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Full text of "The Key to the city of Houston. v. 1, no. 1; Dec. 1908"

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Printed jind C<>nii>ileil by Stntc Printing Company. Houston 



THE KEY TO THE 
CITY OF HOUSTON 



MRS. HENRY FALL, Editor-in-Chief 



MRS. MABEL F. SMITH, Illustrations 



DECEMBER, 1908 



/^^ 



The Key to the City of Houston page 

Mks. Henry F-\ll .S 

Early Reminiscences of Houston 

Mrs. Adfxe Briscoe Loosc.\ns 6 

Mrs. T. R. Fp_\nklin q 

The Social Life of Houston 

Marc.\ret Hadley Foster ii 

Literary and Civic Clubs of Houston 

Mrs. I. S. Mey'er 19 

The Mothers' Clubs 

Mrs. B. a. Randolph 35 

Little Men and Women and Representative 
Homes of Houston 
Mrs. J.lAr.EL F. Smith 39 

Benovelent Institutions and Societies 

Mrs. E. N. Gray 55 

Educational Facilities of Houston 

65 

Department of Churches 

Mrs. a. L. ^Metcalf 77 

Parks of Houston 

AIrs. March Culmore 107 

Fraternal Societies 

Mary E. Bryan 1 11 

Patriotic Societies 

Mrs. Henry F. Ring 129 

Musical Houston 

Mrs. Horace Booth 

Mrs. R. L. Cox 

Mrs. J. W. Maxey 147 



Houston Theatres 



Fauna and Flora of Texas 

iMRs. Sallie Elizabeth Byers. 



Shopping Facilities of Houston 

Mrs. George W. Gr-Wes . . . . 



p.\ge 
.158 

■159 
.165 



Houston Business League 

Geo. p. Brown 



Houston Carnival 

JNIks. B. F. Bonner 

Houston Banks and Bankers 



.173 



• 1/9 



Houston Manufactories 

Mrs. D. D. Cooley 193 

The Houston Market 

K.'^te B. ^IcKinney 199 

Promin;nt Hotels of Houston 

Mrs. J. M. Limbocker 

Mrs. M. B. Crowe 

Mrs. Robert Burge 201 

Summer Resorts on the Texas Coast 

Florence N. Dancy 203 

Suburbs of Houston 

Mrs. W. G. Love 207 

Advertising 



PRICE FIFTY CENTS THE COPY 

Issued in the interests of the Federation of Women's Ckibs 
IN PARTICULAR and the City of Houston IN GENERAL 



Houston Paint Company 

Artistic Wall Paper, Alabastine, 
Jap-A-Lac, Gold and Aluminum 
Pamts, Johnson Sc Sons' Wood 
Dyes and Floor Finishes, 
Tube Paints. 



Old Phones 2095 and 3053 



Stores: 701-703 Fannin Street 

Factorv: 509-511 LOUISIANA STREET 



EVERYTHING IN OUR LINE THAT IS GOOD TO BEAUTIFY THE HOME 



STATEMENT OF CONDITON 



O F 

Tbe Commercial National Bank 

OF HOUSTON, TEXAS 



At the Close of Business, September 23, 1908 



TIESOURCES 

Loans and Discounts $2,394,209.11 

United States Bonds 350,000.00 

Banking House, Furniture and Fixtures 300,000.00 

Due from United States Treasurer 15,000.00 

Casli on Hand $ 629,723.07 

Cash with other Banks... 1,152,454.64 1,782,177.71 

$4,841,386.82 



LIABILITIES 

Capital $ 300,000.00 

Surplus 500,000.00 

Undivided Profits— net 123,404.69 

Circulation 300,000.00 

Individuals Deposits $1,630,869.69 

Bank Deposits 1,987,112,44 3,617,982.13 

Total $4,841,386.82 



Accounts solicited. Courteous treatment and best terms consistent with 
good business methods assured Correspondence invited. 




MR^!. JOSEPH DIBRELL, 
State President Texas P. W. O. 




MRS. HENRY FALL, 
President City F. W. C, Editor-in-Chief Key to Houston. 



®1|^ 2(?g to tl|? Olttg of i^umtm 



Volume I 



DECEMBER, 1908 



Number I 



OBJECT AND PURPOSE OF THE KEY 

By Mrs. Henry Fall, Editor-in-Chie, 



It is with some degree of pleasure that the 
City Federation of Clubs present today the ag- 
gregate of tlieir first efforts at magazine work. 
It was during the summer months that Mrs. 
H. N. Jones, then president of the City Federa- 
tion of Clubs, conceived the idea of editing a 
souvenir magazine. The time intervening has 
been employed by the members in the various 
departments of this magazine work, according 
as they were assigned by her. Severe illness 
made it impossible for Mrs. Jones to continue 
the work, a most lamentable fact, for, with her 
hand at the helm to guide and direct her policies, 
success would have been assured. But, in Sep- 
tember, resigning as president of the City Fed- 
eration, the office fell to the vice president, Mrs. 
Henry Fall, and with it the responsibility of 
carrying to completion the magazine, and it may 
not be inopportune to remark that the work fell 
into the hands of the veriest tyro, making the 
achievement only resultant of fair success. Of 
this, however, the reader must judge, making 
due and charitable allowance in such judgment 
of the inexperience and inefficiency of those who 
have essayed the task of executing the plan. 

It has been our purpose to furnish you with 
"The Key to Houston," whereby you may have 
glimpses of the manufactures and various indus- 
tries. A peep at her deep water facilities and 
splendid educational advantages, with a history 
of the many churches and Christian organiza- 
tions, making this souvenir magazine worthy of 
its name. 

The purpose in view is the accumulation of a 
fund to be expended in the purchase of a lot, 
and the erection thereon of a building to be used 
as a place of assemblage for not only club 



women, but for all women's organizations — those 
bodies of associated effort, which in every com- 
munity are contributing so much to the moral, 
social and material advancement of the people. 
That our aspirations are tending towards suc- 
cess, the liberal patronage shown in our columns 
give hopeful augury. 

Those who have assisted in the work of bring- 
ing this souvenir magazine to such success as it 
may be deemed to have attained should receive 
the thanks of the few directly in charge of super- 
vising its contents. From tlie time in which the 
contract was signed that made this magazine a 
possibility, the State Printing Company and the 
Texas Engraving and Electrotype Company have 
given their cordial support and unwavering kind- 
ness, patience and generosity. To those not 
members of the clubs who have contributed 
to these columns, we extend heartfelt thanks. 
We were assured of their ability when we sought 
their assistance. That some of the manuscript 
has been shortened and some left out for lack of 
space, is one of the most unpleasant necessities 
of our work. The splendid response of the ad- 
vertisers has compelled us to cut and condense 
each department. 

We hope that the situation will be accepted 
and the fact cause rejoicing. Those whose kind 
words have cheered us on to victory when en- 
couragement was most needed, we will never 
forget. Much of our success is due to the un- 
tiring efforts of friends and advertisers, and to 
those, and to all those who have helped our en- 
terprise, the club women will join us in grateful 
acknowledgement. If our friends appreciate our 
efforts, it is to them we owe the tribute of suc- 
cess. 



EARLY REMINISCENCES OF HOUSTON 

By Mrs. Adele Briscoe Looscan 



The ground upon which Houston stands is 
truly historic. In the first place, it was included 
in the two leagues granted by the Mexican gov- 
ernment to John Austin, who was among the 
first to perceive the injustice with which Mexico 
treated her foreign born citizens. He was a 
companion of General Long's, and with him in 
the City of Mexico when he met his death there 
in 1821. After Austin returned to Texas it is 
said that he went from settlement to settlement, 
inciting the people to rebellion. It was from 
Austin's widow, afterwards Mrs. Parrot, that 
lose enterprising New Yorkers, A. C. and J. K. 

lien, purchased the land upon which they laid 

it the city, in August, 1836. 

Then the government rested in President Bur- 

t and his cabinet, and during the spring and 
..^mmer had been a kind of perambulating body, 
having moved from San Felipe to Washington, 
thence to Harrisburg, thence to Yelasco, and 
thence to Columbia. When congress assembled 
in the last named place, in October, it was de- 
cided to locate the seat of government at Hous- 
ton, which had been appropriately named for the 
newly inaugurated president. 

The capitol building was to be erected at the 
expense of the Aliens, and Houston became the 
rendezvous for all who had business with the 
government officials. 

Texas was by this time attracting the attention 
of the whole world. The heroism of those who 
had triumphantly thrown off the yoke of Mexico 
reminded the world of the knightly deeds of the 
medieval ages, and made them think that the 
land must be fair, and well worth preserving, 
since so many noble men had perished in its de- 
fense. 

Before the completion of the capitol. General 
Houston had his office in a small log house on 
Franklin street. His residence, a clapboard 
house of two rooms, none but those who knew 
Houston in its infancy can recognize in the dilap- 
idated house adjoining the jail, on Caroline 
street, the former home of the most illustrious 
president of Texas. I have often heard from 



the lips of a young relative, an account of his 
introduction to this house and its host. He 
called early in the morning, and the General had 
not yet risen, but as little ceremony was observed 
in those days, the visitor without delay was 
ushered into his presence. The furniture con- 
sisted of a plain bed, a table and some chairs. 
In a corner of the room a pile of empty cham- 
pagne bottles testified that the previous even- 
ing had not been spent in solitary meditation on 
grave affairs of state. Although the General 
was not in a position to display his unusual 
grace of manner, yet he, by his affable words and 
forcible reasoning, succeeded in convincing the 
young man of his skill in diplomacy. 

It was during the first year of General Hous- 
ton's administration that Mr. Crawford, the 
agent of England, arrived. Crawford street is 
named in his honor. With him came the great 
French naturalist, Audubon, seeking in this un- 
explored region new varieties of birds. The one 
absorbed in the object of his visit and the other 
engaged in noticing the birds, failed to note 
down their impressions of the men they met. 
I\Ir. Roemer, an eminent German scientist, in 
liis work entitled "Texas,'' a few years later 
freely expressed his surprise at meeting "such 
cultivated people amid such rough surround- 
ings," and draws a most flattering comparison 
between these cultured men, who could thus sac- 
rifice all the comforts of life to the attainment 
of an object, and their English cousins, whose 
number of indispensable creature comforts is so 
large. 

As an instance of the good feeling prevailing 
amongst the Houston ladies of that day, it is 
related that an eminent visitor had been invited 
te dine with General Houston at the house of a 
certain lady. Another lady heard of the dinner 
party, but did not learn where it was to be. She 
happened to have a very fine turkey, then a rare 
luxury, and was determined that it should form 
the "piece de resistance" of the state dinner. 
Impelled by this neighborly and patriotic spirit, 
the dressed £robbler was sent from house to house 



Transf«rred from 

Lit ruriao's Office. 



EARLY REMIXISCENCES OF HOUSTON 



until the right one was found. Needless to say, 
the acceptable gift was gratefully received. In- 
deed, the feeling of public spirit was so predom- 
inant among the ladies that it became a common 
jest that all the families were able to use the 
same kitchen, without danger of conflicting in- 
ttrests arising, causing clashes among the domes- 
tics and the dishes. 

In these early days, as lumber was scarce, 
most of it being brought from Maine, the houses 
were very small. It was the custom to repair, 
after dinner, to the piazza. If General Hous- 
ton were present, he invariably drew from his 
pocket a piece of soft wood, and as he talked, 
would carve deftly with his pocket knife, crosses, 
knives, silk winders, etc., which were presented 
to the ladies of the party as soon as finished. 
Many of these souvenirs of a time when almost 
a spirit of kinship pervaded the society of Hous- 
ton, are still preserved in the families of early 
Houstonians. 

In the hotel owned by Major B. F. Smith, 
situated on the site of the Hutchins House, was 
given the first dramatic performance in Houston, 
"The Dumb Girl of Genoa." That the perform- 
ance did not please the audience was shown in 
a most characteristic way. One of the actors, 
Carlos, being tried and convicted of having 
"killed the play," was condemned to be hung in 
effigy from the limb of a tall pine tree that grew 
in front of the hotel. As the town grew, a build- 
ing was erected, especially for theatrical per- 
formances, on the spot now occupied by Henke 
8c Pillot, on Milam. As early as 1838 a company 
came over from New Orleans and. under the 
management of Henry Corri, presented the 
"School for Scandal." From the strictures of 
the press, however, the presentation was far from 
favorably received, and, upon hearing that one of 
the actors had been bitten by a mad dog, the 
"Morning Star" commented that "it was feared 
that the news was too good to be true." 

First Anniversary, Battle San J.^icinto 

The battle of San Jacinto, fought on the 21st 
of April, 1836, by which the independence of 
Texas was established, was one of the grandest 
events in the history of nations. It has been 
classed by historians among the decisive battles 
of the world, for it was followed by the creation 



of a new nation on the ruins of a declining civil- 
ization. "Song nor storj- never told of field 
more glorious in heroic actions and far reaching 
blessings to our country." 

Following the impulse so common to human- 
ity, as the 2ist of April drew near, with the 
memory of San Jacinto still fresh in their minds, 
and appreciating the benefits resulting from it, 
the patriotic citizens of Texas resolved that this 
first anniversary should be celebrated at the 
capital of the republic. 

The city of Houston was at that time a mere 
name, or, at best, a camp in the woods, while 
tents and temporary structures of clapboards and 
pine poles were scattered along the banks of the 
bayou. The substantial log house of the pioneer 
was rare, the intention of the builders being to 
replace what the needs of the hour demanded by 
buildings fitted to adorn the capital of a great 
republic. The site of the capital had been selected, 
but the materials for its construction had not ar- 
rived from Alaine. There was, ho\Cever, a large 
two-story building, half finished, on the site of 
House's bank. The use of this property was ten- 
dered for the occasion by its owners, Kelsey & 
Hubbard. ^len worked day and night that it 
might have at least the chief requisites of a 
dancing hall, floor, walls and roof. As there was 
no time nor materials for the ceiling, a canopy 
of green pine boughs was laid on the beams to 
hide the effect of skeleton timbers and the great 
space between floor and high pointed roof. 
Chandeliers were suspended from the beams, and 
they resembled the glittering ornaments of this 
day only in the use for which the}- were intended. 
They were made of wood and suspended at regu- 
lar intervals, each pendant composed of cross 
pieces with sockets to hold the sperm candles. 
They shed but a feeble radiance, but, alas, a 
plentiful spattering of sperm on the dancers be- 
low. The floor, being twenty-five feet wide and 
seventy-five feet long, could accommodate sev- 
eral cotillons, and, although the citizens of 
Houston were few, the ample space was required 
for the numerous visitors from Brazoria, Colum- 
bia, Harrisburg and all the adjacent country. 

Parties of ladies and gentlemen came fifty or 
sixty miles on horseback, accompanied by serv- 
ants and wards, who had charge of the elegant 
costumes for this important occasion. From 



8 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Harrisburg they came in large row boat-, that 
mode of conveyance being preferable to a ride 
through the thick undergrowth, for at that time 
there was but a bridle path between the two 
places. 

General Mosely Baker, one of Houston's first 
citizens, was living with his wife and child in a 
small house built of clapboards. The house con- 
sisted of one large room, designed to serve as 
parlor, bedroom and dining room, and a small 
shed room in the rear. The floor, or rather, lack 
of floor, in the larger apartment was concealed 
by a carpet, which gave an air of comfort con- 
trasting strongly with the surroundings. As the 
time for going to the hall drew near, which was 
as soon as convenient after dark, several persons 
assembled at General Baker's for the purpose of 
going together. There were General Houston, 
Frank R. Lubbock and his wife, John Birdsell 
and Mary Jane Harris, the surviving widow of 
A. Briscoe. General Houston was J\lrs. Baker's 
escort, General Baker having gone to see that 
some lady friends were provided for. When this 
party approached the ball room, where dancing 
had already begun, the music, which was ren- 
dered by a violin, bass viol and fife, immediately 
struck up, "Hail to the Chief." The dancers 
withdrew to each side of the hall, and the whole 
party, General Houston and Mrs. Baker leading, 
marched to the upper end of the room. Having 
here laid aside wraps and exchanged black slip- 
pers for white ones, for there was no dressing 
room, they were ready to join in the dance, which 
was soon resumed. A new cotillon was formed 
by the party who had just entered, with the ad- 
dition of another couple whose names are not 
preserved, and Jacob Conger, who took the place 
of Mr. Birdsell, who did not dance. General 
Houston and Mrs. Baker were partners, Mrs. 
Lubbock and Mr. Conger, and General Frank 
Lubbock and Miss Harris. Then were the solemn 
figures of the stately cotillon executed with care 
and precision, the grave balancing steps, the dos 
a dos and others, to test the nimbleness and grace 
of the dancers. General Houston had just re- 
turned from New Orleans, where he had been 
for the purpose of having his wound treated. 
Being the president-elect, he was, of course, the 
hero of the day. His dress on this occasion was 
unique and somewhat striking, his ruffled shirt, 



scarlet cassimere waistcoat and suit of black silk 
velvet, corded with gold, was admirably adapted 
to set off his fine, tall figure. His boots, with 
short red tops, were laced and folded down in 
such a way as to reach but little above the an- 
kles, and finished at the heels with silver spurs. 
The spurs were of course quite a useless adorn- 
ment, but they were in those days so commonly 
worn as to seem almost a part of the boots. The 
weakness of General Houston's ankle, resulting 
from the wound, was his reason for substituting 
boots for slippers, then worn by gentlemen for 
dancing. Mrs. Baker's dress of white satin, with 
(I black lace overdress, corresponded in elegance 
with that of her escort, and the dresses of most 
of the other ladies were likewise rich and taste- 
ful. Some were of white mull, with satin trim- 
mings ; others were dressed in white and colored 
satins, but naturally, in so large an assembly, 
gathered from so many different places, there 
was great variety in the quality of the costumes. 
All wore their dresses short, cut low in the 
neck, and' with short sleeves, and all wore orna- 
ments of flowers or feathers in their hair. Some 
of the flowers, of Mexican workmanship, being 
particularly noticeable on account of their beauty 
and rarity. 

Only one event occurred to mar the happiness 
of the evening. While all were dancing merrily, 
the sad news arrived that the brother of the 
Misses Cooper, who were on the floor at the 
time, had been killed by the Indians, at some 
point on the Colorado river. Although the young 
ladies w-ere comparative strangers, earnest ex- 
pressions of sympathy were heard on all sides, 
and the pleasure of themselves and their intimate 
friends was destroyed. 

At about midnight the signal for supper was 
given, and the entire party marched to the hotel 
owned by Major B. F. Smith, built near the 
center of the block where the Commercial bank 
now stands. This building then consisted of two 
large rooms, built of pine poles, laid up like a log 
house, and a long shed in the rear, extending the 
whole length of the two rooms. Under this shed, 
quite innocent of floor or carpet, the supper was 
spread. The tempting turkeys, venison, cakes, 
etc., displayed in rich profusion, the excellent 
coffee and sparkling wines, invited all to partake 
freely. Soon the witty toast and hearty laugh 



EARLY REMINISCENCES OF HOUSTON 



went round. The menu card, with its enticing 
suggestions to pampered appetites, was not need- 
ed, nor was the costly souvenir of later day 
entertainments. Most truly did good digestion 
wait on appetite, and memory stored away in her 
cupboard more ludicrous incidents and more 
witty sayings than could be gathered together 
from a score of elegant modern soirees. 

Returning to the ball room, dancing was re- 
sumed with renewed zest, until the energies of 
the musicians began to flag, and the prompter 
failed to "call out the figures" with his accus- 
tomed gusto, when the cotillon gave place to the 
time honored Virginia reel, and by the time each 
couple had enjoyed the privilege of "going down 
the middle," daylight began to dawn. Parting 



salutations were exchanged and the merry 
throng of dancers separated, most of them never 
tc meet again. 

Ere long the memory of the ball on the first 
anniversary of San Jacinto was laid away among 
the mementoes of the past, only being drawn 
from its obscurity on each recurring anniversary, 
it continues to -retain its freshness, even after 
fifty years have flown. Of all tliat merry com- 
pany who participated in that festival, none are 
known to be living now except ex-Governor Lub- 
bock, Mrs. Wynns, Mrs. M. J. Briscoe (Miss 
Mary Jane Harris) and Mrs. Fanny Darden. 

Texas, February, 1887. 

These have now all passed away. — Editor. 



EARLY REMINISCENCES OF HOUSTON 
By Mrs. T. R. Franklin 



I am indebted to Mrs. Adele Briscoe Looscan 
for the preceding article, which contains the ex- 
periences and recollections of her mother, Mrs. 
Mary J. Briscoe, and which antedate mine by 
several years. 

My first recollection is of the wolves, howling 
around the fence whenever hogs were killed. 
Chills run down my spine even now when I think 
of how we children would cuddle down under 
the bed clothes, only comforted by the tight shut 
doors, and that father's shotgun stood in the 
corner, and that "father could shoot anything.'' 

But gradually the wolves, the wildcats, the 
hoot owls and the Indians stole away. A new 
order arose. Houses grew many and larger. 
Flower gardens were made and shade trees were 
planted; now and then oyster shell and broken 
brickbat sidewalks were made, and widely com- 
mented upon as strong evidence of the city's 
progress to better things. 

The old-fashioned white top wagons, with 
their many yoke of oxen, and their shrewd 
drivers, were a pronounced feature of Houston 
in those far off days. These wagons were the 
only means of communication with the interior, 
for it was many years before Mr. Paul Bremond 
drove the first spike of the H. & T. C. railroad, 
or the G. H. & H. was begun. The wagoners 



were a tme set of men. Great courage and for- 
titude were theirs, to brave the uncertain tem- 
perature of our Texas winters, with their sud- 
den northers ; courage and fortitude to find their 
way through nearly trackless prairies and dense 
forests, made dangerous by lurking beasts and 
stealthy Indians. Even after the comfortless, 
toilsome march was ended, they had to become 
chary and shrewd to get the best prices for tlieir 
produce, mostly cotton, for they had no daily 
reports from all the business centers of the 
\\ orld, to guide them. Even after the sales were 
made, and unaccustomed silver jingled in their 
pockets, other dangers beset them. The lure of 
bright bar rooms, the roll of dice, and all of the 
fascinations of what was to them a big town. 
But they were made of stern stuff, those early 
pioneers, and generally got away after a parting 
drink with their merchant, who, in exchange for 
their produce, had sold them their goods — calico 
for the wife and babies, the little store of flour, 
sugar and coffee, and tobacco for the pipe. Pos- 
sibly a bottle of whiskey for snake bite. 

These wagoners were often witty at the ex- 
pense of the town folks. Apropos of their wit, 
I recall a funny story. One of them was taking 
a parting drink (which was whiskey drawn from 
a barrel into a tin cup). Just as he was about to 



10 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



drink it, an old gentleman standing by said, 
warningly : "Don't drink that, my friend ; it is 
warranted to kill dogs." The wagoner paid no 
attention to the warning, but drained his cup. 




CAPITAL 111' 



Then, turning to the old gentleman, replied, with 
a twinkle in his eye : "Weil, you see, it doesn't 
hurt me, but you had better not try it." 

There were other quaint characters about 
Houston, besides the wagoners. Notably Uncle 
Billy, who was a source of great amusement, and 
amusements were rare in those days. Uncle Billy 
lived about a mile out of town, and whenever he 
came in, brought his fiddle with him, and played 
for "the boys" in front of the old Houston House, 
where the Houston Bank and Trust Company 
now stands. He would play and play, tune after 
tune, until he would tire, and had to be plied 
with drink until he was rested. Then he would 
begin to tell funny stories, until he would become 
thirsty, and his thirst had to be quenched in an 
ever flowing bowl, until, after many potations, 
tales and tunes, he would have to be put to bed 
by the friendly boys. But the day came for 
Uncle Billy when he "got religion," and he left 
l.'is fiddle at home and told no more tales, for he 
said, "fiddling led to drinking, and telling tales 
led to lying," for he "just natcherly had to put 
a 'pint' on them tales." 

Old Crazy Ben was also a queer character, 
who was supposed to be foreign, and one of 
Lafitte's pirates. He also was addicted to drink. 
At times he would disappear for days, even 
weeks, returning, it was said, with strange gold 
pieces and many of them. No one could folio v 
him to the hiding place of his treasure, for he 
was very wary, for if he ever saw any one fol- 



lowing his little skiff, in which he took his secret 
journeys, he had an ever ready pole with which 
to play the innocent fisherman, or tied up his boat 
and landed to gather berries and wild grapes. 
His ill gotten treasure was supposed to be buried 
near Harrisburg, but he died and gave no signs. 
Lately a singular instance gives color to this 
belief. 

One dark night, some months ago, lights were 
seen flitting about in the woods near Harrisburg, 
and the lights finally settled in one place. It was 
supposed that campers were arranging theii^' 
camp for the night. Next morning there were 
no evidences of a camp and, upon investigation, 
something mysterious had happened. A large 
hole had been dug upon the site of the supposed 
camp, from which a chest of considerable size 
had been taken. Traces of iron rust were found, 
and an old torn paper, giving explicit directions 
for finding the place. Was it Crazy Ben's long 
buried treasure? Was the blood-stained gold to 
go forth again on its mission of weal or woe? 

But, for the most part, the earlier settlers of 
Houston were men and women of fine metal — 
brave, strong, religious, patriotic. Mr. Roemer, 
a German scientist, found there a cultured peo- 
ple. Why not? They were representatives of 
the best families in the United States and Euro- 
pean centers. Where could be found a man of 
broader culture and deeper learning and cour- 
teous bearing, than the revered Dr. Ashbel 
Smith ? The women deserve especial mention. 
I remember with warm admiration the gentle 




OLD CAPITAL OF TEXAS, HOUSTON 

women who used to bring their sewing and spend 
long, interesting days with my mother. The sew- 
ing consisted generally of fine linen shirt fronts, 
tc be stitched, or dainty ruffles to be "rolled and 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF HOUSTON 



11 



whipped." Earnest discussions of religious topics 
would arise, sometimes arguments, but never 
was anything said to offend. They seemed to 
always have in mind the Master's admonition, 
"Do unto others as you would have them do 
unto you." They would wax endiusiastic over 
patriotic themes, and eminent writers and poets 
of the day were admired and intelligently dis- 
cussed. And music always formed some part of 
the day's doing. 

These women have "writ themselves large in 
Houston's history," and to their influence, active 
to the present day, is due the fact that immorality 



in social life is less tolerated here than in any 
city I have ever known. 

These early pioneers have gone to their well 
earned reward, and their works live after them. 
No longer carriages bog in our streets. We have 
the whistle of the locomotive for the hoot of the 
screech owl ; the hum of industry for the hiss and 
rattle of the snake. The bayou where Crazy 
Ben's canoe took its lonely way will soon bring 
the ships of all nations to our wharves. The de- 
velopment and prosperity of the Houston of 
today is but the fruition of the hope and the 
ceaseless endeavors of these early pioneers. 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF HOUSTON 

By Margaret Hadley Foster 



The two greatest charms of Houston are the 
people and the trees. Of the trees let others 
speak ; it is of the people, their characteristics, 
customs, social clubs, etc., that I have been asked 
to write. This should be with me a labor of love, 
for Houston is my birthplace, and her people are 
my people. 

In my opinion, the strongest characteristic of 
Houstonians is their hopsitality. How often, at 
conventions or meetings, of a mercantile, politi- 
cal or patriotic nature, have I heard strangers 
wonder at the cordial and generous treatment 
they have received in Houston, and it has hap- 
pened within my own knowledge, that this re- 
ception has attracted to our city a number of 
most desirable people, who were glad to become 
members of a social life rendered so attractive 
by kindly and courteous hospitality. I remem- 
ber with pleasure hearing Mrs. George B. Cor- 
telyou speak of the very favorable impression left 
on the minds of all who were with President Mc- 
Kinley by their short stay in Houston, en route 
for California. She said that Mr. McKinley 
often referred to it, and that she could never for- 
get the cordial and charming courtesy the party 
had received here. 

How many strangers have come to Houston, 
appalled by the prospect of living in a place that 



seemed to them wanting in every desirable qual- 
ity for a home, who have learned to love our city 
with a lasting and tender affection! One of these, 
who was, after about eight years here, obliged 
by force of circumstances that seemed to others 
of a very fortunate nature, to go from Houston 
to New York city, said to me a few years after- 
wards : "I would rather sell peanuts in Houston 
than live in New York on a thousand dollars a 
day!" 

Why? The answer is in the cordiality, hospi- 
tality and kindly charm of the people. 

Another distinct and admirable feature of 
Fiouston's social life, and one to be highly prized, 
is the excellent character of her young men — 
those who are known as "society men." I chal- 
lenge the world to show a town of its size where 
a young girl, who is a lady, is shown more 
courtesy, and, if she be at all attractive, more 
attention, or where she has a more delightful life, 
or visit, than in Houston. Our young men are 
thoughtful, attentive and generous to a very 
unusual degree, and nowhere is a young girl 
n-ore thoroughly a queen regnant than in the 
Bayou City. 

Houston has grown so big in the last eight 
years that it has lost much of the sweetness and 
homelikeness that once so characterized it. 



12 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Where there was once one social circle within 
itb borders, there are now many. New people 
constantly coming in, join themselves to one or 
other of these cliques, by letter of introduction, 
neighborhood intercourse, church association or 
what not, as in other cities. One constantly 
hears the old Houstonians saying: 

"There are so many new people that I can't 
keep up with them. And such nice people, too. 
It seems a pity not to know them all." 

That, of course, is impossible ; but gradually 
each new family adjusts itself to its surround- 
ings, and in a very short time its members are 
pleased to speak of themselves as "old Hous- 
tonians." 

In her growth Houston has almost, if not 
entirely, given up one sweet old custom, and in 
sc doing has made a mistake — one that could 
easily be rectified, however, if only the right 
people would take hold of it in the right way. I 
refer to the practice of being "at home" on New 
Year's Day. In old times it was the pleasant 
custom for every, or almost every, married 
woman to be at home on that day, while her 
husband went the rounds of the other homes, 
with other men. Of course, there were refresh- 
ments everywhere, and it has been said in ob- 
jection that often too much wine was drunk, as 
wine was served at almost every house, but my 
experience has been that a gentleman can usually 
be trusted to remember that he is a gentleman, 
and that there is little danger of this sort to be 
feared from the men of Houston. 

A few years ago this old custom was revived 
tc a certain extent, but in a way that seemed to 
lose the charm of it, and that way has now al- 
most entirely lapsed. It first began by a few 
women of the haute voice deciding to be at home 
on New Year's Day, and asking others to be 
with them, and this grew until it got to be that 
only four or five houses would be open, and that 
at each of them there would be a tremendous 
receiving party, with as much expense and 
trouble in decorating the rooms as at the most 
formal reception. In this way the true spirit of 
the custom was smothered, leaving a beautiful 
body, to be sure, but one in which was no re- 
sponse whatever to the cheer and the kindly ob- 
ject of the custom, that of beginning the new 
year with a renewal of friendship. 



Nowhere in our country, I am sure, are hand- 
some or more agreeable social functions than in 
Houston. They are characterized by beauty of 
decoration and a kindly informality, even while 
observing the most dignified conventionalities, 
that give them a charm rarel}' met with else- 
where. Of course, our people have succumbed 
more or less entirely to the rage for card play- 
ing, but it is a noticeable fact that there is com- 
paratively no playing for money. Only here and 
there you find a few who break this rule, and 
there is not one card club where it ^s done. I 
mean, of course, one club of which ladies are 
members. In fact, Houston has the proud dis- 
tinction of having one card club, the Wednesday 
Morning Whist Club, where there are no dues, 
nc' fines, no prizes. This club, organized in 1894, 
is composed of women who are not only of the 
highest social standing, but who are good play- 
ers. Strictly conservative, they have refused to 
change the dignified game of whist for its more 
lively successor and near relative, bridge, that 
has captured the rest of card-playing Hous- 
tonians, and is now played everywhere. 

Mrs. B. F. Weems was elected president of 
this club at its first meeting, and has filled the 
position ever since, evidently to the entire sat- 
isfaction of the members. Indeed, it is often 
called "Mrs. Weems' Wednesday Morning." 

The Third Ward Euchre Club has just 
reached its majority, having been organized in 
October, 1887, the oldest and perhaps most dig- 
nified card club in the state. The first meeting 
was held at the home of the late Mrs. Peter N. 
Gray, and that fact alone would vouch for the 
club's respectability and freedom from low aims. 
In this club the aim was solely social intercourse 
and innocent amusement, and this aim has been 
upheld most strictly. No matter how wealthy 
the host, nor how elegant the home, the refresh- 
ments are limited to one course, and the four 
prizes are never allowed to exceed in value the 
sum of six dollars, the amount of dues paid in. 
Mr. W. B. Chew was the first president of this 
club, being followed by Mr. McGaroch, who was 
ill turn succeeded by Dr. J. H. Blake, who held 
the office until 1895. Mr. W. C. Crane was then 
elected, and, with the exception of two years, 
when the office was filled by Mr. Howard F. 
Smith for one term, and Mr. H. W. Garrow for 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF HOUSTON 



13 



another, he has held the position, and it is to 
Mr. Crane's firm but just ruling the club feels 
that its virility is due. Its membership is limited 
to twelve couples ; its meetings are always in the 
evening, and, while the personnel has naturally 
changed somewhat, there are still many that go 
week after week during the season, who have 
always belonged to it. In consequence of this, 
the meetings are more like family reunions than 
those of a card club. 

The Study Whist Club was organized twelve 
\ears ago. when duplicate whist was the rage, 



ing Whist, has been beguiled from its allegiance 
to whist by the more lively game of bridge, but 
its name is still retained, and its reputation for 
high standing and harmony is so well established 
that there are always applicants waiting for anv 
vacancy that may occur. 

Other clubs have come and gone, but these 
three, the Third Ward Euchre, the Wednesday 
Morning and the Study Whist, still live, object 
lessons in the matter of leadership, proving also 
the possibility of harmony, even around the card 
table. 




GROUP OF PL.\TEES, WHIST TOURNAMENT, RE.SIDENCE OF MRS. INGRAM SEWARD 



and has kept the even tenor of its way ever since, 
a source of much pleasure, both to the members 
and their friends. Here again there has been but 
one president, Mrs. H. F. Ring, whose gentle 
sway has done much to keep the club alive. The 
membership is limited to twelve — three tables— 
and, while there are no prizes, the scores of the 
members are strictly kept, so that, at the close 
cf the season, she who has the highest is given 
a souvenir pin to commemorate that fact. This 
club, unlike its neighbor, the Wednesday Morn- 



I think it well, before leaving the subject of 
cards, to mention an interesting feature of the 
past three social seasons. Mrs. O. T. Holt, one 
of the most prominent and widely loved women 
ever known in the social life of Houston, having 
attended a whist tournament in St. Louis, took 
it into her handsome head to see what could be 
done in that line in Houston, so, with her usual 
energy and width of view, she issued through the 
daily press an invitation to whist players to take 
part in a tournament at the residence of her 



14 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



sister-in-law, Mrs. Ingham Seward, which was 
to last for four days, three of which were to 
show who were to play in the "finals" for the 
trophies. This invitation was promptly accepted 
by players, good, bad and indifferent, and Mrs. 
Seward's rooms, as well as the porch around 
them, were filled with tables, around which com- 
pass whist was played. The work of keeping 
scores was extremely difficult, not to speak of 
seeing that the players were cordially received 
and agreeably refreshed, but with Mrs. Holt this 
seemed to be a trifle, and she showed sweetness, 
discretion and good generalship throughout. 
Next year it was repeated, with whist still the 
chosen game, but in the third tournament bridge 
was substituted, again triumphant over the 
older game. 

From card to dancing club is an easy transi- 
tion, and here, too, Houston has the oldest or- 
ganization of the kind in the state, the Z. Z. Club. 
Forty years ago a few young men met in the 
store of Henry Sampson, Jr., and there, by the 
light of tallow candles stuck here and there on 
a counter, they formed a dancing club. There 
was one drawback in the fact that only two of the 
members, Rufus Cage and Henry Sampson, Jr., 
who, by the by, were the youngest of the crowd, 
could dance the round dances that were becoming 
so very popular, and were fated to entirely put out 
of countenance the old square dance which the 
good people of Houston had before that found 
so enjoyable. However, neither the youthful- 
ness nor the inexperience of the members stood 
as an insupportable obstacle in the path of these 
hardy pioneers. Houston must have a dancing 
flub, and there must be round dances ; the mem- 
bers must learn to foot them with the best. 
With this lofty purpose in view, it was with 
burning hearts that thev read, in an account of 
the meeting given next day in a local paper, that, 
owing to the immature age of the members of the 
club, catnip tea had been served for refresh- 
ments ! The thrust was a bitter one, and it was 
urged that it was the duty of the biggest man 
in the club, Mr. George Bringhurst, to whip the 
editor, but this belligerant attitude was aban- 
doned, and the wisdom thus shown has charac- 
terized the club through all these vears. Har- 
mony and happiness have been their watchwords, 
and surely they have contributed more largely 



to the pleasure of the young people of Houston 
than any other organization so far. 

Mr. Bringhurst was chosen the first presi- 
dent and the club began its happy life. It was 
devoted entirely to pleasure, but has honored 
iiself very highly by breaches of this observance 
from time to time. Its crown of achievement 
has been studded with many a jewel, and it has 
always been a potent factor in the social life, not 
only of Houston, but of the state. It has been 
for many years the custom of the Z. Z.s to compli- 
ment the debutantes by opening the season with 
a cotillon in their honor, and to be presented to 
the world on this occasion became so desirable 
that people from all over the state sought a share 
in it for their daughters. This grew to such an 
extent that the club was forced to limit the 
luimber to those who lived in Houston. To this 
"debutante's german" an additional honor has 
been added of late years, begun by the present 
president, Mr. Presley K. Ewing, in the form of 
a "debutante's reception," which he gives them 
at his own home. So each year a group of the 
young girls of Houston make their formal bow to 
the world under the special auspices of the Z. Z. 
Club, as represented by their president, who is 
always assisted by his wife, the officers of the 
dub and such friends as INIr. and Mrs. Ewing 
are pleased to honor. This was Mr. Ewing's 
own innovation, and it is his jileasure to have 
always a handsome setting for the group of 
girls, in which he is ably and ha^nily seconded by 

his wife. 

Besides the "debutante's german," it is the 
custom of the Z. Z. Club to give a "society ball" 
during the Christmas holidays, a german just 
before and another just after Lent, thus contrib- 
uting four handsome functions to the winter 
season. 

I would like to recall one beautiful turning 
aside of this club from the usual routine of re- 
ception, cotillon and ball, that left an indelible 
impression on my mind. It was in the sweet 
Yuletide of 1902 that it was announced that on 
the day after the society ball a Christmas dinner 
would be given by the club to the orphan children 
of the city. To this end the Bayland Orphan 
Home, the Faith Home and the Free Kindergar- 
ten were requested to give to a committee, ap- 
pointed for the purpose, the names and ages of 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



15 



the little ones who were in their care, to invite 
tliem to dinner, and also to ask each child what 
special gift they would like to find on the 
Christmas tree that would be ready for them. 
It was a beautiful sight when the children gath- 
ered in the ball room, whose handsome decora- 
tions had been left for their pleasure, enhanced 
by the presence, in the center of the room, of a 
splendid big tree, hung with all the bright para- 
phernalia of candles, fruit and sparkling garland, 
as well as toys of all sorts and description. Here 
the president, Mr. Ewing, was the happy host, 
giving cut to each 
one, not only what 
they specially desired, 
but another gift and 
a box of candy. The 
light that shone in 
those happy child eyes 
was enough to 
brighten many a dark 
day for those who 
had planned and car- 
ried out the beautiful 
idea. A fine dinner 
followed, with turkey 
and pie and ice cream 
and fruit — in fact, all 
that goes to make up 
a "sho-nuff" Qirist- 
mas dinner, and, as 1 
turned away from the 
room, I said in my 
heart, "God bless 
those who have 
thought of His little 
ones." 

The .best of 
the Jewish element, 
as well as some 
of the wealthiest and most influential men 
in our city, are represented in the Concordia club, 
which is handsomely housed on Texas avenue, 
near the business center of Houston. This club, 
organized August 23, 1901, has a membership of 
no men, who know how to enjoy club life, and 
are generous in sharing that enjoyment with 
others. They have a pretty fashion of giving up 
their club to the less favored sex on one day of 
the week, Thursday, and in this it would seem 




MR. J. KAHN, 
President Concordia Club. 



good to me that the other clubs should follow 
their example. They make it a point to have 
twelve social affairs during the year, two of 
them being very handsome balls. They have 
adopted the fashion of giving the first of the 
season (in November), in special honor of the 
debutantes, introducing them to the world, and 
the second is given on the eve of New Y''ear's 
Day. For these two grand occasions no ex- 
pense nor trouble is spared to make them brilliant 
successes, and it would be hard to find a ball 
room where richer jewels or handsomer 

gowns can be seen. 

The club house is 
admirably arranged 
and furnished, having 
card rooms, reception 
rooms, ball room — in 
fact, all that is requir- 
ed to make a luxuri- 
ous setting for any so- 
cial function, as well 
as exceedingly com 
fortable quarters for 
the men who seek its 
restful environment. 
Mr. C. T. Richmond 
was the first presi- 
dent, followed by ]\Ir. 
Arthur Lipper, Mr. 
[ules Hirsch, Mr. A. 
M. Morris and ]\Ir. J. 
Kahn, who have each 
■-erved a term. 

The greater the civ- 
ilization of a people, 
the more eagerly they 
turn to those pleasure - 
that bring them in 
close contact with 
nature, so a Country Club has become necessary, 
to complete the equipment of a citv. In this 
Houston is fortunate in having a club of men who 
make golf one of the special aims of its existence, 
and who are in every wav prepared to give that 
game a pleasant setting, adding other enjoyments 
of outdoor life for people who are not specially 
fond of golf. The club has been in existence for 
several years, under the title of "The Houston 
Golf Club," with a cozy and artistic cottage 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF HOl'STON 



17 



home, very attractively located, liavine- an admir- 
able golf link, tennis court, etc., but it has out- 
grown this stage, and has changed its name to 
"The Country Club," and purchased a large tract 
of land on the interurban Houston and Harris- 
burg railway, where they are putting up a hand- 
some club house, and intend to have an equip- 
ment in every way worthy of themselves and of 
Houston. The membership is limited to five 
hundred, and very nearly that many names are 
now on the roll. Their first home was the scene 
of many a charming social function, for the meni- 



E. B. Parker, vice president, and :Mr. C. D. Gold- 
ing, secretary. 

The Thalian is comparatively an infant among 
the clubs, but a most sturdy and robust infant, 
amply able to walk alone and to look after itself 
in every way. It was organized October 9, igoi. 
Major John F. Dickson was chosen president, 
and the following composed the first board of 
trustees: Major Dickson, W. B. Botts, T. C. 
Ford, F. C. Jones, W. T. Hunt, H. D. Lea, 
Wilmer Waldo, N. G. Kittrell, Jr., and George 
S. Westerfield. Thus officered, the club began 



^^^^^^^^^bP^ ^ jif^l 


JH 


L 


«%*'^i 


^^H 

^^^^^^^M 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 


fl 





H. jr. GARWOOD. 
President of Th:ili,-iii Club. 



bers' wives had the privilege of using the pretty 
little bungalow for their card parties., luncheons, 
etc. Besides, it was the custom, during the sea- 
son, to serve a cup of tea on Saturday afternoons 
tr, the players, strangers and such ladies as tlicv 
were pleased to invite. In the new home these 
customs will be continued, and the Countrv Club 
will more than justify the reputation of their 
predecessor. Under the recent reorganization, 
Mr. William M. Rice was chosen president ; Mr. 




MAJOR JOHN F. DICKSOX, 
First President Thalian Club. 



its career, the first thing to be done being to 
provide itself with a home. With this in view, 
a lot was purchased on the corner of Rusk avenue 
and San Jacinto street, a most desirable location. 
Plans were chosen for a building, which was 
erected without loss of time, and they were soon 
installed in a home which is most decidedly an 
ornament to the city. The club is composed of 
the very flower of Houston ; men who are not 
only members of her best social life, but are the 



18 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



backbone and strength of the city. In planning 
thiCir buikhng, tliey gave due thought for the 
comfort of their future guests, and, in fact, in all 
its appointments, their club house is admirably 
arranged. On the basement floor are three 
bowling alleys, a billiard hall, barber shop, wine 
and ice room, kitchen, bath rooms and boiler 
room. On the second floor are smoking room, 
reading room, parlor, dining room, cloak room, 
secretary's and steward's rooms. The third floor 
i''- one large ball room, the handsomest in the city, 
wlure there are many informal dances through 
the season, and always one handsome ball on 
New Year's Eve. This is one of the swellest 
functions of the season, and everything is done to 
make it a perfect success. In the second floor 
the various rooms are filled with tables, where 
those of sedate years and tastes have their games 
of cards, with very handsome prizes to stimulate 
them, while overhead, in the ball room, are gath- 
ered the very best among the younger set of the 
city. Altogether a strong, fine club, with the 
distinction of being the only one in the city that 
owns its own home. Major Dickson has served 
three terms as president; Mr. R. S. Lovett, now 
a resident of New York, served two ; Mr. Frank 
Andrews, Mr. J. S. Rice, Mr. Sinclair Taliaferro, 
each has served one year, and Mr. H. M. Gar- 
wood now occupies the chair. The present board 
of trustees is composed of Mr. Garwood, E. L. 
Neville, W. A. Sherman, A. W. Pollard, K. E. 



Womack, Herbert Godwin, T. F. Wier, C. P. 
Shearn, Jr., Sinclair Taliaferro, John W. Lewis 
and H. L. Porter. 

And now, just one word for those who make 
Houston's social life what it is — the women of 
the city, the wives and mothers. They are in 
every way worthy of much praise, and to them 
is Houston deeply indebted. They know how to 
receive and to be received; they are intelligent, 
active in good works, ready to turn aside from 
Ijall, reception, card party, etc., to help in some 
charity or to lend a hand in beautifying the city, 
and they certainly know how to dress. I think 
it would be difficult to find a city where the 
women are equal to ours. I am sure you could 
not find their superiors. 

The men, as a rule, are too much absorbed in 
business, professional or otherwise, to do much 
in the way of promoting social intercourse, but 
v.'hen dragged out by their more energetic wives, 
they seem entirely capable, not only of enjoying 
ic, but adding to its attractiveness. I have been 
told by a gentleman, who had made a point of 
looking into the matter, that there are more uni- 
versity men in Houston in proportion to its pop- 
ulation than any other city in the United States ; 
so, if they do not enhance the social life of 
Houston, it is simply because they are indifferent 
thereto, and it has been despite this indifference 
that that life has become what it is — the chiefest 
charm of Houston. 




LITERARY AND CIVIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



By Mrs. L S. Meyer 



The work accomplished by the club woman of 
today is becoming a mighty factor in the devel- 
opment of our present civilization. 




MRS. I. S. MEYER, 
First Vice-President City Literary Club. 



Hers has always been the hand behind the 
throne, but not until recently has she been able 
to come boldly before the world and suggest 
and even demand certain reforms. 



It is through her close, observing eye and 
fertile brain that so much has been accomplished 
in civics, the betterment of our public schools, 
hbrary work, better laws, kindergartens — in fact, 
there has not been a single line of work wherein 
mankind could not be made better or happier, 
in which the club woman has not either accom- 
plished or is striving to have done. 

It is with pride that we note that our Houston 
club ladies are not behind in this onward march, 
to higher, better living. 

In reviewing the work done by the various 
clubs we see that, while each is organized for 
self culture, it is not for that alone; for as she 
ascends the mountain side of culture and learn- 
ing, her vision becomes bi'oader and wider and 
she can better see the needs of those around her. 

As a result of the larger outlook of our Hous- 
ton women, we have a strong city federation, 
composed of the various clubs of the city. Each 
club has its own special line of philanthropic 
work, but all are working with perfect una- 
nimity and harmony together, for the one object, 
to make this a better and more beautiful world 
in which to live. 

That }ou may be able to know more of the 
work done by the various clubs of Houston, the 
following reports are presented. 



A SHORT HISTORY OF THE CITY FEDERATION OF HOUSTON CLUBS 

By H. N. Jones 



Our federation is now composed of seven 
broad-gauged, energetic clubs, namely : The 
Ladies' Reading Ckib, the Woman's Club, the 
Shakespeare Club, the Houston Heights Literary 
Club, the Current Literature Club, the Civic 
Club, and the Pen Women. The membership of 
these clubs consists of cultured women, patriotic 
in sentiment, proud of their city and thoroughly 
alive to its interests. 

The need which called this organization into 
life was the securing nf a site for our Carnesfie 



library. Our \\'oman's Club, ever alert for the wel- 
fare of our people, was the first to voice our need 
for a public library. Two of their members, Mrs. 
W. E. Kendall and Miss Mamie Gearing, were 
appointed to write to Carnegie asking his aid. His 
reply offering $50,000 if a site and maintenance be 
guaranteed, filled all with enthusasm. Mrs. H. F. 
Ring, then president of the Ladies' Club, was ask- 
ed to call a meeting of all the clubs to discuss this 
proposition. At this meeting our city federation 
was organized in the fall of 1899. 




MRS. McKINNEY, 
Member Board on Publication 



MRS. D. i->. CUKLEV. 
Recording Secretary City Federation 



LITERARY .VXD CIVIC CLUBS OF HOLSTOX 



21 



Our city council was induced to appropriate a 
maintenance fund ; this accoinplished, a site was 
secured and paid for. When the building was 
completed, the library board offered the assembly 
room for the use of the clubs. This was beau- 
tifully furnished by the federation and is yet 
used by all our federated clubs. 

A circulating library was then established ; 
books and magazines were contributed by citi- 
zens, selected and packed by the federation and 
distributed to outlying districts. This work met 
with hearty appreciation and was productive of 
much good. Later the Ladies' Reading Club 
asked for the work as a part of their traveling 
library and this was turned over to them. 

The federation then turned its attention to 
biinging good attractions to Houston, and under 
its auspices the public has had many literary and 
artistic treats, .•\mong them, Mr. Louis Spencer 
Daniel, Bertha Kuntz Baker, Prof. S. H. Clark, 
Air. Troupe, and they assisted the Art League in 
bringing Lorado Taft. Last September the fed- 
eration mothered the organization of the Hous- 
ton Lecture Association, an organization repre- 
senting twenty different institutions, thus broad- 
ening interest and dividing the burden. Their 
one object is the bringing of educational lectur- 
ers and they will, no doubt, be a great factor in 
the future educational interests of Houston. 

In 1904 our federation had the honor and 
pleasure of entertaining the seventh session of 
the state federation, ^^'e have had five presi- 



dents, j\lrs. M. Looscan serving one }ear, Mrs. 
K. F. Ring three years, Airs. F. F. Dexter and 
Mrs. E. B. Cushing, Airs. R. AI. Hall three years, 
and the present incumbent, Airs. H. X. Jones, 
elected last Alay for the second term. 

Last year, besides our work with the lecture 
association, we gave a reception to and assisted 
in entertaining the Teachers' Association, which 
met in our city. We entertained with two open 
jTieetings, when the individual work of the clubs 
and needs of the community were the subjects 
of discussion. 

The Art League was given our moral support, 
Encouragement and some small material aid. 
Flowers were sent to Shut-in Sunshiners. 
Throughout all the year a sincere effort was 
made to bind more securely the sympathetic re- 
lations of our clubs. 

We are now at work on a souvenir magazine 
which will be a picture of the church, social and 
educational life of Houston today. Aluch interest 
is being aroused in a clubhouse and Houston will, 
no doubt, in the near future, boast a woman's 
cHibhouse. 

In giving a resume of the work of our federa- 
tion, it is enough to say that we have ever been 
faithful to the object of our organization, 
namely ; '"To promote harmonious relations 
among our clubs, and by concert of action to 
labor for the general good of our members and 
tlie communitv at largje." 



THE ^^■OAIAX•S CLUB OF HOUSTOX. 



Bv Mrs. F. W. Vaughan 



To record a history of the \A'oman's Club dur- 
ing the almost fifteen years of its existence would 
be to interweave the history of Houston and also 
cf scores of her most noble women; women 
from without her borders who have contributed 
brilliant effort and undying zeal ; women reared 
under the folds of the bonny blue flag, follow- 
ing its guiding star, ever ; acknowledging defeat, 
never. Organized primarily for self culture, by 
Airs. George AIcDonnell, on the 8th of December, 



1893. tlie broad, altruistic spirit de\ eloped until 
realizing the grand principle of right living "that 
as we help each other we are in like measure 
benefited," we responded in 1897 to an invitation 
from Waco to organize a State Federation of 
Women's Clubs, the value of which has been in- 
estimable in individual ones putting in touch and 
broad sympathy with the other and the grand 
whole. Realizing the strength of unity, this in 
turn joined the Xational Federation in 1902, 



22 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 




MRS. GEORGE lU'DONNELL. 
Organizer and First Vice-President. 



sending delegates wherever they have been bid- 
den, from the boundary of the Northern pines to 
the sunht waters of the Golden Gate. 

The beautiful building which shelters us today 
— the loved home of the Houston club woman — 
we are proud to claim as a cherished offspring, 
for is not the personal letter of the philanthro- 
pist granting us his most gracious gift, one of 
our most treasured possessions? At this time a 
City Federation of \\'omen's Clubs was formed 
for the purpose of devising ways and means for 
meeting conditions imposed with the grant. 
With a great effort $500 was raised as this club's 
offering. A standing charity offering was main- 
tained and many burdens lightened by its timely 
aid. Funds have been sent to sufferers from 
the Jacksonville fire, Galveston flood, Martinique 
earthquake, to the home militia during the 
Spanish-American war, $60 to the State Fed- 
eration scholarship fund, and a recent contribu- 
tion of loan books to the Carnegie library, and 
many private calls have been responded to. None 
have called in vain. 

In 1901 we expanded into a department club 
for the purpose of establishing free kindergar- 
tens. Starting the first session in an humble 
way, the second found us with our own building 
and expensive equipment, maintaining a train- 



ir.g class for kindergarten teachers under a corps 
of competent and well paid teachers. These grad- 
uated with public honors two years later, and 
today fill positions of trust and honor — an ever- 
present reminder of the unselfish love of these 
women for God's less fortunate ones. Later, a 
co-operative kindergarten was opened and suc- 
cessfully operated. The maintenance of these 
institutions required large sums of money and 
untold labor for those who bore the burden, but 
it was cheerfully taken up. Several successful 
bazaars were held, banks installed in public 
I'laces, a large charitv ball and several lesser so- 
cial functions were given. A large associate mem- 
bership and the proceeds from a handsome build- 
ing used as a co-operative home and rented as 
studios, furnished financial aid. ^^'ithin the last 
year all this was abandoned in order to concen- 
trate all efforts towards public school kinder- 
garten work, and to this end donated all prop- 
erties and interests to the industrial and settle- 




MKS. KING. 
President Women's Club. 



LITERARY AND CIXIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



23 



ment workers with our g-ood will and moral 
support. 

With the completion of the Charlotte AL Allen 
school, a room was offered us for the use of a 
kindergarten. We accepted the room and estab- 
lii^hed the first kindergarten in a public school in 
this city. This awakened the interest of the 
Parent-Teachers' Association, who have this 3-ear 
assumed the responsibility of maintaining th'; 
kindergarten. 

While reviewing philanthropy, the intellectual 
side must not be ignored. We have studied suc- 
cessfully, foreign and domestic history, art, liter- 
ature, and of our incomparable state of the Lone 
Star. We have given to the public many enjoy- 
able lectures from artistic and literary lights, all 



accruing to the public welfare. This year we 
will not take up any active outside work, but 
have planned to spend our time studying King 
Lear, with the guidance of our first president, 
]\Irs. George AIcDonnell. We feel that we have 
earned this privilege and pleasure. 

During the past sixteen years the following 
ladies have served as president : Mrs. George A. 
AIcDonnell, Mrs. W. E. Kendall, Mrs. Z. F. 
Lillard, Miss Mamie Gearing and ]\Irs. L. B. 
King, who is now serving her fourth term, with 
I\Irs. Vastine C. Lunn, vice president, Mrs. Car- 
ter Walker second vice president. Miss Emily 
Stude secretary, Mrs. George Paullis corres- 
ponding secretary, and IMiss Katherine Mel- 
hnger, treasurer. 



LADIES' READING CLUB. 
Bv Adele B. Loosc.an 



Among the treasures of the Ladies" Reading 
Club is a small, blue covered book of less than 
half a dozen pages, entitled "Constitution and 
By-Laws of the Ladies' Reading Club of Hous- 
ton, Texas." It bears date 1885. On the last 
pages is a picture of two pyramids, the Sphynx 
and a group of palm trees, which tell the tale 
of their first course of study. 

From the minutes of the first meeting I copy 
the following notes : "On the afternoon of 
Thursday, February 26, 1885, several ladies as- 
sembled at the residence of Mrs. Briscoe, Craw- 
ford street, for the purpose of organizing a 
society having for its object pleasure and im- 
provement." 

The movement was inaugurated by IMesdames 
Looscan and Lombardi, and was designed to 
supply a want long felt, namely, a common 
ground on which ladies having a literary taste 
might meet. 

The ladies present at this first meeting were : 
Mesdames Looscan, Lombardi, Hill, Perl, 
Haight, Stone and Briscoe, and Misses Allen 
and Wagley. Much interest was manifested, and 
an evidently earnest desire to make the organiza- 
tion a success. 

The name of the Ladies' History Class was 



adopted and Mrs. Looscan appointed president 
pro tempore, with 3,Iiss Wagley as secretary. 

During the first six weeks of its existence and 
prior to the adoption of a constitution, the study 
of that ancient, mysterious, romantic country, 
Egypt, had been steadily and systematically pur- 
sued. The interest of the civilized world was at 
the time centered upon Egypt and London, and 
the tragic fate of the gallant Gordon excited 
universal sympathy, so that the intercourse of 
the club with the ancient mother of European 
culture was enlivened by stories of latter day 
heroism which rivaled those of ancient times. 

In a few weeks the membership had increased 
sufficiently to make it seem advisable that the 
club should be more regularly organized. A con- 
stitution and by-laws were, therefore, drawn up 
and adopted at the first meeting in April. They 
were printed in book form as already described. 

Officers were elected as follows : President, 
Mrs. M. Looscan ; first vice president, Mrs. C. 
Lombardi; second vice president, ~Slvs. E. P. 
Hill; secretary. Miss A. E. Wagley; treasurer, 
]\Irs. M. J- Briscoe. 

The name was changed from the Ladies' His- 
tory Class to the Ladies' Reading Club, and a 
plan made for the future work of the club. 



24 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



The iollowing is a list of names of members 
ef the ckib during its first year : Mesdames C. 
Lombardi, M. Looscan, E. P. Hill, M. J. Briscoe, 
.Al. G. Howe, M. Perl, T. R. Franklin, F. H. 
Albert, Misses A. E. Wagley, ^Villa Lloyd, T. 
May Cage, Mesdames ^1. E. Cagne, E. B. Usher, 
Ella H. Stewart, George Goldthwaite, R. E. C. 
Wilson, L. J. Polk, W. J. Smith, I^fargaret H. 
I'oster, Kate L. Terrell, S. K. Alcllhenny, J. A. 
Huston, P. H. Goodwyn. 

From the first the organization records were 
carefully kept, and when, at the end of the first 
year, written reports of all the officers were 
made in due form, i\Iajor M. Looscan was so 
gratified at the success of the club that he gave 
the members a surprise. L^pon a pretext that he 
wanted to show them to a brother law\er, whose 
wife was also made a member, 
he procured the list of officers 
and members and schemes of ex- 
ercises from date of organiza- 
tion, April. 1885. together with 
committees for 1885 and i88fi, 
and had them printed in a 
pamphlet of thirty-four pages, 
which he presented to the club 
with his compliments. With 
such encouragement the club 
continued for many years to 
publish at the end of the year 
a full report of work accom- 
plished, until and including 1898, 
when the organization of other 
clubs throughout the state made the adoption of 
the year book, with outlines of proposed study, 
tlie popular exponent of club work. 

For the first ten years the club met in the 
parlors of ]\Irs. I\L G. Howe ; afterwards in 
rented rooms, then at the parish house of Christ 
church, and finally in the Lyceum library room 
after that institution had been moved to a con- 
venient place in the Mason block on Main street. 
Since the opening of the Houston Lyceum and 
Carnegie Library, meetings have been and are 
being held on the upper floor in the hall designed 
for club meetings. 

It is a matter of pride with the Ladies' Read- 
ing Club that the first organized effort to have 
the Lvceum library moved fro)ii the old market 




.\DELE B, LOOSC.\X, 
First President Ladies' Reading CIuI) 



liouse to more accessible and agreeable quarters 
came from an appeal made by its president in her 
an.nual report in 1895. Subsequently she, as 
chairman of a committee, drafted a petition, 
secured the signatures of the other club women 
t:. it, and presented the same to the officers of 
the Lyceum. The petition was favorably acted 
upon by them, and January, 1898, found the 
library so located that it became of use to the 
jniblic. besides saving it from the disastrous con- 
flagration which soon afterward consumed the 
market house and city hall. To secure the re- 
moval of the books and opening of the library in 
the Mason block, on Main street, the Ladies' 
Reading Club pledged its every member to the 
payment of $3 per year membership dues, and 
the further pavment of $5 per month by the club 
toward the rent of the library 
rooms. Thenceforth one of 
these rooms became the meet- 
ing place of the club. The next 
step, and this was toward mak- 
ing the library free to all the 
citizens of Houston, was taken 
in January, 1899, when the 
Ladies' Reading Club provided 
an entertainment and invited the 
city fathers to attend. On this 
occasion the necessity for muni- 
cipal action in order to enlarge 
the usefulness of the institution, 
was so ably presented to the 
mayor and aldermen by the vice- 
j-iresident. Mrs. W. P.. Slosson, and others, that as 
a result of the meeting the city agreed to ap- 
propriate $200 per month for the support of a 
public library, provided that $150 of this amount 
should be spent for books. 

This much accomplished (and the public 
showed a keen appreciation of the privileges 
granted them by a greatly increased demand for 
rc-ading matter), the Ladies' Reading Club was 
discussing the feasibility of getting the other 
clubs to unite with them in an appeal to Mr. 
Carnegie for assistance in providing a library 
building, when the good news came that the 
\\'oman"s Club had already made this worthy 
request, with what happy result is well known. 
Following the favorable reply of Mr. Carnegie, 



LITERARY AXU CIX'IC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



25 



making his donation contingent upon the pro- 
vision of a building site and certain obligations 
by the city authorities, Mrs. H. F. Ring, then 
president of the Ladies" Reading Club, called a 
meeting of all the literary clubs in the city to 
unite in devising ways and means for the accom- 
plishment of this object. It was then decided to 
form a permanent organization to be called the 
City Federation of Clubs. Officers were elected, 
committees appointed, and at the end of one year 
through this organization an amount was raised 
sufficient to purchase the present site of the 
Houston Lyceum and 
Carnegie Library. Li 
view of the services 
of Mrs. Ring, she has 
ever since been retain- 
ed as one of the board 
of trustees of the li- 
Iirar)-. and the City 
Federation has be- 
come an important 
factor in providing 
lectures and other en- 
tertainments of an 
elevating char- 
acter for the public. 

When the club wo- 
men of Texas deter- 
mined to organize a 
state federation. Mrs. 
C. A. ]\IcKinney, then 
president of the 
Ladies' lieading Club, 
represented her club 
at the first meeting, 
held at A'v'aco. Two 
forme r presidents 
have been honored 

with the office of vice-president of the State fed- 
eration ; several of its members have filled im- 
portant chairmanships. 

The club has each year sent delegates to the 
annual meeting of the state federation, to the 
meeting of the district of which it is a member, 
and to the biennial of the National Federation. 

In attempting to give a resume of the work of 
the Ladies' Reading Club it is enough to say that 
during a period of twenty-three vears thev have 
been faithful to the objects of their organization, 




JIRS. B. A. 
Presiflent L.idies' 



n;.mely, intellectual and social culture. Conceiv- 
ing that the establishment of a public library 
would tend greatly to the advancement of intel- 
lectual culture, they adopted library work as 
peculiarly theirs, and their influence has been 
widened by the organization of traveling libra- 
ries, which, under the chairmanship of Mrs, 
\\"illiam Christian, are meeting a hearty welcome 
m the country districts. They have used their 
influence in behalf of every measure intended 
for the general advancement of educational in- 
terests in the state. They have assisted in bring- 
ing celebrated lec- 
turers to the city, and 
on several occasions, 
unaided by other 
clubs, have provided 
lecturers of world- 
wide fame. This was 
notably the case in 
the instance of the 
course of lectures by 
the celebrated Mrs. 
Rorer, which were 
given while Mrs. P. 
K, Ewing was presi- 
dent of th.e club. 

.\t about this time 
it was determined to 
broaden the influence 
of the club by admit- 
ting a number of 
a s s o c i r^ t e mem- 
bers, not to exceed 
ten, who, by paying 
more than the regu- 
lar dues, might be 
excused from contrib- 
uting to the regular 
literary exersises, but in all other respects, except 
the privilege of holding office, be active members. 
The membership of the club is fifty, exclusive 
of associate and honorary members. The yearly 
dues of active members are $4. 

The following ladies have been president : Mrs. 
M. Looscan, Mrs. C. Lombardi, Mrs. M. E. 
Cage, Mrs. C. A. McKinney, Mrs. H. P. Ring, 
Airs. P. K. Ewing, Mrs. R. j\L Hall, Mrs. W. A. 
De La Matyr, Mrs. William Christian and Mrs. 
B. A. Randolph. 



R.WDOLPH, 
Reading Chili. 



26 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



A list of those who have filled the important 
office of recording secretary is as follows : Miss 
Annie E. Wagley, Mrs. P. H. Goodwyn, Miss 
F'annie G. Mnccnt, Mrs. G. F. Arnold, Mrs. 
W. B. Slosson. Airs H. F. MacGregor. Mrs. C. 
R. Cummings, Mrs. P. K. Ewing, Mrs. C. F. 
Beutel, Miss Emilia Celestine Buj'ac, Mrs. G. A. 
Taft, Miss Laura Yocum, Mrs. A. L. Metcalf, 
IMrs. J. P. Carroll and Mrs. March Culmore. 

