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Full text of "Key to the system of Victorian plants .."

KEY 



THE SYSTEM OF YICTOEIAN PLANTS. 



I. 



DICHOTOMOUS ARRANGEMENT OF THE ORDERS, 
GENERA AND SPECIES OF THE NATIVE PLANTS, 

WITH 

ANNOTATIONS OF PRIMARY DISTINCTIONS 



BARON FEED. YON MUELLER, 

K.C.M.G., M. & PH.D., F.RS. 



"EXULTABIT SOLITUDO ET FLOREBIT." Isaid, XXXV. i. 



BY AUTHORITY : BOBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 

1887-1888. 



Jltbtcattb 

TO 

THE HONORABLE ALFRED DEAKIN, M.L.A., 

CHIEF SECRETARY OF THE COLONY VICTORIA, 

THROUGH WHOSE SCHOLARLY INTEREST 

ALL 

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN THIS HIS NATIVE LAND 
IS STRENUOUSLY PROMOTED, 

AND 

UNDER WHOSE GENEROUS MINISTERIAL AUSPICES 

This Volume has been Elaborated* 



PREFACE. 



THIS work owes its origin to a desire, expressed by the Field- 
Naturalists' Club of Victoria, at the instance of the Honorable 
.Dr. Dobson, that its members should be provided with a literary 
guide similar to the meritorious " Handbook of the Plants of 
Tasmania," written some years ago by the Rev. W. Spicer, for 
facilitating the study of our native flora, particularly during 
botanical excursions ; and it was especially urged by the honor- 
able and distinguished gentleman, that the dichotomous method 
of Lamarck, which was followed by our late lamented friend for 
:his book, should also be adopted for the Victorian work. The 
flora of our colony being doubly as rich in species as that of 
Tasmania rendered the task, even under ordinary circumstances, 
far more laborious ; moreover, it was felt by the writer of these 
lines, that an effort should be made, while applying the difficult 
method mentioned, not to disrupt in any way the chain of affinity, 
which links the orders and the genera and the species of plants 
naturally together. Furthermore, the necessity of supporting the 
very brief dichotomous notes by diagnostic descriptions was also 
at once recognised ; hence the dichotomous " Key " was required 
to be extended to an abridged "Descriptive Flora." To render 
the contemplated work acceptable as well to the juvenile tyro as 
to the advanced student it being the first special and early com- 
pleted work on the indigenous vegetation of this colony it became 
imperative, to express the characteristics of the plants not only 
with etymologic precision and logical clearness, but also with the 
utmost of plainness and organographic simplification. The work 
Indeed was to be rendered alike available for elementary schools 



vi Preface. 



and for high educational institutions ; it was to serve the amateur- 
gatherer of plants in the field as well as the professional investi- 
gator in the exercise of stern duties ; and yet such a work was to 
be inexpensive, concise and reliable. How far all these aspira- 
tions have been realized, the practical use of the work now 
completed must demonstrate ; the ardent endeavour of the author 
at all events has been, to succeed in the use of a method, which 
was chosen not at his free will, and under such restraint to produce 
a work, which would render the study of plants in our dominion 
more universal, and which could with some credit to the colony 
be placed even into the libraries of the world. 

The organographic alterations, largely introduced into these 
pages for the first time, in contrast to zoologic terms, have been 
ventured on only tentatively, but without thereby in any manner 
impairing the use of the work ; indeed they arose mainly from a 
desire of the author, to simplify the wordings for organs of plants in 
a book, written especially for almost a new country and particularly 
for the juvenile portion of its population. This subject of desirable 
changes in organography by simplifying verbiage and by keeping 
apart from each other zoographic and phytographic expressions, 
has comprehensively been discussed in a treatise, which was written 
for the Sydney-meeting of the Australian Association for the 
advancement of Science, and which has been promulgated by the 
Royal Society of New South Wales already. The main reasons 
for adopting some alterations in the Candollean system, also for 
the present publication, have been set forth some years ago in 
the " Systematic Census of Australian Plants with chronologic* 
literary and geographic annotations." Before any opinion is formed 
on these novations, the writings referred to should be studied with 
attentive care. 

The elaboration of this volume could have been very much 
facilitated, had simply a negative expression been chosen, whenever a 
difficulty arose in searching for a contrasting phrase in the dualism 
of the dichotomy, or had the characteristics of orders and of genera 



Preface. vii 

been so limited, as to apply merely to Victorian species, or had 
repetitions in the dichotomy not been entirely avoided. Then, as 
stated already, the difficulty presented itself, to maintain closely 
and uninterruptedly a systematic arrangement expressive of 
consecutive nearest affinities. Again, only such marks of separa- 
tion could be seized on, as at a glance would be apparent even to- 
the unarmed eyes, and as would not be liable to considerable 
inconstancy ; thus then embryonic characteristics and any others, 
either much concealed or very minute, however important they might 
be, could not be drawn, unless exceptionally, into use for a work, 
which was to serve expeditious field-engagements mainly. Where 
in some few cases the author was compelled, to resort to the 
description of minute organs for discrimination, simply no other 
characteristics existed for separating the complex of some plants 
from that of some others ; but even in the instance of seizing on 
the only mark of distinction, by which the Salsolaceae and allied 
orders can comprehensively be removed from some other ordinal 
groups, the mere crushing of a seed will suffice for recognising 
instantly, even without microscopic aid of any kind, the starchy 
contents of the seeds and the remarkable form of its embryo. 
With the same ease might almost the detail-floral structure of our 
numerous Acacias be noted as demonstrating differences of 
externally similar species; and on this particular subject infor- 
mation for home-studies might be sought in the " Iconography of 
Australian Acacias " recently issued. 

The number of the species, admitted into this work, had they 
been treated in a less conservative sense, could have been largely 
augmented; but when we see, to cite an example, how in perhaps 
a thousand plants of Caladenia Patersoni, the most beautiful and 
also the most widely distributed of our terrestrial orchids, hardly 
two are quite alike as regards their flowers, while the majority of 
the individual plants are so sportive, that the species became 
described under several names by various writers, we should pause, 
ere we attempt to circumscribe supposed specific forms, and leave 



viii Preface. 



the discrimination of them for varieties or otherwise to more 
extended studies in the field here and also in other parts of 
Australia: The separating of varieties of any species were beyond 
the scope of the present pages. Literary quotations and synonymy 
are also excluded from this work. In any future impression some 
of the characteristics, adopted as specific, could likely with 
advantage be transferred to generic notes ; so also some primary 
notes in the dichotomy may hereafter become subsidiary or 
affirmative and vice versa. 

It would be advisable, that whoever may use methodically this 
book, should provide a blank volume, correspondingly paged, for 
entries on soil, stature, measurements, regional elevation, odor, 
color, locality and copiousness or scarcity of any plant, with a 
view of subsequently "comparing notes," for instance on flowering 
time, phaenologic data, as aiding meterologic observations, having 
in late years become quite a science-branch in Phytology by itself. 
Be it remembered, however, that identical plants are flowering 
nearly three months later in our Alps than in the north-western 
lowlands ; some practical application to this particular subject has 
been recently given in the seventh edition of the " select plants for 
industrial culture and naturalisation." Thus also what may be 
frequent in one locality may be rare in another. Which regions 
still need closer investigation for their floral treasures, and what 
number of additional species may still be expected as gatherable 
within our territory, has been noted in a late number of the 
" Field-Naturalist." Our knowledge requires also yet to be per- 
fected in reference to the permanency of some of the characteristics, 
.assigned to species of such genera of much complicated forms, as 
Rhagodia, Atriplex, Swainsona, Leptospermum, Pultenaea, Stack- 
housia, Opercularia, Epacris, Euphrasia, Prasophyllum, Pterostylis, 
Xerotes, Scirpus, Lepyrodia, Stipa, Danthonia, Agrostis, Lepi- 
dosperma, because here in a comparatively young colony the 
whole cyclus of forms, within which species range, particularly in 
climatic regions so extensively varied as ours, is not in all cases yet 



Preface. ix 



sufficiently ascertained; indeed the degree of variability, which 
should be assigned to plants truly specifically different, is not yet 
fully determined for all, even in the vegetation at some of the 
oldest seats of learning in the world. Several of the species, stand- 
ing in need of critical re-elaboration, are restricted to remote 
regions of our territory, where these particular plants in their 
native haunts could not yet be traced through all their states, 
whether normal or aberrant. 

Some few generic alterations in the descriptive volume were 
made, to fit the respective plants easier into the dichotomic 
arrangement, but only in cases where the generic position would 
seem optional ; still in some instances the change was demanded 
by more recent researches on ampler material, and so it was in a 
few cases as regards specific names. Doubtless indeed the 
records of the characteristics could be augmented and occasionally 
improved from future researches ; but at all events a solid basis is 
now gained, on which to enlarge or embellish hereafter the literary 
structure now offered. The descriptive details were kept more 
curt in the earlier portion of the work, than in the later ; but in 
the " Native Plants of Victoria " rather full descriptions are given 
for all " hypogynous choripetaleae " before this, to which might be 
referred, and that work can now most easily be continued and 
completed, as the elaborated main notes and all necessary illustra- 
tions are now extant through the present publication. But, as 
much more important, may be remarked, that of nearly the whole 
of the 1,900 vascular plants, known as indigenous to Victoria, full 
descriptions are given long ago in the seven volumes of the Aus- 
tralian Flora, which emanated mainly from the genius, the assiduity 
and the life-long experience of the late George Bentham, aid being 
afforded by vast material and subsidiary notes from here ; really 
we would have had no cause for special writings on the Flora of 
this colony as a whole, were it not desirable to have our own plants 
treated in a concise and inexpensive publication here locally. 
For delimitation of genera the celebrated work of Bentham and 



Preface. 



Hooker was always a safe guide, though the sequence as adopted 
by the authors of that great opus was not in all instances adhered 
to for the present volume. 

The multifarious demand on the author's time did not allow, to 
check by autopsy all the diagnostic definitions now offered, as the 
close inspection of the whole vast botanic treasures, accumulated 
by him in Australia since 1847, demonstrative of manifold degrees 
of variability, would have retarded the appearance of this volume 
still further, than already has been the case, he being anxious to 
carry through the work not only conscientiously but also within a 
reasonable extent of time. Minor alterations and perhaps unim- 
portant additions, can gradually be effected for supplemental pages 
or perhaps new editions. Indeed, some species of plants had to be 
laid aside, while the elaboration was progressing, to be dealt with 
in time-taking critical examination at an early future. 

If methodically followed, the dichotomy should safely lead up 
to any of our numerous indigenous plants, the name of which 
is to be ascertained. But the tyro may find it in first instance 
most convenient, to consult the many xylographic illustrations, 
from which he ought to be able to recognise with the utmost 
ease many of the species, indigenous in the surrounding vegetation; 
he will have further the aid of the vernacular index, though this 
was kept purposely brief; he can then also refer to a large number 
of indications of very obvious outer marks, some of which will 
lead the young disciple at once to various kinds of plants, with 
which from striking external characteristics even the least observant 
child must be familiar already from mere memory. The grouped 
miscellaneous characteristics just referred to were suggested by prin- 
ciples, first used in the volume oh " Select Plants for Industrial 
Culture and Naturalisation (1872)," with a view of grouping 
generically together the utilitarian plants of the globe according to 
their various qualities and applications. On the groups of genera, 
thus formed, arbitrary arrangements for any key different to this 
might be founded, should such be preferred by any worker on our 



Preface. xi 



native plants to a truly systematic placement ; but then endless 
difficulties would have to be encountered in dealing with the large 
remainder of the plants, after the characteristics of these miscel- 
laneous and unsystematic groups had been exhausted. 

It was not deemed advisable, to burden this volume with 
descriptive definitions of immigrated plants, as the book exceeds 
already the space originally assigned to it ; but the majority of the 
plants hitherto naturalized are of wide distribution in Europe, and 
therefore descriptions of them are contained in any of the works 
on the British flora, and these are readily accessible also here. A 
list however of the non-Australian plants, permanently established 
on Victorian soil already, is given towards the end of this volume ; 
but with an admission only of those of their popular names, which 
are neither ambiguous nor unmeaning. A vocabulary of botanic 
expressions was also considered unnecessary for these pages, 
because what little of wording was adopted from the ancien 
languages for our present plain literary purpose became explained 
simultaneously with the expositions of the analytic details of the 
numerous woodcut-illustrations. Definite measurements of plants 
or their organs have not been regarded as needful for descriptions 
necessary to be brief; dimensions always range within wide or 
uncertain limits, comparative data being quite sufficient for what 
concerns us here at present. All the measurements of the 
xylographic main-delineations are purposely kept to natural size, 
diminuation of figures of plants being always objectionable as not 
conveying a fair idea of their subject. Whenever any plants are 
indicated as alpine, as maritime or as otherwise restricted, it is 
to be understood, that they are thus far exclusively localized ; yet 
it is to be remembered, that about one hundred species of our 
phanerogamous lowland-plants ascend the Australian Alps, and 
that a still larger number of our various inland-plants approach the 
shores of our southern ocean. 

A few typographical and scriptorial errors eluded timely obser- 
vation; but they seem so insignificant, that it was not deemed 



xii Preface. 



worth while to effect the formal corrections already in the present 
issue of the work ; in a future one some discrepancies, as regards 
the wordings used for the first and for the second part of this 
edition, can also be reconciled. Abbreviations have been avoided 
throughout the text. Their use involves mental extra-exertions, is 
confusing particularly to tyros and perhaps even deterring to 
them, while all that possibly could be derived from a procedure of 
shortening words or by employing symbolic renderings, would be, 
to save a few pages printing in any popular small work of the kind 
here under consideration. 

Although for an official publication like this rights cannot be 
reserved, yet it is hoped, in the interest of the Public Department, 
from which it emanated, that its originalities will be duly respected. 
The permission for extensively transcribing (even under some 
modifications) from these pages can only be conceded on terms of 
fullest literary acknowledgment. But it may at once here be 
mentioned, that when the results of this season's Victorian work in 
botanizing shall have been attained, an extra-print of the dichotomic 
notes will be furnished, into which the various new acquisitions to 
the records of the Victorian flora can then also be embodied. 
Indeed, for local publications to find out the names of plants, 
occurring at any town or in any district of Victoria, the sole 
reconstruction of the dichotomic notes would likely suffice, unless 
subsidiary notes, though still more brief, were added also inas- 
much as the present main-work would be readily at hand so that 
the respective " Florules " could be brought out easily and inex- 
pensively after fairly extensive botanic searches through any of the 
delimited floral areas have been instituted. 

It remains for the author gratefully to acknowledge that Mr. G. 
Luehmann, Senior Assistant in the Phytologic Department of 
Melbourne, has aided extensively in setting out the dichotomic 
phrases, after their elaboration and graduation had been com- 
pleted, and that he as well as Mr. Ch. French, junior, an office- 
assistant, gave much help in carrying out the clerical portion of 



Preface. xiii 



the engagements for producing this volume. In concluding these 
prefatory remarks the writer may still point out, that plants are 
more readily accessible, more easily prepared and more com- 
modiously kept, than any other naturalist's collections. Any such 
gatherings, however small at the commencement, may therefore 
become permanent; they may add to the objects for mental 
training and joyous engagements far beyond ^what by the youthful 
observer could be surmised playfully at the outset; they may 
exercise indeed an influence on a whole life, and they suredly 
should always lead up to contemplations of the godly power, from 
which the endless and marvellous forms of nature derive their 
origin,' their design and their maintenance. 

Melbourne, October, 1888. 



KEY TO THE SYSTEM OF VICTOEIAN 
PLANTS. 



MAIN DIVISIONS OF PLANTS. 



Plants provided with floral organs. 

Leaves mostly developed ; plants bearing stamens, pistils 
and, in advancing age, embryonate seeds. Figures 1-126. 

Dicotyledoueae and Monocotyledoneae. 1 

Plants unprovided with floral organs. 

Leaflike organs rarely provided, replaced by frondal ex- 
pansions ; plants bearing antheridia and archegonia in 
earliest age on a minute prothallus, and bearing caselets 
(sporangia) with very minute spores (substitutes for 
seeds) mostly on fronds. Figures 127-152. 

Acotyledoneae vasculares. 105 

1. Venules of leaves mostly divergent. 

Calyx and corolla often divided into four and still oftener 
into five parts or the corolla absent. Figures 1-111. 

Dicotyledoueae. 2 

Venules of leaves mostly parallel-longitudinal. 

Calyx and corolla often divided into three parts, or less 
frequently both rudimentary or absent. Figures 112-126. 

Monocotyledoneae. 89 

2. Stigma present, ovulary closed. Figures 1-110. 

Angiospermae. 3 

Stigma absent, ovulary open. Figure 111. 

Gymnospermae. 88 
B 



Key to the System of 



3. Petals usually disunited, not rarely absent. (Exceptions 

for Victoria : some Pittosporeae, all Polygaleae, Correa, Stack - 
housia, Statice partly, most Leguminosse. ) Figures 1-63. 

Choripetaleae. 4 

Petals usually united, very rarely absent. (Exception: 

Notelaea). Figures 64-110. Synpetaleae. 57 

4. Stamens often inserted at the base of or below the 

ovulary ; fruit nearly aways adnate only at its base. 

(Exceptions : Eupomatia, Cassytha, Fagus, Boerhaavia, 
Scleranthus, some Ficoideae). Figures 1-44. 

Choripetaleae hypogynae. 5 

Stamens often inserted away from the base of the 
ovulary: fruit generally adnate to the sides of the 

Calyx. (Exceptions : Leguminosae, many Rosaceae and Saxi- 
frageae, all Salicarieae and Viniferae, Exocarpos). Figures 

45-63. Choripetaleae perigynae. 46 



ORDERS OF PLANTS. 



DICOTYLEDOIVEAE. 

Choripetaleae hypogynae. 

5. Fruit generally formed of separate fruitlets, each of 

them with a distinct style and stigma. (AlsoBrachy- 
chiton.) Figures 1-6 ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Fruit entire, lobed or finally separable into fruitlets; 
styles usually united or solitary. Figures 7-44 ... 13 

6. Stamens indefinite in number ... ... ... ... 7 

Stamens definite in number ... 12 

7. Calyx generally deciduous ... ... ... ... 8 

Calyx generally persistent ... ... ... ... 9 



Victorian Plants. 



8. Sepals mostly five or less frequently four. 

Seeds without any appendage ; albument (albumen, albu- 
mentum) of seed carnulent or horny, unbroken. Figure 1. 

Raiimieulaceae. 108 

Sepals mostly three ; petals generally ternarily whorled. 

Ovules generally more than one ; stipules usually present. 

Figure 3. Magiioliaceae. Ill 

9. Albument of seed starchy. 

Always aquatic plants ; seeds attached to the walls of the 
fruit-cavity ; embryo minute, lodged in a separate hollow 
of the seed. Nymphaeaceae. 112 

Albument of seed almost carnulent ... ... ... 10 

10. Albument of seed broken. 

Sepals early contiguous at the margins or forming a lid ; 
arrangement of sepals and petals often ternary. 

Anonaceae. 112 

Albument of seed unbroken ... ... ... ... 11 

11. Calyx generally consisting of distinct sepals. 

Seeds attached to the base or to the inner angle of the fruit- 
cavity, generally surrounded by an appendage (arillus). 
Figure 2. Dilleniaceae. 114 

Calyx generally lobed. 

Petals always absent ; fruitlets usually numerous. Figure 4. 

Monimieae. 115 

12. Calyx consisting of distinct sepals. 

Always climbers ; sepals and petals generally in whorls of 
three ; fruitlets three or more ; ovule one. Figure 6. 

Menispermeae. 116 
Calyx lobed. 

Petals always absent ; anthers opening by valves ; fruitlet 
always solitary, often enclosed ; ovule nearly always one. 
Figure 5. Lauraceae. 117 

13. Albument of the seed carnulent or horny or none ... 14 
Albument of the seed starchy ... ... ... ... 37 

14. Stamens and pistils usually in the same flowers. (Ex- 

ception: Dodonaea partly) ... .... ... ... 15 

Stamens and pistils usually in distinct flowers ... ... 34 



Key to the System of 



15. Sepals or lobes of the calyx overlapping before expansion 16 

Sepals or lobes of the calyx contiguous at the margin 
before expansion ... ... ... ... 31 

16. Seeds fixed to the walls of the fruit-cavity 17 

Seeds, when more than one, fixed away from the walls of 
the fruit-cavity ... 21 

17. Sepals often two. 

Sepals fugacious ; petals generally four, usually almost 
equal ; embryo minute, at the base of the albument. 

Fapaveraceae. 118 

Sepals often four or five ... ... ... ... 18 

18. Sepals generally four ... ... ... ... 19 

Sepals generally five ... ... 20 

19. Stamens usually six, two of them shorter. 

Sepals always four ; petals generally four, usually almost 
equal ; fruit often deciduously bivalved and longitudinally 
two-celled ; albument none. Figure 8. Cruciferae. 119 

Stamens usually indefinite in number. 

Sepals often four ; petals generally four, usually almost 
equal ; fruit one-celled ; albument none. Figure 7. 

Capparideae. 131 

20. Petals equal. 

Herbs beset with glandular-hairlets ; leaves and flower- 
stalks coiled before expansion ; sepals, petals and stamens 
often five ; petals persistent, extremely tender : fruit de- 
hiscent, often one-celled. Figure 11. Droseraceae. 132 

Petals usually very unequal. 

Sepals, petals and stamens five ; filaments flat, extending 
beyond the anthers ; fruit one-celled. Figure 9. 

Violaceae. 133 

21. Fruit lobeless 22 

Fruit often lobed or finally separable into fruitlets ... 25 



Victorian Plants. 



22. Sepals often very unequal. 

Sepals partly petaloid ; petals generally connected with the 
staminal tube ; stamens mostly eight, filaments connate ; 
anthers one-celled, each opening by a pore. Figure 13. 

Polygaleae. 135 

Sepals almost or quite equal ... ... ... 23 

23. Stamens indefinite in number. 

Stipules absent ; leaves generally opposite, often dotted ; 
sepals, petals and styles usually five ; petals twisted 
before expansion ; filaments often connate ; styles dis- 
connected ; fruit bursting along the dissepiments. 

Hypericiiiae. 136 

Stamens definite in number ... ... ... ... 24 

24. Styles more than one, disconnected. 

Stipules present ; sepals, petals and styles usually three to 
five; petals flat before expansion; filaments always dis- 
connected; seeds fixed to the inner angles of the fruit. 
Figure 12. Elatineae. 137 

Style one. 

Sepals, petals and stamens mostly five; petals often coherent; 
filaments often disconnected ; ovulary one- to five-celled ; 
embryo minute. Figure 10. Pittosporeae. 138 

25. Leaves always pellucidly dotted. 

Petals four to five, sometimes coherent ; styles united ; 
fruitlets coherent, often bivalved, the husk mostly sepa- 
rating in two layers. Figures 14 and 15. Rutaceae. 142 

Leaves generally without pellucid dots ... ... 26 

26. Stamens usually five ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Stamens usually eight to ten ... ... ... ... 29 

27. Seeds often clasped by a bright-colored arillar ap- 

pendage. 

Stipules usually absent; leaves always simple; flowers mostly 
symmetrical; stamens inserted on a disk; fruit mostly 
dehiscent; embryo straight. Figure 28. 

Celastrinae. 147 

Seeds without any clasping appendage ... ... 28 



Key to the System of 



28. Petals always disconnected. 

Stipules often absent or rudimentary; sepals and petals five, 
seldom four; filaments often united at the base and there 
gland -bearing ; fruit lobeless, but usually dehiscent along 
the dissepiment, with often subdivided partitions. 

Lineae. 148 

Petals nearly always connected. 

Stipules absent or rudimentary ; petals five, often much 
cohering; fruit consisting of three to five indehiscent 
fruitlets; fruit-axis persistent. Figure 29. 

Stackhousieae. 149 

29. Stipules often absent. 

Leaves simple or oftener pinnate; flowers often unsym- 
metrical; stamens mostly inserted between the ovulary 
and the disk; fruit mostly dehiscent; embryo generally 
curved. Figure 27. Sapindaceae. 150 

Stipules often present ... ... ... ... ... 30 

30. Stamens usually disconnected. 

Petals four to five; styles generally united; fruit consisting 
of free or coherent fruitlets, rarely consolidated and hard 
inside (a drupe.) Figures 16 and 17. Zygophylleae. 152 

Stamens usually connected. 

Petals generally five; fruit consolidated or consisting of 
three to five free or connected fruitlets ; fruit-axis per- 
sistent. Figure 18. Geraniaceae. 

31. Anthers one-celled. 154 

Petals united at the base with the tube of the stamens; 
stamens usually indefinite in number ; anthers bivalved ; 
fruit consolidated or consisting of coherent or seceding 
fruitlets, whorled around a central columnar axis ; seeds 
fixed to the axils of the fruit. Figure 19. 

Malvaceae. 157 

Anthers two-celled ... ... ... ... ... 32 

32. Fruit always two-celled. 

Petals four to five; stamens eight to ten, disconnected; 
anthers opening each by a terminal pore ; fruit entire ; 
seeds pendent. Tremandreae. 162 

Fruit generally three- to five-celled or consisting of 
distinct fruitlets ... ... ... ... ... 33 



Victorian Plants. 



33. Petals rarely absent. 

Petals four to five; stamens numerous, generally disconnec- 
ted ; seeds mostly pendent, fixed to the axils of the fruit. 
Figure 22. Tiliaceae. 163 

Petals usually absent. 

Petals five, when present; stamens disconnected or united; 
seeds mostly ascendent, fixed to the axils of the fruit. 
Figures 20 and 21. Sterculiaceae. 164 

34. Ovulary nearly always with more than one cell ... 35 
Ovulary with one cell only ... ... ... 36 

35. Fruit only with its base fixed to the calyx. 

Fruit-cells frequently opening by bivalvular dehiscence ; 
seeds fixed to the inner angles of the fruit ; albument 
often large. Figure 23. Euphorbiaceae. 167 

Fruit, when provided with a calyx, adnate to it. 

Fruit involucrated ; indehiscent ; seed one ; albument none. 

Cupuliferae. 178 

36. Leaves very conspicuous, mostly scattered. 

Fruits indehiscent, dispersed or crowded or connate into a 
succulent mass ; seed one, often with scanty or without 
albument. Figure 24. TJrticaceae. 179 

Leaves rudimentary, whorled. 

Fruits seed-like, their enlarged and hardened bracts and 
bracteoles connate into an almost strobilaceous mass ; 
leaves cylindrically connate ; fruits terminated by a 
membranous appendage, the whole fruiting mass resem- 
bling small pine-cones (strobiles) ; seeds without albument. 
Figure 25. Casuarineae. 182 

37. Albument usually inside the curvature of the embryo ... 38 
Albument quite outside the embryo ... ... ... 45 

38. Fruit consisting of a single or of two or more separate or 

connate fruitlets, or the fruit two- or more-celled ... 39 

Fruit one-celled 40 



Key to the System of 



39. Fruit consisting of a single or two or more separate or 

coherent fruitlets. 

Leaves scattered, lobeless ; calyx divided into sepals or lobes ; 
petals generally none ; fruitlets often circularly arranged ; 
ovule usually single in each ovulary-cell ; seed fixed to 
the base of the cavity ; embryo imperfectly annular. 
Figure 43. Phytolacceae. 183 

Fruit two- or more-celled. 

Calyx divided into sepals or lobes ; stamens mostly indefinite 
in number ; seeds fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity or 
to the angles of the fruit-cells ; embryo imperfectly annular. 
Figures 39, 40, 41. Ficoideae. 184 

40. Petals usually present ... ... ... ... ... 41 

Petals always absent ... ... ... ... ... 42 

41. Sepals or calyx-lobes as many as petals. 

Leaves always opposite ; calyx of some genera tubular ; 
stamens definite in number ; fruit adnate only at the base ; 
seeds two or more, fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity ; 
embryo nearly always imperfectly annular. Figures 32 
and 33. Caryophylleae. 186 

Sepals or calyx-lobes fewer than petals. 

Leaves mostly scattered ; stamens often indefinite in num- 
ber ; fruit of some genera adnate in its lower portion ; 
seeds numerous, fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity ; 
embryo imperfectly annular. Figure 31. Portulaceae. 192 

42. Fruit often adherent to the tube of the calyx. 

Leaves mostly opposite and lobeless ; style one ; stigma 
undivided ; fruit indehiscent ; seed one, fixed to the base 
of the fruit-cavity ; cotyledons usually broad, folded or 
convolute, including the albument. Figure 44. 

Nyctagineae. 194 

Fruit often adnate only at the base ... ... ... 43 

43. Stipules conspicuous, often tubular-connate. 

Sepals or lobes of the calyx usually in two rows and often 
petaloid, membranous or succulent ; stigmas two or three; 
fruit usually enclosed within the calyx, one -seeded, 
indehiscent ; seed fixed to the base of the fruit- cavity ; 
embryo lateral or axillary. Figure 42. Polygoneae. 195 

Stipules none ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 



Victorian Plants. 



44. Calyx dry, often shining or whitish or bright-colored. 

Calyx divided into sepals or lobed ; stamens five or fewer ; 
stigmas one to three ; fruit usually enclosed within the 
calyx, mostly with one seed, irregularly dehiscent or 
circumcised ; seeds fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity. 
Figures 34 and 35. Amaraiitaceae. 197 

Calyx membranous or somewhat succulent, without any 
lustre, usually greenish. 

Leaves usually scattered, often succulent ; calyx often 
deeply lobed ; stamens five or fewer ; stigmas two or 
three ; fruit usually enclosed within the calyx, never 
regularly dehiscent ; seed one, fixed to the base of the 
fruit-cavity ; embryo annular or coiled. Figures 36, 37, 38. 

Salsolaceae. 200 

45. Seeds several or many, fixed to the walls of the fruit- 

cavity. 

Leaves opposite, whorled or fascicled ; calyx always 
tubular ; stamens generally few ; petals provided with an 
appendage ; embryo straight. Frankeniaceae. 210 

Seed one, fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity. 

Leaves scattered or at the stem-base crowded; calyx 
constantly tubular ; stamens always five, opposite to the 
petals ; embryo straight. Figure 30. 

Flumbagineae. 211 



Choripetaleae perigynae. 

46. Fruit usually one-celled, representing a solitary fruitlet 47 

Fruit usually with more than one cell or consisting of 
coherent or separate fruitlets. (Exceptions : Thrypto- 
mene, Actinotus) ... ... ... ... ... 48 

47. Petals present. 

Stipules often developed ; leaves simple or pinnate or re- 
duced to dilated leafstalks ; fruit oblique, usually bivalved 
(Pod, Legume), simple though sometimes spuriously trans- 
verse-septate, very seldom forming from two to fifteen 
distinct fruitlets, always free from the calyx, with a 
solitary almost lateral style and simple stigma ; seeds 
generally more than one, nearly always without albument. 
Figures 45 to 51. Leguminosae. 212 



10 Key to the System of 



Petals absent. 

Stipules none ; leaves always simple and quite entire ; calyx 
corollaceous, its lobes overlapping before expansion ; 
stamens definite, two or more, inserted on the calyx-tube ; 
style one, often almost lateral ; stigma one ; fruit usually 
simple, indehiscent, only adnate at the base, but enclosed ; 
seed solitary, pendent. Figure 74. Thymeleae. 241 

48. Fruit often consisting of separate fruitlets, each with 

an almost lateral style ... ... ... 49 

Fruit consolidated or consisting of connate or coherent 
fruitlets 50 

49. Stamens mostly indefinite in number. 

Stipules usually present ; leaves either simple or compound, 
often indented or denticulated, of thin texture and with- 
out pellucid dots ; leafstalks not rarely dilated ; lobes of 
the calyx overlapping before expansion ; petals sometimes 
absent; styles usually more than one, disconnected; ovules 
generally two in each cell ; albument mostly absent. 
Figure 52. Rosaceae. 242 

Stamens mostly definite in number. 

Petals sometimes absent ; stamens usually twice as many as 
petals or calyx-lobes ; fruit usually compound, forming 
mostly distinct or coherent fruitlets, often only at or 
towards the base adnate; seeds generally several or 
many; albument mostly present. (IncludingCrassulaceae). 
Figures 53 and 54. Saxifrageae. 247 



50. Stamens usually indefinite in number. 

Woody plants from dwarf to tall ; leaves transparently 
dotted, always entire, often of firm texture ; stipules 
absent; lobes of the calyx overlapping or open before 
expansion or forming a lid ; petals often five, not rarely 
absent ; style one ; stigma undivided ; fruit high-adnate 
to the calyx ; seeds without albument. Figures 56 to 60. 

Myrtaceae. 249 

Stamens usually definite in number ... ... ... 51 

51. Style nearly always one ... ... ... 52 

Style nearly always more than one ... ... ... 55 

52. Stamens twice as many as petals or calyx-lobes ... 53 
Stamens as many as petals or calyx-lobes ... ... 54 



Victorian Plants. 11 



53. Fruit adnate to the calyx at the base only. 

Stipules absent ; leaves without dots ; lobes of the calyx 
contiguous at the margin before expansion ; seeds generally 
numerous. Salicarieae. 262 

Fruit high-adnate to the calyx. 

Usually herbaceous plants ; stipules absent ; leaves without 
dots ; lobes of the calyx contiguous at the margin before 
expansion ; petals often four ; ovulary often four-celled ; 
seeds generally numerous. Oiiagreae. 263 

54. Calyx conspicuously lobed. 

Woody plants, seldom climbers, very rarely producing 
tendrils ; leaves always simple ; lobes of the calyx con- 
tiguous at the margin before expansion ; petals minute, 
very concave, not rarely absent ; stamens usually five, 
inserted on the calyx-tube and alternating with the lobes 
or denticles of the calyx ; stigmas usually three ; ovulary 
generally three-celled ; fruit adnate to the calyx beyond 
the base. Figure 61. Rhamiiaceae. 264 

Calyx lobeless. 

Mostly climbers, very often producing tendrils ; leaves either 
simple or compound ; petals always small, contiguous at 
the margin before expansion ; stamens all alternating 
with the lobes or denticles of the calyx ; stigma one ; fruit 
adnate to the unenlarging calyx towards the base only, 
at last placed superiorily. Figure 26. Viniferae. 266 

55. Stamens usually twice as many as petals or calyx-lobes. 

Herbs, seldom somewhat woody plants, with mostly small 
flowers ; stipules absent ; fruit-cells or fruitlets one to four, 
with separate styles and stigmas ; seeds always solitary 
and pendent, with albument. Figure 55. Halorageee. 267 

Stamens usually as many as calyx-lobes ... ... 56 

56. Petals contiguous before expansion. 

Generally woody plants, of ten with compound leaves; stamens 
all opposed to the lobes or denticles of the calyx, inserted 
on a terminal (epigynous) disk ; fruit fully adnate to the 
calyx, consisting of two or more connate fruitlets; albument 
sometimes lobed or broken. Figure 62. Araliaceae. 271 

Petals generally overlapping before expansion. 

Herbs, often with dissected leaves ; stamens all opposed to 
the lobes or denticles of the calyx, inserted on a terminal 
disk ; styles and stigmas always two ; fruit fully adnate 
to the calyx, consisting of two connate fruitlets, often pro- 
vided with longitudinal oilducts. (Exception : Actinotus). 
Figure 63. Umbelliferae. 272 



12 Key to the System of 



57. Stamens often inserted away from the base of the 

ovulary; calyx high-adnate to the fruit or rudi- 
mentary or absent. (Exception : Velleya). Figures 64 to 
95. Synpetaleae perigynae. 58 

Stamens often inserted at the base of or below the 
ovulary ; calyx beyond its base free from the fruit. 
(Exception : Wittsteinia). Figures 96 to 110. 

Synpetaleae hypogynae. 68 

Synpetaleae perigynae. 

58. Nearly always climbers or twiners ... ... 59 

Very seldom climbers or twiners ... 60 

59. Perfect stamens and pistils in separate flowers. 

Plants seldom woody ; tendrils often developed ; leaves 
scattered, often lobed ; stipules absent ; corolla-base 
confluent with the calyx; stamens often five, but connate 
into three; fruit carnulent, generally one-celled, with 
placentaries affixed to the walls of the fruit-cavity, 
without complete dissepiments; seeds without albumen t. 
Figure 77. Cucurbitaceae. 286 

Perfect stamens and pistils mostly in the same flowers. 

Plants not seldom woody; tendrils often developed; leaves 
scattered, generally lobed; flowers provided with a fringy 
floral whorl (corona), irrespective of the corolla; stamens 
generally three to five; fruit free, without any complete 
dissepiments, and with placentaries affixed to the walls 
of the fruit-cavity; seeds with albument. 

Passifloreae. 287 

60. Epiphytal parasites. 

Parasites generally on branches of trees, rarely terrestrial, 
one species a tall tree; leaves usually opposite; calyx 
adnate, its lobes obliterated or seldom well developed; 
lobes of the corolla few, contiguous at the margin before 
expansion; stamens opposite to the corolla-lobes; style 
one; stigma undivided; ovulary one -celled; ovule gene- 
rally one, attached to the wall of the ovulary without the 
intervention of a distinct placentary, sessile ; fruit without 
any dissepiment, never dehiscent ; seed unprotected by 
integumental membranes. Figure 66. 

Lorantliaceae. 288 

Terrestrial plants ... ... ... ... ... 61 



Victorian Plants. 13 



61. Calyx undeveloped. 

Woody, rarely almost herbaceous plants, some species tall 
trees ; calyx absent or rudimentary ; petals always four, 
connate, sometimes partly seceding from each other, con- 
tiguous at the margin before expansion ; stamens always 
four, opposite to the corolla-lobes ; style one ; stigma 
undivided ; ovulary one-celled with one or more not 
rarely numerous ovules ; fruits free from each other 
or strobilaceous-connate, often dehiscent and somewhat 
oblique, without real dissepiment, and thus representing 
solitary fruitlets ; albument always absent ; seeds one or 
more, provided with outer membranes, but the embryo 
not rarely seceding therefrom. Figures 67 to 73. 

Proteaceae. 289 

Calyx developed ... ... ... ... 62 

62. Corolla continuous with the calyx-tube. 

Herbaceous or woody plants, some species trees but 
then seldom tall, sometimes parasites on roots ; lobes of 
the corolla contiguous at the margin before expansion ; 
stamens four or five, opposite to the corolla-lobes ; ovulary 
one-celled ; ovules one to five, pendent from a distinct 
central placentary ; fruit never dehiscent, without any 
dissepiment ; seed solitary, unprotected by integumental 
membranes (testa and endopleura) ; albument always 
present. Figures 64 and 65. Saiitalaceae. 298 

Corolla discontinuous with the calyx-tube ... ... 63 

63. Leaves constantly opposite ... ... ... ... 64 

Leaves mostly scattered or partly tufted. (Exceptions : 

Siegesbeckia, Eclipta) ... ... ... ... 65 

64. Stipules present. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees; leaves never compound, rarely 
denticulated, never lobed, unless rarely by a basal sinus; 
stipules between the bases of the leafstalks often connate; 
flowers almost always symmetrical; stamens disconnected, 
generally as many as corolla-lobes and alternating with 
them; ovulary with two or more cells, rarely with only 
one cell; fruit usually with one or more longitudinal 
dissepiments. Figure 75. Rubiaceae. 303 

Stipules absent. 

Herbaceous or oftener woody plants, some arborescent or 
climbing; leaves simple or not rarely compound; flowers 
symmetrical or unsymmetrical; lobes of the corolla three 



14 Key to the System of 



to five, overlapping before expansion; stamens disconnec- 
ted, generally as many as calyx-lobes and alternating with 
them; ovulary with two or more cells, rarely one-celled; 
fruit usually with one or more longitudinal dissepiments. 
Figure 76. Caprifoliaceae. 308 

65. Flowers within an involucre of bracts. 

Herbs or shrubs, seldom trees; sap usually limpid, but 
sometimes also milky; stipules absent; lobes of the calyx 
contiguous at the margin before expansion; limb of the 
calyx consisting of hairlets or plumous or scaly or spinu- 
lous organs (pappus) or quite absent; anthers generally 
connate around the style; ovulary one-celled ; ovule one, 
erect; fruit seed-like (achsehium), enclosed in the calyx- 
tube; seed without albument. Figures 78 to 90. 

Compositae. 309 

Flowers unprovided with an involucre of bracts. (Ex- 
ception: Brunonia) ... ... ... ... ... 66 

66. Lobes of the corolla overlapping before expansion. 

Herbs, rarely somewhat woody plants, very seldom climbers; 
sap limpid; stipules usually absent; leaves scattered or 
tufted or sometimes whorled; fifth lobe of the corolla 
often diminutive; stamens two, connate with the style, 
the whole mostly irritable into spontaneous movement; 
fruit with a longitudinal dissepiment. (Stylideae.) 
Figures 92 and 93. Candolleaceae. 364 

Lobes of the corolla contiguous at the margin before 
expansion ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

67. Stigma unenclosed in any special covering. 

Shrubs or oftener herbs; sap usually milky, often acrid; 
stipules absent; anthers often connate around the style; 
fruit generally two- or more-celled ; seeds numerous, 
seldom few. Figure 91. Campaimlaceae. 365 

Stigma enclosed in a special mostly ciliolated covering. 

Herbs or shrubs ; sap limpid, often bitter ; stipules absent ; 
leaves usually scattered or tufted ; corolla-lobes five, 
nearly of the same length, but usually unequal in breadth, 
often provided with marginal membranes and these at 
first folded inwards ; stamens five ; filaments disconnected ; 
anthers seldom connate around the style. Figures 94 
and 95. Goodeniaceae. 367 



Victorian Plants. 15 



Synpetaleae hypogynae. 

68. Corolla equally lobed ... ... 69 

Corolla unequally lobed. (Exceptions: Avicennia, Verbena, 

Myoporum) ... ... ... ... ... ... 81 

69. Fruit almost or quite lobeless. (Exception: Jasmhmm) ... 70 

Fruit conspicuously four-lobed or consisting of four 
almost distinct fruitlets ... ... ... ... 79 

70. Placentaries usually two, fixed to the walls of the 

fruit-cavity. 

Herbs, seldom woody plants ; sap very bitter ; leaves 
opposite or less often basal, quite entire or with a basal 
sinus, or very seldom divided into segments ; stipules 
absent ; stamens usually four or five ; fruit often one- 
celled, bursting marginally along its suturules and often 
near the placentaries. Figure 96. Gentiaueae. 372 

Placentaries fixed either to the dissepiment or to the 
inner angle of the fruit-cells or to the base of the 
fruit-cavity ... ... ... ... ... 71 

71. Placentaries two, fixed to the dissepiment ... ... 72 

Placentary one, fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity, or 
placentaries fixed to the inner angle of the fruit-cells 75 

72. Stamens almost constantly two. 

Trees or erect or climbing shrubs ; leaves nearly always 
opposite, simple or compound ; corolla with four or more 
lobes, sometimes partially seceding into petals, very 
seldom absent ; fruit two-celled and of some species 
bilobed, bursting contrary to the dissepiment or inde- 
hiscent ; seeds few or two or one ; embryo straight. 
Figure 100. Jasmineae. 375 

Stamens usually four or five ... ... ... ... 73 

73. Leaves almost constantly opposite. 

Herbs or shrubs or small trees ; stipules rudimentary or 
absent ; leaves rarely whorled, never lobed and never 
compound ; fruit often two-celled, bursting along the 
dissepiment or indehiscent ; embryo straight. Figure 97. 

Loganiaceae. 376 

Leaves usually basal or scattered ... ... ... 74 



16 Key to the System of 



74. Lobes of the corolla almost constantly four, overlapping 

before expansion. 

Herbs, rarely somewhat woody plants ; flowers minute, 
usually in spikes ; calyx consisting of sepals ; corolla dry, 
almost transparent; stigma generally elongated, undi- 
vided ; fruit very small, mostly opening by transverse 
dehiscence ; embryo usually straight. Figure 98. 

Plant agineae. 377 

Lobes of the corolla almost constantly five and before 
expansion contiguous, their marginal membrane then 
folded inward. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees ; leaves scattered or 
sometimes two laterally placed together ; flowers often 
rather large ; stamens usually five, rarely unequal ; fruit 
often two-celled ; seeds usually indefinite in number ; 
embryo simply curved or coiled, generally filiform. 
Figure 103. Solaiiaceae. 378 

75. Placentary one, fixed to the base of the fruit-cavity ... 76 

Placentaries two or more, fixed high or low to the 
inner angle of the fruit-cells ... ... ... 77 

76. Fruit dehiscent, generally many-seeded. 

Herbs, seldom somewhat woody plants ; leaves usually 
scattered or basal or whorled or crowded, in some species 
dotted as well as the inflorescence; stamens opposite to 
the lobes of the corolla ; stigma constantly undivided ; 
fruit always one-celled. Primulaceae. 381 

Fruit indehiscent, generally one-seeded. 

Trees or shrubs; leaves nearly always scattered and pervaded 
by pellucid dots or streaklets; stamens opposite to the 
lobes of the corolla, not rarely in flowers distinct from 
those bearing pistils; stigma undivided; fruit constantly 
one-celled. Figure 99. Myrsinaceae. 383 

77. Anthers one-celled. 

Weak or robust shrubs, rarely trees and then not very tall; 
leaves stiff, harsh, nearly always scattered ; stamens 
usually five, often adriate to the corolla; anthers never 
dorsally appendiculated ; stigma undivided ; fruit-cells 
usually more than one ; placentaries fixed often high 
to the inner angle of the fruit-cell. Figure 1 10. 

Epacrideae. 384 

Anthers two-celled ... ... ... ... 78 



Victorian Plants. 17 



78. Stamens usually eight or ten. 

Weak or robust shrubs, not often trees and then not very 
tall; leaves generally scattered or whorled; stamens often 
free from the corolla; anthers frequently dorsally appen- 
diculated; fruit-cells more than one; placentaries fixed to 
the inner angles of the fruit-cells; seeds usually numerous; 
embryo straight. (Exception: Wittsteinia.) Figure 109. 

Ericaceae. 389 

Stamens almost constantly five. 

Usually climbers or twiners or creepers ; leaves mostly 
scattered; corolla generally much folded; fruit- cells two 
or more; placentaries fixed to the fruit- angles at the base 
of the cavity; seeds definite in number, erect; embryo 
usually twisted or folded. Convolvulaceae. 390 

79. Pollen denned into two or four massules. 

Leaves nearly always opposite; anthers connate; pollen- 
massules affixed to five distinct processes; stigma un- 
divided, dilated; fruit normally consisting of two distinct 
elongated and one-celled fruitlets, one fruitlet sometimes 
undeveloped; seeds nearly always terminated by a tuft of 
soft hairlets. Figure 102. Asclepiadeae. 394 

Pollen undefined in form, powdery ... ... ... 80 

80. Fruit usually consisting of two distinct fruitlets. 

Leaves generally opposite ; anthers connivent ; stigma 
annular-dilated; fruit sometimes solitary, seldom two- 
celled, or occasionally one of the two fruitlets undeveloped. 
Figure 101. Apocyneae. 397 

Fruit usually four-lobed from the concrescence of as 
many fruitlets as lobes. 

Herbs or less often shrubs, rarely tall trees; leaves frequently 
scattered, some not rarely basal, often as well as the 
branchlets and inflorescence beset with stiff hairlets; 
fruitlets generally small and dry ; seeds pendent. Figure 
106. Asperifoliae. 398 

81. Fruit usually four-lobed. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees small or exceptionally of tall- 
ness; leaves constantly opposite; lobes of the corolla in 
two unequal sets; stamens two or four and then the two 
lower the longest; style one; stigmas nearly always two; 
seeds erect, solitary in each fruitlet. Figure 107. 

Labiatae. 405 



18 Key to the System of 



Fruit lobeless 82 

82. Parasites on roots of other plants; leaves always un- 

developed. 

Herbaceous plants, seldom branched, never green; lobes of 
the corolla in two unequal sets ; stamens four, the two 
lower the longest; ovulary one-celled; placentaries two 
to four, attached to the walls of the fruit-cavity ; seeds 
numerous and minute. Orobancheae. 414 

Terrestrial or much less frequently semiaquatic or epi- 
phytal plants; leaves always developed ... ... 83 

83. Leaves often radical or floating ; minute vesicular 

pitchers (ascidia) frequently at or near the leaves. 
Always herbs, seldom tall; lobes of the corolla in two 
unequal sets; stamens two only; style obliterated; stigmas 
two; ovulary one-celled; placentary one, attached to the 
base of the fruit-cavity ; seeds numerous and minute. 
Figure 105. Lentibularinae. 415 

Plants hardly ever floating, unprovided with pitchers 84 

84. Fruit many-seeded ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Fruit two- or few-seeded ... ... ... ... 87 

85. Fruit usually one-celled. 

Herbs, not rarely epiphytal, or shrubs, seldom small trees; 
lobes of the corolla in two unequal sets; leaves opposite, 
but not rarely one smaller, or some of them basal ; stamens 
usually four, two imperfect; anthers often somewhat 
coherent; ovulary one-celled or imperfectly two-celled; 
placentaries two, attached to the walls of the fruit- cavity; 
seeds always minute. Gesiieriaceae. 416 

Fruit usually two-celled ... ... ... ... 86 

86. Seeds small or minute. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees ; leaves opposite, less 
frequently scattered or partially basal ; lobes of the corolla 
in two unequal sets ; stamens two or four and then the two 
lower the longest; ovulary completely two -celled ; placen- 
taries generally attached to the dissepiment; seeds 
several or oftener numerous. Figure 104. 

Scropliularinae. 417 



Victorian Plants. 19 



Seeds comparatively large, flat and surrounded by a 
broadish membrane. 

Usually woody climbers, sometimes trees even of tallness ; 
leaves generally opposite and frequently divided into 
leaflets ; lobes of the corolla in two unequal sets ; stamens 
four, the two lower the longest ; anther-cells disconnected 
except at the summit ; stigma constantly bilobed ; ovulary 
two-celled, with two placentaries attached to each side 
of the deciduous dissepiment, or one-celled with two 
double placentaries attached to the walls of the fruit- 
cavity. Bignoniaceae. 424 

87. Seeds erect. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees ; leaves nearly always opposite, 
hardly ever compound ; lobes of the corolla almost equal 
or of tener in two unequal sets ; stamens two or four ; 
anther-cells mostly distinct, almost parallel, hardly con- 
tinuous at the summit ; stigma usually bilobed ; fruit 
two- to four-celled ; seeds solitary in each fruit-cell. 

Verbenaceae. 425 

Seeds pendent. 

Shrubs or not often small trees, seldom semiherbaceous 
plants ; leaves nearly always scattered, often dotted ; 
lobes of the corolla almost equal or in two unequal sets ; 
stamens four, rarely five ; anther- cells soon divergent, by 
terminal continuation of their dehiscence rendering the 
anther almost one-celled ; stigma undivided ; fruit hard 
or sometimes outside succulent, two- or four-celled or 
seldom five- to ten-celled ; seeds one to four in each fruit- 
cell. Figure 108. Myoporinae. 427 



Apetaleae gymnospermae. 

Ovulary open. 

Shrubs or trees, mostly evergreen, often resinous ; leaves 
scale-like or acicular- or angular-linear, much less fre- 
quently dilated and flat ; stamens and pistils never 

x united ; anthers two or more, placed on dilated scale-like 
rhacheoles, one-celled, simply dehiscent ; filaments ab- 
sent ; fruit-bearing rhacheoles crowded into strobiles 
(cones) or forming berry-like masses or scattered ; fruits 
seed-like ; albument present ; cotyledons two or more ; 
medullary rays exceedingly faint ; woody tissue almost 
uniform-prosenchymatous. Figure 111. 

Couiferae. 428 



20 Key to the System of 

JYIONOCOTYLEDONEAE. 

89. Flowers provided with a conspicuous calyx ... ... 90 

Flowers unprovided with a conspicuous calyx. Figures 
125 and 126. Acalyceae hypogynae. 104 

90. Stamens often inserted away from the base of the 

ovulary ; calyx high-adnate to the fruit. Figures 112 

to 116. Calyceae perigynae. 91 

Stamens often inserted at the base of or below the 
ovulary; calyx beyond its base free from the fruit. 
Figures 117 to 124. Calyceae hypogynae. 94 

Calyceae perigynae. 

91. Lower petal usually much unlike the two other. 

(Exception here : Thelymitra. ) 

Terrestrial or epiphytal plants ; flowers often exquisitely 
showy ; calyx-lobes three, often petal-like ; stamen and 
style connate (gynostemium) ; anther almost constantly 
one ; fruit always longitudinally dehiscent ; placentaries 
attached to the wall of the fruit-cavity ; seeds mostly 
very minute. Figures 112 and 113. Orchicleae. 429 

All three petals usually alike ... ... ... 92 

92. Stamens and pistils mostly in separate flowers. 

Aquatic herbs ; petals often very tender and fugacious ; 
fruit indehiscent ; placentaries attached to the walls of 
the fruit-cavity ; seeds without albument. Figure 115. 

Hydrocharideae. 450 

Stamens and pistils usually in the same flowers ... 93 

93. Calyx-lobes petal-like, often very tender and fugacious. 

Nearly always land-plants ; flowers often large and showy ; 
petals usually three, mostly equal ; stamens generally 
three, always opposite to the calyx-lobes ; anthers burst- 
ing on the outer side ; fruit longitudinally dehiscent ; 
placentaries nearly always attached to the inner angles of 
the fruit-cavity; seeds with albument. Figure 114. 

Irideae. 453 



Victorian Plants. 21 



Calyx-lobes petal-like, often firm. 

Nearly always land-plants ; flowers often large and showy ; 
petals three, equal ; stamens generally six ; anthers burst- 
ing on the inner side; fruit longitudinally dehiscent or 
indehiscent; placentaries nearly always attached to the 
inner angles of the fruit-cavity; seeds with albument. 
Figure 116. AmaryUideae. 455 



Calyceae hypogynae. 

94. Petals corollaceous ... ... ... ... ... 95 

Petals sepalaceous or absent ... ... .... ... 98 

95. Flowers symmetrical ... ... ... ... ... 96 

Flowers unsymmetrical ... ... ... ... 97 

96. Fruit usually entire. 

Nearly always land -plants ; flowers often showy ; sepals 
three, generally petal-like, sometimes coherent towards 
the base ; petals three, not rarely downward connate 
with the sepals ; stamens generally six ; fruit longi- 
tudinally dehiscent or indehiscent ; embryo enclosed in 
the carnulent or horny albument. Figures 117 to 119. 

Liliaceae. 457 

Fruit consisting of distinct fruitlets. 

Swamp-plants ; sepals and petals always three, the latter 
conspicuous and fugacious, often white ; seeds without 
any albument. Figure 121. Alisniaceae. 480 

97. Anther one. 

Usually swamp -plants ; sepals petal-like, two ; petals two ; 
stamen one ; style one ; stigma undivided ; fruit longi- 
tudinally dehiscent; embryo enclosed in the somewhat 
starchy albument. Philhydreae. 481 

Anthers three. 

Almost rush-like plants ; sepals three, one petal-like ; petals 
three, connate into a corolla ; fertile stamens three ; 
sterile stamens usually three and bearded ; stigmas 
three ; fruit one-celled, dehiscent ; placentas three ; em- 
bryo outside the albument. Figure 122. Xyrideae. 482 



22 Key to the Si/stem of 

7 */ / 

98. Petals absent 99 

Petals usually developed, sepalaceous ... ... ... 100 

99. Leaves much elongated. 

Swamp-plants ; staminate and pistillate flowers always 
distinct, crowded into cylindric spikes or into headlets ; 
sepals and petals scale-like or capillary ; stamens few or 
many ; stigmas one or two ; fruit one- or two-celled ; 
seeds solitary ; embryo within the albument. 

Typhaceae. 483 

Minute frond-like organs instead of leaves. 

Floating plants ; sepals and petals nonet; stamens one or 
two ; fruit one-celled ; albument enclosing the embryo 
or absent. Lemnaceae. 484 

100. Seeds without any albument, embryo comparatively 

large. 

Aquatic, rarely terrestrial plants, often floating ; sepals 
three or less or absent ; petals three or less, often sepal- 
like, never bright- colored, often succulent, minute or 
absent ; fruit consisting of distinct or coherent fruitlets. 
Figure 120. Pluviales. 485 

Seeds with albument, embryo comparatively minute 101 

101. Embryo placed within the albument or contained in 

an opening near the surface of the albument ... 102 

Embryo placed outside the albument... ... ... 103 

102. Stamens and pistils never in the same flowers. 

Palms, mostly superb plants, often tall, sometimes climbing ; 
flowers seldom showy ; sepals three, equal, and petals 
three, equal, all frequently glumaceous ; stamens often 
six ; stigmas three ; fruit seldom very small, usually one- 
celled and one-seeded, or rarely consisting of three dis- 
tinct fruitlets, always indehiscent ; embryo comparatively 
minute, placed in an opening near the surface of the 
albument. Falmae. 492 

Stamens and pistils usually in the same flowers. 

Rushes ; flowers very small ; sepals three and petals three, 
similar to each other and glumaceous ; stamens three or 
six ; stigmas three ; fruit always very small, longitxidinally 
dehiscent, one- or three- celled ; seeds erect ; embryo 
minute, placed within the albument. Figure 1 23. 

Jimceae. 493 



Victorian Plants. 23 



103. Leaves mostly well developed, basal and somewhat 
pellucid. 

Usually small plants; flowers always minute, in a single 
terminal head-like spikelet ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers distinct, but within the same spikelet ; sepals and 
petals three each or fewer, almost transparent or whitish, 
the petals not rarely connate into a corolla, very seldom 
absent ; stigmas three or two ; fruit three- or two-celled, 
always dehiscent ; seed solitary, pendent. Eriocauleae. 494 

Leaves often rudimentary, scattered and rigid. 

Usually rush-like plants, some twining ; clasping leafstalks 
slit longitudinally; staminate and pistillate flowers mostly 
on distinct plants; sepals and petals three or two each, 
glumaceous, occasionally much reduced or absent ; stigmas 
three or two; fruit one- to three celled, longitudinally 
dehiscent or indehiscent. Figure 124. Restiaceae. 495 



Acalyceae hypogynae. 

104. Clasping leafstalks tubular, unopened. 

Stems usually solid, nodeless; stamens and pistils in the 
same or in distinct flowers, but rarely on separate plants ; 
floral bracts solitary; sepals and petals rudimentary or 
absent; ovule solitary, erect; fruit one-celled, indehiscent; 
embryo enclosed within the albument. Figure 125. 

Cyperaceae. 502 

Clasping leafstalks open longitudinally. 

Stems usually hollow, hardly ever angular; continuity of 
stems intercepted by nodes; stamens and pistil often 
in the same flower ; sepals and petals rudimentary or 
absent; covering floral bract (palea) consisting of two 
connate bracteoles or sepals lined by two venules : ovule 
solitary, erect; fruit (grain, caryopsis) often adherent or 
adnate to the covering bract, indehiscent ; embryo lateral 
and external at the base of the albument. Figure 126. 

Gramineae. 518 

Acotyledoneae vasculares. 

105. Fruiting organs often emanating at or near the roots. 

Aquatic or rarely terrestrial plants, never large ; foliaceous 
organs scale-like, frond-like or stalk-like ; fruiting organs 
generally free from the leaf-like or frond-like organs. 
Figures 127 and 128. Rhizospermae. 559 



24 Key to the System of 



Fruiting organs often emanating at or near the summit 
of stems or branchlets or at or near the under-side 
of fronds 106 

106-7. Foliaceous organs leaf-like. 

Terrestrial plants, seldom tall; fruiting organs generally 
free from the leaf -like organs, often emanating at or near 
the summit of stems or branchlets; spore-caselets often 
arranged in spikes and supported by bract-like organs. 
Figures 129 to 131. Lycopodinae. 562 

Foliaceous organs converted into fronds. 

" Ferns," from dwarf to tall, some even of palm-like stature; 
fruiting organs generally adnate to fronds. Figures 132 
to 152. Filices. 565 



The, Acotyledoneae evasculares, numbering even more Victorian species 
than the di- and mono-cotyledonous plants taken together, and comprising 
Mosses, Lichens, Fungs and Algs, require to be treated in a separate volume, 
and need to a large extent high microscopic power, not readily available in the 
field, for recognition. 



GENERA OF PLANTS. 



HANTJNCULACEAE. 

108. Petals present ... 109 

Petals absent ... ... ... ... ... ... 110 

109. Fruitlets crowded on a short receptacle. 

Herbs, often perennial; leaves chiefly basal, usually incised; 
sepals overlapping before expansion, simply sessile; fruit- 
lets indehiscent, terminated by a short style. "Butter- 
cup." Figure l. Ranunculus. 587 

Fruitlets crowded on a much elongated receptacle. 

Minute, annual herbs; leaves all basal, very narrow, un- 
divided ; sepals extended downwards beyond the point of 
insertion; fruitlets very minute, indehiscent, exceedingly 
numerous. "Mousetail." Myosurus. 595 



Victorian Plants. 25 



110. Fruitlets crowded on a short receptacle, terminated 

by an elongated often almost feathery style. 

Climbers; leaves opposite, usually compound; sepals con- 
tiguous before expansion, petaloid, generally four ; 
fruitlets indehiscent. Clematis. 596 

Fruitlets in a single whorl, terminated by a short style. 

Glabrous herbs, often semiaquatic and alpine; leaves all at 
or near the root; sepals overlapping before expansion, 
petaloid; fruitlets dehiscent. C alt ha. 597 

B1AGNOLIACE AE. 

111. Sepals two or three ; fruitlets generally succulent. 

Petals two or more ; filaments broad ; cells of anthers 
distinct; fruitlets in a single and often imperfect whorl. 
Figure 3. Drimys. 598 

NYMFHAEACEAE. 

112. Sepals and petals usually three. 

Aquatic herbs ; stamens six or more ; fruitlets two to four, 

disconnected, indehiscent. Cabomba. 599 

ANONACEAE. 

113. Calyx opening by a lid. 

Petals none; sterile stamens numerous, petaloid; fruit 
urnshaped or invertedly broad-conical. Etipomatia. 

DIXiLENIACEAE. 

114. Sepals and petals always five ; fruitlets dehiscent. 

Shrubs or half-shrubs, some climbing ; leaves seldom large, 
often entire ; petals always yellow ; number of stamens 
indefinite ; filaments capillary ; anthers bursting longi- 
tudinally or seldom at the summit only. Figure 2. 

Hibbertia. 601 

MONI1VIIEAE. 

115. Fruitlets enclosed; fruit-calyx cup-shaped. 

Calyx lobed, the lobes of the pistillate calyx finally deciduous; 
filaments short, with two appendages; anthers opening 
by valves; style elongated, almost plumous. "Native 
Sassafras." Atherosperma. 611 

Fruitlets exserted; fruit-calyx quite expanded. 

Calyx permanently indented ; filaments none ; anthers 
opening by slits; style obliterated. Figure 4. 

Hedycarya. 612 



26 Key to the System of 



MENISPJSHB1EAE. 

116. Petals longer than the calyx, very turgid. 

Flowers small, in racemes ; stamens two or three ; anthers 
divergent; fruitlets three to six. Figure 6. 

Sarcopetaltim. 613 

Petals shorter than the calyx, slightly turgid. 

Leaves fixed above the base; flowers minute, in umbels; 
anthers circularly adnate; fruitlets solitary. 

Stephania. 614 

LAT7RACEATB. 

117. Twining plants without any conspicuous leaves. 

Fruitlet enclosed in the enlarged often succulent tube of the 
calyx ; lobes of the calyx six, minute. Figure 5. 

Cassytha. 615 

PAPAVSRACEAE. 

118. Fruit opening by small apertures under the stigmatic 

summit. 

Herbs, usually annual and hardly or not much branched; 
leaves usually indented; sepals two; petals four; stigmas 
radiatingly adnate to the summit of the ovulary. 
"Poppies." Papaver. 618 

CRTTCIFERAE. 

119. Fruit separated by transverse articulation into an 

upper and a lower portion. 

Maritime succulent herbs; petals white or purplish; fruit 
abbreviated, each of its two divisions one-seeded. " Sea- 
Rocket." CaJdle. 619 

Fruit bivalved 120 

120. Petals extended into a terminal long and acute 

attenuation. 

Slender herbs; petals white, yellowish or orange -colored; 
fruit from narrow-ellipsoid to globular, abbreviated ; 
dissepiment present ; seeds few or several. 

Stenopetalum. 619 

Petals obtuse ... ... ... ... ... ... 121 

121. Dissepiment absent. 

Small, annual herbs; petals white or purplish; fruit abbre- 
viated, from elliptical-ovate to globular ; seeds numerous, 
very minute, on long funicles. Meiikea. 621 

Dissepiment present ... ... ' ... ... ... 122 



Victorian Plants. 27 



122. Fruit abbreviated ... 123 

Fruit elongated ... ... ... ... 126 

123. Seeds one or two in each cell ... ... ... 124 

Seeds more than two in each cell ... ... ... 125 

124. Fruit compressed towards the sides of the dissepi- 

ment. 

Herbs, often beset with branched hairlets; petals white, 
purplish or yellow; fruit from elliptical to orbicular; 
dissepiment broad ; seeds usually one or two in each cell ; 
radicle turned to the edges of the cotyledons. 

Alyssum. 622 

Fruit compressed towards the edge of the dissepiment. 

Herbs or half-shrubs ; petals white or somewhat purplish ; 
fruit almost oval or nearly obcordate, compressed; dis- 
sepiment very narrow; seeds usually one in each cell; 
radicle turned to the sides of the cotyledons. 

Lepidium. 623 

125. Dissepiment broad. 

Herbs, often semiaquatic; sepals spreading; petals white 
or oftener yellow; fruit usually almost ellipsoid, turgid; 
seeds many, usually in two rows ; radicle turned to the 
edges of the cotyledons. Nasturtium. 628 

Dissepiment narrow. 

Herbs, usually annual; petals white or yellow; fruit almost 
ellipsoid or nearly obcordate, compressed; seeds usually 
more than two in each cell; radicle turned to the sides of 
the cotyledons. Capsella. 629 

126. Fruit-valves almost without any longitudinal dorsal 

venule. 

Herbs often glabrous; sepals usually erect, almost equal; 
petals white or purplish ; fruit mostly narrow- cylindrical 
and somewhat compressed ; seeds numerous, usually 
forming one row in each cell ; radicle turned to the 
edges of the cotyledons. Cardamine. 631 

Fruit-valves with one to three longitudinal dorsal 
venules ... ... ... ... ... 127 

127. Fruit-valves lined by one venule ... ... ... 128 

Fruit-valves usually lined by three venules ... ... 130 



28 Key to the System of 



128. Radicle turned to the sides of the cotyledons. 

Herbs, often beset with branched hairlets ; sepals erect, 
almost equal ; petals white, purplish or yellow ; fruit 
nearly cylindrical, rarely almost ellipsoid ; seeds several 
or numerous, forming one or two irregular rows in each 
cell ; funicle rigid. Figure 8. Erysimum, 635 

Radicle turned to the edges of the cotyledons ... 129 

129. Fruit almost quadrangular. 

Herbs, mostly glabrous ; leaves usually much lobed ; sepals 
generally erect, almost equal; petals yellow; fruit narrow; 
seeds several or numerous, forming one row in each cell. 

Barbarea. 639 

Fruit almost compressed. 

Herbs, either glabrous or beset with branched hairlets ; 
leaves usually beyond their base lobeless ; sepals often 
unequal, generally erect ; petals white or purplish ; fruit 
narrow-cylindrical ; seeds several or numerous, forming 
one or two rows in each cell, with a prominent margin. 

Arabis. 640 

130. Stigma pointed. 

Herbs, beset with simple or branched hairlets ; sepals erect, 
two often with turgidly enlarged base ; petals white or 
purplish ; fruit usually cylindrical and somewhat com- 
pressed ; seeds numerous, forming one or two irregular 
rows in each cell ; radicle turned to the sides of the 
cotyledons. Wilckia* 641 

Stigma blunt. 

Herbs, either glabrous or beset with simple hairlets ; sepals 
erect or spreading, almost equal ; petals white, purplish 
or yellow; fruit narrow- cylindrical, rarely for maturation 
buried and then comparatively short and broad (Geo- 
coccus) ; funicle capillary ; seeds numerous, forming one 
or two irregular rows in each cell ; radicle turned to the 
sides of the cotyledons. Sisymbrium. 642 



CAFF ABIDE A B. 

131. Petals four; fruit indehiscent. 

Shrubs, erect or climbing, or trees ; leaves simple ; sepals 
four, free or the two outer quite connate ; stamens dis- 
connected; ovulary on a stalk -like prolongation (stipes) ; 
stigma sessile. Figure 7. Capparis. 645 



Victorian Plants. 29 



DROSERACEAE. 

132. Styles two to five ; fruit one-celled. 

Herbs, beset with gland-bearing hairlets ; stamens four to 
eight, often five. "Sundew." Figure 11. Drosera. 646 

VIO&ACEAE. 

133. Fruit valveless, succulent. 

Shrubs, often somewhat spinescent ; flowers small ; sepals 
fixed at their base ; petals equal, none protruding into a 
hollow base. Hymenanthera. 655 

Fruit three-valved 134 

134. Lowest petal much longer than the others. 

Herbs, less frequently shrubs ; leaves scattered ; sepals fixed 
at or near their base; lowest petal protruding into a hollow 
base. Figure 9. Hybantlms. 656 

Lowest petal slightly longer than the others. 

Nearly always herbs ; leaves often basal ; flowers solitary on 
an elongated stalk ; sepals fixed above their base ; lowest 
petal protruding into a hollow base. Viola. 658 

POLYGAX.EAE. 

135. Fruit rounded at the base. 

Herbs or shrubs ; lower petal usually crested at the summit ; 

seeds devoid of descending long hairlets. Polygala. 660 

Fruit usually contracted into a long narrow base. 

Herbs or shrubs, rarely twiners ; lower petal never crested 
at the summit ; seeds invested with descending long 
hairlets. Figure 13. Comesperma. 661 

HYFERICINAE. 

136. Fruit splitting along the dissepiments. 

Herbs or shrubs; leaves usually opposite, transparently 
dotted ; styles often three ; petals from yellow to orange- 
colored. Hypericum. 667 

ELATINEAE, 

137. Sepals blunt. 

Aquatic plants, never large ; outer portion of fruit mem- 
branous. Elatine. 668 



30 Key to the, System of 



Sepals pointed. 

Small terrestrial plants; outer portion of fruit firm. 
Figure 12. Bergia. 



PITTOSPOREAE. 

138. Fruit indehiscent, succulent. 

Somewhat woody twiners or climbers ; petals coherent into 
a tube ; stamens surrounding the pistil; anthers opening 
by longitudinal slits. Billardiera. 670 

Fruit dehiscent ... ... ... 139 

139. Stamens all bent to one side. 

Perennial plants, often small and erect ; petals divergent 
from the base ; anthers opening by terminal pores ; fruit 
bursting by longitudinal slits. Cheirantliera. 672 

Stamens surrounding the pistil ... ... ... 140 

140. Valves of the fruit thick. 

Shrubs or trees ; petals coherent into a tube ; anthers open- 
ing by longitudinal slits ; fruit opening longitudinally. 

Pittosporum. 673 

Valves of the fruit thin 141 

141. Seeds one, two or three in each fruit-cell. 

Petals divergent from the base ; anthers opening by longi- 
tudinal slits ; fruit much compressed, opening only near 
the summit; seeds flat. Bursaria. 676 

Seeds several in each fruit-cell. 

Petals divergent from the base or coherent into a tube ; 
anthers opening by longitudinal slits ; fruit slightly com- 
pressed, opening longitudinally ; seeds often turgid. 
Figure 10. Marianthus. 677 

RUTACEAE. 

142. Fruit entire, somewhat pulpy. 

Trees ; leaves opposite, large, often simple ; calyx four- 
cleft ; petals four ; stamens eight ; fruit four-celled. 

Acroiiychia. 678 

Fruit divided into fruitlets, dry 143 



Victorian Plants. 31 



143. Petals five ' 144 

Petals four 145 

144. Stamens five. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves scattered, always simple ; calyx 
five-cleft ; fruitlets five, blunt. Geijera. 679 

Stamens nearly always ten. 

Shrubs, rarely trees ; leaves scattered, always simple ; calyx 
five-cleft or rarely obliterated ; fruitlets five, pointed, 
spreading or seldom laterally coherent. Figure 15. 

Eriostemon. 680 

145. Stamens four. 

Shrubs, rarely trees ; leaves opposite, often consisting of 
three leaflets j calyx four-cleft ; fruitlets four, spreading, 
blunt. , Zieria. 702 

Stamens eight ... ... ... ... ... 146 

146. Petals comparatively small. 

Shrubs or semiherbaceous plants; leaves opposite, simple 
or compound ; calyx four- cleft ; fruitlets four, spreading, 
blunt. Boronia, 705 

Petals comparatively large. 

Shrubs, rarely small trees ; leaves opposite, always simple ; 
calyx large, undivided or rarely four-cleft ; fruitlets four, 
erect, laterally coherent, blunt. Figure 14. Correa. 712 



CELASTRINAJG. 

147. Fruit two- to four-valved. 

Shrubs, often climbing, or small trees ; leaves scattered ; 
seeds one or two in each cell, much enclosed in a succulent 
appendage. Figure 28. Celastrus. 715 



LINEAE. 

148. Sepals, petals and styles five. 

Herbs; leaves small, without any denticulation. "Flax." 

Linum. 716 



32 Key to the System of 



STACK.HOTJSIEAE. 

149. Lower portion of petals cohering or connate into a tube. 

Herbs or half-shrubs ; calyx five-lobed ; fruitlets usually 

three. Figure 29. Stackhousia. 717 

SAPINDACEAE. 

150. Outer portion of fruit membranous. 

Shrubs from quite dwarf to very tall, rarely somewhat 
herbaceous ; calyx four- or five-lobed ; petals none ; fruit 
two- to six-celled ; seeds small, without any appendage. 
Figure 27. Dodonaea. 721 

Outer portion of fruit almost crustaceous or lignescent 151 

151. Calyx entire or irregularly denticulated. 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves simple, entire or lobed ; 
petals none; fruit with four or less lobes, scarcely bursting; 
seeds rather large, about half enclosed in a succulent 
appendage. Heterodendroii. 729 

Calyx five-lobed. 

Trees, not rarely tall ; leaves pinnate, leaflets large ; petals 
minute ; fruit two- or three-lobed, often bursting irre- 
gularly; seeds rather large, high- enclosed in a succulent 
appendage. Nepheliiim. 730 

ZTTGOPHYLLSAE. 

152. Fruit simple. 

Shrubs; leaves simple, scattered or fascicled, succulent; 
flowers many, terminal ; petals curved inward at the 
margin, whitish; fruit one-seeded, hard inside, succulent 
outside. Figure 17. Nitraria. 731 

Fruit compound ... ... ... ... .- 153 

153. Fruit angular or lobed, succulent, dehiscent. 

Herbs or shrubs, always succulent ; leaves forming usually 
only one pair of leaflets ; flowers solitary ; petals flat, 
tender, often yellow ; fruit four- to five-angled, bursting 
longitudinally. Figure 16. Zygophyllum. 732 

Fruit divided into hard indehiscent long-coherent 
fruitlets. 

Herbs ; leaves forming usually several pairs of pinnately 
arranged thin leaflets ; flowers solitary ; petals flat, tender, 
often yellow. Tribulus. 738 



Victorian Plants. 33 



GERANIACEAE. 

154. Fruit without any terminal elongation. 

Usually herbs, always acidulous; leaflets three or more, 
terminal on the leafstalk; no nectar-tube descending from 
the calyx; petals equal; fruit five-valved, the valves not 
seceding from the axis. Oxalis. 739 

Fruit with a very conspicuous terminal elongation ... 155 

155. Petals unequal. 

Herbs or shrubs; leaves often longer than broad; flowers 
generally in umbels; nectar-tube conspicuous, descending 
from the calyx; elongations of fruit spirally seceding in 
five segments upwards from the axis, each carrying a 
fruitlet. figure 18. Pelargonium. 740 

Petals equal ... ... ... ... ... ... 156 

156. Elongations of the fruitlets coiledly seceding from 

their axis upwards. 

Usually herbs; leaves often as broad as long or broader; 
flowers generally two together or solitar y ; nectar-tube 
absent ; elongations carrying each a fruitlet. 

Geranium. 741 

Elongations of fruitlets spirally seceding from their 
axis upwards. 

Usually herbs ; leaves often longer than broad ; flowers 
generally in umbels ; nectar-tube absent ; elongations 
carrying each a fruitlet. Er odium. 742 



ITCALVACEAE. 

157. Floral bracts absent ... ... ... ... ... 158 

Floral bracts present ... ... ... ... ... 161 

158. Stamens and pistils mostly in distinct flowers. 

Herbs or shrubs or small trees; petals generally not large; 
stigmas decurrent; fruitlets irregularly bursting, one- 
seeded. Flagianthus. 743 

Stamens and pistils always in the same flowers ... 159 

D 



34 Key to the System of 



159. Fruit consisting of one-seeded fruitlets. 

Herbs or shrubs; petals generally small, often yellow; 
stigmas terminal; fruitlets seceding, imperfectly or hardly 
dehiscent. Sida. 745 

Fruit valvate or consisting of two- or more-seeded 
fruitlets .................. 160 

160. Fruit consisting of connate or coherent fruitlets. 

Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees; petals generally large, 
often yellow; stigmas terminal; fruitlets dehiscent. 

Abutilon. 746 

Fruit three-valved. 

Tall shrub; petals violet; stigmas terminal; seeds two in 
each fruit-cell. Figure 19. Howittia. 747 

161. Floral bracts five or more. 

Herbs or shrubs or small trees; petals often large; floral 
bracts connate; stigmas terminal; fruit five-valved; seeds 
few or several in each fruit-cell. Hibiscus. 748 

Floral bracts three. 

Herbs or shrubs; petals generally large, often bluish or 
pink ; floral bracts connate ; stigmas decurrent ; fruit 
consisting of one-seeded, indehiscent, seceding fruitlets. 

Lavatera. 749 



162. Anthers quadrangular. 

Perennial herbs or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves small, 
scattered or somewhat whorled, rarely absent ; petals 
red, exceptionally white ; anthers attenuated at the 
summit. Tetratheca. 750 



TXUAOBAJB. 

163. Fruit smooth, lobeless, somewhat succulent and often 
blue outside, hard inside. 

Trees, often tall ; petals at the upper end fringed or den- 
ticulated or rarely entire ; anthers narrow, at the summit 
dehiscent. Figure 2C. Elaeocarpus* 751 



Victorian Plants. 35 



STERCULIACEAE. 

164. Calyx supported by three bracts ... ... 165 

Calyx unsupported by bracts ... ...166 

165. Stipules conspicuous. 

Shrubs ; calyx persistent, often membranous ; petals very 
minute or absent ; stamens five ; fruit three- to five- 
valved, smooth. Thoniasia. 752 

Stipules none. 

Shrubs ; calyx persistent, often firm ; petals very minute . 
or absent ; stamens five ; fruit three-valved, smooth. 
Figure 20. Lasiopetalum. 753 

166. Fruit five-valved. 

Shrubs or small trees ; calyx persistent ; petals dilated and 
inflexed at the base, narrowed at the summit ; fertile 
stamens five ; fruit beset with bristle- or thorn-like 
excrescences. Commerconia. 758 

Fruit consisting of distinct fruitlets. 

Usually trees, sometimes tall ; calyx corollaceous, de- 
ciduous ; petals absent ; stamens numerous, connate. 
Figure 21. Brachychiton. 759 



EUPKORBIACEAE. 

167. Flowers devoid of sepals and petals, contained 

within a calyx-like involucre. 

Herbs, far less commonly shrubs, always with abundant 
white acrid sap ; calyx-like involucre small, with glands 
at its margin ; staminate flowers several, one stamen to 
each; pistillate flowers solitary, central; fruit six- 
valved. "Spurge." Euphorbia. 760 

Flowers provided with sepals, but devoid of any 
involucre ... ... ... ... ... ... 168 

168. Fruit-valves usually two or three ... ... ... 169 

Fruit-valves usually six ... ... ... ... 170 



36 Key to the System of 



169. Stamens generally few, disunited. 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves comparatively large, always 
entire ; sepals one to three ; petals absent ; anthers open- 
ing by longitudinal slits ; fruit compressed, with two 
broad valves and two seeds. Omalanthus. 762 

Stamens numerous, united. 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves mostly small, entire ; seg- 
ments of calyx five ; petals absent ; anthers opening by 
longitudinal slits ; fruit turgid, with usually three 
narrow valves and one or two seeds. Figure 23. 

Bertya. 763 

170. Petals present ... ... ... 171 

Petals absent or rudimentary ... ... 172 

171. Sepals longer than the petals. 

Shrubs ; leaves entire ; stamens numerous, crowded ; anthers 
opening by longitudinal slits ; stigma sessile, depressed, 
lobeless. ' Beyeria. 765 

Sepals shorter than the petals. 

Shrubs ; leaves usually narrow, entire ; stamens numerous, 
connate ; anthers opening by longitudinal slits. 

Ricinocarpus. 767 

172. Anthers opening by terminal pores. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves narrow or small, entire ; sepals 
five, petaloid, whitish ; petals rudimentary ; stamens five, 
disunited. Foranthera. 768 

Anthers opening by longitudinal slits ... ... 173 

173. Calyx lobed. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves mostly small ; calyx-lobes 
three to five ; petals absent ; stamens ten or fewer, dis- 
united. Amperea. 770 

Calyx consisting of sepals ... ... ... ... 174 

174. Sepals usually three. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves comparatively large, entire or in- 
dented ; petals absent ; stamens many, disunited ; anthers 
blunt, their cells turgid. Claoxylon. 771 

Sepals more than three ... ... ... ... 175 



Victorian Plants. 37 



175. Stamens numerous. 

Shrubs ; leaves comparatively large, always indented ; sepals 
four or five; petals sepal-like or absent ; stamens crowded ; 
anthers pointed, their cells narrow. Adriaiia. 772 

Stamens few 176 

176. Leaves ternately joined. 

Shrubs or somewhat herbaceous plants ; leaves small, 
entire; sepals six; petals absent; stamens disunited. 

Micraiitheum. 773 

Leaves scattered ... ... ... ... ... 177 

177. Seeds one in each fruit. 

Shrubs or half -shrubs ; leaves small, entire ; sepals generally 
six ; petals absent ; stamens disunited ; styles three, 
undivided. Pseudantlms. 774 

Seeds several in each fruit. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves mostly small, entire, not seldom 
placed unilaterally and averse to the flowers ; sepals 
generally six ; petals absent ; styles three, usually 
bilobed. Fhyllanthns. 775 



CUPULIFERAE. 

178. Pistillate flowers two to four within a scaly, at 
length prickly or fringy involucre of connate bracts. 

Usually trees, often tall ; staminate flowers crowded or only 
three or two together or solitary, their calyx lobed ; 
stamens few, several or many ; calyx of pistillate flowers 
adnate ; ovulary three-celled ; styles three ; fruits (nuts) 
triangular. "Beech." FagUS. 780 



TJRTICA.CEAE. 

179. Woody 180 

Herbaceous ... ... ... ... ... ... 181 

180. Flowers cymosely disposed. 

Evergreen trees ; sepals usually five ; stamens five, erect 

while in bud ; stigmas two. Figure 24. Trenia. 781 



38 Key to the System of 



Flowers crowded within a turgid almost closed re- 
ceptacle. 

Trees oftener evergreen than with deciduous foliage ; flowers 
minute ; staminate pistillate and neuter flowers distinct. 
"Figtrees." Picus. 782 

181. Calyx consisting of sepals. 

Weak herbs, beset with hooked hairlets ; leaves entire ; 
stipules absent ; sepals usually four ; stamens four, inflected 
while in bud ; stigma one. ' Parietaria. 783 

Calyx lobed. 

Weak herbs ; leaves denticulated ; stipules present ; calyx- 
lobes two to five ; stamen one ; stigma one. 

Australina. 784 

CASUAHZNEAE. 

182. Fruit-bearing bracteoles lignescent, blunt or simply 

acute or far less frequently thorn-like pointed. 

Annual concentric layers of wood well marked ; medullary 
rays very conspicuous ; ample vascular tubes and paren- 
chyma well developed in the wood. Figure 25. 

Casuarina. 785 

PHVTOX.ACCEAE. 

183. Fruitlets two or more, distinct, on or around a columnar 

axis. 

Herbs or shrubs ; valves rigid. Figure 43. 

Didymotheca. 790 

Fruitlets numerous, coherent into an almost bell- 
shaped fruit. 

Shrubs or oftener small trees ; fruitlets bursting along the 
inner edge ; valves membranous. Coclonocarpus. 791 



FXCOXDEAE. 

184. Calyx consisting of sepals. 

Always herbs; leaves scattered or crowded at intervals, 
never very succulent ; sepals five ; petals few ; stamens 
few or several ; staminodia present ; fruit membranous, 
bursting longitudinally, many-seeded. Figure 41. 

Mollugo. 792 

Calyx lobed 185 



Victorian Plants. 39 



185. Petals numerous. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves very succulent, mostly opposite ; 
stamens numerous ; fruit succulent, its cells slit at the 
depressed summit, many-seeded. Figure 39. 

MesenibrianthemTiin. 794 

Petals none. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves rather succulent, scattered ; 
stamens few or several ; fruit rather or quite succulent, 
indehiscent, few-seeded. Figure 40. Tetragoiiia. 795 

CARYOFXXYX.X.&AE. 

186. Calyx consisting of sepals ... ... ... ... 187 

Calyx short-lobed . , 191 

187. Stipules absent 188 

Stipules present ... ... ... ... ... 190 

188. Valves of fruit twice as many as styles. 

Leaves often broadish ; sepals usually five ; petals bifid ; 
stamens usually ten ; styles generally three. 

Stellaria. 796 

Valves of fruit as many as styles ... ... ... 189 

189. Stamens opposite to the sepals. 

Leaves always very narrow ; sepals four to five ; petals 
four to five or absent ; stamens usually four or five ; 
styles four or five. Sagina. 799 

Stamens alternate with the sepals. 

Perennial plants, often of turfy growth ; sepals four to five ; 
petals absent ; stamens four to five ; styles four to five. 
Figure 32. Colobanthus. 800 

190. Sepals prominently keeled. 

Leaves broadish ; sepals five ; petals very minute ; stamens 
three to five, opposite to the sepals ; styles three ; valves 
of fruit as many as styles. Polycarpon. 801 

Sepals without a prominent keel. 

Leaves narrow ; sepals usually five ; petals five or none ; 
stamens generally ten ; styles three or five ; valves of 
fruit as many as styles. Spergularia. 802 



40 Key to the System of 



191. Petals five. 

Herbs or half - shrubs ; leaves broad or narrow; stipules 
absent ; stamens ten, inserted at the base of the calyx ; 
styles generally two ; fruit usually four-valved. 

Saponaria. 803 

Petals none. 

Leaves always narrow ; stipules absent ; stamens one to 
ten, inserted at the orifice of the calyx ; styles two ; fruit 
valveless. Figure 33. Scleraiithus. 804 



PORTTJXACEAE. 

192. Fruit valveless, transversely dehiscent. 

Succulent herbs ; petals generally disunited. Portulaca. 807 

Fruit valvate ... ... ... ... ... ... 193 

193. Petals disunited. 

Succulent herbs or half -shrubs. Figure 31. Claytonia. 808 

Petals connate into an unilaterally slit corolla. 

Small herb, somewhat succulent. Montia. 813 



NYCTAGINEAE. 

194. Leaves opposite. 

Herbs or half -shrubs; flowers umbellate or paniculate or 
crowded; involucre none; upper portion of the calyx 
corollaceous, folded, hardly lobed, lower portion including 
the fruit; stamens one to five; fruit furrowed, nearly 
always beset with stalked glandules. Figure 44. 

Boerhaavia. 814 



POLYGONACEAE. 

195. Sepals six, the inner larger. 

Herbs, rarely half -shrubs; outer sepals spreading, inner 
callously thickened; stamens usually six; styles three; 
stigmas bearded or fringed. Rumex. 815 

Sepals five, nearly equal 196 



Victorian Plants. 41 



196. Sepals almost unchanged in age. 

Herbs, rarely half -shrubs or climbers; stamens and pistils 
usually in the same flowers ; stamens often five to eight ; 
styles two or three; stigmas generally smooth. 

Folygouum. 818 

Sepals enlarged and often succulent in age. 

Herbs or oftener shrubs or climbers; staminate and pistillate 
flowers usually distinct; stamens usually eight; styles 
three; stigmas mostly fringed. Figure 42. 

MuehlenbecMa. 824 



A XK AR ANT ACE AS. 

197. Sepals usually much elongated. 

Herbaceous or shrubby plants ; leaves scattered, often 
broadish and large ; sepals five ; anthers two -celled ; 
stigma one. Figure 35. Ptilotus. 829 

Sepals always much abbreviated ... ... ... 198 

198. Leaves opposite. 

Herbaceous plants ; leaves broadish, small ; sepals five ; 

anthers one-celled ; stigmas two. Alternaiithera. 835 

Leaves scattered ... ... ... ... ... 199 

199. Bracteoles supported by a bract. 

Herbaceous plants; leaves broadish, often large; sepals five 
or fewer ; anthers two-celled ; stigmas two or three. 

Euxolus. 836 

Bracteoles unsupported by a bract. 

Herbaceous plants ; leaves narrow, small ; sepals five ; 
anthers one-celled ; stigmas two. Figure 34. 

Polycnemou. 837 

SALSOLACEAE. 

200. Leaves rudimentary or absent. 

Herbs or shrubs ; calyx unchanged in age ; fruits concealed 
within the joints of terminal spikes ; embryo incompletely 
annular. Figure 38. Salicornia. 838 

Leaves well developed ... ... ... ... 201 



42 Key to the System of 

201. Leaves broadish ... 202 

Leaves narrow ... ... ... ... 205 

202. Calyces of two forms, one form involucral. 

Herbs or shrubs; leaves flat, often comparatively large j 
calyx of staminate flowers five-lobed, unchanged in age ; 
calyx of pistillate flowers bi-lobed, enlarged in age; 
embryo incompletely annular. Atriplex. 840 

Calyces all of one form ... ... ... ... 203 

203. Fruit very succulent. 

Shrubby rarely herbaceous plants ; leaves flat, often com- 
paratively large ; calyx constantly five-lobed, unchanged 
in age ; fruit depressed ; embryo incompletely annular. 

Rhagodia. 854 

Fruit dry 204 

204. Sepals usually five, opaque, upwards almost flat. 

Herbaceous or rarely shrubby plants ; leaves flat, often large ; 
calyx unchanged in age ; embryo incompletely annular. 

Chenopodium. 857 

Sepals three or one, transparent, upwards dilated and 
concave. 

Small herbs ; leaves flat, small ; calyx unchanged in age, 
minute ; stamens three or one ; styles two or one ; embryo 
incompletely annular. Dysphania. 862 

205. Fruit-bearing calyx provided with appendages ... 206 
Fruit-bearing calyx devoid of appendages ... ... 208 

206. Fruit-bearing calyx enlarged into five or less narrow 

often spinule-like sometimes minute appendages. 

Herbs or oftener shrubs ; leaves small, almost cylindrical ; 
embryo incompletely annular. Figure 36. 

(Chenolea.) Bassia. 863 

Fruit-bearing calyx enlarged into five disconnected or 
connate broad horizontal membranous appendages ... 207 



Victorian Plants. 43 



207. Embryo incompletely annular. 

Herbs or oftener shrubs ; leaves small, almost cylindrical. 
Figure 37. Kochia. 872 

Embryo coiled. 

Herbs or half-shrubs; leaves almost cylindrical. 

Salsola. 883 

208. Fruit-bearing calyx unchanged and hardly succulent. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves almost cylindrical ; embryo 
coiled. Suaeda. 884 

Fruit-bearing calyx enlarged and very succulent ... 209 

209. Fruit-bearing calyx depressed-globular. 

Half -shrub ; leaves small, almost cylindrical ; embryo in- 
completely annular. Enchylaena. 885 

Fruit-bearing calyx erect, truncate-ellipsoid. 

Half -shrub ; leaves small, almost cylindrical ; embryo in- 
completely annular. Threlkeldia. 886 

FRANKLENIACEAE. 

210. Calyx tubular. 

Herbs or shrubs ; petals much narrowed towards the base ; 

fruit one-celled, dehiscent, many-seeded. Prankenia. 887 



211. Calyx almost funnel-shaped. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves often near the root, generally 
rigid ; spikes mostly paniculated ; upper portion of calyx 
often transparent ; styles disjointed, glabrous ; fruit en- 
closed, one-seeded. Figure 30. Statice. 888 

LEGUITCIN03AE. 

212. Petals equal. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves doubly pinnate or often reduced to 
dilated leafstalks ; petals all disconnected or all connate, 
always contiguous before expansion ; stamens often 
numerous; flowers usually minute and equally yellow, 
crowded into headlets or spikes. . Figures 50 and 51. 

Acacia. 889 

Petals unequal ...... ... ... ... ... ... 213 



44 Key to the System of 



213. Petals all disconnected. 

Herbs or oftener shrubs, rarely trees; leaves simply pinnate 
or rarely reduced to dilated leafstalks ; flowers often large 
and provided with conspicuous stalklets ; upper petal 
inside before expansion; stamens usually ten or fewer. 
Figure 49. Cassia. 950 

The two lowest petals usually connate. 

Upper petal outside before expansion ; stamens ten, curved 

upwards. Figures 45 to 48 ... ... ... ... 214 

214. Stamens all disconnected ... ... ... ... 215 

All or nine of the stamens connate ... ... ... 226 

215. Lobes of the calyx contiguous before expansion ... 216 
Lobes of the calyx overlapping before expansion ... 217 

216. Seeds two. 

Shrubby plants, sometimes tall ; leaves almost obliterated ; 
lobes of the calyx elongated; petals yellowish, rarely pink; 
fruit compressed, without any dissepiment. 

Jacksonia. 955 

Seeds several. 

Almost herbaceous or shrubby plants ; leaves three -foliolate 
or pinnate, rarely simple; petals yellowish or red, the two 
lowest often darker ; fruit almost globular, without any 
dissepiment. Gompholobium. 956 

217. Fruit with a longitudinal dissepiment. 

Shrubby plants, from dwarf to tall ; leaves simple, usually 
scattered or ternately whorled ; petals yellowish or of 
species elsewhere blue; fruit turgid; seeds several. 
Figure 45. Mirbelia. 958 

Fruit without any dissepiment ... ... ... 218 

218. Seeds several or numerous. 

Shrubby plants, from dwarf to tall; leaves simple, generally 
opposite or whorled; petals yellowish, seldom reddish; 
fruit turgid. Oxylobium. 959 

Seeds two 219 



Victorian Plants. 45 



219. Leaves absent, rudimentary or imperfect ... ... 220 

Leaves nearly always present ... ... ... 221 

220. Upper lobes of the calyx united and much larger than 

the lower. 

Almost herbaceous or shrubby plants ; stipules obliterated ; 
petals yellowish or of species elsewhere red ; fruit globu- 
lar ; seeds without any appendage. Sphaerolobium. 962 

Lobes of the calyx nearly equal. 

Tall and slender, not rarely arborescent shrub; leafstalks 
very elongated ; petals yellowish ; fruit minute, ovate, 
indehiscent. Viminaria. 963 

221. Fruit very inequilateral. 

Shrubby plants, from dwarf to tall, rarely arborescent; 
leaves simple, scattered, or in species chiefly elsewhere 
quite absent ; petals yellowish or red ; fruit oblique- 
triangular ; seeds with an appendage (strophiole). 

Daviesia. 964 

Fruit slightly inequilateral 222 

222. Leaves opposite. 

Shrubby plants, seldom tall; leaves simple; stipules ob- 
literated ; petals yellowish ; fruit ovate ; seeds with an 
appendage ; calyx unsupported by bracteoles. 

Eutaxia. 970 

Leaves scattered or irregularly crowded, rarely whorled 223 

223. Stipules developed. 

Leaves simple ; calyx supported by almost membranous 
bracteoles ; petals yellowish, rarely pink ; fruit nearly 
ovate ; seeds with an appendage. Figure 46. 

Pultenaea. 971 

Stipules undeveloped ... ... ... ... ... 224 

224. Calyx supported by leafy bracteoles. 

Shrubby plants ; leaves simple, scattered or irregularly 
crowded ; fruit nearly ovate ; seeds without any ap- 
pendage. Phyllota. 1002 

Calyx unsupported by bracteoles ... ... .. 225 



46 Key to the System of 



225. Seeds constantly provided with an appendage. 

Half-shrubs or weak shrubby plants; leaves scattered or 
irregularly crowded; petals yellowish or reddish, the 
upper very broad ; fruit nearly ovate, turgid. 

Dillwynia. 1003 

Seeds constantly unprovided with an appendage. 

Half -shrubs or shrubby plants; leaves simple, scattered or 
whorled; petals yellowish; fruit nearly ovate. Aotus. 1008 

226. All the stamens connate ... ... ... ... 227 

Nine of the stamens connate, one disconnected. (Ex- 
ceptions : Glycine partly, Desmodium partly) ... ... 232 

227. Leaves simple or less frequently absent ... ... 228 

Leaves compound, consisting of two or three leaflets 231 

228. Five anthers abbreviated and five elongated ... 229 
Anthers equal ... ... ... 230 

229. Petals blue. 

Shrubs, rarely almost herbaceous plants ; flowers usually 
but few together, or some solitary ; fruit turgid ; seeds 
with an appendage. Hovea. 1009 

Petals yellow or red. 

Shrubs, rarely almost herbaceous plants; flowers mostly 
dispersed ; fruit compressed ; seeds with an appendage. 

Templetonia. 1010 

230. Fruit bursting along both edges. 

Shrubs or half -shrubs, rarely herbaceous plants; leaves often 
alternate and forming two rows, or absent; flowers dis- 
persed ; petals yellowish ; fruit considerably compressed 
or flat ; seeds with an appendage. Bossiaea. 1012 

Fruit bursting along one edge. 

Shrubs or half -shrubs ; flowers dispersed ; petals yellowish ; 
fruit flat, its valves persistently connate along the broad- 
edged suturule; seeds with an appendage. 

Platylobium. 1021 



Victorian Plants. 47 



231. Fruit unjointed. 

Shrubs; leaves consisting of three leaflets; flowers in racemes; 
petals yellowish ; anthers alternately elongated and 
abbreviated ; fruit much compressed ; seeds with an 
appendage. Goodia. 1024 

Fruit jointed. 

Herbaceous plants; leaves usually consisting of two leaflets; 
anthers alternately elongated and abbreviated; fruit- 
articules separately seceding, indehiscent. Zornia. 1025 

232. Fruit jointed. 

Herbs or shrubs; stipules present; sometimes all the stamens 
connate into a tube ; anthers equal ; fruit narrow, mostly 
elongated, the joints often partly seceding. 

Desmodium. 1026 

Fruit unjointed 233 

233. Leaves consisting of one or three leaflets, or of several 

leaflets placed radiatingly. (Exception: elsewhere Psoralea 
partly) 234 

Leaves nearly always pinnate ... ... ... 239 

234. Fruit with one seed 235 

Fruit with two or more seeds ... ... ... 236 

235. Seed free from the outer portion of the fruit. 

Herbs or shrubs ; stipules absent ; anthers equal ; ovulary 
with a single ovule ; fruit minute, compressed, indehiscent. 

Lespedeza. 1027 
Seed adherent to the outer portion of the fruit. 

Herbs or shrubby plants, few arborescent, always glandular- 
dotted ; stipules unlike the leaflets ; petals usually red 
or blue ; fruit minute, indehiscent ; seed without any 
appendage. Psoralea. 1028 

236. The two lowest leaflets replacing stipules. 

Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves consisting 
of five leaflets or the floral leaves trifoliolate ; lower petals 
pointed ; filaments alternately dilated upwards ; fruit 
narrow ; seeds without any appendage. Lotus. 1032 

Stipules very dissimilar to the leaflets ... ... 237 



48 Key to the System of 



237. Leaflets closely denticulated. 

Odorous herbs ; stipules adnate ; lateral venules of the 
leaflets approximated, almost straight and parallel ; fruit 
rather elongated, almost indehiscent ; seeds several or 
many, without any appendage. Figure 47. Trigonella. 1033 

Leaflets without any regular denticulation ... ... 238 

238. Seeds provided with an appendage. 

Herbaceous or woody plants, usually climbers or twiners ; 
anthers equal ; fruit bivalved, spuriously septate between 
the seeds. Kennedya. 1034 

Seeds unprovided with an appendage. 

