) . Range: Alaska, Puget Sound to Monterey, California. Marine. Common. Fig. 48. Window-tail Sea Poacher 276. Averruncus emmelane Jordan and Starks 6b. Tip of snout with median plate, and with paired spines or plates besides the median plate ; teeth on jaw, vomer and palatines. 8a. Tip of snout with median plate without a spine ; occipital pit deep, nearly y 2 as deep as head. Range : Vancouver Island, Puget Sound and coast of Washington. Marine. Rare. 277. Bothragonns swanii (Steindachner) 8b. Tip of snout with terminal rostral plate bearing one or more spines directed upward; occipital pit if present not l /z depth of head. 9a. A single upright spine on terminal rostral plate, besides the lateral ones. 10a. Occiput with pit with longitudinal division ; dorsal ridges not converging in front of dorsal fin ; no spines below eyeball ; 4 or 5 plates on branchiostegal mem- branes under the chin ; pectoral fin rays not exserted. Range : Alaska to Pt. Loma, California. Marine. Common. Fig. 46. 278. Odontopyxis trispinosus Lockington 184 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 10b. No occipital pit as above. 11a. Cheek below suborbital crest naked, without plates; only 1 spine developed on preopercular margin ; gill membrane with a wide free fold ; 3 to 5 spines on eyeball ; spinous dorsal with distal margin of mem- brane black. Range : Washington to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 279. Xeno pyxis latifrons (Gilbert) lib. Cheek below suborbital crest with 3 plates; 2 pre- opercular spines developed ; gill membranes without free fold ; no spines on eyeball. Range : Washington to off San Diego. Marine. Common. 280. Xcncretmus triacanthus (Gilbert) 9b. Upright spines on rostral plate 3, besides the 2 lateral ones. Fig. 46. A dorsal view of Odontopyxis trispinosus. Fig. 47. The rostral plate of Asterotheca infraspinata. Fig. 48. The rostral plate of Averruncus emmelane. Fig. 49. A cross-section of the plates in the region of the caudal peduncle. Fig. SO. A cross-section of the plates in the region of the dorsal fin. Diagrams showing the anatomical features of the sea poachers, Agonidae. Drawn by Arthur D. Welander. Do — dorsal fin; Do La — dorsal lateral series of plates; Do Sr — dorsal series of plates; Lo La — lower lateral series of plates; Nas Sp — nasal spines; Oc P — occipital pit; Pre — preorbital; Ros PI — rostral plate; Up La — upper lateral series of plates; Ve Lat — ventral lateral series of plates. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 185 12a. Lower jaw produced beyond maxillaries; lower 4 or 5 rays of the pectoral fin not thickened and not separated from the other rays by a notch. Range : Aleutian Islands to coast of Washington. Marine. Common. Black Sea Poacher 281. Bathyagonus nigripitinis Gilbert 12b. Lower jaw not produced beyond maxillaries ; ter- minal rostral plate with 5 small spines ; origin of 1st dorsal on 8th plate of dorsal series. 13a. Plates on cheeks thick, inflexible, immovably united with each other and with the interopercle ; lower 5 pectoral rays thickened ; a single median pair of plates in front of pelvics, the remaining plates of median series unpaired, (the plates of the 2nd pair fused) 10 14a. Margin of preorbital not spinous, ventrolateral series of plates smooth throughout (without spines) ; spines of lower lateral series weak or obsolescent, this especially marked on cau- dal peduncle ; deep nuchal depression ; space between dorsal ridges deeply concave ; plates on cheeks, in adults, without spines or tuber- cles ; gill membranes without posterior free margin ; lower pectoral rays much exserted beyond the membrane, a distinctly deeper notch between the two portions of the fin. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Com- mon. Gray Star-snout 282. Astcrotheca alascana (Gilbert) 14b. Lower margin of preorbital strongly spinous in adults; anterior plates of ventrolateral se- ries with short but evident spines ; lower lat- eral plates all strongly spinous, figs. 49 and 50, except the anterior 5 or 6, which are smooth as in other species ; plates on cheeks with minute spines ; nuchal depression shallow ; space between dorsal ridges shallowly concave ; gill membranes with a narrow free margin posteriorly ; lower pectoral rays comparatively little exserted, no conspicuous notch between the 2 portions of the fin. Range : Washington. Marine. Common. Fig. 47. 283. Asterothcca infraspinata (Gilbert) 13b. Plates on cheeks thin, flexible, not fused, read- ily movable, all (or the posterior 2) bearing each a strong backwardly directed spine ; ventrolateral series of plates sharply spinous throughout as is the lower lateral series, with the exception of the first 5 or 6 ; 2 median pairs of plates in front of pelvics ; lower 4 pectoral rays thickened, a deep notch between the two portions of the fin ; eye very large ; spines on eyeball weak or obso- 10 This part of the key is modified after C. H. Gilbert (1917), Proc. U.S.N.M. 186 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. lescent; palatine patches of teeth narrower than those on mandible. Range : Str. of Juan de Fuca to San Diego. Marine. Not common. 284. Asterothcca pcntacantha (Gilbert) lb. Dorsal fin single (spinous dorsal absent). Range: Alaska to Columbia River Mouth. Marine. Common. Smooth Sea Poacher 285. Anoplagonus inermis (Giinther) Family 71. Cyclopteridae. Lumpsuckers la. Head and body nearly naked, only a few scattered spines over it; dorsal V, 7 ; anal 6 ; color red in life. Range : Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Smooth Lumpsucker or Lumpfish 286. Eumicrotremus vinolentus (Jordan and Starks) 11 lb. Head and body covered with spiny conical tubercles, the largest in a group of 7 or 8 on the flank behind the pectorals; dorsal VI to VII, 9 to 11; anal 8 to 10. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Spiny Lumpsucker 287. Eumicrotremus orbis (Giinther) Family 72. Liparididae. 12 Sea Snails. Rock suckers la. Nostril double ; pseudobranchiae present ; pectoral typically with more rays than anal. 2a. Pyloric caeca fewer than ISO (not matted) ; probably always fewer than 100; peritoneum pale or silvery, usually with scattered brown or black dots. 3a. Caudal free from the dorsal or connected for not more than ]/$ its length. 4a. Dorsal notched; gill opening either above the pectoral or extending down in front of not more than 6 rays ; anal fewer than 30 rays ; dorsal not more than 35. 5a. Gill slit above the pectoral, sometimes appearing to extend down in front of the upper ray. 6a. Disk 2 or less in head; pyloric caeca less than 50 (15 to 37) ; anterior dorsal rays often elevated ; pectoral rays 30 to 33 ; a white bar across base of caudal fin. Range : Alaska to Oregon. Ma- rine. Not rare. 288. Liparis rutteri (Gilbert and Snyder) 6b. Disk more than 2 in head. Fig. 17. Range: Aleutian Islands to Washington. Marine. Common. 289. Liparis callyodon (Pallas) 5b. Gill slit extending down in front of 3 to 5 pectoral rays. 7a. Body deepest below origin of 1st dorsal ; disk more than half as long as head ; anus nearer anal fin than disk ; eye 5 to 7 in head; 1st dorsal fin is low and broadly rounded, not incised behind. Range: Cape Johnson to central California. Marine. Rare. 290. Liparis mucosus Ayres •'Probably this is the young of some species of Lumpsucker. "This key is modified after V. Burke (1930), Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 187 7b. Body deepest below front part of 2nd dorsal ; disk less than half as long as head; anus nearer disk than anal fin; eye 8 to 9 in head ; 1st dorsal a high, distinct lobe, incised behind. Range : Vancouver Island to Monterey County, California. Marine. Abundant. 291. Liparis florae Jordan and Starks 4b. Dorsal unnotched, or if notched the gill slit extends down in front of more than 6 pectoral rays. 8a. Pectoral with 29 to 32 rays, and less than the number of dorsal rays ; gill slit in front of 10 or fewer, usually 3 to 5, pectoral rays. Range : Alaska to Washington. Marine. Common in Puget Sound. 292. Liparis cyclopus Giinther 8b. Pectoral 37 to 43 with more rays than dorsal ; gill slit in front of 12 to 16 pectoral rays. Range: Alaska to Crescent • City, California. Marine. Common. 293. Liparis fucensis Gilbert 3b. Caudal connected to the dorsal for more than ]/$ and less than 94 of its length ; the number of pectoral rays greater than the number of anal rays ; pectoral usually notched in adult and young ; gill slit ex- tending down in front of more than 10 pectoral rays ; caeca fewer than 55 ; dorsal 37 to 40 ; no prickles. Range : Alaska to Washington. Ma- rine. Common. 294. Liparis dennyi Jordan and Starks 3c. Caudal connected to the dorsal for ji or more of its length ; pectorals notched; the number of pectoral rays equal to or fewer than the num- ber of anal rays ; gill opening above pectoral or in front of 1 to 4 rays ; dorsal rays 48 to 53; anal 40 to 41. Range: Alaska to California. Marine. Common. 295. Liparis pulchellus Ayres 2b. Pyloric caeca more than 150, probably always more than 200 and matted or close together ; dorsal rays 40 or fewer ; anal 30 or fewer ; pectoral 37. 9a. Color light brown with the epidermis removed ; gill slit either above the pectoral or in front of 1 to 4 rays ; dorsal connected to less than Y% the caudal fin. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Not common. 296. Polypera greeni (Jordan and Starks) 9b. Color pale gray ; gill opening above the pectoral or in front of the upper ray. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. 297. Polypera beringianus (Gilbert and Burke) lb. Nostril single ; pseudobranchiae present ; coloration not variegated ; pec- toral typically with fewer rays than anal ; dorsal unnotched or if notched the pupil is round. 10a. Disk present ; disk perfect ; gill slit well developed ; no barbels on snout ; pupil round or but slightly oval, never reduced to a horizontal slit ; no color blotches on the body ; dorsal unnotched ; teeth elongate, slender, simple, sometimes arrow-shaped, the lateral lobes hard- ly evident ; peritoneum pale or black. 188 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 11a. Gill slit above the pectoral; pectoral with more than 25 rays ; disk smaller than the eye, rarely equal to it ; usually distinctly cupped or triangular. 12a. Caudal not forked ; pectoral distinctly notched ; peritoneum black, rarely silvery and dotted; mouth and gill cavity dusky to black ; no prickles. Range : British Columbia to southern California. Marine. Not rare. 298. Careproctus melanurus Gilbert 12b. Caudal forked ; pectoral notch hardly evident ; depth 4.5 in length ; pyloric caeca 29. Range : Okhotsk Sea, Bering Sea to off coast of Washington. Ma- rine. 299. Careproctus cypselurus (Jordan and Gilbert) lib. Gill slit extending down in front of the pectoral fin. 13a. Disk well developed, not over 4 in head; depth of body not over 4 in length ; vent near disk. Range: Off Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C. Ma- rine. Rare. 300. Careproctus ovigerum (Gilbert) 13b. Disk small, 7 to 9 in head; gill slit in front of 10 or more pectoral rays. Range : Southeastern Alaska and British Columbia. Marine. 301. Careproctus gilberti Burke 10b. Disk absent. 14a. Branchiostegals 6 ; vent vertical ; gill slit at least partly above the pectoral fin. 15a. Snout without barbels. 16a. Teeth trilobed ; gill slit in front of 4 pec- toral rays ; pyloric caeca 13 to 18 ; pec- toral rays 30 or more. Range : Alaska and California. Marine. Rare. 302. Paraliparis dactylosus Gilbert 16b. Teeth simple, conical and in bands ; mid- dle pectoral rays not rudimentary; pector- al with fewer than 30 rays. 17a. Mouth horizontal; middle pectoral rays widely spaced. 18a. Gill slit extending down in front of 10 pectoral rays ; dorsal 56 ; anal 46. Range: Alaska and California. Rare. 303. Paraliparis dcani Burke 18b. Gill slit above pectoral fin ; pectoral 25 ; the upper edge on a level with the upper margin of the eye ; color black, including mouth and gill cavity. Range: Bering Sea and Gulf of Cali- fornia. Marine. 304. Paraliparis ulochir Gilbert 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 189 17b. Mouth oblique. 19a. Snout to vent 5.5 times in length ; pectoral 14 ; the upper edge of the pectoral fin above the angle of the mouth ; symphysis behind the front of the eye. Range : Bering Sea to Gulf of California. Marine. Rare. ...305. Paraliparis cephalus Gilbert 19b. Snout to vent 9.8 times in length ; pectoral 16 ; depth 6 times in length ; the upper edge of the pectoral fin below the angle of the mouth ; symphysis in front of the eye. Range : Washington to California. Marine. Rare. 306. Paraliparis mcnto Gilbert 15b. Snout with barbels. 20a. Gill slit extending down in front of 5 pectoral rays ; pyloric caeca 7. Range : Bering Sea, Okhotsk Sea and California. Marine. 307. Rhinoliparis barbulifer Gilbert 20b. Gill slit above pectoral fin ; py- loric caeca 12. Range : Bering Sea and Monterey Bay. Marine. Rare. 308. Rhinoliparis attenuatus Burke 14b. Branchiostegals 5 ; vent forward on throat, opening forward ; gill slit restricted to in front of the pectoral fin ; pectoral lobes separ- ated. Range : North Pacific from Hokkaido, Japan, to southern California. Marine. Rare. 309. Nectoliparis pelagicus Gilbert and Burke Family 73. Embiotocidae. Viviparous perches. Surf-fishes la. Scales large, about 38 (36 to 50) in lateral line. 2a. Lower lip without frenum ; dorsal fin IX or X, 18 to 21 ; caudal peduncle short and slender, least depth about S l / 2 in body. Range : Southern Alaska to Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. Marine. Common. Perch. Shiner. Viviparous Perch 310. Cymatogaster aggregatus Gibbons 2b. Lower lip with frenum; dorsal fin VIII, 15 ; least depth of caudal peduncle 7 in body; depth 3 in body; head 3.3 in body. Range: Vancouver Island to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 311. Brachyistius frenatus Gill lb. Scales small, more than 50 in the lateral line. 3a. Lower lip with a frenum, the groove not continuous across the tip of chin; dorsal fin X or XI. 190 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 4a. Gill rakers 15 or 16 below angle of first arch (seldom 14) ; least depth of caudal peduncle 6 l / 2 to 7j4 times in body; scale formula about 10+65+20; body with numerous narrow almost parallel blue lines. Range: Vancouver Island to San Benito Island, Lower Cali- fornia. Marine. Common. Blue Perch 312. Tacniotoca lateralis (Agassiz) 4b. Gill rakers fewer than 14 below angle of 1st arch (usually 11 to 13). 