The course of study for the present year is 
Mexico. 



Being broad-minded, cultured women, the 
members are patriotic in sentiment, proud of 
their state and thoroughly alive to the interests 
of the city. They have contri'outed to different 
funds for patriotic objects presented to them by 
authorized parties, and certain days in their club 
calendar are always reserved for Texas subjects. 
The club colors are green and pink ; the club 
flower the Texas star. 



^^1 




^T^ 



THE LADIES' SHAKESPEARE CLUB. 
By Cora Campbell 



On November 29, 1890, the Ladies' Shakes- 
peare Club was organized, with Mesdames E. 
Raphael, I. G. Gerson, I. Blandin, Blanche Book- 
er and Misses C. S. Redwood, Lydia Adkisson 
and Mary Light as charter members, and for 
eighteen years it has pursued the even tenor of 
its way. As its name indicates, this club exists 
for purely literary purposes, and though its 
members are, as individuals, interested in the 
various progressive movements of the day, as a 
club they have steadfastly held to their original 
intention and no outside interest has been per- 
mitted to interfere with their course of study. 
The creed of the club has but two articles : First, 
that Shakespeare's plays were written by him- 
self, and not by Bacon; second, that Shakespeare 
i,-! of all English literature the crown and chief 
adornment. 

Mrs. Blandin, as its first president, led the 
ciub in its study of that exquisite idyl, "As You 
Like It." Alany of the master's other works 
have been studied since then, but the charm of 
this first play still lingers like a haunting fra- 
grance in the memory of the club. 



nomadic life, finding temporary abiding place 
in the rooms of the Houston Commercial Col- 
lege, the old Lyceum library, the parlors of 
various churches, and the homes of hospitable 
members. On the completion of Carnegie library 
this club, together with all others belonging to 
the City Federation, made its home in the beau- 
tiful club room of the library, where it has re- 
mained ever since. 

With the passing years the personnel of the 
club has changed somewhat, but the old club 
spirit still remains. Two much loved members 
liave been removed by death, some have gone to 
distant places, and others have dropped out of 
our circle for various reasons, but new faces have 
entered among us and the lost ones are held in 
cur memory. 

It is interesting to recall the various phases 
of study that have marked the club's progress. 
At one time we undertook correspondence work 
with the University of Chicago, and in this 
connection many beautiful passages were mem- 
orized which have been ever since a source of 
pleasure to their possessors. A course in Shar- 



For several years the .Shakespeare Club led a man's Analytics gave the work a psychological 



LITERARY AND CIVIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



27 



ti:rn. The study of Henrj' \T and kindred plays 
developed the spirit of historical research, while 
certain of the romantic plays opened the way 
for study along the lines of dramatic construc- 
tion. Several times this club has brought Pro- 
fessor Clark of the L'niversity of Chicago to 
Houston to lecture on Shakespeare and related 



subjects, to the pleasure and profit of all who 
were fortunate enough to hear him. 

The club is now engaged in the study of 
"Troilus and Cressida." The officers are Mrs. 
J. D. Duckett, president; j\Iiss Cora Campbell, 
vice president; Miss Hester IMitchell, secretar}'. 



THE STUDY SHAKESPEARE CLASS. 
Bv Mrs. S. L. Gohlman 



The Study Shakespeare Class, under its able 
and efficient leader, Mrs. Alma McDonnell, has 
been, in the four years of its existence, a great 
benefit to the ladies who have availed them- 
selves of the opportunity of making a careful 
study of the greatest of English poets. 

This is strictly a study class, from every stand- 
point, and has no official organization, each 
member considering it a privilege as well as a 
duty, to make the very best progress possible. 
"Our bodies are our gardens, to the which 
our wills are gardeners." Then if we fail, our 
frailty is the cause, not we, for such as we are 
made of, such we be. 

Mrs. McDonnell's reputation as a Shakes- 
pearean scholar, and her ability as a teacher, have 
long been recognized, and the thoroughly artis- 
tic manner in which she "makes use of that good 
wisdom whereof she is fraught," in interpreting 
the different personalities and making them live 



again (as it were), is an inspiration to any soul, 
and would instantly "persuade us what we are." 

In the four years' time we have read the plays 
as follows : Henry VIII, Hamlet, Othello, Mac- 
beth, King Lear, Cymbeline, Julius Caesar, An- 
tony and Cleopatra, Richard III, Winter's Tale, 
Romeo and Juliet, The Tempest, and Coriolanus, 
averaging three plays a year. 

Each member is fined ten cents for absence, 
and at the end of the term this money is used 
for charity. 

The class motto is : "Let us give light, but let 
us not be light." The class flower is red carna- 
tions (meaning distinction), and our chief ob- 
ject is to polish the mind, for " 'tis the mind 
that makes the body rich." 

Nothing is so contagious as enthusiasm, hence 
the students of the Study Shakespeare Class are 
so interested and enthusiastic that they fail to 
see the "briars in this working-day world." 



^ 3, if-~ %m clW=^-^^#^^^^^^^^"^ 



THE HOUSTON PEN WOMEN. 
By Mrs. Arthur J. Schureman 



The smallest club in Houston is the "Houston 
Pen \\'omen," that is, counting numbers, but 
this small band is known and called by our men 
"The Gray JNIatter Club," so what they lack in 
numbers they make up in brains. 

One day in the year 1906, a bright woman sat 
thinking of all the good things that a real, bona 
fide press woman could do; and then was born 
the idea of a strictly pen woman's club. 

The next instant she was at the telephone. 



talking to another woman who had many original 
ideas like herself. 

A meeting was called for the 23d of March : 
just one week after the thought came to the 
originator. 

Of course, there nuist be the club color, flower 
and motto. 

There was very little discussion on this ques- 
tion, for when the four leaf clover was proposed 
for the flower, all said yes, and, that decided, the 



28 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



club color, white and green, white for purity, 
green for immortality. 

AVith the four leaf clover for the flower, the 
motto was already chosen. Naming each leaf, we 
have love, truth, loyalty, progress. 

How appropriate all these for a club made up 
of progressive women, using their talent for the 
lasting good of humanity. 

There is something sweet in the superstition 
that the four leaf clover will bring us good luck, 
and drive out demons; for is it not better to fight 
evil with a flower than with fire? 

"Do good to those that hate you." Wrong is 
never overcome by wrong, so if we would win 
others from evil, let our pens trace noble and 
uplifting thoughts. Just a glance at the clover 
fills our hearts with inspiration. 



This sweet little plant was used by the ancient 
Greeks at their festival for crowns, which were 
placed upon the heads of favored ones. Later it 
was used as a badge of honor ; then as a token of 
the divine presence. 

And, coming down to the present time, it is 
the emblem of a band of women to show that 
they are using their pens on the side of truth 
and right. 

The Houston Pen Women are affiliated with 
the State Federation and are always among the 
first in all their undertakings. It could well be 
said of them, "They must proclaim (with their 
pens) the glory and sublimity of righteousness, 
and furnish the world with specimens." 



THE HOUSTON HEIGHTS LITERARY CLUB. 
By Mrs. Fred F. De.xter 



"Seek wisdom and strive to do good," has 
been the inspiration and the watchword of the 
Houston Heights Literary Club since its organ- 
ization in 1900, for the purpose of intellectual 
improvement, social culture and local charity. 




MRS. W. G. LOVE, 
President. 



The club has lived and grown and flourished 
under the administration of four presidents — 
I\Irs. C. R. Cummings, the founder of the club; 
Mrs. C. A. McKinney, Mrs. Fred F. Dexter 
and Mrs. W. G. Love, the present incumbent, 
until now, in its eighth year, it has a full and 
active membership of forty women, w'ho are 
earnest and sincere in their desire to realize 
a higher ideal of life and its purposes. 

Knowing that association with other clubs is 
needful for the proper growth and expansion of 
an organization, the Houston Heights Literary 
Club very early joined the Houston Federation 
of Clubs, and later, wishing to broaden its scope 
still further, it became a member of the State 
Federation. When the district federations were 
formed, this wide awake club became a member 
of the fourth district — the second largest district 
in the state. 

A few 3'ears ago this club became interested 
in the work of public education, so much so that 
i'^ has undertaken the work of establishing and 
maintaining a good reference library for the use 
of the schools. This has been a very successful 
movement, as is testified by the large number of 
books already in the library, and by the appre- 
ciation shown by the schools and the public. 



LITERARY AND CIVIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



29 



This club has touched on many subjects in its 
course of study, taking Johnson's advice to "let 
observation with extensive view, survey mankind 
from China to Peru." The year just past com- 
pleted the study of American history, literature 
and art, and the year book for 1908-09 promises 
a most delightful year in English literature. 

The social side of our club has not been neg- 
lected, there being dates set aside in the year 
book for three large and brilliant receptions, one 
to the City Federation, one by the president to 
the club, and the celebration of the annual Club 
Day, and these events are looked forward to with 
much pleasure by the husbands and friends of 
the club. 

But our intellectual attainments and our social 
advantages do not blind us to the fact that there 
are those in the world less fortunate than our- 
selves, and we find time to spend some thought 
and loving help upon the poor and needy at our 
door. 

Thus, with its four-fold purpose of self-im- 
provement, social culture, educational work and 
local charity, the Houston Heights Literary Club 




'm 



MES. PEED F. DEXTEE, 
Who Has Lately Entered the Lecture Field. 

claims a place among the strung clubs of the 
fourth district — a live club with a live interest 
in its work and in its members. 



HISTORY OF THE HOUSTON CI\1C CLUB. 
Bv Mrs. M.arch Cul.more 



On the afternoon of November 11, 1901, after 
due notice given, about fifty ladies assembled in 
the old Odd Fellows hall to organize a club 
along civic lines. 

Mrs. Margaret Hadley Foster called the 
meeting to order and was elected as temporary 
chairman. The report of the committee on con- 
stitution and by-laws, consisting of Miss Mamie 
Gearing and Mrs. B. A. Randolph, who had 
been asked to come prepared to act in this 
capacity, was ready, and after being duly dis- 
cussed and amended, was unanimously adopted. 
The ladies present signed as charter members. 
Mrs. Margaret Hadley Foster signing first, in 
recognition of her enthusiasm and energy- in 
starting this movement. 

Permanent organization finally resulted in 
choosing Mrs. T. R. Franklin as president, which 



position she has ever since filled with much 
credit to herself and satisfaction to all. 

The club entered at once upon an active 
career of educating public sentiment in favor of 
a cleaner and more beautiful Houston. 

The city had long needed just such a club, and 
when its object was known its membership grew 
very rapidly. 

It was soon divided into six separate divisions, 
and ruled over by a wise directory consisting 
of seventeen members, all of the officers and six 
delegates, one from each division. 

Each division has a vice president and other 
officers needed to carry on its own district work. 

One of the very first works done was the 
establishment and maintenance of a plavground 
by the second division. 

At the time of the opening of this playground 
it was the only one in the state, and Mrs. Harr>- 



30 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Nelson Jones was the mother of this work. 
Besides keeping up this playground, which, 
through the generosity of the late tx-Governor 
Frank Lubbock, was loaned to the civic club, this 
division has raised $600 towards buying a per- 
manent playground. The greater part of this 
sum was raised while our dearly loved vice pres- 
ident, Mrs. W. W. Glass, was in office in the 
second division. 

Just a few days before this goes to press, our 
devoted worker was called to enter the golden 
gate, to a "City Beautiful," indeed, where there 
?re no cleaning up days. She died in "harness," 
and with the knowl- 
edge that those will- 
ing civic workers who 
so faithfully watched 
over her bedside will 
not cease in their ef- 
forts until a perma- 
nent playground has 
been acquired. 

The first division 
has tried to convert 
the old Tenth street 
cemetery into a pub- 
lic park. It has been 
fenced and the direc- 
torv board of the Civ- 
ic Club voted the sum 
of $200 for improve- 
ments, and Mrs. Ma- 
bel Smith appointed 
to supervise the ex- 
penditure of this sum. 

This division will 
not rest until the few 
graves to be seen are 
redeemed from neg- 
lect, and the forty-two Confederate soldiers, who 
died from yellow fever and were here interred, 
appropriately marked. 

A playground will be fitted up in a corner 
where no graves have ever been, and a park 
opened to the public. 

The fifth division have bought and paid for a 
park of their very own. Just a few willing work- 
ers, a mere handful of women, have done the 
seeming impossible. 

Sam Houston Park, through the good influ- 




ence of the Civic Club, has one of the best 
equipped plaj'grounds in the entire South. 

This "delight to the children of Houston" was 
put up under the personal supervision of Com- 
missioner James Marmion. 

Flowers have been planted in boxes and gar- 
dens in every school in the city, and while at 
first the school board objected to a "lot of women 
interfering," as they expressed it, they soon saw 
the good accomplished, and Superintendent 
Horn asked that the Civic Club co-operate with 
him in this beautiful work. 

Two barren spots have been nadc beautiful 

to the eye and rest- 
ful to the weary pe- 
destrian, liy the plant- 
ing of trees and grass, 
and benches placed 
conveniently around. 
On the plot known as 
Brashear Point, named 
after Mayor Sam 
Brashear, a hydrant, 
with a drinking cup 
attached, has been 
placed temporarily, to 
be later replaced with 
a fountain. This plot 
of ground was re- 
fleemed from neglect 
by the fourth division, 
under the leadership 
of Mrs. Mabel F. 
Smith. 

Last year one of the 
biggest Fourth of 
July celebrations ever 
held in Houston took 
place at Sam Hous- 
ton park under the auspices of the Houston Civic 
Club. On that day the children of Houston were 
presented with a lovely Brownie fountain. Here 
again is seen the genius of Mrs. Mabel F. Smith, 
for it is due to her untiring efforts and was a gift 
oi the fourth division. The statue is a cast of 
United States bronze, made in Philadelphia after 
a model which was given by the famous Italian 
sculptor, L. Amaties, who designed the Rosen- 
berg statue at Galveston. 

Two noted lecturers have been lirousht to 



FUAXKLIN, 
dent. 



LITERARY AND CIVIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



31 




IIRS. MARCH CULMORE, 
Recording Secretary. 



Houston by this club, namel}-, Professor Horace 
McFarland, president of the American Civic 
Association, and ]\Ir. Howard Evarts Weed. 
Botli lectures were given free to the citizens of 
Houston. 

Three years ago, when the yellow fever was 
raging in Louisiana, the Civic Club distributed 
hundreds of gallons of oil to pour on ditches 
to keep down the hated mosquito, and thus pre- 
vent the spreading of the )-ellow fever germ. 

Too much cannot be said in praise of the 
newspapers of Houston. They are always ready 
to give as much space as may be needed. Last 
\ ear, on September 2, the Houston Post devoted 
two whole pages to civic work and civic workers. 
The Houston Post most kindly gave the club a 
column in the Sunday paper for civic news alone. 
This column was called the "City Beautiful," 
and edited by Mrs. William Christian, vice presi- 
dent of the Houston Civic Club. This column 
was printed every Sunday, until last summer, 
when, its mission being complete, it was given 
up, with permission to use whenever needed. 

One of the big things this club has done is to 
establish free music in Sam Houston park. Oh, 
how they worked with this end in view. All 
manner of things were gotten up to make money, 



and hundreds of dollars made. For three years 
this money was paid out to give the citizens of 
Houston free music at the park, and now, the 
past summer, the city fathers saw the necessity 
of these concerts and find they can spare enough 
from the city funds to have free music in the 
park three evenings a week, all during the long 
summer months, and our efforts have not been in 
vain. 

With the assistance of the city's garbage carts 
they have had cleaning up days, when every 
particle of trash was hauled away and burned. 

On one occasion the ladies themselves paraded 
the streets to let it be known when the cleaning 
up days would begin, and prizes were offered for 
llie cleanest block. 

The grounds around Carnegie library have 
been beautifully planted with palms and ferns, 
and protected in winter, by this club. 




MRS. E. p. GRTNSTEAD, 
Vice-President Fourth Ward Division. 



32 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



I could go on naming things accomplished 
without end, but these are some of them, of 
which \vc feel justly proud. 

Beginning with a small number of women, we 
now have four hundred earnest women, which 
fr)rm the Houston Civic Club,recognized as a pow- 
er for sjood throughout the state, and hopes to con- 



tinue doing its duty until the city is fo clean and 
beautiful there will be no need of a Civic Club. 

The present officers are : Mrs. T. R. Franklin, 
president; Mrs. William Christian, vice presi- 
dent ; Mrs. March Culmore, recording secretary ; 
;\!rs. Robert Dancy, corresponding secretary; 
Mrs. Hinds Kirkland, treasurer. 




CHILDREN'S DRINKING FOUNTAIN, 
Erected by Fourth Ward Division H. C. C. 



LITERARY AND CIVIC CLUBS OF HOUSTON 



33 



SHORT HISTORY OF CURRENT LITERATURE CLUB. 
By Mrs. J. T. Lockman 



study. Broader subjects were on the program. 
The current novels got so trashy that we dis- 
carded them with disgust. Then the Carnegie 
library was built and our meetings were changed 
from the homes to the club room. To the regret 
of all, the social features were eliminated to a 
great extent. By degrees we have approached a 
standard that we feel cannot be criticised by any 
club, no matter how ambitious. We belong to 
state and city federations and donate to all 
worthy enterprises. We pay a monthly sum to 
the Carnegie library ; we give our pro rata to a 
free scholarship fund : we do our part towards 
bringing high class talent to our city ; we send 
our delegates and representatives to the conven- 
tions of women's clubs, and they are always a 
pride and credit to not only our club, but to the 
city. 

Our active membership at present is forty 
members. Our honorary and associate member- 




MRS. J. C. MEANS. 
Chairman Advisory Board C. L. C. 



In the year 1899, .Mrs. Si Packard conceived 
the idea of forming a club of congenial women 
for the purpose of reading and keeping up with 
the books of the day. About twenty members 
were at once admitted as charter members. Mrs. 
Packard was unanimously elected president, 
which office she most ably held for four con- 
secutive years. At the end of that time, by Mrs. 
Packard's own request, another president was 
elected. 

At first only the novels of the day were read 
and discussed. Meetings were held at the dif' 
ferent homes and books were carried from place 
to place by the librarian. It was lots of work'. 
but also lots of fun. After the study hour was 
over, the hostess of each meeting always had a 
social feature prepared for us. something so 
bright and cheery that the memory of our "good 
old times" lingers lovingly with all charter 
members. No one ever dreamed thev could sta>- 
away from a meeting. Alas ! how different now. 
when any little pretext is an excuse for ab- 
sence. 

Time went on; old members dropped out i>r 
moved away ; new members came to join the 
lanks. Each year saw changes in our line of 

» — 




MRS. B. P. BONNER 
President Current Literature Clult. 



34 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



ship about twenty-five. Our line of study for 
1908 and 1909 is above the average. It embraces 
art, foreign travel, foreign countries and their 
liistories, music, and always the current events 
and magazines. 

Our aim and object is to learn some new thing 
every meeting. 

Our president is beloved by the entire mem- 
bership, and all work hand in hand for each 
other's benefit. No friction of any character 
disturbs the happy, friendly greeting of mem- 
bers to each other on Wednesday mornings. 
No gossip is tolerated in the club, and no mem- 



ber ever loses a chance to make another mem- 
ber feel good and satisfied with herself. 

Altogether, it is a club that will bring out 
and develop all the good in one's character and 
certainly gives a great deal of happiness, which 
is, after all, the greatest thing in life. 

The present officers : President, Mrs. B. F. 
Bonner; first vice president, Mrs. I. S. Myer; 
second vice president, Mrs. H. B. Fall ; corres- 
ponding secretary, Mrs. George P. Macatee ; 
recording secretary, Mrs. John T. Lockman ; 
parliamentarian, Mrs. R. E. Luhn ; librarian, 
Mrs. T. H. Lawrence; critic, Mrs. J. W. Neal ; 
treasurer, Mrs. W. L. Coleman. 



SHAKESPEARE CLUB. 
By Mrs. Harry Tyner 



Late in the summer of 1904, a coterie of 
friends had been enjoying select readings from 
Shakespeare, rendered by a gifted member of 
their circle. 

Conceiving the idea of organizing a Shakes- 
peare club, a meeting was called for that pur- 
pose, October i, Thursday morning, at 10 
o'clock, at the home of Mrs. A. G. Howell. 
Fourteen ladies responded. Nominations for 
officers were in order, and resulted in electing 
for president, Mrs. J- W. Lockett; vice president, 
Mrs. J. W. Carter; recording secretary. ]\Irs. 
Harry Tyner. The membership was limited to 
twenty-one. The use of Rolf's edition of 
Shakespeare was favored by the majority, and 
also Fleming's "How to Study Shakespeare." 

The study of the tragedy of Othello, the Moor, 
v/as decided upon. The lesson for the initial 
meeting, first scene of first act. The history of 
the play, by Mrs. Howell. Why Shakespeare 
wrote the play, by Mrs. Carter. 

As the members were residents of the South 
End part of the city, and the club meetings were 
to be held exclusively in that locality, "South 



End Shakespeare Club" was deemed the most 
appropriate appellation. 

The first year, fortnightly meetings were held, 
and extended through the summer without inter- 
mission. Good work was done, and great inter- 
est was manifested by the attendance of a good 
average. Othello was begun October i, finished 
June 6. 

The delightful comedy of Twelfth Night was 
begun, and finished in time to take up Julius 
Caesar for the winter's work. 

After the first year, the usual club rules were 
adopted, meeting every week and study from 
C'ctober to June. In point of time this is the 
youngest literary club in the city. Not federated 
}et. Eight of Shakespeare's plays, tragedies and 
comedies alternated, have been very thoroughly 
considered. 

The four years have been full of interest, and 
even enthusiasm, and fraught with much pleas- 
ure. The fifth year has begun auspiciously, with 
a full membership. Hamlet, the Prince of Den- 
mark, is the studv for the season. 



THE MOTHERS' CLUBS 

By Mrs. B. a. Randolph 



THE MOTHERS' CLUB OF AUSTIN SCHOOL. 
Bv H. L. Bennett 



We take real pleasure in submitting to you for 
your consideration the following resume of the 
work accomplished at the Austin school by the 
Mothers' Club. We also append a few remarks 
concerning- plans for future endeavor. 

Our club was organized Februar}- 21, 1908. 
at which time the faculty of the school gave the 
mothers a reception. Mrs. S. C. Red was elected 
president, Mrs. H. L. Bennett secretary, and Dr. 
Holland treasurer. 

One hundred and ten mothers were enrolled 
as members and about twenty have been active 
in carrying on the work since organization. 

The first work undertaken by the club was 
to furnish hot lunches for the children at noon. 
This was begun on March 18, 1908, and was 
continued till the close of school on the 29th of 
last May. This work has been very successful 
and has given satisfaction to all concerned. At 
first vendors of various and sundry articles came 
to the school and attempted to continue to sell 
to the children, but pressure of the faculty in 
showing the children the advantage of buying 
from the mothers intead of unrcli^iblc vendors, 
together w'ith the excellent menu each day, soon 
had the effect of driving the vendors away 
through lack of patronage. The lunches have 
continued to be uniformly popular among the 
cliildren and faculty and the patrons of the 
school have given a generous support. 

Before we were able to open the lunch room, 
we were compelled to build a kitchen and fit it 
with the necessary apparatus for preparing hot 
food. \A'e found a suitable place in the base- 
ment and have a gas range and all the equip- 
ments of a modern kitchen. 

The dishes supplied were the best quality of 
white enamel ware. We have twelve dozen 
spoons, fourteen dozen mugs, three dozen cups 
and saucer^s, twelve dozen 5-inch bowls and 



three dozen 4-inch bowls. The equipment of the 
kitchen and the dishes cost $184.75. 

^Ve employ two white cooks and everything 
about the kitchen is kept in a thoroughly sani- 
tary condition. The kitchen is painted white 
and we can in truth call it the White Kitchen 
in every sense of the term. 

The income from the lunches each day has 
averaged $12. 

Some profit has been accumulated, and this, 
the membership fees and the sum earned at the 
picture entertainment, have enabled us to pay 
every bill, and we are now, and were at the 
close of school, entirely free of indebtedness of 
any kind and have more than fifty dollars in 
the treasury. 

It is only justice to say that our success in 
this department has been due in a large meas- 
ure to the earnest and faithful work of the pur- 
chasing agent, Mrs. Byrnes. 

A short time after the organization of the 
club, we had an entertainment at the Dawson 
Pagoda and cleared $156. We donated $100 of 
this to the Art League to pay for the picture 
frames. At the close of school we gave the 
children a trolley ride and picnic at City Park. 
This was a very enjo^-able affair to the children, 
and the mothers sold ice cream, cake and punch 
at the park and cleared by this means about $30. 

Our organization is of short duration and we 
have "just begun to work." We have in con- 
templation several lines of work which we be- 
lieve will result in much good for the Austin 
school. The following are a few things we have 
n; view for future effort: 

1. To equip a manual training and domestic 
science department. 

2. To beautify the grounds and fill the school 



36 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



3. To ask for street crossings leading to the 
school. 

4. To care for school building and grounds 
during vacations. 

5. To cultivate a school spirit among the pat- 
rons and near neighbors of the school. 

In closing this report we wish to call the 
attention of the Federation to a feature which 
we believe might work to the advantage of the 
schools in general and especially to those in 
the outskirts of the city. We think it would be 
of much benefit to install in each school a sta- 
tionery department. Xow, it is a great incon- 
\enience to the children to have to leave the 



school grounds to purchase minor school sup- 
plies, such as tablets, pencils, erasers, etc. 

It is not conducive to discipline or good order 
to have to allow the children to leave the school 
grounds and go to the corner groceries in the 
neighborhood of the building hunting school 
supplies. Very often they are not able to find 
what they want and the price and quality are 
nearly always altogether out of proportion. This 
would be of immense help to the faculty in the 
control of the school, for then there would be 
no excuse or reason for any child to leave the 
school premises during school hours. 



THE MOTHERS' CLUB OF FANNIN SCHOOL. 
By Miss Genevieve Johnson and C. A. Jameson 



The Mothers' Club of Fannin school is the 
outgrowth of a demand for clean, wholesome 
lunches for the children. 

For a number of years hawkers and vendors 
swarmed about the school and sold tamales, chili, 
ice cream, etc. Much of this food was unwhole- 
some, and some of it dangerous, hence the teach- 
ing force of the school sought in some way to 
substitute good, wholesome food for the kind the 
children were buying from the street vendors. 

Finally the principal called a meeting of the 
mothers of the district and laid the matter be- 
fore them. They rose to the situation and or- 
ganized "The Fannin .School Mothers' Club." 
the oldest organization of the kind in the city. 

The club was organized primarily to suppi}- 
hygienic lunches to such children as wished to 
buy. Their success has been remarkable, and 
the club has undertaken and carried out a num- 
ber of enterprises that have extended the use- 
fulness of the school and made it a greater 
social influence in the district. 

Through the generosity of the business men 
of this city, the sum of money obtained from 
dues was augmented, until the ladies were en- 
abled to thoroughly equip a kitchen at the cost 
of $500, and place an excellent cook and two 
assistants in charge. 

Hot lunches have been served for sixteen 
months. The average weekly receipts have been 



fifty dollars; the average expenses, thirty dol- 
lars. During last term an electric motor, costing 
ninety dollars, was installed, to turn the ice cream 
freezers. 

During the summer of 1907 the mothers, lib- 
erally assisted by others friendly to the cause, 
raised twelve hundred dollars for the equipment 
of manual training and domestic science. 
Through their unselfish and untiring efforts. 
Fannin school has manual training and domestic 
science departments, whose equipment is imsur- 
passed, so far as we know, in any ward school 
in the United States. During the session of 
IQ07-08 the club paid for all supplies used in 
these departments. 

Being brought into close touch with the daily 
life of the school, the mothers came to under- 
stand the needs of the children, and have added 
many comforts and conveniences. 

The club furnished the material for two ar- 
bors, each forty feet long, twelve feet wide and 
twelve feet high. The work of planning, build- 
ing and painting was done by the principal, 
assisted by the larger boys and the janitors. 
1 hese arbors, covered with vines, afford delight- 
ful resting places during the heat of the day. 

The ladies encouraged the beautifying of the 
grounds by furnishing good soil for the flower 
beds and bv protecting the front beds by a strong 
iron railing. 



THE MOTHERS' CLUBS 



37 



During the summer of 1908 the club had 
erected on the school grounds a fine open air 
gymnasium. The work was done according to 
the plans of the principal, and under his close 
personal supervision. 

In September of the present year the mothers 
purchased a fine piano for the school. This 
piano will enable the children, as they march 
into and out of the building, to appreciate more 
fully the excellent music recommended by the 
public school music committee. It will also be 
tif great assistance to the Fannin school orchestra 
and the glee club. 

The club has contributed toward the framing 
of the fine pictures so generously given the 
school by the Public School Art League. They 
intend to finish framing the pictures this au- 
tumn. 

With the memory of their own hard work in 
raising the money to equip the manual training 
and domestic science departments fresh in their 
minds, the club was glad to contribute fifty 
dollars toward the fund to establish similar de- 
partments in two other schools. 

The income from the kitchen is not sufficient 
to make all the desired improvements, therefore 
it has been decided to have a bazaar, annualh'. 



The first was held on the school grounds May 
5, 1908. About two hundred dollars was cleared. 
The next, a doll bazaar, will be held during the 
early part of December, 1908. Much of the work 
for the doll bazaar is already well under way. 

The social side has not been entirely neglected, 
and in the minds of the teachers of Fannin the 
niemory of the delicious luncheon given them 
by the Mothers' Club at Christmas time pleas- 
antly lingers. They also appreciate their gen- 
eious hospitality with which they entertained the 
-State Teachers' Association in December, 1907. 

The work of the club, measured from any 
standpoint, has been a success. The membership 
of the club and the faculty of the school have 
unitedly striven to make the work a success. 

The outlook for the future is full of promise. 
The club can point with pardonable pride to 
what has been accomplished and look forward 
with pleasant anticipation for tlie future. As 
long as there's a "Gideon's band" of faithful 
workers, the work will go on. Those of the 
ckib who have made sacrifices in the past have 
set an example that can and will be worthily 
followed when the present workers are com- 
pelled to lay down their burdens to rest. 



THE PARENTS' ASSOCIATION OF THE CHARLOTTE M. ALLEN SCHOOL, 

By LiLA Baugh 

The Association has been organized a year. Domestic science and manual training 

and has its regular officers and board of direc equipment $1,100 

tors. Mrs. Baltis Allen is president, and Mrs. Equipment of kitchen for noonday lunches 150 

J. ]\I. Rockwell treasurer. Mone}- received and expended for hmches 900 

The amount required to run the kindergarten M^^ Pura furnished to the school 135 

through the year is $1,000, and the ladies ex- Supplies furnished for domestic science 

pect to raise the remaining $565 during this classes 108 

school year. We expect to take up a course of Flowers for the front lawn 25 

study in our Association this year, but the sub- Ferns for interior of school 9 

ject has not been definitely decided upon. Fund raised for framing pictures 85 

A detailed account of the work done by the Fund for kindergarten 435 

Parents' Association of the Charlotte M. ,\llen 

School is as follows: Total $2:,947 



38 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



THE MOTHERS' CLUB OF TAYLOR SCHOOL. 

By Mrs. A. D. Buckingham 



The club was organized in January, 1908, witii 
about fifteen members, for the purpose of serv- 
ing hot hinches to the children at the noon hour. 

The officers were elected as follows : Mrs. E. 
A. Holland, president; Mrs. Frank Andrews, 
vice president; Mrs. A. D. Buckingham, secre- 
tary ; Mrs. S. H. Dixon, corresponding secretary 
and press reporter; Mrs. G. W. Scheultz, treas- 
urer. 

In March the club undertook to place domes- 
tic science and manual training in Taylor school, 
agreeing to raise $1,000. There were ten cap- 
tains appointed, with a team of nine ladies to 



assist each captain, each team promising to raise 
$100. 

The club gave a picnic at the City Park in 
June, from which they realized about $400. 

The club now has a membership of fifty-one. 
They held their last meeting in July and after 
the treasurer's report was read, they found they 
would be able to place domestic science and 
ir.anual training in the school. In September the 
club held a reception in the new rooms and in- 
vited the public to inspect the same. They are 
now working to place a gymnasium on the play 
^rounds. 




Little Men and Women 

and Representative Homes 
of Houston 



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For Children 

f )li. little bit of a baby girl, 

And little bit of a baby boy. 
With tousled windblown hair a-curl. 

With e_\es alight with the bab_\- joy. 
The world, and all in the world that's good, 

Was made for you — all made for you — 
I'he hill and valley and plain and wood. 

The fleecy clouds and the heavens blue. 

The daisies nod so your hands may reach. 

And oceans and oceans of meadowsweet, 
As wide and far as the eye may reach. 

Are coaxing the pressure of little feet ; 
But better than daisy or violet. 

Or meadow-blossom all wet with dew. 
The mother-cheek to your cheek is set — 

The mother-loving was made for you. 
— //((/(/ Mortimer Lc2i'is. 



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MARION HOLT SEWARD 







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BYRD KNOX ANU .SARAH WALLIS 





MARY PAULINE FORDTRAN 



FRANCES CLUETT DESEL 




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JAMES ROSS HUDSON 




RESIDENCE OP MR. AND MRS. J. O. ROSS 




RESIDENCE OF HENRY HOUSE. SR. 




RESIDENCE OP HENRY S FOX 




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BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 



By Mrs. E. N. Gray 



THE DEPELCHIN FAITH HOAIE. 



This is perhaps one of the most appealing ben- 
evolences of our cit}-, for it has to do with the 
needs and the distresses of children. And hard, 
indeed, is the heart which is not touched by the 
cry of a little cliild. 

This institution owes its inception to the big 
heartedness of Mrs. Kenzia De Pelchin, who was 
practically aided in her noble undertaking by 
some of the ladies of our city. 

Mrs. Kenzia De Pelchin's life is as interesting 
as a story. She spent many )ears in Houston, an 
angel of mercy to the sick and destitute. The 
home which she founded for homeless children 
stands today as a significant monument to her 
life of service and devotion to the cause of help- 
less humanity. 




MRS. T. W. HOUSE, 
President. 



Born in the Aladeria Islands, of English parent- 
age, she was left an orphan when very young. 
Her early life was passed in England, but under 
the care of an aunt she came to Texas while vet 



a girl, and then her life of ministry began. She 
was first a music teacher in Houston, and later 
she was in Drs. Stuart & Boyle's sanitarium as 
one of its most capable nurses. During the 
dreadful yellow fever scourge of 1878 she went 
to Memphis, Tennessee, and gave heroic service. 
When urged to accept the money donated to pay 
the nurses, she accepted it only to turn it over to 
a worthy charity of that city. 

The last part of her life was spent as matron 
rf the Eayland Orphans' Home. In the spring 
of 1892, two homeless little ones were picked up 
by her and a notice put in the Post announcing 
that a home would be begun at once. She spent 
the night in prayer and the next morning a ben- 
evolent woman of Houston went to see her. This 
was Mrs. W. C. Crane. 

With the aid of this lady a small cottage was, 
rented and a lady was found who would loan her 
furniture and act as matron. Then the home was 
a fact, without one dollar ahead and only a crib 
for a possession. On Monday, May 2, Mrs. 
Crane took out some ice cream and cake and 
Mrs. De Pelchin took the orphans from Ba} land 
home in a wagon to the cottage, where they sang 
their little hymns and with simple ceremony, in 
Airs. De Pelchin's own words, "they christened 
P.ayland's little sister Faith Home." The or- 
phans enjoyed the ride and the unwonted feast, 
and the guests departed with a vivid memory oi 
that May day opening. 

From that sn:all beginning, in 1892, the insti- 
tution has grown and developed, until today it 
ii one of the best equipped of the city's chari- 
ties, with its^own handsome brick building and 
its many happy faced little ones, sheltered bv its 
watchful care. 

The Faith Home, as it now exists, was organ- 
ised January 20, 1893, and soon after applied for 
a charter. It was called "Faith Home" because 
the heroic founder of this institution placed her 



56 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



fyilh in Gotl and the kind liearts of Houston 
people. 

This home is not priniariK an orphan asylum, 
but it is a comfortable home, situated on the cor- 
ner of Chenevert street and Pierce avenue, where 
tlie father who has lost his wife may place his 
little ones until he can provide home care for 
them again ; a home where the mother may shel- 
ter her helpless children while she earns a living: 
a home where good care, the best of medical at- 
tention, wholesome food and wise sanitary sur- 
rL'undings are furnished for the helpless children, 
either orphaned of father's and mother's care or 
dependent upon the one parent, too burdened to 
meet their need. The parent who places his 
child there is supposed to ])ay three dollars a 
month, so lonsr as he has work'. This is of neces- 



sity an uncertain and very limited source of in- 
come. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the gen- 
eral public to see that this institution is fitly 
supported. 

The board of directors consists of the officers 
and the chairmen of the various committees. 
They are: President, Mrs. T. \A'. House; vice 
president at large, ^Irs. M. E. Brs-an ; treasurer. 
Mrs. F. A. Reichardt; secretary, Mrs. Jonathan 
Lane: chairman of investigation committee, 
Mrs. J. \\'. McKee ; of house committee. Miss 
H. Levy: of grounds, Mrs. J. W. Parker: of 
groceries, Mrs. Carter Walker: of drugs. Mrs. 
Ed I^Iackey : of clothing, Mrs. B. F. Weems; of 
luirsery. Mrs. W. B. Chew: of fuel. Mrs. G. S. 
.^hannon. Mrs. Kerven is the matron. 



HE E.\YLAXD ORPHANS' HOME. 
By J. V. De.alv 



In 1866, the Rev. C. C. Preston presented a 
petition to the legislature of Texas, then in ses- 
sion, asking for a charter to incorporate an insti- 
tution for the support and education of the 01- 
phan children of Texas, to be located at P.ayland, 
Harris county, and to be styled "The Baylan 1 
Orphans' Home." 

A bill was accordingly introduced into the 
legislature and passed, and appro\ed September 
24, 1866. 

The incorporators named in the act were \\'. P. 
Jiallinger. John L. Bryan, M. S. ]\Iunson. H. F. 
Gillette, John T. Brady, Ashbel Smith and F. H. 
Merriman. 

The object of the institution, as specified in 
the act, was as follows : 

"Section 5. That said institution shall be open 
to all denominations, but shall never become sec- 
tarian in its character, nor shall tlie peculiar doc- 
trines of any denomination be taught therein. 
That all indigent white children shall be edu- 
cated, boarded, lodged and clothed free of charge, 
and that none others shall enjoy the privileges 
accruing under this charter, or receive the ben- 
efits of the subscriptions in behalf of said insti- 
tution." 

February 18, 1888, the charter was amended, 
extending the duration of same for fiftv vears 



from said date, and locating the home at Hous- 
ton, Texas. 

During the years the home was at Ba} land, it 
was almost continuously under the direction of 
Mr. H. F. Gillette, superintendent, with the ex- 
ception of a short time in 1867, when Rev. C. C. 
Preston and Mr. John H. Ker filled the position. 

The original trustees were M. S. Munson, 
])resident; E. A. Shepherd, treasurer: E. F. Gil- 
lette, .secretary: Ashbel Smith, John Dean, C. S. 
Longcope, T. \\'. Hou^e and W. J. Hutchins. 

Subscriptions were received from individuals 
and the home started, promptly after being char- 
tered. L'p to shortly before the home was moved 
to Houston, the inmates averaged about eighty. 
Since being in Houston the number has aver- 
aged about thirty. By act of the legislature, 
passed in 1877, the home received its proportion 
of state lands devoted to orphan asylums. These 
lands were largely located in Callahan, Shackel- 
ford and Stephens counties. 

Mr. Gillette resigned as superintendent and 
secretary on August 6. 1885, and was succeeded 
by Air. S. M. Williams. Since that date, 1885. 
Alessrs. ^^'illiams. Gribble and J. F. Dumble have 
acted as secretaries, the latter resigning in 1907. 

When it was decided to remove to Houston, 
the place known as tlie "Dr. Pearl place." near 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 



57 



Beauchamp Springs (now adjoining Woodland 
Heights), was purchased, a new building was 
erected and other necessary improvements made. 
At the time the move was made, Messrs. R. M. 
Elgin, William Christian, W. V. R. Watson, R. 
B. Baer, George Dumble, G. \\\ Kidd, D. F. 
Stuart, constituted the board. A large part of 
the state lands were disposed of by the home, in 
its settlement with Mr. Gillette ; other sales 
had been made prior to removal to Houston. 
Alost of the expense of moving, acquiring the 
new property and erecting buildings, etc., was 
met by subscriptions, mostly from citizens of 
Houston and Galveston. Some of the original 
subscriptions, in the first years of the home's 
e.xistence, were in the nature of permanent in- 
vestments, only the interest, or income, from 
which can be used for maintenance. From these, 
together with what can be raised for sale on the 
place, supplemented by contributions from the 



public, the home is maintained. Its receipts, 
from the investments, etc., do not supply more 
than one-half the amount necessary for its sup- 
port at the present time. The original contribu- 
tor to the permanent investment was Mr. J. J. 
Hendly, of Galveston. A school has been main- 
tained at the home ever since its organization. 
Since at Houston a teacher has been employed. 
The sessions have coincided with those of the 
public schools. The count}- paid to it its propor- 
tion of the state tax, and since the extension of 
tile city limits brought the home within the cor- 
porate boundaries, the cit^- has appointed and 
paid for a teacher. The amount paid by the city 
has been supplemented by the home. 

The present board is composed of Messrs. 
R. M. Elgin, William Christian, R. B. Baer, 
J. V. Dealy, E. W. Taylor, J. F. Meyer and H. J. 
Dannebaum. 



THE FLORENCE CRITTENTON RESCUE HOME. 



Perhaps of all benevolences this is the most 
humane and at the same time the most difficult 
to maintain and direct. Because of a rather 
natural but a ver}- one-sided prejudice, the bur- 
den of its maintenance has been the care of a 
very few faithful, enduring men and women, 
who have directed the work in Houston since its 
organization. 

This work in our city was formally organized 
November 17, 1896, with the following officers 
and directors : W. B. Jones, president ; I. S. 
Myer, vice president; G. W. Heyer, treasurer; 
.\. G. Howell, secretary; jMesdames Belle Blan- 
din, D. R. Cunningham, E. S. Tracy , W. H. Per- 
egoy, S. Beatty, Messrs. E. F. McGowan, W. D. 
Cleveland, Sr., E. W. Taylor, S. E. Calvitt, 
Frank W. Fox and George Henricksen. In 
F'ebruary, 1907, two and one-half lots, corner 
Caroline and Elgin, were purchased for $700 ; 
by September of the same year the home was 
built, a matron, Mrs. Yates, installed, and on 
September 16 she reported one girl in the home. 
Since then the average number per month in the 
home would be about seven. These girls come 
from all over the state, often too poor to pay any- 



thing; but, being placed themselves in a position 
so appealing and helpless, it would be inhuman, 
to refuse them. Quite 50 per cent of these girls 
are of foreign extraction, and, sad to say, 75 per 
cent are under 20 years of age. About 95 per 
cent of them have worked away from home, and 
some 80 per cent have only one parent or none 
at all. 

This work should be of peculiar interest to 
taxpayers, because it is one of the most practi- 
cal methods of dealing with dependent children. 
The Crittenton home work is unalterably op- 
posed to separating the mother from her child, 
save as the last resort, realizing by practical ex- 
perience it is better to save the mother and chiKl 
together. If these women — too often mere 
girls — are not received into a rescue home, the 
illegitimate child usually finds its way into some 
institution supported by taxpayers and the ben- 
evolence of the county, and the mother, hardened 
by her violation of the most sacred and primal 
instinct of her being, in nine out of ten cases 
goes the same way again, enduring her five or 
ten vears of vice, then ending her davs as a 
conntv or city charge in a hospital, a ])rison or 



58 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



an insane asylum, if not suiciding by a shorter 
method, and is finally buried at public expense. 
Would it not be a monetary gain worth the while, 
— coimting out the glorious profit of a saved 
cliaracter — could even the majority of these 
women be placed in Crittenton homes, where 
tliey are encouraged and enabled to become self 
respecting and self supporting? 

These Crittenton homes have born in them 
annually some 600 children ; almost every child 
is in the care of its own mother, who is trained, 
so far as the case allows, to support herself and 
her child. Her abilities, her impulses and her 
interests are directed toward a life of decency, 
virtue and self support. These girls must remain 
in the home till their babies are at least six 
months old. They are then found good, safe 
homes, where they may take their babies, and, 
while supporting themselves, be surrounded by 
the best of Christian influences. Where pos- 
sible, a marriage is arranged between the father 
and the mother of the child, and they are helped 
to begin life in some new place; or the girl and 
her child are returned to her home, with the un- 
derstanding she shall not go to work in fac- 
tories, stores or offices. Domestic service is 
found to be the safest, wisest condition for these 
girls. If the girl is not 18 when her child is born, 
she is allowed to return to her fannly. and the 
baby is placed in a good adopted home ; the same 
arrangement is made for the child in the few 
cases where the mother is over 18 and yet, after 
caring for her child for six months, her defi- 
ciency of character causes her to refuse to keep 
her baby. This very rarely is the case. So long 
as a girl is trying to live a self-respecting, self- 
supporting life, the home is open to her. If she 
is out of a position, she may remain there until 
another is found for her. 

If girls are able to pay they are charged $10 
a month and their doctor's fee. If not able to 
pay so much, the charge is $35, $10 of whicli goes 
to the doctor. If unable to pay anything they are 
received and allowed to pay one-fifth of their 
wages when positions are found, paying till they 
reach the amount of $35. These are the rules 



especially for out-of-town girls. 

This home is without endowment, and there- 
fore dependent upon subscriptions for its sup- 
port. Its expenses are usually greater than its 
regular income, thus taxing the generosity and 
ingenuity of its directors considerably. It would 
be greatly to the advantage of this most humane 
work were the support sufficiently liberal to 
make the home more of an industrial institution. 
With better equipment very creditable laundry 
work and plain sewing could be taken in, to the 
advantage of the girls and the gain of the home. 
A poultry yard could be established with con- 
siderable profit, but, as the present income stands, 
the current expenses are barely met, and no 
margin is left for improvements. 

To every corner of this large state this home 
lias opened its doors to protect and aid its erring 
daughters. Are there not then well filled purses 
generous enough to bring one or all of these prac- 
tical departments to a profitable working basis? 

Sewer connection has never been made. Who 
will make that gift to the home? Another 
generous thought would be the gift of about ten 
cords of wood for winter use. 

The women who find shelter in tlie-e homes 
are usually poor, and untrained, oft^n \ery ig- 
norant, too often lazy, rarely vicious. These are 
the weaknesses that bring them to ?uch ne'-d. 
Were thev without such faults they v.-ould not 
need this gift of mercy and car?. They are the 
victims in the struggle of life. In these homes 
tlie effort is to train them to come out victorious, 
and this effort, bravely carried on by a very 
busy few, gets shamefully little support. 

The present officers and board of control are: 
W. B. Jones, president; Mrs. E. N. Gray, vice 
president; A. G. Howell, treasurer; J. C. Harris, 
recording secretary ; Mrs. L. S. Hubbell, corres- 
ponding secretary. Mrs. Charles Stewart, I. S. 
Alyer, W. A. Wilson and Rev. J. L. Gross. 

:\Irs. E. N. Gray, 2701 Fannin street, or Mr. 
A. G. Howell, 505 Houston Land and Trust 
building, will gladly receive any and all dona- 
tions for the home, which is at 31 19 Caroline 
street. 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 



59 



THE WESLEY HOUSE. 
Bv Mrs. Geo. S. Se.xton 



The Wesley House, 1110-1112 Montgomery 
avenue, a Christian center for social, educational 
and religious activities, is maintained by the 
Board of City Missions, an organization com- 
posed of representatives from all of the Metho- 
dist churches of the city. 

Its departments of work are : A home for self- 
supporting young women ; a kindergarten ; night 
classes for foreigners ; a committee for daily 



visiting ; an industrial school ; athletic classes 
for young women ; a foreign Sunday school, 
and preaching in Spanish the first Sunday after- 
noon of each month. 

Miss flattie Wright, head resident, is assisted 
by a corps of seven efficient workers. Visitors 
interested in any phase of work conducted are 
cordially welcomed at any time. 



THE SHELTERING ARMS. 
Bv Kate L. Reese 



The Sheltering Arms Association was organ- 
ized nearly a score of years ago, under the aus- 
pices of Christ Episcopal church, "Its object," 
to quote the constitution, "was to provide a home 
for those aged and needy women who have been 
residents of Harris county for six months or 
longer, preference being given to the applicants 
from Houston." Its support being by voluntary 
contributions, it has, like all non-endowed institu- 
tions, to rely upon a precarious mode of exist- 
ence. In spite, however, of the continuous 
struggle necessarv for its maintenance during 
the past years, and its many hardships, losses by 



fire and bank failure among them, the home has 
been able to keep its doors open to the many 
worthy, homeless women who have sought its 
shelter and care. The institution is accessibly 
located on Hutchins and Leeland streets, and it 
offers comfortable accommodation for seven in- 
mates. Through the efforts of the present com- 
petent matron, Mrs. Lecler, the affairs of the 
organization are wisely and energetically admin- 
istered, and the board of managers would wel- 
come visits and inspection from the public at all 
times, when the modest but active benevolence 
of thi^ work may be seen and appreciated. 



ST. ANTHONY'S HOME. 



Located about three miles from the city is a 
charitable institution about which very little is 
known, for the reason that the work is done un- 
ostentatiously. This is St. Anthony's Home for 
the Aged. It is conducted by the Sisters of 
Charity of the Incarnate Word, and they have a 
task in which their patience is often called into 
play. But, with all the multitudinous and weary- 
ing duties and the hard work that is their daily 
lot, they are cheerful, smiling and comforting 
to their aged and decrepit charges. 

The home was established in 1900, just before 
the storm, but no real work was done until the 



following year, the building at that time being 
sufficient only to afford shelter for the nuns who 
had come from Galveston after their home there 
had been wrecked. 

Mrs. Costello, a devout woman, left forty-five 
acres of land on the Pierce Junction road for the 
establishment of this home, but there were no 
improvements thereon, and the actual establish- 
nient of the refuge has been a lengthy task. 

There is no regular fund for the support of 
the institution. Some of the inmates pay each 
month small sums. The county of Harris pays 
S40 per month for the care of four of the inmates. 



60 



THE KEY TU THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



sent to the home by the county judge. Several 
cf the charitable people of Houston give regu- 
hirly to the home, but no large sums are iiichuleil 
in these monthly or quarterly donations. The 
institution is run upon the basis that the "Lord 
will provide," and so far this faith appears to 
have been well established. It is necessary from 
time to time for the sisters to appeal for funds, 
but this appeal always brings in sufficient sums 
for the needs of the institution. 

iMother St. John is in charge of the home. She 
was asked how "the home is maintained, and an- 
swered that she gets what she needs from various 
sources. As stated above, some of the inmates 
pay small sums. Then each morning the wagon 
belonging to the home comes to the city, and 
from one market man and grocery house and 
butcher and commission house and then from 
another, contril5utions are received. These are 
given freely, and the tax upon each of the givers 
is not heavy, albeit it is rather regular, as the 
source of supply is not very large. There are 
eighteen cows at the home, which furnish all the 
milk and butter needed and leave sonie for sale. 



which adds something, though not much, to the 
cash required for expenses. Chickens are kept 
at the home and these furnish eggs for the table, 
though none for sale. 

The home has forty-five acres of ground, but 
only a small bit of this is cultivated. The inmates 
are too old to do the work, and the sisters have 
not the means to employ workmen. However, 
the land is used as pasturage for the cows and 
chickens. \\'ater for the people and stock comes 
fiom a well. 

Three meals are served each day. At break- 
f.'ist there are three dishes, three at diimer and 
two at supper. Meat and potatoes are the prin- 
cipal items in the bill of fare, as the inmates pre- 
fer them, most of them having small use for 
vegetables. There is plenty of milk and eggs. 
The sisters have their own table, of course, btit 
do the cooking and waiting on the tables for the 
inmates. There is a big range in the kitchen, and 
here again cleanliness absolutely reigns. 

To care for the old men and women — the old- 
i St 8/ and the youngest 65 — there are eight Sis- 
t( rs of CharitA'. and thev have all the\' can do. 



THE CHARITY HOSPITAL. 



This is perhaps the most imperative need of 
Houston, and yet, after three years of effort and 
disappointing delay, it remains but a dream. 

Some three years ago Mrs. E. X. Gray, then 
president of the L'nited Charities, recognizing 
the necessity for such an institution, and touched 
by the distress resulting from the lack of such a 
public cliaritv, began to agitate the matter 
through the daily papers. At the same time, she 
strove to awaken the interest of such individuals 
a: were financially able to donate this building 
tc the sick and suffering poor of our city. 

A board of directors was selected, consisting 
of Judge T. \y. I'ord, president; ]\Irs. E. X. 
Gray, secretary-, and ^lessrs. W D. Cleveland, 
Hyman Levy, Sinclair Taliaferro, Charles Shearn, 
George Hermann, J. S. Rice and Andrew Dow. 

Mr. Hermann first agreed to give $20,000 and 
a block of ground, then changed his promise to 
$50,000 and a block of ground. Mr. Charles 
Page of .'\ustin, through the efforts of Dr. Ross, 



offered to prepare the plans and supervise the 
building, free. i\Irs. Gray obtained promises of 
donations and reduction in prices of materials 
and labor from lumliermen, brick men, hardware 
iren, plumbers, etc., almost covering the building, 
l-^ven an elevator was promised at one-tliird cost. 
She also found one hundred business men who 
agreed to pledge themselves to give $100 a year 
for ten \ears towards the maintenance of such 
an institution. The movement went so far as 
the drawing of the plans. 

The institution is still waiting, unless the pub- 
lic, or some public spirited individual, is generous 
enough to take hold of these promises and bring 
this sorelv needed charity to a practical comple- 
tion. Mrs. Gray holds herself ready to get the 
equipment and the same provision for the main- 
tenance, if anv individual or any committee will 
be responsible for the location and $50,000 for 
tlie building. 

To those who deal with the ooor and the side 



BEXEN'OLEXT IXSTlTL'TlOiXS AXD SOCIETIES 



61 



of this city, there is not a more pressing or more 
imperative need than a charity hospital, un- 
hampered by denominationalism, unperverted by 
poHtics, and accessible to the sick ;ind diseased 



C'f our city. Our denominational institutions do 
their share of charity, but they cannot and do 
not meet this need. 



HOSPITALS. 

There are three denominational hospitals or are St. Joseph's Infirmary, on Crawford street 

infirmaries in the city, all of which do some and Pierce avenue ; the Baptist Sanitarium, on 

charity, but the service of that kind is neces- Lamar avenue and Louisiana street, and the 

sarily insufficient for the needs of the city. They Christian Sanitarium" at Houston Heights. 



HOUSTON SETTLEMENT ASSOCIATION. 



Possibly, in proportion to the good work being 
done, less is known of the Houston Settlement 
Association than of any other philanthropic or- 
ganization of our city. 
This may be attribut- 
ed to two causes : Our 
youth and our modes- 
ty. We are as yet not 
two ye'ars old, and. 
while there is no ar- 
ticle in our constitu- 
tion providing that we 
hide our light under 
a bushel, still it is one 
of the basic principles 
of the organization 
that we make no as- 
sessments on mem- 
bers or appeals to the 
public for money, sell 
no tickets, have no 
benefits, and, if pos- 
sible, limit our expen- 
ditures to the legiti- 
mate income from 
dues. It is a matter 
of pride with us that 
so far we have been 
able to live up to our 
principles in this re- 
spect, and the public ea.steb outixg— ; 
has not been asked to share our burden in any 
way. Hence they know little oi us. 

On February 19, 1907, a few good women, 



scarcely more than a dozen, met at the home of 
Mrs. James A. Baker, and banded themselves 
ti}gether for the purpose, as the constitution 

reads, of extending 
educational, i n d u s- 
trial, social and 
friendly aid to all 
those within their 
reach. This was the 
birthday of the Hous- 
ton Settlement Asso- 
ciation, although it 
had existed several 
years prior to that 
date in an embryo 
state. In January, 
1904, inspired by the 
crying need of indus- 
trial training among 
the pupils of the Rusk 
school, as set forth 
by some of the teach- 
ers of that institution, 
]\Irs. M. M. Archer, 
with several young 
wi)n:en assistants, had 
organized a sewing 
class of about eigh- 
teen girls, who met 
once a week in the 
iAu HOUSTON p.AKK ^^'oman's Club free 

kindergarten room. The identity of the fairy 
godmothers who furnished the wdierewithal for 
this class, and all others maintained up to the 




62 



THE KEY TU THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



time of the formal organization of the Settle- 
ment Association, has never been divulged. But 
this was the real beginning, and the work con- 
tinued to grow under volunteers until April 
1905, when Miss Annie Orem took charge, and 
since that time she has been closely identified 
with it. 

Before enlarging upon the work of the Hous- 
ton Settlement Association, I will say just a 
word as to the association itself. It has increased 
to a membership of two hundred, and is steadily 
growing, and, while it was organized by women 
exclusively, we now have on our roll the names 
of some twenty gentlemen, some of whom are 
doing active and efficient work. We hope to see 
this list grow. The association is entirely non- 
sectarian, there being representatives of nearly 
every faith among the board of directors. This 
board, composed of the six officers and nine 
members, selected at large from the association, 
has charge of the affairs of the association. 
There are no stipulated dues, each member sub- 
scribing as his or her pleasure dictates. The 
regular meetings are held the first Wednesday 
in each month, generally at the home of the 
president. 

The officers for the present year are as fol- 
lows: President, Mrs. James A. Baker; first vice 
president, Mrs. H. R. Akin ; second vice presi- 
dent, Mrs. John McClellan ; treasurer, Mrs. J. 
Lewis Thompson; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
J. Allan Kyle; recording secretary, Mrs. David 
C . Glenn. 

As to our work. Soon after the organization 
of the Settlement Association, the Woman's Club 
committed to our care and keeping its free kin- 
dergarten work in the Second ward. This gift 
included, besides the well established school, 
which was most popular in the neighborhood 
where it was located, the building occupied by 
the school and the equipment thereof. This 
kindergarten, and the sewing class which I have 
previously mentioned, formed the nucleus around 
which all our work has grown. The work of the 
kindergarten has never been allowed to languish, 
and at the close of last session it had an enroll- 
ment of fifty children. In place of the old week- 
ly sewing class, three were conducted each week 
last session, with sixty-six girls enrolled. Cook- 
ing was added to the curriculnm the past year, a 



suitable room equipped, and four classes taught 
each week, numbering in all thirty-one girls. 
Besides these regular classes, a weekly story hour 
was arranged for the benefit of all the children 
of the neighborhood, also a small circulating 
library, a branch of the local Carnegie library. 
The average attendance at the story hour last 
session was seventy-five, and about thirty books 
were distributed from the library each week. 1 
use the statistics for last year because the work 
of the present session did not begin until Octo- 
ber 5, and there has been no report since then. 
A Woman's Club, of which Mrs. R. F. Galla- 
gher is president, numbering about thirty women, 
and a Men's Club of twenty-five members, Mr. 
L. J. Elumenthal president, were organized last 
winter. Both these associations use the settle- 
ment building as a place of meeting and are en- 
deavoring to co-operate with the Settlement As- 
si.'ciation in all efforts that tend toward the im- 
provement of the neighborhood. 

The Alpha Club, which is a social organiza- 
tion of young men, and of which Mr. Charles 
Borello is president, was formed during the sum- 
mer, and this club also looks to the Settlement 
for its place of meeting and for its inspiration. 
I think it a safe estimate to say that at least two 
hundred people use the building each week, and 
that fully one hundred families are affected by 
the beneficent influence that emanates from it. 

The past spring the school board laid before 
the Settlement Association a proposition for us 
to co-operate with the school authorities in estab- 
lishing a domestic science department in the 
Rusk school. The Settlement Association was 
\r, equip the department, the school board to 
afterward maintain it and supply teachers. The 
proposition was accepted, and, during the sum- 
mer, a most complete equipment was installed, 
and at the opening of school the classes in do- 
mestic science were inaugurated. Since then a 
night class in cooking has been organized, the 
first in the city, ^^'e consider this the greatest 
achievement in our history, not because it cost 
more money than any previous undertaking, and 
not because it relieves us from the necessity of 
conr't'cting a cooking school ourselves, but be- 
c use it brings us so closely in touch with the 
iniblic school which is just where the Settlement 
belongs. It is not a charit^'. but rather a social 



BEN'E\'ULE\'J' INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES 



63 



center, and an edncational institution, by which heredity, environment and whatever would tend 
we hope to teacli people, not only children, but to discourage, and make the best of themselves and 
men and women, to help themselves to rise above derive the greatest good and happiness from life. 



THE UNITED CHARITIES. 



This association was organized in Februar}-, 
1904, through the efforts of Alesdames T. W. 
House, C. A. }ilitchner, J. F. Burton, Annie E. 
Sydnor, Carter Walker, Wharton Bates, J. M. 
Gibson, S. G. Forbes, R. F. Holnian, Cramer 
and Larkin. The first funds were realized by a 
bazaar, in which these ladies labored zealously. 
j\Ir. Dudley Bryan was at all times an enthu- 
siastic friend of the work. Mrs. J- F. Burton, 
as secretary, and Mrs. C. A. Mitchner, as treas- 
urer, rendered invaluable services during the or- 
ganization's first year. 

The formal organization was accomplished 
about March i, 1904, with the following officers 
and board of directors: Mrs. E. N. Gray, presi- 
dent ; Rev. S. R. Hay, vice president ; Mrs. J. F. 
Burton, secretary: Mrs.C. A. Mitchner, treasurer: 
Rev. H. D. Aves, Rabbi Barnstein, Rufus Cage, 
Mrs. D. F. Stuart, J\Irs. Anne Sydnor, Mrs. M. 
E. Bryan, ]\Irs. T. L. Larkin, Mrs. W. I. Wil- 
liamson, Mrs. J. M. Gibson, R. D. Gribble and 
A. L. Jackson, mayor, ex officio. Mrs. J- L. 
Dupree was the agent. The question of a per- 
manent support for the w ork was the one of most 
vital moment. In May of the same year the 
president proposed the following circular letter, 
enclosing return post cards and the cards to be 
used by the subscribers to the organization : 

Houston. Texas, May 23. 1904. — Dear Sir: 
There is in Houston an imperative need for some 
organization that will take charge of the general 
charity work of our community, and in a hu- 
mane, yet systematic and effective way, aid the 
worthv poor, and check the impositions of the 
unworthy. We believe that the ordinary methods 
of individual and indiscriminate giving increases 
pauperism and crime, and degrades rather than 
encourages self respect and self support. 

Our purpose is to help others help themselves : 
tr. encourage industry and a proper independ- 
ence ; to save children from these degrading pur- 
suits that lead to crime and pauperism; to assist 



any willing worker to find employment, and to 
prevent street begging and vagrancy in all its 
forms. Therefore, believing it the duty of every 
community to care for its own poor and needy, 
and recognizing the necessity of some kind of 
protection against the clever and willful decep- 
tions daily practiced upon our kind hearted peo- 
ple, we have formed this association of "United 
Charities." We are now in definite working 
order, have drafted a constitution and by-laws, 
chosen a board of directors, well known and 
capable, and employed an agent, whose long ex- 
perience in such work renders her practically 
efficient. We are associated with the charitable 
homes and institutions of the city through a 
committee of "associated charities." We want 
every church and benevolent organization in the 
city to become members of our association, and 
tlien refer to us, for investigation and relief, all 
cases, except such, as for personal reasons, they 
prefer to assist themselves. We urge every re- 
sponsible member of our community to join our 
membership, and then, instead of giving to the 
beggar at the door, send him to our agent, who 
will investigate and relieve promptly. 

The payment of money into our treasury con- 
stitutes membership in our association. No 
specified sum is required ; we desire as many of 
five ($5) dollars per year or over as possible. 
One hundred ($100) dollars paid at one time 
constitutes life membership. 
Sincerely yours, Mrs. E. N. Gray, 

President. 

Mrs. J- C. Love, a lady of exceptional ability, 
had been pursuaded to accept the management 
of the active work, Mrs. Gray then decided to 
give up some of her burden of responsibility, 
especially as her successor would have the co- 
operation of an efficient and sympathetic board 
of directors. At her request. Mrs. ^^'. B. Sharp 
agreed to accept the presidency. 

After serving three years as president, and 



64 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



one year as vice president, Airs. Gray refused 
any official position beyond membership on the 
board, her withdrawal from which was refused 
by the board. 

The efficiency and serviceableness of this or- 
ganization is increasing all the time. It is a 
public benefit, not only helping the poor and 
needy in a wise and efficient way, but protecting 
the charitably inclined from gross impositions. 
The scope of the work is as broad as it is hu- 
mane : including the distributing of clothing, 
giving of groceries, wood, meals, house rent, 
medicines, etc., finding of positions, arranging 
for permanent care for these beneficiaries eligible 
to entrance at any of the established institutions, 
and the rescuing of children from surroundings 
of vice and neglect and placing of such children 
ill wise temporary or adopted homes. 

It is a magnificent work, as yet hampered by 



iiisufficient funds. As the officers and board 
of directors give not only their money, but their 
time and labor, for this work, the general public 
should be more responsive with its financial sup- 
])ort. Instead of sixty, they should have one 
hundred subscribers at $i, or even $5, a month. 

Mrs. J. C. Love, the supervisor, has her office 
in the city hall, where she can be found from 
9 :30 to II a. m. and from 3 -.^o to 4 .^o p. m. 
Her telephone is old phone 2492. 

The present officers are : Mrs. W. B. Sharp, 
president; Rufus Cage, vice president; J. E. Les- 
ter, treasurer ; J. C. Harris, recording secretary ; 
Mrs. L. T. Hubbell, corresponding secretary; 
Mesdames E. N. Gray, D. F. Stewart, M. E. 
Bryan, H. M. Garwood, Miss Harriett Levy, Dr. 
Karnstein, Rev. William States Jacobs, Rev. 
I'tter Gray Sears, Rev. J. W. Moore, Sinclair 
Taliaferro. 