Herbaceous plants, usually climbers or twiners ; sometimes 
all the stamens connate ; anthers equal ; fruit bivalved, 
usually septate between the seeds. Glycine. 1036 

239. Fruit perfectly dehiscent. 

Herbs or shrubby plants, seldom very tall ; hairlets of the 
general vestment two-branched, appressed ; leaves usually 
pinnate or of species elsewhere consisting of one or three 
leaflets or rarely wanting ; petals often pink or purplish ; 
anthers pointed ; fruit bivalved, narrow, generally elon- 
gated ; seeds without any appendage. Indigof era. 1039 

Fruit imperfectly dehiscent ... ... ... ... 240 

240. Seeds several. 

Herbs or less frequently somewhat shrubby plants, some 
deleterious ; fruit turgid or inflated, depressed along the 
upper suturule ; seeds without any appendage. 

Swainsona. 1040 
Seeds one or two. 

Glandular-viscid herbs, their roots often of sweetish taste ; 
petals rather narrow ; anthers bursting along their axis 
from the summit into two divergent valves ; fruit rather 
short or very abbreviated, usually indehiscent ; seeds 
without any appendage. Figure 48. Glycyrrhiza. 1048 



241. Stamens two, rarely one. 

Shrubby or seldom herbaceous plants, few alpine ; bark 
tough, acrid ; calyx four-lobed ; rudimentary petals always 
absent. Figure 74. Pimelea. 1049 

Stamens four. 

Dwarf, somewhat shrubby plants, always alpine ; calyx four- 

lobed ; rudimentary petals usually present. Drapetes. 1069 



Victorian Plants. 49 



ROSACEAE, 

242. Petals absent ; stamens few ... ... ... ... 243 

Petals present; stamens many ... ... ... 244 

243. Fruit-calyx armed with hooked pricklets. 

Herbaceous plants ; leaves pinnate ; flowers minute ; fruitlet 

small, solitary. Acaeiia. 1070 

Fruit-calyx unarmed. 

Herbaceous plants ; leaves lobed ; flowers minute ; fruitlets 

small, four or less. Alchemilla. 1071 

244. Herbaceous ... ... ... ... ... ... 245 

Shrubby ... ... ... ... ... ... 246 

245. Styles persistent. 

Herbaceous plants ; leaves pinnate with a large terminal 
leaflet ; flowers conspicuous ; calyx usually supported by 
five bracts, its lobes overlapping before expansion ; styles 
rigid, elongated ; fruitlets small, many. Geum. 1072 

Styles deciduous. 

Herbs or half-shrubs ; leaflets pinnately or radiatingly 
arranged ; flowers conspicuous ; calyx supported by 
usually five bracts, its lobes contiguous before expan- 
sion ; fruitlets small, many. Potentilla. 1073 

246. Fruitlets many, succulent, connate into a berry-like 

fruit. 

Generally shrubby and climbing plants ; flowers con- 
spicuous ; calyx unsupported by bracts ; fruitlets small, 
crowded. Figure 52. Bubus. 1074 

Fruitlets few, hard, dry, coherent into a finally 
dehiscent fruit. 

Shrubby or arborescent ; flowers conspicuous at the upper 
end ; calyx unsupported by near bracts ; sepals four, 
coherent, dropping somewhat connectedly; petals four; 
fruitlets rather large,in a single whorl. Eucryphia. 1076 

SAXIFRAGSAE. 
(Including 1 Crassulaoeae.) 

247. Herbaceous plants, small or minute. 

Often annual and succulent ; leaves opposite, frequently 
crowded ; flowers minute ; stamens as many as petals, three 
to five ; fruitlets disconnected. Figure 54. Tillaea. 1077 

Shrubby plants, erect or climbing ... ... ... 248 

E 



50 Key to the System of 



248. Petals ten or less, conspicuous. 

Erect or diffuse shrubs ; leaves opposite, consisting of three 
leaflets, thus spuriously whorled ; sepals ten or less ; 
petals rose-colored ; stamens numerous, rarely few ; styles 
two ; fruit dehiscent. Figure 53. Bauera. 1080 

Petals rudimentary or absent. 

Climbers or twiners ; leaves opposite, simple ; sepals four, 
expanding, persistent ; stamens eight ; styles four, co- 
herent ; fruit dry, undivided, indehiscent, one-seeded. 

Aphanopetalum. 10S1 

1KYRTACEAE. 

249. Ovulary with more than one cell ... ... 250 

Ovulary with one cell ... 259 

250. Fruit succulent. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves usually large, constantly opposite ; 
petals four or five, not seldom permanently coherent; 
stamens numerous, disconnected, elongated; ovularytwo- 
or three-celled ; fruit indehiscent, one-seeded. Figure 60. 

Eugenia. 1082 

Fruit almost dry ... ... ... ... ... 251 

251. Petals absent. (Exception : one Kunzea) ... ... 252 

Petals present... ... ... 253 

252. Calyx-lobes semi-petaloid, dorsally pointed. 

Trees, not rarely tall, or big shrubs ; leaves large, often 
inequilateral, scattered or opposite ; stamens discon- 
nected, numerous, elongated ; fruit three- or four-celled, 
vertically dehiscent, somewhat indurated, many-seeded. 

Angophora. 1083 

Calyx-lobes changed into a lid. 

Trees, often tall, some gigantic, less commonly large and 
exceptionally dwarf shrubs ; leaves large, oftener scat- 
tered than opposite, frequently inequilateral ; flowers in 
scattered or paniculated fascicles or umbels, rarely two 
together or solitary ; petals absent or rarely present and 
then only rudimentary ; stamens numerous, disconnected, 
often elongated ; fruit vertically dehiscent, indurated, 
three- or more-celled, seldom two-celled ; seeds many, 
but few fertile. Figures 58 and 59. Eucalyptus. 1084 



Victorian Plants. 51 



253. Fruit almost indehiscent. 

Shrubs or trees ; calyx-lobes four, soon enlarging ; petals 
constantly four, whitish; stamens numerous, disconnected, 
elongated ; fruit not much indurated, two-celled, many- 
seeded. Backhousia. 1121 

Fruit dehiscent 254 

254. Stamens connate into five sets ... ... ... 255 

Stamens disconnected ... ... ... ... ... 256 

255. Flowers arranged in cymes. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves scattered or somewhat whorled, 
rarely opposite ; petals often white or yellow ; stamens 
numerous, exserted ; fruit somewhat or quite hard, three- 
celled, vertically dehiscent, many-seeded. Tristania. 1122 

Flowers always sessile. 

Shrubs or trees, some tall ; leaves scattered or opposite, 
seldom large ; flowers soon infra-terminal in spikes or 
headlets ; stamens numerous, exserted ; filaments as well 
as petals oftener pink or purplish or whitish than yellow ; 
fruit small, hard, always three-celled, vertically dehiscent, 
many-seeded. Figure 57. Melaleuca. 1123 

256. Stamens long-exserted. 

Shrubs, seldom dwarf, some arborescent; leaves always 
scattered ; flowers soon infra-terminal in spikes ; stamens 
numerous, usually in more than one row ; fruit small, 
hard, always three-celled, vertically dehiscent. 

Callistemon. 1134 

Stamens slightly or hardly exserted ... ... ... 257 

257. Fruit usually much indurated. 

Shrubs, seldom dwarf, some arborescent ; leaves small, 
scattered or some crowded ; flowers mostly scattered, 
usually sessile ; petals white or somewhat pinkish ; 
stamens numerous, disconnected, always in one row ; 
fruit three- or more-celled, vertically dehiscent ; seeds 
very narrow or flat. Leptospernium. 1139 

Fruit scarcely indurated ... ... ... ... 258 



52 Key to the System of 



258. Leaves usually scattered. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall, seldom arborescent; leaves 
scattered or some crowded, rarely opposite, usually small ; 
petals white, yellow or pink ; stamens numerous, short- 
exserted, usually in more than one row ; fruit two- or 
more-celled, usually dehiscent, many-seeded ; seeds turgid. 

Kunzea. 1144 

Leaves opposite. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall, some arborescent ; leaves small 
and often minute ; petals usually white or pink ; stamens 
five or more, mostly definite in number, enclosed, abbre- 
viated, in one row ; fruit two- or more- celled, dehiscent, 
generally few-seeded. Baeckea. 1149 

259. Stamens five or ten 260 

Stamens numerous ... ... ... ... ... 261 

260. Staminodia present. 

Shrubs, seldom tall ; leaves oftener scattered than opposite ; 
stamens ten, abbreviated, alternating with the staminodia, 
slightly connected ; fruit usually one-seeded, indehiscent. 

Darwinia. 1157 

Staminodia absent. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall ; leaves small, always opposite ; 
lobes of the calyx blunt or pointed ; petals white or 
reddish, very seldom yellow ; stamens five or ten, abbre- 
viated, disconnected; fruit usually one-seeded, indehiscent. 
Figure 56. Thryptomene. 1158 

261. Lobes of the calyx blunt or pointed. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall; leaves very small, usually 
scattered ; stamens many, disconnected, comparatively 
elongated ; fruit usually one-seeded, indehiscent. 

Lhotzkya. 1160 

Lobes of the calyx ending in a long bristlet. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall ; leaves very small, scattered ; 
stamens many, disconnected, comparatively elongated ; 
fruit usually very narrow, one-seeded, indehiscent. 

Calycothrix. 1161 



Victorian Plants. 53 



SALICARIEAE. 

Petals conspicuous. 

Herbs, from dwarf to tall ; calyx elongated, much streaked, 

of somewhat herbaceous texture. Lythrum. 1162 

Petals minute or absent. 

Herbs always small: calyx abbreviated, membranous. 

Ammaxmia. 1163 



ONAGREAE. 

263. Lobes of calyx deciduous. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants; petals four, usually 
pink; fruit very narrow, much elongated, opening from 
the summit downwards into four valves; seeds terminated 
by long hairlets. Epilobium. 1164 

Lobes of calyx persistent. 

Herbs or rarely shrubs; petals four or five, yellow or white; 
fruit rather narrow and elongated, opening longitudinally; 
seeds without terminal hairlets. Jussieua. 1165 



RHA1VXNACEAE. 

264. Branchlets and leaves opposite. 

Spinescent shrubs ; leaves small or absent ; tube of the calyx 
extended beyond the fruit ; petals minute or absent ; 
stamens four or five, very short ; fruit small, dry. 

Colletia. 1166 
Branchlets and leaves scattered or the latter crowded 265 

265. Anthers almost broader than long. 

Shrubs, from dwarf to tall ; leaves seldom large ; tube of 
the calyx extended beyond the fruit; petals minute, 
always present ; stamens usually enclosed by the petals ; 
fruit small, dry. Cryptandra. 1167 

Anthers generally longer than broad. 

Shrubs, less frequently trees ; leaves often rather large ; 
tube of the calyx entirely adnate to the fruit; petals 
minute or absent ; stamens rather long ; fruit small, dry. 
Figure 61. Pomaderris. 1176 



54 Key to the System of 



VINIFERAE. 

266. Stamens singly opposite to the petals. 

Climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and with 
tendrils ; leaves simple or compound, but hardly ever 
pinnate ; stamens disconnected ; ovulary usually two- 
celled, with two ovules in each cell; fruit succulent. 
Figure 26. (Genus the only one of the whole order). 

Vitis. 1189 



HALORACEAE. 

267. Calyx present 268 

Calyx absent 270 

268. Fruit usually one-seeded. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants, always terrestrial; 
leaves scattered, narrow, entire ; petals rather large, two 
to four; stamens four to eight ; stigmas two to four; fruit 
biangular or quadrangular; albument present. 

Loudouia. 1190 

Fruit two- or three- or four-seeded ... ... 269 

269. Fruit finally seceding into fruitlets. 

Herbs, partly or nearly submersed; leaves often divided into 
very narrow segments ; petals never large, usually four in 
the staminate flowers, generally none in the pistillate 
flowers ; stamens two to eight ; stigmas two to four ; fruit 
usually quadrangular ; albument present. 

Myriophyllum. 1191 

Fruit never seceding into fruitlets. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants, mostly terrestrial ; 
leaves scattered or opposite, often denticulated ; petals 
four, rarely three or two, seldom large; stamens eight, 
rarely six or four ; stigmas four or much less often two ; 
fruit usually quadrangular, rarely tri- or bi-angular; 
albument present. Figure 55. Haloragis, 1197 

270. Leaves small, undivided. 

Herbs, often submersed ; leaves opposite or the uppermost 
crowded, all quite entire ; bracteoles two ; sepals and 
petals none ; stamen one ; stigmas two ; fruit compressed, 
two- or four-lobed, indehiscent. Callitriche. 1208 



Victorian Plants. 55 



Leaves large, divided into numerous capillary segments. 

Herbs, always submersed ; leaves whorled, their segments 
repeatedly dichotomous ; involucre many-lobed ; sepals 
and petals none ; stamens ten to twenty ; stigma one, 
narrow, elongated ; fruit ellipsoid-ovate, one-seeded, in- 
dehiscent ; albument absent. Ceratophyllum. 1209 

ARALIACEAE. 

271. Leaves always simple. 

Shrubs, seldom arborescent ; vestiture consisting of starry 
hairlets; leaves quite entire; petals contiguous before 
expansion ; stamens five ; styles two ; fruits dry, much 
compressed, always two-celled. Astrotricha. 1210 

Leaves variously compound, rarely simple. 

Shrubs or trees ; petals contiguous before expansion ; 
stamens five ; styles two ; fruit usually succulent, com- 
pressed, nearly always two-celled. Figure 62. 

Panax. 1211 

UTCLBELLIFERAE. 

272. Fruit quite undivided, always one-seeded, but provided 

with two styles. 

Herbs; leaves often basal, seldom entire; umbels simple. 

Actinotus. 1212 

Fruit consisting of two cohering but at last seceding 
fruitlets, each provided with a style, rarely one 
fruitlet undeveloped ... ... ... ... ... 273 

273. Leaves or their lobes jointed ... ... ... ... 274 

Leaves or their lobes unjointed ... ... ..- 275 

274. Umbels simple. 

Small glabrous herb, somewhat creeping; leaves linear- 
cylindrical, undivided, rather succulent; stamens and 
pistils in the same flowers; oil-ducts of the fruit present. 

Crantzia, 1213 

Umbels compound. 

Glabrous, odorous and perennial herbs ; leaves rigid ; stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers mostly on distinct plants ; 
ridglets of the fruit acutely prominent, those of the inner 
margin sometimes expanded into a narrow membrane. 
Figure 63. Aciphylla. 1214 



56 Key to the System of 

275. Umbels simple-. ... ... ... ... 276 

Umbels compound ... ... ... ... ... 280 

276. Fruitlets dorsally compressed. 

Small perennial herbs ; leaves all basal ; umbel-stalk elon- 
gated ; fruitlets from dorsal impression almost hollowed 
in a direction contrary to the styles, narrowly connate ; 
ridglets (vittae) smooth; oil-ducts absent or rudimentary. 

Huanaca. 1215 

Fruitlets laterally compressed or turgid .... ... 277 

277. Calyx usually with five terminal lobes or denticles. 

Perennial herbs, not rarely tufted; apex of petals straight; 
fruit turgid, the fruitlets often only narrowly coherent; 
oil-ducts of fruit present. Azorella. 1216 

Corolla usually without any conspicuous terminal lobes 
or denticles ... ... ... ... ... ... 278 

278. Oil-ducts of fruit present. 

Perennial herbs ; leaves simply or doubly pinnatisected, 
the segments very small and mostly incised ; fruitlets 
broadly coherent; ridglets smooth. Oreomyrrhis. 1218 

Oil-ducts of fruit absent 279 

279. Involucral bracts few or absent. 

Annual or perennial herbs, never tall; leaves mostly 
scattered or basal; stipules present, upwards free or quite 
adnate; flowerstalks often abbreviated ; flowers often 
only partially fruit-bearing; petals usually contiguous 
before expansion, their apex straight; fruits often only 
moderately compressed, both fruitlets alike and smooth. 

Hydrocotyle. 1219 

Involucral bracts many, towards the base connate. 

Annual or perennial herbs, not rarely tall ; leaves mostly 
basal ; stipules absent ; flowerstalks often elongated ; 
petals overlapping before expansion, apex of petals 
straight ; fruit often almost flat or much compressed, 
usually rough, narrowly and shortly coherent ; one of the 
fruitlets not rarely undeveloped or dissimilar. 

Didiscus. 1228 



Victorian Plants. 57 



280. Fruit-ridglets almost or quite smooth ... ... 281 

Fruit-ridglets very rough ... ... ... ... 285 

281. Calyx without any conspicuous terminal lobes or 

denticles 282 

Calyx with five conspicuous terminal lobes or denticles 283 

282. Oil-ducts of fruit absent or rudimentary. 

Herbs or shrubs; stipules absent; leaves not rarely entire 
and rigid, sometimes rudimentary ; petals contiguous 
before expansion ; fruit often only slightly compressed, 
generally somewhat rough. Trachymene. 1231 

Oil-ducts of fruit conspicuously present. 

Glabrous and odorous herbs, not rarely rather succulent ; 
leaves lobed or simply or repeatedly dissected; umbels 
usually opposite to the leaves; apex of petals inflexed; 
fruit turgid ; fruit-axis undivided ; fruitlets broadly co- 
herent. Apium. 1233 

283. Oil-ducts of fruit absent. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves rarely entire ; stipules absent ; 
calyx-lobes often attached by a broad or dilated base; 
apex of petals usually much inflexed ; fruit often con- 
siderably compressed and somewhat bilobed at the base, 
the fruitlets narrowly coherent. Xaiithosia. 1234 

Oil-ducts of fruit present 284 

284. Oil-ducts few in each fruitlet. 

Herbs, often glabrous ; leaves simply or repeatedly dis- 
sected ; apex of petals much inflexed ; fruit turgid ; 
fruitlets broadly coherent. Seseli, 1238 

Oil-ducts many in each fruitlet. 

Glabrous herbs, often tall and semiaquatic ; leaves almost 
simply pinnate, the leaflet-like segments large and den- 
ticulated ; apex of petals much inflexed ; fruit slightly 
compressed ; fruitlets narrowly coherent. Slum. 1239 

285. Flowers compound-umbellate, supported by usually 

flaccid not rarely divided bracts. 

Herbs, mostly annual, usually beset with hairlets ; leaves 
pinnatisected, the segments small ; calyx with five ter- 



58 Key to the System of 



minal lobes ; petals of the outer flowers often radiatingly 
enlarged ; apex of petals inflexed ; fruit-ridglets rough 
from short bristlets ; oil-ducts present. " Carrot." 

Daucus. 1240 

Flowers densely capitate or spicate, supported by 
usually pungent bracts. 

Annual or oftener perennial herbs or seldom shrubby or 
even arborescent plants; color of the whole plant often 
bluish; lobes of leaves generally spinulescent-pointed ; 
calyx with five terminal rigid lobes ; apex of petals 
much inflexed ; fruit turgid, papillular-rough. 

Lum. 1241 



CUCURBITACEAE. 

286. Fruit many-seeded, usually smooth. 

Tendrils undivided; lobes of the corolla five, entire; stamens 
five, one free, two and two connate ; fruit never large. 
Figure 77. Melothria. 1242 

Fruit one-seeded, usually prickly. 

Tendrils divided ; lobes of the corolla five, entire ; stamens 
all connate; pistillate flowers devoid of bracts; fruit very 
small. Sycios. 1243 

FASSXFLORBAE. 

287. Disk usually produced into numerous whorled thread- 

like segments and into a circular prolongation. 

Climbers or twiners, producing tendrils ; leaves scattered, 
often lobed ; flowers large ; calyx- tube short ; calyx- 
lobes petal-like ; petals and stamens usually five ; style 
three-cleft, connate with the stamens ; fruit on a stalk- 
like extension (gynophore), succulent. "Passionflower." 

Passiflora. 1244 



LORANTHACEAE. 

288. Staminate and pistillate flowers distinct. 

Flowers minute ; anthers bursting transversely; style unde- 
veloped. Notothixos- 1245 

Stamens as well as the pistil in the same flowers. 

Flowers large ; anthers bursting longitudinally ; style de- 
veloped. Figure 66. Loranthus. 1246 



Victorian Plants. 59 



PROTEACEAE. 

289. One of the anthers perfect, two imperfect, the fourth 

sterile, all at first united. 

Shrubs or half-shrubs ; leaves constantly entire ; flowers 
usually in short spikes, each supported by a bract ; stalk 
of the inflorescence generally much elongated ; corolla 
mostly bluish, its lobes often unequal ; fruit indehiscent, 
dry, broadly obverse-conical, the terminal hairlets forming 
a ciliolar tuft. Figure 67. Conospernrum. 1250 

All four anthers alike and quite disunited ... ... 290 

290. Fruit indehiscent 291 

Fruit dehiscent 293 

291. Fruit beset with soft hairlets, the uppermost of them 

forming a terminal ciliolar tuft. 

Shrubs from dwarf to tall ; leaves entire or lobed ; flowers 
crowded head-like or cylindrically ; lobes of the corolla 
alike and equally spreading ; stigma always terminal ; 
bracts somewhat indurating, finally deciduous ; fruit dry, 
broadly obverse -conical. Isopogoii. 1252 

Fruit without any ciliolar tuft ... ... ... 292 

292. Fruit dry. 

Shrubs from dwarf to tall ; leaves entire or lobed ; flowers 
solitary or two or few together, each within a small 
involucre of few or several bracts ; lobes of the corolla 
almost alike and equally spreading ; stigma always ter- 
minal ; fruit ellipsoid. Adeiiaiithos. 1253 

Fruit outside succulent. 

Shrubs or half-shrubs, rarely trees ; leaves always entire ; 
corolla constantly yellow, its lobes alike and equally 
spreading ; flowers solitary and axillary or forming short 
racemes, unprovided with involucral bracts ; stamens in- 
serted near the middle of the petals. Figure 68. 

Persoonia. 1254 

293. Fruit-valves almost crustaceous ... ... ... 294 

Fruit-valves almost ligneous ... ... ... ... 297 



60 Key to the System of 



294. Inflorescence surrounded by an involucre of large 

bracts. 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves entire or somewhat indented ; 
flowers large, headlike-crowded ; lobes of the corolla 
unilaterally revolute ; stigma lateral ; fruit rather large, 
many-seeded ; seeds terminated by a large membranous 
appendage. "Waratah." Figure 72. Telopea. 1264 

One small bract for every two flowers ... ... 295 

295. Seeds several in each fruit. 

Shrubs, sometimes trees even tall ; leaves denticulated or 
lobed ; flowers in racemes ; lobes of the corolla uni- 
laterally revolute; seeds terminated by a large mem- 
branous appendage. Lomatia. 1265 

Seeds two in each fruit ... ... ... ... 296 

296. Seeds terminated by a large pale membrane. 

Shrubs, much less frequently trees ; leaves entire or lobed ; 
flowers forming spikes; lobes of the corolla alike and 
equally spreading. Figure 69. Orites. 1267 

Seeds devoid of any large terminal membrane. 

Shrubs from dwarf to tall, less frequently trees ; leaves 
entire or lobed ; flowers often in racemes, not rarely in 
umbel-like fascicles, seldom only in separate-axillary 
pairs ; lobes of the corolla usually unilaterally revolute ; 
stigma oftener lateral than terminal ; seeds brown or 
rather pale, their marginal membrane usually narrow, 
pale and extending equally around or absent. Figure 70. 

Grevillea. 1268 

297. Fruits distinct. 

Shrubs from dwarf to tall, rarely trees; leaves entire or 
lobed ; flowers often axillary and forming umbel-like 
fascicles, rarely in racemes; lobes of the corolla usually 
unilaterally revolute; stigma often terminal; fruit two- 
seeded ; seeds usually black and terminated by a large 
somewhat black membrane. Figure 71. Kakea. 1286 

Fruits crowded headlike or oftener cylindrically. 

Shrubs or trees; leaves entire or indented; lobes of the 
corolla long- coherent at the summit ; style curved at first 
or permanently, wiry, early protruding ; stigma always 
terminal; each fruit of the almost strobilaceous mass 
two-seeded, the seeds separated by a spurious upwards 
bilaminated finally deciduous dissepiment. Figure 73. 

Banksia. 1297 



Victorian Plants. 61 



SANTALACEAE. 

298. Fruit beyond its base free from the calyx. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves usually scattered and often minute ; 
flowers extremely small ; fruit dry ; stalklet succulent, 
berry-like. Figure 65. Exocarpos. 1301 

Fruit high-adnate to the calyx ... 299 

299. Leaves comparatively large, usually opposite. 

Shrubs or small seldom large trees ; flowers rather large, 
corolla generally four-lobed; the lobes high-colored inside ; 
anthers opening by longitudinal slits; fruit comparatively 
large, outside often succulent, inside of bony hardness. 

Santalum. 1306 

Leaves small or minute, scattered ... ... ... 300 

300. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits ... ... 301 

Anthers opening by terminal slits ... ... 302 

301. Stamens and pistil usually within the same flowers. 

Herbs or half shrubs, not rarely of a pale or yellowish 
hue, parasitic on the roots of other plants; leaves scattered 
or some basal, always small and often narrow, seldom 
rudimentary; flowers minute; calyx-tube extended beyond 
the fruit, usually five-lobed ; fruit minute, dry. 

Thesium. 1308 

Stamens and pistil usually in separate flowers on 
distinct plants. 

Leafless shrub ; flowers minute, those bearing pistils 
solitarily scattered ; fruit succulent. 

Omphacomeria. 1309 

302. Each flower supported by two or three or four bracts. 

Shrubs ; leaves rudimentary or absent ; flowers minute ; 
lobes of the corolla five, alternating with denticular 
rudiments of calyx-lobes; anthers four-lobed; fruit rather 
small, dry. Figure 64. Choretrum. 1310 

Each flower supported by one bract. 

Shrubs ; leaves rudimentary or absent ; flowers minute ; 
lobes of the corolla four or five; anthers two-lobed; fruit 
rather small, often succulent. Iieptomeria. 1313 



62 Key to the System of 

RUBXACZSAE. 

303. Fruits connate 304 

Fruits distinct 306 

304. Fruits succulent. 

Shrubs or woody climbers or trees ; lobes of the corolla 
usually five, contiguous before expansion ; stigmas gene- 
rally elongated ; fruits connate into a globular mass. 

Morinda. 1314 

Fruits dry 305 

305. Fruit-masses irregularly crowded into headlets. 

Herbs ; leaves opposite ; odor very unpleasant ; stigmas 
elongated ; fruit-masses opening by a lid. 

Opercularia. 1315 

Fruit-masses and their stalks forming umbels. 

Herb ; leaves opposite ; stigmas elongated ; fruit-masses 

bellshaped-obconical, opening by a lid. Pomax. 1319 

306. Fruits succulent. 

Shrubs, sometimes diminutive or dwarf herbs ; leaves oppo- 
site ; flowers in clusters or solitary ; stamens and pistils 
often in separate flowers ; stigmas elongated. 

Coprosma. 1320 

Fruits dry 307 

307. Corolla of the staminate or of all flowers with a well 

developed tube. 

Weak herbs ; leaves generally whorled, rarely opposite ; 
stigmas minute ; fruit small, bilobed, indehiscent. Figure 
75. Asperula. 1325 

Corolla constantly without any conspicuous tube. 

Weak herbs; leaves whorled; stigmas minute; fruit small, 

bilobed, indehiscent. Galium. 1326 

CAFH,IFOLIACAE. 

308. Corolla equally three- to five-lobed, its tube short. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves opposite, pinnate ; flowers in 
compound corymbous or cymous bunches ; stamens three 
to five ; stigmas three, sessile ; fruit small, succulent. 
"Elder." Figure 76. Sambucus. 1327 



Victorian Plants. 63 



COIMFOSITAE. 

309. Corollas of all the flowers from a tubular base flatly 

expanded (ligulate). (Also many immigrated weeds.) 
Herbs with somewhat tuberous roots ; leaves all basal, 
denticulated or lobed ; headlet of flowers singly ter- 
minal ; involucre rather large, but comparatively narrow; 
corollas all yellow ; pappus-bristlets flattened, much 
pointed. Microseris. 1328 

Corollas of all the flowers tubular to near the summit, 
or corollas of the marginal flowers from a tubular 
base flatly expanded (ligulate), forming a corollar, 
not an involucral, ray to the flower-headlet, the rest 
of the flowers tubular to near the summit ... ... 310 

310. Fruit very inequilateral, almost dimidiated. 

Perennial herb, never large ; leaves basal, broad, indented 
or incised ; involucral bracts in more than two rows ; 
marginal flowers uniseriate, their corollas from a tubular 
base flatly expanded ; corollas of the rest of the flowers 
tubular to near the summit, of all flowers yellow; pappus 
absent or its bristlets abbreviated. Cymbonotus. 1329 

Fruit almost or quite equilateral ... ... ... 311 

311. Leaves all or mostly opposite. (Exception: Glossogyne 

partly) ... 312 

Leaves scattered or basal ... ... ... ... 316 

312. Corollas of all the flowers tubular to near the summit. 

Herbs, mostly annual ; leaves rather or quite broad, in- 
dented ; flower-headlets small, paniculated ; involucral 
bracts herbaceous ; pappus-bristlets three to five, hair- 
like, rigid, glandular-tipped. Adenostemma. 1330 

Corollas of the marginal flowers from a tubular base 
flatly expanded, the rest of the flowers tubular to 
near the summit ... ... ... ... ... 313 

313. Pappus consisting of spinules... ... ... ... 314 

Pappus absent or rudimentary ... ... ... 315 



64 Key to the System of 



314. Marginal flowers bearing imperfect fruits. 

Herbs ; leaves broad, indented or incised or pinnatisected ; 
involucral bracts nearly herbaceous, broadish, in about 
two rows ; very small bracts between all the flowers ; 
marginal flowers uniseriate, their corollas forming a yel- 
lowish or whitish ray ; pappus consisting of two to four 
rough spinules. Bidens. 1331 

Marginal flowers also bearing perfect fruits. 

Herbs ; leaves mostly basal, often dissected ; involucral 
bracts nearly herbaceous, narrow, in about two rows ; 
marginal flowers uniseriate, forming a yellowish ray ; 
very small bracts between all the flowers ; pappus con- 
sisting of two rough spinules. Glossogyne. 1332 

315. Involucral bracts almost equal. 

Leaves rather broad ; involucral bracts nearly herbaceous, 
in about two rows ; marginal flowers uniseriate ; very 
small bracts between all the flowers. (Transferable to 
Wedelia.) Figure 87. Eclipta. 1333 

Involucral bracts very unequal. 

Leaves rather broad ; involucral bracts almost herbaceous, 
in about two rows, the outer narrow-spatular, the inner 
nearly ovate ; marginal flowers uniseriate ; very small 
bracts between all the flowers. Siegesbeckia. 1334 

316. Corollas all purplish. (Also those of some Asters) ... 317 
Corollas all or some yellowish ... ... ... 319 

317. Bracts between the flowers present. 

Rather tall but not woody plants ; leaves scattered, some 
basal, usually pinnate-lobed ; headlet of flowers large, 
singly terminal ; involucral bracts in several rows, almost 
scarious, orbicular and jagged towards the summit; 
bristlet-like bracts copious between the flowers ; corollas 
all tubular to near the summit ; pappus-bristlets slightly 
plumous. (Centaurea partly). iLeuzea. 1335 

Bracts between the flowers absent ... ... ... 318 

318. Flowers within each involucre all of one form. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves scattered ; headlets of flowers 
small, almost paniculated ; involucral bracts in several 
rows ; corollas all tubular to near the summit ; pappus- 
bristlets in two rows, the outer minute. Vernonia. 1336 



Victorian Plants. 65 



Flowers within each involucre of two forms. 

Shrubs or half -shrubs ; leaves scattered ; involucral bracts 
almost herbaceous, in several rows ; central flowers within 
each headlet with less slender corollas than those of the 
marginal flowers, also less fertile, or both kinds of flowers 
sometimes in distinct headlets ; corollas all tubular to near 
the summit ; pappus-bristlets in one row. Pluchea. 1337 

319. Involucral bracts in more than one row ... ... 320 

Involucral bracts in one row ... ... ... ... 361 

320. Corollas of the marginal flowers from a tubular base 

flatly expanded. (Also Podolepis partly) ... ... 321 

Corollas of all the flowers tubular to near the summit 327 

321. Pappus elongated ... ... ... ... ... 322 

Pappus abbreviated or absent 326 

322. Pappus consisting partly or wholly of spinules. 

Herbs ; leaves basal and often also scattered, seldom dis- 
sected ; involucral bracts almost herbaceous ; ligulate 
flowers uniseriate, their corollas forming a bluish or 
whitish or yellowish ray ; pappus consisting of two or 
often more spinules, with or oftener without intervening 
scale-like segments ; fruits angular. Figure 80. 

Calotis. 1338 

Pappus consisting of hair-like bristlets or partly of 
bristlets and partly of scale-like segments ... ... 323 

323. Pappus consisting partly of bristlets and partly of 

scale-like segments. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves scattered, always 
narrow ; involucral bracts almost herbaceous, narrow, in 
few rows ; ligulate flowers pluriseriate, their corollas 
forming a whitish or bluish or less frequently a yellowish 
ray ; fertile fruits compressed, circumferential ; scale-like 
segments of the pappus often only rudimentary. Figure 79. 

Minuria. 1348 

Pappus consisting of hair-like bristlets exclusively ... 324 

p 



Key to the System of 



324. Involucral bracts in about two rows of nearly equal 

length. 

Usually herbaceous plants; leaves scattered, some basal; 
marginal flowers pluriseriate, their corollas narrowly 
expanding and forming a bluish or whitish ray ; fruits 
much compressed ; bristlets of pappus in one or two rows, 
the outer often much shortened. Erigeron. 1351 

Involucral bracts in more than two rows, unequal in 
length 325 

325. Marginal ligulate flowers mostly pluriseriate. 

Half-shrubs or small shrubs, flowering in an early and then 
herbaceous state ; leaves scattered ; rows of involucral 
bracts few or several ; corollas of the marginal flowers 
forming a whitish or bluish ray ; fruits much compressed ; 
bristlets of pappus usually in more than two rows. 

Vittadinia. 1353 

Marginal ligulate flowers mostly uniseriate. 

Herbs, shrubs or seldom trees ; leaves scattered, rarely 
opposite or clustered ; rows of involucral bracts few or 
several ; corollas of the marginal flowers forming a whitish 
or bluish ray ; fruits cylindrical or variously compressed ; 
bristlets of pappus in one or two rows, the outer much 
shortened. Figure 81. Aster. 1354 

326. Fruits truncated. 

Herbs, never very tall ; involucral bracts of nearly equal 
height (length) in about two rows; no bracts between the 
flowers ; ligulate flowers uniseriate ; pappus very short 
or obliterated. Bracliycome. 1383 

Fruits terminated by a cylindric prolongation. 

Herbs, never very tall ; leaves conspicuously indented ; 
involucral bracts unequal, in few or several rows ; 
ligulate flowers uniseriate ; fruits of the central flowers 
remaining undeveloped. Lagenophora. 1406 

327. Flower-headlets distinct, without a general receptacle 328 

Flower-headlets crowded into a dense cluster on a 
general receptacle ... 351 

328. Involucral bracts herbaceous ... 329 

Involucral bracts scarious ... ... .... ... 337 



Victorian Plants. 67 



329. Pappus absent or rudimentary ... ... ... 330 

Pappus present and perfect ... ... ... ... 334 

330. Leaves basal or tufted 331 

Leaves scattered ... ... ... ... 332 

331. Stigmas somewhat elongated, pointed. 

Small herbs ; leaves slightly indented. ; involucral bracts 
almost equal, in about two rows ; marginal flowers 
pluriseriate, their corollas unexpanding ; fruits hardly 
attenuated at the apex, those of the central flowers re- 
maining undeveloped. Figure 78. 

(Lagenophora partly.) Solenogyne. 1407 

Stigmas much abbreviated, blunt. 

Small creeping or tufted alpine herbs ; leaves entire, often 
short; flower-headlets often sessile ; involucral bracts in 
two or three rows; fruit quadrangular. Figure 89. 

Abrotanella. 1408 

332. Corollas of marginal flowers absent or rudimentary. 

Small herbs ; flower-headlets very often small, always 
stalked ; involucral bracts in about two rows ; fruit 
compressed. Cotula. 1409 

Corolla of marginal flowers present and perfect ... 333 

333. Involucral bracts in about two rows. 

Small herbs; leaves denticulated; flower-headlets very often 
axillary, nearly or quite sessile, small; corollas of the mar- 
ginal flowers minute ; fruits triangular or quadrangular. 
Figure 88. Centipeda. 1414 

Involucral bracts in more than two rows. 

Small herbs ; leaves denticulated ; flower-headlets small, 
axillary, or a few together terminal, sessile or short- 
stalked ; fruits pluriangular. Figure 82. Epaltes. 1416 

334. Pappus consisting of scales. 

Small annual herb ; leaves very narrow, entire ; flower- 
headlets singly terminal ; involucral braets almost bi- 
seriate, slightly scarious; pappus-scales narrow-lanceolar. 

Elachanthus. 1417 

Pappus consisting of bristlets 335 



68 Key to the System of 



335. Staminate and pistillate flowers on distinct plants; 

pappus on staminate flowers only. 

Rather small herb ; leaves narrowly .lanceolar- elliptical, 
denticulated ; flower-headlets small, somewhat crowded 
in panicles. Ethuliopsis. 1418 

Staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant and 
within the same involucre ; pappus on all the flowers 336 

336. Pappus-bristlets plumous, dilated. 

Annual herbs ; leaves narrow, entire ; flower-headlets elon- 
gated ; fruits on very short stalklets. (Podotheca). 

Fodosperma, 1419 

Pappus-bristlets simply hair-like. 

Herbs or half-shrubs ; leaves entire; involucral bracts 

narrow; flower-headlets terminal. Ixiolaena. 1420 

337. Corollas of the marginal flowers much enlarged, some- 

times ligulate. 

Erect herbs ; leaves entire ; marginal flowers uniseriate, 
their corollas forming a yellowish rarely purplish or 
whitish ray ; fruit equally cylindrical; pappus con- 
sisting of hair-like bristlets. Podolepis, 1421 

Corollas of the marginal flowers equal to the others 
or narrower ... . ... ... ... ... 338 

338. Bracts between the flowers ... ... ... ... 339 

No bracts between the flowers ... ... ... 341 

339. Pappus conspicuous, consisting of hair-like bristlets. 

Shrubs, seldom herbs ; leaves entire ; involucral bracts in 
several rows, often small, all appressed ; flower-headlets 
small. Figure 84. Cassinia. 1427 

Pappus rudimentary or absent ... ... ... 340 

340. Pappus none. 

Viscid, shrubby plant; leaves narrow, entire, somewhat 
decurrent; headlets of flowers crowded; involucral bracts 
in several rows, rather broad, sticky, the upper from their 
white expansipn forming a ray. Ixodia. 1431 



Victorian Plants. 



Pappus consisting of a circular somewhat denticulated 
membrane. 

Herbaceous plants, beset with a whitish tomentum of hair- 
lets ; leaves rather broadish, entire, much decurrent ; 
headlets of flowers singly terminating the stem or 
branches ; involucral bracts in several rows, rather broad, 
dry, the upper often from their white expansion forming 
a ray. Ammobium, 1432 

341. Pappus consisting of hair-like or plumous bristlets ... 342 
Pappus consisting of scale-like segments or absent ... 349 

342. Pappus-bristlets plumous ... ... 343 

Pappus-bristlets hair-like 344 

343. Involucral bracts very narrow, hair-like pointed. 

Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves entire ; 
flower-headlets on long stalks. Atlirixia. 1433 

Involucral bracts rather or quite broad. 

Herbs or half-shrubs, seldom shrubs ; leaves entire ; invo- 
lucral bracts dry and transparent or shining, in several 
rows, often some rather petal-like. Helipterum. 1434 

344. Flower-headlets of one kind ... 345 

Flower-headlets of two kinds and on distincts plants 348 

345. Inner involucral bracts usually petal-like, spreading... 346 
All involucral bracts usually scale-like, appressed ... 347 

346. Fruits truncated or hardly attenuated towards the 

summit. 

From small herbs to tall shrubs ; leaves broad or narrow, 
entire ; involucral bracts in several rows ; often some 
rather petal-like. Helichrysum. 1445 

Fruits narrowly attenuated towards the summit. 

Herbaceous plants, mostly annual ; leaves always narrow, 
entire ; involucral bracts in several rows* often some 
petal-like ; flower-headlets rather large ; pappus-bristlets 
(in the Victorian species) rough. Waitzia. 1465 



70 Key to the System of 



347. Marginal flowers with very slender corolla few ; fruits 

pointed. 

Herbs, mostly perennial ; leaves narrow, entire ; flower- 
headlets on long stalks ; involucral bracts in many rows ; 
fruits narrowly attenuated towards the summit ; pappus- 
bristlets hair-like, rough or somewhat plumous. 

Leptorrhynchos. 1466 

Marginal flowers with very slender corolla numerous; 
fruits blunt. 

Always herbaceous plants ; leaves scattered or at the root 
crowded, entire ; headlets never large ; pappus-bristlets 
uniseriate. Gnaphalium. 1472 

348. Headlets with staminate flowers and headlets with 

fertile pistillate flowers on distinct plants. 

Herbs, often tufted ; leaves entire ; flower-headlets often 
crowded ; staminate and pistillate flowers entirely in 
distinct headlets ; bristlets of the pappus thickened at 
the apex. Antennaria. 1476 

Staminate flowers prevailing in the one kind of head- 
lets, fertile pistillate flowers predominating in the 
other. 

Herbs, often tufted ; leaves entire ; uppermost involucral 
bracts forming a short ray. Figure 83. 

. Leontopodiuin. 1477 

349. Upper involucral bracts much pointed and recurved 

at the summit. 

Small annual herb ; leaves roundish, conspicuously stalked, 
entire ; flower-headlets crowded amongst floral leaves ; 
involucral bracts in a few rows ; pappus absent. 

Stuartina. 1478 

Involucral bracts all appressed or slightly spreading... 350 

350. Pappus consisting of scale-like segments. 

Small herbs ; leaves scattered, entire ; flower-headlets 
terminal, solitary or crowded. Rutidosis. 1479 

Pappus absent. 

Shrubby or herbaceous plants ; leaves scattered, entire ; 
involucral bracts in several rows ; flower-headlets 
paniculated. Figure 85. Hnmea. 1482 



Victorian Plants. 71 



351. Universal involucre absent or much reduced... ... 352 

Universal involucre conspicuous ... ... ... 356 

352. Pappus consisting of plumous bristlets. 

Almost herbaceous or shrubby plants ; leaves scattered or 
opposite, narrow, entire ; no bracts between the flowers. 

Calocephalus. 1484 

Pappus absent or rudimentary or consisting of dilated 
hairlets or of scale-like segments ... ... ... 353 

353. General receptacle of inflorescence elongated. 

Small herbs ; leaves mostly scattered, entire, narrow ; 
ultimate involucres compressed, each consisting of very 
few bracts ; no bracts between the flowers. 

Angianthus. 1487 

General receptacle of inflorescence depressed or abbre- 
viated 354 

354. Ultimate flower-headlets much compressed. 

Herbaceous plants, generally small, rarely shrubs ; leaves 
scattered or crowded, entire ; bracts of the ultimate 
involucres few ; no bracts between the flowers. 

SJdrrophoms. 1491 

Ultimate flower-headlets hardly compressed ... ... 355 

355. Ultimate flower-headlets with one or two or very few 

flowers. 

Small herbs ; leaves scattered, entire ; bracts forming the 
ultimate involucres several, the inner broader and 
fugacious. Guephosis. 1492 

Ultimate flower-headlets with many flowers. 

Small annual herb ; leaves narrow, entire ; flower-headlets 
involved in woolly hairlets. Erioclllainys. 1493 

356. Pappus rudimentary or absent ... ... ... 357 

Pappus conspicuous ... ... ... ... ... 359 



72 Key to the System of 



357. Bracts between the flowers. 

Small, annual herb; leaves entire; clusters of flower-headlets 
mostly radical. Chtlionocephalus, 1494 

No bracts between the flowers ... ... ... 358 

358. Ultimate headlets one-flowered. 

Small, annual herb ; leaves mostly radical, upwards very 
narrow, entire, broadly clasping at the base ; clusters 
of flower-headlets almost radical. Hyalolepis. 1495 

Ultimate headlets many-flowered. 

Small, annual, glabrous herb; leaves basal, upwards very 
narrow; flower-headlets radical, surrounded by very 
narrow leaves; involucral bracts almost biseriate, partly 
herbaceous ; pappus of perfect fruits consisting of scales. 

Isoetopsis. 1496 

359. General receptacle depressed or abbreviated. 

Small, annual herb; leaves scattered, entire, the uppermost 
crowded around the clusters of flower-headlets ; bracts 
surrounding the clusters of flower-headlets few, foliaceousj 
pappus consisting of five elastic and plumous bristlets. 

Gnaphalodes, 1497 

General receptacle elongated ... ... ... 360 

360. No bracts between the flowers. 

Rather tall herbaceous plant; leaves entire, scattered; bracts 
surrounding the clusters of flower-headlets numerous, their 
large white appendages forming rays. Figure 86. 

(Myriocephalus partly.*) Polycalymma. 1498 

Bracts between the flowers. 

Herbaceous plants, never dwarf ; leaves scattered or near 
the root crowded, entire ; universal involucre much ex- 
ceeded by the flower-headlets ; pappus consisting of 
plumous bristlets. Craspedia, 1499 

361. Pappus absent. 

Minute annuals ; leaves scattered, entire ; involucral bracts 
almost herbaceous ; flowers few in each headlet ; fruits 
attenuated towards the summit. Toxaiitlius. 1502 

Pappus present ... . ... ... 362 



Victorian Plants. 73 



362. Pappus-bristlets ciliated or plumous. 

Small annual herbs ; leaves scattered, narrow, entire ; in- 
volucral bracts almost herbaceous, of nearly equal height 
(length) ; flower-headlets small, terminal ; fruits very nar- 
rowly attenuated towards the summit. Millotia. 1503 

Pappus-bristlets hair-like, almost smooth ... ... 363 

363. Corollas of the marginal flowers thinner than those of 

the central flowers, never flatly expanding. 

Herbs, usually rather tall ; leaves scattered or near the 
root crowded ; marginal flowers without stamens, exceed- 
ingly thin. Erechtites. 1504 

Corollas of the marginal flowers alike to those of the 
central flowers or flatly expanding. 

Herbs, less commonly shrubs, rarely small trees ; leaves 
scattered or near the root crowded ; flower-headlets ter- 
minal, seldom axillary ; marginal flowers often forming a 
ray. Figure 90. Senecio. 1507 



CANDOLLEACEAE. 

364. Connected stamens and style folded back when quies- 
cent, arising suddenly and becoming straight on being 
touched; minute fifth corolla-lobe immovable. 

Annual or perennial herbs ; leaves very seldom denticulated, 
never lobed ; color of corolla various, seldom blue. 
Figure 92. (Stylidium.) Candollea. 1521 

Connected stamens and style erect, immovable ; minute 
fifth corolla-lobe reflected when quiescent, arising 
suddenly on touch. 

Annual herbs, generally minute ; leaves entire ; corolla 
often white. Figure 93. LeeuwenhoeMa. 1525 



CABXFANUXiACEAX:. 

365. Lobes of the corolla equal. 

Usually herbs, with whitish sap ; anthers disconnected ; 
corolla often blue. "Bell-flower." Wahlenbergia. 1526 

Lobes of the corolla unequal ... ... 366 



74 Key to the System of 



366. Tube of the corolla entire. 

Always herbs, with whitish acrid sap ; anthers connected ; 

corolla often blue. Isotoma. 1527 

Tube of the corolla slit unilaterally. 

Usually herbs, with whitish acrid sap ; anthers connected ; 
corolla often blue. Figure 91. Lobelia. 1528 



COODENXACEAE. 

367. Tube of the corolla entire. 

Herb ; flowers headlike-crowded ; corolla blue ; lobes of the 
corolla without expanding membranes ; anthers connate ; 
fruit dry, minute, free from the enclosing calyx-tube, 
indehiscent. Bruiionia. 1539 

Tube of the corolla unilateraUy slit 368 

368. Anthers connate. 

Herbs or small shrubs ; calyx small-lobed or lobeless ; 
corolla often blue, its lobes provided with expanding 
membranes ; fruit dry, indehiscent. Dampiera. 1540 

Anthers disconnected ... ... ... ... ... 369 

369. Fruit beyond its base free from the calyx. 

Herbs or seldom half -shrubs ; calyx usually divided into 
sepals ; corolla often yellow ; lobes of the corolla provided 
with expanding membranes; fruit dry, dehiscent. Figure 
95. Velleya. 1544 

Fruit completely connate with the calyx ... ... 370 

370. Lobes of the corolla unprovided with expanding mem- 

branes. 

Succulent herb ; corolla somewhat whitish or slightly purp- 
lish ; calyx lobed ; corolla-lobes unilateral ; fruit suc- 
culent, hardly dehiscent, few-seeded. Selliera. 1546 

Lobes of the corolla provided with expanding mem- 
branes ... ... - ... ... ... ... .371 



Victorian Plants. 75 



371. Fruit indehiscent. 

Herbs or shrubs; corolla often blue; calyx lobed or lobeless; 
lobes of the corolla generally all bent downward in one 
set ; fruit succulent or dry, usually two-seeded. 

Scaevola. 1547 

Fruit dehiscent. 

Herbs or shrubs ; corolla often yellow ; calyx always lobed ; 
lobes of the corolla generally forming an upper and lower 
set ; fruit usually many-seeded. Figure 94. 

Goodenia. 1554 

GENTIANEAE. 

372. Lobes of corolla with expanding membranes. 

Floating or semiaquatic plants; leaves scattered or crowded, 
often cordate ; tube of corolla wide. 

Limnanthemum. 1569 

Lobes of corolla without any expanding membranes ... 373 

373. Anthers soon twisted. 

Annual or perennial herbs ; stem-leaves opposite ; tube of 

corolla often narrow ; fruit one-celled. Erythraea. 1571 

Anthers remaining straight ... ... ... ... 374 

374. Fruit two-celled. 

Annual herbs ; stem-leaves opposite ; tube of corolla often 
narrow. Figure 96. Sebaea, 1572 

Fruit one-celled. 

Annual or perennial herbs ; leaves generally lined by longi- 
tudinal prominent venules; stem-leaves constantly op- 
posite ; tube of corolla often wide. Gentiana. 1573 



JAS1VIINEAE. 

375. Corolla divided into usually five or more lobes. 

Usually climbers or twiners; leaves simple, trifoliolate or 
pinnate ; flowers comparatively large, particularly fra- 
grant ; lobes of the corolla overlapping before expansion ; 
stamens enclosed in the narrow tube of the corolla ; fruit 
when well developed bilobed, often succulent. 

Jasminum. 1574 



76 Key to the System of 



Corolla constantly divided into two pairs of petals. 

Trees or erect shrubs ; leaves always simple ; flowers com- 
paratively small ; petals contiguous before expansion ; 
fruit lobeless, often succulent. Figure 100. 

Notelaea. 1575 

X.OGANXACEAE. 

376. Lobes of corolla constantly four. 

Always herbs, often small ; leaves usually tender ; corolla 
whitish, rarely yellow ; styles two, nearly always connate 
at the summit. Mitrasacme. 1576 

Lobes of corolla usually five. 

Mostly shrubs ; leaves usually firm; corolla whitish ; style 
one. Figure 97. Logania. 1581 

FX.ANTAGXNEAX:. 

377. Flowers in elongated or abbreviated spikes. 

Usually herbs; leaves often lined by prominent longitudinal 
venules ; flowers minute ; stamens and pistils generally 
but variously developed in all the flowers. " Rib-herb." 
Figure 98. PlantagO. 1584 

SOLANACEAE. 

378. Fruit succulent, indehiscent ... ... ... ... 379 

Fruit dry, longitudinally dehiscent ... ... ... 380 

379. Corolla with a wide tube. 

Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees, very seldom climbers; 
corolla-lobes folded inward before expansion ; stamens 
five, equal. Figure 103. Solanum. 1586 

Corolla with a narrow tube. 

Shrubs or rarely small trees, not seldom spinescent; corolla- 
lobes overlapping before expansion ; stamens four or five, 
equal. Lycium. 1593 

380. Corolla with a narrow tube. 

Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees; corolla-lobes folded 
inward before expansion; stamens five, somewhat unequal. 

Nicotiana. 1594 

Corolla with a wide tube. 

Shrubs or rarely small trees; corolla-lobes folded inward 
before expansion; stamens four, very unequal. 

Anthocercis. 1595 



Victorian Plants. 77 



FRIlVItJLACEAE. 

381. Fruit high-connate with the calyx. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves entire, those of 
the stem scattered j fruit longitudinally dehiscent. 

Samolus. 1596 

Fruit beyond its base free from the calyx ... ... 382 

382. Fruit longitudinally dehiscent. 

Herbs, mostly perennial; leaves scattered or opposite or 
whorled, entire. Lysimachia. 1597 

Fruit transversely dehiscent. 

Annual or perennial herbs, generally glabrous ; leaves 
usually opposite, entire. Anagallis. 1598 

MYRSINACBAE. 

383. Leaves pervaded by pellucid dots or streaklets. 

Evergreen shrubs or trees ; leaves scattered ; flowers small, 

in axillary or lateral fascicles. Figure 99. Myrsine. 1599 

EFACRIDEAE. 

384. Fruit indehiscent 385 

Fruit dehiscent ... ... ... ... ... 387 

385. Lobes of corolla overlapping before expansion. 

Shrubs, seldom tall ; leaves usually stalked, jointed to the 
branchlets and finally deciduous ; outer portion of fruit 
(pericarp) dry or succulent, hard inner portion (putamen) 
entire. Brachyloma. 1600 

Lobes of corolla contiguous before expansion... ... 386 

386. Hard inner portion of fruit entire. 

Half-shrubs or shrubs or rarely small trees ; leaves usually 
stalked, jointed to the branchlets and finally deciduous ; 
outer portion of fruit dry or succulent. Figure 110. 

Styphelia. 1603 

Hard inner portion of fruit separated or separable into 
five to ten nutlets. 

Half-shrubs or shrubs or rarely small trees ; leaves usually 
stalked, jointed to the branchlets and finally deciduous ; 
outer .portion of fruit always succulent. Trochocarpa. 1634 



78 Key to the System of 



387. Leaves usually stalked, always jointed to the branch- 

lets and at last completely deciduous. 

Half-shrubs or shrubs ; leaves sessile or much oftener 
stalked ; lobes of corolla overlapping before expansion ; 
fruit dry. Epacris. 1635 

Leaves clasping with unjointed decurrent and per- 
sistent base 388 

388. Lobes of the corolla expanding, conspicuous. 

Half -shrubs or shrubs ; leaves tardily seceding by irregular 
supra-basal rupture ; lobes of corolla contiguous before 
expansion ; fruit dry. Sprengelia. 1645 

Lobes of the corolla unexpanding, inconspicuous. 

Shrubs or small palm-like trees ; leaves tardily seceding by 
irregular supra-basal rupture ; corolla conical, the lobes 
comparatively minute, almost permanently coherent ; 
fruit dry. Bichea. 1646 



ERICACEAE. 

Fruit enclosed in the enlarging and finally succulent 
calyx, bursting longitudinally. 

Shrubs, often beset with rigid hairlets ; leaves generally 
scattered ; calyx five-lobed ; corolla-lobes overlapping 
before expansion ; stamens ten ; anthers ending upwards 
in two narrow and bifid appendages. Gaulthiera. 1647 

Fruit high-connate with the calyx, succulent, inde- 
hiscent. 

Evergreen, decumbent, somewhat shrubby plant, almost 
glabrous ; leaves carnulent ; calyx five-lobed ; corolla- 
lobes contiguous before expansion ; stamens five ; anthers 
devoid of any appendages. Figure 109. Wittsteiuia. 1648 



CONVOX.VUJLACEAE. 

390. Leaves undeveloped. 

Twining, parasitical; flowers comparatively small; style 
divided ; fruit small, bursting transversely or irregularly. 

Cuscuta. 1649 

Leaves developed ... . - 391 



Victorian Plants. 79 



391. Style one. 

Prostrate or twining ; flowers comparatively large ; stigmas 
two, elongated ; fruit two-celled, usually four-seeded, 
bursting by longitudinal slits ; seeds often glabrous. 

Convolvulus. 1650 

Styles two 392 

392. Styles connate towards the base. 

Prostrate or diffuse ; leaves very small, entire ; flowers 
comparatively small ; stigmas globular ; fruit small, one- 
or two-seeded. Wilsonia. 1652 

Styles disconnected : ... 393 

393. Fruit one-celled and one-seeded. 

Prostrate or diffuse, never tall ; leaves very small, entire ; 
flowers comparatively small ; stigmas globular ; fruit 
small, bursting by longitudinal slits. Cressa. 1654 

Fruit divided into two distinct fruitlets. 

Prostrate ; flowers comparatively small ; fruit small, each 
fruitlet provided with a separate style and bearing one 
seed. Dichondra. 1655 

ASCXiEFXADEAXS. 

394. Leaves undeveloped. 

Stems and branches succulent, often climbing ; dorsal ap- 
pendages of the stamens very prominent ; pollen-masses 
descendent ; fruitlets slender. Sarcostemma. 1656 

Leaves developed ... ... ... ... ... 395 

395. Dorsal appendages of the stamens depressed. 

Stems and branches hard, usually twining ; pollen-masses 
ascendent, often ovate-globular ; fruitlets slender. 

Tylophora. 1657 

Dorsal appendages of the stamens compressed ... 396 

396. Fruitlets slender. 

Stems and branches hard, usually twining ; pollen-masses 
descendent, often clavate-ellipsoid. Figure 102. 

Daemia. 1658 



80 Key to the System of 



Fruitlets turgid. 

Stems and branches hard, usually twining ; pollen-masses 
ascendent, often clavate- ellipsoid ; fruitlets often large, 
usually only one developed. Marsdenia. 1659 

AFOCYNEAE. 

397. Erect shrubs. 

Leaves opposite or whorled ; stamens enclosed in the corolla- 
tube ; fruit abbreviated, when well developed consisting 
of two succulent indehiscent simple or jointed fruitlets. 

Alyxia. 1661 

Woody twiners. 

Leaves opposite ; stamens exserted from the corolla- tube ; 
fruit much elongated, longitudinally dehiscent ; seeds 
terminated by a tuft of long hairlets. Figure 101. 

Lyonsia. 1662 

ASFERIFOIiIAE. 

398. Style cleft into two divisions. 

Tall shrubs or oftener trees ; leaves comparatively large ; 
anthers disconnected ; fruit undivided, smooth, four- 
celled. Ehretia. 1663 

Style undivided ... 399 

399. Anthers longitudinally connate. 

Dwarf shrubs or semiherbaceous plants ; flowers compara- 
tively large ; anthers terminating in a narrow elongation ; 
fruit seceding into two fruitlets ; fruitlets smooth, two- 
celled and two-seeded. Figure 106. Halgauia. 1664 

Anthers entirely or nearly disconnected ... 400 

400. Fruit seceding into two fruitlets. 

Always herbs, often small ; flowers in racemes, always very 
small ; fruitlets erect, somewhat laterally fixed, wrinkled 
or granular-rough. Rochelia. 1665 

Fruit seceding into four fruitlets ... ... 401 

401. Fruitlets depressed. 

Always herbs, often rather large ; flowers in racemes ; 
fruitlets beset with hooked minute asperities. 

Cynoglossum. 1666 

Fruitlets erect 402 



Victorian Plants. 81 



402. Fruitlets beset with hooked asperities. 

Always herbs, often small ; flowers in racemes, always very 

small ; fruitlets high-connate. Lappula. 1668 

Fruitlets without any hooked asperities ... ... 403 

403. Fruitlets fixed somewhat laterally. 

Always herbs, often small ; flowers in racemes ; fruitlets 
usually wrinkled. Eritrichuxn. 1669 

Fruitlets fixed at the base only ... ... ... 404 

404. Scale-like appendages at the base of the corolla-lobes 

present. 

Always herbs, often small ; racemes before flowering rolled 
backward ; stigma unenlarged ; fruitlets smooth, shining. 
"Forget-me-not." Myosotis. 1670 

Scale-like appendages at the base of the corolla-lobes 
absent. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants, rarely tall shrubs ; 
flowers usually in spikes; anthers disconnected or coherent 
at the summit ; stigma annular-enlarged ; fruitlets smooth, 
coherent. Heliotr opium. 1671 



Z.ABZATAE. 

405. Calyx ending in five lobes or denticles ... ... 406 

Calyx ending in two lobes ... ... ... ... 413 

406. Lobes or denticles of the calyx unequal ... ... 407 

Lobes or denticles of the calyx almost equal... ... 409 

407. Pollen-bearing stamens two. 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves comparatively large ; calyx pro- 
ducing three upper denticles or one upper lobe and two 
lower lobes ; rudimentary stamens two or absent ; often 
only one cell of the anthers perfect, both cells distant from 
each other. "Sage." Salvia. 1673 

Pollen-bearing stamens four ... ... ... ... 408 

G 



82 Key to the System of 



408. Whorls of flowers crowded into a dense broadly 

bracteate spike. 

Perennial herbs; leaves comparatively large; calyx streaked 
by ten longitudinal venules, finally closed, producing 
three upper denticles and two lower lobes. Brunella. 1674 

Cymous whorls of flowers often racemose or paniculate. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves comparatively large ; calyx 
producing often an upper entire broad lobe and four 
narrow and pointed lower lobes. Plectranthus. 1675 

409. Stamens two. 

Perennial herbs ; leaves comparatively large ; flowers all in 
axillary whorls; calyx-lobes five, rarely four; rudimentary 
stamens present or absent. Lycopus. 1676 

Stamens four ... ... ... ... ... ... 410 

410. Leaves in whorls, generally rigid, always entire. 

Always shrubs; leaves comparatively small; calyx streaked 
by usually ten longitudinal venules ; anthers of the lower 
stamens two-celled and sterile, anthers of the upper 
stamens one-celled and pollen-bearing. Westringia. 1677 

Leaves simply opposite, generally flaccid, often inden- 
ted 411 

411. Anthers of all four stamens with two parallel cells. 

Herbs or half-shrubs, very odorous ; flowers in axillary or 
almost spicate whorls ; calyx streaked by ten longitudinal 
venules; tube of the corolla hardly longer than the calyx; 
all four anthers pollen-bearing. " Mint " or " Ment." 

Mentha. 1681 

Anthers of all four stamens with two divergent but 
confluent cells, thus almost unilocular ... ... 412 

412. Upper lobes of the corolla much abbreviated, almost 

or quite connate, much surpassed by the three lower 
lobes. 

Herbs or seldom half-shrubs, generally dwarf ; leaves often 
incised ; calyx streaked by usually ten longitudinal 
venules ; corolla long-persistent ; tube of the corolla 
inside often annular-bearded ; stamens hardly exserted ; 
all four anthers pollen-bearing. " Bugle." Ajllga. 1684 



Victorian Plants. 83 



Upper lobes of the corolla rather elongated, separated 
by a deep fissure and verging to the three lower 
lobes, rendering the corolla almost unilateral 

Herbs or shrubs ; leaves not rarely indented, only excep- 
tionally whorled ; upper calyx-lobes often somewhat broader 
than the lower ; tube of the corolla usually without 
annular-disposed hairlets ; stamens conspicuously ex- 
serted ; all four anthers pollen-bearing. " Germander." 

Teucrium. 1685 

413. Upper lobe of the calyx provided with a hollow 
protruberance. 

Herbs or half-shrubs ; leaves generally indented ; flowers 
solitary or oftener two in each axil, sometimes forming 
spikes or racemes ; calyx finally closed ; calyx-lobes 
entire ; stamens four ; anthers of the two upper stamens 
one-celled, of the lower two-celled. Scuteilaria, 1687 

Upper lobe of the calyx without any protruberance. 

Shrubs, often tall, rarely trees, though then sometimes tall ; 
leaves oftener small than large, always simply opposite, 
often rigid and entire ; calyx-lobes entire ; stamens four ; 
anthers all two-celled, often downwards provided with a 
somewhat narrow and penicillar appendage. Figure 107. 

Prostanthera. 1688 



OROBANCHEAE. 

414. Sepals four, usually two and two connate. 

Flowers in dense bracteate spikes ; upper lobe of the corolla 
hardly divided, lower lobes three ; stamens enclosed. 

Orobanche. 1705 

XiENTIBUXiARXNAE. 

415. Segments of calyx two. 

Floating or semiaquatic or almost terrestrial plants, with 
or without ample capillary ramifications ; corolla yellow, 
pink, blue or whitish. Utricularia. 1706 

Segments of calyx four. 

Semiaquatic or almost terrestrial plants, without ample 
capillary ramifications ; corolla pink. Figure 105. 

Polypompholyx. 1708 



84 Key to the System of 

GESNERIACEAE. 

416. Anthers disconnected; fruit succulent. 

Epiphytal herb ; stamens four, all perfect ; fruit beyond 

the base free from the calyx. Fieldia. 1709 

SCROPHULARINAE. 

417. Calyx producing conspicuous lobes or denticles ... 418 

Calyx deeply divided into segments ... ... 422 

418. Flowers minute ... ... ... ... ... t 419 

Flowers comparatively large ... ... ... ... 420 

419. Stigma almost globular. 

Small herbs, usually creeping and semiaquatic ; leaves long- 
stalked, fascicled at the root or nodes ; calyx five-lobed ; 
stamens with pollen-bearing anthers four ; anthers one- 
celled. Limosella. 1710 

Stigma almost spatular. 

Small creeping herbs, not rarely semiaquatic ; leaves mostly 
opposite or some crowded, usually short-stalked ; flowers 
solitary, axillary ; calyx three- or four-lobed ; stamens 
with pollen-bearing anthers two or four ; anthers one- 
celled. Glossostigma. 1711 

420. Calyx four-lobed. 

Herbs, always small ; leaves constantly opposite, rather or 
quite small, indented, seldom deeply incised ; flowers in 
spikes ; upper of the terminal portion of the corolla 
almost flat ; stamens with pollen-bearing anthers four ; 
stigma minute, almost entire. Euplirasia. 1712 

Calyx five-lobed or five-denticulated ... ... ... 421 

421. Calyx conspicuously five-lobed. 

Always herbs ; leaves basal or the lower opposite and the 
upper scattered; stamens \wth pollen-bearing anthers 
four; anther-cells contiguous; stigma bilobed. Mazus. 1714 

Calyx five-denticulated. 

Herbs or rarely shrubs ; leaves constantly opposite ; calyx 
conspicuously tubular, five-angled ; stamens with pollen- 
bearing anthers four ; anther- cells contiguous ; stigma 
dilated. Mimulus. 1715 



Victorian Plants. 85 



422. Stamens with pollen-bearing anthers four. 

Herbs or half -shrubs ; leaves opposite or whorled ; calyx- 
segments five ; anther-cells distinct ; stigma bilobed. 

Stemodia. 1717 
Stamens with pollen-bearing anthers two .. ... 423 

423. Tube of the corolla as long as the lobes or longer. 

Always herbs ; leaves constantly opposite ; calyx- segments 
five ; two stamens with pollen-bearing anthers, two rudi- 
mentary or undeveloped ; stigma dilated. Gratiola. 1718 



Tube of the corolla usually much shorter than the lobes. 

Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees ; leaves nearly always 
opposite ; calyx-segments four or five ; lobes of corolla 
much oftener four than five ; stamens never more than 
two ; stigma undivided. Figure 104. Veronica. 1720 

BXGXONXACEAE. 

424. Calyx five-denticulated, laterally entire. 

Woody climbers; leaves opposite, entire or pinnate; stamens 
enclosed ; dissepiment fixed to the middle of the fruit- 
valves longitudinally ; the latter finally seceding from it ; 
seeds surrounded by a transparent membrane. Tecoma. 1730 

VERBENACEAE. 

425. Corolla four-lobed. 

Small trees of saline shores subject to tidal influence ; 
leaves firm, entire ; corolla-lobes equal ; stamens four ; 
fruit comparatively large, the outer portion carnulent, 
splitting longitudinally ; seed solitary. " Spurious 
Mangrove." Avicennia. 1731 

Corolla five-lobed 426 

426. Lobes very unequal. 

Shrubs or semiherbaceous plants ; leaves opposite, ternate 
or whorled, rarely scattered ; corolla comparatively large, 
its lobes in two sets ; stamens always four ; fruit rather 
small, hard, four-celled, unseparable into fruitlets. 

Chloanthes. 1732 
Corolla-lobes slightly unequal. 

Herbs or somewhat shrubby plants ; leaves usually opposite ; 
flowers often small; stamens two to four; fruit quite small, 
separable into four fruitlets. Verbena. 1733 



86 Key to the System of 



IMYOPORINAE. 

427. Tube of corolla abbreviated, lobes nearly equal. 

Shrubs or small trees, mostly glabrous ; leaves seldom 
opposite ; corolla white, colored -dotted. Myoporum. 1734 

Tube of corolla elongated, lobes very unequal. 

Shrubs or small trees, glabrous or beset with hairlets ; leaves 
oftener scattered than opposite ; corolla white or variously 
red or blue, seldom green or yellow, often dotted. 
Figure 108. Eremophila. 1741 

Gymnospermae. 

CONIFERAE. 

428. Fruits several or many within a whorly lobed strobile. 

Cypress-like shrubs or trees ; leaves very minute, three or 
rarely four in a whorl, or seldom binate, decurrent; 
strobile comparatively large, its segments six, rarely four 
or eight, ligneous, usually arranged in an almost double 
whorl; fertile fruits membranously margined. ' ' Sandarac- 
Cypresses." Figure 111. (Frenela.) Callitris. 1750 

Fruits solitary on a usually succulent stalklet. 

Shrubs or oitener trees ; leaves often scattered and rather 

large ; fruit never large. (Podocarpus.) Nageia. 1752 



r/IONOCOTYLEDONEAE. 
ORCHXDEAE. 

429. Leaves undeveloped ... ... ... ... ... 430 

Leaves developed ... ... ... ... 431 

430. Calyx-lobes disconnected. 

Root forming irregularly elongated tubers ; flowers in a 
raceme, pink or dark-reddish; calyx-lobes quite similar 
to the lateral petals ; pollen-masses two, waxy, fixed to 
two stipitules. Dipodium. 1753 

Calyx-lobes turgidly connate. 

Root forming irregularly a tuber ; flowers in a raceme ; 
calyx upwards outside brownish ; petals whitish, the 
lateral two minute ; pollen-masses four, each consisting 
of coherent particles. Gastrodia. 1754 



Victorian Plants. 87 



431. Epiphytal ... 432 

Usually terrestrial ... ... 433 

432. Lateral calyx-lobes broadly adnate to the united sta- 

mens and style (columna or gynostemium), forming a 
conspicuous basal protrusion. 

Stems often turgescent, crowded and enlarging into pseudo- 
bulbs ; flowers usually in a raceme ; basal protrusion 
descending or almost horizontal ; labellum (labial petal) 
generally membranous ; pollen-masses free in the anther- 
cells, four, waxy, often two and two cohering ; fruit 
turgid. Figure 112. Dendrobium. 1755 

Lateral calyx-lobes somewhat adnate to the united 
stamens and style, without forming any conspicuous 
basal protrusion. 

Labellum forming outwardly a thick protrusion ; pollen- 
masses four, connate into two, waxy, fixed to a stipitule ; 
fruit slender, elongated. Sarcochilus. 1756 

433. Flowers turned upside down ... ... ... ... 434 

Flowers erect or spreading ... ... ... ... 436 

434. United stamens and style elongated. 

Younger tuber distant from the older ; leaves never more 
than one, always narrow ; flowers few in a raceme or 
reduced to only two or rarely one ; empty bract one or 
none ; calyx-lobes and lateral petals narrow ; labellum 
almost horizontally fixed above rarely at the lower mar- 
gin to a stalklike process ; united stamens and style 
amply dilated, petal-like ; pollen powdery. Caleya. 1757 

United stamens and style abbreviated ... ... 435 

435. Leaves broadish, flat, two or few. 

Root-fibres fascicular, tuberously thickened ; leaves firm, 
long-stalked ; flowers comparatively large, in a raceme ; 
all calyx-lobes and the lateral petals narrow ; labellum ^ 
long, with a slight median ridge and some callosity ; ' 
pollen powdery. Cryptostylis. 1758 



88 Key to the System of 



Leaf thinly cylindrical, never more than one. 

Younger tuber close to the older ; leaf rarely absent or 
diminutive ; flowers often small, in a spike ; upper (by 
reversion lower) calyx-lobe broadish or quite broad; lower 
(by reversion upper) two often connate; labellum callously 
thickened, but frequently broad-membranous towards the 
margin ; pollen powdery ; fruit very short, often very 
oblique. Frasophyllum. 1759 

436. Flowers spirally arranged in a spike. 

Root-fibres fascicular, tuberously thickened ; stem-leaves 
when present narrow ; flowers often small, reddish or 
whitish ; upper calyx -lobe and petals convergent or co- 
herent ; pollen powdery. Spi'ranthes. 1768 

Flowers variously but never spirally arranged ... 437 

437. Labellum quite similar to the two other petals and to 

the calyx-lobes. 

Younger tuber close to the older ; well developed leaves 
usually one only, often narrow and elongated ; empty 
bracts one to three ; flowers in a raceme, sometimes only 
two or one, of tener blue than yellowish or reddish ; pollen 
powdery. Thelymitra. 1769 

Labellum quite dissimilar to the two other petals and 
to the calyx-lobes ... ... ... .. ... 438 

438. United stamens and style abbreviated 439 

United stamens and style elongated ... ... ... 443 

439. Labellum densely beset on the surface with almost 

hairlike somewhat callous prolongations. 

Younger tuber close to the older; leaves always narrow, 
usually only one well developed, one or two abbreviated 
or bract-like ; flowers in racemes ; upper calyx-lobe very 
concave ; petals with broad base sessile ; pollen powdery. 

Calochilus. 1777 

Labellum without any hair-like prolongations ... 440 



Victorian Plants. 89 



440. Flowers very small. 

Younger tuber distant from the older ; leaves never more 
than one, always thinly cylindrical; flowers constantly in 
a spike, often greenish ; upper calyx-lobe very concave ; 
pollen powdery. Microtis. 1778 

Flowers rather or quite large... ... ... ... 441 

441. Lateral petals comparatively large. 

Younger tuber close to the older; leaves few or several, 
always narrow, usually channelled ; flowers in a raceme 
or sometimes only two ; upper calyx-lobe clasping towards 
the base, straight or spreading towards the summit ; 
lower calyx-lobes descending, very narrow ; lateral petals 
dilated, often yellowish ; pollen powdery. Diuris. 1779 

Lateral petals minute or very narrow ... 442 

442. Leaves few, narrow, the upper almost bract-like. 

Younger tuber close to the older; leaves usually channelled; 
flowers in a spike, greenish, yellowish or the labellum 
partly dark-purplish ; upper calyx-lobe throughout very 
concave, towards the summit bent inward ; lower calyx- 
lobes ascending, very narrow ; lateral petals minute ; 
pollen powdery. Orthoceras. 1785 

Leaf one, nearly always cordate-orbicular. 

Younger tube distant from the older ; leaf basal, almost or 
quite sessile or rarely long-stalked and lanceolar, always 
membranous ; flower singly terminal, on a very short 
stalk or sessile ; upper calyx-lobe large, very concave ; 
lower calyx-lobes and lateral petals very narrow and often 
quite short ; labellum comparatively broad, downward 
tubular; pollen powdery. Corysanthes. 1786 

443. Leaf one only 444 

Leaves more than one ... ... ... ... 449 

444. Leaf about as broad as long, very seldom elongated ... 445 

Leaf always considerably longer than broad, very 
seldom quite abbreviated ... ... ... ... 447 



90 Key to the System of 



445. Labellum papillular on the surface. 

Younger tube distant from the older ; leaf basal, cordate 
and firm, or almost lanceolar and then not simultaneously 
developed with the flowers ; some empty bracts on the 
stem; flowers one or two or when few in a raceme-like 
spike ; united stamens and style narrow ; pollen powdery. 

Lyperanthus. 1787 

Labellum almost or quite smooth ... ... ... 446 

446. Lateral petals much shorter than the calyx-lobes. 

Younger tuber close to the older; leaf basal, almost cordate, 
membranous ; empty bracts none ; flowers one, two or 
few ; stalklets very short or none ; labellum entire, with 
two adnate callosities at the base; pollen powdery. 

Acianthus. 1788 

Lateral petals about as long as the calyx-lobes. 

Young tuber close to the older; leaf basal, cordate-orbicular, 
membranous ; empty bracts none ; flowers one or two or 
few; stalklets very short or none; calyx-lobes and lateral 
petals narrow; labellum with two adnate callosities at 
the base ; pollen powdery. Cyrtostylis. 1789 

447. Labellum densely beset on its surface with minute 

hairlets. 

Younger tuber close to the older; leaf often basal and small, 
somewhat or considerably longer than broad ; empty 
bracts none or rarely one ; flowers one or two or few, 
seldom many; lower calyx-lobes dilated, petaloid ; pollen 
powdery. Figure 113. Eriochilus. 1790 

Labellum beset on its surface with stalked glandules 
or narrow callosities or when smooth provided with 
two erect basal appendages ... ... ... ... 448 

448. Labellum beset with stalked and often also seriated 

glandules or callosities. 

Younger tuber usually close to the older ; leaf considerably 
or very much longer than broad ; flowers one or two or 
few ; stalklets generally conspicuous ; empty bracts 
usually one only ; calyx-lobes and lateral petals often 
similar to each other ; united stamens and style dilated ; 
pollen powdery. Caladenia. 1791 



Victorian Plants. 91 



Labellum unprovided with glands and callosities, but 
producing one or two elongated appendages. 

Younger tuber distant from the older; leaf very much longer 
than broad; empty bract one; stalklets very short; flowers 
one or two ; calyx-lobes and lateral petals much alike ; 
labellum often downy towards the base ; united stamens 
and style dilated ; pollen powdery. Glossodia. 1798 

449. Calyx-lobes and petals quite disconnected. 

Younger tuber distant from the older ; leaves always two, 
basal, considerably longer than broad, membranous ; 
flower one ; empty bract none ; stalklet sometimes very 
much elongated ; lower calyx-lobes narrow ; surface of 
the labellum beset with tubercular callosities ; pollen 
powdery. Chiloglottis. 1799 

Upper calyx-lobe broad, somewhat arched, downward 
concave and connate with the lateral petals. 

Younger tuber close to the older ; leaves several, mem- 
branous; flowers nearly always greenish, seldom somewhat 
reddish or brownish ; lower calyx-lobes much connate ; 
labellum narrow, basally either protracted or appendi- 
culated, spontaneously jerking on touch, often enclosed ; 
pollen powdery. Pterostylis. 1800 

HYDXtOCHARXDEAE. 

450. Flowers large. 

Freshwater-plants ; leaves large, broad, all basal, often 
conspicuously stalked ; flowers singly enclosed in a calyx- 
like often long stalked solitary involucre, the latter 
formed of connate bracteoles ; calyx-lobes always three, 
of herbaceous texture ; petals three, large ; stamens 
and pistils in the same flowers ; stamens six or more ; 
stigmas many; fruit succulent, large; seeds very numerous. 
Figure 115. Ottelia. 1817 

Flowers small ... ... ... ... ... 451 

451. Pistillate flowers singly terminal on very long spirally 

twisted stalks. 

Freshwater -plant ; leaves all basal, much elongated, narrow, 
membranous ; staminate and pistillate flowers distinct ; 
the staminate flowers minute, crowded, short-stalked, 
with one to three stamens, the pistillate flowers within 
connate bracteoles ; petals absent ; stigmas three ; ovulary 
one-celled ; fruit narrow ; seeds many. Vallisneria. 1818 



92 Key to the System of 



Pistillate flowers singly sessile ... ... 452 

452. Leaves opposite. 

Oceanic plants ; leaves small ; flowers between distinct 
bracteoles axillary ; the staminate flowers distinct from 
the pistillate ; calyx-tube of the latter very much 
narrowed towards the summit; petals absent; stamens 
three ; stigmas three ; fruit small ; seeds many. 

Halophila. 1819 

Leaves mostly in whorls. 

Freshwater-plant ; leaves short ; flowers between connate 
bracteoles axillary ; the staminate flowers distinct from 
the pistillate ; calyx-tube of the latter very narrow 
towards the summit ; petals present ; stamens three to 
nine ; stigmas usually three to six ; fruit small ; seeds 
few or many. (Hydrilla.) Elodea. 1820 



IRXDEAE. 

453. Lobes of calyx petaloid, usually about as large as the 

petals. 

Root fibrous, sometimes creeping ; leaves often narrow ; 
clusters of flowers more than one ; calyx-lobes blue, 
white or yellowish ; petals usually similar to the calyx- 
lobes ; stamens three ; style shorter than the stamens ; 
stigmas three, narrow ; fruit often exserted beyond the 
bracts. Sisyrinchium. 1821 

Lobes of calyx petaloid, considerably or very much 
larger than the petals ... 454 

454. Stamens three. 

Root fibrous ; leaves always narrow ; cluster of flowers 
singly terminal ; general outer bract large, clasping ; 
calyx-lobes blue, rarely yellow ; petals minute ; style 
longer than the stamens ; stigmas three, broad ; fruits 
enclosed. Figure 114. Fatersouia. 1823 

Stamens two. 

Root fibrous ; leaves sometimes rather broad ; cluster of 
flowers often only one ; general outer bract large, clasp- 
ing ; one of the calyx-lobes larger than the two other ; 
petals somewhat shorter than the calyx-lobes and as well 
as these white or tinged with blue and yellow ; style 
longer than the stamens ; stigmas three, broad ; fruit 
exserted ; seeds flat. Diplarrhena. 1826 



Victorian Plants. 



AIVIARYLLIDEAE. 

455. Stamens connate. 

Bulbous plants ; leaves narrow ; flowering stem sometimes 
developed before the leaves ; flowers rather small, um- 
bellate ; calyx-lobes petaloid ; petals similar to the calyx- 
lobes ; fruit rather succulent, indehiscent, usually one- 
seeded. Calostemma. 1827 

Stamens disconnected ... ... ... ... 456 

456. Tube of the calyx much longer than the fruit. 

Bulbous lily-like plants ; leaves much elongated ; flowers 
whitish, usually very large and umbellate; calyx-lobes 
quite petaloid; petals similar to the calyx -lobes; stamens 
curved downwards ; fruit somewhat succulent, tardily 
and irregularly ruptured ; seeds few or one, often resem- 
bling small bulbs. Figure 116. Crimini. 1828 

Tube of calyx as long as the fruit. 

Bulbous plants ; leaves often narrow ; flowers solitary or 
two together or few in racemes or umbels, usually rather 
small ; calyx-lobes semipetaloid ; petals similar to the 
calyx-lobes, often yellow inside ; fruit hardly or tardily 
dehiscent, small, many-seeded. Hypoxis. 1829 

XiXXiXACBAX:. 

457. Style three-cleft 458 

Style undivided ... .. ... ... ... 465 

458. Tall climbers or twiners 459 

Erect or spreading plants ... ... ... ... 460 

459. Flowers in umbels. 

Tendrils often present; leaves broad, net-venuled; staminate 
and pistillate flowers on separate plants ; sepals distinct ; 
petals similar to the sepals ; fruit succulent, indehiscent, 
one- or two-seeded. Figure 117. " Sarsaparilla. " 

Sxnilax. 1830 

Flowers in racemes. 

Tendrils absent ; leaves broad, net-venuled ; stamens and 
pistils in the same flowers ; sepals distinct ; petals similar 
to the sepals ; fruit succulent, indehiscent, one- or two- 
seeded. Rhipogonum. 1831 



94 Key to the System of 



460. All flowers provided with stamens and pistils . ... 461 

Staminate and pistillate flowers mostly or entirely on 
separate plants ... ... ... ... ... 463 

461. Fruit succulent, indehiscent. 

Erect herbs ; root creeping ; leaves rather broad, in two 
rows ; flowers axillary, either solitary or two together ; 
sepals distinct ; petals similar to the sepals ; fruit many- 
seeded, outside blue or orange-colored. Drymophila. 1832 

Fruit dry, dehiscent 462 

462. Leaves broad. 

Erect or rarely spreading herbs ; root fibrous ; flowers ter- 
minal, solitary or few together ; sepals distinct, petaloid ; 
petals similar to the sepals, both bent inwards along the 
margin before expansion ; fruit dehiscent between the 
dissepiments ; seeds many, provided with an appendage. 

Schelhammera. 1833 

Leaves very narrow. 

Erect plant ; root fascicular-fibrous ; flowers in a terminal 
umbel ; sepals distinct, petaloid ; petals similar to the 
sepals, both bent inward along the margin before expan- 
sion ; fruit dehiscent at the dissepiments. 

Burchardia. 1834 

463. Root bulbous. 

Small plants ; leaves very narrow ; flowers spicate or 
solitary; sepals petaloid, distinct or somewhat connate with 
the petals and similar to them; fruit dehiscent between the 
dissepiments ; seeds many. Figure 118. Wurmbea. 1835 

Root thick, producing strong fibres ... ... ... 464 

464. Leaves rather soft, somewhat succulent. 

Perennial plants, often alpine, generally beset with white 
silky vestiture ; leaves mostly basal, rather or quite 
narrow ; flowers crowded or in paniculate racemes ; sepals 
distinct ; petals similar ; fruit succulent, indehiscent. 

Astelia. 1836 

Leaves rather hard, almost dry. 

Dwarf or rather tall plants, always perennial ; leaves 
narrow, rigid ; flowers usually very small ; sepals and 
petals often connate towards the base, persistent ; 
filaments capillary, smooth ; anthers bilobed ; fruit three- 
seeded ; outer seed-membrane (testa) pale. Xerotes. 1837 



Victorian Plants. 95 



465. Flowers extremely numerous, sessile, crowded into a 

dense cylindrical spike. 

Erect usually robust plants ; leaves narrow, very long and 
rigid, comparatively thick ; stamens and pistils in the 
same flowers; sepals glume-like, rigid; petals membranous ; 
filaments smooth and capillary ; fruit very rigid, dry, 
dehiscent, few-seeded. " Grasstrees." 

Xanthorrhoea. 1843 

Flowers provided with stalklets or when sessile dis- 
persed or clustered ... ... ... ... ... 466 

466. Tall climbers or twiners 467 

Erect or rarely spreading plants or very seldom small 
twiners ... ... ... ... ... ... 468 

467. Petals fringed. 

Leaves broad or narrow, densely streaked from longitudinal 
venules ; flowers mostly in fascicles ; sepals distinct ; 
filaments capillary; anthers straight; fruit succulent, 
tardily dehiscent. Eustrephus. 1844 

Petals fringeless. 

Leaves broad or narrow, densely streaked from longitudinal 
venules; flowers mostly in cymes ; sepals distinct; petals 
similar ; filaments capillary ; anthers straight ; fruit suc- 
culent, tardily dehiscent. Geitonoplesium. 1845 

468. Filaments tumid or bearded 469 

Filaments capillary and smooth ... ... ... 473 

469. Filaments tumid. 

Rigid plants, rather tall ; root somewhat creeping ; leaves 
long, generally basal, often rather narrow ; flowers pani- 
culated ; sepals distinct, petaloid ; petals similar to the 
sepals, with them generally blue ; anthers straight, 
opening by pores ; fruit succulent, indehiscent, often blue 
outside. Dianella. 1846 

Filaments bearded ... ... ... ... ... 470 



96 Key to the System of 



470. Fruit somewhat succulent. 

Rather succulent plants ; leaves narrow ; flowers in racemes ; 
sepals distinct ; petals similar to the sepals, with them 
generally yellow and remaining straight, deciduous; fruit 
dehiscent, lobeless, few-seeded. Bulbine. 1849 

Fruit dry ... ... ... ... ... ... 471 

471. Fruit consisting of three one-seeded indehiscent fruit- 

lets, one or two sometimes failing. 

Plants rather dwarf ; root fascicular-fibrous ; flowers in 
terminal umbels ; sepals and petals rather persistent, 
spirally twisted after flowering. Tricoryne. 1850 

Fruit dehiscent, lobeless, many-seeded ... ... 472 

472. Anthers soon revolute. 

Plants rather tall ; root creeping ; leaves narrow, rigid ; 
umbels or corymbs often paniculated ; sepals and petals 
similar to each other, persistent, both remaining almost 
straight ; seeds much compressed. Stypandra. 1851 

Anthers remaining straight. 

Root-fibres tuberously thickened ; leaves narrow, flaccid ; 
flowers in a simple or compound raceme ; petals often 
somewhat fringed ; sepals and petals persistent, both 
remaining almost straight ; seeds turgid, angular. 

Art hr op odium. 1852 

473. Petals much fringed. 

Plants seldom tall ; root -fibres often tuberously thickened ; 
flowers umbellate or few together; sepals and petals rather 
persistent, twisted after flowering, pink or purplish ; 
stamens bent downward, three or six, and then unequal; 
anthers unchanging in form; fruit dry, dehiscent, 
lobeless; seeds provided with an appendage. " Fringe - 
lilies." Figure 119. Thysanotus. 1855 

Petals fringeless 474 

474. Stems branchless or hardly branched... ... ... 475 

Stems well branched ... ... 478 



Victorian Plants. 97 



475. Flower solitary. 

Dwarf alpine plant ; root creeping ; leaves narrow ; flowers 
comparatively large ; sepals petaloid ; petals similar to the 
sepals ; anthers remaining straight ; fruit dry, dehiscent. 

Herpolirion. 1858 

Flowers several or many in the inflorescence ... 476 

476. Pollen-bearing anthers three. 

Leaves narrow, all basal ; root fascicular-fibrous ; flowers in 
a terminal umbel ; sepals petaloid ; petals similar to the 
sepals, pink ; anthers deeply bilobed ; fruit dry, dehiscent, 
few-seeded. Scwerbaea. 1859 

Pollen-bearing anthers six ... ... ... ... 477 

477. Fruit slightly three-lobed, few-seeded. 

Plants never tall, often somewhat branched; root-fibres 
tuberously thickened ; sepals and petals rather persistent, 
spirally twisted after flowering, blue or pale ; fruit dry, 
dehiscent ; seeds turgid, provided with a conspicuous 
appendage. Caesia. 1860 

Fruit conspicuously three-lobed, many-seeded. 

Dwarf plants; root-fibres tuberously thickened; leaves broad- 
linear, all basal, flaccid ; flowers in a terminal simple or 
compound corymb ; sepals and petals twisted after flower- 
ing, blue or exceptionally white ; anthers at last semi- 
circularly curved ; fruit dry, dehiscent ; seeds much 
compressed, without any conspicuous appendage. 

Chamaescilla. 1861 

478. Sepals and petals spirally twisted after flowering. 

Perennial rather tall plants, much branched ; leaves rudi- 
mentary or early evanescent ; flowers small, interruptedly 
spicate or dispersed ; sepals and petals rather persistent, 
pale, disconnected ; fruit dry, consisting usually of a 
solitary fruitlet, with one or two seeds ; seeds turgid, with 
a conspicuous appendage. Corynotheca. 1862 

Sepals and petals remaining straight ... ... ... 479 

479. Sepals and petals disconnected. 

Perennial dwarf plants ; root-fibres thin ; leaves rigid, very 
narrow, often tufted ; flowers small, in clusters or head- 
lets ; sepals and petals similar, both persistent, almost 
white or pale-reddish ; fruit dry, dehiscent ; seeds few, 
without any appendage. Bartlingia. 1863 



98 Key to the System of 



Sepals and petals connate towards the base. 

Harsh and ramified plants, not very tall ; root-fibres thin ; 
leaves very small, crowded on the branches, aciculate- 
linear ; flowers singly terminal ; sepals and petals similar 
to each other, upwards disconnected, rigid, pure-blue or 
violet, shining, persistent, unshriveling ; anthers opening 
by pores ; fruit dry, indehiscent, one-seeded. 

Calectasia. 1864 

AXiXSTCACEAE. 

480. Fruitlets hardly pointed, narrow at the base. 

Semiaquatic herbs, usually erect ; leaves basal ; ovule one ; 
fruitlets circularly arranged. Alisma. 1865 

Fruitlets pungently pointed, broadly connate at the 
base. 

Semiaquatic herbs, usually erect ; leaves basal ; ovules two 
or more ; fruitlets circularly arranged. Figure 121. 

Dainasoniiun. 1866 

FHXXiHYDREAE. 

481. Anther coiled. 

Rather tall plant, beset with soft hairlets ; spike simple, 
elongated, with large bracts ; ovulary imperfectly three- 
celled. Fhilhydrum. 1867 

XYRXDEAE. 

482. Outer sepal petaloid. 

Erect mostly perennial plants ; leaves basal, very narrow, 
often rigid ; flowers capitulate or spicate ; inner sepals 
glumaceous; lobes of the corolla yellow; style three- cleft, 
without basal appendages. Figure 122. Xyris. 1868 

TYPKACEAE. 

483. Flowers crowded into dense cylindrical spikes. 

Upper spike with staminate flowers ; lower spike with 
pistillate flowers, both solitary; bracts and sepals hairlike; 
fruits minute. "Reed-Mace." Typha. 1869 

Flowers crowded into several globular clusters. 

Upper clusters staminate, lower pistillate ; bracts and sepals 
scale -like ; fruits rather conspicuous, often turgid. 

Sparganium. 1870 



Victorian Plants. 99 



LEMNACEAE. 

484. Roots capillary. 

Flower from a marginal fissure of the frond, supported by 

a bract; anther two-celled. Lemna. 1871 

Rootless. 

Flower from a surface-cavity of the frond, unsupported by 

any bract; anther one-celled. Wolffia. 1874 

FX.nVIAX.BS. 

485. Flowers in spikes or racemes or clusters ... ... 486 

Flowers dispersed ... ... ... ... ... 490 

486. Sepals present ... ... 487 

Sepals absent ... ... ... ... ... 489 

487. Fruitlets three or six. 

Semiaquatic or terrestrial plants ; leaves always radical 
and variously narrow; flowers in spikes or racemes; bracts 
none; stamens and pistils in the same flowers; sepals and 
petals each usually three, bract-like; ovularies six; perfect 
fruitlets six or three, rarely two or four, coherent, finally 
seceding, unprovided with stipites. Triglochin. 1875 



Fruitlets four or one 



488. Fruitlets four. 

Aquatic plants; leaves along the branches, broad or variously 
narrow ; flowers in spikes, rarely almost in headlets or 
clusters; sepals two and petals two, small, all bract-like ; 
stamens and pistils each four, in the same flowers; anthers 
much bilobed; stigmas sessile; fruitlets very small, sessile, 
almost disconnected. Fotamogeton. 1878 

Fruitlet one. 

Oceanic plants; leaves along the branches, elongated, narrow; 
flowers in spikes; sepals three, bract -like ; stamens and 
pistils in the same flowers; stamens three or four; anthers 
almost sessile, much exceeded by the connective ; stigmas 
sessile ; fruitlet large, indehiscent, unprovided with a 
stipes. Posidonia. 1886 



100 Key to the System of 



489. Fruitlets normally four, each provided with a long 

thin stalk-like stipes. 

Aquatic plants ; leaves along the branches, always very 
narrow, alternating ; flowers in spikes or almost headlets, 
or few or two, at or near the upper end of a threadlike 
often much elongated and spirally twisted stalk ; bracts, 
sepals and petals absent ; stamens and pistils in the same 
flowers ; stamens two ; anthers much bilobed ; stigma 
almost sessile, undivided ; fruitlets four, very small, 
oblique. Ruppia. 188T 

Fruitlets spikelike arranged within the lower portion 
of a clasping floral leaf. 

Oceanic plants ; leaves along the branches, always narrow, 
alternating ; flower-spikes unilateral ; sepals and petals 
none ; stamens and pistils in distinct flowers ; stamen 
one ; anther sessile ; stigmas two, capillary ; fruitlets 
single. "Grass-Wrack." Zostera* 1888 

490. Fruit simple. 

Aquatic plants ; stem slender ; leaves along the branches, 
constantly narrow, often opposite ' ( or whorled and den- 
ticulated ; flowers solitary, axillary ; stamens and pistils 
in distinct flowers ; calyx small, somewhat tubular, very 
tender ; stamen one ; anther sessile ; stigmas two to four ; 
ovule one ; fruit often connate with the calyx. 

Najas. 1889 

Fruit compound ... ... ... -. ... 491 

491. Leaves threadlike-linear. 

Aquatic plants, always very slender ; leaves along the 
branches ; flowers within a clasping bract ; calyx quite 
minute, three-lobed ; stamens and pistils in distinct 
flowers ; stamens three ; anthers connate ; style elon- 
gated ; stigma one ; fruitlets three, on short stalklets. 
Figure 120. (Lepilaena.) Althenia. 1890 

Leaves often broad-linear. 

Oceanic plants ; leaves alternate or crowded in two rows, 
always narrow ; flowers solitary, within the clasping 
base of a leaf ; stamens and pistils in distinct flowers ; 
stamens two, quite connate ; anthers narrow, four-celled ; 
united filaments elongated or abbreviated ; ovularies two, 
disconnected ; ovule one ; style ending in a bifid stigma ; 
fruitlets two, small. Cymodocea. 1891 



Victorian Plants. 101 






FALB1AE. 

492. Pistils three, disconnected. 

Palms, either tall or dwarf, longeval ; stem unarmed ; leaf- 
stalks often producing spines along the margin ; general 
bracts (spathae) large, clasping ; leaves terminal, almost 
orbicular or fan-shaped ; panicules of spikes from among 
the leaves; flowers very small; sepals three, disconnected; 
petals three, contiguous before expansion, connate at the 
base ; stamens and pistils in the same flowers ; stamens 
six, disconnected ; one rarely more of the fruitlets de- 
veloped ; albument of seed laterally hollowed. "Native 
Fan-Palm." Livistona. 1892 



JUNCEAB. 

493. Fruit three-seeded. 

Plants beset with hairlets ; leaves always grass-like. 

luzula. 1893 

Fruit many-seeded. 

Plants always glabrous; leaves rarely grass-like, often stem- 

like or absent. Figure 123. Juncus. 1894 



ERXOCAUIiEAE. 

494. Anthers two-celled. 

Plants often small and annual ; leaves nearly always 
basal ; involucrating bracts appressed ; style without 
appendages. Eriocaulon. 1905 

RESTIACBAE. 

495. Minute bisexual plants, mostly annual ... ... 496 

Rush- or sedge-like plants, nearly always unisexual 
and perennial ... ... ... ... 498 

496. Flowers in a depressed capitular cluster. 

Cluster surrounded by several transparent bracts ; floral 
bracts none ; sepals and petals absent ; stamens and 
pistils placed together ; stamen one ; anther two-celled ; 
stigmas two or oftener three ; fruit one-celled, dehiscent 
with three slits. Trithuria. 1906 

Flowers in a single spikelet ... ... ... ... 497 



102 Key to the System of 



497. Spikelet somewhat elongated, producing biseriate floral 

bracts. 

Sepals and petals absent ; stamens and pistils placed to- 
gether ; stamen one ; anther one-celled ; stigma one ; 
fruit one-celled, dehiscent with one slit. Aphelia. 1907 

Spikelet abbreviated to a fascicle. 