5a. Dentigerous surface of lower pharyngeals convex; dorsal X, 21 to 24; anal III, about 25 to 29; dark blotch below posterior corner of jaw just back of maxillaries ; gill rakers 13 below angle (rarely 12) ; least depth of caudal peduncle about 7 to 8 in body ; scales about 8+56 to 64+18. Range: Vancouver Island to Todos Santos Bay, Lower California. Marine. Common. Pile or Silver Perch 313. Damalichthys vacca Girard (=£?. argyrosomus) 5b. Dentigerous surface of lower pharyngeals flat or concave; dorsal X or XI, 22 to 26; anal III, 29 to 34; no dark blotch just behind maxillaries; least depth of caudal peduncle 8 to 9>4 in body; gill rakers about 11 or 12 below angle of 1st arch; scales 66 to 69 in lateral line. Range: Vancouver Island to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. Splittail Perch. White Surf -fish. Forktail Perch 314. Phanerodon fnrcatus Girard 3b. Lower lip without a broad f renum, the groove continuous across chin ; dorsal spines VIII to X (usually IX). 6a. Gill rakers 15 or more below angle of 1st arch. 7a. Below angle of 1st arch 15 to 19 rakers; 65 scales in lateral line ; eye Yz head ; anal III, 29 to 35 ; dorsal IX or X, 25 to 29. Range : Cape Johnson, Washington to southern California. Marine. Common. Silver Perch or Porgy. . .315. Tocichthys cllipticiis (Gibbons) 7b. More than 20 rakers below angle of 1st arch; 72 scales in the lateral line; eye 2 /s head; anal III, 32; dorsal IX, 27; charac- teristic black tips to pelvic fins. Range : Columbia River mouth to Lower California. Marine. Common. White Perch. Wall-eyed Perch 316. Hyperprosopon argent earn Gibbons 6b. Gill rakers fewer than 15 below angle of 1st arch, usually 6 or 7+11 to 13; about 60 to 69 scales in the lateral line; anal III, 26 to 30 ; about 9 to 10 orange to brassy colored vertical bars on sides of body. Range : Washington to Monterey, California. Marine. Common. Porgy 317. Holconotus rhodoterus Agassiz 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 191 Family 74. Gobiidae. Gobies la. Pelvics united to form a sucking disk but free from the belly posteriorly. Fig. 16. 2a. Dorsal IV or V, 14 to 17; anal 15 to 17 soft rays; scales 45 to 70 and about 18 in a transverse series. 3a. Cutaneous flaps 2 or 3 on inner edge of shoulder girdle; anal 15; scales in about 50 cross series. Range : Vancouver Island to Guaymas, Sonora. Marine. Not rare. 318. Quietula y-cauda (Jenkins and Evermann) 3b. No cutaneous flaps as above; anal 16 or 17; scales in about 70 cross series. Range : Vancouver Island to San Diego, California. Marine and in brackish water. Common. 319. Clevelandia ios (Jordan and Gilbert) 2b. Dorsal VI or VII, 12 to 18; anal 10 to 15 (rarely 16) ; scales if present in more than 70 or in fewer than 45 cross series. 4a. Anal 10 or 11 ; dorsal VI, 12 or 13 or VI-I, 12 to 14; scales if pres- ent in fewer than 40 cross series, or indistinct ; no dermal flaps on shoulder. 5a. Eye 6 or 7 in head ; interorbital space larger than eye. Range : Puget Sound to Guaymas, Sonora. Marine. Not rare. Long-jawed Goby 320. Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper 5b. Eye 3 or 4 in head ; interorbital space about equal to pupil. Range : British Columbia to southern California. Marine. Not rare. Fig 16. 321. Rhinogobiops nicholsii (Bean) 4b. Anal 15; dorsal VII, 16 to 18; scales about 86 in lateral line; shoul- der girdle with 2 to 4 dermal flaps under gill cover. Range : Vancou- ver Island to San Diego, California. Marine. Common. 322. Lepidogobius lepidus (Girard) Family 75. Ammodytidae. Sand Launces or Lances Range : Alaska to southern California. Marine. Abundant. Sand Launce 323. Ammodytcs tobianus personatus Girard Family 76. Bathymasteridae. Ronquils Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Common. Ronquil 324. Ronquilns jordani (Gilbert) Family 77. Zaproridae. Flaccid Fishes Range : Sitkalidak Island, Alaska, to Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Highbrow 325. Zaprora silenus Jordan 192 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Family 78. Clinidae. Blennies la. Dorsal rays XXXIV to XXXVI, 5 to 8 ; a slight emargination at about the 5th spine; anal II, 23 to 28. Range: Vancouver Island and southern Cali- fornia. Marine. Common in California. Spotted Kelpfish 326. Gibbonsia elegans montereyensis Hubbs lb. Dorsal rays V-XXXIII, 13 ; a deep notch following the 5th spine ; anal rays II, 34. Range: British Columbia and southern California. Marine. Common in California. Kelpfish 327. Hetcrostichns rostratus Girard Family 79. Pholididae. Blennies la. Anal spines 2, small and unmodified ; origin of anal fin under the 34th to the 41st dorsal spine; pelvic fins present, but small. 2a. Dorsal spines LXXX to LXXXIX; anal soft rays 40 to 44; head less than % total length ; pectoral fin about 2.5 in head. Range : Coast of Washington to Del Norte County, California. Marine. Common. 328. Pholis™ 2b. Dorsal spines LXXIV to LXXIX ; anal soft rays 33 to 37 ; head more than l /s total length. 3a. Black markings along base of dorsal, ornate spots as ( ) ; pectoral fin 2.4 to 3.0 in head. Range : Alaska to Del Norte County, California. Marine. Common. Bracket Blenny 329. Pholis laetus (Cope) 3b. Black markings along base of dorsal more spread apart ventrally as ) ( ; pectoral fin 2.0 to 2.3 in head. Range : Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Common. Saddled Blenny 330. Pholis omatus (Girard) lb. Anal spine single, enlarged, recumbent and fitting into a dermal sheath ; origin of anal fin under the 42nd to 55th dorsal spine; pelvic fins wholly undeveloped. 4a. Anal spine single, very large and channeled along the anterior edge ; origin of anal fin under about the 45th or 46th dorsal spine ; dorsal about XC to XCIV; anal soft rays about 40 to 42; vertebrae 97 or 98. Range : Southeastern Alaska to Pt. Conception. Marine. Common. Blenny 331. Apodichthys flavidus Girard 4b. Anal spine small, not channeled, (another smaller spine is usually obsolete) ; origin of anal fin under about the 53rd to 55th dorsal spine; dorsal about LXXXIV; anal about 36. Range: Puget Sound to San Clemente Island. Marine. Not rare. Fucus Blenny 332. Xerepes jucorum (Jordan and Gilbert) Family 80. Stichaeidae. Northern Blennies la. Pelvic fins present. 2a. Gill membranes broadly united, free from the isthmus, the gill slit not continued forward below. "This species appeared as a nomen nudum in the check-list by C. L. Hubbs (1928) Jour. Pan-Pacific Research Inst., and again in this key when first mimeographed. It is to be described by Hubbs in the near future. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 193 3a. Top of head covered with many fleshy cirri ; origin of anal fin under the 12th to 15th dorsal spine ; no anal spines ; head blunt. 4a. Snout 6 to 8 in head; the fleshy cirri of head extend to the origin of dorsal fin but they are not developed on the rays, cirri smaller and less mossy than in decoratum. Range : Washington to Fort Bragg, California. Marine. Not common. Ornamented Blenny. .333. Bryostemma litigator Jordan and Williams 4b. Snout 4 to 5 in head; the fleshy cirri of head extend back to the 6th dorsal spine. Range : Bering Sea, Petersburg, Alaska to Puget Sound region. Marine. Not rare. Decorated Blenny. . .334. Bryostemma decoratum Jordan and Snyder 3b. Top of head without cirri; origin of anal fin under the 19th to 21st dorsal spines ; 2 anal spines ; head pointed. Range : Washington and Oregon. Marine. Not common. Barred Blenny 335. Plcctobranchus evides Gilbert 2b. Gill slit carried forward below, the gill membranes joined to isthmus with or without a free fold across it. 5a. Pectoral fin with the lower rays longer than middle and upper rays; teeth on vomer and palatines. Range: North Atlantic; North Pacific southward to Puget Sound. 336. Leptoclinus maculatus (Fries) 5b. Pectoral fins with the lower rays not as above, the middle rays are longer than upper or lower rays. 6a. Anal spine I ; sides of body with black markings on a lighter background of color. 7a. Dorsal spines about LXXII, anal soft rays 45 to 50 ; about 21 gill rakers on 1st arch; gill membranes without a free fold across isthmus ; no teeth on vomer, those on palatines small or wanting. Range : Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Com- mon. Snake Eel 337. Lumpenus angiiillaris (Pallas) 7b. Dorsal spines XLIX; anal soft rays 31; gill rakers present; gill membranes with free fold across isthmus ; no teeth on vomer or palatines. Range : Nanaimo, B. C. Marine. Rare. 338. Allolumpenus hypochromic Hubbs and Schultz 6b. Anal spines III to V ; sides of body plain or with white cross bars on a dark background of color ; anal soft rays 38 to 42. 8a. No teeth on vomer or palatines ; body without white cross bars ; dorsal spines LXII to LXXI ; gill rakers about 16 or 17; snout long and fleshy overhanging the premaxillary. Range : Alaska to Nanaimo, B. C. Marine. Not common. 339. Lumpenella longirostris (Evermann and Goldsborough) 8b. Vomerine and palatine teeth present ; sides of body with 10 to 12 narrow white cross bars ; dorsal spines LVII to LX ; gill rakers rudimentary ; snout normal. Range : Alaska to San Diego. Marine. Rare. 340. Poroclimis rothrocki Bean 194 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. lb. Pelvic fins absent. 9a. Gill membranes attached to the isthmus. 10a. Eye small, 10 to 13 in the head. 11a. Maxillary extending behind orbit, a distance equal to 3 or 4 times the diameter of the eye ; depth 7 in length. Range : Alaska to southern Oregon. Marine. Common. "Congo Eel" 341. Delolcpis giganteus (Kittlitz) lib. Maxillaries ending below or before the orbit; depth 14 or 15 in length. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound. Marine. Not common. Red Devil 342. Lyconectcs aleutensis Gilbert 10b. Eye in head 4 to 6 times ; origin of dorsal about over the insertion of pectoral fin ; evident crest of flesh on top of head ; dorsal about LVI ; anal 36 to 40. Range : Southeastern Alaska to San Francisco. Marine. Com- mon. Crested Blenny 343. Anoplarchus purpurescens purpurescens Gill 9b. Gill membranes free from the isthmus. 12a. Anal spines present, distinct. 13a. Dorsal with soft ravs posteriorlv, XXII to XXV, 40 to 43; anal I or II, 41 or 42. Range: California. Marine. Common. 344. Cebidickthys violaccus (Girard) 13b. Dorsal without soft rays, LXIX to LXXIV ; anal II (rarely III), 40 to 50. Range: British Columbia to central California. Marine. Common. Belted Blenny. .. .345. Phytichthys chirus chints (Jordan and Gilbert) 12b. No anal spines. 14a. Pectoral slightly longer than diameter of eye ; median teeth of premaxillary canine-like and separated by smaller teeth between the 2 large ones ; dark color bands below and posterior to eye bordered by a black line. Range : South- eastern Alaska to central California. Marine. Common. 346. Xiphister mucosus (Girard) 14b. Pectoral slightly shorter than eye ; median teeth of premaxillary canine-like but not sep- arated by smaller teeth between the 2 canines ; dark color bands on cheek and head bordered by narrow whitish lines. Range : Alaska to Santa Barbara. Marine. Common. Rock Blenny ....347. Epigeichthys atropurpureus (Kittlitz) 19361 Schultz: Keys to Fishes 195 Family 81. Anarrhichthyidae. Wolf Fishes Range : Alaska to Monterey. Marine. Common. Wolf Eel 348. Anarrhichthys occllatus Ayres Family 82. Scytalinidae. Burrowing Blennies Range : Aleutian Islands to Monterey County, California. Marine. Not common. Burrowing Blenny 349. Scytalina cerdale Jordan and Gilbert Family 83. Ptilichthyidae Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Rare. Quill Fish 350. Ptilichthys goodei Bean Family 84. Zoarcidae. Eel Pouts la. Pelvics present ; upper jaw overlaps mandible. 2a. Vomer without teeth ; palatines without teeth. 3a. Body slender, depth 12 to 16 in length ; lateral line short, faint, and ventral in position, incomplete; upper jaw greatly overlaps lower; cheeks much projecting laterally, a series of 7 pores along mandible and preopercle, series of 7 or 8 pores extending from snout alongside of head above premaxillary ; lateral line single, faint, running obliquely downward to near base of anal, thence backward, not reaching base of caudal; lining of mouth, gill cavity, and peritoneum jet black; a broad light band across head behind eyes extending to cheeks. Range : North Pacific and off Santa Barbara Islands. Marine. Rare. 351. Embryx crotalimis (Gilbert) 3b. Body more robust, depth 8 to 9 in length ; upper jaw about twice the horizontal diameter of orbit; lateral line lateral in position; pelvics l /2 length of orbit; pectoral */> length of head; small embedded scales on body and vertical fins; upper jaw slightly overlaps mandible; mouth and gill cavity lined with dark epithelium; peritoneum black; no scales on head, nape and axil of pectoral ; vertical fins margined with black, scales paler than skin. Range: Central Alaska to central California. Marine. Common. 352. Lycodopsis pacificus (Collett) 2b. Vomer and palatines with teeth. 4a. Lower jaw included, the upper overlapping lower less than l / 2 pupil; middle rays of pectoral fin longest; pelvic fins about 1 to 1.5 in eye; dorsal rays about 116; anal rays about 93; no vertical color bars evident (at least on adults) ; margins of vertical fins darker than rest of fin ; scales lighter than general color of body giving the appear- ance of white specks. Range : Southeastern Alaska and northern California. Marine. Rare. 353. Ly codes jordani Evermann and Goldsborough 4b. Lower jaw included, the upper overlapping the lower as much as or more than the diameter of the pupil. 