THE STAR OF HOPE MISSION. 



This charitable institution was ort^anized July, 
1907. Its purpose is to catch hold of the Jregs 
of manhood, the reckless and the weak, and en- 
able them to find again their heritage of manli- 
ness. It is situated at 714 Franklin avenue. 
During the first year, 2,400 free beds, 1,800 meal 
tickets and 1,620 baths were furnished. Six hun- 
dred positions were found and i.so men enabled 
to face life with the strength to respect them- 
selves and win respect from the public. Religious 
services are held everv night. Those who can are 



expected to pay fifteen cents for a bed, and a 
bath is obligatory before a bed is provided. 
This bath ceremony is the test between a 
cl'.ronic "hobo" and a man yet alive to decency. 

The superintendent is George H. Lee, who had 
six years experience in the work in Louisville, 
Kentucky. 

The board is: President, Judge T. M. Ken- 
nerey; secretary, W. B. Jones; treasurer, J. E. 
McCarty ; J. \'. Dealy. J. E. Burkhart, J. H. Stew- 
art, George ^^'. Gray, J. C. Robertson, J. W. Neal. 




EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES OF HOUSTON 



The city schools of Houston own sixteen 
buildings used for white children, and eight 
buildings used for colored children, making a 
total of 24 buildings in all, with two or more now 
under course of construction. These are valued 
at $772,250. They employ 240 teachers and paid 
th.em last year $170,246.80. They had an actual 
enrollment in the schools of 10,012 children. 

These figures tell briefly the story of the 
schools so far as their material side is concerned. 
To tell the spiritual and mental work they are 
doing would require vastly more space than the 
limits of the present article will allow. 

To begin w-ith, these schools teach the ordi- 
narv subjects found in the school curriculum of 
all good schools. Such subjects as reading, 
arithmetic, spelling, writing and geography, are 
taught with the utmost care and the best methods. 

However, the work does not stop with this. 
Music and drawing are taught under the direc- 
tion of competent supervisors. The study of 
literature is stressed. There is a graded course 
of memory gems, and the children who go 
through these schools come out with their minds 
stored with bits of the world's masterpieces of 
literature. 

Pictures also are studied. There is a graded 
course in picture study. Three of the world's 
m.asterpieces of art are studied with each term. 

This course in picture study was arranged by 
a joint committee from the teachers in the 
schools, and from the Houston Public School Art 
League. Throughout a part of the work the pic- 
tvires are studied by nationalities of art. For 
iviStance, the fourth grade studies w'orks of 
French art. The low fifth studies German art, 
the high fifth Dutch art, and so on. 

The Houston Public School Art League has 
done an invaluable work for the schools by equip- 
ping the rooms with fine reproductions of the 
works of art studied. For buying these pictures 
and framing them, the Art League spent in the 
last two years $5,310.56. 

Manual training and domestic science are also 
taught in these schools. They were first intro- 
duced into the high school two years ago. The 



work was so successful there that the next year 
these subjects were introduced into the Fannin 
and Allen ward schools. 

To do this was made possible by the action of 
the Mothers' Club at these buildings, which 
raised $1,000 each for the equipping of their 
building for teaching these subjects. The board 
furnished the teacher in each instance. 

Later on the Mothers' Club at tiie Taylor 
school also raised $1,000 for the purpose of 
equipping the Taylor school for work in manual 
training and domestic science. 

The school board recognized the value of this 
work, and, during the past year, has equipped 
tliree other ward buildings to be used as centers 
for work in manual training and domestic science. 
During the present vear every girl in the white 
schools in the fifth, sixth or seventh grade has 
an opportunity to receive instruction in cooking, 
and every boy in those grades has the oppor- 
tunity to learn to use his hands in some form of 
tool work. 

The kitchens equipped for domestic science are 
among the handsomest in the South. The equip- 
ment in wood work for the boys is also excel- 
lent. A glimpse of a class of girls busy at work 
n: the kitchen, or of a group of boys busy with 
saw and hammer, gives one a glimpse of what 
modern school work is really like. 

The primary children are not neglected in the 
manual training work. There are paper tearing 
and paper cutting, clay modeling, raffia work, 
reed work, and various forms of basketry. Some 
of the most beautiful of all the hand work is 
done by the pupils of the first grade. 

The high school building is a beautiful three- 
story brick structure, equipped well with all 
modern appliances. There are excellent labora- 
tories for chemistry, physics and botany. 

One of the most beautiful rooms in the entire 
building is the J. L \\'ilson memorial dining 
loom, used in connection with the domestic sci- 
ence work. The forge shop, the wood turning 
room and the bench work room are interesting 
features in the manual training department. 

One of the most interesting rooms in the entire 



66 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



city is the one at the Rusk school, given to the 
special training of exceptional pupils. There a 
strong and willing teacher, with a small number 
of children, devotes all her time to helping them 
overcome their natural obstacles of various kinds. 

The hygienic lunch rooms at practically all of 
the buildings are one of the features of the school 
work. In these it is possible for a child to buy 
for five cents a bowl of hot, nourishing soup, or 
some similarly nutritious article for his noonday 
lunch. These lunch rooms were in almost every 
instance established as a direct result of the work 
of the Mothers' Clubs at the several buildings. 

Last year every child in the white schools had 
also the benefit of medical inspection. They were 
examined by specialists as to eyes, ears and 
throats. In a great many instances defects form- 
erly unsuspected, even by the parents, were de- 
tected and treated. 

For several years a free kindergarten was 
maintained by the Woman's Club of the city in 
connection with the public schools. This year 
there is a free kindergarten maintained at the 
Allen school by the Mothers' Club of that school. 
There is also another at the Rusk school, main- 
tained by the Settlement Workers' Association. 



It is hoped and confidently expected that the 
time is not far distant when the school board 
will take charge of the free kindergarten work, 
and make it a part of the school system in all 
parts of the city. 

The colored schools are also awake to the de- 
mands of modern school work. Provisions have 
been made to put some form of industrial train- 
mg into the high school. The Mothers' Club of 
the Douglass colored school has equipped a room 
for teaching plain sewing to the girls of that 
school, and are paying for a teacher of that 
branch. 

The night schools are one of the interesting 
features of the city. At these schools those 
young people who are obliged to work for a 
living during the day time have the opportunity 
to secure educational advantages at night. Many 
American children, and many children of for- 
eign born parents, attend these schools. 

Altogether, the Houston schools present the 
spectacle of a large force of faithful men and 
women, working resolutely together to advance 
the best interests of the thousands of school chil- 
dren in our great city. 



HOW THE CITY FATHERS CARE FOR THEIR CHILDREN. 



The school system of Houston is by popular 
concession one of the most thorough of which 
our great commonwealth boasts. Conducted by 
men of broad ideas, who are ever on the alert 
for methods of enlargement and advancement. 
Especially is this true of the public schools, as 
will be readily conceded after a careful perusal 
ox the following brief sketch : 

There are seven separate schools conducted 
under the auspices of the Catholic church. Dur- 
ing the past few years several of these have 
erected new buildings, the attendance of students 
has steadily grown, the faculties have been m- 
creased, and the schools are now entering upon a 
greater and a larger era of prosperity and 
activity. 

There is a parochial school for boys and for 
girls in each of the parishes of the Annunriation 
cliurch, St. Joseph's church, St. Patrick's church, 



the Church of the Sacred Heart and the colored 
parish of St. Nicholas. And, in addition to these 
parochial schools, there is St. Agnes academy, in 
the South End, conducted by the Sisters of St. 
Dominic, and St. Thomas college, conducted by 
the Basilian Fathers. 

It is thus seen that these schools, maintained 
and administered to under the direction and in- 
fluence of the church, form no inconsiderable 
educational system in itself, embracing all of the 
work from the primary department up through 
the academy and college. 

During the past two years the increase in en- 
rollment has been marked. During tliat time the 
St. Agnes academy has been established and sent 
forth its first graduating class. 

Thirtv-two teachers in all are employed in 
these schools. 

This was the first Catholic school in the state 



EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES OF HOUSTON 



67 



that applied for affiliation with the State Uni- 
versity. 

The school includes primary, grammar and 
high school departments. The high school in- 
cludes the work necessary for affiliation with the 
State University, in English, history, mathemat- 
ics, Latin and physics, and has, in addition, an 
elementary course in logic and mental and moral 
science. It is claimed that this is the only paro- 
chial school in the state having such a thorough 
high school course. 

The private schools are numerous, two of the 
largest being the Barnet and the Welch schools. 
These are conducted along co-educational lines, 
by gentlemen formerly valued professors of the 
public schools, eminently fitted to train the young 
men and women, many of whom leave their 
doors to enter the most exclusive Eastern col- 
leges. Both are ideally housed in what were 
formerly two of Houston's palatial old homes, 
forming a most attractive home and school en- 



vironment. Many others are conveniently located 
in all parts of the city, some for girls, others for 
boys, a few counting both among its patrOns. 
The public has been kept in perfect touch with 
th.e long talked of Rice Institute, the princely 
gift of one of Houston's pioneer citizens, Mr. 
William M. Rice. With all authority vested in 
the hands of a committee of a few representative, 
conservative men, plans are being perfected, sites 
considered, and its most capable president is now 
touring the old world, making an exhaustive 
study of anciently founded and most up-to-date 
systems, culling from each their choicest meth- 
ods, realizing that the best is scarce good enough 
for this ideal American home of learning, free 
to the youth of Texas. Science, literature, art, 
in its broadest sense — all these golden gifts, 
without money and without price, to the boys 
and girls of the Lone Star state — such is the 
generous bequest of the giver. 



KINDERGARTENS OF HOUSTON. 



In the fall of 1902, the Woman's Club of 
Houston, desiring to broaden their field of work 
and assist in the advancement of Houston and 
her people, established in the Second ward, on 
the corner of Magnolia and Jackson street, in a 
little old store building, what was destined to be 
one of Houston's greatest advancements, a free 
kindergarten. 

On the first of October, 1902, this kindergar- 
ten was started under the direction of Mrs. 
Nellie Stedman Cox, with its present supervisor 
ss assistant. There were only six enrolled the 
first day, but within three months this number 
had increased to thirty little tots, enjoying the 
privileges of a "child garden," a garden of love, 
where the thoroughly trained gardener co-oper- 
ates with the mother in giving the child a desire 
for the best, the true and beautiful of life. Many 
of these little ones were foreigners, many were 
careless in the matter of cleanliness and dress, 
so that they had to be washed and dressed before 
they were in a condition to enter. In this the 
kindergarten met with much resistance, as some 
mothers did not want their children washed for 



fear they would take cold, but, by slow, careful 
and tactful work, the mothers were brought to 
realize the importance of cleanliness. 

In February, 1903, a co-operative kindergar- 
ten, also under the auspices of the Woman's 
Club, was opened in a vacated church building, 
on the corner of Lamar and Crawford streets, 
with Miss Julia Runge as director. Within three 
months thirty children were enrolled. This kin- 
dergarten worked in unison with the free kinder- 
garten, and aided in its financial support. As a 
means to this end Miss Runge conducted a kin- 
dergarten training class for young women, which 
class was affiliated with the Grand Rapids 
Training School. Five were enrolled, who also 
served as assistants in the kindergartens. In 

1904 this kindergarten was abandoned, but the 
free kindergarten, with Miss Charlton as direc- 
tor, and the training class, under the supervision 
of Miss Runge, were continued. In the spring of 

1905 the first graduates of the training class, 
three in number, received their diplomas, and in 
the fall of the same year the co-operative kinder- 
garten was resumed, with Miss Runge in charge 



68 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



and Miss Helena Wilson as director of the free 
kindergarten and assistant in the training class. 
The following year ]\Iiss Runge, to the regret of 
the club and serious loss to kindergarten work, 
retired, and the co-operative kindergarten was 
discontinued, the club giving its entire attention 
to the free kindergarten, the growth of which 
has been remarkable. 

In February, 1907, in response to a request 
made by the Woman's Club to the public school 
board, the club was promised, on the completion 
cf the Charlotte M. Allen school, then in con- 
struction, the use of one of the rooms for kinder- 
gnrten purposes, and, on March 4, IQOJ, the first 
kindergarten in a public school building in Hous- 
ton was opened, with an enrollment of nineteen 
children, Miss Helena Wilson in charge. Within 
three days the enrollment reached its limit of 
twenty-five, and the waiting list twelve. For two 
weeks the club maintained this kindergarten and 
the free kindergarten, when the Houston Settle- 
ment Association, which had been recently or- 
ganized, assumed the full responsibility of the 
free kindergarten, the club making the buiiding 
and the entire equipment a gift to this associa- 
tion. The name was changed to the Settlement 
Kindergarten, with Miss Anne Orem as super- 
visor. She has been with the w'ork since its be- 
ginning, and was well fitted for the position. 
Last year was a successful one, eight children 
were graduated and given diplomas by Professor 
Horn. The first Monday in October, 1908, 
forty-five children were enrolled. 

At the close of the last scholastic year, the 
Woman's Club, after arduous and fruitless ef- 
forts to persuade the school board to adopt kin- 
Gergartens as part of the public school system, 
as an organization retired from the work and 
loaned its equipment to the Parents' Association 
of the Charlotte M. Allen school, who assumed 
the responsibility. Under this association's super- 
vision it still exists, with thirty-three children 
enrolled. Miss Wilson as director, whose untiring 
and zealous efforts are doing much for the kin- 
dergarten work in this city. 

In addition to these kindergartens are the fol- 
lowing: The Wesley House kindergarten is the 
free kindergarten for the Fifth ward, being cen- 
trally located for the children of that ward. It 
is located at 1112 Montgomerv avenue, in con- 



nection with the co-operative home sewing sciiool 
and other club work. The kindergarten is sup- 
ported by the City Mission Hoard of the Metho- 
dist churches of Houston. The w'ork was orga'i- 
ized a year ago and the kindergarten was started 
September 21, with Miss Mildred Julian, from 
the Dallas Kindergarten Training School, in 
charge, assisted by Miss Mary Belle Howell and 
Miss Pearl Guy. 

In the Second Presbyterian Mission, on the 
corner of Crocker and Huntington, Miss Nancy 
Campbell has charge of a kindergarten. 

The Central Christian church kindergarten is 
directed by IMiss Madeline Darrough, with Miss 
Lela Fellows as assistant. Miss Darrough is a 
graduate of the Chicago Kindergarten Institute. 

The Cushman school is located at 11 17 Cal- 
houn avenue, corner San Jacinto. The two 
directors in charge of the kindergarten, Misses 
Dorothy G. and Naomi C. Cushman, are grad- 
uates of the Chicago Kindergarten College. The 
kmdergarten accepts children from three to six 
years. Children over six who have had no kin- 
dergarten work are given special kindergarten 
work in the primary department, which is in 
charge of Miss LaVancha Comstock, a kinder- 
garten trained primary teacher. 

The Diehl Conservatorv has a kindergarten 
department, with ^liss Ruth Coleman as direc- 
tor, who comes as a graduate and highly recom- 
mended bv persons of note in this work. Her 
class opened October 5. with an interesting num- 
ber of pupils. 

Mrs. Cooper's kindergarten is located on the 
corner of San Jacinto and Francis, in a beautiful 
home, especially constructed for this work. The 
kindergarten room is very artistically arranged. 
The number is limited to thirty children, and 
twenty-five are now enrolled. Miss Jane Ware, 
th.e supervisor, is a graduate of the Chicago Kin- 
dergarten College. She has a student assistant 
and has started an afternoon training school, 
from which young ladies can enter the junior 
class of the Chicago Kindergarten College. 

All of the aforesaid kindergartens have organ- 
ized into a league, which meets once each month. 
It is gratifying to note the rapid growth of the 
kindergartens in the city of Houston, and it is 
hoped ere long they will be made a part of the 
ptiblic school system. 




HOUSTON LYCEUM AND CARNEGIE LIBRARY 



The Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library is 
an institution in which every Houstonian feels 
a personal interest and pride. It is directly de- 
scended from the Houston Lyceum, an organiza- 
tion chartered by the State of Texas in 1854, hav- 
ing for its object "to diffuse knowledge among 
its members, intelligence and information, by a 
library, by lectures on various subjects and by 
discussion of such questions as may elicit useful 
information and produce improvement in the art 
of public speaking." Several hundred books 
were collected in the library, and the organiza- 
tion had a flourishing existence until the war. 
During that period it languished, though it never 
quite died out. But, in 1877, it took a new lease 
of life when the city council gave the organization 
the free use of the banqueting hall in the market 



house. At this time a public reading room, under 
the direction of Mr. Bonner McCraven, for 
n.any years the library's staunch supporter, was 
established, which has been maintained from that 
day. The minutes record that as early as 1882 a 
committee appointed to investigate the best method 
cf cataloging the books recommended that a card 
catalogue be made. The suggestion was not 
acted upon at the time, but twenty years later the 
card catalogue of the library was begun. In 
1895 another innovation occurred in the appoint- 
ment of a paid librarian who was engaged at a 
salary of twenty-five dollars a month. Up to 
1895, the privileges of the library had been for 
members of the organization only, but in that 
year a most important step was made by the de- 
cision to extend the privileges to all desiring 



70 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



them by the payment of three dollars a year. 
Mrs. M. H. Foster was hbrarian at this time, 
and she did much toward bringing the needs 
of the hbrary before the pubhc, and especially 
before the women of Houston. 

In 1899, recognizing the need for a public 
library in a city the size of Houston, the Ladies' 
Reading Club brought the matter before the city 
council, and as a result $200 a month was ap- 
propriated for the maintenance of the library, 
thereby making it a public institution, although it 
continued to be supported by private subscription 
to a very considerable extent. In the same year 
the Woman's Club appointed Mrs. W. E. Kendall 
and Miss Gearing to write to Mr. Carnegie, 
soliciting funds for a library building. The fol- 
lowing reply was received : 

"Madam : Mr. Carnegie thinks that Houston 
should have a free library, and he would be dis- 
posed to help it obtain this if the citizens were to 
provide a proper site and agree to maintain it. 
Mr. Carnegie would be glad to give fifty thou- 
sand dollars to erect a suitable building. Very 
respectfully yours. James Bertram, Secretary." 

This letter was referred to the mayor of the 
city, and at a regular meeting of the council, 
June 18, 1900, an ordinance making the neces- 
sary appropriation was passed and the gift ac- 
cepted. At the call of Mrs. H. F. Ring, the 
cifibs of the city met and formed the City Federa- 
tion of Clubs, which immediately set about rais- 
ing funds for the purchase of a library site. In 
1901 a lot 75 by 100 feet, on the corner of Mc- 
Kinney avenue and Travis street, was purchased 
and work on building the library was imme- 
diately begun. The completed building was 
opened March 2, 1904, with appropriate cere- 
monies. 

The building is a good example of Italian 
renaissance architecture. The material used is 
gray pressed brick with trimmings of Bedford 
limestone. 

The library has been the recipient of several 
valuable gifts, and without a mention of these 
no history of the library is complete. Mr. N. S. 
Meldrum gave $6,000 in memory of his daugh- 
ter, to be known as the "Norma Meldrum Chil- 
dren's Library Fund," for the purpose of sup- 
plying the children's department with books and 
periodicals. According to the conditions of the 



gift, $1,000 was used for a first purchase of 
books and furniture, and $5,000 has been put 
aside as a perpetual trust fund, the interest from 
it being available semi-annually for the purchase 
of new books. Another gift from a donor who 
dees not permit his name to be made public, 
consists of a collection of several thousand vol- 
umes, which are annually added to. It is known 
as the "Circle M Collection." The books are 
principally for reference, but the many valuable 
collections it contains along special lines, such as 
missions, civil war and slavery and Texas his- 
tory, make a most valuable addition to the library. 

There are now in the library some twenty-five 
thousand volumes including the government pub- 
lications, for which the library was made a de- 
positary in 1888. These books are ail catalogued 
on cards, the work having been begun in 1902, 
and it has since been carried on by trained cata- 
loguers. The Dewey decimal system of classi- 
fication has been used. Over 5,000 volumes 
were added to the library last year, a satisfactory 
number of accessions for so young a library. 

From the period of opening, the library's his- 
tory has been one of constant growth. Its use 
has increased at a very rapid rate, and it has 
now the largest circulation of any library in the 
state of Texas. During the past year there were 
loaned 92,458 volumes, which is almost twice 
the number of volumes loaned during the first 
twelve months the library was opened. 

Nearly one-third of the books circulated are 
i'lom the children's department. This is as it 
should be, for the library's greatest opportunity 
is with the children. To cultivate a taste for 
good literature in children, and to teach them 
how to use books so that throughout their lives 
they will be able to use them wisely, for recrea- 
tion or for information, is one of the most serious 
responsibilities of the library. The library en- 
deavors to be a real influence for culture in the 
lives of all the children who may be led to fre- 
quent it. 

A well equipped reading room, in which some 
250 of the popular and most important periodi- 
cals are received, is maintained. The daily papers 
of a number of the principal cities are also on file 
iti this room. This room is usually crowded, 
and no day ever passes that several hundred peo- 
ple do not enter the library. Over ten thousand 



HOUSTON LYCEUM AND CARNEGIE LIBRARY 



71 



of Houston's citizens hold library cards, entitling 
them to the privilege of drawing books from the 
library. 

The library exists as an educational institution, 
and as such is entitled to the free and liberal sup- 
port of the community. While it is useful for 
supplying recreative reading, it also has the more 
serious purpose of offering to the people oppor- 
tunities for helping themselves to become trained 
and educated men and women. In the technical 
side of the work, as well as in its ambition for 



usefulness, the library aims at only the highest 
standard of efficiency. 

Board of trustees: Mr. J. M. Cotton, presi- 
dent; Mrs. H. F. Ring, vice president; Miss 
Mamie E. Gearing, secretary; Mr. E. L. Den- 
nis, Mrs. E. Raphael, Rev. Mr. P. G. Sears, Mr. 
P. W. Horn, Mr. J. O. Carr, Mr. Otis K. Ham- 
blen. Librarian, Julia Ideson; assistants, Mrs. 
Tillie T. Dumble, Annie Hill, Caddie Crawford 
and Martha Schnitzer, Julia Ideson. 



THE LIBRARY AS AN ART CENTER. 
By Julia Ideson, Lilruruui 



The Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library 
has not yet been open five years, but, during that 
short time, many valuable art treasures have been 
given to it which add, not only to the attractive- 
ness, but to its influence as a means of culture 
to the community. 

Foremost among the possessions of the Hous- 
ton library is the beautiful cast of the Venus of 
Milo, whose form, though possessing beauty of 
the highest type, has a grandeur that exalts it 
above mere beauty. The pure majestic expres- 
sion of the head and face speak of die calm dig- 
nity of a superior being. 

The cast in the library was made in the cast 
house of the Louvre, and imported by the Hous- 
ton Art League, from whom it was afterwards 
purchased by a number of Houston ladies and 
presented to the library. 

Those who had charge of equipping the chil- 
dren's room from the generous endowment given 
by Mr. Meklrum, felt that the room should offer 
opportunity for the education of the eye as well 
as of the mind. Plastic art, rather than pictorial, 
was chosen, and surely no happier selections 
could have been made. 

The walls are adorned with four bas-reliefs 
from the world famed "singing galleries" of the 
Italian renaissance artist, Luca della Robbia. 
The subject chosen of children laughing and 
dancing is most natural and beautiful. The 
graceful movement of the children and the earn- 
estness displayed in their poses lend great charm 
to them. 



Three of the four panels in the library were 
purchased from the Meldrum fund, the fourth 
being the gift of Mrs. E. R. Richardson, form- 
erly of Houston. From the Meldrum fund were 
also purchased the bust of Washington, by Hou- 
don ; the statue of David, by Mercie, and the 
Earyre Lion. 

A life size carbon photograph in sepia tints of 
Norma Meldrum is a fitting reminder of her in 
whose memory Mr. N. S. Meldrum made his 
generous endowment to the children's room. 

Among other artistic features of the children's 
room are the bulletins announcing the Saturday 
morning story hour, designed and given to the 
library by Mr. J. B. Mayberry. 

The bust of Sam Houston was loaned to the 
library by General Houston's daughter, the late 
Mrs. Margaret Houston Williams, and remains 
in the library through the kindness of her son, 
Mr. Franklin W. Williams, of this city. The 
bust is the work of Miss Elizabeth Ney. It was 
made by Miss Ney as a gift to Mrs. Williams, 
and is, of course, an ideal bust, as Miss Ney 
never saw General Houston. But is was always 
considered by Mrs. Houston a sati.sfnctory like- 
ness and a good piece of work, equal, if not 
superior, to any bust made of Houston. 

The bronze bust of Sappho is the gift of 
Mrs. M. T. Jones, of Houston, who sr.nl it to the 
library some two or three years ago, while trav- 
eling abroad. The bust is a copy of an ancient 
bronze found in Herculaneum in 1758. The 
library is fortunate in possessing this most 



72 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



beautiful bronze. The majestic poise of the head, 
the graceful neck and the noble face make us 
quite satisfied to accept this as the likeness of the 
only woman who has ever "wedded verse to 
deathless fame." 

When the library was opened, in 1904, the 
walls presented an appallingly bare appearance, 
until Mrs. D. B. Cherry made the library a loan 
of several pictures, which add greatly to the at- 
tractiveness of its interior. Three of the pictures 
are copies of famous paintings by Mrs. Cherry, 
a copy of one of Rembrandt's portraits of him- 
self, a fresco of Botticelli, and Cazin's "Hagar 
and Ishmael in the Desert." There was also an 
attractive study of the old slave market of New 



Orleans, and a picture of the bridge at Omaha, 
by Miss Bromwell, of Denver. 

The "Circle M" collection, given to the library 
in addition to several thousand volumes, con- 
tains the nucleus of a very valuable museum. 
There are many rare and beautiful objects from 
foreign lands, besides geological and mineral 
specimens, curios, pictures and photographs, 
sh.ells, zoological specimens, Phillippine imple- 
ments of v/arfare and other objects too numerous 
to mention. Owing to lack of room, this collec- 
tion has not so far been made available to the 
public, but an effort is now on foot to make at 
least a part of it available for use in connection 
with the geographical work of the school children 
of Houston. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL ART LEAGUE 



The Houston Public School Art League was 
organized March 17, 1900, having for its pur- 
pose the encouragement of art culture in the 
public schools. Enthusiasm on this subject had 
been aroused by the art talks of Mrs. Jean Sher- 
wood, of Chicago. She told of a similar associa- 
tion in that city, explaining the object and point- 
ing out the benefits that had already been derived 
from it. She took as her keynote two convincing 
lines from the poem entitled "^Mother to Child :" 
"For the sake of my child I must hasten to save 
All the children on earth from the jail and the 
grave." 

Mrs. R. S. Lovett was the first president, Mrs. 
C. R. Cummings the second, and Dr. Margaret 
E. Holland the third. Mrs. George W. Heyer is 
\Jie present incumbent. Other officers are : First 
vice president. Dr. Henry Barnstein ; second vice 
president, I\Ir. P. W. Horn ; recording secretar}-. 
Mrs. I. G. Gerson ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
John IMcClellan ; treasurer, Mrs. C. M. Talia- 
ferro. 

Annual address of the preident for 1908: 

"Still the years roll on, and the eighth year of 
the existence of our League is brought to a close, 
and once more it becomes my pleasure to extend 
you a heartsome welcome. 

"The last year has seen us grow in strength 



and numbers, and has witnessed a firmer rooting 
and broader expansion of our organization 
among that citizenship vitally interested and for 
whom we are chiefly laboring. During the early 
part of the year, we brought to our city Mr. 
Lorado Taft of Chicago. The free lecture given 
to the children in the afternoon, at the Audi- 
torium, proved by tl-.e numbers attending, five 
tliousand, 'that the seed sown has not fallen upon 
barren soil, but, as bread cast upon the waters, 
will be gathered together many days hence.' I 
believe the lecture is one of the best things we 
have ever attempted for the children. A perfect 
wave of efforts at childish modeling, in crude 
clay, followed his coming to us. The children 
were found in the streets seeking clay from the 
excavations n-.ade for sewer pipes, and with 
which they attempted to give expression to the 
impressions there received, and without doubt 
a finished sculptor may yet develop among them, 
for many gave evidence of talent, and not a few 
brought creations that were surprising, when 
one realized they were fashioned with the crudest 
tools and with no instruction. A personal ex- 
perience given by Mr. Taft proves this. Several 
years since, when leaving Texas after a success- 
ful tour, he took with him from Dallas, Clyde 
Chandler, a mere child of intuitive gifts. When 



PUBLIC SCHOOL ART LEAGUE 



73 



he returned to us last winter, after five years, he cents. The twelve schools for whom the pic- 
exhibited specimens of her work which aroused tures were purchased, as well as the high school, 
expressions of wonder and admiration from all came to our assistance, with a sale of vari-jui 
those who knew of her humble origin. His com- useful articles and refreshments. Through the 
ment upon her work was, 'She will soon speak co-operation of parents, teachers and children, 
for herself." we realized from the exhibition over one tlious- 
"Mr. Taft's coming was a loss to us financially, and dollars. About $950 of this amount has 
for the night lecture, upon which we relied for been set aside for a framing fund, each school 



defraying expenses, was not patronized by our 
citizens, and their failure to appreciate the op- 
portunity brought to their door called forth a 
number of 'Jay' articles in one of our dailies. 
This you no doubt all 
remember. Although 
we regretted that a 
man of worldwide 
reputation was not ap- 
preciated and given a 
welcome, yet we know 
his coming has lifted 
some of us to a higher 
plane, and to hun- 
dreds of children has 
been an incentive and 
inspiration. We have 
purchased all of the 
thirty-five pictures for 
each of our twelve 
grade schools that 
were necessary for the 
course of study pre- 
scribed by Superin- 
tendent Horn, and 
have placed in the 
buildings the major 
portion of them. 
Some delay was 
caused by the impor- 




MES. GEORGE W. HEYER, 
President 



to receive pictures in proportion to money made. 
One school, the Taylor, earned more than 
enough to frame their pictures, and most 
generously and unselfishly gave to the League 

their residue, to be 
used as they judged 
best. I must com- 
mend the noble and 
generous spirit which 
prompted them, for at 
this time tjiey were 
laboring to install do- 
mestic s c ie n c e and 
m a n u a 1 training in 
their school and their 
lunch room was still 
in debt. 

The Pagoda was 
loaned by Mr. Jesse 
Jones, and to his lib- 
erality is due in no 
small measure the 
success of the ex- 
hibition. It was a de- 
sirable place in light- 
ing and location, and 
the length of time for 
which it was loaned, 
six weeks, enabled 
each school to have a 



tation, as most of the pictures came from abroad, day, and many public spirited citizens came also 

the exceptions being reproductions of American 

artists. The import duty of 40 per cent was 

removed by the government, as the pictures were 

for educational purposes. If there is any doubt 

in any of your minds as to the wisdom of our 

work, remember the highest authority in the 

land has put upon it the seal of approval. 

"During the month of February and part of will be only a short time before the full amount 
March, we kept a framed set of these pictures to frame every set of pictures will be secured, 
on exhibition at the Pagoda, corner of Capitol I urge upon the schools still greater efforts in 
and Fannin, charging the small admission of ten the future to bring this to a finish. The main 



to our assistance. The honest and healthful rival- 
ry displayed, proved that each school is inter- 
ested in all that tends to their advancement 
and improvement. The general membership 
was brought into closer touch and greater 
sympathy by this exhibition. Encouraged 
by what we have accomplished, I believe it 



74 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



trouble with us is that we are too busy with our 
own little round of duties to remember that we 
must each one live and work for the betterment 
of those around us. There is so much for us to 
do and so little time for it. True success in 
every enterprise is labor and every triumph in 
life comes from sympathy, co-operation and un- 
ceasing work. 'If we do not plant knowledge when 
young, it will give no shade when we are olden.' 

The badge we decided upon— a button signi- 
fying Art League — has been distributed to the 
children of members. We would kindly suggest 
tc parents that they instruct their children as to 
the value of these buttons, as an admission to 
our entertainments. Any 
parent who is a member 
and has not been supplied. 
can secure these buttons 
for their children, and those 
parents who are not mem- 
bers can, by the payment 
of membership fee of one 
dollar, have these buttons 
for their children. 

I regret to say that there 
is still a debt of a few 
hundreds for the purchase 
of these pictures, but, with 
the addition of new mem- 
bers and the payment of 
all annual dues this even- 
ing, we will possibly have 
no further indebtedness. 1 
would not be too hopeful, 
but, if after this meeting 
there still remains a debit 
against us, I would urge that you cease not, as 
a League, to lend your co-operation until the 
obligation is cancelled, for, however small, it 
will hamper us in our year's work. If a battle 
is to be won, every soldier must fight, and the 
combat must not be left to the officers alone. 

"For our encouragement, I will state we have 
over six hundred members, and the keynote of 
gladness to me is to meet a person who, all un- 
solicited, will say, 'I want to join your League.' 
A complete report from your treasurer as to our 
finances will follow this, and I feel it will be 
gratifying to you to know that we have had a 




MRS. C. R. 
Second 



most remarkable increase in our exchequer 
within the last two years, aggregating nearly 
four thousand dollars. In this, as your president, 
I feel no self gratulation, but am greatly in- 
debted to every member of the board for their 
kindly assistance and encouragement. We have 
cheerfully worked together and brought forth the 
best that was in each other. 

"We are indebted to Mr. Horn for the wise 
and conservative arrangement of his plan of 
study in connection with our pictures, and his 
marked appreciation of the work of the League, 
and, but for his timely assistance, we should 
many times have felt the conditions were hope- 
1 e s s and discouraging. 
"The board recommends 
to you for election, three 
new m e m b e I s . I am 
l)leased to tell you that our 
nominating committee 
made a wise choice in nam- 
ing two men of broad busi- 
ness experience, who will 
ably assist us in our work, 
bringing to us forceful 
measures gained from 
their own success, and the 
third, a lady of culture and 
judgment and enthusiasm 
in all good works. 

"For the coming year I 
would recommend that you, 
as individuals, subscribe to 
a fund to bring to our city 
a series of art talks and 
lectures. Such a subscrip- 
tion would injure a sum sufficient for the 
expense of these lectures, and, if rightly 
managed, so as to arouse a proper inter- 
est from the citizens, they will bring a revenue 
for the successful maintenance of our work. We 
need to grow with the children in art knowledge, 
and it behooves us to keep abreast of the times 
and, for the education of our children, bring to 
.lur city the best in this line. 'To keep alive the 
sense of the beautiful, a man should hear a little 
music, read a little poetry, and see a fine picture 
every day of his life, in order that worldly cares 
may not obliterate the sense of the beautiful 



CUMJIIXGS. 
President 



PUBLIC SCHOOL ART LEAGUE 



75 



which God has implanted in the human soul." 
"We have worked faithfully and earnestly 
aiong the lines undertaken, but we need your 
hearty endorsement and liberal contributions for 
still greater advancement. The portfolio work 
so successful in other schools, has been neglected 
by reason of a limited number of pictures. It is 
an important branch of our work, and can be 
made a valuable adjunct to the pictures and 
pieces of art in our schools. It is desirable that 
each building have a separate portfolio, and 
that someone be selected to assume the care of 
these pictures and visit the schouls at stated in- 
tervals to give pleasing instruction to the chil- 
dren concerning t'nem. 



"The purchase of the pictures for the primary 
grades of several of the schools is not yet com- 
pleted, and the three new schools to be provided 
with a complete set of pictures, gives us addi- 
tional work for the coming year, but we must 
not grow weary with well doing, but work with 
greater zeal than ever before — 'make use of time 
i<nd let not advantage slip.' 

" 'Knowing ourselves, our world, our tasks so 
great, our time so brief, 'tis clear if we refuse the 
means so limited, the tools so crude, to execute 
our purposes, life will fleet, and we shall fade 
and leave our task undone.' " 




MRS. EMMA RICHARDSON CHERRY. 
By A Frund 



The space allotted to us seems too small in 
which to express our appreciation of one of the 
most gracious women of our city, Mrs. Emma 
Richardson Cherry, whose poetic temperament 
and charm of manner are characteristics cxzt.-y 
sustained in her art. In water color Mrs. Ci;erry 
was a student under Mrs. Rhoda Holmes 
Nichols, and for several years studied in the Art 
Students' League of New York, enjoying the 
best instruction America afforded, under such 
masters as William M. Chase, Walter Shirlaw 
and Kenyon Cox. Subsequently she was several 
years in Paris, the mecca of all artistic souls, 
first at the Atelier Julian, and then at the Atelier 
Merson. She is an associate member of the 



;;ociety of Western Artists, a life member of the 
Art Students' League of New York, and was 
the first president of the Denver Artists' Club. 
Her work has been exhibited in the Salon, the 
New York Academy of Design, the Woman's 
.\rt Club of New York, the St. Louis Museum 
of Fine Arts, and the Chicago Art Institute. Her 
portrait work shows restraint and careful hand- 
ling, characteristics of good feeling, and includes 
besides many Houstonians, Dr. Bronbright, 
Bishop Foster and Mr. Lind, all connected with 
the University of Evanston (Illinois), Mr. and 
Mrs. B. Benedict, of Chicago, and many others. 
A portrait of Mr. Otto Chanute, the noted 
aeronaut, was given by him in recent years to 



76 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



the Society of Civil Engineers of New York for 
their ckib rooms. The climax of Mrs. Cherry's 
art, however, is in her landscapes, which impress 
one more and more. They are, perhaps, variants 
of the same theme, comparatively low in tone, 
and breathe of mists and early morning. The 
tender feeling and poetic quality of her work 
expresses with restraint and charm, most happily 
fitting her to portray the lovely color effects of 



our Southern coast and our limitless Texas 
prairies. 

For many years, now, Mrs. Cherry has con- 
ducted art classes in Houston, her students find- 
ing an easy entrance in the art classes of New 
York and the studios of Paris, and to say that she 
and her work have raised the standard of artis- 
tic enjoyn'ent in her home city is praise not 
too great. 




STUDIO OF EMMA RICHARDSON CHERRY 



DEPARTiMENT OF CHURCHES 



Bv Mrs. a. L. Metcalf 



The city of Houston has made, within the last 
decade, great strides in the evolution of civic 
righteousness for its municipality. It is difficult 
to legislate morality into the minds of the people. 
The true foundation of reform is through the 
heart of the individual. Evangelization must go 
l:and in hand with civilization; lience we natur- 
ally infer that proportionate to the number of 
churches and church-going people in a town, 
the standard of public moral sentiment and the 
degree of municipal uprightness that prevails, 
is thereby indicated. 

Within the past few years, numerous churches 
have been organized, several fine edifices of wor- 
ship have been and are being erected, and the 
congregations are steadily increasing in num- 
bers. There is a growing interest in philan- 
thropic and religious work, as is plainly evi- 
denced by the results being achieved. It cannot 
be denied that from the combined influences 
emanating from these churches have originated 
the many reforms wrought in our city. The 
character of these reforms is moral, civic, educa- 
tional, charitable and philanthropic. There is a 
much better observance of the Sabbath than ten 
years ago. 

Gambling and lottery Inisiness have been 



driven out. The saloons are being limited and 
forced to obey the laws. Institutions are main- 
tained for supplying physical, mental and spir- 
itual needs of )0ung men and women, away from 
home influences. 

Numerous charitable organizations are in 
active existence. All these beneficent institu- 
tions and societies are the outgrowth of the 
spirit of Christianity, which teaches us to love 
God supren-.ely and our neighbor as ourselves. 
These will be considered in detail in other de- 
partments of this souvenir. In view of all this 
altruistic work in our midst, families wishing to 
make Houston their home need not fear for the 
lack of such advantages and influences as go to 
n:ake up a well rounded character. 

\\'e herewith present a resume of the churches 
of the city. If any have been omitted, it is not 
because of intention so to do, but because of 
inability to secure knowledge of them. 

The sketches of the larger churches have been 
written either by the pastors or by prominent 
laymen. 

The editor of this department wishes to ex- 
press her gratitude for the courtesy and readi- 
ness with which the following information has 
been granted. 



.SHEARX AIETHODIST CHURCH. 
Bv SuPT. P. W. Horn 



Shearn Methodist church holds a unique posi- 
tion among the other churches of the city in that 
it is the oldest of them all. 

It is especially interesting among the Metho- 
dist churches in that it is the mother church of 
all others, and in that it is the down towri church 
of that denomination. 

It was organized in 1838, under the ministry 
of Rev. Littleton Fowler. The first pastor regu- 
larly appointed to serve it was Rev. .\bel Stevens, 
who was sent to Houston in 1839. From that day 
to this, Shearn church has never lacked a min- 



ister or a congregation, so that its honorable his- 
tory now extends over full seventy years. 

The church received its name from Judge 
Charles Shearn, a prominent citizen of Houston 
in its earlier days. He was a member of this 
church wdien it was first organized, and was the 
'"class leader" in it until the time of his death, in 
1871. He was not only an old fashioned ]\Ietho- 
dist, but he was a n^an of means as well. His 
sincere piety and his spiritual services for the 
church, as well as the liberality of his financial 
assistance, were such that when a handsome 



78 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



brick bviilding was erected in 1883, it was called 
the Charles Shearn Memorial church. This 
building still stands on Texas avenue, between 
Travis and Louisiana, although it has recently 
been sold in order that the church might secure 
handsomer and more commodious quarters else- 
where. 

This was not the first building occupied by 
this congregation. The first was built in 1843, 
under the ministry of Dr. T. O. Summers. It 
had a gallery on three sides of it, for the accom- 
modation of the negroes. This building was in- 
jured in a storm in 1861, and fell down in 1865. 
Another was built the next year, which lasted 
until 1880, when the third building was begun. 

The ground on which these buildings stood 
was given to the Methodists in 1838, by Mr. A. C. 
Allen, one of the founders of Houston. 

All the other I\Iethodist churches in Houston 
have been formed as offshoots from Shearn. The 
Washington Street church was thus established 
ii; 1873, the INIcKee Street church in 1883, AIc- 
Ashan chapel in 1890, Tabernacle church in 1891, 
Grace church of Houston Heights in 1905, and 
St. Paul's church in 1905. All these churches 
were formed by the transfer of members from 
Shearn. Several missions have also been estab- 
lished from time to time and kept up by Shearn. 

Shearn has not only been a home mission 
church, but has been essentially a down town 
church. She has from time to time carried on 
successfully all those enterprises that devolve 
upon a church in the heart of the business dis- 
trict of a city. At the time the original property 
was sold, in 1907, the church was maintaining a 
night school, and also a home for the homeless 
boys of the city. 

At the immediate present, the congregation is 
worshiping in rented quarters, though plans have 
been adopted for the erection of one of the hand- 
somest church buildings in the South. The first 
place rented for the church was Alhambra hall. 



on Rusk and Fannin. The church services are 
now being held in the Beach Auditorium, on 
Main, between Lamar and Dallas. 

A handsome location for the new church has 
already been purchased, on the corner of Main 
and Clay. This was paid for out of the proceeds 
of the sale of the former property. The balance 
of the proceeds, amounting to some $80,000, is 
now in bank, ready to be applied on the construc- 
tion of the new church. The plans adopted call 
for the expenditure of some $200,000 in all. Had 
it not been for the financial flurry of the past 
year, the church building would by now be well 
under course of construction. 

The new building is to be modern in every 
sense. It has a magnificent auditorium, and a 
separate room especially adapted to Sunday 
school purposes. It contains a kitchen, a ladies' 
parlor, and all the appliances of modern church 
work. Active work upon it is to be begun this 
fall. When completed, it will be a matter of 
pride, not only to the Methodists of Houston and 
the entire South, but to people of all denomina- 
tions, and of no denomination as well. 

Shearn church has had a long and honorable 
line of pastors. Among those of recent years 
may be mentioned Dr. S. H. Werlein, now of 
Little Rock; Dr. H. M. DuBose, now Epworth 
league secretary of the church ; Dr. D. F. C. 
Timmons, Dr. E. W. Solomon, Dr. Seth Ward, 
now a bishop, residing in Houston ; Dr. G. C. 
Rankin, now editor of the Texas Christian Ad- 
vocate, and Rev. Sam R. Hay. The present 
pastor. Dr. J. W. Moore, is now filling the last 
of his term of four years, and will leave Hous- 
ton in a few weeks, carrying with him the affec- 
tionate esteem and the kindly remembrance of 
hundreds of his members and of others of the 
community. 

Honorable as has been the history of Shearn 
church in the past, it is only a beginning and a 
forecast of what it is vet to do. 



ST. PAUL'S METHODIST CHURCH. 

By Rev, W. M, Whaling 

As early as 1902 the need of a church organi- the city for the Methodist people became ap- 
zation in the South End residence section of parent. The city board of church extension, or- 



DEPARTiMENT OF CHURCHES 



79 



ganized at the suggestion of Bishop E. R. Hen- 
clrix, appointed a committee to select a suitable 
location for the church. J. V. Dealy, S. F. Carter 
and Professor McReynolds constituted this 
committee, and decided that the corner of JMilam 
and McGowan was the proper place for the loca- 
tion of the proposed church. The following year, 
1903, Mrs. J. O. Ross called the pastor of Shearn 
church, the Rev. S. R. Hay, to her house, and 
informed him that, knowing the decision of the 
location committee, she had decided to donate the 
lots for a site. 

No further steps were taken until the fall of 
1905. The Texas conference met in November, 
in Pittsburg, and Bishop Joseph S. Key ap- 
pointed the Rev. George S. Sexton to South End, 
Houston. The bishop remarked, when the ap- 
pointment was made, that there was nothing in 
It but a possibility. The enterprise was a new 
one in the conference, but the board of missions 
showed its faith by appropriating $500 to the 
new appointment. When the new pastor arrived 
in Houston, there was no organization and no 
property, the lots having not yet been deeded. 
On January 14, 1906, the pastor had gotten to- 
gether one hundred and thirty members, who 
v/ere organized into a church by Bishop Key. 
At the conclusion of the organization, and in 
response to the request made by the newly organ- 
ized church. Bishop Key gave it the name of 
St. Paul's. 

The instant success of the new movement at- 
tracted attention in the business circles of the 
city. Temporar)- quarters were secured for the 
regular services of a congregation of Methodists, 
the board of stewards made liberal provision for 
the pastor's salary, and for all the departments of 
church work. Beyond this, plans were at once 
laid for achurch edifice which should be worthy 
of the noble objects of a congregation and at the 
same time should be an adornment to the city. 
The heroism and enthusiasm of the membership 
of St. Paul's called forth early in 1906 the fol- 
lowing editorial, which appeared in the Houston 
Chronicle. It is a remarkable expression of the 
daily press, and serves as a prophecy of the great 
things that have been accomplished by the con- 
gregation under the leadership of the pastor. 

"The members of the Methodist church in 
Houston have that faith which removes moun- 



tains. The city has grown so rapidly, and the 
membership of Shearn church has increased to 
such an e.xtent. that a new church in the South 
End becomes necessary. 

"There was no building, no organized church, 
none of the equipments or legal ecclesiastical 
machinery that constitutes a church congregatioo 
or body in legal form, but that fact deterred not 
the Methodists. 

"The bishop assigned an able minister to the 
South End church — a church of faith only — the 
substance of things hoped for, the evidence of 
things not seen, and without a murmur the min- 
ibter gave up a most inviting station in a sister 
city and took up his appointed work, and a church 
board is organized, ground secured, a place ot 
worship rented for temporary use, salary of the 
minister fixed, and the South End church takes 
a local habitation and a name. That is the spirit 
uf old fashioned Methodism. 

'"The same sublime faith has carried the gospel 
even ahead of civilization, has carried heavenly 
light into dark places, has built churches and 
hospitals and asylums and provided spiritual and 
physical food for millions of starving children 
of men. 

"The undertaking to erect a South End Meth- 
odist church may seem, and, indeed, is a large 
one, but those who undertake it no more doubt 
that it will be done than they doubt the divine 
promises. Such faith and such service is worth 
more to Houston and to the world than all the 
speculation and metaphysics and abstract phil- 
osophy that could be crowded into a volume of 
infidel literature." 

Two years and a half have passed since the 
organization, and the faith of the heroic mem- 
bership of St. Paul's has had its reward. There 
are 600 names on the roll, the majority of whom 
have been received as a result of evangelistic 
efforts. Up to the present time about 250 mem- 
bers have been received by transfer from the 
other ]\Iethodist churches of the city. 

Immediately following the organization of the 
church, a quiet campaign for funds for the erec- 
tion of a building was begun. One hundred and 
fifty-five thousand dollars have been secured 
toward the fund necessary to pay for the mag- 
nificent structure. Of this amount two families 
gave each $40,000. 



80 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



The building was planned with the greatest 
care. The purposes of a church in the residence 
section of a great city were kept steadily in view, 
and the plans evolved provide all the quarters 
necessary for a great family church. The build- 
ing is just ready for occupancy and the dignity 
and beauty of the architecture and of the finish- 
ing have already stamped it as one of the noblest 
church edifices in the land. The architecture is 
Greek, with a B_\zantine dome. Bedford stone, 
pearl gray, is used to the first floor ; above this 
the material is gray St. Louis brick, trimmed with 
terra cotta and stone. The great dome is copper 
covered, stately and beautiful in all its propor- 
tions. The entire building is 74 by 139 feet 
over all. 

The first, or basement flooi', is devoted entirely 
to the Sunday school and the Epworth League 
departments of the church work. There are four 
entrances, making access easy for the crowd of 
children. Going in at the front, the entrance is 
through a magnificent lol:by thirteen feet wide 
and forty feet long. Around the main Sunday 
school room are grouped eleven class rooms, 
together with a large room for the primary de- 
partment, literary room and secretarial office; 
also a large and convenient kitchen, with back 
entrance and back stairs, giving access to dea- 
coness quarters in the upper stories. The second 
floor, or main auditorium, is reached by three 
stairways from the Sunday school room, and by 
a magnificent flight of steps from the outside. 
Ascending these steps and passing between the 
columns across the portico, one reaches the three 
plate glass doors, appropriately decorated and 
protected with bronze and steel grill, worked into 
the figure of a cross. These doors lead into the 
fover, or friendship room, fourteen by thirty-six 
feet in dimensions, with a retiring room at each 
end. The foyer has a floor of Roman tiling and 
wainscoting of Italian marble. There are three 
great doors giving access to the main auditorium 
from the foyer. 

Special attention is being given to the audi- 
torium to make it distinctively a place of worship, 
separate from the Sunday school, educational 
and workshop features of the church. It is so 
built as to suggest and assist the worshiper to 
commune with his God. 



Another special feature is the great organ. It 
is to be placed behind a screen of carved ma- 
hogany, hung with rich tapestry, so that nothing 
of the instrument except the console will be in 
view. The organ will have three manuals, 42 
stops, 2,841 pipes, and 23 combination pistons, 
etc., making it one of the largest organs in the 
South. 

The interior finish of the auditorium cannot be 
properly described without some mention being 
made of the beautiful art glass windows. In de- 
sign thev are both beautiful and educational. On 
the left side from the entrance the following sub- 
jects will be treated in the order given : Charles 
AVesley, Christ the Consoler, Christ and the Doc- 
tors (full group), Ruth the Gleaner, and Elijah. 
On the right from the entrance : John AA'esley, 
Christ in .Gethsemane, the Three ]\Iarys at the 
Tomb, the Ascension, and Moses. The inner 
dome, in diameter a little more than thirty feet, 
is also of art glass with a design representing 
the open heavens, with the angelic host announc- 
ing the birth of the Savior to the shepherds. 
Each window in the Sunday school room is of art 
glass, representing some act in the life of Christ. 
Whether in the Sunday school room or audi- 
torium, a sermon can be gotten from the decora- 
tive designs and effects of the windows. 

In addition to the organ, a set of chimes, con- 
sisting of eight bells, will be installed. Mrs. 
M. T. Jones, one of the largest contributors to 
the building fund, gave this set of chimes as a 
memorial to her husband. The total cost will be 
$10,000. 

On the second floor and in the rear of the 
auditorium, and also on the third floor, are sev- 
eral apartments devoted especially to the working 
church. In the third story are the rooms for 
the deaconesses. On the second floor, and sep- 
arated from the auditorium with a hall or pas- 
sageway, will be located the pastor's office, 
assistant pastor's office, and a suite of parlors. 
Another room has been given by the officers of 
the church to the bishop of the M. E. church, 
South, resident in Houston, and has been ac- 
cepted, and will be occupied by Bishop Seth 
Ward. 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



81 



TABERNACLE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH. 

Corner of Polk Avenue and Caroline Street 
Rev. VV. H. Crum, Pastor 



Tabernacle Methodist Church is one of the 
youngest and strongest of the Methodist family 
ill Houston, having been organized Tn April, 1891, 
with Rev. John E. Green as pastor, and Rev. 
H. V. Philpott, D. D., as presiding elder. There 
were but fifteen members reported at the first 
quarterly conference, but the membership have 
always been progressive and evangelistic, and 
have constantly added to their numbers, until 
the church at present has a membership of more 
than four hundred, and are thoroughly organized 
along all religious lines. 

At the time of their organization, the congrega- 
tion worshiped in a temporary chapel erected on a 
lot near San Jacinto street, within the same block 
ir. which the present church building stands. 

During the pastorate of the Rev. John E. 
Green, a most indefatigable worker, the church 
edifice was built, and in 1906, during the pas- 
torate of Rev. Ellis Smith, it was greatly en- 
larged and beautified, making it very desirable 
for all the work carried on by the congregation. 
The beautiful and commodious parsonage, at 
121 1 Polk avenue, was erected by Rev. D. H. 
Hotchkiss. 

The roll of pastors who have served Taber- 
nacle is one of which the Texas conference is 
proud, all of them, with a single exception, being 
raised to the presiding eldership subsequent to 
tneir pastorate. They are as follows : Kev. John 
E. Green, Rev. O. T. Hotchkiss, Rev. Joseph B. 
Sears, Rev. D. H. Hotchkiss, Rev. H. C. Willi.s, 
Rev. Ellis Smith and Rev. W. H. Crum, the 
present incumbent. 

The church has made constant and steadv pro- 
gress, both in the ideals of its work and the num- 
ber of its membership. Many lines of work have 
been enterprised by them. 



The Sunday school is no small factor of its 
church life. It has a large attendance and is con- 
trolled by a corps of thirty teachers and officers. 

The missionary spirit of the church is one of 
much prominence and has influenced all depart- 
ments of church life. There are six societies in 
the church doing missionary work, four of these 
being exclusively missionary. Among their 
numerous labors may be mentioned : Educating 
a Mexican missionary, supplying a library to a 
college in JNIexico, supporting a scholarship in 
China, besides regular and systematic contribu- 
tions to China, Corea, Japan, Brazil, Mexico 
and Cuba. At home they are assisting in reach- 
ing and helping the foreign population of Hous- 
ton and Galveston. 

The Epworth League has always been a great 
factor in the life of this church. Large numbers 
of young people have been reached and lifted to 
higher life through its ministrations. It has been 
the leaven of life in the church, and, besides 
keeping up the liveliest interest in the work of the 
young people, holding through the entire year 
two regular meetings each week, besides man\ 
special meetings, they have organized a church 
ir Cuba and supported it until it became self- 
supporting, and are now contemplating the sup- 
port of a missionary in the Orient. Large classes 
are organized for the systematic study of mis- 
sions. Thus they are keeping in touch with the 
movements of the world. 

Perhaps no clnirch in the state has in so short 
a time so thoroughly covered the field of en- 
thusiastic religious enterprise as has Tabernacle, 
rot alone in its religious sympathy and instruc- 
tion, but also in its charity and help. It has 
occupied no small place in the higher develop- 
ment of Houston. 



SKETCH OF WASHINGTON STREET METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH. 

Rev. p. L. King, Pastor 



The Washington Street Methodist Church is 
located on Washington avenue, between Houston 
avenue and Trinity street. The church was or- 

« — 



ganized in 1873. The building is a stucco brick 
structure, with a seating capacity of three hun- 
dred. It occupies a lot on which a neat two- 



82 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



story parsonage is also located, 80x125 feet. 
It is easily accessible to both the First ana Sixth 
wards, in which most of its membership lives. 
Il has about three hundred members. The Sun- 
day school has an enrollment of about two hun- 
dred, and is in a prosperous condition. There 
is an excellent auxiliary of the Woman's Home 
Mission Society, with twenty-five members, do- 
ing good work. The church is out of debt. In 
the near future additions and improvements are 
contemplated, to more fully equip it for its work 
in one of the most fruitful fields in the city of 



Houston. With a constantly growing member- 
ship and a location wliich could not be improved 
upon west of the bayou, the future is full of 
promise. 

The officers are: P. L. King, pastor; J. D. 
Northrup, Sunday school superintendent; W. W. 
Kelly, assistant superintendent. Stewards — R. S. 
Culpepper, chairman; J. D. Northrup, treasurer; 
G. A. Luther, George Sutton, Charles Husen, 
C. H. Alderton, W. K. Winter. Trustees— E. W. 
Stanford, W. W. Kelly, R. S. McMichael, C. II. 
Alderton, W. H. Peregov. 



McASHAN METHODIST CHURCH. 

Bv Mrs. Wm. Bains 



McAshan Methodist Church was organized in 
1892 by Rev. Solomon, the church having grown 
out of a little Sunday school, which, prior to that 
time, was held under some live oak trees in what 
was then known as Lubbock's grove, and was 
superintended by Mr. J. B. Hanks, of Shearn 
church. 

The Rev. Solomon was pastor of Shearn 
church at that time, and McAshan church was 
m.ade a mission of Shearn and named for one of 



Shearn's most honored members, S. M. Mc- 
Ashan, who donated most of the money for the 
building of the chapel, which ever since has borne 
his name. In 1902 McAshan church became self- 
sustaining. It has always been, and still is, in 
a prosperous condition, having had some of the 
best preachers in the Texas conference for its 
pastors. It has a well organized Sabbath school, 
also a flourishing Epworth League, and Wo- 
man's Home Mission Society. 



McKEE STREET METHODIST CHURCH, SOUTH 
By Rev. J. F. Carter, Pastor 



This church was organized in 1882, by Rev. 
J. W. Kelly, pastor. The church was composed 
largely of the old Chapmanville congregation. 
Rev. Alexander Hinkle, a superannuated preach- 
er, rendered valuable assistance in the erection of 
the first church building on McKce street. 
This church has had a steady growth. In 1899 
the building was remodeled and enlarged, while 
Rev. John E. Green was pastor. 

Recently the congregation was divided into 
two separate churches in order to meet the grow- 



ing of the great Fifth ward. This leaves a 
membership of over 300. Rev. J. F. Carter, the 
present pastor, has a faithful band of co-laborers. 
A fine body of enthusiastic young people adds 
greatly to the interest of the church. Miss 
Wright, our faithful deaconess, with her co- 
operative home for young ladies, is a felt force 
in the church and community. 

The church has a good Sunday school, Ep- 
worth League and woman's foreign and home 
missionary societies. 



TRINITY METHODIST CHURCH. 

By Rev. S. W. Kemerer 

For several years the necessity of a division of to the intersection of this part of the city by the 
the territory surrounding TiIcKee Street Church Southern Pacific tracks. Because of the danger 
was evident to the leaders of the church, owing of the crossings, a Sunday school was organized 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



83 



ill June, 1907, a small building 32x44 feet was 
erected for its use, and the membership, begin- 
ning with about fifty, steadily grew under the 
superintendency of B. L. Palmer and his corps 
of workers. At the last session of the Texas con- 
ference, the territory was divided, the member- 
ship embraced in that portion north of the tracks 
was organized into the society called the Loraine 
Street church, and the Rev. S. W. Kemerer was 
appointed pastor by Bishop Candler. In the 
division of property, the McKee Street society 
retained the church building on RIcKce street, 
and the new society became possessed of the lots 
and parsonage on Loraine street, and the Sunday 
school building. 

The pastor and his wife moved into the par- 
sonage at once, and the various organizations of 
the church were effected. The official board 
was nominated and elected as follows : Trus- 
tees, Jesse G. Newton, A. J. Blauvelt, E. PI. 



Haver, J. L. Lee, J. L. McReynolds. Stewards : 
Dr. E. H. Dunnam, B. L. Palmer, L. M. Wilson, 
Jesse G. Newton, Ed M. Blair, W. E. Wells, 
K. S. Sims, Will Haver. 

January i, 1908, was set as the limit within 
which all joining should be considered as charter 
members. These numbered on that date 87. Since 
tl'.at time there have been organized the Epworth 
League, the Junior League and the Women's 
Home Missionary Society. The Parsonage So- 
ciety has continued its work as before the division 
with faithfulness and success. The membership 
of the church has grown steadily, and now num- 
bers about 180. All departments are active and 
hopeful. The Sunday school has enrolled during 
the year 250, the Epworth League 43, the Junior 
League about 50, the Parsonage Society 50, and 
the Woman's Home Missionary Society now 
numbers 17. We trust for greater success, en- 
ergy and efficiency. Pray for us. 



GRACE METHODIST CHURCH. 



This is located at Houston Heights, Thirteenth 
and Yale streets, was organized four years ago, 
and now numbers 300 members. Fifty additions 
have recently been made. It has a growing Sun- 
day school and an active Home Mission Society, 
which was in operation two or three years before 



a church was organized. 



It was due to the 
heroic efforts of the women of this society that 
the church lot was purchased, a pastor secured 
and a church organized. A temporary structure 
now occupies the lot, but will in time be super- 
seded by a permanent edifice of worship. The 
present pastor is Rev. J. W. Mayne. 



BRUNNER METHODIST CHURCH. 
By Rev. Charles C. Bell, Pastor 



Brunner Avenue M. E. Church, South, was 
organized in i8g8, under the pastorate of Rev. 
J. W. Horn. Twenty-five members constituted 
the organization. In 1899 the organization was 
associated with Washington Street church, and 
a house of worship was erected. In 1900 it was 
demolished by the great storm. In 1901 Brunner 
Avenue Church was connected with McAshan 
church, under the pastorate of Rev. J. R. War- 
lick, who proceeded to rebuild the house. In 1903 
Brunner Avenue was again connected with 
Washington Street church, but the plan of the 



work was changed, and Rev. F. W. Carruthers 
served as pastor. Afterwards Brunner and Mc- 
Ashan were united again and became a double 
s'.ation, with Rev. S. S. McKinney as pastor. 
Jn 1905 Brunner was made a station and Rev. 
J. M. Perry was appointed pastor, and served 
two years. In 1907 Rev. Charles C. Bell was 
appointed to the charge, who is now serving. 
The church is in a healthy condition, has a fine 
Sunday school, Epworth League, W. H. M. 
Society, and a membership of about 160, and 
bids fair to become a strong church. 




SOME OF HOUSTON'S LEADING CHURCHES 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 
GERMAN METHODIST CHURCHES. 



85 



There are two German Methodist churches in 
the city. The First Church, located at Alilam and 
McKinnej- streets, was organized about sixty 
years ago. The present membership is 185. This 
society owns its church building and a very good 
parsonage. The church is well organized in the 
different lines of Christian work. They have a 
Sunday school averaging a hundred members, 
a Woman's Home Alission Society of twenty-five 
members, and two Epworth Leagues, Senior and 
Junior. During the past year the church and 
its organizations have increased in numbers, and 



they are becoming more Americanized. The 
pastor. Rev. A. E. Rector, conducts the morning 
services in German and those of th.? evening in 
English. 

The other one of these German churches is 
called the Ebenezer Methodist church, located 
ai the corner of Chestnut and Harrington streets, 
in the Fifth ward. Two lots are owned by this 
society, on which are located the church build- 
ing and a six-room parsonage. This church has 
been in existence about twenty years. The pas- 
tor is Rev. W. A. Knolle, who also conducts 
services in both German and English. 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCPI. 



The First Presbyterian Church of the city of 
Houston was organized in the senate chamber 
of the Republic of Texas, on the 31st day of 
Aiarch, itJjy, with eleven original members, by 
the Rev. William Y. Allen of the Presbytery of 
Southern Alabama, synod of ]\Iississippi. It was 
the first permanent protestant church organized 
within the bounds of the Republic. A small 
church in Eastern Texas, Cumberland Presby- 
terian, was organized a short time previous to 
tliis, but the work was soon discontinued. 

The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was ad- 
ministered April 14, 1839, in the senate chamber 
of the capitol, to members of the Presbyterian 
church of the city of Houston, and to members 
of other evangelical churches present, in all to 
about twenty-five communicants, by Rev. Wil- 
ham Y. Allen. This was the first public cele- 
bration of the ordinance ever held in the city of 
Elouston by Protestant Christians. 

The growth of this mission, feeble in numbers 
but strong in spirit, was slow but steady. In 
the lists of membership we find many names 
foremost among the builders and developers of 
Houston. The same earnestness of spirit and 
steadfastness of purpose were exhibited in their 
management of sacred and secular matters. The 
membership, originally eleven, in i860, seventy- 
tiiree, is now very nearly nine hundred, this in- 
cluding only communicants, not the baptized 
membership. 



Since the early days of the churcli, the Sun- 
day school has received especial care, growing 
with the growth of the church, until it numbers 
now, inclusive of the cradle roll and home de- 
partment, about seven hundred. 

JNIission work has always been cared for to the 
extent of the church's ability. 

In 1856, financial assistance was given to the 
work by Rev. R. H. Byers, synodical missionary. 
In 1872, Rev. Dr. J. R. Hutchinson was appointed 
to labor on the north side of Buffalo bayou. 

In 1874, Mr. Donald McGregor, for many 
}ears an elder in the First church, and superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school, having been or- 
dained to the ministry, asked and received per- 
mission to engage in mission work on the south 
side of the city. This work resulted in the organ- 
ization of the Lamar Street Presbyterian church, 
now called the Second Presbyterian church of 
Houston. By bequests from Mr. McGregor and 
a member of the First church, Mrs. C. M. Allen, 
the Second church was enabled to build its hand- 
some edifice on Main and Drew streets. 

In 1882 a Sunday school was organized on the 
north side of Buffalo bayou, with Mr. William 
C'hristian, an elder of the First church, as super- 
intendent. 