Flowers sometimes reduced to two or one ; sepals and petals 
absent ; stamens and pistils placed together ; stamen one ; 
anther one-celled ; fruit one-celled, dehiscent with one 
slit. Ceutrolepis. 1908 

498. Flowers all dispersed. 

Sepals and .petals present ; stamens three ; stigmas three ; 

fruit three-celled, dehiscent. Lepyrodia. 1912 

Flowers all in spikelets or the pistillate flowers 
solitary ... ...499 

499. Fruit two- or three-celled. 

Spikelets usually in panicles ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers in distinct spikelets ; sepals and petals present ; 
stamens three ; stigmas two or three ; fruit dehiscent. 

Bestio. 1914: 

Fruit one-celled 500 

500. Fruit dehiscent. 

Spikelets several or many, usually in panicles ; sepals and 
petals present ; stamens generally three ; stigmas three. 

Leptocarpus. 1917 

Fruit indehiscent 501 

501. Stigmas two or three. 

Stems and branches often twisted or curled ; pistillate 
spikelets one-flowered ; sepals and petals present ; stamens 
three. Figure 124. Calostrophus. 1918 

Stigma one. 

Stems erect, unbranched ; clasping leafstalks very de- 
ciduous ; spikelets often singly terminal, all with more 
than one flower ; sepals and petals present ; stamens 
three. Lepidobolus. 1919 



Victorian Plants. 103 



CYFER,ACEAE. 

502. Fruit one only in each spikelet ... ... ... 503 

Fruits more than one in each spikelet ... 511 

503. Floral bracts arranged fascicularly. 

Spikelets changed into fascicles and crowded into a sessile 
globular infra-terminal cluster ; several of the involucral 
bracts empty; the two outermost floral bracts of each 
spikelet opposite, navicular ; stamens six or more in each 
spikelet, every stamen supported by a floral bract ; pistil 
central, solitary ; stigmas two or three ; fruit longi- 
tudinally streaked by several prominent lines. 

Chorizandra. 1920 

Floral bracts forming one or more rows ... 504 

504. Bracts few, forming one imperfect row or reduced to 

two in number ... ... ... ... 505 

Bracts in more than one row... ... ... ... 506 

505. Spikelet one, terminal, rarely accompanied by another. 

Alpine dwarf plants, forming dense patches ; leaves 
crowded into two rows, short, rigid, pointed ; spikelets 
producing only one flower ; bracts two or three, rarely 
four ; sepals three and petals three, changed into scale- 
like organs ; stamens three ; style thin throughout ; 
stigmas three. Oreobolus. 1921 

Spikelets few or several. 

Spikelets producing two flowers, one of them only pistil- 
late ; bracts usually four ; sepals and petals changed 
into long bristlets ; stamens generally two ; base of style 
enlarged, long persistent ; stigmas three. 

Cyatochaete. 1922 

506. Bracts in few spiral rows ... 507 

Bracts in two straight rows ... ... ... ... 509 

507. Branches mostly flexuous or revolute. 

Rigid plants of restiaceous aspect; leaves only rudimentary; 
spikelets singly terminating the branches, producing two 
flowers, only one of them pistillate ; bracts six or fewer ; 
stamens three to six ; base of style much enlarged, per- 
sistent ; stigmas three. Oaustis. 1923 



104 Key to the System of 



Branches almost straight or absent ... 508 

508. Rudimentary sepals and petals absent. 

Spikelets producing two or few flowers, usually only one 
fruit-bearing ; stamens three to six ; stigmas three, 
generally undivided. (Cladium.) Gahiiia. 1925 

Rudimentary sepals and petals present. 

Spikelets producing two or few flowers, one only fruit- 
bearing ; bracts several ; sepals and petals minute, scale- 
like, firm, generally pointed ; stamens usually three ; 
stigmas always three, undivided. Figure 125. 

Lepidosperma. 1938 

509. Rudimentary sepals and petals abbreviated, scale-like. 

Spikelet always singly terminal, producing two flowers, 
only one of them pistillate ; stamens three ; style equally 
thin, jointed on the fruit ; stigmas three. 

Lepidospora. 1952 

Rudimentary sepals and petals elongated or absent ... 510 

510. Rudimentary sepals and petals elongated, plumous. 

Alpine plant ; spikelets more than one, each producing one 
flower only ; bracts about six ; stamens three ; style-base 
enlarged, persistent. Carpha. 1953 

Rudimentary sepals and petals absent. 

Spikelets more than one, producing one or two flowers, 
usually only one pistillate; bracts only three or four; 
stamens three or fewer ; style thin throughout ; stigmas 
always two ; fruit biangular, dropping within the two 
upper deciduous bracts. Kyllingia. 1954 

511. Bracts in two straight rows ... ... ... ... 512 

Bracts in several spiral rows ... ... ... ... 513 

512. All bracts fruit-bearing, except one or two of the 

lowest. 

Spikelets with few, several or many flowers ; stamens and 
pistil in each flower ; stamens three or less ; style thin 
throughout; stigmas two or three; fruit bi- or tri-angular, 
each dropping from its solitary bract. Cyperus. 1955 



Victorian. Plants. 105 



Few or only two of the bracts fruit-bearing. 

Spikelets nearly always more than one; floral axis (rhacheole) 
conspicuously flexuous ; flowers usually all pistillate ; 
empty lower bracts generally more than two ; sepals and 
petals replaced by bristlets or absent ; stamens usually 
three ; style equally thin ; stigmas three ; fruits rarely 
reduced to one in its spikelet. Schoenus. 1967 

513. Only one floral bract to each flower ... ... ... 514 

Two inner either connate or disconnected bracts to 
each pistillate flower in addition to the ordinary 
floral bract .. ... ... ... ... ... 516 

514. Style thin throughout. 

Leaves often well developed ; spikelets nearly always more 
than one, often lateral or infra-terminal ; all flowers 
staminate and pistillate ; usually only the lowest bract 
empty ; stamens three or less ; stigmas two or three. 

Scirpus. 1977 
Base of style enlarged ... ... ... ... 515 

515. Style-base continuous with the fruit, persistent. 

Leaves never well developed ; spikelets always singly 
terminal, unsupported by any floral leaf ; all flowers 
staminate and pistillate ; usually only the lowest bract 
empty ; sepals and petals changed into bristlets, rarely 
absent ; stamens three or less ; stigmas two or three. 

Keleocharis. 1989 

Style-base jointed on the fruit, finally deciduous. 

Leaves nearly always well developed ; spikelets generally 
more than one, terminal ; all flowers staminate and 
pistillate ; usually only the lowest bract empty ; rudi- 
mentary sepals and petals absent ; stamens three or less ; 
stigmas two or three. Pimbristylis. 1992 

516. Inner floral bracts two, disconnected. 

Spikelets generally more than one, terminally crowded, to 
be regarded as spikes on assuming the inner sepal-like 
organs to be bracteal, not calycine ; all flowers staminate 
and pistillate ; usually only the lowest bract empty ; 
stamens two or one ; style thin throughout ; stigmas two 
or three. Lipocarpha. 1995 

Inner floral bract forming an utricular almost closed 
covering around the fruit ... ... ... ... 517 



106 Key to the System of 



517. Ehacheole accessory to the fruit absent or rudimentary. 

Spikes or spikelets one or often more, sometimes abbreviated 
almost to clusters or headlets ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers separate, each of the latter representing a much 
reduced spikelet; utricular covering calyx-like, either con- 
sisting of one clasping bract, highly connate along its edges, 
or formed of two bracts completely connate except at the 
bidenticulated summit ; stamens usually three. Carex. 1996 

Rhacheole accessory to the fruit elongated, exserted 
and hooked. 

Spike always one, terminal ; staminate and pistillate flowers 
separate ; rhacheole bare, rigid ; utricular covering as in 
Carex ; stamens usually three. Uncinia. 2014 

QRAIttlNEAE. 

518. Fruit (grain) one in each spikelet. (Exception : Panicum, 

section Isachne) ... ... ... ... ... 519 

Fruits more than one in each spikelet ... ... 546 

519. Bracts more than three ... ... ... ... 520 

Bracts three ... ... ... ... ... ... 534 

520. Spikelets jointed above the lower bracts ... ... 521 

Spikelets jointed below the lower bracts ... ... 524 

521. Two bracts between the fruit-supporting and the two 

lowest bracts ... ... ... ... ... 522 

No bracts between the fruit-supporting and the two 
lowest bracts ... 523 

522. The two bracts next to the two lowest bearing stamens. 

Odorous grasses ; spikelets arranged in a panicle ; bracts 
shining, membranous, transparent ; stamens three ; fruit 
free within its bracts, but retained by them. 

Hierochloa. 2016 

The two bracts next to the two lowest empty. 

Spikelets arranged in a panicle or in a raceme or a spike, 
awnless or with one awn ; bracts firm, opaque ; stamens 
six or four or rarely two. Figure 126. 

(Tetrarrhena. ) Ehrharta. 2017 



Victorian Plants. 107 



523. Spikelets arranged in a very slender cylindrical spike. 

Spikelets seated alternately in excavations of the rhachis, 
awnless ; lowest bracts rigid ; stamens three. 

Lepturas. 2020 

Spikelets arranged in a dense spikelike panicle. 

Fruit-supporting bracts ending in nine or more somewhat 
plumous almost equal minute awns ; keel-like prominence 
none ; stamens usually three. Pappophomm. 2021 

524. Spikelets provided with an awn on one or more of the 

flower-bearing bracts ... ... ... ... 525 

Spikelets awnless or one or more awns on the lowest 
bracts or on the rhachis or rhacheoles ... ... 527 

525. Spikelets all pistillate. 

Spikelets arranged by pairs in spikelike panicles, one sessile, 
the other on a stalklet, all invested with long and soft 
hairlets ; stamens three or two. Erianthus. 2022 



Spikelets partly pistillate ... ... ... ... 526 



526. One or two non-pistillate spikelets supporting one 

fruit-bearing spikelet. 

Spikelets arranged either in a panicle or in one or more 

spikes ; stamens three. Aiidropogon. 2023 

Several non-pistillate spikelets supporting one fruit- 
bearing spikelet. 

Spikelets fascicular-clustered, the clusters arranged in a 
leafy panicle or solitary ; stamens three. 

Anthistiria. 2031 

527. Lowest bracts densely beset with long soft hairlets. 

Spikelets arranged by pairs in a dense spikelike panicle; 
branchlets of the panicle unjointed ; all bracts awnless ; 
stamens one or two. Imperata. 2032 

All bracts smooth or beset with very short hairlets... 52& 



108 Key to the System of 



528. Spikelets immersed into the notches of the rhachis of 



Spikelets arranged in compressed almost sessile spikes, 
seated by alternate pairs in excavations of the rhachis, 
one spikelet in each pair fertile and sessile, the other 
sterile with adnate stalklet ; all bracts awnless and 
smooth ; stamens three. Hemarthria. 2033 

Spikelets emersed ... ... ... ... 529 

529. Lowest bract longer than the next. 

Spikelets solitary on their stalklet, arranged in a raceme- 
like spike; all bracts awnless; lowest bract keeled, smooth, 
hardened ; stamens three. Zoysia. 2034 

Lowest bract shorter than the next ... ... ... 530 

530. Spikelets crowded into pungently foliaceous headlike- 

fascicular clusters. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers mainly on separate plants, 
the staminate spikelets spicate, the pistillate spikelets 
solitary and accompanied by one staminate or neuter 
flower ; rhachis elongated, spinescent ; all bracts awn- 
less ; fruit -supporting bract hardened. Spinif ex. 2035 

Spikelets arranged in a spike or panicle ... ... 531 

531. Spikelets surrounded by bristlets. 

Spikelets generally arranged in a spike-like almost cylin- 
drical panicle, always small, jointed above the persistent 
involucre ; all bracts awnless, smooth ; stamens three. 

Setaria. 2036 

Spikelets without any surrounding bristlets ... ... 532 

532. Lowest empty bract conspicuously awned. 

Spikelets arranged in somewhat paniculate and unilateral 

clusters, always small ; stamens three. OplismeilUS. 2037 

Lowest empty bract awnless ... ... ... ... 533 

533. The second of the two empty bracts about as large 

as the third, and usually somewhat exceeding the 
firm fruit-supporting bract. 

Spikelets arranged in a panicle or in often unilateral spikes, 
always small, those of some species (Isachne) producing 
two fruits ; fruit-bearing flower accompanied by a 
staminate or sterile flower ; stamens three. Panicum. 2038 



Victorian Plants. 109 



The second of the two empty bracts much larger 
than either the third or the tender-membranous 
fruit-supporting bract. 

Spikelets arranged in a single cylindrical spike ; the second 
or both the lowest bracts conspicuously ciliolated; stamens 
three. Neurachne. 2053 

534. Spikelets jointed below the lowest bracts 535 

Spikelets jointed above the lowest bracts ... ... 537 

535. Inflorescence beset with short prickles. 

Spikelets three to five together on a common jointed short 
stalk, and these clusters arranged in a spike ; all bracts 
awnless ; lowest bracts hardened and prickly ; stamens 
three. Tragus. 2055 

Inflorescence smooth or beset with soft hairlets ... 536 

536. Outer bracts disconnected. 

Spikelets arranged in an unilateral spike, always small; 
bracts often pointed ; lowest bract nearly as long as the 
next ; stalklets very callous at the summit j stamens three. 

Eriochloa. 2056 

Outer bracts connate towards the base. 

Spikelets arranged in a paniculate spike ; covering bract 
absent ; fruit-supporting bract pointed or short-awned ; 
stamens three. Alopecurus. 2057 

537. Spikelets arranged in a cluster or panicle or spike ... 538 
Spikelets arranged in unitedly terminal spikes ... 545 

538. Fruit soon dropping from its bracts. 

Spikelets arranged in an ample or spike-like panicle, always 

very small ; stamens three or two. Sporobolus. 2058 

Fruit retained by its bracts ... ... ... 539 

539. Spikelets with three or five conspicuous awns ... 540 
Spikelets with one awn or almost awnless ... ... 542 



110 Key to the System of 



540. Spikelets with five awns. 

Spikelets rather large, in a panicle ; fruit-supporting bract 
terminated by one long and four small or minute awns ; 
stamens three. Fentapogon. 2060 

Spikelets with three awns ... ... 541 

541. Covering bract longer than the fruit-supporting bract. 

Spikelets quite large, in a panicle ; fruit-supporting bract 
terminated by three awns, the middle one much elongated 
and twisted ; stamens three. Aiiisopogon. 2061 

Covering bract shorter than the fruit-supporting bract. 

Spikelets generally rather large, in a spreading or con- 
tracted or sometimes raceme-like panicle ; fruit-support- 
ing bract terminated by three disunited or downward 
connate awns ; stamens three. Aristida. 2062 

542. Spikelets long-awned. 

Panicle spreading or contracted ; flowers usually rather 
large ; awn terminal, valid ; stamens generally three. 

(Dichelachne.) Stipa. 2066 

Spikelets short-awned or awnless ... ... ... 543 

543. Fruit-supporting bract terminated by three minute 

awns. 

Panicle generally spike-like ; covering bract minutely two- 

awned ; stamens three. Amphipogon. 2076 

Fruit-supporting bract terminated by one small awn 
or awnless ... ... ... ... ... ... 544 

544. Awn terminal. 

Panicle contracted into an headlet or a cluster ; flowers 
small ; awn from between the two minute pointed lobes 
of the fruit-supporting bract, very slender. 

Echiiiopogon. 2077 

Awn dorsal or absent. 

Panicle spreading or contracted, not rarely spike-like; 

flowers always small ; awn very slender. Agrostis. 2078 



Victorian Plants. Ill 



545. Spikelets awned. 

Spikelets unilateral, biseriate ; fruit- supporting bract 
comparatively small, terminated by a short awn and 
upwards succeeded by minutely awned empty bracts ; 
stamens three. Chloris. 2088 

Spikelets awnless. 

Spikelets unilateral, biseriate ; fruit-supporting bract not 
succeeded by any empty bracts ; stamens three. 

Cynodon. 2089 

546. Fruits two in each spikelet. 

Panicle of spikelets spreading or spike-like ; bracts all trans- 
parent and shining; fruit-supporting bract awned; stamens 
three ; fruit free within the covering bract. Aira. 2090 

Fruits more than two in each spikelet ... ... 547 

547. Staminate and pistillate spikelets on separate plants. 

Spikelets arranged in a spike, comparatively large ; all 
bracts awnless ; fruit- supporting bract rigid ; stamens 
three ; fruit free within its bract, but remaining enclosed. 

Distichlis. 2091 

Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same spikelets 548 

548. Spikelets regularly arranged in a spike, their sides 

turned to the rhachis. 

Spikelets alternate, much compressed ; fruit- supporting 
bract dorsally convex, usually awned or pointed ; stamens 
three ; fruit often adherent to the covering bract. 

Agropyron. 2092 

Spikelets irregularly arranged in a spike or oftener 
dispersed in a panicle .... ... ... ... 549 

549. Fruit permanently adnate to the covering bract ... 550 
Fruit free within its bracts ... ... ... ... 551 

550. Hilum of less than half the length of the fruit. 

Fruit-supporting bract usually awned; stamens three; styles 

infra-terminal ; fruit bearded at the summit. Bronius. 2094 



112 Key to the System of 



Hilum of more than half the length of the fruit. 

Fruit -supporting bract dorsally convex, pointed or awned ; 
stamens three, rarely two or one ; styles terminal ; fruit 
unbearded. Pestuca. 2095 

551. Spikelets unilaterally arranged in unitedly terminal 

or rarely dispersed spikes. 

Spikelets jointed only above the outer bracts ; all bracts 
awnless, but often pointed ; fruit-supporting bract pro- 
minently keeled ; stamens three. Eleusiiie. 2097 

Spikelets arranged in a solitary spike or cluster or 
panicle ... ... 552 

552. Fruit soon dropping from its bracts. 

Spikelets usually arranged in a panicle, between the flowers 
imperfectly jointed ; flowers much compressed ; fruit- 
supporting bract membranous, lobeless, lined with three 
venules, the middle venule somewhat carinal ; covering 
bract persistent ; stamens three or two. Eragrostis. 2098 

Fruit free, but retained by its bracts ... ... 553 

553. Spikelets awnless ... ... ... ... ... 554 

Spikelets awned ... ... ... ... 555 

554. Fruit-supporting bracts lobeless or slightly notched at 

the summit. 

Spikelets generally arranged in a panicle ; flowers much 
compressed, often beset with hairlets at the base, seldom 
numerous in their spikelet ; fruit-supporting bracts lined 
by five venules ; stamens three ; hilum much shorter than 
the fruit. Poa. 2104 

Fruit-supporting bracts three-lobed at the summit. 

Spikelets generally arranged in a panicle ; fruit-supporting 
bracts rigid, dorsally convex, lined by three venules ; 
stamens three. Triodia. 2112 

555. Fruit-supporting bracts three-awned. 

Spikelets arranged in a contracted or somewhat spreading 
panicle; rhacheole jointed bet ween all the flowers; stamens 
three. Triraphis. 2113 

Fruit-supporting bracts one-awned ... ... ... 556 



Victorian Plants. 113 



556. Clusters of spikelets spikelike-crowded. 

Flowers very small ; awns of the fruit-supporting bracts 
very short ; stamen one. Elytrophorus. 2114 

Spikelets paniculate d or simply spicated ... ... 557 

567. Inflorescence smooth. 

Spikes solitary or oftener arranged in a panicle ; fruit- 
supporting bracts membranous, bilobed at the summit; 
awn minute ; stamens three. Diplachne. 2115 

Inflorescence beset with hairlets ... ... 558 

558. Fruit-supporting bracts usually bilobed and long-awned. 

Spikelets arranged in a panicle or raceme; bracts firm; fruit- 
supporting bracts always shorter than the empty bracts, 
dorsally convex and often fascicularly bearded, lined by 
seven to nine venules ; the lobes usually pointed or short- 
awned. (Danthoinia. ) Danthonia. 2116 

Fruit-supporting bracts entire, minutely awned. 

" Reeds," often tall; spikelets arranged in an ample panicle, 
their rhacheoles beset with long and soft hairlets ; fruit- 
supporting bracts transparent ; stamens three. 

Arundo. 2121 



AC0T1ZT.EDONEAE VASCULARES. 

RHIZ.OSPERMAE. 

559. Floating minute flat plants much branched. 

Plants often somewhat reddish ; leaf -like organs in rows ; 
fruit-masses transparent, globular, axillary, sessile. 
Figure 127. Azolla. 2122 

Submersed or semiaquatic small plants ... 560 

560. Fronds stalked, their four flat segments placed cross- 

like. 

Fruit-masses hard, compressed, basal, often stalked. 
Figure 128. Marsilea. 2123 

Fronds reduced to thinly cylindrical and pointed stalk- 
like organs, without any foliaceous expansions ... 561 
i 



114 Key to the System of 



561. Creeping plants with mostly dispersed stalk -like 

organs. 

Fruit-masses globular, small, basal, sessile, hardly trans- 
parent. Pilularia. 2124 

Tufted plants with crowded stalk-like organs. 

Fruit-masses clasped by the base of the stalk-like fronds, 
transparent. Isoetes. 2125 

ZiVCOPODINAZS. 

562. Leaf-like organs basal. 

Root tuberous ; stem very short, leafless; spore-caselets in a 
spike, uniform, supported by bract-like organs, longi- 
tudinally dehiscent. Figure 131. Pliylloglossum. 2126 

Leaf-like organs along the stem and branches ... 563 

563. Spore-caselets accompanied by a second form of fructi- 

fying caselets. 

Leaf -like organs minute, often in four rows, tender ; spore- 
caselets in spikes, supported by leaf-like or bract-like 
organs. Selaginella. 2127 

Spore-caselets unaccompanied .by a second form of 
fructifying caselets ... 564 

564. Spore-caselets comparatively small, one-celled. 

Leaf -like organs small, often densely crowded and rather 
rigid ; spore-caselets longitudinally dehiscent, singly ax- 
illary or in spikes, and then supported by leaf -like or 
bract-like organs. Figure 130. Lycopodium. 2128 

Spore-caselets comparatively large, usually two-celled. 

Leaf-like organs relatively large, scattered, the upper 
bract-like and divided into two segments ; spore-caselets 
axillary, sessile, somewhat compressed, broad, two-lobed 
or exceptionally three-lobed, longitudinally dehiscent. 
Figure 129. Tmesipteris. 2133 

FXXiXCES. 

565. Spore-caselets firm, seldom very minute, almost or 

quite sessile, opening regularly by a slit ... ... 566 

Spore-caselets very minute, transparent, often on stalk- 
lets, ruptured irregularly ... ... ... ... 570 



Victorian Plants. 115 



566. Spore-caselets opening by a transverse slit ... ... 567 

Spore-caselets opening by a longitudinal or vertical 
slit 568 

567. Sterile frond solitary, often leaf-like, entire. 

Glabrous ferns, usually quite small, rarely large and then 
epiphytal, never ramified ; spore-caselets in an often 
terminal spike, biseriate, devoid of any ringlet ; bracteal 
organs absent. Ophioglossum. 2134 

Sterile frond solitary, divided into segments. 

Glabrous ferns, usually rather small or even minute ; spore- 
caselets in paniculated spikes, biseriate, devoid of any 
ringlet ; bracteal organs absent. Botrychium. 2135 

Spore-caselets terminated by a radiating ringlet. 

Small or even minute ferns; fronds or their segments always 
very narrow ; sterile fronds several, entire or divided 
into segments ; fruit-masses usually on a singly terminal 
pinnule and reaching beyond it ; pinnule beset with 
hairlets ; spore-caselets opening by a longitudinal slit on 
one side. Figure 132. Schizaea. 2136 

Spore-caselets surrounded by a transverse ringlet ... 569 

569. Spore-caselets two, three or few to each frond-segment. 

Ferns often tall, slender and dichotomously branched; 
segments of the pinnules in two rows ; fruit-masses on 
the lower side of the frond and overreached by its 
segments ; spore-caselets opening by a longitudinal slit. 
Figure 136. Gleichenia. 2137 

Spore-caselets crowded. 

Ferns either tall or big and then with thick fronds, or rather 
dwarf and then with transparent fronds ; fruit-masses on 
the lower side of dilated or much contracted frond- 
segments, usually in large patches ; spore-caselets opening 
by a longitudinal slit, partly surrounded by an imperfect 
transverse ringlet. Figure 137. (Todea.) Osmuuda. 2140 

570. Arborescent ferns with tall trunks ... ... ... 571 

Ferns from dwarf to rather tall, but without any 
arborescent trunk ... ... ... ... 573 



116 Key to the System of 



571. Fruit-cover absent. 

Ferntrees of palm-like aspect, seldom trunkless plants ; 
fruit-masses on the under side of the frond, roundish, 
emanating from a prominent receptacle, devoid, of any 
cover, but often surrounded by a rudimentary fringy 
membrane ; spore-caselets sessile or provided with rather 
short stalklets, longitudinally almost surrounded by an 
often somewhat imperfect ringlet. Figure 138. 

Alsophila. 2141 
Fruit-cover present ... ... ... ... ... 572 

572. Fruit-masses on the under side of the frond. 

Ferntrees of palm -like aspect, rarely almost trunkless 
plants ; fruit-cover usually cup-shaped, entire or at the 
summit lacerated ; fruit-masses roundish, emanating from 
a prominent receptacle ; spore-caselets longitudinally 
almost surrounded by an often somewhat imperfect ring- 
let. Figure 135. Cyathea. 2142 

Fruit-masses at the margin of the frond. 

Ferntrees of palm-like aspect ; fruit-cover deeply bilobed, 
opening from its summit downward ; spore-caselets longi- 
tudinally almost surrounded by an often somewhat im- 
perfect ringlet. Figure 139. Dicksonia. 2145 

573. Fronds usually untransparent... ... ... ... 574 

i 
Fronds usually transparent ... ... 586 

574. Fruit-cover absent ... ... ... ... ... 575 

Fruit-cover present ... ... ... ... ... 577 

575. Fruit-masses at the margin of the frond below. (Also 

Asplenium partly. ) 

Ferns, seldom tall ; fruit-masses minute, often confluent ; 
a spurious cover sometimes imperfectly formed by the 
recurved margin of the frond ; spore-caselets longi- 
tudinally almost surrounded by an often somewhat 
imperfect ringlet. Figures 143 and 144. 

(Notochlaena.) Cheilanthes. 2144 

Fruit-masses on the under side of the frond away 
from the margin ... ... ... ... ... 576 



Victorian Plants. 117 



576. Fruit-masses elongated, often linear. 

Ferns, varying from dwarf to tall in stature ; spore- 
caselets longitudinally almost surrounded by an imperfect 
ringlet. Figure 152. Grammitis. 2146 

Fruit-masses abbreviated, often roundish. 

Ferns, varying from dwarf to tall in stature, but never 
really arborescent ; fruit-masses roundish or sometimes 
oval or even narrow-elliptical, some rarely almost mar- 
ginal ; spore-caselets usually on very conspicuous stalk- 
lets, longitudinally almost surrounded by an imperfect 
ringlet. Figure 151. JPolypodium. 2147 

577. Fruit-masses at the margin of the frond below ... 578 

Fruit-masses on the under side of the frond away 
from the margin. (Exception: Lomaria partly).. ... 582 

578. Fruit-cover generally abbreviated ... ... ... 579 

Fruit-cover generally elongated ... ... ... 581 

579. Fruit-cover formed by a recurved lobule of the frond. 

Ferns, usually of conspicuous size ; fruit-cover minute, 
scale-like, passing gradually into the margin of the 
frond ; spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded 
by an imperfect ringlet. Hypolepis. 2152 

Fruit-cover distinct ... ... ... ... ... 580 

580. Fruit-cover opening outward. 

Ferns, varying from dwarf to tall in stature ; fruit-cover 
generally almost cup-shaped or tubular, entire, opening 
vertically; spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded 
by an often imperfect ringlet. Figure 140. Davallia. 2153 

Fruit-cover opening inward. 

Ferns, varying in size, but generally not very tall ; fronds 
outward almost impervious to moisture, their segments 
without any prominent middle-venule ; fruit-cover gene- 
rally short and often imperfectly circular or reniform ; 
spore-caselets attached to the inner side of the fruit-cover, 
longitudinally almost surrounded by an imperfect ringlet. 
Figure 142. Adiantum. 2155 



118 Key to the System of 



581. Fruit-cover opening outward. 

Ferns, oftener dwarf than tall in stature; fruit-cover linear; 
spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded by an 
often somewhat imperfect ringlet. Figure 141. 

Lindsaya, 2158 

Fruit-cover opening inward. 

Ferns, varying from small to large ; fruit- cover linear ; 
spore-caselets attached to a filiform receptacle along the 
base of the fruit-cover, longitudinally almost surrounded 
by an imperfect ringlet. Figure 145. Pteris. 2159 

582. Fruit-masses parallel to the rhachis of the frond or 

its segments ... ... ... ... ... ... 583 

Fruit-masses diverging from the rhachis of the frond 
or its segments ... ... ... ... ... 585 

583. Some of the fronds fertile, others sterile, the latter 

broader. 

Ferns, varying from dwarf to tall in stature ; fruit-masses 
along the rhacheal prominence of their frond or that of any 
of its segments, much elongated, spreading over nearly 
the whole frondal under-side ; fruit-cover very elongated ; 
spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded by an 
often somewhat imperfect ringlet. Figure 146. 

Lomaria. 2165 

Most fronds fertile and all quite similar ... ... 584 

584. Fruit-masses much elongated, always in a single row 

along each side of the rhacheal prominence of the 
frond or its segments. 

Ferns, oftener tall than dwarf; cover of the fruit-masses 
membranous, uninterrupted, arising at a distance from 
the margin of the frond ; fruit-cover very elongated ; 
spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded by an 
imperfect ringlet. Figure 147. BlecliilUlll. 2170 

Fruit-masses somewhat elongated, in one or two rows 
at some distance from the rhacheal prominence of 
the frond or its segments. 

Ferns, generally small ; fruit-cover opening inward ; spore- 
caselets longitudinally surrounded by an imperfect ring- 
let. Figure 148. (Doodia.) Woodwardia. 2171 



Victorian Plants. 119 



585. Fruit-cover somewhat or very much elongated. 

Ferns, varying from dwarf to tall, seldom developing 
trunks and then imitating tree-ferns ; fruit masses rarely 
almost marginal ; fruit-cover linear, seldom narrow- 
elliptical ; spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded 
by an often somewhat imperfect ringlet. Figure 149. 

Asplenium. 2172 

Fruit-cover abbreviated. 

Ferns, usually of conspicuous size, seldom very small ; 
fruit-cover from orbicular to renate, opening circularly or 
almost unilaterally ; spore-caselets longitudinally almost 
surrounded by an often somewhat imperfect ringlet. 
Figure 150. Aspidium. 2180 

586. Fruit-cover deeply bilobed. 

Delicate and often small ferns; receptacle generally enclosed; 
spore-caselets longitudinally almost surrounded by an 
often somewhat imperfect ringlet. Figure 134. 

Hymenophyllum. 2185 

Fruit-cover entire or slightly lobed. 

Ferns, often delicate and dwarf ; fruit-cover cup-shaped or 
tubular ; fruit-masses on a generally exserted hair-like 
receptacle; spore-caselets longitudinally almost sur*- 
rounded by an often somewhat imperfect ringlet. 
Figure 133. Trichomanes. 2187 



SPECIES OF PLANTS. 



RANUNCULACEAE. 

RANUNCULUS. 

587. Petals white 588 

Petals yellow 590 

588. Submerged leaves divided into numerous hair-like 

segments. 

Water-plant, quite glabrous except the fruit ; style very 
short. H. aqua'tilis. 

Leaves divided into linear or broadish segments or 
lobes 589 



120 Key to the System of 



589. Segments of leaves linear. 

Semiaquatic, alpine plant, quite dwarf ; petals five to ten ; 
styles recurved. R. Millani. 

Segments of leaves broadish. 

Terrestrial, alpine plant, rather tall; petals generally 
numerous and large; styles recurved. Figure 1. 

R. anemoneus. 

590. Leaves quite or nearly lobeless. 

Alpine plant, rather dwarf, beset with appressed hairlets ; 
leaves nearly elliptic-cuneate ; stem one -flowered ; styles 
almost straight. R. Muelleri. 

Leaves lobed or dissected ... ... ... ... 591 

591. Styles nearly or quite straight ... ... 592 

Styles recurved ... ... ... ... ... 593 

592. Tufted. 

Alpine, rather robust plant; leaves somewhat succulent, 
dissected into numerous narrow lobes ; sepals elongated, 
elliptical ; petals five to ten, often purplish outside. 

R. Guniiianus. 

Creeping or somewhat floating. 

Generally glabrous, seldom robust plant ; main segments of 
leaves unitedly emanating from the stalk ; petals five to 
twelve. R. rivnlaris. 

593. Sepals appressed. 

From dwarf to tall, much beset with hairlets ; main segments 
of leaves somewhat pinnately arranged, incised or in- 
dented ; petals usually five, comparatively large ; fruit- 
lets smooth. R. lappaceus. 

Sepals reflexed 594 

594. Fruitlets smooth. 

Rather tall plant, beset with soft hairlets ; main segments 
of leaves unitedly emanating from the stalk, incised or 
indented ; petals usually five. R. hirtus. 



Victorian Plants. 121 



Fruitlets rough. 

Annual, erect plant, often beset with soft hairlets ; stems 
leafy, weak, never tall ; leaves small, much dissected ; 
flowers mostly opposite to the leaves, sessile or short- 
stalked, very small ; styles very short. 

R. parviflorns. 

BXYOSTTXIUS. 

595. Style shorter than its fruitlet. 

Glabrous ; petals pale, either yellowish or greenish, occa- 
sionally undeveloped; stamens twenty or fewer, sometimes 
reduced to five. M. minimus. 

CLEMATIS. 

596. Anthers terminated by a pointed appendage. 

Segments of leaves lanceolate- or cordate-oval, rather rigid, 
often indented ; stamiiiate and pistillate flowers mostly 
on separate plants ; sepals pure- or yellowish-white, com- 
paratively large. C. aristata. 

Anthers without any appendage. 

Segments of leaves linear- or oval- elliptical, rather flaccid ; 
staminate and pistillate flowers mostly on separate plants; 
sepals yellowish-white ; four of the outer stamens not 
rarely enlarged and alternating with the sepals. 

C v micropliylla, 

CAX.THA. 

597. Basal lobes of the leaves inflexed upwards. 

..Dwarf plant; leaves small, shining, without any denticu- 
lations beyond the two lobes, cordate- or elliptical-ovate ; 
sepals five to eight, white, linear-lanceolar. 

C. introloba. 



OXX ACBAB. 

DRXTOYS. 

598. Fruitlets one to four, the stigma of each decurrent. 

From a dwarf shrub to a small tree, restricted to subalpine 
or cool forest-country ; leaves from narrow-elliptical to 
lanceolar-ovate, narrowed into the base, not rarely of a 
reddish tint ; umbels terminal, nearly sessile. Native 
"Pepper-tree." Figure 3. D. aromatica. 



122 Key to the System of 

NYMFHAEACEAE. 

CABOniBA. 

599. Stamens and pistils indefinite in number. 

Leaves all oval or elliptical, centrally fixed, entire, their 
lower page as well as the stem and leaf- and flower-stalks 
mucously coated ; sepals and petals purplish inside ; 
stamens twelve to thirty-six ; ovularies four to eighteen. 

C. peltata. 

ANONACE AE. 

X* UFO BX ATX A. 

600. Anthers without any terminal much elongated ap- 

pendage. 

Tall shrub or small tree ; leaves from broad-lanceolar to 
almost ovate ; flowers soon lateral ; sterile stamens all 
connivent, from ovate to narrow-elliptical, greenish- 
yellow, turning brownish, shorter than the fertile stamens; 
fruit almost urnshaped. E. lanrina. 

DILX.ENXACEAE. 

KIBBERTZA. 

601. Twining or climbing. 

Leaves large, oval, denticulated ; stamens all around the 
pistils. K. deutata. 

Erect, diffuse or prostrate ... ... ... ... 602 

602. Stamens placed around the pistils ... ... ... 603 

Stamens placed on one side of the pistils ... ... 608 

603. Leaves strongly recurved at the margin. 

Leaves very small, from narrow-elliptical to oval; flowers 
stalked ; appendage of seeds short. H. serpillifblia. 

Leaves almost or quite flat ... ... ... ... 604 

604. Bracts large. 

Erect or diffuse; leaves broad- or cuneate-linear, blunt, 
somewhat channelled ; flowers sessile. H. virgata. 

Bracts small ... ... ... ... ... ... 605 



Victorian Plants. 123 



605. Leaves narrow 606 

Leaves broadish ... ... ... ... ... 607 

606. Leaves rather long, broad-linear, pointed. 

Always prostrate and nearly always glabrous ; leaves some- 
what channelled, very often glabrous ; flowers almost 
sessile, rather large; stamens many; seeds usually several; 
appendage of seeds fringed. H. aiigustifolia. 

Leaves rather short, narrow-linear. 

Prostrate or oftener diffuse or erect ; leaves small, some- 
what channelled, often fascicled, nearly always beset with 
hairlets ; flowers sessile, rather small ; stamens several ; 
seeds usually two. H. fasciculata. 

607. Leaves generally indented at the summit. 

Often spreading and glabrous ; leaves rather small, con- 
spicuously stalked, from spatular- to obcordate-cuneate, 
dark-green above ; flowers almost sessile, rather small ; 
stamens many ; fruitlets one to three. H. diffusa. 

Leaves generally entire. 

Often erect and densely beset with minute hairlets ; leaves 
flat or somewhat recurved at the margin, short-stalked, 
greyish-green on both sides, from elliptical- to spatular- 
cuneate, usually entire; flowers almost sessile, rather 
large ; stamens several or many ; fruitlets often two or 
three ; appendage of seeds fringed. H. obtusif olia. 

608. Flowers usually on rather long stalks ... ... 609 

Flowers nearly or quite sessile ... ... (bis.) 610 

609. Leaves recurved at the margin. 

Mostly erect, sometimes tall ; leaves from obovate to narrow- 
elliptical, at the base cuneate; seeds one to two; appendage 
of seeds somewhat or hardly lobed. H. Billardieri. 

Leaves repressed at the margin ... ... ... 610 

610. Leaves pungent. 

Mostly prostrate or diffuse ; leaves linear, glabrous, rigid, 
acute ; stamens few ; appendage of seeds almost lobeless. 

H. acicularis. 



124 Key to the System of 



Leaves blunt. 

Always much beset with spreading hairlets, prostrate ; 
leaves linear ; petals only about as long as the sepals; 
seeds four to eight ; appendage of seeds almost lobeless. 
Figure 2. H. humifusa. 

610. Leaves repressed at the margin. 

(bis.) Erect or diffuse; leaves almost linear, rather blunt ; flowers 
scattered, often terminal, usually sessile ; seeds only one 
or two ; appendage of seeds somewhat lobed. 

H. stricta. 
Leaves recurved at the margin. 

Erect, never tall, always much beset with appressed hair- 
lets ; leaves from almost ovate-lanceolar to narrow- 
elliptical ; flowers crowded at and towards the summit of 
the branchlets, almost sessile ; outer sepals with a 
somewhat silky vestiture outside ; appendage of seeds 
short, carnulent, lobeless. H. cleiisiflora. 

IVIONIiyilE AE. 
ATHEROSPERBXA. 

611. Anthers without any terminal much elongated ap- 

pendage. 

Finally a tree; bark aromatic; leaves opposite, from almost 
lanceolar to nearly ovate, but always acute, usually 
serrated, greyish or whitish underneath ; staminate and 
pistillate flowers mostly on separate plants, always 
solitary, fragrant ; bracts two, conspicuous, forming 
early a bivalved involucre. A. moschatum. 

HEDYCAR1TA. 

612. Fruitlets very small, sessile. 

Finally a tree; leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolar, denticulated; 
racemes few-flowered; staminate and pistillate flowers on 
separate plants; fruitlets from pale-yellowish turning 
in age dark. Figure 4. H. Cunningham.!. 

BEENISPERIVIEAE. 
SARCOPETAXiUBX. 

613. Petals very carnulent. 

Leaves cordate, mostly entire; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on separate plants ; sepals and petals two to five ; 
filaments below the free summit connate ; anthers two- 
celled. Figure 6. S. Harveyanum. 



Victorian Plants. 125 



STEFHANIA. 

614. Headlets of flowers umbellate. 

Leaves entire, ovate- or somewhat cordate-orbicular, nar- 
rowed into an acute apex ; staminate and pistillate flowers 
on separate plants ; sepals six to ten ; petals three to five ; 
filaments quite connate ; anthers one-celled. 

S. heruandifolia. 



LAURACE AE. 
CASSYTHA. 

615. Stem and branches threadlike. 

Glabrous ; flowers crowded ; fruit ellipsoid, red or yellow, 
very succulent. Figure 5. C. glabella. 

Stem and branches moderately or quite thick ... 616 

616. Flowers distant in spikes. 

Beset with short often brownish hairlets ; stem and branches 
comparatively thick ; fruit pear-shaped. 

C. phaeolasia. 

Flowers crowded ... ... ... ... ... 617 

617. Stem and branches rather thick. 

Much beset with short hairlets ; fruit globular. 

C. pubescens. 

Stem and branches quite thick. 

Glabrous, except the flowers ; calyces beset with short often 
blackish hairlets ; fruit rather large, globular, green. 

C. melantha. 



PAPAVERACEAE. 
PAPAVER. 

618. Beset with rigid spreading scattered hairlets. 

Leaves incised, their lobes short and comparatively broad j 

petals rather small, brick-colored ; filaments about half as 

long as the petals, upwards capillary ; anthers yellowish ; 

placentaries extending scarcely half-way to the centre of 

the fruit. p. aculeattun. 



126 Key to the System of 

CRUCIFXSRAE. 

CA&ZX.ZS. 

619. Flowers relatively large. 

Plant of diffuse habit, here in full growth throughout the 
year ; leaves here either short -lobed or almost entire, 
generally cuneate-elliptical. C . maritima. 



STENOPETALUBI. 

619. Fruit longer than its stalklet. 

(ms.) Generally glabrous ; leaves visually narrow, entire or linear- 
lobed ; petals almost half exserted, dull brownish -yellow ; 
fruits ellipsoid-cylindrical, erect. S. liiieare. 

Fruit about as long as its stalklet ... ... ... 620 

620. Fruit ovate-ellipsoid. 

Densely beset with very short hairlets ; leaves narrow ; 
fruits erect. S. velut ilium. 

Fruit globular. 

Glabrous, often depressed ; stem and branches very slender ; 
leaves small, entire and narrow or linear-lobed ; petals 
more than half exserted, whitish ; fruits deflexed. 

S. spliaerocarpum. 

TOENK.EA. 

621. Fruit much compressed, ovate-elliptical. 

Leaves spatular- or elliptical-cuneate ; fruits shorter than 
their stalklets or hardly as long. IKE. Aus trails. 

AXiYSSUlK. 

622. Fruit flat. 

Small, annual ^ herb; leaves linear; petals minute, pale- 
colored ; fruits from oval to orbicular ; seeds four to six 
in each cell. A. minimum 



623. Leaves very narrow, undivided ... ... ... 624 

Leaves mostly broadish, denticulated or variously 
divided ... ... ... 626 



Victorian Plants. 127 



624. Fruit bluntly bilobed at the summit. 

Somewhat shrubby ; leaves semicylindric-linear, undivided; 
sepals elongated ; petals almost linear ; fruit large, almost 
ovate. L. leptopetaliim. 

Fruit acutely bilobed at the summit ... ... ... 625 



Petals present. 

ves linear, carnulent ; 
, margined towards th 

L. phlebopetalum. 



Perennial; leaves linear, carnulent; anthers purplish; fruit 
rather large, margined towards the summit. 



Petals absent. 

Leaves linear, entire ; stamens four ; fruit almost orbicular, 
minutely bilobed, margined all round. 

L. monoplocoides. 

626. Fruit conspicuously bilobed. 

Annual ; stem and branches beset with minute papillules ; 
stem-leaves broadish, indented or denticulated, bilobed 
at the base ; petals none ; stamens four ; stigma sessile ; 
fruit oval-obcordate. L. papillosum. 

Fruit minutely bilobed .~ 627 

627. Stamens six. 

Stem-leaves from wedge-shaped to oval- or linear-lanceolar, 
partly indented or incised; sepals and petals minute; 
fruit small, elliptic-oval. L. foliosum. 

Stamens two. 

Stem-leaves linear- or cuneate-lanceolar, entire or indented 
or incised ; sepals minute ; petals generally none ; fruit 
very small, roundish-oval ; its lobes very minute. 

L. ruderale. 



NASTURTIUM. 

628. Petals about as long as the sepals, yellow. 

Leaves pinnatilobed or some merely indented, the terminal 
lobe of the lower leaves enlarged, the other lobes some- 
what elliptical or ovate ; style short; seeds pale -brownish, 
outside closely dotted-reticular. N. terrestre. 



128 Key to the System of 



CAFSEXiXiA. 

629. Fruit nearly oval-obcordate, longer than its stalklet. 

Beset with short hairlets ; leaves entire or denticulated, 
from lanceolar to rhomboid ; stalklets rather thick ; seeds 
few in each fruit-cell. C. pilosula. 

Fruit oval-ellipsoid, shorter than its stalklet ... ' 630 

630. Petals almost enclosed. 

Always glabrous; leaves entire, from lanceolar to nearly 
ovate or the upper linear ; stalklets very thin ; seeds 
rather numerous in each fruit-cell. C . elliptica. 

Petals conspicuously exserted. 

Often beset with short hairlets ; leaves mostly pinnatifid or 
denticulated, from spatular or lanceolar to linear and 
hastate ; sepals long-persistent ; stalklets very thin ; seeds 
several in each fruit-cell. C . antipoda. 

CARDAIttlNE. 

631. Leaves bilobed at the base, otherwise all only denti- 

culated. 

Usually tall ; leaves sessile, elliptic-lanceolar ; petals less 
than half exserted ; style elongated ; fruit several times 
longer than the stalklet ; seeds dark-brown outside and 
densely reticulated. C. stylosa. 

Leaves almost lobeless at the base, the lower pinnati- 
sected. ... ... ... ... ... ... 632 

632. Seeds reticulated outside. 

Usually tall ; upper leaves from lanceolar to almost linear ; 
petals more than half exserted ; style elongated ; fruit 
often about twice as long as the stalklet ; seeds black 
outside. C. dictyosperma. 

Seeds smooth 633 

633. Stamens six. 

Generally glabrous; leaves pinnatisected, with segments 

from roundish to linear ; seeds in one row, brown outside. 

(C. hirsuta.) C. parviflora. 

Stamens four 634 



Victorian Plants. 129 



634. Style abbreviated. 

Glabrous ; leaves mostly basal, from lanceolar to linear, 
pinnatisected, with narrow segments, or some incised or 
only denticulated ; petals little longer than the sepals ; 
fruits distant, the lowest down to near the base of the 
stem, about thrice as long as their stalklets ; seeds brown. 

C. laciuiata. 

Style elongated. 

Dwarf ; leaves pinnatisected, their segments from elliptical 
to rhomboid, mostly indented ; sepals longer than the 
petals ; fruits generally several times longer than their 
stalklets ; seeds very minute, in two rows, brown. 

C. eustylis. 



635. Petals yellow. 

Annual, rather dwarf ; leaves from lanceolar to broad- 
linear, indented or some entire ; fruits hardly longer 
than their stalklets; venule of valves carinular-prominent; 
dissepiment ianceolar. E. curvipes. 

Petals white or pink ... ...... 636 

636. Perennial. 

Subalpine plant ; leaves from spatulate-lanceolar to rhom- 
boid ; fruit quadrangular-ellipsoid, acute, comparatively 
small, about as long as the stalklet ; seeds shining, dark- 
brown and reticulated outside. E. capsellinuxii. 

Annual ... ... ... ... ... 637 

637. Fruit hardly or slightly longer than its stalklet. 

Leaves mostly lanceolar in outline, indented or pinnatifid ; 
petals much longer than the calyx ; fruits lanceolar - 
ellipsoid, much beset with hairlets ; carinular venule of 
the valves faint. Figure 8. E. lasiocarpum. 

Fruit much longer than its stalklet ... ... ... 638 

638. Fruit lanceolar-cylindrical, few times longer than broad. 

Upper leaves from lanceolar to rhomboid, indented or 
denticulated ; lower leaves spatular in outline, pinnati- 
lobed or incised ; petals hardly longer than the calyx ; 
fruits lanceolar- ellipsoid, several times longer than their 
thick stalklets, beset with very short hairlets ; carinular 
venule of the valves faint. E. brevipes. 



130 Key to the System of 



Fruit narrow-cylindrical, many times longer than broad. 

Lower leaves from lanceolar to elliptical, pinnatifid or 
incised, upper leaves gradually almost linear, indented 
or entire; flowers comparatively large; stigma ample; 
dissepiment of fruit elongate -linear. E. Blennodia. 

BARBAHAEA. 

639. Fruit slightly spreading, linear-quadrangular. 

Rather tall herb ; lowest leaves spatular in outline, pinnati- 
sected, with a much enlarged terminal segment ; upper 
leaves from spatular-ovate to cuneate-rhomboid, incised 
or indented ; flowers crowded. B. vulgaris. 

ARABZS. 

640. Petals yellowish-white. 

Rather tall herb, greyish -green ; lowest leaves from almost 
spatular to cuneate-elliptical, incised or indented, beset 
with branched hairlets ; upper leaves with an acutely 
bilobed and sessile base, from ovate- to linear-lanceolar, 
mostly entire, glabrous ; fruits strictly erect, many times 
longer than their stalklets ; venule of valves carinular ; 
seeds in each fruit-cell almost biseriate, narrowly 
margined. A. glabra. 

WIIiCKIA. 

641. Stigmas narrow, decurrent along the acutely conical 

short style. 

Annual herb ; leaves almost lanceolar, indented or denticu- 
lated ; calyces several times longer than their stalklets ; 
fruit rather elongated, much beset with hairlets ; longi- 
tudinal venules of valves thin. W. Africaiia. 

SISYSIBRIUM. 

642. Petals yellow. 

Annual, glabrous ; leaves mostly pinnatifid, their lobes few, 
very narrow and entire ; fruits only about as long as their 
slender stalklets. S. nasturtioides. 

Petals white 643 

643. Annual. 

Scantily beset with hairlets ; lower leaves pinnatifid, their 
lobes from oblique-lanceolar to deltoid ; upper leaves few, 
indented or entire; fruits filiform-cylindrical, about twice 
as long as their stalklets, or in a stemless state of this 



Victorian Plants. 131 



plant very short, rather thick and turgid, singly forming 
on their stalks and during maturation burying themselves 
in the ground ; the flowers of this state very minute. 

(Geococcuspusillus.) S. cardaminoides. 

Perennial ... ... 644 

644. Leaves incised, the lobes broadish. 

Robust, beset with short hairlets ; lobes of the leaves acute ; 
stigma rather large ; fruits twice or thrice as long as their 
thick stalklets. S. Lucae. 

Leaves mostly trisected, the segments very narrow. 

A somewhat woody desert-plant, quite glabrous ; leaves 
numerous, greyish -green, some undivided ; petals com- 
paratively large, nearly orbicular ; fruits twice or thrice 
as long as their slender stalklets. S. trisectum. 

CAPPARIDEA.E. 
CAPPARIS. 

645. Outer sepals at first entirely connate, at last separating 

by irregular rupture, inner sepals petal-like. 

A small desert-tree ; leaves firm, from lanceolar-elliptical to 
almost ovate, above pale-green, particularly beneath as 
well as the branchlets densely beset with greyish short 
hairlets ; flowers solitary, comparatively large ; petals 
white, somewhat denticulated ; fruit very large, globular, 
its outermost portion (pericarp) almost crust-like, the 
inner portion somewhat pulpy. Figure 7. 

C. Mitchell!. 

DROSERACEAE. 

DROSERA. 

646. Leaves all basal 647 

Leaves also along the stem ... ... ... ... 652 

647. Leaves divided into two or more lobes. 

Tall plant ; root fibrous ; leaf-lobes long and narrow ; 
racemes two or more, constituting a cymous panicle ; 
flowers large ; styles usually three, penicillar-multifid ; 
seeds linear-filiform. D. binata. 

Leaves undivided ... ... ... ... 648 



132 Key to the System of 

648. Flower one 649 

Flowers more than one ... 651 

649. Leaves orbicular, very minute. 

Minute plant ; stipules scarious ; leaves inserted above their 
base, rosulate- arranged ; flower on a capillary glabrous 
stalk, minute ; sepals, petals, stamens and styles four ; 
seeds ovate. D, pygmaea. 

Leaves elongated ... ... 650 

650. Leaves obovate-cuneate. 

Root tuber-bearing ; leaves comparatively large, rosulate- 
arranged ; flowers large ; their stalks hardly longer than 
the leaves ; styles three, penicillar-multifid ; seeds nearly 
ovate. Figure 11. D. Whittakeri. 

Leaves linear-elliptical. 

Alpine plant ; root somewhat creeping ; leaves alternate but 
crowded ; flower-stalk from hardly longer than the leaves 
to twice as long ; styles usually three, undivided ; stigmas 
renate ; outer seed-membrane bluntly protracted. 

D. Arcturi. 

651. Leaves roundish. 

Dwarf plant ; root fibrous ; leaves rosulate-arranged, very 
small ; racemes dense, beset with glandule-bearing hair- 
lets ; flowers small ; petals crimson ; stigmas three, bifid ; 
seeds ovate-globular. D. glanduligera. 

Leaves spatular. 

Root fibrous ; leaves rosulate-arranged ; racemes on rather 
long stalks, beset with glandule-bearing hairlets ; flowers 
small ; styles three, bifid ; seeds ellipsoid. 

D. spatulata. 

652. Leaves very much longer than broad. 

Root fibrous; leaves scattered, long-linear, acute, undivided; 
racemes lateral, slightly beset with glandule-bearing hair- 
lets ; styles three, bifid ; seeds ovate. D. Indica. 

Leaves about as long as broad ... ... ... 653 



Victorian Plants. 133 



653. Stem-leaves orbicular, fixed at their centre. 

Climbing or twining plant; root tuber-bearing ; leaves singly 
scattered or two or three together ; flowers large ; styles 
penicillar-multifid ; seed -membrane bluntly expanded. 

D, Menziesii. 

Stem-leaves semiorbicular-crescentshaped, fixed at the 
base ... 654 

654. Calyx beset with hairlets. 

Erect ; root tuber-bearing ; leaves small, singly or ternately 
scattered; sepals closely appressed; styles three, penicillar- 
multifid ; seeds ovate. D. peltata. 

Calyx glabrous. 

Erect ; root tuber-bearing ; leaves small, singly or ternately 
scattered ; sepals laxly appressed ; styles three, penicillar 
multifid ; seed -membrane narrowly much expanded. 

D. auriculata. 

VIOLACEAE. 
HYZKENANTHISRA. 

655. Leaves mostly small, entire or bluntly denticulated. 

Shrub, in the lowlands tall, in the alps dwarfed ; leaves 
rigid, generally from elliptical- to cuneate-linear ; flowers 
axillary, on very short stalklets, fragrant ; petals yel- 
lowish ; fruit small. H. Banksii. 

HYBANTHUS. 

656. Shrubby. 

From rather dwarf to tall, glabrous ; leaves scattered, from 
lanceolar- to broad -linear ; flowers generally few together, 
on a short stalk ; petals somewhat bluish. Figure 9. 

H. fioribundus. 

Herbaceous ... ... ... ... ... ... 657 

657. Flowers axillary, solitary, on short stalks. 

Slender, glabrous herb ; leaves all scattered, from lanceolar- 
to narrow-linear, entire ; lower petal blue. 

H. Vernoni. 

Flowers racemose, the racemes on long stalks. 

Slender, glabrous herb ; upper leaves opposite, linear, 
entire ; lower petal blue. H. filiformis. 



134 Key to the System of 



VIOLA. 

658. Stem erect or recumbent. 

Leaves cordate or somewhat renate ; petals white. 

V. Caleyana. 

Stemless or with rooting offshoots ... ... ... 659 

659. Leaves from renate to cuneate-rhomboid. 

Offshoots rooting ; petals mixedly white and lilac or bluish. 

V. hederacea. 

Leaves from elliptical to broad-oval, with a bilobed 
or rounded base. 

Stemless ; flowerstalks much elongated ; petals violet. 

V. betonicifolia. 

FOI.YGAI.EAi:. 

FOX.1TGAX.A. 

660. Leaves from roundish-ovate to lanceolar. 

Dwarf, perennial herb ; leaves small, scattered, flat, their 
secondary venules reticulated; flowers small, in corymbous 
racemes ; interior sepals obovate, nearly as long as the 
fringe-crested anterior petal and the obcordate-orbicular 
fruit. P. Sibirica. 

COIKESFERIKA. 

661. Climbing or twining. 

Leaves from lanceolar or elliptical to linear, distant ; flowers 
generally blue; outer sepals disunited, much shorter than 
the inner ; fruit elliptical-cuneate, attenuated into a 
narrow base. C. volubile. 

Erect 662 

662. Flowers blue ... ... 663 

Flowers pink ... ... ... ... ... ... 665 

663. Fruit broadly cuneate-obovate. 

A rigid, shrubby plant ; leaves distant, minute, pungent ; 
outer sepals disunited, about half as long as the orbicular 
inner sepals. C. SCOparium. 

Fruit much narrowed downwards ... ... ... 664 



Victorian Plants. 135 



664. Leaves from ovate- to linear-lanceolar. 

Dwarf, slender herb ; outer sepals not much shorter than the 
inner ; fruit spathular-cuiieate, angular at the summit ; 
seeds beset with curly hairlets. C. calymega. 

Leafless or with a few narrow leaves. 

Dwarf, very slender herb ; outer sepals not much shorter 
than the inner ; fruit spathular, rounded at the summit ; 
seeds beset with straight hairlets. C. defoliatuni. 

665. Dwarf, almost herbaceous. 

Leaves from elliptical- to linear-lanceolar ; two of the outer 
sepals united, all much shorter than the inner ; fruit nar- 
rowly spathular-cuneate. Figure 13. C. polygaloides. 

Rather tall, almost shrubby ... ... ... 666 

666. Leaves inflexed at the margin, rather broad. 

Shrubby plant ; leaves numerous, oval-elliptical, blunt ; 
outer sepals disunited, much shorter than the inner ; 
fruit short-bilobed at the summit. C. retusum. 

Leaves reflexed at the margin, rather narrow. 

Somewhat shrubby plant ; leaves numerous, from elliptical- 
to linear-lanceolar, pointed ; outer sepals disunited, much 
shorter than the inner; fruit truncate at the summit. 

C. ericinum. 

HYFERXCINAE. 
HYFERXCT7TO. 

667. Fruit one-celled, three-valved. 

Small, glabrous herb, from erect to almost prostrate ; leaves 
from oval- to lanceolar-elliptical ; flowers variable in size, 
never very large ; sepals lanceolar ; fruit oval-ellipsoid ; 
placentaries narrow -linear. H. Japonicum. 



ELATINE. 

668. Dissepiments of fruit evanescent. 

Small, glabrous plant ; leaves membranous, entire, from 
spathular- and orbicular-elliptical to lanceolar- and linear- 
elliptical ; flowers sessile, scattered ; sepals, petals, sta- 
mens, styles and fruit- valves two to four ; seeds slightly 
curved. . Americana. 



136 Key to the System of 

BERQIA. 

669. Stamens as many as sepals and as petals. 

Small plant, erect or oftener somewhat prostrate, beset with 
short hairlets ; leaves firm, ovate-lanceolar, denticulated ; 
flowers clustered, very small ; floral organs from ternary 
to quinary ; seeds ovate-ellipsoid. Figure 12. 

B. ammanuioides. 



PITTOSPOREAE. 
BXX.XIARDXERA. 

670. Petals cohering in a long tube. 

Leaves from ovate- to linear-elliptical ; flowers solitary ; 
petals many times longer than the sepals, greenish -yellow 
or somewhat purplish ; style very long ; berry blue, one- 
celled, hollow. B. loiigiflora. 

Petals bending together into a short tube ... ... 671 

671. Flowers mostly solitary. 

Leaves from ovate-lanceolar to broad-linear, often beset 
underneath with appressed hairlets '; petals twice or three 
times as long as the sepals, greenish- or pale-yellow, 
sometimes purplish-tinged, pointed, towards the summit 
recurved ; style very short ; berry livid, pulpy, two- 
celled. B. scandeus. 

Flowers several together. 

Leaves narrow- or broad -lanceolar, sometimes almost ovate, 
rarely orbicular, often beset underneath with appressed 
hairlets ; petals three- or several-times longer than the 
sepals, greenish- or pale-yellow or violet- or purplish- 
tinged ; style very short ; berry livid, pulpy, two-celled. 



cymosa. 



CHEXRANTHEXIA. 



672. Petals rather large, dark-blue. 

Erect, slender plant, rather dwarf; leaves crowded, elongate- 
linear, acute; flowers few, rarely two or one only; stamens 
bent unilaterally ; anthers yellow ; fruit narrow-ellipsoid, 
dry. C. linearis. 



Victorian Plants. 137 



FXTTOSFORTTXK. 

673. Leaves flat at the margin ... ... ... ... 674 

Leaves recurved at the margin ... ... ... 675 

674. Petals quite white. 

A large shrub or finally a tree, occasionally quite tall ; 
branchlets whorled ; leaves large, broad -lanceolar, entire, 
soon glabrous, those at the summit of the branchlets 
whorl-like crowded ; flowers fragrant, several or many, 
terminal ; sepals unequally connate ; fruit turgid, outside 
brownish- or reddish-yellow ; valves two, rarely three ; 
seeds almost ruby-colored, sticky. P. undulatuni. 

Petals quite yellow. 

A tall shrub or slender tree ; branchlets often pendent ; 
leaves from lanceolar- to broad-linear, much pointed, 
entire, glabrous ; flowers few or only two together or 
solitary, fragrant ; fruit strongly compressed ; valves 
two, rarely three, almost of bony hardness, dull orange- 
colored outside, bright- yellow inside ; seeds orange-red, 
sticky. P. phillyroides. 

675. Petals quite yellow. 

A shrub, finally large or even then arborescent ; leaves 
large, from ovate to narrow-lanceolar, entire, pointed, 
beneath as well as the branchlets and stalklets beset with 
brownish hairlets ; flowers few or several ; fruit turgid, 
two- or three- valved, very firm ;" seeds garnet-colored, 
sticky. P. revolution. 

Petals mixedly purplish and yellowish. 

A small or sometimes middle-sized tree ; leaves from 
lanceolar- to linear-elliptical, entire, densely beset be- 
neath with short hairlets ; flowers several, few or some- 
times only two or one; fruit turgid, very firm, two -valved; 
seeds brownish-red, sticky. P. bicolor. 

BTTRSARIA. 

676. Seeds placed vertically, surrounded by a thin and 

narrow border. 

Shrub, from rather dwarf to tall, occasionally becoming a 
tree, not rarely somewhat spinescent, flowering late in the 
season ; leaves scattered or fascicled, generally small and 
entire, from obovate- to elliptical-cuneate ; flowers small, 
in panicles ; petals white ; fruit obcordate- or renate- 
orbicular, rather small, dry. B. spinosa. 



138 Key to the System of 



ni&RXAXVTHUS. 

677. Petals disconnected. 

Quite dwarf ; leaves small, from ovate- to linear-cuneate or 
verging into an elliptic or lanceolar form, often indented 
at the summit, flat or recurved at the margin, soon 
glabrous ; flowers small, solitary or sometimes two or 
three together ; petals white, often tinged with red ; 
fruit small, quadrate- or renate-orbicular, bent down- 
ward ; seeds wrinkled. M. prOCUlllbens. 

Petals cohering into a tube. 

Twining ; leaves rather large, from ovate- to lanceolar- 
elliptical, often somewhat bilobed at the base ; flowers 
pendent, quite long ; petals outside usually green-yel- 
lowish towards the base, orange-colored towards the 
middle, yellowish towards the summit and throughout 
inside ; fruit narrow-ellipsoid, dry. Figure 10. 

M. bignoniaceus. 



RUTACE AE. 
ACRONYCHIA. 

678. Fruit quadrangular. 

Glabrous ; leaves consisting of one or rarely of three elliptic 
or ovate entire rather thin leaflets ; flowers in cymes ; 
petals pale, contiguous before expansion, much longer 
than the sepals ; filaments and style somewhat beset with 
short hairlets ; fruit whitish. A. laevis. 

GEXJERA. 

679. Leaves short-stalked, narrow, equally green on both 

sides. 

A tall shrub, finally arborescent ; leaves rather long, entire, 
usually broad- linear, the carinular venule only perceptible; 
panicle few-flowered ; petals small, yellowish-white, con- 
tiguous before expansion ; ovularies with one ovule each ; 
pericarp very imperfectly separating an inner layer 
(endocarp) ; outer portion of seed (testa) hard, shining- 
black. G. parviflora, 

ERXOSTEIKON. 

680. Petals contiguous before expansion ... ... 681 

Petals overlapping before expansion ... ... ... 697 



Victorian Plants. 



681. Glabrous or beset with often starry hairlets... ... 682 

Extensively or scantily beset with shining scalelets... 692 

682. Leaves very broad. 

Leaves large, oval, glabrous, flat, entire, shining, of a slightly 
reddish hue and an oily lustre ; petals unknown, but 
probably contiguous before expansion ; fruit unknown. 

E. amplifolius. 

Leaves small or comparatively narrow ... 683 

683. Flowers all axillary and usually solitary. 

Dwarf ; leaves linear- or narrow- Ian ceolar, pointed, almost 
or quite glabrous ; flowers seldom two together ; petals 
white, outside glabrous ; filaments suddenly pointed at 
the apex ; stigmas minute, united ; fruitlets conspicuously 
pointed. E. pungeiis. 

Flowers mostly or all terminal, generally crowded or 
umbellate ... ... ... ... ... ... 684 

684. Ovularies less than five ... ... ... ... 685 

Ovularies five ... ... ... ... ... ... 686 

685. Leaves truncate or bilobed at the summit. 

Shrub, from dwarf and depressed to rather tall and erect ; 
branchlets beset with starry hairlets ; leaves often 
serrulated, from almost lanceolar to ovate and elliptical, 
but never attenuated into a pointed apex, glabrous, shining 
on both pages ; flowers generally in corymbs or umbels ; 
petals small, glabrous, white, tinged with red ; filaments 
glabrous ; ovularies two or three, rarely four ; fruitlets 
conspicuously pointed. E. Hillebraiicli. 

Leaves acute or rounded-blunt at the summit. 

Leaves quite small, from linear to almost cordate, revolute 
at the margin, underneath beset with starry- or scaly - 
united hairlets ; flowers terminally crowded, very small ; 
petals yellowish or whitish ; filaments scantily beset with 
hairlets ; stigmas minute, united ; ovularies always two ; 
fruitlets blunt. E. capitatus. 



140 Key to the System of 



686. Calyx about half as long as the petals. 

A slender shrub, much beset with spreading hairlets ; leaves 
rather small, crowded, from elliptical- to broad-linear, 
revolute at the margin ; flowers crowded into terminal 
umbels ; petals yellow, almost glabrous ; filaments ex- 
serted, glabrous ; anthers blunt ; fruitless ending in a 
long and narrow appendage. E. phylicoides. 

Calyx very much shorter than the petals or obliterated 687 

687. Stigmas large, generally disconnected ... 688 
Stigmas very minute, connected ... 690 

688. Leaves revolute at the margin. 

An alpine shrub, usually of low stature ; leaves mostly 
crowded, small, very firm, from elliptic- to orbicular- 
ovate, beset with starry hairlets- underneath ; flowers 
terminal, solitary or two or three together ; petals small, 
yellow ; filaments glabrous ; anthers erect, blunt ; stigmas 
clavate, reflexed ; fruitlets blunt. E. trymalioides. 

Leaves flat ... ... ... ... ... ... 689 

689. Stigmas capitulate-connected. 

A shrub, from dwarf to rather tall ; leaves often large, 
flaccid, from lanceolar- to ovate-elliptical, beset with 
starry hairlets underneath ; umbels sessile, few -flowered ; 
calyx rudimentary ; petals yellow ; filaments glabrous ; 
anthers erect, blunt ; fruitlets pointed. 

E. correifolius. 

Stigmas disconnected, spreading. 

A dwarf shrub ; leaves flaccid, chiefly fascicular-crowded, 
sessile, from elliptical- to obcordate-cuneate, densely beset 
with starry hairlets ; flowers large, terminal, solitary ; 
calyx absent ; petals yellow ; filaments glabrous ; anthers 
erect, blunt ; fruitlets blunt. E. pleuraudroides. 

690. Leaves truncate or bilobed at the summit. 

Shrub, rather tall, quite glabrous; leaves firm, comparatively 
large, narrowly cuneate-elliptical, slightly bilobed at the 
upper end, but otherwise entire, recurved at the margin, 
greyish underneath ; umbels terminal, short-stalked ; 
petals relatively long, tubular-coherent towards the base ; 
filaments exserted, glabrous ; anthers blunt ; fruitlets 
apiculated. Figure 15. E. Ralstoui. 

Leaves acute or rounded-blunt at the summit ... 691 



Victorian Plants. 141 



691. Leaves flat. 

A subalpine shrub; leaves small, rather thin, from ovate- to 
elliptic-lanceolar, glabrous, almost entire, shining on both 
pages ; flowers few, in umbels or two together or some- 
times solitary ; fruitlets pointed ; seeds shining. 

E. lamprophyllus. 

Leaves recurved at the margin. 

An alpine shrub ; leaves small, crowded, thick, from narrow- 
elliptical to broad-linear, underneath densely beset with 
minute whitish hairlets, entire at the margin ; flowers 
few, in umbels or only three or two together ; petals 
small, yellowish ; filaments glabrous ; anthers blunt ; 
fruitlets apiculated. E. phylicifolius. 

692. Petals glabrous, white 693 

Petals outside beset with scalelets, inside yellow .. 694 

693. Leaves elongated, from elliptic- to linear-lance olar. 

Tall shrub, finally arborescent ; leaves often thin in texture, 
entire; flat, underneath beset with silvery-shining scale- 
lets ; flowers in simple or compound corymbs ; petals 
small ; ovularies glabrous ; fruitlets slightly apiculated. 

E. squameus. 

Leaves rather abbreviated, nearly ovate. 

An alpine shrub ; leaves very firm, flat, entire, underneath 
beset with silvery-shining scalelets ; flowers solitary or 
sometimes two or few together ; petals small ; filaments 
glabrous ; anthers blunt ; ovularies beset with scalelets ; 
fruitlets slightly apiculated. E, ovatifolius. 

694. Leaves about half as broad as long. 

A subalpine shrub ; leaves rather small, obovate-cuneate, 
recurved at the margin, rounded or slightly bilobed at the 
summit, underneath beset with silvery-shining scalelets ; 
umbels terminal, sessile, few-flowered ; filaments glabrous ; 
fruitlets hardly apiculated. E. ozothamiioides. 

Leaves one-third as broad as long or proportionately 
still narrower ... ... ... ... ... 69S 

695. Leaves bilobed at the summit. 

A desert-shrub, very glandular-granular ; leaves from 
linear- to elongate-cuneate, often recurved at the margin, 



142 Key to the System of 



underneath beset with silvery-shining scalelets ; umbels 
with several flowers ; filaments glabrous ; fruitless hardly 
apiculated. E. sediflorus. 

Leaves lobeless at the summit ... 696 

696. Leaves rather elongated. 

A shrub, from dwarf to somewhat tall ; leaves from narrow- 
to linear-elliptical, mostly flat, underneath beset with 
silvery-shining scalelets ; umbels terminal, simple or some- 
times compound ; filaments glabrous ; fruitlets hardly 
apiculated. E. lepidotus. 

Leaves much abbreviated. 

A low alpine shrub : leaves quite small, crowded, thick, 
narrow-elliptical, recurved at the margin, underneath 
beset with silvery-shining scalelets ; umbels terminal, 
sessile; filaments glabrous; fruitlets somewhat apiculated; 
seeds without any lustre. E. alpinus. 

697. Anthers terminated by a very conspicuous appendage 698 
Anthers terminated by a very minute appendage ... 699 

698. Anthers ending in a bearded narrow appendage. 

Shrub, from dwarf to rather tall, almost glabrous ; leaves 
from elliptical- to linear-lanceolar or broad-linear, entire, 
generally flat, of an oily lustre and slightly reddish tinge ; 
petals pink, glabrous, somewhat connivent ; filaments 
almost coherent, ciliolated ; fruitlets blunt. 

E. Crowei. 

Anthers ending in a glabrous broadish appendage. 

Shrub, rather tall ; leaves quite large, generally lanceolar, 
of thick texture, finally glabrous ; flowers relatively large, 
axillary, solitary, their stalklets bearing several over- 
lapping roundish bracts ; petals pink, densely beset with 
minute hairlets ; filaments conspicuously ciliolated ; fruit- 
lets blunt. E. lanceolatus. 

699. Fruitlets erect, along the inner angle high-connate, 

blunt. 

A shrub, usually tall, almost glabrous, but rough from granu- 
lar glandules ; leaves comparatively large, of rather thin 
texture, from cuneate- to elliptical-lanceolar, flat, entire, 
sessile ; flowers usually solitary ; petals whitish ; filaments 
ciliolated ; fruitlets blunt. E. trachypliyllus. 



Victorian Plants. 143 



Fruitlets divergent from the base, conspicuously 
pointed ... 700 

700. Leaves elongated. 

A shrub, rather tall, rough from granular glandules ; leaves 
usually quite large, from narrow- to elliptical-lanceolar, 
sessile, flat, of a greyish hue ; flowers generally in umbels ; 
petals rather large, white or outside reddish ; filaments 
ciliolated. E. xnyoporoides. 

Leaves abbreviated ... ... ... 701 

701. Leaves of a greyish hue. 

A small shrub or half -shrubby plant, almost glabrous ; leaves 
thick, from quite obcordate to elliptic-obovate, often also 
somewhat cuneate or even spatular, to some extent bent 
inward, beneath as well as the branchlets glandular-rough ; 
flowers solitary or seldom two together ; petals white, 
tinged with red ; filaments ciliolated. E. obovalis. 

Leaves shining-green. 

A slender s-hrub or half-shrubby plant, never tall, glandular- 
rough ; leaves very small, from cuneate- or rhomboid- 
elliptical to somewhat ovate or even cylindric-linear, 
blunt ; flowers terminal, solitary or two or three together ; 
petals white, tinged with red, densely beset with minute 
hairlets ; filaments flattened, crisply ciliolated. 

E. difformis. 

ZIERIA. 

702. Leaves all simple. 

Shrub, seldom tall ; leaves comparatively small, from oval to 
narrow-elliptical, revolute at the margin, densely beset 
with minute hairlets, some of the leaves exceptionally 
scattered or ternately whorled ; flowers solitary or two or 
three together, short-stalked ; petals usually pink. 

Z. verouicea. 

Leaves nearly all consisting of three leaflets... ... 703 

703. Anthers pointed. 

A shrubby plant, almost glabrous ; leaflets firm, nearly 
linear or somewhat lanceolar, pointed, revolute at the 
margin, paler beneath ; cymes with few flowers ; petals 
whitish. Z. laevigata. 

Anthers blunt ... ... 704 



144 Key to the System of 



704. Leaflets small, revolute at the margin. 

A tall shrub ; leaflets from ovate to elliptical, densely beset 
with short hairlets ; bracts leafy ; cymes very short, few- 
flowered ; petals whitish. Z. cytisoides. 

Leaflets usually large, flat or slightly recurved at the 
margin. 

Tall shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous or somewhat beset 
with minute hairlets ; leaflets rather thin in texture, from 
lanceolar to elliptical-ovate ; cymes usually ample and 
many-flowered; petals whitish. Z. Smith.il. 



BORONXA. 

705. Petals bluish. 

A half-shrub or small shrubby plant ; leaves all simple, 
small, usually linear- or elliptic-semicylindrical, blunt, 
often glandular-rough beneath ; petals overlapping at the 
margin before expansion ; filaments beset with hairlets ; 
anthers terminated by a rather conspicuous appendage ; 
seeds rough, without any lustre. 

B. coerulesceus. 

Petals pink or brightly red or whitish ... ... 706 

706. Petals contiguous at the margin before expansion. 

A dwarf, alpine shrub, always glabrous; leaflets generally 
five, very small, from obcordate to ovate ; rhachis short ; 
flowers small, solitary ; petals pink or reddish ; filaments 
glabrous. B. algida. 

Petals overlapping at the margin before expansion ... 707 

707. Leaves or leaflets almost filiform or semicylindrical-.. 708 
Leaves or leaflets almost or quite flat ... ... 709 

708. Anthers without any appendage. 

Half -shrub or almost herbaceous plant, dwarf and glabrous; 
leaves very narrow and simple or consisting of three very 
slender leaflets ; flowers solitary or three together ; petals 
small, glabrous, pink ; filaments scarcely beset with hair- 
lets, thickened upwards ; seeds shining, smooth. 

B. filifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 145 



Anthers terminated by a small appendage. 

Shrubby, never tall, usually glabrous ; leaves short-stalked, 
consisting of three or rarely of five very small and clavate- 
cylindrical leaflets ; flowers solitary or two or three to- 
gether, quite small ; petals rather brightly red, as well as 
the filaments glabrous ; seeds without any lustre. 

B, clavellifolia. 

709. Leaves simple or ternately or biternately compound 710 
Leaves pinnate ... ... ... ... 711 

710. Sepals nearly as long as the petals. 

Half-shrubby or almost herbaceous, dwarf, nearly glabrous ; 
leaves always simple, from broad- to narrow-lanceolar ; 
flowers three or two together or oftener solitary ; petals 
small, pink or oftener whitish, glabrous outside ; filaments 
scarcely beset with hairlets ; anthers without any append- 
age ; seeds shining, smooth. B. parviflora. 

Sepals much shorter than the petals. 

Half -shrub or shrub, never very tall ; leaves either simple 
and then from linear- to ovate-lanceolar and entire, or 
consisting of once or twice ternate small entire or at the 
summit indented leaflets, these from linear- to rhomboid- 
lanceolar in form ; flow r ers from one to three or rarely 
more ; petals pink ; filaments beset with hairlets ; anthers 
terminated by a small appendage ; seeds rough, without 
any lustre. B. polygalif olia. 

711. Leaves stalked, usually glabrous, the leaflets generally 

broadish, in rather distant pairs. 

Generally a shrubby plant, often robust, sometimes very 
tall ; leaflets firm, from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar, mostly 
of an oily lustre and slightly reddish hue ; the rhachis 
often dilated ; flowers relatively large, three or more 
together ; petals pink ; filaments beset with crisped hair- 
lets, thickened towards the summit ; seeds shining, 
smooth. B. pinnata. 

Leaves almost sessile, the leaflets always narrow, in 
closely approximated pairs and usually beset with 
hairlets. 

A half-shrub or slender shrub, from dwarf to somewhat tall ; 
leaflets small, often almost linear and flaccid ; flowers 
solitary or from two to few together; petals pink; filaments 
beset with rather straight hairlets ; anthers without any 
appendage ; seeds shining, smooth. B. pilosa. 



146 Key to the System of 



CORREA. 

712. Calyx cleft beyond the middle. 

A shrub, often tall in age, scantily beset with nairlets; 
leaves usually of thin texture, from cordate- to lanceolar- 
ovate, somewhat denticulated ; flowers two or three 
together or solitary, their stalklets very thin and rather 
long, jointed ; lobes of the calyx from deltoid to semi- 
lanceolar, pointed ; petals coherent, greenish or dull- 
purplish ; four of the filaments dilated towards the base ; 
anthers yellow. Figure 14. C. aemula. 

Calyx lobeless ... .. ............ 713 

713. Petals disconnected, white, comparatively short. 

A coast-shrub, often tall in age ; leaves of thick texture, 
from orbicular to ovate, beneath closely beset with very 
short hairlets ; flowers two together or solitary, rather 
short ; anthers red. C. alba. 

Petals coherent, greenish or largely red outside, 
comparatively long ... ... ... ... ... 714 

714. Four of the filaments dilated towards the base. 

A shrub, seldom very tall ; leaves from cordate to elliptical ; 
flowers mostly rather long, often solitary and on short 
stalklets ; calyx firm, entire or minutely quadri-denti- 
culated ; anthers yellow. C. speciosa. 

None of the filaments dilated towards the base. 

Shrub of high mountain-regions, usually tall, sometimes 
arborescent, dwarfed in the alps ; leaves of very firm 
texture, almost flat, from ovate to elliptical ; calyx 
minutely seldom elongatedly denticulated ; petals greenish 
or somewhat yellowish, seldom largely red outside; anthers 
yellowish-green. C. Lawrenciana. 



CEX.ASTRTTS. 

715. Tall woody climber. 

Evergreen ; leaves rather large, short-stalked, from almost 
ovate to lanceolar, somewhat serrulated ; flowers small, 
in panicles ; petals yellowish- white ; stigma of the fruit- 
bearing flowers three-cleft; fruit three-celled or rarely two- 
celled, outside at last reddish-yellow ; seeds enclosed in a 
succulent orange-colored arillar appendage. Figure 28. 

C. Australis. 



Victorian Plants. 147 



LINEA.E. 

XiZNUBX. 

716. Styles connate to beyond the middle. 

Perennial, glabrous ; leaves from narrow-lanceolar to almost 
linear ; sepals membranously margined ; petals blue ; 
staminodia undeveloped ; fruit rather small. 

Ii. marginale. 

STA.CKHOUSIEA.E. 
STACK.HOUSIA, 

717. Quite depressed; flowers singly terminal. 

Alpine plant, forming large patches; leaves carnulent, 
from spatular- to elliptic-linear ; flowers very fragrant ; 
corolla from intense- to pale-yellow ; fruitlets dorsally 
blunt. Figure 29. S. pulvinaris. 

Erect; flowers in a spike ... ... ... ... 716 

718. Fruitlets each with three dorsal membranous angles. 

Coast-plant ; leaves very carnulent, from oval-cuneate to 
spatular ; flowers crowded in the spike, fragrant ; corolla 
cream-colored. S. spatulata. 

Fruitlets dorsally blunt ... ... ... ... 719 

719. Corolla generally cream-colored. 

Leaves from oval-lanceolar to almost linear; flowers crowded 
in the spikes, fragrant. S. linarifolia. 

Corolla greenish- or bright-yellow ... ... ... 720 

720. Flowers crowded in the spike. 

Leaves broadly linear ; flowers fragrant ; corolla intensely 
yellow, its lobes obtuse. S, flava. 

Flowers distant in the spike. 

Leaves from elliptical to linear or diminutive ; flowers small; 
corolla yellowish or greenish, its lobes acute. 

S. viminea. 



148 Key to tic System of 

SAPINBACE/LE. 
DODONAEA. 

721. Leaves simple ... ... 722 

Leaves pinnate ... ... ... ... ... 728 

722. Angles of the fruit membranously expanded... ... 723 

Angles of the fruit without any expanding membrane 727 

723. Membranes of fruit rounded-blunt at the base and at 

the summit ... ... ... ... ... ... 724 

Membranes of fruit truncate at the summit ... ... 726 

724. Leaves minutely lobed. 

Rather tall shrub ; leaves cuneate- or broad-linear, the lobes 
obovate and separable, somewhat pinnularly arranged ; 
fruit usually three-celled ; seeds shining. 

D. lobulata. 

Leaves lobeless ... ... ... ... ... 725 

725. Anthers several times longer than the minute calyx. 

Shrub, finally tall ; branchlets compressed ; leaves broad- 
or narrow-lanceolar, elongated, flat, entire ; stamens and 
pistils mostly in distinct flowers ; fruit three-celled, the 
expanding membranes about as broad as the cells ; 
dissepiments persistent on the axis ; seeds shining. 

D, triquetra. 

Anthers about as long as the calyx. 

Shrub, finally tall, occasionally arborescent, always very 
viscid ; leaves from wedgeshaped-ovate to lanceolar and 
broad -linear, entire or somewhat denticulated ; stamens 
and pistils mostly in separate flowers ; sepals generally 
four ; fruit usually three-celled, the expanding membranes 
about as broad as the cells ; seeds without lustre. 

D. viscosa. 

726. Leaves narrow- or elongate-lanceolar. 

Shrub, finally tall ; branchlets compressed-angular ; leaves 
usually elongated, almost or quite entire ; sepals generally 
four ; stamens and pistils mostly in distinct flowers ; fruit 
four-celled, its expanding membranes almost broader than 
long ; dissepiments persistent on the axis. 

D. truncatiales. 



Victorian Plants. 149 



Leaves roundish or ovate. 

A shrub, seldom tall ; leaves small, slightly crisped and 
denticulated, sometimes truncate ; flowers solitary or two 
together, the staminate and pistillate mostly distinct, 
their stalklets recurved, short ; fruit four- or five-celled, 
its expanding membranes narrow. D. Baueri. 

727. Leaves cuneate, indented at the summit. 

Dwarf, diffuse or prostrate ; leaves from deltoid- to linear- 
cuneate, flat ; stamens and pistils mostly in distinct 
flowers ; fruit two- or three-celled. D. procunibeiis. 

Leaves small, obovate, much narrowed downwards, 
entire. 

A shrub, seldom tall ; leaves very firm, without lustre, flat, 
their lateral venules hardly perceptible ; staminate and 
pistillate flowers mostly in distinct flowers ; anthers pale ; 
fruit three- or four-celled ; dissepiments seceding from the 
axis ; seeds shining. Figure 27. D. bursarif olia. 

728. Joints of rhachis dilated. 

A shrub, from -rather dwarf to tall, very viscid, often beset 
with hairlets ; leaflets all opposite, cuneate- or rhomboid- 
ovate, denticulated towards the summit ; stamens and 
pistils mostly in distinct flowers ; pistillate flowers three 
or two together or solitary ; fruit generally four-celled, 
the expanding membranes rounded-blunt at the base and 
summit ; seeds without lustre. D. boronifolia. 

Rhachis narrow throughout. 

A rather tall shrub ; leaflets alternate or opposite, short, 
linear, channelled, entire ; stamens and pistils mostly in 
distinct flowers ; pistillate flowers three or two together 
or solitary; fruit four- or five-celled; dissepiment persistent 
on the axis ; seeds without any lustre. 

D. stenozyga. 



HETERODZSNDRON. 

729. Leaves from broad-linear to elliptic-lanceolar, entire. 

A tall shrub, sometimes arborescent ; leaves rather long, 
flat, beset with minute hairlets ; flowers few together, 
occasionally two or one only ; fruit when completely 
developed four- celled, its divisions turgid ; arillar append- 
age of seeds bright-red. H. oleifolium. 



150 Key to the System of 



NEPHELIUBX. 

730. Leaflets large, from almost ovate to lanceolar. 

An evergreen tree, finally tall ; leaflets very firm, entire or 
distantly serrulated, mostly pointed, paler beneath ; 
flowers in panicles ; fruit glabrous, its divisions breaking 
transversely ; seeds black, shining, their arillar appendage 
bright-red. N. leiocarpum. 



NXTRARIA. 

731. Flowers in cymously paniculated spikes. 

A spinescent shrub, finally tall ; leaves from linear- to 
lanceolar- elliptical ; spikes in the often rather ample 
inflorescence short ; flowers small ; number of stamens 
threefold that of the petals ; fruit edible, dark-purplish 
or yellow outside ; the hard inner part (putamen) fissured 
at the summit. Figure 17. N. Schoberi. 

ZYGOFHYXiXiUBX. 

732. Sepals and petals five... ...... ... 733 

Sepals and petals four ... ... ... 734 

733. Fruits almost globular, but five-angular. 

Annual herb, never tall ; leaflets cuneate-elliptical, notched 
at the summit ; leafstalks dilated ; stamens ten ; filaments 
appendiculated ; fruit small, often assuming a violet hue, 
when fresh roundish, when dry splitting between the 
dissepiments, few-seeded. Z. lodocarpum. 

Fruits almost semi-ellipsoid, but five-angular, truncate 
at the vertex. 

A somewhat shrubby plant, quite glabrous ; leaflets broadly 
obovate, oblique ; stamens ten ; filaments appendiculated ; 
fruit dilated at the summit into five short appendages, 
splitting between the dissepiments, few-seeded ; angles of 
the fruit thick and narrow. Z. apiculatum. 

734. Angles of the fruit broadly membranous. 

A lax shrub ; leaflets from obliquely ovate-lanceolar to 
linear ; petals often orange -colored ; stamens eight ; fila- 
ments without appendages ; fruits large, splitting at the 
dissepiment, few-seeded. Z. fruticulosum. 

Angles of the fruit thick and narrow ... ... 735 



Victorian Plants. 151 



735. Fruits truncate ... ... ... ... 736 

Fruits rounded-blunt ... 737 



736. Perennial plant, generally large. 

Shrubby, often tall, but of weak or even climbing habit ; 
leaflets from oblique-elliptical to linear ; stamens eight ; 
filaments without any appendages ; fruits rather small, 
obversely semiovate - pyramidal, acutely quadrangular, 
splitting between the dissepiments, few-seeded, without 
any expanding membranes. Z. Billardieri. 

Annual plant, quite small. 

Leaflets elliptic- or linear-cuneate, their stalk dilated ; 
flowers minute ; petals whitish ; stamens four ; fruit very 
small, acutely quadrangular, without any expanding 
membranes, splitting between the dissepiments. 

Z. 



737. Leaflets obliquely cuneate-obovate, perfectly entire. 

Robust herbaceous plant ; leaflets very carnulent, their stalk 
margined ; flowers comparatively large ; stamens eight ; 
fruit large, almost oval in outline, quadrangular, splitting 
between the dissepiments, many-seeded. 

Z. glaucescens. 



Leaflets broadish-cuneate, notched at the summit. 

Small annual plant; leaf-stalk dilated; flowers rather small; 
stamens eight ; fruit almost oval in outline, splitting 
between the dissepiments, many-seeded. Figure 16. 

Z. crenatum. 



TRXBUX.TJS. 

738. Fruitlets each with two dorsal spinules, but without 
any expanding membranes. 

Prostrate herb, ordinarily annual ; leaflets small, in four to 
eight pairs, from ovate- to lanceolar-elliptical, generally 
beset with appressed hairlets ; flowers from small to quite 
large ; stamens ten, all perfect ; fruit depressed, each of 
the fruitlets often provided with two additional spinules 
and generally also with small granular or pungent ex- 
crescences and with short hairlets. T. terrestris. 



152 Key to the System of 



OXAX.XS. 

739. Petals white. 

Stemless ; root creeping ; leafstalks much elongated, at 
the base oval and membranous; leaflets three, broadly 
obcordate ; flowerstalks reaching beyond the leaves ; 
flower single ; sepals oval ; fruit ovate-globular, glabrous ; 
seeds nearly always solitary in each cell. ' ' Wood-Sorrel." 

O. Magellanica. 

Petals yellow. 

Stem developed ; leafstalks elongated, at the base slightly 
dilated ; flowers in an umbel or reduced to two or one ; 
sepals elliptic-lanceolar ; fruit cylindrical, pointed, beset 
with hairlets ; seeds several in each cell. 

O. corniculata. 

PELARGONIUM. 

740. Stem very abbreviated. 

Root turgid, generally short; leaves radical, rhomboid- 
ovate ; flowers comparatively large ; petals rose-colored. 
Figure 18. P. Rodney anum. 

Stem nearly always elongated. 

Herbaceous ; root slender or rather long ; leaves almost 
cordate or somewhat renate or orbicular, lobeless or 
short-lobed ; umbels usually many-flowered ; involucrating 
bracts small, membranous ; flowers comparatively small ; 
nectar-tube short ; petals often pink or pale. 

P. Australe. 

GERANIUM. 

741. Stem elongated. 

Root often tuberous ; leaves in outline cordate- or renate- 
orbicular, deeply five- to seven-cleft, the main-segments 
slit again into three or more broad-linear or semielliptic 
lobes ; sepals short-pointed ; petals small, pink ; fruitleta 
without wrinkles ; seeds outside reticulated. (Name now 
re-adopted more exact than that of G. Carolinianum and 
G. dissectum.) G. pile sum. 

Stem very abbreviated. 

An alpine herb ; leaves crowded, almost radical, divided 
into narrow segments and lobes ; sepals long-pointed ; 
petals small, pink ; seeds almost smooth. 

G. sessiliflorum. 



Victorian Plants. 153 



ERODIUIK. 

742. Petals blue. 

Leaves mostly trisected or the lower trifid, the segments or 
lobes blunt, somewhat rhomboid, upwards unequally 
indented and not seldom simply incised also ; flowers few 
in each umbel or sometimes only two together or even 
solitary ; sepals short-pointed. E. cygnorum, 

1VE ALVACE A.3B. 
PLAQIANTHUS. 

743. Petals white. 

Arborescent, often riparian ; leaves large, mostly cordate- 
ovate, much narrowed toward the upper end, crenate, 
lobeless or some short-lobed; flowers in paniculate racemes; 
petals of the staminate flowers exserted, of the pistillate 
flowers almost enclosed ; fruitlets normally five, outward 
beset with hairlets, somewhat exserted. 

P. pulchellus. 

Petals pale-yellowish or somewhat purplish ... ... 744 

744. Herbaceous. 

Usually erect plant, restricted to subsaline localities ; leaves 
carnulent, from lanceolar- to orbicular-ovate and often 
also cuneate ; floral leaves connate with their stipules ; 
flowers in leafy spikes ; calyx angular ; petals short- 
exserted ; fruitlets five, glabrous, enclosed. 

F. spicatus. 

Dwarf-shrubby. 

Rigid plant, restricted to somewhat saline ground, beset 
with often shining scalelets ; branchlets sometimes spines- 
cent ; leaves very small, from linear- to obovate- cuneate, 
entire or at the summit indented, mostly fascicled ; flowers 
minute, axillary, almost or quite sessile, solitary or two 
or few together ; fruitlets outside membranous, often only 
one developed. P. microphyllus. 

SIDA. 

745. Depressed, semi-herbaceous. 

Imperfectly beset with starry hairlets ; leaves rather small, 
from linear-elliptical to orbicular-cordate, crenate or 
denticulated ; stipules linear-filiform ; flowers on capillary 
stalklets, often solitary ; fruitlets six to ten, dorsally 
wrinkled. S. corrugata. 

Dwarf-shrubby. 

Much branched ; largely beset with grey starry hairlets ; 
leaves very small, ovate-orbicular, somewhat denticulated 



154 Key to the System of 



at the summit truncated ; flowers quite small, axillary, 
solitary, on short stalklets ; fruitlets five to eight, dorsally 
beset with hairlets, but without wrinkles. 

S. intricata. 

ABUTILON. 

746. Shrubby. 

A dwarf shrub, closely invested with minute starry hairlets ; 
leaves orbicular- or ovate-cordate, unequally crenate ; 
flowers axillary, solitary, conspicuously stalked ; calyx 
inflated, five-angled, its lobes long-pointed ; fruitlets ear- 
shaped, enclosed, much compressed, slightly coherent. 

A. otocarpum. 

Annual. 

An erect herb, closely invested with minute starry hairlets ; 
leaves rather large, roundish-cordate, pointed, slightly 
crenate ; lobes of the calyx deltoid-semilanceolar ; fruit- 
lets pointed, exserted. A. Avicexmae. 

KOWZTTIA. 

747. Leaves from lanceolar-ovate to broad-cordate. 

Invested with starry hairlets ; leaves lobeless, hardly in- 
dented or almost entire ; stipules very fugacious or 
obliterated ; flowers axillary, often solitary ; styles con- 
nate to the summit ; stigmas very short ; fruit enclosed ; 
cotyledons trisected. Figure 19. H, trilocularis. 

HIBISCUS. 

748. Involucral bracts about seven, linear, almost discon- 

nected. 

A half-shrub, densely invested with minute grey starry 
hairlets ; leaves from lanceolar- to orbicular- ovate, irregu- 
larly crenate-denticulate ; flowers often axillary and soli- 
tary, conspicuously stalked, rather large ; petals about 
three times longer than the calyx. H. Krichauffii. 

LAVATERA. 

749. Involucral bracts to about one-third of their length 

connate, the disconnected portion nearly semiovate. 

A somewhat shrubby plant, usually tall, closely invested 
with short grey starry hairlets ; leaves orbicular-cordate, 
often bluntly five- to seven-lobed ; stipules short, semi- 
lanceolar-deltoid ; flowers comparatively large, usually 
several together, on short stalklets ; calyx nearly twice 
as long as the involucre ; fruitlets much shorter than the 
calyx, acutangular. L. plebeja. 



Victorian Plants. 155 



TREIVIANDREAE. 

TETRATHSCA. 

750. Sepals appressed. 

Leaves from almost ovate-lanceolar to linear, often recurved 
at the margin, occasionally diminutive or absent ; sepals 
and petals generally four ; stamens usually eight ; fruit 
from cuneate- to orbicular-obovate. T. ericifolia. 

Sepals soon reflexed. 

Leaves mostly from obovate- to orbicular-rhomboid, almost 
flat ; sepals and petals generally four ; stamens usually 
eight ; fruit obovate -orbicular. T. ciliata. 

TH.XACEAE. 
EXiAEOCARFUS. 

751. Leaves closely beset with brownish hairlets beneath. 

A tall tree ; leaves short-stalked, from obovate- to elongate- 
lanceolar, serrulated; flowers in racemes; petals undivided, 
faintly denticulated at the summit, crimson towards the 
base, otherwise white; stamens exceeding the petals twice 
or three times in number. Figure 22. 

E. holopetalus. 

Leaves almost glabrous. 

A small tree, exceptionally tall ; leaves conspicuously stalked, 
from elliptical- to narrow-lanceolar, serrulated, from pro- 
minent venules reticulated ; flowers in racemes ; petals 
fringed-lobed at and towards the summit, whitish ; sta- 
mens exceeding the petals five or six times in number ; 
fruit from roundish-ovate to globular, blue outside. 

E. reticulatus. 

STERCULIACEAE. 
THOTOASXA. 

752. Floral bracts ovate-lanceolar, at the base connate. 

A rather small shrub, invested with starry hairlets ; leaves 
of herbaceous texture, from ovate- to narrow-elliptical, 
recurved at the margin ; stipules large, oblique, from 
rhomboid- to dimidiate-cordate ; racemes few-flowered ; 
bracts almost unilateral ; calyx somewhat lilac-colored ; 
petals scale-like ; anthers narrow, dark, opening by short 
slits at and near the summit ; fruit three-celled. 

T, petalocalyx. 



156 Key to the System of 



LASIOPETALUIVI. 

753. Leaves flaccid. 

A shrub, from quite dwarf to rather tall, invested with 
starry hairlets ; leaves almost cordate, nearly mem- 
branous, entire or slightly sinuous ; flowers rather large, 
in cymes ; floral bracts linear-filiform, solitary, seldom 
two ; calyx membranous, whitish or pale-pink ; anthers 
opening by two terminal pores; style beset with re- 
troversed fascicular hairlets. L. Scliulzenii. 

Leaves firm ... ... ... ... ... ... 754 

751. Flowers crowded almost into a capitulate cyme. 

A shrub, finally quite tall ; leaves large, from lanceolar- to 
cordate-ovate, flat, beneath densely invested with whitish 
minute starry hairlets; floral bracts three, ovate -lanceolar, 
connate at the base, placed unilaterally ; calyx inside 
glabrous, pale ; petals scale-like ; anthers at last bursting 
longitudinally. L. dasyphyllum. 

Flowers dispersed ... ... 755 

755. Calyx inside glabrous ... .. ... ... 756 

Calyx inside beset with very short hairlets ... ... 757 

756. Stalklets of flowers conspicuous. 

A shrub, finally rather tall ; leaves very firm, mostly 
narrow-elliptical, almost or quite flat, entire, underneath 
closely invested with very short starry hairlets ; cymes 
few-flowered ; flowers rather large ; floral bracts three, 
from linear- to lanceolar -elliptical, connate at the base, 
unilateral ; anthers opening by two terminal pores. 
Figure 20. L. Behrii. 

Stalklets of flowers very short. 

A shrub, at last rather tall ; leaves very firm, from elliptic- 
to broad-linear, entire, almost flat, underneath closely 
invested with minute starry hairlets ; floral bracts three, 
almost linear, connate at the base, unilateral ; cymes 
short-stalked ; flowers quite smooth ; anthers opening by 
two terminal pores. L. parviflorrtm. 