196 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. 5a. Peritoneum, jaws and gill cavity, jet black or nearly so; middle rays of pectoral shortest ; lateral line ventral and single ; pectoral rays 20 or 21 ; pelvics short and inserted under middle of opercle ; scales small, embedded, and covering entire body and vertical fins ; eye large only 3 to i 2 /z in head ; whitish color bars, if present usually double and expanding ventrally like an inverted V ; second color bar behind origin of dorsal fin. Range: Unalaska to California. Marine. Not rare. 354. Furcimanus diaptents (Gilbert) 5b. Peritoneum reddish slightly dusky to white, never jet black; middle rays of pectoral longest. 6a. Pelvics minute, about 3 in eye ; dorsal rays about 85 ; anal rays about 74 ; peritoneum reddish or pale in preserved specimens ; upper jaw overlaps mandible about Ys horizontal distance of or- bit ; labial folds fairly conspicuous ; narrow light band across nape, and 9 to 11 across back, which become obscure in adults; the 2nd bar being behind the origin of dorsal fin ; the dorsal and anal have dark margins. Range : Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound. Marine. Not common. 355. Lycodes brevipes Bean 6b. Pelvics longer, about equal to diameter of eye ; dorsal rays 105 ; anal rays 90 ; peritoneum pinkish or pale in preserved specimens ; upper jaw greatly overlaps lower, equal to Y$ horizontal diameter of orbit ; labial folds very conspicuous (membranous lobes on middle of each mandible) ; 14 to 16 light vertical color bands across body except sometimes absent in adults ; the 2nd bar is in front of the origin of dorsal fin. Range : Alaska to Puget Sound. Marine. Not common. 356. Lycodes palcaris Gilbert lb. Pelvics wanting, teeth on vomer, palatines and jaws. 7a. Body without scales; peritoneum, gill cavity, and mouth jet black; iris silvery; mouth oblique, lower jaw slightly the longer; skull thin, papery, translucent; dorsal and anal joined with caudal ; dorsal rays about 82 to 85 ; anal rays 70 to 74. Range: Southeastern Alaska to Gulf of California. Marine. Not common. 357. Lycodapus fierasfcr Gilbert 7b. Body with scales. 8a. Two distinct lateral lines, the anterior running high on sides, parallel with back, discontinued at a point about 1 orbital diameter behind vent, the posterior line beginning below and slightly in advance of this point and running along middle of sides to the tail; dorsal rays about 107 (without caudal); anal rays about 92; pectoral about 17; gill rakers 3 + 15. Range : Alaska to California. Marine. Not common. 358. Lycogramma brunnea (Bean) 8b. Lateral line if present single, usually obscure, not double as above. 9a. Dorsal rays about 112 (without caudal) ; anal about 94; pectoral 13 to 16; gill rakers 4+15; pectoral rays exserted at tips. Range: Washington to California. Marine. Rare. 359. Bothrocara remigera Gilbert 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 197 9b. Dorsal rays 100 to 105 (to middle of caudal) ; anal 89 to 95 (to middle of caudal). Range: Queen Charlotte Islands and southern California. Marine. Rare. 360. Bothrocara mollis Bean Family 85. Brotulidae. Brotulid Fishes Range: Puget Sound to San Pedro, California. Marine. Not common. 361. Brosmophycis marginatus (Ayres) Family 86. Batrachoididae. Toad Fishes Range: Sitka, Alaska to Gulf of California. Marine. Common. Singing fish. Midshipman 362. Porichthys notatus Girard Family 87. Gobiesocidae. Clingfishes Range: British Columbia to Pt. Arguello, California. Marine. Common. Clingfish 363. Caularchus macandricus (Girard) Family 88. Molidae. Headfishes Range : Temperate and tropical seas of Atlantic and Pacific, and north- ward to southeastern Alaska. Marine. Common southward. Ocean Sunfish 364. Mola mola (Linnaeus) Family 89. Oneirodidae. Angler Fishes Range : Santa Barbara Islands. Angler Fish 365. Dolopichthys acanthias (Gilbert) 198 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. GLOSSARY Explanations of Terms, Counts and Measurements Most Frequently Used in Keys and Descriptions Abdomen. Belly, the cavity containing the digestive and reproduc- tive organs. Abdominal. Pertaining to the belly; said of the ventral fins of fishes when inserted considerably behind the pectorals, the pelvic bones to which the ventral fins are attached having no connec- tion with the shoulder girdle. Abortive. Remaining or becoming imperfect. Accessory caudal rays. Short, procurrent rays on the upper and lower (rather than posterior) part of the caudal peduncle. Accessory pelvic scale. An enlarged scale or fleshy appendage on the upper side at the base of the pelvic fin. Actinosts. A series of bones at the base of the rays of the paired fins. Acuminate. Tapering gradually to a point. Acute. Sharp-pointed. Adipose fin. A fleshy fin-like projection behind the rayed dorsal fin, on the back of certain fishes, usually lacking typical fin rays. Adnate. Adhering or grown together. Adidt. A mature animal. Agape. In a gaping state. Jaws open. Air bladder or swim bladder. A sac filled with gas situated in the body cavity beneath the backbone and corresponding to the lungs of higher vertebrates. Alisphenoid. A small bone on the anterior lateral wall of the brain case. Ammocoetes. A name applied to the larval form of lampreys. Amphicoelian. Double-concave ; concave at both ends ; said of verte- brae. Anadromous. Running up ; said of marine fishes which run up riv- ers to spawn; used in a broader sense any fish entering fresh water or going from deeper water to shallow water for the purpose of spawning. Anal. Pertaining to the anus or vent. Anal fin. The fin on the ventral median line behind the vent. Anal fin III, 10 etc. — three spines and ten soft rays. Anal papilla. A protuberance in front of the genital pore and behind the vent in certain groups of fishes, corresponding to the penis of higher vertebrates. Anchylosed. Grown firmly together. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 199 Angular. A small bone on the posterior end of the mandible. Antrorse. Turned forward. Anus. The external opening of the intestine; the vent. Arterial bulb. The muscular swelling, at the base of the great artery. Articular. The bone of the mandible supporting the dentary and at- tached to the quadrate. Articulate. Jointed ; said of soft fin rays. Atlas. The first vertebrae. Atrophy. Non-development. Diminutive in size. Attenuate. Long and slender, as if drawn out. Auditory capsule. The ventrolateral swelling of the skull, and con- taining part of the inner ear. Axil, as "no scales in axil." The region under or behind the pectoral fin base. Barbel. An elongate, fleshy projection, usually about the head. Basal. Pertaining to the base ; at or near the base. Base of skull. The lower or ventral portion of the cranium ; the ven- tral outline of the parasphenoid is said to represent the "base of the skull" in Sebastodes. Basioccipital. A median posteriorily and ventrally located bone of the skull to which the atlas is attached. Basis cranii. A structure formed by shelves of bone developed from the inner sides of the prootics which meet and form a roof to the myodome and a floor to the brain cavity. Bicolor. Two-colored. Bicuspid. Having two points. Brachial ossicles. See Actinosts. Branchiae. Gills, the respiratory organs of fishes. Branchial. Pertaining to the gills. Branchiostegals. The bony rays supporting the branchiostegal mem- branes, under the head of fishes and below the opercular bones behind the lower jaw, and attached to the hyoid arch. Breast. The region on the ventral side of the head, anterior to the ventral fins and posterior to the isthmus. Bristle. A stiff hair or hair-like structure. Buccal. Pertaining to the mouth. Caducous. Falling off early or easily. Caecal or coecal. Of the form or a blind sac. Caecum, (pi. caeca). An appendage of the form of a blind sac, con- nected with the alimentary canal at the posterior end of the stomach, or pylorus. 200 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Canines. The teeth behind the incisors — the eye teeth ; in fishes any distinctly enlarged conical teeth longer than others. Cardiform teeth. Teeth coarse and sharp, and arranged like the spikes on wool cards. Carinate. Keeled ; having a ridge along the middle line. Catadromous. Running down ; said of fresh-water species which run down rivers to spawn in the sea. Caudal. Pertaining to the tail. Caudal fin. The fin on the tail of fishes. Caudal peduncle. The tapering portion of the body behind the base of the last ray of the anal fin. Its length is taken from that point to the base of the mid-caudal rays. The least depth of the caudal peduncle is taken at its slenderest part. Cavernous. Containing cavities, whether empty or filled with mu- cous secretion. Centrum. The body of a vertebra. Cephalic fins. Pertaining to fins on the head as in certain rays ; a detached portion of the pectoral. Ceratobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches just below their angle. Ceratohyal. One of the hyoid bones. Chiasma. The union of the trunks of the optic nerves, in ganoid fishes. In teleostean fishes the optic nerves cross or interlace without uniting to form a solid chiasma. Chin. The space between the rami of the lower jaw. Chondrocranium. The rudimentary cartilaginous cranial skeleton, corresponding to the primitive skull of cartilaginous fishes, of which traces remain in bony forms. Ciliated. Fringed with eyelash-like projections. Cirrus, pi. cirri. Fringes; tendril-like flexible tufts of skin; hair- like. C las per s. Organs attached to the ventral fins in the male of sharks, etc., the myxopterygia. Compressed. Flattened laterally or side to side. Conus arteriosus. A muscular and contractile bulb between the ven- tricle and the root of the aorta. It is furnished interiorly with one or more transverse rows of packet-shaped valves to pre- vent a backward flow of the blood. Coracoid. The principal posterior bone of the shoulder girdle in fishes supporting the pectoral radials. Cranial. Pertaining to the cranium or skull. Ctenoid. Rough-edged ; said of cycloid-like scales having the pos- terior margin minutely spinous, or pectinated, or toothed. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 201 Cycloid. Smooth-edged ; said of scales concentrically striate, with- out any trace of minute spines. Deciduous. Temporary; falling off. Decurved. Curved downward. Dcntary. The anterior bone of the lower jaw or mandible, usually bearing teeth. Dentition weak. Teeth scarcely evident. Dentition strong. Teeth very easily observed and highly developed. Denticle. A little tooth. Depressed. Flattened vertically, like the skates and rays. Depth. The vertical distance through the body at its deepest part, not including the fins. Dermal. Pertaining to the skin. Diaphanous. Translucent. Disk (of skate). The more or less roundish body of the skate ex- cluding the tail, ventral fins, claspers. The pectoral fins which form a part of the body of the skate are a part of the disk. Distal. Remote from point of attachment. Dorsal. Pertaining to the back. Dorsal fin. The fin on the back, in front of the adipose if that is present. In counting the fin rays, the anterior rudimentary rays are omitted in certain groups of fishes such as Cyprinidae, Catostomidae, Salmonidae, etc., or are given separately as sim- ple rays in the following formula, 2 + 10, the simple rays be- ing given first. Rudimentary rays are those rays, in general, at the beginning of the fin which are unbranched, membraneless, closely appressed the one to the other, and in ordinary cases not more than half the length of the fully developed rays. The last ray of the dorsal or anal fins is often split nearly or quite to the base and appears as two rays, although counted as one. In all cases, the last two rays are counted as one. In descrip- tions, etc., Arabic numerals are used to indicate soft rays and Roman numerals to indicate spines. A dash" — " separates ele- ments not connected ; a comma those connected. Emarginate. Slightly forked or notched. Endoskeleton. The skeleton proper; the inner bony framework of the body. Enteron. The alimentary canal. Epibranchials. The bones directly above the angle of the branchial arches. Epihyal. One of the hyoid bones. Epipleurals. Rays of bone attached to the ribs and anterior verte- brae. 202 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Erectile. Susceptible of being raised or erected. Ethmoid. A median anterior bone of the skull, above the vomer. Exoccipitals. Two bones of the skull ; one on each side of the for- amen magnum. Exoskeleton. Hard parts (scales, scutes, bony plates) on the sur- face of the body. Exserted. Projecting beyond the general level, as fin rays beyond the membranes. Extralimital. Beyond the limits (of this key). Eye. The diameter of the eye, called "eye" in descriptions, is meas- ured lengthwise (horizontal diameter), the form of the orbit not always being round. Most investigators use the greatest diameter of the eye, if the latter is not circular. Eye in snout. The diameter of the eye is measured in the length of the snout. Facial. Pertaining to the face. Falcate. Scythe-shaped, long, narrow and curved. Falciform. Curved, like a scythe. Fauna. The animals inhabiting any region, taken collectively. Filiform. Any thread-like, slender structure. Fin height. The height of a fin is the length of the longest ray. Fin length. The length of a fin is measured along its base unless the length of the depressed fin is specified. The latter is measured from its origin to the most posterior point of the fin. Finlets. A series of specialized fin rays, usually separate from each other and occurring posteriorly to the dorsal or anal fins. Fontanel. An unossified space on top of the head, between the par- ietals, covered with a membrane. Foramen. A hole or opening. Foramen magnum. The aperature in the posterior part of the skull for the passage of the spinal cord. Forehead. Frontal curve of the head. Forficate. Deeply forked, furcate. Fossa (nasal). Groove in which the nostril opens, a shallow depres- sion. Frcnum. A small piece of flesh binding the lip to the edge of the jaw. Frontal bone. Anterior bone on the top of the head, usually paired. Fulcra (singular fulcrum.) Rudimentary spine-like projections ex- tending on the anterior rays of the fins of the ganoid fishes. Furcate. Forked. Fusiform. Spindle-shaped, tapering toward both ends, but more abruptly forward. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 203 Ganoid. Scales or plates of bone covered by enamel. Gape. Opening of the mouth. Geniculate. Having knee-like bends or joints or protuberances. Gibbous. Sharply convex or rounded. Gill arches. The bony arches to which the gills are attached. Gill membranes. The thin wall of skin, supported by the branchios- tegals, and closing the gill cavity below. Gill membranes free from the isthmus. Not connected to the isth- mus so that a needle can be run across the isthmus and under the membranes if the right and left sides are connected. Gill openings. Opening leading to or from the branchiae or gills. Gill rakers. A series of bony appendages, variously placed along the anterior edges of the gill arches. The gill rakers are counted on the first gill arch only, unless otherwise specified. The num- ber of rakers is counted both above and below the angle or bend of the gill-arch, the upper number being mentioned first. All rudiments are counted. The formula, 15 + 25, for exam- ple, indicates 15 rakers on the upper and 25 on the lower limb. Gill slit. The openings between the gill arches. The "slit behind the 4th gill arch" may be pore-like, absent, or a small slit. If pore- like it is a tiny round opening like the letter "o", but if a small slit, it is a small elongate opening. In both cases this opening is very close to the bony arch and not in the loose membran- eous tissue behind the 4th arch. Gills. Organs for breathing the air contained in water. Glabrous. Smooth. GlossoJiyal. The tongue bone. Graduated spines. Progressively longer backward, the third ele- ment being as much longer than the second as the second is longer than the first, etc. Granulated. Rough with small prominences. Gnlar. Pertaining to the gula, in fishes the region between the chin and isthmus. Gidar plate. A single hard plate or plates between the dentary bones of the lower jaw. Haemal arch. An arch between the haemal spines, for the passage of blood vessels. Haemal canal. The series of haemal arches as a whole. Haemal spine. The ventral spine of a caudal vertebra in fishes. Head length. Usually called "head" in descriptions. The length of the head is measured from the tip of the snout to the extreme hinder margin of the bony portions of the opercle. It includes the opercular spines in percoid fishes, etc., and the opercular membrane in most fishes. 204 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Head width. Measured at the widest part. Height. Vertical diameter. Heterocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when vertically unequal, the backbone deflected upward into the upper lobe. Hispid. Rough with stiff hairs or bristles. Holotype. See type. Homocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when not externally unequal, the last vertebrae fusing into a more or less symmetrical plate, the hypural plate. Humeral spine. A spine above the base of the pectoral fin, attached to the pectoral girdle and directed posteriorly. Humerus. Bone of the upper arm. Hyoid. Pertaining to the hyoid bone or arch. Hyoid apparatus. Formed by a series of bones supporting the tongue. Hyomandibidar. A bone by which the posterior end of the suspen- sorium is articulated with the skull ; the supporting element of the suspensorium, the mandible, the hyoid apparatus, and the opercular apparatus. Hypercoracoid. The upper of the two bones attached to the cleith- rum or clavicle, indirectly bearing the pectoral fin. Hypurals. The modified plate-like last few vertebrae supporting the caudal fin rays. Hypobranchials. Bones of the branchial arches below the cerato- branchials. Hypocoracoid. The lower of the two bones attached to the clavicle behind. Hypohyals. Small bones, usually 4, by which the respective sides of the hyoid apparatus are joined. -id (suffix). Indicating membership in a family, thus percid, a mem- ber of the Percidae. -idae (suffix). The family name always ends in idae, as Percidae, Cyprinidae, etc. Imbricate. Overlapping like shingles on a roof. Imperforate. Not pierced through. -inae (suffix). The subfamily name always ends in inae, as Pcrcinae, etc. Inarticulate. Not jointed. -ine (suffix). Indicating membership in a subfamily, thus percine, a member of the Percinae. Incisors. Front teeth compressed to form a cutting edge. Inferior pharyngeals. Synonymous with pharyngeals. Main bones of pharyngeal arch. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 205 Infraoral. Below the mouth. The teeth of the mouth or disk be- low the oral opening, in lampreys. Infraorbitals. A chain of small bones below the eye. Insertion of fin. A term applied to the point where the paired fins begin or arise from the body. Interhacmal spines. Elements supporting the anal fin rays. hiterhaemals. See interhaemal spines. Interhyal. Upper hyoid bone attached to hyomandibular. Inter maxillaries . The premaxillaries. Interneural spines. Elements supporting the dorsal fin rays. Interneurals. See interneural spines. Interopercle. Membrane bone between the preopercle and the branchiostegals, usually anterior to subopercle when latter is present. Interorbital space. The distance between the eyes on the top of the head. The bony interorbital space is measured unless other- wise specified. Interspinous bones. The interneurals and interhaemals. Isocercal. Said of the tail of fishes when the last vertebrae progres- sively become smaller and smaller and end in the median line of the caudal fin, the hypural plate being nearly obsolete. Isthmus. The region just anterior to the breast of a fish where the gill membranes converge. The fleshy interspace between gill openings. Jugular. Pertaining to the lower throat; said of the ventral fins when placed in advance of the attachment of the pectorals. Keeled. Having a ridge along the middle line. Lacustrine. Living in lakes. Lamellae. Plate-like processes like those inside the bill of a duck. Larva. An immature form, which must undergo change of appear- ance before becoming adult. Lateral. Pertaining to the side. Lateral line. A series of sensory tubes opening to the exterior or a sensory canal along the sides of a fish, sometimes single, some- times multiple. Lateral line with an arch in front. The lateral line has a distinct ele- vation over the pectoral fin in the form of an abrupt arch, not a mere curve. Lateral line with an accessory dorsal branch. An extra dorsal branch begins on the head and runs posteriorly off the main lateral line. Lateral processes. See parapophyses. 206 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Lateral Teeth. See teeth lateral. Laterally. Sidewise. Length of upper jaw. Often referred to as "maxillary" in descrip- tions, measured from tip of the upper jaw (premaxillary sym- physis) to the posterior end of the maxillary. Length of body (standard length). Usually this length is measured from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal rays (end of the last vertebra or hypural plate). Lingual. Pertaining to the tongue. Lunate. Form of the new moon ; having a broad and rather shallow fork. Mandible. Lower jaw. Marbled. Variegated ; clouded. Maxilla or maxillary. Upper jaw. See length of upper jaw and see maxillaries. Maxillaries. Outermost or hindmost bones of the upper jaw ; in fishes they are joined to the premaxillaries in front or below, and usually extend farther back than the latter. They often lie above the premaxillaries. Mesocoracoid. Median bone in the form of an arch in front of the coracoids, found only in certain soft rayed fishes. Mesethmoid. See ethmoid. Mesopterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium. Metapterygoid. A bone of the suspensorium, supporting the lower jaw. Molars. The grinding teeth; posterior teeth in the jaw; flat topped teeth. Mottled. Color spots running together, blotched. Mouth inferior. The mouth is located ventrally and a little behind the tip of the projecting snout. Mouth oblique. The mouth is a modified terminal one in which the jaws usually lie at an angle of about 40 degrees or more to the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Mouth ventral. The mouth is located much behind and below the tip of the snout, usually a distance equal to or more than length of snout. Muciferous. Producing or containing mucus. My comma (pi. Mycommata). A septum between two myotomes. Myodome. Cavity under the brain cavity for reception of the rectus muscles of the eye. Myotomes. Muscle segments. Myxopterygia. See claspers. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 207 Nape. Upper part of the neck, next to the occiput. Nares. Nostrils, anterior and posterior. Nasal plate. Plate in which the nostrils are inserted. Neural arch. The dorsal arch of a vertebra for the passage of the spinal cord. See neural spine. Neural canal. The cavity of the neural arch as a whole. Neural processes. Two plates rising vertically, one on each side of the centrum of the vertebra, which unite toward their ends and form a spine. Nictitating membrane. The third or inner eyelid. Nuchal. Pertaining to the nape or nucha. Nuchal spine. Posterior to and in line with the parietal spine (at posterior edge of parietal ridge) occurs the nuchal spine. If one of these spines is absent it is the nuchal spine. Obsolete. Faintly marked, scarcely evident. Obtuse. Blunt. Occipital. Pertaining to the occiput. Occipital condyle. That part of the occipital bone modified to ar- ticulate with the atlas. Occiput. Back of the head. In fishes, specifically the cross line sep- arating the fleshy nape from the head. Ocellate. With eye-like spots, generally roundish and with contrast- ing borders. -oid (suffiix). Like; as percoid, perch-like. Opercle or operculum. Gill cover; the posterior membrane bone of the side of the head, in fishes. Opercular flap. Prolongation of the upper posterior angle of the opercle. Opisthocoelian. Concave behind only, said of vertebrae with ball and socket joints. Opisthotic. A bone of the skull with which the lower limb of the posttemporal usually articulates. Orbicular. Circular. Orbit. Eye socket, (see length of eye). Origin of fin. The term applied to where the median fins begin on the body. Osseous. Bony. Otolith. A bone of the inner ear of fishes lying in the sacculus. Oviparous. Producing eggs which are developed and hatched after exclusion from the body, as in all birds and most fishes. Ovovoviparous. Producing eggs, usually with much yolk. Usually hatching occurs before exclusion. Ovum. Egg. 208 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. Palate. The roof of the mouth. Palatines. Membrane bones of the roof of the mouth, one on each side extending outward and backward from the vomer. Palustrine. Living in swamps. Papilla. A small fleshy projection. Papillose. Covered with papillae. Parapophyses. The lateral projections on some of the abdominal ver- tebrae for the support of ribs. Parietal. A bone on the top and back side of the head. Parotic process. A posterior lateral process of the skull formed by the pterotic and opisthotic bones. Parr marks. The vertical color bars found on Salmonoids. Pectinate. Having teeth-like projections as in a comb. Pectoral radials. See actinosts. Pectoral fins. The anterior or uppermost of the paired fins, in fishes, corresponding to the anterior limbs of the higher vertebrates. Pelagic. Living on or in the high seas. Pelvic girdle. The bones supporting the ventral or pelvic fins. Pelvic fin. See ventral fin. Perforate. Pierced through. Peritoneum. The membrane lining the abdominal cavity. Pharyngeal bones. Bones behind the gills and at the beginning of the oesophagus of fishes. They are of various forms and almost al- ways provided with teeth. Pharyngeal teeth. In Cyprinidae the main row of teeth on each phar- yngeal bone contains 4 or 5 teeth (seldom more or less) ; inside of this main row is a so-called "lesser row" which may contain 1 or 2 teeth or none, in the latter case being designated in the formula, as for example, teeth 2:4-4:0 means 4 teeth in each main (outer) row, and 2 teeth in one lesser row of one side and teeth in the other lesser (inner) row. Pharyngobranchials. Upper elements of the branchial arches with teeth. Pharyngognathous. Having the lower pharyngeal bones united. Photophores. Small bead-like organs, light colored, for production of light. Physostomous. Having the air bladder connected by a tube with the oesophagus. Physoclistic. Having no open duct to air bladder. Pituitary body. A small organ in the ventral part of the brain. Plicate. Folded ; showing transverse folds or wrinkles. Plumbeous. Lead colored ; dull bluish gray. 1936] Schults: Keys to Fishes 209 Polygamous. Mating with more than one female. Polyphyodont. Said of teeth which are shed and new ones immedi- ately take their place from beneath. Postclavicle. A ray-like bone composed of one or two elements at- tached to the inner upper surface of the clavicle and extending downward. Postorbital. Behind eye. In measurments, the greatest length of head between hindermost edge of orbit and opercular edge. Postrostral. Behind the snout. Post-temporal. The bone by which the shoulder girdle is suspended to the cranium in fishes. Precoracoid arch. See mesocoracoid. Prefrontals. Bones forming lateral projections on the anterior mar- gins of the orbits. Premaxillaries. The bones, one on either side, forming the front of the upper jaw in fishes. Preocular. Before the eye. Preopercle. The membrane bone lying in front of the opercle, near- ly parallel with it. Preorbital. The large membrane bone before the eye, in fishes. Procoelian. Concave in front only. Procurrent fin. With the lower rays inserted progressively farther forward. Profile. The curve from the front of the dorsal fin to the tip of the snout. Projectile. Capable of being thrust forward. Prootic. A bone forming an anterolateral ossification of the brain case. Protractile. Capable of being drawn forward. Proximal. Nearest; basal. Pseudobranchiae. Small gills developed on the inner side of the oper- cle near its junction with the preopercle. Pterotic. A bone at the posterior lateral process of the skull. Pterygoids. Bones of the roof of the mouth in fishes, behind the palatines. Pubic bones. Same as pelvic bones Pulmonary. Pertaining to the lungs. Punctate or punctulate. Dotted with points; either of color or struc- ture. Pyloric caeca or coeca. See caecum. Pylorus. Passage from stomach to intestine. 