In 1888, property was secured on Lubbock 
street, a building placed thereon, and a church 
organized, called the Lubbock Street Presby- 
terian church. 



86 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



In 1885 and 1886, efforts were made to open 
work in the Second ward of the city. A Sunday 
school was conducted, and in 1892 a lot was pur- 
chased and a building erected on the corner of 
Hamilton and Magnolia streets. Mr. E. A. 
Peden, a deacon of the First church, was super- 
intendent of the Sunday school. Later, on ac- 
count of changed conditions, it was deemed best 
tc transfer this work. 

In iSgo, with Mr. C. Vv. Sedgwick, an elder of 
the First church, as superintendent, a Sunday 
school was organized in the Fifth ward. In 1S91 
a building was purchased and the Hardy Street 
church organized. 

All these missions are now independent organ- 
izations. 

In the foreign field, the First church has five 
of her children, all in China : The daughter of 
Mr. C. W. Sedgwick, Mrs. Henry, who, having 



married a Methodist minister, is in the Methodist 
work; Mr. W. F. Junkin, Mrs. Dr. Bradley, Mrs. 
John W. Vinson, of Luchien, North Kiangsu, 
and Dr. Allen C. Hutchison, of Kashing. Two 
of these are the representatives of the First 
church, while several other missionaries are sup- 
ported by individual members, who withhold 
their names. 

Three ladies' societies, the Ladies' Association, 
the Young Ladies' Association, and the Daugh- 
ters of the Covenant, are actively engaged in 
church work, its orphanage, its home and for- 
eign missions. Active interest is also tal<en in 
inter-denominational work in the city, the Y. M. 
C. A., the United Charities, the Rescue Home. 

To the First Presbyterian church, as pre- 
sumably to all churches, come from wide areas 
urgent calls for help, to which, whenever pos- 
sible, generous response is given. May it hear 
"Well done," when comes the harvest home! 



THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

By Rev. Fincher 



The Second Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized in 1876, by Dr. Donald McGregor, who 
labored with the church as pastor and supply for 
nearly twelve years. Rev. J. G. Tanner, Rev. 
G. G. Woodbridge and Rev. S. M. Tenney have 
served as pastors. It was under the latter's 
pastorate that the location was changed and the 
present handsome building, on Main street, was 
erected. 

From an organization of five charter members, 
it has steadily grown to a membership of four 
hundred and ninety, making it one of the strong 
churches of the city. 

The different organizations within the church 
are all actively at work. The Aid, the Mis- 
sionary, the Miriams, the Y. P. A., the Young 
Men's Brotherhood, and the Girls' Mission Band 
make the organization complete, and at the same 
time render valuable service. 



A healthy missionary spirit prevails. The 
church supports two missionaries in the foreign 
field and maintains five mission chapels in the 
city. _ ,j 

Having one of the finest pipe organs in the 
city, good music may always be expected. Be- 
ginning in November, the congregation is ex- 
pecting to have Mr. Leon Louis Rice, one of 
America's greatest tenors, sing for them. 

Second church has a unique system of Sunday 
school work. The larger school meets in the 
morning, followed by five smaller schools at 
different parts of the city in the afternoon. In 
all departments of the school, including cradle 
roll and home department, about one thousand 
workers and scholars are enrolled. 

Rev. F. E. Fincher, the present pastor, entered 
upon his work in April, igo6. 



THE CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, U. S. A. 1 i 

By Rev. A. B. Buchanan 
This church, while originally belonging to the a part of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. It 
Cumberland Presbyterian denomination, is now goes heartily into the fellowship and work of the 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



87 



larger denomination, but preserves tlie old name 
through respect for its former connection and 
to hold its local individuality. 

As a church it stands for a clear, consistent 
and scriptural faith. It seeks to maintain high 
ethical ideals. It seeks the coming of the King- 
dom of Christ in its fullness among all men. 
And it would be a helpful factor in the work of 
the church of Christ as it is represented by all of 
its branches. 

During the fourteen years of its life, the self 
denial of its membership is shown in the substan- 



tial development of its material equipment and 
ii! the chapel work which it has done. It began 
the work on Washington street, which has 
grown into Westminster Presbyterian church. 
And with others it has assisted in planting the 
church at Woodland Heights. 

Tiie church is centrally located, corner of 
Fannin street and Pease avenue, and, being 
richly endowed in the spiritual gifts of its mem- 
bership, and working upon a broad and pro- 
gressive policy, it is destined to have an influ- 
ence second to none, upon the moral ideals of the 
city. 



WESTMINSTER PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 



This church was organized February ii, 1897, 
by Dr. H. S. Little, beloved synodical missionary 
for many years. He supplied the pulpit for 
seme months. The first regular pastor was 
Rev. Edwin McNutt, recently deceased at San 
Antonio. 

The present pastor. Rev. E. Sinclair Smith, 
was installed May 9, 1904. Owing to the re- 
union of the Cumberland Presbyterian church 
with the present body, and owing to the nearness 
of the two churches in Houston, it was thought 
wise to merge the two congregations and seek 



a new location for Westminster. The Cumber- 
land church had a flourishing Sunday school of 
over 100 members, near the entrance of Houston 
Heights, on the edge of Brunner, with no other 
Presbyterian church covering the same territory. 
It was deemed wise to occupy this promising 
field. The Westminster entered this field the 
beginning of 1907, and has a present membership 
of one hundred, with a fair prospect of growth. 
As soon as the old lot is disposed of, a new 
church will be erected, which will give an ade- 
quate home for the growing church and Sunday 
school. 



HARDY STREET PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
By Rev. G. T. Storey 



This church is located on Hardy street, be- 
tween Loraine and Noble, near the Montgomery 
avenue car line. It was organized in May,'iS95. 
Rev. G. W. Story was its first pastor. The pres- 
ent pastor. Rev. Granville T. Storey, began liis 
work here in April, 1904. 

Since that time the church has done much fine 
work. It has built a two-story, eight-room 
manse, at a cost of $2,800, and enlarged and 
renovated the church building, at a cost of about 
$1,500. It now has about one hundred members 
and a well equipped, efficient Sunday school. 



Mr. A. H. Watson, the superintendent, is ably 
assisted by sixteen teachers. This school has 
three young men in xA.ustin college, preparing 
for the gospel ministry, and three others there, 
preparing for other callings in life. 

The ladies of this church have done and con- 
tinue to do a great work. They have two soci- 
eties, the Ladies' Aid and the Ladies' Mis- 
sionary Tea. There are two societies among the 
young people, the Helping Hands and the Little 
Church Workers. The good hand of our God 
lias been upon the workers in this church in 
the past. 



88 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
TUAM AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH. 



The building is of Grecian arcliitecture, lo- 
cated at the corner of Tuam avenue and Fannin 
street. The property is valued at $15,000. As 
is well known, the location is one of the very 
choicest residence sections of the city, and has 
a class of people than which there is no better 
in the town. 

This church was organized November 15, 1903, 
with twenty-three members. Twenty-seven mem- 
bers let the contract for the present structure, 



in the spring of 1904, and the building was dedi- 
cated on the gth of the following October. 

Rev. L. T. I\Iays, Th. D., was the first pastor, 
serving from the date of organization to April i, 
1906. The present pastor. Rev. J. W. Loving, 
Th. D., began his service about the middle of 
March, 1908. Since that time there have been 
nearly thirty additions in the regular services 
of the church, and, on the whole, the outlook is 
promising. The membership now numbers one 
hundred and fifty. 



BISHOP STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 



Another one of the young and growing 
churches of the Baptist denomination is the 
Bishop Street church. It was organized in 1903, 
with fourteen members. Since that lime th.e 
church has had a steady growth, and now num- 
bers one hundred and forty members. Fifty ad- 
ditions have been made during the past year, 
under the pastorate of Rev. Russell A. Harty. 
A well organized Sunday school is maintained, 
with an enrollment of one hundred and fifty 
members. 



The society owns a lot at the corner of Bishop 
and Fletcher streets, on which is a neatly fur- 
nished building. 

Rev. Harty, in September, resigned from the 
pastorate of this church to continue his divinity 
studies in the Theological Seminar}- of Rochester, 
New York. It was a matter of regret to the 
Baptists of Houston to lose this young minister, 
whose work has been so eminently successful. 
But he is expected to return to Texas, his native 
slate, after obtaining his degree a year hence. ■ 



TABERNACLE BAPTIST CHURCH. 



This church was organized December 21, 1891, 
and was formed very largely from members of 
the First Baptist church. It is located in the 
Sixth ward, corner of White and Decatur streets. 
The church building is valued at $4,000. 

The work of the present pastor. Rev. D. C. 



Freeman, began September 15, 1906. During 
the first year of his pastorate, sevent}"-si.x persons 
were added to the fellowship of the church. 
The present membership is 336. The Sunday 
school numbers 175, and has an average attend- 
ance of 125. The condition of the church and 
it^ organizations is one of healthful growth. 



BRUNNER BAPTIST CHURCH. 



At Brunner a Baptist church was organized 
two years ago. It now has 100 members, a Sun- 
day school having an average attendance of 55 
or 60, and a Young People's Union. A Bible 



class study is conducted by the pastor on Tues- 
day evening. The society owns a lot, on which 
a church building will be erected. The services 
are now held at Templeton Hall. 
Rev. W. W. Wear is pastor. 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 
HOUSTON HEIGHTS BAPTIST CHURCH. 



89 



Was organized March 13, 1904, with a mem- completed, but it is being used, and it is free 

bership of fourteen. In 1905 it had grown to from debt. The church has an efficient Sunday 

III, and now it numbers 250. A building was school, a Senior and Junior Young People's 

begun in March, 1905. The building is not yet Union, and a Ladies' Aid Society. 



BAPTIST TEMPLE. 

Another Baptist church, called the Baptist 
Temple, was organized at Houston Heights last 
June, and has fifty members. Services are held 
i;i a hall over the postoffice, in Nineteenth 
avenue. Rev. F. Huhns is pastor. 



Not only has the Baptist denomination the 
credit of having produced the first gospel sermon 
ever preached in Houston, but it can also be com- 
mended for the number of churches it has organ- 
ized in this city within the past few years. 



FIRST GERMAN BAPTIST CHURCH. 

From a struggling little congregation of a 
half dozen members in 1879, the German Baptist 
church has become one of the prosperous churches 
of the city. The pioneer among the German 
Baptists of the West, Dr. F. Kiefer organized 
the Houston church. Following him. Rev. F. 
W. Becker came as the first pastor of the church. 
This organization has an important mission 
among the many Germans of Houston, and its 
neighborhood. Services are held in both Ger- 
man and English. 



CALVARY BAPTIST CHURCH. 



Was originally organized in an upper room, 
on Main street, in 1902. Its present location is 
on Sampson street and Preston avenue, where 
it was established in September, 1905. This 
location is central for all the eastern part of the 
Second and Third wards. The church is well 
organized in all departments. It has a Sunday 



school of 75 members, a Bible school, a Young 
People's Union, and Ladies' Au.xiliary Society. 
The church has a membership of 75, owns its 
building and pastor's home. Though the mem- 
bership is not large, it is almost entirely new ma- 
terial, gathered in since being located where it 
now stands. 

Rev. Walter E. Tynes is the pastor. 



LIBERTY AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH. 



This church was organized April 4, 1880, with 
twenty-eight members. Soon after organization, 
six more were received, making a number of 
thirty-four at the first meeting. The present 
membership is large, notwithstanding the fact 



tliat the new Baptist churches have drawn on 
this one for some of its constituent members. 
The membership is growing rapidly. Scarcely 
a Sabbath passes without new members being 
added. Rev. Robert D. Wilson is the pastor. 



CLARK STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 



Clark Street Baptist Church was organized in 
Pythian Hall, February, 1896, with thirteen mem- 
bers, and was called the North Houston Baptist 



church. This name was changed to that of the 
present in 1899. 

Mrs. Victoria Schramm gave the site, corner 



90 



of Lee and Clark street, to the church 
J. C. Hudson was the first pastor. 

In 1900 the church building was badly dam- 
aged by the great storm of September 8, but it 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
Rev 



was repaired and greatly improved, and the mem- 
bership tripled. The present pastor, Rev. George 
E. McDaniel, began his work in November, 1904. 
A goodly number has been added to the church 
through his ministrations. 



GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH. 

Another important German organization is the edifice was erected only a few years since. We 
German Lutheran church, located on Texas regret our inability to secure further information 
avenue, in the heart of the city. A fine brick concerning this church. 



SECOND CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 



The Second Christian Church is located at the 
corner of Logan and Common streets. Fifth 
ward. It was started as a mission from the Cen- 
tral Christian church, by J. C. Mason, pastor, in 
1894. The building is at the corner of Hagan and 
Common streets. The present pastor is Rev. 
G. J. Massey, residing at 2019 Chestnut street. 

The m.embership is 80, with a Sunday school 
of 50 members. Good large Senior. Intermediate 



and Junior Endeavor Societies, also an active 
Ladies' Aid Society, Teachers' Training Class 
and well attended prayer meeting are connected 
with the church. 

Another church of the above denomination is 
the Church of Christ, located at Houston avenue 
and Spring street. It is reached by the Woodland 
Heights car. A building is owned by the society, 
which is composed of about fifty members. 



TRINITY CHURCH, HOUSTON. 
By Rev. Thos. J. Windham, Rector 



Trinity Church began its existence as a mis- 
sion of Christ Church parish. September 12, 
1897, the present church building, located at 
what is known as South End, corner of Drew 
avenue and Louisiana street, was dedicated and 
used for the first time. This opening service was 
held by the Rev. Henry D. Aves, then rector of 
Christ church, now the bishop of Mexico, and 
the Rev. Henry J. Brown, who was then assistant 
rector of Christ church. The work continued as 
a mission of Christ church until 1902, when it 
became an independent parish, with the Rev. 
Henry J. Brown as its first rector. In 1904 Mr 
Brown resigned, and the Rev. Thomas J. Wind- 
ham was called to succeed him in the rectorship. 
Tiie work has, under God's blessing, gone stead- 
ily forward. All indebtedness has been paid off, 
and the parish owns unincumbered property 



valued at $6,500. The parish is now planning to 
build at an early date a larger and more adequate 
church building. The congregation has out- 
grown its present quarters. The Ladies' Guild 
is, as it has ever been, a tower of strength in 
the parish, and the Altar Guild has done its full 
share in the work. 

Subscriptions are already in hand towards the 
proposed new church building, and a number of 
memorial windows have been promised. 

In addition to Christ church and Trinity, there 
are three other Episcopal churches in the city, 
viz: The Good Shepherd, in the Sixth ward, 
called also the Clemens Memorial ; St. John's, in 
the Third ward, and St. Mary's, corner Terry 
and Harrington streets. The later has 57 com- 
municants. It is at present without a rector. 
Rev. H. J. Brown has been officiating during the 
vacancy. 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



91 



CONGREGATION BETH ISRAEL. 

By Rabbi HtNRV Karnsilin 



The Congregation Beth Israel is the oldest 
Jewish community in the state. The date of its 
organization extending as far back as 1854. In 
1870 the members erected for themselves a brick 
building on the corner of Crawford street and 
Franklin avenue, which did duty until 1905, 
when it was found hopelessly inadequate to 
accommodate the increased membership, as well 
as most undesirable as regards location. The 
site for a larger building was selected on Jack- 
son and Rusk, but with the building of the 
freight terminals in the near vicinity, this site 
was abandoned for the present location on Craw- 
ford and Lamar. This building, which is 
Romanesque in style, is an ornament to the city. 
Its dimensions are 105 by 95 feet and it cost 
about $50,000. The approach is by a flight of 
steps leading up from Crawford street into the 
vestibule, from which swinging doors lead into 
the main auditorium. The main color scheme 
here is green, the fine art glass windows, the 
carpet and the walls all being of this color. The 
dome is white. The pulpit, ark and altar are all 
of walnut. Above the ark is the choir loft and 
organ. The windows are symbolical of Jewish 
life and history. Here we find the shield of 



David, the seven-branched candlestick, the sheaf 
of corn, goblet, scrolls of the law, tables of 
stone, and the two hands as raised for the priestly 
benediction. Of the five memoria' windows, 
only two are as yet in position — the Gerson 
window, a truly beautiful representation of Ruth 
and Naomi, the design of Mr. J. B. Mayberry 
of this city, and the Coleman window, which rep- 
resents the Menorah. The perpetual lamp, also 
the work of Mr. Mayberry, is very beautiful, and 
hangs before the ark. Beneath the fruitlike cop- 
per bowl, various Jewish devices are suspended. 
Ihe rim which holds the bowl is also of copper, 
cut into a pomegranate design of flower, fruit 
and leaf, the whole lacelike effect symbolizing 
the branches hung over the booths erected at the 
Feast of Tabernacles. A copper band running 
about this supporting rim is traced with a 
sunken design of Oriental geometric pattern, and 
the heavy chains are individual in conception. 
The whole lower floor is known as the Monte- 
fiori Hall, which consists of an assembly hall 
and six class rooms for the use of the Sunday 
school. The building is lighted by gas and elec- 
tricity and is heated by steam. It will be dedi- 
cated on October 18. 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES. 



There are five Catholic churches in the 
city, with a resident pastor for each. An- 
other Catholic church is in course of con- 



struction at Houston Heights. Further infor- 
mation about these churches we were unable to 
obtain. 



FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 



Corner Walker and Fannin, Houston, Texas. 

The first gospel sermon ever preached in 
Houston was preached by Rev. Z. N. Morrell, 
a veteran Baptist missionary, in 1837, when 
scarcely any houses had been erected, and when 
Houston was a city of tents. It was not until 
April ID, 1841, that a Baptist church was organ- 
ized, with a membership of sixteen. This was 
the beginning of the First Baptist Church of 
Houston. 



Rev. James Huckins was the first pastor, or, 
more properly, pastoral supply, for it was while 
acting as a missionary under the American Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society that he organized the 
church. On the occasion of the organization, 
S. P. Andrews and I. B. Bigalow were elected 
deacons. On the first Sunday of the May fol- 
lowing, the Lord's Supper was first observed, 
and the right hand of fellowship was given to all 
members entering into the organization. 



92 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON. 



Only irregular worship was held for a long 
period following the organization. Ministers 
were scarce, and Mr. Huckins supplied the pul- 
pit as best he could, for a period of two years. 

The church shared in the general demoraliza- 
tion which prevailed in Texas during the war 
with Mexico. The absence of the clerk, Gard- 
ner Smith, presumably in the ranks of the army, 
leaves a serious gap in the church records for a 
considerable period. Only two meetings of the 
church are recorded for the year 18.13, ^'""^ then 
follows a chasm in the record which is resumed 
in 1844, when services were held in the home 
of T. B. J. Hadley, at which meeting Rev. Wil- 
liam M. Tryon was invited to locate at Houston 
and become the pastor of the struggling little 
church. 

The first matter claiming the attention of the 
pastor was that of the erection of a house of wor- 
ship, which was built on the corner of Travis 
street and Texas avenue, just opposite the pres- 
ent location of the Shearn Methodist church. 
Taking the field in the interest of the building, 
Mr. Tryon procured about $3,000 from the 
states of the South, and erected the first church 
edifice built in Houston, which church was dedi- 
cated on the fifth Sunday in ]\Iay, 1847. The 
dedicatory sermon was preached bv Rev. H. L. 
Graves, president of Baylor University. The 
church was under a mortgage of abo.u ./i,5C0, 



which was not paid till Rev. R. C. Burl 



be- 



came pastor in 1848. 

Mr. Tryon was a firm, judicious and wise 
leader, and did much to fuse the incoherent mem- 
bership, among whom was but little of the cement 
of congeniality, so essential to church life. The 
members had been brought together from widely 
separated quarters of the country, and had 
brought with them divergent views. The church 
suffered from various distractions, among which 
was those of alien immersion, the introduction 
of an organ into the church, and the rental of 
pews. The tension of the situation was lar!:;ely 
relieved by the sudden and mysterious disappear- 
ance of the organ, which was afterwards found 
in the bottom of Buffalo bayou. By reason of 
calmness and wisdom, Mr. Tryon did much to 
solidify the church, and to fuse the elements into 
harmony. His career was cut short by death 
from yellow fever in 1847. 



On January 5, 1848, Rev. R. C. Burleson was 
chosen pastor, and served with success for thrc^ 
and a half years, when he was called to the 
piesidency of Baylor University. His pastorate 
was marked by gradual prosperity. Up to this 
time, the church was chiefly aided by what was 
then Icnown as the Domestic Mission Board of 
the Southern Baptist Convention. 

On the retirement of Mr. Burleson, the Hon. 
and Rev. Thomas Chilton, of Greensboro, Ala- 
bama, was chosen pastor. He was a man of 
broad information and learning, and a preacher 
of rare oratorical power. He had represented 
Iventucky in congress, and was a man of affairs. 
h'rom the first he filled the church with attentive 
audiences. Accessions to the church were fre- 
quent, and, as it proved afterwards, sometimes 
too unguarded. Discordant elements were in- 
troduced, and the church was agitated on such 
questions as dancing, dram drinking, theater 
going, pew rent, and that of the inevitable choir. 
The pastor vainly strove to allay these disturb- 
ances, and finally resigned and returned to Ala- 
bama. 

For two years the church was pastorless, and 
finally called Rev. Gilbert T. I\Iorgan, cousin 
of the great cavalry leader. General John H. 
Morgan. He served the church for only a short 
time, when he died of consumption. 

Mr. Morgan was succeeded by Rev. George 
W. Tucker, of Shreveport, Louisiana, who 
served in a quiet and undemonstrative way for 
two and a half years, when he returned to 
Louisiana and died. 

Then came the period of the civil war, dur- 
ing which time the church seems to have strug- 
gled for an existence. Lapses of supply were 
frequent, but at different intervals the pulpit 
was supplied by Revs. N. T. Moore and R. A. 
Massey. Rev. Dr. William Carey Crane was 
called from Louisiana to the pastorate of the 
church, but on the occasion of his visit to Texas 
ht was induced to accept the presidency of Bay- 
lor University, at Independence, from which 
point he would visit Houston at irregular times, 
and supply the pulpit of the First church. 

The close of the civil war found the church in 
a greatly crippled condition. The membership 
had been thinned, efficiency had decayed, and 
its life seemed well ni;h extinct. Lack of pas- 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



93 



toral oversight had resulted in the scattering of 
the flock. Another effort was made, however, 
to procure preaching, and in the latter part of 
1S65, Rev. J. E. Carnes, a Swedenborgian Meth- 
odist, professed a desire to become a Baptist, 
and was accordingly employed as a supply. 
Abruptly leaving the city, and, it seems, without 
cause. Rev. Dr. J. B. Link, the editor of the 
Texas Baptist Herald, was procured as a supply. 
He found the church building dilapidated, and 
the congregation demoralized. With character- 
istic liberality, he sought to set things in order 
largely by drafts on his own purse, but the ab- 
sorption of his time as editor of his journal 
forbade the performance of his pastoral work, 
for which there was urgent necessity. Outside 
Houston it was thought there could be no re- 
vival of the suspended interest without a genuine 
reorganization. At this juncture, Rev. F. M. 
Law came to Houston as a self-supporting mis- 
sionary, and rendered some effective service. 
A disastrous cessation of this effort was induced 
by the yellow fever, which prevailed in Houston 
during the years 1867-68. 

For the greater part of ten years the church 
had suffered from depletion and demoralization, 
and on December 3, 1868, Rev. J- T. Zealey was 
chosen pastor, but did not assume work until 
September 4, 1869. For six years, under his 
pastorate, the church prospered. IVIany were 
baptized, and the church grew in efficiency and 
strength. His pastorate w-as a period of sub- 
stantial progress. A location was purchased for 
a new church building, on the corner of Rusk 
avenue and Fannin street, and in part paid for ; 
a chapel was built in the Fourth ward, and was 
subsequently sold to the German Baptists, and 
another chapel was begun in the Fifth ward, 
which was afterwards developed into the Second 
church, now the Liberty Avenue church. Be- 
sides all these, the parsonage was built on Fan- 
nin street. Dr. Zealey was fortunate in having 
the advantage of the sage advice and co-opera- 
tion of Dr. J. B. Link. 

At the end of six years, Dr. Zealey retired 
from the pastorate, which was followed by an- 
other interregnum of two years, during which 
time the church was again pastorless. The 
services of Rev. Horace Clarke, who was then 
teaching in Houston, were procured as a supply 



during this period. This brought the history of 
the church to 1877. During March of that year 
Dr. J. M. C. Breaker, of St. Joseph, Missouri, 
was called. It was during the pastorate of Dr. 
Breaker that JMajor Pcnn held a remarkable 
meeting in Houston, one of the results of wdiich 
was the development of the chapel in the Fifth 
ward into a church. 

Three purposes seemed to animate Dr. Break- 
er: harmonizing and organizing the church, and 
the erection of a much needed house of worship. 
The property of the original church was sold, 
and, with the proceeds of the sale as a nucleus, 
a new brick building was begun on the corner, 
of Rusk and Fannin, and within three years it 
was erected at a cost of $40,000. The worthiest 
and most efficient coadjutors of the pastor, in 
this new enterprise, were the noble women of 
th.e church, with some of which the church has 
been blessed from its inception. Xor should 
tliere be, in this connection, the omission of the 
mention of the name of Mr. B. A. Shepherd, a 
banker, who, though not a member, manifested 
a keen interest in the church, and gave largely 
of his means for the promotion of its welfare. 

In December, 1886, came a division in the 
cliurch, a number withdrawing for the purpose 
of organizing a new interest, which was named 
the Olivet Baptist Oiurch. Resigning from the 
First church. Dr. Breaker became the pastor of 
the new interest, the existence of which was a 
brief one. 

To succeed Dr. Breaker, the First church 
called Rev. T. B. Pitman, who began his pas- 
torate on October i, 1887, and continued for 
almost three years. Lhider his administration 
the church grew, and its prosperity was revived. 
Then came another suspension of activity for 
seven months, during which time the church was 
content with a supply. Rev. R. M. Humphrey 
was engaged to supply the pulpit during this 
time. A call was then extended to Dr. W. O. 
Bailey, a man of eloquence, but of impaired 
health. He remained with the church about two 
years, when Rev. L. D. Lamkin w'as called to 
the pastorate. The outset of his work was pro- 
pitious, and gave great promise of prosperity. 
Large audiences and many accessions character- 
ized the work for a period, but unfortunate con- 
ditions led to great dissatisfaction and general 



94 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



demoralization. Retiring from the pastorate 
early in 1900, the church did not make a call till 
August of that year, when Dr. B. F. Riley was 
chosen, and began his labors in September, igoo. 
The church was greatly disrupted, the member- 
ship scattered, and a spirit of hopelessness was 
prevalent when the work was undertaken. Under 
such conditions the house of worship was 
wrecked by a storm, which destroyed the city of 
Galveston. Stunned by so overwhelming a dis- 
aster, the situation seemed well nigh hopeless. 
But a few devoted members rallied to the pas- 
tor, a dance hall was procured as a place of wor- 
ship, and for a period of more than three years. 



worship was steadily maintained in the hall, the 
church was revived, was completely reorganized, 
the membership increased, confidence was re- 
stored, the old site of the church was sold, a new 
location was purchased on the corner of Walker 
avenue and Fannin street, a magnificent stone 
structure was undertaken, and completed by 
June I, 1904. 
■ In September, 1905, after serving the church 
for five years, and while it was at the height of 
prosperity. Dr. Riley withdrew, and Rev. J- L. 
Gross, of Selma, Alabama, was called, and, on 
the last of November, 1905, assumed pastoral 
care of the church. 



CONGREGATION ADATH YESHURUN. 



The germ of the orthodox Jewish synagogue 
dates from the introduction of certain reforms 
in Beth Israel, the older synagogue. Those who 
were dissatisfied with the changes in the ritual, 
were, however, too few to form a new organiza- 
tion. At the holy season, in the autumn, the 
Jewish New Year and Atonement Day, a 
quorum would gather to hold orthodox services, 
and these men bought a scroll of the law, the 
first desideratum for public worship. But even 
this could not be kept up regularly. In the year 
1899 the first successful attempt was made to 
unite those w-ho desired the orthodox service 
to be kept up, into a congregation, and in April, 
1891, Congregation Adath Yeshurun was char- 
tered. Regular services were held on Sabbaths 
and holy days, in halls rented for the purpose, 
and a piece of land was bought on the San Felipe 
road for a cemetery. As the orthodox popula- 
tion increased, another society was formed, and 
after a brief existence, amalgamated with Adath 
Yeshurun. 

A little German church standing on the cor- 
ner of Preston avenue and Hamilton street was 
bought in 1897, and so Congregation Adath 
Yeshurun had a permanent home. This build- 
ing was damaged in the storm of 1900, but the 
damage was repaired, the house turned around 
to face Hamilton street, and moved a few feet 
south. But it was soon found to be too small 
tc contain all worshipers on the great holy days. 



and Turner Hall was annually converted into a 
place of worship on these three days. This was, 
of course, unsatisfactory, and the leaders of the 
congregation undertook the task, at that time 
thought an unattainable one, to build a large 
brick edifice on the corner, and use the small 
building for a school room and meeting hall only. 
Ii; September, 1905, this synagogue was dedi- 
cated. It was a beautiful building, in the Byzan- 
t»ne order of architecture, and cost in the neigh- 
borhood of $15,000. But pride in the building 
was of short duration. The premises lay within 
the territory bought by the Houston Belt and 
Terminal Company, and with heavy heart the 
members of the congregation were forced to 
part with it. The last services were held there 
on the Day of Atonement, 1907. With the 
money realized from that sale, a new synagogue 
was to be erected. A piece of land, on the cor- 
ner of Jackson street and Walker avenue, was 
bought, plans were adopted for a new edifice, 
and the contract for its erection was voted to 
Mr. A. Baring. Then came the failure of the 
T. W. House bank, wherein almost all of the 
building fund had been deposited. It did re- 
quire courage in those days of gloom to go ahead 
and do, but the men at the helm had that cour- 
age, and as a result the pretty synagogue on the 
corner of Jackson street and Walker avenue, 
costing in the aggregate about $25,000, was 
dedicated on Sunday, September 27. 1908, and 
regular services are therein held. 



DEPART]\IENT OF CHURCHES 



95 



The financial policy of the congregation is 
controlled by a president, a vice president, secre- 
tary, treasurer and eight trustees. 

The presidents since the organization were : 
Messrs. P. S. Nussbaum, B. H. Greenberg, I. 
Kapner, I. Harrison and H. Pincus. The three 
first named still reside in this city and are loyal 
workers. 

The present officers are : D. Frosch, presi- 
dent; P. Weinberg, vice president; j\I. T. Kar- 
kowski, secretary; P. Battelstein, treasurer; B. 



H. Greenberg, H. Grossman, Abe Gordon, L. 
Adin, S. J. Westheimer, M. Scher, A. M. Levy 
and M. D. Cohen, trustees. 

A Hebrew school, taught by various teachers 
at various times, was kept up by the congrega- 
tion. At present the offices of teacher and 
cantor are combined by Rev. H. B. Lieberman. 

The present pastor. Rabbi W. Willner, M. A., 
also superintends the Sunday school. 

The synagogue has a seating capacity of 800; 
the Sunday school a membership of 175, with ten 
teachers. 



CHRIST CHURCH, HOUSTON. 
By Mrs. William CHRiiTiAN 



Among Houston's other religious activities, 
those of Christ church (Protestant Episcopal) 
parish have ever held a prominent place. The 
church property is one of the most pleasing spots 
in our city. 

With a frontage on Texas avenue, extending 
the entire block between Fannin and San Jacinto 
streets, the group of buildings, suggesting the 
early English in their architecture, built of red 
brick, form three sides of a quadrangle, sur- 
rounding a green, velvety lawn. 

Christ church itself occupies the corner of 
Texas avenue and Fannin street. This is the 
third structure erected on the original site, where 
tlie first church building, also of brick, stood in 
1846. History tells us that this first tiny church 
had sixty pews with a seating capacity of 240 
people. The growth of the congregation neces- 
sitated a larger structure, in the course of a few 
years, and, in 1859, the first building was torn 
down to make way for its successor of much 
larger size. This second building was remod- 
eled in 1876, during the incumbency of the Rev. 
J J. Clemens, as rector of the parish, to accom- 
modate the steadily increasing membership. 
When again the necessity arose for a larger 
house of worship, there was considerable dis- 
cussion throughout the parish as to the wisdom 
of selling the present property and buying 
further away from the business portion of the 
city ; for already the thrill of Houston's coming 
commercial prosperity was being felt, and large 
prices were offered for this block of land in the 



heart of the business district, as it must even- 
tually become. 

But there was a sentiment in the hearts of the 
congregation, which proved of greater weight 
than ideas of financial advantage. The church 
site contained too many hallowed associations for 
those worshiping there, and the question was 
settled forever, that, let Houston grow to be the 
mightiest city in the South, let store and factory 
encroach upon the surrounding ground, Christ 
church would occupy its old site, though brick 
and mortar should crumble, and must be replaced 
again and again with the ceaseless demands of 
time. 

Thus on March 31, 1893, with appropriate 
ceremonies, the Right Reverend George H. Kin- 
solving, bishop of Texas, laid the corner stone of 
the Christ church of today, which still bears the 
simple outline of its former exterior. The inten- 
tion in regard to the present church was to re- 
model the old building again by adding a tran- 
sept across the church and in front of the chan- 
cel, preserving the old walls. But wlien the con- 
tractors tore away the portions necessary for the 
building of the transept, it was discovered that 
the other walls were defective, and would have 
to come down. This not only meant the sunder- 
ing of the old memories which had striven suc- 
cessfully to cling to the old church, but a largely 
increased financial burden likewise. With the 
zeal and determination with which this congre- 
gation has ever met and overcome obstacles, they 
faced the situation, but in deference to their sen- 



96 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



timent, followed tlie lines of the old walls, hence 
this church maintains the simple Gothic outlines 
of its earlier history. The English ivy, Virginia 
creeper and other vines have almost covered 
Christ church with their mantle of living green. 
The interior, with its handsome, arched wooden 
beams, its carved chancel grilles and arches, its 
beautiful memorial windows, and its splendid 
pipe organ, is well worth a visit from "the 
stranger within our gates," as well as those more 
closely connected by their articles of faith. 

The beautiful parish house, adjoining the 
church proper, harmonizes with it in architec- 
tural detail. Its long, vine-covered cloister, ex- 



parish house enters into the religious life of the 
parish. 'Tis here, on each Monday afternoon, 
that the Ladies' Parish Association holds its 
meetings, to report upon the sick and destitute, 
to consider parochial undertakings and to act as 
"the rector's right hand," so Mr. Sears says. 

Mrs. Mary F. Gentry, past her eightieth year, 
is the honored life president of the air^sociaiion, 
she having been elected to this position snme 
nine years ago, after having faithfully 'lerved in 
various capacities in its ranks for the greater 
part of her life, she having been one of its char- 
ter members when it was organized in Septem- 
ber, 1871. 




CHRIST CHURCH 



tending from the church to the rectory, looks out 
upon the greensward before it. while beyond lies 
the busy street. Quiet as it looks to the passer 
by, this house is not devoted to monkish seclu- 
sion, or the silence of pious meditation, for it 
is the center of the parish's philanthropic life. 

From Sunday morning, when the children 
meet in the cheerful Sunday school room, to Sat- 
urday night, when the ray of light from the rec- 
tor's room may denote the last preparations for 
the morrow's duties, while soft strains from the 
choir room indicate the practice of the vested 
choir for the Sunday services, each day the 



The other officers of the association are : Mrs. 
Mamie Tinsley, first vice president ; ^Irs. Whar- 
ton Bates, second vice president ; Mrs. Thomas 
McGonigle, secretary; Mrs. Mary E. Bryan, 
treasurer, which office she has held for eight 
years past. Its honorary members are : Mrs. 
H. D. Aves, ]\Irs. H. J. Brown, i\Irs. J. J. Clem- 
ens, Mrs. Horace Cone, Miss Lucy Harrison, 
Mrs. Peter Gray Sears, Mrs. J. C. Waddell. 

The Ladies' Parish Association placed the 
handsome brass pulpit in Christ church, as a 
memorial to Mrs. Peter Gray, the aunt of the 



DEPART^IEXT OF CHURCHES 



97 



present rector, and president for many years of 
tlie association. 

It will be interesting to our readers to know 
that the Ladies' Parish Association claims the 
honor of being the oldest women's organization 
in Houston. It is, as one of its members says, 
"the motlier of them all." 

To tell what a factor for good this association 
has been, the bodies warmed and clothed, the 
many souls ministered to, the aching hearts com- 
fcrted, through the efforts of its members, would 
require a volume. Its work is inscribed in "The 
Book of Good Deeds," and its revvard is found in 
the fruits of its labors. 

Other activities making their headquarters at 
the parish house are the Ladies' Auxiliary, which 
works for missions ; the Altar Society, the Girls' 
Friendly Society, and the Young Women's 
Guild, and the Sheltering Arms Association. 

The Altar Society has the care and arrange- 
ment of the altar for all occasions. 

The Young Women's Guild unites the 3-oung 
women of the church for benevolent work in the 
parish. Its president is Mrs. Sterling Myer. 

The Girls' Friendly Society is a branch of a 
world wide organization. It enrolls all girls 
fourteen years and over, and its object is to en- 
rich the girls' spiritual life, teaching the duties of 
purity, dutifulness, faithfulness and friendliness. 
It takes care of its members who must travel 
from one place to another. The head of a branch 
is called the associate. This office in the Hous- 
ton branch is ably filled by Mrs. E. Y. Hartwell, 
who gave the writer a glimpse at the practical 
spirit of the society's work, by narrating how a 
young Irish girl was watched over by the so- 
ciety's official on a journey from Ireland to 
Texas. The New York associate met her upon 
arrival of the steamer, saw her safely on board 
the ship for Galveston, and promptly notified 
Mrs. Hartwell. who met her and saw her placed 
with her friends in Houston ere leaving her. 

The Girls' Friendly Society of Christ church 
parish is also maintaining a scholarship in the 
Mary Josephine Hooker school in the city of 
M exico. 

The Sheltering Arms Association, whose pres- 
ent president is Mrs. W. C. Crane, was organ- 



ized for the purpose of maintaining an old ladies' 
home. It has been in existence a number of 
years and has established a home where aged 
women can be comfortably cared for. 

In the parish house, Christ church choir has 
one room fitted up for its use, where the choir 
not only meets to rehearse its music, but passes 
many social hours also. 

Completing the Christ church group of build- 
ir:gs, is the rectory, where resides the rector, 
Kev. Peter Gray Sears, and his charming family. 
The rectory is of brick, and is a comifortable and 
commodious residence, corresponding in style 
with the other buildings. It was built in 1903, 
replacing a wooden structure, which had seen 
service for forty years. 

During the summer of 1900, the rector ear- 
ned with him to Seabrook, the records of the 
parish, in order to accomplish some necessary 
reports during his sojourn. The world knows 
now the frightful tragedy which closed that sum- 
n-er season all along the coast of Texas — the 
tirrible hurricane and tempest of September 8, 
sweeping thousands away from life, altogether, 
while other hundreds escaped with merely their 
lives. The rector and his family were among the 
latter. They left their seaside home just before 
it was washed away with all its contents, the 
parish records amongst them. There being no 
records to which access might be had, the writer 
desires to publicly express her indebtedness to 
various members of the congregation for data 
furnished. Especially does she desire to thank 
Air. Robert Elgin, senior warden of Christ 
cliurcli, now in his eighty-third year, for the 
courtesy which furnished material for the early 
history of the church and parish, of which space 
permits only so meager an account. Mr. Elgin 
has served as vestryman continuously since 1868. 

In 1877, Christ church bought lots in the Fifth 
ward, and built a church, which was known as 
Epiphany Mission until 1891, by which time the 
congregation had grown in numbers sufficient to 
organize a separate parish, now known as St. 
Mary's. In the Sixth ward, the Clemens Mem- 
orial chapel was erected, and this mission is still 
sustained by Christ church. 

Rev. Peter Gray Sears is the present rector, 



98 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



and Rev. Harris Masterson, Jr., his assistant. 
In 1906 the pews were declared free, and pew 
rent aboHshed. 

The present vestry are Messrs. Robert Elgin, 



W. D. Cleveland, Sr., Rufus Cage, Sam McNeil, 
R. T. Norris, J. C. Harris, D. D. Cooky, P. K. 
Ewing, B. F. Weems, A. S. Cleveland, Sterling 
Myer. 



SOME FACTS ABOUT EARLY HISTORY OF PARISH. 



In 1838, Right Reverend Leonidas Polk, D. 
D., was made bishop of Arkansas and the Repub- 
lic of Texas. 

Texas was the first mission field established 
by the Protestant Episcopal church of America. 

In 1838, Rev. R. M. Chapman was sent as 
missionary to Houston, and he organized Christ 
church parish, on March 16, 1839. 

It is an interesting coincidence that thirty-nine 
gentlemen signed the articles of association for 
the "Protestant Episcopal Church in Houston, 
Republic of Texas," as there are thirty-nine arti- 
cles of faith to be subscribed to in this religious 
body. 

The orginal vestry was Messrs. George Allen, 
John D. Andrews, John Birdsall, \V. F. Gray, 
D. W. C. Harris, Minnican Hunt, Charles Kes- 
sier, William Pierpont, E. S. Perkins, Tod Rob- 
inson, James Webb, A. F. Woodard. 

Mr. Allen was one of the brothers who laid 
out the town site of Houston, and has numerous 



descendants living, among whom may be men- 
tioned his grandchildren, Baltis and Percy Allen, 
and their connections. 

Mr. Birdsall was a relative of Mrs. Howe 
and Mrs. Adele Looscan. 

Mr. Andrews was the father of Mrs. Nancy 
Fluellen. 

Mr. Gray was Mrs. Nelson Munger's grand- 
father. 

Mr. Harris was one of the brothers who laid 
out Harrisburg. 

E. S. Perkins has grandchildren residing in 
Houston, Mrs. Wallace Shaw and Dr. Joel 
Spence. 

Mr. Webb was the grandfather of Mrs. M. F. 
Mott, of Galveston, and was a member of Pres- 
ident Lamar's cabinet. 

Christ church installed the first pipe organ in 
any church in Texas. This organ was used for 
the last time January 9, 1906, and was then r; 
placed by the elegant instrument now in use. 



HISTORY OF THE WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION IN 

HOUSTON. 
By Elizab£Ih S trong Tracy 



It is eminently fitting that a society such as 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
unique, as it has no parallel in history, antedating 
all other women's organizations with the excep- 
tion of the women's suffrage movement, should 
be given a place in this souvenir magazine, pub- 
lished under the auspices of the City Federation 
of Women's Qubs, expressive of its individuality. 

In order that my readers may understand "the 
state of mind in which the people were when this 
society was formed, and but for which it would 
have been impossible," I must call attention to the 
events that produced it. I quote from Mary T. 
Lathrop : "Before the war was finished the gov- 



ernment had seized upon the commodity of the 
drunkard and the saloon figured its precentage 
of the gains from the vices of the people, and in 
1863 the liquor traffic climbed the throne of 
revenue. Ever since that day this vicious power 
has dominated the United States government, 
political parties, "the all powerful press," legis- 
latures, and, in some cases, some pulpits, and the 
Christian manhood of the country into silence or 
subserviency, until today it is the tyrant of our 
civilization. No strong voice from its high place 
rebuked the government for its growing shame. 
The war debt must be paid, even if drunkards 
graves were hollowed, and hearts made desolate. 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



99 



It was the awful results of the liquor traffic that 
first aroused the women. Dealing with a result, 
while a cause which may be touched remains 
unrebuked, is the work of the foolish or insin- 
cere, and these women were neither. It was 
near the beginning of this reign of iniquity that 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union took 
its place among the moral forces of the country. 
Il is now thirty-four years since this society of 
the white ribbon entered upon its career. In the 
beginning there was no literature suitable for 
the use of this many-sided society, but this lit- 
erature has been created, so choice, so versatile, 
so wide in range, that its leaves are literally for 
the healing of the nations, and this comes to our 
great population in seventeen different lan- 
guages." 

The W. C. T. U. is now the leading force in 
the temperance reform. It is the greatest exclu- 
sively woman's organization that ever has 
existed. The Woman's Crusade prepared the 
way for the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union ; for, "in this great moral commotion, 
woman learned her power." These women found 
that "intemperance was a part of the nation it- 
self; that it was interblended with the settled 
habits of the people, and that something more 
was needed than tears and prayers. There 
seemed to be inexhaustible supplies that came 
in at every point and moment of relaxation." It 
was at this time that the "spirit of organization" 
fell upon them. It was in 1874 that the women 
in several of the crusading states called conven- 
tions and organized temperance leagues. Upon 
the assembling of the people for a Sunday school 
convention at Chautauqua Lake, New York, in 
August of that year, the women were moved to 
undertake the crystallization of the crusade into 
a permanent force, by its nationalization. They 
created a committee of organization and issued 
an address. I quote from this important docu- 
ment: 

"In the name of the Master, in behalf of the 
thousands of women who suffer from this terri- 
ble evil, we call upon all to unite in an earnest, 
continued effort to hold the ground already won, 
and move onward to a complete victory over the 
foes we fight." The following resolution was 
adopted at the first convention in Cleveland, 
November, 18, 19 and 20, 1874: "Resolved, that, 



recognizing the fact that our cause is, and is to 
be, combatted by mighty, determined and relent- 
less forces, we will, trusting in Him who is the 
Prince of Peace, meet argument with argument ; 
misjudgment with patience, denunciation with 
kindness, and all our difficulties and dangers 
with prayer." 

In 1879, Prances Elizabeth Willard became 
the president of the national W. C. T. U. In 
1880, accompanied by her private secretary, Miss 
Anna Gordon, while on her memorable first tour 
through the South, she came to Houston, and 
lectured at Pillot's opera house, opposite the 
Hutchins House, both since burned. At the close 
of this lecture, the first, I believe, ever delivered 
by a woman in this city, and one of the most 
interesting and instructive I have ever heard, 
Miss Willard announced that a meeting would 
be held the next day at 3 o'clock, in Shearn 
church (Methodist), for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
Shearn church at that time was a wooden struc- 
ture of a most primitive type. I hope my read- 
ers will pardon the digression, but the history of 
this old church, made doubly memorable by this 
event, is of such interest to the older Hous- 
tonians that a word here will not be found out of 
place. On the next afternoon. Miss Willard 
found the church filled with the representative, 
cultured women of the city. There is a picture 
of this, to me, remarkable scene, before my 
mind's eye, as I pen these pages. The only ones 
I recall of all the vast audience who are still 
with us are Mrs. Hattie Hathaway, Mrs. Will 
Heine, Mrs. T. R. Franklin, Mrs. J. M. Cotton. 
Mrs. E. S. Tracy and Mrs. T. C. Dunn, Sr. 
Mrs. Franklin did not join the organization, but 
has always evinced an interest in the movement. 
The Rev. S. Halsey Werlein, whose wife is the 
sister of our esteemed fellow townsman, Presley 
K. Ewing, was pastor of Shearn church at this 
period, v/as present and assisted in the exercises, 
becoming the first honorary member of the union 
in this state. In a preliminary talk. Miss Wil- 
lard said, "Agitate, educate, organize ; these are 
the deathless watchwords of success." I remem- 
ber there was much singing, for we believe that 
"true song is a gush of feeling, and is there- 
fore moral education in its purity. Songs are the 
highways of angels to human hearts, and when 



100 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



you close the highwa}s and shut out the angels, 
the devils are free to come in their place." We 
sang "Blest be the tie that binds," and other 
familiar hymns and songs, with "America" and 
"Give to the winds thy fears ; hope and be undis- 
mayed." 

The song service was originated by the W. C. 
T. U. Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, the philan- 
thropist, says : "If a nation may be made to drift 
into war by the influence of martial music, why 
may not the spirit of peace be generated and in- 
fused by the influence of sacred music and 
song ? A Christian song has this advantage over 
a sermon — the truth in it touches the heart of the 
hearer unawares, when he is not on the defensive 
against the gospel. Educate the hearts of the 
people by sacred music, and the heart will read- 
ily educate the head. Sing! I wish every one 
could and would sing, and I pray God to inspire 
jou with the idea of making music and temper- 
ance go together, and so help each other along." 
And the W. C. T. U. is developing more and more 
this idea, to which Mrs. Thompson calls atten- 
tion. Both Miss Willard and Anna Gordon ex- 
plained to us the beginning and evolution of this 
society of the white ribbon, the conditions that 
demanded its being, and the power which con- 
trols and gives method to its action ; that it was a 
moral, intellectual and patriotic force ; that it was 
organized mother love. The Rev. Halsey Wer- 
lein led in prayer, followed by both Miss Wil- 
lard and Miss Gordon. Pencils and paper were 
distributed among the audience, and forty sig- 
natures obtained. Among the charter members 
v/ere the names of many of our prominent 
women. Mrs. W. H. ("Robbie") Crank was 
chosen corresponding secretary; Mrs. W. T. 
Avers, recording secretary; Mrs. J. M. Cotton, 
treasurer (this lady honored herself and family 
bv entertaining Miss Willard and Miss Gordon 
upon this occasion) ; Mrs. E. S. Tracy was 
chosen president. The badge, a bow of narrow 
white ribbon, was pinned over the heart of each 
officer by Miss Willard's loyal hands ; each mem- 
ber received the little knot of white ribbon as a 
badge of consecration to the work. While death 
has claimed many, removal and indifference 
others, still all give to the cause their moral sup- 
port. Some are still active in the movement in 
Houston. 



The mother club, the Central Union, still 
exists, holds weekly meetings, sends delegates 
to the annual convention held at various points 
in the state ; carries on flower mission work 
throughout the year; visits the jails, prisons, all 
hospitals, sanitariums, Crittenden Home, Faith 
Home, Sheltering Arms, fire stations, the sick so 
far as known, carrying flowers, fruits, literature, 
and to the needy, clothing and food. The 
bouquets are tied with white ribbon, to which is 
also attached a text of scripture. The depart- 
ments of work carried on by the mother union 
and her daughters, the Nannie Curtis, in the 
Fifth ward; the Clark Street Union; the Helen 
M. Stoddard, of the Sixth ward; the Brunner 
Union, and the Second Ward Union, (although 
some of them are sleeping just now), are social 
purity, evangelistic, health and heredity, non- 
alcoholic medication, scientific temperance in- 
struction, "which aims to secure a nation of in- 
Ulligent abstainers through compulsory educa- 
tion of the whole people through their schools 
and colleges, as to all laws of health, including 
those relating to alcoholic drinks and other nar- 
cotics;" Sabbath observance, parliamentary law, 
rescue work, mothers' meetings. Christian citi- 
zenship, peace and arbitration, legislative and 
social. 

Some of the notable efforts of the W. C. T. U. 
workers of Houston which have borne permanent 
results of a most helpful nature, are as follows : 
Publishing from one to four temperance col- 
u.nns weekly for one year in the Houston Post ; 
Ihe Diacing barrels of ice water at four promi- 
nent p.-tnts contiguous to saloons one summer; 
securing a police matron at the city jail; securing 
the u;e of text books, the Blaisdell series of 
physiologies, in our public schools, including the 
effects of alcohol, tobacco and other narcotics 
upon the human system; used our influence and 
actively worked with the other unions in the 
state for the establishment of the girls' industrial 
school at Denton; established the Willard board- 
ing home for working women and girls, which 
was turned over to the Young Woman's Chris- 
tian Association, now being used by them for 
the same purpose. The W. C. T. U. was largely 
instrumental in bringing this association to 
Houston. Under the auspices of the W. C. T. 
U., aided bv the churches, the Louise Crittenden 



UEl'ARTMEXT OF CHURCHES 



101 



home for unfortunate girls was established. The 
W. C. T. U. women are responsible for substi- 
tuting the stately and elegant reception for the 
dinner with its wine glasses. These women have 
learned the loveliest meaning of the word "so- 
ciety;" they call it comradeship. Formal call- 
ing has been given up among them, but they 



find the informal ones are a hundred fold more 
pleasant. The W. C. T. !•' has the Greek en- 
thusiasm, "God in us." The God within all moral 
reform achieven-.ents has been gained by people 
throbbing and thrilling to one great enthusiasm. 
Our motto is, "For God and home, and every 
land." Four generations of one family have been 



workers in this organization in Houston. 



hf 



HiTK. 



YOUNG WOM.\N'S CHRISTL^N ASSOCIATIOX. 

By Florence N. Dancv 
Chairman Press Committee Y. W. C. A. 



Since organizing in Houston, on January 26, 
1907, this association has made sjjlendid pro- 
gress. At the close of the first year's work, it 
was found to be self-sustaining, with a constantly 
increasing membership. The total receipts for 
the first year from all departments were $8,- 
692.86. 

The present officers of the association are : 
Mrs. M. A. McDovvall, president, loio Lou- 
isiana street: ^Irs. R. M. Hall, vice president, 
1405 Rusk avenue ; Airs. E. Sinclair Smith, re- 
cording secretary, 32 Vick's Park; Mrs. C. A. 
McKinney, corresponding secretar}% 1630 Hous- 
ton Heights boulevard ; Mrs. Frank Reichardt, 
treasurer, 916 Louisiana street. The board of 




-MRS. M. .\. ilcDOW.^LL 
President 



directors numbers twenty-four of the prominent 
women of our city. The different departments 
connected with the association are as follows : 
The "Willard" boarding home, situated at 710 
Dallas avenue, a commodious and modern house, 
within a few blocks of the business part of 
town, yet amid refined and quiet surroundings. 
This boarding home is large enough for present 
needs, and transient visitors to the city will find 
delightful quarters here. Miss Grace Adey is a 
most acceptable matron. The prices are made 
tc meet the limits of the business woman's purse. 
All the appointments of this boarding home are 
most attractive, and an air of refinement and 
Christian courtesy prevails. 

The lunch room, noon rest, gymnasium 
and parlors are to be found in the large Main 
street building, 310 1-2 Main street, just over 
Sweeney's jewelrj' store. Aliss Marion E. Shep- 
ard of Chicago, the newly appointed secretary, a 
Christian and cultured young woman, is always 
at her desk, ready for work. Combined with 
her duties as secretary, she lends a helping hand 
wherever needed, and is evolving and developing 
plans for future progress all the time. 

The devotional arrangements are made h 
.Miss Shepard. The sweetest singers and moit 
prominent clergymen of the city lend their aid 
for Sunday and vesper services. 

The gymnasium, opened on September 24 of 
this year, with an enrollment of over one hun- 
dred. An entire floor of the Y. W. C. A. is 
devoted to this, with Miss Katharine Henderson, 
of Fort Worth, as physical director. It is the 
plan of the directors to interest a large majorit\- 
of the association members in this department. 



102 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



The exercise and recreation, however brief, have magazines are supplied. If one is so fortunate 
proved of untold value to our business women, at- to meet the gracious, bright-faced president, 



and the schedule of classes is being made with a 
view to increasing the popularity of this feature 




MRS. H.^RRLS M.VSTERSOX 

Chairman Finance 

Committee 

of Y. W. C. A. work. Baseball, basket ball, bar 
stalls, chest developers, punching bags, parallel 
bars, ladders, mats and all the equipment of a 
first class gymnasium, are to be found. 

The lunch room has the caffeteria plan, of 
individual tables, spotlessly clean. Mrs. W. H. 
Crosby is in charge of this department, and has 
won the love and confidence of the association 
by the tactful way in which she has met the 
many difficulties connected with this new work 
Lunch is served every day, from 12 o'clock until 
2 o'clock, and consists of meats and vegetables, 
well cooked and steaming hot, delicious desserts 
and fruit. One has the privilege of selecting 
what she wishes. 



}ilrs. Mary IMcDowall, in the building, who is 
making many a sacrifice of time in order to be 
as much as possible in sympathy with this great 
work, it will make life better and broader, and 
fill one with a desire to be equally sweet and 
gentle and modest. 

This association is divided into five classes of 
n:embership ; viz, active sustaining, associate, 
life and honorary. Any young woman, married 
or single, may become an active member by pay- 
ing one dollar to the secretary and getting her 
association card. This entitles her to many priv- 
ileges of the Y. W. C. A. Those who feel an 
interest in the work, but are unable, from 
various reasons, to engage in its activities, may 




MRS. S. F. CARTER 
Vice-President 



become sustaining members by paying an annual 
subscription of five dollars a year. Any self- 
The editors of all the leading newspapers in supporting woman may become an association 
the city contribute their daily papers ; books and member by the payment of one dollar and fur- 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



103 



nishing such references as may be required. 
Life membership is obtained by a donation of 
fifty dollars at any one time, and honorary mem- 
bership by one hundred dollars given in the 
same way. 

Many plans for the future are being agitated. 



A year book will shortly be published, and a 
monthly leaflet. A sharp lookout is already 
kept for a suitable site on which to build a Y. W. 
C. A. building that will reflect credit in the city 
which has given such a hearty welcome to the 
association. 



HISTORY OF THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION OF 

HOUSTON, TEXAS. 



The Young Men's Oiristian Association of 
Houston was organized at a mass meeting called 
for that purpose in the latter part of 1885, in the 
old Pillot opera house on Franklin avenue. 

Those interested in the movement were assist- 
ed by Mr. Brown, who was sent out by the inter- 
national committee as an organizer. 

The officers elected were : William D. Cleve- 
land, president; Y. M. Langdon, vice president; 
Rufus Cage, recording secretary; James F. 
Dumble, treasurer ; I. W. Goodhue, general sec- 
retary; Charles Stewart, J. M. Arnold, Conrad 
Bering, William Christian, E. L. Dennis, John 
Kay, C. W. Allsworth, Ed Smallwood, W. V. R. 
Watson, directors, who entered upon their duties 
January i, 1886. 

The rooms of the association were located in 
the building at the corner of Main street and 
Texas avenue, then known as 102 Main street. 
The association occupied the second and third 
stories of the building, with a gymnasium, read- 
ing room, game room, reception hall, etc. The 
membership had grown to 350 by the next year. 

Mr. Cleveland continued as president, with 
I. W. Goodhue as general secretary, until 1888, 
when Y. M. Langdon was elected president. 
General Secretary Goodhue having resigned, E. 
M. Heroy succeeded him. In 1889 R. F. George 
was made president and David A. Gordan gen- 
eral secretary. The directors at that time were : 
R. F. George, T. W. Archer, August Bering, 
William Christian, E. L. Dennis, John Kay, F. 
T. Shepherd, Thomas Conyngton, W. S. Sutton 
and M. B. Richardson. 

R. F. George continued to act as president for 
four years, but there were some changes every 
year in the list of directors. The new names 
added to the board in 1890 were : T. J. Baker, 



S. J. Mitchell, C. W. Bocock, H. K. Ferguson 
and H. N. Brown. 

The membership had been reduced to 250 by 
ihis time, and a new general secretary, C. C. 
Porter, was installed. In 1892 there was quite a 
change in the board of directors, but Mr. George 
was retained as president, with T. W. Archer, 
vice president, and the following directors : W. 
W. Barnett, W. S. Sutton, W. B. Jones, R. M. 
Elgin, William Christian, George E. Henrichson, 
H. F. Smith and J. M. Cotton. In 1893 S. P. 
Carter, J. V. Dealy, E. W. Taylor, H. C. Break- 
er, A. Hampe and J. W. Tempest were new 
members of the board. September 18, 1894, the 
association had the misfortune to suffer by a fire, 
which destroyed the old records and damaged 
the furniture and fixtures. R. D. Gribble was 
president, and S. P. Luce general secretary. 

After the fire the second and third stories of 
the Smith building, on Texas avenue, between 
Main and Fannin streets, the site of the general 
land office of the Republic of Texas, were se- 
cured and fitted up in better style than the former 
rooms, and, with the increased facilities and a 
membership canvass, the number of members 
reached 700. 

Mr. Gribble was succeeded in 1897 by E. C. 
Crawford as president, S. P. Luce still acting as 
general secretary. The membership was 530. 
The ladies' auxiliary was in a flourishing condi- 
tion about this time, with a membership of 120, 
and did valiant service on many occasions. The 
officers of the auxiliary were: Mrs. Belle Blan- 
din, president; Miss Mary Swope, secretary; 
Mrs. T. J. Atwood, treasurer. 

The fortunes of the association, like most other 
institutions of the kind, seemed to ebb and flow, 
and about this time things began to be in rather 



104 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



bad shape, and the debts of the association to 
increase to such an extent that the place was 
closed up for rent due, caused largely by an epi- 
demic of dengue fever. 

On the resignation of President Crawford, J. 
V. Dealy, vice president, acted as president until 
the election in October, when he was elected 
president. S. P. Luce resigned as general secre- 
tary July 5, i8g8, and S. A. Kinkaide became 
general secretary November i of the same year. 

Mr. J. I. Campbell was elected president in 
October, 1899, and served as such one year. The 
good work of the new general secretary began 




ST. P.\UL M. E. CHURCH 
Y. M. C. A. BUILDING 



to appear in the increased membership and gen- 
eral interest in the work. The paid up member- 
ship numbered 400 at this time. 

On September 6, 1900, occurred the great 
storm, known in history as the Galveston storm. 
The rooms of the association were furnished and 
used as a place of refuge for the storm sufferers. 
On account of the storm and its consequences, 
the regular work of the association was consid- 
erably interfered with. 

In October, 1900, Mr. Edgar Watkins was 
elected president. The keynote of his administra- 
tion was a permanent home for the association. 
Of this movement Mr. August Bering might 
rightly te called the father, as in February, 1901, 
he made a voluntary offering of $1,000 to start 
the fund. A building committee was thereupon 
appointed, and something over 1^10,000 was sub- 
scribed, of which a little over $8,000 was paid in. 

In June, 1901, President Watkins purchased 
the site fronting 100 feet on Fannin street and 



150 feet on McKinney avenue, in his own name 
and on his own credit, and held the same for the 
association until it was ready to buy it. 

In January, 1902, the property was taken over 
by the association from Mr. Watkins, he turning 
over all accrued rents to the association. Having 
to vacate the building on Texas avenue, it was 
decided to move into the cottage on the corner of 
Fannin and McKinney, to demonstrate to the 
public the absolute necessity for a building. In 
February, 1902, the association moved its effects' 
into the cottage and built a temporary gymna- 
sium, fitted up with baths and lockers, opening 
up the same on March i. The work was carried 
on as well as the limited facilities would allow. 
The main inspiration of the officers and active 
members was the building movement. That idea 
was talked about, written about, dreamed about 
and worked for by the officers, members and 
friends, ably and persistently assisted and sup- 
ported by the daily papers. 

In October, 1903, William A. Wilson was 
elected president of the association. The one 
idea in the minds of all was a new building. As 
a proof of his intense interest in the movement. 
President William A. Wilson announced that he 
would give $5,000 toward a new building. Mr. 
S. F. Carter about the same time offered to be 
one of ten men to give $5,000 each for the same 
purpose. 

Mr. S. A. Kinkaide continued as general sec- 
retary until his resignation in ]\Iarch, 1906, hav- 
ing been elected state secretary, which position 
he accepted on condition that he stay with the 
Houston association as long as necessary to help 
in the campaign. 

In March, 1906, Mr. Bruno Hobbs of the in- 
ternational committee, was invited and visited 
the city in April, when he suggested and outlined 
the plan for the building campaign. 

At a private conference of business men called 
to meet Mr. Hobbs on April 13. 1906, $40,000 
was subscribed for a new building, conditional on 
a total subscription of $100,000. The time be- 
tween April 13 and May 12 was devoted to per- 
fecting the plans for a "whirlwind" campaign. 
On May 12 a business men's banquet was held 
at the Rice Hotel, at which time $5,000 subscrip- 
tions were announced. On Sunday, May 13, the 
services of the churches of the city were in the 



DEPARTMENT OF CHURCHES 



105 



interest of the movement. The building cam- 
paign proper opened on Monday evening, May 
14, with the young men's banquet at tlie Firs) 
Presbyterian church, and closed on June 5, at 6 
o'clock, with a total amount subscribed of 
$184,000. 

The officers of the association at this time 
were : William A. Wilson, president ; William 

D. Cleveland, Jr., vice president; J. I. Wilson. 
recording secretary ; H. C. Breaker, treasurer ; 
S. A. Kinkaide, acting general secretar}-. 

Directors : William A. Wilson, William D. 
Cleveland, Jr., J. I. Wilson, H. C. Breaker) W. 

E. Jones, E. W. Taylor, I. S. Myer, J. C. Hutch- 
e.son, Jr., R. D. Cribble, J. V. Dealy, J. Lewis 
Thompson, J. B. Bowles. 

Building committee: James A. Baker, Jr., 
chairman; William D. Cleveland, Jr., J. B. 
Bowles, J. L. Thompson, E. W. Taylor, J. I. 
Wilson, S. F. Carter, J. V. Dealy, William A. 
Wilson, ex officio. 



Mr. W. A. Scott, of Washington, D. C, was 
elected general secretary, and arrived on Septem- 
ber I, 1906. On account of the removal of the 
old building, it was decided best to suspend the 
regular work of the association until the com- 
pletion of the new building, the general secretary 
devoting his entire time to the work in connec- 
tion with the construction and equipment of the 
new building. 

The building plans were completed and] 
adopted on February 15, 1907. Ground was 
broken for the foundation April 10, 1907. 

The corner stone was laid October 19, 1907, 
Captain Richmond Pearson Hobson being the 
principal speaker. The first service in the new 
building was a meeting for men on the afternoon 
of Sunday, May 31, 1908. with Rev. William 
States Jacobs as the speaker. The dedication 
exercises were held on Tuesday, June 2, 1908, 
with Hon. H. M. Garwood and Rev. Peter Gray 
Sears as the principal speakers. 





JUDGE y. H. BRASilKAK 
Mayor at Time of Park Purchase 




PLAT GKOCND, SAil IIOUSTOX PAliK 



PARKS OF HOUSTON 

B}' Mrs. March Culmorf, 



A decade ago Houston could not boast o{ a 
single public park, but wonders can be accom- 
plished in ten years. 

The city authorities gradually became aware 
of the fact that a park was almost an actual 
necessity to the citizens. For man}- years the 
need of a park has been felt and discussed by the 



people of Houston, but nothing tangible had been 
done toward securing one. 