757. Stalklets of flowers conspicuous. 

A shrub, usually rather dwarf ; leaves very firm, from 
elliptic- to broad-linear, entire, almost flat, underneath 
closely beset with minute starry hairlets; cymes racemose, 
each on a conspicuous very slender stalk ; flowers quite 



Victorian Plants. 157 



small ; floral bracts three, very short, from ovate- to 
linear-lanceolar, connate at the base, unilateral ; anthers 
opening by two terminal pores. L. Baueri. 

Stalklets of flowers very short. 

A shrub, finally quite tall ; leaves very firm, from ovate- to 
lanceolar- or narrow-elliptical, entire or somewhat sinuous 
at the margin, or at or near the base slightly lobed, 
almost or quite flat, underneath closely beset with starry 
hairlets ; flowers comparatively large ; floral bracts three, 
from lanceolar- to narrow-linear, connate at the base, 
unilateral ; anthers opening by two terminal pores. 

L. ferruginenm. 

COIKXKERCONXA. 

758. Staminodia singly placed between the stamens. 

A shrub, from rather dwarf to tall ; leaves mostly from 
cordate- to ovate-lanceolar, lobeless or few-lobed, crenu- 
lated or irregularly denticulated, beneath densely beset 
with hairlets ; flowers in cymes ; calyx whitish ; staminodia 
linear-lanceolar, scarcely exserted ; fruit armed with 
spinescent excrescences, opening between the dissepiments; 
seeds appendiculated. C. clasyphylla. 

Staminodia ternately placed between the stamens. 

A tall shrub or finally a small tree ; leaves large, from 
cordate- to ovate-lanceolar, often acuminate, beneath 
paler and beset with starry hairlets, serrate- or repand- 
crenate, lobeless or short-lobed ; cymes paniculate ; 
staminodia glabrous, as long as or longer than the calyx, 
spatular-cuneate, with linear base ; fruit beset with hispid 
bristlets, opening between the dissepiments ; seeds 
appendiculated. C. Fraseri. 

BRACHYCHITON. 

759. Calyx outside scantily beset with hairlets. 

An evergreen tree, sometimes tall ; leaves simple, firm, 
glabrous, shining, those of the adult plant verging into 
a mainly ovate or rhomboid form, terminated by a long 
and narrow acumen, and often producing a pointed lobe 
on each side ; flowers in rather short panicles ; calyx 
yellowish- and red-speckled ; ovularies rudimentary in 
the principal staminate flowers ; stamens less developed 
in the principal pistillate flowers ; fruitlets five, very large, 
hard ; seeds mutually cohering, their brittle outer 
integument partly persistent, outside invested with 
starry hairlets. Figure 21. B. populneus. 



158 Key to the System of 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 

EUPHORBIA. 

760. Leaves rather long, from broad-linear to narrowly 

lanceolar-elliptical. 

Poison-herb, erect, rather tall, glabrous, somewhat suc- 
culent ; leaves partly scattered, often truncate and 
imperfectly denticulated ; glandules of the involucre 
renate, brownish, undivided ; fruit rather large ; seeds 
appendiculated. E. ereniophila. 

Leaves small, from roundish to almost oval ... ... 761 

761. Subtle-downy; glands denticulated. 

Poison-herb, dwarf; leaves roundish- or cuneate-ovate, 
serrulated, oblique ; lobes of the involucre and glandules 
red ; fruit very small ; seeds without any appendage. 

E. erythrantha. 

Glabrous; glands entire. 

Poison-herb, prostrate ; leaves from oblique- elliptical to 
roundish ; fruit very small ; seeds without any appendage. 

E. Drummondi. 

OXKAXiANTHUS. 

762. Fruit without any appendages. 

Glabrous ; leaves long-stalked, from ovate-deltoid to almost 
rhomboidal, pointed, of thin texture, flat, without lustre ; 
flowers in racemes ; calyx deciduous ; fruit roundish ; 
seeds much enclosed in an arillar appendage. 

O. Leschenaultianus. 

BERTYA. 

763. Leaves flat. 

Arborescent, somewhat beset with hairlets ; leaves elongate- 
elliptical, of thin texture ; sepals three times longer than 
the bracts; fruit almost ovate, in length considerably 
exceeding the sepals. B. Findlayi. 

Leaves recurved or revolute at the margin ... ... 764 

764. Leaves broad-linear, revolute at the margin. 

Shrubby, glabrous, somewhat viscid ; fruit almost ellipsoid, 
in length considerably exceeding the sepals. 

B. Cmining'liaiiii. 



Victorian Plants. 159 



Leaves narrowly lanceolar-elliptical, recurved at the 
margin. 

Shrubby, closely beset with starry hairlets ; fruit slightly 
exceeding the sepals. Figure 23. B. oleifolia. 

BEYERIA. 

765. Fruit beset with hairlets. 

A tall shrub, finally almost arborescent, scarcely viscid ; 
leaves rather long, firm, oval- or lanceolar-elliptical, some- 
what recurved at the margin ; flowers solitary or two or 
three together ; fruit comparatively large. 

B. lasiocarpa. 

Fruit glabrous ... ... ... ... ... ... 766 

766. Leaves oval- or elliptical-lanceolar. 

A shrub, often tall, always viscid ; leaves firm, generally 

1 dark-green and shining above, often closely beset with 

minute white hairlets beneath ; flowers solitary or two or 

three together ; stalklets much longer than the calyx ; 

fruit comparatively large. B. viscosa. 

Leaves broad-linear, blunt. 

A rather dwarf shrub ; leaves firm, blunt, narrowed towards 
the base, hardly viscid or shining, pale-greenish or whitish 
beneath ; stalklets about as long as the calyx ; fruit com- 
paratively small. B. opaca. 

RZCZNOCARPUS. 

767. Fruit densely beset with minute spinular excrescences. 

A rather tall, almost glabrous shrub ; leaves rigid, elongate- 
linear, closely revolute at the margin ; flowers terminal, 
fragrant, conspicuously stalked, generally one pistillate 
flower accompanied by a few staminate flowers, the sepals 
of the latter connate towards the base ; petals white, 
comparatively long, usually six ; fruit relatively large. 

R. pinifolius. 

FORANTHERA. 

768. Annual. 

Dwarf; leaves almost flat, membranous, from linear-elliptical 
to spatular-ovate ; racemes capitular, forming a leafy 
corymb. P. microphylla. 

Perennial 769 



160 Key to the System of 



769. Leaves abbreviated, linear, revolute at the margin. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves crowded, rigid ; racemes capitular, 
forming a compact corymb. P. ericoides. 

Leaves elongated, from broad-linear to narrow-lanceo- 
lar, flat or somewhat recurved at the margin. 

Rather tall ; leaves firm ; racemes capitular, forming an 
ample corymb. P. corymbosa. 

A3KPEREA. 

770. Stems and branches prominently triangular or biangular. 

Perennial, slender herb ; leaves small, distant, occasionally 
almost absent, mostly lanceolar- or rhomboid-cuneate and 
somewhat indented ; flowers in small lateral or axillary 
clusters. A. spartioides. 

CLAOXYLON. 

771. Leaves conspicuously stalked. 

Finally a good -sized tree ; leaves almost membranous, from 
ovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, denticulated; flowers very 
small, in racemes, the staminate and the pistillate flowers 
mostly on distinct plants. C. Australe. 

ADRXANA. 

772. Leaves scattered, conspicuously stalked. 

Mainly a desert-shrub, scantily or extensively beset with 
starry hairlets ; leaves often from ovate-lanceolar to 
cordate in outline and three-lobed, with two stipitate 
glandules at the base ; flowers rather large, in spikes, the 
staminate and the pistillate flowers on distinct plants ; 
fruit rather large. A. tomentosa. 

Leaves opposite, hardly stalked. 

Exclusively a coast-shrub, scantily or extensively beset 
with starry hairlets ; leaves ovate-lanceolar or somewhat 
rhombeous, lobeless, with two stipitate glandules at the 
base ; flowers rather large, in spikes, the staminate and 
pistillate flowers on distinct plants ; fruit rather large. 

A. quadripartita. 

IKXCRANTHEUM. 

773. Stamens six to nine. 

A shrub, often tall, almost or quite glabrous ; leaves rather 
rigid, from linear- to cuneate- elliptical ; flowers small, 
solitary or few together. M. hexandrum. 



Victorian Plants. 161 



/ 



PSEUDANTHUS. 

774. Leaves mostly ovate. 

A small spreading shrub ; leaves quite small ; sepals linear- 
spathulate ; three of the filaments much longer than the 
anthers. P. OValifolius. 

Leaves mostly orbicular. 

A small spreading shrub ; leaves quite small ; sepals yellow- 
ish, ovate-spathulate ; none of the filaments much longer 
than the anthers. P. divaricatissimus. 

PHYLLANTHUS. 

775. Fruit protracted upwards. 

Annual, glabrous, greyish-green ; leaves almost elliptical, 
somewhat cuneate, in two rows turned away from the 
flowers somewhat to one side ; flowers axillary, on very 
short stalklets ; sepals much shorter than the fruit ; seeds 
large, rough, livid, acute at both ends, excavated at the 
inner angle. P. trachyspermus. 

Fruit depressed-globular ... ... ... 776 

776. Styles undivided. 

Herbaceous, glabrous ; leaves from narrow- to cuneate- 
linear or the lower spatular-cuneate, flat or recurved at 
the margin ; calyx of staminate flowers tubular. 

P. tliesioides. 

Styles divided into two segments ... ... ... 777 

777. Beset with short hairlets 778 

Glabrous 779 

778. Staminate and pistillate flowers on distinct plants. 

Perennial, beset with short scattered hairlets ; leaves 
cuneate- or elliptic-obovate, recurved at the margin ; 
stipules dark ; flowers quite small, on very short stalk- 
lets ; fruit small. P. thymoides. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. 

Perennial, invested with minute greyish hairlets ; leaves 
spatular- or elliptic-obovate ; flowers on short stalklets ; 
fruit small ; seeds smooth, brownish. 

P. Fuernrohrii. 

M 



162 Key to the System, of 



779. Annual. 

Leaves greyish-green, elliptical- or cuneate-obovate, in two 
rows turning away from the flowers towards one side ; 
flowers minute, on very short stalklets ; fruit small, 
turgidly trilobed ; seeds streaked, blackish. 

P. lacunarius. 

Shrubby. 

Tall shrub ; leaves rather large, from obovate- to obcordate- 
orbicular, membranous, in two rows turning away from 
the flowers towards one side ; flowers minute, usually a 
few together in the axils, on conspicuous stalklets ; fruit 
small, brownish. P. Gunnii. 



CUPULIFERAE. 

FAGUS. 

780. Leaves small, flat, crenulated, mostly glabrous ; their 

lateral venules faint. 

A very large evergreen tree, with widely spreading branches; 
leaves firm, from ovate- to orbicular- or deltoid-rhomboid; 
involucral bracts fringed ; staminate flowers mostly soli- 
tary ; stamens several ; fruit-bearing calyces minutely 
lobed at the summit; fruits oftener triangular than 
biangular. F. Cunningham!. 

URTICACEAE. 

TRBZKA. 

781. Leaves from cordate- to ovate-lanceolar, much nar- 

rowed into the apex. 

From a tall shrub to a good-sized tree ; leaves somewhat 
brittle, slightly serrulated ; flowers in short cymes ; fruit 
small, from ovate to nearly roundish. Figure 24. 

T. cannabina. 

FICTTS. 

782. Fruit-bearing receptacles small, short-stalked, almost 

globular. 

A tree, from small to rather large, hardly evergreen ; leaves 
somewhat brittle, on short stalklets, from cordate- to 
elliptical-ovate, accumulate, rather oblique, rough ; fruit- 
bearing receptacles solitary or two together, sometimes 
verging into an ovate or urceolar form. F. scabra. 



Victorian Plants. 163 



PARIETARXA. 

783. Generally of annual duration. 

A small herb ; leaves tender, scattered, from ovate and 
rhomboid to almost cordate, their three nmin-venules 
arising from the base together ; flowers few together in 
cymes or almost in clusters; bracts from linear to lanceolar 
or sometimes from ovate to cordate. P. debilis. 

AUSTRAX.XNA. 

784. Leaves from lanceolar-ovate to orbicular, largely and 

bluntly denticulated. 

A small perennial herb ; leaves tender, mostly scattered ; 
flowers axillary, two or few together, the staminate and 
the pistillate flowers distinct. A. pusilla. 



CASUARXXTBAE. 

CASUARINA. 

785. Arboreous ... ...... ... ... ... 786 

Shrubby ......... ..... ... 788 

786. Seed-like fruits grey. 

Branchlets rather robust, ascending, faintly streaked, 
greyish-green ; whorls producing nine to sixteen very 
short denticular rudimentary leaves ; strobile-like fruit- 
masses depressed, rather small ; valvular seed-bearing 
bracteoles very prominent. C. 



Seed-like fruits dark-brown ............ 787 

787. Branchlets rather robust, drooping. 

Branchlets well streaked, dull-green ; whorls producing 
nine to twelve pointed denticular rudimentary leaves; 
strobile-like fruit-masses rather large ; valvular seed- 
bearing bracteoles conspicuously protruding. 

C. quadrivalvis. 

Branchlets rather slender, ascending. 

Branchlets dark-green ; whorls producing six to eight 
minute denticular rudimentary leaves ; strobile-like fruit- 
masses rather large ; valvular seed-bearing bracteoles 
prominent, with a thick dorsal iippendage. Figure 25. 

C. suberosa. 



164 Key to tie System of 



788. Valvular seed-bearing bracteoles with a rough dorsal 

appendage. 

Branchlets very slender ; whorls producing usually five 
denticular rudimentary leaves ; strobile-like fruit-masses 
very small; seed-like fruits dark-brown. C. liana. 

Valvular seed-bearing bracteoles with a smooth dorsal 
appendage ... ... ... ... ... 789 

789. Strobile-like fruit-masses rather large. 

Whorls producing six to eight very short denticular rudi- 
mentary leaves ; seed-bearing valvular bracteoles blunt ; 
seed -like fruits dark-brown. C. distyla. 

Strobile-like fruit-masses quite small. 

Whorls producing six to eight very short denticular rudi- 
mentary leaves ; seed-bearing valvular bracteoles blunt ; 
seed-like fruits dark-brown. Ci paludosa. 

PHYTOLACCEA.E. 
DIBYIVXOTHECA. 

790. Pistils three or more. 

A rather small shrub; leaves channelled- or semicylindric- 
linear, usually at the upper end recurved and pointed ; 
flowers small, axillary, solitary, on very short stalklets, 
the staminate and pistillate flowers on distinct plants ; 
anthers almost sessile, in one circular row ; fruitlets 
rather small, dorsally dehiscent. Figure 43. 

D. pleiococca. 

CODONOCARPUS. 

791. Leaves from almost lanceolar to obovate and rhombeous. 

Finally a small or rarely middle-sized tree, remaining some- 
times shrubby ; leaves on slender stalks, greyish-green, 
flat, somewhat acrid ; staminate flowers in racemes, their 
anthers almost sessile, in one circular row ; pistillate 
flowers on distinct plants ; fruitlets rather large, on long 
stalklets; seeds wrinkled. C. cotinifolius. 

FICOIDEAE. 

1KOX.X.UGO. 

792. Leaves very narrow. 

Glabrous, very small, annual, erect or diffuse ; leaves almost 
whorled, mostly narrow-linear ; flowers minute, on capil- 
lary stalklets ; stamens three to five ; fruit very small, 
three-valved. Uff. Cerviana. 



Victorian Plants. 165 



Leaves broadish ... ... ... 793 

793. Sepals acute ; fruit five-valved. 

Prostrate, beset with soft starry hairlets ; stems elongated ; 
leaves comparatively large, from nearly obovate- or spatu- 
lar- to cuneate-orbicular, almost whorled, flaccid ; flowers 
rather large ; stamens five to twenty ; appendage of about 
half the size of the seeds. Figure 41. M. Glinus. 

Sepals obtuse ; fruit three-valved. 

Prostrate ; stems almost unilaterally beset with crisp hair- 
lets ; leaves nearly glabrous, almost whorled, from narrow - 
or cuneate-elliptical to obovate ; flowers rather small ; 
stamens three to ten ; appendage much smaller than the 
seeds. M. Spergula. 



794. Leaves almost semicylindric, prominently triangular. 

Prostrate; flowers large; petals pink, narrow; styles six to 
ten ; fruit very pulpy, edible. M. aequilaterale. 

Leaves almost cylindric, hardly angular. 

Prostrate; flowers rather large ; petals pink, narrow; styles 
five ; fruit slightly pulpy. Figure 39. M. Australe. 

TBTRAGONXA. 

795. Prostrate, herbaceous. 

Mainly a coast-plant ; densely beset with transparent minute 
moist papules ; leaves from deltoid- to ovate-rhomboid ; 
flowers small, nearly sessile ; lobes of the calyx yellowish 
inside ; fruit broader upwards, bluntly angular, green. 
" New Zealand Spinage." T. expansa. 

Climbing, woody. 

Mainly a coast-plant ; densely beset with transparent minute 
moist papules ; leaves from lanceolar- to ovate-rhomboid ; 
flowers small, long-stalked; lobes of the calyx yellow 
inside ; fruit almost spherical, succulent, red. Figure 40. 

T. implexicoma. 



STELLARIA. 

796. Leaves sharply pointed. 

Perennial, sometimes tall; branchlets beset with crisp 
hairlets; leaves rigid, from ovate- to iiarrow-lanceolar, 
attenuated into a very acute apex ; sepals pungent ; petals 
developed. S. pungeiis. 



166 Key to the System of 



Leaves hardly pointed ... ... ... 797 

797. Petals undeveloped or rudimentary. 

Annual, glabrous ; leaves narrow-lanceolar ; flowers solitary, 
their stalklets usually abbreviated ; stamens five to ten, 
much shorter than the sepals. S. multiflora. 

Petals developed ... ... ... ., 795 

798. Leaves linear, rather long. 

Perennial, glabrous ; flowers solitary, their stalklets much 
elongated. (S. glauca.) S. palustris. 

Leaves from ovate to lanceolar, rather short. 

Perennial, often tall, sometimes extending to great length ; 
leaves flaccid, stalked ; flower-stalklets elongated. 

S. flaccida. 

SAGXNA. 

799. Perennial, prostrate. 

Very small plant ; stalklets curved after flowering ; sepals 
finally spreading ; petals usually developed. 

S. procumbens. 

Annual, erect. 

Minute plant ; stalklets straight after flowering ; sepals 
continuing erect ; petals undeveloped or rudimentary. 

S. apetala. 

COIiOBANTHUS. 

800. Densely tufted, depressed. 

An alpine plant ; leaves abbreviated, rigid, linear-triangu- 
lar, channelled, much pointed ; flowers solitary, on very 
short stalklets. Figure 32. C. Beiithaniianus. 

Almost stemless, erect. 

Leaves elongated, narrow -linear, acute ; flowers solitary, on 
long stalklets. C. Billarclieri. 

POX.YCARPON. 

801. Stamens three. 

An annual, glabrous herb, spreading or prostrate ; leaves 
from elliptical- to spatular-obovate, simply opposite or 
oftener in double pairs almost whorled ; stipules and 
bracts pointed, quite scarious ; flowers very small, in 
cymes. P. tetraphyllum. 



Victorian Plants. 167 



SFERGUX.ARXA. 

802. Petals rosy-red. 

A perennial, small plant, often much beset with glandular 
hairlets ; leaves linear-filiform ; stipules scarious ; flowers 
in cymes ; sepals without any prominent venule ; stamens 
five to ten ; seeds often membranously margined. 

S. r libra. 



803. Leaves very small, filiform-linear. 

An annual, small, erect plant, beset with glandular hairlets ; 
flowers solitary, conspicuously stalked ; petals narrow, 
pink or white ; stamens shorter than the petals ; fruit 
small, ellipsoid. S. tubulosa. 

SCXiERANTHUS. 

804. Tube of the calyx shorter than the lobes ... ... 805 

Tube of the calyx longer than the lobes ...... 806 

805. Calyx-lobes broad-membranous. 

A laxly tufted, perennial, desert-plant ; leaves broadish- 
trigonous-linear, much pointed ; flowers in sessile clusters ; 
calyx deeply five-cleft, its lobes from lanceolar- to 
orbicular-ovate and pointed ; stamens five, elongated ; 
fruit only at its base adnate. S. pimgens. 

Calyx-lobes narrow-membranous. 

A subalpine, perennial, small plant ; leaves very narrow ; 
flowers in sessile clusters ; calyx five-cleft to rather beyond 
the middle, its lobes lanceolar- or deltoid-ovate ; stamens 
two, rather abbreviated ; fruit only at its base adnate. 

S. diander. 

806. Flowers two at the summit of solitary stalks. 

An alpine and subalpine plant, densely tufted and much 
depressed ; leaves acicular-linear ; flowers minute ; calyx 
four-cleft to less than the middle; stamen one; fruit 
enclosed, but only at its base adnate. S. bi.fl.onis. 

Flowers single on solitary stalks. 

A densely tufted and much depressed alpine plant ; leaves 
acicular-linear; flowers minute; calyx five-cleft to less 
than the middle ; stamen one ; fruit enclosed, but only 
at its base adnate. Figure 33. S. inniarioides. 



168 Key to the System of 



PORTULACEAE. 
PORTULACA. 

807. Leaves from obovate- to elliptical-cuneate, very 

carnulent. 

An annual, prostrate herb ; leaves mostly scattered on the 
stems, crowded at the flowers, always glabrous, often 
acidulous; minute stipular hairlets generally near the base 
of the leaves ; flowers terminal, several, few or sometimes 
solitary, 'sessile ; calyx -segments dorsally angular ; petals 
tender-membranous, often five, yellow, rarely red; stamens 
usually from seven to twelve ; stigmas capillary, five ; 
lower portion of fruit adnate. P. oleracea. 

CLAYTONIA. 

808. Sepals deciduous. 

Quite dwarf, annual ; leaves very turgid, from oval- to 
narrow-ellipsoid ; stalklets shorter than the flowers ; 
sepals very carnulent ; petals four to seven, pointed ; 
stamens four to ten ; stigmas three ; fruit hard, black, 
blunt, only at the summit dehiscent ; seeds dotted. 
Figure 31. C. pygmaea. 

Sepals persistent 809 

809. Stalklets longer than the flowers 810 

Stalklets shorter than the flowers ... ... ... 812 

810. Seeds dotted. 

Annual ; stems not rarely flexuous or twining ; leaves turgid, 
from almost elliptical to cylindric-linear, those near the 
root crowded ; stalklets soon distant, in age refracted ; 
petals small, pink ; stamens five to ten ; fruit pointed ; 
seeds very minute. (C. pusilla.) C. volubilis. 

Seeds smooth ... ... ... .., ... 811 

811. Leaves from spatular- to linear-ellipsoid. 

Annual ; leaves turgid, those near the root crowded ; stalk- 
lets soon distant, refracted in age ; petals small, pink ; 
stamens few ; fruit conical-ellipsoid ; seeds rather small. 

C. calyptrata. 
Leaves compressed-cylindrical. 

Perennial, floating or creeping or tufted ; leaves mostly 
scattered, clasping at their base ; flowers few or even 
only two or one ; stalklets elongated ; petals comparatively 
large, white; stamens generally five; fruit almost globular; 
seeds usually three, comparatively large, black, shining. 

C. Australasica. 



Victorian Plants. 169 



812. Bracts large. 

Annual, prostrate ; leaves mostly scattered, from cylindric- 
to elliptic-linear ; flowers small ; sepals finally somewhat 
elongated ; stamens few ; fruit almost entirely enclosed ; 
seeds comparatively large, shining, smooth. 

C. brevipedata. 

Bracts minute. 

Annual, prostrate ; leaves almost linear, those near the root 
crowded; flowers extremely minute; petals white; stamens 
usually three ; fruit upwards cylindrical, much exserted ; 
seeds one to four, comparatively large, black, shining, 
smooth. C. corrigiolacea. 

1KONTXA. 

813. Leaves mostly opposite. 

Very small semiaquatic herb ; basal leaves spatular-elliptic, 
the other leaves from linear- to elliptical-lanceolar ; 
flowers very small, on conspicuous stalklets ; petals white ; 
fruit almost globular ; seeds three or two, somewhat 
rough. M. foutana. 



NYCTAGINEAE. 
BOERHAAVXA. 

814. Flowers very small, usually several together at the 

end of the branchlets of the panicle. 

Prostrate or ascending ; leaves mostly small, from lanceolar- 
ovate to cordate, often slightly sinuate of denticulate ; 
branchlets of the panicle exceedingly thin ; upper portion 
of the calyx pink ; stamens one to three ; stigma dilated, 
almost hemispherical ; fruit very small, rarely glabrous. 
Figure 44. B. diffusa. 

POLYGONA.CEAE. 

RTJ1VIEX. 

815. Floral leaves almost absent. 

Lower leaves elongated, elliptic-lanceolar, narrowed or 
truncate or bilobed at the base ; inner fruit-sepals hooked- 
pointed, on each side closely and quite narrowly lobed. 

B. Brownii. 

Floral leaves copiously present ... ... ... 816 



170 Key to the System of 



816. Inner fruit-sepals short-denticulated. 

Much branched; lower leaves elongate-lanceolar, at the base 
rounded or angular ; floral leaves gradually smaller ; inner 
fruit-sepals straight-pointed. B. flexuosus. 

Inner fruit-sepals with one or two very narrow lobes 
on each side ... . ... ... ... ... 817 

817. Inner fruit-sepals very small, but with a conspicuous 

dorsal turgidity. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves from lanceolar- and hastate- to broad- 
linear, crisped at the margin. R. crystallixrus. 

Inner fruit-sepals rather large, rhomboid, with a faint 
dorsal turgidity. 

Rather tall, hardly branched ; root creeping ; stem hollow ; 
lower leaves elongated, elliptical-lanceolar, lobeless at the 
base ; floral leaves gradually narrower. "R. bidens. 

POX.VGONI7BI. 

818. Prostrate 819 

Erect or diffuse ... ... ... ... ... 820 

i 

819. Flowers axillary, few or solitary. 

Leaves very small, from narrow-spatular to almost elliptical 
and linear ; fruit always triangular, smooth, shining. 

P. plebejum. 

Flowers in spikes or spike-like racemes. 

Beset with appressed hairlets ; stipular tube scantily cilio- 
lated, sometimes herbaceously protracted ; leaves almost 
lanceolar ; spikes axillary and terminal, short- stalked ; 
flowers greenish ; fruit always biangular. 

F. prostratuxn. 

820. Flowers in abbreviated spikes. 

Somewhat beset with stiff reversed hairlets ; leaves from 
oval to lanceolar, mostly truncate or bilobed at the base ; 
stipular tube long- ciliolated; spikes few-flowered, reddish, 
on dichotomous stalks ; fruit bi- or tri-angular. 

P. strigosum. 

Flowers in elongated spikes ... ... ... ... 821 



Victorian Plants. 171 



821. Flowers somewhat distant in the spikes. 

Nearly glabrous ; leaves almost lanceolar, glandular-dotted ; 
stipular tube inflated, short-ciliolated ; spikes slender, 
flaccid ; flowers green or reddish, glandular- dotted ; fruit 
tri- or oftener bi-angular, granular-streaked, without 
lustre. P. Hydropiper. 

Flowers closely crowded in the spikes ... ... 822 

822. Leaves glandular-dotted. 

Glabrous, tall ; leaves mostly broad- or elongate-lanceolar ; 
stipular tube almost without cilioles ; spikes stout, some- 
what paniculated ; flowers greenish or reddish, glandular- 
dotted; fruit usually biangular. P t lapathifolium. 

Leaves without any glandular dots ... ... ... 823 

823. Nearly glabrous. 

Leaves mostly narrow-lanceolar ; stipular tube long-cilio- 
lated; spikes slender, of ten somewhat paniculated; flowers 
reddish; fruit bi- or tri-angular. P. minus. 

Appressed-hairy. 

Leaves mostly elongated-lanceolar, on very short stalks ; 
stipular tube long-ciliolated ; flowers greenish ; fruit bi- 
angular. P. subsessile. 

MUEHLENBECK.IA. 

824. Prostrate. 

Matted; leaves small, mostly from oval to orbicular; flowers 
few together or solitary ; fruit-calyx often very succulent ; 
fruit acutely triangular. M. axillaris. 

Erect or climbing or diffuse ... ... ... ... 825 

825. Leaves broad .. 826 

Leaves narrow ... ... ... ... 827 

826. Leaves firm, short-pointed. 

Climbing, tall; branchlets robust; leaves large, from 
ovate- hastate to orbicular-cordate or some lanceolar ; 
flowers mostly in interrupted spike-like racemes, rather 



172 Key to the System of 



large ; fruit-calyx very succulent when well developed, 
but oftener withering ; fruit obtusely triangular. 
" Macquarie-Harbor-Grape " in Tasmania. 

M. adpressa. 

Leaves almost membranous, long-pointed. 

Climbing, tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves from ovate- 
hastate to orbicular-cordate ; flowers in slender spike-like 
racemes, rather small ; fruit obtusely triangular, without 
lustre. M. gracillima. 

827. Interwoven-branched. 

Tall ; leaves linear or verging into an elliptic- lanceolar form, 
often undeveloped ; flowers in axillary clusters or some- 
times in spike-like racemes ; fruit-calyx withering ; fruit 
triangular, shining. " Polygonum " here vernacularly. 

M. Cunningham!. 

Strictly erect ... 

828. Fruit-calyx withering. 

Leaves usually broad-linear, grey-green ; flowers in axillary 
clusters ; fruit trigonous -globular, nearly smooth, shining. 
Figure 42. M. polygonoides. 

Fruit-calyx very succulent. 

Leaves all narrow-linear, bright-green ; flowers in axillary 
clusters ; fruit trigonous, somewhat pointed at the summit 
and at the base, dull-black, rough. M. stenophylla. 



FTXX.OTUS. 

829. Shrubby, much branched. 

Closely beset with whitish or greyish stellate hairlets ; 
leaves from rhombeous and orbicular to obovate and 
lanceolar-elliptical ; spike comparatively short, some- 
times almost capitular; bract brownish, blunt; bracteoles 
pointed ; sepals about twice as long as the bracteoles, 
often somewhat purplish, pale or seldom red at the 
summit. Figure 35. P. obovatus. 

Almost or quite herbaceous, but little branched or 
branchless ... ... ... ... ... ... 830 



Victorian Plants. 173 



830. Sepals pale or greenish-yellowish at the summit ... 831 
Sepals red at the summit ... ... ... 834 

831. Prostrate. 

Basal leaves spatular-obovate ; stem-leaves more lanceolar ; 
spike somewhat elongated, bearing a rather soft vesti- 
ture ; bract pointed ; sepals about twice as long as the 
bracteoles. P. spatulatus. 

Erect 832 

832. Spike mostly abbreviated. 

Stem mostly simple ; leaves from lanceolar to linear ; 
carinular venule of bract and bracteoles faint ; sepals 
very long, pale-yellowish. P. macrocephalus. 

Spike mostly elongated ... ... ... ... 833 

833. Lower leaves many times longer than broad. 

Leaves crisped ; spike very long ; bract and bracteoles quite 
colorless and transparent, much shining, rounded blunt, 
their carinular venule almost obliterated. 

P. alopecuroides. 

Lower leaves twice or thrice longer than broad. 

Rather robust ; leaves glabrous, the lower obovate-elliptical, 
the upper narrow ; spike slightly yellowish, some of the 
upper flowers imperfect ; bract much pointed ; carinular 
venule of bract and bracteoles prominent. 

P. nobilis. 

834. Spike often elongated. 

Rather tall and robust ; leaves generally glabrous, the lower 
from obovate to lanceolar, the upper mostly narrower ; 
spike usually somewhat conical ; bract brownish, very 
pointed ; sepals mostly large, light-purplish, hardly half 
as long as the bracteoles. P. ex alt at us, 

Spike always capitular. 

Ascendent or erect, never tall ; leaves all nearly linear ; 
bract short-pointed ; sepals usually curved upwards, 
hardly half as long as the bracteoles. 

P. erubesceus. 



174 Key to the System of 

ALTERNANTHERA. 

835. Sepals quite glabrous. 

Prostrate, slightly beset with hairlets ; leaves from broad- 
linear to elliptic-lanceolar, minutely denticulated ; spikes 
very short, often cluster-like ; bracts, bracteoles and 
sepals very scarious, pointed ; two or three only of the 
stamens anther-bearing. A. triandra. 

EUXOLUS. 

836. Fruit considerably longer than the sepals. 

Dwarf, diffuse ; leaves small, conspicuously stalked, from 
spatular- to elliptical-obovate, their lateral venules costu- 
lar ; flowers mostly in axillary clusters ; sepals usually 
three, narrow, pointed ; fruit reticular-rough. 

E. macrocarpns. 

POXiYCNEZKON. 

837. Sepals somewhat succulent. 

Herbaceous, prostrate ; leaves semicylindrical ; sepals con- 
siderably longer than the bracteoles, colored inside ; 
stamens five ; stigmas about as long as the style. 
Figure 34. P. pentandrum. 

Sepals dry. 

Somewhat shrubby, ascending ; leaves thinly semicylindrical, 
the floral leaves dilated at the base ; sepals about as long 
as the bracteoles, whitish ; stamens two ; stigmas much 
shorter than the style. P. diaiidrum. 



SAX.SOX.ACEAE. 
SALXCORNXA. 

838. Herbaceous. 

Comparatively dwarf; rudimentary leaves hardly prominent; 
spikes elongated, rather thin, with blunt bracts ; flowers 
few or several together ; calyx somewhat succulent, ter- 
minated by three or four minute lobes ; stamens two ; 
seed placed vertically. S. Australis. 

Shrubby 839 

839. Spikes thick, with acute bracts. 

Tall, very robust ; rudimentary leaves opposite, deltoid, 
very prominent ; flowers three together, the middle one 



Victorian Plants. 175 



pistillate, the two lateral flowers staminate only ; calyx 
much compressed, membranous, terminated by two, three 
or four very short unequal lobes ; stamen one ; seed placed 
vertically. Figure 38. S. robusta. 

Spikes short, with blunt bracts. 

Tall ; rudimentary leaves hardly prominent ; flowers three 
together, all staminate and pistillate ; calyx terminated 
by three or four unequal lobes ; stamens two ; seed placed 
vertically. S. arbuscula. 

ATRXPLEX. 

840. Fruit-calyx (or bracteal involucre) closed only near 

the base 841 

Fruit-calyx closed to near the middle or still further 
upwards ... ... ... ... 846 

841. Fruit-calyx of almost spongy texture. 

Quite shrubby ; leaves from elliptical and lanceolar to 
orbicular- oval, mostly entire ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on the same plant ; the clusters of the staminate 
flowers in terminal spikes, of the pistillate flowers solitary 
and axillary ; segments of the fruit-calyx roundish, mem- 
branous, with an inflated dorsal appendage. 

A. vesicarium. 

Fruit-calyx of almost foliaceous texture ... ... 842 

842. Staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. 

Somewhat shrubby ; leaves from rhomboid to oval and 
orbicular, often sinuous and somewhat denticulated ; 
flowers mostly in axillary clusters ; fruit-calyx with a 
stalk-like base, the segments dilated and denticulated. 

A. angulatum. 

Staminate and pistillate flowers on separate plants ... 843 

843. Leaves from orbicular- to ovate-rhombeous. 

Quite shrubby, tall ; clusters of the staminate flowers in 
paniculate spikes, of the pistillate flowers often solitary 
and axillary ; fruit-calyx somewhat turgid, its segments 
from deltoid- to ovate-orbicular. A. mimmularium. 

Leaves from lanceolar to elliptical or obovate ... 844 



176 Key to the System of 



844. Fruit-calyx without any stalk-like prolongation. 

Quite shrubby, restricted to the coast, often tall ; leaves 
succulent, glistening, from lanceolar to oval, entire ; 
clusters of staminate flowers mostly in paniculate spikes, 
those of pistillate flowers generally solitary and axillary ; 
segments of the fruit-calyx from deltoid to rhomboid. 

A. cinereum. 

Fruit-calyx on a stalk-like prolongation ... ... 845 

845. Stalk-like prolongation nearly as long as the segments 

of the fruit-calyx. 

Desert-plant, somewhat shrubby ; leaves from narrow- 
elliptical to obovate, entire ; clusters of staminate flowers 
mostly in paniculate spikes, of the pistillate flowers some 
axillary and solitary ; segments of the fruit-calyx almost 
renate. A. stipitatum. 

Stalk-like prolongation considerably shorter than the 
segments of the fruit-calyx. 

Coast-plant, somewhat shrubby, often prostrate ; leaves 
from elliptic to lanceolar, entire ; clusters of staminate 
flowers mostly in paniculate spikes, of the pistillate 
flowers some solitary and axillary ; segments of the fruit- 
calyx from deltoid to cordate and renate. 

A. paludosum, 

846. Fruit-calyx closed to near the middle ... ... 847 

Fruit-calyx closed to near the summit ... ... 849 

847. Fruit-calyx entirely of foliaceous texture. 

Quite shrubby ; leaves hastate-ovate, entire or somewhat 
denticulated ; staminate and pistillate flowers on the same 
plant, the clusters of the former in paniculate spikes, of 
the latter axillary ; fruit-calyx turgid, rhomboid, entire 
and without any appendages. A. rhagodioides. 

Fruit-calyx succulent and red towards the base ... 848 

848. Prostrate. 

Almost herbaceous ; leaves small, from lanceolar- to cuneate- 
oval, often denticulated ; staminate and pistillate flowers 
on the same plant, in axillary clusters or some solitary ; 
fruit-calyx rhomboidal. A. semibaccatum. 



Victorian Plants. 177 



Erect. 

Almost herbaceous*; leaves from rhomboidal to obovate, 
rather large, conspicuously sinuous and denticulated ; 
staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant, all in 
axillary clusters ; fruit-calyx rhomboidal, turgid. 

A. Muelleri. 

849. Fruit-calyx of almost foliaceous texture ... ... 850 

Fruit-calyx succulent or of almost spongy texture ... 851 

850. Lobes of the fruit-calyx minute, entire, without any 

appendage. 

Desert-plant, almost herbaceous, often prostrate; leaves 
from elliptical and cuneate to rhomboidal, usually some- 
what sinuous and denticulated ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on the same plant, all in axillary clusters ; fruit- 
calyx narrow -tubular. A. leptocarpum. 

Lobes of the fruit-calyx with two pointed lobules and 
with a dorsal appendage. 

Desert-plant, alniost herbaceous, often prostrate ; leaves 
from elliptical and cuneate to rhomboidal, usually some- 
what sinuous and denticulated ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on the same plant, all in axillary clusters ; fruit- 
calyx compressed-tubular. A. limbatuni. 

851. Fruit-calyx succulent and green. 

Coast-plant, quite herbaceous, prostrate, very succulent, 
papillular - glistening ; leaves small, from elliptical to 
rhomboidal, indented ; staminate and pistillate flowers on 
the same plant, all axillary, the pistillate flowers solitary 
or two together; fruit-calyx turgid, its lobes slightly 
denticulated. A. crystalliiium. 

Fruit-calyx of spongy texture... ... ... ... 852 

852. Fruit-calyx flat at the summit. 

A desert-shrub, seldom tall ; leaves from lanceolar- to 
rhombeous-ovate, entire or somewhat denticulated ; 
staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant, in 
axillary clusters or some solitary ; fruit-calyx much 
enlarged, from top-shaped (turbinate) to almost semi- 
globular, transversely acute-edged, minutely bilobed at 
the summit, without any appendages. 

A. halimoides. 

Fruit-calyx rounded at the summit ... ... ... 853 

N 



178 Key to the System of 



853. Fruit-calyx rather large, turgidly obovate. 

A desert-plant, almost herbaceous ; leaves from obovate to 
rhombeous, somewhat sinuous and denticulated; staminate 
and pistillate flowers on the same plant, all in axillary 
clusters ; fruit-calyx minutely bilobed at the summit, 
without any appendages. A. holocarptim. 

Fruit-calyx rather small, depressed-globular. 

A desert-plant, almost herbaceous ; leaves small, from 
lanceolar- to rhomboid-obovate, slightly sinuous and 
somewhat denticulated ; staminate and pistillate flowers 
on the same plant, in axillary clusters or some solitary ; 
fruit-calyx minutely bilobed at the summit, without any 
appendages. A. spougiosum. 



RHACODia. 

854. Leaves mostly opposite ... ... ... ... 855 

Leaves mostly scattered ... ... ... 856 

855. Leaves acute. 

Climbing or somewhat prostrate and diffuse, weak ; leaves 
small, from deltoid to lanceolate -linear ; panicle small; 
fruit red or yellow outside ; seed placed horizontally. 

R. nu tans. 

Leaves obtuse. 

Leaves rather large, ovate-hastate or some verging into a 
rhombeous form ; panicle seldom large ; fruit red outside ; 
seed placed horizontally. B. hastata. 

856. Branchlets often ending in thorns. 

Finally rather tall, rigid ; leaves comparatively small, from 
oval to orbicular and deltoid or hastate; panicle often small; 
fruit red or yellow outside ; seed placed horizontally. 

R. spiuescens. 

Branchlets seldom ending in thorns. 

Finally tall, robust, erect or straggling, rarely dwarfed; 
leaves succulent, comparatively large, from ovate- to 
lanceolar- or hastate- or narrow- elliptical ; panicle often 
ample; fruit usually red outside; seed placed horizontally. 

B. Billardieri. 



Victorian Plants 179 



CHENOPODIUM. 

857. Perennial .. .1 - 858 

Annual 861 

858. Fruit compressed ... 859 

Fruit depressed 860 

859. Tall, shrubby. 

Branchlets often ending in thorns ; leaves spatular- or linear- 
elliptical, entire; spikes of flower-clusters often panicu- 
late ; stamens five ; seed placed vertically. 

C. nitrariaceum. 

Prostrate, herbaceous. 

Somewhat papular ; leaives from narrow-lanceolar to rhom- 
boid-hastate ; flowers in small axillary clusters ; sepals 
at the base prominently thickened, upwards gradually 
pointed ; stamen one ; seed placed vertically. 

C. atriplicinum. 

860. Erect, tall. 

Almost herbaceous ; leaves from elliptical and oval to almost 
hastate ; spikes of flower- clusters often paniculate ; sta- 
mens five ; seed placed horizontally. C. auric omum. 

Prostrate, very small. 

Leaves minute, from lanceolar and ovate to rhomboid ; 
flower-clusters mostly axillary ; stamen one ; seed placed 
horizontally. C. microphyllum. 

861. Sepals bluntly keeled. 

Prostrate, odorous, beset with glandule-bearing hairlets ; 
leaves small, from elliptical- to roundish-rhomboid, wavy- 
sinuous ; flower-clusters mostly axillary ; stamen one ; 
seed placed vertically. C. carinatum. 

Sepals fringed-membranous along their keel. 

Prostrate, odorous, beset with glandule-bearing hairlets ; 
leaves small, from elliptical- to roundish-rhomboid, wavy- 
sinuous ; flower-clusters mostly axillary ; stamen one ; 
seed placed vertically. C. cristatum. 



180 Key to the System of 



BVSPKANZA. 

862. Calyx consisting of a single sepal. 

Annual small herb, prostrate or ascending ; leaves very 
small, from ovate to elliptical ; flower-clusters singly 
axillary, often crowded ; stamens one to three, but in 
many of the flowers absent ; styles two ; seed placed 
vertically. D. myriocephala. 

BASSIA. 

863. Fruit-calyces 'two or more, connate ... ... ... 864 

Fruit-calyces solitary ... ... ... ... ... 865 

864. Fruit-calyces usually two, connate towards the base. 

Never tall, densely beset with whitish or greyish very short 
hairlets ; fruit-calyces indurated, comparatively long, 
slender upwards, without any or with quite diminutive 
spinules, sometimes a third and rarely a fourth fruit- 
calyx developed from the same base ; seed placed horizon- 
tally. B. biflora. 

Fruit-calyces several or many, capitular-connate. 

Closely invested with whitish or greyish hairlets ; fruit- 

. calyces very much indurated, each with one or two 

spinules ; seed placed horizontally. B. paradoxa. 

865. Fruit-spinules conspicuous ... ... ... ... 866 

Fruit-spinules inconspicuous or obliterated ... ... 869 

866. Fruit-calyx with two spinules 867 

Fruit-calyx with three to five spinules ... ... 868 

867. Fruit-calyx with two short spinules. 

Densely beset with short, sometimes shining hairlets ; 
fruit-calyx comparatively small, indurated; seed placed 
horizontally. B. diacautha. 

Fruit-calyx with two long spinules. 

Very densely beset with short whitish hairlets ; fruit-calyx 
comparatively large, much indurated, its spinules strong ; 
seed placed horizontally. B. bicornis. 



Victorian Plants. 181 



868. Leaves flattened. 

Glabrous ; leaves naVrowed at the base ; fruit-calyx small, 
indurated, with four to five acicular spiimles ; seed placed 
vertically. B. quinquecuspis. 

Leaves almost semicylindrical. 

Glabrous ; fruit- calyx small, indurated, with three to four 
unequal acicular spinules ; seed placed vertically. 

B. divaricata. 

869. Leaves almost semicylindrical. 

Prostrate, nearly glabrous ; leaves very short, succulent ; 
fruit-calyx minute, almost obliquely pear-shaped, indu- 
rated, without any spinules, but with an unilateral 
carinular prominence ; seed placed vertically. Figure 36. 

B. salsuginosa. 

Leaves flattened ... ... ... ... ... 870 

870. Fruit-calyx almost glabrous. 

Herbaceous, quite dwarf, often prostrate, somewhat beset 
with hairlets ; leaves from lanceolar- to broad-linear, 
rather flat ; fruit-calyces neither indurated nor spinulous, 
its lobes upwards dilated with somewhat inflexed margin ; 
seed placed horizontally. B. eiicliylaenoides. 

Fruit-calyx involved in a lanuginous vestiture ... 871 

871. Fruit-calyx with five very small spinules and as many 

minute appendages. 

Somewhat shrubby, never tall, densely beset with whitish 
hairlets ; seed placed horizontally. 

B. sclerolaeiioid.es. 

Fruit-calyx without any conspicuous spinules and 
appendages. 

Somewhat shrubby, never tall, densely beset with whitish 
hairlets ; fruit-calyces almost globular, minute, nearly 
membranous ; seed placed horizontally. 

B. Dallachyaua. 



182 Key to the System of 



K.OCHXA. 

872. Horizontal margin of fruit-calyx lobed or denticulated 

or ciliolated ... ... ... ... ... ... 873 

Horizontal margin of fruit-calyx without any lobes or 
denticles or cilioles ... ... ... ... ... 878 

873. Margin of fruit-calyx ciliolated or indurate-denticulated 874 

Margin of fruit-calyx broadly membranous, deeply 
five-lobed 876 

874. Margin of fruit-calyx conspicuously ciliolated. 

Erect, somewhat shrubby, beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
flat, lanceolar-linear ; fruit-calyx much depressed, ex- 
panded into a hard horizontal lobeless margin. 

X. ciliata. 

Margin of fruit-calyx denticulated ... ... ... 875 

875. Margin of fruit-calyx with five denticles. 

Prostrate, hardly shrubby, beset with scattered rather long 
and soft hairlets ; leaves almost flat ; fruit-calyx small, 
somewhat indurated, longitudinally five -lined. 

K. br achy pt era. 

Margin of fruit-calyx with about ten denticles. 

Hardly shrubby, mostly beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
very short; fruit-calyx small, somewhat indurated, without 
any decurrent lines. X. stelligera. 

876. Leaves mostly opposite. 

Shrubby, erect, rather dwarf, often beset with short and 
shining hairlets ; leaves very short, from lanceolar- to 
ovate-triangular ; fruit-calyx expanded into five broad 
horizontal membranous lobes. X. oppositifolia. 

Leaves scattered or irregularly crowded ... ... 877 

877. Expanding membranes of the fruit-calyx almost or 

quite glabrous. 

Shrubby, erect, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
very short ; appendages at the orifice of the calyx none. 

X. brevifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 183 



Expanding membranes of the fruit-calyx invested with 
minute hairlets. 

Somewhat shrubby, erect, much beset with whitish hairlets ; 
leaves generally rather long ; appendages at the orifice of 
the calyx five, very narrow, acute. K. lanosa. 

878. Fruit-calyx with usually three decurrent membranes. 

Somewhat shrubby, erect, glabrous ; leaves comparatively 
long, semicylindric-linear, generally acute ; horizontal 
expansion of the fruit-calyx broad. K. triptera. 

Fruit-calyx without any decurrent membranes ... 879 

879. Fruit-calyx top-shaped below, broad-conical above. 

Shrubby, erect, much beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
comparatively short ; horizontal expansion of the fruit- 
calyx broad. K. pyramidata. 

Fruit-calyx almost hemispherical ... 880 

880. Horizontal membrane of the fruit-calyx quite broad... 881 
Horizontal membrane of the fruit-calyx very narrow 882 

881. Leaves rather long. 

Shrubby, not rarely spinescent, somewhat beset with whitish 
or greyish or brownish short hairlets; leaves usually rather 
long, but sometimes diminutive or obliterated ; vertex of 
the fruit-calyx flat. Figure 36. K. villosa. 

Leaves rather short. 

Shrubby, closely invested with whitish or greyish or 
brownish short hairlets; leaves crowded, thick, blunt; 
expansion of fruit-calyx not rarely reddish. 

K. sedifolia. 

882. Shrubby and erect. 

Slightly beset with very short hairlets ; leaves very small, 
quite narrow, somewhat turgid ; flowers very small, 
crowded into leafy spikes ; fruit-calyx much depressed ; 
expansion of fruit not always developed. 

K. microphylla. 
Herbaceous and quite dwarf. 

Beset with short and somewhat shining hairlets ; leaves 
flat, lanceolate-linear, comparatively long ; fruit-calyx, 
except at its vertex, generally glabrous. 

K. humillima. 



184 Key to the System of 



SALSOLA. 

883. .Annual. 

Leaves scattered or near the flowers crowded, short, 
sessile, cylindrical, spinescent ; flowers axillary, sessile ; 
membranous appendages of the fruit-bearing calyx dis- 
connected, dilated ; seed placed horizontally. S. Kali. 

STJAEDA. 

884. Seed placed horizontally. 

Herbaceous, glabrous ; leaves numerous, succulent, almost 
semicylindrical, short ; flowers very small, sessile, two or 
few together, axillary, seldom solitary. S. niaritima, 

ENCHYZiAENA. 

885. Fruit-bearing calyx red or yellow. 

Prostrate or diffuse, generally beset with short hairlets ; 
leaves scattered, short, somewhat succulent ; flowers 
sessile, axillary, solitary ; stamens five ; seed placed 
horizontally. ' E. tomentosa. 

THREIiK.EX.DXA. 

886. Fruit-bearing calyx dark-purplish. 

Prostrate or diffuse, always glabrous ; leaves scattered, 
short, somewhat succulent ; flowers sessile, axillary, 
solitary ; stamens three ; seed placed vertically. 

T. diffusa. 

FRANKENIACEAE. 

FRAN KEN I A. 

887. Somewhat shrubby. 

Leaves small, from ovate- to linear-lanceolar or almost 
linear, usually recurved at the margin ; flowers small, 
scattered or forming a leafy cyme ; petals pink or some- 
times white ; fruit enclosed. F. la e vis. 



FXVUB 

STATIC!:. 

888. Petals yellow. 

Perennial, glabrous herb ; leaves firm, large, all basal, 
obovate- or elliptic-spatular ; flowers in unilateral pani- 
culated spikes ; calyces upwards dilated and somewhat 
folded, acutely denticulated ; petals disconnected, soon 
enc osed. Figure 30. S. Taxanthema. 



Victorian Plants. 185 



LECrUIVIIIVOSAE. 
ACACIA. 

889. Leaves reduced to usually foliaceous-dilated and often 

vertical leafstalks (phyllodia), rarely absent ... 890 

Leaves bipinnate '.. ... ... .. 946 

890. Phyllodia absent, the branchlets resembling phyllodia 891 
Phyllodia present, articulated on the branchlets ... 892 

891. Flowers very small, few in each headlet. 

Low shrub ; branchlets furrowed, pungent ; headlets of 
flowers solitary, nearly sessile ; fruit narrow, constricted 
between the seeds ; arillar seed-appendage narrow, pale 
or brownish. A. spiiiescens. 

Flowers rather large, many in each headlet. 

Low shrub ; branchlets pungent ; headlets of flowers soli- 
tary, on very short stalks ; fruit narrow, constricted 
between the seeds ; arillar seed-appendage narrow, pale 
or brownish. A. continua. 

892. Flowers in globular headlets ... ... 893 

Flowers in almost cylindrical spikes ... .. ... 937 

893. Phyllodia spinular-pungent. (Also some forms of A. lani- 

gera) .' 894 

Phyllodia blunt or recurved-pointed ... ... ... 901 

894. Phyllodia from compressed-cylindrical and linear to 

narrow-lanceolar ... ... ... ... ... 895 

Phyllodia somewhat triangular ... ... ... 900 

895. Phyllodia equally streaked by several subtle venules. 

Shrub, rather tall ; phyllodia sessile, rigid, compressed- 
cylindrical, very narrow, straight-pointed; stipules absent; 
headlets of flowers solitary or two together, on very 
short stalks ; fruit narrow, much curved ; arillar seed- 
appendage almost cup-shaped, amply clasping, bright- or 
orange-yellow. A. colletioides. 

Phyllodia lined by only one prominent venule ... 896 



186 Key to the System of 

896. Calyx and corolla mostly five-lobed; seed-appendage 

absent - ... 897 

Calyx and corolla mostly four-lobed ; seed-appendage 
present 

897. Phyllodia from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, slightly 

curved, at the base narrowed. 

Alpine, tall shrub; phyllodia short, almost equilateral; 
stipules present; headlets of flowers solitary or two 
together, short-stalked ; fruit strongly compressed, nearly 
straight, linear-elliptical ; seeds placed transversely. 

A. siculiformis. 

Phyllodia quadrangular-linear, subulate, straight, with 
broad base sessile. 

Shrub, low and spreading ; phyllodia short ; headlets of 
flowers solitary, their stalks about as long as the phyllodia 
or longer ; stipules present ; fruit broad-linear ; seeds 
placed longitudinally, black and somewhat mottled, with- 
out any lustre. A. juniperina. 

898. Phyllodia dilated near and at the base. 

Dwarf shrub ; phyllodia flat, subulate-linear ; stipules 
obliterated; headlets of flowers solitary, their stalks 
about as long as the phyllodia or shorter ; fruit broad- 
linear ; arillar seed-appendage ample, bilobed, pale. 

A. rupicola. 

Phyllodia narrow also near and at the base ... 899 

899. Phyllodia quadrangulate-acicular. 

Shrub, mostly prostrate ; phyllodia short, sessile, spreading 
or reversed ; stipules minute ; headlets of flowers solitary 
or two together, their stalks about as long as the phyllodia 
or longer ; sepals disconnected ; fruit broad-linear ; seeds 
shining ; arillar seed-appendage light-brownish. 

A. tenuifolia. 

Phyllodia quadrangulate-linear. 

Shrub, rather tall ; phyllodia moderately long, sessile ; 
stipules minute ; headlets of flowers solitary or two 
together, short-stalked ; sepals coherent ; fruit broad- 
linear ; arillar seed-appendage ample, light-brownish. 

A. cliffusa. 



Victorian Plants. 187 



900. Phyllodia from dimidiately lanceolar- rhomboid to 

almost deltoid, the lateral angle below the middle. 

Shrub, almost procumbent ; phyllodia short, very inequi- 
lateral, gradually much pointed ; headlets of flowers 
solitary, their stalks about as long as the phyllodia ; 
fruit narrow, almost straight ; seeds roundish, mottled, 
without any arillar appendage. A. vcmeriforniis. 

Phyllodia oblique-cuneate, the lateral angle above the 
middle. 

Low shrub ; branchlets pungent ; phyllodia very short, 
inequilateral ; headlets of flowers solitary, their stalks 
rather longer than the phyllodia ; fruit narrow, spirally 
twisted ; arillar seed-appendage cup-shaped. 

A. acanthoclada. 

901. Phyllodia compressed-filiform ... ... 902 

Phyllodia flat 903 

902. Phyllodia with only one venule on each side. 

Tall glabrous shrub ; phyllodia generally elongated, hardly 
rigid, at the apex recurved; thevenules impressed; head- 
lets of flowers solitary or oftener two together or shortly 
racemose ; calyx divided into sepals ; fruit long, very 
narrow, bi-convex, often constricted between the seeds. 

A. calamifolia. 

Phyllodia finely streaked with several venules on 
each side. 

Tall shrub ; phyllodia elongated, as well as the branchlets 
beset with very minute hairlets ; headlets of flowers 
solitary or two or seldom few together on very short 
stalks ; calyx divided into lobes ; fruit linear, convex, 
between the seeds constricted. A. rigens. 

903. Phyllodia with one or rarely two longitudinal venules 

on each side ... ... ... ... ... ... 904 

Phyllodia with more than two longitudinal venules on 
each side ... ... ... ... ... ... 926 

904. Headlets of flowers solitary or in pairs. (Also some 

forms of A. brachybotrya and of A. salicina) ... ... 905 

Headlets of flowers in racemes .. ... ... 915 



188 Key to the System of 



905. Stipules minutely acicular. (Exception : some forms of 

A. Sentis) ... ... ... ... ... ... 906 

Stipules very small and membranous or absent ... 908 

906. Rough from short glandule-bearing hairlets. 

Tall, visciduluous shrub ; phyllodia rather short, from 
narrowly elliptic-lanceolar to broad-linear, recurved at 
the summit, otherwise almost straight ; headlets of flowers 
on rather short stalks; fruit narrow, somewhat curved, 
convex ; arillar appendage rather pale, clasping only the 
base of the seed. A. aspera. 

Smooth or beset with non-glandular hairlets... ... 907 

907. Phyllodia flexuous. 

Shrub, finally tall ; phyllodia obliquely or dimidiately ovate- 
or narrow-lanceolar, recurved at the summit ; stipules 
often very conspicuous ; stalks of flower-headlets about 
as long as the phyllodia or longer ; fruit very narrow, 
beset with hairlets ; arillar appendage rather pale, clasp- 
ing only the base of the seed. A. arniata. 

Phyllodia flat. 

Shrub or small tree ; phyllodia from elliptic-lanceolar to 
broad-linear, somewhat oblique ; stipules often partly un- 
developed ; headlets of flowers conspicuously stalked, 
solitary or oftener two together, rarely in racemes ; fruit 
smooth, flat, broad ; valves (pericarp) thin ; seeds placed 
transversely, very turgid, mottled ; arillar appendage 
much twisted, clasping only the base of the seed. 

A. Sentis. 

908. Phyllodia as long as or shorter than the flower-stalks 909 
Phyllodia longer than the flower-stalks ... .. 911 

909. Phyllodia narrow. 

Shrub, generally low, small, broad-linear ; phyllodia in- 
equilateral, curved -pointed ; headlets of flowers solitary 
or two together ; fruit very narrow, generally arched- 
curved. A. line at a. 

Phyllodia broadish ... ... 910 



Victorian Plants. 189 



910. Phyllodia twice or thrice as long as broad. 

Shrub, seldom tall ; phyllodia small, oblique, from elliptic- 
to obovate-cuneate, recurved- or lateral-pointed ; fruit 
narrow, often almost spirally twisted ; arillar appendage 
pale, extending unilaterally somewhat beyond the base 
of the seed. A. acinacea. 

Phyllodia not much longer than broad. 

Shrub, generally small ; phyllodia very small, oblique, from 
obovate-rhomboid to nearly orbicular, recurved-pointed ; 
fruit narrow, often almost spirally twisted ; arillar ap- 
pendage pale, extending unilaterally somewhat beyond 
the base of the seed. A. obliqua. 

911. Phyllodia with two venules on each side ... ... 912 

Phyllodia with only one venule on each side ... 913 

912. Phyllodia broad-linear, almost blunt. 

Shrub, somewhat tall, sticky ; phyllodia rather short, some- 
times verging into a narrow-elliptic and cuneate form, 
glandular-dotted ; primary venules immersed, secondary 
anastomosing ; headlets of flowers solitary or two to- 
gether on short stalks ; fruit densely beset with inter- 
woven hairlets, broad-linear, compressed, almost straight, 
seldom constricted between the seeds ; arillar appendage 
comparatively large, pale, closely twisted, much extend- 
ing on one side of the seed. A. moiitana. 

Phyllodia elongate-lanceolar, gradually pointed. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent, sticky ; phyllodia rather 
long, glandular-dotted, of thin texture, somewhat curved ; 
headlets of flowers generally two together, on short stalks; 
fruit nearly or quite glabrous, broad-linear, somewhat con- 
vex, almost straight, often constricted between the seeds ; 
arillar appendage pale, somewhat sigmoid-patellar, clasp- 
ing only the base of the seed. A. vernicifLlia. 

913. Phyllodia thin, almost porous from glandular dots. 

Shrubby or arborescent ; phyllodia from elongate-lanceolar 
to broad-linear, sticky ; headlets of flowers solitary or 
oftener two or three together, their stalks very short, 
densely beset with short hairlets; fruit broad-linear; arillar 
appendage rather pale, somewhat sigmoid - patellular, 
touching only the base of the seed. A. leprosa. 

Phyllodia rather firm, without any glandular dots ... 914 



190 Key to the System of 



914. Secondary venules of phyllodia prominent, closely 

striolate-reticularly connected. 

Tall shrub, often producing offshoots ; branchlets very 
angular ; phyllodia almost straight, from elongate-ellip- 
tical to broad-linear, somewhat cuneate, without any 
lustre ; calyx truncate or short-lobed ; headlets of flowers 
solitary or oftener two, seldom several together, on very 
short stalks ; fruit broad-linear, nearly straight, com- 
pressed ; arillar appendage of seed rather pale, clasping 
only the base of the seed. A. stricta. 

Secondary venules of phyllodia very faint. 

Shrub, rather small ; phyllodia from elliptic- to linear - 
lanceolar, somewhat curved ; headlets of flowers solitary 
or oftener two together, on very short stalks ; fruit gene- 
rally small, very narrow, convex, curved ; arillar 
appendage broadly obconioal, pale, touching only the 
base of the seed. A. microcarpa. 

915. Headlets consisting of few or even only two flowers. 

Tall shrub ; phyllodia from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, 
firm, their marginal and median-longitudinal venules 
prominent ; racemes short ; flowers comparatively large ; 
segments of the corolla generally four or sometimes only 
three; fruit broad-linear, compressed, prominently mar- 
gined ; seeds brownish, very shining ; arillar appendage 
pale, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. myrtifolia. 

Headlets consisting of several or many flowers .. 916 

916. Phyllodia short, ovate or somewhat triangular ... 917 

Phyllodia mostly elongated, linear or lanceolar or 
obliquely elliptical ... ... ... ... ... 919 

917. Racemes abbreviated or sometimes the headlets of 

flowers solitary or two or three together. 

Shrub, rather tall ; phyllodia firm, from broad- to lanceolar- 
obovate, glabrous or beset with minute not rarely silky- 
lustrous hairlets ; headlets of flowers never numerous ; 
fruit from broad-linear to narrow-elliptical ; funicle very 
short ; arillar appendage much attenuated, about half as 
long as the seed. A. brachybotrya. 

Eacemes elongated ... ... ... ... ... 918 



Victorian Plants. 191 



918. Phyllodia glabrous. 

Shrubby or arborescent ; phyllodia small, very inequi- 
lateral, from almost deltoid to nearly trapezoid, imper- 
fectly traversed by two main-venules ; flowers in each 
headlet never numerous ; fruit flat, narrow, nearly 
straight, somewhat contracted between the seeds ; arillar 
appendage small, pale, simply turgid. Figure 50. 

A. pravissima. 

Phyllodia beset with short hairlets. 

Tall shrub ; phyllodia rather inequilateral, almost dimidiate, 
mostly somewhat ovate-lanceolar, short-pointed, lined 
by one main-venule ; stalks of the headlets beset with 
short hairlets ; fruit comparatively broad, much com- 
pressed, straight ; arillar appendage nearly as long as 
the seed. A. vestita. 

919. Racemes of unexpanded flower-headlets enclosed in 

large petaloid scale-like bracts ; seeds transverse. 

Shrub, rather tall ; branchlets prominently triangular ; phyl- 
lodia straight, firm, from narrow- to elongate lanceolar, 
their lateral venules concealed ; flowers pale-yellowish or 
almost whitish, few in each headlet ; fruit from broad- 
oval to elliptical, strongly compressed ; arillar appendage 
brownish-black, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. suaveolens. 

Racemes without any conspicuous bracts ; seeds longi- 
tudinal ... ... ... 920 

920. Racemes of headlets often considerably longer than 

the phyllodia. 

Shrub, rather tall ; phyllodia firm, greyish-green, obliquely 
lanceolar- or elliptic -cuneate, inequilateral, short-pointed; 
racemes generally longer than the phyllodia; flowers 
usually few in each headlet ; fruit much compressed, 
linear-elliptical, generally straight ; seeds close along the 
anterior margin of the fruit ; arillar appendage somewhat 
unilateral. A. luiiata. 

Racemes of headlets often about as long as or shorter 
than the phyllodia ... ... 921 

921. Flowers rather few in each headlet. 

Shrubby ; phyllodia narrow- or elongate-lanceolar, slightly 
curved, provided at the upper edge and distant from the 
base with one or two or rarely three prominent glandules ; 



192 Key to the System of 



flower-headlets small, in short racemes ; fruit elliptic- or 
broad-linear, flat ; valves thin ; seeds almost completely 
surrounded in a double line by the dark-brown funicle. 

A. amoena. 

Flowers many in each headlet ... ... 922 

922. Funicle bright-red. 

Shrubby or finally arboreous ; phyllodia of thick texture, 
from narrow-elliptical to elongate- or lanceolar- linear, 
dull-green, almost straight, blunt, their secondary venules 
faint ; racemes short or sometimes reduced to two or 
solitary flower-headlets ; fruit linear or narrow-elliptical, 
generally constricted between the seeds, its valves hard ; 
funicle tortuous, clasping only the lower portion of the 
seed. A. salicina. 

Funicle pale or less often brownish-black ... ... 923 

923. Fruit broad. 

Finally arboreous ; phyllodia firm, from elliptic- to elongate- 
lanceolar, often curved, with an additional short main- 
venule diverging from the base to a marginal supra-basal 
gland ; secondary venules pennately spreading ; racemes 
sometimes paniculated ; flower-stalks when young often 
densely invested with very short yellow hairlets ; fruit 
straight, broad, flat, elongate-elliptical ; funicle thick, 
from brown to almost black, half or rarely fully surround- 
ing the seed. A. peiiniiiervis. 

Fruit narrow ... ... ... ... ... ... 924: 

924. Funicle almost doubly surrounding the seed. 

Finally arboreous, ever-flowering ; branchlets acutely angu- 
lar ; phyllodia of rather thin texture, narrow- or linear - 
lanceolar, gently curved, their secondary venules faint ; 
racemes short, not rarely paniculated ; fruit elongate- 
and broad -linear, almost straight, much compressed ; 
funicle black -brownish. A. retinodes. 

Funicle short 925 

925. Phyllodia broad. 

Tall-shrubby or arboreous ; branchlets almost cylindrical ; 
phyllodia firm, from elliptic- to lanceolar-falcate or 



Victorian Plants. 193 



ocasionally some oblique -ovate, shining, their secondary 
venules pinnately spreading ; rhachis of raceme robust ; 
flower-headlets rather large; fruit elongated, broad-linear, 
much compressed, usually of equal breadth throughout ; 
arillar appendage attenuated, hardly half as long as the 
seed. "Golden Wattle." A. pyciiantha. 

Phyllodia narrow. 

Tall shrub; branchlets hardly angular; phyllodia from 
linear-spatular to narrowly elliptic-lanceolar, shining, 
rigid, rounded-blunt at the apex, their secondary venules 
concealed; racemes of headlets shorter than the phyllodia; 
fruit elongated, somewhat curved, much constricted 
between the seeds ; arillar appendage much shorter than 
the seed. A. hakeoides. 

926. Flower-heads usually solitary or in pairs ... ... 927 

Flower-heads usually in short racemes ... ... 933 

927. Phyllodia long and narrow, generally lined with three 

primary venules ... ... ... ... ... 928 

Phyllodia short, lined with more than three primary 
venules ... ... ... 929 

928. Phyllodia rigid, their longitudinal venules strong and 

much emersed. 

Tall shrub ; branchlets angular, beset with short hairlets ; 
phyllodia straight, often blunt, from broad- to narrow- 
linear; flower-headlets occasionally few in corymbs, their 
stalks always in vested with hairlets; fruit linear, straight, 
much compressed ; arillar appendage very short. 

A. elongata. 

Phyllodia flaccid, their longitudinal venules subtle and 
quite immersed. 

Finally arboreous, somewhat sticky ; branchlets slender ; 
phyllodia from elongate-lanceolar to quite linear, acute, 
dotted by glandular pores ; stalks of flower-headlets beset 
with short hairlets ; fruit broad-linear, of equal width 
throughout ; seeds shining, their arillar appendage pale, 
short, but enlarged by the folded and twisted funicle. 

A. subporosa. 



194 Key to the System of 



929. Longitudinal venules of the phyllodia immersed. 

Shrub, from low to rather tall ; branchlets often beset with 
a subtle almost mealy vestiture ; phyllodia rigid, broad- 
linear, upwards still broader, minutely pointed, seldom 
much elongated ; flower-headlets small, sometimes in a 
corymb ; their stalks almost white-powdery invested 
with minute interwoven hairlets ; fruit linear- cylindrical, 
generally arched-curved, somewhat contracted between 
the seeds ; arillar appendage rather pale, short, but 
enlarged by the folded and twisted funicle, 

A, fariuosa. 

Longitudinal venules of the phyllodia much emersed 930 

930. Longitudinal venules of the phyllodia thin and numerous. 

Tall shrub ; phyllodia rigid, from broad linear to iiarrow- 
lanceolar, usually somewhat curved, short-pointed ; flower- 
headlets small, nearly sessile; fruit rather broad, glabrous, 
much curved or even spirally twisted ; its valves hard ; 
seeds shining ; funicle short ; arillar appendage orange- 
colored, unilaterally extending to about half the length 
of the seed. A. Osswaldi. 

Venules of the phyllodia rather strong and few ... 931 

931. Venules of the phyllodia scarcely anastomosing. 

Shrub, rather low ; phyllodia rigid, often rather short, from 
elliptic- to broad -linear, occasionally somewhat cuneate, 
minutely pointed ; flower-headlets small, on short stalks ; 
petals disconnected ; fruit linear-cylindrical ; its valves 
somewhat streaked outside ; seeds shining ; arillar ap- 
pendage pale-brownish, extending only around the base 
of the seed. A. sclerophylla. 

Venules of the phyllodia somewhat anastomosing ... 932 

932. Phyllodia quite blunt. 

Shrub, rather dwarf ; branchlets angular, beset with minute 
hairlets ; phyllodia rigid, almost elliptic-linear, but nar- 
rowed downward, somewhat curved ; flower-headlets 
small, on short stalks ; petals connected to about thp 
middle ; fruit unknown. A. Wlianii. 

Phyllodia sharp-pointed. 

Shrub, rather tall ; branchlets angular, densely beset with 
short hairlets ; phyllodia rather rigid, mostly narrow- 
lanceolar ; headlets of flowers on very short stalks ; 



Victorian Plants. 195 



fruit rather long, comparatively narrow, flexuous, bi- 
convex, beset with short hairlets ; seeds small, turgid ; 
arillar appendage short, pale, thick. 

A. lanigera. 

933. Phyllodia with three longitudinal venules. 

Shrub, finally tall ; phyllodia grey-green, rigid, straight, 
often narrowly cuneate-elliptical ; primary venules very 
prominent ; secondary venules thin, spreading ; flower - 
headlets somewhat sticky, in very short racemes ; fruit 
small, broadly linear-cylindrical, pointed ; arillar append- 
age extending only around the lowest portion of the seed. 

A. trineura. 

Phyllodia with more than three longitudinal venules 934 

934. Primary venules of the phyllodia extremely thin. 

Finally arboreous ; phyllodia rather long, rigid, from linear- to 
narrow-lanceolar, often somewhat curved, short-pointed, 
generally greyish from almost imperceptible hairlets ; 
racemes very short, sometimes reduced to two or solitary 
headlets ; stalks of the latter short ; fruit narrow, gently 
curved, somewhat constricted between the seeds ; funicle 
replicated below the short pale arillar appendage. 

A. homalophylla. 

Primary venules of the phyllodia prominent ... ... 935 

935. Phyllodia very long, but comparatively narrow. 

Tall- arboreous ; phyllodia rigid, straight or slightly curved, 
closely and almost equally streaked by longitudinal 
venules; racemes short, seldom reduced to two or soli- 
tary flower-headlets ; stalks of the latter rather long, beset 
with appressed hairlets; fruit hard, often much elongated, 
rather broad, constricted between the seeds, very tardily 
dehiscent ; funicle slightly or hardly dilated into an 
arillar appendage. A- steiiophylla. 

Phyllodia rather broad, mostly curved- and elliptic- 
or elongate-lanceolar ... ... ... ... 936 

936. Funicle bright-red, doubly surrounding the seed. 

Arboreous, occasionally very tall ; branchlets somewhat 
angular; phyllodia sometimes narrow-lanceolar and almost 
straight, without any lustre, their copious secondary 

k venules reticular - connected ; racemes short, seldom 

reduced to two or solitary flower-headlets; the latter pale- 
yellow, their stalks rather short; fruit compressed, 
arched-curved or tortuous, rather narrow. " Blackwood- 
tree." A. Melanoxylon. 



196 Key to the System of 



Funicle pale, repeatedly twisted beneath the base of 
the seed. 

Arboreous, finally tall ; branchlets scarcely angular ; phyl- 
lodia generally elongated- and narrow-lanceolar, also often 
conspicuously curved, their secondary venules scantily 
reticular-connected ; racemes of flower-headlets short, 
sometimes compound ; stalks of flower-headlets rather 
long and slender ; fruit arched- or cyclic-curved or 
irregularly flexuous, rather narrow, bi-convex, slightly 
constricted between the seeds. A. implexa. 

937. Phyllodia short, narrow, pungent-pointed ... ... 938 

Phyllodia elongated or broad, hardly pointed ... 939 

938. Phyllodia mostly whorled and acicular-linear. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; phyllodia spreading, 
sessile, rarely from linear- to ovate-lanceolar, and then 
lined by two or three venules ; calyx and corolla four- 
lobed ; spikes densely cylindrical, seldom ovate ; fruit 
broad-linear, compressed ; arillar appendage rather pale, 
short, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. verticillata. 

Phyllodia mostly scattered, from a roundish base 
narrow-lanceolar. 

Shrub, sometimes tall ; stipules short, pungent ; phyllodia 
very spreading, sessile, lined by three or four venules ; 
spikes densely cylindrical ; calyx and corolla four-lobed ; 
fruit broad-linear, compressed ; arillar appendage pale, 
short, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. Oxycedrus. 

939. Primary venules of the phyllodia few, prominent . . . 940 
Primary venules of the phyllodia numerous, thin ... 943 

940. Phyllodia only twice as long as broad or still shorter. 

Sub-alpine shrub, from low to rather tall ; branchlets acutely 
bi-angular ; phyllodia very firm, inequilateral, from 
cuneate- to orbicular-obovate ; primary venules two to 
four ; secondary venules thin, reticular- joined ; spikes 
very short, solitary or two or three together ; the in- 
dividual flowers never numerous, but at a distance from 
each other ; calyx and corolla generally four-lobed ; fruit 
linear-cylindrical, arched-curved ; arillar appendage pale, 
short, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. alpiua. 



Victorian Plants. 197 



Phyllodia usually several times or many times longer 
than broad ... ... ... ... ... ... 941 

941. Flowers crowded in the spikes. 

Tall highland-shrub, finally arborescent ; phyllodia very 
firm, elongate -lanceolar, somewhat curved ; primary 
venules two to four ; secondary venules closely reticular- 
joined ; spikes rather long, solitary or two together ; 
calyx and corolla generally four-lobed ; fruit long, very 
narrow, constricted between the seeds ; arillar appendage 
pale, short, supporting only the base of the seed. 

A. Dallachiana. 

Flowers at a distance from each other in the spikes 942 

942. Phyllodia elliptic -lanceolar, generally with several 

prominent longitudinal venules. 

Shrubby or arborescent, on the coast producing copiously 
suckers ; branchlets very angular ; phyllodia firm, almost 
straight ; two or three of the primary venules more 
prominent ; secondary venules distantly reticular-joined ; 
calyx and corolla generally four-lobed ; fruit linear-cylin 
drical ; arillar appendage pale, short. A. longifolia. 

Phyllodia broad-linear, generally with only one pro- 
minent longitudinal venule. 

Shrub, often tall ; branchlets angular ; phyllodia very long, 
rather flaccid ; secondary venules almost obliterated ; 
calyx and corolla generally four-lobed ; fruit almost 
straight, linear-cylindrical ; arillar appendage pale, short. 

A. liuearis. 

943. Phyllodia straight 944 

Phyllodia curved ... ... ... 945 

944. Phyllodia from broad-linear to compressed-cylindrical. 

Shrubby or finally somewhat arborescent ; phyllodia rigid, 
greyish from appressed minute hairlets, subtle-streaked 
from faint longitudinal venules ; flower-spikes rather 
dense and short ; fruit quite flat, from oblique-ovate to 
almost elliptical, its valves thin ; seeds placed oblique- 
transversely, much shorter than the width of the pericarp ; 
arillar appendage short, pointed, pale. " Mulga." 

A. aneura. 



198 Key to the System of 



Phyllodia usually lanceolar. 

Tall shrub ; phyllodia firm, narrow-lanceolar, the middle 
venule prominent, the other longitudinal venules very 
close and immersed ; spikes rather short, dense, solitary 
or two together ; fruit unknown. A. subtilinervis. 

945. Phyllodia lanceolar- or "broad-linear, much elongated, 

the middle venule more prominent than the others. 

Tall-shrubby or finally arboreous ; phyllodia rigid, nearly or 
quite glabrous, closely streaked by thin longitudinal 
venules ; spikes solitary or two or few together, dense ; 
fruit linear-cylindrical, somewhat flexuous ; seeds small, 
black, shining, ellipsoid ; arillar appendage short, pale, 
touching only the base of the seed. A. Doratoxylon. 

Phyllodia elongate- or narrow-lanceolar; three to five 
of their numerous longitudinal venules more promi- 
nent than the others. 

Arboreous, finally tall ; phyllodia large, often closely in- 
vested with minute greyish or at first yellowish hairlets ; 
spikes solitary or two or few together ; calyx invested 
with short hairlets ; fruit narrow, irregularly twisted or 
somewhat coiled ; seeds small, ellipsoid, black, shining; 
arillar appendage pale, clasping the lower portion of the 
seed, somewhat lengthened downward. 

A. glaucescens. 

946. Headlets of flowers solitary. 

Shrubby, seldom tall ; branchlets beset with soft hairlets ; 
pinnae generally in two pairs ; leaflets two- to six-paired, 
very small, from lanceolar- to obovate-elliptical, flat ; 
headlets of flowers conspicuously stalked ; fruit broad- 
or elliptic-linear, compressed ; arillar appendage pale, 
pointed, about half as long as the seed. Figure 51. 

A. Mitchell!. 

Headlets of flowers in simple or oftener in paniculated 
racemes .. ... .. ... ... ... 947 

947. Pinnae usually in few pairs. 

Tall-shrubby or arboreous; leaflets in several or many pairs, 
rather small, somewhat rigid, from ovate- to elliptic- 
lanceolar, much paler beneath ; flowers several in each 
headlet ; fruit narrowly elongate-elliptical, flat ; arillar 
appendage pale, pointed, about half as long as the seed. 

A. discolor. 

Pinnae usually in many pairs... ... ... ... 948 



Victorian Plants. 199 



948. Leaflets slightly distant, many times longer than broad. 

Arboreous, sometimes tall, flowering later than A. dealbata 
and earlier than A. mollissima ; decurrent angles from 
the base of the leafstalks along the branchlets extremely 
prominent ; foliage scantily beset with hairlets ; leaflets 
cylindric-linear, blunt, forming numerous pairs in each 
pinnule ; fruit strongly compressed, rather narrow, much 
constricted between the seeds ; arillar appendage pale, 
much shorter than the seed. " Sydney -Wattle." 

A. decurreus. 

Leaflets closely approximated, several times longer 
than broad .. ... 949 

949. Fruit rather narrow, much constricted between the 

seeds. 

Arboreous, sometimes very tall ; decurrent angles from the 
leafstalks somewhat prominent; foliage at first yellowish, 
soon greyish from subtle vestiture ; pinnules in several or 
many pairs ; leaflets very short, linear, forming numerous 
pairs in each pinnule; flower-headlets usually pale-yellow; 
fruit ripening very tardily ; seeds shorter than those of 
A. dealbata, also rounder and less compressed, their 
arillar appendage also proportionately shorter. ' ' Black 
Wattle." A. mollissima. 

Fruit rather broadish, hardly constricted between the 
seeds. 

Arboreous, sometimes very tall ; decurrent angles from the 
base of the leafstalks somewhat prominent; foliage at first 
whitish, soon greyish from subtle vestiture ; pinnules in 
several or many pairs ; leaflets very short, linear, forming 
numerous pairs in each pinnule ; flower-headlets usually 
bright-yellow ; fruit broad-linear ; arillar appendage pale, 
much attenuated. (" Silver- Wattle.") A. dealbata. 

CASSIA. 

950. Leaflets recurved at the margin. 

A shrub, rather tall ; branchlets angular ; leaflets in several 
or many pairs, dark -green above, pale beneath, from linear - 
lanceolar to oval-elliptical, a stalked glandule between 
each or only the lowest pair ; umbels few-flowered ; petals 
yellow; stamens ten; filaments very short; anthers almost 
equal ; fruit broad-linear, flat ; pericarp thin ; seeds black, 
shining, placed obliquely. O. Australia. 



Leaflets incurved at the margin or flat or undeveloped 



951 



200 Key to the System of 



951. Leaf-stalk and rhachis quite narrow ... ... ... 952 

Leaf-stalk and rhachis dilated, their anterior edge 
turned towards the branchlet ... ... 954 

952. Leaflets flat. 

Shrubby, rather tall ; leaflets usually in one to three pairs, 
from broadly obovate to almost elliptical, dull-green on 
both sides, soon glabrous ; glandules depressed, solitary 
between each pair of leaflets; flowers in very short racemes 
or corymbs ; petals yellow ; stamens ten ; lowest anthers 
slightly larger ; fruit broadish, flat ; pericarp thin ; seeds 
dark-brown, placed transversely. C. desolata. 

Leaflets concave or quite channelled ... ... 953 

953. Leaflets from lanceolar- to linear-elliptical, somewhat 

concave. 

Shrubby, rather tall ; leaflets dull-green on both sides, 
usually in three to five pairs, often beset with very short 
greyish hairlets ; glandule between the lowest leaflets 
depressed ; flowers in very short racemes or corymbs ; 
petals yellow ; fruit broadish, flat, rounded-blunt ; 
pericarp thin ; seeds dark -brown, placed transversely. 

C. Sturtii. 

Leaflets cylindrical- or channelled-linear. 

Shrubby, from rather dwarf to tall ; leaflets in few or several 
pairs, densely beset with very short greyish or whitish 
hairlets ; glandule between the lowest leaflets depressed ; 
flowers in very short racemes or corymbs ; petals yellow ; 
stamens ten, the two or three lowest longer than the 
others ; fruit flat, rather broadish ; seeds dark-brown, 
placed transversely. C. artemisioicles. 

954. Leaflets developed. 

Shrubby, rather tall ; leaf -stalk continuous with the dilated 
rachis, placed somewhat vertically, the anterior edge 
turned towards the branchlet ; leaflets in one or two pairs, 
somewhat long, almost linear, channelled, scantily beset 
with hairlets or almost glabrous ; glandule between the 
lowest leaflets depressed; flowers in short racemes or 
corymbs ; petals yellow ; the two or three lowest stamens 
slightly longer ; fruit flat, rather narrow ; seeds dark- 
brown, placed transversely. Figure 49. 

C. eremophila. 
Leaflets usually undeveloped. 

Shrubby, rather tall ; leaf-stalks from elliptical-lanceolar to 
broad -linear, narrowed downward, the anterior edge 



Victorian Plants. 201 



turned towards the branchlet, closely beset with very 
short appressed often shining hairlets ; glandule absent 
or inconspicuous ; flowers in very short racemes or 
corymbs ; petals yellow ; fruit flat, rather broadish ; 
seeds dark-brown, placed transversely. 

C. phyllodinea. 

JACK.SONIA. 

955. Thornless. 

A tall shrub, quite leafless ; branchlets angular ; flowers in 
racemes, comparatively large ; calyx glabrous ; petals 
yellow ; fruit on a short stipes, almost elliptical, com- 
pressed. J. Clarkei. 

GOXttPHOXiOBX TJM. 

956. Erect. 

Tall, glabrous ; leaflets ternate, elongated, from lanceolar- 
to broad-linear, more narrowed downward, flat or some- 
what recurved at the margin ; flowers large, solitary ; 
stalklets longer than the flowers ; lower petals bearded 
at the margin ; fruits almost ovate. G. latifolium. 

Depressed ... ... ... ... ... ... 957 

957. Lower petals short-bearded at the anterior margin. 

Glabrous, or somewhat beset with hairlets ; leaflets ternate, 
rather short, from elliptic-cuneate to linear, their margin 
generally recurved ; flowers of moderate size, solitary or 
two or three together ; stalklets longer than the flowers ; 
fruit almost ovate. G. Huegelii. 

Lower petals quite glabrous. 

Leaflets ternate, rather short, from broad- to acicular-linear, 
revolute at the margin ; flowers rather small, generally 
two or three together ; stalklets shorter than the flowers ; 
fruit short-exserted. G. minus. 



958. Leaves very small, mostly in whorls of three. 

Erect shrub, finally tall, much beset with minute appressed 
hairlets ; leaves from broad- to lanceolar-ovate, slightly 
pointed, recurved at the margin ; flowers small, mostly 
terminal and few together, on very short stalklets ; upper 
and lateral petals upwards yellow or orange-colored ; 
lower petals black-purplish or red upwards ; fruit ovate, 
depressed, small. Figure 45. M. oxylobioides. 



202 Key to the System of 



OXYX.OBXUBX. 

959. Leaves indented or incised. 

Erect, shrubby; leaves opposite, from deltoid-ovate to 
rhomboid-lanceolar, with pungent lobes or denticulations, 
flat, generally glabrous ; racemes rather elongated ; fruit 
ellipsoid-cylindrical, attenuated into a conspicuous stalk- 
like base. O. trilobatum. 

Leaves entire ... ... ... ... ... ... 960 

960. Prostrate, semi-herbaceous. 

Sometimes ascendant, scarcely half -shrubby; leaves opposite 
or in whorls of three, from ovate to lanceolar, pungent- 
pointed, soon glabrous, almost flat; flowers few, in umbel- 
like racemes ; calyx scantily beset with hairlets ; fruit 
almost sessile, rather blunt. O. procumbens. 

Erect or diffuse, shrubby ... ... ... ... 961 

961. Leaves soon glabrous. 

Erect or diffuse ; leaves opposite or in whorls of three, from 
elliptical to lanceolar, sharp -pointed, recurved at the 
margin ; stipules conspicuous, pointed ; flowers few, in 
umbel-like racemes; calyx beset with short hairlets; fruit 
almost sessile, acute. O. alpestre. 

Leaves beset underneath with often appressed and 
shining hairlets. 

Erect or seldom diffuse ; leaves in whorls of three, from oval- 
to narrow-elliptical, recurved at the margin ; stipules 
inconspicuous ; flowers several, in short racemes ; calyx 
densely beset with soft hairlets outside ; fruit pointed, 
almost sessile, glabrous. O. elliptic um. 

SPHAEROXiOBIUXK. 

962. Tube of the calyx about as long as the upper lobes. 

Never tall, always glabrous, almost leafless or the leaves 
scanty small and narrow ; branches slender, cylindrical ; 
flowers small, in irregular almost spike-like racemes ; 
calyx soon dark-colored ; fruit small. S. vimiiieum. 

VXJKXNARIA. 

963. Flowers in spike-like racemes. 

Glabrous ; branchlets weak ; leaves seldom developed, but 
when present consisting of one to three rather large leaf- 
lets, these from oval- to elliptic-lanceolar in form; racemes 
generally elongated ; bracts minute. V. denudata. 



Victorian Plants. 203 



DAVIESIA. 

964. Leaves flat ... 965 

Leaves cylindrical ... ... ... ... ... 969 

965. Leaves vertical, broadly decurrent. 

A rather small glabrous shrub ; leaves rigid, almost semi- 
lanceolar, pungent, very spreading, adnate with broad 
base, thickened along the upper margin, often curved ; 
flowers in corymbous clusters or sometimes only two 
together or solitary ; fruit much compressed, almost 
dimidiately rhomboid-cordate. D. pectiiiata. 

Leaves horizontal, simply sessile ' ... ... ... 966 

966. Leaves usually very broad. 

A tall glabrous shrub, pervaded by a bitter principle; leaves 
usually very large, shining, from almost broad-lanceolar 
to ovate-orbicular or sometimes smaller and roundish- 
cordate ; the secondary venules largely reticular-promi- 
nent ; flowers often in elongated racemes ; fruit much 
compressed, almost dimidiate-cordate. D. latifolia. 

Leaves usually narrow ... ... ... ... 967 

967. Leaves always exceedingly elongated, without any 

lustre. 

Tall, glabrous shrub ; branchlets acutely triangular ; leaves 
rigid, straight, broad-linear, gradually attenuated into 
the sessile base and the apex, their primary venule very 
prominent, their secondary venules concealed ; umbels 
few- flowered, conspicuously stalked, solitary or two or 
three together ; stalklets longer than the calyx ; upper 
lobes of the calyx disconnected ; fruit much compressed. 

D. Wyattiaua, 

Leaves very short or somewhat elongated, shining ... 968 

968. Leaves usually many times longer than broad, slightly 

pointed. 

A glabrous shrub, from somewhat dwarf to tall ; leaves 
usually rather long, sometimes much elongated, from 
broad-linear to narrow-lanceolar, rigid, the secondary 
venules somewhat prominent ; flowers generally several 
in each axillary corymb ; calyx minutely lobed ; fruit 
much compressed. D. coryinbosa. 



204 Key to the System of 



Leaves usually several times longer than broad, 
pungent-pointed. 

A rather small somewhat spinescent shrub ; branchlets not 
rarely beset with hairlets ; leaves usually quite short, 
from often linear to lanceolar-ovate and even rhomboid- 
orbicular, horizontally somewhat spreading, their margin 
prominent and sometimes slightly recurved ; flowers 
axillary, solitary or two or few together, their stalks and 
stalklets usually very short ; calyx conspicuously lobed ; 
fruit much compressed, sharply pointed. D. ulicina. 

969. Leaves articulated on the branchlets. 

A small glabrous shrub ; leaves short, straight, acicular- 
cylindrical or occasionally somewhat vertical-compressed ; 
flowers axillary, few or several together, somewhat 
racemous, on very short stalklets ; calyx much narrowed 
at the base, minutely lobed; fruit considerably compressed. 

D. genistifolia. 

Leaves continuous with the branchlets. 

A small spinescent glabrous shrub ; branchlets somewhat 
flexuous, slightly streaked ; leaves phyllodinous, short, 
conic-cylindrical, thornlike-pungent, usually somewhat 
recurved, without any articulation emanating from the 
branchlets ; flowers axillary, few or sometimes only two 
together, seldom solitary, always on very short stalks and 
stalklets ; petals usually reddish ; fruit rather large, very 
turgid, its blunt lateral angle nearly as high as the pointed 
terminal angle. D. brevifolia. 



EUTAXXA. 

970. Fruit turgid, attenuated into a stalk-like base. 

A small almost glabrous shrub, occasionally quite dwarf, 
sometimes spinescent ; leaves small, from oval to linear, 
somewhat concave ; flowers small, axillary, on short stalk- 
lets ; bracteoles linear, somewhat removed from the calyx ; 
fruit beset with hairlets. 33. empetrifolia. 

PULTENAEA. 

971. Petals all pink. 

Shrubby, from dwarf to rather tall ; leaves rigid, linear- 
cylindrical, channelled above, somewhat granular-rough ; 
flowers in terminal headlets ; bracteoles inserted at the 
base of the calyx, short, linear-lanceolar ; calyx outside 



Victorian Plants. 



invested with appressed shining hairlets, its lobes rather 
acute; fruit oblique-ovate, pointed, somewhat turgid, 
beset with hairlets. Figure 46. P. rosea. 

Petals yellowish or partly brownish- or dark-reddish 972 

972. Flowers axillary-scattered or crowded into almost 

terminal but leafy clusters (Exception : some forms of 

P. canaliculata)... ... ... .. ... ... 973 

Flowers terminal, in leafless headlets, or when solitary 
surrounded by numerous bracts ... 986 

973. Leaves ternately whorled ... ... ... ... 974 

Leaves scattered, rarely some opposite or ternate ... 975 

974. Leaves very small. 

An alpine plant, prostrate, somewhat beset with shining 
appressed hairlets ; leaves elliptic -linear and rather 
cuneate, incurved at the margin ; flower-stalklets gene- 
rally longer than the leaves ; bracteoles inserted at the 
base of the calyx ; upper lobes of the calyx much broader 
than the lower ; fruit much compressed, almost orbicular, 
sessile within the calyx. P. teuella. 

Leaves rather large. 

An erect shrub, hardly tall ; leaves generally greyish-green 
and glabrous, flat, from rhomboid-cuneate or almost fan- 
shaped to nearly cordate or orbicular or ovate, almost 
pungently pointed ; flowers comparatively large, on con- 
spicuous stalklets, often ternate-axillary at the whorls ; 
bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx, very narrow, 
acutely pointed ; upper lobes of the calyx much broader 
than the lower ; fruit turgid, oblique-ovate, acute, 
glabrous, sessile within the calyx ; seeds black, without 
any lustre. P. temata. 

975. Leaves incurved at the margin ... ... ... 976 

Leaves recurved at the margin ... ... ... 985 

976. Erect or diffuse 977 

Prostrate 984 

977. Leaves pungently pointed ... ... ... ... 978 

Leaves blunt or slightly pointed ... ... ... 979 



206 Key to the System of 



978. Bracteoles acicular-linear, inserted above the base of 

the calyx. 

A rather dwarf shrub ; leaves sessile, from almost ovate- to 
broad-lanceolar, sometimes ternately whorled, generally 
beset with soft hairlets, the upper end often somewhat 
recurved; flowers on short stalklets; bracts very numerous 
and acute ; upper lobes of the calyx much broader than 
the lower; fruit turgid, oblique-ovate, scantily beset with 
hairlets. P. styphelioides. 

Bracteoles lanceolar, inserted below the base of the 
calyx. 

A shrub, finally tall ; leaves spreading, rigid, short-stalked, 
mostly straight, from aciculate-linear to narrow-lanceolar 
or sometimes ovate or cordate towards the base, concave 
above, darker green beneath, often glabrous; flowers either 
few together in leafy terminal headlets or some axillary 
near the summit of branchlets ; fruit ovate, acute, some- 
what compressed, beset with hairlets ; seeds dark-brown. 

P. juniperina. 

979. Bracteoles inserted below the base of the calyx. 

A diffuse shrub ; branchlets invested with soft hairlets ; 
leaves very small, rigid, from orbicular- to elliptic- 
obovate, somewhat concave, slightly arched, soon glabrous, 
shining above, their secondary venules pmnately prominent 
beneath ; stipules broad, the upper overlapping, pale- 
brownish, fringed; flowers axillary, solitary, but crowded 
into almost terminal leafy clusters ; bracteoles mem- 
branous, inserted close under the calyx, broad, pale ; 
calyx membranous, its lobes almost equal and much 
pointed ; fruit oblique-ovate, turgid, somewhat beset with 
hairlets, sessile within the calyx. P. densifolia. 

Bracteoles inserted above the base of the calyx ... 980 

980. Flowers distinctly stalked. 

A rather tall shrub, much beset with soft hairlets ; leaves 
rather small, from obovate- to cuneate- or linear-elliptical, 
apt to turn brownish underneath, concave and glabrous 
above ; flowers axillary and solitary, but also occasionally 
forming short leafy racemes ; bracteoles quite narrow, 
greenish ; lobes of the calyx pointed, hardly longer than 
the tube ; petals all equally yellow ; fruit short, oblique- 
ovate, sessile within the calyx. P. villosa. 

Flowers almost sessile ... ... ... ... 931 



Victorian Plants. 207 



981. Flowers in leafless clusters, but only few in each. 

A spreading shrub, much invested with silvery shining 
appressed hairlets ; leaves rather small, firm, from almost 
obcordate- to linear-cuneate, usually glabrous above ; 
flower-clusters axillary and terminal ; bracteoles inserted 
far above the base of the calyx; lobes of the calyx hardly 
as long as the tube, the two upper broadest ; fruit 
oblique-ovate, acute, somewhat compressed. 

F. largiflorens. 

Flowers in leafy clusters or singly scattered... ... 982 

982. United upper lobes of the calyx much longer than 

the lower. 

Half-shrub, usually dwarf, much beset with spreading soft 
hairlets ; leaves rather small, from linear- to lanceolar- 
elliptical, concave above, darker green underneath; flowers 
singly axillary, but crowded into leafy spikes ; bracteoles 
narrow, inserted near the base of the calyx ; lobes of the 
calyx pointed ; fruit scantily beset with hairlets. 

P. humilis. 

United upper lobes of the calyx hardly longer than 
the lower ... 983 

983. Lobes of the calyx much pointed and longer than the 

tube. 

A rather small shrub, much beset with greyish appressed 
hairlets ; leaves quite small, from obovate- to linear- 
cuneate, exceptionally linear- cylindrical, darker green 
underneath, always concave above, soon glabrous ; flowers 
small, few in the upper axils ; bracteoles very narrow, 
inserted somewhat above the base of the calyx ; fruit 
beset with hairlets. P, parviflora. 

Lobes of the calyx scarcely pointed and about as 
long as the tube. 

A rather dwarf shrub, much invested with soft brownish 
hairlets ; leaves minute, from ovate to elliptical, concave 
above, darker green underneath, their upper end recurved; 
flowers solitary in the upper axils ; bracteoles small, 
greenish, inserted above the base of the calyx ; lobes of 
the calyx broadish ; fruit turgid, blunt, very small. 

P. foliolosa. 



208 Key to the System of 



984. Leaves and bracteoles very acute. 

An alpine plant, much invested with appressed and almost 
silver-shining hairlets ; leaves small, linear-cylindrical, 
channelled, pointed ; flowers solitary, axillary, almost 
sessile ; bracteoles small, as well as the calyx- lobes long- 
pointed, inserted at the base of the calyx ; fruit oblique- 
ovate, much compressed, acute, about as long as the 
calyx. P. fasciculata. 

Leaves and bracteoles almost obtuse. 

A small half -shrub, chiefly maritime, beset with short hair- 
lets ; leaves small, usually linear-cylindrical, channelled ; 
flowers comparatively small, mostly scattered, often 
singly terminal, sessile, surpassed by the surrounding 
leaves ; bracts exceeding the calyx ; bracteoles almost 
elliptical, inserted below the calyx ; calyx-lobes nearly 
equal, much pointed ; fruit small, oblique -ovate. 

F. teiuiifolia. 

985. Flowers on much elongated stalklets. 

Prostrate, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves small, 
spreading, from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar ; stalklets 
solitary, almost capillary ; bracteoles linear, inserted at 
the base of the calyx ; lobes of the calyx all acute ; fruit 
turgid. P. pedunculata. 

Flowers sessile. 