210 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Quadrate. A bone of the suspensorium on which the mandible is hinged. Quincunx. Arrangements in sets of 5, thus, Ray. One of the cartilaginous rods supporting the membranes of the fin. Rays are either spiny or soft, the latter are simple or branch- ed. Recurved. Curved upward or backward. Reticulate. Marked with a network of lines. Retrorse. Turned backward. Rictus. The posterior corner of the mouth. Rostral plate. A small terminal plate on the tip of the snout. Rudimentary. Undeveloped. Rugose. Rough; wrinkled. Scales above the lateral line. The number of scales is counted for- ward in an oblique row beginning at lateral line and running anteriorly to just before the dorsal fin. Scaly appendage. The accessory scale which is a fleshy triangular projection just dorsal to the ventral fin base on certain fishes. Scales below lateral line. The number of scales is counted in an ob- lique row beginning at the anterior margin of the ventral fin base and running forward or backward to the lateral line. Scale formida. A conventional formula, "scales 7+65 + 12", for ex- ample, indicates seven scales in an oblique row above the lat- eral line, sixty-five scales in the lateral line, and twelve in an oblique series below the lateral line. Scales in lateral line. Usually the number of scales bearing tubes in the lateral line or the number of oblique series (rows) along the side of the fish. The scales are counted, beginning just a- bove the opercular opening, to the end of the hypural plate of the vertebral column, omitting the scales on caudal fin rays. Scapida. Shoulder blade ; in fishes, a bone of the shoulder girdle, the upper bone of coracoid series. Scapidar arch. Shoulder girdle. Scute. Any external bony or horny plate, usually more or less spiny or keeled. Second dorsal. The posterior of two fins, usually the soft rayed dor- sal fin of "spiny rayed" fishes. Septum. Thin partition. Serrate. Notched like a saw. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 211 Sessile. Without a stem or peduncle ; attached. Setaceous. Bristly. Setiform. Bristle-like; like bristles of a brush. Shoulder girdle. Bony structure posterior to the head, pectoral girdle to which the anterior limbs are attached, the pectoral fin. Snout. The portion of the head which projects beyond the eyes. The snout is measured from the tip of the upper jaw to the anterior margin of the orbit. Soft dorsal. The part of the dorsal fin in fishes composed of soft or articulated rays. Soft rays. Fin rays which are articulated like bamboo fish poles. Spatulate. Shaped like a spatula. Sphenotic. A lateral bone of the skull. Spine. A sharp projecting point ; of fin rays, technically inarticulated, unpaired (median) rays, regardless of whether or not they are stiff and pungent. Spinous. Stiff or composed of spines. Spinous dorsal. Anterior part of dorsal fin of spinous rays ; dorsal fin composed of inarticulated rays. Spiracles. Respiratory openings in the head and neck of sharks and rays and certain other fishes. Standard length. The distance from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal fin rays. Stellate. Star-like, with radiating ridges. Striate. Striped or streaked. Sub-. Less than ; somewhat, not quite, under, etc. Subcaudal. Under the tail. Subopercle. First bone below the opercle, suture often hidden by scales or skin. Suborbitals. See infraorbitals. Suborbital stay. One of the suborbital bones in certain fishes, extend- ing across the cheek, to or toward the preopercle. Subidate. Awlshaped. Sucking disk. A sucking organ, usually modified paired fins, used for clinging to rocks, etc. Superpharyngeals. Upper pharyngeals or sometimes a synonym of pharyngobranchials. Supplemental maxillary. A small bone or bones lying along the up- per edge of the maxillary in some fishes. Supraclavicle. Bone interposed between clavicle and post-temporal. The word cleithrum is in common usage. Supra-. Above. 212 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Suprascapular, or supracleithrum. A bone lying between the post- temporal and the cleithrum of the shoulder girdle. Supraorbital spine. The spine above the eye, between the preorbital spine and the postorbital spine. If only two spines are present, the supraorbital is absent in Sebastodes. Supraoral teeth. Teeth on the supraoral plate or lamina of lampreys. Suspensorium. The chain of bones from hyomandibular to the pala- tines. Suspensory bones. Bones by which lower jaw is fastened to the skull. Suture. Line of union of two ossified bones. Symphysis. Point of junction of the two parts of lower jaw; tip of chin. Symplectic. The bone that keys together the hyomandibular and quadrate posteriorly, in fishes. Synonymy. A list of technical names applied to a certain genus or species. Swim bladder. See air bladder. Tail. The part of the body posterior to the body cavity ; in fishes ap- lied to the caudal fin only. Teeth bifid or bicuspid. With two projections. Teeth deciduous. Said of teeth which are shed. On certain fishes the teeth are shed during spawning season. Certain pharyngeal teeth are attached by flesh or cartilage to the pharyngeal bone and are called deciduous although they may replace the normal teeth when the latter are lost. Teeth lateral. Said of the series of teeth on each side of the oesopha- geal opening of lampreys. Teeth midticuspid. Many cusps or projections on the teeth. Teeth supraoral. See supraoral teeth. Terete. Cylindrical and tapering. Terminal. At the end. Tessellated. Marked with little checks or squares, like mosaic work. Thoracic. Pertaining to the thorax or chest ; ventral fins are thoracic when attached immediately below the pectorals, the bones being attached to the shoulder girdle. Transverse. Crosswise. Transverse processes of vertebrae. Lateral processes of the verte- brae (abdominal) to which the ribs are attached. Trenchant. Compressed to a sharp edge. Truncate. Abrupt, as if cut squarely off. Tubercle. A small excresence, like a pimple. 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 213 Type. The particular specimen upon which the original description of a species was based or the species upon which was based the genus. Type locality. The particular place or locality at which the type was collected. Ultimate. Last or farthest. Unicolor. Of one single color or shade. Vent. The external opening of the alimentary canal. Ventral fins. Paired fins corresponding to posterior limbs, or pelvics. Ventral fins, I, 5; I, 4 ; I, 2, etc.; one spine (Roman) and five soft rays (Arabic), etc. Ventral plates. A row of plates along the belly between throat and vent. Ventricle. One of the thick-walled chambers of the heart. Versatile. Capable of being turned either way. Vertebra. One of the bones of the spinal column. Vertebrae, Abdominal. Anterior vertebrae which occur dorsal to the body cavity and to which the ribs are attached. They lack the haemal arch and canal, and the haemal spines on their ventral sides. Vertebrae, caudal. Posterior vertebrae which possess an arch, canal and spine on the ventral side. Vertical. Up and down or dorso-ventrally. Vertical fins. Fins on median line of the body ; median fins, the dor- sal, caudal and anal. Villiform. Said of the teeth of fishes when slender and crowded in- to velvety bands, or compact patches. Viscous. Slimy. Viviparous. Bringing forth living young. Usually the mother con- tributes food to the growth of the embryos. Vomer. In fishes, the front part of the roof of the mouth ; a bone ly- ing immediately behind the premaxillaries, and usually bearing teeth. Width. The width of a fish is taken at the widest part of the body. Weberian ossicles. A chain of small bones developed in connection with the modified anterior vertebrae and connecting the air blad- der with the ear in the Ostariophysi, such as suckers, carps, cat- fishes, minnows, chubs, etc. Zygapophyses. Points of bone affording to the vertebrae more or less definite articulation with each other. 1936 J Schult::: Keys to J'ishcs 215 INDEX TO THE COMMON NAMES OF FISHES OCCURRING IN THESE KEYS Page Alaska greenling 172 Alaska red rockfish 167 albacore 160 alligatorfishes 182 anchovy, northern 133 angel shark 131 angler fish 197 arctic cod 154, 155 arrow- toothed halibut 157 barracuda 160 barred blenny 193 basking shark 131 bass 161 black 162, 164, 165, 166 large-mouth 162 sea 163 small-mouth 162 striped 163 warmouth 161 white sea 163 bastard sole 158 bay-smelt 1 60 belted blenny 194 big skate 132 black bass .164, 165, 166 black catfish 150 black cod... 170 black crappie 162 black hagfish 130 black sea poacher 185 black skate 132 black and yellow rockfish 1 70 black-banded rockfish 1 70 black-nosed dace 148 black-sided dace 148 black-spotted trout, Montana .... 136 blennies 192 barred 193 belted 194 bracket 192 burrowing 195 crested 194 decorated 193 fucus 192 northern 192 ornamented 193 rock 194 saddled 192 blue cod 173 blue perch 190 blueback salmon 135 blueback trout 137 bluefin tuna 160 bluegill sunfish 162 bocaccio 164 bonito 1 60 Page bone shark 131 borers 130 bracket blenny 192 bream, red-sided 150 broad-finned greenling 171 brook lamprey 130 brook trout 138 brotuloidfish 197 brown-backed whitefish 139 brown rockfish 168, 169 brown shark 131 brown trout 137 buffalo sculpin 174 bull cod 173 bull trout 139 bullheads 172, 178, 179, 180 prickly 179 Rocky Mountain 179 smooth 178 burbot 156 burrowing blenny 195 California pampano 161 skate 132 candlefish 141 capelin 142 carp 145 cat sharks 131 catfish 150, 151 black 150 channel cat 150 charr 139 chimaeras 132 Chinese sole 159 Chinese rockfish 1 70 chinook salmon 135 chiselmouth 146 chubs 145, 149 Columbia River 147 lake 148 Oregon 147 chub minnow 148 chum salmon 135 cirrated sculpin 181 clingfishes 197 C-Osole 158 coal fish 170 coarse-scaled suckers 143, 145 Columbia River 145 Goose Lake 145 Klamath River 145 Warner Lake basin 143 coastal cutthroat trout 136 coastal steelhead trout 137 cods 154 arctic 154, 155 216 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page black 170 blue 173 bull 173 cultus 172 gray 154 ling 172 northern 155 Pacific tomcod 155 Wachna 155 codfish, Pacific 154 coho salmon 135 Columbia River smelt 141 chub 147 trout perch 156 Congo eel 194 convict fish 171 cow shark 130 crampfish 132 crappies 162 black 162 white 162 crested blenny 194 cultus cod 172 cutlass fishes 160 cutthroat trout 136, 137 coastal 136, 137 Montana black-spotted 136 steelhead 137 dace 145, 148 black-nosed 148 black-sided 148 Klamath 149 long-nosed 149 speckled 148 Umpqua River 149 decorated blenny 193 deep sea fish 133, 142, 159 deep sea smelt 142 dog salmon 135 dogfish shark 131 dolly varden trout 139 eastern brook trout 138 eels 195 Congo 194 snake 193 snipe 142 thread 142 wolf 195 eel pouts 195 electric rays 132 elephant shark 131 English sole 157, 158 eulachon 141 fine-scaled suckers 143, 144 Columbia River 143 Klamath River 144 flaccid fishes 191 flathead 157 Page flounders 157, 158 scaly-finned 158 starry 159 forktail perch 190 four-horned sea poacher 182 fox shark 131 freshwater smelt 142 fucus blenny 192 giant sea bass 170 gobies 191 goldfish 145 gray cod 154 gray shark 131 gray star-snout 185 grayfish 131 grayling, Montana 140 great blue shark 131 great sculpin 180 green-striped rockfish 168 green sturgeon 133 green sunfish 161 green tench 146 greenling 171,172 Alaska 172 broad-finned 171 kelp 171 long-spined 171 painted 171 red 171 grenadiers 154 great sculpin 180 grouper 164 gruntfish 182 hagfishes 130 black 130 common 130 hairtails 160 hake, Pacific 156 halibuts 157 arrow-toothed 157 Pacific 157 handsawfishes 152 hardhead 147 headfishes 197 herring, Pacific 133 highbrow 191 horned pout 150, 151 humpback salmon 134 hybrid sole 158 Irish lord 174 jack smelt 160 Kamloops trout 138 kelp greenling 171 kelpfish 192 king salmon 135 Klamath dace 149 Klamath sucker 143 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 217 Page lake chub 148 Lake Crescent whitefish 139 lake lawyer 156 lake trout 138 lamprey 130 brook 130 lake 130 Pacific 130 river 130 three-toothed 130 lancet fish 152 land-locked salmon 135 lantern fishes 151 large- mouth black bass 162 ling 156 ling cod 172 little pickerel 152 little red fish 135 lobe-finned rockfish 163 long-finned smelt 141 long-finned sole 159 long-jawed goby 191 long- jawed rockfish 166, 167 long-nosed dace 149 long-nosed skate 132 long-nosed sucker 145 long-rayed sculpin 175 long-spined greenling 171 long-tailed shark 131 Lost River sucker 142 lumpfish 186 lumpsuckers 186 smooth 186 spiny 186 mackerel, Pacific 160 mackerel shark 131 Mackinaw trout 138 manacled sculpin 172 many-spined stickleback 159 marbled sculpin 173 marine stickleback 159 midshipman 197 minnows 145, 147 Montana black-spotted trout 136 Montana grayling 140 Moonfish 156 mottled sand dab 156 mountain sucker 143 Mountain whitefish, Rocky 139 mud-minnow 152, 153 mud shark 130 night surf smelt 141 northern anchovy 133 northern blennies 192 northern cod 155 northern roach 146 northern sea-horse 182 northern stickleback 159 Page ocean sunfish 197 oil shark 131 olive-backed rockfish 167 oolachan 141 opah 156 orange rockfish 166 orange-spotted rockfish 169 Oregon chub 147 Oregon pike 150 Oregon whitefish 140 ornamented blenny 193 Pacific codfish 154 Pacific hake 156 Pacific halibut 157 Pacific herring 133 Pacific lamprey 130 Pacific mackerel 160 Pacific saury 154 Pacific tomcod 155 painted greenling 171 pampano, California 161 pelagic fish 151, 161 perch 161 blue 190 forktail 190 pile 190 porgy 190 shiner 189 silver 190 splittail 190 trout 156 viviparous 189 wall-eyed 190 white 190 yellow 161 pickerels 152 pike, Oregon 150 pike, Sacramento 149 pilchard 133 pile perch 190 pink salmon 134 pipefish 1 60 pollach, Puget Sound 155 pomf ret 1 60 porgy 190 prickly bullhead 179 prickly skate 132 priest fish 170 Puget Sound smelt 141 Puget Sound pollach 155 pumpkinseed sunfish 162 quillfish 195 ragfishes 161 rainbow "herring" 140 rainbow trout 137, 138 ratfish 132 rat tails 154 218 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page rays 131, 132 ray, electric 132 red devil 194 red Irish lord 174 red fish, little 135 red greenling 171 red rockcod 167 red rockfish 167 red salmon 135 red-sided bream 150 red-sided shiner 150 red snapper 167 red-striped rockfish 166 rex sole 159 ribbon fish 156 river lamprey 130 roaches 146, 147 rock blenny 194 rock sole 158 rock suckers 186 rock trout (see greenlings) 171 rockcod (see rockfish) 163, 167 rockfish 163, 164 Alaskan red 167 black and yellow 170 black-banded 170 brown 168, 169 Chinese. 