In June, 1900, Mayor Brashear selected the 
present site of Sam Houston Park, obtained au- 
thority from the council and purchased the same. 
The total cost, including improvements which 
were made immediately, was about $50,000, of 




BAXD COXCERT AT SAM liOUSTOX PARK 



108 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



which all except about one-fourth was paid dur- 
ing his administration, and without the issuance 
of any bonds. A pavement was also built from 
Dallas avenue to the park. 

The park consists of about seventeen acres, 
comprising the old Xoble and Byers homesteads 
and Young tract. Mayor Brashear contem- 
plated the extension of the park on both sides of 
the bayou for a considerable distance, but this 
idea has not been carried out since his retire- 
ment. 

The park became an accomplished fact in spite 



to be the very finest this side of Chicago. 

Park Commissioner James Marmion worked 
for months in the park, planting and digging, 
to make it more beautiful. The playground is 
due to his efforts, and its apparatus put up 
v'.nder his special supervision, as was also the 
v.ading pool, which is tlie delight nf the little 
ones. 

Just about the center of the park is a large 
band stand, where free band concerts are held 
three times weekly during the summer. Three 
thousand dollars was set aside bv the citv council 




VIKW OF SAX .JACIXTO I'AKK 



cf the many other important matters of progress 
engrossing the attention of the mayor at the 
time. 

Those who frequent our beautiful Sam Hous- 
ton Park of today, with its miniature lakes, hills 
and valleys, no doubt wonder how Houstonians 
existed without this delightful resting place. 
The children are especially anxious to visit the 
park, and on any afternoon of the week, crowds 
cf them may be seen in the wonderful play- 
ground, the equipments of which are conceded 



last year for this purpose. From two to ten 
thousand people are frequently to be seen in 
the park on these evenings, enjoying the music 
and the beauties thereof. 

The Robert E. Lee Chapter, Daughters of the 
Confederacy, have placed a most beautiful monu- 
n ent in the park, that greatly enhances its charm. 
Tb.en that dear little Brownie fountain, placed 
there by the fourth division of the Civic Club 
lor the benefit of the children. 

When wc think of what Sam Houston Park 



PARKS OF HOl'STOX 



109 



was when purchased, and what it is today, a 
credit to any city in any country, every citizen of 
Houston would like to rise up and call Alayor 
Sam Brashear blessed, for his energy and deter- 
mination in securing it. 

There is another large and very beautiful park, 
easily reached by the people. This park was 
opened in the spring under the new name of 
''San Jacinto," by the Street Railway Company. 
It has been equipped with a children's play- 
ground, has a large summer theatre and pavilion, 
beautiful driveways and artificial lakes ; in fact, 
amusements of all kinds are to be found in this 
park. Manager Daly, of the street railway, 



hopes to make it one of the most attractive places 
of amusement in the South. 

The old Lang place was purchased with the 
legacy left by Mrs. \\'illiam Rice, and named 
after her, "Elizabeth Baldwin Park." The park 
was cleaned, fenced and opened by the Civic 
Club, but as yet it hasn"t anything to adorn it 
but its beautiful trees. Perhaps in the near 
future the city will begin to beautif}' this small 
park, so that the people living in its vicinity, 
and especially the children, may have a play- 
ground near their own homes. 

In another decade, let us hope, Houston may 
be a city of parks. 



«?/ 



y2- ^ 



<:rOO^>> 



City Officials of Houston 



J. A. THOMPSON 

neater. Lighi Sf PovJrr 
Lommiiiiontr 



HON. H. B. RICE 

Mayor 

JAMES APPLEBY 




FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



By Mary E. Bryan 



In the fraternal societits of America, including 
a list of some twenty-seven or more orders, 
ranking in membership is that of the Odd Fel- 
lows. 

Next in numerical strength is the Society of 
Free Masons, the oldest fraternal organization 
in the world, and, being globe encircling. Ma- 
sonic lodges are to be found at remotest dis- 
tances. 

The Chinese claim to be the oldest Masons on 
earth, claiming to have had Free Masonry many 
years before King Solomon was born, and that 
they were the original Masons and that all Ma- 
sonry originated in China. 

Upon examination, however, it is found that 
they differ greatly from other Masonic bodies. 

In Houston there are representative lodges 
and auxiliaries of many fraternal societies long 
established, as well as those of more recent 
origin, and new associations are coming into 
existence continually, organized and carried on 
for the sole benefit of members and their bene- 
ficiaries, which entitle them to a place in the 
category of fraternal orders. 

From its antiquity Free Masonry no doubt 
has had greatest influence in restraining law- 
lessness, and in the upbuilding of governments, 
being a great sustaining force behind the ad- 
ministrators of affairs in a community or great 
commonwealth. 

Such it was for Texas generally and Hous- 
ton particularly, when Holland Lodge No. i 
was brought to Houston. Capital though it was 
at that time, it was in a turbulent state, and 
practically having no government. Historians 
tell us, those who were there and knew, that the 
result of efforts by the fraternity was marvel- 
ous, in checking the propensities and passions 
of bad men. 

The best and most influential citizens were 
received into the ranks then, as at the present 
time, which include worthy Jew or Gentile, and 
members of any church who desire to enter the 
order and abide by its code. 

The first Masonic lodge organized in Texas 



was at Brazoria, in 1835, through the efforts of 
Dr. Anson Jones, and four other Master Ma- 
sons, who held a meeting at a secluded spot 
on General John Austin's place, in a little grove 
of wild peach or laurel. Here, at 10 o'clock in the 
morning, in the month of March, 1835, was held 
the first formal Masonic meeting in Texas as 
connected with the establishment and contin- 
uance of Masonry in this country. An addi- 
tional Master Mason had joined the five, mak- 
ing six in number who attended this important 
meeting. In due form the lodge was estab- 
lished at Brazoria and the meetings continued 
until hostilities began with Mexico. 

The lodge struggled on until February, 1836, 
when Dr. Jones presided over its last meeting 
there. Soon after Urea, with Mexican soldiers, 
entered Brazoria and destroyed books, records, 
jewels and everything pertaining to the lodge. 

When reopened it was at Houston in 1837 with 
Worshipful Master Anson Jones presiding. 
When organized it was called Holland Lodge 
in, honor of the then grand master of Louisiana, 
who first issued the dispensation and after- 
wards signed the charter for Holland Lodge 
No. 36. When the grand lodge of Texas was 
organized in 1837-38, the number was changed 
to No. I, it having been the first lodge in the 
republic. 

The first gavel was brought to the state from 
New Orleans by Dr. Jones, and it was used 
in the organization of Holland lodge, and Dr. 
Jones presented it to Mr. Adolphus Sterne, who 
carried it to Nacogdoches. When the Masonic con- 
vention met in Houston in 1837 M r. Sterne brought 
the gavel with him and General Sam Houston 
used it in calling that convention to order. It 
was used by Dr. Anson Jones, who was the first 
most worshipful grand master in the first meet- 
ing of the grand lodge of Texas. Mr. Sterne pre- 
sented the gavel to Mr. Rutledge, and it was 
used at the old town of Washington, Texas. 
In December, 1872, Captain Rutledge presented 
it to W. J. Oliphant, and it was used by him in 
Lodge No. 12, at Austin, Texas. He still owns 



112 



THE KEY TO THE CTfY OF HOUSTON 



it. The head of the gavel is of ivory, with a 
turned ebony handle, and it was tised by the 
most worshipful grand master of the grand 
lodge of Texas in laying the corner stone of 
the present granite capitol building at Austin. 
Some of the jewels that were lost at Brazoria 
from Holll^nd lodge were found and came into 
the possession of the late N. Randolph of this 



city, and through him they were restored to 
Holland Lodge No. i. 

The present officers of Holland Lodge No. i are 
O. M. Longnecker, master; J. C. Kidd, treasurer; 
W. N. Kidd, secretary. Mr. J. C. Kidd is grand 
commander of the Grand Commandery of Knights 
Templar of Texas. W. N. Kidd is grand re- 
corder of the Grand Commanderv. 



GRAY LODGE AT HOUSTON. 



When this lodge was formed in 1870, Mr. A. S. 
Richardson was a past master of Holland Lodge 
and dimitted to become first worshipful master 
of Gray Lodge No. 329. The name was in 
honor of Judge Peter W. Gray. 

The grand lodge was organized in Houston 
in the winter of 1837-38, by men, many of 
whose names will be familiar to the students of 
Texas history. They were : Anson Jones, who 
was elected first grand master ; Thomas J. Rusk, 
Sam Houston, Thomas G. Western, Charles S 
Taylor, John S. Black, John Shea. Ben Miller, 



William F. Gray W. R. Underwood, D. F. 
Fitchett, James H. Winchell, Adolphus Sterne, 
William G. Cooke, Henry Matthews, Christo- 
pher Dart, E. Tucker, T. J. Hardeman, Asa 
Crigham, Jeff Wright, L. W. Burton, A. S. 
Thurston, Andrew Neill, L. Fowler, H. Millard, 
K. H. Douglass and Thomas J. Gazley. 

The grand lodge met at different places in 
the state until June, 1861, it located at Hous- 
ton. In December, 1902, it left for Waco, its 
present location. 





ELKS CLUB ROOMS 



ORIGIN OF THE BENEVOLENT AND PROTECTIVE ORDER OF FT.KS. 



The "Jolly Corks" was the first name of the 
Elks organization. 

A select coterie of members of the theatrical 
and musical professions met in New York in the 
early winter of 1S67-6S and formed the organ- 
ization of the Jolly Corks. The principal object 
of the Corks was to have a good time whenever 
the members of the order met. 

The prime mover in the formation of this little 
society was Charles Algernon Sidney Vivian, 
the son of an English clergyman, who had but 
a short time previous landed in New York, and 
who was at the time singing at the old Ameri- 
can theatre on Broadway, and whose memory 
is now honored and revered by the thousands 
of Elks throughout the land as the founder of 
the order. 

So popular did the "Corks" become among 
the members of the profession, and so rapidly 
did the society increase both in numerical and 
financial strength, that it soon became evident 
that it should be placed on a firmer basis and 
given a more dignified name. Vivian, as "Im- 



perial Cork" of the organization, was chair- 
man of a committee appointed for that purpose, 
and suggested the name of "Buffaloes," the 
title of a social organization of which he had 
been a member in England ; but the majority 
were desirous of a name that was purely Ameri- 
can in its suggestion, and at a meeting on Feb- 
luary 16, 1868, the name of "Elks" was adopted 
by the close vote of 8 to 7, and that date has 
since been regarded and observed as the natal 
cay of the Order of Elks. 

At this time there were two degrees of the 
order, the chief officer in the first degree being 
known as the right honorable primo, and in the 
second degree as exalted ruler. These titles 
were used until the adoption of the ritual in 
1883, when all the titles of the first degree 
were abolished, and those of the second degree 
retained throughout the entire work. 

Constitution and by-laws were adopted in 
March, 1868. The constitution contained fifteen 
articles, and there were twenty-one rules and 
regulations. The committee which prepared the 



114 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



document was composed of Messrs. George F. 
McDonald, William Sheppard, Charles Vivian, 
E. N. Piatt and Thomas G. Riggs. The able 
manner in which these gentlemen performed the 
duties assigned to them will be best realized 
when it is remembered that, although the 
growth of the order has rendered necessary a 
number of additions and some changes, the con- 
stitution as adopted thirty-one years ago is sub- 
stantially the basis of Elk jurisprudence today. 
It was not long before the fame of the young 
organization began to spread and create a de- 
sire for the propagation of the principles, which 



had broadened, upon other soil. In order to 
accomplish this it became necessary for New 
York lodge, which had become an incorporated 
body, to surrender its control of affairs to a 
grand lodge, which was done in February, 1871, 
the grand lodge being composed of the fifteen 
original founders of the order and all of the 
past and then present officers of New York 
lodge. On March 10, 1871, the grand lodge 
was given a charter by the state of New York, 
with power to issue charters to subordinate 
lodsfes throughout the country. 



HISTORY OF HOUSTON LODGE. 



The lodge was installed on January 18, 1890. 
The dispensation was granted on the 19th day 
of December, 1889, upon application of G. A. 
Ouinlan, No. 71 ; H. C. Roberts, No. 126; T. H. 
Kingsley, No. 71, and J. L. Lawlor, No. 126. 

The lodge was instituted by E. G. Bower, as 
district deputy exalted ruler, assisted by mem- 
bers of Dallas lodge No. 71, and Galveston lodge. 
No. 126. 



After dulv organizing the followmg officers 
were elected for Houston lodge No. 151 : L. T. 
Noyes, exalted ruler; George A. Ouinlan, es- 
teemed leading knight ; J. T. Boyles, esteemed 
loyal knight; H. Scherffius, esteemed lecturing 
knight; A. Faulkner, treasurer; Robert Brew- 
ster, secretary ; James Lawlor, inner guard ; J. A. 
McMillan, tiler; R. Adair, organist; M. G. 
Howe, D. C. Smith and A. W. Littig, trustees. 




ELKS LODGE KGO.M 



FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



115 



The lodge started with twenty-three members. 
From that time to the present the lodge has con- 
tmued to enjov a healthy growth in membership 
until now there are on the rolls 570 names. An 
increase from last year of iii members. 

The ElIvS Club is, or was, a different organ- 
isation from the Elks lodge. The lodge was con- 
stituted as related. Tlie club was incorporated 
on May 27, i8gi. Its charter members were: G. 
A. Ouinlan, B. R. Latham, F. A. Reichardt, J. L. 
Watson, Robert Brewster, A. Faulkner, George 
T. Jones, J. A. McAIillan, James Lawlor, George 
F. Arnold, ^I. G. Howe, D. C. Smitli, L. T. 
Noyes, A. L. Livermore and J. W. Haskins. 
The fifteen named were also chosen as directors 
for the first year which ended March 30, 1892. 

The agreement for incorporation read : "This 
club shall be formed for literary purposes, to 
promote social intercourse among its members, 
and to provide them the convenience of a club 
liouse therefor." 

So far as the locality and privileges are con- 
cerned, the Elks lodge and the Elks club are one 
for all practical purposes. The control of both 
is now in the hands of the trustees of the organ- 
ization as to property and of the officers of the 
lodge as to discipline. 

The followine: have been exalted rulers since 



organization : L. T. Noyes, 1890; G. A. Ouinlan, 
1891-92; F. A. Reichardt, 1893; J. W. Haskins, 
1894; George T. Jones, 1895; F. A. Reichardt, 
1896-1897; George D. Hunter, 1898; H. B. Rice, 
1899; Ed H. Harrell, 1900; G. J. Palmer, 1901 ; 
Robert Eikel, 1902; H. T. Keller, 1903; C. H. 
Taylor, 1904 (died December 28. 1904) ; H. C. 
Mosehart, 1904 (elected January 17, 1905, to fill 
unexpired term); R. \\'. Weir, 1905; Dr. S. J. 
Smith, 1906; B. A. Baldwin, 1907; A. Y. Aus- 
tin, 1908. 

The present officers are : A. Y. Austin, ex- 
alted ruler; Dawes E. Sturgis, esteemed leading 
knight; Dr. W. W. Ralston, esteemed loyal 
knight: A. L. Batjer, esteemed lecturing knight; 
]\. C. Tips, secretary; N. C. Munger, treasurer: 
IL \V. Stude, esquire; E. B. Burks, tiler; Frank 
C. Clemens, chaplain ; Paul Joplin, inner guard ; 
C. Grunewald, organist : W. FI. Xorris, G. F. 
Arnold and F. A. Reichardt, trustees. 

The first meeting place of the lodge was- in 
the old Knights of Pythias hall, in the Burns 
building. Later the lodge moved to the Faulk- 
ner building on Prairie avenue, and then to the 
quarters in the Binz building, which was occu- 
pied continuously for the past thirteen years on 
.\ugust 31, 1908, when the lease expired. 



GROWTH OF THE ORDER. 



Seldom has any organization flourished so well 
or grown so rapidly as has that of the Elks. Only 
a few years ago it was thought that great things 
had been accomplished when there were 60,000 
. members of the Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks. Last year, 1907, the total was 254,532, 
which was an increase of 29,566 members over the 
year before. At this time there are over 350,000 
Elks in the United States. Last vear there were 



!.o8i lodges. This year there are 1,100 lodges. 

In Cuba, Porto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii and the 
I'hilippine Islands, lodges of the B. P. O. E. 
have been formed. 

The Elks are now occupying their handsome 
quarters in the new Prince theatre building on 
I'annin street, the entire sixth floor belonging 
to their domain. It is beautifully equipped and 
furnished in ^lission stvle. 



^^'OOD.MEN OF THE \\'ORLD. 



This organization is second numerically in the 
list of fraternal societies, having 500,000 mem- 
bers in America, with Texas possessing the large 
membership roll of 125,000. In Houston there 
are nine camps, with a total membership of 2,000. 



This order is the strongest financiallv in the 
cla-ss of fraternalism. In the last eighteen years 
from the W. O. W. treasuries, $29,000,000 have 
been paid in losses. Monuments have been 
erected over 22,000 graves of deceased members. 



116 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



At present there are $6,500,000 invested for the 
protection of members. 

The established camps in Houston are Mag- 
noHa Camp No. 13, Old Hickory Camp No. 81, 
Black Jack Camp No. 82, Red Oak Camp No. 95, 
Poplar Camp No. — , Pine Tree Camp No. 15 15, 
Post Oak Camp No. 85, Willow Tree and 
Laurel Camps. Red Oak Camp has seven 
hundred members. 

The auxiliaries to the camps are designated 
as groves, of which there are six in Houston : 
Post Oak, Hollywood, Magnolia, Poplar, Wil- 
low, Ellen D. Patterson Groves. Three of them 
have been instituted during the past year. These 
auxiliaries provide for orphans of members, erect 
monuments and take care of sick members, fol- 



lowing the line of work characterized by that of 
the camps, in the care of the sick, in the protec- 
tion of widows of deceased members, and allow- 
ing no graves of departed brethren to remain 
unmarked. 

On March 2, 1909, for the first time in its 
history, the head camp, Jurisdiction C, Woodmen 
of the World, will convene in Houston for a 
session, which will last a week. 

Jurisdiction C comprises Texas, Arizona and 
New Mexico, with 2,500 lodges in the jurisdic- 
tion, with a total membership of 135,000. Del- 
egates expected are 5,000, with at least 1,000 
ladies attending the head grove, Woodmen's 
Circle. The attendance expected is estimated at 
15,000. 



IMPROVED ORDER OF RED MEN. 



This organization is purely of American origin 
and wherever the American flag floats there may 
be found tribes of Red Men. It is unique in 
tc'.king Indian names for official roster, and wig- 
wam designates the camp. 

There are 500,000 of this association in the 
United States and it is growing in popularity 
and interest. 

There are two tribes in Houston — Tonkaway 
Tribe No. 5, and Calumet Tribe No. 7. J. B. 
Cochran is sachem of the former and C. R. 
Davison sachem of the latter. In the two local 
tribes there are about 300 members. E. C. Coch- 
ran is collector of wampum — treasurer— of the 



Tonkaway tribe. Officers are elected every six 
months. 

R. E. Thompkins of Hempstead is the Great 
Sachem of the state. 

The sum of fifty dollars is allowed for burial 
of each member, and fraternalism in its best 
sense is practiced by the order. 

Before Tammany became the great political 
body it is, that organization was a tribe of the 
Improved Order of Red Men. President Roose- 
velt is on the membership rolls. 

It is one of the oldest organizations in Amer- 
ica, and it is understood that it was on the recep- 
tion committee at the Boston tea party. 



THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS, KNOWN AS THE I. O. O. F. 

By A. T. Goodrich 



To chronicle a history of Odd Fellowship 
without first giving the reader a brief history of 
the order in general, and an insight into its 
workings, would be incomplete. In order, there- 
fore, that the reader may readily grasp the mag- 
nitude of the order of which this article treats, 
I will briefly outline the history of the order 
from its inception. 

Along during the middle of the eighteenth 



century, it was a custom, as it no doubt had been 
for many a century previous, among the good 
peasant folk and laboring class in and around 
Manchester, England, to, after their day's work, 
gather at the roadside or neighboring tavern, 
and there discuss questions of the hour, or have 
a jovial time while sipping their good ale. It 
was about this time it dawned upon one of a 
thoughtful and philanthropic turn of mind among 



FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



117 



this jovial set, that it would be odd, indeed, were 
they to send good cheer to some of their num- 
ber who, through sickness or ill fortune, were 
unable to attend their evening's jollities. The 
thought was novel and was at once put into 
practice, the donors styling themselves "Odd 
Fellows." 

Organization, however, was not effected until 
late in the eighteenth century, when what was 
known as the Manchester Union of Odd Fellows 
was perfected, which soon spread throughout all 
England, some of its members coming to Amer- 
ica early in the nineteenth century. 

Early in 1819 one John Wildey, an English- 
man and a blacksmith by trade, then living in 
ijallimore, and who had been a member of the 
Union in England, feeling a loss of those asso- 
ciations to which he had been accustomed in the 
uiother country, inserted in a Baltimore paper 
a notice calling on any members of the old Union 
then in Baltimore to meet him at the old Seven 
Stars Tavern. To his delight, four other mem- 
bers responded to the call, and, while sipping 
their ale, they decided to apply to the mother 
Union for the privilege and charter to organize 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Amer- 
ica, which right and charter was granted. 

On April 26, 1819, the first lodge of the I. O. 
O. F. was organized at Baltimore, known as 
Washington Lodge No. i, and this lodge is still 
in a flourishing condition. 

From this unostentatious beginning, with five 
members, in a small back room of a wayside inn, 
has grown the greatest fraternal organization, 
numerically, in the world. Shortly after its birth 
it was decided to hold regular stated meetings 
in a hall, where the use of malt or other stimu- 
lant drinks would be barred, and in lieu thereof 
the principles of Friendship, Love and Truth 
should be taught and practiced, and in this step 
was the turning point of the new order, for in 
the practice of these principles is found the basis 
for the unprecedented growth of the I. O. O. F. 
from five to a membership of 2,000,000 of per- 
sons in just 88 years, over 3,200,000 having 
been initiated during that time; 3,256,601 mem- 
bers have received relief, 288,900 widows have 
been aided, and 320,507 members have been 
buried with the honors of the order. Of $2oS,- 



465,000 collected, $115,111,900 have been paid 
to the members as relief. 

The Rebekah Degree was adopted in 1851, but 
the first lodge of this branch was not instituted 
until in 1868. 

Widows' and orphans' homes are maintained 
hi nearly every state in the Union, and over 
$300,000 is now in hand for the establishment of 
others. The value of homes now existing is in 
ri.iund figures $2,641,372, with endowment funds 
of $309,655, and manitain about 2,900 inmates, 
in the education and comfort of whom the Re- 
bekah branch takes great interest. 

Odd F'ellowship was introduced mto Texas 
ui 1838, Texas then beuig a republic, the first 
lodge being instituted at Houston by Jacob 
de Cordova, on July 25. Others were organized 
at Calveston withm a year, and m 1840 the 
Grand Lodge of Texas, comprised of the lodges 
at Houston and Calveston, was formed, its 
liome being at Houston for several years, when 
K was removed to Calveston. 

Uurmg the period between 1840 and i860, the 
membersnip of Lone Star Lodge No. 1 was 
composed of the leading citizens of Houston. 
During the civil war. Odd Fellowship, like other 
secret orders, received a severe backset, and the 
year 1870 found a membership of 3,000 or less, 
and it was not until about 1896 that the order 
took on a healthy growth. At the close of 1895 
the membership was given as slightly over 8,000, 
vxhilst the report on membership at the close of 
1907 gives the roll at 30,718, a gain of 22,000 
in twelve years. The lodges of the state now 
have net assets of over $1,000,000. During 1907 
?5'^'5i3 in relief was paid to members. 

The pride of the Odd Fellows in Texas is 
their widows' and orphans' home at Corsicana, 
w here they have a farm of 286 acres of the best 
h'nd, which, with the buildings, stock, etc., is 
valued at $177,440, in which there are at present 
about 195 inmates. The children are well fed 
and clothed; a thorough system of education, 
composed of fourteen grades, is maintained, as 
well as a good course in music, and a thorough 
training in those things necessary for a useful 
life is not overlooked, the state Rebekahs giving 
especial attention to the home comforts, and 
securing special training in music for some of 



118 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



the girls with marked talent in music. The mili- 
tary branch of the order supports a boys' band 
at the home of twenty-five members, supplying 
uniforms, instruments and an instructor, and 
wherever the boys go they are highly compli- 
mented. 

In Houston there are four subordinate lodges, 
with about 500 members, as follows ; Lone Star 
No. I, Houston Lodge No. 401, Twentieth Cen- 
tury No. 510, and Houston Heights Lodge No. 
225 ; two Rebekah lodges, Esther and Cleopatra ; 
one encampment. Woodbine No. 139, and one 



military lodge. Canton Houston No. 10, giving 
representation to all branches of the order in 
Houston. 

The principles advocated by Odd Fellowship 
are Friendship, Love and Trutli, which teach 
the members to care for the needy, visit the 
sick, bury the dead, educate the orphan and sup- 
port the widow. Its aim is to elevate human 
character. It sanctions neither party nor sect, 
but advocates toleration and the practice of the 
Golden Rule, which makes bettor men and bet- 
ter women. 



EASTERN STAR. 
By Mrs. H. S. Cohen 



The Order of the Eastern Star is a secret 
society, composed exclusively of Free Masons 
in good standing, and their wives, daughters, 
mothers, sisters and widows of Free Masons. 

The order originated in the city of New York 
in 1868 and rapidly extended over the country. 
In I go I there were twenty-eight grand chap- 
ters, in as many states, and 100,000 members. 
(More than 250,000 at present.) 

Its rites and services are conducted with all 
the impressive secrecy peculiar to Free Masonry. 

A five-pointed star, between whose points the 
word "Fatal" is inscribed, is the badge of the 
order. Members attain to degrees, and certain 
regalia is a requirement. 

There is no insurance connected with this or- 
der. Its object is benevolence, charity, hospi- 
tality and social advancement. 

The first chapter was organized in Texas 
more than twenty years ago, and has grown so 
rapidly that there are over 400 charters in the 
state of Texas, and over 14,000 members in the 
state of Texas. 

The first grand chapter was organized in 1884. 
The first grand chapter met in the city of 
Houston in 1900, and at that time a resolution 
w'BlS made for creating a charity fund, and at the 
twenty-sixth annual session, which met in 
Beaumont October 13, there was more than 
$2,100 in the charity fund. 



A project is on foot for building a home for 
tlie aged members of the order in the state of 
Texas, and it is an assured fact that this will 
be accomplished in the near future. 

During the year 1908, 141 members died in 
the state of Texas. 

There is a large field of labor in this order for 
those who are charitably disposed, and the tie 
that binds the members so closely together has 
been a boon to those who have met adversity, and 
the sympathy and kindness extended to the 
members when affliction overtakes then: has 
proven a great source of satisfaction and comfort 
to those in distress. 

Many of the willing workers in Houston de- 
serve special mention for their many years of un- 
tiring labor. Among these Mrs. Carrie B. Lane, 
who is a charter member of Ransford Chapter 
No. 135, is well known, not only in the local 
chapter, but throughout the state, for her unceas- 
ing efforts in behalf of this grand and noble 
order. She was elected associate grand matron 
at the last grand session, held in Beaumont, and 
will succeed to the office of grand matron at the 
next grand session, which meets in El Paso in 
1908. This honor is the highest within the gift 
of the grand chapter" to bestow upon a member. 

Houston Chapter No. 385 is the newest chap- 
ter organized in this city, and the progress they 
have made in the short vear thev have been in 



FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



119 



existence foretells a bright future for this chap- 
ter, which is composed of bright, intelligent and 
energetic business men and women of Houston. 
Houston chapter has made such rapid strides that 



the attention of all others is focused upon this. 
There are over 300 members in Houston. The 
order has reached European countries and is 
extending all over the world. 




BLISS p. GORHAM, 
Vice Regent, Hoo-Hoos, South Texas Di.strict 



HISTORY OF HOO-HOO. 

By James Hayes Quarles (4926) 



The light of Hoo-Hoo first shed its rays upon 
nine chosen ones, who assembled at Gurdon, 
Arkansas, January 24, 1892, and by these it has 
passed to those who are numbered now as the 
chosen of the order. 

The Egyptian legend upon which is based the 
objects, purposes and reasons for the organiza- 
tion, first became revealed to Boiling Arthur 
Johnson upon New Year's night of that year, 
while he lay in a deep sleep. He was commanded 
to summon eight faithful friends, who were as- 
sociated more or less in a business way, by 
reason of the close relation between their several 
interests, and to command them to join with him 



in the organization. It was set out in the com- 
mand originally given that those who were to 
have the blessings of the light of Hoo-Hoo were 
to be as follows : 

1. Those who shall be engaged in the owner- 
ship or sale of timber lands, timber or logs, or 
the manufacture or sale of lumber at wholesale 
or retail. 

2. The publishers, proprietors, or persons reg- 
ularly connected with newspapers. 

3. Railroad men who are employed in general 
office duties, which will bring them in contact 
with the lumber trade. 

4. Sawmill machinery men. 



120 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Obeying the command that had been trans- 
mitted to him, Mr. Johnson summoned : 

Charles Henderson McCarer of Chicago. 

Wihiam Eddy Barns of St. Louis. 

George Washington Schwartz of St. Louis. 

George Kimball Smith of St. Louis. 

James Elliott Defebaugh of Chicago. 

Ludolph Adelbert Strauss of St. Louis. 

Robert Emmett Kelley of Beaumont, Texas. 

Thomas Kerns Edwards. 

To these friends Air. Johnson confided the 
revelation that had come to him, and he explained 
iii detail all that had been imparted to him. 
Gurdon, Arkansas, was selected as the place at 
which he would transmit the secrets of the 
Egyptian oracle, it having been made known to 
him that that modest little village was not unlike 
the seat of learning of original Hoo-Hoo tents, 
situated at the foot of the pyramids. Together 
to that little place the nine journeyed, and in the 
quiet of an hotel apartment, they gathered about 
the seer thus created and heard what he had to 
give unto them. They accepted the command, 
and by that acceptance Hoo-Hoo was created. 

It was imparted to Mr. Johnson that because 
of the tribulations of the lumber and timber 
men, the mill machinery men, the railroad men 
and the newspaper people, they were to be 
favored with the benign benefits of Ancient 
Hoo-Hoo; that those who were originally of the 
Hoo-Hoo tribe had been sufferers because of the 
trials forced upon them by those who were in 
power, and that as no other commercial or pro- 
fessional people are as downtrodden in this 
twentieth century time like the four classes men- 
tioned, that only to them should the influences, 
privileges and pleasures of Hoo-Hoo be given. 
It was commanded that the sacred emblem of 
Hoo-Hoo should be the black cat, in the likeness 
of which the Egyptian oracle was transformed 
in order to be safe from the aggressive rulers 
that would have visited persecution, and that 
this cat should always be depicted with a golden 
circle as a halo; that its face should show the 
ferocity of one resenting an attack ; its back 
should be arched and the tail curved to describe 
the figure nine. 

That there should always be accurate count 
kept of tho=e who were in the light of Hoo-Hoo 
land, it was decided when the organization was 



first born, to attach a number to each member. 
I\ir. McCarer was No. i. Mr. Johnson was 
made No. 2. The others received their numbers 
in the order in which their names are given above. 
Mr. McCarer is since dead, and therefore Mr. 
Johnson is now the oldest living Hoo-Hoo. It 
is the wish of his fellows in the order that his life 
will be preserved throughout all time, to the end 
that he shall alwa)s be the bearer and custodian 
of the first revelation. 

Significant of the nine lives of the cat, the 
Hoo-Hoo works always by nine. Its governing 
body is a supreme nine; there are nine officers 
at each concatenation; its one stated meeting is 
upon the ninth day of the ninth month of each 
year; it assembles at nine minutes after nine by 
the clock. 

Of those who were of the original nine, Mr. 
McCarer, Mr. Kelley and Mr. Edwards have 
passed away. 

By mandate of the constitution of the order, 
the chief officer of the order shall be entitled 
the "Seer of the House of Ancients," this office 
to be held by Boiling Arthur Johnson, founder 
of the order. His badge of rank — the emblem of 
revelation — a nine-pointed diamond star, to be 
worn by him until his death, and then transmitted 
as a legacy from him to the House of Ancients. 
I'his emblem shall thereafter be worn by that 
member of the body who is chronologically the 
next living "Past Snark," the title "Seer of the 
House of Ancients" to descend with the "Em- 
blem of Revelation" in perpetuity, the emblem 
to be ever worn by succeeding seers as a per- 
petual token of esteem for him through whom 
was transmitted the secret legends and traditions 
upon which the order was founded. The consti- 
tution says further, "There shall neither be 
fashioned or worn in Hoo-Hoo another emblem 
of like form, design or import." 

Thus was Hoo-Hoo born. To the world it is 
stated that its object is the promotion of the 
health, happiness and long life of its members. 
I'o those who are in Hoo-Hoo land it means 
much more, but further than what has been said, 
no more can be told. The Egyptian legends which 
are told and retold at every concatenation, as they 
were revealed to Seer Boiling Arthur Johnson, 
are beautiful in the extreme. They relate tales of 
trouble and suffering of those who were of the 



FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



121 



order in the days of antiquity, and those who are 
of the oppressed classes today — the kimber men, 
timber men, mill men, railroad men and news- 
paper people — appreciate that condition of life in 
which they have been called because they can 
together unite in the sacred precincts of their 
concatenation, and realize among themselves by 
right living and proper treatment toward each 
other, that there is some pleasure and right in the 
world, even though it is not granted to them by 



those who would visit oppression upon them. 

According to the ruling of Hoo-Hoo the state 
ii divided into four districts, Texarkana, Waco, 
Houston and El Paso. These are presided over 
by Vice Regent Snarks, B. P. Gorham, having 
been appointed to this high position of the 
Plouston district. Messrs. W. H. Norris and J. 
S. Bonner of Houston have served as national 
officials, each in the capacity of Snark of the 
Universe. 




LOUIS S. SHROPE, 
General Superintendent o£ the Southwest for The Grand Fraternity 



122 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



THE GRAND FRATERNITY. 

Bv Grace E. Zimmer 



The Ciraiul Fraternity was organized in 1885 
in Pliiladelphia, with Frederick Gaston, presi- 
dent; Lee W. Sqnier, vice president; W. E. 
Gregg, secretary ; Dr. C. L. Bower, medical 
director. 

The Grand Fraternity is an organization of, 
Ijv and for its members — the most humble mem- 
ber is a part of the great whols?. Their annual 
report published for the past )-ear"s work and 
growth is the best exhibit of the operations the 
Fraternity has ever sent out, and marks an epoch 
in its history. 

The Grand Fraternity has ever led the van 
ill fraternal progress and is the beacon light of 
the fraternal system. There is no guess work in 
its system, and it was the first order that had 
the courage of its convictions to charge an ade- 
quate rate, thereby placing its insurance on such 
a solid basis there would l)e no necessity to ever 
raise the rates or extra payment as in all other 
orders. Each member pays his own cost; there 
are no old members creating deficiencies to be 
met out of the surplus payments of the young. 
The Grand Fraternity was also the first order 
to place before the public any form of certifi- 
cate other than a death benefit, or what is com- 
monly known as "straight life." They, seeing 
that the great mass of the insuring public could 
not afford "old line" insurance, and ever having 
in mind the idea of the most good to mankind, 
placed the e.xact class of insurance carried by 
the old line companies before the world at a 
much lower cost to the individual. It is the 
onlv fraternal society in America that can value 
its certificates on the same plan as an old line 
insurance company, and therefore is the only one 
that knows its exact financial condition each 
month. 

Every certificate carried by the members in 
the Grand Fraternity has extremely valuable per- 



sonal options which camiot be duplicated else- 
where. During the recent panic they loaned to 
their members thousands of dollars on their cer- 
tificates, thus aiding and assisting the members 
v/hen most needed. This fraternal help thus 
granted is not charity by any means but is the 
members' tine in tlius safeguarding the future. 
Legal reserve safety, combined with fraternal 
economy, is the keynote to its system. It has the 
largest reserve fund in proportion to its liabd 
ities of any fraternal society and is therefore the 
strongest financially. 

The remarkable growth of the Grand Frater- 
nity in the Southwest has been due to the efforts 
of Louis S. Shrope. General Superintendent. Mr. 
Shrope came to Houston four years ago from 
Philadelphia, and recognizing the advantages in 
Houston, made his headquarters for the South- 
west in Houston and has become one of her most 
loval citizens. 




MRS. GRACE E. ZIMMER, 
Editor Childrsn's Department of the Baptist Progress 



FRATERNAL SOCIETIES 



123 



THE LADIES OF THE MACCABEES. 



"Fraternity is an unseen cord that binds the 

whole wide world together ; 
I'hrough every human life it winds — this one 

mysterious tether." 

Sixteen years ago, in October, 1892, at Port 
Huron, ^Michigan, a small handful of women, 
with their hearts full of love for humanity, 
started the movement that has become well 
laiown throughout the civilized world, and is 
known as "Ladies of the Maccabees." This or- 
ganization has pressed forward until it has the 
distinction of being the largest beneficiary society 
for women in the world. In fact, as we think of 
the growth of this organization, we think of the 
words of Carlyle — "Thou hast cast forth thy 
act, thy word into the everlasting universe." It 
is seed that fell upon good ground and in spring- 
irig up bore fruit an hundred fold ; it has flour- 
ished as a green bay tree. 

This association was organized for the ben- 
efit of women strictly, is an assessment order 
and an auxiliary to the Knights of the Macca- 



bees. They derive their name from the great 
General Maccabeus, known in ancient history. 

Every mother looks with concern on the pos- 
sibility of her being taken from her little ones, 
and if this is so and the family has but little 
"laid by for a rainy day," they are a pitiful little 
brood indeed. This organization meets the needs 
c: just such cases. 

Arrangements were made at their last "Su- 
preme Hive" meeting for the accumulation of a 
fund to establish hospitals and homes for the 
aged and disabled members. 

Fraternity links the members of the organiza- 
tion together — the one great tie that binds all 
tc>gether around a common altar. Fraternity is 
the motive power that built up and bound together 
this great band of so many women from all parts 
of the United States and Canada, into one great 
sisterhood for mutual help and protection. They 
ever hold out a ready hand to one of their num- 
ber who requires their assistance; thus they are 
making themselves felt and needed in the world. 
"Loyalty, love and truth" are their watchwords. 



KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

By R. A. Barklav 



The order of Knights of Pythias is forty-five 
years old, and was founded by Justus H. Rath- 
bone, and is purely an American fraternal order. 
Ihe object of its founder was to so bind men in 
the bonds of fraternal love as to make such fra- 
tricidal wars as had just closed impossible, and 
to implant in the members of the order by vows 
and precept, such worthy principles as would 
make them better husbands, better fathers and 
better citizens, and to enable them to grow 
toward a true conception of a perfect n:an, and 
for these reasons the order of Knights of 
Pythias took as its foundation stones, friendship, 
charity and benevolence, pledging each member 
to the observance of all they imply, so that when 
each Knight's life ended his epitaph could ap- 
propriately be, "He lived to bless mankind." 

The Knights of P_\tliias have a total member- 
ship of 625,000. Texas has 25,000. There are 



about 1,200 members in Houston, there being 
seven lodges. Phoenix No. 69 meets on Monday 
nights in K. P. hall, 5th ward; San Jacinto No. 
296 meets in hall, 113 j\lain street, each Tuesday 
night; Texas Lodge No. i, the oldest K. of P. 
lodge in the state, meets on Wednesday nights, 
113 Main street; Lamar Lodge No. 189 meets 
in this hall on each Thursday night, and Houston 
Lodge No. 155 on Fridays; Virginius Lodge No. 
65 meets in K. of P. hall, in the 5th ward, each 
Thursday night ; Houston Heights Lodge No. 
269 meets each Thursday night at Fraternal Hall, 
Houston Heights. These lodges are all in the 
6th district, composed of Harris, Montgomery, 
San Jacinto and Waller counties, K. C. Barkley 
being district deputy grand chancellor. 

Outside of Houston, in the 6th district, there 
are prosperous and flourishing lodges at Hum- 
ble, Montgomery, Conroe and Huntsville. 



124 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Henry Miller, of Weatherford, Texas, is grand 
keeper of records and seal, and C. H. Powell of 
San Angelo is grand chancellor. 

In addition to the lodges named, the Pythian 
Sisters, an auxiliary of the K. of P., have two 
flourishing temples, Calanthe and Houston 



The Uniform Rank company meets in its ar- 
mory hall, 113 Main, each Monday night, and 
has at present a substantial working member- 
ship, with the promise of greatly increased 
activity soon. 



KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS OF HOUSTON. 



Only a few years old, and over 300 members, 
they are very careful about getting new members, 
as none but practical Catholics are allowed into 
the organization. A new lodge was installed at 
Waco Sunday, October 25 ; also a new one will 
soon be organized and installed at Brownsville, 



Texas. The Houston lodge will in all probability 
during the next two years have a $30,000 or 
$40,000 home. It takes some eight or ten offi- 
cers to conduct the affairs of this association. 
They are always doing something to the credit of 
tliC city and the members. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE ORDER OF UNITED COMMERCIAL 

TRAV ELERS OP AMERICA. 
By Tom. C. Swope 



The order of United Commercial Travelers of 
America was founded in the year 1887, chartered 
under the laws of the state of Ohio on January 
16, 1888, and now has a membership of over 
30,000. 

The man who first conceived the idea of a 
secret fraternity made up exclusively of com- 
mercial travelers, was Levi C. Pease, of Enfield, 
Connecticut. Shortly after the conception of this 
idea he met Charles Benton Flagg of Columbus, 
Ohio, and they discussed the possibility of a 
secret organization of commercial travelers, 
built upon the lines of the standard fraternal 
orders. John C. Fcnimore of Columbus, Ohio, 
a commercial traveler well informed on secret 
society affairs, and a writer of niarked abilitw 
was sought in consultation. Mr. Flagg so far 
succeeded in interesting him in the plan that 
after a meeting of Air. Pease and Mr. Fenimore 
it was agreed that Mr. Fenimore would draw up 
a list of officers, define their duties and draft 
a ritual. Mr. Pease, in the meantime, was to pre- 
pare a draft of a constitution and by-laws, which 
would embody the original plan. 

When this work was completed, which was 
during the holiday season of 1887, a meeting of 



about a dozen of the best known commercial trav- 
elers of Columbus, Ohio, was called at a hotel. 
The full purpose of the founders had not been 
explained to those invited to be present, but at 
that meeting the ground plan of the future order 
01 United Commercial Travelers of America was 
explained, and heartily approved of by everyone 
piesent. It was not until the 14th day of January, 
1888, over a year after the first conference, that 
an application w'as made to the state of Ohio for 
a charter, the charter being granted under date 
of January 16, with the following incorporators : 
John C. Fenimore, L. C. Pease, Charles B. Flagg, 
F. A. Sells, John Dickey, S. H. Strayer, W. B. 
Carpenter, C. S. Ammel. 

On January 25 the supreme council was organ- 
iized with a total membership of eight, and a cash 
balance of $50, divided as follows : Indemnity 
fund, $16; indemnity expense fund, $4; general 
expense fund, $40. 

The first officers of the supreme council were : 
Supreme counselor, John C. Fenimore; supreme 
junior counselor, John Dickey; supreme past 
counselor, Levi C. Pease ; supreme secretary, 
Charles B. Flagg; supreme treasurer, Willis B. 
C'arpenter; supreme conductor, C. S. Ammel; 



FRATERNAL S0CIETIE;S 



125 



supreme sentinel, S. H. Strayer; supreme execu- 
tive committee, John Dickey, S. H. Strayer, F. A. 
Sells and L. C. Pease. The same men make up 
this committee today. 

The order had come into existence as an or- 
ganization, but there yet remained many obsta- 
cles to be overcome in the way of getting it suc- 
cessfully launched. The organization was with- 
out sufficient funds of its own and the incorpor- 
ators were forced to pledge their individual 
credit to secure needed supplies. 

Columbus Council No. i, the first subordinate 
council of the order, was granted a charter 
direct from the supreme council on Februar}- 24, 
1888, and all of the incorporators attached them- 
selves to that council. For an anxious period of 
some months, Columbus Council remained the 
only subordinate council. Before the close of the 
year 1888, however. Council No. 2 was organized 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, Council No. 3 at Dayton, 
Ohio, and Council No. 5 at Cleveland. The first 
subordinate council outside of the state of Ohio 
was Council No. 4 at Indianapaolis, Indiana. 
The second outside council was Council No. 7, 
at Buffalo, New York. 

The first subordinate council in the present 
grand jurisdiction of Texas was Waco Council 
No. 52, which was organized June 2, 1894. 
Houston Council No. 59 was instituted June 6, 
1894, with the following charter members : 
Morgan Hall Armistead, Sylvester Andrew 
Brown, Edwin Harrison Dumble, James Ballance 
Endt, Charles Benjamin Guillotte, Sims Burrell 
Garrott, George Washington Greenwood. 
Charles Shaw Marston. Alexander Rosenfield. 
John A. Stewart. 

Senior counselors and secretaries of Houston 
Council No. 59 each year since organization are 
ar follows: 1894 — Senior counselor, J. B. Endt; 
secretary, E. H. Dumble. 1895 — Senior coun- 
selor, J. B. Endt ; secretary, E. H. Dumble. 
1896 — Senior counselor, \'ernon Leman ; secre- 
tary, J. ]\I. Benish. 1897 — Senior counselor, 
H. S. W'illett: secretary, Thomas L. Frecland. 
1898 — Senior counselor, W. C. Akard ; secretary, 
Thomas L. Freeland. 1899 — Senior counselor, 
J. M. Mather; secretary, Thomas L. Freeland. 
1900 — Senior counselor, E. H. Bailey; secre- 
tary, R. W. Thompson. 1901 — Senior counselor. 



Tom C. Svvope; secretary, R. W. Thompson; 
1902 and 1903 — Senior counselor, J. D. Watkins ; 
secretarv, S. O. Noyes. 1904 — Senior counselor, 

E. W. Kirkland ; secretary, S. O. Noyes. 1905 — 
Senior counselor, Richard Cocke ; secretary, D. 

F. Doney. 1906 — Senior counselor, Jesse A. 
Bryan; secretary, H. Y. Howze. 1907 — Senior 
counselor, S. A. Brown; secretary, 'SI. J. IMar- 
tin. 

The officers elected at the beginning of the 
present year, and who are serving now are as 
follows: Senior counselor, E. C. Smith; junior 
counselor, H. Y. Howze ; past counselor, S. A. 
Brown; chaplain, Tom C. Swope; secretary- 
treasurer, H. H. Cherry ; conductor, W. J. Rau ; 
page, C. A. Favor; sentinel, F. ]\I. Court; execu- 
tive committee, Adolph Boldt and E. W. Kirk- 
kind, 1910; J. A. Bryan and W. L. Howze, 1909. 

Houston Council has a membership of 161 
and is growing rapidly. It meets the first and 
third Saturdays in each month at 8 p. m., in the 
K. of P. hall, over the ^^'cstern Union telegraph 
office. 

The United Commercial Travelers, being a 
secret society, are in a measure exclusve, and 
before one can become a member they must be 
recommended by two members, approved by a 
committee of three and be elected by secret bai- 
lor. In this way the membership is kept up to a 
high standard. 

The certificates issued provide for a payment 
of a weekly indemnity of $25 per week, in the 
event of a member becoming disabled through 
accident. In the event of accidental death the 
beneficiarv receives $5,000, and $25 per week 
annuity for 52 weeks. 

In addition to this there is a widows' and 
orphans" fund which provides for the support of 
indigent widows, and also for the education of 
their children up to 15 years of age. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary of Houston Council 
provides social entertainments for the members 
of the council each fifth Saturday night, and 
tl:ese occasions are looked forward to with a 
great deal of pleasure by tlie members. This 
organization further promotes a friendliness and 
direct acquaintance among the wives, sisters, 
daughters and mothers of the traveling men. The 
following are the officers of the Auxiliary for 



126 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



the present year : President, Mrs. T. L. Free- 
land; vice president, Mrs. H. B. Cox; secretary, 
Miss Margaret Murray; treasurer, Mrs. S. A. 
Brown. 

The first president was Mrs. F. 'M. Court, 
wliose administration was two years; ]\Irs. T. C. 



Swope, vice president; Mrs. T. L. Freeland, 
first secretary, followed by Mrs. J. F. Burton 
the second year. Mrs. S. A. Brown, treasurer, 
has succeeded herself for the third term. 

The U. C. T. motto is "Unity, charity and 
temperance." 



]\10DERN WOOD.AIEN OF AMERICA. 



Organized in January, 1883, under the laws of 
the State of Illinois, head offices at Rock Island, 
111. Largest fraternal beneficiary society in 
America, having about thirteen thousand local 
camps, and over one million members. Has paic) 
over 38,000 death claims, amounting to over $70,- 
000,000. Operates only in the most healthful ter- 
ritory, and selects its members with great care. 
Truly representative in government, the members 
having immediate and direct control. The order 
i.=: growing more rapidly than any other similar 
society, having adopted over 49,000 members the 
fiist six months of this year. Insurance in force 
July I, 1908, $1,508,266,000. All claims are paid 



promptly, and the fraternal features of the order 
are strong. Have about 50,000 purely social 
members. The society is now erecting near Col- 
orado Springs a sanatorium, where members af- 
flicted with tuberculosis are admitted and treated 
ai the expense of the society. Texas was admit- 
ted to the jurisdictiiin but three years ago, and 
now has over 300 active camps, and a member- 
ship of over 16,000. 809 being adopted in the 
month of October. There are three live camps in 
the city of Houston, and one in the Heights. It 
is claimed to be the cheapest reliable insurance in 
the world. E. R. Knowles is supervising deputy 
of this district and located in Houston. 



THE KNIGHTS OF MACCABEES 



This fraternal and beneficiary organization 
has thriving tents in Houston. Houston Tent 
No. 28, organized in 1894, has a membership of 



267, and meets in Odd Fellows Hall, on Milam 
St. and Rusk Avenue. 



KNIGHTS OF THE MODERN MACCABEES 



Knights of the Modern Maccabees, another work and are flourishing in the city of Houston ; 

active and commendable order, was organized in there being some hundred or more organizations 

this city in 1907. here, and five or six hundred fraternal orders in 

All of these fraternal societies do splendid America. 









GEN. HOUSTON 



SANTA ANNA 



SHERMAN 




AUSTIN 



(Srit. ^anta Anna 

Onl}' two pictures of 
the General are in ex- 
istence. One is held 
by Colonel Raines, ex- 
librarian, Austin, which 
no one can obtain; the 
other is owned by W. 
W. Dexter, editor of 
Texas Bankers Journal. 
The latter was taken 
from a vault in Wash- 
ington and presented to 
Mr. Dexter for the 
Texas World's Fair 
Book. We acknowl- 
edge the courtesy from 
him for use of this cut. 




JONES 






ANSON JONES 



MILAM 



EUSK 




CROCKETT 





GEX. SAM HOUSTO^' 





BOWIE 



DE ZAVALLA 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



By Mrs. Henry F. Ring 



111 no better way does Houston show her 
cosmopolitan spirit and her wide and deep interest 
iii all national affairs, than in her patriotic or- 
ganizations. There are eight well established 
societies in Houston, composed of over a thou- 
sand men and women, who are giving both time 
and money to the noble and uplifting cause of 
patriotism. Inspired by love of country and 
prompted by a desire to honor those who sacri- 
ficed much to maintain its institutions, they arc 
working along different lines to carry out vari- 
cpus plans. The work so far has not been assisted 
Ijv any very large individual donations, but has 
usually been carried on with money made from 
entertainments given by the various chapters, 
and in several instances by making collections 
of one dollar donations from the public. For 
this reason, many citizens of Houston are enti- 
tled to a feeling of proprietorshij) in the two 
beautiful monuments, to the erection of v.diich 
they have thus contributed : the Spirit of the 
Confederacy, and the portrait statue of Dick 
Dowling. In a short time, Houston will have 
near at hand, in the San Jacinto battleground, 
a magnificent state park of nearly fnur hundred 
acres, improved and beautified by the state of 
Texas, as its historic value deserves. This will 
be the result of earnest and persistent effort on 
the part of the San Jacinto Chapter of the 
Daughters of the Republic of Texas. 

Though far removed from the scenes of its 
contests, the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution have found a beautiful and efifective way of 
reminding vis of our duty to those patriots, by 



placing a granite boulder in Sam Houston Park 
to the memory of Alexander Hodge, the only 
soldier of the American Revolution buried near 
Houston. 

In the placing of tablets on historic spots, in 
preserving records and traditions of noble deeds, 
in arousing interest in historic subjects, in inspir- 
ing its people with a larger degree of local pride, 
thus arousing a greater sense of civic responsi- 
bility, these societies are doing a noble work for 
Houston. 

The organizations growing out of the war be- 
tween the states have many opportunities of 
assisting unfortunate comrades and their fam- 
ilies, and the kind and generous way in which 
this is done has brightened the last days of 
many an old soldier. The soldiers are buried 
with suitable honors, and, if need be, at the ex- 
pense and in the burying grounds of the organ- 
izations ; while on Decoration Dav, the graves 
of all soldiers are decorated, and memorial serv- 
ices held in their honor. 

In order that the people of Houston may know 
and appreciate the work of these organizations, 
a complete history of each is given below. 

"We live to learn their story, who suffered for 

our sake ; 
To emulate their glory, and follow in their wake; 
Bards, patriots, martyrs, sages, the lieroic of all 

ages, 
\\'hose deeds crown history's pages and time's 

great volume make." 



SAN JACINTO CHAPTER OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. 

By Mrs. M. B. Urwitz 



San Jacinto is a name to conjure with in 
Texas, and, while almost impossible for one not 
of the Latin race to give its pure pronunciation, 
it- is classically beautiful, coming, as it doubtless 
does, from the Latin Hyacinthus — Spanish Hua- 



kintus — a water flower, and the !Mexicanized 
Jacinto, from the many blue flowers which are 
said to have grown along the bank of the stream. 
It is a matter of history that the purchase of 
the battlefield bv the state has been for sixteen 










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THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



131 



years the aim of this devoted chapter, its object 
having been pursued through many difficulties 
and disappointments. All this while sentiment 
has been gradually building in its favor, the first 
marked success being the appropriation of 
$10,000 by the twenty-fifth legislature, and the 
consequent securing to the state under this bill 
the bayou front, as part of the scene of the bat- 
tle. Following this came a series of vetoes and 
discouragements, a time of stress and trouble for 
San Jacinto Chapter. Added to this state of 
affairs came a call upon the strength of the 
chapter from the general society for a cause no 
less worthy, but of less local pressure, the placing 
of statues of Stephen F. Austin and General 
Sam Houston in our state capitol and in the 
Statuary Hall at Washington, D. C. Hardly had 
this been accomplished, under the most marvelous 
leadership of the chairman of the statue fund, Mrs. 
Joseph Dibrell, when a second trumpet call 
came from San Antonio, the immediate need of 
help in purchasing the Hugo Schmeltzer prop- 
erty, as part of the x\lamo Mission. Money was 
raised all over the state for this purpose. San 
Jacinto lending her aid, and doing all that patriot 
band could do, with other branches of the or- 
ganization, and a magnificent appropriation was 
obtained from the twenty-eighth legislature for 
this sublime cause. 

But in the meantime our own San Jacinto 
waited, her beautiful trees hacked and felled, 
her sacred necropolis desecrated as a common 
potters' field, overgrown with weeds, a reproach 
to those whose homes lie so near this famous 
spot. It seemed at times, even to the most reso- 
lute, that San Jacinto's flag was doomed to 
hang ever at half mast. But, to the glory of the 
thirtieth legislature be it said, and strong friends 
there, an appropriation of S30.000 was secured 
for the final purchase of land desired and the 
general improvement and care of the battlefield. 
Then came the happy appointment by Governor 
Campbell of three commissioners, Mrs. Rosine 
Ryan, a faithful member of the chapter; Captain 
J. S. Rice and Judge S. S. Ashe. Under their 
wise judgment a few additional acres fronting 
on the bayou will be acquired, covering the 
entire area of the scene of the battle and the 
whole tract will be redeemed from neglect. Walks 



and drives and a shelter from inclement weather 
will render this a favorite resort for the visitor. 

With the rapid strides that progress is mak- 
ing in this direction, Buffalo bayou will soon be 
filled with shipping from all parts of the coun- 
try, passing in front of the grounds, while on 
the other side, and easy of access to the battle- 
field, will be a splendidly equipped interurban 
railway, connecting Houston and Galveston, and 
when improvements do begin, this state park will 
be one of the most attractive spots in the South. 
Nature and history have done their part, and it 
now remains for a grateful and loving people to 
complete the work. Senator Waller T. Burns, 
chairman of the commission appointed under 
the twenty-fifth legislature, said : "The battle- 
field of San Jacinto is the most beautiful loca- 
tion for a monumental park, lying as it does on a ' 
magnificent sheet of water, and its undulating 
grounds crowned with a fine forest growth, 
render it an ideal and picturesque spot." 

Some fifty years ago, on the occasion of a visit 
to the battlefield of the Texas veterans, who 
were at the time guests of the city of Houston, 
saddened by the neglected condition of the battle- 
field, those devoted sons of Texas, many of 
whom had been actual participants in the mo 
mentous conflict, raised by voluntary contribu- 
tions, for a "monument on the field," the sum of 
$1,501.25. This generous sum was placed as a 
nucleus in the keeping of Governor Lubbock, and 
through its trustees, given to the Daughters by 
its grateful custodian, after the state had bought 
the battle field, and is thus held by this chapter 
until, augmented from time to time, a memorial 
monolith suitable to commemorate the heroes of 
General Houston's army may be erected on the 
site of its triumph. 

SCRAP BOOK. 

The historian of the chapter, Mrs. Rosine 
Ryan, has, in connection with the work of her 
office, adopted the unique and beautiful method 
cf preserving various clippings from different 
sources in a scrap book. This scrap book, a com- 
pilation of historical events, as well as reminis- 
cences of olden times, is a volume quite large 
and heavy, and, by a happy thought of Mrs. Ryan, 
the dedication is signed by Mrs. Anson Jones' 
own hand. The suggestion may not be amiss, 
that the making of such a scrap book should be 



132 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



undertaken by other chapters, a little historical 
"anthology," as it were, and serve to keep green 
the names and loving deeds of those who, having 
borne the heat and burden of today, have laid 
ll:em down to rest. Not only so, but in this 
manner many interesting bits of history, purely 
traditional, perhaps, is thus given life that would 
otherwise be lost to posterity. 

PLACING OF TABLET. 

The placing of a memorial tablet on the walls 
of the Rice hotel was long looked forward to as 
one of the privileges of San Jacinto Chapter, an 
event in its life, and the final accomplishment of 
this plan, which took place on the 27th of March, 
igo8, was a social as well as an historical success. 
On this day, the anniversary of the massacre of 
Fannin's men at Goliad, an immense crowd of 
citizens assembled, at the bidding of the chapter, 
in the rotunda of the hotel, and the splendid 
program was carried out amid much enthusiasm. 
Dr. William States Jacobs, who had been chosen 



■1 




SITE or CAPITOL ; 
OF THE 

'REPCBLICofTEKAS 

1837-38 -S9 8.4Z 

IMEMORATING DAYS 
AFTER HER CLORI0U5 

fu(;cLE TEX AS STOOD 

AN INDEPENDENT NATWN 

A.D.1908 • 



TABLET IX RICE HOTEL, ERECTED BY SAX .fACIXTO 
CHAPTER DAUGHTERS OF THE REPUBLIC 



to give the invocation and to make a few re- 
n.arks, led his hearers to a sense of that divine 
piovidence which guided the pioneer fathers of 
Texas to success in this beautiful land, amid so 
many adverse conditions. In his remarks he 
emphasized four cardinal points, which seemed 
to him to mark the occasion : Hospitality, as 
noting the site of this fine hostelry, a resting 
p.Iace for the tourist and the citizen ; education, 
as the hotel property is now part and parcel of 
the grand institute, which, by the magnificent 
endowment of the William '\\. Rice estate, will 
be second to none in the South ; historical, as 
being the seat of the government of the strug- 
gling republic, during its davs of stress and 
hardship; of religion, as being the site and 
scene of the organization of the First Presby- 
terian clntrch in Hou.'^ton, of which Dr. Jacobs 
is now pastor. Thus, in a short, forceful applica- 
tion of the strength of these points, he put the 
audience at once in touch with the spirit of the 
time, the place and the theme. 

The literary address of the day was given by 
Colonel A. J. Houston, who dwelt largely upon 
the Fannin massacre, thrillingly describing the 
scenes which characterized the betrayal and mas- 
sacre of the Texans by the ]\Iexican commander. 
iMrs. McKeever then, in a few impressive words, 
presented the tablet to the trustees of the Rice 
Institute. So, firmly imbedded in the walls of 
the hotel, lies this pure white stone, a part of 
the history of the chapter and of the state, m 
its simple inscription telling of noble deeds, and 
by the seal of the Daughters of the Repiublic of 
Texas graven on its face, presenting a symbol of 
the past as well as of the future, that "all who 
run may read," as they pass this memorable cor- 
ner in the old city of Houston. 

TO RECAPITULATE. 

The state owns today 337 acres of land along the 
bayou front, covering almost the intire scene 
o'' this conflict between the Latin and the Anglo- 
Saxon races, this triumph of right over wrong. 
and the most grievous oppression. Although 
only a skirmish, as numbers would be rated now, 
San lacinto marked an era in modern American 
history, changing the face of the Union and 
taking rank as one of the seven decisive battles 
of the world. This San Jacinto battle field is 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



133 



governed b}- the State of Texas, through com- 
nnssioners appointed by the governor, as all 
such properties should be, and all expenses of 
care and improvement is defra3-ed b}- the state. 

Mrs. John R. Fenn, of blessed memory, was 
the first president of the chapter, filling her 
office in the most faithful and efficient manner, 
as long as her health would permit. She was 
succeeded by Mrs. Urwitz, and she in turn by 
Mrs. J. J. McKeever, Jr., to whose wise judg 
m.ent the chapter owes much of its success today. 

I cannot, perhaps, more appropriately close 
this article than by quoting the splendid words 
of Mr. Dudley Wooten, who, in his dedication 
to the "Comprehensive History of Texas," thus 
honors the society of the Daughters of the Re- 
public of Texas, and of whom he is pleased to 
say : "Their heroic ancestors composed the first 
settlers of a virgin wilderness, confronted the 
sternest trials of a savage warfare, laid the 
foundation of an incipient empire, won the un 
equal battle for liberty and justice, establishec 
and maintained a splendid independence, and 



finally yielded to the American Union the noblest 
ir, the sisterhood of states. While their own 
generous love for the glorious past, tender ven- 
eration for its deathless deeds, just appreciation 
of its imperishable renown, loyal, faitliful zeal in 
the preservation of its priceless records entitle 
them to the grateful reverence of every true 
Texan." 

With such beautiful trilnUes as the above, 
which come continually from all sources to this 
body of patriotic women, their hearts are stim- 
ulated to greater devotion to the holy cause of 
their ancestors, and so "no one works for money, 
no one for fame," but each for the joy of the 
working, and for the God of her country today. 

Official staff of tlie San Jacinto chapter: 
Mrs. J. J. McKeever, Jr., president; Mrs. E. G. 
Dumble, first vice president; Mrs. R. G. Ashe, 
second vice president; Mrs. John McClellan, 
third vice president; Mrs. M. B. Urwitz, secre- 
tary; Miss Rosalie Dumble, treasurer: Mrs. 
Rosine Ryan, historian. 



LADY WASHINGTON CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

By Mrs. E. A. Holland, Recording Secretary 



Eighteen years ago this month (October), a 
few patriotic women in the city of Washington, 
D. C, under the leadership of that talented and 
lovable woman. Miss Eugenia Washington, met 
and organized the National Society of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. Little 
then did the most sanguine of that noble and 
patriotic band dream that in this short space of 
time it would grow into the present powerful 
and efficient organization of 70,000 members, 
covering the entire United States and reaching 
into two foreign lands, Cuba and Mexico ; or that 
by this time there would be built and equipped for 
its home the most magnificent building, owned 
exclusively by women, in the world, the Con- 
tinental Memorial Hall, at Washington, D. C. 

In about one year after its inception. Texas 
was reached by this patriotic fire, and Mrs. 
Julia Washington Fontaine, a descendant of the 
\oungest brother of George Washington, had the 
honor of being the first Texas Daughter. Sev- 



eral other women of Texas soon joined the 
national society, and Mrs. Governor Throckmor- 
ton, of Austin, was appointed state regent. Mrs. 
Clark succeeded Mrs. Throckmorton, and 
during her administration, Mrs. Fontaine was 
appointed the chapter regent for the city 
of Galveston, and had the honor of organiz- 
ing the first chapter in the state, called, in com- 
pliment to her, the "George Washington Chap- 
ter." In 1895, the Jane Douglass Chapter, of 
Dallas, with JMrs. John Lane Henry as regent, 
was organized. In 1898 the Mary Isham Keith 
Chapter, of Ft. Worth, was organized, with Mrs. 
Elizabeth K. IJell as regent. In 1899 the 
Thankful Hubbard Chapter, of Austin, was 
organized, with Mrs. Ira H. Evans as regent. 
Airs. Fontaine succeeded Mrs. Clark as state 
regent. In the month of April, 1899, Mrs. Fon- 
taine was invited to Houston to meet with the 
ladies at the residence of Mrs. W. C. Crane, to 
talk over the matter of forming a chapter in our 



134 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 




MRS. D. P. STUART 
Regent 

own city. Very few, however, came prepared to 
join at once, but a number signed an agreement 
to join a chapter as soon as the proper papers 
were made out. Little was done during the 
summer of 1899. [Mrs. Seabrook W. Sydnor 
had meantime been appointed by the authorities 
in Washington as the regent of the city of 
Houston. In the early fall she met the following 
ladies in the parlor of the Rice hotel : Mrs. W. 
C. Crane, Mrs. J. C. Hutcheson, [Mrs. W. L. 
Lane, Mrs. Thomas Franklin, Mrs. James Jour- 
neay, Mrs. Henry Lummis, Mrs. Paul Timpson, 
Mrs. U. H. Foster and Mrs. H. F. Ring. Others 
who were unable to attend sent in their papers, 
duly made out, and were also accepted at head- 
quarters as charter members. These were Mrs. 
Mary Botts Fitzgerald, Mrs. D. F. Stuart, Mrs. 
W. R. Robertson, Mrs. C. L. Fitch, Mrs. Susan 
R. Tempest, Mrs. Harry T. Warner and Mrs. 
R. F. Dunbar. At the November meeting, 1899, 
the chapter regent, Mrs. Sydnor, appointed offi- 
cers to fill the various offices, and the December 
records tell us that at that meeting the chapter 
was thoroughly organized, and the name "Lady 
Washington" was adopted in compliment to the 
sister chapter, "George Washington," of Gal- 
veston. A motto was chosen, being "Honor to 



whom honor is due," and a flower selected, the 
Mary Washington tea rose. 