An erect shrub, much beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
from ovate- to cuneate-obcordate, shortly bilobed or 
truncate ; flowers mostly terminal in small headlets ; 
bracteoles linear-lanceolar, inserted on the tube of the 
calyx, above its base ; fruit beset with hairlets ; arillar 
appendage of the seeds slightly fringed. P. scabra. 

986. Leaves flat or recurved at the margin ... ... 987 

Leaves incurved at the margin 993 

987. Leaves nearly or quite flat ... ... ... ... 988 

Leaves recurved at the margin ... ... ... 990 

988. Leaves always glabrous on both sides. 

An erect shrub, never tall; leaves rather small, rigid, 
linear-cuneate, usually notched at the summit, never 
pointed ; headlets small, with few flowers in each ; 
bracteoles very narrow, inserted on the tube of the 



Victorian Plants. 209 



calyx above its base ; calyx invested with appressed 
shining hairlets, its tube longer than the lobes ; fruit 
rhomboid-ovate, considerably compressed, beset with 
hairlets. P. retusa. 

Leaves mostly invested underneath with appressed 
shining hairlets ... ... 989 

989. Flowers in large headlets. 

A robust shrub, finally tall ; leaves comparatively large, 
rigid, from elliptic-cuneate to obcordate, somewhat 
pointed, in age not rarely quite glabrous ; bracteoles 
inserted far above the base of the calyx, very narrow ; 
calyx invested outside with silver-shining hairlets, its 
lobes shorter than the tube ; lower petals upwards dark- 
colored ; fruit oblique-ovate, much compressed, well 
pointed. P. daphnoides. 

Flowers in small headlets. 

An imperfectly shrubby plant, usually erect and slender ; 
leaves comparatively small, from elliptic- to cuneate- 
obovate, slightly pointed, sometimes totally glabrous in 
age ; bracteoles inserted much above the base of the 
calyx -tube ; calyx outside invested with shining short 
hairlets, its lobes pointed, shorter than the tube ; lower 
petals dark -purplish upwards ; fruit rhomboid-ovate, 
beset with appressed hairlets. P. stricta. 

990. Leaves blunt. 

A rather robust shrub, from low to somewhat tall ; leaves 
small but firm, from elliptic- to broad-ovate or sometimes 
linear-elliptical, always convex, usually beset with minute 
greyish hairlets underneath ; flowers in generally small 
headlets ; bracteoles very short, inserted on the tube of 
the calyx above its base ; calyx invested with short hair- 
lets, its lobes rather equal, about as long as the tube ; 
lower petals dark -purplish upwards ; fruit oblique -ovate, 
pointed, much compressed. P. Gunnii. 

Leaves pointed ... ... ... 991 

991. Branchlets largely enveloped by the much elongated 

pale stipules. 

An imperfectly shrubby plant, flowering already at some 
inches height ; leaves from lanceolar- to broad -linear, at 
the margin revolute, glabrous above ; stipules appressed, 
membranous ; flowers in small terminal headlets ; bracts 



210 Key to the System of 



concealing the calyces ; bracteoles long, narrow-lanceolar 
and somewhat navicular, inserted on the calyx-tube above 
its base ; calyx invested outside with appressed silver- 
shining hairlets, its lobes about as long as the tube ; fruit 
much compressed, pointed, densely beset with silky- 
shining hairlets. P. paleacea. 

Branchlets slightly enveloped by the brownish stipules 992 

992. Leaves rather flaccid. 

A rather low shrub, much beset with scattered spreading 
soft hairlets ; leaves of thin texture, from ovate- to 
elliptic-lanceolar, often almost flat, terminating in a 
bristlet ; stipules high - connected, capillary pointed ; 
flowers in dense headlets, each provided with a short 
stalklet ; bracteoles very narrow, inserted above the base 
of the calyx ; lobes of the calyx thinly pointed ; fruit 
very acute. P. mucronata. 

Leaves quite rigid. 

A robust shrub ; leaves very firm, from linear- to lanceolar- 
elliptical, often sharp-pointed, mostly invested underneath 
with appressed silver-shining hairlets; flowers rather large, - 
few in each headlet ; bracteoles navicular-lanceolar, in- 
serted on the tube of the calyx; lobes of the calyx consider- 
ably shorter than the tube ; the whole calyx outside 
invested with silver-shining hairlets as well as the outside 
of the ovulary ; seeds almost black, oblique-ellipsoid, 
shining, smooth ; arillar appendage pale, lobular-crisped. 

P. Benthami. 

993. Flowers solitary, but terminal ... ... ... 994 

Flowers in clusters or spikes ... ... ... ... 995 

994. Erect. 

A rather tall shrub, mainly sub-alpine, somewhat beset 
with shining hairlets ; leaves rather small, from lanceolar 
to linear, channelled, almost pungently pointed, often 
lined with three prominent venules, glabrous above ; 
stipules rather elongated ; each flower surrounded by 
bracts ; bracteoles ovate-elliptical, nearly as long as the 
calyx and inserted below its base ; lobes of the calyx 
pointed ; fruit oblique-ovate, somewhat turgid. 

P. Muelleri. 

Prostrate. 

Much beset with silver-shining short hairlets ; leaves linear- 
cylindrical, blunt, quite small, channelled ; stipules very 



Victorian Plants. 211 



small ; each flower surrounded by bracts ; bracteoles 
ovate-elliptical, inserted near the base of the calyx ; 
lobes of the calyx shorter than the tube, the whole calyx 
invested outside with silky-shining hairlets ; fruit oblique- 
ovate, blunt. P. prostrata. 

995. Stalklets about as long as the calyx. 

Prostrate, somewhat beset with appressed shining hairlets ; 
leaves small, linear, blunt, channelled above ; flowers in 
terminal leafy clusters ; bracteoles linear-lanceolar, in- 
serted at the base of the calyx ; lobes of the calyx very 
acute ; lower petals deeply colored ; fruit beset with 
hairlets. P. laxiflora. 

Stalklets shorter than the calyx 996 

996. Almost entirely glabrous. 

Tall-shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves rather small, 
from elliptic- to almost cuneate-linear, blunt or slightly 
pointed, concave ;' flowers small, either in terminal almost 
leafless corymbs or dispersed in the upper axils ; bracts 
minute ; bracteoles small, lanceolar-ovate, at the base of 
the calyx ; lobes of the calyx hardly or slightly pointed ; 
fruit nearly glabrous, oblique-ovate, rather turgid, short- 
pointed. (P. altissima.) P. flexilis. 

Much beset with hairlets ... ... ... ... 997 

997. Flowers few, rather large, either loosely placed into 

headlets or scattered, generally surpassed by the 
floral leaves ... ... ... ... ... 998 

Flowers many, usually small, crowded into headlets, 
generally surpassing the floral leaves ... ... 1001 

998. Flowers in leafy spikes or headlets. 

A low imperfectly shrubby plant, quite densely beset with 
minute hairlets ; leaves broadish- or linear-cylindrical, 
blunt, channelled, their surface often closed by the in- 
curved margin ; bracts none ; bracteoles almost as long as 
the calyx and inserted below its base, extremely narrow ; 
calyx membranous, pale, its lobes much pointed, hardly 
longer than the tube ; lower petals dark-colored ; fruit 
oblique -elliptical, acute, shorter than the calyx ; seeds 
somewhat shining. P. canaliculata. 

Flowers in terminal leafless headlets ... ... 999 



212 Key to the System of 



999. Bracteoles fixed above the base of the calyx. 

Erect, rather tall, beset with soft spreading hairlets ; leaves 
linear- cylindrical, scarcely pointed, their surface often 
closed by the incurved margin ; flowers without any 
stalklets; bracteoles narrow, keeled; calyx-lobes broadish, 
nearly equal, hardly as long as the tube ; ovulary outside 
beset with hairlets. P. mollis. 

Bracteoles fixed below the base of the calyx ... 1000 

1000. Surface of the leaves closed by the incurved margin. 

A small diffuse shrub, much beset with soft hairlets ; leaves 
linear-cylindrical ; flowers on short stalklets ; bracteoles 
fully as long as the calyx, linear-lanceolar ; calyx mem- 
branous, scantily beset with hairlets, its lobes pointed ; 
fruit oblique - elliptical, short -pointed, somewhat com- 
pressed, bearing scattered hairlets. P. hibbertioides. 

Surface of the leaves open. 

A rather tall shrub, much beset with soft hairlets ; leaves 
linear, concave, rather acute ; stipules recurved ; flowers 
on very short stalklets ; bracteoles comparatively large, 
almost lanceolar ; calyx beset with rather long hairlets, 
its lobes about as long as the tube ; fruit oblique-ovate, 
pointed. P. viscosa. 

1001. Stipules distinctly present. 

A slender imperfectly shrubby plant ; leaves comparatively 
short, glabrous, from broadish- to elliptic- and cylindric- 
linear, always concave, rather acute ; stipules very short ; 
flowers quite small, in dense terminal headlets ; bracts 
broadish, overlapping ; bracteoles about as long as the 
calyx, inserted above its base, often bifid and with a 
bristlet between the lobes, sometimes at the summit 
additionally denticulated or lobulated ; calyx beset with 
very short appressed shining hairlets ; fruit oblique- 
ovate, pointed, somewhat compressed, invested with 
appressed hairlets ; seeds dark -brown. P. dent at a. 

Stipules almost absent. 

A rather low imperfectly shrubby plant ; leaves small, from 
linear- to narrow-elliptical, rather blunt, usually glabrous, 
concave above or sometimes flat, darker green beneath, 
without any prominent carinular venule ; stipules tri- 
angular, very minute or obliterated ; flowers often some- 
what fascicular-umbellate in the headlets ; bracteoles 
inserted below the calyx ; calyx beset with soft hairlets, 
its lobes shorter than the tube ; upper petal only 
moderately dilated ; fruit ovate-globular, beset with 
hairlets. P. subumbellata. 



Victorian Plants. 213 



FHlTXiXiOTA. 

1002. Flowers singly sessile within tufts of terminal leaves. 

A small shrub, much beset with soft hairlets ; leaves small, 
recurved-spreading, linear, generally pointed, refracted 
at the margin ; flowers shorter than the leaves ; bracteoles 
ovate, shorter than the tube of the calyx ; the latter 
invested with shining appressed hairlets outside ; fruit 
ovate, slightly compressed, enclosed. 

F. pleurandroides. 

DXZiZiWVNZA. 

1003. Calyx gradually attenuated at the base ... ... 1004 

Calyx bluntish at the base ... 1006 

1004. Lower petals pointed, nearly as long as the lateral 

petals. 

A small shrub, much beset with short spreading hairlets ; 
leaves short, spreading, linear-cylindrical, almost blunt ; 
corymbs long-stalked ; upper lobes of calyx much dis- 
connected ; petals orange -colored and reddish, early 
deciduous, the lamina of the upper petal much broader 
than long ; fruit almost globular. D. hispida. 

Lower petals blunt, shorter than the lateral petals... 1005 

1005. Flowers mostly terminal. 

A thin-branched shrub, seldom tall ; leaves small, slender, 
linear-cylindrical, blunt or slightly pointed, with a furrow 
along the upper side ; flowers in usually sessile corymbs 
or clusters ; upper lobes of calyx much disconnected ; 
petals early deciduous ; the lamina of the upper petal 
much broader than long ; fruit globular-ovate. 

D. ericifolia. 
Flowers mostly axillary. 

A thin-branched shrub, often rather tall ; leaves small, 
linear-cylindrical, blunt or slightly pointed, with a 
furrow along the upper side ; flowers solitary or two or 
three together, sometimes forming leafy racemes ; upper 
lobes of calyx much disconnected; petals early deciduous; 
the lamina of the upper petal much broader than long ; 
fruit almost enclosed. D. floribunda. 

1006. Leaves pungent. 

A thin-branched shrub, seldom tall ; leaves rigid, acicular- 
linear, keeled ; flowers mostly terminal, in almost sessile 
corymbs ; upper lobes of calyx much connected ; petals 
long persistent ; lamina of the upper petal somewhat 
broader than long. D. juniperina. 



214 Key to tie System of 



Leaves almost blunt ... ... 1007 

1007. Flowers several in the corymbs. 

A slender shrub, never tall ; leaves rather short, thinly 
linear-cylindrical, blunt or hardly pointed ; flowers small, 
mostly terminal, crowded into leafy capitular sessile 
corymbs ; upper lobes of calyx much connected ; petals 
long persistent ; lamina of the upper petals somewhat 
broader than long ; fruit almost ovate, partly exserted. 

D. ciuerasceus. 

Flowers few in the corymbs or some solitary. 

A small, diffuse shrub ; leaves much spreading or deflexed,. 
very short, linear-cylindrical, somewhat channelled, hardly 
pointed; flowers mostly terminal, few or several together; 
upper lobes of calyx much connected ; petals long per- 
sistent ; fruit ovate-globular, with a short stalk-like base. 

D. patula. 

AOTUS. 

1008. Leaves from narrow-lanceolar to linear, almost blunt 

or slightly pointed. 

A shrub, from rather dwarf to somewhat tall, much beset 
with short hairlets ; leaves from quinary to ternately 
whorled or two together or oftener scattered, repressed 
at the margin ; flowers axillary, either solitary or two 
or three together, frequently forming spike-like leafy 
racemes ; lobes of the calyx about as long as the tube ; 
fruit quite small, globular-ovate, somewhat turgid, much 
exserted, its base stalk-like. A. villosa. 

HOVEA. 

1009. Prostrate or ascendant. 

Semi-herbaceous ; lower leaves almost ovate, upper from 
lanceolar to broad-linear, slightly beset with hairlets 
underneath, generally somewhat recurved at the margin ; 
fruit from almost transversely oval to oblique-roundish, 
nearly glabrous, devoid of any stalk-like base. 

H. heterophylla. 

Quite erect. 

Tall-shrubby ; leaves very firm, from narrow-elliptical or 
lanceolar to broad-linear, often closely invested with 
short brown hairlets underneath, flat or recurved at the 
margin ; fruit obliquely or transversely roundish-ovate, 
quite densely beset with very short brownish hairlets, 
devoid of any stalk-like base. H. longifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 215 



1010. Dwarf, leafy. 

Glabrous ; leaves distant, very firm, from narrow-elliptical 
to linear, flat or somewhat channelled ; flowers small ; 
petals yellowish ; fruit elongate-elliptical, conspicuously 
stipitate, slightly turgid, generally few-seeded. 

T. Muelleri. 

Tall, leafless 1011 

1011. Branchlets thinly cylindrical. 

Glabrous ; branchlets hardly spreading, furrowed ; flowers 
very small, approximated almost into spike-like racemes ; 
petals yellowish ; fruit oblique- elliptical, somewhat bi- 
convex, without any stalk-like base, generally one-seeded. 

T, egena. 

Branchlets broadly flattened. 

Glabrous ; branchlets much spreading ; flowers very small, 
scattered ; petals yellowish ; fruit oblique-obovate, some- 
what biconvex, without any stalk-like base ; one- or two- 
seeded. T. sulcata. 



BOSSIAEA. 

1012. Prostrate or diffuse ... ... 1013 

Erect 1015 

1013. Leaves opposite. 

Somewhat trailing or straggling ; branchlets very slender ; 
leaves small, cordate, spurious-pinnately arranged ; flowers 
on long almost capillary stalklets; fruit obliquely lanceolar- 
elliptical, with a conspicuous stalk-like base. 

B. cordigera. 

Leaves alternate ... ... ... , ... ... 1014 

1014. United upper lobes of the calyx hardly longer than 

the lower. 

Prostrate or somewhat ascending, never much elongated nor 
spinescent; leaves from orbicular- to elliptic-ovate; flowers 
on rather long stalklets ; bracteoles disconnected ; fruit 
elongate- elliptical, almost without any stalk-like base. 

B. prostrata. 



216 Key to the System of 



United upper lobes of the calyx much longer than the 
lower. 

Slightly spinescent ; branchlets rather elongated ; leaves 
quite small, from almost cordate to ovate, oblique; flowers 
on long stalklets ; bracteoles connate ; fruit elongate- 
elliptical, almost without any stalk-like base. 

B. buxifolia. 

1015. Branchlets leafy ... 1016 

Branchlets leafless ... ... ... ... ... 1019 

1016. Leaves from orbicular to almost renate. 

Tall ; branchlets robust ; leaves very small, rigid, alter- 
nating, but crowded, convex, at the margin recurved ; 
flowers on short stalklets ; fruit roundish, much com- 
pressed, almost without any stalk-like base, densely 
invested with short brown hairlets. B. foliosa. 

Leaves from linear-lanceolar to cordate or from 
elliptic to obovate or obcordate ... ... ... 1017 

1017. Leaves from obcordate to obovate. 

Rather tall, much spinescent ; leaves quite small, rigid ; 
flowers on short stalklets ; fruit small, glabrous, some- 
what elliptical, with a stalk-like base. 

B. microphylla. 

Leaves from linear-lanceolar to ovate or almost 
cordate ... 1018 

1018. Branchlets nearly cylindrical. 

From rather dwarf to tall ; leaves from cordate- to linear- 
lanceolar, much pointed, at the margin recurved ; flowers 
on rather conspicuous stalklets ; fruit lanceolar-elliptical, 
with a short stalk-like base. B. cinerea. 

Branchlets much compressed. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves usually distant and few, always 
alternating, the lower generally ovate, the upper narrower, 
but often longer; flowers on short stalklets; fruit elongate- 
elliptical, with a long stalk-like base, at the margin 
thickened. B. heteropliylla. 



Victorian Plants. 217 



1019. All the lobes of the calyx nearly equal. 

Alpine ; glabrous ; branchlets very broadly flattened, with 
conspicuous and distant indentations ; flowers almost 
sessile ; calyx supported by crowded bracts ; fruit with 
a stalk-like base. B. bracteosa. 

The two upper lobes of the calyx much broader than 
the lower , 1020 

1020. Fruit rather narrow, thinly margined, with a long 

stalk-like base. 

Glabrous; branchlets rather broadly flattened, with slight 
and distant indentations ; stalklets exceeding the bracts ; 
lower petals almost as long as the upper one ; fruit almost 
broad-linear. B. riparia. 

Fruit rather broad, thickly margined, with a short 
stalk-like base. 

Glabrous ; branchlets broadly flattened ; lower petals con- 
siderably shorter than the upper one ; stalklets exceeding 
the bracts ; fruit linear-elliptical. B. eusata. 

PZ.AT1TZ.OBZVBZ. 

1021. Leaves scattered. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves from cordate to almost orbicular, 
pointed ; stalklets concealed by bracts ; fruit with 
scarcely any stalk-like base. P. alternifolium. 

Leaves opposite ... ... ... ... ... 1022 

1022. Stalklets concealed by bracts. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves from often deltoid to sometimes 
cordate-ovate, pointed ; fruit less than twice as long as 
the calyx, with scarcely any stalk-like base. 

P. obtusangulum. 

Stalklets much exceeding the bracts 1023 

1023. Leaves deltoid. 

Rather dwarf ; fruit several times longer than the calyx, 
with a short stalk-like base. P. trianglllare, 

Leaves from cordate- to ovate-lanceolar. 

Rather tall ; fruit nearly three times as long as the calyx, 
with a long stalk-like base. P. f ormosum. 



218 Key to the System of 



GOODZA. 

1024. Leaflets generally cuneate-ovate. 

Usually tall ; racemes often with many flowers ; lower lobes 
of the calyx semilanceolar, as long as the tube ; fruit 
about three times as long as broad, gradually narrowed 
at the base. G. lotifolia. 

Leaflets generally obcordate-ovate. 

Usually tall ; racemes with few or several flowers ; lower 

lobes of the calyx almost deltoid, shorter than the tube ; 

fruit hardly twice as long as broad, suddenly narrowed at 

the base. G. medicaginea. 

ZORXIA. 

1025. Leaflets two. 

Leaflets from almost ovate- to lanceolate-linear, glandular- 
dotted ; stipules broadish, affixed above the base ; flowers 
in spikes, much concealed by the large stipule-like 
bracteoles ; petals yellowish ; fruit few- jointed ; seeds 
without any appendage. Z. dipliylla. 



1026. Fruit-bearing stalklets hardly as long as the calyx, 

bent downward. 

Comparatively robust ; leaflets three together or the lowest 
solitary, from orbicular- ovate to nearly elliptical, mostly 
rather long, strongly venuled ; flowers small, two to each 
bract, forming interrupted spike-like racemes ; fruit beset 
with clinging hairlets, few-jointed. D. brachypodum. 

Fruit-bearing stalklets much longer than the calyx, 
spreading. 

Comparatively slender, often depressed ; leaflets three 
together, from obcordate- to narrowly lanceolar-elliptical, 
mostly rather short, thinly venuled ; flowers very small, 
on almost capillary soon elongated stalklets, forming 
short racemes ; petals reddish ; fruit beset with very 
short clinging hooked hairlets, few-jointed. 

D. varians. 
LESFEDEZA. 

1027. Lower petals blunt, slightly incurved. 

Very slender, much beset with appressed shining hairlets ; 
leaf-stalks quite short ; leaflets rather small, from elliptic- 
to linear-cuneate, nearly always three together ; flowers 
small, from two to four in each axil, some of the lower 
without petals ; bracteoles minute ; petals pale or some- 
what purplish or pink ; fruit very small, ovate- orbicular. 

L. cuneata. 



Victorian Plants. 219 



PSORALEA. 

1028. Leaflets five to seven. 

Depressed, glabrous or somewhat beset with minute 
hairlets ; leaflets entire, from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar ; 
racemes rather long, slender ; flowers small, on very 
short stalklets ; petals blue ; fruit almost black. 

P. teiiax. 

Leaflets three... 1029 

1029. Leaflets entire 1030 

Leaflets denticulated ... ... ... ... ... 1031 

1030. Racemes rather long. 

Glabrous or slightly beset with short hairlets ; leaf -stalks 
long ; leaflets rather large, from elliptic- to elongate- 
lanceolar, acute ; racemes spike-like, on long stalks ; 
bracts lanceolar-ovate ; calyx rather elongated ; petals 
pink ; fruit almost black, somewhat rough. 

F. adsceudens. 
Racemes very short. 

Dwarf, diffuse, sparingly beset with hairlets ; leaflets small, 
from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar ; racemes spike-like, 
sometimes nearly capitate ; flowers almost without any 
stalklets ; bracts orbicular-cordate ; lobes of the calyx 
short ; petals pink ; fruit pale, somewhat beset with 
short hairlets. P. parva. 

1031. Depressed, calyx elongated. 

Almost grey or whitish from a lanugiiious vestiture ; leaflets 
from obovate to nearly orbicular ; racemes spike-like ; 
petals generally blue ; fruits beset with soft hairlets. 

P. eriantha. 
Erect, calyx abbreviated. 

Much beset with short hairlets ; leaflets from lanceolar- to 
rhomboid-ovate, generally obtuse ; racemes spike-like, 
often elongated ; petals pink ; fruit very small. 

P. patens. 
LOTUS. 

1032. Petals yellow, but with a somewhat brown- or deep- 

reddish tinge. 

Herb, never tall ; stipules very minute ; leaves sessile ; 
leaflets from narrow-lanceolar to obovate and almost 
rhomboid ; flowers few in each umbel ; lobes of the calyx 
about as long as the tube, narrow, much pointed ; fruit 
thin-cylindrical, straight. L. corniculatus. 



'220 Key to the System of 



Petals wholly pink or dark-reddish or pale. 

Herb, generally rather tall ; leaflets from broad -linear to 
obovate ; flowers several in each umbel ; lobes of the 
calyx longer than the tube ; fruit usually rather long, 
slender, straight. L. Australia. 



TRIGONELLA. 

1033. Flowers in axillary sessile clusters. 

A small diffuse herb, almost or quite glabrous ; leaflets from 
obovate- to orbicular-obcordate ; petals yellowish ; fruit 
compressed, several times longer than broad, slightly 
pointed, somewhat flexuous, superficially marked by 
reticulating venules. Figure 47. T. suavissima. 



K.ENNEDYA. 

1031 Leaves reduced to a single leaflet. 

Twining, tall or sometimes prostrate, glabrous ; leaflets 
from broadly ovate to elliptic-laiiceolar, comparatively 
large, flat, of very firm texture ; flowers very small, 
numerous in each raceme ; petals blue or far less 
commonly white ; fruit rather long, narrow, much com- 
pressed. K. monophylla. 

Leaves consisting of three leaflets ... ... ... 1035 

1035. Flowers several on each stalk. 

Twining, tall, much beset with brownish hairlets ; leaflets 
from orbicular-ovate to elliptic-lanceolar, comparatively 
large, of firm texture ; flowers very large, in racemes ; 
petals crimson, hardly ever white ; fruit long, much 
compressed. X. rubicunda. 

Flowers generally only one or two on each stalk. 

Prostrate ; leaflets from orbicular to ovate, comparatively 
small, of herbaceous texture, somewhat crisped ; flowers 
rather large ; petals crimson, rarely pale or white ; fruit 
nearly cylindrical, slightly compressed. 

K. prostrata. 

OLYCINE. 

1036. Lateral leaflets close to the upper one ... ... 1037 

Lateral leaflets somewhat distant from the upper one 1038 



Victorian Plants. 221 



1037. Leaflets of the upper leaves narrow. 

Stem and branches slender, much beset with often reflexed 
hairlets ; leaflets rather small and flaccid, those of the 
lower leaves generally obovate, those of the upper from 
lanceolar to broad-linear ; flowers in racemes, or at the 
lower portion of the plant clustered and then imperfect 
and still smaller ; upper lobes of the calyx conspicuously 
separated ; fruit narrow, compressed ; seeds of the lowest 
fruits generally in shape different to those of the upper 
fruits. G. clandestina. 

Leaflets of nearly all the leaves broad. 

Stems and branches short and often simply prostrate, much 
beset with reflexed hairlets; leaflets small, from obcordate 
and orbicular to obovate and lanceolar-elliptical, those of 
the lower leaves the broadest ; racemes spike-like, few- 
flowered, long-stalked ; flowers small ; upper lobes of the 
calyx much connate ; petals often lilac-colored ; fruits 
compressed, often of two forms ; seeds of the shorter 
fruits more roundish. G, Latrobeana. 

1038. Leaflets of the lower leaves broad. 

Stems and branches somewhat elongated, much beset with 
reflexed hairlets ; leaflets rather firm, from ovate to 
elliptical- and linear- lanceolar or those of the lower leaves 
from obovate to roundish and even obcordate, their venules 
generally reticular-prominent ; racemes spike-like; flowers 
rather small ; fruit broad-linear, considerably compressed; 
seeds black, shining. G. tabacina. 

Leaflets of nearly all the leaves narrow. 

Stems and branches somewhat elongated, the latter and par- 
ticularly the leaves invested with grey shining appressed 
hairlets ; leaflets mostly from lanceolar- to broadish-linear, 
nearly always acute ; racemes spike-like ; flowers rather 
large ; fruit beset with silky shining hairlets ; seeds black, 
smooth. G. sericea. 



INDIGOFEHA. 

1039. Lobes of the calyx, unless the lowest, considerably 
shorter than the tube. 

Somewhat shrubby ; leaflets from orbicular-ovate to linear- 
elliptical ; flowers in racemes ; calyces small, often as 
well as the stalklets closely beset with short dark -colored 
hairlets ; fruit linear-cylindrical, straight, rather elon- 
gated, glabrous. I. Australis. 



222 Key to the System of 



SWAINSONA. 

1040. Petals yellowish or somewhat orange-colored ... 1041 

Petals pink, deep-red or violet-colored ... .. 1042 

1041. Fruit with a stalk-like base. 

Tall, nearly glabrous ; leaflets from roundish-ovate to ellip- 
tical ; stipules rather broad, curved ; racemes elongated ; 
petals yellowish ; lower petals simply curved ; upper 
petal without supra-basal callosities ; stigma accompanied 
by a tuft of hairlets ; fruit inflated. S. laxa. 

Fruit without any stalk-like base. 

Depressed or ascending, densely beset with very short 
whitish hairlets ; stipules particularly broad, often in- 
dented ; leaflets cuneate- r elliptic-linear ; racemes short ; 
petals partly orange-colored, the upper without supra- 
basal callosities ; lower petals simply curved, blunt ; 
style rigid, much incurved ; fruit almost narrow-ellipsoid. 
(S. phacifolia.) S. stipularis. 

1042. Lower petals twisted ... ... 1043 

Lower petals simply curved ... .. ... ... 1044 

1043. Flowers comparatively small. 

Prostrate or ascendant, nmch beset with soft hairlets ; 
leaflets rather small, from obcordate- to lanceolar-ovate ; 
stipules conspicuous ; flowers in short racemes ; petals 
violet-colored, the lower circularly curved, bluntish ; 
upper devoid of prominent supra-basal callosities ; fruit 
depressed-ellipsoid, rather small, without any stalk-like 
base. S. onciuotropis. 

Flowers comparatively large. 

Prostrate or ascendant, beset with soft hairlets ; leaflets 
rather numerous, from elliptic- to lanceolate-linear ; 
flowers fragrant ; petals violet-colored, the lower cir- 
cularly curved and additionally somewhat spiral ; upper 
petal devoid of supra-basal callosities ; fruit rather large, 
firm, without any stalk-like base. S. procumbens. 

1044. Fruit with a long stalk-like base. 

Very tall, deleterious, imperfectly invested with close 
short whitish hairlets ; leaflets comparatively large, from 



Victorian Plants. 223 



narrow-elliptical to roundish-ovate ; flowers large, in long 
racemes ; petals pink, the upper with two prominent 
supra-basal callosities ; fruit large, inflated. 

S. Greyana. 

Fruit without any stalk-like base ... ... 1045 

1045. Petals bright-red. 

Rather tall, scantily or hardly beset with hairlets ; leaflets 
from lanceolar- to oval-elliptical; stipules deltoid-cordate; 
flowers few or several in each raceme, rather large; lower 
petals infracted -ascendant, pointed, sideways slightly 
twisted ; fruit rather large, depressed, ovate, somewhat 
pointed. S. plagiotropis. 

Petals violet-colored or pale ... .. ... ... 1046 

1046. Fruit ovate-globular. 

Leaflets very small, numerous, from obcordate- to cuneate- 
ovate; stipules minute; racemes elongated; flowers small; 
fruit short. S. micropliylla. 

Fruit ovate- or cylindric-ellipsoid ... .. ... 1047 

1047. Upper petal without any supra-basal callosities. 

Depressed, deleterious, somewhat beset with appressed 
hairlets ; leaflets from linear- to ovate-elliptical ; racemes 
generally rather elongated ; hairlets of calyces and stalk - 
lets appressed, often blackish ; petals almost violet- 
colored ; fruit often turning blackish, nearly ellipsoid, 
pointed. S. lessertifolia* 

Upper petal with two supra-basal callosities. 

Rather dwarf, much beset with short often shining-grey 
hairlets; leaflets from broadish-linear to narrow-elliptical, 
blunt or notched; racemes very short, on elongated stalks; 
fruit nearly ellipsoid-cylindrical. S. phacoides. 

OLYCYRRHIZA. 

1048. Fruit very short, prickly-rough. 

A perennial, usually diffuse herb, of strong scent ; leaflets 
from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar ; flowers in spike-like 
racemes ; upper petal acute, pale-lilac or whitish, the 
other petals upwards somewhat violet ; fruit irrespective 
of its asperities copiously glandular outside. Figure 48. 

G. psoraloides. 



224 Key to the System of 



FIIVIELEA. 

1049. Leaves mostly or all scattered ... ... 1050 

Leaves mostly or all opposite ... ... ... 1054 

1050. Involucral bracts two to four ... ... ... 1051 

Involucral bracts more than four ... ... ... 1053 

1051. Flowers in spikes. 

Annual, dwarf, but quite erect ; leaves small, from elliptic- 
to broad-linear, concave, almost or quite glabrous ; 
irivolucral bracts four or two, similar to the leaves, early 
deciduous ; flowers very small, all staminate and pistillate ; 
calyx yellowish, much beset with soft spreading hairlets ; 
fruit dry. P. trichostachya. 

Flowers in headlets or clusters ... ... ... 1052 

1052. Involucral bracts four. 

Annual, dwarf, but quite erect ; leaves small, from elliptic- 
to broad-linear, soon glabrous, generally appressed ; 
involucral bracts similar to the leaves, early deciduous ; 
flowers in terminal headlets, minute, all staminate and 
pistillate ; calyx invested with soft hairlets, yellow inside ; 
fruit dry. P. simplex. 

Involucral bracts two. 

A somewhat shrubby plant, never tall, beset with appressed 
often scattered hairlets ; leaves mostly linear-elliptical, 
and scattered ; involucral bracts similar to the leaves ; 
flowers very small, in singly terminal and also almost 
axillary clusters, all staminate and pistillate ; calyx 
slender, invested with appressed shining hairlets, yel- 
lowish inside; fruit dry. P. CTirviflora. 

053. Flowers quite large. 

A somewhat shrubby plant, never tall, much beset with 
long soft and spreading hairlets ; leaves from linear- to 
narrow -elliptical ; involucral bracts eight or more, simi- 
lar to the leaves ; flowers in singly terminal headlets, 
all staminate and pistillate; calyx pale, invested with 
rather long soft hairlets ; fruit dry. P. octophylla. 



Victorian Plants. 225 



Flowers rather small. 

A somewhat herbaceous plant, never tall, much beset with 
soft spreading hairlets ; leaves small, from oval- to 
narrow-elliptical, concave, mostly scattered ; involucral 
bracts six to ten, similar to the leaves ; flowers in singly 
terminal headlets, all staminate and pistillate ; calyx 
invested with appressed hairlets ; fruit dry. 

F. pliylicoides. 

1054. All flowers staminate and pistillate ... ... 1055 

Staminate and pistillate flowers on distinct plants ... 1064 

1055. Involucral bracts two. 

Finally tall, leaves from oval- to linear-elliptical, elongated, 
somewhat recurved at the margin, beset underneath with 
appressed shining hairlets ; involucral bracts similar to 
the leaves ; flowers in singly terminal and also many in 
almost axillary iieadlets ; calyx whitish or pale-rosy, 
beset with appressed hairlets ; fruit succulent, black. 

F. drupacea. 

Involucral bracts more than two ... ... ... 1056 

1056. Involucral bracts dissimilar to the leaves ... 1057 
Involucral bracts similar to the leaves ... ... 1063 

1057. Involucral bracts shorter than the headlets of flowers 1058 

Involucral bracts nearly as long as the headlets of 
flowers ... ... ... ... 1059 

1058. Involucral bracts four. 

A rather small shrub; leaves from ovate- to narrow- 
lanceolar, pointed, greyish-green, glabrous, somewhat 
incurved at the margin ; involucral bracts lanceolar-ovate, 
the inner two much ciliolated ; flowers in singly terminal 
headlets ; calyx whitish, invested with appressed shining 
hairlets ; fruit dry. P. glauca. 

Involucral bracts six to eight. 

Finally tall ; leaves rather large, spreading, flat, from oval 
to lanceolar, almost membranous and glabrous, paler 
beneath ; involucral bracts nearly ovate, inside and out- 
side beset with appressed hairlets ; flowers comparatively 
large, numerous in each headlet, only some fertile- 
pistillate ; calyx pale, beset with hairlets ; fruit dry. 

F. hypericina. 
Q 



226 Key to the System of 

1059. Involucral bracts beset with hairlets inside ... lf)60 
Involucral bracts glabrous on both sides ... ... 1061 

1060. Leaves flaccid, rather elongated, flat, their lateral 

venules conspicuous. 

Finally tall, leaves rather large, spreading, flat, generally 
from oval- to elliptical-lanceolar, almost membranous 
and glabrous ; involucral bracts usually four, nearly as 
long as the flowers, from orbicular to ovate and pointed ; 
flowers comparatively large, in singly terminal headlets 
numerous ; calyx whitish, beset with appressed hairlets 
outside ; fruit dry. P. ligustrina. 

Leaves firm, rather abbreviated, incurved at the 
margin, their lateral venules inconspicuous. 

A mostly slender shrub, never very tall ; leaves glabrous, 
from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, pointed ; involucral 
bracts four, concave, closely appressed, almost ovate, but 
much pointed, inside beset with shining appressed hair- 
lets ; flowers in singly terminal headlets ; calyx rather 
large, whitish, invested with short silky-shining hairlets ; 
fruit dry. P. stricta. 

1061. Calyx scantily beset with hairlets. 

A slender shrub, never very tall ; leaves from spatular- to 
linear-elliptical, glabrous, somewhat incurved at the 
margin ; involucral bracts four, mostly lanceolar-ovate; 
flowers in singly terminal headlets ; calyx whitish ; fruit 
dry. P. spatulata. 

Calyx densely beset with hairlets ... 1062 

1062. Leaves incurved at the margin. 

A slender shrub, never tall ; leaves firm, from lanceolar- to 
linear-elliptical, three-nerved, glabrous, their margin and 
also lateral venules somewhat prominent; involucral bracts 
four, rather rigid, from elliptical to ovate, conspicuously 
venulous ; flowers in singly terminal headlets ; calyx 
whitish, beset with appressed hairlets ; fruit dry. 

P. collina. 
Leaves recurved at the margin. 

A slender shrub, finally somewhat tall ; leaves from broad- 
linear to narrow-elliptical or occasionally somewhat 
lanceolar or spatular, glabrous ; involucral bracts four, 
usually lanceolar-ovate, dissimilar to the leaves ; flowers 
in singly terminal headlets ; calyx whitish, beset with 
appressed hairlets ; fruit dry. P. linifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 227 



1063. Flowers rather large, the calyx equally whitish. 

Dwarf ; somewhat herbaceous ; branches beset with hairlets ; 
leaves from oval to elliptical, nearly flat, almost glabrous; 
involucral bracts four, similar to the leaves, oval, about 
as long as the headlet of flowers, somewhat beset with 
hairlets inside ; flowers numerous in each headlet ; calyx 
invested with appressed shining hairlets ; fruit dry. 

F. humilis. 

Flowers rather small, the calyx much red-tinged. 

A dwarf highland -plant ; leaves small, from lanceolar- to 
oval-elliptical, as well as the branches glabrous; involucral 
bracts four, about as long as the headlet of flowers, some- 
what broader than the leaves ; flowers several in each 
headlet ; calyx somewhat beset with short hairlets. 

F. alpina. 

1064. Flowers in axillary clusters. 

Finally tall, almost totally glabrous ; leaves usually elon- 
gated and from broad-linear to narrow-lanceolar, some- 
what recurved at the margin ; involucral bracts two to 
four, very short ; calyx small, nearly glabrous or slightly 
beset with short hairlets ; fruit dry. Figure 74. 

F. axiflora. 

Flowers in terminal headlet s ... ... ... 1065 

1065. Fruit succulent 1066 

Fruit dry 1067 

1066. Calyx beset with short hairlets. 

Finally tall ; leaves glabrous, from lanceolar- to broad -linear, 
acute, flaccid, somewhat incurved at the margin; involucral 
bracts two to four, often shorter and somewhat broader 
than the leaves, surpassing the headlets ; flowers very 
small, few or several in each headlet, yellow inside ; fruit 
yellowish. F. xnicrocephala. 

Calyx quite glabrous. 

Finally tall, quite glabrous; leaves generally linear-lanceolar; 
involucral bracts two, similar to the leaves, but often 
somewhat broader, surpassing the headlets, the latter 
occasionally rendered axillary ; flowers very small, few 
in each headlet or sometimes only two together ; calyx 
pale-yellow ; fruit reddish or dark-purplish. 

F. pauciflora. 



228 Key to the System of 



1067. Calyx quite glabrous. 

A tall and ample shrub, chiefly maritime ; leaves small, . 
firm, crowded, from orbicular- to elliptic-oval, somewhat 
concave, glabrous, some occasionally scattered ; involucral 
bracts four, similar to the leaves ; flowers very small, few 
in each headlet ; calyx always yellow ; fruit almost dry. 

P. serpyllifolia. 

Calyx beset with short hairlets ... ... ... 1068 

1068. Leaves recurved at the margin. 

Dwarf; leaves small, from ovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, nearly 
glabrous ; involucral bracts two to four, similar to the 
leaves; flowers minute ; calyx beset with appressed shining 
hairlets ; fruit dry. P. elachantha. 

Leaves incurved at the margin. 

Finally tall, amply branched ; leaves small, from elliptic- 
to orbicular-ovate, glabrous, not rarely assuming a partial 
blueish hue ; involucral bracts four, similar to the leaves, 
but somewhat larger ; flowers very small ; calyx either 
whitish or pale- or bright-yellow, beset with appressed 
shining hairlets ; fruit dry. P. flava. 

DRAFETES. 

1069. Rudimentary petals two to each lobe of the calyx. 

Much depressed, compact, somewhat beset with short hair- 
lets ; leaves minute, crowded, broadish- or elliptic-linear, 
appressed ; flowers very small ; calyx whitish ; stamens 
alternating with the lobes of the calyx ; fruit minute. 

D. Tasmanica. 



ROSACEAE. 

ACAENA. 

1070. Flowers in spikes. 

Perennial, erect, never tall ; leaflets in ten or less pairs, from 
elliptic- to orbicular-ovate, indented or almost pinnatifid, 
generally glabrous above, often beset with silky-shining 
hairlets beneath ; flowers in solitary terminal spikes, only 
some fruit-bearing; lobes of the calyx generally five; 
fertile stamens five to ten ; fruit- calyx beset with many 
short unequal terminally barbed pricklets. 

A. oviiia. 



Victorian Plants. 229 



Flowers in headlets. 

Perennial; stems prostrate, often somewhat rooting; 
leaflets in four to ten pairs, from oval to orbicular, 
closely indented, often beset with hairlets underneath ; 
flowers in solitary terminal globular headlets; calyx-lobes 
generally four ; stamens two ; fruit-calyx terminating 
into four, at the end barbed bristlets. 

A. sanguisorbae. 



1071. Flowers in paniculate corymbs. 

A perennial herb, here alpine, much beset with spreading 
soft hairlets ; leaves plaited, from cordate- to renate- 
orbicular, short- and broad-lobed, also denticulated, the 
lowest on long stalks; stipules somewhat adnate to the 
leaf-stalk ; calyx four-lobed, supported by four minute 
bracts (or bracteoles) close to the lobes ; stamens four ; 
fruitlet often only one. "Lady's Mantle." 

A. vulgaris. 

GEUItt. 

1072. Style jointed at its single twist near the middle. 

A perennial erect herb, often beset with hairlets ; basal 
leaves several, on long stalks ; their leaflets three to five, 
obovate- or rhomboid-cuneate, irregularly serrulated, also 
occasionally somewhat lobed ; upper leaves consisting of 
one or three leaflets, with smaller two accessory in a 
stipular position ; flowers few or several, axillary- terminal; 
petals yellow ; upper joint of the style deciduous ; fruitlets 
dry. "Avens." G. nrbaiium. 

FOTNTILI,A. 

1073. Leaflets generally underneath invested with appressed 

silver-shining hairlets. 

A perennial creeping herb, the off-shoots rooting ; leaflets 
in several or many pairs, mostly from obovate to elliptical 
in outline, closely and deeply indented, occasionally 
almost devoid of vestiture ; flowers on elongated stalks, 
solitary or rarely two together ; bracts supporting the 
calyx high-adnate, somewhat indented ; petals yellow ; 
fruitlets dry. " British Silver- weed. " P. anseriiia. 

ZIUBUS. 

1074. Leaves simple. 

A tall and prickly climber, much invested with greyish or 
oftener brownish hairlets ; leaves from ovate- to orbi- 
cular-cordate, indented, above wrinkled and gradually 



230 Key to the. System of 



glabrescent ; stipules and bracts fringe-like incised or 
shortly three- or five-lobed ; panicles at last spreading ; 
lobes of the calyx much pointed ; petals whitish or 
reddish, hardly emersed ; fruit red, almost globular, con- 
sisting of many rather succulent fruitlets. 

R. Moluccanus. 

Leaves pinnate ... ... ... ... ... 1075 

1075. Leaflets from almost orbicular- to cordate- or ovate- 

rhomboid. 

A somewhat climbing shrub, finally rather tall, much 
prickly ; leaflets generally three to five, wrinkled above, 
densely invested underneath with whitish hairlets, 
irregularly denticulated or indented and often also 
slightly lobed, the terminal leaflet the largest ; flowers 
few in each corymb or sometimes only two together or 
solitary ; stipules and bracts narrow, often entire ; lobes 
of the calyx usually much pointed ; petals often reddish, 
shorter than the calyx ; fruit bright-red, almost globular, 
consisting of several or few or rarely of many very 
succulent fruitlets. " Native Raspberry. " Figure 52. 

B>. parvifolius. 

Leaflets from almost ovate to lanceolar, much 
narrowed upwards. 

A hardly climbing but prickly shrub, producing suckers, 
sprinkled with stalked glandules ; leaflets generally five 
to seven, unequally serrulated, slightly or not lobed, 
scantily beset with hairlets, green underneath ; corymbs 
few-flowered or sometimes paniculated or often reduced 
to two or one flower ; stipules and bracts narrow, often 
entire ; lobes of the calyx usually much pointed ; petals 
often whitish, rather large ; fruit dark-red, longer than 
broad, consisting of numerous very small and but slightly 
succulent fruitlets. R. rosifolius. 

EUCRYFHIA. 

1076. Leaves pinnate. 

A tree, finally rather tall ; leaflets in three to five pairs, 
accompanied by a terminal odd one, mostly from oval- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, firm, flat, entire, dark-green and 
nearly glabrous above, greyish beneath ; flowers solitary, 
comparatively large ; bracts resinously glued together 
into a small involucre ; petals white, glabrous, from 
cuneate- to orbicular-ovate ; seeds two to four maturing 
in each fruitlet, compressed, downward short-appendi- 
culated. C. Moorei. 



Victorian Plants. 231 



SAXIFRAGEAE. 

TILLAEA. 

1077. Creeping or floating. 

Stems sometimes rather elongated ; leaves seldom crowded, 
usually from narrow- to linear-lanceolar ; flowers rather 
minute, on solitary axillary often conspicuous stalklets ; 
petals four, whitish, about as long as the sepals ; discal 
scalelets opposite to the petals and fruitlets, alternating 
with the sepals and stamens ; fruitlets much pointed ; 
seeds usually two or three. T, recurva. 

Erect or diffuse ... ... 1078 

1078. Flowers mostly on long stalklets. 

Quite dwarf, often of reddish hue ; leaves very short ; 
flowers very minute, on capillary stalklets ; petals four, 
longer than the sepals ; discal scalelets obliterated ; 
fruitlets rather blunt ; seeds few. Figure 54. 

T. purpurata. 

Flowers mostly on short stalklets ... ... ... 1079 

1079. Flowers very minute. 

Quite dwarf ; leaves generally quite short ; flowers often in 
dense leafy clusters ; developed stalklets capillary ; sepals 
very acute ; petals four or five, pointed, shorter than the 
sepals ; discal scalelets obliterated ; fruitlets four or five, 
rather acute ; seeds one or two maturing. 

P. verticillaris. 

Flowers comparatively large. 

Quite dwarf ; leaves short, rather acute ; flowers often in 
leafy corymbs ; sepals rather acute ; petals generally four, 
as long as the sepals ; discal scalelets obliterated ; fruit- 
lets hardly pointed ; seeds few. T. macrantha. 

BAUERA. 

i. Flowers stalked. 

Leaflets small, serrulated ; calyx deeply cleft into six to ten 
segments ; stamens numerous ; anthers yellow, almost 
roundish; fruit exserted, broad, many-seeded. 

B. rubioides. 



232 Key to the System of 



Flowers sessile. 

Leaflets small, almost entire ; calyx cleft to about the middle 
into eight lobes ; stamens nine to sixteen ; anthers black, 
narrow-ellipsoid ; fruit enclosed, narrow, one- or two- 
seeded. Figure 53. B. sessiliflora. 



AFHANOPETAXiUBX. 

1081. Leaves large, from elliptic- to ovate-lanceolar, 
serrulated. 

Tall, glabrous ; branchlets granular-rough ; leaves firm, 
shining, prominently venuled ; cymes generally few- 
flowered ; sepals green, from oval- to lanceolar-elliptical ; 
styles high-coherent ; fruit comparatively small. 

A. resinosum. 



MYRTACX2 AE. 
EUGENIA. 

1082. Anthers broader than long, their two cells almost 
globular. 

An umbrageous tree, finally tall ; leaves very firm, short- 
stalked, from lanceolar- and rhomboid- to orbicular- 
ovate, somewhat pointed, shining, dark-green above, 
their secondary venules subtle, pennular- spreading ; 
flowers small, in terminal panicles ; calyx almost lobe- 
less ; petals minute ; stamens extremely short ; fruits 
("Lilipillies ") globular, rather succulent, whitish out- 
side, with rosy tinge. Figure 60. E. Sinithii. 



ANGOPHORA. 

1083. Leaves conspicuously stalked, from ovate- to narrow- 
lanceolar. 

A rather tall tree, with spreading branches ; stem -bark 
rough ; foliage and inflorescence almost or quite glabrous 
or the latter somewhat setular-rough ; leaves firm, much 
pointed, mostly opposite ; flowers comparatively small, 
numerous in each panicle ; calyx streaked by ten longi- 
tudinal alternately more prominent lines, its lobes whitish 
towards the margin ; fruit rather small ; fertile seeds 
few, much larger than the numerous sterile seeds. 

A. intermedia. 



Victorian Plants. 233 



EUCALYPTUS. 

1084. Anthers broader than long ; fertile and sterile seeds 

in size much alike ... ... ... ... ... 1085 

Anthers longer than broad or about as long as broad; 
fertile seeds much larger than the sterile seeds ... 1097 

1085. Main-venules of leaves nearly longitudinal ... 1086 

Main-venules of leaves, except the median, con- 
spicuously divergent ... ... 1087 

1086. Leaves much elongated. 

Finally tall, except in the Alps ; bark smooth, whitish 
outside ; leaves very firm, almost lanceolar, unilaterally 
somewhat curved, equally green and shining on both 
sides ; umbels nearly always solitary ; flowers on very 
short stalklets ; tube of the calyx semiovate-obconical, 
about twice as long as the hemispheric slightly pointed 
lid ; anthers nearly renate ; fruit semi- or truncate- 
ovate ; border concave, descending ; valves enclosed. 
One of the " White Gum-trees." E. pauciflora. 

Leaves much abbreviated. 

Never very tall ; bark of the stem mostly rough and dark, 
of the branches outside greenish or somewhat bronzy- 
brownish ; leaves firm, from oval- to narrow -lanceolar or 
rarely linear-lanceolar, almost straight, equally green and 
shining on both sides ; umbels solitary, short-stalked ; 
flowers very small, unprovided with stalklets ; lid semi- 
ovate-conical, acute, shining, about as long as the tube 
of the calyx ; anthers renate-cordate ; fruit quite 
small, semiovate- or truncate-globular ; valves enclosed. 
"Green- branched Gum-tree." E. stellulata, 

1087. Leaves paler beneath. 

Finally quite tall ; stem-bark rough, dark outside, rather 
fibrous inside ; leaves narrow- or elongate-lanceolar, 
unilaterally somewhat curved ; their secondary venules 
numerous, subtle, much spreading ; umbels on strongly 

compressed stalks, mostly solitary ; stalklets usually 
shorter than the calyx ; lid from hemispheric- or broad- 
conical attenuated into an acute apex ; anthers renate ; 
fruit generally semiovate ; valves enclosed. " Blackbutt." 

E. pilularis. 

Leaves almost equally green on both sides ... ... 1088 



234 Key to the System of 

1088. Outer stamens without anthers ... ... ... 1089 

All stamens witn anthers .- 1090 

1089. Fruit semiovate. 

Finally tall ; bark often largely smooth ; leaves firm, from 
narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, unilaterally somewhat 
curved, shining ; secondary venules moderately spreading ; 
- - umbels mostly solitary, their stalks somewhat compressed ; 
tube of the calyx about twice as long as the hemispheric 
lid ; anthers cordate-renate ; fruit semiovate ; border 
depressed or quite flat, reddish ; valves very short, barely 
enclosed. One of the "White Gum-trees." 

E. haemastoma. 

Fruit truncate-ovate. 

Finally tall ; persistent portion of bark deeply furrowed, 
hard, dark ; leaves firm, from narrow- to elongate-lan- 
ceolar, shining, unilaterally somewhat curved ; secondary 
venules slightly spreading, rather faint ; umbels mostly 
solitary, their stalks compressed ; lid hemispheric ; anthers 
almost renate ; fruit-border depressed or quite flat, 
reddish; valves very short, barely enclosed. "Spurious 
Ironbark-tree." E. Sieberiaiia. 

1090. Flowers and fruits unprovided with stalklets. 

Finally tall ; bark persistent, fibrous ; leaves firm, from 
narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, unilaterally somewhat 
curved, shining, often very inequilateral towards the base ; 
secondary venules moderately spreading ; umbels mostly 
solitary; calyx slightly angular; lid hemispheric ; anthers 
renate-cordate ; calycine portion of fruit semiovate ; bor- 
der broad, convex, emersed ; valves wholly exserted. 
One of the " Stringybark-trees. " E. capitellata. 

Flowers and fruits provided with stalklets ... ... 1091 

1091. Calyx-lid gradually pointed .. 1092 

Calyx-lid rounded-blunt 1094 

1092. Fruit valves wholly exserted. 

Finally tall ; bark fibrous, persistent on stem and main- 
branches ; leaves firm, elongate- or broadish-lanceolar, 
somewhat unilaterally curved, shining, equally green on 
both sides ; secondary venules moderately spreading ; 
umbels mostly solitary ; calyx-lid concavely attenuated, 
sharply pointed ; anthers cordate-renate ; calycine portion 



Victorian Plants. 235 



of fruit nearly hemispheric ; border broad, convex, 
emersed; valves short. "Common Victorian Stringy- 
bark-tree." E. macrorrhyncha. 

Fruit-valves wholly enclosed or slightly exserted ... 1093 

1093. Fruit truncate-globular, its border depressed. 

Finally very tall ; bark very fibrous, persistent on stem and 
main-branches ; leaves from elongate- to broad-lanceolar, 
shining and dark -green on both sides, inequilateral 
towards the base, much transparently dotted ; lateral 
venules subtle, moderately spreading ; umbels mostly 
solitary ; lid generally semiovate ; anthers cordate-renate ; 
fruit comparatively small ; valves very short ; young 
seedlings rough from very short somewhat tufted hairlets. 
One of the " Stringy bark-trees. " E. eugenioides. 

Fruit truncate-ovate, its border compressed. 

Finally tall ; bark fibrous, persistent on stem and main- 
branches; leaves from narrow- to rather elongate-lanceolar, 
somewhat unilaterally curved, less shining beneath, much 
transparently dotted ; secondary venules subtle ; umbels 
mostly solitary, on slender stalks; lid broad-conical, acute; 
anthers renate ; fruit comparatively small ; valves very 
short ; young seedlings rough from very short somewhat 
tufted hairlets. " Peppermint-Stringybark-tree." 

E. piperita. 

1094. Calyx granular-rough 1095 

Calyx almost or quite smooth ... ... ... 1096 

1095. Leaves broad, conspicuously curved, very inequilateral 

towards the base. 

Finally 'very tall ; bark fibrous, persistent on stem and main- 
branches ; leaves quite firm, from elongate- to broad- 
lanceolar, shining and equally green on both sides ; 
secondary venules prominent ; umbels mostly solitary, 
on slender stalks ; lid hemispheric ; anthers renate ; fruit 
truncate-ovate, its border compressed ; valves totally 
enclosed. ' ' Messmate-Stringybark-tree. " 

E. obliqua. 


Leaves narrow, slightly curved, almost equilateral. 

Shrubby or dwarf-arborescent ; leaves from broad-linear to 
narrow-lanceolar ; umbels mostly solitary ; lid nearly 
hemispherical ; anthers renate ; fruit truncate-ovate, its 
border compressed ; valves enclosed. E. stricta. 



236 Key to the System of 

1096. Leaves comparatively narrow. 

Finally rather tall ; bark largely fibrous and persistent ; 
leaves of rather thin texture, from linear- to narrow- 
lanceolar, unilaterally curved, shining on both sides, 
their secondary venules thin, slightly spreading ; oildots 
copious, transparent ; umbels mostly solitary ; flowers 
very small ; lid hemispherical ; anthers minute, renate ; 
fruit very small, generally truncate-ovate, its border 
depressed or nearly flat ; valves enclosed. One of the 
" Peppermint-Gumtrees. " E. amygdalina. 

Leaves comparatively broad. 

At last stupendously tall ; bark outside whitish and smooth, 
except at the stem-base ; leaves of rather thin texture, 
from elongate- to broad-lanceolar, much unilaterally 
curved, shining on both sides, their secondary venules 
slightly spreading ; oildots extremely numerous and 
pellucid ; umbels mostly solitary ; flowers small ; lid 
hemispherical; anthers minute, renate ; fruit quite small, 
generally semiovate, its border depressed or nearly flat ; 
valves enclosed; leaves of young seedlings opposite, 
sessile, cordate-roundish, whitish from waxy bloom. 
" Giant-Gumtree" and "Spurious Blackbutt." 

. regnans. 

1097. Anthers opening by pores ... ... ... ... 1098 

Anthers opening by slits ... ... ... ... 1107 

1098. Anthers truncated, opening terminally 1099 

Anthers rounded-blunt, opening laterally ... ... 1102 

1099. Leaves paler beneath. 

Of tener a small than a large tree ; bark persistent, hard and 
rough or by outer decortication whitish and smooth 
outside ; leaves from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, 
unilaterally somewhat curved J umbels mostly panicu- 
lated; Ud thin, almost conical-semiovate; anthers minute, 
roundish -quadrangular; stigma much dilated ; fruit trun- 
cate-ovate, its border compressed ; valves enclosed. 
"Box-Ironbarktree." E. paniculata. 

Leaves equally green on both sides ... ... ... 1100 



Victorian Plants. 237 



1100. Leaves almost orbicular ; umbels paniculated. 

Hardly ever tall; bark rough, persistent; leaves occasionally 
verging into an ovate form, from dull-green to almost 
ashy greyish ; umbels mostly paniculated ; flowers small ; 
lid almost hemispheric ; stigma slightly dilated ; fruit 
truncate- or semi-ovate, its border compressed ; valves 
enclosed. "Red Box-Eucalypt." E. polyaiithema. 

Leaves almost lanceolar; umbels mostly solitary ... 1101 

1101. Umbels generally three-flowered ; stalklets elongated. 

Finally rather tall ; bark either rugged, hard, dark and 
persistent, or decorticating and then smooth and whitish 
outside ; leaves dull-green, from narrow- to elongate- 
lanceolar, unilaterally somewhat curved ; umbels often 
pendent, with rather large flowers ; calyx at first pale ; 
lid usually semiovate and pointed ; filaments oftener pale 
than reddish ; stigma much dilated ; fruit truncate- or 
semi-ovate, often comparatively large, its border com- 
pressed ; valves four to seven, enclosed. ' ' Victorian 
Ironbark-tree." E. Leucoxylon. 

Umbels generally several-flowered; stalklets abbre- 
viated. 

A middle-sized tree, exceptionally very tall ; bark quite 
persistent, rough ; leaves dull-green, from narrow- to 
broadish-lanceolar, somewhat unilaterally curved; umbels 
partly solitary, partly paniculated ; flowers rather small ; 
lid generally conic-hemispherical ; stigma much dilated ; 
fruit truncate-ovate, its border compressed ; valves four 
to six, enclosed. Figure 58. ' ' Yellow Box-Eucalypt. ' 

E. melliodora. 

1102. Outer stamens without any anthers. 

Shrubby or dwarf-arborescent ; leaves from almost linear- 
to narrow-lanceolar, equally green, shining, their venules 
very subtle; umbels solitary; flowers small; calyx 
angular ; lid pyramidal- or conic-hemispheric ; anthers 
very minute, roundish ; fruit hemi-ellipsoid or somewhat 
obconical, longitudinally three- to five-angular, its border 
compressed ; valves enclosed. One of the " Mallees." 

E. gracilis. 

All stamens provided with anthers or rarely few of 
the outer sterile ... ... ... 1103 

1103. Umbels mostly or all solitary ... ... ... 1104 

Umbels mostly or all paniculated ... ... ... 1105 



238 Key to the System of 



1104. Frutescent ; leaves rather small, with closely ap- 

proximated secondary venules. 

Always shrubby ; leaves firm, from linear- to narrow- 
lanceolar, almost straight, copiously dark- dotted, often 
hooked-pointed, their secondary venules subtle, much 
spreading ; flowers quite small ; lid usually semi-ovate ; 
filaments sharply infracted before expansion, without 
flexuosity ; anthers very minute, almost globular ; fruit 
small, semi-ovate, its border depressed or flat ; valves 
barely enclosed or slightly exserted. One of the 
"Mallees." E. iiiicinata. 

Arborescent ; leaves rather large, with distant 
secondary venules. 

A tree, but never tall ; bark persistent, rough, hard ; leaves 
firm, from narrow- to broadish-lanceolar, somewhat uni- 
laterally curved, their secondary venules rather slightly 
spreading ; umbels occasionally short-paniculated ; lid 
from broad-conical to pointed-hemispherical ; anthers 
minute, almost roundish ; stigma slightly dilated ; fruit 
nearly semi-ovate or hemi-ellipsoid, its border compressed 
and annular- margined ; valves rather deeply enclosed. 
South Australian "Peppermint-tree." E. odorata. 

1105. Leaves of thin texture ; calyx-lid double. 

Rather tall ; bark persistent, rough ; leaves from narrow- 
to rather elongate-lanceolar, equally dull-green, slightly 
curved, their secondary venules subtle, moderately 
spreading ; oildots numerous, often transparent ; inner 
lid hemispheric, less wide than the calyx-tube ; outer 
stamens sometimes partially without anthers, the latter 
globular, minute ; fruit quite small, usually truncate- 
ovate, its border compressed ; valves very short, quite 
enclosed. One of the " Box-Eucalypts." 

E. largiflorens. 

Leaves of thick texture ; calyx-lid single 1106 

1106. Leaves dull-green or ashy- whitish; fruit hemi-ellipsoid. 

Finally tall ; bark rough, persistent, greyish outside ; leaves 
from elongate- to ovate-lanceolar, unilaterally somewhat 
curved, their secondary venules prominent and moderately 
spreading; calyx somewhat angular, its lid nearly as 
long as the tube, semiovate-conical, acute ; fruit-border 
compressed; valves deeply enclosed. One of the "Box- 
Eucalypts." E. hemiphloia. 



Victorian Plants. 239 



Leaves bright-green and shining ; fruit truncate-ovate. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; bark smooth ; leaves 
from broadish- to ovate-lanceolar, almost straight and 
equilateral, their secondary venules prominent and mode- 
rately spreading ; flowers quite small ; lid hemispheric, 
about half as long as the calyx-tube ; anthers minute, 
nearly globular ; fruit small, its border rather depressed ; 
valves short, quite enclosed. E. Behriaiia. 

1107. Valves of the fruit upwards exceedingly narrow. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves from narrow- to 
almost elliptic-lanceolar, unilaterally slightly curved, 
equally light-green on both sides, their secondary venules 
subtle, much spreading ; umbels on rather slender but 
somewhat compressed stalks ; lid semiovate-conical, often 
narrowly attenuated ; anthers broadish-ovate or almost 
globular ; fruit truncate-ovate, neither large nor streaked, 
its border compressed ; valves much pointed, con- 
spicuously exserted. One of the " Mallees." 

E. oleosa. 

Valves of the fruit comparatively broad ... ... 1108 

1108. Calyx-lid smooth, conical or hemispheric ... ... 1109 

Calyx-lid verrucular-rough, crown-shaped ... ... 1120 

1109. Leaves equally green on both sides ... ... ... 1110 

Leaves evidently paler beneath ... ... ... 1118 

1110. Valves of the fruit enclosed or slightly exserted ... 1111 
Valves of the fruit prominently exserted ... ... 1114 

1111. Stalklets elongated. 

Finally tall ; bark persistent, rough, somewhat fibrous ; 
leaves from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, unilaterally 
somewhat curved, their lateral venules numerous, very 
thin and regularly much spreading ; umbels two- to four- 
flowered, on long slender stalks ; flowers large ; calyx at 
first pale, its lid broad-conical and pointed ; fruit large, 
bellshaped-semiovate, angular, its border ascendingly 
concave. " Woolly Butt. " E. longifolia. 

Stalklets abbreviated ... 1112 



240 Key to the System of 



1112. Umbel-stalks nearly cylindrical. 

Finally rather tall, except in the Alps ; bark smooth, whitish 
outside ; leaves very firm, from oval- to broadish-lanceolar, 
almost equilateral, dark-green and shining on both sides, 
their secondary venules rather distant, moderately 
spreading ; umbels solitary, generally with several flowers ; 
stalklets usually short ; lid shining, hemispheric, short- 
pointed ; anthers almost oval ; fruit nearly semiovate, its 
border depressed, but narrow ; valves very small, slightly 
exserted ; leaves of young seedlings opposite, sessile, from 
oval to orbicular. " Cider-Eucalypt." E. Gniinii. 

Umbel-stalks broadly compressed. ... ... ... 1113 

1113. Leaves comparatively short. 

Shrubby or somewhat arborescent ; leaves very firm, from 
ovate- to elongate-lanceolar, equally light-green and 
shining on both sides, sometimes with a slightly yellowish 
tinge ; the secondary venules rather distant, moderately 
spreading, much concealed ; umbels solitary ; flowers 
often large ; calyx shining, usually streaked with longi- 
tudinal prominent lines ; lid turgid towards the base, 
usually much narrowed towards the summit ; anthers 
from ovate-roundish to elliptical ; fruit generally large, 
truncate-ovate, often furrowed, its border compressed ; 
valves acute, enclosed. One of the " Mallees." 

. iucrassata. 
Leaves comparatively long. 

Finally very tall ; bark rough and solid on a portion of the 
stem, or by outer decortication largely smooth and 
whitish outside ; leaves elongate- or narrow-lanceolar, 
considerably unilateral- curved ; secondary venules thin, 
moderately spreading ; umbels solitary ; stalklets very 
short or obliterated ; lid of calyx pyramidal or hemi- 
spheric-conical ; tube lined by two to four prominent 
angles ; anthers quadrate-oval ; fruit semiovate- or cubic- 
hemiellipsoid, its border narrow, depressed ; valves barely 
enclosed ; leaves of young seedlings very broad, opposite, 
sessile. Victorian " Spotted Gum-tree. " 

E. goniocalyx. 

1114. Leaves opposite. 

A small or hardly middle-sized tree ; bark fibrous, exten- 
sively persistent ; leaves mostly from cordate-orbicular to 
ovate, sessile, sometimes stalked and elongated, whitish 
or greyish from a waxy bloom ; oil-glandules pellucid ; 
umbels solitary, three- or few-flowered ; stalklets almost 
none ; lid from hemispheric to broad-conical ; anthers 
nearly ovate ; fruit small, semiovate-topshaped, its border 
narrow, depressed ; valves small, somewhat exserted 
"Mealy Stringy bark-tree." E. pulverulent a. 



Victorian Plants. 241 



Leaves scattered ... ... 1115 

1115. Stalklets inconspicuous or none ; calyx-lid hemispheric 

or semiovate and almost or quite pointless ... 1116 

Stalklets conspicuous; calyx-lid elongate-conical or 
from an hemispheric base sharp-pointed ... ... 1117 

1116. Umbels prevailingly several-flowered ; bark rather 

fibrous, extensively persistent. 

Finally rather tall ; leaves of rather thin texture, narrow- 
er elongate-lanceolar, much unilaterally curved ; secondary 
venules rather numerous, thin, very spreading ; umbels 
solitary ; stalklets very short ; calyx- lid usually hemi- 
spherical and slightly pointed, shining ; anthers nearly 
ovate ; fruit small, semiovate-topshaped, its border 
narrow, rather convex ; valves much protruding, deltoid ; 
leaves of young seedlings broad, opposite, sessile. The 
"Apple-scented Gum-tree." E. Stuartiana. 

Umbels prevailingly three-flowered ; bark rather solid, 
extensively deciduous. 

Finally tall and sometimes even gigantic ; bark partially 
rough or quite smooth and then outside whitish ; leaves 
of rather thin texture, generally from narrow- to elongate- 
lanceolar, much unilaterally curved ; secondary venules 
numerous, thin, regularly much spreading ; umbels 
solitary ; stalklets very short ; lid nearly semiovate, 
slightly pointed ; calycine portion of the fruit semiovate, 
its border somewhat convex ; valves finally quite exserted. 
deltoid ; leaves of young seedlings narrow, opposite, 
sessile. "Manna-Gum-tree." E. vimiiialis. 

1117. Calyx-lid elongate-conical ; outer stamens straight 

"before expansion. 

Finally tall ; bark extensively smooth and outside whitish ; 
leaves generally from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, often 
much unilaterally curved ; secondary venules numerous, 
thin, very regularly spreading ; umbels solitary, with 
several flowers ; stalks rather elongated ; stalklets con- 
spicuous ; tube of the calyx almost semiovate, narrowed 
gradually into the stalklet, much shorter than the lid; 
anthers nearly oval ; calycine portion of fruit almost 
semiglobular ; border convex, protruding ; valves finally 
quite exserted, nearly deltoid. "Flooded Gum-tree." 

E. tereticornis. 



242 Key to the System of 



Calyx-lid from below hemispheric upwards sharp- 
pointed ; outer stamens inflexed before expansion. 

Finally tall ; bark extensively smooth and outside whitish ; 
leaves generally from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, often 
much unilaterally curved ; secondary venules numerous, 
thin, very regularly spreading ; umbels solitary, with 
several flowers ; stalks rather elongated ; stalklets very 
conspicuous, quite slender ; tube of the calyx nearly 
hemispherical, hardly half as long as the lid ; anthers 
nearly oval ; calycine portion of fruit semiglobular ; 
border convex, protruding ; valves finally quite exserted, 
nearly deltoid. " Red Gum-tree." E. rostrata. 

1118. Umbels paniculated. 

Finally tall ; bark persistent, rough ; leaves firm, somewhat 
flexible, from ovate- to elongate-lanceolar, almost equi- 
lateral, dark-green above ; secondary venules almost 
pennular-approximated, subtle, nearly transversely 
spreading, th6 circumferential venule almost contiguous 
to the edge of the leaf ; umbels large -flowered ; stalklets 
elongated ; lid short, tearing off on an irregular 
transverse line ; filaments light-yellowish ; anthers ovate- 
elliptical ; fruit large, ellipsoid -urnshaped, its border 
compressed ; valves deeply enclosed ; fertile seeds large, 
expanding into a short or narrow appendicular mem- 
brane. "Blood wood-tree." E. corymbosa. 

Umbels solitary ... 1119 

1119. Umbel-stalk broadly compressed ; fruit hemiellipsoid. 

Finally tall; bark persistent, dark, rough; leaves elongate or 
broadish-lanceolar, slightly unilateral-curved, dark-green 
above ; secondary venules almost pennular-approximated, 
subtle, nearly transversely spreading ; stalklets of 
flowers very short or obliterated ; calyx-lid nearly hemi- 
spherical ; anthers almost oval ; fruit slightly angular, its 
border compressed ; valves barely enclosed, quite short. 
One of the " Mahogany-Eucalypts. " E. botryoides. 

Umbel-stalk nearly cylindrical; fruit urnshaped- 
ellipsoid. 

Finally rather tall ; bark smooth, outside whitish ; leaves 
from elongate- to broadish-lanceolar, shining, somewhat 
unilaterally curved; secondary venules rather distant, 
moderately spreading; umbels sometimes crowded; stalk- 
lets conspicuous ; lid almost hemispheric, slightly over- 
reaching the rim of the calyx, much shorter than the 
tube ; anthers almost oval ; fruit longitudinally streaked, 
its border compressed ; valves deeply enclosed. " Sugary 
Gum-tree." E. corynocalyx. 



Victorian Plants. 243 



1120. Leaves of the adult plant very much longer than broad. 

Finally very tall ; bark smooth, whitish outside ; leaves 
very firm, from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar, unilaterally 
much curved ; secondary venules rather distant, mode- 
rately spreading ; flowers large, solitary or sometimes two 
or three together ; stalks and stalklets almost none ; lid 
double, the outer fugacious, the inner crown-shaped ; 
anthers ovate -ellipsoid; fruit large, nearly hemispheric- or 
obverse-pyramidal, angular, verrucular-rough, its border 
broad, depressed ; valves three to six, emergent or 
convergent, deltoid ; young seedlings bluish-white from a 
mealy somewhat ceraceous bloom, their stem quad- 
rangular ; their leaves opposite, sessile, from orbicular- 
to ovate-cordate. Figure 59. "Blue Gum-tree." 

E. Globulus. 

Leaves of the adult plant from hardly longer than 
broad to about twice as long. 

Shrubby or scarcely arborescent ; leaves very firm, from 
oblique-elliptical to 6rbicular, equally green and shining 
on both sides; secondary venules rather distant and faint; 
umbels capitular, solitary or the flowers singly axillary ; 
stalks and stalklets none ; calyx verrucular-rough ; lid 
irregularly semiovate or semiglobular ; anthers cordate ; 
fruit rather large, hemispheric, its border broad, depressed, 
flat or convex ; valves four to six, protruding, deltoid. 

. alpina. 
BACK.HOUSXA. 

1121. Calyx-lobes nearly equal. 

Tall-shrubby or finally arborescent ; somewhat invested 
with short soft greyish hairlets ; leaves opposite, on short 
stalks, from almost ovate- to broad -lanceolar, always 
acute, their secondary venules pennular-spreading; flowers 
in cymes ; lobes of the calyx somewhat petaloid, from 
ovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, considerably longer than the 
almost orbicular petals ; fruit completely enclosed. 

B. myrtifolia. 
TRZSTANIA 

1122. Petals yellow. 

Tall-shrubby or finally arborescent ; somewhat invested 
with very short hairlets ; leaves firm, scattered, from 
narrow- to ovate-lanceolar, pellucidly dotted ; flowers 
fragrant, several in each cyme or only three or two 
together or occasionally quite solitary ; lobes of the calyx 
from semiovate to deltoid, persistent, much shorter 
than the tube ; sets of stamens about as long as the 
petals ; fruit globular-ovate, exceptionally four-celled ; 
valves exserted ; seeds compressed, cuneate-elliptical, the 
embryonate seeds provided with a terminal oblique 
appendicular membrane. T. lauriiia. 



244 Key to the System of 

IKEX.AZ.EUCA. 

1123. Filaments crimson or purplish or lilac-colored ... 1124 

Filaments whitish or yellowish ... 1128 

1124. Leaves scattered. 

From dwarf to rather tall, much beset with soft hairlets ; 
leaves small, spreading, from ovate- to linear-lanceolar, 
gradually pointed, lined by three longitudinal venules ; 
lowers in terminal or infra- terminal headlets ; lobes of 
the calyx deciduous ; connate part of stamens very short ; 
filaments purplish or occasionally white ; fruits globular- 
ovate, truncate. M. squamea. 

Leaves opposite ~. 1125 

1125. Leaves narrow in proportion to their length. 

Hardly tall, soon glabrous ; leaves small, with broadish 
base, sessile, mostly lanceolar-linear ; flowers few or two 
or even solitary in each axil or forming leafy headlets ; 
lobes of the calyx short, persistent ; connate parts of the 
stamens about twice as long as the petals ; filaments red, 
f ascicularly emanating ; fruits nearly semi-ovate, emersed. 
Figure 57. M. Wilsoni. 

Leaves broad in proportion to their length ... ... 1126 

1126. Stamens elongated. 

Tall-shrubby, glabrous ; leaves rather large, from lanceolar- 
to ovate -elliptical, flat or at the margin recurved; carinular 
venule prominent; flowers large, in infra- terminal spikes; 
connate parts of the stamens much longer than the petals; 
filaments crimson, elongated, f ascicularly emanating ; 
fruits emersed. M. hypericif olia. 

Stamens abbreviated ... ... ... ... ... 1127 

1127. Leaves from oval to obovate. 

Tall-shrubby, glabrous ; leaves quite small, spreading, from 
elliptic to obovate, inflexed at the margin ; flowers small, 
in headlets or short spikes, often infra-terminal ; connate 
parts of stamens very short ; filaments lilac -purplish ; 
fruits much sunk into the branchlets. M. gibbosa. 

Leaves from narrow-elliptical to broad-linear. 

Tall-shrubby or arborescent, glabrous; leaves small, spread- 
ing, in four particularly close rows, at the margin 
inflexed ; flowers small, in headlets or short spikes, often 
infra-terminal ; connate parts of stamens very short ; 
filaments lilac-purplish ; fruits much sunk into the 
branchlets. M. decussata. 



Victorian Plants. 245 



1128. Leaves opposite 1129 

Leaves scattered .. ... 1130 

1129. Filaments white. 

Tall-shrubby, glabrous ; leaves small, from narrow- to 
broad-lanceolar, gradully recurved -pointed, somewhat 
inflexed at the margin ; flowers in infra-terminal spikes 
or some scattered ; lobes of the calyx blunt, persistent ; 
connate portions of stamens slightly longer than the 
petals ; filaments fascicularly emanating ; fruits globular- 
ovate, truncate, emersed. M. acuminata. 

Filaments pale-yellow. 

From a large shrub to a small or seldom tall tree, often 
somewhat beset with soft hairlets ; bark chartaceous- 
lamellar, whitish or pale ; leaves small, spreading, from 
cordate- to lanceolar-ovate, short-pointed, almost flat, 
lined by five to seven longitudinal venules ; flowers 
rather small, in terminal or soon infra-terminal spikes ; 
connate parts of the stamens very short ; fruits emersed. 

M. squarrosa. 

1130. Filaments pale-yellow 1131 

Filaments almost or quite white ... ... ... 1132 

1131. Leaves elongated, recurved-pointed. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent, almost glabrous ; 
branches and branchlets hardly spreading; leaves acicular- 
cylindrical, narrowly channelled, shining ; headlets of 
flowers small, nearly globular ; fruits quite small, spheri- 
cally crowded. Uff. uncinata. 

Leaves abbreviated, blunt. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent, chiefly maritime 
and on wet ground, almost glabrous; leaves broadishly 
linear-semicylindrical, slightly or hardly channelled, 
often greyish-green, occasionally of a rather bluish hue, 
frequently glandular-rough beneath ; flowers in small 
occasionally somewhat leafy headlets or some scattered 
or short-spiked : fruits emersed, hardly longer than broad 
or shorter, their orifice ample, scarcely lobed. 

M. pustulata. 



246 Key to the System of 



1132. Spikes short or capitular. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent, chiefly paludal, 
almost glabrous, often many-stemmed ; leaves short, 
from narrow- to broad-linear, somewhat semi- cylindrical, 
rather straight or slightly curved, hardly pointed, often 
smooth ; fruits emersed, scarcely longer than broad or 
shorter, their orifice ample, permanently lobed. 

3YL ericifolia. 

Spikes elongate-cylindrical ............ 1133 

1133. Stamens twice or three times as long as the petals, 

with fascicular-emanating filaments. 

Finally 'from tall- shrubby to arborescent, chiefly maritime 
and on dry ground, almost glabrous ; leaves rather short, 
from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, almost flat or some- 
what semi -cylindrical, recurved-spreading ; calyx-lobes 
deciduous ; fruits emersed, lobeless, evidently longer than 
broad, much contracted towards the orifice. 

M. parviflora. 

Stamens several or many times longer than the petals, 
with pinnular-emanating filaments. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent, almost glabrous ; 
leaves rather long, from narrow- to broad-linear, recurved- 
pointed, somewhat channelled ; calyx-lobes persistent ; 
fruits emersed, somewhat broader than long, their orifice 
ample, permanently lobed. M. armillaris. 



1134. Filaments crimson ... ............ 1135 

Filaments yellowish or pale-purplish... ... ... 1138 

1135. Filaments comparatively short. 

From shrubby to occasionally arborescent ; leaves chan- 
nelled-linear, pungent ; anthers yellow. 

C. brachyandrus. 

Filaments quite long ... ... ... ... ... 1136 

1136. Anthers yellow. 

Shrub, moderately high ; leaves very rigid, usually narrow- 
lanceolar, almost flat, beneath often glandular-rough ; 
flowers crowded in the spikes. C. COCCiueus. 

Anthers reddish-black ............ 1137 



Victorian Plants. 247 



1137. Leaves lanceolar, flat. 

Finally tall-shrubby or occasionally arborescent ; leaves 
hardly rigid ; the secondary venules pennular-spreading ; 
flowers somewhat crowded in generally elongated spikes. 
"Bottle-Brush." C. lanceolatus. 

Leaves elongate-linear, channelled. 

Shrub, finally tall ; leaves rigid ; flowers particularly large; 
fruit-calyx conspicuously contracted at the summit. 

C. linearis. 

1138. Leaves from broadish to rather narrow, flat. 

A shrub, finally tall except in the Alps, occasionally 
reaching arboreous height ; leaves from broad-linear to 
narrow-lanceolar ; filaments from much elongated to 
rather abbreviated, yellowish or less commonly pale- 
purplish ; anthers yellow. C. salignus. 

Leaves always quite narrow, channelled. 

From tall-shrubby to arborescent ; leaves acieular-linear, 
pungent ; filaments rather short, yellowish ; anthers 
yellow. C. pityoides, 



1139. Fruit usually with more than five cells. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent, chiefly maritime 
and nearly glabrous; leaves firm, from obovate- to cuneate- 
elliptical, flat, without lustre ; flowers generally rather 
large ; calyx-lobes finally deciduous ; fruit almost flat- 
topped or at the summit slightly convex, scarcely 
hardening ; cells ten or less, rarely more, sometimes 
reduced to as few as five or even only four ; fertile seeds 
compressed, broadish, surrounded by a membranous ap- 
pendage. "Sand-stay." L. laevigatum. 

Fruit usually with five cells ......... ... 1140 

1140. Leaves much pointed. 

Finally tall-shrubby, nearly glabrous ; leaves from almost 
acicular- to ovate-lanceolar, shining, marginally in- 
curved ; flowers sessile; calyx-lobes deciduous; fruit 
hard, quite convex at the summit ; valves much pro- 
truding ; seeds all very narrow. 1. scoparium. 

Leaves hardly pointed .. ......... 1141 



248 Key to the System of 



1141. Nearly glabrous. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to almost arborescent ; leaves 
from obovate- to narrow-elliptical, occasionally quite 
narrow, often rather blunt and almost flat; flowers 
sessile ; calyx-lobes deciduous ; petals white or sometimes 
turning slightly yellowish ; fruit hard, quite convex at 
the summit ; valves conspicuously protruding ; seeds all 
very narrow. L. flavescens. 

Beset with short hairlets 1142 

1142. Vestiture mostly formed of soft soon spreading hairlets. 

Finally from tall-shrubby to arborescent ; vestiture often 
extensive ; leaves from obovate- to narrow-elliptical, 
sometimes quite narrow, often rather acute and mar- 
ginally somewhat recurved ; flowers sessile, not seldom 
large ; fruit convex at the summit ; valves conspicuously 
protruding ; seeds all very narrow. L. lanigerum. 

Vestiture mostly formed of appressed shining hairlets 1143 

1143. Flowers sessile. 

Rather dwarf-shrubby, spreading ; leaves from spatular- to 
lanceolar- and obovate -elliptical, recurved-spreading and 
somewhat incurved at the margin ; tube of the calyx 
much invested with silver-shining hairlets ; lobes very 
short ; petals white or slightly pink. 

L. myrsinoides. 

Flowers short-stalked. 

A shrub, finally tall ; leaves flat, from lanceolar- to linear- 
elliptical, sometimes elongated ; flowers small, their 
stalklets and calyces somewhat invested with shining- 
grey hairlets ; fruit only slightly hardening ; valves 
almost enclosed. L. attenuatum. 

K.UNZEA. 

1144. Petals and filaments white 1145 

Petals and filaments yellow or lilac-purplish ... 1147 

1145. Flowers on conspicuous stalklets. 

From tall-shrubby to finally arborescent, generally glabrous; 
leaves linear- or elliptic-lanceolar ; flowers small7 solitary 
or two or three together or in corymbs ; fruit from three- 
to five-celled, almost dry. X. peduncularis. 

Flowers sessile or on very short stalklets ... ... 1146 



Victorian Plants. 249 



1146. Fruit almost dry. 

Finally tall, generally maritime, almost glabrous or somewhat 
beset with short greyish hairlets ; leaves from linear- to 
narrow-lanceolar, concave, often fasciculated ; flowers 
crowded along the leafy branchlets ; fruit three-celled. 

K. corifolia. 

Fruit quite succulent. 

Prostrate, mostly maritime ; leaves from cordate- to ovate- 
orbicular; flowers in terminal headlets; fruit ("Muntries") 
comparatively large, three-celled, almost globular. 

K. pomifera. 

1147. Petals and filaments yellow. 

. From dwarf to rather tall, always alpine, beset with short 
hairlets; leaves very small, mostly semicylindrical-linear, 
somewhat channelled ; flowers sessile, mostly crowded 
into headlets ; fruit two- or three-celled, almost dry. 

K, Mueller i. 

Petals and filaments lilac-purplish ... ... ... 1148 

1148. Fruit-calyx somewhat beset with short hairlets, its 

tube hardly longer than broad. 

Shrubby, from quite dwarf to tall ; leaves minute, mostly 
from linear- to narrow-elliptical, occasionally rather 
channelled ; headlets of flowers small, terminal ; fruit 
three-celled, almost dry, finally lateral. 

K, parvifolia. 

Fruit-calyx densely beset with long hairlets, its tube 
fully twice as long as broad. 

Shrubby, from dwarf to tall ; leaves rather small, mostly 
from obovate- to narrow-elliptical ; headlets of flowers 
terminal ; hairlets of the calyx soft and spreading ; fruit 
three-celled, almost dry, finally lateral. K. capitata. 

BAECKEA. 

1149. Imperfectly shrubby, often prostrate. 

Usually like all the other Victorian species glabrous ; 
leaves rather small, flat, from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar; 
flowers rather large, solitary, each 011 a conspicuous stalk 
and stalklet ; bracteoles remote from the calyx, long- 
persistent ; petals white or somewhat pink ; stamens ten 
or rarely five ; fruit depressed-globular, three- celled ; 
valves exserted. B. diffusa. 

Perfectly shrubby, often erect 1150 



250 Key to the System of 



1150. Leaves hooked-pointed. 

Shrub, finally tall ; branchlets slender ; leaves rather long, 
very narrow, linear-cylindrical, slightly channelled, 
hardly spreading ; flowers small, generally solitary, their 
stalk about as long as the stalklet ; petals white ; stamens 
eight to fifteen ; fruit three-celled. B. Behrii. 

Leaves pointless or straight-pointed ... ... ... 1151 

1151. Leaves elongated ... ... ... ... ... 1152 

Leaves abbreviated ... ... ... ... ... 1154 

1152. Leaves very narrow. 

A rather tall shrub ; branchlets slender ; leaves narrowly 
semicylindric-linear, straight-pointed ; flowers always 
solitary, small, on short stalklets ; petals white ; fruit 
two- celled. B. liiiifolia. 

Leaves broadish ... ... ... ... ... 1153 

1153. Leaves entire. 

A shrub, finally tall or even somewhat arborescent, but 
flowering already in a dwarf state ; leaves flat or slightly 
recurved at the margin, from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar ; 
flowers in pedunculate umbels, from two to nine in each ; 
petals white ; stamens eight to fifteen ; fruit three-celled. 

B. virgata. 

Leaves crenulated. 

Finally rather tall ; leaves flat, spreading, from obovate 
and elliptical to almost orbicular ; flowers on very con- 
spicuous stalks and stalklets, three or two together, 
seldom solitary ; petals white ; stamens ten to fifteen ; 
fruit three-celled. B. ereiiatifolia. 

1154. Leaves almost flat. 

A slender, glabrous shrub ; leaves quite small, from oval- to 
lanceolar-elliptical ; flowers on very short stalklets or 
sessile, solitary or two or three together ; flowers small ; 
petals white ; stamens usually fifteen ; fruit three-celled. 

B. camphorata. 

Leaves trigonous or very turgid ... ... ... 1155 



Victorian Plants. 251 



1155. Leaves indistinctly angular. 

A rather dwarf desert- shrub ; leaves usually minute, from 
obovate- to narrow- ellipsoid, particularly turgid beneath; 
flowers quite small, on very short stalklets, always 
solitary ; bracteoles broadish, fugacious ; petals white ; 
stamens ten, rarely more ; fruit three-celled. 

B. crassifolia. 

Leaves distinctly angular ... ... ... 1156 

1156. Stamens fifteen, five strictly opposite to the petals. 

A small shrub ; leaves very short, often minute, from semi- 
cylindric to ellipsoid, blunt ; flowers sessile, always 
solitary, very small ; bracteoles broadish ; petals white 
or somewhat reddish ; fruit three-celled. B. ericaea. 

Stamens ten or less, none strictly opposite to the 
petals. 

Alpine shrub, finally quite tall; leaves small, of pleasant 
odor, from linear- to lanceolar- or even obovate-trigonous; 
flowers very small, always solitary, on short stalklets ; 
bracteoles narrow, fugacious ; petals white ; stamens 
sometime reduced to five or even four ; fruit two -celled, 

B. Cruimiana. 

DAB.WXNXA. 

1157. Lobes of calyx broadish, rounded-blunt. 

A straggling shrub, rarely somewhat arborescent, glabrous ; 
leaves small, mostly opposite, triangulate-linear, acute, 
somewhat compressed, slightly curved ; flowers two to 
four together, mostly terminal, almost sessile ; bracteoles 
acute, rather longer than the calyx ; tube of the calyx 
five-furrowed, also transversely wrinkled ; petals very 
small, whitish or reddish ; style long-exserted, below the 
stigma beset with minute hairlets. D. taxifolia. 

Lobes of calyx narrow, bristly-pointed. 

A straggling shrub, quite glabrous ; leaves small, opposite, 
narrowly triangulate-linear, rather acute or almost blunt, 
somewhat curved and compressed ; flowers on short 
stalklets, axillary at the summit of branchlets ; bracteoles 
blunt, rather shorter than the calyx, fugacious ; tube of 
the calyx five-furrowed, also transversely wrinkled ; 
petals very small , whitish or reddish, transparent, shorter 
than the calyx-lobes ; style long-exserted, below the 
stigma beset with minute hairlets. D. virgata. 



252 Key to the System of 

THRYFTOMENE. 

1158. Leaves from oval- to cuneate-elliptical, almost flat. 

A glabrous shrub, finally rather tall ; leaves small ; flowers 
on short stalklets, axillary at and near the summit of 
branchlets, often solitary ; bracteoles fugacious ; tube of 
the calyx quite broad, compressed, almost smooth ; lobes 
of the calyx longer than the petals ; stamens five. 
Figure 56. T. Mitchelliana. 

Leaves linear- or elliptic-trigonous ... ... ... 1159 

1159. Calyx-tube ten-streaked in age. 

A small glabrous shrub; leaves very small, linear- trigonous; 
flowers quite small, on very short stalklets, axillary at 
and near the summit of branchlets; calyx-tube semiovate- 
cylindrical ; calyx-lobes longer than the petals ; stamens 
five. T. ericaea. 

Calyx-tube five-furrowed in age. 

A small shrub ; leaves very small, from linear- to elliptic- 
trigonous, generally ciliolated ; flowers small, sessile, 
axillary at and near the summit of branchlets ; tube of 
the calyx broadish ; lobes shorter than the petals ; 
stamens five. T. ciliata. 



X.HOTZXLYA. 

1160. Calyx-tube cylindrical. 

Generally beset with short hairlets ; leaves spreading, very 
short, semicylindric-linear, somewhat keeled ; flowers 
small, crowded between leaves at and near the summit 
of the branchlets ; bracteoles connate to near the middle; 
petals white, but often also with reddish tinge ; fruit- 
calyx longitudinally five-lined. L. genetylloides. 

CAX.YCOTHRXX. 

1161. Calyx-lobes ending in a very short bristlet. 

Rather glabrous ; leaves very short, triangulate -linear ; 
flowers small, capitularly or spicately crowded between 
leaves at and towards the summit of the branchlets; 
bracteoles connate towards the base ; tube of the calyx 
comparatively short, attenuated into the summit and 
base ; lobes hardly overlapping ; petals white, often with 
reddish tinge. C. Sullivani. 



Victorian Plants. 253 



Calyx-lobes ending in a long bristlet. 

Leaves generally almost triangulate- or quadrangulate- 
linear ; flowers crowded between leaves at and towards 
the summit of the branchlets ; bracteoles almost discon- 
nected ; tube of the calyx rather long, turgid up to the 
summit ; lobes overlapping ; petals whitish or somewhat 
reddish or sometimes slightly yellowish. 

C. tetragona. 

SALICARIEAE. 
X.1TTHRUBX. 

1162. Tall, flowers large. 

Perennial, here usually much beset with hairlets ; leaves 
large, opposite or ternately or quaternately whorled, from 
a somewhat clasping base elongate -lanceolar ; flowers 
cymosely whorled, forming leafy spikes ; petals six, 
purplish-red when fresh ; stamens generally twelve, 
alternately longer and shorter, but as well as the style 
variable in length. L. Salicaria. 

Dwarf, flowers small. 

Annual or of short duration, usually glabrous ; leaves 
small, the upper scattered, from broad-linear to oval- 
elliptical; flowers small, axillary, mostly solitary; stamens 
six or less. L. Kyssopifolia. 

ATCBXANNXA. 

1163. Flowers in small cymes. 

Humble, glabrous, annual ; leaves small, opposite, from 
linear- to oval -elliptical, dilated and clasping at the base ; 
flowers very small ; petals four, minute ; stamens usually 
four ; fruit globular, extremely small. A. multiflora. 

ONAGREAE. 

BPILOBIUM. 

1164. Stamens and style shorter than the petals ; stigma 

club-shaped. 

Erect or ascending herb, often beset with hairlets ; leaves 
opposite or scattered, mostly from oval- to linear-elliptical 
and somewhat denticulated; flowers axillary and terminal, 
solitary ; lobes of the calyx connate towards their base ; 
petals bilobed, pink or pale ; stamens almost straight ; 
fruit filiform-cylindrical ; tuft of hairlets several times 
longer than the seeds. 

(E. tetragonum, partly.) E. glabellum. 



254 Key to the System of 



JUSSIETTA. 

1165. Semi-aquatic or floating. 

Glabrous or beset with soft hairlets aud bearing cellular 
natatory organs ; stipules glandule-shaped ; leaves from 
obovate- to elliptical-lanceolar, narrowed into their stalk; 
flowers comparatively large, axillary, solitary, conspicu- 
ously stalked ; petals five, quite yellow ; stamens ten ; 
fruit cylindrical. (J. repens, partly.) J. diffusa. 



COLLETIA. 

1166. Branchlets articularly inserted on the branches. 

Usually a low shrub, glabrous or beset with very short 
hairlets ; branches smooth, for a long while greenish ; 
branchlets rather robust, cylindrical, pungent ; leaves 
scantily developed, but then crowded into clusters, small, 
from broad -linear and cuneate to elliptical ; flowers 
axillary, few together or solitary, on short stalklets ; 
calyx white ; petals present, but minute ; fruit bluntly 
somewhat trilobed. C. pubescens. 

CRYPTANDRA. 

1167. Calyx comparatively small or quite minute ... 116$ 
Calyx comparatively large ... ... ... ... 1174 

1168. Flowers densely crowded ... ... ... ... 1169 

Flowers hardly crowded ... ... ... ... 1172 

1169. Leaves from linear to elliptical 1170 

Leaves from ovate or orbicular to cuneate-obcordate 1171 

1170. Clusters of flowers stalked. 

Vestiture to some extent velvet-like ; leaves firm, mostly 
from linear to elliptical, revolute at the margin, some- 
what pointed, above glabrous or somewhat beset with 
hairlets ; floral leaves often velvety-whitish above from 
short hairlets ; flower-clusters stalked, small ; fruitlets 
indehiscent, their endocarp membranous. 

C. vexillifera. 



Victorian Plants. 255 



Clusters of flowers sessile. 

Vestiture extensively velvet-like ; leaves from linear to 
elliptical, revolute at the margin; upper stipules relatively 
large ; flower-clusters head-like crowded, usually sup- 
ported by a single floral leaf ; endocarp of f ruitlets 
membranous. C. Sllbochreata. 

.1171. Leaves from ovate to orbicular, lobeless. 

Finally tall, much beset with soft hairlets; leaves often 
large, always much wrinkled, somewhat wavy at the 
margin ; floral leaves roundish, velvety- whitish also 
above ; flower-clusters forming leafy cymes ; f ruitlets 
indehiscent. C. Hookeri. 

Leaves cuneate-obcordate, short-trilobed at the upper 
end. 

Prostrate ; leaves always small, hardly wrinkled, their 
lobes sometimes indented or the middle lobe wanting ; 
flower-clusters arranged in leafy cymes ; floral leaves 
velvety-whitish above ; endocarp of fruitlets membranous. 

C. obcordata. 

1172. Flowers in cymes. 

Finally tall, ; vestiture thin, velvet-like ; leaves linear, 
spreading, revolute at the margin, glabrous above ; 
flowers few in each cyme ; bracts persistent, lanceolar, 
pointed. C. D'Altoiii. 

Flowers in clusters or leafy spikes ... ... ... 1173 

1173. Lobes of the calyx shorter than the tube. 

Nearly glabrous ; branchlets often spinescent ; leaves small, 
usually from narrow-elliptical to roundish-ovate, some- 
what recurved at the margin or almost flat ; flowers 
arranged in short leafy spikes ; calyx much longer than 
the roundish bracts, with a thinly velvet-like vestiture 
outside ; fruitlets longitudinally dehiscent. 

C. aniara. 

Lobes of the calyx as long as the tube. 

Much beset with very short hairlets ; branchlets hardly 
spinescent ; leaves very small, recurved at the margin, 
usually blunt; flowers quite small, crowded into clusters; 
bracts nearly as long as the calyx ; fruitlets longitudinally 
dehiscent. C. tonientosa. 



256 Key to the System of 



1174. Leaves narrow, at the margin re volute. 

Branchlets somewhat spinescent ; leaves very small, much 
clustered ; flowers crowded at the end of branchlets ; 
calyx with silk-like vestiture outside, its lobes as long as 
the tube ; bracts almost rhomboid. C. propinqua. 

Leaves broadish, at the margin somewhat recurved 
or flat 1175 

1175. Leaves lanceolar. 

Leaves rather large, above smooth and very shining, 
beneath densely beset with short grey hairlets, the 
lateral venules concealed ; flowers crowded into dense 
sessile headlets, only moderately large ; bracts almost 
oval ; calyx enveloped in white intricate hairlets, the 
lobes much shorter than the tube; fruitlets longitudinally 
dehiscent. C. Scortechinii. 

Leaves from obcordate to spatular-ovate. 

Leaves densely invested underneath with shining hairlets ; 
floral leaves velvety-whitish above ; flowers numerously 
crowded at the summit of the branchlets ; bracts from 
orbicular to lanceolar, pointed ; calyx with a somewhat 
silk-like vestiture outside, the tube elongated, the lobes 
much shorter than the tube ; fruitlets longitudinally 
dehiscent. C. leucophracta. 



FOITCADERRIS. 

1176. Flowers with petals 1177 

Flowers without petals .. ... ... ... 1180 

1177. Panicles large 1178 

Panicles small ... ... ... ... ... 1179 

1178. Vestiture thick, usually present also on the upper 

side of the leaves. 

Finally tall ; leaves large, from elliptic or lanceolar to 
ovate, flat, entire, generally brownish underneath ; calyx 
yellowish inside ; style three-cleft ; fruitlets enclosed to 
the middle, opening by a rather large roundish aperture. 

F. lanigera. 



Victorian Plants. 257 



Vestiture thin, usually absent from the upper side 
of the leaves. 

Finally arborescent ; leaves large, from elliptical-lanceolar 
to ovate, almost or quite flat, entire, generally whitish or 
greyish underneath ; calyx quite small, yellowish inside ; 
anthers in succession touching the stigmas ; style three- 
cleft ; fruitlets enclosed to the middle, opening by a 
rather large lid. P. elliptica. 