170 green-striped 168 grouper 164 lobe-finned 163 long-jawed 166, 167 olive-backed 167 orange 166 orange-spotted 169 red 167 red-striped 166 speckled 169 spiny-headed 163 vermilion 166 yellow-backed 169 yellow-spotted 170 yellowtail 164, 165 Rocky Mountain bullhead 179 Rocky Mountain whitefish 139 ronquil 191 rough sole 157 rough-backed sculpin 175 rough-tailed skate 132 round-headed sculpin 181, 182 sablefish 170 saddled blenny 192 sailor fish 182 salmon 133 blueback 135 chinook 135 chum 135 coho 135 dog 135 humpback 134 Page king 135 land-locked 135 pink 134 red 135 silver 135 sockeye 135 spring 135 salmon shark 131 sand dabs 156 mottled 156 speckled 156 sand fish 163 sand lances 191 sand launces 191 sand sole 157 sardine 133 sauries 154 scaly-finned flounder 158 sculpins 172 buffalo 174 cirrated 181 great 180 long-rayed 175 manacled 172 marbled 1 73 rough-backed 175 round-headed 181, 182 tadpole 172 wooly 180 sea bass 163 giant 170 white 163 sea horse, northern 182 sea poachers 182, 183 sea snails 186 shad 133 sharks 130, 131 angel 131 basking 131 bone 131 brown 131 cat 131 cow 130 dogfish 131 elephant 131 fox 131 grayfish 131 great blue 131 longtail 131 mackerel 131 mud 130 oil 131 salmon 131 shovelnose 130 sleeper 131 soup-fin 131 spotted cow 130 thresher 131 tiger 131 shiner, red-sided 150 shovelnose shark 130 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 219 Page silver perch 190 silver salmon 135 silver smelt 142 silver spot 182 silver trout 135 silversides 160 bay-smelt 160 jacksmelt 1 60 singing fish 197 skates 131 big 132 black 132 California 132 long-nosed 132 prickly 132 rough-tailed . . 132 skilfish 170 skipjack 1 60 sleeper shark 131 slime sole 159 slippery sole 159 small-mouth black bass 162 smelts 140 bay 160 candle fish 141 capelin 142 Columbia River 141 deep sea 142 eulachon 141 freshwater 142 jack 160 long-finned 141 night surf 141 oolachan 141 Puget Sound 141 rainbow herring 140 silver 142 surf 142 whitebait 141 smooth bullhead 178 smooth lumpsucker 186 smooth sea poacher 186 snake eel 193 snipe eel 142 sockeye salmon 135 soles 157 bastard 158 C-0 158 Chinese 159 English 157, 158 hybrid 158 long-finned 159 rex 159 rock 158 rough 157 sand 157 slime 159 slippery 159 soup-fin shark 131 Spanish flag 168 speckled dace 148 Page speckled rockfish 169 speckled sand dab 156 spiny lumpsucker 186 spiny-headed rockfish 1 63 spotted cow shark 130 spotted kelpfish 192 splittail perch 190 spring salmon 135 square mouth 146 squawfish 149, 150 Columbia River 150 Umpqua River 150 Sacramento River 149 starry flounder 159 steelhead trout 137 stickleback 159 many-spined 159 marine 159 northern 159 three-spined 159 striped bass 163 sturgeons 132 green 132 white 132 sturgeon sea poacher 183 suckers 1 42 coarse-scaled 143, 145 fine-scaled 143, 144 long-nosed 145 Lost River 142 Klamath Lake 143 Klamath River 145 mountain 143 rock 186 Upper Klamath Lake 143 sunfish 161, 162 bluegill 162 green 162 ocean 197 pumpkinseed 162 surf-fishes 189 surf-smelt 142 night 141 tadpole sculpin 172 tench 146 green 146 yellow 146 thread eels 142 three-spined stickleback 159 three- toothed lamprey 130 thresher sharks 131 tide pool johnny 181 tiger shark 131 toad fishes 197 tomcod, Pacific 155 torpedo 132 trout 133 blueback 137 brook 138 220 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page brown 137 bull 139 charr 139 coastal cutthroat 136 coastal steelhead 137 cutthroat 136 dolly varden 139 eastern brook 138 Kamloops 138 Lake 138 Mackinaw 138 Montana black-spotted 136 rainbow 137, 138 rock 171 silver 135 steelhead 137 trout perch, Columbia River 156 tube-snout 159 tuna, bluefin 160 tunny 1 60 turbot 158 vermilion rockfish 166 viper fish 142 viviparous perches 189 Wachna cod 155 wall-eyed perch 190 Page warmouth bass 161 Washington mud-minnow 153 western charr 139 western mud-minnow 152 whitebait 141 white crappie 162 whitefish 139 brown-backed 139 Lake Crescent 139 Oregon 140 Rocky Mountain 135, 139 white perch 190 white sea bass 163 white sturgeon 133 white surfhsh 190 whiting 155 window-tail sea poacher 183 wolf eel 195 wolf fishes 195 woolly sculpin 180 yellow Irish lord 174 yellow perch 161 yellow tench 146 yellow-backed rockfish 169 yellow-spotted rockfish 170 yellowtail rockfish 164, 165 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 221 INDEX TO THE SCIENTIFIC NAMES OCCURRING IN THESE KEYS Page acanthias, Dolopichthys 197 Acipenser acutirostris 133 medirostris 133 transmontanus 133 Acipenseridae 133 acipenserinus, Podothecus 183 Acrocheilus alutaceus 146 acrolepis, Macrurus 154 Acrotidae 161 Acrotus willoughbyi 161 aculeatus aculeatus, Gasterosteus. 159 aculeatus microcephalus, Gasterosteus 159 acuticeps, Oxycottus 182 acutirostris, Acipenser 133 aenigmaticus, Icosteus 161 affinis oregonia, Atherinops 160 aggregatus, Cymatogaster 189 Agonidae.. 182, 184 aix, Pallasina barbata 183 alalunga, Germo 160 alascana, Asterotheca 185 alascanus, Sebastolubus 163 Albatrossia pectoralis 154 Alcidea thoburni 173 Alepisauridae 152 Alepisaurus ferox 152 Alepocephalidae 133 aleutensis, Lyconectes 194 aleuticus, Cottus 178 Allocottus embryum 181 Allolumpenus hypochromus 193 Allosmerus attenuatus 141 Alopias vulpinus 131 Alopiidae 131 Alosa sapidissima 133 altivelis, Sebastolobus 163 alutaceus, Acrocheilus 146 alutus, Sebastodes 166 Ameiuridae 150 Ameiurus melas 150 nebulosus 151 Ammodytes tobianus personatus . . 191 Ammodytidae 191 Anarrhichthyidae 195 Anarrhichthys ocellatus 195 anguillaris, Lumpenus 193 annularis, Pomoxis 162 Anoplagonus inermis 186 Anoplarchus purpurescens purpurescens 194 Anoplopoma fimbria 170 Anoplopomidae 170 Page Antimora microlepis 156 Aplites salmoides 162 Apocope falcata 148 klamathensis 148 oscula carringtoni 148 nubila 148 umatilla 148 Apodichthys flavidus 192 Apomotis cyanellus 161 Apristurus brunneus 131 Arctozenus coruscans 151 argentea, Sphyraena 160 argenteum, Hyperprosopon 190 Argentinidae 142 argyrosomus, Damalichthys 190 armatus armatus, Leptocottus. . . . 180 Artedius lateralis 176 Ascelichthys rhodorus 172 asper, Cottus 179 Aspicottus bison 174 asprellus, Radulinus 174 Asterotheca alascana 185 infraspinata 184, 185 pentacantha 186 Astrolytes fenestralis 176 Atheresthes stomias 157 Atherinidae 160 Atherinops affinis oregonia 160 Atherinopsis californiensis calif orniensis 1 60 atlanticus, Benthodesmus 160 Atractoscion nobilis 163 atropurpureus, Epigeichthys 194 attenuatus, Allosmerus 141 Rhinoliparis 189 Aulorhynchidae 159 Aulorhynchus flavidus 159 auratus, Carassius 145 auriculatus, Sebastodes 168 Averruncus emmelane 183, 184 avocetta, Nemichthys 142 axinophrys, Xystes 183 Axyrias harringtoni 177 balteatus, Richardsonius balteatus 150 Richardsonius, hydrophlox 150 barbata aix, Pallasina 183 barbulifer, Rhinoliparis 189 Bathyagonus nigripinnis 185 Bathylagus pacificus 142 Bathymasteridae 191 Bathytroctes stomias 133 222 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page Batrachoididae 197 beani, Triglops 173 beardsleei, Salmo gairdnerii 137 beldingi, Cottus 178 bendirei, Cottus 179 Benthodesmus atlanticus 160 beringiannus, Polypera 187 bicolor bicolor, Siphateles 146 columbianus, Siphateles 146 formosus, Siphateles 146 obesus, Siphateles 147 oregonensis, Siphateles 147 Tigoma 149 bilineata, Lepidopsetta 158 binoeulata, Raja 132 bison, Aspicottus 174 Blennicottus globiceps 181, 182 Blepsias cirrhosus 182 boleoides, Radulinus 174 borealis, Icelinus 175 Boreogadus saida 155 Bothidae 156 Bothragonus swanii 183 Bothrocara mollis 197 remigera 196 Brachyistius frenatus 189 Brama raii 160 Bramidae 160 brevipes, Lycodes 196 brevirostris, Chasmistes 143 Brosmophycis marginatus 197 Brotulidae 197 brunnea, Lycogramma 196 brunneus, Apristurus 131 Bryostemma decoratum 193 nugator 193 burchami, Icelinus 176 caerulea, Sardinops 133 californica, Squatina 131 Tetranarce 132 californiense, Myctophum 151 californiensis californiensis, Atherinopsis 1 60 callyodon, Liparis 186 Calycilepidotus spinosus 174 Carassius auratus 145 Carchariidae 131 Careproctus cypselurus 188 gilberti 188 melanurus 188 ovigerum 188 carpio, Cyprinus 145 carringtoni, Apocope oscula 148 cataractae dulcis, Rhinichthys. . . . 149 Catostomidae 142 Page Catostomus catostomus griseus 145 macrocheilus 145 microps 144 occidentalis lacus-anserinus . ... 145 rimiculus 144 snyderi 145 syncheilus 143, 144 warnerensis 143 Caularchus maeandricus 197 caurinus, Mylocheilus 147 Sebastodes 169 Cebidichthys violaceus 194 Centrarchidae 161 cephalus, Paraliparis 189 cerdale, Scytalina 195 Cetorhinidae 131 Cetorhinus maximus 131 Chaenobryttus gulosus 161 chalcogramma fucensis, Theragra. 155 Chasmistes. . brevirostris 143 copei 143 stomias 143 Chauliodontidae 142 Chauliodus macouni 142 chilensis, Sarda 160 Chimaeridae 132 Chiropsis decagrammus 171 chirus chirus, Phytichthys 194 Chitonotus pugetensis 175 chrysomelas, Sebastodes 170 cirrhosus, Blepsias 182 Citharichthys sordidus 156 stigmaeus 156 clarkii clarkii, Salmo 136, 137 crescentis, Salmo 136 lewisi, Salmo 136 Clevelandia ios 191 Clinidae 192 Clupea pallasii 133 Clupeidae 133 coenosus, Pleuronichthys 158 Colliei, Hydrolagus 132 Cololabis saira 154 Columbia transmontana 156 columbianus, Sebastodes 164, 165 Siphateles bicolor 146 conocephalus, Mylopharodon 147 copei, Chasmistes 143 Coregonidae 139 corinus, Hexanchus 130 coruscans, Arctozenus 151 Coryphaenoididae 154 Cottidae 172 1936] Schultz: Keys to fishes 223 Page Cottus aleuticus 178 asper 179 beldingii 178 bendirei 1 79 evermanni 178 gulosus 178 klamathensis 178 leiopomus 177 marginatus 178 princeps 177 punctulatus 1 79 rhotheus 179 semiscaber 179 tenuis 178 tubulatus 178 Couesius greeni 148 coulteri, Prosopium 139 crameri, Oregonichthys 147 Sebastodes 167 crenulare, Myctophum 151 crescentis, Salmo clarkii 136 cristiceps, Plectromus 159 Cristivomer namaycush 138 crotalinus, Embryx 195 cyanellus, Apomotis 161 Cyclopteridae 186 cyclopus, Liparis 187 Cyclothone microdon 142 Cymatogaster aggregatus 189 cypselurus, Careproctus 188 Cyprinidae 145 Cyprinus carpio 145 dactylosus, Paraliparis 188 Dalatiidae 131 Damal ichthys argyrosomus 190 vacca 190 Dasy cottus setiger 180 deani, Paraliparis 188 Polistrotrema 130 decagrammus, Chiropsis 171 decoratum, Bryostemma 193 decurrens, Pleuronichthys 158 Delolepis giganteus 194 delphinus, Pantosteus 144 Deltistes luxatus 142 dennyi, Liparis 187 dentex, Osmerus 140 Dialarchus snyderi 181 Diaphus rafinesquei 152 diapterus, Furcimanus 196 diego, Pneumatophorus 160 dilatus, Spirinchus 141 diploproa, Sebastodes 167 dolomieu, Micropterus 162 Dolopicthys acanthias 197 dulcis, Rhinichthys cataractae. . . . 149 elassodon, Hippoglossoides 157 elegans montereyensis, Gibbonsia . 192 Page Eleginus gracilis 154, 155 ellioticus, Tocichthys 190 elongatus, Ophiodon 172 Sebastodes 168 Embiotocidae 189 embryum, Allocottus 181 Embryx crotalinus 195 emmelane, Averruncus 183, 184 emphaeus, Sebastodes 166 Engraulidae 133 Engraulis mordax mordax 133 Entosphenus tridentatus 130 Eopsetta jordani 157 Epigeichthys atropurpureus 194 Eptatretidae 130 Erilepidae 170 Erilepis zonifer 170 Esocidae 152 Essox vermiculatus 152 Eumicrotremus orbis 186 vinolentus 186 Eupomotis gibbosus 162 evermanni, Cottus 178 Rhinichthys 149 evides, Plectobranchus 193 exilis, Lyopsetta 157 falcata, Apocope 148 fenestralis, Astrolytes 176 ferox, Alepisaurus 152 fierasfer, Lycodapus. 196 filamentosus, Tarandichthys 175 fimbria. Anoplopoma 170 flavescens, Perca 161 flavidus, Apodichthys 192 Aulorhynchus 159 Sebastodes 164, 165 florae, Liparis 187 floridana, Huro 162 fluviatilis, Lampetra 130 fontinalis, Salvelinus 138 formosus, Siphateles bicolor 146 frenatus, Brachyistius 189 fucensis, Liparis 187 fucensis, Theragra chalcogramma . 155 fucorum, Xerepes 192 furcatus, Phanerodon 190 Furcimanus diapterus 196 Gadidae 154 Gadus macrocephalus 154 gairdenerii, beardsleei, Salmo .... 137 Salmo gairdnerii 137 kamloops, Salmo 138 Galeorhinidae 131 Galeorhinus zyopterus 131 Gasterosteidae 159 Gasterosteus acuelatus aculeatus 159 aculeatus microcephalus 159 Germo alalunga 1 60 224 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol.2. Page Gibbonsia elegans montereyensis. . 