The first social function given by the Lady 
Washington Chapter was a "Lady Washington 
Reception," in the parlors of the Rice hotel, where 
ar. inspiring program, reflecting the "spirit of 
"76," was carried out. Patriotic songs were 
sung, "ye olden time" readings were given, and 
the minuet was danced by diminutive men and 
maidens, representing George and Martha Wash- 
ington in court attire, while the more stately 
maids sipped their cups of delicious tea. 

One of the pleasantest features of our chapter 
life lias been the exchange of courtesies with the 
George Washington Chapter of Galveston. 
While we were still a new chapter we were in- 
\ ited to take part in a most elaborate garden 
party at the beautiful home of Mrs. T. J. Groce, 
their regent, and just recently Mrs. Walter T. 
Gresham entertained us at a most gorgeous 
luncheon given to her chapter in commemoration 
of the birthday of George Washington. We have 
had the pleasure, in return, of entertaining some 
of their members on two of our state occasions, 

January 17, 1907, known as "Regent's Day," 
the regent of Lady Washington Chapter, Mrs. 
D. F. Stuart — for this chapter has known but 
three regents, Mrs. Sydnor, Mrs. Crane and Mrs. 
Stuart — gave a beautiful "colonial" reception at 
her spacious, hospitable home. The Colonial 
Dames and Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, with powdered wigs and beauty patches, in 
polonaise and watteau backs, and wearing high- 
heeled slippers, greeted the invited guests, num- 
bering several hundred. 

Other entertainments, receptions and teas have 
been given by our chapter, some to commemorate 
revolutionary anniversaries, and some to assist 
in raising money for Continental Memorial Ha'l 
and other patriotic work. Among the latter was 
a bazaar given in December, 1905, where $349 
was cleared; also a "silver tea" was given last 
.\pril at the home of Mrs. J. A. [Mullen, where a 
neat sum was realized and forwarded to Wash- 
ington. A $25 donation was made in 1902 to the 
Cum Concilio Club of Nacogdoches, Texas, to 
assist in rebuilding the "Old Stone Fort," which 
had recently been torn down. A like sum was 
donated to the Daughters of the Republic of 
Texas for the Alamo fund, besides $5 to the 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



135 



Mount Vernon flag fund. A national flag has 
also been given to the Free Kindergarten of this 
city, to inspire patriotism in the children. In 
the summer of 1906, desiring to assist in a most 
worthy local cause, the chapter donated $50 to 
the Young Men's Christian Association building 
fund. The "Historic Loan" exhibit given by the 
chapter in 1903 was probably one of the most 
interesting and instructive of the many entertain- 
ments that have been given by this organization ; 
for the collection of relics shown was not only 
\ery large, but many pieces were very choice 



memory of Alexander Hodge, one of Marion's 
brave men, who was buried in Texas, a granite 
boulder hewn from the quarries of our own state 
at Llano. This boulder was unveiled in the City 
Park, March 13, 1908, with befitting ceremonies, 
and presented to the city of Houston in the 
presence of a large assemblage of people. Mrs. 
Seabrook W. Sydnor, our state regent, is a de- 
scendant of this revolutionary soldier. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution of 
the State of Texas have presented to the Con- 
tinental Memorial Hall fund about $1,500. This 




jrOXUMEXT IX SAM HOUSTOX PARK. ERECTED BY LADY WASHIXGTOX 
CHAPTER DAUGHTERS AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



and of great value to the proud owners. The 
placing of United States histories and other 
reference books in the Carnegie Library has re- 
ceived considerable attention from the chapter; 
but as there is no limit, this work will continue 
indefinitely. 

Sacred and dear to the patriotic heart of 
every Daughter of the American Revolution 
is the resting place of a revolutionary sol- 
dier; and, inspired with a desire to do him honor, 
the Lady Washington chapter erected to the 



includes the finishings of the Texas Room and 
tlie Lone Star in the dome of that building, as 
well as donations for other purposes, and of this 
amount the Lady Washington Chapter has con- 
tributed $300. The chapter membership is at the 
present time seventy-six, with several applications 
in Washington to be acted upon. The meetings 
are held the first Friday in every month at the 
homes of different members. Just one little token 
of appreciation, love and esteem from the mem- 
bers, in the shape of a. loving cup, has been given 



136 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



our faithful regent, as a recognition of six years 
of devoted service in that office. Could this cup 
express in words the loving sentiment of each 
individual member, it would speak volumes. 

While many have been the pleasures since the 
formation of the chapter, yet Death has visited 
and darkened the homes and taken the loved 
ones. One of the original band of charter mem- 
bers has been removed to the great beyond, Mrs. 
Mary B. Fitzgerald. 

In conclusion, I will say that from an educa- 
tional standpoint, in the studv of revolutionary 
history, as well as in the commemoration of 
noble deeds, the chapter has been wide awake. 
For the past seven years a "Year Book" has been 
publish.ed by the historian and placed in the 
hands of every member. The chapter is ever 
trying to keep alive in the hearts of the people 
the importance of celebrating anniversaries, and 



th.at the turmoil of the battlefield of our revolu- 
tionary forefathers should not be forgotten, the 
hardships and privations they suffered to 
achieve liberty are again and again depicted. In 
fact, the history of the colonies, especially that 
of the "thirteen original states," is being studied 
niore earnestly year after year, so that the true 
spark of patriotism may be kindled, and the 
world become richer and better in perpetuating 
the memory of the spirit of the men and women 
who achieved American independence. 

The present officers are : Mrs. D. F. 
Stuart, regent; Mrs. H. F. Ring, vice regent; 
Mrs. E. A. Holland, recording secretary ; Mrs. 
R. Hume Smith, corresponding secretary; Mrs. 
John McClellan. registrar; Mrs. William Stude, 
treasurer; Mrs. E. J. Brewster, historian; Miss 
.Myrtella Beall, librarian : Mrs. W. L. Lane, 
curator. 



THE SOCIETY OF COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA IN THE STATE OF 

TEXAS— HOUSTON CIRCLE 

Aiotto: "\'irtutes Majorum Filiae Conservant." 

Bv Mrs. W. C. Crane 



The object of this society is to collect and 
preserve manuscripts, traditions and mementoes 
of bygone days ; to preserve and restore build- 
ings connected with the early history of our 
country, and to diffuse healthful and intelligent 
information concerning the past. The members 
shall be composed entirely of women who are 
descended in their own right from some ancestor 
of worthy life who came to reside in an American 
colony prior to 1750, and shall have rendered 
service to his country during the colonial period, 
held an important position in a colonial govern- 
ment, or in some efficient service contributed to 
the founding of this great and powerful nation, 
before July 5, 1776. This date shall include all 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. No 
person shall be a candidate for admission unless 



iiivited and proposed by one member and second- 
efi by another. The Houston Circle of the society 
was organized in 1904, in order to keep in touch 
with the state society, and the society at large, 
and that they might take up intelligently the 
study of colonial history. With the state 
societies, it has contributed to the awarding of 
prizes for essays on colonial subjects in the five 
larger cities of the state, including Houston. 

Beginning with four members, we have more 
than doubled our numljer, as follows : Mrs. B. 
F. Weems, Mrs. John :\IcClel]an, Mrs. \V. C. 
Crane, INIrs. Howard Smith, Mrs. Robert Knox, 
Mrs. Jeff N. Miller, Mrs. J. W. Parker, Mrs. 
Seabrook Sydnor, Mrs. W. M. Robinson, Mrs. 
Arthur Cargill. 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



137 



DICK DOWLING CAMP, UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS, NO. 197 

By Philip H. Fall, Commatuier 



This is an organization composed of ex-Con- 
federate soldiers, which has for its object the 
ameHoration of the condition of any old South- 
ern soldier who may be a member, or of his fani- 
il}, sliould he die destitute of means. The camp 
never allows one of its members to be buried in 
"potter's field," as it owns three lots in the 
German cemetery for the use of deceased mem- 
bers. It has accomplished much good during 
its existence. Its membership was at one time 
nearly 500, but death has thinned its ranks, until 
now about 140 names are upon its roster. The 
records of the camp were destroyed in the Market 
House fire, hence a correct history is not accessi- 
ble. The camp is represented at all of the gen- 
eral reunions, and with its celebrated banner, 
which has inscribed upon it "Forty-three de- 
feated 15,000, at Sabine Pass, September 8, 
J863," creates great enthusiasm, as it marches 
in the great procession of old soldiers and their 
friends. It is a great advertisement to Houston, 
and as many of the camp as possible should be 
prevailed upon to attend the reunions. These 
old heroes will not be with us much longer, and 
we shall miss them when they "cross the river." 

The caP-ip is named after Richard Dowling, 
the hero of Sabine Pass battle, whose bravery, 
with only forty-three men, prevented General 
Franklin, with an army of 15,000, from landing 
at Sabine Pass, thus preventing the invasion of 
I'exas. Their aim was to effect a landing and 
march to Houston, where Federal lieadquarters 
were to be established, whence commands would 
be sent in all directions for the purpose of 
devastating the country; but Dowling and his 
forty-three Irishmen prevented such an awful 
catastrophe. Jefferson Davis, in his memoirs, 
declares it to have been the most remarkable 
victory known in any age of the world. 

Miss Minnie Porter, of Houston, presented the 
camp the banner of which it is so proud. The 
R. E. Lee Chapter also presented them with a 
costly and beautiful Confederate flag. The city 
has given the camp a room in the Market House 
as long as it is a camp, and also gives them the 
use of the large hall adjoining, in which to hold 
their meetings. The beautiful life-size statue 



of Dick Dowling on Market Square is the result 
of the work of Dick Dowling Camp, aided by 
the three divisions of the Ancient Order of 
Hibernians and Emmet Council. These asso- 
ciations together formed the Dick Dowling Mon- 
ument Association. Popular subscriptions were 
called for, through the press and otherwise. The 
ladies of Beaumont sent a large co!i1ribulion, 
R. E. Lee Chapter helped materially, and sev- 
eral citizens gave large donations. The a:nount 
of material, money and work required to com- 
plete the monument approximated $5,000. 

The pedestal of the monument is of highly 
polished grav granite, eleven and one-half feet 




PHILIP H. PALL 
Commander Dick Dowling Camp 



in height, surmounted by a portrait statue of 
Dowling in Carrara Italian marble, six feet six 
inches high, making the total height of the mon- 
ument eighteen feet. 

Immediatelv over the foundation are two 
steps and two bases. Upon the second base is 
the name "Dowling," raised in bold letters. On 
the highly polished die are the names of the 
forty-three Irish patriots who assisted Dowling 
in the achievement that has rendered his name 
famous in the history of the late war. 

Upon each of the four sides of the plinth are 
appropriate emblems, such as cannon, typical of 



138 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



his command; the Confederate flag, a stack of 
cannon balls and the Irish harp, suggestive of 
Dowling's nationality. 

Upon the second base is the inscription, 
"Erected by Dick Bowling Camp and the Irish 
Societies of Houston." 

The Dick Dowling Camp has been made the 
custodian of quite a number of valuable relics of 
the civil war. The camp is to have a "gray 



book" issued soon, containing the pictures of the 
presidents of the United States and the history 
of the camp, and other data concerning the civil 
war, which is to be published by a Mr. Krogh. 

The present officers are : Philip H. Fall, com- 
nander; J. J. Hall, first lieutenant: George H. 
Hermann, second lieutenant; A. F. Amcrman, 
adjutant ; J. S. Blair, chaplain. 



ROBERT E. LEE CHAPTER i86, UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY. 

By Mrs. Mary E. Bryan 



November ii, 1897, in response to a call by 
veterans of Dick Dowling Camp, for the organ- 
ization of a chapter of United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, Mrs. Margaret Hadley Foster and 
several other ladies met at the City Hall on that 




MRS. M.\HV K, BEY.\X 
President Robert E. Lee Chapter 



date, in the evening, the regular meeting place 

of the camp. Mrs. Foster, by request of the 

veterans and ladies present, was made chairman. 

After discussion of U. D. C. work, the matter 



v^as placed in Mrs. Foster's hands, and she 
named the following list of ladies as a committee 
of co-workers: Mrs. Robert Rutherford, Mrs. 
T. R. Franklin, Mrs. J. A. Huston, Mrs. B. P. 
Weems, Mrs. Mary E. Bryan (Mrs. Jesse A.), 
Mrs. Carter Walker, Mrs. E. A. Sydnor, Mrs. 
J. R. ^^'aties, Mrs. C. H. Lucy, Mi.s.s Adelia A. 
Dunovant, Miss Kate B. .Shaifer, Miss Jennie 
Hunter. 

The chairman called a meeting for the morn- 
ing of the 17th at the Lyceum Library, and the 
chapter was there organized and the following 
officers were duly elected : Mrs. Joseph Chap- 
j.kII Hutcheson, president; Mrs. Milton G. Howe, 
first vice president; Mrs. Thomas R. Franklin, 
second vice president ; Mrs. Margaret Hadley 
Foster, secretary. Later the first credential 
committee was in charge of Mrs. W. V. R. 
Watson as chairman, with ;\Irs. R. S. Lovett and 
Mrs. J. R. Waties. 

Noting the fact that no chapter in the division 
was named for the great chieftain, Robert E. 
Lee, the chapter took advantage of it and be- 
came the first to be enrolled as the Robert E. Lee 
Chapter in the state. Deeply engraved with love 
and veneration upon every heart, this dear name 
has ever been an inspiration and seemingly a 
benison upon the chapter work. 

When Miss Mildred Lee was officially in- 
formed that the Houston chapter had taken her 
honored father's name, to distinguish themselves 
in the national group of chapters, she replied 
with a cordial letter of thanks, inclosing to the 
chapter a lock of her father's hair, which is kept 
l)y the chapter among its treasured possessions. 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



139 



Among others present at the second meeting 
were Mrs. J. J. Clemens and Miss Salter. Hav- 
ing a list of fifty members, a charter was applied 
for. Mrs. Piety L. Hadley was the first hon- 
orary member of the chapter. The membership 
consisted largely of the most energetic and dis- 
tinguished women of the city, and the high 
standard under which it was so favorably 
launched has ever been maintained. The motto 
selected is that of the Lee family, "Not unmind- 
ful of futurity," and the flower a red rose. 

Quickly after organization the chapter made 
a record second to none in the performance of 
duty, taking up the objects of the U. D. C. As- 
sociation, which include memorial, benevolent 
and social work. 

It has been a labor of love to look after and 
give assistance to the veterans in life. The home 
at Austin has received material aid from the 
chapter and a library established there was 
largely through its efforts, with Mrs. J. A. 
Pluston chairman in charge. 

As to the Confederate dead, the chapter has 
been faithful to the memory of these glorious 
heroes, in strewing flowers on their graves and 
placing substantial markers that none may be 
forgotten or neglected. 

The chapter was the first -n thi siate and 
second in the South to bestow crosses of honor 
on Confederate \'eterans. The chapter, in it.'? 
infancy, sent delegates to the U. D. C. conven- 
tion at Galveston, and with the characteristic 
hospitality of Houstonians, invited the next an- 
imal session of the division to meet at Houston. 
The invitation was accepted and the convention 
met in our city in 1898, and proved to be a most 
interesting and successful event. All delegates 
and state officials were the guests of the chapter. 
The president, Mrs. J. C. Hutcheson, entertained 
with an elegant noon luncheon at her home, and 
a reception was given at the close of the conven- 
tion at the parish house of Christ church, where 
the convention was held, through the courtesy of 
Rev. Henry D. Aves, rector of the parish. Mrs. 
Cornelia Branch Stone, state president, and Mrs. 
Kate Cabell Currie, national president, were in 
attendance. A beautiful memorial service was 
held in the same place during the convention. 

During Mrs. Hutcheson's administration, the 
loth of October, 1898, was made memorable by 



the members present, fourteen in number (just 
five more than a quorum), pledging the chapter 
to direct its energies principally to placing a 
monument in Houston, to the Confe<lerate dead 
and in a park if possible. Every one knew this 
meant years of arduous work, but not a heart 
faltered. The brave president led a campaign 
with every member assigned to certain wards 
and streets, to solicit funds, only asking one 
dollar from each white person called upon, in 
the house to house solicitation. This resulted 
in the nucleus of the monument fund, which was 
augmented by another plan also suggested by 
the president. These were "Stone Buyers," being 
leaflets of cardboard consisting of forty squares 
for the names of those buying the stones, and 
these leaflets were to be preserved and placed in 
the corner stone of the monument, which prom- 
ise was kept. 

Mrs. T. R. Franklin was appointed chairman 
of the monument committee, in which capacity 
she served during the many years required to 
raise a sufficient amount to erect a monument 
which would do credit to the cause, to the city 
of Houston and to the chapter. Mrs. Franklin, 
with the endorsement of the chapter, wisely 
placed the fund, as it accumulated, out at interest, 
until such time as it would be needed 

In the park house the chapter has the plaster 
cast of the recumbent statue of General Albert 
Sidney Johnston, made by that wonderful genius, 
Elizabeth Ney. This statue was presented by 
the sculptor to Judge Norman G. Kittrell, who, 
believing that it should be in the hands of the 
Daughters of the Confederacy, presented it to 
the Robert E. Lee Chapter. 

In 1903 the chapter again entertained the state 
convention, on this occasion joined by the Oran 
M. Roberts, the sister chapter of the city, as 
hostesses. The convention was held in Assembly 
Hall, and there was a splendid program of en- 
ttrtainment, in which the Z. Z. Club figured, 
with the president Judge Presley K. Ewing and 
Mrs. Ewing taking part, and makmg a great 
success. 

The chapter has been faithful to every trust. 
All honor days have been observed, and im- 
pressive memorial services held. The first 
service in memory of Miss Winnie Davis, the 
beloved Daughter of the Confederacy, was held 



140 



THE KEY TO THE CTfY OF HOUSTON 



in Christ church, by the chapter, Mrs. M. E. 
Bryan, chairman, with Aliss Salter and Miss 
Hunter, committee in charge. 

In the eleven years of the chapter's existence, 
seven presidents have been honored with the 
leadership of its affairs: Mrs. Hutcheson, Mrs. 
T. R. Franklin, Mrs. William Christian, Mrs. 
Seabrook Sydnor, Mrs. J. A. Huston, Mrs. J. B. 
Beatty, Airs. Alary E. Bryan. Each president 
has done what she could. During Mrs. Beatty's 
administration there was niiu-h activity and she 
organized the chapter auxiliary, Hood's Texas 
Brigade, Jr. 

The entertainment committee, Mrs. O. T. 
Holt, chairman, and Mrs. Mabel Franklin Smith, 
vice chairman, showed splendid executive ability 
iii the management of its affairs, and brought in 
large amounts for the monument fund. The 
monument, designed for the chapter by the sculp- 
tor. Air. Louis Aniaties, of Washington, D. C, 
was an allegorical figure representing the Spirit 
of the Confederacy, the conception being that, as 
the principles for which the Confederacy fought 
stand on natural rights, so the bronze figure rep- 
resenting its spirit should stand on natural rocks, 
entwined by the deathless ivy, strong and youth- 
ful, resting his arms on the downturned sword, 
clasping with one hand the palm of peace, which 
he reluctantly accepted, and with the other a 
bunch of laurel, which he so valiantly earned on 
the battle field, he looks on the horizon, thought- 
lul of the future of the country. 

As the order was given to cast the bronze 
figure, it behooved the chapter in 1907 to obtain 
the requisite amount, $1,700, to finish payment 
and for expenses of unveiling ceremonies. This 
was undertaken by the acting president, and Airs. 
O. T. Holt of the monument committee, and with 
the assistance of a ball game, played as a benefit 
by Captains Frank Clemens and Lubbock re- 
spectively, of the Lean and Fat teams, the result 
was success. Great enthusiasm was manifested 
when it was known that the fruition of hopes of 
long years would be realized. The monnment 
was erected on the beautiful plateau in the City 
Park, which had been selected for it The date 
for unveiling was especially appropriate, as it 
was decided to celebrate the K)th of Tanuarv, 
1908, the natal anniversary of Generals Robert 
E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. 



The day was ideal, and thousands thronged the 
park to witness the event. The chapter had sent 
out hundreds of invitations to chapters U. D. C, 
and to camps of United Confederate Veterans, 
to state officials and other distinguished persons 
in other states. The unveiling ceremonies were 
beautiful and impressive. The cords pulling the 
drapery apart that disclosed the monument were 
in the hands of Aliss Alarian Holt Seward, mem- 
ber of the auxiliar\-, and Master J. B. Jaqua, 
president of the same organization, all of the 
children taking part in the songs and placing the 
flowers on the monument. 

Judge Norman G. Kittrell, master of cere- 
monies, and Captain J. C. Hutcheson, orator of 
tlie day, seemed inspired with patriotic words of 
earnestness and fervor. The President General of 
the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Airs. 
Cornelia Branch Stone, placed the laurel wreath 
on the monument and gave a beautiful address. 
Airs. R. E. Luhn, chairman of the anniversary 
committee, in their behalf presented an exquisite 
floral piece, handing it to the chapter president, 
Mrs. Bryan, who placed it on the granite pedes- 
tal. There were grateful hearts and true that 
joined in the invocation said by Rev. Peter Gray 
Sears at the close of the exercises. 

Although the chapter, never numerically 
strong, had raised the amount of $7,500 to com- 
plete the monument, it had kept every pledge to 
help the Confederate Woman's Home. For 1908 
the pledge promised by the chairman at the con- 
vention had been doubled, and was forwarded to 
Airs. Roberdeau, the treasurer, at Austin, the ist 
of Alay. Members assisted in that cause inde- 
pendently. Airs. J. B. Beatty was the promoter, 
as state officer, in raising this sum. Mrs. Sea- 
brook Sydnor and Airs. Robertson furnished a 
memorial room, and Airs. Bryan raised a sum 
sufficient to furnish one room. 

Airs. B. A. Randolph, a member of this chap- 
ter, who was the president of the first chapter 
of Daughters of the Confederacy in Houston, 
which disbanded after a short existence, donated 
one hundred dollars to the R. E. Lee Chapter 
Confederate monument fund from the former 
chapter, the amount having been raised for mon- 
ument purposes. 

During the present year the R. E. Lee Chapter 
set aside the sum of one hundred dollars to aid 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



141 



in erecting a tablet to the memory of the Con- 
fiderate dead in the Tenth Street cemetery in 
this city, Mrs. T. R. FrankHn chairman of the 
work. 

The inscription on the tablet which marks the 
pedestal of granite, some twelve feet high, on 
which stands the bronze figure, The Spirit of the 
Confederacy, has this inscription in bas relief: 
"Erected by Robert E. Lee Chapter. No. i86, to 



The honorary members of the chapter, Mrs. 
Piety L. Hadley, Mrs. M. J. Briscoe, Mrs. Anson 
Jones and Mrs. Robert Brewster, have passed 
to their higher reward. 

Of the active members, Mrs. Robert Ruther- 
ford was the first to be taken, and one who was 
faithful in everything for which she labored for 
long vears, but especially for the cause of her 
beloved South. Mrs. Annie E. Sydnor and Mrs. 




■THK .SPIRIT OF THE CONFEDERACY" 
Bronze Figure on Monument Erected by the Robert E. Lee Chapter 



all heroes of the South who fought for the prin- 
ciple of State's Rights." The names of the monu- 
ment committee follow, and are: Mrs. Julia H. 
Franklin, J\Irs. Bettie P. Hutcheson, Mrs. Ella 
H. Sydnor, :\Irs. Marian S. Holt, Mrs. Mabel F. 
Smith, Mrs. Maria C. Weems, Mrs. Julia Hus- 
ton, Mrs. Mary W. Beatty, ]\Irs. Mary E. Bryan, 
and the name of the chapter organizer, Mrs. 
Margaret Hadley Foster. 



J. R. \\'aties also were taken from the chapter 
to join the happy throng beyond the Great Divide. 
Roster of officers of R. E. Lee Chapter : Mrs. 
Mary E. Bryan, president; Mrs. E. J. Brewster, 
vice president: ]\Irs. J. F. Burton, second vice 
president: ]\Irs. Carter Walker, third vice presi- 
dent; Mrs. R. E. Luhn, fourth vice president; 
Mrs. Stuart Boyles, recording secretary; Mrs. 
Theodore L. Dunn, corresponding secretary; 



142 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Miss Abbie F. Smith, having served the past two 
years; Mrs. Philip H. Fall, treasurer; Mrs. M. 
D. Fuller, historian; Mrs. A. G. Henry, regis- 
trar; Mrs. J. W. Dittmar, curator; Mrs. O. M. 



Davis, director of Chapter Auxiliary, with Mrs. 
R. E. Patterson, Mrs. Gordon L. Black and Mrs. 
A. G. Henrv, committee. 



ORAN M. ROBERTS CHAPTER NO. 440, UNITED DAUGHTERS OF THE 

CONFEDERACY. 
By Mrs. S. T. Steele, Historian 



The Oran M. Roberts Chapter was organized 
at Houston, Texas, February i, 1901, by Miss 
Adelia A. Dunovant, with sixt\- charter members. 




MRS. WHARTON BATES 
President 



The chapter was named in honor of Governor 
Oran M. Roberts. Mrs. O. M. Roberts, on learn- 
ing of this, presented the chapter with a valuable 
book, "A Comprehensive History of Texas," also 
a battle flag which had been presented to ex- 
Governor Roberts by the women of Opelousas, 
Louisiana. Mrs. Roberts was unanimously 
elected honorary member of the chapter, and a 
vote of thanks was tendered her by the chapter 
for her highly prized gifts. All member> of 



Dick Dowling Camp, Confederate Veterans, were 
also made honorar)' members of the chapter. 

The following officers were elected to serve 
for the year 1901. President, Miss Adelia A. 
Dunovant ; first vice president, Mrs. S. F. Car- 
ter; second vice president, Mrs. T. W. House; 
third vice president, Mrs. Wharton Bates ; fourth 
vice president, Mrs. W. B. King; recording sec- 
retary, Miss Jennie Criswell ; corresponding sec- 
retary, Mrs. Jonathan Lane ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Bettie ]\Iather Stephens ; registrar, Mrs. F. L. 
Phelps; historian, Mrs. Blandin ; custodian, Mrs. 
E. A. Heffernan ; librarian, Miss Bett'e B. Guild ; 
choral leader and instrumental soloist. Mi?.: 
Emily Beavens ; vocal soloists, Mrs. E. P. Daviss 
and Mrs. Baltis Allen ; standard beam , to be 
appointed by the president, or, rather, gl"en to 
the lady who brought in the most new members, 
won by Mrs, Sam T. Steele. 

The chapter motto is "Memory is the Mother 
of the Muses," The chapter flower is the pansy, 
emblem of thought, appropriate to our work. 
Chapter badge is of white silk with gold fringe. 
The motto, "Mejuory is the Mother of the 
Muses," is printed in gold letters around a beau- 
tiful purple pansy, beneath which two flags, the 
Texas flag and the Confederate battle flag, are 
crossed. 

The chapter prospered, and the membership 
increased so rapidly that 315 members were en- 
rolled in December, 1901. The chapter sent 
fourteen delegates to the state convention at San 
Antonio in December, 1901, and had the honor 
and pleasure of seeing its president. Miss Adelia 
Dunovant, elected state president before it cel- 
ebrated its first anniversary. 

The chapter did excellent work during the 
years 1902 and 1903. In 1903 Mrs. Blandin was 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



143 



elected president, and Mrs. Dunovant elected 
honorary president of the chapter. In Januar)', 
1904, Mrs. Wharton Bates was elected president, 
and this year's record shows the chapter with a 
neat sum of money in its treasury. During this 
year memorial services were held at Shearn 
cluirch, in honor of General John B. Gordon : a 
handsome floral tribute was sent by the chapter 
to be placed on the casket which held his re- 
mains; also a letter of condolence to his wife and 
family. Mrs. Gordon wrote a letter of thanks for 
same. 

The chapter celebrated the birthday of Gen- 
eral Robert E. Lee, January 19, with appropriate 
exercises, at Light Guard Armory Hall. Thomas 
H. Ball and Congressman Pinckney were the dis- 
tinguished orators of the occasion. April 26, 
"Memorial." or "Confederate Veterans' Decora- 
tion Day," was observed by strewing flowers 
and placing a laurel wreath on the grave of every 
Confederate veteran. 

The chapter donated $60 to the fund for the 
home for wives and widows of Confederate vet- 
erans, soon to be built at Austin, Texas. The 
concert given at Br}an Hall for the benefit of 
the chapter netted over $100. 

General Lee's birthday was celebrated January 
19, 1905, with an appropriate program. Mrs. 
Steele read an original tribute to Stonewall Jack- 
son, which was published in "Dixie Land." A 
reception was given by the chapter to veterans 
of Dick Dowling Camp, at the beautiful home of 
Mrs. Will Bottler, who extended this hospitality 
to the chapter. 

Appropriate memorial services were held at 
Shearn chapel on Decoration Day, w'th an able 
address by Judge Street of Galveston. Two 
hundred wreaths were made by Oran M. Rob- 
erts Chapter and these were taken to the dif- 
ferent cemeteries and placed on the graves of 
departed Confederate veterans. 

June 3 of that year, Jefferson Davis' birthday, 
was celebrated with an interesting' program fo'- 
lowed by an elegant reception given to the Oran 
M. Roberts Chapter and veterans bv our beloved 
president, Mrs. Wharton Bates. The programs 
rnd decorations for each of these occasions were 
arranged by Mrs. C. W. Black, chairman of com- 
mittees on anniversaries, assisted by Mrs. S. T. 
Steele and others of this committee. 



The chapter assisted an old veteran by helping 
him buy a horse, so that he could make a living 
by hauling, etc., giving him $6.25 for this pur- 
pose. 

We also sent floral offerings and a telegram 
of condolence on the death of Judge Reagan, 
also an exquisite floral cross, three feet high, 
made of lilies of the valley, white forget-me-nots 
and carnations, to Mildred Lee, and handsome 
floral tributes to Governor Lubbock. Floral 
offerings are always sent when a member of our 
chapter dies, also on the death of a Confederate 
veteran in our city. The chapter gave $2.00 to 
the Davis monument fund, sent a large box of 
comfortable clothing to Austin for indigent 
wives and widows of Confederate veterans, 
which was kindly received and wisely distrib- 
uted by i\Irs. Z. T. Fulmore. 

In the summer the chapter gave a picnic at 
Sam Houston park, from which the sum of $100 
was realized. We assisted the family of a vet- 
eran who were in need, giving them $5.00 and 
the promise of shoes ; also secured transportation 
to New Orleans for another worthy veteran, 
who hoped to get in the home there. This was 
done through the efforts of our president, Mrs. 
Wharton Bates. Colonel T. J. Anderson, gen- 
eral passenger agent of the Southern Pacific, 
aided by giving a rate of one cent per mile, the 
chapter paying his fare and giving him money 
for other expenses. 

The chapter feels that it is better to assist and 
care for the living, and that there will be plenty 
of time after the last veteran has passed over the 
river, to raise monuments to their memor\\ In 
accordance with this conviction, it was decided 
that this chapter send $25 to the fund for wives 
and widows of veterans, this sum to be carried 
bv one of the delegates and presented at the 
state convention. 

Our membership rapidly increased, in 1904-05 
new members being admitted at almost every 
meeting. Mrs. M. L. J. Hoover and Mrs. Hattie 
S. Hatch, chairman of the committee on cre- 
dentials, did fine work, being influential in 
bringing in new members and in seeing that 
application blanks are properly filled and signed. 

During the year 1906, the chapter disbursed 
a considerable amount in aid of various enter- 
prises, among which were the following: Feb- 



144 THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 

man- z-^. to the Confederate Woman's Home at Paid for general and state dues $40.50 

Austin, $50; August 28, to same institution, Paid for floral offerings 19.00 

$100; to U. D. C. San Francisco earthquake Paid to charities I5-50 

sufferers, $50; to Y. M. C. A. building, $50; for Paid to Confederate Women's Home 36.60 

marking graves of Confederate soldiers on bat- Paid for sundries 123.82 

tie fields, $50. 

Services were held on Memorial Day, and all '^^^^^ $235-42 

graves of Confederate veterans in the various The chapter has also furnished a room in the 

cemeteries of Houston were decorated. Confederate Women's Home. Mrs. C. L. De St. 

The birthdays of Robert E. Lee and Stone- Aubin, formerly Mrs. Lottie R. Cox. joined by 

wall Jackson were celebrated on Januarv 19, lier husband, gave the chapter a tine oil portrait 

that of Jefferson Davis June 3, and nf Judge of Gov. O. M. Roberts, which we placed in the 

Reagan on October 8, all with appropriate exer- * '■ ^f ■ Roberts room at the home. Sweeney & 

cises, which were attended by members of the J'Vedericks of Houston made and donated a beau- 

O. ]\L Roberts and R. E. Lee chapters. U. D. C, lif"! brass door plate, with Governor O. M. 

Dick Dowling Camp, V. C. V., and Houston's Roberts" name engraved on it, which was placed 

representative citizens. ori the door of said room. The chapter has now 

Mrs. M. A. Zumwalt, one of our members, ^" l^^'"' ?^o°' ^^''"^^^ ''^^ delegates to the corn- 
while chairman of South Te.xas district, Texas '"§' ^'^'^ convention in December, at Terrell, 
division, U. D. C, collected over one thousand '^"^"^^S' ^'^''H ^°"^te to the home, thus redeeming 
dollars for the fund to build a home for Confed-- "^'^ P^^'S^ '"^^^ b>' delegates at a previous con- 

erate women at Austin. This sum, together 

.., J. -u ,.■ £ ii ^-v T\r -D u i. r-i "Our historical meetings have been a special 

with contributions from the O. i\L Roberts Chap- . '^ ^ 

,,,,,, ..,. , , , feature, these meetings being ablv and enthu- 

tcr, amounts to about fourteen or fittcen hundred ... - " _ „ , 

, „ ,, , , • r 1 ■ . siasticallv conducted bv Mrs. Sam T. Steele, 

dollars collected and given for this purpose bv , ... , ' ,, ... 

. ' chapter historian, who follows stricth- the pro- 

the chapter and through the splendid work of , ,_ , ^ ^ , • ^ • , • , 

'^ or gram sent bv the state historian, and introduces, 

Mrs. Zumwalt. She was elected one of the . , .... " , , • ^ .• ^ ^ c 

m addition, novel and interesting contests, for 

trustees of the home, also a director of the state .... ^- , _,, . , 

' which prizes are offered. These ^nd musical 

executive board. numbers keep up unflagging interest in this line 

The year 1907-08 has shown splendid work by of chapter work. At the unveiling of Dick 

the Oran M. Roberts Chapter. The chief object Dowling ir.onument, which was celebrated with 

of the chapter has been helping the Confederate great eclat, our president was given the honor 

AVomen's Home in Austin, Texas. Towards this of choosing the sponsor to represent the Confed- 

end we have given a number of entertainments, eracy on that occasion. r\Iiss Maybelle Steele, 

the most important of which, financially, was the daughter of our esteemed historian, was 

the ball game between the "Fats" and the chosen. She wore a beautiful costume in Con- 

"Leans." Mrs. J. M. Gibson deserves special federate colors, and carried the handsome flag. 

mention for her energetic work in getting up of which our chapter is so justly proud." (From 

this game. '^^be secretary's report.) 

T,, V . • -J 1 J , • i , Time and space forbid further mention of the 

1 he chapter is wide awake, and keeps in touch ... 

.^, ,, . , , r 1 , T^ nianv, nianv things this chapter has done to aid 

with the progressive methods of the day. Dur- , • , • , : , . . . , , , 

, .... the work to which our association is pledged, 

ing the year, manv new members have loined our „, . .... • • , , 

■ . 1 he moving and guiding spirit has been our 

ranks. While we are satisfied with what has ^, "■ 1 4. ht \5ri <- t> <. 1 • 

worthv president, Mrs. Wharton Bates, who is 

been done, we are ambitious, and hope to do ^^,.^.i,;„ ,^^^ f^^,^^,^ j^^,^^ .^,^^ i^ ^^^,^^ ^^^^^^^. -^ 

greater things in the future. ^^.^^1, ^^-^^^ ^,^^, .ig^erves all honor and praise for 

The treasurer, Mrs. Arthur McClellan, made her devotion to the work in which the Daugh- 

a very gratifying report, as follows : tcrs are engaged. 



THE PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES OF HOUSTON 



145 



On October 7, 190S, the following officers 
were elected by acclamation : President, Mrs. 
Wharton Bates; first vice president, Mrs. J. M. 
Gibson; second vice president, Mrs. Hattie S. 
Hatch; third vice president, Mrs. R. F. Noble; 
fourth vice president, Mrs. Sidney Huston ; 
recording secretary, Mrs. L. M. Worsham (nee 



Gambati) ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Max 
Otto ; treasurer, Mrs. Arthur McClellan ; his- 
torian, Mrs. Sam T. Steele; registrar, Mrs. Kate 
Hansen; curator, Mrs. C. H. Rogers; librarian, 
Mrs. W. E. Crump. Mrs. T. C. Rowe was made 
an honorary member, and was elected director of 



GEORGE B. McCLELLAN POST NO. 9, DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS, G. A. R. 

By John C. Bonnei.l, Commander 



The Grand Army of the Republic was organ- 
ized at Springfield, Illinois, May, 1866. It is 
composed only of honorably discharged soldiers 
and sailors who aided in the maintenance and in 
establishing the honor and integrity, and conse- 
quently the supremacy, of our national union and 
government, by service in the war of 1861-65. 

It has three distinct constituted and chartered 
bodies : First, Posts, for city, county, town or 
precinct, meeting at least once monthly. Second. 
Departments, which cover a state and meet yearl}- 
in an encampment. Third, National Encamp- 
m.ent, the highest in rank and authority, meeting 
once a year. 

Its three great principles are fraternity, char- 
ity, loyalty. Fraternity, without regard to 
former rank, is the great foundation stone. 

Charity, whose virtues are followed, and ties 
that were welded in fire of battle, make a sym- 
pathy for disabled comrades and their families 
very strong. 

Loyalty, the great crowning principle. When 
our flag is in danger, then loyal sons leave pur- 
suits and pleasures of civil life and throng to the 
field, with one resolve, "The Union shall and 
must be preserved." 

Its life continues up to and ceases at the mus- 
ter out by death of the last comrade that bore 
arms to defend the nation's flag during the war 
between the states. 

Its own and only auxiliary is The Woman's 
Relief Corps. This national body was organized 
it: 1883 at Denver, Colorado, hv Paul Vander- 
voort, commander in chief of the G. A. R. This 
is a body of loyal women whose purpose is to 
aid in securing funds for charity, and they guide 
ir; the dispensing of that charity in a more per- 



fect manner than could be attained by the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

The George B. McClellan Post, No. 9, De- 
partment of Texas, G. A. R., was organized 
December 10, 1885, and its complete by-laws, 
adopted December 9, 18S6. The records show 
about forty members at that time. Captain A. K. 
Taylor was post commander, with David Per- 
kms post adjutant. During its existence the post 
has given many hundreds of dollars to relieve 
the wants of and to help out of difficulty any of 
the defenders of Old Glory. Its objects, too, 
extend to relief of widows and orphans, and this 
at an especial time and in an especial way, viz : 
when the Union veteran passes here and awaits 
tlie reassembling of the Grand Arm\' of the 
Republic above, where God is the supreme com- 
mander. 

This Post has been energetic in one line, and at 
imich expense, but doing its work willingly, 
cheerfully and loyally, and this was in looking 
out for the burial of Union veterans who would 
otherwise have been consigned to potter's field. 
Ii; the past twenty-three years no Union soldier 
with an honorable record has met that fate. To 
care for this very class, the Post purchased a lot 
in one of the cemeteries, and at the beginning 
of this year's work, the space was declared to 
he filled. Since then a block has been purchased 
and deed filed for it, near to the main avenue 
in Glenwood cemetery. In the purchase of this 
piece of ground the Post was materially aided by 
its auxiliary, the Woman's Relief Corps. This 
burial block will be dedicated on national 
Thanksgiving Day, November, 1908. 

For Grand Army of the Republic the depart- 
ment headquarters are at Denison, Texas. T. M. 



146 



Wright, department commander 
Kretsinger, adjutant general. 

For the Woman's Relief Corps the headquar- 
ters are 14 17 Crawford street, Houston. S. E. 
Eonnell, department president; Alaude Green, 
department secretary. 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
nd W. O. 



The George B. McClellan Post has at present 
about forty members, and the roster shows John 
C. Bonnell, commander, and J. J. Scholl, ad- 
jutant. 



WOMAN'S RELIEF CORPS. 



George B. McClellan W. R. C. was organized 
July 6, 1895, through the efforts of Mrs. Jennif 
Rue, ably assisted by Mrs. ^laggie Rust and 
others. 

"The objects of this order are to specially aid 
and assist the Grand Army of the Republic, and 
to perpetuate the memory of the heroic dead ; to 
assist such Union veterans as need help and pro- 
tection, and to extend needful aid to their widows 




MRS. JENNIE RUE 
Active Worker, Woman's Relief Corps 

and orphans, to find them homes and employ- 
ment, and assure them of sym'pathy and friends, 
to cherisli and emulate the deeds of our army 
nurses and of all loyal women who rendered lov- 
ing service to our country in her hour of peril ; 
to maintain true allegiance to the United States 
of America : to inculcate lessons of patriotism 



and love of country among our children and in 
the community in which we live, and encourage 
the spread of universal liberty and equal rights 
to all." 

There was urgent need for the order at the 
time of its formation. IVlany of the old veterans 
were seeking health and strength in this warm 
and balmy climate ; and to these, their widows 
and orphans, the Woman's Relief Corps was 
ever ready to extend aid and comfort. 

Our work did not stop here. At the time of 
the Spanish-American war, the order was most 
active, and rendered very valuable assistance to 
the soldiers stationed at Houston, furnishing 
tiiem with clothing, shoes and other necessities. 
From time to time the order has also assisted 
children's homes and various other charitable 
organizations here in the city, the nature of the 
assistance sometimes being in the form of cloth- 
ing and sewing, and at other times financial aid. 

The order, although originally founded for the 
sole purpose of assisting veteran soldiers, has 
nevertheless at all times been ready and willing 
tc extend assistance to all classes of needy, and 
the scope of its work has been such as to reach 
all classes who have appeared deserving of its 
efforts. 

Mrs. Maggie Rust, Mrs. Annetta Van Horn 
and Mrs. J. C. Bonnell have ably served the 
order as department presidents. j\Irs. Jennie 
Rue is also a representative woman of the order, 
having served in local department and national 
offices. 

The Woman's Relief Corps meet.^ every first 
and third Friday of each month, at 3 o'clock p. 
m., at Odd Fellows Hall. The presiding officers 
are: Mrs. Georgie Warren, president; Airs. 
Isabelle Trumbo, secretary, and Mrs. Maud 
Green, treasurer. 



MUSICAL HOUSTON 



Mrs. Horace Booth, Editor 

Mrs. R. L. Cox and Mrs. J. W. MAXEV, Assistants 



An effort has been made by the editor of these 
pages to make mention of everything in Hous- 
ton which pertains to musical development. If 
by any chance any important matter is omitted, 
it has not been the fault of the editor, but by a 
delay in getting the material to wovk with, and 
which has been faithfully solicited. 

The position which Houston occupies musi- 
cally today is one which every lover of this high 
art should be proud of, and especially so, those 
who have been factors in placing her upon this 
plane. As one of the promoters for everything in 
this line, we recall the name of Mrs. Margaret 
Hadley Foster, who, through the medium of the 
Houston Post, always wielded her pen to furthef 
any advancement musically, and was prominent 
in the organization of the Woman's Choral Club 
and other musical societies or clubs. Mrs. Willis 
Hutcheson, also of the Post, holds a large place 
for music in Houston. 

The first musical club, the Philharmonic, was 
organized in Houston many years ago, with Mr. 
Bremonde as president. The leader in this first 
musical step was Mrs. L. P. Grunewald, who 
w^as director for this club. Mrs. Grunewald was 
the mother of Madame Samaroff, who was here 
before an appreciative audience last year under 
the auspices of the Woman's Choral Club. 



Professor Horace Clark, Sr., was also one of its 
presidents, and among its members we note the 
names of Mrs. J. O. Carr, Mrs. Annie Giraud 
and Mrs. M. C. Culpepper. 

From this, as a nucleus, we can now boast of 
many musical clubs, and through these clubs, the 
music lovers are given the opportunity to hear 
the finest of artists at a nominal cost. 

The name of the late Mr. Dudley Bryan stands 
for music in this city, having been president of 
the Quartette Club, and so closely associated in 
the organization of the English singing societies 
of Texas. Mr: Fred Dexter was also one of the 
prominent workers in this, and has always been a 
helper and a leader in music, having been director 
for the Quartette Society for a number of years. 

^^'e recall the name of Professor Duvernoy, 
who used to teach a large class in piano, years 
ago. And among the pianists will always be 
associated the thorough and efficient work of 
Mrs. C. A. Bujac. Mrs. Bujac assisted in an en- 
tertainment to raise the first money on the old 
Shearn pipe organ. 

Of the different musical societies, which will 
be written of in these pages, we will say, Hous- 
ton has grown large enough to give a space for 
all, and each one forms an importani part in the 
giand and glorious art. 



WOMAN'S CHORAL CLUB. 



The Woman's Choral Club of Houston was 
organized in November, igoi. Mrs. E. A. Peden, 
who was so well known and loved in Houston, 
and who was gifted with a most beautiful so- 
prano voice, called together a few ladies who 
sang, and whom she knew to be interested in 
music. 

Our first president, Mrs. Willie Hutcheson, 
whom every one always associates with the high- 
est idea of music. After getting the work well 
started, she was compelled to resign, as her news- 



paper work was getting so heavy, and so many 
demands were made upon her, that we realized 
we must give her up, but it was certainly with 
regret by the club. 

They met at her home and organized the 
Woman's Choral Club, limiting the active mem- 
bership to fifty. Miss Mary Carson Kidd was 
our first director, and we began work in a very 
n'lodest way, hoping to give two or three con- 
certs a season for the pleasure of our friends. 

We held our rehearsals at the home of Mrs. 



148 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Peden, and at the close of the first year, felt that 
we had not only accomplished the purpose for 
which we had organized, but had also gained 




MRS. W. H. KIRKLAND 
President 



confidence to attempt something more ambitious. 

Before the beginning of our second season, 
]\Iiss Kidd went abroad for study, leaving us 
without a leader. Mrs. E. B. Parker was pre- 
\ailed upon to take her place, and the club un- 
doubtedly owes much of its success to her. 

The directory decided, in the early part of the 
second season, that we were strong enough to 
attempt artist concerts, and our first effort in 
that line was to present Elsa Ruegger, cellist, and 
Estelle Heartt, contralto. The concert was a 
success, artistically and financially, while our 
associate membership had grown most encour- 
agingly. After this we decided to give three 
affairs each vear, making the mid-winter concert 
the particular event of the season, and the only 
one to which tickets were for sale, the other two 
being complimentary to our associate members 
only. This year we found ourselves in a position 
to make all our concerts complimentary to asso- 
ciate members, and we hope that henceforth and 
forever the Choral Club will be relieved of 
"ticket selling." 

Our associate membership fee is only $5 a 
vear, and. as we have never been financially em- 
barrassed, we feel that we have shown conclu- 
sively that, with good management and con- 



scientious work, clubs can do much for their 
comnumity, with less money than is usually 
found necessary. 

Among the artists who have appeared in Hous- 
ton under the auspices of the Choral Club are 
Herbert Witherspoon (basso), twice; DePach- 
mann (pianiste), Anita Rio (soprano), Jessie 
Ringer (contralto), Estelle Heartt (contralto), 
Isabella Boutton (mezzo soprano). Glen Hall 
(tenor), Julian Walker (baritone), Arthur Hart- 
mann (violinist), and Elsa Ruegger (cellist), 
twice. The second time we presented Miss 
Ruegger to the Houston people was last year, 
soon after the San Francisco disaster. After our 
concert she suggested that we give a benefit for 
the earthquake sufferers, and offered her serv- 
ices for the occasion. Marie Nichols, violinist, 
and Miss Mary Moore, pianiste, who had been 
touring with Miss Ruegger, joined her here, and 
thty, with George Crampton, baritone, who was 
in Houston at the time, gave us a beautiful con- 
cert, bv which we realized over $600 for the 
relief fund. 

Other artists who have been brought here by 
the Choral Club are Madame Samaroff, Corinne 
Rider Kelsev and Claude Cunningham. A con- 




MRS. JOHN W. M.VXKY 
Vice-President Woman's Clioral Club 

cert enjoyed very much by Houstonians was the 
one in which our first director. Miss Mary Car- 
sen Kidd, took the leading part and was assisted 



MUSICAL HOUSTON 



149 




MRS. E. B. PAKKER 
I>irector Woman's Choral Club 



by Mr. Mason (violinist), who was at one time 
connected with the Treble Clef as director. 

On the first Monday in October we entered 
upon our fall work with fifty well balanced 
voices. We have secured Janet Spencer (con- 
tralto) for our first concert, and on January 8 
we will present Madame Bloomfield Zeisler, a 



pianiste. Both of these artists come with flat- 
tering comments, Janet Spencer having toured 
with Geraldine Farrar, and Madame Zeisler 
ranks second in the world as a pianiste. 

At our spring concert we are planning to give 
rur associate members a rare treat, which would 
alone pay for the price of a season associate 
n-embership, but not having closed the contract, 
we will not as yet make known the name of our 
artist. 

In addition to these concerts, the club has been 
beautifully entertained by Mrs. E. B. Parker, 
the director, and the president, Mrs. Kirkland, 
when our different artists would be presented to 
us, in a social way, and we could hear their 
sweet parlor voices. 

The following officers have charge of the 
affairs of the club for the coming season: 
President, Mrs. W. H. Kirkland ; vice president, 
Mrs. J. W. Maxcy; recording secretary, Mrs. 
Horace Booth ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
Earnest Saunders ; treasurer, Mrs. F. C. Barnes ; 
librarian, Mrs. W. C. McLelland ; director, Mrs. 
E. B. Parker; accompanist, Miss Alice McFar- 
land. 

Our honorary members are Mrs. Willie Hutch- 
eson and little Miss lone Peden. 

The charter members of the Choral Club have 
much to be proud of, and those who are still 
w ith us look back with pleasure on our successes 
of the past, the only grief and regret being the 
of the past, the only grief and regret being the loss 
of Mrs. Peden, who died in November of our sec- 
ond vear, leaving a baby daughter, lone Peden. 



HOUSTON OUARTETTE SOCIETY. 



The Houston Quartette Society, now entering 
upon its ninth season, is the oldest of the English 
singing societies of Houston. Organized in 
August, 1900, by the late Mr. D. D. Bryan, Mr. 
Joseph Taylor and Mr. James Giraud, it was in- 
tended to build up a permanent organization from 
the remnant of the old Houston Glee Club, Hous- 
ton Quartette Club, and the various other names 
under which a singing society had tried to exist. 

Mr. Fred F. Dexter was chosen musical direc- 
tor, and has held tliat position in the club to the 
present date. 



It was decided that the new organization 
should use its utmost endeavors to bring the 
world's best vocal talent to our city, and to this 
end an associate membership was formed, for 
the purpose of furnishing the funds necessary to 
carry out this plan. 

The artists who have appeared under the aus- 
pices of the Houston Quartette Society speak 
for the success of this plan. The first season 
Leonora Jackson, violinist, was the leading at- 
traction, followed in successive seasons by Nor- 
dica, Eugene Cowles, Suzanne Adams, Cam- 



150 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



panani (twice), Bispham (twice), Gadski 
(twice), Schumann Heinck (twice), Melba, El- 
len Beach Yaw, Beresford, Clark, and many 
other stars. 

To the Houston Quartette Society also belongs 
the honor of the birth of the Federation of Eng- 
lish Singing Societies of Texas. This federation 
was formed in the fall of 1903, by the president, 
Mr. D. D. Bryan, and the musical director, Mr. 
Fred F. Dexter. In order to gather together the 
presidents and musical directors of the English 
singing clubs of Texas, an invitation was sent 
throughout the state, to the presidents and musi- 
cal directors of those clubs, to attend a concert 
of the Houston Quartette Society, at which Mme. 
Schumann Heinck was the star attraction, as 
guests of the society, and to attend a meeting at 
the Rice hotel, on the following morning, to dis- 
cuss the question of federation. 

A good attendance followed, and the State 



Federation of English Singing Societies of 
Texas was the result. It may be said in passing 
that the first two festivals were held in Houston 
in 1904 and 1905, respectively, the attractions 
being a grand chorus of over 400 voices from 
over the state, and the Damrosch and Pittsburgh 
orchestras. 

It is safe to say that the Houston Quartette 
Society has done a work of untold value to the 
moral and social life of Houston. Originally 
the only organization with an associate member- 
ship in Houston, this city now has four such 
organizations, which make Houston one of, if 
not the musical center of Texas. 

Under the presidency of Dr. E. C. Murray, 
the Quartette Society expects to again make a 
record season, negotiations now being carried on 
to secure Emm.a Fames, prima donna soprano, 
Fmilio de Gogorza, basso, and Caroline Milne- 
Hardy, soprano. 





MRS. W. C. HUNGER 
President Treble Clef Club 



MRS. JOHN SWKENFA" 
Secretary Treble Clef Club 



MUSICAL HOUSTON 



151 




MRS. ROBERT L. COX 

Mu^ii'jil Director of the Treble Clef Club, and President of 

the Thursday Morning Soloist Club 



THE TREBLE CLEF CLUB. 



On April i8, 1896, a luiniber of Houston 
ladies met to discuss the formation of a singing 
society, to be composed of women's voices, result- 
ing in organization, with the following officers, 
who promoted the growth of the same : Mrs. J. 
O. Carr, president; Mrs. Giraud, treasurer; Miss 
Campbell, secretary ; Mrs. W. S. ]\Iason. musical 
director. 

The organization was first known as the 
Ladies' Singing Club, which it was found expe- 
dient to change to Treble Clef Club, as compli- 
cations arose through another club having a 
similar name. 

Under the inspiring and musicianly direction 
of Mr. W. S. Mason, the club prospered and 
concerts of a high artistic standard were given, 
notwithstanding the difficult environment inci- 
dent to pioneer musical work. 

Mr. Mason's removal from Houston in 1898 



called Mr. R. B. Savage to the post of director. 
After two successful seasons, when the Treble 
Clef concerts had become the musical events of 
the city, upon Mr. Savage's departure, Mr. Fred 
Dexter became director for one season. At the 
close of his term the club was without a leader 
for several seasons, suspending active work. 

Mrs. W. C. Munger became president in 1898, 
\\ hich office she still fills. Through her indom- 
itable will and energy, the club resumed work 
the season of 1904, with Mrs. Vina Avery-Beck- 
with as director, rapidly attaining its former 
prestige as a choral body. After two seasons 
of excellent work, Mrs. Beckwith left Houston, 
succeeded by Mr. Horton Corbett, who resigned 
the post in January, 1908. Mrs. Robert L. Cox 
was immediately elected to the vacant office, car- 
rying the club through the interrupted season 
to a brilliant close at the final concert in April. 



152 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



The survival of the Treble Clef Club through 
the vicissitudes of frequent change of directors, 
from necessity, which is so serious a handicap, 
but proves the mettle and stamina of the member- 
ship. 

Mrs. Cox, whose picture precedes this brief 
history, is a permanent resident of Houston, and 
the phenomenal success achieved in the short 
time she has filled the responsible position of 
musical director presages a bright and enduring 
future for the club. The present active member- 
ship is limited to sixty voices, with a large asso- 
ciate membership. The former includes many 
fine soloists and excellent vocal material. 

The early policy of the club was from neces- 
sity largely a fostering of Texas talent alone. 
The nmsical growth of the past twelve yeats has 
led to present demands by our musical public for 
artists of worldwide fame, in conjunction with 
the musical offerings of the club. 

The present season began with a brilliant fore- 
cast. Enthusiastic reassembling of the singers 
for rehearsals in preparation for the first of 
three concerts, the engaging of the brilliant 
soprano, Mme. Hissem de Moss, for the first, 
with a strong probability of the renowned tenor, 



Caruso, being ihe star attraction for the spring 
concert, attests the progressive club spirit. 

To the everlasting glory and honor of the 
Treble Clef Club, let it be said no pledge has 
been unredeemed, no contract broken, during 
the twelve years since its organization. 

From a small but enthusiastic band of true 
lovers of music, amid adverse conditions, 
through almost unparalleled but unavoidable 
misfortune, the Treble Clef Club has risen to an 
honored position in the musical life of Houston. 
Let it not be forgotten by those who enjoy the 
present day cultured musical atmosphere of our 
city, it is the fruit of the unselfish sowing in 
\'ears gone by. Likewise, let us plant the fine 
seed in the rich soil of present opportunities for 
a still greater musical Houston. 

N. B. — This brief history is gleaned from the 
official minutes of Mrs. John Sweeney, who has 
served as secretary for eleven years. Her service 
and devotion to the Treble Clef Club have occa- 
sioned the bestowing of several handsome gifts 
by the active members. Her picture and Mrs. 
W. C. Munger, president, appear in connection 
with this historv. 



THE THURSDAY MORNING MUSICAL CLUB. 

By Mrs.^Robert L. Cox, President 



Recognizing that mutual aims and purposes 
are best accomplished by united effort, that en- 
couragement comes from sympathetic co-opera- 
tion, and that a generous rivalry stimulates to 
greater achievement, the leading professionals 
and best amateurs of Houston organized the 
Thursday Morning Musical Club, May 25, 1908, 
for the study and practice of music and promo- 
tion of a higher standard of musical taste and 
culture in our city. 

The following officers were elected : Mrs. 
Robert L. Cox, president ; }iliss Blanche O'Don- 



son is something of the evolution of music, the 
eight programs being as follows : 

1. Early and Modern Italian Composers. 

2. Early and Modern French Composers. 

3. Celebration of the Birth of Beethoven, De- 
cember 17. 

4. Classic German Period. 

5. Slavic Composers. 

6. Grieg. 

7. MacDowail. 

8. Famous Women Composers. 

Two organ recitals and two public concerts 
complete the first season. Discussions of musi- 



nell, vice president; ^Ir. Fred Dexter, secretary ^.^i subjects, topics, papers, etc., accentuate the 

and treasurer; Miss Mary Elizabeth Rouse, program for each day. 

chairman program committee; Mrs. E. B. A membership in this musical organization 

Parker, chairman board of examiners. implies mature study as well as talent, which 

The course of study selected for the first sea- may be judged from the following examination. 



MUSICAL HOUSTON 



153 



the rendering- of which must conform to a high 
standard : 

Pianists: Beethoven Sonata (two move- 
ments) ; four higher compositions of Chopin and 
Schumann ; four modern classics. 

V'ocaHsts : Two arias from opera (singing -n 
original language); two arias from orruorio ; 
four songs, selected from following co.npoS'eTS : 
Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Grieg, Strauss, 
Gounod, Chaminade ; four songs b}- American 
composers (MacDowall, Chadwick, ]\Irs. Beach, 
Buck, Foote, Hawley). 

Violinists: Sonata (two movements); four 
classical compositions ; four modern classics. 

Organ: Fugue (Bach preferred); four selec- 
tions from Guilmant, Lemare, Widor, etc. 



Qiarter membership : 

Pianists: Miss Mary Elizabeth Rouse, Miss 
Mary Pauline Bellinger, Miss Blanche O'Don- 
uell, Mrs. Herbert Roberts, Mrs. E. B. Parker, 
i\Irs. Katherine A. Lively, Mrs. L S. Meyer, Mr. 
Horace Clark, Mrs. Edgar Gerhardt. 

Violinists : Miss Stella Root, Mrs. C. E. Olli- 
vcr. Miss Grace Lindenberg. 

Vocalists: Mrs. B. H. Wenzel, Mrs. Baltis 
Allen, Mrs. Henry Balfour, Mrs. Z. F. Lillard, 
Mrs. J. W. l\Iaxcy, Mrs. Edna McDonald, Mrs. 
Turner Williamson, Mrs. Robert L. Cox, Mr. 
Henry Balfour, Mr. Fred Dexter. 

Organists: Mrs. George Heinzelman. Mr. 
Horton Corbett. 



CHROMATIC SUNSHINE CLUB. 

By Nannie Ruphv Armstrong, Secretary 

The Chromatic Sunshine Club is of quite re- perfect training by early December, when the 

cent birth, having been organized September 21, cantata will be presented under the auspices of 

1908. However, the club standard is high and the Tuam Baptist church, for the benefit of 

its ambition is without limit, and, having able their pipe organ fund. 

voices, with Madame Florence Hyde Jenckes The club is negotiating with the managers of 

originator and leader, the club expects to do several noted artists, hoping to secure several 

niuch. real treats for our music loving public. Cham- 

JMadame Jenckes is an artist of no little fame, inade, the greatest composer of French songs, 

both abroad and in the East, and as she has man- being foremost on the list. 

aged large musical affairs with success for years, Kitty Cheatum, also, who stands alone in her 

the same success is looked forward to by the world of folklore and children's songs, is a 

club. Their object is "Sunshine ;" their theme genius vastly entertaining. Miss Cheatum origi- 

ir: "Harmony ;" the betterment and advancement nated this novel sphere for herself, and the club 

of the "defective children" of Texas, their con- hopes to present this unusual artist to the chil- 

stant endeavor. Though the defective children dren — their grandmothers as well. The proceeds 

are their especial care, the club is glad to lend its of all to go to the advancement of the defectives, 

aid to any cause worthy of sunshine. The personnel of the club is : President 

At present the club has under way Gaul's and musical director, Madame Florence Hyde 

"Holy City," the most beautiful sacred cantata Jenckes; first vice president, Mrs. Ethel Galvin ; 

ever written. The principals are to be of the best second vice president, j\Iiss Lizzie Boyd; third 

soloists of the cit}% supported by a splendid full vice president, Mr. Alfred Schlafli ; secretary, 

chorus and orchestra. Mrs. Nannie Ruphy Armstrong ; treasurer, Mrs. 

Madame Jenckes expects to have the cast in Josephine Stewart; librarian, Mr. Price Boon. 



154 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



THE HOUSTON MUSIC FESTIVAL ASSOCIATION. 



The Houston Music Festival Association first 
came into existence early in March, 1907, when 
a few of the music lovers of the city met in the 
parlors of the Rice Hotel, to discuss with Mr. 
Beach, manager of the Chicago Symphony Or- 
chestra, the possibilities of bringing the orchestra 
here for a concert some time in April. Nothing 
definite was done at the time, but those present 
took a most active and personal interest in the 
matter, and met with such success that within 
a few days a temporary organization was effect- 
ed, with a directory composed of Mr. A. S. 
Cleveland, president; Dr. Henry Barnstein, first 
vice president; Mr. W. D. Hume, second vice 
president, and A^fr. S. A. Kincaid, secretary and 
treasurer, and the orchestra was engaged for 
April 27 and 28. 

Mr. Douglass Powell kindly consented to act 
as musical director, and undertook the task of 
training a massed chorus of several hundred 
voices for that occasion, though he knew the 
time was very short for such an undertaking. 
Miss Bessie Hughes, with equal enthusiasm, 
promised a chorus of five hundred children's 
voices. Mrs. R. L. Cox personally interviewed 
representatives of the different singing clubs and 
aroused their interest, of course. Mrs. Willie 
Hutcheson, through her column in the Houston 
Post, did much to excite public interest in the 



n atter. These united efforts had the desired 
effect, and by the first of April the director was 
sufficiently encouraged to announce a permanent 
organization was assured. 

The first festival was held April 27 and 28, 
and is now a pleasant memory. While we are 
looking forward to the spring to renewed plea- 
sure of a similar nature. 

The present directors are : Mr. John Charles 
Harris, president; Mr. W. D. Hume, first vice 
president; Mr. A. S. Cleveland, second vice 
president ; Mr. C. E. Oliver, third vice president ; 
Mr. S. A. Kincaid, secretary and treasurer; Mr. 
R. I. Giraud, librarian ; J. R. Cade, Frank C. 
Jones, Dr. Henry Barnstein, A. S. Vandervoort, 
Sterling Meyer. 

The festival, which was held on .'\pril 27 and 
28, certainly reflected credit on Houston as a 
miusical center, and also the untiring energy of 
ir.any individuals. Mr. Powell, who is now a 
resident of Cincinnati, was foremost in the work 
and dii] fine work in directing. Miss Bessie 
Hughes also deserves special praise for her 
chorus of five hundred school children. 

One special feature was a free matinee for the 
benefit of the school children. This musical step 
meant much to Houston, and next year it is 
prophesied that it will be a great attraction, with 
its fine orchestra and large choruses. 



ST. PAUL'S METHODIST CHOIR. 



At .St. I'aul's Methodist church it is proposed 
to make the musical part of the service an im- 
portant feature of worship. As in the time of 
the psalmist, the people are being exhorted to 
"sing unto the Lord with thanksgiving," and to 
"make a joyful noise before Him," wath songs of 
praise. 