1179. Leaves from ovate to nearly orbicular. 

Finally rather tall or even somewhat arborescent ; leaves 
small, entire, flat, underneath thinly invested with 
whitish or greyish hairlets ; fruitlets enclosed only 
towards the base, opening marginally. 

F. vacciuifolia. 

Leaves from narrow-elliptical to nearly oval. 

Rather low in stature ; leaves small, entire, almost flat, 
underneath invested with whitish shining hairlets ; 
flowers only few in each cyme ; fruitlets only enclosed 
towards the base, opening marginally. P. ledifolia. 

1180. Leaves entire or at the summit two-lobed ... ... 1181 

Leaves all around but irregularly denticulated ... 1186 

1181. Leaves two-lobed at the summit. 

Dwarf ; leaves small, almost wedge-shaped, the lobes entire 
or denticulated; umbels crowded; anthers almost cordate; 
fruitlets enclosed to the middle, opening by a longitudinal 
slit. Figure 61. P. obcordata. 

Leaves quite entire ... ... ... ... ... 1182 

1182. Pruitlets opening by a slit or roundish aperture ... 1183 
Fruitlets opening marginally... ... ... ... 1185 

1183. Flowers capitular-crowded. 

Finally rather tall ; vestiture thick, brownish ; leaves rather 
small, from ovate or somewhat rhomboid to orbicular ; 
headlets of flowers short-stalked, surrounded by broadish 
bracts ; calyx pale-yellowish ; fruitlets opening by a slit. 

P, betulina. 

Flowers paniculated ... ... ... ... ... 1184 



258 Key to the System of 



1184. Vestiture without any lustre. 

Finally rather tall or even somewhat arborescent ; vestiture 
thin, greyish or whitish ; leaves from elliptic to ovate, 
flat, almost smooth above; panicles comparatively ample; 
fruitlets opening by a large lid. P. cinerea. 

Vestiture very shining. 

Finally rather tall ; vestiture grey-brownish, dense ; leaves 
ovate-lanceolar, flat, smooth above ; panicles compara- 
tively long ; fruitlets opening by a large lid, enclosed to 
the middle. P. ligustrina. 

1185. Leaves from obcordate- to obovate-orbicular. 

Bather tall ; vestiture thin, greyish or whitish ; leaves very 
small, flat; flowers few or only two together or even 
solitary ; fruitlets much exserted. P. elachophylla. 

Leaves from linear- to narrow-elliptical. 

Never tall ; vestiture greyish, partly spreading; leaves 
quite small, re volute at the margin ; flowers few together, 
very small; fruitlets much exserted. 

P. phylicifolia. 

1186. Leaves and panicles relatively large. 

Finally very tall and often arboreous; vestiture greyish 
or brownish; leaves from lanceolar to almost ovate but 
nearly always acute, usually flat ; calyx-lobes for a long 
while persistent ; fruitlets enclosed to the middle, 
opening tardily by a rather small aperture. 

P. apetala. 

Leaves and panicles relatively small 1187 

1187. Leaves much wrinkled above. 

Finally tall and even somewhat arborescent; vestiture short, 
greyish ; leaves from almost elliptical to ovate ; flowers 
quite small ; fruitlets much exserted, opening tardily by 
a large lid. P. subrepanda. 

Leaves slightly wrinkled above ... ... ... 1188 

1188. Panicles formed of almost capitular umbels. 

Rather tall ; vestiture short, close ; leaves from lanceolar 
to elliptical-ovate ; fruitlets high-enclosed, opening by a 
rather large lid. P. primifblia. 



Victorian Plants. 259 



Panicles raceme-like. 

Never very tall, often maritime ; vestiture often brownish, 
dense ; leaves from ovate to orbicular ; calyx rather large, 
with persistent lobes ; fruitlets at least half-enclosed, 
opening by a large membranous deciduous lid. 

F. racemosa. 

VINIFERAE. 

VXTZS. 

1189. Leaves simple. 

Evergreen, finally tall ; young branchlets and inflorescence 
much beset with soft brown hairlets ; leaves from almost 
ovate to nearly cordate, pointed, conspicuously denticu- 
lated except towards the base ; cymes of umbels or 
fascicles opposite to leaves ; petals four, disconnected ; 
berries globular, black outside. V. Baudiniana. 

Leaves compound. 

Evergreen, finally almost arborescent ; young branchlets 
beset with brown hairlets ; leaflets usually five, on 
separate stalklets, firm, glabrous, from almost lanceolar 
to nearly ovate, always pointed, hardly denticulated, 
greyish-pale beneath, their ultimate venules closely 
reticulated ; tendrils simple or double ; cymes of umbels 
or fascicles ample, opposite to leaves ; petals four, 
yellowish, disconnected ; berries rather large, globular, 
bluish-black outside. "Native Grape." 

V. hypoglauca. 



X.OUDONXA. 

1190. Petals normally two. 

Slender, glabrous, the whole plant assuming often a 
yellowish or somewhat bluish tinge ; leaves rather small, 
mostly distant ; flowers in panicles ; calyx expanded into 
two longitudinal membranes ; petals yellow ; stamens 
usually four ; styles generally two ; fruit biangular or 
rarely triangular, the membranous edges conspicuous. 

Ii. Behrii. 



1191. All leaves entire" ............... 1192 

Submerged leaves capillary-pinnatisected ... ... 1194 



260 Key to the System of 



1192. Leaves scattered. 

Dwarf; leaves very small, linear-cylindrical; flowers minute; 
stamens two to four ; hairlets of stigmas very minute ; 
fruit-calyx lobeless ; fruitlets four, generally smooth. 

M. integrifoliuni. 

Leaves opposite ... ... ... ... ... 1193 

1193. Leaves from broad- to narrow-linear. 

Dwarf ; leaves small ; staminate flowers generally stalked ; 
stamens eight; hairlets of stigmas rather long; fruit-calyx 
short-fourlobed ; fruitlets four, rough. 

M. pedunculatum. 

Leaves from oval to narrow-elliptical. 

Mostly creeping and semi-aquatic ; leaves very small, rarely 
trilobed ; staminate flowers generally sessile ; stamens 
eight ; fruit-calyx short-fourlobed ; fruitlets four, smooth. 

M. amphibium. 

1194. Emerging leaves entire ... ... ... ... 1195 

All leaves capillary-pinnatisected ... ... ... 1196 

1195. Emerging leaves filiform-linear. 

Stems and branches usually elongated ; leaves whorled, 
lower submerged leaves divided into long capillary 
segments, the upper gradually short-lobed or merely 
denticulated ; stamens eight ; fruitlets four, often rough. 

M. variifolium. 

Emerging leaves from oval to narrow-elliptical. 

Stems and branches usually elongated ; leaves whorled, 
the submerged leaves nearly all divided into long capillary 
segments ; stamens eight ; fruitlets four, often smooth. 

M. elatinoides. 

1196. Leaves whorled. 

Stems and branches rather short ; leaves comparatively 
small, often greyish-green ; emerged leaves oval in outline, 
pinnatifid ; stamens eight ; fruitlets four, very small, 
rough. M. verrucosum. 

Leaves nearly all simply opposite. 

Stems and branches elongated, dotted ; some of the leaves 
not seldom ternately whorled ; staminate flowers stalked, 
supported by a conspicuous petaloid marginally converging 
bract ; stamens eight ; fruitlets four, smooth. 

M. Muelleri. 



Victorian Plants. 261 



HAXiORAGrXS. 

1197. Calyx-lobes, petals and pistils constantly two. 

Semi-aquatic, glabrous herb ; leaves scattered, pinnatisected, 
their lobes or segments very narrow, some occasionally 
again divided ; flowers axillary, solitary or two or few 
together, very small ; stamens four .; fruit in its entirety 
almost compressed- ovate, somewhat pointed, consisting 
of two connate fruitlets. 

(Meionectes Brownii. ) H. Meionectes, 

Calyx-lobes, petals and pistils four or seldom three 
or two 1198 

1198. Fruit of spongy texture. 

A sub- alpine somewhat woody plant, comparatively tall ; 
leaves all opposite, rather large, flat, mostly lanceolar, 
serrulated ; two of the calyx-lobes deltoid, the two other 
truncate-rhomboid ; fruit comparatively large, expanding 
into four lateral membranes. H. Baenerleni. 

Fruit solid 1199 

1199. Petals almost white, relatively long. 

Glabrous plant, comparatively tall ; leaves mostly opposite, 
generally linear-laiiceolar, hardly denticulated ; floral 
leaves also opposite ; flowers solitary or two together at 
each floral leaf ; petals gradually pointed ; stigmas four, 
smooth ; fruit rather large, somewhat quadrangular, 
usually one-seeded. H. mouosperma. 

Petals colored, relatively short ... ... 1200 

1200. Fruit at the base and at the summit enlarged by 

four tooth-like spreading excrescences. 

Somewhat invested with short soft hairlets ; leaves mostly 
scattered, generally lanceolar, conspicuously denticulated; 
flowers clustered within each bract ; stigmas slightly 
bearded ; fruit large, quadrangular, the angles protruding 
at top and bottom. Figure 55. H. odontocarpa. 

Fruit without any regular conspicuous tooth-like 
excrescences at either base or summit ... ... 1201 

1201. Leaves partly or mostly long- and narrow-lobed. 

Weak slender herb, seldom tall, almost smooth ; stem 
generally unbranched ; leaves scattered, the lower pro- 
ducing three to five narrow lobes, the upper linear and 



262 Key to the System of 



often entire; racemes spike-like ; calyx-lobes longer than 
broad ; stigmas conspicuously beset with short hairlets ; 
fruit rather small, roundish-quadrangular, almost smooth 
or slightly rough, broadest at the base. 

H. heterophylla. 

Leaves lobeless 1202 

1202. Leaves semicylindric-linear, carnulent, entire. 

Glabrous ; leaves scattered, pointed ; flowers forming leafy 
racemes, usually clustered within each floral leaf ; stigmas 
almost glabrous, as well as the fruit-cells from two to 
four; fruit ovate -globular or somewhat quadrangular, 
slightly wrinkled or smooth. H. digyiia. 

Leaves flat or recurved at the margin, generally 
denticulated ... ... 1203 

1203. Leaves narrow, recurved along the margin. 

Beset with spreading soft hairlets ; leaves mostly scattered, 
usually rather long, broad- or lanceolate-linear, entire or 
somewhat denticulated ; stigmas beset with minute hair- 
lets ; fruit tubercular-rough, longer than broad. 

H. elata. 

Leaves broadish, flat 1204 

1204. Almost or quite erect 1205 

Prostrate and somewhat ascending ... ... ... 1207 

1205. Fruit rather large. 

Almost smooth or somewhat rough, rather rigid, slightly 
beset with hairlets ; leaves from broad- to narrow - 
lanceolar, often of greyish hue, hardly paler beneath, 
the lower opposite, the upper scattered, distinctly or 
imperfectly serrated or denticulated or nearly entire ; 
flowers one or more in the axil of each floral leaf or 
bract ; lobes of the calyx considerably longer than 
broad ; stigmas beset with minute hairlets ; fruit rather 
large, nearly globular or somewhat quadrangular, often 
tubercular-rough. H- aspera. 

Fruit very small 1206 

1206. Leaves from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar. 

Beset with rather rigid hairlets ; leaves mostly opposite, 
rather short, serrulated ; bracts scattered; flowers soli- 
tary within each bract; fruit pale, globular-quadrangular, 
wrinkled and rough, not seldom one-seeded. 

H. tetragyna. 



Victorian Plants. 263 



Leaves from ovate- to orbicular-cordate. 

Beset with rather rigid hairlets ; leaves mostly opposite, 
rather short, serrulated ; bracts scattered ; flowers soli- 
tary within each bract; fruit pale, globular-quadrangular, 
wrinkled and rough. H. teucrioides. 

1207. Bracts mostly leaf-like. 

Alpine ; slightly rough ; leaves mostly opposite, rather 
short, almost sessile, from lanceolar- to cordate-ovate, 
serrulated ; bracts opposite or scattered ; flowers solitary, 
sessile within each bract ; stigmas beset with minute 
hairlets; fruit very small, pale, globular-ovate, faintly 
eight-streaked, otherwise smooth. H. depressa. 

Bracts minute. 

Glabrous ; leaves mostly opposite, orbicular-cordate, closely 
serrulated ; flowers solitary within each bract, very 
small ; stigmas beset with very minute soon evanescent 
hairlets ; fruit quite minute, pale, globular, streaked by 
eight longitudinal prominent lines, otherwise smooth. 

H. micrantha. 

CAX.X.XTRXCHX:. 

1208. Mostly submerged. 

Upper or rarely all leaves from spatular to obovate, lower 
leaves linear ; stamen through absence of calyx basal 
(hypogynous) ; bracteoles curved ; styles when short 
remaining erect, when long much reflexed ; fruitlets very 
small, broadly or narrowly margined, connate towards 
their inner angle. C. verna. 

Mostly creeping. 

Leaves all nearly rhomboid ; stamen through absence of 
calyx basal; styles short, erect; fruitlets four, very small, 
towards their inner angle connate into an obcordate- 
orbicular fruit, membraiiously margined. 

C. Muelleri. 

CERATOPHYLLUIVX. 

1209. Segments of leaves sharply denticulated. 

Stems and branches elongated ; flowers axillary, solitary, 
sessile, the staminate and pistillate flowers distinct, but 
on the same plant ; stamens through absence of calyx 
basal, without any conspicuous filaments ; fruit often 
armed with two almost basal prickles or short ex- 
crescences ; cotyledons deeply bilobed. 

C. demersum. 



264 Key to the System of 



ASTROTRXOKA. 

1210. Leaves from broad-linear to almost narrow-elliptical. 

Vestiture short and dense, often greyish or somewhat 
brownish ; leaves generally blunt, at the margin revolute, 
above glabrescent, but rough ; umbels paniculated ; vesti- 
ture extending also to the outer side of the petals ; fruit 
small. A. ledifolia. 

FANAX. 

1211. Leaflets obliquely elliptic-lanceolar, equally green and 

shining on both sides. 

Finally tall, almost of palm-like stature; stem straight, 
only near the summit branched and never extensively so ; 
leaves always simply pinnate; leaflets of rather thin 
texture ; umbels racemous-paniculate ; fruit bluish. 

P. Murray!. 

Leaflets from ovate-lanceolar to almost linear, often 
dull-grey underneath. 

Shrub, finally arborescent, constantly glabrous ; leaves 
simply or compound -pinnate ; leaflets entire or den- 
ticulated or variously lobed, of rather firm texture ; 
venules much concealed ; umbels irregularly paniculate ; 
fruit bluish-white. Figure 52. P. sambucifolius. 



UIMBELLIFERAE. 

ACTINOTUS. 

1212. Bracts large, very much longer than the umbel. 

Closely invested with crisped hairlets ; leaves rather large, 
cleft into several narrow lobes or segments, at last almost 
glabrous above ; umbels on long stalks ; bracts petal-like, 
radiating around the umbels, velvety -white ; flowers 
densely crowded, the outer staminate only ; petals absent. 

A. Heliauthi. 

Bracts small, scarcely longer than the umbel. 

Slender, slightly beset with hairlets ; leaves rather small, 
usually cleft into three somewhat lobed segments ; umbels 
on very short stalks ; flowers nearly all staminate and 
pistillate ; petals absent ; fruit often densely ciliolated. 

A. Gibbonsii. 



Victorian Plants. 265 



CRANTZIA. 

1213. Articulation of leaves conspicuous. 

Stem hardly rising from the ground ; leaves somewhat 
hollow ; stalks of the umbels generally much shorter than 
the leaves ; flowers very small ; fruit rather turgid. 

C. lineata. 

ACIPHYLLA. 

1214. Leaves elongate-linear, blunt, undivided. 

Slender alpine plant ; leaves mostly basal, somewhat 
channelled, finely streaked ; fruitlets rather large, dorsally 
convex ; umbellules few to each umbel. Figure 63. 

A. simplicifolia. 

Leaves dissected into broad-linear pungent segments. 

Robust alpine plant ; leaves large, mostly basal, bi- or 
tri-pinnate, their segments only slightly spreading, some- 
what channelled, finely streaked, very shining ; fruit- 
lets dorsally convex ; umbellules many to each umbel. 

A. glacialis. 

HUANACA. 

1215. Glabrous or slightly beset with hairlets. 

Humble alpine plant ; leaves on comparatively long stalks, 
from ovate-orbicular to cordate, entire ; umbel solitary ; 
length of fruitlets but little exceeding their breadth ; 
oil-ducts (vittae) none. H. liyclrocotylea. 



1216. Creeping. 

Glabrous alpine herb ; leaves from orbicular- to renate- 
cordate, bluntly lobed and crenate ; umbels sessile or 
short-stalked, capitular ; calyx-lobes about half as long 
as the petals, acute ; petals minute, greenish ; fruitlets 
dorsally somewhat compressed. A. Mtielleri. 

Tufted ............ ...... 1217 

1217. Calyx lobes much smaller than the petals, almost 

obliterated. 

Glabrous alpine herb ; leaves radical, shining, wedge- 
shaped, short-lobed or indented at the summit, downward 
narrowed into long stalks ; umbels few-flowered or still 
more reduced, somewhat paniculate ; petals conspicuous, 
white ; fruitlets dorsally quite convex. 

A. cuneifolia. 



266 Key to the System of 



Calyx-lobes white, as large as the petals. 

Alpine herb, much beset with spreading hairlets ; leaves 
basal, from rhomboidal- to cordate-orbicular, short-lobed 
and somewhat crenate ; flowers irregularly umbellate and 
somewhat paniculate ; calyx-lobes almost alike to the 
petals and along with them deciduous ; fruitlets narrowly 
coherent, dorsally hardly convex ; terminal disk broadish. 

A. dichopetala. 

OREOHXirRRHXS. 

1218. Erect. 

Hardly or slightly branched ; leaves comparatively large, 
much beset with hairlets, their segments numerous and 
repeatedly divided ; umbel-stalks often much elongated ; 
stalklets not rarely beset with ah appressed vestiture ; 
petals minute, white, tinged with red ; fruit rather 
turgid, contracted upwards. O. aiidicola. 

Prostrate. 

Cushion-shaped ; leaves comparatively small, glabrous, 
with simple or bi- or tri-fid segments ; umbels few- 
flowered, on very short stalks ; anthers dark-red; fruits 
always much shorter than the stalklets. 

O. pulvinifica. 

HYDKOCOTYLE. 

1219. Leaves centrifixed. 

Perennial, creeping, semiaquatic or floating, of deleterious 
properties ; leaves fixed at the centre to their stalk, 
orbicular, lobeless, somewhat crenulated ; umbels capitu- 
lar and solitary or additionally one to three whorls 
of flowers below ; petals minute, pink ; fruitlets quite 
compressed. H. vulgaris. 

Leaves quite or nearly basifixed 1220 

1220. Perennial ... 1221 

Annual ... ... ... ... ... ... 1226 

1221. Leaves almost or quite entire. 

Stem creeping and rooting ; leaves from cordate- to renate- 
orbicular, entire or waved-sinuous, occasionally somewhat 
denticulated ; umbels capitular, few-flowered or reduced 
sometimes even to two flowers ; fruitlets rather large, 
considerably compressed. H. Asiatica. 

Leaves crenate or lobed 1222 



Victorian Plants. 267 



1222. Petals white. 

Diffuse, lax, almost glabrous ; leaves rather large, deeply 
divided into three to seven almost lanceolar denticulated 
or lobed segments ; lower leaves suprabasal-stalked ; 
umbels many-flowered ; stalklets rather long ; fruitlets 
much compressed, their dorsal angle expanded. 

H. geranifolia. 

Petals greenish or yellowish ... ... ... .. 1223 

1223. Leaves lobed to near the base. 

Almost glabrous, generally prostrate ; stems very thin ; 
leaves quite small, cleft nearly to the base into three or 
five wedge-shaped segments, each of the latter denticu- 
lated along the summit ; umbels capitular, few-flowered ; 
fruitlets minute, somewhat turgid. H. tripartita. 

Leaves short-lobed or only crenate ... ... ... 1224 

1224. Flowers very numerous in each umbel. 

Rather robust, beset with soft hairlets ; leaves cordate- 
orbicular, with short blunt and crenate lobes ; umbels of 
mainly staminate plants containing flowers with long 
stalklets ; umbels of mainly pistillate plants capitular, 
the petals of the latter dropping coherently ; fruitlets 
nearly truncate, smooth. 

(H. laxiflora and H. densiflora. ) H. Canclollei. 

Flowers few or several in each umbel. ... ... 1225 

1225. Dorsal angle of fruitlets unexpanded. 

Creeping, beset with soft hairlets ; leaves from cordate- to 
renate-orbicular, blunt- and short-lobed and also crenate ; 
umbels capitular; fruitlets quite small, somewhat com- 
pressed, slightly angular, smooth. H. hirta. 

Dorsal angle of fruitlets broadly expanded. 

Creeping, almost glabrous ; leaves from cordate- to renate- 
orbicular, slightly lobed and somewhat crenate ; leaf -stalks 
often of considerable length ; umbels capitular ; united 
fruitlets broader than long. H. pterocarpa. 

1226. Majority of leaves divided to near the base. 

Small and sometimes very much reduced in size, nearly 
glabrous ; leaves mostly divided into three wedge-shaped 
somewhat denticulated lobes or segments ; umbels capitu- 
lar ; fruitlets with three rather prominent angles and on 
each side with a solitary groove, but without any foveoles 
and wrinkles. H. callicarpa. 



268 Key to the System of 



Majority of leaves divided to about the middle ... 1227 
1227. Dorsal and lateral angles of fruitlets unenlarged. 

Very small, nearly or quite glabrous ; leaves minute, 
divided into three entire or somewhat crenulated lobes ; 
umbels capitular, few-flowered, without any bracteal in- 
volucre ; united fruitlets renate- orbicular, very small, 
with three thinly prominent angles and on each side with 
a solitary groove, wrinkled and foveolated between the 
dorsal and lateral angles. H. capillaris. 

Dorsal and lateral angles of fruitlets prominently 
margined. 

Very small, nearly glabrous ; leaves from rhomboid- to 
cordate-orbicular, cleft into three entire or somewhat 
crenulated lobes ; umbels capitular ; fruitlets with three 
amply prominent angles, between all the angles wrinkled 
and foveolated. H. medicagiiioides. 



DIDISCUS. 

1228. Tall. 

Usually much beset with scattered long spreading hairlets ; 
leaves large, mostly basal, deeply divided into broadish 
again incised lobes or segments ; flowers numerous in 
each umbel, on conspicuous stalklets ; petals white ; 
fruitlets either both or oftener only one developed, usually 
granular-rough. D. pilosus. 

Dwarf 1229 

1229. Perennial. 

An alpine herb ; leaves all basal, in outline from ovate- to 
roundish-rhomboidal, incised into a few bluntish lobes ; 
petals white ; both fruitlets developed and smooth. 

D. lm.mi.lis. 

Annual 1230 

1230. Generally both fruitlets densely beset with ciliolate 

bristlets. 

A weak desert-herb, scantily beset with hairlets ; leaves 
small, divided into few narrow lobes or segments ; flowers 
several in the umbel, head-like crowded ; petals blue. 

D. cyanopetalus. 



Victorian Plants. 269 



One of the fruitlets smooth or dotted, the other 
prickly-rough. 

Leaves small, deeply divided into few narrow lobes or 
segments ; flowers several in the umbel, head-like 
crowded ; petals white. D. pusillus. 



TR-ACHYIVEENE, 

1231. Almost shrubby, robust. 

Leaves from orbicular and ovate to narrow-lanceolar, all 
entire, turning dark in drying ; fruitlets granular-rough 
and somewhat wrinkled. T. Billardieri. 

Almost herbaceous, weak ... ... ... ... 1232 

1232. Leaves all linear and undivided. 

Stems spreading ly branched ; leaves very short and narrow, 
quite acute ; fruitlets somewhat wrinkled. 

T. ericoides. 

Lower leaves cleft into linear lobes. 

Stems slightly or hardly branched, slender; upper leaves 
very narrow and entire ; fruitlets rather broader than 
long, granular-rough. T. heterophylla. 



AFXUIK. 

1233. Leaves divided into flat segments and lobes. 

Perennial, often maritime and usually prostrate, sometimes 
fruiting already at a very early age and in quite a minute 
state ; segments of leaves from broad-linear to almost 
rhomboidal ; umbellules often more than three to each 
umbel ; petals white or reddish ; involucral bracts all 
absent; ridglets of fruit thick. " Native Celery. " 

A. prostratum. 

Leaves divided into capillary-filiform segments and 
lobes. 

Annual, usually erect, very slender ; upper leaves almost 
sessile ; umbellules seldom more than three to each umbel ; 
involucral bracts all absent ; ridglets of fruit thick. 

A. leptophyllum. 



270 Key to the System of 

XANTHOSIA. 

1234. Umbel-stalks elongated. 

Perennial, rather tall, slender, soon glabrous ; leaves mostly 
basal and long-stalked, divided into three cuneate-rhom- 
boidal and at the upper end indented segments ; bracts to 
each of the umbellules three, broadish, petal-like, whitish ; 
lobes of the calyx almost white ; fruit small. 

X. Atkinsoniaua. 

Umbel-stalks abbreviated 1235 



1235. Leaves lobeless. 

Dwarf, perennial, somewhat velvety and besides beset with 
scattered hairlets ; leaves small, wedge-shaped, with 
three denticles at the summit ; flowers in each umbel 
few or occasionally reduced to two or one ; calyx-lobes 
fixed above the base. X. trideiitata. 



Leaves lobed ... ..- ... 1236 



1236. Glabrous. 

Dwarf, perennial ; leaves cleft into three narrow often 
subdivided segments, the ultimate lobes acute and mostly 
narrow ; flowers few or several in the umbel ; calyx-lobes 
fixed at the base ; fruit dilated towards the base. 

X. dissecta. 

Vestiture of soft hairlets ... 1237 



1237. Middle lobe of the leaf by far the longest. 

Perennial, rather tall, much beset with a dense brownish 
vestiture and besides with long scattered hairlets ; leaves 
simply sinuous or cleft into three to five lobes ; umbels 
few-flowered ; calyx-lobes fixed at the base. X. pilosa. 

Middle lobe of the leaf slightly longer than the 
others. 

Dwarf, beset with spreading hairlets ; leaves on short stalks, 
cleft into three elliptic or lanceolar entire or incised seg- 
ments ; flowers often only one to three in each umbel ; 
calyx-lobes fixed at the base. X. pusilla. 



Victorian Plants. 271 



SESEXiX. 

1238. Segments of lower leaves from lanceolar to broad- 
linear and partly subdivided. 

Alpine herb, erect, perennial ; leaves on ample clasping 
stalks, stem-leaves simply pinnatisected ; primary in- 
volucres almost or quite absent ; secondary involucres of 
only two or three narrow bracts ; fruit ellipsoid, glabrous. 

S. Harvey aiium. 

Segments of lower leaves from rhomboidal to cuneate, 
incised and at the upper end denticulated. 

Alpine, almost prostrate, greyish -green, perennial ; leaves 
on ample clasping stalks, the basal leaves simply pinnati- 
sected, some of the segments trifid ; primary involucres 
reduced to from one to three narrow bracts ; secondary 
involucres consisting of several bracts ; fruit truncate- 
ovate, only imperfectly known. (Possibly referable to 
the following genus. ) S. algens. 



SXUIK. 

1239. Leaflets of stem-leaves irregularly and deeply serrated 
or somewhat incised. 

Stem streaked ; leaflets from ovate to lanceolar, sessile ; 
umbels chiefly opposite to leaves ; stalklets longer than 
the fruit ; oil- ducts about six between the ridges of the 
fruitlets, immersed. S. erectum. 



All leaflets regularly serrulated. 

Deleterious ; stem furrowed ; leaflets from broad- to narrow- 
lanceolar, sessile ; umbels chiefly terminal ; stalklets 
nearly as long as the fruit ; oil-ducts about three between 
the ridges of the fruitlets, prominent. S, latifoliuni. 



DAUCUS. 

1240. Secondary umbel-stalks few, unequal. 

Never tall ; leaves comparatively small, doubly pinnati- 
sected, the segments often again incised ; leaf-stalks 
slightly dilated ; bracts of secondary involucre very short ; 
petals minute, often reddish ; bristlets of fruit barbed 
at the apex. D. brachiatus. 



272 Key to the System of 



ERYHGIUXK. 

1241. Erect. 

Glabrous ; radical leaves considerably longer than broad, 
doubly or simply pinnatifid or sometimes merely indented, 
marked by somewhat raised transverse lines, the segments 
or lobes generally narrow ; umbels compound, capitular, 
mostly terminal, surpassed by the outer almost spinular 
bracts ; flowers minute. , E, rostratlim. 

Prostrate. 

Glabrous ; radical leaves much longer than broad, simply 
pinnatifid or merely indented, the lobes generally narrow 
and unequal ; umbels compound, capitular, mostly 
axillary and short-stalked, much surpassed by the outer 
almost spinular bracts ; flowers minute. 

E. vesiculosum, 

CUCURBITACEAE. 
IVIELOTHRIA. 

1242. Leaves orbicular-cordate, short-lobed. 

Prostrate, rough from minute stiff hairlets ; lobes of leaves 
five to seven, somewhat sinuous ; staminate and pistillate 
flowers on the same plant, both minute, on very short 
stalks ; anthers almost sessile ; fruit rather small, globular, 
smooth ; seeds several. Figure 77. M. Muelleri. 

SZCYOS. 

1243. Fruit beset with barbed bristlets. 

Climbing ; leaves almost membranous, from ovate- to 
renate-cordate in outline, angularly three- or five-lobed ; 
flowers minute ; staminate flowers racemose, pistillate 
flowers capitular-crowded, the stalks of either from the 
same axis ; fruit small, almost ovate, but acute. 

S. aiigulata. 

PASSXFX.ORAE. 
PASSZFZ.OKA. 

1244. Petals and inner side of calyx-lobes crimson. 

Nearly glabrous ; leaves of rather firm consistence, deeply 
incised anteriorly, dark-green and wrinkled above ; the 
lobes mostly ovate-semilanceolar ; leaf -stalks destitute of 
glandules ; petals less than half as long as the calyx-lobes ; 
circular inner membrane entire, beset with hairlets, 
shorter than the outer whorl of thread-like segments. 

F. cixmabarina. 



Victorian Plants. 273 



NOTOTHXXOS. 

1245. Leaves mostly from elliptic- to rhomboid-ovate, 

beneath usually greyish-yellow from a thin vestiture. 

Vestiture somewhat powdery, always much developed on 

the young shoots ; leaves opposite, rather flaccid ; clusters 

of flowers stalked, generally three together ; frait small, 

somewhat succulent. 3ST. subaureus. 

I.ORANTIZUS. 

1246. Anthers fixed at the back. 

Glabrous; leaves from orbicular -ovate to lanceolar- or 
linear-elliptical, unilaterally curved when narrow, thick 
in structure ; flowers in cymes ; petals elongated, usually 
five, often yellowish or somewhat reddish, soon much dis- 
connected ; anthers ellipsoid, oscillating ; fruit almost 
pear-shaped, yellowish-green. Figure 66. 

L. celastroides. 

Anthers fixed at the base 1247 

1247. Flowers solitary or in pairs. 

Glabrous ; leaves firm, from spatular- or narrow-elliptical 
to broad-linear, flat ; flower-stalks very short or unde- 
veloped ; petals elongated, usually six, long-coherent 
below, green at the summit, otherwise red or yellow ; 
filaments often black ; anthers narrow ; fruit almost 
ovate, somewhat succulent, outside black. 

L. Exocarpi. 

Flowers in cymes ... 1248 

1248. Leaves filiform-cylindrical. 

Glabrous or imperfectly invested with very short greyish 
hairlets ; leaves sometimes fascicularly crowded ; petals 
/ usually five, soon disconnected, reddish inside ; anthers 
narrow ; fruit globular, succulent, pale-pink outside. 

L. linophyllus. 

Leaves flat ... 1249 

1249. Flowers mostly provided with ultimate stalklets. 

Usually glabrous ; leaves from obovate and lanceolar to 
broad-linear, often elongated and then unilaterally curved, 
seldom verging into a cordate form ; petals usually five, 
elongated, soon disconnected ; fruit brownish-green, quite 
viscid, distinctly contracted at the summit. 

L. pendulus. 



274 Key to the System of 



Flowers mostly unprovided with ultimate stalklets. 
Always much invested with short grey and often appressed 
hairlets ; leaves from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, occa- 
sionally scattered ; cymes often only with two branchlets ; 
petals usually five, soon disconnected ; anthers narrow ; 
fruit rather succulent, yellowish outside, hardly contracted 
at the summit. Ti. Quandang 1 . 

PROTEA.CEAE. 
CON03PERMUM. 

1250. Leaves elongated. 

Much invested with greyish appressed shining hairlets ; 
leaves broad-linear ; total inflorescence only moderately 
long ; spikes very short, corymbously arranged ; the two 
sets of corolla-lobes about as long as the tube. 

C. Mitchell!. 

Leaves abbreviated ... ... ... ... ... 1251 

1251. Leaves very spreading. 

Imperfectly invested with appressed short hairlets, scantily 
branched ; leaves crowded, ascendingly curved, from 
lanceolar- to broad-linear, always acute, considerably 
narrowed below the middle ; spikes very short, on much 
elongated stalks, the latter from axils of upper leaves ; 
the two sets of corolla-lobes shorter than the tube. 
Figure 67. C. patens. 

Leaves slightly spreading. 

Imperfectly invested with short hairlets, scantily branched ; 
leaves crowded, from narrow-lanceolar to broad-linear, 
always acute, placed vertically and often somewhat 
twisted ; spikes very short, on somewhat elongated stalks, 
the latter from axils. of upper leaves; the two sets of 
corolla-lobes shorter than the tube. C. taxifolium. 

XSOFOGO2T. 

1252. Involucral bracts longer than the fruit-supporting 

bracts. 

Never tall ; leaves very rigid, nearly all repeatedly dissected, 
narrowed into a long stalk, mostly glabrous, their seg- 
ments and lobes comparatively broad, much spreading, 
very pungent ; stalk of inflorescence quite short ; corolla 
yellow, almost glabrous, its tube very slender ; summit 
of style dilated and from the pointed stigma by 
constriction somewhat separated. I. ceratophyllus. 



Victorian Plants. 275 



Involucral bracts shorter than the fruit-supporting 
bracts. 

Finally tall ; leaves rigid, nearly all doubly or triply 
dissected, narrowed into a long stalk, soon glabrous, 
their segments and lobes comparatively narrow, spreading, 
pungent ; stalk of inflorescence quite short ; corolla 
yellow, almost glabrous, its tube very slender ; summit 
of style dilated and from the pointed stigma by 
constriction somewhat separated. I. aiienionifolius. 



ADENANTHOS. 

1253. Branches prostrate. 

Much beset with hairlets ; leaves crowded, rather small 
and flaccid, mostly appressed, their segments from three 
to seven, linear-filiform, erect, glandule-bearing at the 
apex ; flowers terminal ; corolla elongated ; stigma 
slender. A. terminalis. 

FERSOONIA. 

1254. Leaves elongated ... ... ... ... ... 1255 

Leaves abbreviated ... ... ... ... ... 1259 

1255. Leaves narrow. 

Tall, finally arborescent ; stem-bark thinly lamellar ; leaves 
elongate-linear, flat, soon almost glabrous ; flowers soli- 
tary ; corolla outside beset with minute hairlets ; fruit 
globular-ovate, greenish outside ; cotyledons four to six. 

F. linearis. 

Leaves broadish ... 1256 

1256. Corolla nearly or quite glabrous. 

Finally arborescent ; stem-bark thinly lamellar ; leaves 
almost vertical, generally elliptic-lanceolar, somewhat 
inequilateral and gently curved, flat, soon glabrous, 
their venules prominent ; flowers often infra- terminally 
approximated and unsupported by floral leaves ; stalklets 
conspicuous. F. salicina. 

Corolla invested with minute hairlets outside ... 1257 



276 Key to the System of 



1257. Flowers few or several, crowded into short racemes. 

Shrub, hardly tall; leaves mostly from lanceolar- to 
elliptical-ovate, flat ; flowers unsupported by floral leaves ; 
corolla densely invested with very short brownish hair lets 
outside ; fruit small, ellipsoid-ovate ; cotyledons two. 

P. confertiflora. 

Flowers nearly all dispersed singly between the 
leaves 1258 

1258. Stalklets of flowers conspicuous. 

Very tall, finally quite arborescent ; leaves mostly elliptic- 
lanceolar, much elongated, almost flat, beset with subtle 
hairlets underneath ; flowers rather large, occasionally 
some floral leaves undeveloped ; corolla-lobes distinctly 
pointed ; fruit rather large, green-yellowish ; cotyledons 
three. P. arborea. 

Stalklets of flowers extremely short. 

Shrub, rather tall ; leaves from narrow- to broad-lanceolar, 
flat, soon or finally glabrous ; venules, except the carinal, 
much obliterated ; flowers occasionally two from the 
same axil ; ovulary glabrous ; cotyledons four or five. 

P. laiiceolata. 

1259. Leaves flat or slightly channelled ... 1260 

Leaves marginally recurved ... ... ... ... 1262 

1260. Corolla glabrous. 

Dwarf, almost herbaceous, quite glabrous or very scantily 
beset with hairlets ; leaves very spreading, broad -linear, 
simply acute, flat or channelled, slightly carnulent, even 
the carinular venule concealed ; flowers axillary, solitary ; 
fruit oblique-ovate ; cotyledons six. Figure 68. 

P. Cliamaepsuce. 

Corolla invested outside with hairlets 1261 

1261. Leaves acicular-linear. 

Shrub, finally tall ; leaves sessile, very spreading, flat or 
somewhat channelled, pungent-pointed ; flowers axillary, 
solitary ; corolla occasionally almost glabrous ; fruit 
ovate -globular; cotyledons four to six. P. juniperiua. 



Victorian Plants. 277 



Leaves from elliptical- to ovate-lanceolar. 

Shrub, hardly tall ; leaves rather rigid, spreading, often 
acute, finally glabrous ; flowers almost pendent ; corolla- 
lobes very distinctly pointed ; cotyledons four to six. 

F. myrtilloides. 

1262. Corolla glabrous. 

A shrubby plant, diffuse or somewhat prostrate ; leaves 
quite small, from lanceolar-elliptical to orbicular, soon 
glabrous ; flowers on conspicuous stalklets ; fruit ellipsoid- 
ovate. P. oxycoccoides. 

Corolla invested with hairlets outside ... ... 1263 

1263. Leaves very pale beneath. 

A shrub, hardly tall ; leaves from lanceolar- to obovate- 
elliptical, blunt, generally retaining some vestiture for a 
long while beneath ; flowers solitary, erect ; corolla-lobes 
slightly pointed. P. revoluta. 

Leaves hardly paler beneath. 

Shrub, rather tall, much beset with soft spreading and often 
brownish hairlets ; leaves from obovate- and spatular- to 
narrow-lanceolar, much narrowed towards the base, irre- v 
spective of the vestiture somewhat rough on both sides ; 
flowers almost sessile, generally solitary, occasionally a 
few together without floral leaves ; cotyledons five. 

P. rigida. 

TEX.OFEA. 

1264. Involucral bracts glabrous. 

Finally quite arborescent ; branchlets also glabrous ; leaves 
large, firm, mostly obovate-lanceolar, entire, their ultimate 
venules subtle ; corolla crimson, slit unilaterally ; glan- 
dule at the upper end of the stalklets rather conspicuous. 
"Gippsland-Waratah." Figure 72. T. oreades. 



X.OXKATXA. 

1265. Finally high-arborescent. 

Leaves mostly from lanceolar and broad-elliptical to almost 
ovate, coarsely serrated, beneath densely beset with 
appressed and shining hairlets ; their ultimate venules 
faint ; petals provided with much outside vestiture ; pistil 
glabrous. L. Fraseri. 

Shrubby only 1266 



278 Key to the System of 



1266. Leaves twice or three times longer than broad. 

Leaves from lanceolar- elliptical to nearly ovate, pungent- 
serrate, soon almost glabrous, also their ultimate venules 
above prominent ; petals glabrescent outside ; pistil 
glabrous. L. ilicifolia. 

Leaves several or many times longer than broad. 

Shrubby or hardly arborescent ; leaves elongated, from 
linear- to narrow-lanceolar, distantly serrated, soon 
glabrous ; their ultimate venules faint ; petals often 
glabrous ; pistil glabrous. L. loiigifolia. 

ORZTBS. 

1267. Leaves elliptical-lanceolar, flat, lobeless. 

Alpine shrub, rather tall ; leaves comparatively small, very 
firm, glabrous ; spikes mostly terminal and solitary 
flowers small ; bracts fugacious ; petals whitish, glabrous ; 
fruit beset with appressed shining hairlets. Figure 69. 

O. lancifolia. 



1268. Seeds surrounded by a broadish flat membrane. 

Leaves long, linear, lobeless or few-lobed, refracted at the 
margin ; racemes elongated ; flowers small ; corolla out- 
side densely beset with greyish soft hairlets ; style 
glabrous ; stigma somewhat lateral ; ovulary on a con- 
spicuous stipes ; fruit almost globular. 

G. pterosperma. 

Seeds surrounded by a very narrow or somewhat 
obliterated membrane ... ... ... ... 1269 

1269 Leaves mostly lobed or indented ... ... ... 1270 

Leaves constantly lobeless and also otherwise entire 1276 
1270. Prostrate. 

Leaves from ovate to elliptical, but often cuneate or even 
truncate at the base, wavy and prickly denticulated, soon 
glabrous ; racemes dense ; flowers small ; corolla outside 
beset with appressed grey shining hairlets ; style glabrous ; 
stigma almost lateral ; ovulary on a short stipes, invested 
with silk-like hairlets. G. repeiis. 

Erect or diffuse ., ............. 1271 



Victorian Plants. 279 



1271. Leaves very large. 

Leaves often produced into deltoid or semilanceolar lobes, 
invested beneath with short hairlets ; racemes dense, 
almost spicate ; flowers small ; corolla outside beset with 
minute hairlets ; style glabrous ; stigma slightly lateral ; 
ovulary on a very short stipes ; fruit small, pointed. 

G. Barklyana. 

Leaves moderately large or rather small ... ... 1272 

1272. Leaves nearly always simply lobed ... ... ... 1273 

Leaves nearly always repeatedly lobed ... 1274 

1273. Leaves without denticles at the margin in addition 

to the lobes. 

Leaves mostly ovate-cuneate in outline, with broadish, 
acute lobes, beneath beset with a silk-like or less frequently 
with a velvet-like vestiture ; racemes dense, almost 
spicate ; flowers rather large ; corolla pale, outside 
densely beset with minute hairlets ; style glabrous ; 
stigma somewhat lateral ; ovulary on a distinct stipes ; 
fruit almost ovate. G. ilicifolia. 

Leaves with prickly denticles at the margin in 
addition to the lobes. 

Leaves from lanceolar- to cuneate- or elliptic-ovate in 
outline, somewhat crisped, with broadish, acute lobes, 
beneath beset with soft often brownish hairlets ; racemes 
dense, almost spicate ; flowers rather large ; corolla out- 
side bearing a soft vestiture ; style glabrous ; stigma 
slightly lateral ; ovulary nearly sessile, densely beset 
with hairlets. G. aquif olium. 

1274. Flowers rather large. 

Leaves very rigid, simply or doubly pinnatisected, refracted 
at the margin, their segments broadish-linear, pungent ; 
racemes short ; summit of stalklets much descending ; 
corolla red, only near the summit curved, outside beset 
with appressed hairlets ; style slightly longer than the 
corolla, as well as the ovulary glabrous; stigma almost 
lateral ; fruit on a long stipes, much compressed, hard, 
oblique-ovate ; seeds plane-convex, broadish. Figure 70. 

G. Huegelii. 

Flowers very small ... .. ... ... ... 1275 



280 Key to the System of 

1275. Segments of leaves linear. 

Leaves twice or thrice ternately cleft, with very narrow 
pungent segments, refracted at the margin; racemes 
cylindrical, almost spicate ; flowers very small, corolla 
outside beset with hairlets ; style very short ; stigma 
quite terminal. G. triteruata. 

Segments of leaves elliptic- or lanceolar-cuneate. 

Leaves mostly twice trifid ; their segments or lobes indented 
at the summit ; racemes cylindrical, almost spicate ; 
flowers very small, corolla outside beset with hairlets ; 
style very short ; stigma quite terminal. 

G. ramosissima. 

1276. Corolla partly or quite red ... 1277 

Corolla yellow or pale ... ... ... ... 1283 

1277. Corolla almost or quite glabrous outside ... ... 1278 

Corolla extensively beset with short hairlets outside 1281 

1278. Leaves pointed, almost glabrous on the upper side. 

Leaves from narrow- to lanceolate-linear, revolute at the 
margin, beset with silky-shining hairlets underneath ; 
racemes very short, almost corymbous, somewhat bending 
downward ; corolla rosy-red except towards and at the 
pale summit ; style densely beset with hairlets ; stigma 
almost lateral ; ovulary sessile ; fruit nearly ellipsoid. 

G. ericifolia. 

Leaves blunt, beset with short soft hairlets also 
much on the upper side. 

- Leaves rather short, from elliptic- to broad-linear, revolute 
at the margin ; racemes very short ; corolla reddish, 
except at and near its summit ; style beset with short 
hairlets, much exserted ; stigma almost lateral ; ovulary 
sessile ; fruit nearly ellipsoid. G. lanigera. 

1279. Leaves comparatively small ... ... ... ' 1280 

Leaves comparatively large ... ... ... ... 1281 



Victorian Plants. 281 



1280. Flowers in very short racemes. 

Erect or diffuse; leaves from oval to linear-elliptical, 
recurved at the margins, underneath beset with an almost 
velvety vestiture ; lower portion of corolla deep-red or 
orange-colored, upper gradually yellowish ; style only 
slightly longer than the corolla ; ovulary sessile, as well 
as the style beset with short hairlets ; stigma almost 
lateral ; fruit nearly ellipsoid. Never alpine. 

(G. Dallachiana. ) G. alpina. 

Flowers almost umbellate. 

Never tall ; leaves from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar, recurved 
at the margin, beneath beset with a silk-like vestiture ; 
stalklets of flowers at the summit descendingly truncate ; 
corolla rosy-red except towards the pale summit, often 
somewhat invested outside ; style conspicuously exserted, 
not rarely glabrous ; ovulary on a short stipes, beset with 
a short vestiture ; stigma almost lateral ; fruit oblique- 
ellipsoid, pointed. G. lavandulacea. 

1281. Racemes elongated. 

Tall ; leaves usually elongate-lanceolar, beneath beset with 
a silk-like vestiture ; racemes bent downward ; corolla 
outside invested with almost copper-colored hairlets ; 
style nearly glabrous ; stigma almost lateral ; ovulary 
glabrous, on a short stipes ; fruit oblique -ellipsoid. 

G. Victoriae. 

Racemes abbreviated 1282 

1282. Pistil considerably longer than the corolla. 

Usually somewhat diffuse ; leaves very firm, from narrow- 
lanceolar to broad-linear, beneath beset with a silk-like 
vestiture ; corolla bright-red, outside invested with 
shining appressed hairlets ; style and ovulary glabrous, 
the latter on a conspicuous stipes ; stigma almost lateral ; 
fruit oblique-ellipsoid. G. oleoides. 

Pistil slightly longer than the corolla. 

Erect ; leaves mostly from elliptic to ovate, beset with soft 
hairlets beneath, the secondary venules rather prominent ; 
corolla dull-red, outside laxly invested ; ovulary glabrous, 
on a short stipes ; fruit oblique- ellipsoid. 

G. Miqueliana. 



282 Key to the System of 



1283. Corolla quite yellow inside. 

Leaves from narrow-elliptical to oval, recurved at the 
margin, beset underneath with a velvety vestiture ; 
racemes moderately short ; corolla brown-velvety in- 
vested outside ; ovulary sessile, as well as the style 
densely beset with short hairlets ; style only slightly 
exserted; stigma almost lateral; fruit ellipsoid -ovate. 

G. iloribunda. 

Corolla pale inside ... 1284 

1284. Leaves recurved at the margin. 

Alpine shrub ; leaves rather small, from narrow- to elliptic- 
lanceolar, pungent, beset underneath with silk-like vesti- 
ture ; flowers very small, in almost umbel-like racemes ; 
corolla beset with grey shining hairlets outside ; ovulary 
glabrous ; stigma almost lateral ; fruit nearly ellipsoid. 

G. Australis. 

Leaves closely repressed at the margin ... ... 1285 

1285. Pistil considerably longer than the corolla. 

Leaves crowded, linear, rigid, pungent-pointed ; corolla 
very small, beset outside with silk-like grey vestiture ; 
ovulary glabrous, on a short stipes ; stigma almost lateral. 

G. confertifolia. 

Pistil hardly longer than the corolla. 

Leaves quite linear, slightly pointed ; flowers very small, in 
umbel-like racemes; corolla beset with silk -like grey 
vestiture outside ; ovulary glabrous ; stigma almost 
lateral ; fruit nearly ellipsoid. G. parviflora. 

KAK.EA. 

1286. Stigma depressed, almost lateral ... 1287 

Stigma conical, almost or quite terminal ... ... 1294 

1287. Leaves dissimilar in form. 

Upper leaves mainly filiform, lower often from channelled- 
linear to narrow-lanceolar ; flowers small, in sessile 
axillary umbels ; petals whitish, glabrous ; fruit com- 
paratively small and particularly narrow, somewhat 
ellipsoid, rather compressed, with two very short infra- 
terminal points, otherwise blunt. H. microcarpa. 

Leaves all similar in form ... 1288 



Victorian Plants. 283 



1288. Leaves flat 1289 

Leaves filiform 1290 

1289. Corolla glabrous. 

Tall-shrubby ; leaves from narrow- to broad-lanceolar, 
occasionally verging into an elliptic form, greyish-green, 
the lateral venules subtle and much concealed ; flowers 
small, in sessile axillary umbels, fragrant ; petals whitish, 
glabrous ; fruit very turgid, but much narrowed towards 
the base, attenuated into the slightly truncated apex ; 
seeds rather narrow. H. saligna. 

Corolla outside beset with a close vestiture. 

Tall-shrubby or finally even arborescent ; leaves greyish- 
green, elongate -lanceolar, their lateral venules faint and 
much concealed ; flowers small, in axillary sessile umbels ; 
stalklets beset with short hairlets as well as the petals 
outside ; fruit rather large, oblique-ovate, nearly blunt. 

H. e riant ha, 

1290. Corolla bright-yellow. 

Leaves rather short, compressed-filiform ; flowers minute, 
. in sessile axillary umbels; petals glabrous; fruit com- 
paratively large, oblique -ovate, turgid, nearly blunt, often 
verrucular -rough. H. nodosa. 

Corolla whitish or pale ... ... ... ... 1291 

1291. Flowers in short racemes. 

Finally tall ; branches hardly spreading ; leaves greyish- 
green, pungently straight-pointed ; flowers small, crowded ; 
stalk of inflorescence densely beset with short hairlets ; 
petals yellowish-white, nearly always glabrous ; fruit 
almost ovate, somewhat compressed towards the summit, 
slightly enlarged under the acute apex ; membranous 
appendage of the seeds quite pale. H. leucoptera. 

Flowers in umbel-like clusters ... ... ... 1292 

1292. Terminating membrane of the seeds pale. 

, Finally tall ; leaves light-green, pungently curved -pointed ; 
umbels axillary, sessile ; petals outside beset with short 
brownish hairlets ; fruit nearly ovate, somewhat com- 
pressed towards the summit, slightly enlarged under the 
acute apex. (H. Pampliniana. ) H. vittata. 

Terminating membrane of the seeds dark ... ... 1293 



284 Keij to the System of 



1293. Fruit ending in two small horn-like excrescences. 

Finally rather tall ; leaves very rigid, pungently straight- 
pointed, beneath with an imperfect furrow ; umbels 
axillary, almost sessile ; stalklets and often also the young 
branchlets beset with shining hairlets ; petals whitish or 
somewhat pink, glabrous ; fruit comparatively large, 
very turgid, wrinkled-rough, suddenly compressed from 
near the summit. (H. acicularis.) H. sericea. 

Fruit almost or quite blunt. 

Leaves much elongated, thinly filiform, rather lax, con- 
spicuously pointed, underneath with a slight longitudinal 
furrow ; umbels axillary, few-flowered, almost glabrous ; 
flowers quite small ; fruit comparatively large, nearly 
ovate, very turgid, outside densely verrucular-rough, 
except at the much compressed summit. 

H. Macraeaua. 

1294. Leaves dissimilar in form. 

Seldom tall ; leaves from compressed -filiform to trigonous- 
linear or the lower flattened to elongate-lanceolar, all 
pointed ; umbels axillary, solitary, sessile, glabrous ; 
flowers quite small ; fruit oblique-ovate, turgid, simply 
acute, almost smooth. (H. flexilis.) H. ulicina. 

Leaves all similar in form ... ... ... ... 1295 

1295. Fruit pungently straight-pointed. 

Leaves generally rather short, spreading, pungent-pointed ; 
umbels axillary, sessile, few-flowered ; petals outside in- 
vested with short hairlets ; fruit comparatively slender, 
beset across the middle with acute excrescences. 

H. pugioniformis. 

Upper portion of fruit much recurved 1296 

1296. Fruit comparatively large. 

Seldom tall ; leaves comparatively long, filiform, pungently 
straight -pointed ; umbels axillary, sessile ; flowers small ; 
petals outside beset with appressed greyish shining hair- 
lets ; fruit wrinkled-rough, somewhat turgescent at the 
base, -closely recurved in its upper gradually much 
attenuated portion. Figure 71. H. rostrata. 

Fruit comparatively small. 

Never tall ; leaves comparatively short, spreading, filiform, 
pungently straight-pointed ; umbels axillary, sessile, 
few-flowered ; petals outside beset with appressed greyish 
shining hairlets ; fruit wrinkled-rough, its reflexed pro- 
longation formed by the much enlarged hardened and 
finally split style. H. rugosa. 



Victorian Plants. 285 



BANK.SIA. 

1297. Style permanently hooked. 

Tall-shrubby ; leaves broad-linear, sharply serrated, white 
underneath from a close thin vestiture ; corolla yellow or 
towards the summit reddish, outside beset with appressed 
hairlets ; style dark-colored, shining ; fruits glabrous, 

B. colliua. 

Style finally straight 1298 

1298. Leaves acute at the summit. 

Finally tall-arborescent ; leaves very firm, from elliptic- to 
elongate-lanceolar, usually quite entire, some almost 
crowded into whorls, white underneath from a close 
vestiture ; ultimate venules rather conspicuous ; style 
yellowish ; fruit-vestiture thin. B. iiitegrifolia, 

Leaves excised or truncate at the summit ... ... 1299 

1299. Leaves irregularly or scantily denticulated or quite 

entire. 

From dwarf-shrubby to tall-arborescent ; leaves from broad- 
linear to elliptic-lanceolar, often recurved at the margin, 
sometimes comparatively small, always white underneath 
from a close thin vestiture ; ultimate venules much con- 
cealed ; corolla yellow, beset with appressed hairlets 
outside ; style yellowish ; fruits glabrescent. Figure 73. 

B. marginata. 

Leaves regularly serrated ... ... ... ... 1300 

1300. Corolla outside invested with appressed hairlets. 

Finally arborescent ; leaves cuneate-lanceolar, underneath 
beset with greyish hairlets ; main-venules costular ; 
corolla yellowish j fruit-vestiture conspicuous. 

B. serrata. 

Corolla outside invested with spreading hairlets. 

Permanently shrubby, but tall at last ; leaves cuneate- 
elliptical, nearly glabrous underneath ; main-venules 
costular ; corolla dull-yellowish or assuming a somewhat 
reddish hue ; fruit-vestiture very conspicuous. 

B. ornata. 



286 Key to the System of 

SANTALACEAE. 
EXOCARPOS. 

1301. Shrubby 1302 

Arborescent ... ... ... ... ... 1305 

1302. Fruit-stalklet pale-lilac. 

Erect, finally tall, often riparian ; branchlets angular ; 
leaves rudimentary, linear, pointed ; flowers from very 
few in each cluster reduced to two ; fruit-stalklets very 
succulent. E, strict a. 

Fruit-stalklet bright-red 1303 

1303. Erect. 

Desert-shrub; branchlets robust, hardly angular; leaves 
rudimentary, scale-like ; flowers few in each cluster ; 
fruit-stalklets very succulent, broader than long. 

E. aphylla, 

Depressed 1304 

1304. Leaves mostly scattered. 

Alpine plant ; branchlets robust, cylindrical, their inter- 
nodes rather elongated ; leaves rudimentary, scale-like ; 
flowers from very few in each cluster reduced to two, 
usually four-lobed ; fruit-stalklets very succulent. 

E. humifusa. 

Leaves mostly opposite. 

Alpine plant ; branchlets slender, compressed, their inter- 
nodes much abbreviated ; leaves rudimentary, scale-like, 
very minute ; flowers usually five-lobed. E, nana. 

1305. Branchlets somewhat spreading. 

Finally quite tall ; leaves rudimentary, scale-like ; flower- 
spikes very small, short-stalked ; fruit-stalklets bright-red, 
very succulent, longer than broad. "Native Cherry- 
tree." E, CTipressiformis. 

Branchlets pendent. 

Leaves slightly elongated, linear, long-pointed ; flowers in 
short-stalked small spikes ; fruit-stalklets almost dry, 
greenish. Figure 65. E, spartea. 



Victorian Plants. 287 



SANTAX.T7BI. 

1306. Tube of the calyx free in its upper part. 

' Leaves from narrow- to lanceolar-elliptical, hardly pointed, 
recurved at the margin, dark -green above, paler beneath ; 
flowers few in each cyme ; fruit comparatively small, 
bluish-black outside. S. obtusifolinm. 

Tube of the calyx entirely adnate ... 1307 

1307. Inner hard part of the fruit (endocarp) deeply 

wrinkled and grooved. 

Leaves generally narrow-lanceolar, flat, greyish-green, 
curved-pointed ; flowers several in each cyme ; fruit 
comparatively large, outside succulent and bright-red. 

"Quandang." S. acumiiiatum. 

Inner hard part of the fruit slightly wrinkled and 
grooved. 

Leaves from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, flat, greyish -green, 
curved-pointed, occasionally ternate ; flowers several in 
each cyme ; fruit comparatively large, outside almost 
dry and brownish-red. S. persicarium. 



THESIUM. 

1308. Racemes spike-like. 

Glabrous, slender and weak plant ; leaves, except some of 
the lower, almost linear, slightly decurrent ; racemes 
lax ; flowers supported by short bracteoles and a narrow 
somewhat adnate bract ; tube of the corolla about as long 
as the lobes ; fruit from ovate to almost globular. 

T. Australe. 

OBXPHACOIKERXA. 

1309. Leaves entirely absent. 

Branchlets rigid, without any prominent angles, subtle- 
streaked; flowers sessile, the staminate clustered; corolla- 
lobes yellow inside, oftener four than five; stigma 
bilobed ; fruit nearly ovate, greenish outside. 

O. acerba. 



288 Key to the System of 

CHORETRUIK. 

1310. Flower-clusters arranged in racemes ... 1311 

Flowers simply arranged in spikes or scattered ... 1312 

1311. Corolla white. 

Branchlets rather lax, angular ; leaves minute, pointed ; 
flower-clusters short-stalked ; bracts and bracteoles 
roundish ; corolla cleft into nearly distinct petals ; 
stigma five-lobed ; fruit ovate-globular, greenish. 

C. glomeratum. 

Corolla yellow. 

Branchlets rather lax, angular ; leaves minute, pointed ; 
flower-clusters short-stalked ; bracts and bracteoles from 
ovate to orbicular ; corolla cleft into nearly distinct 
petals ; stigma five-lobed ; fruit globular-ovate, greenish. 
Figure 64. C. clirysanthiim. 

1312. Flowers quite sessile. 

Branchlets rather rigid, slightly streaked ; leaves minute, 
curved, much pointed, at first crowded ; flowers solitary, 
generally crowded into rather long spikes, each surrounded 
by brown bracts and bracteoles ; fruit ovate-globular. 

C. spicatum. 

Flowers slightly stalked. 

Branchlets rather lax, slightly streaked; leaves minute, 
much pointed; flowers solitary, each surrounded by 
bracts and bracteoles, generally somewhat distant ; 
corolla white, each segment beset inside with a tuft of 
yellow very minute hairlets ; fruit ovate-globular, pale. 

C. lateriflorum. 

XiEPTOXKERXA. 

1313. Flowers in rather elongated spikes. 

Branchlets distinctly angular, bluntish at the apex ; leaves 
minute, narrow, pointed ; corolla yellowish-brown ; 
stigma five-lobed; fruit globular-ovate, outside reddish. 

L. acida. 

Flowers in quite abbreviated spikes. 

Branchlets very rigid, hardly angular, spinescent ; leaves 
minute, pointed, fugacious ; corolla soon black-purplish ; 
stigma five-lobed ; fruit from ellipsoid- to globular-ovate, 
greenish outside. L. aphylla. 



Victorian Plants. 280 



RUB X ACE A E. 
BXORXNDA. 

1314. Climbing or twining. 

Glabrous ; leaves rather large, from lanceolar to almost 
ovate ; headlets in pairs, on short stalks, with about a 
dozen or less seldom more flowers ; calyx lobeless ; corolla 
rather small, pale yellow-brownish, its tube slender ; ripe 
fruit-masses reddish outside. M. jasminoides. 

OPXSRCUX.ARXA. 

1315. Fruit-masses on erect stalks. 

Erect or diffuse, beset with short rigid hairlets ; leaves 
rather small, from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar ; compound 
headlets of flowers generally on long stalks ; lobes of the 
calyx narrow, pointed, persistent ; stamens four ; seeds 
obtusangular. O. scabrida. 

Fruit-masses on recurved stalks ... ... ... 1316 

1316. Leaves usually twice or three times longer than broad 1317 
Leaves usually several times longer than broad ... 1318 

1317. Seeds transversely wrinkled. 

Erect or diffuse, much beset with hairlets ; leaves rather 
small, from lanceolar to ovate ; stalk of inflorescence 
short ; headlets ten or less in each inflorescence, small, 
three- to five-flowered ; corolla generally five-cleft ; 
stamens usually one or two ; seeds without any prominent 
longitudinal lines. O. hispida. 

Seeds without transverse wrinkles. 

Erect or diffuse, not seldom almost glabrous ; leaves from 
lanceolar- to rhomboidal-ovate, on very short stalks ; 
compound headlets also short-stalked ; calyx-lobes 
generally three, semilanceolar ; stamens three to four, 
much exserted ; seeds furrowed along the inner side. 

O. ovata. 

1318. Stamens three to five. 

Erect or diffuse, somewhat tall, not seldom beset with short 
hairlets ; leaves rather large, from broad- to narrow-lan- 
ceolar, almost membranous ; stalk of inflorescence short ; 
headlets twenty or variously less in each inflorescence, 
from two- to six-flowered ; lobes of the calyx acute ; 
corolla three- to five-lobed ; seeds conspicuously wrinkled, 
prominently two-lined. O. aspera. 

U 



290 Key to the System of 



Stamens two. 

Erect or diffuse, generally beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
rather small and firm, from broad-linear to narrow-lan- 
ceolar and elliptical ; stalk of inflorescence very short ; 
headlets usually three- or four-flowered; lobes of the 
calyx very narrow, acute ; seeds somewhat wrinkled, 
prominently two-lined. O. varia. 

POIIXAX. 

1319. Each headlet of flowers on a separate elongated stalk. 

Often rather dwarf, usually beset with short hairlets ; 
leaves from narrow- to ovate-lanceolar, the floral leaves 
mostly whorled ; headlets generally three- or four- 
flowered ; encircling calyx-lobes deltoid ; lid above flat 
and orbicular, deciduous ; corolla small, three- to five- 
lobed ; stamens three to five, conspicuously exserted ; 
seeds wrinkled-rough. P. umbellata. 

COPROS1KA. 

1320. Erect ... 1321 

Depressed ... 1323 

1321. Flowers few together in each cluster. 

Shrubby, minutely rough and usually beset with scattered 
very short hairlets ; leaves comparatively large, from 
lanceolar-ovate to almost rhomboid, somewhat succulent, 
shining, sharp-pointed ; flowers terminal, rarely reduced 
to two or even one ; stalklets very short ; denticles of 
calyx four or five or rarely more, minute ; lobes of corolla 
longer than the tube ; stamens four to seven ; fruit rather 
large, red or brown-yellowish outside. C. hirtella. 

Flowers solitary 1322 

1322. Leaves of thin texture. 

Finally tall-shrubby ; branchlets spinescent ; leaves small, 
from narrow- to ovate-lanceolar, smooth and glabrous; 
flowers axillary, very small ; denticles of calyx four, 
minute ; lobes of the corolla longer than the tube ; fruit 
pendent, ovate-ellipsoid, bright-red outside. 

C. Billardieri. 

Leaves of thick texture. 

Alpine shrub ; leaves glabrous, quite small, from narrow- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, shining, recurved at the margin ; 
flowers small; corolla greenish-white, lobes four, longer 
than the tube ; fruit from ellipsoid to almost globular, 
outside bright-red. C. nitida. 



Victorian Plants. 291 



1323. Somewhat woody. 

Alpine plant, widely prostrate; leaves thick, very small, 
blunt, from narrow- to ovate-elliptical, shining ; flowers 
solitary ; corolla of staminate flowers with elongated 
tube, that of the pistillate flowers with abbreviated tube ; 
stamens particularly long-exserted ; fruit ovate-globular, 
outside red. C. pnmila. 

Quite herbaceous ... ... 1324 

1324. Calyx almost lobeless. 

Glabrous, forming dense very depressed patches ; leaves 
minute, thin, from ovate- to cordate-orbicular ; flowers 
solitary ; corolla very short, pale, four-lobed ; stamens 
and pistils well developed in most flowers, but the 
filaments often abbreviated in the fruit-forming flowers ; 
fruit very small, almost globular, red or bright-yellow 
outside. C. Nertera. 

Calyx conspicuously two-lobed. 

Quite dw.arf, somewhat creeping and tufted ; leaves very 
small, on short stalks, thin, ovate, slightly pointed, often 
beset with short scattered and rather rigid hairlets ; 
flowers solitary ; corolla elongated ; fruit nearly ovate, 
almost dry. C. reptans. 



ASFERULA. 

1325. Leaves simply opposite. 

Stems and branches rather elongated, lax ; leaves never 
whorled, always linear ; flowers minute, well stalked ; 
calyx lobeless ; corolla whitish, four-lobed, that of the 
main staminate flowers with a conspicuous tube, that of 
the main pistillate flowers tubeless ; fruit minute, con- 
sisting of two oblique-ovate turgid finally seceding 
fruitlets. Figure 75. A. gemiiiifolia. 

Leaves from four to eight in each whorl. 

Dwarf, erect or diffuse ; leaves small, from linear to oval ; 
flowers minute, terminally crowded, but never numerous ; 
calyx lobeless ; corolla whitish, four-lobed, that of the 
main staminate flowers with a conspicuous tube, that of 
the main pistillate flowers tubeless ; fruit minute, slightly 
two-lobed. (A. conferta.) A. oligantha. 



292 Key to the System of 

GALIU1VI. 

1326. Fruit smooth and glabrous. 

Stems often short and erect, mostly somewhat rough from 
minute hairlets ; leaves small, generally four in each 
whorl, from broad-linear to ovate-lanceolar ; flowers 
minute, axillary crowded, but never numerous ; flower- 
stalks mostly abbreviated ; calyx lobeless ; corolla 
whitish or yellowish, four-lobed ; fruit minute, slightly 
two-lobed. G. nmbrosum. 

Fruit rough and beset with hooked hairlets. 

Stems often elongated and diffuse or prostrate, mostly beset 
with short clinging hairlets ; leaves generally four in 
each whorl, from narrow-lanceolar to ovate ; flowerstalks 
mostly elongated, with few minute flowers on conspicuous 
capillary stalklets ; fruit minute, tardily seceding into 
two fruitlets. G. Australe. 



CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 

SAftXBUCUS. 

1327. Arborescent. 

Lowest segments of the leaves distant from the branchlets ; 
corolla-lobes and stamens three or rarely four ; fruit 
yellowish. Figure 76. S. xautliocarpa. 

Almost herbaceous. 

Lowest segments of the leaves close to the branchlets ; 
corolla-lobes and stamens three or rarely four ; fruit 
whitish. S. Gandichaudiana. 



COmPOSXTAE. 

IVIICROSERIS. 

1328. Fruits slightly narrowed into the somewhat truncate 
summit. 

Almost glabrous ; root fascicular, edible, lactescent ; leaves 
elongated, their lobes rather short and narrow ; headlets 
of flowers amply expanding ; receptacle bractless ; involu- 
cral bracts in several rows, acute, the innermost row far 
the longest ; corolla of central flowers very narrow ; fruit 
slender ; pappus-bristlets mostly biseriate, occasionally 
plumous-ciliolated. M. Forsteri. 



Victorian Plants. 293 



CYMBONOTUS. 

1329. Leaves almost ovate, underneath white from a close 

vestiture. 

Stems generally shorter than the leaves, producing solitary 
headlets of flowers ; receptacle very imperfectly bract - 
bearing or bractless ; marginal flowers pistillate only ; 
fruit glabrous, dorsally turgid and prominently few- 
streaked. C. Lawsonianus. 

ADENOSTEIVIBIA. 

1330. Leaves from elliptical- and cuneate-lanceolar to 

rhomboid- and cordate-orbicular. 

Leaves rather large, the upper short-stalked or almost 
sessile ; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolar-elliptical, of 
nearly equal length ; no bracts between the flowers ; 
corolla beset with minute hairlets outside ; anthers with- 
out any conspicuous terminal appendage ; papjms short; 
fruits somewhat rough, few-angular. A. viscosum. 

BXDBNS. 

1331. Leaves usually three- to five-cleft. 

Annual, often glabrous ; leaves occasionally undivided and 
sometimes the upper alternate ; segments generally lan- 
ceolar, serrated ; outer involucral bracts spreading, longer 
than the inner ; long -expanding marginal flowers yellow, 
but not rarely absent ; fruits much compressed, obovate, 
rough along the margin from reversed asperities. 

B. tripartitus. 

GLOSSOOYNE. 

1332. Segments of leaves linear. 

Perennial, glabrous, seldom tall ; segments of leaves rather 
short and acute, oftener lobeless than lobed, those of the 
upper leaves much reduced ; headlets of flowers compara- 
tively small ; stigmas very thin, elongated ; fruits narrow, 
longitudinally streaked; pappus-spinules without any 
curvature. G. tenuifolia. 

ECLIFTA. 

1333. Corolla of all flowers yellow, those of the marginal 

flowers with broadly flattened lamina. 

Perennial, prostrate or ascending, beset with short appressed 
rigid hairlets ; leaves entire, from narrow-lanceolar to 
broad-linear ; headlets of flowers small, on axillary 
generally elongated stalks ; outer involucral bracts 
almost lanceolar ; fruit slender, somewhat hollowed at 
the summit. Figure 87. E. platyglossa- 



294 Key to the System of 



SIEGESBECK.IA. 

1334. Corolla of the marginal flowers expanding into an 

indented lamina. 

Rather tall, beset with short hairlets ; leaves from deltoid- 
rhomboid to narrow-lanceolar, irregularly indented ; 
headlets of flowers small, conspicuously stalked ; outer 
involucral bracts few, usually much exceeding the inner 
in length, beset with glandule-bearing short hairlets ; 
expanding lamina of the marginal flowers very short, 
yellow ; fruits somewhat turgid. S. orientalis. 

LETJZEA. 

1335. Segments of leaves mostly semilanceolar, slightly 

indented. 

Almost or quite branchless; vestiture scanty, somewhat 
cottony or consisting of minute hairlets ; leaves occa- 
sionally lobeless; marginal flowers also staminate and 
pistillate ; lobes of the corolla rather long, tube very 
slender ; fruits truncate, hardly compressed, subtle- 
streaked. L. Australis. 

VERNONIA. 

1336. Leaves from obovate to broad-linear, imperfectly 

denticulated. 

Herbaceous, often somewhat beset with a thin rather cottony 
vestiture ; upper leaves gradually narrower ; headlets of 
flowers small, on slender stalks, forming terminal corymbs ; 
involucral bracts quite narrow, acute ; fruits closely 
invested with short hairlets. V. cilierea. 

FLUCHEA. 

1337. Headlets of flowers hemiellipsoid-cylindrical. 

Shrubby, grey from a thin close vestiture ; leaves small, 
from spatular- to obovate-ouneate, sessile, flat, entire, in- 
vested on both sides ; headlets of flowers singly terminal, 
sessile ; involucral bracts in many rows, blunt ; staminate 
and pistillate flowers mainly in separate headlets, never 
numerous ; corollas very slender throughout ; fruits thin, 
glabrous ; bristlets of pappus slightly plumous. 

F. couocephala. 

CALOTIS. 

1338. Comparatively tall ... ... 1339 

Dwarf 1345 



Victorian Plants. 295 



1339. Expansions of the marginal corollas bluish or violet 

or white ... ... 1340 

Expansions of the marginal corollas yellow ... ... 1342 

1340. Pappus consisting of spinules only. 

Much beset with hairlets ; root producing off-shoots ; stems 
hardly branched ; lower leaves from ovate- to linear - 
cuneate, bluntly short-lobed ; upper leaves few and small ; 
headlets of flowers comparatively large ; spinules of 
ppus about eight, alternately larger and smaller, 

C. scabiosifolia, 



pappus 
barbed. 



Pappus consisting of spinules and scales ... ... 1341 

1341. Scales of the pappus broader than long. 

Vestiture without glandules ; branches leafy ; leaves lax, 
dilated upwards and incised, clasping with broad base ; 
headlets of flowers comparatively large ; spinules of 
pappus two or three, slender, barbed, alternating with 
broad distinct scales. C, cuneifolia. 

Scales of the pappus longer than broad. 

Beset with short glandule-bearing hairlets ; stems prostrate 
or ascendent, leafy ; leaves from obovate- to elliptic- 
cuneate, upwards lobed ; headlets comparatively large ; 
spinules of pappus two to seven, thin, barbed, alternating 
with elliptic-cuneate scales. C. glandulosa. 

1342. Spinules of the pappus always two. 

Imperfectly beset with hairlets ; branches leafy ; leaves 
from linear- to elliptical -cuneate, upwards indented ; 
headlets of flowers comparatively large ; spinules of 
pappus barbed, dilated downwards, without interjacent 
scales. Figure 80. C. cymbacantha. 

Spinules of the pappus more than two ... ... 1343 

1343. Spinules of the pappus connate towards their base. 

Almost glabrous, branched ; leaves distant, from broad- to 
lanceolar-linear ; headlets of flowers comparatively large ; 
spinules of pappus three to five, nearly equal, broadly 
united at the base, hardly barbed, without interjacent 
scales. C,' erinacea. 

Spinules of the pappus disconnected... ... ... 1344 



296 Key to the System of 



1344. Pappus longer than the fruit. 

Branched, somewhat beset Vith hairlets ; lower leaves 
elliptic-cuneate, somewhat indented, the upper narrow 
and entire; headlets of flowers comparatively small; 
spinules of the pappus four to eight, short, unequal, 
barbed. C. lappulacea. 

Pappus shorter than the fruit. 

Branched, somewhat beset with hairlets ; leaves small, 
mostly elliptic-cuneate, often denticulated ; headlets of 
flowers minute ; spinules of the pappus six to eight, 
exceedingly short, barbed. C, niicrocephala. 

1345. Expansions of the marginal corollas minute. 

Annual, dwarf or prostrate, much beset with short rigid 
hairlets ; leaves small, from obovate- to lanceolar-cuneate, 
entire or at the summit indented ; headlets of flowers 
small, on short stalks or almost sessile ; spinules of the 
pappus four to eight, very short and thin, barbed, mostly 
alternating with cleft scales. C. hispichila. 

Expansions of the marginal corollas conspicuous ... 1346 

1346. Fruits beset with cottony vestiture. 

Annual ; leaves from elliptic- to lanceolar-cuneate, entire 
or somewhat denticulated ; headlets of flowers small ; 
expansions of the marginal flowers violet or white ; 
pappus of several or numerous minute capillary barbed 
bristlets. C. plumulifera. 

Fruits except their spinules glabrous ... ... 1347 

1347. Leaves entire or indented. 

Almost glabrous; off-shoots rooting; leaves nearly all 
radical, in tufts, from linear to narrow-lanceolar, entire 
or somewhat denticulated; headlets of flowers small, 
singly terminal ; expansions of the marginal flowers 
violet or white ; spinules of the pappus several, alter- 
nately strong and much thinner, almost barbed with 
reversed hairlets. C. scapigera. 

Leaves deeply cleft into very narrow segments. 

Almost glabrous; off-shoots rooting; leaves nearly all 
radical, in tufts, pinnatisected, the lobes linear and 
partially subdivided; headlets of flowers small, singly 
terminal ; expansions of the marginal flowers violet or 
white ; spinules of the pappus six to eight, short, unequal, 
barbed. C. ant hem aides. 



Victorian Plants. 297 



BZZNUaiA. 

1348. Expansions of the marginal corollas yellow. 

Glabrous desert-plant, never tall, slightly woody ; leaves 
very small, semicylindric-linear, greyish-green, often 
hooked-curved at the end, somewhat succulent and de- 
current ; headlets of flowers very small, on short stalks ; 
involucral bracts in about two rows of almost equal 
length ; expanding lamina of marginal flowers very 
short; pappus tubular towards the base or with some 
disconnected bristlets ; fertile fruits glabrous. 

M. suaedifolia. 

Expansions of the marginal corollas white or bluish 1349 

1349. Expansions of the marginal corollas abbreviated. 

Desert-plant, neither tall nor woody, either glabrous or 
somewhat beset with a cottony vestiture ; leaves from 
broad- to linear-lanceolar, greyish-green, entire or dis- 
tantly denticulated ; headlets of flowers small, con- 
spicuously stalked ; involucral bracts narrow, short ; 
marginal flowers numerous, their expanding lamina bluish 
or white, very narrow ; pappus of fertile fruits consisting 
of disconnected bristlets, that of the sterile fruits much 
reduced and in part minutely scale-like. 

M. Candollei. 

Expansions of the marginal corollas elongated ... 1350 

1350. Fruits of the ray-flowers almost glabrous. 

Rather tall desert-plant, always glabrous, somewhat woody ; 
leaves semicylindric-linear, almost succulent, quite entire, 
often acute ; headlets of flowers comparatively large, con- 
spicuously stalked ; involucral bracts of unequal length ; 
lamina of ray-flowers rather long-extended, generally 
whitish ; pappus of marginal flowers consisting of many 
capillary disconnected bristlets, that of the central 
flowers much reduced, partly scale-like ; fertile fruits 
slender. Figure 79. M. Cunningham!. 

Fruits of the ray-flowers densely beset with a silk-like 
vestiture. 

Usually a desert-plant, never tall, often almost glabrous, 
hardly woody ; leaves from broad- to narrow-linear, 
mostly acute, quite entire ; headlets of flowers com- 



298 Key to the System of 



paratively large, often conspicuously stalked ; involucral 
bracts of unequal length ; lamina of ray-flowers rather 
long- extended, generally bluish ; pappus of marginal 
flowers consisting of capillary disconnected hairlets, that 
of the central flowers much reduced, partly scale-like. 

M. leptophylla. 



ERXG-BRON. 

1351. Headlets of flowers several in a panicle. 

Tall perennial sub-alpine plant, branched and nearly 
glabrous ; leaves from broad-linear to lanceolar, the 
lower elongated and distantly denticulated ; involucral 
bracts very narrow, much pointed ; ray-flowers in about 
two rows, whitish ; fruits scantily beset with hairlets. 

E. conyzoides. 

Headlets of flowers singly terminal ... ... ... 1352 

1352. Stems branchless. 

Perennial, but quite herbaceous, never tall, here alpine ; 
radical leaves from obovate- to linear-lanceolar, entire or 
somewhat denticulated ; stem-leaves much reduced in 
number and size; involucral bracts mostly linear-lanceolar; 
ray-flowers in about two rows, the expansions generally 
violet; fruits glabrous. E. pappochromus. 

Stems branched. 

Coast-plant, slightly woody, never tall, generally ascending 
or diffuse ; leaves very small, narrow-linear ; ray-flowers 
in several rows ; bristlets of pappus comparatively few, 
slightly plumous. E. minurioides. 



VITTADINIA. 

1353. Fruits streaked, shorter than the pappus. 

Perennial herb, finally somewhat woody, usually rather 
dwarf and much beset with hairlets ; branches leafy ; 
leaves often small, from spatular-obovate to narrow- 
linear, entire or somewhat indented or even incised, their 
upper end often folded inward ; ray-flowers sometimes 
reduced to two rows, often bluish ; stigmas pointed ; 
pappus-bristlets rather long, occasionally slightly plumous; 
fruits somewhat elongated, beset with short hairlets. 

V. Australis. 



Victorian Plants. 299 



ASTER. 

1354. Quite herbaceous. 

Alpine tufted plant; stems branchless; leaves mostly radical, 
from broad -linear to elongate - lanceolar, recurved or 
revolute along the margin, clasping with broad base, 
beset with a silvery-silklike finally deciduous vestiture 
above and with a velvetlike indument underneath ; 
stem-leaves much shortened or bract-like ; flower-headlets 
large, singly terminal ; involucral bracts acute ; radiating 
expansions of marginal flowers white or slightly purplish ; 
fruits beset with silk -like vestiture. A, Celmisia. 

Nearly or fully shrubby 1355 

1355. Leaves opposite or axillary-clustered ... 1356 
Leaves scattered 1365 

1356. Leaves opposite, large ... 1357 
Leaves clustered, small ... ... ... 1359 

1357. Leaves comparatively narrow. 

Alpine shrub, evergreen and rather tall ; leaves very firm, 
elongated, from broad-linear to narrowly lanceolar-ellip- 
tical, entire, slightly recurved along the margin, glabrous 
above, densely beset with silk-like greyish vestiture 
beneath ; headlets of flowers rather small, on slender 
stalks in corymbous or trichotomous panicles ; floral ray 
whitish ; fruits glabrous. A. alpicola. 

Leaves comparatively broad ... ... ... ... 1358 

1358. Leaves densely beset with brownish velvet-like 

vestiture underneath. 

An alpine or sub-alpine shrub, rather tall ; leaves firm, from 
elliptical to almost ovate, flat, entire, above glabrous, the 
vestiture beneath without lustre ; headlets of flowers in 
corymbous panicles ; floral ray white ; fruits invested 
with short hairlets. A. megalophyllus. 

Leaves thinly beset with whitish silk-like vestiture 
underneath. 

Finally tall ; leaves of thin texture, from lanceolar to 
elliptical, entire, flat, sticky ; headlets of flowers rather 
small, in cymous panicles ; flowers comparatively few 
within each involucre ; corollas of central flowers pale ; 
ray reduced to four or fewer expansions, white or violet- 
coloured ; fruits nearly glabrous. A. visGOSUS. 



300 Key to the System of 



1359. Vestiture much consisting of simple septate hairlets. 

Shrub, seldom tall, invested extensively with minute 
glandule -bearing hairlets ; leaves short, linear, soon re- 
curved along the margin ; headlets of flowers short, 
terminally sessile, forming narrow leafy panicles ; floral 
ray bluish ; fruits beset with short hairlets. 

A. Beiithami. 

Vestiture consisting of somewhat cottony hairlets ... 1360 

1360. Marginal corollas with a minute flat expansion .. 1361 

Marginal corollas with a very conspicuous flat 
expansion ... ... .. ... ... 1362 

1361. Flowers few within each involucre. 

Bather tall; leaves linear, somewhat elongated, revolute 
at the margin, many in clusters ; headlets of flowers very 
small, axillary, nearly sessile ; involucral bracts blunt ; 
expansions of marginal corollas almost obliterated ; fruits 
beset with hairlets. A. tubuliflorus. 

Flowers several within each involucre. 

A coast-shrub, rather tall; leaves somewhat elongated, 
from obovate-cuneate to linear, revolute at the margin ; 
headlets of flowers axillary, sessile, small ; involucral 
bracts blunt ; expansions of marginal corollas almost 
obliterated ; fruits usually beset with hairlets. 

A. axillaris. 

1362. Flowers several within each involucre ... ... 1363 

Flowers few within each involucre ... ... ... 1364 

1363. Leaves from orbicular- to elliptic-ovate. 

Shrub, rather tall, much beset with very minute but usually 
spreading hairlets ; leaves very small, recurved at the 
margin, many in clusters, somewhat cottony underneath ; 
headlets of flowers quite small, mostly on abbreviated 
branchlets singly terminal; floral ray white; fruits beset 
with very short hairlets. A. iiiicropliyllus. 

Leaves almost linear. 

Shrub, finally tall, much beset with minute but usually 
spreading hairlets ; leaves very small, soon much spread- 
ing, recurved at the margin, many in clusters, often 



Victorian Plant*. 301 



somewhat cottony underneath ; headlets of flowers small, 
on abbreviated branchlets terminal ; floral ray usually 
white ; corolla of central flowers pale ; fruits generally 
beset with hairlets. A. ramulosus. 

1364. Leaves soon spreading. 

An alpine shrub, finally tall ; branchlets very slender, 
their vestiture appressed ; leaves minute, from narrow- 
elliptical to almost ovate, recurved at the margin, many 
in clusters; headlets of flowers very small, singly terminal, 
but crowded into almost leafy paniculate spikes ; involu- 
cral bracts comparatively few ; floral ray white ; fruits 
generally somewhat beset with hairlets. 

A. florulentus. 

Leaves permanently appressed. 

A shrub, finally rather tall ; vestiture of branchlets some- 
what cottony ; leaves very minute, from elliptical to 
almost orbicular, recurved at the margin, many in clusters; 
headlets of flowers singly terminal on the ultimate 
branchlets ; floral ray usually white ; fruits generally 
beset with hairlets. A. lepidophyllus. 

1365. Corollas of central flowers violet 1366 

Corollas of central flowers yellowish or seldom 
whitish 1367 

1366. Leaves beset with starry vestiture underneath. 

Finally tall ; leaves from broad-linear to narrow-elliptical, 
blunt, wavy and recurved at the margin, often faintly 
lobed ; headlets of flowers rather small, singly terminal, 
conspicuously stalked ; involucral bracts almost in two 
rows, of nearly equal length ; floral ray bluish ; fruits 
often invested with shining hairlets. 

A. asterotrichns. 

Leaves beset with silk-like vestiture underneath. 

Finally tall ; vestiture of branchlets appressed ; leaves quite 
small but firm, from elliptic- to spatular-cuneate, recurved 
at the margin, entire or at the upper end indented ; 
headlets of flowers rather small, singly terminating 
branchlets, but often forming leafy corymbs ; involucral 
bracts in few rows, bluish at the margin ; floral ray 
bluish ; fruits nvested with shining appressed hairlets. 

A. ioclochrous. 



302 Key to the System of 



1367. Finally tall-arborescent. 

A sylvan tree of musky scent ; leaves large, rather firm, 
mostly ovate-lanceolar, denticulated, underneath beset 
with silk-like vestiture ; headlets of flowers small, amply 
paniculated ; flowers comparatively few within each in- 
volucre ; floral ray white, rather short ; fruits scantily 
beset with hairlets. "Musk-tree." A. argophyllus. 

Shrubby or rarely somewhat arborescent ... ... 1368 

1368. Quite glabrous 1369 

Variously invested with hairlets ... ... ... 1374 

1369. Leaves decurrent on the branchlets. 

A desert-shrub, hardly tall, always sticky; leaves rather 
small and distant, mostly from elliptic- to cuneate- linear, 
entire or oftener imperfectly indented ; headlets of 
flowers small ; floral ray white ; fruits beset with silk-like 
vestiture. A. decurrens. 

Leaves simply sessile ... ... 1370 

1370. Leaves linear-cylindrical. 

A swamp-shrub, rather tall and slender, prominently 
glandular- dotted ; leaves somewhat elongated, acute, 
closely revolute at the margin ; headlets of flowers very 
small, corymbously paniculated ; floral ray white ; fruits 
beset with silk-like hairlets. A. glandulosus. 

Leaves nearly or quite flat ... ... ... ... 1371 

1371. Headlets of flowers corymbously terminal. 

A coast-shrub, finally rather tall, somewhat sticky ; 
leaves linear, rather long, hardly pointed, almost flat or 
somewhat revolute at the margin ; headlets of flowers 
small, corymbously terminal ; floral ray white ; fruits 
scantily beset with hairlets. A. glutescens. 

Headlets of flowers singly terminal 1372 

1372. Headlets of flowers rather small. 

A desert-shrub, scarcely tall, always sticky ; leaves small, 
from obovate- to cuneate-spatular, flat, generally some- 
what denticulated ; headlets of flowers almost sessile, 
terminating branchlets ; floral ray white or slightly 
purplish ; fruits beset with silk-like vestiture. 

A. Mueller! . 



Victorian Plants. 303 



Headlets of flowers rather large ... ... ... 1373 

1373. Fruits beset with silk-like vestiture. 

A desert- shrub, scarcely tall, always sticky ; leaves quite 
small, mostly ovate-cuneate, indented ; headlets of flowers 
terminating branchlets ; floral ray white. 

A. calcareus. 

Fruits glabrous. 

A desert-shrub, seldom tall, always sticky ; leaves small, 
from elliptic- to linear-cuneate, flat, somewhat brittle, 
often indented at the upper end ; headlets of flowers 
terminating branchlets ; floral ray very conspicuous, 
white ; fruits rather long. A, niagniflorus. 

1374. Floral ray bluish or purplish 1375 

Floral ray white ... ... 1378 

1375. Leaves as well as headlets of flowers relatively large. 

A desert-shrub, rather tall, rough from rigid jointed 
hairlets ; leaves comparatively thin, from obovate- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, denticulated, sessile or even clasping ; 
headlets of flowers broad, conspicuously stalked, often 
somewhat corymbously arranged ; involucral bracts in 
two rows of almost equal length, acute ; expansions of 
marginal flowers rather narrow ; fruits nearly glabrous. 
(Erigeron rudis.) A. exul. 

Leaves as well as headlets of flowers relatively small 1376 

1376. Leaves appressed. 

Shrub, seldom tall, sticky, hardly spreading ; leaves minute, 
crowded, linear-cylindrical, blunt ; headlets of flowers 
quite small, terminating leafy branchlets ; involucre 
remaining much contracted ; fruits glabrous, black ; 
pappus short. A. teretifolius. 

Leaves spreading .- 1377 

1377. Quite shrubby. 

, Rather tall, much beset with simple glandule-bearing hair- 
lets ; leaves rather long and flaccid, linear, acute, at the 
margin revolute ; headlets of flowers solitary or two or 
few near together, rather broad ; fruits beset with silk- 
like vestiture. A. acleiiopliorus. 



304 Key to the System of 

Semiherbaceous. 

Dwarf, somewhat beset with rigid hairlets ; leaves linear, 
sessile, pointed, at the margin revolute ; headlets of 
flowers rather small, singly terminal on long and slender 
stalks, the latter often slightly cottony towards the 
summit ; fruits somewhat or hardly beset with hairlets. 

A. Huegelii. 

1378. Headlets of flowers usually solitary ... ... 1379 

Headlets of flowers racemose or corymbose .. ... 1380 

1379. Leaves always large. 

Shrub, rather tall, much beset with a velvet-like whitish or 
somewhat brownish vestiture ; leaves from cordate- to 
elliptic-ovate, entire, but slightly wavy at the margin, 
nearly glabrous and much wrinkled above ; headlets of 
flowers very large, on long stalks ; floral ray much 
elongated, white or somewhat purplish ; fruits beset 
with shining appressed hairlets ; bristlets of pappus 
copious. Figure 81. A. pannosus. 

Leaves small. 

A desert-shrub, finally rather tall, much beset with a close 
grey vestiture ; leaves mostly from elliptic- to ovate- 
cuneate, recurved at the margin ; headlets of flowers 
short-stalked ; floral ray white ; fruits densely beset 
with hairlets. A. pimeleoides. 

1380. Leaves broad ... ... ... ... ... ... 1381 

Leaves very narrow ... ... ... ... ... 1382 

1381. Vestiture silk-like. 

Shrub, from somewhat dwarf to rather tall, much beset 
with a silver - shining appressed sometimes reddish 
vestiture ; leaves firm, musky scented, from obovate- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, often denticulated or occasionally 
deeply indented, above glabrous and reticular-venulated ; 
headlets of flowers somewhat corymbously arranged or 
only three or two together, seldom solitary ; involucre 
narrow; few or even only two of the corollas flatly 
expanding, their lamina white ; fruits soon glabrous. 

A. myrsinoides. 



Victorian Plants. 305 



Vestiture velvet-like. 

Shrub, rather tall ; leaves from elliptical to cordate-ovate, 
imperfectly indented, scantily beset with hairlets above ; 
headlets of flowers rather large, conspicuously stalked, 
few or two together or solitary ; floral ray usually white ; 
fruits beset with hairlets. A. dentatus. 

1382. Headlets of flowers arranged in corymbs. 

From rather dwarf to finally very tall, often riparian ; 
leaves from quite small to comparatively large, mostly 
lanceolar, occasionally verging into a narrow elliptic or 
ovate form, distantly indented or denticulated, usually 
much wrinkled above,. closely beset with stellular hairlets 
beneath ; headlets of flowers rather small, conspicuously 
stalked, often forming corymbs ; floral ray white ; fruits 
beset with hairlets. A. stelltilatus. 

Headlets of flowers arranged in spike-like racemes. 

Desert-shrub, rather tall and slender ; leaves small, linear, 
revolute at the margin, beset with hairlets underneath ; 
headlets of flowers copious, slender ; involucre hemi- 
ellipsoid, somewhat yellowish outside ; floral ray white ; 
fruits beset with appressed shining hairlets. 

A. Mitchelli. 



BRACHirCOTOE. 

1383. Corollas of marginal flowers with exceedingly minute 

expansions. 

An annual dwarf desert-plant ; leaves pinnatifid, the lobes 
acute ; headlets of flowers small ; fruit obovate, flat, the 
surrounding membrane cleft into hooked lobes ; pappus 
absent. B. coliina. 

Corollas of marginal flowers with long flat expansions, 
forming a ray ... ... ... ... ... 1384 

1384. Expansions of marginal corollas yellow. 

Perennial desert-plant, beset with short glandule-bearing 
hairlets ; leaves mostly at the lower portion of the stem 
only, elliptic-cuneate, notched at the upper end ; fruit 
brownish, compressed, surrounded by a fringed mem- 
brane ; pappus conspicuous. B. 



Expansions of marginal corollas white or bluish ... 1385 

x 



306 Key to the System of 

J ; : : : 

1385. Perennial 1386 

Annual ... ... ... ... 1402 

1386. Fruits black ... 1387 

Fruits brownish ... ... ... ... ... 1388 

1387. Leaves indented towards the summit, beset with 

minute glandule-bearing hairlets. 

Rather dwarf desert-plant ; leaves mostly elliptic-cuneate, 
short-lobed towards the upper end ; fruit obovate, some- 
what compressed, granular-rough, without any marginal 
membrane ; pappus stellular. B. melanocarpa. 

Leaves dissected into narrow segments, glabrous. 

Much branched, generally glabrous ; leaves pinnatisected, 
the segments often again divided ; headlets of flowers 
small, on very slender stalks ; fruits narrow-ellipsoid, 
slightly compressed, rough, without any membranous 
margin ; pappus stellular. . B. multifida. 

1388. Pappus absent. 

Nearly glabrous, producing offshoots from the root, branch- 
less or hardly branched ; leaves linear or the lower 
lanceolar-linear, never numerous on the stem ; headlets 
of flowers small, on long stalks ; fruits obovate, com- 
pressed, with a thick margin, but without any membrane. 

B. graminea. 

Pappus present ... ... ... ... ... 1389 

1389. Stems reduced to leafless flowerstalks ... ... 1390 
Stems bearing leaves 1391 

1390. Leaves doubly pinnatisected. 

Alpine, glabrous ; leaves all radical, slender-stalked, the 
segments very narrow, entire or oftener subdivided ; 
fruits much compressed, only the outer broad-mem- 
branously margined. B. nivalis. 

Leaves only denticulated. 

Dwarf, nearly glabrous ; leaves all radical, crowded, from 
obovate- to elliptical - cuneate, generally denticulated 
towards the summit ; headlets of flowers short- and 
strong-stalked, rather large ; involucral bracts purplish- 
dark at the edge ; fruits flat, without any membranous 
margin ; pappus stellular. " Native Daisy." 

B. decipiens. 



Victorian Plants. 307 



1391. Fruits all or some with a conspicuous marginal 

membrane ... ... ... ... 1392 

Fruits all without a marginal membrane ... ... 1397 

1392. Leaves pinnatisected. 

Finally slightly shrubby; branches thin; segments of leaves 
narrow, usually entire and acute ; headlets of flowers 
quite small ; fruits compressed, mostly granular-rough, 
their membranous margin often fringed or ciliolated, but 
the outer fruit without any marginal membrane ; pappus 
minute. B. ciliaris. 

Leaves short-lobed or indented or entire ... ... 1393 

1393. Partly beset with hairlets 1394 

Nearly or quite glabrous ... ... ... ... 1396 

1394. Root producing offshoots. 

Beset with scattered much appressed hairlets; radical 
leaves long-stalked, acutely lobed ; stem-leaves few, 
elliptic-lanceolar, somewhat indented or entire ; headlets 
of flowers comparatively large, on long stalks ; fruits 
granular-rough, broad-margined. B. heterodonta. 

Roots without any offshoots ... ... ... ... 1395 

1395. Pappus minute. 

Much beset with short jointed and often glandule-bearing 
hairlets, seldom almost glabrous ; lower leaves from 
obovate- to elliptic-cuneate, bluntly lobed ; upper leaves 
narrower and less indented; headlets of flowers com- 
paratively large ; involucral bracts very blunt ; fruits flat, 
somewhat granular-rough, broadly margined ; pappus 
minute. B. stricta. 

Pappus conspicuous. 

A rather robust desert-herb, imperfectly beset with cottony 
vestiture ; stems several, mostly branchless ; leaves from 
linear- to lanceolar-cuneate, often acutely short-lobed 
towards the summit, the upper leaves sessile ; headlets 
of flowers comparatively large, long-stalked ; fruits com- 
pressed, granular- or aculeolar- rough, their membranous 
margin fringed with upward dilated lobules ; pappus 
conspicuous. B. calocarpa. 



308 Key to the System of 



1396. Leaves from obovate- to elliptic-cuneate. 

Often rather tall ; leaves mostly radical, bluntly short- 
lobed or merely indented at the upper end, the stem-leaves 
distant, sessile and narrower ; headlets of flowers rather 
large ; involucral bracts comparatively narrow, acute ; 
fruits flat, their membranous margin usually entire ; 
pappus-bristlets very short, but somewhat dilated down- 
ward. B. scapiformis. 

Leaves linear. 

Relatively tall; leaves nearly all radical, tufted, much 
elongated, entire ; headlets of flowers comparatively 
large ; fruits flat, their membranous margin usually 
entire ; pappus very conspicuous. B. cardiocarpa. 

1397. Roots producing offshoots ... ... ... ... 1398 

Roots without any offshoots ... ... ... ... 1399 

1398. Pappus conspicuous. 

Quite glabrous ; stems slender, branchless ; leaves nearly 
all radical, linear, entire or rarely few-lobed ; headlets of 
flowers rather large ; involucral bracts broadish, blunt ; 
fruits obovate, hardly compressed, few-streaked, thick- 
margined ; pappus stellular. B. radicans. 

Pappus very minute. 

Creeping, somewhat beset with short glandule-bearing hair- 
lets ; leaves from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, entire, the 
carinular venule prominent ; headlets of flowers rather 
small ; involucral bracts acute ; fruits almost elliptical, 
distinctly compressed, granular-rough, thick-margined. 