192 gibbosus, Eupomotis 162 giganteus, Delolepis 194 gilberti, Careproctus 188 Gilbertidia sigalutes 172 gilli, Synchirus 172 Gillichthys mirabilis 191 glauca, Prionace 131 globiceps, Blennicottus 181, 182 Glyptocephalus zachirus 159 Gobiesocidae 197 Gobiidae 191 Gonostomidae 142 goodei, Ptilichthys 195 gorbuscha, Oncorhynchus 133 gracilis, Eleginus 154, 155 grandis, Ptychocheilus 149 greeni, Cousesius 148 Polypera 187 griseo-lineatus, Syngnathus 160 griseus, Catostomus catostomus . . 145 Hexanchus 130 gulosus, Chaenobryttus 161 Cottus 178 harringtoni, Axyrias 177 Helioperca incisor 161 Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus 174 Hesperoleucus mitrulus 146 Heterostichus rostratus 192 Hexagrammidae 171 Hexagrammos 171 octogrammus 172 stelleri 172 Hexanchidae 130 Hexanchus 130 corinus 130 griseus 130 Hippoglossinae 157 Hippoglossoides elassodon 157 Hippoglossus stenolepis 157 Holconotus rhodoterus 190 hopliticus, Paricelinus 173 hubbsi, Novumbra 152, 153 Huro floridana 162 Hydrolagus colliei 132 hydrophlox, Richardsonius balteatus 150 Hyperprosopon argenteum 190 hypochromus, Allolumpenus 193 Hypomesus olidus 142 pretiosus 142 Hypsagonus quadricornis 182 Icelinus borealis 1 75 burchami 176 strabo 175 Icosteidae 161 Icosteus aenigmaticus 161 Ictalurus punctatus 150 incisor, Helioperca 161 Page inermis, Anoplagonus 186 infraspinata, Asterotheca 184, 185 Inopsetta ischyra 158 inornata, Raja 132 introniger, Sebastodes 167 ios, Clevelandia 191 ischyra, Inopsetta 158 isolepis, Isopsetta 158 Isopsetta isolepis 158 jordani, Eopsetta 157 Lycodes 195 Pantosteus 143 Ronquilus 191 Jordania zonope 173 kamloops, Salmo gairdnerii 138 keta, Oncorhynchus 134 kincaidi, Malacocottus 180 Raja 132 kisutch, Oncorhynchus 135 klamathensis, Apocope 149 Cottus 178 lacus-anserinus, Catostomus occidentalis 145 laetus, Pholis 192 Lamna nasus 131 Lamnidae 131 Lampanyctus leucopsarus 152 nannochir 152 regalis 152 Lampetra fluviatilis 130 planeri 130 Lampridae 156 Lampris regius 156 lateralis, Artedius 176 Taeniotoca 190 latifrons, Xenopyxis 184 latipinnis, Zaniolepis 171 Lebius superciliosus 171 leiopomus, Cottus 177 Lepidogobius lepidus 191 Lepidopsetta bilineata 158 lepidus, Lepidogobius 191 Leptoclinus maculatus 193 Leptocottus armatus armatus. ... 180 leucopsarum, Lampanyctus 152 Leuroglossus stilbius 142 lewisi, Salmo clarkii 136 Liparididae 186 Liparis callyodon 186 cyclopus 187 dennyi 187 florae 187 fucensis 187 mucosus 186 pulchellus 187 rutteri 186 1936] Schultz: Keys to Fishes 225 Page Lota maculosa 156 longirostris, Lumpenella 193 lugubris, Plectromus 159 Lumpenella longirostris 193 Lumpenus anguillaris 193 luxatus, Deltistes 142 Lycodapus fierasfer 196 Lycodes brevipes 196 jordani 195 palearis 196 Lycodopsis pacificus 195 Lycogramma brunnea 196 Lyconectes aleutensis 19-4 Lyopsetta exilis 157 macellus, Prionistius 173 macouni, Chauliodus 142 Pterygiocottus 177 macrocephalus, Gadus 154 macrocheilus, Catostomus 145 Macrouridae 154 Macrurus acrolepis 154 maculatus, Leptoclinus 193 Notorynchus 130 maculosa, Lota 156 maculosus, Oligocottus 181 maeandricus, Caularchus 197 Malacocottus kincaidi '. 180 maliger, Sebastodes 169 Mallotus villosus 142 malma spectabilis, Salvelinus 139 marginatus, Brosmophycis 197 Cottus 178 marmoratus, Scorpaenichthys . ... 173 maximus, Cetorhinus 131 meanyi, Ruscarius 177 medirostris, Acipenser 133 Melamphaidae 159 melanops, Sebastodes 164, 165 melanostictus, Psettichthys 157 melanurus, Careproctus 188 melas, Ameiurus 150 mento, Paraliparis 189 Merluccius productus 156 microcephalus, Gasterosteus aculeatus 159 Somniosus 131 microdon, Cyclothone 142 Microgadus proximus 155 microlepis, Antimora 156 Micropterus dolomieu 162 microps, Catostomus 144 Microstomidae 142 Microstomus pacificus 159 miniatus, Sebastodes 166 mirabilis, Gillichthys 191 mitrulus, Hesperoleucus 146 Mola mola 197 Molidae 197 Page mollis, Bothrocara 197 montanus, Thymallus 140 montereyensis, Gibbonsia elegans. 192 mordax mordax, Engraulis 133 Moronidae 163 mucosus, Liparis 186 Xiphister 194 Myctophidae 151 Myctophum californiense 151 crenulare 151 Mylocheilus caurinus 147 Mylopharodon conocephalus 147 Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus 180 mystinus, Sebastodes 166 namaycush, Cristivomer 138 nannochir, Lampanyctus 152 nasus, Lamna 131 Nautichthys oculofasciatus 182 nebulosus, Ameiurus 151 Sebastodes 170 Nectoliparis pelagicus 189 Nemichthyidae 142 Nemichthys avocetta 142 nerka, Oncorhynchus 135 nicholsii, Rhinogobiops 191 nigripinnis, Bathyagonus 185 nigrocinctus, Sebastodes 170 nobilis, Atractoscion 163 notatus, Porichthys 197 Notorynchus maculatus 130 notospilotus, Parastrolytes 176 Novumbra hubbsi 152, 153 Novumbridae 152 nubila, Apocope oscula 148 nugator, Bryostemma 193 obesus, Siphateles bicolor 147 Occa verrucosa 183 occidentalis lacus-anserinus, Catostomus 145 ocellatus, Anarrhichthys 195 octogrammus, Hexagrammos 172 oculofasciatus, Nautichthys 182 Odontopyxis trispinosus 183, 184 olidus, Hypomesus 142 Oligocottus maculosus 181 Oncorhynchus gorbuscha 133 keta 134 kisutch 135 nerka 136 tshawytscha 135 Oneirodidae 197 Ophiodon elongatus 172 Ophiodontidae 172 orbis, Eumicrotremus 186 226 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page oregonensis, bi color Siphateles 147 Ptychocheilus 150 oregonia, Atherinops affinis 160 Oregonichthys crameri 147 oregonium, Prosopium 140 ornatus, Pholis 192 oscula nubila, Apocope 148 carringtoni, Apocope 148 Osmeridae 140 Osmerus dentex 140 Otolithidae 163 ovigerum, Careproctus 188 Oxycottus acuticeps 182 Oxylebius pictus 171 pacificus, Bathylagus 142 Lycodopsis 195 Microstomus 159 Thaleichthys 141 palearis, Lycodes 196 pallasii, Clupea 133 Pallasina barbata aix 183 Pantosteus jordani 143 delphinus 144 paradoxus, Psychrolutes 172 Paralepididae 151 Paraliparis cephalus. 189 dactylosus 188 deani 188 mento 189 ulochir 188 Parastrolytes notospilotus 176 Paricelinus hopliticus 173 Parophrys vetulus 158 paucispinis, Sebastodes 164 pectoralis, Albatrossia 154 pelagicus, Nectoliparis 189 pentacantha, Asterotheca 186 Peprilus simillimus 161 Perca flavescens 161 Percidae 161 Percopsidae 156 personatus, Ammodytes tobianus. 191 Petromyzonidae 130 Phanerodon furcatus 190 Pholididae 192 Pholis laetus 192 ornatus 192 Phytichthys chirus chirus 194 pictus, Oxylebius 171 pinniger, Sebastodes 166 planeri, Lampetra 130 Platichthys stellatus rugosus 159 Plectobranchus evides 193 Plectromus cristiceps 159 lugubris 159 Page Pleuronectidae 157 Pleuronectinae 157 Pleuronichthys coenosus 158 decurrens 158 Pneumatophorus diego 160 Podothecus acipenserinus 183 Polistotrema deani 130 stouti 130 polyacanthocephalus, Myoxocephalus 180 Polypera beringianus 187 greeni 187 Pomoxis annularis 162 sparoides 162 Porichthys notatus 197 Poroclinus rothrocki 193 pretiosus, Hypomesus 142 princeps, Cottus 177 Prionace glauca 131 Prionistius macellus 173 productus, Merluccius 156 profundorum, Zesticelus 180 proriger, Sebastodes 166 Prosopium coulteri 139 oregonium 140 snyderi 139 williamsoni 139 proximus, Microgadus 155 Psettichthys melanostictus 157 Psychrolutes paradoxus 172 Ptervgiocottus macouni 177 Ptilichthyidae 195 Ptilichthys goodei 195 Ptychocheilus grandis 149 oregonensis 150 umpquae 150 pugetensis, Chitonotus 1 75 pulchellus, Liparis 187 punctatus, Ictalurus 150 punctulatus, Cottus 179 pungitius, Pungitius 159 purpurescens purpurescens, Anoplarchus 194 quadricornis, Hypsagonus 182 Quietula y-cauda 191 Radulinus asprellus 174 boleoides 174 rafinesquei, Diaphus 152 raii, Brama 160 Raja binoculata 132 inornata 132 1936] Schults: Keys to fishes 227 Page kincaidi 132 rhina 132 stellulata 132 trachura 132 Rajidae 131 regalis, Lampanyctus 152 regius, Lampris 156 remigera, Bothrocara 196 rex-salmonorum, Trachipterus . ... 156 Rhamphocottidae 182 Rhamphocottus richardsoni 182 rhina, Raja 132 Rhinichthys cataractae dulcis 149 evermanni 149 Rhinogobiops nicholsii 191 Rbinoliparis attenuatus 189 barbulifer 189 rhodorus, Ascelichthys 172 rhodoterus, Holconotus 190 rhotheus, Cottus 179 richardsoni, Rhamphocottus 182 Richardsonius balteatus balteatus 150 balteatus hydrophlox 150 rimensis, Rusciculus 181 rimiculus, Catostomus 144 Roccus saxatilis 163 Ronquilus jordani 191 rosaceus, Sebastodes 168 rostratus, Heterostichus 192 rothrocki, Poroclinus 193 ruberrimus, Sebastodes 167 rubrivinctus, Sebastodes 168 rugosus, Platichthys stellatus. ... 159 rupestris, Sebastodes 168 Ruscarius meanyi 177 Rusciculus rimensis 181 rutteri, Liparis 186 saida, Boreogadus 155 saira, Cololabis 154 Salmo clarkii clarkii 136, 137 clarkii crescentis 136 lewisi 136 gairdnerii beardsleei 137 gairdnerii 137 kamloops 138 trutta 137 salmoides, Aplites 162 Salmonidae 134 Salvelinus fontinalis 138 malma spectabilis 139 sapidissima, Alosa 133 Sarda chilensis 160 Sardinops caerulea 133 Page saxatilis, Roccus 163 saxicola, Sebastodes 167 Scomberesocidae 154 Scombridae 160 Scorpaenichthys marmoratus 173 Scorpaenidae 163 Scylliorhinidae 131 Scytalina cerdale 195 Scytalinidae 195 Sebastodes alutus 166 auriculatus 168 caurinus 1 69 chrysomelas 170 columbianus 164, 165 crameri 167 diploproa 167 elongatus 168 emphaeus 166 flavidus 164, 165 introniger 167 maliger 169 melanops 164, 165 miniatus 166 mystinus 166 nebulosus 170 nigrocinctus 170 paucispinis 164 pinniger 166 proriger 166 rosaceus 168 ruberrimus 167 rubrivinctus 168 rupestris 168 saxicola 167 serranoides 164 wilsoni 167 zacentrus 168 Sebastolobus alascanus 163 altivelis 163 semiscaber, Cottus 179 serranoides, Sebastodes 164 setiger, Dasy cottus 180 sigalutes, Gilbertidia 172 silenus, Zaprora 191 simillimus, Peprilus 161 Siphateles bicolor bicolor 146, 147 columbianus 146 formosus 146 obesus 147 oregonensis 147 snyderi, Catostomus 145 Dialarchus 181 Prosopium 139 Somniosidae 131 Somniosus microcephalus 131 sordidus, Citharichthys 156 228 University of Washington Publications in Biology [Vol. 2. Page sparoides, Pomoxis 162 spectabilis, Salvelinus malma 139 Sphyraena argentea 1 60 Sphyraenidae 1 60 spinosus, Calycilepidotus 174 Spirinchus dilatus 141 starksi 141 Squalidae 131 Squalus suckleyi 131 Squatina calif ornica 131 Squatinidae 131 starksi, Spirinchus 141 stellatus, Platichthys rugosus . ... 159 stelleri, Hexagrammos 172 Stellerina xyosterna 183 stellulata, Raja 132 stenolepis, Hippoglossus 157 Stichaeidae 192 stigmaeus, Citharichthys 156 stilbius, Leuroglossus 142 stomias, Atheresthes 157 Bathytroctes 133 Chasmistes 143 stouti, Polistotrema 130 strabo, Icelinus 175 Stromateidae 161 suckleyi, Squalus 131 Sudidae 151 superciliosus, Lebius 171 swanii, Bothragonus 183 syncheilus, Catostomus 143, 144 Synchirus gilli 172 Syngnathidae 160 Syngnathus griseo-lineatus 160 Taeniotoca lateralis 190 Tarandichthys filamentosus 175 tenuis 175 tenuis, Cottus 178 Tarandichthys 175 Tetranarce californica 132 Thaleichthys pacificus 141 Theragra chalcogramma fucensis. . 155 thoburni, Alcidea 173 Thunnidae 160 Thunnus thynnus 1 60 Thymallidae 140 Thymallus montanus 140 thynnus, Thunnus 160 Tigoma bicolor 149 Tinea tinea 146 tobianus personatus, Ammodytes. 191 Tocichthys ellipticus 190 Torpedinidae 132 Page Trachipteridae 156 Trachipterus rex-salmonorum . . . . 156 trachura, Raja 132 transmontana, Columbia 156 transmontanus, Acipenser 133 triacanthus, Xeneretmus 184 Trichiuridae 160 Trichodon trichodon 163 Trichodontidae 163 tridentatus, Entosphenus 130 Triglops beani 173 trispinosus, Odontopyxis 183, 184 trutta, Salmo 137 tshawytscha, Oncorhynchus 135 tubulatus, Cottus 178 ulochir, Paraliparis 188 umatilla, Apocope 148 umpquae, Ptychocheilus 150 vacca, Damalichthys 190 vermiculatus, Esox 152 verrucosa, Occa 183 vetulus, Parophrys 158 villosus, Mallotus 142 vinolentus, Eumicrotremus 186 violaceus, Cebidichthys 194 vulpinus, Alopias 131 warnerensis, Catostomus 143 williamsoni, Prosopium 139 willoughbyi, Acrotus 161 wilsoni, Sebastodes 167 Xeneretmus triacanthus 184 Xenopyxis latifrons 184 Xerepes fucorum 192 Xiphister mucosus 194 xyosterna, Stellerina 183 Xystes axinophrys 183 y-cauda, Quietula 191 zacentrus, Sebastodes 168 zachirus, Glyptocephalus 159 Zaniolepis latipinnis 171 Zaprora silenus 191 Zaproridae 191 Zesticelus profundorum 180 Zoarcidae 195 zonif er, Erilepis 170 zonope, Jordania 173 Zyopterus, Galeorhinus 131 UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS The University of Washington Publications are offered in exchange for similar pub- lications issued by universities, scientific societies and other institutions. These papers contain the results of research work in various departments of the University. They are issued in separate monographs numbered in several series. There is no stated interval of publication. All inquiries and all matter sent in exchange should be addressed to the University of Washington Library, Seattle, Washington. Inquiries regarding purchase of these publications should be addressed to the Publications Editor, University of Washing- ton, Seattle, Washington. (O.P. — Indicates that publication is out of print.) ANTHROPOLOGY Volumes I, II, III, and IV completed. Volume V in progress. Vol. 1. 1. The Whaling Equipment of the Makah Indians, by T. T. Waterman (formerly Vol. 1, No. 1 of the University of Washington Publications in Political and Social Science, discontinued). Pp. 1-67. June, 1920... O.P. 2. The Distribution of Kinship Systems in North America, by Leslie Spier Pp. 69-88. Maps 1-9. August, 1925 $ .50 3. An Analysis of Plains Indian rarfleche Decoration, by Leslie Spier. Pp. 89-1 12. August, 1925 25 4. Klallam Folk Tales, by Erna Gunther. Pp. 113-170. August, 1925 50 5. Klallam Ethnography, by Erna Gunther. Pp. 171-314. January, 1927.. 1.25 Vol. 2. 1. Adze, Canoe, and House Types of the Northwest Coast, by Ronald L. Olson. Pp. 1-38. November, 1927 50 2. The Ghost Dance of 1870 among the Klamath of Oregon, by Leslie Spier. Pp. 39-56. November, 1927 25 3. Some Tales of the Southern Puget Sound Salish, by Arthur C. Ballard. Pp. 57-81. December, 1927 25 4. The Middle Columbia Salish, by James H. Teit. Edited by Franz Boas. Pp. 83-128. June, 1928 50 5. A Further Analysis of the First Salmon Ceremony, by Erna Gunther. Pp. 129-173. June, 1928 50 6. Northwest Sahaptin Texts, 1, by Melville Jacobs. Pp. 175-244. June, 1929 .75 Vol. 3. 