There are many new and beautiful hymns in 
the hymnal, which have not as yet become 
known. It is intended that these fine tunes shall 
be made familiar, and be added to the list of 
"favorite hymns." 

Two large chorus choirs are being organized, 
one consisting of men and women, the other of 



boys and men. These choirs are to be used at 
the services in connection with the excellent 
quartette of soloists who have served the church 
so well. 

Sacred cantatas, portions of oratorio and 
other special musical services are being planned. 

A prominent feature of worship of the church 
will be the magnificent $10,000 pipe organ, 
which is soon to be placed in the main audi- 
torium. Besides special organ music at the reg- 
ular church services, there will be a series of 
public organ recitals. 

Mrs. Turner Williamson, who has long been 
connected with the St. Paul's church choir, will 



MUSICAL HOUSTON 



155 



continue as director of the quartette of solo 
voices, and song service will be given once dur- 
ing the month. 



Mr. Hu. Huffmaster will be organist and 
direct a choir of boys for special music. 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH CHOIR. 



The choir of the First Presbyterian church is 
a unique organization, inasmuch as it is an or- 
ganized body, with officers and various com- 
mittees, whose duties range from seeing to a 
regular attendance of the choir to devising ways 
and means toward the entertainment of the or- 
ganization. 

This choir, which is one of the largest, if not 
the largest, chorus choirs in the South, was 
started in September, 1907, and, after much ad- 
vancement, began the season of 1908 and 1909, 
equipped as few such choirs are. 

In conjunction with this excellent chorus, there 
is a quartette, consisting of Mrs. Henry Balfour, 
soprano; Mrs. Baltis Allen, contralto; Mr. 
Henry Balfour, tenor, and Mr. J. Spurway, 
basso. 

It is the purpose of Mr. Balfour, the director, 
to give various ambitious choral works during 
the course of the season, such as "Hear 
I\'Iy Prayer," ]\Iendelssohn ; "The Daughter of 
Jairus," Stainer, and other works of a like order. 



The membership of the choir at present is 
about forty, but later in the season this number 
will be augmented by the addition of good voices 
up to a possible sixty members, the present 
limit of accommodations in that part of the 
church set apart for the choir. 

Following is a list of volunteer members: 
Miss Alice Welsh, Miss Lizzie Hickey, Miss 
Nita Max, Miss Annie S. Avery, Miss Jennie 
Sprong, Miss Alice Simpson, Miss Mamie Stel- 
zig, Miss Elsie Blake, Miss Mary Woolford, 
Miss Georgia Sedgwick, Miss Estelle Bastion, 
Miss Stiles, Miss Naber, Miss Belle Scruggs, 
Miss Ruth Adamson, Miss Pearle West, Miss 
Reba Winston, Miss Alice Clipper, Miss Ben- 
nett, Miss Townsend, Mrs. B. S. Yaegeman, 
Mrs. Walz Gillot, Mrs. E. A. Perkins, Dr. E. P. 
Stiles, Walter Hilliard, John H. Ogden, V. R. 
Currie, David Hanna, W. C. Miller. E. K. Ork- 
ney, A. H. Stevens, H. Woodward, Dr. B. T 
Perkins, Dr. E. A. Perkins, J. Levings, W. D. 
ftlcCurdy, J. Paddock. 



SACRED HEART CHURCH CHOIR. 



Sopranos : Mrs. A. W. Pollard, Mrs. J. Allen 
Kyle, Miss Annie Casperson. 

Contraltos: Mrs. Z. F. Lillard, Mrs. J. T. 
Lockman, Miss Edith Rankin. 

Tenors : Messrs. Adair Lockman, E. Beltize, 
Laurence Carr, Charles Reed, Peter Angemand. 

Bassos : Messrs. Joseph Kennedy, Everett L. 
Gordon. 



Morning services, consisting of usual masses 
by eminent composers, including Mozart, Weber, 
Girza, etc., offertoriums, solos, quartettes and 
trios. 

Evening and night services rendered by juve- 
nile choir, composed of girls and boys. Director, 
Mrs. J. O. Carr. 



SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CFIURCH. 



This church is equipped with a handsome two hances the music of the choir, the work of which 
manual Kimball pipe organ, which greatly en- consists of double quartettes, single quartettes. 



156 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



trios, duets, solos, etc. Mr. Leon Rice has been 
engaged as tenor soloist; ]Mrs. T. N. Asbury, 
soprano soloist. 

The membership of the choir is as follows : 
Sopranos, Mrs. T. N. Asbury, l^'Irs. Thomas C. 
Spencer; altos, Mrs. Walter F. Watson, Miss 



Mamie Elsbury; tenors, Mr. E. E. Reed, Mr. 
Leon Rice ; bassos, Judge C. W. Bocock, Mr. F. 
Venable. 

Monthly song services are given the first Sun- 
day night of each month. 

Mrs. C. E. Oliver, organist and director. 



SHEARN M. E. CHURCH. 



The special music of the Shearn Methodist 
church during the present year has been rendered 
by a choir of mixed voices, assisted voluntarily 
by the leading soloists of the city. The choir 
has made a special feature of leading the con- 
gregational singing, rather than as a distinct 
musical organization from the congregation. 
The fact that the services have not been held in 
a regularly dedicated place of worship has been 



a drawback to the choir, as it has been to other 
branches of the church. 

One particular feature of the choir work has 
been a special service of song on the first Sun- 
day night of each month. At these services 
cantatas and other special forms of church 
music have been rendered. The choir is under 
the direction of Mr. Fred F. Dexter, with Mr. 
Henry C. Breaker as organist. 



TABERNACLE METHODLST CHURCH. 



The members of the choir of this church have 
determined to provide the very best music for the 
Sunday hours of worship, and to this end are 
unitedly working. Having formed this purpose 
some months ago, they have already attained, 
by hard work and unusual faithfulness, quite a 
measure of success. 

Special musical services will be given during 
the vear. The one of last month included on its 



piogram, solo, duet and quartette numbers, tlie 
soloists being Mr. G. W. Hurd and Mr. Joe 
Bruckmuller. 

The membership of the choir stands as fol- 
lows : Miss Maybelle Alexander, Mrs. C. W. 
Evans, sopranos ; Miss Gertru3e Taylor, Mrs. 
W. A. Lang, contraltos ; Mr. Bruckmuller, tenor, 
and Mr. Hurd, baritone, with Mrs. S. C. Rowe, 
organist. 



CHRIST CHURCH CHOIR. 

By HoRTON CoRBETT, A. G. O., Director and Organist 



The choir of Christ Church consists of an adult 
chorus of forty-two voices, with a solo quar- 
tette. It is generally conceded to be the best 
trained organization in the South, the music 
being rendered with fine tone, attack and shad- 
ing, the music at the usual services being selected 
from the best writers for the Episcopal church. 
A number of special musical services and organ 
recitals have been given during the past three 



years, under the present director, who has 
brought the singing to its present high standard. 
The members of the organization are all faithful 
and regular in their attendance at rehearsals, 
which are held twice weekly. In addition to the 
usual monthly musical services, the choir is now 
engaged on Maunder's cantata, "A Song of 
Thanksgiving," which will be sung on Thanks- 
giving Dav evening. There will be a carol 



iMUSICAL HOUSTON 



157 



service on Christmas afternoon. In February a 
Mendelssohn program will be given on the cen- 
tcnarj' of the composer's death. 

The following is the membership of the choir : 
Sopranos : Mrs. H. MacMahan, Mrs. O. Long- 
necker, Mrs. O. Stansfield, Mrs. F. Dwyer, 
Misses J. Harris, L. Harris, K. Wear, E. Wil- 
liams, E. Bolton, E. Toombs, S. Hart, F. Hight, 
L. Guenard, G. Corbett, E. Mentz, G. King, B. 
Pattillo, F. Sears, E. Welling. 



Contraltos : Mrs. J. Leberry, Mrs. Isbel, 
Misses C. Bradburn, L. Hart, C. Fleig, L. Dolen. 

Tenors : Messrs. F. Toombs, J. Toombs, J. 
Stansfield, E. Parsons, A. Hart, H. MacMahan. 

Basses : Messrs. H. Gates, G. Meyer, H. Ja- 
cobs, I. Roberts, C. P. McClendon, O. Stansfield. 
W. Simpson, D. Corbett, W. Isbel, H. Wells, 
C". Longnecker, L. Ruckert. 



CENTRAL CHRISTIAN CHURCH CHOIR. 



This choir at the present time is being organ- 
ized for the winter work. It is intended to have 
a chorus choir of mixed voices for the Christmas 
music. Ouartettes and solos will be rendered at 



the regular services of divine worship. 

Director, Mr. E. D. Shepherd; organist. Miss 
Lindner. 



CHURCH OF THE ANNUNCIATION. 



The Church of the Annunciation, corner of 
Texas avenue and Crawford, the oldest Catholic 
church in the city, at one time had the reputation 
of having the finest choir in Houston. This was 
about twelve years ago, when Mr. W. T. Mason, 
a musician and violinist of note, was musical 
director. The masses, then so thoroughly 
studied, are still sung (on state occasions). 
Among them are Haydn, Nos. i and 2 ; Guilmart, 



Weber, Giorza Nos. i, 2 and 3, Gounod's Meni 
lolemnelle, and others. All of these are still 
rendered by the choir whenever a sufficient num- 
ber of voices can be gotten for the chorus work. 
On all ordinary occasions, masses by modern 
composers are sung. 

Mrs. George Bruce has filled the position of 
organist very acceptably for the last four years. 

]\Irs. Annie Giraud. director. 



TEMPLE BETH ISRAEL. 



The music at Temple Beth Israel is of a very 
high order. It consists of responses to the reg- 
ular ritual, as well as incidental anthems and 
solos. There are three distinct sets of services, 
that for the Sabbath being used every Friday 
night and Saturday morning ; that for the fes- 
tivals being used on the three joyous festivals of 
Passover. Pentecost and Tabernacle ; whilst that 
for the sacred days is used only on the New Year 
and the Day of Atonement. The best Sabbath 
services are those of Sulzer and Schlesinger. 
Sulzer was a cantor of Vienna, who had a genius 
for harmonizing traditional chants in accordance 
with modern views, whilst Schlesinger was the 



organist of the temple in Mobile, Alabama. He 
wrote music for all services, all of which are 
constantly used in Temple Beth Israel. 

The Sabbath services, whilst partly traditional, 
are for the most part original compositions. The 
festival services are uniformly joyous in charac- 
ter, while those of the sacred days are as uni- 
formly sad. 

To attempt to describe the various traditional 
airs, many of which have been appropriated by 
the church, would require much time. Suffice it 
tc say that they are to be found in their best and 
most primitive form in Cohen's "Voice of Song 
and Praise," which is used at the Temple. 



HOUSTON THEATRES 



So far as theatres are concerned, Houston is 
one of the most fortunate cities in the South, 
because here every class of theatrical entertain- 
ment is in evidence. No Houstonian, or no 
stranger within our gates, need assert that there 
ic a dearth of amusements. High class dramatic 
attractions, comic operas, musical comedies, 
vaudeville just as good as is to be found in the 
large vaudeville houses in New York, excellent 
stock productions, and moving picture shows 
galore, all these are to be found in Houston dur- 
ing the course of a single season. 

Starting with the brand new Prince theatre, a 
handsome fireproof house, of which Houston is 
justly proud, there is none finer in Texas. Here, 
with a wealth of scenery in nearly every in- 
stance, we see during each winter many stars. 
Aside from these the best of the comic opera 
stars come this way, at least a dozen every sea- 
son, with many minor actors and actresses, in 
many instances just as clever as their more 
famous fellow performers. 

At the Majestic we have high class vaudeville 
for eight months out of the year. Started three 
years ago, when vaudeville was an unknown 
quantity in Houston, the public immediately took 
to it, with the result that few vaudeville houses 
in the country, in proportion to the population of 
the city, are better patronized. 



Other vaudeville houses include the Happy 
Hour, the Cozy (just opened), the Alhambra, 
the Princess, and, during the summer months, 
the Lyric. 

At the rejuvenated Bijou theatre Houston at 
last has a real stock company, with intelligent 
actors to interpret roles in plays that are prac- 
tically new in Houston, and which have not been 
worn threadbare by numberless productions by 
repertoire companies. 

Moving picture houses, in most cases mixed 
with a vaudeville act or two, are to be found on 
ahnost every street, there being probably ten of 
these running continuously throughout the day. 

From time to time, as innovations in various 
branches of the theatrical world are made in the 
East, Houston gets them without delay. If a 
play of great merit is produced, and causes a 
sensation, and there is no opportunity for Hous- 
tonians to see that play before the second season, 
the moving picture houses secure films repro- 
ducing scenes from the play, and, with a card 
containing explanatory paragraphs concerning 
the dialogue, one is enabled to anticipate the 
theatrical production and to enjoy it even more 
than when it finally reaches this part of the 
country. 




FAUNA AND FLORA OF TEXAS 

By Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth Byers 

A Texan Since 1S52 



FAUNA OF TEXAS. 



In writing of the fauna I do not propose to 
give the entire list of animals, but the principal 
ones. The birds are deserving of a separate 
article, the reptiles of another, the insects of still 
another. 

At the time the Austin colony came to Te.xas 
in 1 82 1 cattle, longhorns, roamed the prairies in a 
wild state. jNlustang ponies, too, were plentiful 
on the prairies. 

In 1852 on the steamer that carried us from 
New Orleans to Shreveport, Louisiana, a pas- 
senger who was returning to Texas, where she 
had lived for twenty-eight years, informed us 
that it was a grand country. Get a few head of 
cattle, employ a man to look after them, and your 
fortune is made. The history of Texas today 
verifies her statement. 

On arriving in Texas we were told to kill a 
yearling when in need of meat. It was all right, 
just the same as to kill a deer, or any other game. 
The longhorn is fast disappearing and finer cattle 
taking their place. 

There were still a few bison, or buffalo, on the 
prairies, but they had been hunted and killed by 
the Indians until there are no more in the wild 
state. A few specimens are kept in the Bracken- 
ridge park at .San Antonio, also in Armstrong 
county. Some buffalo are kept on the Goodnight 
ranch. Buffalo bayou at Houston will remind us 
that buffalo were once common in this section. 

Bear are no longer plentiful, but are found 
in the wilds and thickets, remote from the farms. 
People coming into Texas would always inquire 
where Bruin could be found. A clerk in William 
Nicol's store at Jefferson tied a trace chain to 
tlie bedstead in the back room and would invite 
the newcomer to come and see his pet. They 
would hear the chain rattle, but did not wait to 
see the bear. I saw some as pets in the town, and 
a bear hunt was quite an event at that time. They 
are reserved for a visit from the president of the 
United States, to be entertained. 



Of all the wild animals we think the deer the 
most beautiful, and it really seems dreadful that 
the deer must eventually be hunted down, and 
will only be found in the parks. A fawn is 
easily tamed and becomes very docile. In Old 
Waverly, Walker county, during the war. 
Colonel Elmore had a pet deer that would follow 
the family carriage when the ladies of the family 
went visiting. It would remain until they were 
ready to return home and return with the car- 
riage. 

One morning a deer appeared at my door 
where we lived in the woods. We gave him some 
cabbage leaves to eat. The deer lay down upon 
the oak leaves and slept several hours, got up 
and left. We supposed it was a pet. 

In the early days the hunters went out at night 
for a fire hunt. The fire shone in the deer's eyes 
and they were easily shot. Some gentlemen at 
Jefferson went fire hunting. They gave one of 
their number their horses to hold, w'hile one went 
around a bunch of timber, telling the one holding 
the horses not to change his position. He dis- 
obeyed, changed his position, the hunter "shined" 
the horses, shot and killed his bosom friend. 

Foxes are not very plentiful. Now and then 
we hear of a fox chase. 

Raccoons are troublesome to the farmer, lielp- 
ing themselves to roasting-ears when the corn is 
in ear; also attend to robbing the poultry yards, 
preferring the eggs to catching the chickens. At 
Old Waverly they molested the sitting hens, 
taking the eggs, coming usually after midnight. 
The hens cried out one night that they were vis- 
ited by an enemy. Going onto the porch, on a 
white oak tree that grew near the house a dark 
object was seen upon the tnmk, seemingly of 
great size. A Texas yell caused the upward 
movement of the object, and a light-wood fire 
was kindled by an old colored man and faithfully 
watched until morning. Four young 'coons were 
up the tree. The old mother 'coon had gotten 



160 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



away. The dam usually accompanies her family 
on their nightly marauding expeditions until they 
are old enough to take care of themselves. 

Opossums are plentiful and rob the hen roosts, 
and will even venture into the kitchen in search 
of something to eat, helping themselves to any 
cold victuals set up. An old servant in my em- 
ploy lost her supper several nights, which she 
had placed upon a shelf until she was hungry. 
Finally she caught a young opossum eating her 
supper, so she killed and ate the 'possum. 

Coyotes, or wolves, are in nearly all parts of 
Texas, killing calves, lambs and other small 
animals. The government offers a premium for 
their scalps. 

Jaguars are found in the southwestern coun- 
ties ; also the civet cat. 

Squirrels are found in the timber lands 
wherever there are nuts — pecans and acorns. 
Frequently the corn fields are visited, causing 
much destruction. The squirrel will bury nuts in 
the ground, providing a supply for winter. They 
are easily tamed to come and take nuts from the 
hand, and will build nests in the trees near the 
dwelling when unmolested. 

RABBITS. 

Long-eared, called mule rabbits, prefer the 
open prairie, while the cotton-tail likes the under- 
growth and sheltered nooks. In the early days 
labbits were often the only meat to be had. A 
planter from South Carolina came to Texas with 
a large family of slaves. He kept three or four 
men hunting rabbits to supply the large family 
with meat. At Clear Creek two men in our em- 
ploy one night went hunting. Two dogs accom- 
panied them. The rabbits, tangled in the long 
grass, were caught and killed, and in the morning 
twenty rabbits were all ready for the cook to 
prepare for dinner. One afternoon the boys with 
the dogs jumped a rabbit out of the grass in the 
field. The dog stood with uplifted paw, looking 
into the grass near a Yupon l)ush. To their 
delight there was a burrow with nine young rab- 
bits, too young to leave the nest — and it was not 
Ea.ster that day. 

Opossum is the favorite delicacy, with sweet 
potatoes, of the colored race, and, indeed, we hear 
of some of the pale brothers enjoying a dish some 
times near the Christmas holidays. The old dog 



treed a 'possum near Old Waverly. On catching 
the mother opossum she was found with eleven 
little 'possums in her pocket, about the size of 
a mouse. Our son Robert claimed two of them 
lo make pets of. He placed them in a box for the 
night in the room. Next morning the box was 
empty. What had become of them? Was it in- 
stinct, to find the mother? 

Porcupine quills were used by the Indians in 
ornamenting their moccasins. 

Peccary — wild hog — found in the marshes and 
river bottoms in Southwestern Texas, are about 
the size of a yearling shote or pig. They feed 
upon pecans, acorns, roots, etc. Attenipts have 
been made to domesticate them, but they are not 
desirable pets. 

A few badgers and beaver arc still found in 
places out west. 

The armadillo, a peculiar animal with a bony 
covering, and when disturbed rolls into a ball, 
feeds upon vegetables and insects. 

Mr. Alley showed me a tree in his yard in 
which he shot a panther — a very large one — 
attempting to climb the tree. At that time they 
were much dreaded by the people. 

Prairie dogs, a small animal that burrows in 
the ground, live in colonies, feed upon grass and 
other vegetables. Some verv amusing stories 
are told of them : owls and rattlesnakes living in 
the same burrow with the dogs. 

Another animal resembling the rat is the 
gopher. They live in colonies and burrow in the 
ground. Are very wary creatures, seldom caught 
napping. A rifle marksman has to be very quick 
to be able to shoot a gopher. 

Wood rats purloin everything to build their 
ricsts. At Gay Hill, Washington county, we 
occupied a room that was the study of I. W. 
Miller, D. D. Many things were missing — combs, 
brushes, handkerchiefs, small garments, stock- 
ings, etc. One day two of the young ladies at- 
tending the Fern seminary climbed up into the 
attic, where they found a wood rat's nest five 
feet in diameter and eighteen inches high, with a 
hole in the top. Clothes, raw cotton and small 
articles were used in building the nest, carrietl 
up by the rats. 

Field mice, a small animal, with a pouch on 
its jaw in which to secrete food, are in places 
annovincf to the farmer. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF TEXAS 



161 



j\Ioles, the gardener's pest, running- paths 
everywhere, often to the destruction of plants. 
It has been an undecided question whether the 
n;ole eats seeds and roots or insects, as the latter 
have been found in quantities in their stomach. 



Beavers, otters, skunks, weasels and some 
other anin^.als upon which I have not time to en- 
large, are still to be found in remote corners in 
v)ut of the wav places. 



FLORA OF TEXAS. 



The area of Texas is so grent, aiid the flora so 
e.\tensi\-e, that it would take years of cl.ise ob- 
servation and study to attain to a comprehensive 
knowledge of the flora. 

Very many botanists have collected and classi- 
fied many plants, and still there are many yet to 
be noted. In my own limited observations, in 
parts of the country I have observed plants that 
I do not find in the bulletins of the University 
or of those reported by the L'nited States bot- 
anists. I regret not having made notes. I find 
it a difficult matter to arrange such knowledge 
into an interesting essay. I make no effort to 
give a scientific paper. If it will induce other 
students of botany to investigate, and .make 
notes, it will accomplish an interest so much 
needed. Botanists situated in different parts of 
the country, collecting and observing the flower- 
ing plants in their season. Latitude, soil and cli- 
mate produce variety in plants. Flowers every- 
where, by the wayside, on the prairies, in the 
woodland, marshes, and aquatic plants in the 
ponds, all should be noted and classified. Texas 
abounds in beautiful flowers, and a flower gar- 
den of the native plants would bloom in all sea- 
sons. In early spring the violets, blue and white, 
are plentiful, some with large flowers. The 
bird's foot violets, in Polk, Walker anl other 
counties, have large lavender colored flowers. 
The yucca — Spanish dagger — blooms in January 
and February, and some varieties later on in the 
summer, called palm lilies. No one could pass 
the yucca without admiration for their magnifi- 
cent white flowers, ^^erbenas, buttercups and 
primroses are plentiful everywhere. 

Convolvulous (morning glories), in many 
shades of colors, are the farmers' tie vines. In 
Montgomery county !\Irs. Woodson and daugh- 
ter were driving by Mr. Campbell's plantation. 
Every corn and cotton stalk was clothed with 



glories. The daughter remarked to her mother : 
"I think ^Ir. Campbell must be a very tasty gen- 
tleman, to have his corn and cotton stalks all 
decorated with flowers." 

Soon after the war, a freedman had gone up 
near Rock Island, Illinois, and found work with a 
Airs. Thomas, who engaged him to cultivate her 
garden, and by and by she went out to see what 
Jasper was doing. "Oh, dear ! you have cut up 
all my beautiful morning glories!" "Them bind 
weeds, IMistress? Down in ^Mississippi they are 
terrible pests ; chop them up and more grow." 
Ah, I see. What are choice flowers in one sec- 
tion are very troublesome weeds in another. 

Alay-pop passion flowers grow wild in nearly 
all the fields ; also the Bignonic trumpet flower. 
I am often asked if it is not poisonous. I reply, 
no. Wisteria, a woody vine differing from the 
Chinese wisteria, blooming when the plant is in 
foliage. Scarlet honeysuckle is found near water 
courses, climbing over shrubs, etc., so that there 
ij no lack of vines. 

The yellow jasmine is one of the earliest 
flowers to bloom in the spring, with very fra- 
grant golden tubular flowers. Children have 
eaten the flowers, with bad results. Virginia 
creeper, a vine with five leaflets from the stem, 
K found in fields, climbing over old stumps. 
\Mien cultivated, the foliage changes to bright 
scarlet at the approach of cold weather. Poison 
oak need not be mistaken, as it has only three 
leaflets, climbs oak trees, and the foliage changes 
to yellow. It is poisonous when the dew is on. 
.Antidote, sugar of lead and vinegar, applied to 
parts affected. 

Alarundic, a vine with a very delicate blue 
flower, is found in the coast country. Victoria 
vme, with tuberous root, bears orange yellow 
fruit, slightly variegated, called rattlesnake cu- 
cumber. Mocking birds are fond of the fruit. 



162 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Many of the small trees are very ornamental. 
The dogwood needs no description, and has white 
four-petaled flowers. Redbud cercis. wild plums, 
haws, etc., all bloom early and are very orna- 
mental. The black haw in particular should be 
cultivated. Its fruit is edible. The Lwamp haw, 
or May haw, grows in swamps or low, wet soil, 
and bears a small fruit that affords a very deli- 
cious jelly. Wild grapes in variety are found 
everywhere. Mr. iNIunson, of Denison, has some 
in cultivation that he recommends very his^hly. 
Some varieties make a sour wine, and all may 
be used for jelly. 

Mulberries are native and are fine for the 
birds. Wc have always planted some for di- 
birds. Persimmons — children, and especially 
boys, are fond of gathering the fruit — commence 
ripening in July and August in the coast country. 
It is a mistaken idea that the persimmon requires 
frost to make it edible. There is a variety that is 
a beautiful evergreen tree, found near the mouth 
of Clear creek, also near Llano. The fruit i.- 
b'ack when ripe, and not so good as the common 
kind. 

Pawpaw, custard apple, a variety of which we 
saw growing in Polk county, is a small shrub not 
over four feet high. The fruit was small and 
was green at the time we saw it. 
. Gooseberries are growing on Colonel A. J. 
Thompson's plantation, in Walker county, near 
New Waverly, in quantities sufficient to gather 
for tarts. Also in Montgomery county, near 
Willis, on Colonel Lewis' plantation, where they 
had transplanted son-e to the garden. This variety 
bore beautiful flowers but did not \iLld fruit. 
(Not noted in Bulletin.) 

A few plum trees were planted by the Indians. 
of the Chickasaw variety. The roots ran in the 
ground and soon a thicket of plum bushes was 
formed. We ate plums in Rusk county from or- 
chards thus planted. There were also peaches. 
There are some that still retain the name of In- 
dian peaches, both of the clingstone and free seed 
varieties. Crab apples are found in Northern 
Texas. 

Among nut bearing trees, the pecan stands at 
the head of the list for delicious nuts. They are 
row an article of commerce. Recently some at- 
tention has been given to their cultivation. A 
few trees which I planted in the City Park over 



a score of \ears since have been bearing nuts, 
and on the nut stands there are some very fine 
nuts offered. Several varieties of hickory nuts 
are found. The wood is valuable for axe handles, 
and where strength is required. Black walnut is 
edible, the timber is fine for furniture, and takes 
a fine polish. ]\Iany varieties of oaks, more or 
less valuable, are also native. The acorns are food 
for swine, squirrels and other animals. Live oak, 
a handsome tree, is used in ship building. White 
oak timber is used in chair bottoms, construction 
of hamper baskets for gathering cotton, and are 
useful on the farm in many ways. 

Cedar grows in some parts of sufficient size 
for lumber. J. W. Miller, D. D., of Gay Hill. 
\\'ashington county, had the buildings used for a 
female seminary constructed of cedar lumber. In 
some places the cedar grows scrubby and is only 
useful for fuel. Cypress grows near the streams 
of water. The lumber is valuable on account of 
its durability, and is used in bridge building, etc. 

Chinquapin, a small tree, bears nuts contained 
in a burr resembling the chestnut. Some class 
the chinquapin with the oak and some with the 
chestrlut. 

First in importance are the pine trees, found in 
several varieties. The long leaf has the prefer- 
ence for lumber, but all are valuable. The pine 
is valuable in reclaiming wet, swampy land. I 
read in a paper some years since that in France 
they planted pine in swamps to reclaim them, as 
a sanitary measure. In the vicinity of Jefferson. 
Texas, the swamps were full of young pine sap- 
lings, which have added much to the health of 
that place. Near Old A^'averly, Walker county, 
some fields were cleared and cultivated in i86,^ 
and 1864. Two or three years later the dwelling 
\\as burned and the place deserted. The forests 
in the vicinity consisted of a variety of trees — 
oaks, bavs, magnolias, pines, etc. The winged 
seed of the pine was blown broadcast over the 
once cultivated fields, which now are a forest of 
pine saplings that have been grown. Kansas en 
courages the planting of forest trees. AVhy can- 
not Texas plant too? In a few years the trees 
planted would be very valuable. 

Of ornan^ental trees we give the magnolia 
granfliflora the preference. It is .1 large tree, 
the leaves eight to ten inches long by three to 
four inches wide, a bright green, shiny leaf. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF TEXAS 



163 



Groves, usually near water courses, bloom in 
April and ^lay, up to June. The pistil of the 
blooms makes a burrlike seed pod and contains 
seed of a bright scarlet color when mature, that 
very soon drop out of the burr and require to be 
planted very soon. If left too long will not ger- 
minate, which is the case of many of the seeds 
of forest trees. The large, cup-shaped, fragrant 
flower is the crowning glory of the magnolia. 

There is the ]\Iagnolia Acuminati, a deciduous 
tree with gray bark and leaves about the same 
size of the grandiflora, but it is not evergreen. 
The flowers are white, of those I have seen, fra- 
grant, but are not over half the size of the 
grandiflora bloom, and blooms later in Alay and 
June. Found in Walker county, growing near 
streams of water. 

The catalpa, a handsome tree, with large cor- 
date leaves, bloom.s in large panicles of white 
spotted flowers. The seed pod is a long, slender 
pod filled with winged seed that are blown, and 
often plants come up and grow. It can be trans- 
planted easily, if desired. The wood is said to be 
very durable and valuable for fence and gate 
posts. 

There are so many varieties of trees that space 
will not permit of my giving even a list. Some 
one says, "Why do you include trees in the 
flora?" Trees are the most magnificent of the 
flora. 

EDIBLE FRUITS. 

Wild strawberries are plentiful in Middle and 
North Texas. Dewberries, a creeping bramble, 
and blackberries, are found in all parts of Texas. 
There are several varieties, some very choice. 
A white bramble, blueberries, and bush huckle- 
berries are found in Polk and Walker counties. 
The swamp haw, or l\Iay haw, is found in 
swamps in various places, and makes a delicious 
and beautiful jelly. Also the chapperel bush or 
shrub, an evergreen, with holly-like foliage. The 
berries, when ripe, are used for jelly. 

There are grapes in many varieties, some 
worthy of cultivation. Some varieties have been 
cultivated and named by ]\Ir. Munson, of Deni- 
son. Some varieties have been used for wine 
making. Musquadine, mustang, post oak, fox 
grape and others, the autumn anri winter grapes, 
have large cluster of small grapes. 



The Chickasaw varieties of plums are the ear- 
liest to ripen, and perhaps the best. The Indians 
had orchards of the Chickasaw plum in various 
places. A few seeds were planted, grew, the 
roots ran in the ground and sprouted and pro- 
duced new plants, so that it was little trouble to 
start a plum orchard. Other varieties that ripen 
in August, the housekeeper delights in getting 
for jellies. Some varieties, called slows, have 
fruit that is not so desirable, havir-g a flavor like 
the bark of the tree. 

The area of Texas is so great tliat soil and 
climate differ, and the flora differs as much in 
the different sections of country. In the northern 
section the growth is that of a temperate zone, 
whilst the southern portion is almost tropical. In 
the northern and eastern sections, the fruit, 
cereals, etc., are that of the temperate latitude : 
in the southern, near the coast, oranges, lemons, 
bananas, rice, sugar cane and cotton are culti- 
vated. The cold of winter is confined to a few 
blasts of north wind and one night's freeze is 
often sufficient to blast the growth of several 
years. 

The plants of Texas are very numerous. First 
in importance are the grasses, that afford forage 
to the thousands of cattle that derive their en- 
tire sustenance from the great prairies that have 
been the pasturage for the herds of cattle and 
horses, to say nothing of the buffalo and deer, of 
former times. 

The coat of brown grass, concealing the green 
and tender grass, afforded pasturage during the 
winter months, and was often burned off in the 
early spring by the stockmen, and the rapid 
growth of young grass soon covered the grand 
piairies. The prairies are often dotted with 
clumps of oak, sweet gum and mesquite and other 
sn:all trees, affording a guide post to the weary 
tt aveler. 

Aquatic plants are very beautiful and numer- 
ous. The white and yellow pond lilies are found 
in the ponds and lakes, also the Lotus Netaoin 
Lutern, called water chinquapin, bearing a nut 
in the ferns that is edible, hence the name 
chinquapin. 

One says, "Why not write up the medicinal 
plants?" Their number is legion. Stillugia, 
queen's delight, snakeroot, monartic horse, lo- 
belia, hoarhound, dandelion, boneset, bayberry. 



164 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



wax myrtle, Jerusalem oak, slippery elm, white 
oak, wild cherry, sweet gum, mullein, catmint, 
elder, peppermint, spearmint, etc. These are only 
a short list of the most common medicinal herbs. 
It would make a paper too long to add their 
properties. 

FERNS. 

There are a number of varieties. The bracken 
i< quite common. Then there is a large fern 
found in the pine woods that seems to flourish 
with but little moisture. The "maidenhair," a di- 
antum cuneatum, found near or on the banks of 
the creeks and rivers, at one time on Buffalo 
bayou, but collectors have made it very scarce. 
Farther up, at Spring branch, it is plentiful. 
Near Austin, on the San Antonio river, and in 
many other places, wherever there is limestone. 
Some miles above Austin, at a place called the 



"old stoill," where there is a spring of water 
running out beneath a shelving rock, the maiden 
liair grows very rank and I gathered fronds that 
were petrified where the water flowed over the 
broken fronds. Lime, shade and moisture are 
the conditions necessary for the successful 
growth of the maiden hair fern. Asplenium 
Ebeneum. a small fern found in the coast coun- 
try, in the woodland near water streams, grows 
from six to ten inches, the stem black, and the 
pinea usually not over an inch in length. It is 
a delicate fern, suitable for fern dishes. There 
are ferns that grow upon the bark of trees, and 
some on rocks, that flourish with but little 
moisture. The long, gray moss is an air plant — 
tillandsic Urnoides — and thrives wherever there 
is a moist atmosphere. 



i.'^-W 




KIAM BUILDING 
The Home of Houston's Popular Outfitter for Men, 
and Children 



SHOPPING FACILITIES OF HOUSTON 

Bv Mrs. George W. Graves 



If shopping is visiting shops for the purpose 
of purchasing goods, and facihty is the quality of 
being easily performed, then the wayfaring man, 
though a fool, may not err here m Houston. 
I'or shopping facihties we must first have three 
things, namely : People, money and shops. 

That we have the people there can be no 
doubt. There is never a time when our streets 
are not crowded with busy, hurrying shoppers, 
men, women and children, white, black and yel- 
low — all are here. Our population is about one 
hundred thousand, and when you remember how 
many of them are shoppers, and how varied are 
their needs, you may easily realize that we have 
at least one requisite for shopping. 

And now for the second requisite, money. Go 
into our banks and you will discover that we 
have nine of these institutions, with a capitaliza- 
tion aggregating $2,800,000, with deposits of 
$16,442,588, and a surplus of $1,974,273. Add to 
this the fact that our First National Bank re- 
cently increased its capital to $1,000,000, and 
you may realize that we have the second requisite 
also. 

Stand out of harm's way and watch the luxu- 
rious automobiles rush up and down with their 
freight of shoppers ; glance at the handsome car- 
riages and horses standing in front of every 
store; go inside and watch the purchase of ele- 
gant materials, handsome jewels, furs and lace, 
and you will think you have made a mistake and 
dropped into New York City. 

And last, but not least, there must be stores and 
shops of every description. Do you wish dry 
goods? The stores are before you, with every 
temptation that can distract the masculine or 
feminine eye, with electric fans to cool you in 
summer, and steam heat to warm you in winter. 
Here you may find the newest styles from New 
York, and the richest and poorest shoppers may 
be satisfied. In one of our shop windows, we 
say it with modest pride, we have shown a real, 
genuine sheath gown ! 

Do you desire to furnish your home? We can 
show you stores where you can furnish a cot- 
tage or a brown stone front. 



Do you hunger for tempting viands ? You 
need not hunger long — you may step into grocery 
stores, where from meats to champagne, you 
may make your order complete. 

Are you a book worm ? We can show you 
stores where you might procure food for a life- 
time. 

Would you be shod? If you will furnish the 
feet, we can and will do the rest. For no town 
in Texas has more complete or satisfactory shoe 
stores. 

But if you would see busy, interested shoppers, 
come with us on Saturday afternoon to the City 
Market. Here housekeepers and householders 
are alike interested. All around the entire block 
occupied by the City Market, the streets are 
crowded with vehicles and the sidewalks with 
foot passengers. On every side are good things 
to tempt the shopper: fresh laid eggs, dressed 
poultry, pickles, preserves, candies, butter, olives, 
meats of every sort. Vegetables are here in sea- 
son and out of season. New potatoes we have 
the year round ; figs in October and strawberries 
at Christmas. Houston is justly proud of her 
City Market, and we claim with truth that it has 
no superior in the South. 

If our country neighbors or friends from ad- 
joining towns care to run over for a day's or a 
week's shopping, we have for their convenience 
beautiful, paved roads running in all directions. 
We have in all twenty-three paved roads running 
out of Houston. The longest of these roads is 
thirty-one miles, and the others vary from 
twenty-five miles on down to a five mile limit. 
Under such circumstances it is a small matter for 
country shoppers in wagons, carriages or autos 
to speed into Houston for a day's shopping. 

We also have an interurban road from Kar- 
ri sburg to Houston, a distance of seven miles. 
For the sum of five cents, our neighbor in Har- 
risburg may mount the street car, run into 
Houston for an hour's or a day's shopping, and 
back again with no real loss of time. 

We have thirteen railroad termini in Houston. 
In fact, our city is the railway center of Texas. 
We have one railroad system, the Frisco, for 



SHOPPING FACILITIES OF HOUSTON 



167 



which we have recently pulled down and moved 
away twelve blocks of city homes, as well as a 
Jewish synagogue. Is it any wonder, under such 
circumstances, that people do not hesitate to 
journey Houstonward to do their shopping? 
Doubtless it would surprise outsiders, and even 
niany of our own people, to know how many peo- 
ple and what distances they come to us to buy. 
And deep water is not the least of our resources. 
For by it we are not only getting much cheaper 
rates by water, but by rail as well, and the sliop- 
per will find this very much to his advantage 
in buying the best goods for the least money. 
Our bayou and ship channel has been widened 
and deepened, until soon on our shores a busy 
wharf will be seen, and foreign vessels laden 
with every form of merchandise, from every 
point, will anchor in our harbor. 

It goes without saying that our telephone con- 
nection is of the greatest advantage to our city 
shoppers, as is our long distance telephone, the 
telegraph and express service, to the out-of-town 
shoppers. 

Then, when you have shopped, walked and 
talked until you are hungry, we can again ac- 



commodate you. Come with us to our rest room, 
just next door to Ed Kiam, on Main street. The 
rest room is under the auspices of the Y. W. 
C. A., and here at noon every day and on Sat- 
urday evening, you may procure dainty and in- 
expensive lunches. Here you will find a com- 
fortable sitting room, with books and piano. 
L'pstairs are couches for the weary, and dressing 
rooms where flushed faces, shining noses and 
disheveled locks may be brought into order. 

Add to all of our facilities the fact that our 
climate is almost ideal throughout fhe winter, 
and that we have no slippery, icy streets to lead 
astray the shoppers' feet, and when it rains — 
and we must confess that it sometimes does in 
our garden spot, else it would not deserve the 
name — but zvlicn it rains, have we not paved 
streets everywhere, so that the fastidious dame 
may step from carriage to pavement, or from 
street car to sidewalk, and still retain her dainty 
freshness ? 

And so we might go on and on, for our tale 
is not yet told, but, for the present, suffice it to 
say truly of the shopping facilities of Houston, 
the half has never been told. 



THE HOUSE OF LECHENGER. 



The illustration of the interior of the jewelry 
house of L. Lechenger is a forcible example of 
what Houston offers to a man without capital, 
but endowed with that indomitable will power 
and energy so characteristic of men who have 
made the Southwest their mecca. Mr. Lechen- 
ger, the head of the house which bears his name, 
came to this country from Russia in 1878. His 
slock in trade consisted of 19 years of age, two 
('ollars in cash, and a firm determination to suc- 



ceed. He established his first place of business 
in a corner of a hardware store on Preston street 
in 1893, with a total floor space of eight by ten 
feet. Good business methods, keen judgment 
and a reputation of selling goods exactly as they 
were represented, enabled him to open his 
present establishment, which contains a larger 
fl(5or space devoted to jewelry and artistic mer- 
chandise than any other house of its kind west of 
the Mississippi. 



\/ S V 






% 



^ 



168 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



FOLEY BROTHERS 

A visit to the new home of Foley Bros, in- 
spires that spirit of pubhc improvement during 
tlie last decade which has put Houston to the 
front and given birth to a new mercantile enter- 
prise of commanding importance to the city of 
Houston. Their old stand now seems small and 
antiquated in comparison with the present new 
home, known as a ladies' store throughout. 





FOLEY BROS'. STORE 



SHOPPING FACILITIES OF HOUSTON 



169 



LEV' Y BROS. DRY GOODS CO. 
By Mary E. Bryan 




ABE M. LEAT 

\Mien the great emporium of Levy Brothers, on 
^lain street, is viewed by those who have watched 
the progress of this firm, in their minds at once 
arises the trite old saying, as a most apt com- 
parison, that "tall oaks from small acorns grow." 

Equipped with such characteristics and train- 
ing they have pursued the plan adopted at the 
very beginning — to treat ever}- customer in such 
a manner as to insure his return, and they are 
realizing their fondest dreams. 

Twenty-one years ago, on June 13th, Mr. Abe 
Levy, in a very modest building on the corner of 
Main street and Congress avenue, when behind 
the counter himself and having only one employe, 
determined in his own mind to become the great- 
est dr)' gods merchant in Houston. Previously 
to this business venture of his own he had worked 
for W. L. Foley at $10 a week. 

Lev}- Brothers purchased this diminutive place 
of business, the aniount less than three thousand 
dollars paid, each one contributing what he could, 
and the largest amount being $1,000. Success 
crowned their efforts to such an extent that they 
moved into an adjacent room and employed more 
clerks. The building was then known as the Old 
Savings Bank, on the corner of Main street and 
Congress avenue. The stock was purchased from 
Alex Simon, who was leaving Houston. 

Mr. Abe Levy had tried other eft'orts and 
tiaveled out of Xew York, but Texas called 



him, and the "Lone Star" directed his am- 
bitious career to such success that today Levy 
Brothers conduct a business of a million and a 
lialf a year. Mr. Abe Levy is president of the 
great corporation, which they have inaugurated. 

Hard work on the part of each one of the 
brothers, and the assistance of employes, Mr. 
Levy will tell you, has enabled him to realize 
b.is ambition, conceived a little more than twenty- 
one years ago. Just at all times, the firm has 
followed the axiom : treat employes fairly and 
they will do the same for you. 

Five or six years after the first organization was 
formed it was found necessary to secure addition- 
al room, and the building now occupied by Foley 
Bros, was leased. The firm was then composed of 
Abe Levy, Haskell Levy and Hyman Levy, and 
they were then joined by Joe Levy and Leo Levy. 
Four or five years after this Leo Levy passed 
away, and within the last two years Joe Levy was 
taken from this life to the great beyond. 

Eleven years ago the property upon which 
the Levy building now stands was occupied by 
an old time structure, where the Morris hard- 
ware business was conducted. 

Levy Brothers purchased the site, paying the 
price of $1,000 a front foot. This was deemed 
an exorbitant price at the time, as no such figures 
had ever been quoted previously in Houston. 

The three-story white brick structure was erect- 
ed as it is at present, but it was found, almost im- 
mediately upon occupancy, that more room was 
necessary, and the sum of $1,000 a front foot was 
paid for the adjacent building, and this is where 
the main building stands. Three years ago, in 
August, 1905, a purchase was made upon which 
the four-story annex rises. For this location 
practically twice the sum was paid. 

In July, 1906, the firm was incorporated with 
a capital of $300,000. A certain proportion of the 
stock was allotted to faithful and trusted em- 
ployes. As the company now is, J\Ir. Abe Levy 
IS president; ;\Ir. Haskell Levy, vice-president; 
Mr. Hyman Levy, secretary and treasurer. Some 
twenty-eight employes are stockholders. The 
business continues to grow phenominally, and 
there are 400 employes who believe in the method 
established by Lew Brothers for reciprocity. 




JUDGE A. E. AilERMAX 
County Judge 





HON'. F. CHAS. HUME, JK. 
State Senator Sixteenth District 



COL. I. M. STANDIFER 
Representative from Harris County, State Legislature. 




President Husiness League and National Committeeman 



HOUSTON BUSINESS LEAGUE 

By Geo. P. Brown, Ediior 



The Houston Business League was organized 
a.' the result of a meeting held February 26, 1895. 
Forty citizens were assembled. Col. R. M. 
Johnston called the meeting to order, and ex- 
plained the objects of the call to be the organiza- 
tion of a permanent commercial association, to 
be composed of citizens of Houston who had at 
heart the interests of the city of Houston. Tem- 
porary organization was effected by the election 
of R. M. Johnston as chairman, and W. W. 
Dexter as secretary. 

At this original meeting, committees were 
appointed to outline purposes and plans and to 



solicit members. An^ong those who took part in 
the first organization were Colonel Johnston, 
D. D. Bryan, \\'. W. Dexter. Eugene T. Heiner, 
T. M. Cotton, R. B. Morris, Charles E. Jones, 
H. G. Lidstone, Richard Cocke, Gus Schulte, 
J. H. Bright, Hamp Cook, D. .M. Angle, George 
W. Steiff, and D. H. JMcCullough. 

Following this meeting, much active work 
was done in behalf of the organization. Colonel 
Johnston urging personally the business men of 
Houston to take some part in the formation of 
an association that would work for the upbuild- 



172 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



ing of the city and be a permanent factor in 
Houston's growth. 

The second meeting was held March 5. 1895. 
At that time several names were suggested, and 
first Chamber of Commerce was selected, but 
this question was given a second consideration 
and the name was made The Houston Business 
League. 

It was decided, in the adoption of the consti- 
tution, that the purposes should be as follows : 

"The object of the Houston Business League 
is to promote immigration, to create and extend 
and foster the trade, commerce and manufactur- 
ing interests of the city of Houston, to secure 
and build up transportation lines, to secure 
reasonable and equitable transportation rates, to 
build up and maintain the value of our real 
estate, to encourage honest, progressive, effi- 
cient and economical administration of our muni- 
cipal government, to collect, preserve and dis- 
seminate information in relation to our commer- 
cial, financial and industrial affairs, and to unite 
as far as possible our people in one representa- 
tive body." 

The following were the first officers of the 
Houston Business League : President, J. M. 
Cotton ; first vice president, Ed Kiam ; second 
vice president, J. C. Bering; third vice president, 
Eugene T. Heiner; secretary, W. W. Dexter; 
treasurer. Guv M. Harcourt ; directors, Charles 



E. Jones, E. A. Alexander, W. R. Sinclair, 
Richard Cocke, Clarence Gueringer, D. M. 
Angle, H. H. Dickson, Judge Norman G. Kit- 
trell and Gus Schulte. 

It was upon this beginning that the Houston 
Business League was established. It has passed 
tiirough various stages of prosperity and influ- 
ence, but during the past eight years it has be- 
come a solid institution, with valuable assets and 
with an influential standing among the people 
of Houston. Its work is extensive. It has 
bi ought many good concerns to the city, and has 
distributed advertising matter about Houston to 
the length and breadth of the United States. 
Among its membership are numbered the lead- 
ing" people of the city, and its president at this 
time is Colonel R. M. Johnston, president of 
the Houston Printing Company, and editor in 
chief of the Houston Post, and a member of the 
Democratic National Committee. Other officers 
are : Thomas H. Ball, first vice president ; 
W. C. Munn, second vice president ; A. S. Cleve- 
land, third vice president; W. E. Richards, 
treasurer; George P. Brown, secretary, and Miss 
Annie Mae Morse, assistant secretary. The 
directors are J. S. Bonner, David F. Burks, 
H. B. Rice, George M. Duncan, Tom Flax- 
man, C. B. Gillespie, Beverly Harris, J. W. 
Neal, W. E. Richards, S. E. Sims and Thomas 
H. Stone. 



\ 














JAMES A. RADFORD 
President 



Photo by Gray 



DAVID DALY 
Vice-President 



Photo by Gray 



HOUSTON CARNIVAL, 1908 

Mrs. B. F. Bonner, Editor 



The No-Tsii-Oh Association of Houston, 
Texas, is chartered under the laws of the state, 
its purposes being to give an annual carnival 
every year, in the month of November, for the 
entertainment of the people of the state who visit 
Houston at that time. It is not organized for 
revenue, and is sustained by the membership 
fees of those who annually become enrolled and 
b} the subscriptions of the business men of 
Houston, who contribute to it from motives of a 
patriotic nature. 

The first carnival was held in iSijg. The as- 
sociation decided it should have a kmg, that its 
king should be known as Nottoc, whose realm 
sh.ould be Tekram and whose capital city should 
be No-Tsu-Oh. Reverse the spelling of these 
strange and peculiar words and it gives that 
which Houston claims is the basis of her com- 
mercial supremacy in the Southwest. Houston 
has for many years been recognized as a great 
cotton market. Deep water and the many rail- 



road (i6) facilities that make it a market that 
yields its place to none. The fruit, flower and 
vegetable festival was the beginning of what 
today is a great organization. It is now an in- 
corporated concern which expends annually 
about $30,000 in its entertainments. There are 
parades, confetti throwing, brilliant illumina- 
tions, a magnificent ball where the queen is 
crowned, and many outdoor features that are 
free to all. The carnival sjiirit is abroad for six 
davs, and care is thrown aside those days, while 
the bands keep the air sweet with their music. 

One of the new features offered this year 
(1908) was the foot-ball game between the Uni- 
versity of Texas and the Agricultural & Mechani- 
cal College of Texas. It was a clean game filled 
with interest for the lovers of sport. Six thou.^- 
and witnessed I'niversity's vict )ry, but the Col- 
lege put up a plucky fight. This was the great- 
est student demonstration ever had in the State. 
It was a delight to look upon the manly boys, 




JAMES D. DAWSON 

King X, 

No-Tsu-Oh, 1908 



MISS MAMIE STUART SHEARN 

Queen X, 

No-Tsu-Oh. 1908 



HOUSTON CARNIVAL, 1908 



175 





CEul;i..li r. BROWN 
Chairman Amusements Committee 



I'hutj by Gray 



TOJI FLAX.MAX 
Treasurer 



IMiuto by Gray 



some eighteen hundred, who represent the future 
pride of Texas. 

King Nottoc X entered the city with twenty 
chariots, a gorgeous and resplendent pageantry, 
each chariot representing gods and goddesses. 



Saturday morning, the King, ever thoughtful 
of his subjects, presented to them another stately 
and beautiful parade. It featured the "Classics 
of Childhood," those dear and treasured vokimes 
on which the imagination of youth has fed. 





BOONE GROSS 
Cliairman King's Arrival Committee 



photo by Gray 



E. J. McCULLODGH 
Chairman Ball Committee 



176 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 





GEORGE DUNCAN 
Chairman Advertising Committee 



Photo by Gray 



HENRY L. BORIIEN 
Cliairman Grounds Committee 



The crowning event of the week was tlie Coro- 
nation Ball. Bewilderino'ly beautiful, it revealed to 
the Land of Tekram two popular rulers. King 
Cotton claimed its own this year, Mr. James D. 
Dawson, a cotton merchant, and his Queen, Miss 



Mamie Shearn, sit upon the throne and all Hous- 
ton bow in approval of the Royal choice. 

Houston is proud of this association. Each 
year has seen its achievements more elegant 
tlian the past, until today our carnival vies with 





•J. A. HULEN 
Chairman Night Parade Committee 



Phuto by Gray 



DAVE BURKS Photo by Gray 

Chairman Finance Committee 



HOUSTON CARNIVAL, 1908 



177 





JOli K. BKUWXE 
Ctiairmau Music Committee 



E. J. HUSSION 
Cliairinan Membership Committee 



tliat of our sister city, Ntw Orleans. Following Palmer; 1905, Charles D. Golding; 1906, Wil- 
is a list of presidents. Icings and queens: liam D. Cleveland, Jr.; 1907, George N. Torrey; 

Presidents; 1899, Non-nan S. Meldrum ; 1900, 1908, James A. Radford. 

15. F. Bonner : 1901, James H. Adair; 1902, John Kings: 1899. A. C. Allen; 1900, John H. 

McClellan ; 1903, H. T. Keller; 1904, G. J. Kirby; 1901, Dennis Call (deceased); 1902, 





TOM STONE Photo by Clay 

Chairman Kailroad RateB Committee 



EAY WIESS Photo by Gray 

Chairmaii Pay Parade Committee 



178 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Jesse H. Jones; 1903, B. P. Bonner; 1904, Pres- 
ley K. Ewing; 1905, Jo S. Rice; 1906, C. K. 
Dun^; 1907, H. M. Garwood; 1908, James D. 
Dawson. 

Queens: 1899, Annie Quinlan ; 1900, Julia 
Mae Morse; igoi, Augusta Goodhue; 1902, 
Clara Robinson ; 1903, Bessie Kirby ; 1904, Flor- 
ence Carter; 1905, Sallie Sewall; 1906, Gertrude 
Paine; 1907, Alice Baker; 1908, Mamie Shearn. 



The affairs of No-Tsu-Oh for 1908 were hand- 
led by the following Board of Directors : 

James A. Radford, President. 

David Daly, Vice-President. 

Thomas Flaxman, Treasurer. 

George P. Brown, Secretary. 

Boone Gross, Gus Schulte, Joseph E. Browne, 
Ray Weiss, George M. Duncan, E. J. McCul- 
iough, David F. Burks, Thomas H. Stone, John 
A. Hulen. H. L. Borden and E. T- Hussion. 




J.VMES HAYES QUAELES 
Chairman Press Committee 



Photo by Gray 



HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



THE LUMBERAIANS NATIONAL BANK. 



The combined capital and surplus of this bank 
ij a half million dollars. It is a little over two 
years in existence, and ranks with some of the 
larger banks of the state in deposits and popu- 
larity. 

The officers are deservedly i)opular, and the 
stockholders and directors among tiie most prom- 



the Galveston National, and Mr. Vandervoort 
was with the Planters and Mechanics. 

The portraits of these three officers will be 
found in this publication — in fact, are allied with 
this article. 

The Lumbermans is ensconced in one of the 
handson:est marble finislied banks in the state. 




S. p. CARTER 
President Lumbermans Xational Bank 



inent men of this city and state, many of them 
residing in the interior. 

Mr. S. F. Carter, formerly one of the largest 
lumber dealers in Texas, is president ; Mr. Guy 
M. Bryan. Jr., vice president, and A. S. Vander- 
voort, cashier. Mr. Bryan was for years with 



It is reported that Mr. Carter will soon erect a 
thirteen-story office and bank building. 

The directorate is composed of the following 
influential business men : W. O. Ansl^, Hous- 
ton, A. R. Fox & Co., cotton; John S. Bonner, 
Houston, president Bonner Oil Co. ; Guy M. 



HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



181 



Pollard, agents George H. McFadden & Bro. ; 
Conrad Schwartz, Houston, carriage and buggy 
factory ; G. C. Street, Houston, Street & Graves, 
cotton seed products, bagging and ties ; William 
iV. Wilson, Houston, vice president and general 
manager William A. Wilson Realty Co. ; Gus 
Radetzki, general superintendent H. & T. C. and 
H. E. & W. T. Railways. 




GUY M. BRYAN 
Vice-President Lumbermans National Banlc 



Bryan, Houston, active vice president: J. P. Car- 
ter, Houston, president Carter Lumber Co.; Wil- 
liam D. Cleveland, Jr., Houston, Wm. D. Cleve- 
land & Sons, wholesale grocers ; E. L. Crooker. 
Houston, president E. L. Crooker Lumber Co. ; 
S. F. Carter, Houston, president; David Dal\ . 
Houston, manager Houston Electric Co. (Street 
Railway) ; H. M. Garwood, Houston, Baker, 
Botts, Parker & Garwood, general attorneys ; 
Jesse H. Jones, Houston, capitalist; J. F. Keith, 
Beaumont, president J. F. Keith Lumber Co. ; A. 
T. Lucas, Houston, general contractor: W. H. 
Norris, Houston, president W. H. Norris Lum- 
ber Co.; A. \\'. Pollard, Houston, Heard & 




A. S. VANDERVOOKT 
Cashier Luniberninns National Banl< 



Officers : S. F. Carter, president ; Guy M. 
Bryan, active vice president; A. S. \'andervoort, 
cashier; Jesse H. Jones, vice president; J. P. 
Carter, vice president ; H. M. Garwood, vice 
president. 



THE SOUTH TEXAS NATIONAL BANK. 



This institution was organized in 1890, by 
men who believe in building well and strong. 
Each of the original charter members are men 
of high cast, and lead in the ranks of Houston's 
substantial citizenship. 



Mr. Charles Dillingham is president ; Henry 
Brashear, H. F. McGregor, O. T. Holt and J. E. 
McAshan, vice presidents ; Beverly D. Harris, 
cashier; C. A. McKinney and A. F. Schultz, 
assistant cashiers. 




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HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



183 



The capital is $500,000. Deposits run over 
two and a half million dollars, with a surplus of 
over a third of a million. It is a United States 
depositary and otherwise recognized, at home 
and abroad, as being one of the most conserva- 
tive, one of the strongest banks in the state. 

The board of directors is composed of men 



whose wealth aggregates several million dollars. 
The active officers are very popular and enjoy 
the confidence of the public. No little credit is 
due the enterprising cashier, whose spirit of push 
and intelligence has made a record for both him- 
self and the bank. 



FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF HOUSTON. 



Perhaps no bank in Texas has a more interest- 
ing history, lacking a few days of being the old- 
est national bank in the state. 

The capital was recently increased to a million 
dollars. The deposits are nearly $5,000,000 and 
the surplus over $400,000. This bank has no stock 
for sale, and only one or two shares are held out- 
side of the Shepherd family. The bank owns one 
of the handsomest office buildings in the state, 
and is adding a frontage of fifty feet more to it, 
which will give it an eight-story modern bank and 
office building 75x125 feet. 



The bank was founded in 1856 by Mr. B. A. 
Shepherd, deceased. It is now a bulwark of 
financial strength and prestige. 

The officers are as follows : President, O. L. 
Cochran; vice president, T. J. Scott; cashier, 
VV. S. Cochran; assistant cashier, W. E. Hert- 
ford. The directors are L. V. Root, O. L. 
Cochran, J. T. Scott, W. S. Cochran, E. A. Peden 
and W. H. Kirkland. 

This is the largest bank in Texas, from many 
standpoints. 



THE COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK. 



This splendid institution holds first place on 
the "roll of honor" in Houston. It is an idenl 
bank in every respect. 

With a capital of $300,000, surplus and un- 
divided profits of over $600,000, ani_l deposits 
aggregating over $4,000,000, it stands proudly at 
the head of Texas banks, with total resources of 
over $5,000,000. Two of the characteristic fea- 
tures of the institution are conservativism and 
progress, with an avowed purpose of safeguard- 
ing its depositors and recompensing its stock- 
holders. The home of this bank is in its own 
six-story, modern fire-proof building, with every 
convenience and comfort for conducting its 
affairs, and which cost about $350,000. 

The bank began business July I, 1886, with a 
capital of $200,000. Since that time it has ever 
been on the upward trend, without a jar under 
any financial flurry in the outside world. 

Its stock has the highest value of any bank in 
Texas, and there is but one other in the state 
that pa\s to its stockholders a dividend of 16 
per cent per annum, payable quarterly. 

The president, Mr. W. B. Chew, is not only 




■W. R. CHEW 
President Commei-ciai National Bank 



HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



185 



an astute banker, but regarded as one of the best 
financiers in the state. He was one of the origi- 
nal directors, but his superior ability was soon 
recognized and he was chosen vice president in 
1889, and in 1891 was made president. 

The board of directors are among the wealth- 
iest and most progressive men of Texas. The 
officers, besides Mr. Chew, are as follows : 
James A. Baker, Jr., and Thornwell Fay, vice 
presidents, and P. J. Evershade, cashier. 



The directors are as follows : R. S. Lovett, 
James D. Dawson, Edwin B. Parker, J. V. Neu- 
haus, S. C. Red, C. H. Markham, Conrad Ber- 
ing, Cleveland Sewall, H. R. Eldridge, James A. 
Baker, Jr., Thornwell Fay and W. B. Chew. 

Mr. Eldridge recently resigned as active vice 
president of the Commercial, to accept the posi- 
tion of cashier of the El Paso National Bank of 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, but remains as a 
director for the present. 



THE MERCHANTS NATIONAL BANK. 



This bank was established a few years ago, 
w ith I. H. Kempner, of Galveston, as president, 
and W. H. Hurley as cashier. The deposits and 
business generally have grown since that time 
until today it stands second to no bank in popu- 
larity. 

On October 15 they moved into elegant new 
quarters, corner of Main and Congress, which 
are far more commodious and comfortable than 
the former quarters. This became urgent by 
pressure of increased and growing business. 
The officers are : C. G. Pillot, president ; T. C. 
Dunn, vice president; J. T. McCarthy, cashier; 
Randon Porter, assistant cashier. 

The capital is $250,000; surplus earned, over 
$150,000. It is a United States depository, and 
its board of directors are among the more prom- 
inent and substantial business men of Houston 
and Galveston, as follows: I. H. Kempnei. 
Bryan Heard, C G. Pillot, Dr. O. L. Nors- 
worthy, Hugh Burns. Jonathan Lane and T. C. 
Dunn. 

On this page will be foiuid the interior view 
of the Merchants National Bank, corner Main 
and Congress streets, one of the best locations 
for a banking institution in the city of Houston. 
The Merchants National Bank is one of the 
most conservative, and also one of the most 
progressive and prosperous banking institutions 
in the city. Recently it outgrew its old quar- 
ters, and now has one of the prettiest and best 
equipped banking rooms in Houston. 

The management of this bank is in the hands 
of men of known integrity and large experience, 
numbering among their friends people from all 
walks of life. 



The president of the bank, Air. C. G. Pillot, 
is one of the best known citizens of Houston, 
being the junior member of the firm of Henke 
&; Pillot, one of the largest retail grocery stores 
in the South, and has large interests in nearly 
all of Houston's other enterprises. 

Mr. T. C. Dunn, vice president, is one of the 
best known bankers in Texas, and has an en- 
viable reputation throughout the state for his 
conservative and far-sightedness in his chosen 
profession. He has been a resident of Houston 
practically all of his life, and enjoys the acquaint- 
ance of a large number of people. 

JMr. J. T. McCarthy, the cashier, is a recent 
acquisition to the bank, having become identi- 
fied with the same on the 15th of last July, at 
which time he purchased a large interest in the 
institution. His aggressive work since that time 
has made itself favorably noticeable in many 
ways, and he is fast becoming identified with 
every business interest in the city. In point of 
experience, he is one of the oldest bankers in 
Texas, having been engaged in the banking busi- 
ness for something over twenty-six years, during 
which time he has served in every capacity. 

Mr. Randon Porter, the assistant cashier, is a 
son of the late George L. Porter, one of the 
pioneers of Houston, and enjoys quite a reputa- 
tion for ability along the line of his chosen work, 
especially for one so young in the profession. 
Mr. Porter is well and favorably known by a 
large circle of friends. 

In addition to the above named gentlemen, the 
institution has on its board the following well 
known, substantial and conservative business 
men, all of whom need no introduction to those 




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HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



187 



familiar with Houston and her foremost enter- 
prises : Mr. J. L. Thompson, president of the 
Thompson & Tucker Lumber Company ; Mr. 
Bryan Heard, of the George H. McI-^adden & 
Bros. Agency ; Mr. Jonathan Lane, attorney ; 
O. L. Nosworthy, M. D. ; Mr. Roderick AIcDon- 
ald, capitahst; j\lr. L H. Kempner, president 
Texas Bank and Trust Company. 



The capital stock of the bank is $250,000, and 
since its organization they have earned a surplus 
of $150,000, making a total of capital and sur- 
plus of $400,000; undivided profits, $19,777.53. 
The bank's business shows a very material 
growth at each call of the comptroller. The 
^lerchants National is one of the United States 
depositories of Houston. 



THE CENTRAL BANK & TRUST CO. 



The attention of our readers is called to the 
above bank, and thcv are invited to consider its 




F. E. PTE 
President Central Bank & Trust Co. 



claims on the public for business very carefully 
and considerately. They are located at 503 Main 
street. 



This bank is a consolidation of the F. E. P3e 
private bank and the Texas Savings Bank. 
Since the consolidation the bank has grown very 
rapidly, and since they have had a reorganiza- 
tion of their office force, they are now in better 
position than ever to give their customers the 
prompt and careful attention which is due them 
from their bank. 

The active officers in charge of this bank are : 
r\Ir. F. E. Pye, president, who has long been a 
resident of Houston, and is well and favorably 
known as a careful, cautious and successful busi- 
ness man. ^Ir. E. R. Johnson, the active vice- 
president, was formerly cashier of the Texas 
Savings Bank and also of the Central Bank & 
Trust Company, who has recently been elected 
tc his new position. Jdr. N. A. Sayre, the cashier, 
has recently come to Houston from Temple, 
Texas, where he has resided for the past fifteen 
years, during which time he was actively en- 
gaged in the banking business. For the past 
\ear he has served as special agent under the 
State Banking Department in effecting reorgani- 
zation of State Banks at Bronson, Weimar and 
Temple. With this official force, ably assisted 
by an expert corps of office men, the bank is well 
equipped for prompt attention to all business, and 
we believe they have a very bright future before 
them, as everyone connected with the bank in any 
capacity is a hustler, and they make it a rule to 
go after business the n;oment they see anv in 
sight. 