B. angustifolia. 

1399. Leaves all lobed or indented. 

A rather tall and robust herb, generally beset with jointed 
hairlets ; lower leaves from obovate to elliptical, mostly 
pinnatifid and with broadish incised or indented or entire 
lobes ; upper leaves less divided and somewhat clasping 
with a dilated base ; headlets of flowers large ; fruits 
oblique-ellipsoid, hardly compressed, somewhat angular ; 
pappus conspicuous. B. diversifolia. 

Leaves all or mostly entire ... ... ... ... 1400 

1400. Fruits smooth. 

Glabrous ; leaves nearly all radical, from linear- to elliptic- 
lanceolar, long-stalked, entire ; headlets of flowers rather 
small ; fruits compressed, blunt-edged ; pappus minute. 

B. scapigera. 



Victorian Plants. 309 



Fruits rough 1401 

1401. Lower leaves broadish, all entire. 

Rather tall, glabrous ; branches hardly spreading ; leaves 
greyish-green, the lower from obovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, 
the upper narrower ; headlets of flowers relatively small, 
slender-stalked; fruits finally turgid ; pappus very minute. 

B. basaltica. 

All leaves narrow or the lower lobed-dilated. 

Somewhat glandular-rough ; branches rather spreading, 
slender ; leaves linear, nearly or quite entire, seldom 
pinnatilobed, the upper short and distant; headlets of 
flowers relatively small ; fruits almost clavate, granular- 
rough, bluntly margined ; pappus minute. 

B. t rachy carp a. 

1402. Fruits with a turgidly or membranously enlarged 

margin 1403 

Fruits without any enlarged margin ... ... 1405 

1403. Fruits very turgid at the margin. 

Dwarf ; leaves all radical, mostly pinnatifid, their segments 
narrow; headlets of flowers small, on long slender stalks ; 
involucral bracts broadish, blunt ; floral ray quite short ; 
fruits brownish, slightly compressed, cottony-ciliolated 
and on both sides lined by a narrow longitudinal ridglet ; 
pappus conspicuous, stellular. B. pachyptera. 

Fruits membranous at the margin ... ... ... 1404 

1404. Fruits longitudinally streaked on both sides, by three 

rough lines. 

Dwarf, often glabrous ; leaves pinnatifid, with narrow and 
acute lobes ; headlets of flowers small, on long thin 
stalks ; involucral bracts rather broad, blunt ; receptacle 
almost conical ; fruits small, brownish, much compressed, 
ciliolated ; pappus minute. B. ptycliocarpa. 

Fruits without longitudinal streaks. 

Dwarf, often somewhat beset with hairlets ; leaves pin- 
natifid or some trifid, the lobes narrow and acute ; 
headlets of flowers small, on very thin and propor- 
tionately long stalks ; involucral bracts comparatively 
narrow; fruit obovate, flat, brownish, ciliolated ; pappus 
stellular, conspicuous. B. debilis. 



310 Key to the System of 



1405. Leaves deeply cleft into narrow lobes. 

Dwarf, often somewhat beset with minute jointed glandule- 
bearing hairlets ; leaves acutely lobed or some lobeless ; 
headlets of flowers small, on very thin and proportionately 
long stalks ; involucral bracts comparatively few, blunt ; 
fruits quite small, brownish, narrow, quadrangular, some- 
what compressed ; pappus stellular. B. exilis. 

Leaves shortly cleft into broadish lobes. 

Dwarf, often beset with jointed hairlets ; lower leaves 
pinnatifid, upper indented or some of them entire ; head- 
lets of flowers rather small ; floral ray quite short ; fruits 
angular, granular-rough, the marginal fruits ciliolated ; 
pappus stellular. B. goniocarpa. 



Z.AGBNOPKORA. 

1406. Root producing elongated offshoots. 

Rather dwarf ; stems unbranched, slender ; leaves nearly 
all basal, from obovate- to cuneate-elliptical, somewhat 
indented or distantly denticulated, usually beset with, 
short hairlets ; the stem-leaves mostly rudimentary and 
bract-like; headlets of flowers quite small, singly terminal; 
involucral bracts mostly narrow, in few rows ; expansion 
of marginal corollas generally bluish ; perfect fruits com- 
pressed, narrowed into a very short stalklet. 

L. BiUardieri. 

Root without any conspicuous offshoots. 

Somewhat tall ; leaves mostly basal, from lanceolar- to 
obovate-elliptical, much indented, beset with jointed 
hairlets ; stem-leaves quite small, entire ; headlets of 
flowers singly terminal ; involucral bracts rather broad, 
in several rows ; expansion of marginal corollas generally 
bluish ; perfect fruits compressed, oblique-obovate, their 
basal attenuation very short. L. Huegelii. 

SOIiENOGYNE 

1407. Stems robust, about as long as the leaves or shorter. 

Dwarf, often densely beset with minute hairlets ; steins 
leafless, upwards slightly turgid; leaves radiate-spreading, 
elliptic-cuneate ; headlets of flowers quite small ; in- 
volucral bracts broadish, blunt ; marginal flowers very 
small ; fruits considerably compressed. Figure 78. 

(Lagenophora Emphysopus. ) S. Emphysopus. 



Victorian Plants. 311 



ABROTANEXiXiA. 

1408. Leaves rigid, linear. 

Depressed into ramified patches, glabrous ; leaves shining, 
spreading, at the base clasping ; headlets of flowers very 
small, singly terminal, sessile or short- stalked ; in- 
volucral bracts streaked by three transparent vemiles ; 
fruit bluntly angular. Figure 89. A. nivigena. 

COTUIiA. 

1409. Annual. 

Erect, slender, almost glabrous ; leaves threadlike-linear ; 
headlets of flowers on elongated stalks ; involucral bracts 
few, very broad ; marginal flowers in one row, without 
corolla and stamens, their fruits on distinct stalklets and 
each surrounded by a thin membrane ; fruits of the 
central flowers flat, smooth, without any membranous 
margin. C. filifolia. 

Perennial ... ... 1410 

1410. Leaves indented or some entire. 

Diffuse or partly prostrate and creeping, glabrous ; leaves 
from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, occasionally rather 
long-lobed, generally dilated towards the clasping base ; 
headlets of flowers comparatively large, on elongated 
stalks ; marginal flowers in one row, without any 
corolla and stamens; on conspicuous stalklets, and each 
surrounded by a thin membrane ; fruits of the central 
flowers turgidly margined. C. COronopifolia. 

Leaves pinnatisected ... ... ... ... 1411 

1411. Marginal flowers without any corolla ... ... 1412 

Marginal flowers with a minute corolla ... ... 1413 

1412. Headlets of flowers on elongated thread-like stalks. 

Diffuse, lax, much beset with soft hairlets ; leaves flaccid, 
short-stalked, their segments mostly cleft into narrow 
lobes ; headlets of flowers very small ; marginal flowers 
in several rows, each on a distinct stalklet, surrounded 
by a narrow membrane ; fruits of the central flowers 
without any expanding margin. C. Australis. 

Headlets of flowers on short, rather thick stalks. 
An alpine dwarf glabrous plant, somewhat creeping ; leaves 
short-stalked, their segments rather narrow, entire or 
slightly incised ; marginal flowers in several rows, each 
on a minute stalklet, their fruits thickly margined and 
often somewhat ciliolated. C. alpiiia. 



312 Key to the System of 



1413. Involucral bracts few, nearly orbicular. 

Chiefly a coast-plant, creeping, dwarf, nearly glabrous; -leaves 
somewhat succulent, long-stalked, their segments rather 
broad, incised ; receptacle conical ; flower-stalks with 
leaf-stalks from nodes of the creeping stems, much 
elongated \ marginal flowers in several rows, their fruits 
bluntly margined. C. reptans. 

Involucral bracts several, nearly oval. 

An alpine dwarf plant, much beset with, soft hairlets ; 
leaf-segments rather broadish, often somewhat indented ; 
headlets of flowers on short and robust stalks ; receptacle 
conical ; marginal flowers in several rows, their fruits 
unprovided with stalklets, thickly margined. 

C. Filicula. 



CENTIFHDA. 

1414. Mostly prostrate. 

Perennial odorous herb, rather weak; leaves mostly elliptic- 
cuneate, towards the base narrow and entire ; headlets of 
flowers somewhat stalked, almost hemispherical ; invo- 
lucral bracts hardly membranous at the margin ; flowers 
emersed ; -outer flowers in several rows, their corolla 
minute; fruits upwards ellipsoid, streaked to the summit. 
"Sneeze- weed." C. orbicularis. 



Mostly erect ... ... ... 1415 

1415. Headlets of flowers almost hemispherical. 

Perennial odorous herb, rather robust ; leaves also towards 
the dilated base denticulated, often somewhat crisped ; 
headlets of flowers relatively large, sessile ; involucral 
bracts membranous at the margin ; flowers emersed ; 
outer flowers in numerous rows, their corolla minute ; 
fruits upwards cylindrical and there streakless. Figure 88. 

C. Cunningham!. 

Headlets of flowers almost semiovate. 

Perennial desert-herb ; leaves denticulated also towards the 
dilated base ; headlets of flowers relatively large, sessile ; 
involucral bracts membranous at the margin ; flowers 
enclosed ; outer flowers in few rows ; corolla of all flowers 
turgid towards the base ; fruits upwards cylindrical and 
there streaked. C. thespidioides. 



Victorian Plants. 313 



23PALTES. 

1416. Leaves mostly from obovate- to spatular-cuneate. 

Depressed or ascending perennial herb; leaves conspicuously 
stalked; headlets of flowers almost ' sessile or on very 
short stalks, broader th^an long ; involucral bracts from 
ovate to orbicular, bending considerably inward ; flowers 
enclosed ; non - stammate flowers numerous ; fruits 
slender, glabrous, subtle-streaked. E. Australis. 

ELACHANTHUS. 

1417. Scalelets of pappus subtly pennular-streaked. 

Leaves quite short, linear-semicylindrical ; involucral bracts 
from ovate-lanceolar to elliptical ; flowers within each 
involucre rather few ; corolla of the non-stamiriate flowers 
gradually attenuated upwards into its minute lobeless 
summit ; pappus-scalelets from few to several, very 
minutely denticulated, or those of the central flowers 
more evidently serrulated; fertile fruits almost obovate, 
beset with a silk-like vestiture. E. ptisillus. 

ETHULIOFSIS. 

1418. Somewhat dichotomously branched. 

Erect ; leaves sessile, the upper gradually much reduced in 
size ; denticulation irregular, sometimes lobular and 
crisped ; involucral bracts in few rows of unequal length, 
broadish and slightly yellowish ; corollas pale ; pappus 
of the staminate flowers formed of only few somewhat 
flattened and ciliolated bristlets ; fertile fruits clavate- 
and oblique-ellipsoid, glabrous, with a narrow decurrently 
prominent line along the inner. side. Figure 82. 

(Epaltes Cunninghami.) E. Cunningham.!. 



PODOSPBBMA. 

1419. Involucre elongated, comparatively narrow. 

Erect or ascending, never tall, branchless or scantily 
branched ; leaves nearly or quite linear, somewhat dis- 
tant, relatively long, but the floral leaves abbreviated ; 
involucre at first almost cylindrical, at last broadly 
obconical ; involucral bracts narrow, acute ; corollas long, 
very slender to near the summit, hardly exserted ; brist- 
lets of pappus few ; fruits beset with hairlets. 

(Podotheca angustif olia. ) P. angustifolium. 



314 Key to the Sy stern of 

IXZO&AENA. 

1420. Leaves much narrowed at the base. 

Scantily beset with cottony vestitnre; leaves from linear- to 
elliptic-lanceolar, often recurved at the margin ; headlets 
of flowers on elongated distantly bracteate stalks, broader 
than long ; involucral bracts generally beset with minute 
glandule-bearing hairlets, the inner ending in a minute 
scarious lamina ; flowers somewhat exserted ; bristlets of 
the pappus usually several, shorter than the corolla, 
slightly ciliolated ; fruits almost glabrous. 

I. leptolepis. 

Leaves conspicuously clasping at the base. 

Much beset with cottony vestiture'; leaves mostly from 
narrow- to broad -lanceolar, pointed, revolute at the 
margin ; headlets of flowers on rather short stalks, longer 
than broad ; flowers hardly exserted ; pappus-bristlets 
usually many, about as long as the corollas, very slightly 
ciliolated ; fruits almost glabrous. I. tome lit osa. 



FODOXiEFXS. 

1421. Headlets of flowers almost hemiellipsoid-cylindricaL 

Erect desert-plant ; leaves elongated, from broad- to narrow- 
lanceolar, recurved along the margin, the upper sessile 
and clasping at the base ; headlets of flowers usually few 
or several together at the summit of branchlets ; in- 
volucral bracts yellowish, wrinkled, all sessile, pointed ; 
marginal flowers similar to all others and hardly longer ; 
fruits somewhat papillular-rough. 

F. rutidochlaniys. 

Headlets of flowers almost hemispherical ... ... 1422 

1422. Headlets of flowers relatively large ... 1423 

Headlets of flowers relatively small ... . ... ... 1426 

1423. Involucral bracts much wrinkled. 

Perennial coast- or desert-plant, often somewhat beset with 
cottony vestiture, hardly or scantily branched ; leaves 
from elliptic- to linear -lanceolar or the upper quits linear; 
headlets of flowers quite large, solitary, on elongated 



Victorian Plants. 315 



transparently bracteate stalks ; involucral bracts yellow- 
ish or brownish, mostly blunt, stalk -like at their base ; 
marginal flowers much longer than all the others, their 
corollar expansion flat, at the summit incised ; fruits 
somewhat papillular-rough. P. rugata. 

Involucral bracts nearly smooth ... ... .. 1424 

1424. Annual. 

Desert plant, never tall, somewhat beset with cottony vesti- 
ture ; leaves lanceolar or the upper gradually linear, 
recurved along the margin ; headlets of flowers rather 
large, singly terminal on thin transparently bracteate 
stalks ; involucral bracts yellowish, much pointed, the 
inner with stalk-like base ; marginal flowers somewhat 
longer than the rest, their corollar expansion flat, incised 
at the summit. F. canesceiis. 

Perennial ... ... ... ... ... .. 1425 

1425. Stalk-like base of the inner involucral bracts quite 

enclosed. 

Often rather tall and soon nearly glabrou.s; lower leaves 
from elliptic- to elongate-lanceolar, the upper gradually 
narrower and clasping ; headlets of flowers quite large, 
singly terminal on conspicuous rather robust bracteate 
stalks; involucral bracts yellowish, mostly acute, their 
stalk-like base concealed ; marginal flowers much longer 
than the rest, their corollar expansion either flat or some- 
what tubular, conspicuously lobed ; fruit papillular-rough. 

F. acuminata. 

Stalk-like base of the inner involucral bracts partly 
exserted. 

Often rather tall and soon nearly glabrous ; lower leaves 
from elliptic- to elongate-lanceolar, the upper narrower 
and clasping, recurved along the margin ; headlets of 
flowers solitary or oftener two or few together at and 
towards the summit of the stem or branches ; involucral 
bracts lax, yellowish, even the outermost often stalk -like 
somewhat narrowed ; marginal flowers much longer than 
the rest, their corollar expansion flat, conspicuously lobed; 
fruits papillular-rough. F. loiigipedata, 



316 Key to the System of 



1426. Marginal flowers about as long as any of the others. 

Annual desert-plant, seldom tall; branches thin ; stem - 
leaves rather small, from ovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, 
sessile, clasping, particularly underneath beset with 
somewhat cottony vestiture ; headlets of flowers solitary, 
on long thread-like often dark-purplish bractless stalks ; 
involucral bracts closely oppressed, yellowish, quite 
smooth, very shining ; pappus of the marginal flowers 
usually absent, of the others reduced to eight or less 
bristlets. P. Lessoni. 

Marginal flowers longer than any of the others. 

Annual desert-plant, almost glabrous ; branches very thin, 
usually numerous ; leaves filiform-linear, quite short ; 
headlets of flowers on long thread-like bractless stalks ; 
involucral bracts blunt, pale-yellowish, quite smooth, 
very shining; marginal flowers with whitish corollar 
expansion and without any pappus ; fruits glabrous. 

F. Siemssenia. 

CASSZNIA. 

1427. Herbaceous. 

Tall, robust, much beset with interwoven hairlets ; leaves 
large,, from ovate- to elongate-lanceolar, mostly clasping 
and somewhat decurrent ; headlets of flowers broadish, 
in an ample lax panicle ; involucral bracts pale-brownish 
or pale-yellow, shining, transparent; fruits streaked. 

C. spectabilis. 

Shrubby - 1428 

1428. Involucral bracts pale-yellowish ... ... ... 1429 

Involucral bracts white *... ... ... ... 1430 

1429. Much beset with a close vestiture. 

A desert-shrub ; leaves crowded, cylinclric-linear, quite 
short, often recurved-pointed ; headlets of flowers in 
rather elongated somewhat pyramidal panicles ; in : 
volucral bracts transparent, shining ; flowers four or 
less within each involucre. Figure 84. C. arcuata. 

Almost glabrous. 

Leaves rather long, cylindric-linear, smooth ; headlets of 
flowers in somewhat abbreviated panicles ; involucral 
bracts shining ; flowers few within each involucre. 

C. quiii quef aria. 



Victorian Plants. 317 



1430. Leaves cylindric-linear. 

Much beset with very short but usually rigid and spreading 
hairlets ; leaves from rather short to comparatively 
long, crowded, mostly rough above ; headlets of flowers 
narrow, in corymbously contracted panicles ; involucral 
bracts without lustre outside ; flowers from few to several 
within each involucre. C. aculeata. 

Leaves from narrow- to elongate-lanceolar. 

Imperfectly beset with a short vestiture ; leaves always 
comparatively long, glabrous and smooth above, flat or 
somewhat recurved at the margin ; headlets of flowers 
narrow, in corymbously contracted panicles ; involucral 
bracts without lustre outside ; flowers few or several 
within each involucre. C. longifolia. 

XXODIA. 

1431. Involucres from the base to the petaloid ray green, 

viscid-shining. 

Shrub, finally rather tall, glabrous ; leaves from broad- 
linear to narrowly elongate-lanceolar, sessile ; headlets 
of flowers corymbously crowded ; involucral bracts 
appressed ; corollas whitish or somewhat purplish ; 
fruits papillular-rough. I. acliilloid.es. 

AXKlKOBXTTttX. 

1432. Involucral bracts nearly all upwards white and most 

of them soon spreading. 

Erect, rather tall herb ; branches lined with leafy ex- 
pansions ; lower leaves lanceolar, flat, much decurrent 
011 their elongated stalk ; upper leaves gradually smaller, 
distant, sessile ; headlets of flowers comparatively large ; 
fruits angular. A. alatum. 

ATKRXXIA. 

1433. Corollas of marginal flowers without any ligular 

expansions. 

Annual, dwarf, somewhat beset with interwoven hairlets ; 
upper leaves linear, revolute along the margin ; lower 
leaves broader and flattened ; headlets of flowers small, 
on elongated rigid thread-like dark-colored stalks ; in- 
volucral bracts ciliolated ; marginal non-stamiiiate flowers 
few ; bristlets of pappus very few, plumously expanded 
towards the summit. A. teuella, 



318 Key to the System of 

HEXiXFTERUai. 

1434. Perennial 1435 

Annual ... ... 1437 

1435. Glabrous except the fruits. 

Never tall ; stems mostly unbranched, leafy to near the 
summit ; leaves numerous, short, linear, minutely im- 
pressed-dotted, the uppermost passing into bracts ; 
headlets of flowers singly terminal, almost hemispherical ; 
outer involucral bracts broad, brownish, mostly blunt ; 
inner bracts forming a white ray ; receptacle somewhat 
conical ; fruits beset with silk-like vestiture. 

H. aiitliemoides. 

Partially or almost entirely beset with interwoven 
hairlets ... ... ... 1436 

1436. Fruits beset with silk-like vestiture. 

Never tall, often branched ; leaves from narrow-lanceolar 
to linear, soon nearly glabrous, often somewhat incurved 
at the margin, the uppermost passing into bracts ; head- 
lets of flowers almost hemispherical ; involucral bracts 
all shining and white or the outer pale-yellowish, very 
pointed, the inner forming rays ; receptacle somewhat 
conical ; bristlets of pappus rather few. 

H. floribundum. 

Fruits glabrous. 

Never tall ; stems almost or quite branchless ; leaves flaccid, 
from elliptic-lanceolar to narrow-linear, permanently and 
densely beset with short hairlets, the lower elongated, 
often recurved at the margin ; headlets of flowers singly 
terminal, comparatively large, almost hemispherical, 
hygroscopic ; outer involucral bracts whitish or yellow 
or sometimes purplish or brownish, the inner forming 
white or yellow or outside partly reddish rays ; fruits 
pale, slightly papular-rough, somewhat attenuated at 
the summit ; pappus short-plumous, upwards yellowish. 

H. in can u 111. 

1437. Glabrous, except portions of the involucral bracts 

and the fruits 1438 

Beset with interwoven hairlets ... ... 1439 



Victorian Plants. 319 



1438. Involucre almost hemispherical. 

Never tall ; leaves from elliptic- to cunea'te- linear, the 
lower often opposite ; headlets of flowers singly terminal ; 
involucral bracts in few rows, the outer broad, blunt 
and often somewhat brownish, the inner forming a yellow 
or white ray ; fruits beset with silky vestiture. 

H. polygalifolium. 

Involucre almost hemiellipsoid. 

Seldom tall ; leaves from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, 
greyish-green ; headlets of flowers singly terminal on 
the stem or on stalk-like branches ; involucral bracts 
in few rows, the outer brownish, the inner forming a 
small white or yellow ray ; flowers comparatively few 
within each involucre ; fruits beset with silky vestiture, 
those of the central flowers imperfect. H. strictuin, 

1439. Inner involucral bracts forming a conspicuous ray ... 1440 

Inner involucral bracts forming a minute ray or 
unexpanding ... ... ... ... 1443 

1440. Headlets of flowers singly terminal 1441 

. Headlets of flowers crowded ... .. ... ... 1442 

1441. Fruits turgid. 

Never tall, somewhat beset with cottony hairlets ; leaves 
from cylindric- to narrow-linear, rather short ; headlets 
of flowers almost hemispherical ; outer involucral bracts 
broadish, "inner forming a white or yellow ray ; fruits 
wrinkled-rough, glabrous, those of some of the central 
flowers imperfect ; pappus upwards yellowish. 

H. Cotula. 

Fruits flat. 

Always dwarf, nearly glabrous or beset with cottony 
hairlets ; leaves from filiform- to narrow-linear ; headlets 
of flowers turbinate-hemispherical, on scariously bracteate 
stalks ; outer involucral bracts yellow or of tener brownish, 
inner forming a yellow ray ; fruits glabrous ; pappus 
yellow towards the summit. H. hyalosperiimm. 

1442. Headlets of flowers rather large. 

Never tall, closely beset with interwoven hairlets ; leaves 
flaccid, from linear- to lanceolar-elliptical ; headlets 
of flowers almost semiovate, exceptionally solitary ; 
receptacle elevated ; outer involucral bracts blunt, 



320 Key to the System of 



brownish-yellow, transparent, inner forming a white 
ray ; fruits beset with silk-like vestiture, those of some 
of the central flowers imperfect. 

H. corymbiflorum. 

Headlets of flowers quite small. 

Quite dwarf, slightly beset with cottony hairlets ; leaves 
from filiform- to narrow-linear, the lower often opposite, 
the upper reaching the inflorescence ; head lets of flowers 
almost cylindrical; outer involucral bracts brownish, 
shining, transparent, ' inner forming a minute white 
ray ; flowers few within each involucre ; fruits beset 
with silk -like vestiture, those of the central flowers 
imperfect. H. pygmaeum. 

1443. Involucral bracts rigid. 

Quite dwarf, somewhat beset with mostly scattered hair- 
lets ; leaves from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, flat ; head- 
lets of flowers scattered, sessile, semiovate, axillary and 
terminal ; outer involucral bracts pale, shining, acute, 
conspicuously ciliolated, inner semicoherent, particularly 
rigid ; receptacle elevated ; fruits slightly rough ; pappus 
of the marginal flowers absent, of the others consisting 
of one to four flattish ciliolated bristlets. 

H. dimorpholepis. 

Involucral bracts tender-membranous .:. ... 1444 

1444. Flowers from two to five within each involucre. 

Never tall, closely beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
lower leaves from ovate- to spatular-cuneate, upper from 
elliptic- to narrow-lanceolar and clasping ; headlets of 
flowers quite small,, hemiellipsoid-cylindrical, densely 
crowded at the summit of branches ; involucral bracts 
from brownish- to pale-yellowish, transparent, none 
expanding ; fruits almost glabrous, but quite concealed 
within intricate hairlets from the nearest bracts ; bristlets 
of pappus capillary, extremely delicate. 

II, moschatum. 

Flowers many within each involucre. 

Very minute, somewhat branched, slightly beset with hair- 
lets ; leaves from filiform- to narrow-linear ; headlets of 
flowers almost semiovate, sessile ; involucral bracts from 
reddish-brown or greenish to yellowish, shining, trans- 
parent, none expanding ; fruits glabrous. 

H-. exiguuni. 



Victorian Plants. 321 



HELICHRYSU1VI. 

1445. Quite or almost herbaceous ... ... ... 1446 

Quite shrubby ... 1458 

1446. Involucral bracts forming a ray ... ... ... 1447 

Involucral bracts forming no ray ... ... ... 1456 

1447. Involucral ray usually yellow or somewhat brownish 1448 
Involucral ray white or somewhat reddish ... ... 1450 

1448. Involucral bracts smooth. 

Usually rather tall and robust, glabrous or scantily 
beset with hairlets, though often minutely rough; stem 
branchless or sparingly branched ; leaves long, from 
elliptic-lanceolar to linear or the lower occasionally 
cuneate-obovate, mostly recurved along the margin ; 
flower-headlets large, terminal, solitary or two or few 
near together, almost hemispherical, often supported 
by one or more floral leaves ; involucral bracts broad, 
rigid, shining, yellow or outside reddish-brown, rarely 
whitish, the majority soon spreading, the form of the 
lower gradually passing into that of the upper ; fruits 
glabrous. Principal " Everlasting." H. lucidum. 

Involucral bracts wrinkled or crisped ... ... 1449 

1449. Involucral bracts comparatively large. 

Somewhat tall, partly beset with cottony hairlets ; stems 
often branchless ; lower leaves from spatular- to narrow- 
lanceolar, the upper gradually broad-linear and shortened, 
the ultimate bract-like ; headlets of flowers almost hemi- 
spherical, singly terminal ; involucral bracts lax, yellow 
or the outer reddish-brownish, very exceptionally white, 
the inner forming rather suddenly a short ray ; some of 
the marginal flowers without stamens ; fruits glabrous. 

H. scorpioides. 
Involucral bracts comparatively small. 

Never tall, partly beset with somewhat cottony hair- 
lets ; stems often branched and not rarely depressed ; 
leaves from elliptic-lanceolar to gradually broad-linear, 
frequently recurved at the margin ; headlets of flowers 
relatively small, almost hemispherical, singly terminal ; 
involuci-al bracts lax, tender-membranous, yellow or 
the outer red-brownish, the inner forming a very short 
ray ; some of the marginal flowers pistillate only, with 
a rudimentary or without any pappus ; fruits glabrous. 

H. rutidolepis. 



322 Key to the System of 



1450. Pappus-bristlets plumously dilated at the summit. 

Much beset with an appressed somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves short, linear-cylindrical, at last glabrous 011 the 
outer side ; headlets of flowers comparatively large, nearly 
hemispherical, singly terminating stems or branches ; in- 
volucral bracts acute, ciliolated, the outer brownish, the 
expansions of the inner rather narrow ; some of the 
marginal flowers destitute of stamens and pappus ; fruits 
smooth ; pappus-bristlets few. H. Baxter!. 

Pappus-bristlets minutely ciliolated or denticulated 
up to the summit ... ... ... ... ... 1451 

1451. Finally very tall. 

Robust, occasionally remaining rather dwarf, sometimes 
sticky, partly beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves large, mostly on clasping stalks, from ovate- 
to narrow-lanceolar, soon glabrous on the upper side ; 
headlets of flowers large, almost hemispherical, singly 
terminating stems or corymbously approximated branch- 
lets ; involucral bracts narrow, pointed, shining, white 
or tinged with rosy -red ; some of the marginal flowers 
destitute of stamens ; fruits somewhat papillular-rough. 

H. elatum. 

Never very tall ... ... ... ... ... 1452 

1452. Glandular-rough. 

From dwarf to somewhat tall ; leaves from lanceolar- to 
narrow-linear, revolute along the margin, the upper 
clasping at their base ; headlets of flowers comparatively 
large, almost hemispherical ; involucral bracts all white 
or the outer pale -brownish ; fruits smooth. 

H. adenophorum. 

Vestiture without any glandules ... ... 1453 

1453. Stems or branches leafless towards the summit. 

Weak and dwarf ; branchless or sparingly branched, much 
beset with a closely appressed whitish shining vestiture ; 
leaves rather firm, mostly basal and from spatular- to 
elliptic-lanceolar, nearly flat, soon on the upper side 
glabrous, the upper leaves much reduced in size or 
obliterated ; headlets of flowers rather large, almost 
hemispherical, singly terminal ; outer involucral bracts 
brownish or reddish ; some of the marginal flowers 
destitute of stamens ; fruits somewhat papillular-rough. 

H. dealbatum. 

Stems or branches leafy throughout ... ... ... 1454 



Victorian Plants. 323 



1454. Leaves rather short, quite blunt. 

Partly beset with an appressed whitish close shining 
vestiture ; leaves small, rigid, broad-linear, nearly flat, 
on the upper side smooth ; headlets of flowers rather 
large, almost hemispherical, singly terminating branches; 
outer involucral bracts brownish ; expansions of the 
inner bracts bluntish ; some of the marginal flowers 
destitute of stamens and pappus ; fruits papillular-rough. 

H. obtusifoliuin. 

Leaves rather long, somewhat pointed ... ... 1455 

1455. Headlets of flowers always singly terminating the 

stems or branches. 

Imperfectly beset with interwoven hairlets ; leaves from 
ovate- or spatular- to linear-elliptical, mostly sessile, on 
the upper side usually rough from minute rigid hairlets ; 
headlets of flowers large, almost hemispherical, supported 
by floral leaves ; involucral bracts white or somewhat 
rosy-red, shining, the shortened lower bracts gradually 
passing into the upper ; fruits smooth. ' 

H. leucopsidium. 

Headlets of flowers usually more than one at or near 
the summit of the stems or branches. 

Never tall, branched only at the summit, densely and 
extensively beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, flaccid ; head- 
lets of flowers comparatively large, almost hemispherical ; 
involucral bracts pointed, the outermost densely invested 
with interwoven hairlets exteriorly ; the expansions of 
the inner bracts often tinged with rosy-red ; fruits 
papillular-rough. H. Blandowskiaiium. 

1456. Headlets of flowers singly terminal. 

A desort plant, much branched, beset with glandular or 
somewhat cottony vestiture ; leaves from elliptic- to 
linear-lanceolar, mostly claspingly sessile, often recurved 
along the margin, the upper leaves diminutive ; headlets 
of flowers small, almost hemispherical ; involucral bracts 
yellow, shining, ciliolated, acute ; some of the marginal 
flowers without stamens and pappus ; fruits glabrous, 
slightly attenuated at the summit ; pappus-bristlets some- 
what plumously dilated at their summit. 

H. ambiguum. 

Headlets of flowers few or several or many approxi- 
mated 1457 



324 Key to the System of 



1457. Somewhat woody. 

Rather tall, often but imperfectly beset with somewhat 
cottony vestiture, sometimes sticky ; leaves mostly 
linear, occasionally quite short ; headlets of flowers 
small, crowded into generally ample corymbs, almost 
bellshaped-semiovate; involucral bracts yellow, seldom 
brownish, always shining, ciliolated, acute, mostly curved 
outward ; fruits glabrous ; pappus-bristlets plumously 
dilated at their summit, on some the marginal flowers 
absent or reduced. H. semipapposum. 

Quite herbaceous. 

Rather dwarf, often extensively beset with a somewhat 
cottony or appressed and rather shining vestiture ; leaves 
mostly from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, flaccid and 
often flat ; headlets of flowers small, few or several 
crowded terminally, almost bellshaped-semiovate, hardly 
ever solitary ; involucral bracts yellow, seldom brownish, 
only exceptionally white or red, always shining, ciliolated, 
acute ; fruits glabrous ; pappus-bristlets few, plumously 
dilated at their summit, on some of the marginal flowers 
absent or reduced. H, apiculatum. 

1458. Inner involucral bracts forming a short white ray ... 1459 
Involucre rayless ... ... ... ... . 1462 

1459. Leaves minute. 

An alpine shrub, much branched, somewhat sticky ; leaves 
closely crowded, concealing the branchlets, sessile, 
appressed, from ovate- to cordate-orbicular, repressed 
at the margin, soon almost glabrous above; headlets of 
flowers very small, few or several closely together at the 
summit of most of the numerous short branchlets, sessile ; 
outer involucral bracts pale-yellowish ; flowers few within 
each involucre ; fruits papillular-rough. 

H. baccharoides. 

Leaves elongated ... ... ... ... ... 1460 

1460. Leaves revolute along the margin. 

An alpine shrub, rather tall, usually much beset with a 
short close vestiture, not seldom sticky ; leaves firm, 
broadish-linear, often blunt, revolute, occasionally 
abbreviated, usually rough on the upper side ; headlets of 
flowers quite small, numerous, densely crowded into com- 
pound corymbs; outer involucral bracts often brownish 
or reddish ; expansions of the inner bracts sometimes 
tinged with red ; flowers rather few within each in- 
volucre ; fruits papillular-rough. 

H. rosmarinifolium. 



Victorian Plants. 



Leaves almost flat ... ... ... ... 1461 

1461. Leaves mostly from elongate- to narrow-lanceolar. 

Shrub, finally tall ; leaves of rather thin consistence, flat or 
slightly recurved at the margin, greyish or brownish 
on the under side from a thin vestiture ; headlets of 
flowers very small, slender, densely crowded into com- 
pound corymbs; outer involucral bracts pale-yellowish 
or brownish, almost transparent, shining ; flowers few 
within each involucre ; fruits somewhat beset with minute 
hairlets. H. ferruginemn. 

Leaves mostly cuneate-elliptical. 

Shrub, rather tall ; leaves of rather thin consistence, often 
crisped at the margin, otherwise almost or quite flat, 
greyish or brownish on the under side from a close vesti- 
ture ; headlets of flowers quite small, slender, densely 
crowded into corymbs ; outer involucral bracts pale- 
yellowish or brownish, almost transparent, shining ; 
flowers few within each involucre ; fruits beset with 
minute hairlets. H. cuneifblium. 

1462. Leaves mostly ovate-obcordate. 

Shrub, hardly tall ; leaves quite small, of firm consistence, 
occasionally obovate-elliptical, greyish on the under side 
from a thin vestiture ; headlets of flowers very small, 
numerously and densely crowded into compound corymbs, 
unexpanding; involucral bracts pale-yellow, almost trans- 
parent, shining ; flowers fe\v within each involucre, one 
or more destitute of stamens and pappus ; fruits slightly 
rough. H. obcordatum. 

Leaves mostly linear or somewhat cuneate ... ... 1463 

1463. Headlets of flowers almost hemiellipsoid. 

A coast-shrub, robust and finally rather tall, somewhat 
sticky ; leaves firm, simply sessile, broadish-linear, often 
yellowish at the base, revolute along their margin, beset 
on the under side with a close short vestiture ; headlets 
of flowers small, crowded into corymbs, at last somewhat 
bell-shaped ; involucral bracts pale-yellowish, the inner 
occasionally terminating in a rudimentary white lamina ; 
flowers rather numerous within each involucre, a few of 
the marginal flowers without stamens ; fruits papillular- 
rough. H. cinereum. 

Headlets of flowers cylindric- or turgid-ovate ... 1464 



326 Key to the System of 



1464. Leaves strongly decurrent. 

A desert-shrub ; leaves very small, linear, truncate at the 
summit, wrinkled -rough, shining ; headlets of flowers 
very small, crowded into corymbs, almost unexpanding, 
hardly turgid ; iiivolucral bracts yellowish-white ; flowers 
several within each involucre ; fruits papillular-rough. 

H. decurrens. 

Leaves faintly decurrent. 

A desert-shrub; leaves quite small, cuneate-linear, repressed 
at the summit, revolute along the margin, smooth or 
occasionally rough on the upper side, beset with short 
vestiture on the lower side ; headlets of flowers very 
small, crowded into compound corymbs, quite unexpand- 
ing, turgid ; involucral bracts pale-yellowish or sometimes 
reddish, almost glabrous, shining ; flowers rather few 
within each involucre, two or three of the outer without 



stamens and pappus ; fruits papillular-rough. 

H. 



retusum. 



WAITZIA. 

1465. Terminal attenuation of the fruit very thin, longer 

than the seed-bearing portion. 

Erect, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves never 
quite short, the uppermost reaching the inflorescence ; 
headlets of flowers almost corymbously arranged ; in- 
volucral bracts broadish, very acute, shining, yellow or 
white or the lower red, the upper spreading or even 
repressed ; the laminas of all similar in form and mostly 
in size, minutely ciliolate ; fruits somewhat papillular- 
rough. W. corymbosa. 

LEPTORRHYNCHOS. 

1466. Involucral bracts mostly blunt ... ... ... 1467 

Involucral bracts mostly pointed ......... 1468 

1467. Involucral bracts tender-membranous, dull- and pale- 

colored. 

Annual, rather robust, somewhat beset with cottony vesti- 
ture ; leaves from lanceolar- to broad-linear, recurved 
along the margin ; headlets of flowers comparatively 
large, from semiovate to finally hemispherical ; involucral 
bracts almost colorless and nearly without lustre, slightly 
wrinkled, the outer somewhat elliptical ; pappus-bristlets 
rather numerous ; fruits terminated by a thin attenuation. 

L. Waitzia. 



Victorian Plants. 



Involucral bracts firm, shining, bright- or brownish- 
yellow. 

Perennial, never tall, scantily beset with somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; leaves from broad- to narrow-linear ; headlets 
of flowers soon hemispherical ; involucral bracts some- 
what spreading, mostly oval ; pappus-bristlets rather 
numerous ; fruits terminated by a short and thin 
attenuation. L. nitidulus. 

1468. Pappus-bristlets few or several ... ... ... 1469 

Pappus-bristlets rather numerous ... ... ... 1471 

1469. Marginal non-staminate flowers unprovided with any 

pappus. 

Perennial, rather tall, very slender ; leaves all linear and 
along the margin revolute, the radical leaves considerably 
elongated, all above nearly glabrous ; headlets of flowers 
quite small, on very long and almost capillary stalks, 
turbinate-semiovate ; involucral bracts in many rows, 
quite minute, ciliolated and somewhat cottony invested ; 
pappus-bristlets from four to six, plumously dilated at 
the summit ; terminal attenuation of fruit very short. 

L. teiiuifolius. 

All flowers provided with a pappus ... ... ... 1470 

1470. Pappus-bristlets of staminate flowers usually from 

eight to twelve. 

Perennial, from somewhat dwarf to rather tall, imperfectly 
or scantily beset with cottony vestiture ; leaves mostly 
from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, usually bearing on the 
upper side scattered hairlets, flat or somewhat recurved 
at the margin ; headlets of flowers small, on elongated 
much bracteate stalks, semiovate-bellshaped ; involucral 
bracts in many rows, minute, ciliolated ; pappus-bristlets 
of the non-staminate flowers from three to five ; terminal 
attenuation of fruit very short. L. sc[iiaiiiatus. 

Pappus-bristlets of staminate flowers usually four. 

Annual, never tall, imperfectly or scantily beset with 
cottony vestiture ; leaves mostly from lanceolar- to 
narrow-linear, usually recurved along the margin, often 
becoming glabrous above ; headlets of flowers quite 
small, on elongated very thin much bracteate stalks, 
turbinate-semiovate ; involucral bracts in many rows, 
minute, conspicuously ciliolated, shining, pale-yellowish, 
transparent ; pappus - bristlets of the non - staminate 
flowers two or three ; terminal attenuation of fruit 
very short. L. pulch.eU.US. 



328 Key to the System of 



1471. Fruits terminated suddenly by a long and very thin 

attenuation. 

Annual, never tall, usually much beset with scattered and 
often glandule-bearing hairlets ; leaves from narrow- 
lanceolar to broad-linear ; headlets of flowers rather 
large, almost hemispherical, on elongated much bracteated 
stalks ; involucral bracts in rather few rows, the outer 
lax, shining, whitish, glabrous ; corollas bright-yellow ; 
seed-bearing portion of the fruit turgid, nearly smooth. 

L. medius. 

Fruits terminated gradually by a short attenuation. 

Perennial, rather tall and robust, usually much beset with 
scattered and often glandule -bearing hairlets ; leaves 
comparatively long, from narrow-lanceolar to broad- 
linear ; headlets of flowers relatively large, almost hemi- 
spherical, on much elongated and copiously bracteated 
stalks ; involucral bracts in rather few rows, the outer 
lax, shining, whitish, glabrous ; corollas pale-yellow or 
almost whitish ; fruits comparatively long, glandular- 
rough. L. elongatus. 

GNAFHALITTIVI. 

1472. Annual ... 1473 

Perennial ... ... ... 1474 

1473. Usually somewhat tall. 

Densely beset with somewhat cottony vestiture; leaves 
flaccid, from obovate- or elliptic-cuneate to lanceolar- 
or broadish-linear, the upper sessile ; headlets of flowers 
crowded at or near the summit, generally unsupported 
by floral leaves ; involucral bracts pale-yellowish, shining ; 
fruits cylindric, glabrous. G. luteo-album. 

Always quite dwarf. 

Beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; leaves flaccid, 
from broad- to narrow-linear ; clusters of flower-headlets 
surrounded by narrow leaves ; involucral bracts yellowish 
or brownish, transparent ; fruits almost glabrous. 

G. indutum. 

1474. Headlets of flowers singly terminal. 

Alpine, dwarf, densely beset with lax somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; leaves nearly all radical and from obovate- 
to cuneate- or spatular-elliptical ; stem-leaves very few, 
narrow ; involucral bracts pale-brownish or reddish, 
shining, narrow, transparent ; fruits subtly beset with 
hairlets. G. Traversii. 



Victorian Plants. 329 



Headlets of flowers in mostly terminal clusters ... 1475 

1475. Clusters of flower-headlets surrounded by mostly 

narrow floral leaves. 

Partly beset with somewhat cottony often appressed 
vestiture, occasionally rather tall ; leaves firm, the 
lower mostly from elliptic- to elongate-lanceolar, the 
upper distant and narrower, all soon glabrescent above ; 
headlets of flowers capitular-crowded ; involucral bracts 
brownish, shining ; fruits glabrous, slightly compressed. 

G. Japonicum. 

Clusters of flower-headlets surrounded by mostly 
broad floral leaves. 

Alpine, extensively beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
root emitting offshoots ; radical leaves from elliptic- to 
lanceolar-ovate ; stem-leaves mostly narrow-lanceolar ; 
floral leaves often again broader, all flat and usually 
velvetlike-invested also on the upper side ; some of 
the headlets with prevailingly fertile fruits, others 
with predominantly sterile fruits ; involucral bracts pale- 
brownish, shining ; fruits glabrous. 

G. alpigenum. 

ANTENNARIA. 

1476. Headlets of flowers singly terminal, almost sessile. 

Alpine, .dwarf and depressed, scantily beset with somewhat 
cottony vestiture ; leaves firm, mostly linear, acute, 
slightly channelled, glabrous ; headlets with perfect 
fruits more slender than the others ; pappus -bristlets 
equally thin throughout ; fruits very slender, glabrous. 

A. imiceps. 

XiEONTOPODXUBX. 

1477. Expanding in ample depressed patches. 

Alpine, whitish or greyish from a thin appressed vestiture ; 
leaves very small, crowded on stems and branches, 
spreading, from obovate- to cuneate-elliptical, flat, at 
their base clasping ; flower-headlets singly terminal on 
crowded branchlets, small, sessile, slightly exceeding 
the floral leaves ; ray-like expansion of involucre short, 
white ; fruits slender, beset with very minute hairlets ; 
bristlets of the pappus thickened at the upper extremity, 
particularly those of the sterile fruits. Figure 83. 

L. catipes. 



330 Key to the System of 



STUARTINA. 

1478. Headlets few-flowered, capitular-crowded. 

Often quite dwarf, beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves very small, flaccid, flat, occasionally verging into 
an elliptic form ; headlets minute, their clusters surpassed 
by the floral leaves ; involucres rather dark -colored ; 
fruits glandular-rough. S. Muelleri. 

XtUTXDOSXS. 

1479. Annual, minute. 

Glabrous or scantily beset with interwoven hairlets ; leaves 
quite short, linear, some opposite ; headlets of flowers 
extremely small, often several terminally placed together, 
each supported by floral leaves ; involucral bracts whitish, 
blunt, smooth, entire ; corolla sometimes greenish ; pappus- 
scalelets spatular- or lanceolar-ovate, often placed ob- 
liquely, without any ciliolation ; fruits papillular-rough. 

B. Pumilo. 

Perennial ... 1480 

1480. Leaves mostly radical. 

Somewhat beset with interwoven hairlets ; stems hardly 
branched ; leaves mostly broad-linear, revolute along the 
margin, soon almost glabrous ; headlets of flowers rather 
large, singly terminal, nearly hemispherical ; involucral . 
bracts pale-yellowish, acute, neither wrinkled nor cilio- 
lated, the inner acute, the outer blunt ; pappus-scalelets 
elliptic-spatular, subtle-ciliolated. K. leiolepis. 

Leaves scattered ... ... ... ... ... 1481 

1481. Involucral bracts smooth. 

Scantily beset with interwoven hairlets ; stems hardly 
branched ; leaves mostly broad-linear, revolute along 
the margin, the upper abbreviated ; headlets of flowers 
singly terminal, nearly hemispherical ; involucral bracts 
yellowish, somewhat foliaceous towards their base, the 
inner ciliolated towards the summit ; pappus-scalelets 
narrow-lanceolar, plumously ciliolated ; fruits papillular- 
rough. H. leptorrhynchoides. 

Involucral bracts wrinkled. 

Finally somewhat tall, closely or imperfectly beset with in- 
terwoven hairlets ; stems branchless or scantily branched ; 
stem-leaves broad-linear, revolute along the margin, the 
upper gradually shortened, the lowest somewhat dilated ; 



Victorian Plants. 331 



headlets of flowers singly terminal, nearly hemispherical ; 
involucral bracts lax, bright-yellow, ciliolated ; pappus- 
scalelets spatular-elliptical, without any cilioles ; fruits 
papillular-rough. R. lieliclirysoicl.es. 

HU3XEA. 

1482. Leaves very broad. 

Tall, herbaceous, beset with scattered glandule-bearing hair- 
lets, strong-scented ; leaves very large, from ovate- to 
elongate-lanceolar, much wrinkled, stem-clasping at the 
base or decurrent ; headlets of flowers in a very elongated 
largely pendent-branched and minutely bracteate panicle ; 
involucral bracts shining-red or almost copper-colored, 
transparent ; flowers three or four within each involucre ; 
corollas upwards conspicuously widened and purplish ; 
fruits glandular-rough. H, elegans, 

Leaves very narrow or quite minute .. 1483 

1483. Involucral bracts pale-yellowish. 

Shrubby, partly beset with appressed somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; leaves cylindric-linear, glabrescent on the 
outer side ; headlets of flowers in a corymbously con- 
tracted panicle; flowers from three to seven within 
each" involucre ; corollas slightly widened upwards and 
yellowish ; fruits glabrous. Figure 85. 

H. ozothamuoides. 

Involucral bracts white. 

Shrubby, glabrous, somewhat sticky ; leaves crowded, 
minute, scale-like, from lanceolar- to narrow-elliptical, 
appressed ; headlets of flowers in corymbously contracted 
panicles ; flowers generally four or five within each in- 
volucre ; corollas pale-yellowish ; fruits slightly glandular- 
rough. H. squamata. 

CALOCEFHALTJS. 

1484. Shrubby. 

Coast-plant, much branched and spreading, closely beset 
with an appressed whitish or greyish vestiture ; leaves 
scattered, minute, linear ; clusters of flower-headlets 
globular, whitish ; flowers two or three within each 
involucre ; pappus-bristlets plumous almost throughout. 

C. Brownii, 

Herbaceous ... ... ... .. ... ... 1485 



332 Key to the System of 



1485. Clusters of flower-headlets whitish. 

Slender plant, scantily branched, closely beset with a greyish 
appressed vestiture ; leaves linear, mostly opposite, often 
blunt ; clusters of flower-headlets from ellipsoid to nearly 
globular ; flowers two or three within each involucre ; 
pappus -bristlets plumous only at the summit. 

(C. Lessingi, partly.) C. lacteus. 

Clusters of flower-headlets yellow ... ... ... 1486 

1486. Leaves mostly opposite. 

Slender plant, scantily branched closely beset with a greyish 
appressed vestiture ; leaves linear, often acute ; clusters 
of flower-headlets from ellipsoid to nearly globular ; 
flowers two or three within each involucre ; pappus- 
bristlets plumous towards the summit. 

(C. Lessingi, partly.) C. citreus. 

Leaves mostly scattered. 

Beset with a somewhat cottony vestiture ; leaves linear ; 
clusters of flower-headlets from ovate to globular : flowers 
two or three within each involucre ; pappus -bristlets 
unequal, plumous only at the summit. C. Sonderi. 

ANCJIANTHUS. 

1487. Pappus developed ... 1488 

Pappus undeveloped or quite rudimentary ... ... 1490 

1488. Clusters of flower-headlets attenuated at their base. 

Dwarf, beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; leaves 
short, from cuneate- elliptical to linear ; headlets supported 
by floral leaves, forming yellow or brownish shining 
almost ellipsoid spikes ; involucral bracts four or five ; 
flowers usually two within each involucre ; pappus very 
short, consisting of a torn membrane, usually without 
any capillary elongations. A, bracliy pappus. 

Clusters of flower-headlets almost truncate at their 
base 1489 

1489. Clusters of headlets unsupported by floral leaves. 

Dwarf, beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; leaves 
short, from cuneate-elliptical to linear ; flower-headlets 
forming yellow shining short-cylindric spikes ; involucral 
bracts four or five ; flowers one to three within each 
involucre ; pappus producing two or three capillary, at 
the summit plumously dilated bristlets. 

A. tomentosus. 



Victorian Plants. 333 



Clusters of headlets supported by floral leaves. 

Dwarf, imperfectly beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves mostly linear ; flower-headlets forming yellow 
shining short -cylindric spikes ; involucral bracts generally 
four ; flowers usually two within each involucre ; pappus 
almost placed laterally, producing one slightly fringed 
scalelet, with a solitary or without any capillary 
elongations. A. pleuropappus. 

1490. Clusters of headlets gradually much attenuated to- 
wards their base. 

Annual, dwarf, scantily beset with somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; branches capillary-slender ; leaves very short, 
from ovate- to linear- cuneate ; clusters of headlets 
unsupported by floral leaves, forming almost club-shaped 
yellow or brownish shining spikes ; involucral bracts 
four to six ; flowers one to three within each involucre ; 
pappus reduced to a minute ring. A. pusillus. 

Clusters of headlets slightly attenuated towards their 
base. 

Annual, very dwarf, scantily beset with somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; branches capillary-slender ; leaves very short, 
from elliptic to linear ; involucral bracts only three ; 
flowers usually two within each involucre ; clusters of 
headlets unsupported by floral leaves, forming very short 
ovate- or cylindric-ellipsoid yellow or brownish shining 
spikes ; pappus absent. A. teiielliis. 



SK.IRROPKORUS. 

1491. Floral leaves from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar. 

Annual, quite dwarf, imperfectly beset with somewhat 
cottony vestiture ; stem-leaves short, linear, pointed, 
some opposite ; clusters of flower-headlets capitular ; 
involucral bracts broadish ; flowers two within each 
involucre ; pappus reduced to a minutely denticulated 
ring. ( Angianthus Preissianus. ) S. Freissianus. 

Floral leaves quite linear, recurved-pointed. 

Annual, quite dwarf, imperfectly beset with somewhat 
cottony vestiture ; leaves all quite short, very narrow 
and acute, some opposite ; clusters of flower-headlets 
capitular, often almost ovate ; involucral bracts narrow ; 
flowers solitary within each involucre ; pappus absent. 

(Angianthus strictus.) S. strictus. 



334 Key to the System of 

GNEPHOSIS. 

1492. Flowers solitary within each involucre. 

Annual, rather dwarf, beset with somewhat cottony vesti- 
ture ; leaves short, linear, extending to the inflorescence ; 
clusters of flower-headlets capitular, surrounded by a short 
universal involucre ; general receptacle invested with 
rather long hairlets ; pappus tubular towards the base, 
lobed towards the summit. G. skirrophora. 

CRXOCHXiAZKYS. 

1493. Pappus quite absent. 

Rather dwarf, extensively beset with somewhat cottony vesti- 
ture, usually much branched ; leaves very short, linear, 
extending to the inflorescence ; flower-headlets very small, 
coherent by densely intricate hairlets, capitular-crowded, 
seldom few together or solitary ; general receptacle some- 
what elevated; corollas generally bearing some slight 
crisp vestiture outside ; fruits glabrous. E. Behrii. 

CHTHONOCEPHALUS. 

1494. Stemless, the flower-headlets crowded and sessile 

within the tuft of flat radical leaves. 

Annual, very dwarf, beset with somewhat cottony vestiture ; 
leaves flaccid, from lanceolar- to spatular-elliptical ; head- 
lets of flowers very small, closely approximated into a 
depressed mass, seldom only few together or solitary ; 
flowers many within each involucre ; fruits minute, 
compressed, glabrous ; pappus absent. 

C. pseudevax. 

HITALOLEPIS, 

1495. Almost or quite stemless, the flower-headlets crowded 

within a general involucre of numerous transparent 

and shining bracts. 

Quite dwarf, occasionally somewhat branched ; leaves 
comparatively long ; headlets of flowers in dense almost 
hemispheric clusters ; general involucral bracts in many 
rows, pale, somewhat radiating and cottony-ciliolated ; 
general receptacle depressed ; involucres of headlets 
consisting of three narrow bracts ; fruits slender, some- 
what beset with hairlets ; pappus consisting of a single 
capillary bristlet or undeveloped. 

(Myriocephalus rhizocephalus.) H. rllizocepliala. 



Victorian Plants. 335 



ISOETOPSIS. 

1496. Stemless, the flower-headlets crowded and sessile 

within tufts of very narrow radical leaves. 

Quite dwarf ; leaves comparatively long ; headlets of flowers 

small, their involucral bracts rather few ; marginal flowers 

devoid of stamens ; fruits of central flowers imperfect and 

almost destitute of any pappus. I. graminifolia. 



GNAFXXAXiODES. 

1497. Pappus-bristlets rigid, compressed, conspicuously cilio- 
lated. 

Very dwarf, extensively beset with short greyish vesti- 
ture ; stems very short and prostrate or undeveloped ; 
leaves small, mostly from spatular to obovate, flat, 
some opposite, the uppermost with their flower-headlets 
forming depressed clusters ; headlets few together or 
two or rarely solitary, their outer involucral bracts 
pale, from lanceolar to ovate and spreading, inner 
appressed and blunt, all coherent by intricate vestiture ; 
flowers of each headlet numerous ; bristlets of pappus 
occasionally six ; fruits glabrous. G. uliginosa. 



1498. Pappus-bristlets plumously ciliolated. 

Rather robust, extensively beset with cottony or glandule- 
bearing hairlets ; stems usually branchless ; leaves much 
elongated, from lanceolar- to broad-linear, the stem- 
leaves sessile, the uppermost generally terminated by 
a petaloid-bracteal apex ; flower-headlets forming large 
clusters, often somewhat stalked ; involucral bracts of 
headlets broadish, shining, transparent, fringy-ciliolated ; 
flowers several or numerous within each involucre ; fruits 
densely beset with silk-like vestiture. Figure 86. 

(Myriocephalus Stuartii. ) "P. Stuartii. 

CRASFEDIA. 

1499. Clusters of flower-headlets often from two to five 

together. 

Scantily beset with somewhat cottony vestiture, mostly 
branchless ; leaves flaccid, from narrow-lanceolar to 
almost linear, the lower rather long ; clusters of flower- 
headlets from ovate to globular ; general involucre rather 
conspicuous; general receptacle cylindrical; flowers from 



336 Key to the System of 



three to six within each involucre ; corolla bright-yellow, 
its lobes rather long; anthers and stigmas often exserted; 
pappus-bristlets yelhyvv at the summit ; fruits beset with 
silk-like vestiture. C. pleiocephala. 

Clusters of flower-headlets always singly terminal ... 1500 

1500. Pappus-bristlets throughout white. 

Perennial, rather tall, branchless or scantily branched from 
near the base, often beset with short either scattered or 
interwoven hairlets ; lower leaves large, from ovate- to 
narrow-lanceolar ; stem-leaves gradually narrower and 
shorter, clasping at their base, all flaccid ; clusters of 
flower-head] ets large, globular, surrounded by con- 
spicuous, ovate, somewhat transparent, dark-margined 
bracts ; involucres of headlets without any yellow tinge, 
five- to eight-flowered ; corolla very turgid above the 
middle, oftener bright-yellow than pale-yellowish, rarely 
whitish; general receptacle almost semi-globular; pappus- 
bristlets softly plumous-ciliolated ; fruits beset with silk- 
like vestiture. C. Ricliea. 

Pappus-bristlets yellow at the summit ... ... 1501 

1501. Pappus-bristlets plumously ciliolate above the middle. 

Usually branchless, beset with appressed somewhat cottony 
vestiture; leaves lax, broad-linear, the upper shortened, 
all becoming usually glabrous above ; clusters of flower- 
headlets from ovate to globular, comparatively small ; 
general involucre rather inconspicuous ; general receptacle 
ovate-cylindrical ; headlets four- to eight-flowered ; corolla 
bright-yellow, its lobes unusually short; anthers enclosed; 
pappus-bristlets rather rigid, connate at the base ; fruits 
beset with silk-like vestiture. C. chrysantha. 

Pappus-bristlets plumously ciliolate throughout. 

Perennial, often tall, usually branchless, closely beset with 
a thin interwoven whitish or greyish vestiture ; lower 
leaves from elliptic- to liiiear-lanceolar, provided with 
three prominent longitudinal venules ; stem-leaves shorter 
and narrower, the upper distant ; clusters of flower- 
headlets large, globular ; general involucre rather in- 
conspicuous ; general receptacle convex, hollow ; headlets 
five- to eight-flowered ; corolla bright-yellow ; anthers 
and stigmas often enclosed ; pappus-bristlets free to their 
base, their plumous ciliolation rather short ; fruits beset 
with silk-like vestiture. C. globosa. 



Victorian Plants. 337 



TOXANTHUS. 

1502. Involucral bracts soon recurved at the upper end. 

Somewhat or extensively beset with cottony vestiture ;. 
leaves quite short, linear j headlets of flowers sessile ; 
involucral bracts three to five, narrow, downward 
coherent ; corolla long-persistent, bearing some cottony 
hairlets towards its base, its tube recurved ; fruits much 
pointed. T. perpusillus. 

Involucral bracts remaining straight to the upper end. 

Beset with short scattered glandule-bearing hairlets ; leaves 
quite short, linear, some opposite ; headlets of flowers 
sessile ; involucral bracts narrow ; corolla long-persistent, 
its tube recurved ; fruits half-emerged, slightly pointed, 
somewhat beset with extremely minute hairlets. 

T. Muelleri. 



1503. Pappus-bristlets nearly as long as the corolla, hardly 

ciliolated. 

Somewhat or extensively beset with an appressed or rather 
cottony vestiture ; leaves flaccid, from spatular-elliptical 
to narrow-linear ; involucral bracts few ; headlets singly 
terminating stems or branches ; flowers rather numerous 
in each headlet ; corolla often pale ; fruits slender, some- 
what rough. M. tenuifolia. 

ERECHTXTES. 

1504. Involucral bracts rather numerous. 

Perennial, beset with a rough or somewhat cottony vesti- 
ture ; leaves from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, either 
entire or indented or lobed ; headlets of flowers com- 
paratively broad, in a contracted panicle ; accessory bracts 
at the base of the involucre conspicuous ; fruits circularly 
margined at the summit. E. hispidula. 

Involucral bracts several ... ... ... ... 1505 

1505. Headlets of flowers relatively long. 

Tall, generally somewhat beset with cottony vestiture ; 
leaves from narrow-lanceolar to elongate-linear, entire 
or scantily indented, often recurved at the margin ; 
headlets of flowers very numerous, in an ample panicle, 
quite slender ; corollas of staminate flowers often four- 
denticulated ; fruits slender, streaked. 

E. quadridentata. 

Headlets of flowers relatively short ........ 1506 



338 Key to the System of 



1506. Headlets in a contracted panicle. 

Mostly rough from short rigid hairlets ; leaves from elliptic- 
to linear-lanceolar, indented or lobed, the stem-leaves 
clasping with their dilated base ; fruits beset with very 
minute hairlets, circularly margined at the summit. 

E. arguta. 

Headlets in an ample panicle. 

Tall, nearly glabrous ; leaves almost membranous, from 
linear- to elliptic-lanceolar, often much elongated and 
rather regularly denticulated ; fruits beset with very 
minute hairlets, circularly margined at the summit. 

E. prenauthoides. 

SBNECZO. 

1507. Corollas of the marginal flowers flatly much expanded 1508 

Corollas of all flowers tubular to near the summit ... 1517 

1508. Annual ... 1509 

Perennial ..> ... ... ... 1510 

1509. Headlets of flowers always singly terminal. 

Desert-plant, quite glabrous, never tall ; leaves greyish- 
green, from narrow- to lanceolar-linear, usually entire, 
the upper sessile ; headlet of flowers rather large, its 
stalk dilated at the summit ; involucre ample, without 
any accessory basal bracts ; marginal corollas broadly 
ligular-expanding ; fruits streaked." S. Gregorii. 

Headlets of flowers generally few together. 

Desert-plant, rather robust but never tall, almost glabrous ; 
leaves mostly somewhat pinnatifid ; lobes often indented ; 
headlets of flowers comparatively large, their stalks dilated 
at the summit ; involucre ample, with hardly any accessory 
basal bracts ; marginal corollas broadly ligular-expanding ; 
fruits beset with very short hairlets. S. platylepis. 

1510. Headlets of flowers solitary or few together. 

Alpine plant, always dwarf, nearly glabrous, often branch- 
less ; basal leaves pinnatifid or regularly short-lobed ; 
stem-leaves suddenly or gradually much reduced in size 
and indented only ; marginal corollas conspicuously 
ligulate ; involucre supported by very small accessory 
bracts ; fruits slender, glabrous. S. pectiuatus. 

Headlets of flowers several or numerous ... ... 1511 



Victorian Plants. 339 



1511. Conspicuously beset with somewhat cottony vestiture. 

Somewhat branched, slightly woody, never tall ; leaves 
firm, rather small, almost linear, revolute at the margin, 
curved-pointed at the summit, above finally glabrous ; 
headlets of flowers usually several, comparatively small, 
their stalks also bearing minute bracts ; ligular expansions 
of marginal corollas rather short ; fruits somewhat beset 
with hairlets. S. Belirianus. 



Almost or quite glabrous ... ... ... ... 1512 

1512. Upper leaves stalked or only slightly clasping ... 1513 
Upper leaves very amply clasping ... ... ... 1515 

1513. Headlets of flowers small-rayed. 

Comparatively tall, very odorous, often riparian ; leaves 
rather long, from linear- to broadish-lanceolar, entire or 
somewhat serrated ; base of the stem-leaves frequently 
slightly dilated ; headlets of flowers numerous, small ; 
fruits usually glabrous. S. dryadeus. 

Headlets of flowers large-rayed ... .. ... 15H 

1514. Accessory bracts much elongated, spreading. 

Forest-plant, amply and laxly spreading ; leaves large, 
flaccid, somewhat pinnately cleft into broadish unequal 
acute segments, the latter again acutely lobed or distantly 
indented, the terminal segment far the largest; upper 
leaves less divided ; headlets of flowers relatively large, 
few or several together, acutely rayed ; involucral bracts 
conspicuously pointed, outside blackish, papillular-rough ; 
fruits glabrous, longitudinally furrowed and transversely 
wrinkled. Figure 90. S. vagus. 

Accessory bracts much abbreviated, appressed. 

Seldom tall, of erect or diffuse growth ; leaves or their lobes 
from narrow-lanceolar to linear, entire or indented or in- 
cised, occasionally more dilated and sometimes succulent ; 
uppermost leaves almost reduced to bracts ; headlets of 
flowers few or several together ; accessory bracts often 
black-spotted ; fruits generally beset with minute hair- 
lets. S. lantus. 



340 Key to the System of 



1515. Leaves all denticulated. 

Coast-plant, somewhat shrubby, comparatively tall ; leaves 
from narrow-elliptic to obovate, perceptibly succulent ; 
headlets of flowers rather large, few or several corymbously 
together, long-rayed ; involucre conspicuously supported 
by accessory small bracts ; fruits streaked, often glabrous. 

S, spatulatus. 

Upper leaves mostly entire ... ... ... ... 1516 

1516. Headlets of flowers rather large, few together. 

Desert-plant, hardly tall ; leaves greyish-green, firm, mostly 
from elliptic- to lanceolar- ovate, often acute, at the base 
bilobed ; headlets of flowers large-rayed ; accessory bracts 
few or almost obliterated ; fruits beset with minute hair- 
lets. S. magnificus. 

Headlets of flowers rather small, many together. 

Forest-plant, comparatively tall ; leaves almost mem- 
branous, greyish-green, mostly from spatular- to elliptic- 
ovate, often obtuse ; headlets of flowers bluntly rayed ; 
accessory bracts few or almost obliterated ; fruits usually 
beset with minute hairlets. S. velleyoides. 

1517. Inflorescence axillary. 

Sylvan, finally arborescent and even of considerable height, 
densely invested with whitish or greyish stellular hair- 
lets ; leaves large, firm, from lanceolar to elliptical, 
almost or quite entire, soon glabrous above ; headlets 
of flowers rather small, in axillary panicles or racemes 
or clusters ; involucral bracts also beset with stellular 
hairlets ; corollas much exserted ; alveoles of receptacle 
prominent ; fruits streaked, glabrous ; pappus-bristlets 
in a single row. S. Bedford!. 

Inflorescence terminal ... ... ... ... 1518 

1518. Conspicuously beset with cottony vestiture. 

Somewhat woody, seldom tall ; leaves firm, from lanceolar 
to linear, entire or somewhat denticulated, rarely lobed, 
often recurved at the margin ; headlets of flowers small, 
few or several together ; involucral bracts acute, also 
beset with close vestiture ; fruits generally bearing 
minute hairlets. S. Georgianus, 

Almost or quite glabrous ... ... ... ... 1519 



Victorian Plants. 341 



1519. Leaves broad, clasping at the base. 

Comparatively tall, somewhat woody, strong-scented ; 
leaves mostly from elliptic- to lanceolar-ovate, indented 
or denticulated, almost glabrous or underneath scantily 
or seldom densely beset with a thin somewhat cottony 
vestiture ; headlets of flowers numerous, quite small 
and particularly slender ; corollas almost half-emerged ; 
fruits somewhat beset with minute hairlets. 

S. odoratus. 

Leaves narrow, without or with slight basal dilatation 1520 

1520. Perennial, tall. 

Somewhat branched and woody, usually glabrous ; leaves 
firm, from narrow-lanceolar to broad-linear, entire or 
some indented or denticulated ; headlets of flowers very 
small, several together ; corollas nearly half-exserted ; 
fruits beset with minute hairlets. S. Cunningham!. 

Annual, dwarf. 

Often branchless ; leaves from linear- to narrow-lanceolar, 
entire or somewhat denticulated or distantly short-lobed ; 
headlets of flowers quite small, few together ; marginal 
corollas provided with a rudimentary extremely minute 
ligular expansion ; fruits beset with a very short vestiture. 

S. brachyglossus. 



CANBOI.X.BACBA&. 

CANDOXiXiEA. 

1521. Perennial ... 1522 

Annual ... .-. ... ... ... ... 1523 

1522. Flowers in spikes. 

Somewhat tall, unbranched, quite erect ; leaves all radical, 
tufted, rigid, elongate-linear or slightly lanceolar, im- 
perfectly ciliolar-denticulated ; stem constituting an 
elongate stalk of the spike, as well as the latter beset 
with scattered glandule-bearing hairlets ; flowers rather 
small; corolla from pale- to intense-red; base of each 
corolla-lobe bearing minute appendages ; fruit turgidly 
ovate, terminated by the persistent calyx-lobes, two- 
celled, many-seeded. C. serrulata. 



342 Key to the System of 



Flowers in corymbs. 

Never tall ; leaves all radical, copiously and densely tufted, 
rather short, linear-cylindrical, ending in a bristlet, the 
tufts connected by thread-like offshoots ; inflorescence 
beset with glandule-bearing hairlets ; corolla small, red, 
the fifth minute lobe bearing two pointed appendages; 
fruit almost ovate, terminated by the short calyx-lobes, 
two-celled ; seeds very numerous, almost rhomboid-ovate. 
Figure 92. C. sobolifera. 

1523. Leaves scattered. 

Minute, erect, glabrous; leaves extremely short, from 
ovate- to linear-lanceolar ; flowers few in a corymb ; 
corolla very minute, white or somewhat pink, its lobes 
without appendages ; fruit linear-cylindrical, terminated 
by the very short calyx-lobes, two-celled, many-seeded. 

C. despecta. 

Leaves all radical ... ... ... ... 1524 



1524. Corolla produced downwards into a tubular pointed 
appendage. 

Very small, erect, beset with scattered glandule-bearing 
hairlets ; leaves few or several, extremely short, from 
narrow-elliptical to orbicular ; flowers quite small in a 
corymb, seldom numerous, exceptionally reduced to two 
or one ; corolla white, often red-spotted, its lobes some- 
what indented, without appendages, its tube usually 
replaced by a slender downward prolongation ; fruit 
almost globular, two-celled, many-seeded, hardly as long 
as the persistent calyx-lobes. C. calcarata. 

Corolla without any basal appendage. 

Minute, erect, scantily beset with scattered glandule- 
bearing hairlets ; stem capillary ; leaves extremely 
short, from linear- to ovate-elliptical or spatular, never 
numerous ; flowers few in a corymb or two or solitary ; 
bracts unilaterally paired, somewhat succulent ; corolla 
very small, white, its upper lobes about half as long 
as the lower, red-spotted at the base, all only uni- 
denticulated and without any appendages ; gynostemium 
extremely short ; fruit quite small, almost globular, two- 
celled, many-seeded, terminated by the persistent calyx- 
lobes ; placentaries turgid. C . perpusilla. 



Victorian Plants. 



LEEWENHOEKIA. 

1525. Leaves mostly from narrow-elliptical to lanceolar- 
or spatular-obovate. 

Minute, erect, copiously beset with short glandule -bear ing 
hairlets ; leaves very short ; flowers axillary, solitary, 
forming with the upper leaves a foliate corymb or 
raceme ; corolla very small, without any appendages, 
all its lobes white ; stigmas very narrow, divergent ; 
fruit almost globular, one-celled, terminated by the 
persistent lobes of the calyx ; placentary spherical ; 
seeds numerous, turgidly ovate, streaked and dotted. 
Figure 93. L. chibia. 

Leaves mostly from cordate- to rhomboidal-orbicular. 

Minute, erect, copiously beset with short glandule-bearing 
hairlets ; leaves very short, the upper sessile ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, forming with the upper leaves a 
foliate corymb or raceme ; corolla very small, without 
any appendages, its very minute fifth lobe dark- 
purplish ; fruit almost globular, one-celled, many seeded, 
terminated by the persistent lobes of the calyx. 

L. Sonderi. 



CA3VIPANULACEAE. 
WAZZZiENBCRCZA. 

1526. Flowers on long stalks, singly terminating stems or 
branches. 

A perennial herb, flowering already during the first year 
of its growth, or in a minute state passing away as an 
annual, from dwarf to rather tall, usually somewhat beset 
with spreading short hairlets ; lower leaves scattered or 
some opposite, mostly from obovate or spatular to harrow- 
lanceolar ; upper leaves gradually more linear and distant 
or quite undeveloped, all entire or slightly denticulated ; 
flowers from minute to rather large ; lobes of the calyx 
and corolla as well as the number of stamens five or also 
not rarely four ; corolla blue or outside pale, exceptionally 

Suite white, its tube about as long as the calyx or 
Dnger, hardly shorter than its lobes, only slightly turgid ; 
filaments much dilated towards the base ; stigmas and 
ovulary-cells three or rarely two ; fruit above the calyx- 
tube valvular-dehiscent at its short free summit. " Aus- 
tralian Bellflower." W. gracilis. 



344 Key to the System of 



ISOTOMA. 

1527. Leaves large, pinnatilobed. 

Perennial, ascending or erect, excessively acrid, of un- 

Eleasant odour, glabrous except portions of the flower ; 
javes scattered, irregularly dissected or lobed, the 
segments or lobes narrow ; flower-stalks elongated, some- 
times very long, all axillary and solitary ; flowers very 
large ; corolla usually outside pale, the lobes inside 
blue or somewhat violet, the tube longer than the 
lobes, slightly curved ; filaments and style beset with 
short hairlets ; anthers exserted ; fruit obconic -ellipsoid, 
terminated by the narrow calyx-lobes, two-celled ; seeds 
numerous, foveolar-rough. I. axillaris. 

Leaves small, lobeless. 

A small perennial creeping plant, beset with very minute 
hairlets ; leaves scattered, firm, from linear- to ovate- 
elliptical, entire or somewhat denticulated ; flower-stalks 
from as long as the leaves to much longer ; flowers small ; 
corolla blue or not rarely almost white, the tube inside 
as well as the filaments beset with short hairlets ; fruit 
small, nearly hemi-ellipsoid, two-celled, terminated by 
the short lobes of the calyx ; seeds many, smooth. 

I. fluviatilis. 

LOBELIA. 

1528. Flowers terminal 1529 

Flowers axillary 1532 

1529. Flowers singly terminating very elongated stalks. 

Ascendant, glabrous ; lower leaves mostly cuneate-obovate, 
incised, the others from lanceolar to nearly linear and 
somewhat indented ; flowers rather large, on thin elon- 
gated stalks, terminating stems and branches ; corolla 
blue inside, its lowest lobe ovate-cuneate ; fruit some- 
what bulging on the upper side ; seeds numerous, minute. 

L, rhombifolia. 

Flowers forming unilateral racemes ... ... ... 1530 

1530. Stems somewhat turgid and succulent. 

Annual, glabrous ; stem usually branchless ; leaves narrow- 
linear or thread-like, usually entire; bracts linear, pointed; 
stalklets shorter than the flowers ; corolla blue inside, its 
upper lobes curved and much pointed, glabrous, lower 
lobes narrow-lanceolar and pointed ; fruit very bulging 
on the upper side ; seeds brown, very minute, almost 
dust-like. L. microsperma. 



Victorian Plants. 345 



Stems slender, hardly succulent ... ... ... .1531 

1531. Fruits much bulging on the upper side. 

Annual, glabrous, hardly branched ; leaves linear, the 
lower broader and denticulated ; corolla blue inside, 
its upper lobes somewhat beset w\th minute hairlets, 
pointed; lower lobes rather acute; seeds very minute, 
almost dust-like. L. Browniana. 

Fruits slightly bulging. on the upper side. 

Often rather tall ; leaves mostly narrow and indented, the 
lower not rarely lanceolar ; flowers rather large ; corolla 
blue, rarely pink inside, its upper lobes somewhat beset 
with minute hairlets ; all lobes acute ; seeds small, ovate- 
triangular. L. simplicicaulis. 

1532. Flower-stalklets much elongated 1533 

Flower-stalklets much abbreviated ... ... ... 1534 

1533. The two upper lobes of the corolla much narrower 

than the three lower. 

Perennial, lax, glabrous ; leaves often almost membranous, 
from ovate- to elliptic-lanceolar, irregularly denticulated ; 
flowers axillary, solitary; stalks very thin, gently re- 
curved ; corolla purplish or inside whitish ; upper lobes 
of the corolla very acute ; perfect stamens and pistils in 
distinct flowers, mostly on separate plants ; fertile fruits 
obconic-hemiellipsoid ; seeds ovate. Figure 91. 

L. purpurascens. 

All the lobes of the corolla nearly of equal size. 

Creeping, beset with minute hairlets ; leaves small, almost 
membranous, from ovate- to orbicular-rhomboid ; flowers 
small, axillary, solitary ; lobes of the corolla above 
white, beneath pale-violet; perfect stamens and pistils 
in distinct flowers, mostly on separate plants ; fertile 
fruit obconic-hemiellipsoid ; seeds ovate. 

L. pedunculata. 

1534. Corolla-lobes turned unilaterally. 

Perennial, rather dwarf, glabrous ; leaves from lanceolar- 
to elliptic-ovate, conspicuously denticulated, often some- 
what crisped ; flowers axillary, solitary ; lobes of the 
corolla equal, usually whitish on the upper side ; perfect 
stamens and pistils in distinct flowers, mostly on separate 
plants ; fertile fruit ovate -globular. L. concolor. 



346 Key to the System of 



Corolla-lobes turned bilaterally ... 1535 

1535. Fruits much compressed. 

Creeping, glabrous ; sap hardly whitish ; leaves succulent, 
from elliptic- to lanceolar-ovate, entire ; flowers small, 
axillary, solitary ; lobes of the corolla nearly equal, white 
inside ; tube very- short ; perfect stamens and pistils in 



distinct flowers, mostly on separate plants ; fertile fruit 

" T large, elliptic. 

L. platycalyx. 



roundish-ovate ; seeds comparatively large, elliptic. 



Fruits turgid or cylindrical ... ... ... 1536 

1536. Leaves from orbicular to ovate. 

Alpine plant, creeping, beset with very short hairlets ; 
leaves quite small, somewhat denticulated ; flowers 
minute, axillary, solitary ; perfect stamens and pistils 
in distinct flowers, mostly on separate plants. 

L. Benthami. 

Leaves from cuneate-lanceolar to linear ... ... 1537 

1537. Beset with very short hairlets. 

Creeping ; leaves small, denticulated ; flowers quite small, 
axillary, solitary ; corolla blue or occasionally purplish, 
its lobes nearly equal ; perfect stamens and pistils in 
distinct flowers, mostly on separate plants ; fertile fruit 
oblique-ovate. L. pratioides, 

Quite glabrous ... 1538 

1538. Fruit almost globular. 

Alpine small creeping plant ; leaves very short, nearly 
linear, entire ; flowers minute, axillary, solitary, almost 
sessile ; lobes of the corolla nearly equal, white inside ; 
tube very short ; fertile fruit very small. L. gelida. 

Fruit almost cylindrical. 

Lax, occasionally somewhat creeping, sometimes quite tall 
and rambling ; stem and branches prominently triangular ; 
lower leaves often ovate-cuneate, the upper from elliptic- 
to linear-lanceolar, all entire or some slightly denticulated; 
flowers small, axillary, solitary, usually on short stalklets; 
corolla small, generally bluish inside, its upper lobes much 
narrower than the lower. 1. anceps. 



Victorian Plants. 347 



BRUNONXA. 

1539. Stems leafless, except at the base, terminated by 

solitary capitular clusters of small flowers. 

Perennial, densely or imperfectly beset with short hairlets ; 
stems branchless, peduncular ; leaves from narrow- to 
spatular- or obovate-lanceolar, entire ; flowers singly 
surrounded by bracts and bracteoles, constituting in- 
volucrated headlets ; calyx-lobes very narrow, plumously 
ciliolated, usually glandular- tipped, forming a pappus ; 
corolla and stamens inserted below the ovulary ; filaments 
connate towards the base ; cover of the stigma bilobed, 
without marginal ciliolation ; ovulary uni-ovulate ; seed 
without any albument. B. Australis. 

DAZKPXERA. 

1540. Leaves almost flat ... ... 1541 

Leaves recurved at the margin ... ... ... 1542 

1541. Branchlets hardly angular. 

Somewhat shrubby ; leaves from orbicular to ovate and 
elliptical, clothed with stellular-branched hairlets under- 
neath, occasionally indented ; flowers generally few and 
somewhat distant on each of the axillary and terminal 
stalks ; corolla densely beset outside with dark plumously 
branched hairlets; fruit very small, ellipsoid, one-seeded. 

D. Brownii. 

Branchlets very angular. 

Almost herbaceous ; leaves firm, from elliptic to linear or 
the lower almost ovate or cuneate, often indented and 
glabrous ; corolla outside beset with a brownish velvet- 
like vestiture ; fruit very small, one-seeded. 

D. stricta. 

1542. Lower side of leaves almost concealed by their 

revolute margin. 

Somewhat shrubby, but never tall, partly beset with short 
hairlets; branchlets hardly angular, though streaked ; 
leaves often small, from elliptic- to broad-linear, blunt, 
generally soon almost glabrous above, sometimes fascicular- 
crowded ; corolla beset with a rather dark vestiture out- 
side, its expanding membranes blue or not rarely purplish 
or white ; fruit very small, one-seeded. 

D. rosmarinifolia. 

Lower side of leaves partly covered by their recurved 
margin ... 1543 



348 Key to the System of 



1543. Corolla beset with starry-velvety vestiture outside. 

Somewhat shrubby, but never tall, extensively invested 
with branched often greyish hairlets ; branchlets hardly 
angular ; leaves from narrow-elliptic to ovate ; flowers 
from one to three on each stalk, rather small ; fruit very 
small, one-seeded. D. xnarifolia. 

Corolla beset with a plumous-velvety vestiture out- 
side. 

Somewhat shrubby ; branches hardly angular, but streaked ; 
leaves from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar, occasionally 
somewhat indented, slightly beset with a short vestitur-e 
underneath ; flowers often in compound leafy racemes ; 
hairlets of the corolla dark ; fruit very small, one-seeded. 

D. lanceolata. 



1544. Stem undeveloped. 

Alpine, dwarf, often beset with scattered spreading hairlets ; 
leaves all crowded at the root and usually surpassing 
the inflorescence, from elliptic- to spatular-obovate, entire 
or slightly denticulated ; bracteoles narrow ; segments 
of calyx three, elliptic-lanceolar; corolla small, dingy- 
yellowish ; seeds without any marginal expansion. 

V. montana. 

Stem developed ... ... ... ... ... 1545 

1545. Bracts disconnected. 

Seldom quite glabrous; leaves all radical, from obovate 
to elliptic- and narrow-lanceolar, often deeply incised ; 
flowers in a dichotomous cyme ; bracts opposite, quite 
foliaceous, the lower large and generally lobed or 
indented ; segments of calyx five, four of them narrow- 
lanceolar or elliptical, the fifth larger and more ovate ; 
corolla large, yellow, with a basal conic-cylindrical 
protrusion ; seeds brownish, surrounded by a broad 
membranous expansion. V. paradoxa. 

Bracts connate. 

Rather tall desert-plant, glabrous and greyish -green; leaves 
all radical, from obovate to elliptic- or elongate-lanceolar, 
entire or indented ; flowers in a dichotomous cyme ; bracts 
firm, opposite, large, entire, acute ; segments of calyx 
five, from deltoid to ovate-lanceolar, the uppermost 
largest ; corolla purplish, the expanding membranes of 
its lobes narrow or rudimentary ; seeds brownish, 
surrounded by a broad membranous expansion. Figure 
95. V. conuata. 



Victorian Plants. 349 



SELLIERA. 

1546. Creeping, glabrous. 

Perennial plant, chiefly maritime ; leaves from ovate- to 
linear-spatular, entire ; flowers on rather short stalks, 
solitary or two or three together ; corolla small, rigid ; 
stigma-cover with only slight or hardly any ciliolation ; 
fruit small, turgidly ovate ; seeds without any mem- 
branous margin. S. radicans. 

SCABVOZ.A. 

1547. Quite shrubby 1548 

Almost herbaceous ... .. ... ... 1549 

1548. Thorny-branched. 

A desert-shrub ; spinules sometimes ramified ; leaves 
generally small, from obovate- to linear-elliptical, entire, 
often clustered ; flowers small, on short stalks, solitary 
or two or few together ; corolla yellowish inside, its lobes 
somewhat fringed ; fruit succulent. S. spine SC ens. 

Thornless. 

A coast- shrub, viscid, glabrous ; leaves large, very firm, 
flat, from orbicular to spatular-obovate, occasionally 
verging into a lanceolar form, closely denticulated except 
towards the base ; flowers in spikes ; floral leaves reduced 
to bracts ; corolla blue inside, glabrous outside, its ex- 
panding membranes narrow ; ciliolation of the stigma- 
cover faint ; fruit rather small, dry. S. crassifolia. 

1549. Prostrate 1550 

Erect 1552 

1550. Leaves quite entire. 

A robust coast-plant, widely spreading, beset with appressed 
shining hairlets ; leaves often very large, rather carnu- 
lent, mostly from obovate to almost spatular-elliptical 
or the upper narrower ; flowers in terminal spikes ; corolla 
blue or outside purplish, bearing inside towards the base 
many short very narrow tipped processes ; fruit compara- 
tively large, succulent, purplish outside. 

S. suaveoleiis. 

Leaves indented ... ... ... 1551 



350 Key to the System of 



1551. Flowers distinctly stalked. 

Creeping, generally beset with scattered spreading hair- 
lets ; leaves from elliptic- to ovate-lanceolar, irregularly 
indented; flowers axillary, solitary, on short stalks, 
supported by broadish foliaceous bracteoles ; corolla 
whitish inside ; stigma-cover without any conspicuous 
marginal ciliolation; fruit small, dry. S. Hookeri. 

Flowers almost sessile. 

Often diffuse and much beset with generally short hairlets ; 
leaves rather small, mostly cuneate-ovate and indented, 
the floral leaves gradually much diminished in size ; 
corolla blue or whitish inside except towards the base ; 
its expanding membranes narrow ; style as well as the 
inner base of the corolla invested with soft hairlets ; 
ovulary one-celled ; fruit minute, dry. 

S. microcarpa. 

1552. Flowers almost sessile. 

Never tall, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves rather 
flaccid, from cuneate- to elliptic-obovate, indented, the 
lower comparatively large ; corolla rather large, blue 
inside except towards the base ; stigma- cover densely 
invested with soft almost purplish hairlets irrespective 
of the marginal ciliolation ; ovulary two-celled ; fruit 
small, dry. S. aeimila. 

Flowers on long stalks ... ... ... ... 1553 

1553. Corolla-lobes expanding into broad marginal mem- 
branes. 

Beset with spreading rather long and rigid hairlets ; leaves 
very long, from broad-linear to elliptic -lanceolar, some 
distantly indented ; flowers quite large, few together or 
solitary, supported by very long foliaceous bracteoles ; 
calyx-lobes elongated; corolla blue and invested with 
soft hairlets towards the base inside ; stigma-cover con- 
spicuously beset with hairlets ; fruit dry. S. hispida. 

Corolla-lobes with hardly any marginal expanding 
membranes. 

Beset with rather rigid hairlets ; leaves from linear- to 
cuneate- and elliptic-lanceolar, somewhat indented ; 
flowers rather large, solitary, supported by linear elon- 
gated foliaceous bracteoles ; lobes of calyx conspicuous, 
narrow ; corolla glabrous inside and lilac except towards 
the base ; style nearly glabrous ; fruit small, dry. 

S. apterantha. 



Victorian Plants. 351 



GOODENIA. 

1554. Shrubby 1555 

Herbaceous ... ... ... * ... 1558 

1555. Membranes of the corolla purplish. 

Beset with short glandule-bearing hairlets ; leaves short, 
from broad-linear to somewhat lanceolar, entire, revolute 
at the margin ; flowers solitary, on axillary conspicuously 
bracteolate stalks ; corolla except its expanding mem- 
branes outside invested with stellular hairlets ; fruit 
small, turgidly ovate ; dissepiment very short ; seeds 
two, slightly compressed, rather pale, quite smooth and 
shining, with a small carnulent appendage. 

G. barbata. 

Membranes of the corolla yellow ... ... ... 1556 

1556. Leaves sessile, clasping. 

Beset with glandule -bearing hairlets ; leaves from cordate 
to elliptic- or lanceolar-ovate, closely denticulated ; 
flowers solitary or two or three together in the axils, on 
very short stalks ; corolla invested with glandular hairlets 
outside ; fruit ellipsoid ; seeds pale-brownish, without 
any marginal expansion. G. amplexans. 

Leaves stalked 1557 

1557. Leaves of rather thin texture, closely denticulated. 

Tall, glabrous, viscid ; leaves from almost cordate- to 
lanceolar-ovate ; flowers several together on rather short 
axillary stalks ; corolla glabrous outside ; fruit compara- 
tively narrow, dissepiment extending far through the 
cavity ; seeds flat, pale, ovate, without any marginal 
expansion. G. ovata. 

Leaves of rather thick texture, imperfectly denticu- 
lated. 

Glabrous, viscid ; lower leaves from orbicular to ovate, 
upper from ovate- to linear-lanceolar, gradually narrowed 
downward ; flowers solitary or two or few together, on 
axillary rather short stalks ; corolla glabrous outside, its 
expanding membranes narrow ; style towards the summit 
beset with a whitish vestiture ; fruit rather short, almost 
ellipsoid ; seeds flat, pale, elliptical, without any marginal 
expansion. G. varia. 



352 Key to the System of 



1558. Membranes of corolla purplish. 

Subtilely beset with glandule-bearing short hairlets ; leaves 
flaccid, deeply lobed, the terminal lobe the largest and 
usually from cordate- to lanceolar-ovate, all denticulated ; 
flowers large, axillary, solitary, on rather short stalks ; 
corolla nearly glabrous outside, with a lateral narrow 
protrusion towards the base ; fruit almost ellipsoid ; seeds 
flat, pale-brownish, without any marginal expansion. 
Figure 94. G. Macmillani. 

Membranes of the corolla yellow, rarely pale ... 1559 

1559. Erect or ascending ... ... 1560 

Prostrate or diffuse 1566 

1560. Seeds numerous, minute ... 1561 
Seeds several or few, comparatively large ... ... 1563 

1561. Panicle placed hardly beyond the basal leaves. 

Dwarf ; leaves nearly glabrous, the radical leaves crowded, 
from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, entire, the floral leaves 
much reduced in size ; panicle beset with very short 
spreading hairlets ; flowers rather small, few or several 
in each panicle ; all corolla-lobes on both sides equally 
membranous-expanded ; style bearing soft hairlets ; fruit 
very small ; seeds orbicular, shining, somewhat turgid. 

G, hum ills. 

Panicle placed much beyond the basal leaves ... 1562 

1562. Basal leaves from narrow-lanceolar to almost linear, 

mostly entire. 

Never tall, nearly glabrous ; radical leaves crowded ; stem- 
leaves few, very narrow, gradually shortened ; flowers 
small, usually many in each panicle ; all corolla-lobes on 
both sides equally membranous-expanded ; fruit quite 
small, almost ovate ; seeds shining, smooth. 

G. gracilis. 

Basal leaves from obovate to almost lanceolar, mostly 
indented. 

Never tall, often beset with minute spreading hairlets ; 
radical leaves crowded ; stem-leaves linear, few or almost 
none ; floral leaves reduced to bracts ; flowers small, 
usually many in each panicle ; all corolla-lobes on both 
sides equally membranous-expanded ; style bearing soft 
hairlets ; fruit quite small, almost ovate ; seeds pale- 
brownish, orbicular, shining, somewhat turgid. 

G. paniculata. 



Victorian Plants. 353 



1563. Flowers somewhat clustered into a spike-like raceme. 

Stems branchless ; leaves firm, mostly basal and glabrous, 
elongated-linear, nearly or quite entire ; floral-leaves 
bract-like ; flowers rather large ; corolla, except its mem- 
branous expansions, outside densely beset with partly 
stellular hairlets, its upper lobes unequally membranous- 
expanded ; fruit ellipsoid ; seeds flat, without any mar- 
ginal expansion. G. stelligera. 

Flowers on long scattered stalks ... ... ... 1564 

1564. Corolla, except its expanding membranes, beset with 

silk-like vestiture outside. 

Never tall, nearly glabrous ; stems slender, branchless ; 
leaves greyish-green, from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, 
entire or seldom indented ; flowers somewhat fragrant, 
axillary and terminal, solitary ; bracteoles absent ; lobes 
of the calyx longer than the tube or as long ; corolla-lobes 
all on both sides broadly expanded into pale-yellow 
membranes ; transparent appendages of the upper corolla- 
lobes for protection of the stigma- cover conspicuous ; 
style invested with short soft hairlets ; fruit turgid ; 
dissepiments considerably shorter than the fruit-cavity; 
seeds pale-brownish, with a broad marginal expansion. 

G. glauca. 

Corolla almost or quite glabrous outside ... ... 1565 

1565. Leaves entire or remotely denticulated. 

Slender, occasionally dwarf, somewhat beset with generally 
appressed hairlets ; leaves from almost ovate- to narrow- 
laiiceolar, the stem-leaves scattered and distant ; flowers 
mostly axillary ; bracteoles absent ; all the corolla-lobes 
broadly expanded on both sides into bright-yellow mem- 
branes ; style short ; cover of stigma invested with short 
hairlets ; fruit small, its long stalk finally reversed ; seeds 
plano-convex, dull-brownish, hardly margined. 

G. elongata. 
Basal leaves mostly pinnatisected. 

Somewhat beset with appressed hairlets or rarely glabrous ; 
leaves mostly radical, their lobes usually narrow ; stem- 
leaves often only at the base of the flower-stalks, generally 
diminutive ; flowers usually rather large, mostly or all 
terminal, either solitary or two or few near together, on 
separate stalks ; bracteoles absent ; upper lobes of the 
corolla only unilaterally broad-expanded ; cover of stigma 
beset with short soft hairlets ; dissepiment considerably 
shorter than the fruit-cavity, semi-circularly excised ; 
seeds flat, black, expanded into a broad pale margin. 

G. piuuatifida. 

2 A 



354 Key to the System of 

1566. Flowers quite minute. 

Annual, scantily beset with spreading hairlets ; basal leaves 
crowded, pinnatilobed or some merely short-incised ; stem- 
leaves present only at the inflorescence, small, from 
rhombous-cuneate to lanceolar, scantily indented or entire; 
stalks elongated, corymbously or racemously approxi- 
mated, unprovided with bracteoles ; lobes of the calyx 
comparatively broadish ; expansions of the corolla from 
yellow turning white or purplish ; fruit globular -ovate, 
nearly unilocular ; seeds few, rather large, collateral, 
blackish when ripe, surrounded by a pale broadish 
margin. G. pusilliflora. 

Flowers rather small or of conspicuous size ... 1566& 

1566&. Upper corolla-lobes almost dimidiated ... ... 1567 

All corolla-lobes on both sides equally expanded ... 1568 
1567. Ripe seeds brownish. 

Nearly glabrous, producing very slender offshoots ; leaves 
rather small, tufted at the base and at the upper end of 
the stems, from broad- to linear-lanceolar, mostly entire ; 
flowers small, solitary, on rather long and thin stalks, 
crowded among leaves at and near the summit, rarely at 
the base of the stems ; bracteoles usually absent ; corolla 
outside beset with appressed shining vestiture ; fruit 
small, roundish-ovate ; dissepiment extending far into 
f;he fruit-cavity ; seeds flat, expanded into a pale rather ' 
narrow margin. G. heteromera. 

Ripe seeds black. 

Seldom much elongated, sometimes erect, beset with minute 
spreading hairlets ; leaves throughout approximated, 
basal and scattered, from rhomboid -ovate to narrow - 
lanceolar, denticulated or occasionally some incised ; 
flowers rather small, solitary, axillary, on conspicuous 
stalklets ; bracteoles absent ; corolla with an unilateral 
protrusion towards the base, its outside vestiture subtile, 
very short, without any lustre, all its lobes on both sides 
equally membranous-expanded ; fruit roundish, com- 
pressed, almost unilocular ; seeds few, comparatively 
large, orbicular, all placed at the same level, surrounded 
by a broad marginal pale expansion. 

G. cycloptera. 



Victorian Plants. 355 



1568. Leaves scattered along elongated stems. 

Here chiefly -alpine, widely prostrate ; leaves from cordate- 
orbicular to rhomboid-ovate, irregularly denticulated, 
here usually beset underneath with a dense white vesti- 
ture ; flowers from one to three on long axillary stalks ; 
bracteoles somewhat distant from the flowers ; calyx 
comparatively small ; corolla outside beset with minute 
hairlets ; fruit ovate ; seeds flat, without any marginal 
expansion. G. hederacea. 

Leaves tufted on abbreviated or almost obliterated 
stems. 

Partially or extensively beset with somewhat cottony or 
only slightly interwoven vestiture ; leaves from almost 
obovate to lanceolate-linear, distantly denticulated ; 
flowers rather large, always solitary, on very long almost 
radical stalks ; bracteoles distant from the flowers, at the 
angular junction of the stalk and stalklet ; corolla outside 
densely beset with hairlets ; fruit turgidly ovate ; seeds 
flat, elliptical, without any marginal expansion. 

G. geniculata. 



L1MNANTHSMUM. 

1569. Erect, semiaquatic. 

Leaves on long stalks, from ovate- to renate-cordate, all 
basal and without any denticulation ; flowers in a cymous 
panicle ; corolla yellow, its tube short, its lobes neither 
fringed nor crested, but minutely denticulated and inside 
towards the base much beset with tender hairlets ; fruit 
towards the summit longitudinally dehiscent ; seeds 
appendiculated, lenticular-ovate, never numerous. 

Ii. exalt at um, 

Floating ......... ...... 1570 

1570. Lobes of corolla crested along the middle by a fringed 

broad membrane inside. 

Leaves from the nodes of the stem, mostly cordate-orbicular, 
long-stalked, notched-denticulated, beneath dotted with 
glandules ; flowers solitary or two or more together on 
long stalklets ; corolla yellow, its tube short, its lobes 
conspicuously fringed at the margin and also much beset 
with tender hairlets inside towards the base ; stigmas 
fringed ; fruit almost indehiscent ; seeds numerous, ovate, 
smooth. Ii. crenatum. 



356 Key to the System of 



Lobes of corolla without any crested membrane along 
the middle inside. 

Leaves from the nodes of the stem, from cordate- to rehate- 
orbicular, long-stalked, without any denticulation; flowers 
solitary or two or three together on long stalklets ; corolla 
yellow, its tube short, its lobes slightly or hardly fringed 
along the margin, sparingly beset with tender hairlets 
inside towards the base ; fruit almost indehiscent ; seeds 
numerous, biconvex. L. gexninatum. 

ERYTHRAEA. 

1571. Flowers nearly sessile, often forming somewhat uni- 

lateral and cymous spikes. 

Never tall, on exposed coasts often very dwarf; leaves 
sessile, from oval- to narrow -elliptic ; flowers small, 
occasionally reduced to three or two or .even one ; corolla 
rosy-red, much oftener five- than four-lobed ; style undi- 
vided ; stigma somewhat bilobed ; fruit ellipsoid, enclosed. 
(E. Australis.) E. spicata. 

SEBAEA. 

1572. Corolla bright-yellow, five-lobed. 

Never tall, always glabrous ; leaves small, sessile, from 
ova be to cordate-orbicular, sometimes slightly pointed ; 
cyme simple or compound, the middle stalklets abbrevi- 
ated, the others elongated ; segments of calyx five, acute, 
the carinular venule of each prominent ; lobes of the 
corolla pointed ; stamens high-inserted on the corolla ; 
fruit ellipsoid-ovate. S. OVata. 

Corolla yellowish-white, four-lobed. 

Never tall, always glabrous, restricted to brackish soil ; 
leaves small, sessile, mostly ovate or the lower roundish, 
somewhat succulent, their venules inconspicuous ; cyme 
simple ; none of the stalklets elongated ; segments of 
calyx four, obtuse, the carinular venule of each slightly 
prominent ; lobes of the corolla blunt ; stamens high- 
inserted on the corolla ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. Figure 96. 

S. albidiflora. 

GENTXANA. 