1. Growth of Japanese Children Born in America and in Japan, by Leslie Spier. Pp. 1-30. July, 1929 35 2. Mythology of Southern Puget Sound, by Arthur C. Ballard. Pp. 31-150. December, 1929 1.00 3. Wishram Ethnography, by Leslie Spier and Edward Sapir. Pp. 151-300. Illustrated. May, 1930 1.50 Vol. 4. 1. The Indians of Puget Sound, by Hermann Haeberlin and Erna Gunther. Pp. 1-84. September, 1930 1.00 2. A Sketch of Northern Sahaptin Grammar, by Melville Jacobs. Pp. 85-292. 1 Map. March, 1931 2.00 3. Plains Indian Parfleche Designs, by Leslie Spier. Pp. 293-322. Illus- trated. December, 1931 35 Vol. 5. The Sanpoil and Nesplem: Salishan Peoples of Northeastern Washington, by Verne F. Ray. Pp. 237. Illustrated. November, 1932 2.00 BIOLOGY Vol. 1. 1. The Spiders of Washington, by Leonard G. Worley. Pp. 1-64. August, 1932 50 2. Coleoptera of Washington: Chrysomelidae, by Samuel Beller and Melville H. Hatch. Pp. 65-144. Plate 1. August, 1932 50 3. Coleoptera of Washington: Silphidae, by Melville H. Hatch and William Rueter, Jr. Pp. 147-162. September, 1934 15 Vol. 2. 1. A New Catostomid Fish from the Columbia River, by Carl L. Hubbs and Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 1-14. October, 1932 15 2. Descriptions of Two New American Species Referable to the Rockfish Genus Sebastodcs, with Notes on Related Species, by Carl L. Hubbs and Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 15-44. Plates 1, 2. July, 1933 25 3. The Age and Growth of Atherinops affinis oregonia Jordan and Snyder and of other subspecies of Baysmelt along the Pacific Coast of the United States, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 45-102. Plates 3, 4. December, 1933 .50 4. Key to the Fishes of Washington, Oregon and Closely Adjoining Re- gions, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 103-228. Illustrated. December, 1936 75 Vol. 3. Key to the Rusts of the Pacific Northwest, by J. W. Hotson. Pp. 1-194. Illustrated. November, 1934 150 Vol. 4. 1. Oligochaeta of Washington, by Luther Clare Altman. Pp. 1-137. Illus- trated. May, 1936 75 Vol. 5. A Botanical Survey of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, by George Neville Jones. Pp. 1-288. Illustrated. June. 1936 2.00 FISHERIES Volumes I and II completed. Vol. 1. 1. Preserved Pickled Herring, by Clarence Louis Anderson. Pp. 1-64 March, 1925 1.00 2. Field Characters Identifying Young Salmonoid Fishes in Fresh Waters of Washington, by Donald R. Crawford. Pp. 12. April, 1925 25 3. Synostosis in the Spinal Column of the Rainbow Trout, by Donald R. Crawford. Pp. 8. April, 1925 25 4. A Study of the Gases in Canned Foods, by Ray W. Clough, Oscar E. Shostrom, Ernest D. Clark. Pp. 86-100. September, 1925 25 5. Notes on the Presence of Indol in Sea Foods and Other Food Products, by Ray W. Clough, Oscar E. Shostrom, Ernest D. Clark. Pp. 101-108. Sep- tember, 1925 25 6. Iodine Content of the Pacific Coast Salmon, by Norman Donald Jarvis, Ray William Clough, Ernest Dunbar Clark. Pp. 109-138. February, 1926. Reprint. December, 1928 25 7. Biochemical Study and Proximate Composition of Pacific Coast Crabs, by Carl R. Fellers and Clarence T. Parks. Pp. 139-156. February, 1926... .25 8. Bacteriological Investigations on Raw Salmon Spoilage, by Carl R. Fel- lers. Pp. 157-188. July, 1926 25 9. Canned Salmon: A Five-Year Correlation Study of Certain Quality Factors, by Carl Raymond Fellers, Ernest Dunbar Clark and Ray William Clough. Pp. 189-204. August, 1926 25 10. Fish Preservation by Hypochlorites, by Tung Pai Chen and Carl R. Fellers. Pp. 205-227. September, 1926 25 11. Non-gaseous Spoilage in Canned Marine Products, by Carl R. Fellers. Pp. 229-238. October, 1927 25 12. Iodine Content of Pacific Coast Sea Foods, by Norman D. Jarvis. Pp. 239-250. November, 1928 25 Vol. 2. 1. Ecto-Parasitic Infusoria Attacking Fish of the Northwest, by John E. Guberlet. Pp. 1-16. October, 1926 25 2. Studies on the Control of Gyrodactylus, by John E. Guberlet, Harry A. Hanson and Jean A. Kavanagh. Pp. 17-29. December, 1927 25 3. Notes on a Species of Argulus from Gold-Fish, by John E. Guberlet. Pp. 31-42. December, 1928 25 4. Check-list of the Fresh-water Fishes of Oregon and Washington, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 43-50. January, 1929 25 5. Fish Meals as Food for Young Salmonoid Fishes, by Donald Russell Crawford and Ahamedur Rahman Nizam. Pp. 51-71. June, 1929 25 6. Description of a New Type of Mud-Minnow from Western Washington with Notes on Related Species, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 73-82. Plates 1, 2. July, 1929 25 GEOLOGY Volumes I and II completed. Volume III in progress. Vol. 1. 1. Tertiary Faunal Horizons of Western Washington, by Charles E. Weaver. Pp. 1-67. Plates 1-5. February, 1916 1.00 2. Paleontology of the Oligocene of the Chehalis Valley, by Katherine E. H. Van Winkle. Pp. 69-67. Plates 6 and 7. January, 1918 50 3. Fauna from the Eocene of Washington, by Charles E. Weaver and Katherine Van Winkle Palmer. Pp. 1-56. Plates 8-12. June, 1922.. .50 4. Foraminifera from the Eocene of Cowlitz River, Lewis County, Washing- ton, by G. Dallas Hanna and Marcus A. Hanna. Pp. 57-64. Plate 13. October, 1924 50 Vol. 2. The Geology of the San Juan Islands, by Roy Davidson McLellan. Pp. 185. Illustrated. 1 map 27"x33". November, 1927 2.00 Vol. 3. 1. The Geomorphology and Volcanic Sequence of Steens Mountain in Southeastern Oregon, by Richard E. Fuller. Pp. 1-130. Illustrated November, 1931 1.50 2. The Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, by Howard A. Coombs. Pp. 131-212. Illustrated. July, 1936 75 LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VII completed. Vol. 1. The Poems of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, by Frederick Morgan Padelford. Pp. 238. October, 1920. See Vol. 5. Vol. 2. 1. Spenser's Use of Ariosto for Allegory, by Susannah Jane McMurphy. Pp. 1-54. November, 1923 75 2. Thomas Dekker: A Study in Economic and Social Background, by Kate L.Gregg. Pp. 55-112. July, 1924 75 3. A Bibliography of Fifteenth Century Literature, by Lena Lucile Tucker and Allen Rogers Benham. Pp. 113-274. March, 1928 1.00 Vol. 3. A Critical Edition of Ford's Perkin Warbeck, by Mildred Clara Struble. Pp. 216. 1 Map. January, 1926 2.00 Vol. 4. 1. A Bibliography of Chaucer, 1908-1924, compiled by Dudley David Griffith. Pp. 1-148. March, 1926 1.00 2. Adam, translated by Edward Noble Stone. Pp. 159-193. March, 1926 Reprint. December, 1928 75 3. A Translation of Chapters XI-XVI of Pseudo-Augustinian Sermon Against Jews, Pagans and Arians, Concerning the Creed, also of the Ordo Prophetarum of St. Martial of Limoges, by Edward Noble Stone. Pp. 195-214. March, 1928 25 4. Roman Surveying Instruments, by Edward Noble Stone. Pp. 215-242. Illustrated. August, 1928 75 Vol. 5. The Poems of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, by Frederick Morgan Padelford. Pp. 284. 2 illustrations. October, 1928. Revised Edition. Cloth, $3.00; paper 2.00 Vol. 6. 1. The Political Thought of Roger Williams, by James E. Ernst. Pp. 230. March, 1929 2.00 Vol. 7. The Nature of Poetic Literature, by Louis Peter de Vries. Pp. 246. November, 1930. Cloth, $2.50; paper 1.50 Vol. 8. 1. The Origin of the Griselda Story, by Dudley David Griffith. Pp. 1-120. September, 1931 75 2. Presiding Ideas in Wordsworth's Poetry, by Melvin M. Rader. Pp. 121-216. November, 1931 75 Vol. 9. A Reference Guide to the Literature of Travel, by Edward Godfrey Cof. Pp. 416 2.25 The Publications in Language and Literature are designed to include studies in the various languages and literatures, ancient and modern, represented at the University. The series replaces and absorbs The Publications in English of which the following vol- umes have appeared: Vol. 1. Uno Linderlof's Elements of the History of the English Language, translated by Robert Max Garrett. Cloth O.P. Vol. 2. The Political and Ecclesiastical Allegory of the First Book of the Faerie Queene, by Frederick Morgan Padelford. Cloth 75 Vol. 3. Johannes Steenstrup's The Medieval Popular Ballad, translated by Ed- ward Godfrey Cox. Cloth 1.75 Vol. 4. 1. The Pearl: An Interpretation, by Robert Max Garrett. Paper. Pp. 45.. .50 MATHEMATICS Volume I completed. Volume II in progress. Vol. 1. 1. An Arithmetical Theory of Certain Numerical Functions, by Eric Temple Bell. Pp. 1-44. August, 1915 O.P. 2. Cyclic-Harmonic Curves: A Study in Polar Coordinates, by Robert E. Moritz. Pp. 1-58. June, 1923 1.00 3. Five Studies in Mathematics: Modular Bernoullian and Eulerian Func- tions, by E. T. Bell; Point-Line Correspondences Associated with the General Ruled Surface, by A. F. Carpenter; On the Sum Products of n Consecutive Integers, by Robert E. Moritz; Some Finite Linear Non- Associative Algebras, by L. I. Neikirk; The Ternary Hesse Group and Its Invariants, by R. M. Winger. Pp. 1-80. June, 1926 75 Vol. 2. 1. Six Studies in Mathematics: A Postulational Introduction to the Four Color Problem, by J. P. Ballantine; Electrical Oscillations in a Non- Uniform Transmission Line, by W. H. Ingram; Quintuples of Curves in Four-Space, by A. R. Jerbert; Sufficient Conditions in the Problem of Lagrange of the Calculus of Variations with One Variable End Point, by L. H. McFarlan; A Class of Continuous Curves Defined by Motion Which Have No Tangent Lines, by L. I. Neikirk; A Class of Totally Discontinuous Functions, by L. I. Neikirk. Pp. 1-68. Decem- ber, 1930 1.00 2. Four Studies in Mathematics: The Theory of dk Differences with Ap- plications to the Numerical Solution of Differential Equations, by J. P. Ballantine; Ruled Surface Symbionts, by A. F. Carpenter; Methods of Solving the Euler Equations for the most Simple Problem of the Calculus of Variations in the Parametric Form, by L. H. McFarlan; Self-Projec- tive Rational Octavics Invariant under a Dihedral Collineation Group of Order Twelve, by J. A. Carlson. Pp. 1-65. April, 1934 1.00 OCEANOGRAPHY Vol. 1. 1. Seasonal Distribution of Plankton at Friday Harbor, Washington, by Martin W. Johnson. Pp. 1-38. Figs. A-C. November, 1932 3S 2. Seasonal Distribution and Occurrence of Planktonic Diatoms at Friday Harbor, Washington, by Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 39-81. Figs. A-E. January, 1933 35 3. Vertical Distribution of Diatoms in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, by Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 83-96. Figs A-C. November, 1934 IS 4. Phytoplankton of East Sound, Washington, February to November, 1932, by Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 97-liO. Figs. A, B. November, 1934 IS 5. The Plankton and the Properties of the Surface Waters of the Puget Sound Region, by Thomas G. Thompson and Lyman D. Phifer. Pp. 111-134. Figs. A-E. March, 1936 35 Vol. 2. 1. Seasonal Settlement of Shipworms, Barnacles, and other Wharf-Pile Or- ganisms at Friday Harbor, Washington. By Martin W. Johnson and RoVrt C. Miller. Pp. 1-18. Fig. 1. March, 1935 20 Vol. 3. 1. The Distribution of Phosphates in the Sea Water of the Northeast Pacific. By Iver Igelsrud, Rex J. Robinson and Thomas G. Thompson. Pp. 1-34. Figs. 1-10. March, 1936 25 THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Volumes, I, II, III, V, VII and IX completed. Volumes IV, VI and VIII in progress* Vol. 1. 1. Studies in Matriculation Statistics, Intelligence Ratings and Scholarship Records at the University of Washington, by Alexander Crippen Roberts. Pp. 68. January, 1924 75 2. Causation and the Types of Necessity, by Curt John Ducasse. Pp. 69-200. February, 1924 1.50 Vol. 2. 1. Tiberius Caesar and the Roman Constitution, by Olive Kuntz. Pp. 1-78. August, 1924 75 2. The Logical Influence of Hegel on Marx, by Rebecca Cooper. Pp. 79-182. October, 1925 1.00 3. A Scale of Individual Tests, by Stevenson Smith. Pp. 183-204. May, 1927 50 Vol. 3. 1. A Study of Mobility of Population in Seattle, by Andrew W. Lind. Pp. 1-64. 2 Maps. October, 1925 75 2. History and Development of Common School Legislation in Washington, by Dennis C. Troth. Pp. 65-260. 2 Maps. February 1, 1927 1.50 Vol. 4. 1. John III, Duke of Brabant and the French Alliance, 1345-1347, by Henry Stephen Lucas. Pp. 1-64. May, 1927 75 Vol. 5. 1. Suicides in Seattle, 1914 to 1925, by Calvin F. Schmid. Pp. 1-94. Illustrated. October, 1928 1.00 2. Pupil Mobility in the Public Schools of Washington, by John E. Cor- bally. Pp. 95-180. 1 Map. July, 1930 1.00 3. The Unemployed Citizens' League of Seattle, by Arthur Hillman. Pp. 181-270. February, 1934 50 4. County Finances in the State of Washington. Pp. 271-374. 26 illustra- tions. February, 1935 1.00 Vol. 6. 1. History of Early Common School Education in Washington, by Thomas William Bibb. Pp. 1-154. June, 1929 1.50 Vol. 7. Utah and the Nation, by Leland Hargrave Creer. Pp. 276. 2 Maps. July, 1929. Unbound, $2.00. Bound 3.00 Vol. 8. 1. The Cost of Municipal Operation of the Seattle Street Railway, by Harry Leslie Purdy. Pp. 1-28. August, 1929 65 2. A Plan for Regional Administrative Districts in the State of Washington, by Selden C. Menefee. Pp. 29-80. December, 1935 50 3. Seasonal Unemployment in the State of Washington, by William S. Hopkins. Pp. 81-168. Illustrated. December, 1936 60 Vol. 9. An Introduction to Some Problems of Australian Federalism, by Kenneth O. Warner. Pp. 1-312. November, 1933. Cloth, $2.75; paper 1.75 MEMOIRS OP THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Vol. 1. Paleontology of the Jurassic and Cretaceous of West Central Argentina, by Charles E. Weaver. Pp. 1-596. Plates 1-62. March, 1931 15.00 DIGEST OF THESES Vol 1. Digests of Doctoral Theses: 1914-1931. Pp. 265 1.25 The Publications of the Engineering Experiment Station Series include bulletins of information and investigation concerning engineering and scientific problems. The Extension Service Series includes monographs of interest and value to the lay- man. While authentic, they are not written in highly technical terms with which the general public is unfamiliar.