New customers are being added on tlieir books 
daily, and each one goes out a walking adver- 
tisement for the bank, and tells of the nice treat- 
ment they receive at the hands of the officials of 
same. This bank operates under a State charter, 




HON. J. S. RICE 

President Union Bank & Trust Company 



HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



189 



makes reports to the State Banking Department 
six times a year, and is examined twice under 
very strict rules and regulations by the State 
bank examiners. The bank handles both savings 
and commercial accounts, and has a special de- 



[■artment for escrow matters, to which prompt 
attention is given. 

They cheerfully invite a call from prospective 
depositors and feel sure an interview with such 
will result in placing a new account on theirbooks. 



THE UNION BANK AND TRUST COMPANY. 



This bank is singularly honored by being the 
first state bank to incorporate in Texas. It is 
therefore No. i. The same astute foresia:ht that 




H. N. TINKER 
Active Vice-President Union Bank & Trust Co. 



actuated its founders to organize under the state 
laws, today directs its affairs, which have grown 
to be one of the largest of the banks in Texas, 
either national or state. It is a five milfion dollar 
concern, so far as resources are concerned. The 
capital is a half million dollars and deposits as 
much. 

The officers are : J. S. Rice, president ; H. N. 
Tinker, active vice president; George Hamman, 



vice president; DeWitt C. Dunn, cashier; D. W. 
Cooley, assistant cashier. 

This bank is not three years old, and is one of 
the liveliest three-year-olds in the United States. 
]\fr. Tinker is a whole bank by himself, while 
the efficient corps of assistants render this bank 
one of the most progressive in Texas. The 
directors and stockholders are very strong and 
influential. Mr. Rice, the president, is a man 




GEORGE HAMMAX 
Vice-President Union Banlc & Trust Co. 

universally beloved for his many noble traits of 
character, genial disposition and high sense of 
honor. 




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HOUSTON BANKS AND BANKERS 



191 




JESSE H. JOXES 
President National City Bank 



NATIONAL CITY BANK. 



This is one of the more recently organized 
Houston banks. 'Sir. Jesse H. Jones, the presi- 
dent, is one of our milHonaire citizens. Mr. 
Care}' Shaw, the former cashier, but now active 
vice president, is one of the brainiest bankers in 
the city. He is deservedly popular and has done 
no little to advance the interest of the bank. It 
was by his sagacious methods that the National 



Citv was made state depository at Houston. 

Houston has no citizen more enterprising than 
the president, and none more popular than the 
cashier. 

The capital is $250,000, with a half million 
dollars on deposit. It is rumored that the capi- 
tal stock may be increased to a half million dol- 
lars. 



192 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
THE AMERICAN NATIONAL BANK 



On the crest of the prosperity wave sweeping- 
over Texas rides tlie American National, in 
triumph. 

This bank has an authorizctl capital of $250,- 
000, with deposits of nearly one million. 

The officers are ; \\' . E. Richards, president ; 
Sterling Meyer, vice president ; F. W. Vanghan, 
cashier. 

The American National sprang from the 
American Rank and Trust Company, a few 
months ago, since which time its growth has been 
rcn-arkable. To the pupularity of tlie president 
and cashier is due this advancement, although 



the bank offers inducements of a substantial and 
attractive character. 

The American is now erecting one of the 
liandson-est hon:es in the stale. It will be a spa- 
cious bank and will be 33x100 feet, finished in 
Italian marble, and constructed by a local firm. 

The directors are all progressive business men, 
each of whom takes a special interest in the bank. 
They embrace the following well known names : 
Cr. A. Mistrot, T. A. Cargill, J. J. Settegast, Jr., 
Frank Williford, Dr. Joseph Alullen, Judge 
George W. Riddle, J. C. Bering, D. F. Burns, 
S. S. Bradw W. E. Richards, Sterling Meyer 
and F. W. X'augban. 




HOUSTON MANUFACTORIES 



By Mrs. D. D. Cooley, 

Recordhig Secretary of City Federation of Clubs 



It is not possible in the necessarily brief 
space allotted to this subject in our book, to do 
more than touch upon Houston's manufactures. 
To do them full justice would be to fill a volume 
much larger than this, so a bare mention of 
those in which the public is mostly concerned 
is all that will be attempted in this article. 



In manufacturing enterprises in the city of 
Houston, $9,405,441 is invested, nearly 9,000 
men and women are employed, who draw an- 
nuall}- $5,179,045 in wages, and the output of the 
various shops is valued at $23,614,863. The fol- 
lowing list will show how this invested capital 
i.'- distributed among the different industries : 



MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES OF HOUSTON. 



Amt. Invested Employes Annual Wages Annual Output 

r)akeries _ $156,000.00 229 $95,150.00 $750,000.00 

liottling works .....'. 251,701.00 108 77,620.00 343,000.00 

Ueer and ice 805,000.00 438 505,000.00 1,540,000.00 

Brick and concrete blocks 245.000.00 240 80,000.00 303,000.00 

Candy 63,000.00 205 72,000.00 330,000.00 

Coffee roasters 340,000.00 35 50,000.00 550,000.00 

Cotton seed oil products 1,000,000.00 600 200.000.00 3,000.000.00 

Products of metal 1.720,978.00 1,027 75SJOO.oo 2,762,500.00 

Harness and saddlery 85,000.00 50 35,000.00 130,000.00 

Lumber products (including furniture) 1,027,000.00 908 495,500.00 3,255,000.00 

Macaroni 20,000.00 12 9,000.00 43.000.00 

Meat products 300,000.00 500 300,000.00 2,250,000.00 

Medicines 75.000.00 40 32.000.00 100,000.00 

Millinery 260,000.00 no 85,000.00 600,000.00 

Optical goods 20,000.00 12 10,000.00 25,000.00 

Paints and wood preservatives 70.175.00 86 45,000.00 200,000.00 

Printing, stationery and lithographing 585,000.00 466 354,450.00 804,647.00 

Rubber stamps and electrotypers 20,500.00 29 25,000.00 60,000.00 

Rice mills 425.000.00 164 155,000.00 1,790,000.00 

Syrup and fruit preserves 110,000.00 206 14,000.00 175,000.00 

?hoes 32,986.00 20 18.200.00 150,000.00 

Trunks 75.000.00 50 20,000.00 150,000.00 

Tailors and clothing makers 73.500.00 172 140,000.00 377.000.00 

Textile products 360,000.00 *igo * 165,000.00 *8oo,ooo.oo 

Vehicles 210.000.00 95 65.905.00 286,994.00 

Miscellaneous 32,385.00 59 25,920.00 95,000.00 

Cars and general shop reconstruction and re- 
pairs by steam railway companies 1,042.216.00 2,720 1,349,200.00 2.744.722.00 

Totals $9405 .44 1 -oo 8,77 1 $5.1 79,045 .00 $23.6 1 4,863 .00 

Comparative totals for 1906-07 7,831,702.00 6,541 4,396,600.00 23,679,422,00 

Increase $i.573.739-oo 2,230 $782,445.00 **$64,559.oo 

*Estimated. **Decrease. 

18 — 




•ri."''.^ tr-C( cc 



HOUSTON CIIROXICLE NEW BUILDINXi 



HOUSTON MANUFACTORIES 



195 



As ladies are especiall}- interested in all that 
goes to assist in making home pleasant and in 
sending their husbands and brothers happy to 
tkeir business in the morning, our coffee inter" 
ests will be the first mentioned in this article. 
Of these we have three who import it, roast it, 
and make it a marketable commodity. The 
Cheek & Xeal Company is the largest of these, 
having employed a capital of $300,000, twenty 
employes who receive as salaries $30,000 a year, 
and an annual output of $400,000. Their product 
is most excellent, and only needs to be once used 
to make a permanent customer of the user. 

The next largest is the International Coffee 
Company, which is a part of the wholesale gro- 
cery business of ^^'m. D. Cleveland & Sons. They 
have approximately $40,000 invested in the busi- 
ness, employ 15 persons, have an annual output 
of $150,000, and a pay roll of $20,000. 

The Guatemala Company is a comparatively 
new concern, but is doing a good and constantl)' 
iiicreasing business. 

COTTON AND PRODUCTS. 

Houston has six cotton seed oil mills, repre- 
senting a total investment of $1,000,000, giving 
employment to 600 men, and paying annually 
$200,000 in wages and salaries. The total output 
is estimated at $3,000,000. The companies in- 
terested in this manufacture are the ^Merchants 
;ind Planters, Roberts Cottonseed Oil Co.j 
Houston Cotton Oil ]\Iill, Industrial Cotton Oil 
Company, Fidelity Cotton Oil & Fertilizer Com- 
pany, and the Magnolia Cotton Oil Company, the 
latter having been com.pleted during the last 
\ ear. 

MEAT PRODUCTS. 

One of the largest industrial concerns in 
South Texas is the Houston Packing Company. 
This establishment represents an enormous in- 
vestment, and Houston is the onh- city in the 
South in which canned meats are put up. In 
rddition to that portion of their proflucts which 
ii consumed in this city, large quantities are 
annually shipped to other Southern states. 

In addition to the packing plant there are the 
local depots and cold storage plants of Swift & 
Company and Armour & Sons. While these 
are not to be classed as manufacturing plants in 
the sense that they put up meat products, they 



do employ important cold storage machinery 
and many men. 

ICE. 

Of ice manufacturers we have five — American 
Ice & Brewing Association, Houston Ice & Brew- 
ing Company, Crystal Ice Company, Henke Ar- 
tesian Ice Company, and The People's Ice Com- 
panv. representing an invested capital of nearly 
$1,000,000. 

CANDV. 

There are seven candy manufacturing houses 
in Houston, with a total output of nearly $350,- 
000 a year. Some very fine candy, which com- 
pares favorably with Huyler's and Lowney's, is 
manufactured here, and Brown Brothers' choco- 
lates are tempting to the most refined taste. 

BAKERIES. 

There are twenty-four establishments in this 
city engaged in the manufacture of bread and 
cakes. They employ capital amounting to $156,- 
000, give employment to 229 persons, and have 
a yearly output of $750,200. The National Bis- 
cuit Company also maintains a plant here, ship- 
ping their product, from this factory to other 
points in the state. They have an investment of 
$100,000, employ 125 persons and have a pay roll 
of $50,000 annually. 

SYRUPS AXD PRESERVES. 

The J. C. Carpenter Fig Company preserves 
n.ost acceptably the quantities of figs growing 
in this part of Texas. This last year the}- have 
[/reserved 2.500 bushels, finding a ready market 
for their entire production, and maintaining sales 
rooms in five different states. Their output for 
h.st }ear was $100,000. 

The McCullough S\rup & Preserving Com- 
pany has its headquarters and a plant here, and 
is the most extensive preserving concern in 
Te.xas, with four plants distributed throughout 
the fruit belt. This is the only company dealing 
exclusively in molasses in the state. 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS. 

There are in this city six brick manufactories, 
with a total output of over $300,000 annually. 
The two largest are the Butler Brick Works and 
the Lucas Brick Works, Two firms manufac- 




o 

CO 



3 
O 



HOUSTON MANUFACTORIES 



197 



ture concrete blocks, tlie Concrete Construction 
Company and Brace & Kirstens. 

FOUNDERS AND MANUFACTURERS IN METALS. 

There are twenty firms engaged in this busi- 
ness in Houston. The largest among these is the 
Dickson Car Wheel Company, with an invest- 
ment of nearly $600,000 and 250 employes. 
Among the other large ones are the Houston 
Car Wheel & Engineering Company, the Union 
Iron Works, Hartwell Iron Works, and the Ket- 
tler Brass Works. 

MACARONI. 

There are two macaroni factories — The Hous- 
ton Macaroni Company and the Magnolia Mac- 
aroni Company. They have capital amounting to 
$20,000 and annual sales of over $40,000. 

SHOES. 

Houston has only one large shoe manufactur- 
ing compan)- — the Buckley Shoe Company. It 
employs twenty persons and represents an in- 
vested capital of $33,000. 

TRUNKS. 

There are two trunk factories — the Houston 
Trunk Company and the Freyer Trunk Manu- 
facturing Company. They employ fifty persons 
and disburse annually in wages $20,000. 

VEHICLES. 

There are eight concerns in this city engaged in 
the making of carriages, and one which manu- 
factures automobiles. This is the Southern 
Motor Car Works, which makes the celebrated 
"Dixie Flyer," and is the only motor factory in 
the South. 

TEXTILE PRODUCTS. 

The Oriental Textile Mills is located in Hous- 
ton Heights, and is in the front rank in its par- 
ticular field, which is the manufacture of press 
cloth for use in cotton seed oil mills. The pro- 
duct of this mill is the best procurable, and is 
made from camel's hair imported from Europe. 



About 150 employes manufacture this cloth un- 
der the active management of Mr. John S. Rad- 
ford. 

The Texas Bag & Fiber Company is another 
substantial concern employing $100,000 capital. 

There are two tent and awning factories, both 
doing an excellent business and employing thirty 
people. These are the Kattman & Kneeland Tent 
Company, and the Repsdorph Tent & Awning 
Company. 

ICE CREAM FACTORIES. 

Ice cream factories do a fine business here be- 
cause of the length of the summer season. 

MANUFACTURED LUMBER. 

The Bering Manufacturing Company, the 
Houston Liggett Lumber Company, Houston 
Show Case and Manufacturing Company, Lott- 
man-Myers Company, Ed H. Harrell Lumber 
Company, and the Texas Table Factory, repre- 
sent the manufactured lumber interests, and 
from these firms everything in their line can be 
purchased, from a common kitchen table to the 
finest grille for a mansion. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Paint and vinegar are also made ; medicines 
manufactured by six establishments ; there are 
eleven concerns making harness and saddles ; art 
glass is made by the Texas Art Glass Company ; 
artificial limbs by the Aluminum Artificial Limb 
Company; brooms by H. E. Detering, and mos- 
quito bars by two concerns with a capital of 
$10,000. 

It has only been possible to mention in a very 
cursory way the many manufacturing interests of 
this growing city, and space will not permit even 
a mention of many. This article will only give 
an idea of what is done at present, and our hope 
for the future is that more manufactories may 
be located here during the next few years, so 
tliat the needs of the city may be supplied at her 
very doors. 







SOME OF HOL'STOX'S MOST PROMINENT MANUFACTORIES 




HOUSTON MARKET AND CITY HALL 



THE HOUSTON MARKET 

Bv Kate B. McKinney 



A lady of Houston has received a letter from 
one living in the North asking about the market 
lure and the cost of living. It is hoped that this 
article may answer, in a degree, that inquiry, as 
there may be others interested in the same sub- 
ject. . 

It is, of course, impractical to state definite 
prices for different things, for prices here, as 
everywhere, vary with the seasons and with the 
supply. 

But there are certain facts and conditions that 
may be stated, that will show how generously 
cur market is supplied and under such favorable 
conditions that prices are bound to be moderate. 

In the first place, our vegetables are nearly 
all home grown and they grow the year around, 
coming in especial profusion and variety in the 
spring and fall. The vegetables from the newly 



developed Brownsville region, which promises 
s>'; much, will soon be pouring into Houston, as 
the nearest and best market. 

The Texas watermelon is too well known to 
need a word of praise, and begins to come to us 
early in June, and keeps coming, sometimes 
appearing for sale as late as October 

Xot even Rocky Ford can raise cantaloupes 
that excel in flavor those that are raised right 
at our doors at Pasadena. 

The Texas peaches reach ns by express and are 
as beautiful and luscious as though just picked 
from the tree. During the season they are plenti- 
ful and cheap. 

Strawberries are grown abundantly in many 
sections around Houston. The season is early 
and long. They are often seen in market in mid- 
winter. They are so cheap that all may enjoy 



200 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



tliis fruit that delights the eye as well as the 
taste. 

Fig trees are found in many yards and it is an 
easy matter to have fresh figs for breakfast. 
And if one wants to "put up" some, they can be 
procured by the bucket from fig orchards. They 
niake a preserve fit for the gods. 

Fruit from California comes to us directly by 
the carload ; and our tropical fruit reaches us b\' 
cheap water rates. The price is so low that one 
does not realize that the fruit was grown so far 
from home. 

To a stranger the city market is always an in- 
teresting sight, and "seeing Houston" is never 
complete without a visit there. No market is 
more beautifully housed than this. It occupies 
the whole lower floor of a fine new building of 
brick and stone, located in a square in the heart 
of the city. The market is divided by aisles into 
rows of stalls in which are displayed fruits and 
vegetables, meats, fish, oysters, sausages of all 
kinds and dressed poultry, butter, eggs and 
cheese, bread and cakes, candies, nuts and dried 
fruits; not forgetting the stalls that are little 
bazaars, where articles of all sorts are for sale. 
Ready made clothing, gewgaws and trinkets of 
various sorts, knives and cheap jewelry and or- 
naments to catch the eye of the passer by. 

In the meat stalls will be seen such quantities 
of meat in all varieties that one wonders where 
it all can be used. The most of this meat comes 
from cattle raised right here in Texas, and so 
can be sold at so low a price that every one may 
have it on his table. 

Houston is so near the gulf that the products 
of the salt water are easily and abundantly ob- 



tained. There are fish of many varieties and all 
sizes, oysters, crabs, lobsters, shrimps and some- 
times turtles. 

If the visitor may choose the time for his 
visit, let it be on Saturda)- afternoon, when 
nearly everybody hies him with a large basket 
t(.i the market to purchase materials ftT his .Sun- 
day dinner. 

Saturday afternoon is almost a gala day with 
its happy, busy, jostling crowd of all classes. 
The mature matron, the young bride, the fussy 
housewife, boarding house keepers, professional 
and laboring men, with a liberal sprinkling of 
Sambo and his family, in bright hued attire, all 
intent upon filling their baskets with the good 
things that are so temptingly arranged. 

The stalls of fruits and vegetables make an 
attractive picture with the colors put in with a 
broad stroke, charming in effect. Gleaming red 
apples ne.xt to pyramids of deep yellow oranges ; 
bunches of grapes, purple, black and green ; deli- 
cate shades of color in peaches, lemons and ban- 
anas, set off with the rich toned pineapple and 
persimmons of copper hue. 

The vegetables are just as appealing to the eye, 
with the fresh green and white of spring vegeta- 
bles grown in December. Baskets of green peas 
next to pretty wax beans. Pale pink radishes in 
bunches of delicate leaves of chicory. The lav- 
ender and white of turnips against the deep 
maroon of beets, whose rich color runs into the 
foliage. The bright red of tomatoes, with its 
complementary color in the spinach. Dainty 
greens in lettuce, kohlrabi and okra. Mahogany 
egg plants and golden carrots. The artist used 
his whole palette on this canvas. 




PROMINENT HOTELS OF HOUSTON 

Mrs. J. M. Limbocker, Editor 
Mrs. M. B. Crowe and Mrs. Robert Burge, Assistant Editors 



HOTEL BRAZOS. 



The Hotel Brazos is situated opposite the 
Grand Central depot, making it especially con- 
venient for travelers. 

It is one of the largest and finest hostelries 
ir. the city, containing two hundred and sevent}- 
five rooms, one hundred and fift_\- of which have 
private baths. 

The Brazos is strictly conducted, assuring the 
guests quarters of scrupulous cleanliness and 
prompt service. 



A French chef caters capably to the most ex- 
acting patrons of the dining rooms, and musical 
evenings afford a special feature of entertain- 
ment for the guests. The splendid orchestra is 
directed by Mr. E. G. D'Albert; accompanying 
pianist, Mr. Aldrich Kidd. 

Every facility of modern hotel life is found at 
the Brazos, and ladies traveling alone are under 
the special protection of the management. 



RICE HOTEL. 



The Rice Hotel is celebrated throughout Texas 
as the oldest and most conservative hotel in 
Houston. 

It is conducted on the American plan, has two 
hundred and twenty-five rooms, and the system 
of Turco-Russian baths. 

Besides the regular dining room, the hotel has 
the crystal cave cafe. 

The Rice is now under process of renovation, 
adding many new rooms, with private bath 



equipment, steam heat and telephones in each 
room. 

The vacuum system of cleaning is used, and 
the hotel enlists a small army of employes, num- 
bering one hundred and seventy-five. 

The Rice is centrally situated, and is an ideal 
family hotel. Two elevators are in operation, 
and every modern convenience is installed for the 
comfort and entertainment of the guests. 

Mr. H. Hamilton is proprietor of the Rice. 



HOTEL BRISTOL. 



The Bristol Hotel is now being remodeled, 
with the addition of a new annex of seven stories, 
with a roof garden. This annex will contain 
ninety rooms, seventy-two having private baths, 
and every modern equipment. It is to be abso- 
lutely fire proof, and is to be completed April i. 
IQ09. 

The entire ground floor of the present hotel is 
to be entirely remodeled, and a handsome lobby 



extended across the entire front. When com- 
pleted, the Bristol will be one of the most attrac- 
tive and handsome hotels in the state, offering 
its patrons every facility for pleasant and com- 
fortable living. 

The Bristol is under the efficient and excel- 
lent management of Messrs. Hervey and Franks, 
proprietors. 



202 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
THE MACATEE. 



The Macatee Hotel, one block east of Grand 
Central depot, is in evcrv respect a thoroughly 
Hiodern hotel, beautifully furnished and splen- 
didly conducted. 

This hotel is equal to any in the South, and 
n aintains a cafe first class in every particular. 



A new addition of one hundred rooms is now 
under course of construction, with a beautiful 
roof garden for the pleasure of patrons. 

The ]\lacatce is conducted on the European 
plan, and is under the management of Mr. 
George P. Macatee. 



THE GABLES HOTEL. 



The Gables Hotel, 13 14 McKinney avenue, is 
a family hotel and boarding house, and with its 
annexes has forty rooms, comfortably furnislied, 
first class in all its appointments. Catering only 



to the best class of people, this plac; has always 
b-een known by the better people and patronized 
bv them. 




SUMMER RESORTS ON THE TEXAS COAST 

By Florence N. Dancy 

Press Member, Texas Federation IVomen's Clubs for the Fourth District 



Diiwn on the coast, where the roses bloom, 
And jasmine scatters a rare perfume. 
And white caps toss on the purple ba}-. 
And sea birds call throut,h the sunlit da\-. 
And oranges hang- their yellow globes. 
And rice fields wave their emerald robes, 
And lilies lift their cups of musk. 
And golden stars light the velvet tlusk, 
Cities have risen, more bright and. fair 
Than the treasure Lafitte once buried tliere. 

—Mnry Hunt Affleck 



Our great state of Texas has a coast line along 
llic gulf of Mexico, so cool, so life giving and 
beautiful, in tlie summer, that tourists, turning 
their faces Southward, would find the diversion, 
tjie rest and the relaxation they may miss in the 
iriore northern latitudes. You can go from Hous- 
ton to the gulf in a few minutes ride by rail, or 
\cu can take the slower route by water, through 
historic scenes dear to every Texan heart. Mor- 
gan's Point, Bay Ridge, La Porte and Seabrook 
are the nearest watering places to Houston. 
'J'hese towns are all situated on the shores, where 
the waters of the San Jacinto and Trinitv bays 
ir.eet. They are between twenty and thirty miles 
from Houston, by the Southern Pacific railway. 
Beautiful summer homes of cultured and wcil 
known Houstonians stretch along the shore, 
often at the water's very edge. The bathing- 
facilities at all of these places are unsurpassed. 
Une can wade out several hundred yards from tb.e 
shores of all. without getting into dangerously 
deep water. The effect of the salt water and 
climate is so invigorating that one may keep on 
wet clothes for hours ; in fact, until <lr\-, and 
suffer no inconvenience. 

Fishing is a constant delight, and the success- 
ful angler carries many different kinds and sizes 
of fish on his string. 

The sunrises and sunsets are a constant joy, 
for each returning dawn is a fresh revelation of 
beauty. On a still morning the sense of peace is 
perhaps the dominant emotion. In the dim twi- 



.ight of the early ilawn, all nature seems to listen 
HI a hush of expectancy. The stars are still 
\ isible overhead, not a ripple is upon the water, 
the first faint light in the eastern sky grows, 
and glows, and comes dancing in to greet tlie 
r.ew born day, the sky takes on a thousand tints 
of changing color, and the responsive sea be- 
comes a n:i^hty opal of glossy silver and bur- 
nished gold. The awakened fish begin to move ; 
a school of niullet, hotly pressed, leap from the 
water, their scales glistening an instant in the 
sunlight, before they fall back with a tinkling 
splash. The big fish are making a morning 
catch, and the inert, reverent silence is broken 
again and again, as they dart hither and thither 
in search of their prey, driving them from the 
water like a shower of silver leaves. 

In the evening one hears the curlew calling 
to his fellows, or the plaintive cry of the kildee, 
flitting on the shore, and sees the flight of the 
gulls, the porpoise playing in the harbor, or the 
passing in stately procession of the silver king, 
or tarpon. Sometimes at night the flames and 
smoke of prairie fires make startling figures on 
the incarnadined sky. Often, before a storm, the 
waters become charged with phosphorus, and 
every darting fish leaves a trail of fire, and every 
disturbance of the water becomes a burning 
flame. Storms are frequent when the winds 
come out of the east, lashing the white crested 
waves to fury, and driving them upon the shore 
in a mad, o'erleaping race. Ah ! then it is one 



204 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



feels the stir of life ! when far overhead the 
petrels go by on the wrack of the storm, when the 
winds come with a stead}' and increasing force, 
that strips the trees of their leaves and bows 
them to the earth. When the dun, impenetrable 
sky bends lower and still lower, and the driven 
waters rush from their boundaries over the land. 
It is a great thing to meet the mighty deep thus 
face to face, to know it, feel its kinship to the soul 
of man, and to love it in all its moods. The never 
faihng gulf breeze bnngs health and sleep and 
healing, even in the sultriest months, and makes 
one realize what a beautiful place the world is. 

These little resorts of Houston, so near life's 
turmoil, and yet so far from it, where, lulled by 
the murmur of the waves and the song of the 
winds, we close our eyes to fall heu to pleasant 
dreams. Other resorts for the Houstonians dur- 
ing the heated season are Galveston, famous for 
its surf bathing and for its miles and miles of 
gulf beach, smooth and glistening, • and almost 
a.s hard as a ball room floor. It is renowned for 
its beautiful homes, its broad white streets, its 
literary culture, its library, its many charities, for 
the hearty good will, the real kindness and human 
feeling that meets you at every turn. In Gal- 
veston you get the finest oysters in the world, 
fresh on the half shell, and the red snapper from 
the deep waters of the gulf, pompano, June fish, 
Spanish mackerel, flounder, trout, are among 
the many fish caught in the waters off the Texas 
coast, and lobsters, shrimp and crabs abound. 

No sight is fairer than the long, unending 
beach of the gulf, lighted by a tropical moon, 
the singing of the sea, the fragrant and caressing 
night winds, the scent of oleander, magnolia and 
jasmine, the mocking birds, moon inspired, pour- 
ing out their hearts to the night. What wonder 
if the summer rover, coming to port in Galves- 
ton, stays on, and never again weighs anchor. 



Corpus Christi, a beautiful town on Corpus 
Christi bay, the residence section of which is on 
an immense bluff or table land, which stretches 
back into the prairie and holds a commanding 
view of the bay. Rockport, famous for tarpon 
fishing; Port Lavaca, where beautiful sea shells, 
coral, sea beans and sea weed can be found, and 
the ruins of Fort Esperanza. Port Arthur, on 
Sabine lake, is remarkable for the fact that it was 
n.ade a port and connected with deep water by 
cutting a channel to, through and alongside of 
.Sabine lake, a part of the channel having been 
cut through the open prairie. Sabine Pass, 
-Matagorda, V'elasco, have each a place in Texas 
history, and in the Texan heart, though space 
forbids further mention. 

But of Palacios, a lovely town on Palacios bay, 
included in the survey of the intercoastal canal, 
lias been selected as the finest site on the coast 
lor the annual encampment of the Baptist 
Young People's Union of Texas. Hundreds of 
visitors throng the well kept hotels in the sum- 
mer, and many Northern tourists make the little 
city a merry winter resort. It is here that Mary 
Hunt Affleck Chapter, U. D. C, is doing fine 
work as a splendid organization of patriotic 
women. The following beautiful verses from the 
pen of our gifted poet and writer, Mary Hunt 
Affleck, are exquisite and carry with them the 
nuirmur of the waters : 

"When morning lights Palacios by the sea. 
All nature thrills with song of bird and bee ; 
And skies are flushed with tints of rose and gold, 
And cool winds blow where sweetest blooms 

vmfold; 
And harps Aeolian, through the breezes sigh, 
And bluest waves 'neath white sailed boats drift 

by; 
And all humanity from care seems free, 
When morning lights Palacios by the sea." 



SUBURBS 

of 

HOUSTON 




By MRS. W . G . LOVE 




z 
c 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 

By A'Irs. W. G. Love, Editor 



HOUSTON HEIGHTS. 



The history of Houston Heights reads like a 
fairy story, in which a magician waved his magic 
wand and wonders have sprung into existence. 

Sixteen years ago that wiiich is now Houston's 
largest and most important suburb was a primi- 
tive forest, one and one-halt miles from the 
Grand Central depot. 

Houston Heights was founded by Air. O. M. 
Carter, who has ever been a pioneer in develop- 
n'.ent and industrial enterprises. Tlie plans for 
the location and development of the suburb were 
originally conceived by him, and they have been 
wrought out under his guidance and direction, so 
that the Houston Heights of today may be said 
to be the result of his foresight and business 
judgment. 

In August. 1890, J\Ir. Carter and some Boston 
friends purchased what was then Houston's two 
street railway systems, operated by mule power, 
and combined and reconstructed the two systems, 
equipped with electric power. In connection 
with the enterprise of developing an efficient 
street railway system, Air. Carter foresaw that 
Houston was to be the great city of Texas, and 
that a large residence and n anufacturing suburb, 
properly located and wisely planneil and devel- 
oped, would meet the requirements of the 
growth of the city. The Omaha and South 
Texas Land Company, of which Mr. Carter 
was the president and principal owner, and Mr, 
D. D. Cooley the treasurer, purchased a tract of 
land of 1.765 acres, wliicli is now known as 
Houston Heights. This tract of land was platted 
and sub-divided for a residence and manufactur- 
ing suburb, so arranged as to separate the busi- 
ness and manufacturing section from the resi- 
dence propert}'. 

The company began operations to develop the 
suburb in -May, 1892. Eighty miles of streets 
and alleys were. cut through the forest land, the 
Boulevard and other streets were macadamized. 



an electric street railway system was constructed, 
extending from the suburb to Houston ; a steam 
railroad was constructed, connecting with the 
Houston and Texas Central, to meet the re- 
quirements of manufacturing industries ; a water 
plant supplying pure artesian water was con- 
structed ; many handsome residences were built 
along the boulevard, and buildings and equip- 
ments for manufacturing industries were erected. 
Seven, hundred and fifty thousand dollars were 
expended by the company in improvements upon 
the property before a lot was oflfered for sale. 
j\lr. S. D. Wilkins, who still lives at the Heights 
and was for many years its postmaster, purchased 
the first lot. 

The panic of '93 came on when the property 
was to be put on the market, and interfered with 
the company's plans of development. In a few 
years the company li(|ui(lated its debts and 
divided the property between its stockholders. 
For several years after the panic there was but 
little sale for the property, but Mr. Carter never 
lost faith in the final result of the venture and 
he finally bought out practically all the other 
owners and continued the work of development. 
As the city of Houston grew and extended, the 
advantages of Houston Heights becam.e more 
and more apparent, until it is now a part of the 
city of Houston in all respects, except that it has 
a separate municipal government. 

The name Houston Heights came from its 
continuity to the city and its altitude, being sixtv- 
two feet above sea level. It is in the shape of a 
rectangle, two and a half miles in length, ranging 
almost due north and south, and one and a 
quarter miles in width, east and west. The 
boulevard is the principal street. It divides the 
Heights north and south. One of the beautiful 
and distinctive features of the boulevard is the 
esplanade, adorned with forest trees, as nature 
planted them, in grand and unstudied grace. 













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SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 



209 



The census of 1908 shows that this suburb has 
a population of more than 6,000. In 1896 the 
Heights was incorporated, and Hon. W. G. Love 
was elected its first mayor, serving three suc- 
ctssive terms. Mr. John A. Milroy, the next 
n.ayor, served eight years. Both of these men 
labored zealously for the upbuilding of the town. 
Under their administrations the municipal gov- 
ernment was most excellent. Mr. D. Barker is 
the present mayor. 

The schools are regarded as among tlie best 
in the state, and the Houston Heights high 
school is affiliated with the state university. 

There are six churches, all prosperous and 
doing a great work, in the suburb. Fraternal 
Hall is the largest of the public buildings. The 
lower floor is used as a hall and the second 
floor for lodge rooms for secret orders, which 
are well represented here. The Christian Sani- 
tarium, a beautiful place located on Nineteenth 
avenue, was formerly the Houston Heights 
hotel, but has been converted into one of the 
most modern sanitariums in the city. The most 
popular places of amusement for the general pub- 
lic are the natatorium and the baseball park. 
The social and intellectual life of the Heights 
center around two large clubs, the Houston 
Heights Social Club and the Houston Heights 
Literary Club, both women's clubs. A weekly 
paper is published, which enjoys well deserved 
popularity. The citizens enjoy all the con- 
veniences that are to be had in the city — tele- 
phones, good car service, electric lights, pure 
artesian water, the daily papers, quick delivery 
from the city or local stores — all commodities 
necessary to the housekeeper are in easy reach. 

The negro settlement is separated from the 
best resident districts, and no property is sold 



to negroes outside of the reservation made for 
them. In the manufacturing districts are located 
the Textile Mills, which employ many hands ; the 
Consumers Oil Mill, the Roberts Cotton Oil Mill 
and other industrial enterprises. The electric 
light and water plant, situated on Nineteenth 
avenue, adjoins •■he only park to be found in the 
suburb. This ^jarli is beautifully kept and is one 
of the show places of the Heights. 

The popularity of Houston Heights is attested 
by the permanency of its residents. Mr. D. D. 
Cooley built the first home that was erected in 
the suburb, sixteen years ago, and has lived here 
from that time. Mr. and Mrs. Cooley have been 
identified with every movement for the good of 
llie place. Mr. C. A. McKinney, who came as 
financial manager of the electric street railway 
company, but who is now assistant cashier of 
the South Texas National bank, built a lovely 
home shortly after Mr. Cooky's house was built. 
Mr. McKinney served many years on the school 
board at the Heights, and was the earliest pro- 
moter of Sunday school work in the place. He 
has always been deeply interested in the better- 
ment and advancemnt of the children. Mr. John 
A. Milroy was another early settler. He has 
been actively identified with the development of 
the Heights from the beginning, and much of 
the success attained is due to his tireless energy 
and business sagacity. He is a patriotic gentle- 
man, much respected by all who know him. It 
would be impossible to name all the prominent 
people who moved here after the first few years, 
as this place is indeed a city. 

In conclusion, the Heights is the largest resi- 
dent and industrial suburb of Houston. Nature 
made it beautiful, and the class of its citizens has 
made it a cultured town. 



EDGEWOOD. 



Edgewood is another of Houston's promising 
suburbs. This addition is three blocks from the 
new Allen school. It is reached from the city 
by the La Branch car line. It is owned by the 
FZdgewood Realty Company, of which Mr. Jesse 
H. Jones is president. This is also a small addi- 
tion, embracing only twelve blocks. It extends 
from Hadley street to Tuam, and from Chene- 
vert street to Chartres. All the streets are 



graded and cement walks are laid. All modern 
conveniences, such as electric lights, good water, 
telephones, gas and sewerage, are supplied to the 
residents. 

Among those owning homes in Edgewood are 
Professor W. G. Smilley, Professor Shofstall, 
Hon. D. E. Garrett, Mr. David Bush, Hon. J. E. 
Niday, Mr. Oscar Reyneau, and many other 
prominent citizens. 




o 



o 
W 
m 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 



211 



HYDE PARK. 



Of the many additions that have been made to 
our city"s residence district within the past few 
years, Hyde Park stands pre-eminent for natural 
beauty and artistic development. Furnished by 
nature with many magnificent oak trees, it was 
so planned and improved as to save every tree 
and use them with the best possible effect in the 
small parks and plazas with which the addition 
is provided. 

The addition is quite large, containing seventy- 
three acres. It is located in the southwest part 
of the city, where are found our best residences. 
It is owned by the Hyde Park Improvement 
Company, the stockholders being numbered 
among our leading citizens. The officers are : 
Captain J. C. Hutcheson, president ; W. I. Wil- 
liamson, vice president; J. C. Hooper, secretary 
and treasurer. 

Mr. Hooper has had the general management 
of the company since its organization. The plan- 
ning, platting and improvement of the addition 
having all been done under his personal direction. 
The ground is naturally of a sandy nature, dry- 
ing up very quickly after rains, with very little 
mud even during our rainy season. The location 
is the highest around the city, being about twelve 
feet above Main street at McGowen avenue. The 
county has just completed a large ditch to the 
west and north, which carries off the water very 
rapidly to Buffalo bayou. This gives all parts 
of the addition excellent and rapid drainage. 



It was the purpose of the company from the 
beginning to make this addition high grade, ex- 
clusive residence property, and to this end certain 
restrictions and requirements were incorporated 
in the deeds that make it certain it will always be 
such. The most important restriction is that only 
one residence shall be erected on a quarter of a 
block of ground. Another is that the minimum 
cost of improvements is fixed so that, while it 
does not permit a cheap grade of residence, it is 
not so high as to exclude all but the very rich. 
There are other restrictions, such as no business 
houses are allowed, and all barns and outbuild- 
ings are so located as to prevent them from ever 
becoming offensive to adjacent residents. 

The streets are wide, all the principal ones 
being shelled, and have four foot cement side- 
walks on both sides. The company, by paying a 
hberal bonus to the Electric Company, secured 
the extension of the Louisiana car line to the 
cenier of the addition. The}- also put in their 
own water plant, which supplies perfectly pure 
water to the most distant parts of the addition 
at a very low rate. 

The picture will give a fair idea of the beauty 
of Hyde Park, but to be fully appreciated, one 
iratst visit this lovely suburb. No fairer spot can 
be found for a home. Nature and the skill of 
man have combined to make perfect this ideal 
spot. 



KENILWORTH GROVE. 



Kenilworth Grove is joined on the west by 
Southmore, the two forming one of the most at- 
tractive additions to Houston. This addition, 
which is among the newest to the city, is owned 
b) Messrs. H. F. MacGregor, G. J. Palmer and 
F. J. De Merritt. 

Although young, the future of this suburb is 
bright, and it is predicted that in a few years 
this locality will be one of the most popular 
residence suburbs. 

The high standing of the gentlemen who are 
interested in promoting this addition, the char- 



acter of the residents who have already bought 
homes here, and the natural surroundings of 
the place, contribute to the making of tiiis 
suburb. Mr. MacGregor and his associates 
stand high in the business world. These men 
have always made a success of every enterprise 
they have undertaken. They realized that this 
ground was an excellent one to build a residence 
suburb of high quality. Their policy has been 
one of great merit. From the beginning restric- 
tions were made to protect the home owner and 
insure a residence neighborhood with buildings ' 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 



213 



elected uniformly, so that the value of one is not 
impaired by another jutting out in front of it. 

This suburb is well shaded by beautiful oak 
trees and a most valuable feature is the fact that 
a natural slope and sandy soil afford better 
drainage than exists in many parts of our best 



car line, one of the best regulated lines in the city, 
is available. 

Many prominent citizens of Houston make 
tl'.cir homes here. Among those who have pur- 
chased sites in this addition are-: Joe Chew, E. R. 
Johnston, Dr. J. J. Portwood, W. D. Hume, 




KENILWORTH GROVE — CAROLINE BOULEVARD 



residence districts after hard rains. The streets 
are graveled and cement walks are laid. All 
conveniences are provided for the residents, as 
good water, sewerage, gas, electric lights and 
good car service are to be had. The South End 



E. P. Crowe, A. E. Schaeffer, M. L. Wormack, 
W. L. Van Liew, H. W. Carver, Dr. C. H. Edge, 
Guy Harris, Paul W. Joplin, E. Necco, J. J. 
Clede, F. L. Friedland, J. A. McEnnis, Charles 
Boeddecker, H. Mulch, J. C. McKalip and others. 



CORTLANDT PLACE. 



Cortlandt Place is also one of the attractive 
additions to our city. It is situated between West- 
moreland and Avondale, one block from the 
South End car, and three blocks from the Hyde 
Park street car. 

It has a circular entrance, opening into a tri- 
angular park, in which are growing vines and 
trees. The effect as presented is one of the most 
beautiful in the country. It is laid out with a 
hundred and ten foot boulevard through the 
center. There are only twenty-six lots in the 
entire enclosure, and every lot fronts on the 
boulevard. While a small addition, it presents 
a beautiful picture to the eye, with the central 



boulevard, containing parks or ellipses, in which 
are planted palms and flowers. 

This suburb is located in a pleasant part of 
the city, beautifully drained, and all the space 
within the enclosure is paved completely. The 
residents enjoy all the modern improvements that 
are found in the city. 

The directors have placed around it such re- 
strictions as will insure that the addition will be 
kept up to the standard. No inferior houses are 
constructed, no fences mar the beauty of the 
place, and no stores or shops are found within 
the limits of Cortlandt Place. 




5= 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 
SOUTH HOUSTON. 



215 



The W'estern Land Corporation purchased a 
tract of 1,375 acres of land nine miles south of 
tlie city of Houston, a little more than a year ago. 
This company platted and laid out a town site 
and this property was put on the market at the 
beginning of the year. The new town was 
named South Houston, and this was intended 
ai: an industrial and residence suburb to Hous- 
ton. Already many lots have been sold, a num- 
ber of residences built, and several large factories 
erected. This will give an idea of the rapid 
growth of the place. At the begimiing of the 
year there was nothing but a bald prairie, with a 
railroad running through it, and a sidetrack, to 
be seen. Now a busy town is rapidly springing 
into existence, and four passenger trains stop 
daily at South Houston. 

But ' the promoters realized that to build a 
prosperous town, more than industries had to be 
encouraged, so Dr. J. L. Dickens, a prominent 



Southern educator, was induced to open a girls' 
school here. A frame building was erected as 
temporary quarters for the Houston College for 
Young Ladies, to serve until a permanent struc- 
ture of brick and concrete could be built. The 
foundation has been laid for this college, and as 
soon as the building is finished it will be occu- 
pied by the school. The building is to be of 
brick and concrete, and fireproof throughout. 
The interurban car line will run directly past the 
front of the college, thus making it easily accessi- 
ble from the heart of the city of Houston. Dr. 
Dickens" school opened October 6, with a small 
enrollment. However, it is believed that it will 
be a large school when the college building is 
opened. 

A public school building of four rooms is be- 
ing built also. Great hopes are entertained by the 
promoters that this will be Houston's great su- 
burb. 



BRUNNER. 
By Mrs. Frank Eller 



Only a few years ago the present site of Brun- 
ner was in a wooded tract of land. With its 
lovely shade trees and natural drainage the own- 
ers saw that, with so many natural advantages, 
it would be easy to build a city, which in a few 
years would prove a valuable addition to Hous- 
ton. But, alas ! like many other plans made by 
men, thev failed, as the factories failed to de- 
velop. But ]\Ir. Brunner, the owner, platted this 
land into town lots, with wide streets and ave- 
nues. Some lots were sold to individuals, but 
the majority of the lots were sold to the Michi- 
gan Loan Company, who built nice, comfortable 
homes to sell to the people who were beginning 
to see the beauty of this suburb. 

A few years later Mr. Shepherd bought ten 
acres on the bayou, and built a dam, expecting to 
erect a large flour mill, but financial trouble 
caused this plan to fail also. The ruins of the 
dam are still there, and every boy in and around 
Houston knows of this fine swimming pool, 
known as "Shepherd's dam." 



But even this discouraging start has not kept 
Brunner from growing. While it has never been 
boomed to any extent, there has been a steady 
growth, until now it is next to the largest suburb 
of Houston, with a population of several thou- 
sand. Washington street and Brunner avenue 
are paved with rock and shell, and a bridge is 
being built over White Oak bayou connecting 
Brunner with Houston Heights. 

A fine street car service carries the people to 
and from Houston. Brunner has many hand- 
some residences, surrounded by lovely grounds, 
besides a number of modest little cottages. A 
nice eight-room brick school building accommo- 
dates the children of this growing suburb. 

There is a substantial fire station, thoroughly 
equipped with chemical engine and hose cart, 
centrally located. 

The Methodist church, of which Rev. Charles 
Bell is pastor, has a nice church building, to 
which they are building an addition, and when 
completed will be the handsomest church in 



216 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 



Brunner. The Baptist church, W. W. Burr, 
pastor, is well organized, with a large member- 
ship. The Apostolic Faith tabernacle has a block 
of ground, which was donated by Mr. Layne. 
The Woodmen have a very convenient hall, 
located on Brunner avenue. There are a num- 



ber of stores of different kinds, and some very 
good store buildings. Brunner has some very 
flattering prospects, among them a park and an 
electric plant. With these prospects, and the 
splendid class of people there, Brunner hopes to 
double her population in the next ten years. 



FAIRVIEW. 
By Mrs. Grace McCormick 



Fairview was laid off in 1893. It lies between 
Baker and Pacific streets, on the north and 
south, and Milby street and the Southern Pacific 
tracks on the east and west. 

The Louisiana car line passes through Fair- 
view to Hyde Park, offering convenient trans- 
portation to the city. The service is very good, 
and the station on Genessee street is quite a 



pleasant waiting room. The high appreciation 
in which this suburb is held is readily shown by 
the many elegant residences and prcttv cottage^ 
found here. Schools and churches are in con- 
venient reach of all. Fairview is essentially a 
home addition and little encouragement is given 
tC' trades people to open stores within its limits. 



PORT HOUSTON. 



Port Houston is the youngest of Houston's 
suburbs. It is now thought by many that this 
port will prove to be of immense commercial 
value to Houston, because of the deep water 
facilities created by the United States govern- 
n.ent, in dredging a deep water channel from 
Galveston to Houston. This new suburb is lo- 
cated three and one-half miles from the court 
house, on the north side of Buffalo bayou, at the 
head of deep water navigation, where the United 
States government has completed a basin for the 
ships to turn in, and where the city of Houston 
is now constructing large docks and wharves. 

The Turning Basin Development Company, 



consisting of a number of our most representa- 
tive business men, who ovi'n the town site, has 
already started substantial improvements at the 
new port. The streets are being graded and will 
later on be shelled. A modern hotel is under 
construction. A lumber yard is being installed, 
and cement walks are being laid. 

Houston has always been the railroad center 
of Texas. Now that deep water has been given 
to the city, it is sure to develop into one of the 
greatest inland ports of this country. Port Hous- 
ton will in time become a business center and this 
suburb develop into one of the most important 
of the citv. 



WESTMORELAND. 



Westmoreland, a South End suburb, has been 
a boon to homeseekers desiring to be rid of the 
noise, dust and heat of the city. This site was 
originally occupied by florists' gardens. The 
residents take great pride in well kept grounds, 
and the past association with flowers has influ- 



enced the owners to keep lovely flower gardens. 
It is so beautifully planned and so t-ntirely built 
up that it is hard to realize that six years ago no 
homes were here. 

Westmoreland boasts that she has no unsightly 
corner groceries and noisy street cars within her 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 



217 



gates. However, it is very convenient to have 
them just without the gate. Westmoreland has 
no identity except locally. It has no clubs or 
schools, but it has a great many club women and 



many school children, who go into the city to 
club and school, respectively, as many think the 
true suburbanite should. 




A VIEW IN AVONDALE 

AVONDALE. 

By Mrs. J. W. Neal 



This addition is considered one of the choicest 
and best equipped in the city of Houston. So 
different from all others is it, that it is well to 
give an explanation and description of its many 
advantages. 

Avondale has an elevation of 60.7 feet above 
the bayou. The land has a natural fall of 1.7 
ftet to an elevation of 57 feet above the bayou. 
The lowest point in Avondale is three feet 
higher than Main street, while the highest point 
is six feet higher than Main. The natural 
drainage provided by nature has been improved 
upon by the scientific hand of man. 

All of the walks and curbs of Avondale are 
of a pleasing shade of red. This color makes 



a beautiful blend with the green lawns and trees 
with which the place will be profusely provided. 

All roadways of this addition have a surface 
of the best shell, eight inches in uniform thick- 
ness, from curb to curb. 

Avondale has water, sewerage, gas and elec- 
tric lights, all pipes and poles being placed in 
the alleys. 

There are ten blocks and seven fire plugs, 
which insures great protection against fire. 
Avondale has three avenues, Avondale, Hath- 
away and Stratford, the first named being the 
center street. This addition is destined to be the 
beauty spot of Houston. 




ENTRANCE WOODLAND HEIGHTS 



WOODLAND HEIGHTS. 

By Mrs. M. Sheehan 



Of all the suburbs of Houston, Woodland 
Heights is Just what its beautiful name implies. 
It is located on the highest tract of country 
around Houston, and its grand old trees, to- 
gether with new ones that have been planted, 
give it a parklike appearance, and suggest ideal, 
cozy places for "home, sweet home." It is but a 
fifteen minutes' ride from the lieart of the city. 
On emerging from Houston avenue, there is a 
steady incline along some beautiful bits of 




"Bng-'-*a 



NATIVE OAKS IN WOODLAND HEIGHTS 

natural scenery, which only require the magic 
touch of care and cultivation to transform into 
bowers of beauty. 

Temperance and San Jacinto parks are on the 



opposite side of the street leading to WoodlanJ 
Heights, and it is fair to presume that these 
beautiful grounds, composed of hills and glens, 
will be improved and embellished. They prevent, 




RESIDENCE IX WOODLAND HEIGHTS 



the 



also, objectionable places springing up 
neighborhood. 

Just a year ago the site of Woodland Heights 
was an uncultivated tract of one hundred acres 
of rich, sandy soil and good natural drainage, 
and now it is an exceptionally healthy, beautiful 
residence addition, of which Houston may be 
justlv proud. 

The Wilson Realty Company are the promo- 
ters of Woodland Heights, and have spared no 



SUBURBS OF HOUSTON 



219 



money, care, foresight and safeguards to make 
this addition ideal in every respect. They lave 
laid it out into broad, beautiful, well grailcd 
streets, with fine concrete walks and curbings. 
The entrance gate is truly stately and beautiful. 
It is built of solid stone, in the old Spanish mis- 
sion style, in very harmonious proportions. It 
is composed of three gateways, a large central 
one for vehicles and smaller ones on either side 
for people. 

Thirty-five cozy homes have Ijcen built during 
the year. Most of the houses have been erected 
bv the company, ranging in price from $2,000 to 
$50,000. Even the cheaper ones are models of 



structed within its precincts, which might impair 
the serene, peaceful, clean, parklike appearance 
and character of the place, and this, too, without 
anv inconvenience to the people, because the 
suburb is so near to the city and th.^ car service 
excellent. 

Light and water power and fire protection 
have already been installed, and good service 
assured, and other modern improvements are 
bound to follow soon. 

A fine brick and concrete school house, on 
commodious grounds, is now in process of con- 
struction. It is to contain eight rooms, large, 
airy halls, furnished with every modern equip- 




RESIDEXCE IX WOODLAND HEIGHTS 



fine architecture, solidity and good taste, and the 
more expensive ones are proportionately finer, 
grander and more stately. Judging from their 
appearance, well kept grounds and improvements 
that have been made in so short a time, the own- 
ers are evidently people of means, good taste and 
refinement, which insures, in a measure, a per- 
petuity of like conditions and a steady increase 
in value. The houses are largely occupied by 
the owners, which guarantees additional im- 
provements instead of deterioration, as is the 
case with rental property. 

From the very outset the company decided to 
allow no business house of any kind to be con- 



ment, and large enough for all immediate needs. 

Intelligent people are realizing more and 
more the moral, as well as physical advantages 
accruing to themselves and families by having 
suljurban homes, away from the noise and dis- 
turbing influences of the busy city. 

Therefore, it is safe to predict a rapid devel- 
opment and sale of the remaining ground in 
Woodland Heights, where office and business 
n^en may erect homes in the true sense of the 
term, without taking any risk in their invest- 
ments. Facts substantiate these statements, and 
the outlook for beautiful Woodland Heights is 
very promising indeed. 



220 



THE KEY TO THE CITY OF HOUSTON 
BROOKE-SMITH ADDITION. 



This pleasant suburb lies about two and one- 
half miles northeast of the city of Houston, and 
one-half mile due north of Woodland Heights. 
This addition owes its origin to Mr. Brooke 
Smith, a capitalist of Brownwood, and was 
opened for the inspection of the public about 
three years ago. Blocks and streets were laid out, 
and streets graded. Brick sidewalks were laid, 
leading in all directions. Tracks were laid over 
certain streets in the addition, and to a certain 
point connecting with the Houston street car 
system. On this track a motor car is operated, 
which is a great convenience to the residents. 

A great many pretty cottage homes have been 
built in Brooke-Smith and are occupied by a 



thrifty class of Houston's working men. Mr. 
George V. Archer, who is one of Mr. Brooke 
Smith's local agents, has a beautiful two-story 
home on one of the prettiest streets. 

There are two churches accessible. Baptist and 
Presbyterian. Children attend school at Beau- 
champ Springs, and, in the near future, there is 
to be erected a fine and commodious building to 
accommodate the increasing numbers in this 
school district. 

Lots are sold on the easy pajment plan, and 
are reasonable. This is slowly and surely grow- 
ing, as are the many other residence additions 
to Houston. 



\ 



J 



/s'v 




>r -t^ % 



BUU Printing Olnrnpang 

Mauufarturtng ^tattottfra 

If We Don't Do Your Printing, We Both Lose 




The Seal of "Sy 



9JpaJJrra in 

ann to gna jHatn i>trppt 



Hotel Brazos 



EUROPEAN 



Opposite Grand Central Depot 





!^ 



275 ROOMS 
150 Private Baths 




Telephone m Each Room 



Music in Cafe 
Evenings 6 to 9 



Rates : 

One to Three Dollars 



^" 



U . S. Wall. President W. L. Gardien, Sec'y and Trea?. 



WALL L^' STABE COMPANY 



Furnishers of 



FINE f^INERAL FURNITURE 



Ambulances furnished on call. Car- 
riages furnished for Weddings, Calling, 
Theater and Receptions. -:- -:- -:- 



Local and Long Distance Phones 95 



Office: 

in3-in3-1117-lliy Prairie Avenue 

HOUSTON, TEXAS 



F. H. STEWART 



N. T. MASTERSOX 



STEWART & MASTERSON 

Livery, Boarding, 
Sale and 
Exchange Stables 

CARRIAGE REPOSITORY, BLACK- 
SMI'FHING AND HORSE- 
SHOEING SHOP 



Stable No. 1, Repository 

Old Phone 2772 

1309 and 1311 Preston Avenue 



Stable No. 2 and Shop 

Old Phone 2088 
1014 to 1020 Main Street 



P. O. Box 141 



HOUSTON, TEXAS 



i( 



Furniture 'Built to Stand'* "* 



LARGEST FURNITURE AND CARPET HOUSE IN THE SOUTH 

COver a quarter of a century of most successful 
and satisfactory home furnishintr in the City 
of Houston -:- :-: :-: :-: :.: 

FURNITURE, FLOOR COVERINGS and HANGINGS 

ASSORTMENTS UNSURPASSED 

QUALITIES THOROUGHLY DEPENDABLE 

PRICES ALWAYS REASONABLE 



Ladies Hairdressino' Parlors 



Exclusively for Ladies 



Mrs. E. C. Sturgis, 'Directress 



Wigs, S'i-vitches, Coifjeun, Toupees, 
PQ??ipadours. A full line of Sundries. 
Hainiressingj Marcel Wa-ving, Sham- 
poo ingy Massaging, Manicuring 

Electrolysis Work. Removing Superfluous Hair, 
Warts, Moles and other Facial Blemishes by 
Electric Needle. Hair Ifork made from Combings 

S. W. Phone 5155 

Suite 400-436 Mason Block Houston, Texas 



C. L. & Theo. Bering, Jr. 

Incorporattd 

THE BIG 

Hardware and Crockery Store 

ON MAIN STREET 
Phones 596 or 5 97 or 3 3 



c 


O A 

By the Barrel, Ton 
OR Car Load 


L 


Richard Coc 


ke 




and Company 




"W" 




Ground Floor 




COITON EXCHANGE BUILDING 




Both Phones 31 





LE¥Y EM©1I1EE, 



Pry (S®©dl! 




The Stradivarius of Pianos ' 



The Musical Times of October 28, 2908, says: 
"The largest business ever done in the Mason 
& Hamhn factory is being done right now." 

Why Is This True? 



Because the musical world recognizes that 
the mason Sc l^amltn is without a superior 
from a standpoint of durability and artistic 
merit. If it is your intention to purchase 
the best pianoforte give the iHaBflU Sz l^amltn 
the one supreme test, namely, a hearing. 



HOUSTON'S RELIABLE STORE 



N. B. — We carry a full line of Sheet Music, Studies 
and Musical Merchandise. Teachers' trade solicited 



Presley K. Ewing 



Henry F. Rin 



Ewing & Ring 

Attorneys and Counsellor's 

Houston, Texas 



Houston 


Floral Co. 


603 Main Street 


Telephone 511 


Cut Floivers, 


Plants, Floral 


Offering an 


d Decorating 


Green- Houses and Nursery Telephone Road 



James Bute Co. 



Headquarters for 



WALLPAPER 

Pictures and Frames 




1006 AND 1008 Texas Avenue 



5. F. Carter, President GuY M. Bryan. Attive t-' ice-President 

A. S. Vandervoort, Cashier 



Lumbermans National 
Bank 

Capital and Surplus $500,000.00 



General Banking 
Savings Department 
Safe Deposit Boxes 



Accounts of Ladies Specially Desired. 

Ladies Reception Room at Your Disposal 



SEVEN FLOORS FILLED WITH FURNITURE. 

AVe extend to you a most cordial invitation 
to visit our store, w-fhether vou make a purchase 
or not. You will always be welcome. Our store 
consists of seven floors, and each one of them is 
a store within itself. We can furnish your home 
from kitchen to parlor witli furniture at any 
price you may desire. You won't find a Iietter 
line of Stoves and Kaufre^ in the United States 
than we are showinfr on the fifth floor. Also 
see our line of Extension, Library and Center 
Tables. Side Boards and China Closets on same 
floor. ()\u- hoautiful line of Parlor Furniture, 
Music Racks, Ladies' Desks, Straight and Com- 
bination Book Cases on tlic fo\n-th floor. Our 
line of Brass and Iron Beds on tlie thiril floor. 
On our second floor you will find Art Squares, 
Rugs, Matting, Lace Curtains, Shades, Portiers, 
Comforts, Blankets, etc. On "ur fir^t floor bal- 
cony yii\i will liiiil a wcW solcc-tod line of Din- 
ing and Office Chairs. Rockers in Oak, Mahogany 
or Rattan, also Children's Rockers and High Chairs. 
On our fir>t floor yon will liiid Hall Racks, Ward- 
robes, Morris Chairs, Davenports, etc. Our prices 
are always the lowest, but we are froing to make 
them still lower this week. We w\\\ pack well 
and deliver to you all goods purchased from us, 
and pay freight on all orders of $10.00 or more. 
When you buy from Greenburg you are sure to 
get the right goods at the right prices. 

B. H. GREENBERG & SON, 

1014-1016 Preston Ave. 

Houston, Texas. 



rhe The 

Ladies M. E. GIMBEL 

Shop COMPANY 



An Exclusive Store for 

Women's 
Outer Garments 



Stowers Building 
MAIN STREET and CAPITOL AVENUE 



J. ]. SwEENKV, Pres. & Tieas. C. G. Pillot, V.-Pres. 

Geo. J. Mellinger, Sec'y & Mgr. 

DIRECTORS: 
J. J. Sweeney C. C. Pillot H. B. Rice Joe. S. Rice 

W. T. Carter John H. Kiiby 



EilaUiihiii I&74 



VV. G. Sears 
Incorforated JQOS 



J. J. SWEENEY 
JE WELR Y CO, 



IMPORTERS OK 

DIAMONDS 

Designers ajid Engravers 
Manufacturing Jewelers 

Wholesale and Retail 



Local IWitch Inlptttori for 

Southern Pacific Houston & Texas Central R. R. 

Houston East & West Texas Ry. Houston Belt & Terminal Co. 

I. & G. N. R. R. Santa Fe Trinity & B. V. Ry. 



419 MAIN Street, Cor. Prairie Avenue 



The New Beach Auditorium Houston's SeUct Socal centre 



Best eqtiipped build- 
ing of its kind in the 
Southwest. Lighted 
throughout by elec- 
tricity and gas. 
Main Auditorium 
and Ball Room 
6-1x90 feet with a 
seating capacity of 
1,500. A twenty- 
two foot high steel 
ceiling makes 
acoustic properties 
perfect. A Steinway 
Orchestral Grand 
Piano just installed. 
Banquet room with 
a seating capacity of 
250 on second floor. 



Telephone Connection 




The Auditorium can 
be engaged for re- 
citals, lectures, pri- 
vate receptions, club 
meetings, assem- 
blies, and all high 
class entertainments 
of an exclusive na- 
ture. For the reser- 
vation of either the 
Auditorium or Bry- 
an Hall, or informa- 
tion in regard to 
classes, private les- 
sons, terms, etc., 
address 



Monta Beach 



MR. AND MRS. MONTA BEACH 



THE AUDITORIUM Houston, texas 




DIAMONDS 



Our line of Holiday Goods 
is now ready for your in 
spection, and we ask you 
to see our line before plac- 
ing your orders elsewhere. 
Remember we only carry 
the best of every thing, and 
at the lowest price. -:- --.- 
No plated goods in our 
stock. -:- -:- -:- -:- 

"polity -Our- Motto." 




Cave & Plunkett Jewelry Company 



617 MAIN STREET 
H O USTON , TEXAS 



W. E. RICHARDS. Presidrni 



STERLING MYER, fiir-Preiidtm 



F. \V. VAUCm.AN, Cashu 



American National "Bank 



CAPITAL $230,000.00 



DEPOSITS ,$1,000,000.00 



We Solicit Your Checking or Savings Account 

4% Interest Paid on Savings Deposits 

On January 1st We Will Be Located in Our New Quarters 210-212 MAIN STREET 




C 



WE make a specialty of FITTING UP HoMES 
complete. Why not give us a chance to figure 



on yours i 



Best Goods for Least Money 
Sold on Easy Weekly or 
Monthly Payments .". .". 
Wrecker of High Prices 



E. A. HUDSON 



711 Travis Street 



Old Phone 1078 



^T" The delights of a carefully cooked meal properly served de- 
^ I pends much on ihe lasl course. To send your guests away 
^ with a pleasing memory and have a filling ending to an 
enjoyable occision, serve the best coffee obtainable. 

Maxwell House 
Blend Coffee 

Sealed Cans at Grocers 

Cheek-Neal Coffee Company 

Nashville, Tenn. Houston, Texas 



Guy Raymond 

A thrilling story of the Texas 
Revolution, at ONE DOLLAR 

One-half of the proceeds to go 
to the improvement of the San 
Jacinto Battle Field. .'. .'. 



EHLERS' 


For Flowers 


^ 


9 10 TEXAS AVENUE 



The Fairest 



Way to judge of our photographs is to come and 
see them. We are always glad to have you come 
and see how well we have caught the likeness 
and expression of others. 

The Photographs 

Good as they are, are not a bit better than we are 
prepared to make of you, Make up your mind to 
sit for us. We guarantee you will be as pleased 
with the result as your friends are sure to be. 

BLACKBURN 

10 12 1-2 PRAIRIE AVENUE 



USE 

ELECTRICITY 

For Light, Heat and Power 

Both Phones 7 1 

Houston Lighting & Power Co., 1905 

620 Main Street 



The Seal of a Specialist 

Many concerns launch into publicity 
channels and get bumped — hard, too. 
The reason is alway the same — no pilot 
aboard. 

ilnnupi fiTMm 



Wit 

Tttueht 

It 

\V,nh 
Wbili 



5K.CY ALEXANDER mXSOn 



Fautid 

On Gud. 

B„ 

Xivir 

On 

Pmr 



k 



Why not let the advertising specialist 
direct your course? No charge for con- 
sultation. My clients are the representa- 
tive business men of the Southwest. 

STACY ALEXANDER PAXSON 
HOUSTON, TEXAS 




T/ie Brightest, 
Busiest, Spot 
In Houston 

And the fastest growing Depart- 
ment Store in Texas. -:- -:- 

Has doubled its business over the 
year before for three consecutive 
years — a record that no other Store 
in Texas has ever attained. -:- -:- 



GRAY the "Photographer 



502 1-2 Main Street 




Houston, Texas 



Invites the closest inspection as to the up-to-date qualities of his 
work and his studio, which is the largest and most thoroughly 
equipped in the State. Also cheerfully refer you to any of the 
parties whose portraits appear in this issue. See the new 
Sepia Platinum work, the latest in High Grade Photography. 




Phone 1446 



Appointments for Daylight Sittings, or \^iolet Ray at Night. 



TEETSHORN'S 



The Finest Book Store 
1)1 Texas 



1009 Congress Avenue Houston, Texas 



Lovejoy & Parker 



LAWYERS 



BINZ BUILDING HOUSTON, TEXAS 



CADILLAC & PIERCE ARROW 

Automobiles 




IfxntHton iHotnr Olar (Uompanu 



STATE AGENTS 



?f 



y 



\V. E. RICHARDS. Priildtnt 



F. W. VAUGHAN, Caihltr 



The Secret of Success 



Does not altogether lie in knowing how to make money. 

but rather in the art of hanging onto it. 

We are in a position to aid people in their efforts to create 

an independency. 

If you are interested call and see us. Courtesy, promptness 

and carefulness are assured vou here. 



American National "Bank 

Capital, $250,000.00 

4 Per Cent Interest Paid on Savings Accounts 




The reputation of the "LAIRD 
SCHOBER" shoe is one of the 
most valuable assets in the entire 
shoe trade of this country to-day. 
Hundreds of Thousands of ladies 
buy the "LAIRD SCHOBER" 
shoe every year simply because they 
know they can absolutely rely on its 
reputation. 



KRUPP and TUFFLY, Inc. 

"The Shoe Store Ahead" 

302-304 Main Street Houston, Texas