1573. Corolla with appendages between its lobes. 

Very dwarf, annual, glabrous ; leaves quite small, from 
almost orbicular to ovate, slightly pointed ; flowers very 
small, generally terminal and solitary, nearly sessile ; 



Victorian Plants. 357 



lobes of the calyx mostly ovate -semilanceolar ; corolla out- 
side greenish, inside blue or whitish,- its lobes about half 
as long as the tube, the appendages minute ; fruit almost 
ovate, compressed. S. quadrifaria. 

Corolla without any appendages between its lobes. 

Rather tall, mostly alpine and perennial, always glabrous ; 
leaves from orbicular-ovate to linear-lanceolar, the basal 
leaves crowded ; flowers comparatively large, fragrant, on 
long stalklets, often forming corymbs, sometimes panicu- 
late or occasionally reduced to few or two or one ; lobes of 
the calyx narrow- semilanceolar ; corolla rather long-lobed, 
whitish except towards the yellowish base,, its venules 
generally blue ; stamens low-inserted on the corolla ; fruit 
ellipsoid-cylindrical. G. saxosa. 

J ASIYHNEAE. 
JASaXXNUBX. 

1574. Leaves consisting of three narrow and rather long 

leaflets. 

A desert-plant, often beset with minute hairlets ; leaves on 
comparatively short stalks ; leaflets from narrow-lanceolar 
to broad-linear, or occasionally somewhat elliptical ; 
flowers in cymous or. almost racemous panicles ; lobes of 
the calyx denticular-short; corolla whitish inside, yellowish 
outside ; fruit succulent, developing usually only one 
globular fruitlet, shining-black outside ; seeds without 
albument. J. lineare. 

NOTELAEA. 

1575. Leaves from ovate- to broad-lanceolar, their secondary 

and ultimate venules prominent. 

Finally arborescent ; leaves firm ; flowers in axillary hardly 
stalked racemes ; petals yellowish ; anthers almost sessile, 
clasped by the petals ; fruit from ovate to nearly globular, 
bluish-black outside ; seeds provided with albument. 

N. lougifolia. 

Leaves from narrow- to linear-lanceolar, their secondary 
and ultimate venules faint. 

Finally arborescent, sometimes then a large tree, always 
restricted to forest- valleys ; leaves firm ; flowers in axil- 
lary hardly stalked racemes ; anthers almost sessile, 
clasped by the petals ; fruit white or variously red or 
purplish outside ; seeds provided with albument. Figure 
100. N. ligustrina. 



358 Key to the System of 



IVXITRASACIttE. 

1576.- Calyx four-cleft or four-lobed ... 1577 

Calyx two-lobed ............ ' ... 1580 

1577. Calyx cleft to near the base. 

A very small alpine herb, perennial and prostrate, almost 
glabrous ; leaves from orbicular- to elliptic -obovate ; 
flowers axillary, solitary, short-stalked or almost sessile ; 
outer calyx-segments resembling in form diminutive 
leaves, inner still smaller and lanceolar ; lobes of the 
corolla considerably shorter than its tube ; stamens high- - 
inserted ; styles from beginning of growth quite separated, 
soon divergent ; fruit almost deltoid, dry, dehiscent 
between the styles. M. moiitana. 

Calyx lobed to about the middle ... .. ... 1578 

1578. Erect. 

Perennial, scantily or copiously beset with hairlets ; leaves 
small, from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, recurved along 
the margin ; flower-stalks elongated, bearing an irregular 
umbel ; stalklets almost capillary ; lobes of corolla about 
as long as its tube, beset with minute hairlets at. and near 
the base ; fruit roundish, dry, dehiscent between the 
styles. M, polyniorpha. 

Prostrate ..... ......... . ..... 1579 

1579. Lobes of the corolla longer than its tube. 

Perennial, weak, scantily beset with hairlets ; leaves very 
small, from ovate- to lanceolar-elliptical ; flowers axillary, 
solitary, nearly sessile ; corolla glabrous, its tube ex- 
tremely short ; stamens emerging ; fruit roundish, dry, 
dehiscent between the styles. M. serpillifolia. 

Lobes of the corolla shorter than its tube. 

Perennial, somewhat firm, usually much beset with rather 
rigid hairlets ; leaves small, from orbieular- to lanceolar- 
ovate ; stalklets axillary, solitary, from about as long as 
the flowers to much longer ; corolla at its orifice beset 
with minute hairlets; stamens enclosed, low - inserted ; 
fruit dry, roundish but with an excised summit, dehiscent 
between the styles. M. pilosa. 



Victorian Plants. 359 



1580. Styles permanently united at and near the summit. 

Annual, erect, often very small, almost or quite glabrous ; 
stem and branches wiry ; leaves very small, from linear - 
to elliptic-lanceolar, sometimes hardly any developed at 
the base of the stem ; flowers in terminal umbels or only 
three or two together or singly terminal ; their stalklets 
much elongated, thread-like but rigid ; lobes of the calyx 
usually shorter than its tube, often deltoid ; corolla 
glabrous, hardly emerging, its tube much longer than its 
lobes ; stamens low-inserted ; fruit dry, enclosed, some- 
what roundish, dehiscent between the styles. 

M. paradoxa.' 

Styles quite separated from each other. 

Annual, always very small, mostly erect, glabrous, branchless 
or scantily branched ; leaves from elliptic- to narrow- 
linear ; flowers minute, often singly terminal or some 
axillary or occasionally two or three together, their stalk - 
lets thread-like, rather elongated ; lobes of the calyx 
always shorter than its tube, from hardly deltoid to nearly 
truncate ; corolla glabrous, almost enclosed ; styles from 
beginning of growth disconnected ; fruit dry, somewhat 
square, dehiscent between the styles. ME. distylis. 

XiOQANIA. 

1581. Leaves very diminutive. 

A desert-plant, almost herbaceous, occasionally somewhat 
twisted, partly beset with minute hairlets ; leaves from 
deltoid to semilaiiceolar ; flowers small, in almost sessile 
clusters or some solitary ; lobes of the calyx acute ; corolla 
inside partly beset with subtile hairlets ; fruit almost 
ovate -ellipsoid, towards its summit dehiscent; seeds 
black, narrow -ellipsoid, channelled beneath. Figure 97. 
(Euosma nuda.) L. nuda. 

Leaves well developed ... ... ... ... 1582 

1582. Leaves recurved at the margin. 

A riparian plant, tall-shrubby ; leaves firm, elongated, from 
narrow-lanceolar to broad-linear, occasionally almost flat, 
always pale underneath ; flowers small, mostly in axillary 
cymous panicles, only some fruit-bearing ; lobes of the 
calyx obtuse ; stamens enclosed ; fruit rather small, dehis- 
cent towards its summit ; seeds black, oval. 

(Euosma albiflora.) L. floribunda. 

Leaves flat 1583 



360 Key to the System of 



1583. Leaves broad-linear. 

A desert-plant, dwarf-shrubby ; leaves firm, rather short, 
blunt or pointed ; flowers small, in compact stalked mostly 
terminal cymes, only some fruit-bearing ; lobes of the 
calyx blunt ; corolla nearly glabrous inside ; fruit small, 
almost ellipsoid-ovate, dehiscent towards its summit ; 
seeds black, oval. 

(Euosma linifolia.) L. linifolia. 

Leaves from almost orbicular to lanceolar-elliptical. 

A literal plant, dwarf-shrubby, almost glabrous ; leaves 
firm, nearly sessile ; flowers small, in compact mostly 
terminal cymes, only some with fertile pistil ; lobes of 
the calyx blunt ; corolla beset with minute hairlets at and 
near its orifice ; fruit small, almost ellipsoid-ovate, pointed, 
dehiscent towards its summit ; seeds black, oval. 

(Euosma ovata.) L. ovata. 



FLANTAOO, 

1584. Leaves rather thin, flaccid. 

Perennial but flowering in the first year of its growth, 
generally beset with short hairlets ; leaves all basal, from 
elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, entire or short-lobed ; spikes 
on elongated stalks, formed by several or many flowers 
or occasionally reduced to three or two flowers ; ovules 
four in each ovulary. P. varia. 

Leaves thick, rigid ... ... ... 1585 

1585. Leaves rather large. 

Alpine, perennial ; leaves all basal, shining, glabrous, from 
broad- txriiarrow-lanceolar, entire, radiatingly arranged ; 
spikes on short stalks, capitular, few-flowered or rarely 
the flowers reduced to two or one ; ovules eight in each 
ovulary. Figure 98. P. stellaris. 

Leaves minute. 

Alpine, perennial, very depressed, forming large patches by 
emitting suckers ; leaves from narrow- to linear-lanceolar, 
in star-like tufts ; flowers usually one or two on each 
stalk ; ovules eight in each ovulary. 

P. Gunnii. 



Victorian Plants. 361 



SOX.A.ZTACBAB. 

SOLANUIVX. 

1586. Annual. 

A poisonous herb, often beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
flaccid, almost ovate or verging into a rhomboid form, 
somewhat denticulated or sinuous ; flowers very small, 
drooping, in lateral umbel-like cymes ; corolla white, 
deeply cleft, its lobes acute ; anthers coherent ; fruit 
quite small, globular, black or green outside. (Probably 

. immigrated.) S. nigrum. 

Perennial, either herbaceous or shrubby ... ... 1587 

1587. Always without any prickles ... ... ... 1588 

Usually prickly 1590 

1588. Fruit orange-colored, mostly egg-shaped. 

Shrubby, tall, glabrous ; branches cylindrical, dark-purplish ; 
leaves distinctly stalked, often lanceolar, undivided or 
oftener some with few entire semilanceolar elongated 
lobes ; corolla large, five-cleft to the middle, inside violet, 
outside often whitish ; filaments shorter than the anthers, 
the latter disconnected ; fruit large, poisonous. 

S. aviculare. 

Fruit greenish, mostly globular ... ... ... 1589 

1589. Leaves long-lobed. 

Shrubby, finally tall, glabrous ; branches robust, green, 
very angular ; leaves large, sessile, decurrent, often lan- 
ceolar, undivided or oftener some with few semilanceolar 
elongated lobes ; corolla large, violet, slightly lobed ; 
filaments about as long as the anthers, the latter discon- 
nected ; fruit large. Figure 103. S. vescum. 

Leaves hardly lobed. 

Somewhat shrubby, seldom tall, always glabrous, .scantily 
branched ; leaves generally narrow-lanceolar, rather elon- 
gated, entire or near the base short-lobed ; corolla violet 
inside ; anthers disconnected ; fruit moderately large, 
nodding. S. simile. 



362 Key to the System of 



1590. Almost glabrous. 

A nearly herbaceous forest-plant, somewhat tall or depressed; 
prickles reddish-yellow, numerous all over the plant ; 
leaves rather large, quite thin, in outline from almost 

. ovate to lanceolar-elliptical, acutely lobed ; flowers in 
often short racemes or sometimes reduced to two or even 
only one ; corolla violet, beset with stellular hairlets out- 
side ; fruit spherical', whitish- and green-mottled outside. 

S. armatum. 

Beset with stellular hairlets 1591 

1591. Vestiture consisting of mostly scattered hairlets. 

A nearly herbaceous forest-plant, never tall ; prickles 
reddish-yellow, numerous all over the plant ; leaves 
rather large, thin, from roundish- to elliptic-ovate, with 
usually short acute lobes ; flowers two together or solitary, 
without any stalk to the stalklets ; corolla violet ; fruit 
yellowish outside. S. pungetium. 

Vestiture consisting of mostly close-approximated 
hairlets ... 1592 

1592. Prickles numerous all over the plant. 

A dwarf nearly herbaceous desert-plant, beset with a thin 
somewhat velvet-like vestiture ; prickles reddish-yellow ; 
leaves in outline from almost ovate to elliptical, sinuous- 
pinnatifid, above soon nearly glabrous, their lobes blunt ; 
flowers few in each raceme or only two together ; corolla 
deeply cleft into acute lobes ; fruit globular, yellowish 
outside. S. lacunarium. 

Prickles scantily dispersed over the plant or almost 
absent. 

A dwarf herbaceous desert-plant, beset with a very thin 
somewhat velvet-like vestiture ; prickles short, reddish- 
yellow, occasionally quite absent ; leaves from ovate- to 
narrow- or lanceolar-elliptical, entire or towards the base 
slightly sinuous ; flowers few in each raceme or only two 
together ; corolla violet, short-lobed ; fruit rather small, 
yellowish outside. S. esuriale. 

X.YCXTT1K. 

1593. Leaves small, turgid and carnulent. 

A rather dwarf desert-shrub, glabrous; branchlets rigid, 
spinescent ; leaves slightly compressed, broadly clavate, 
often somewhat clustered, almost succulent ; flowers 
small, solitary, their stalklets about as long as the calyx ; 
corolla white, violet-streaked, its tube much longer than 
its lobes ; stamens of unequal length, all enclosed ; fruit 
ovate-globular, bright-red outside. L. Australe. 



Victorian Plants. . -363 



NICOTZANA. 

1994. Corolla somewhat greenish outside, the lobes on the 
upper side whitish or slightly yellowish. 

Herbaceous, often tall and much beset with viscid hairlets ; 
lower leaves from almost ovate to somewhat spatular ; 
upper leaves few, mostly sessile, from nearly cordate to 
lanceolar or occasionally absent ; flowers generally soon 
distant, in simple or somewhat compound racemes, 
varying from rather small to quite large ; lobes of the 
corolla roundish, considerably shorter than its tube; 
fruit almost ovate ; seeds very numerous, minute. 
" Native Tobacco-plant. " N. suaveolens. 

ANTKOCEZtCXS. 

1595. Flowers rather large, in leafy panicles. 

Tall, imperfectly beset with very short hairlets ;' leaves 
large, from elliptic to lanceolar, glabrescent ; flowers few 
together or only two or sometimes solitary on each branch 
of the inflorescence ; corolla whitish, its lobes acute, 
somewhat unequal ; anthers almost one-celled ; fruit 
globular- ovate, few-seeded. A. Eadesii. 

.Flowers very small, solitary. 

Dwarf, beset with short glandule-bearing hairlets ; leaves 
small, sessile, from oval to narrow-elliptical and broad- 
linear, often recurved at the margin ; flowers on short 
stalklets ; corolla whitish, its lobes obtuse, somewhat 
unequal ; anthers almost one-celled ; fruit globular-ovate, 
few-seeded. A. myosotidea. 

PRIMULA-CEAE. 
SAMOX.US. 

1596. Leaves almost or quite membranous. 

Leaves from roundish- to lanceolar-ovate ; flowers quite 
small, in racemes ; lobes of. calyx deltoid, soon shorter 
than the tube ; corolla tender, whitish or pink ; filaments 
shorter than the corolla-tube ; anthers minute, cordate ; 
fruit small, globular, slightly emerged. S. Valerandi. 

Leaves firm, somewhat succulent. 

Leaves from narrow- to lanceolar-linear or the lower verging 
into an obovate form, the upper occasionally diminutive ; 
flowers rather large, in racemes, or exceptionally quite 
solitary on a dwarf short- and broad-leaved state of the 
plant ; lobes of calyx narrowly semilanceolar, longer than 
its tube ; corolla firm, whitish or pink ; anthers ovate, 
pointed; fruit ovate, half emerged. S. repens. 



364 . Key to the System of 



XiirSXlKACHXA. 

1597. Flowers in racemes, with yellow corolla. 

Erect, tall ; leaves scattered or ternately approximated, 
from elongate- to narrow-lanceolar, somewhat trans- 
parently dotted ; racemes simple or compound ; flowers 
'rather large ; lobes of the calyx margined ; stamens 
slightly connected at the base ; style thin, deciduous ; 
fruit globular. L. salicifolia. 

ANAGALLZS. 

1598. Flowers minute, with whitish four-lobed corolla. 

Annual, very small ; leaves scattered, mostly lanceolar- 
ovate ; flowers axillary, solitary, almost sessile ; stamens 
four ; fruit globular. (Possibly immigrated.) 

A. Centunculus. 



ITCYRSINE. 

1599. Leaves large, from elliptic- to lanceolar-obovate. 

Arborescent, finally tall-arboreous ; leaves occasionally some- 
what denticulated ; flowers on conspicuous stalklets, only- 
some fruit-bearing ; corolla greenish, its segments con- 
tiguous at the margin before expansion; anthers almost 
sessile ; fruit quite small, globular. Figure 99. 

Iff. variabilis. 

EPACRIDEAE. 
BRACHYXiOBXA. 

1600. Sepals and corolla reddish. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves small, almost flat, from lanceolar- to 
broad-linear, pointed, minutely denticulated ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, nearly sessile ; sepals blunt,, rather 
transparent ; corolla-tube enclosed ; lobes obtuse, inside 
somewhat beset with hairlets ; fruit globular. 

B. ericoides. 

Sepals pale; corolla whitish ... ... ...... 1601 

1601. Leaves almost blunt. 

Erect ; leaves small, from oval- to lanceolar-elliptical, 
almost flat ; flowers solitary, axillary or lateral ; sepals 
minute ; corolla-lobes acute, only slightly overlapping, 
inside hardly or scantily beset with hairlets ; fruit small, 
globular. B. daphnoides. 



Victorian Plants. 365 



Leaves pungent-pointed ... ... 1602 

1602. Leaves short-pointed. 

Dwarf ; leaves very small, flat, from ovate- to elliptic- 
lanceolar, minutely denticulated ; flowers very small, 
axillary, solitary ; corolla-lobes acute, inside hardly beset 
with hairlets ; fruit minute. B. ciliatum. 

Leaves long-pointed. 

Diffuse; leaves small, mostly linear-lanceolar, soon spreading; 
flowers very small, axillary, solitary or crowded ; sepals 
long-pointed, equal in length to the corolla-tube ; corolla- 
lobes acute, inside beset with minute' hairlets ; fruit ovate, 
reddish outside. B. depressum. 

STVPHEXilA. 

1603. Prostrate ... ... 1604 

Erect or diffuse ... ... ... ... ... 1608 

1604. Corolla always bright-red. 

Leaves small, from narrow-lanceolar to almost linear, 
pungent, denticular-ciliolated ; flowers solitary, axillary, 
nearly sessile ; sepals comparatively large ; corolla-tube 
elongated-cylindrical ; corolla-lobes inside densely beset 
with short somewhat reddish hairlets ; fruit rather large, 
ovate-globular, dark-greenish outside. S. humifusa. 

Corolla never bright-red * ... ... ... ... 1605 

1605. Corolla inside or wholly white ... ... ... 1606 

Corolla never white ... ... ... .... ... 1607 

1606. Leaves minute. 

Leaves crowded, from ovate- to broad-lanceolar, subtile- 
pointed, denticular-ciliolated, often recurved at the 
margin ; flowers solitary or two together, axillary, almost 
sessile ; corolla very small, its lobes inside densely beset 
with short white hairlets ; fruit minute. 

S. attenuata. 
Leaves of rather conspicuous size. 

Alpine or subalpine ; leaves from oval- or lanceolar- to 
linear- elliptical, pungent-pointed, almost flat, slightly 
denticular-ciliolated, hardly spreading ; flowers axillary, 
solitary, almost sessile ; corolla-tube cylindrical, exserted ; 
lobes inside densely beset with white hairlets; fruit ovate- 
ellipsoid, outside slightly succulent. S. Fraseri. 



366 . Key to the System of 

1607. Corolla yellowish or pale-reddish, the lobes inside 

densely beset with hairlets. 

Leaves mostly appressed and lanceolar, pungent-pointed, 
denticular-ciliolated, paler on the underside ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, nearly sessile; sepals rather large, some- 
what reddish ; corolla-tube elongated, lobes also long, its 
hairlets lax and elongated ; stamens much emerging ; 
anthers long and narrow ; fruit comparatively large, 
ovate-globular, outside greenish. 

S. adscendeus. 

Corolla wholly green,, the lobes only at the summit 
beset with hairlets. 

Leaves small, spreading, from lanceolar- to broad-linear, 
pungent-pointed, almost flat, denticular-ciliolated ; flowers 
quite small, in axillary or lateral or seldom terminal 
clusters ; corolla-tube exserted ; fruit globular, whitish 
'outside. S. serrulata. 

1608. Corolla-lobes inside beset with hairlets 1609 

Corolla-lobes on both sides glabrous ... ... ... 1629 

1609. Corolla white inside ... 1610 

Corolla either red or yellowish and greenish ... 1628 

1610. Corolla-lobes only at the summit beset with hairlets. 

Maritime ; leaves small, thick, from cordate-oval to narrow- 
elliptical, flat ; flowers minute, in axillary or lateral, 
clusters ; fruit very small. S. ovalifolia. 

Corolla-lobes inside completely beset with hairlets ... 1611 

1611. Flowers solitary or two or rarely more together ... 1612 
Flowers in spikes or clusters 1618 

1612. Leaves mostly ovate or orbicular or cordate ... 1613 
Leaves mostly linear or lanceolar ... ... ... 1615 



Victorian Plants. 367 



1613. Flowers on a recurved conspicuous stalk. 

Desert-plant, always dwarf ; leaves very small, appressed, 
from ovate- to narrow-elliptical, somewhat concave ; 
flowers very small, solitary or two together, axillary ; 
lobes of the corolla inside densely beset with white 
hair lets ; fruit ellipsoid, bent downward. S. Woodsii. 

Flowers almost sessile ... ... ... ... 1614 

1614. Leaves towards the margin incurved. 

Desert-plant ; leaves often distant, from cordate- to lanceolar- 
ovate, pungent-pointed, minutely denticulated ; flowers 
fragrant, solitary or two or three together, axillary ; 
corolla whitish or occasionally somewhat reddish, its lobes 
inside densely beset with hairlets, its tube enclosed ; fruit 
ellipsoid, outside greenish. S. rufa. 

Leaves towards the margin recurved or flat. 

Desert-plant ; leaves short, very firm, divergent, "from 
orbicular- to ovate-cordate, minutely pointed, without 
any denticulation ; flowers small, solitary or two or few 
together, axillary ; calyx slender ; lobes of the corolla 
inside densely beset with white hairlets ; tube enclosed ; 
fruit ellipsoid-ovate, greenish outside. S. cordifolia. 

1615. Leaves appressed. 

Leaves mostly crowded and very short, from broad- to 
narrow-lanceolar, pungent-pointed, very concave, minutely 
denticulated ; flowers quite small, solitary or two or three 
together, axillary ; lobes of the corolla inside densely beset 
with white hairlets; tube enclosed; ovulary with five 
ovules. S. appressa. 

Leaves spreading ... ... ... ... ... 1616 

1616. Ovulary with two cells. 

Leaves mostly scattered, rather long, almost flat, from 
broad- to narrow-lanceolar, pungent-pointed, minutely 
denticulated ; flowers quite small ; lobes of the corolla 
inside densely beset with white hairlets ; tube enclosed ; 
hypogynous disk or scalelets absent ; ovulary with only 
two ovules ; fruit small, ellipsoid, compressed, dry. 

S. esquaniata. 

Ovulary with more than two cells ... ... ... 1617 



368 Key to the System of 



1617. Flowers nearly sessile. 

Leaves small, from elliptic - lanceolar to. narrow-linear, 
pungent - pointed ; sepals much pointed; corolla -tube 
cylindrical, lobes inside thinly beset with white hairlets ; 
fruit very small, turgid-ovate, succulent, outside yellowish 
or orange-colored. S. juniperina. 

Flowers on a recurved stalk. 

Leaves quite small, from elliptic- to linear - lanceolar, 
pointed ; flowers very small, .solitary or two together ; 
corolla-lobes inside densely beset, with white hairlets; 
fruit as yet unknown. S. bifiora. 

1618. Flowers in abbreviated spikes ... 1619 

Flowers in elongated spikes ... ... ... ... 1626 

1619. Venules of leaves five, prominent. 

Leaves quite small; thick, from cordate- to lanceolar-ovate, 
rather blunt, the lateral vehules divergent ; flowers 
small, crowded and mostly situated at the summit of the 
branches ; corolla-lobes inside densely beset with white 
hairlets ; fruit very small. S. costata. 

Venules of leaves faint ... ... ... ... 1620 

1620. Leaves much twisted. 

Leaves quite small, mostly linear-lanceolar, slightly ciliolar- 
denticulated ; flowers very small ; lobes of the corolla 
inside densely beset with white hairlets ; ovules two ; 
fruit minute. S. glacialis. 

Leaves almost straight ... ... ... ... 1621 

1621. Leaves along and towards the margin incurved. 

Leaves small, from narrow- to linear-lanceolar, gradually 
pointed ; tube of the corolla enclosed, lobes inside densely 
beset with white hairlets; flowers very small; ovules 
five; fruit minute, dry. S. virgata. 

Leaves flat or along their margin recurved 1622 

1622. Leaves nearly or quite flat ... ... ... ... 1623 



Victorian Plants. 369 



Leaves distinctly recurved along the margin ... 1624 

1623. Sepals long-pointed. 

Leaves minute, from orbicular- to linear-elliptical, blunt ; 
flowers quite small ; lobes of the corolla inside densely 
beset with white hairlets ; ovules two ; fruit very small, 
dry, ellipsoid. S. microphylla. 

Sepals blunt. 

Alpine, tall ; leaves small, mostly ovate, blunt ; flowers 
very small ; tube of the corolla enclosed, lobes inside 
densely beset with white hairlets ; fruit globular, some- 
what succulent, red outside. S. Macraei. 

1624. Leaves blunt or hardly pointed. 

Leaves rather or quite small, from oval- to linear-elliptical, 
occasionally flat ; inflorescence mostly terminal ; flowers 
very small, only exceptionally solitary or two together ; 
lobes of the corolla inside densely beset with white hair- 
lets ; ovules two ; fruit minute. * S. collilia. 

Leaves distinctly pointed. .... ... ... ... 1625 

1625. Inflorescence mostly axillary. 

Leaves quite small, from elliptic- to broad-linear ; flowers 
very small, occasionally only two or three together ; lobes 
of the corolla inside densely beset with white hairlets ; 
ovules five ; fruit small, ellipsoid, sometimes curved. 

S. ericoides. 

Inflorescence mostly terminal. 

Leaves very small, mostly elliptic-lanceolar, often recurved 
also at the apex ; flowers very small ; lobes of the corolla 
inside densely beset with white hairlets ; ovules three or 
four; fruit ellipsoid-ovate, angular. S. thymifolia, 

1626. Flowers in interrupted spikes. 

Tall ; leaves flat, mostly lanceolar, longitudinally lined 
with strong venules ; flowers very small ; lobes of the 
corolla inside densely beset with white hairlets ; fruit 
compressed, ovate, two-celled, outside red and succulent. 

S. laiiceolata. 

Flowers in dense spikes ... ... ... 1627 

2 B 



370 Key to the System of 



1627. Leaves distinctly recurved along the margin. 

Tall ; leaves elongated, mostly narrow -lanceolar, longi- 
tudinally lined with strong venules ; flowers very small'; 
lobes of the corolla inside densely beset with white hair- 
lets ; fruit depressed-globular, five-celled, outside yel- 
lowish and succulent. Si Australis. 

Leaves almost flat. 

Maritime, tall, finally somewhat arborescent ; leaves mostly 
elliptic-lanceolar, broader above the middle, longitudinally, 
lined with strong venules ; flowers very small; lobes of 
the corolla inside densely beset with white hairlets ; fruit 
ovate-globular, equally turgid, normally five-celled, out- 
side whitish and succulent. S. Hicliei, 

1628. Corolla fiery-red. 

Leaves rather small, from narrow-lanceolar to broad-linear, 
pungent-pointed, recurved at the margin, greyish beneath ; 
flowers comparatively large, axillary, solitary, nearly 
sessile, exceptionally yellowish; sepals elongated, shining, 
reddish ; corolla-lobes inside densely beset with hairlets ; 
fruit comparatively large, globular- or ovate-ellipsoid, 
outside dark-green. Figure 110. S. Sonderi. 

Corolla red towards the base, "but from yellowish 
gradually green towards the summit. 

Leaves crowded, narrow-linear, pungent-pointed, almost 
acicular, revolute at the margin, greyish beneath ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, almost sessile ; sepals comparatively 
large ; corolla-tube long-cylindrical, much exserted, lobes 
imperfectly beset inside with hairlets ; fruit rather large, 
almost globular, outside dark-green. S. pinifolia. 

1629. Corolla pale-yellowish. 

Leaves crowded, many appressed, from narrow- to linear - 
lanceolar, gradvially pungent-pointed, concave, generally 
greyish-green ; flowers rather large ; corolla rarely reddish, . 
its tube enclosed, its lobes rather long, occasionally beset 
with hairlets on the inner side ; fruit nearly globular. 

S. urceolata. 

Corolla white 1630 

1630. Flowers solitary in the axils. 

Often maritime, seldom arborescent ; leaves very rigid 
and spreading, from lanceolar- to narrow-linear, pungent- 



Victorian Plants. 371 



pointed, recurved at the margin, greyish beneath; flowers 
axillary, often solitary, short - stalked ; corolla - lobes 
glabrous or somewhat beset with short hairlets inside ; 
fruit depressed-globular, red outside. S. Oxycedrus, 

Flowers in clusters or spikes or racemes ... ... 1631 

1631. Finally arborescent. 

Chiefly maritime ; leaves rather large, from ovate- to linear- 
elliptical, almost flat, greyish or whitish underneath ; 
flowers minute, in short racemes or occasionally only two 
together or even solitary ; perfect staminate and perfect 
pistillate flowers often on distinct plants ; corolla white ; 
ovule only one ; fruit minute, ovate-ellipsoid, oiitside red 
or orange-colored. S. elliptica. 

Low-shrubby ... ... 1632 

1632. Fruit minute, one-celled. 

Leaves small, from lanceolar- to elliptic-linear, pointed, 
somewhat or quite recurved along the margin, greyish 
or whitish underneath ; flowers minute, few in each 
small axillary spike or cluster or occasionally only two 
together or even solitary ; corolla white ; ovule only 
one; fruit minute. & scoparia. 

Fruit of rather conspicuous size, five-celled ... ... 1633 

1633. Leaves almost blunt. 

Alpine ; leaves small, from narrow- to linear-elliptical, 
somewhat recurved along the margin, beneath greyish ; 
flowers quite small, in short mostly terminal spikes ; 
corolla white, its lobes glabrous or sometimes inside beset 
with hairlets ; stamens and the pistil often perfected only 
in distinct flowers ; fruit globular, outside bright-red. 
. S. montana. 

Leaves pungent-pointed. 

Leaves small, spreading, from broad- to narrow-linear ; 
flowers rather small, in short racemes or occasionally 
only two together ; corolla white or slightly reddish, 
its tube cylindrical, much, longer than the lobes, the 
latter seldom beset with hairlets inside ; fruit depressed - 
globular, succulent, outside -pale-yellowish. 

S. strigosa. 



372 Key to the System of 



TROCHOCARPA. 

1634. Fruit normally five-seeded, outside bright-red. 

Alpine, prostrate ; leaves generally minute and appressed, 
from oval- to narrow-elliptical, somewhat concave ; flowers 
very small, solitary, almost sessile ; tube of the corolla 
narrow ; lobes densely beset with very short white hair- 
lets inside ; fruit small, globular, somewhat succulent. 

T. Pumilio. 

Fruit normally ten-seeded, outside dark-bluish. 

Alpine, dwarf ; leaves small, spreading, from ovate- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, almost flat ; spikes very short, few- 
flowered ; tube of the corolla greenish, wide, the lobes 
purplish and glabrous upwards inside ; fruit comparatively 
large, depressed-globular, pulpy, edible. T. Clarkei. 

EPACRIS. 

1635. Tube of the corolla much longer than the calyx ... 1636 

Tube of the corolla about as long as the calyx ... 1637 

1636. Tube of the corolla red, the lobes white. 

Straggling ; leaves small, spreading, from cordate to 
lanceolar-ovate, sharp-pointed ; flowers bent downward, 
solitary, axillary ; tube of the corolla very long, ex- 
ceptionally white ; style elongated ; fruit small, almost 
globular. E. longiflora. 

Corolla equal-colored, either red or white. 

Slender, erect ; branches generally few ; leaves small, 
spreading, from ovate- to linear-lanceolar, sharp-pointed ; ' 
flowers solitary or rarely two or exceptionally more 
together, axillary, somewhat bent downward, forming - 
leafy rather unilateral spikes ; corolla white or variously 
red, with five impressions near the base; style elongated; 
fruit small, almost globular. E. impressa. 

1637. Leaves blunt ... ... 1638 

Leaves pungent-pointed ... ... ... ... 1641 

1638. Tube of the corolla conspicuously turgid. 

Alpine, depressed ; leaves minute, thick, mostly oval and 
appressed; flowers crowded near the summits of the 



Victorian Plants. 373 



branches ; bracts and sepals blunt, the latter very short ; 
corolla always white, its lobes obtuse ; style abbreviated ; 
fruit small, almost globular. E. petrophila. 

Tube of the corolla almost cylindrical 1639 

1639. Prostrate. 

Leaves small, thick, from obovate to narrow-elliptical ; 
flowers scattered along the branchlets ; bracts and sepals 
blunt ; corolla always white ; style rather elongated ; 
fruit small, almost globular. E. crassifolia. 

Erect '. 1640 

1640. Leaves from obovate to orbicular. 

Rather tall ; leaves small, spreading, thick ; flowers crowded 
at and near the summit of branchlets ; bracts and sepals 
blunt ; -corolla always white, the lobes obtuse ; style 
rather elongated ; fruit small, almost globular. 

E. robust a. 

Leaves almost narrow-elliptical. 

Rather tall and slender ; branches few ; leaves small, thick, 
appressed or hardly spreading ; flowers fragrant, scattered 
along the branches, but forming leafy almost unilateral 
spikes ; bracts and sepals nearly blunt ; corolla always 
white ; style rather elongated ; fruit small,' almost 
globular. E. obtusifolia. 

1641. Leaves from linear to quite lanceolar ... ... 1642 

Leaves from ovate to cordate ... ... ... 1643 

1642. Bracts and sepals fringed with minute hairlets. 

Tall, bushy, often literal ; leaves small, pointed, appressed 
or hardly spreading; flowers axillary, solitary, but crowded 
near the summit of branchlets ; bracts and sepals acute ; 
corolla always white, its tube narrow-cylindrical ; style 
somewhat beset with hairlets ; fruit small, ovate-globular. 

E. lanuginosa. 

Bracts and sepals glabrous. 

Tall, bushy, often alpine ; leaves small, appressed or hardly 
spreading ; flowers axillary, solitary, but crowded near 
the summits of branchlets ; bracts and sepals acute ; 
corolla always white, its tube narrow- cylindrical ; style 
glabrous ; fruit small, ovate -globular. E. paludosa. 



374 Key to the System of 



1643. Bracts and sepals blunt. 

Rather tall ; leaves small, spreading, rigid, mostly cordate 
and gradually sharp-pointed, curved inward; flowers 
short, axillary and solitary, but forming leafy spikes ; 
corolla always white ; style abbreviated ; fruit small, 
almost globular. E. microphylla. 

Bracts and sepals pointed ... ... . ... 1644 

1644. Leaves slightly pointed. 

Alpine, rather dwarf ; leaves quite small, often almost ovate, 
thick, nearly or quite flat ; corolla always white ; fruit 
small, almost glpbular. E. serpillifolia. 

Leaves conspicuously pointed. 

Alpine, tall, exceptionally arborescent ; leaves small, from 
rhomboid- to lanceolar-oyate, generally somewhat concave; 
flowers axillary, solitary, crowded towards the summit of 
branchlets ; corolla always white ; style rather elongated ; 
fruit small, almost globular. E, keteronema. 

SPRSNGELIA. 

1645. Corolla pink, deeply cleft, about as long as the calyx. 

Finally tall, often of intricate growth ; branches tough ; 
leaves rather small, cylindrically incurved towards the 
base, channelled-semilanceolar and divergent towards 
the pointed summit ; flowers terminal, few together or 
two or one ; sepals comparatively large, purplish ; lobes of 
the corolla narrow, almost contiguous before expansion ; 
stamens free from the corolla ; anthers frequently beset 
with minute papillules, often coherent ; fruit small, 
globular-ovate. S. incarnata. 

RICHEA. 

1646. Panicle spike-like, dense, with deciduous bracts and * 

bracteoles, generally distant from the spreading 
leaves. 

Alpine, shrubby, moderately tall ; branches robust, tough ; 
leaves rather large, very rigid, from a broad base semi- 
laiiceolar, gradually much narrowed upwards ; spikes 
terminal ; corolla very short, whitish, separating by 
transverse basal fissure ; stamens free from the corolla ; 
fruit small, almost globular. R, Gunnii. 



Victorian Plants. 375 



ERICACEAE. 

OAT7LTHERIA. 

1647. Fruit-calyx carnulent, white. 

Alpine or subalpine, erect, finally tall, much beset with 
somewhat reddish hairlets ; leaves rather large, from 
elliptic- to narrow-lanceolar, serrulated ; racemes mostly 
terminal ; bracts small ; corolla white ; fruit compara- 
tively large, depressed -globular. G. hispida. 

WITTSTEINIA. 

1648. Corolla green-yellowish. 

Subalpine ; leaves scattered, rather large, mostly from 
almost elliptic to ovate, somewhat distantly denticulated 
or indented, glabrous, paler beneath ; flowers axillary, 
solitary or two together ; lobes of the calyx conspicuous ; 
corolla rather large, sometimes slightly reddish ; stamens 
finally somewhat emerging ; anthers longitudinally de- 
hiscent ; style elongated ; ovulary two- or three-celled ; 
fruit almost globular, greenish- or reddish-white outside ; 
seeds few or several. Figure 109. W. vacciniacea. 

CONVOZ.VULACEAE. 

CUSCTJTA. 

1649. Stalklets shorter than the flowers. 

Stems and branches thread-like, yellowish ; flowers Usually 
in clusters, almost without stalklets, glandular-dotted; 
corolla transparent, very turgid, contracted towards the 
summit, with five scale-like fringy ciliolated appendages 
below the stamens ; styles two ; stigmas blunt ; fruit 
depressed-globular. "Dodder." C. Australis. 

Stalklets longer than the flowers. 

Stems and branches thread-like, yellowish ; corolla trans- 
parent, almost bell-shaped, with five scale-like fringy 
ciliolated appendages below the stamens ; styles two ; 
stigmas blunt ; fruit almost globular. "Dodder." 

C. Tasmanica. 

CONVOLVULUS. 

1650. Bracteoles minute, distant from the calyx. 

Dwarf, but perennial, often beset with hairlets ; leaves from 
cordate-arrowshaped to Ovate-lanceolar or some linear, 
their basal lobes either diverging or obliterated ; lateral 
lobes present .or oftener absent; flowers rather small, 
axillary, solitary, conspicuously stalked ; corolla pink 
or pale ; fruit completely two-celled. C. erubescens. 



376 Key to the System of 



Bracteoles large, equalling or surpassing the calyx ... 1651 

1651. Flowers rather small. 

Sylvan, rather extensively climbing, often glabrous ; leaves 
from lanceolar-arrowshaped and deltoid to narrow - 
lanceolar, the basal lobes diverging, acute ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, on very angular stalks ; bracteoles 
from ovate- to orbicular- cordate ; corolla pink or pale ; 
fruit incompletely two-celled. C. marginatus. 

Flowers very large. 

Riparian, widely climbing or trailing or on coast-land 
creepingly prostrate ; sap copious, white ; leaves large, 
from cordate- to ovate-arrowshaped, almost membranous, 
or on maritime plants renate and somewhat succulent, 
the basal lobes often angular ; flowers axillary, solitary, 
long-stalked ; bracteoles mostly lanceolar-ovate ; corolla 
rosy red, pale -pink or quite white ; fruit one-celled. 

C. sepium. 

WIX.SONXA. 

1652. Somewhat shrubby. 

Restricted to saline ground, never tall, but much branched, 
thinly but closely beset with grey silky : shining vestiture, 
occasionally spinescent ; leaves minute but thick, mostly 
crowded in two rows, sessile, from lanceolar- to orbicular- 
ovate, above concave ; flowers very small, axillary, solitary, 
sessile ; corolla-tube about as long as the calyx ; fruit en- 
closed, globular-ovate. W. huniilis. 

Quite herbaceous ... ... ... 1653 

1653. Corolla-tube about as long as the calyx. 

Quite dwarf, somewhat invested with scattered hairlets ; 

leaves minute, from orbicular to ovate, thick, rather flat ; 

flowers very small, axillary, solitary, sessile ; calyx 

outside beset with silk-like vestiture ; fruit enclosed, 

ovate-globular. W. rotundifolia. 

Corolla-tube conspicuously longer than the calyx. 

Quite dwarf, almost glabrous ; leaves from elliptic to broad- 
linear, somewhat succulent ; flowers small, axillary,' 
solitary, sessile ; calyx without any outside vestiture ; 
corolla whitish ; stamens long -exser ted ; fruit enclosed, 
ovate -globular. W. Backhousii. 



Victorian Plants. 377 



CRESSA. 

1654. Stamens much exserted. 

Dwarf, densely beset with greyish mostly appressed hairlets ; 
leaves firm, usually from ovate to lanceolar ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, but often crowded at and towards the 
summit of branchlets, almost sessile ; corolla quite small, 
whitish or somewhat pink ; fruit nearly enclosed, almost 
globular. C. Cretica. 

DXCHONDRA. 

1655. Stems generally rooting at the nodes. 

Small weak herb, much beset with greyish often appressed 
vestiture ; leaves usually scattered, on long stalks, from 
cordate- to renate- orbicular, entire ; flowers very small, 
solitary, axillary, on conspicuous stalks; corolla yellowish- 
white, minute ; fruitlets ovate-ellipsoid, rarely two-seeded. 

D. repens. 



SARCOSTSBXaiA. 

1656. Branches robust, pale-green, evenly cylindrical. 

Desert-plant, jointed-ramified, glabrous ; flowers small, in 
lateral umbel-like fascicles, their stalklets rather short ; 
corolla pale, . deeply cleft, its segments blunt ; gyno- 
stemium surrounded by an undivided disk; fruitlets 
dehiscent by a single longitudinal fissure ; seeds much 
shorter than their tuft of hairlets. S. Australe. 

TYX.OPHORA. 

1657. Corolla very small, dark-violet, beset with minute 

hairlets inside. 

Sylvan plant ; leaves from broad- to lanceolar-ovate, pointed, 
almost membranous, always glabrous ; umbels axillary, 
solitary or two together, on slender stalks ; gynostemium 
black -purplish outside ; fruitlets much pointed, dehiscent 
by a single longitudinal fissure. T. barbata. 



1658. Corolla dark-purplish, deeply cleft, conspicuously 
beset with soft hairlets inside. 

Desert-plant ; leaves linear, rather long, glabrous ; umbels 
stalked, few-flowered, axillary ; corolla-segments acute ; 
gynostemium surrounded by a narrow almost undivided 
disk, terminated by five much pointed appendages ; fruit- 
lets dehiscent by a single longitudinal fissure ; seeds 
shorter than their tuft of hairlets. Figure 102. 

D. quinquepartita. 



378 Key to the System of 

IVXARSDENIA. 

1659. Leaves narrow. 

Desert-plant, greyish -green, often invested with minute 
hairlets ; leaves elongate- and broadish-linear ; flowers 
rather large, in simple axillary umbels ; lobes of corolla 
glabrous, hardly as long as the tube ; fruit very turgid, 
dehiscent by a single longitudinal fissure. " Doubah." 

M. Leichardtiaua. 

Leaves broad ... ... 1660 

1660. Flowers in simple umbels. 

Sylvan plant, comparatively robust ; leaves on long stalks, 
from ovate to cordate-orbicular, pointed ; flowers fragrant ; 
corolla whitish with a green-yellowish tinge, its lobes 
blunt, inside imperfectly beset with short hairlets ; fruit 
very turgid, dehiscent by a single longitudinal fissure. 

M. rostrata. 

Flowers in compound cyme-like umbels. 

Sylvan plant, often invested with minute hairlets ; root 
producing tubers ; leaves on short stalks, from oval- to 
lanceolar-elliptical ; flowers quite small ; corolla greenish- 
yellow, the lobes glabrous ; fruit rather slender, dehiscent 
by a single longitudinal fissure. M. flavescens. 



APOCYNEAE. 

AX.1TXXA. 

1661. Leaves from orbicular- to elliptic-obovate. 

Mostly maritime, occasionally somewhat trailing, glabrous ; 
leaves very firm, comparatively small, recurved at the 
margin, their lateral venules concealed ; flowers small, 
terminal, few together, almost sessile, fragrant ; corolla 
brownish- or reddish-yellow outside, whitish inside ; 
stamens enclosed ; fruitlets orange-colored outside, often 
one-seeded or occasionally with two to four seeds and 
constricted between them. 

(Gynopogonbuxifolius.) A. buxifolia. 

LYONSIA. 

1662. Leaves from ovate- to linear-lanceolar. 

Sylvan, amply winding, robust ; roots producing tubers ; 
leaves very firm, comparatively long, greyish beneath ; 



Victorian Plants. 379 



flowers small, in cymes, provided with a very thin vesti- 
ture ; corolla yellowish inside, its lobes only at the base 
beset with hairlets ; anthers exserted, coherent ; f nutlets 
very slender, longitudinally connate, on the inner side by 
a single fissure dehiscent, the inflexed edges of their peri- 
carp inserted on a membranous two-plated dissepiment. 
Figure 101. L. straminea. 



ASFERIFOLIAE. 

EHRETIA. 

1663. Finally tall-arboreous. 

Sylvan tree, with annually deciduous foliage ; leaves from 
ovate- to lanceolar-elliptical, pointed, almost or quite 
glabrous, serrulated ; flowers small, in panicles ; stalklets 
very short ; corolla whitish ; stamens much exserted ; 
fruit small, globular, reddish outside. 

E. acnminata. 

KAZ.GANZA. 

1664. Leaves rather thin, indented towards the summit. 

Somewhat sticky, often bearing scattered rigid appressed 
hairlets and also a thin glandular vestiture ; leaves from 
obovate- to linear-cuiieate, somewhat conduplicated, wavy 
or crisped at the margin, occasionally truncated ; flowers 
in cymous corymbs, sometimes only three or two together ; 
corolla deep-blue, its lobes generally acute ; fruit wrinkled. 

H. cyanea. 

Leaves thick, entire. 

Desert-plant, rather sticky ; leaves from elliptic- to narrow- 
lanceolar, recurved at the margin, beset beneath with 
a thin whitish velvet-like vestiture ; flowers in small 
corymbs ; corolla deep -blue ; anthers viscid, outward 
dark and glabrous ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid'. Figure 106. 

H. lavandulacea. 

BOCHEX.XA. 

1665. Calyx usually cleft into more than five segments. 

Annual desert-plant, prostrate or ascending, beset with 
rigid hairlets ; leaves linear, entire ; flowers mostly 
extra-axillary, arranged in leafy racemes ; calyx-segments 
narrow, flexuous ; corolla minute, its lobes white ; stamens 
often four only ; fruitlets triangular-ovate, pointed. 

R. Maccoya. 



380 Key to the System of 



CYNOGLOSSUBI. 

1666. Leaves from almost orbicular to nearly ovate. 

Perennial forest-plant, flaccid, often elongated and straggling, 
granular-rough, scantily beset with very rigid hairlets ; 
leaves rather thin, frequently inequilateral ; flowers small, 
in leafy racemes or extra-axillarily scattered; stalklets 
elongated, soon recurved ; corolla-lobes blue or white ; 
asperities of fruitlets doubly hooked. C. latifolium. 

Leaves from elliptic to narrow-lanceolar ..." ... 1667 

1667. Flowers in leafy racemes. 

Perennial, rather dwarf, erect, slender, much beset with 
appressed somewhat rigid hairlets ; lower leaves stalked, 
upper sessile ; stalklets elongated, soon recurved ; flowers 
intensely fragrant ; corolla very small, its lobes white, 
its appendages bright-yellow ; asperities of fruitlets 
doubly hooked. C. suaveolens. 

Flowers in leafless racemes. 

Perennial, rather tall, erect, comparatively robust, much 
beset with appressed somewhat rigid hairlets ; leaves 
mostly stalked ; stalklets of flowers abbreviated, the 
lowest sometimes axillary ; flowers small, scented ; corolla- 
lobes often blue, occasionally pink or white ; asperities of 
fruitlets doubly hooked, those at the margin longest. 

C. An st rale. 

XiAFFTJXiA. 

1668. Fruitlets at the margin beset with spinular processes, 

at the back impressed -hollowed and somewhat 
granular-rough. 

Annual, dwarf, erect or ascending, somewhat beset with 
generally appressed hairlets ; leaves from ovate- to linear- 
elliptical ; flowers in leafy almost one-sided racemes, very 
small, on short stalklets ; lobes of the corolla usually blue ; 
margin of fruitlets prominent : spinular asperities rather 
few, somewhat barbed. L. concava. 

ERITRICHUItt. 

1669. Lower leaves generally opposite. 

Annual, dwarf, erect or ascending, somewhat beset with 
generally appressed yellowish or greyish hairlets ; leaves 
quite small, from narrow-elliptical to broadish-linear, the 
upper scattered ; flowers in one-sided spike-like foliaceous- 
bracteated racemes ; corolla minute, its lobes white ; 
fruitlets rather acute, reticular- and wrinkled-rough. 

E. Australasicum. 



Victorian Plants. 381 



1VXYOSOTIS. 

1670. Stamens almost enclosed. 

Beset with short hairlets ; stem rather short and quite thin ; 
leaves from obovate- to lanceolar- or linear-elliptical ; 
stalklets very short ; bracts none ; flowers very small, all 
turned to one side ; hairlets of the calyx hooked ; lobes 
of corolla white or blue ; fruit enclosed. 

M. Anstralis. 

Stamens much exserted. 

Perennial, sylvan, beset with rather rigid hairlets ; stem 
rather tall and robust ; leaves from elliptical to narrow - 
lanceolar, rather elongated, usually sessile or somewhat 
decurrent ; stalklets short ; bracts none ; flowers relatively 
large, fragrant; hairlets of the calyx hooked; lobes of 
corolla oftener white than bluish ; fruit enclosed. 

M. suave olens. 

HEXiXOTROPIUlK. 

1671. Glabrous. 

.Prostrate, grey-greenish, somewhat succulent ; leaves from 
oval to almost linear ; lateral venules concealed ; spikes 
usually two together ; flowers small, all turned to one 
side ; lobes of the corolla white ; bracts none ; stigma 
depressed ; fruit very short and broadish. 

H. Curassavicum. 

Beset with hairlets 1672 

1672. Vestiture consisting of short and mostly appressed 

hairlets. 

Erect or ascending; leaves conspicuously stalked, rather 

smooth, entire, from elliptic- to lanceolar-ovate ; spikes 

. usually two together; bracts none; flowers very small, 

all turned to one side ; lobes of the corolla white ; stigma 

elongate-conical ; fruit wrinkled -rough. 

H. Europaeum. 

Vestiture consisting of elongated rigid and mostly 
spreading hairlets. 

Desert-plant, erect or ascending ; leaves from elliptic to 
almost lanceolar, mostly sessile, waved and recurved at 
the margin ; spikes usually two together ; flowers closely 
approximated, all turned to one side ; lobes of the corolla 
white ; stigma slender-conical. H. asperriuinm. 



382 Key to the System of 

X. ABI ATAE. 
SALVIA. 

1673. Flowers almost minute, supported by very small bracts 
or floral leaves. 

Herbaceous, much beset with short hairlets ; leaves all 
stalked, f rom lanceolar to elliptical, irregularly crenulated, 
wrinkled above ; whorls of flowers distinct ; denticles of 
the calyx blunt ; corolla slightly exserted, pale-purplish ; 
fruitlets minute, ellipsoid. S. plebeja. 



1674. Inflorescence terminal, short, almost cylindrical, with 
roundish somewhat purplish bracts. 

Never tall, somewhat beset with hairlets ; leaves from 
elliptical- to lanceolar-ovate, distantly indented or almost 
entire, only the uppermost sessile ; bracts from cordate 
to renate-orbicular, pointed, ciliolated ; flowers small ; 
upper side of the calyx truncate and minutely denticu- 
lated at the summit ; corolla violet ; fruitlets very small, 
triangular-ellipsoid. 

(Prunella vulgaris.) B. vulgar is. 

FLCTRANTHUS. 

675. Leaves long-stalked, from cordate- to ovate-orbicular, 
crenular-indented. 

Usually rather tall ; stem slightly pellucid ; leaves wrinkled 
above, occasionally assuming a somewhat purplish hue ; 
inflorescence leafless, consisting of distinct whorls ; bracts 
fugacious ; corolla pure-blue, semiemergent, its lowest 
lobe enlarged, concave ; two of the stamens somewhat 
longer than the corolla ; fruitlets smooth. . 

P. parviflorns. 

X.1TCOPUS. 

1676. Leaves from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, serrated. 

Swamp-plant, rather tall, scantily beset with minute rigid 
hairlets ; leaves comparatively long, but on short stalks 
or almost sessile, their denticles somewhat distant ; 
flowers quite small, their stalks and stalklets almost 
absent ; bracts short, narrow, pointed ; corolla whitish, 
usually but little emerging ; fruitlets smooth, somewhat 
turgidly margined. Ii. Australis. 



Victorian Plants. 383 



WESTRINGIA. 

1677. Corolla violet. 

Forest-plant, nearly glabrous ; leaves generally three in a 
whorl, from ovate- to lanceolar-elliptical, almost flat ; 
bracteoles much shorter than the calyx; lobes of the 
calyx about as long as the tube ; corolla beset with 
minute hairlets outside. W. glabra. 

Corolla white ... 1678 

1678. Leaves generally three in a whorl ... ... ... 1679 

Leaves generally four or six in a whorl ... ... 1680 

1679. Leaves elongated. 

Riparian plant, imperfectly beset with minute hairlets'; 
leaves linear, somewhat recurved at the margin, nearly 
glabrous beneath ; lobes of the calyx rather shorter than 
the tube. W. longifolia. 

Leaves abbreviated. 

Desert-plant, much beset with minute hairlets; leaves 
mostly linear-lanceolar, somewhat pungent, refracted at 
the margin ; lobes of the calyx considerably shorter than 
the tube. W. rigida. 

1680. Leaves generally four in a whorl. 

Coast-plant ; leaves from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, re- 
curved at the margin, beset with a close white rather 
shining vestiture underneath ; lobes of the calyx nearly 
as long as the tube ; corolla outside beset with appressed 
hairlets. W. rosinariniforztiis. 

Leaves generally six in a whorl. 

Highland -plant, much beset with rather long whitish hair- 
lets ; leaves mostly lanceolate-linear, revolute at the 
margin ; lobes of the calyx about as long as the tube. 

W. senifolia. 

1VIENTHA. 

1681. Tall, erect ... 1682 

Dwarf, diffuse 1683 



384 Key to the System of 



1682. Leaves almost ovate, much indented. 

Sylvan ; leaves rather large ; flowers numerous in each 
whorl, on conspicuous stalklets ; lobes of the calyx semi- 
lanceolar ; corolla much longer than the calyx, often 
lilac-colored ; upper portion of stamens generally exserted. 

M. laxiflora. 

Leaves almost lanceolar, entire or scantily indented. 

Often riparian ; flowers numerous in each whorl, on very 
short stalklets ; lobes of the calyx narrow ; corolla some- 
what longer than the calyx, lilac-colored or white ; upper 
portion of stamens generally exserted. M. Aus trails. 

1683. Leaves rather small, lanceolar-ovate. 

Often in valleys, rather dwarf ; leaves almost entire, on 
rather conspicuous stalks ; flowers small, rather few in 
each whorl, on very short stalklets ; lobes of the calyx 
quite short ; corolla hardly exceeding the calyx, often 
lilac-colored ; stamens generally -quite enclosed. 

M. gracilis. 

Leaves very small, from oval to narrow-elliptical. 

Often on ridges, very dwarf ; leaves entire,, almost sessile ; 
flowers small, few in each .whorl, on very short stalklets ; 
lobes of the calyx quite short, densely beset with minute 
hairlets inside ; corolla hardly longer than the calyx, 
lilac-colored or white ; stamens generally quite enclosed. 

M. saturejoides. 

AJUGA. 

1684. Flowers more than one in each axil, with upwards 

pure-blue corolla. 

Perennial, usually branchless, variously beset with soft 
hairlets ; lower leaves from obovate to lanceolar- or 
narrow-elliptical, often sinuously indented ; floral leaves 
narrower, sessile, gradually entire, mostly longer than 
the whorls ; flower-stalks and stalklets hardly developed ; 
lobes of the calyx generally shorter than its tube ; corolla 
rarely pink or white, its lowest lobe the longest ; fruitlets 
reticular- and faveolar-rough. A. Australis. 

TEUCRIUltt. 

1685. Flowers nearly sessile. 

Always dwarf, but perennial ; somewhat beset with short 
hairlets and with copious glandules ; leaves in outline 
from rhomboid- to linear-cuneate, three- to five-lobed, 
recurved at the margin, the lobes entire or cleft again ; 
floral leaves bractlike- shortened, slightly indented; 
flowers small, in dense short somewhat leafy spikes ; 
corolla short-exserted. T. sessiliflorum. 



Victorian Plants. 385 



Flowers stalked 1686 

1686. Beset with somewhat scattered short hairlets. 

Perennial, usually rather tall ; leaves from nearly ovate to 
broad-lanceolar, indented or somewhat lobed, wrinkled, 
the floral leaves gradually diminished in size ; flowers in 
stalked opposite cymes, thence arranged in leafy panicles ; 
corolla white ; fruitlets invested with minute hairlets. 

T. corymbosum. 

Beset with whitish closely approximated minute 
hairlets. 

Principally a desert-plant, perennial, usually rather dwarf ; 
leaves mostly small, from elliptic- to linear-lanceolar, 
entire or slightly denticulated or exceptionally three- 
lobed, occasionally crisped ; flowers often solitary in the 
axils, on rather elongated stalks, forming generally a 
simple partly leafless raceme ; stalklets elongated ; corolla 
white ; fruitlets thinly invested with hairlets. 

T. racemosum. 

SCUTEXiXiARXA. 

1687. Rather tall, often beset with soft hairlets. 

Perennial ; leaves comparatively long, mostly from ovate- to 
lanceolar-elliptical ; flowers axillary, solitary, all turned 
to one side, their supporting leaves gradually smaller ; 
upper lobe of the calyx deciduous ; corolla relatively 
large, upwards blue, its lower lobes conspicuously longer 
than the upper, its tube rather short ; fruitlets enclosed. 

S. niollis. 

Rather dwarf, often almost glabrous. 

Perennial ; leaves comparatively short, mostly from cordate, 
to orbicular-ovate ; flowers axillary, solitary, all turned 
to one side ; upper lobe of the calyx deciduous ; corolla 
relatively small, upwards blue, its lower lobes slightly 
longer than the upper, its tube quite short ; fruitlets 
enclosed. S. htiniilis. 

FROSTANTHERA. 

1688. Corolla bright-red. 

Desert-plant, never tall, beset with very short but rigid 
hairlets ; leaves very small, from oval- to linear-elliptical, 
slightly recurved towards the apex, often somewhat 
crowded into axillary fascicles ; flowers axillary, on con- 
spicuous stalklets; calyx rather elongated; upper division 
of the corolla longer than the lower, its orifice spotted 
with blackish dots; anther-appendages hardly longer 
than the cells. P. coccinea. 

20 



386 Key to the System of 

Corolla white or green or blue or lilac-colored ... 1689 

1689. Corolla greenish ... 1690 

Corolla white or bluish or lilac-colored ... 1691 

1690. Corolla streakless. 

Desert-plant, never tall, beset with short but rigid hairlets ; 
leaves very small, from rhomboid- to elliptic-ovate, some- 
what recurved at the margin ; flowers axillary, on 
conspicuous stalklets ; calyx rather elongated, open when 
fruit-bearing ; upper division of the corolla longer than 
the lower ; anther-appendages shorter than the cells. 

F. chlorantha. 
Corolla violet-streaked. 

Rather tall, partially beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
rather small, from rhomboid- to elliptic-oval, entire or 
scantily denticulated, recurved at the margin ; flowers 
quite large, singly axillary, on conspicuous stalklets ; 
upper division of the corolla somewhat longer than the 
lower ; lateral lower lobes semilanceolar, pointed ; anther- 
appendages shorter than the cells. F; Walter!. 

1691. Corolla upwards blue- or lilac-colored ... ... 1692 

Corolla nearly or quite white ... ... 1699 

1692. Thorny. 

Never tall, branchlets acicular-spinescent ; leaves quite 
small, from orbicular- to lanceolar-ovate, almost entire 
and glabrous ; flowers all singly axillary, on conspicuous 
stalklets ; corolla spotted towards its orifice with brownish- 
yellow dots, upwards lilac-colored ; one of the anther- 
appendages much longer than the cells. Figure 107. 

F. spinosa. 

Thornless 1693 

1693. Leaves comparatively long. 

Tall ; leaves rather large, flat, flaccid, mostly rhomboid- 
ovate, remotely indented, almost glabrous ; flowers in 
terminal racemes or some axillary ; lobes of the calyx of 
about equal length ; corolla lilac- or somewhat violet- 
colored ; anther-appendages hardly longer than the cells. 

F. melissifolia. 

Leaves comparatively short ... ... ... ... 1694 



Victorian Plants. 387 



1694. Leaves deeply indented. 

Tall ; leaves flat, from elliptic- to lanceolar-ovate, scantily 
indented ; flowers in terminal racemes or the lower axil- 
lary ; lower calyx-lobe longer than the upper ; corolla 
lilac- or somewhat violet -colored ; anther-appendages 
about as long as the cells. P. incisa. 

Leaves entire or shortly indented ... ... 1695 

1695. Leaves from rhomboid- to ovate-orbicular ... ... 1696 

Leaves from lanceolar- to linear-elliptical ... ... 1697 

1696. Leaves hardly or slightly indented, evidently stalked. 

Tall, mainly sylvan, often beset with minute hairlets; 
leaves rather small, usually of somewhat thick texture, 
slightly indented or almost entire ; flowers in part singly 
axillary, forming short partly leafy racemes ; corolla 
lilac-colored ; anther -appendages hardly longer than the 
cells. P. rotundifolia. 

Leaves distinctly indented, almost sessile. 

Never tall, much beset with short spreading hairlets; 
leaves quite small, occasionally minute, generally recurved 
along the margin, wrinkled above ; flowers in terminal 
corymbous racemes, rather small ; lower lobe of the 
calyx narrower ; corolla-lobes lilac-colored, the orifice 
dark-violet or rarely the whole corolla white ; anther- 
appendages hardly longer than the cells. 

F, violacea. 

1697. Corolla upwards deep-blue. 

Dwarf, beset with appressed hairlets ; leaves quite small, 
from linear- to narrow -elliptical, blunt, flat or slightly 
recurved at the margin, equally green on both sides ; 
flowers all singly axillary ; lower lobes of the corolla 
much longer than the upper, orifice spotted with brown- 
yellow dots ; one of the anther-appendages somewhat 
longer than the cells. P. debilis. 

Corolla upwards lilac-colored... ... ... 1698 

1698. Leaves rather small, the bract-like floral leaves blunt. 

Beset with short rigid hairlets ; leaves never large, firm, 
from ovate- to lanceolar- and narrow-elliptical, revolute 
at the margin, paler green beneath ; flowers in somewhat 
leafy interrupted racemes ; corolla towards the orifice 
spotted with dark-purplish dots ; anther-appendages 
hardly longer than the cells. P. hirtula. 



388 Key to the System of 



Leaves quite small, the bract-like floral leaves pointed. 

Never tall, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves 
almost sessile, from ovate- to linear-lanceolar, often 
broadest towards the base and rough above, entire, re- 
curved at the margin, some fascicular-crowded at the 
axils ; flowers in somewhat leafy interrupted racemes ; 
corolla towards the orifice violet ; one of the anther- 
appendages somewhat longer than the cells. 

F. deuticnlata. 

1699. Leaves comparatively long ... 1700 

Leaves comparatively short ... ... 1701 

1700. Leaves from ovate- to elongate-lanceolar, serrulated. 

Mainly sylvan, finally arborescent, with even a tall and 
stout trunk ; leaves large, but usually of thin texture, 
glabrous, mostly flat or occasionally somewhat recurved 
at the margin ; flowers in often paniculated leafless 
racemes ; corolla beset with minute hairlets, towards 
the orifice spotted with purplish dots ; one of the anther- 
appendages much longer than the cells. 

F. lasiantha. 

Leaves broad-linear, entire. 

Tall, generally glabrous ; leaves somewhat incurved at the 
margin, equally green on both sides ; flowers rather large, 
solitary in each axil ; upper lobe of the calyx much larger 
than the lower ; corolla spotted towards the orifice with 
brownish- or greenish-yellow dots ; one of the anther- 
appendages conspicuously longer than the cells. 

F. iiivea. 

1701. Leaves from orbicular- to obovate-cuneate, almost en- 

tire. 

Alpine, somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves rather 
small, of thick texture, mostly flat ; flowers axillary, 
but forming leafy racemes ; calyx deeply lobed ; corolla 
towards the orifice spotted with purplish dots ; one of 
the anther-appendages much longer than the cells. 

F. cuneata. 

Leaves from oval- to linear-elliptical ... ... 1702 

1702. Leaves incurved along the margin or flat ... ... 1703 

Leaves recurved along the margin ... ... ... 1704 



Victorian Plants. 389 



1703. Lobes of the calyx nearly equal in length. 

Rather dwarf, somewhat invested with appressed hairlets ; 
leaves very small, but firm, from elliptical to broad- 
linear ; flowers axillary, on very short stalklets ; calyx 
quite small ; corolla outside beset with short hairlets ; 
one of the anther-appendages somewhat longer than the 
cells. F. saxicola. 

Upper lobe of the calyx considerably longer than 
the lower. 

Finally tall, much invested with whitish appressed hairlets; 
leaves rather small, of thick texture, from oval- to linear- 
elliptical, entire ; flowers singly axillary ; corolla outside 
beset with short hairlets ; one of the anther-appendages 
much longer than the cells. P. Beliriana. 

1704. Leaves rather small, the marginal curvature leaving 

below an open space. 

Sub-alpine, rather tall ; leaves of thick texture, from 
narrow- to linear-elliptical, often beset with minute 
hairlets ; flowers axillary, hardly surpassing the sup- 
porting leaves ; corolla white, towards the orifice spotted 
with yellowish dots ; one of the anther-appendages some- 
what longer than the cells. P. phylicifolia. 

Leaves minute, through marginal curvature cylin- 
drical. 

Sub-alpine, seldom tall, somewhat beset with short rigid 
hairlets ; leaves firm, crowded and spreading into four 
rows, very slender ; flowers quite small, but surpassing 
the supporting leaves, singly axillary ; anther-appendages 
about as long as the cells. P. decussata. 



OBtOBANCHBAB. 

OROBANCHE. 

1705. Stamens inserted near the middle of the corolla-tube. 

Annual or of short duration beyond a year, robust but 
never tall ; base of stem turgid ; bracts ovate, pointed, 
about half as long as the flowers, powdery-rough, 
venular-streaked ; venules of sepals few ; corolla rather 
large, curved downward, short-lobed, beset with minute 
glandular hairlets ; anthers pointed ; style glabrous ; 
fruit longitudinally dehiscent. 

(0. cernua.) O. Australiana. 



390 Key to the System of 



LENTIBULARINAE. 
UTRICUX.A.B.XA. 

1708. Leaves submerged, repeatedly divided into capillary 
segments. 

Floating, branched ; leaves distantly beset with numerous 
minute roundish vesicular pitchers ; flowers in racemes ; 
corolla yellow ; style very short ; fruits on thickened and 
reflexed stalklets. U. flexuosa. 

Leaves all radical, usually minute ... ... ... 1707 

1707. Flowers few or several, terminal. 

Stem often rather tall, always branchless ; leaves from 
ovate to almost linear, seldom conspicuously elongated ; 
pitchers few ; flowers rather large, opposite or ternate, 
in one or two or few sets, but occasionally one or two 
flowers constituting the whole inflorescence ; corolla 
generally violet- colored ; fruit globular. 

U. dichotoina. 
Flowers two or few, lateral. 

Dwarf, branchless ; stem exceedingly thin ; leaves almost 
ovate ; pitchers very few ; flowers very small, distant 
along the stem, purplish, almost sessile, exceptionally one 
only developed ; fruits minute. TJ 1 . lateriflora. 

POXiYPOBXPHOX.YX. 

1708. Quite dwarf, with very small flowers. 

Leaves very short, from elliptical and lanceolar to linear, 
cuneate at the base ; flowers three or two or one ; corolla 
rose-red, but orange -colored and yellow at the orifice; 
its basal elongation conical, reaching the ends of the 
lower lobes; style hardly developed; fruit globular. 
Figure 105. P. tenella. 

GESNERIACEAE. 
FIEIiDIA. 

1709. Fruit pulpy, whitish outside. 

Epiphyte, chiefly on fern-trees ; stem and main-branches 
somewhat woody ; leaves flaccid, mostly from ovate- to 
narrow-lanceolar, serrate except towards the base, much 
beset with soft brownish or finally greyish hairlets, 
alternately smaller and larger, the smaller occasionally 
quite undeveloped ; flowers large, axillary, solitary, from 



Victorian Plants. 391 



conspicuous stalklets pendent, almost unilaterally sup- 
ported by two partially connate upwards narrowed 
bracteoles ; corolla greenish- or yellowish-white, some- 
what transparent, its tube broad-cylindrical, slightly 
inflated, many times longer than the roundish hardly 
unequal lobes ; fertile stamens about as long as the 
corolla, fixed to its base, the fifth stamen rudimentary ; 
anthers disconnected, cordate-roundish; style elongated; 
disk annular, adnate ; fruit rather large ; placentaries 
two-plated ; seeds brown outside. P. Australia. 



SCROPHULARINAE. 
LIMOSELLA. 

1710. Flowers sessile. 

Leaves comparatively large, nearly always ovate, occa- 
sionally on very long stalks ; lobes of the calyx 
remaining much shorter than the tube ; corolla quite 
enclosed, greenish-white; filaments particularly short; 
fruit relatively of conspicuous size, indehiscent or very 
tardily bursting ; seeds furrowed, dark-brown outside. 

Ii. Curdieana. 

Flowers on conspicuous stalklets. 

Leaves comparatively small, from oval and spatular to 
linear ; lobes of the calyx soon as long as the tube ; 
corolla partly exserted, white or rosy-red ; stamens rarely 
two ; fruit very small, but somewhat exserted, two- 
valved ; seeds minute. L. aquatica. 

GX.OSSOSTXGBXA. 

1711. Stalklets of flowers usually exceeding the leaves. 

Quite glabrous, rooting at the nodes ; leaves minute, from 
narrow-elliptical to almost linear ; calyx often three- 
lobed ; corolla very short, white, its lobes without any 
ciliolation ; stamens four, generally reaching the end of 
the corolla-lobes ; fruit minute, globular, enclosed, two- 
valved. G. Drummondi. 

Stalklets of flowers usually exceeded by the leaves. 

Rooting at the nodes, intricately ramified, depressed; 
leaves very small, on stalks of moderate length, from 
spatular- to narrow-elliptical; calyx often four-lobed ; 
corolla pale-bluish, its lobes fringy ciliolated ; stamens 
four, generally much shorter than the corolla-lobes ; 
ripe fruit unknown. G. elatinoides. 



392 Key to the System of 



EITPHRASIA. 

1712. Perennial. 

Somewhat beset with short hairlets ; leaves firm, sessile, 
deeply serrated or short-indented at least towards the 
summit ; flowers relatively large, several or many in each 
spike, supported by floral leaves ; corolla upwards violet 
or lilac or white, but the ample orifice often yellowish ; 
anthers black, often amply beset with minute white 
hairlets, the cells downwards minutely and equally 
appendicular-pointed ; fruit somewhat exserted, almost 
ellipsoid, two-valved, many-seeded. E. Brownii. 

Annual ..................... 1713 

1713. Corolla upwards yellow. 

Sometimes biennial ; copiously beset with short glandule- 
bearing hairlets ; leaves sessile, often incised, the lobes 
rather acute ; flowers relatively large, several or many in 
each spike, supported by floral leaves ; corolla-lobes 
rather short in proportion to the tube ; anthers somewhat 
beset with minute hairlets, the cells downwards minutely 
and equally appendicular-pointed ; fruit about as long as 
the calyx, almost ellipsoid, two-valved, many-seeded. 

E. scabra. 
Corolla upwards white. 

Dwarf but erect, beset with short glandule-bearing hairlets; 
leaves sessile, incised or pinnatifid, the lobes narrow, 
blunt ; spikes few-flowered ; lobes of the calyx obtuse ; 
corolla-lobes streaked with dark-purplish lines ; orifice 
yellowish ; anthers scantily beset with minute hairlets, 
the cells downwards minutely and equally appendicular- 
pointed ; fruit orbicular -ovate, enclosed, two-valved, 
much compressed, few-seeded. E. antarctic a. 

BXAZUS. 

1714. Leaves from obovate to cuneate-elliptical. 

Dwarf but perennial ; leaves mostly basal, irregularly 
denticulated, rarely quite entire ; flowers several or few 
in each raceme or occasionally reduced to two or one; 
stalklets rather long, soon recurved; bracts minute or 
undeveloped ; corolla upwards almost violet-colored ; 
fruit enclosed, two-valved. Bd. pumilio. 



1715. Erect. 

Glabrous, never tall ; leaves small, from lanceolar- to 
linear-elliptical, sessile, entire or occasionally scantily 



Victorian Plants. 393 



denticulated; flowers on long stalklets ; calyx promi- 
nently angular ; corolla usually upwards blue, at the 
orifice beset with minute white hairlets ; fruit almost 
ellipsoid, enclosed, two-valved. IVL gracilis. 

Prostrate ... 1716 

1716. Glabrous. 

Leaves quite small, somewhat succulent, from orbicular- to 
elliptical-ovate, sessile, entire ; flowers on short stalklets, 
axillary, solitary ; angles of the calyx blunt ; corolla 
upwards lilac- or violet-colored, at the orifice yellow and 
dotted and there beset with minute hairlets ; fruit almost 
globular, enclosed, tardily two-valved. Hfl[. repens. 

Beset with minute hairlets. 

Leaves very small, from narrow- to linear-elliptical, sessile, 
entire; flowers small, on rather long stalklets; corolla 
upwards bluish, its tube semiexserted and remarkably 
slender, the orifice yellowish ; fruit almost ellipsoid, 
two-valved. M, prostratus. 

STEIKODIA. 

1717. Placentaries connate, interposed to the inflexed 

margins of the fruit-valves. 

Erect perennial desert-plant ; leaves oftener simply opposite 
than ternately whorled, never large, from lanceolar to 
broad-linear, entire or somewhat denticulated ; calyx 
divided to near the base into narrow almost equal seg- 
ments ; flowers solitary, supported by short and narrow 
bracteoles ; corolla upwards bluish, its tube rather 
slender j fruit almost ovate-ellipsoid, four-valved. 

S. Morgania. 

GRATXOX.A. 

1718. Flowers on elongated stalklets. 

Usually erect, beset with short glandule-bearing hairlets ; 
leaves from almost elliptic- to narrow-lanceolar, sessile, 
somewhat denticulated or some entire ; flowers axillary, 
solitary, supported by narrow bracteoles ; corolla upwards 
pale-pink ; staminodia absent ; fruit ovate-globular, four- 
valved. G. pedunculata. 

Flowers almost sessile ... ... .- ... 1719 



394 Key to the System of 

1719. Leaves rather large, mostly serrated. 

Ascending or erect, generally riparian, often glabrous, of 

C'ticularly bitter taste ; leaves from orbicular to 
ceolar-ovate, sessile ; flowers axillary, solitary, sup- 
ported by narrow bracteoles ; corolla upwards pale-pink ; 
staminodia present ; fruit ovate-globular, four-valved. 

G. Feruviaua. 

Leaves quite small, hardly denticulated. 

Dwarf, often creeping, beset with very short hairlets or 
glabrous ; leaves from obovate- to cuneate-elliptical, 
sessile; flowers quite small, axillary, solitary, supported 
by narrow bracteoles ; corolla upwards pale -pink ; 
staminodia present ; fruit globular -ovate, four-valved. 

G. liana. 

VERONICA. 

1720. Annual. 

Usually erect, never tall ; leaves quite small, from obovate- 
to linear-elliptical, almost without denticulations, mostly 
sessile ; flowers very small, in leafy spike-like racemes ; 
calyx four-cleft ; corolla bluish or almost white ; fruit 
obcordate, compressed against the dissepiment. (Probably 
immigrated.) V. peregrina. 

Perennial 1721 

1721. Herbaceous 1722 

Somewhat shrubby ... ... ... ... ... 1729 

1722. Flowers nearly all singly terminal. 

Alpine, very dwarf, amply tufted ; leaves quite small, of 
thick texture, crowded into four rows, sessile, mostly 
ovate, concave, entire ; flowers sessile ; calyx five- cleft ; 
corolla pink, its tube rather long, lobes sometimes five ; 
fruit obcordate, compressed parallel to the dissepiment. 
Figure 104. V. densifolia. 

Flowers in bracteate or leafy racemes ... ... 1723 

1723. Leaves nearly or quite entire ... ... ... 1724 

Leaves indented or pinnatisected ... ... ... 1725 



Victorian Plants. 395 



1724. Leaves from lanceolar- to broad-linear. 

Rather dwarf and flaccid, slender, nearly glabrous, scarcely 
branched ; leaves entire or seldom somewhat indented ; 
flowers few, in partly terminal racemes or some solitary ; 
stalks thread-like, occasionally much elongated ; stalklets 
rather long ; calyx four- cleft ; corolla blue ; fruit from 
obcordate to almost renate, compressed against the 
dissepiment. V. gracilis. 

Leaves from obovate to elliptical. 

Here alpine, never tall, ascendant ; leaves small, firm, the 
lower occasionally orbicular, the floral leaves somewhat 
lanceolar, scattered, the upper changed into bracts ; 
racemes comparatively long ; flowers very small ; calyx 
four-cleft ; corolla generally white with bluish venules ; 
fruit obcordate- or renate-orbicular, compressed against 
the dissepiment. V. S63 



1725. Leaves pinnatisected. 

Alpine, robust, nearly glabrous ; leaves carnulent, shining, 
their segments linear, from entire to pinnatifid ; flowers 
in rather long racemes ; calyx five-cleft ; corolla small, 
white or bluish ; fruit obcordate, compressed against the 
dissepiment. V. nivea. 

Leaves indented 1726 

1726. Leaves and racemes comparatively long. 

Lax forest-plant ; stems elongated, ascending, often partly 
creeping ; leaves flaccid, stalked, from ovate- to elongate- 
lanceolar, serrated ; racemes mostly axillary, generally 
many-flowered ; stalklets rather long ; calyx four-cleft ; 
corolla small, pale, streaked by lilac venules ; fruit almost 
obcordate, compressed against the dissepiment. 

V. notabilis. 

Leaves and racemes comparatively short ... ... 1727 

1727. Fruit almost orbicular. 

Stem slender, often elongated, beset with minute hairlets ; 
leaves flaccid, from cordate- and deltoid- to orbicular- 
ovate ; racemes seldom much elongated ; calyx four-cleft; 
corolla small ; fruit compressed against the dissepiment. 

V. plebeja. 

Fruit almost obcordate ... ... ... ... 1728 



396 Key to the System of 



1728. Corolla relatively small, bluish. 

Creeping or short-tufty, often conspicuously beset with 
hairlets ; leaves from cordate- to deltoid- or rhomboid- 
ovate or the upper more lanceolar, indented, wrinkled 
above ; racemes axillary, few-flowered ; calyx compara- 
tively large, four-cleft ; corolla hardly exserted ; fruit 
compressed against the dissepiment. V. calycina. 

Corolla relatively large, white. 

Chiefly a coast-plant, creeping, dwarf, beset with recurved 
short hairlets ; leaves firm, almost sessile, somewhat 
rough, from deltoid- to elliptic-ovate, distantly indented ; 
racemes corymbous, axillary ; calyx small, four-cleft ; 
corolla bluish-streaked, partly exserted ; fruit compressed 
against the dissepiment. V. distans. 

1729. Leaves entire, mostly connate at the base, never 

much elongated. 

Tall, quite glabrous ; leaves firm, greyish -green, from ovate- 
to lanceolar- deltoid, occasionally disconnected and then 
clasping, rarely indented, exceptionally ternate-whorled ; 
flowers in elongated racemes ; calyx four-cleft ; corolla 
blue, purplish-streaked ; fruit almost oval, compressed 
parallel to the dissepiment. V. perf oliata. 

Leaves serrulated, sessile, elongated. 

Chiefly riparian, quite tall, often nearly glabrous; leaves 
from ovate- to narrow -lanceolar, gradually pointed ; 
flowers in much elongated partly terminal racemes ; 
stalklets short ; calyx small, four -cleft ; corolla white 
or blue ; fruit almost oval, compressed parallel to the 
dissepiment. V. Derwentia. 

BIGNONIACEAE. 
TBOOttA. 

1730. Calyx relatively small, minutely denticulated. 

Tall-climbing and twining, mostly sylvan ; leaflets generally 
in three to five pairs, the terminal leaflet solitary, all 
firm, from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, often entire, 
glabrous, shining above, or in desert-plants without 
lustre, less firm and narrower ; rachis of the leaves 
dilated ; flowers in axillary panicles, moderately large ; 
corolla whitish, upwards slightly pink, its tube almost 
cylindrical, much longer than the lobes, its orifice 
marked by dark -purplish dots and spots; fruit rather 
large, almost ellipsoid ; pericarp hard ; seeds of con- 
spicuous size, flat. T. Australis, 



Victorian Plants. 



VERBENACEAE. 

AVICENNIA. 

1731. Lobes of the corolla above glabrous. 

Tall shrub, finally arborescent ; leaves from ovate- to 
narrow-lanceolar, of very thick texture, very pale be- 
neath ; flowers capitular-crowded, on robust stalks ; 
corolla firm, its lobes ovate-lanceolar, reddish-yellow 
above ; stigmas sessile ; fruit from ellipsoid- to roundish- 
ovate, from a very thin vestiture greyish outside ; seed 
solitary, soon free from its integument, germinating 
before dropping. A. offi.cin.alis. 

CXXX.OANTXXES. 

1732. Leaves decurrent on the branchlets, much wrinkled 

above, recurved along the margin. 

Finally rather tall, invested with crisped hairlets ; leaves 
simply opposite, of soft texture, from lanceolar- to broad- 
linear, rough above ; flowers solitary, mostly axillary, 
on very short stalklets ; calyx deeply cleft ; corolla 
bluish, dark-dotted, its tube comparatively short but 
rather wide, orifice beset with conspicuous hairlets ; 
fruit turgid, tardily seceding into halves, with a cavity 
between the cells. C. parviflora. 

VEKBENA. 

1733. Spikes extremely slender. 

Perennial, erect, imperfectly beset with appressed minute 
but rigid hairlets ; lower leaves mostly cuneate-obovate, 
irregularly indented ; upper leaves from rhomboid to 
lanceolar in outline, incised or pinnatilobed and also 
partly indented ; spikes soon elongated ; bracts minute ; 
flowers quite small ; calyx denticulated ; corolla upwards 
pale-pink or lilac-colored, the lobes through the union of 
the two upper almost equal ; stamens four, enclosed ; 
fruitlets dry. "Vervain." V. officinalis. 



1VI YOP ORINAE. 
miropoxtuar. 

1734. Fruit very turgid, three- or more-celled 1735 

Fruit quite compressed, two-celled ... ... ... 1740 



398 Key to the System of 



1735. Dwarf, sometimes prostrate. 

Branchlets often glandular-rough ; leaves from narrow- 
elliptical to cuneate- or broad-linear, usually obtuse, 
entire or oftener bluntly denticulated, sometimes rather 
succulent ; flowers solitary or two or three together, on 
generally long stalklets ; fruit small, nearly globular, 
three- to four-celled. M. huinile. 

Tall, sometimes arborescent ... ... ... ... 1736 

1736. Leaves denticulated .. 1737 

Leaves quite entire ... ... ... ... ... 1738 

1737. Leaves of thick texture, often succulent. 

Chiefly a coast-species, finally arborescent, occasionally 
quite a tall tree ; leaves from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, 
of thick texture and somewhat carnulent, bluntly and 
rather distantly denticulated ; fruit globular, three- or 
four-celled, the outer portion succulent, externally 
purplish-blue. 3VL. insulare. 

Leaves of thin texture, never succulent. 

Never very tall ; branchlets glandular-rough ; leaves from 
orbicular-ovate to broad -lanceolar, usually rather short, 
thinly stalked, closely serrulated ; flowers axillary, few 
or several together ; fruit small, ovate-globular, almost 
dry, often three-celled. M. viscosum. 

1738. Fruit yellowish outside. 

A desert-species, seldom very tall ; leaves very firm, from 
lanceolar- to broad-linear, rather short ; flowers compara- 
tively small, solitary or two together, on conspicuous 
stalklets ; stamens oftener five than four ; fruit small, 
gldbular-ovate, two- or three-celled, its outer portion 
succulent. M. deserti. 

Fruit bluish or purplish outside ... ... ... 1739 

1739. Leaves from elongate- to narrow-lanceolar. 

A desert-species, often tall ; leaves firm, rather long, much 
pointed ; flowers axillary, two or few together ; fruit 
ellipsoid -ovate, three- to five-celled, its outer portion 
succulent. M. Dampieri. 



Victorian Plants. 



Leaves from broad- to ovate-lanceolar. 

A sylvan species, finally very tall; leaves rather long, 
usually of rather thin texture ; flowers axillary, two or 
few or several together ; fruit mostly ovate-globular, 
often four-celled, its outer portion succulent. 

M. tenuifolium. 

1740. Fruit gradually pointed. 

A desert-species, finally arborescent, quite sticky, somewhat 
glandular-rough ; leaves firm, from elongate- to linear- 
lanceolar, towards the summit distantly serrulated ; 
flowers few or several together, on rather conspicuous 
stalklets ; fruit small, dry, almost ovate, narrow-edged. 

M. platycarpum. 
Fruit truncate-blunt. 

Seldom very tall, usually quite sticky ; somewhat glandular- 
rough ; leaves from narrow-lanceolar to broad- or elongate- 
linear, closely serrulated in their whole length, often of 
thin texture, sometimes recurved at the margin ; flowers 
few or several together, occasionally as many as ten from 
one axil, their stalklets short ; fruit small, dry, quadrate- 
or rhomboid-orbicluar, their narrow edge prominent. 

M. floribundum. 

EREXIXOFHXX.A. 

1741. Segments of the calyx usually four. 

A desert-species ; branchlets rigid, spinescent ; leaves small, 
firm, from elliptic- to cuneate-linear, entire, generally 
glabrous ; flowers rather small, solitary or seldom two 
together, sessile; segments of the calyx lanceolar, pointed; 
corolla bluish or exceptionally white and almost undotted, 
outside invested with minute branched hairlets, its lobes 



iparatively short, the lowest slightly longer than broad, 
eked with darker dots and towards the base densely 



corny 

marl 

invested with hairlets ; stamens nearly enclosed ; fruit 

dry, gradually much pointed. . divaricata. 



Segments of the calyx always five ... ... ... 1742 

1742. Corolla white 1743 

Corolla reddish or bluish ... ... ... ... 1745 

1743. Segments of the calyx membranous in texture, obtuse. 

A tall desert-species, finally quite arborescent, often exten- 
sively beset with minute greyish or slightly yellowish 
hairlets ; branchlets lax ; leaves opposite or partly 



400 Key to the System of 



scattered, from lanceolar- to elongate-linear, recurved- 
pointed, entire, sometimes channelled ; flowers compara- 
tively large, axillary, solitary, on rather short stalklets; 
segments of calyx from cuneate- to spatular-elliptical, 
quite attenuated towards the base, their veinlets con- 
spicuous ; lowest lobe of the corolla about as broad as 
long ; stamens slightly exserted ; fruit relatively small, 
from narrow- to ovate-ellipsoid, dry, invested with short 
hairlets. E. oppositifolia. 

Segments of the calyx foliaceous in texture, acute ... 1744 

1744. Leaves mostly linear. 

A desert -species, never tall; branchlets rigid, very 
spreading ; leaves distant, very narrow, somewhat 
channelled, quite entire, glabrous ; flowers large, axillary, 
solitary, on conspicuous stalklets ; segments of the calyx 
from cordate- to ovate-lanceolar, recurved-pointed; corolla 
glabrous outside, its tube ample, its lowest lobe about as 
broad as long, yellowish and dotted towards the orifice ; 
stamens quite enclosed; fruit dry, ellipsoid-ovate, gradually 
much pointed. ZS. polyclada. 

Leaves mostly elongate-lanceolar. 

A tall and glabrous desert-species, finally somewhat ar- 
borescent ; branchlets lax, often pendent, rather sticky ; 
leaves long, from narrow- to linear-lanceolar, quite entire ; 
flowers large, axillary, solitary, on rather conspicuous 
stalklets, often bent downward ; segments of calyx firm ; 
corolla much dotted inside, its lowest lobe broader than 
long, slightly cleft ; longest stamens somewhat emerging ; 
fruit comparatively large, dry, generally ovate-globular. 
Figure 108. E. bignoniflora. 

1745. Leaves much elongated. 

A tall desert-species, finally somewhat arborescent, much 
beset with minute greyish hairlets ; branchlets lax, 
somewhat pendent ; leaves long, from narrow- to linear- 
lanceolar, gradually pointed, quite entire ; flowers axillary, 
solitary or two together on usually short stalklets ; calyx 
quite small ; corolla dull-reddish, also externally invested 
with hairlets, much dotted inside, its lowest lobe longer 
than broad ; stamens enclosed or slightly exserted ; fruit 
comparatively small, nearly globular, the outer portion 
succulent, externally blackish. E. longifolia. 

Leaves hardly elongated or quite abbreviated ... 1746 



Victorian Plants. 401 



1746. Stalklets of flowers elongated 1747 

Staiklets of flowers abbreviated or undeveloped ... 1748 

1747. Leaves from semicylindric to linear. 

A desert-species, finally tall, granular-rough from resinous- 
glandular prominences ; leaves linear, . channelled, re- 
curved-pointed, seldom verging into a lanceolar form ; 
flowers large, axillary, solitary ; lower portion of stalklets 
descending, upper ascending ; outer segments of calyx 
almost ovate, inner nearly orbicular ; corolla outside 
reddish, inside dotted with dark-purplish spots, four of 
its lobes quite short, forming an upper set, the fifth 
elongated, much longer than broad ; stamens all shorter 
than the corolla ; fruit dry, upwards gradually and often 
much attenuated. E. alternifolia. 

Leaves from broad- to narrow-lanceolar. 

A desert-species, finally rather tall ; branchlets rigid ; 
leaves very firm, from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, never 
very long, seldom verging into a linear form, quite entire ; 
flowers la.rge, axillary, solitary ; lower portion of stalklets 
descending, upper ascending ; corolla very much longer 
than the calyx, outside reddish, inside dotted with dark- 
purplish spots, exceptionally bright-yellow, four of its 
lobes quite short, forming an upper set, the fifth elon- 
gated, much longer than broad ; two of the stamens 
exceeding the corolla ; fruit comparatively large, almost 
globular, dry. E. inaculata. 

1748. Lowest lobe of the corolla much longer than broad. 

A desert-species, finally rather tall, almost completely or 
oftener imperfectly beset with minute hairlets ; leaves 
from ovate-elliptical to narrow-lanceolar, exceptionally 
linear, usually quite entire ; flowers rather large, axillary, 
on short stalklets, solitary or occasionally two together ; 
corolla very much longer than the calyx, reddish, rarely 
green or bright-yellow, four of its lobes very abbreviated 
and forming an upper set, the fifth lobe elongated, but 
narrow ; stamens much exserted ; fruit globular, the 
outer portion succulent, externally dark-colored. 

E. Brownii. 

Lowest lobe of the corolla hardly longer than broad 1749 

1749. Leaves opposite. 

A desert-species, slender, densely beset with silver-shining 
scalelets ; leaves firm, linear, somewhat channelled, 
recurved-pointed, quite entire ; flowers rather small, 

2D 



402 Key to the System of 



axillary, solitary, on very short stalklets ; calyx very 
small ;* corolla dull-bluish inside, much narrowed to- 
wards the base, its lobes comparatively short ; stamens 
quite enclosed ; fruit dry, somewhat pointed. 

E. scoparia. 
Leaves scattered. 

Never tall ; leaves very small, narrow, broadly sessile, 
mostly appressed, at the lower side convex and there 
beset with several or few resinous -glandular roundish 
prominence's ; flowers comparatively small, axillary, 
solitary, sessile ; segments of calyx upwards linear ; 
corolla inside partly beset with rigid hairlets, its lobes 
quite short ; stamens quite enclosed ; fruit very small, 
nearly ellipsoid, much compressed, dry. 

E. gibbosifolia. 

COIf IFERAE. 
CAXiZiXTXIXS. 

1750. Strobile-segments closely contiguous before expansion. 

A desert-species, fruiting already as a shrub, but attaining 
to high-arborescent size ; branchlets very slender, hardly 
angular ; strobiles almost globular, solitary or few to- 
gether ; margins of the segments neither conspicuously 
angular nor forming furrows, the dorsal space often 
granular-rough, without any prominence ; fruits seed- 
like ; cotyledons two or three. C. verrucosa. 

Strobile-segments separated externally by slight fur- 
rows before expansion ... ... ... 1751 

1751. Three of the strobile-segments conspicuously dilated 

upwards, with a large pointed prominence near the 
middle. 

Generally a hill-species, often attaining to high-arborescent 
size ; branchlets rather slender, somewhat angular ; 
strobiles almost globular, often clustered ; fruits seed- 
like ; cotyledons two or three. Figure 111. 

C. cupressiforxnis. 

Three of the strobile-segments hardly dilated upwards, 

with a small pointed prominence near the summit. 

Here either a coast- or hill-species, attaining to arborescent 

size ; branchlets rather slender, somewhat angular ; 

strobiles usually clustered, almost ellipsoid-ovate ; fruits 

seed-like ; cotyledons two or three. C. ealcarata. 



Victorian Plants. 403 



NAGEIA. 

1752. Often amply depressed. 

On alpine summits prostrate, in valleys erect but never tall ; 
leaves quite small, often turning into two rows, spreading, 
very rigid, from elliptic- to broad-linear, thickened at the 
margin, whitish or greyish beneath ; staminate spikes 
very short, generally solitary ; racheoles pointed ; fruit 
quite small, oblique-ovate, its stalk bright-red, somewhat 
bilobed at the summit. IT, alpina. 

ORCXXXDEAE. 
DXPODXUXK. 

1753. Scale-like rudiments of leaves crowded towards the 

base of the stem, distant upwards. 

Parasitic on roots ; stem comparatively tall, reddish-dark ; 
rudimentary leaves or leaf -stalks broadly clasping ; raceme 
many-flowered ; calyx-lobes and petals of almost equal 
length, reddish or seldom pale-greenish, always spotted 
with dark-red dots ; lowest petal (labellum) short-bilobed 
below the middle, thence elliptical and partly beset with 
minute hairlets on the upper side ; gynostemium short, 
scarcely dilated ; fruit turgid at and towards the middle. 

D. punctatum. 
GASTRODXA. 

1754. Lower petal narrowed towards the base, much dilated 

towards the middle, thence crisped upwards. 
Parasitic on roots ; stem somewhat tall ; rudimentary leaves 
or leaf -stalks broadly clasping, distant ; flowers few or 
several or many in the raceme, turned upside down ; calyx 
anteriorely short-slit, obliquely turgid above the ovulary ; 
upper petals free only from between the calyx- lobes ; 
lower petal much larger, free from the calyx-tube except 
at the base, lined by two upwards confluent yellowish 
ridgelets, slightly longer than the gynostemium ; stigma 
basal ; fruit oblique-turgid. Cr. sesanioid.es. 

3ENBROBIUIVX. 

1755. Leaves from ovate- to elongate-elliptical. 

Generally a rock -plant, always tall ; stems marked by 
transverse distant lines ; leaves very large, few, terminally 
crowded, rigidly firm ; racemes long, somewhat curved 
downward ; flowers large, numerous, turning upside down 
through the curvature of the raceme, cream-colored or 
pale-yellow ; bracts very small ; calyx -lobes and lateral 
petals narrow -lanceolar, but the lower calyx-lobes 



404 . Key to the System of 



obliquely dilated towards the base, all of nearly equal 
length ; lower petal considerably shorter, white with 
purple spots, its middle lobe rather broader than long ; 
gynostemium short ; fruit turgid. D. speciosum. 

Leaves narrow-cylindrical. 

Generally a rock -plant, always dwarf, amply rooting, thin- 
branched ; leaves pointed, somewhat curved ; flowers 
solitary, on elongated stalks, turning upside down, 
whitish-yellow, reddish-streaked ; bract minute ; calyx- 
lobes about as long as the petals, almost lanceolar, but 
the lower towards the base obliquely dilated ; lower petal 
quite as long as the others, whitish, its middle lobe' 
nearly semielliptical in outline, crisped ; gynostemium 
truncate - ellipsoid, very short ; fruit rather turgid. 
Figure 112. D. striolatum. 

SARCOCHXIiTJS. 

1756. Calyx-lobes and lateral petals greenish, the lower 

calyx-lobes distant from the upper. 

Epiphytal, chiefly on branches of the musk-tree ; stem very 
short or obliterated ; leaves few or several, narrow- 
lanceolar, rather curved ; flowers from few to many in 
axillary raceme-like spikes, fragrant ; bracts quite small ; 
calyx-lobes and lateral petals almost lanceolar; lower 
petal whitish ; its lateral lobes very conspicuous, oblique- 
elliptical, red-spotted ; its middle lobe' minute, but 
terminating a thick often dilated and blunt basal pro- 
trusion ; gynostemium very short ; fruit many times 
longer than broad. S. parviflorus. 

CALEYA. 

1757. Labellum fixed above its lower end to the stalk-like 

base. 

Hather tall ; leaf broad-linear, basal ; stem with one empty 
bract near the middle ; flowers large, one to three, with 
an additional rudimentary one, dark-purplish except the 
calyx-tube ; stalklets short ; paired calyx-lobes inserted 
close to the third lobe ; labial petal (labellum) roundish - 
ovate, pointed, concave beneath ; gynostemium very 
large ; fruit slender. C. major. 

Labellum gradually narrowed into the stalk-like base. 

Rather dwarf; leaf narrow-linear; stem without any empty 
bract ; flowers small ; paired calyx-lobes inserted at some 
distance from the third lobe and from the paired petals ; 
labial petal laiiceolar-ovate, close to the paired calyx- 
lobes ; fruit slender. C. Sullivani. 



Victorian Plants. 405 



CB.VPTOSTVZ.ZS. 

1758. Labellum soon reflexed along the margin. 

Rather tall ; leaves elongate- or elliptical-lanceolar, varying 
occasionally to roundish-ovate, but always acute ; empty 
bracts usually two or three ; flowers from three to twelve, 
their stalklets very short ; floral bracts conspicuous ; 
calyx -lobes and paired petals greenish ; labial petal 
large, from a slightly bilobed base somewhat elliptical, 
mostly dull-purplish ; its small double protuberance infra- 
terminal ; gynostemium extremely short ; fruit rather 
slender. C. longifolia. 

PRASOPHVXiXiUBX. 

1759. Usually robust and tall ... ... .. ... 1760 

Usually slender and dwarf ... ... ... 1763 

1760. Labellum almost straight, its membranous portion 

narrow and but slightly surpassing the callous 
portion ... ... ... ... 1761 

Labellum quite bent back from the middle, its mem- 
branous portion broad and far surpassing the callous 
portion ... ... ... ... ... :.. 1762 

1761. Paired calyx-lobes partially or much connate. 

Often remarkably tall and robust ; leaf from far above the 
base of the stem, occasionally abbreviated or almost 
deficient; spike many-flowered, sometimes very long; 
flowers comparatively large, dark-colored or yellowish- 
greenish ; paired petals broadish-lanceolar, labellum 
'sessile, its membranous margin paler, slightly crisped ; 
fruit hardly turgid. P. elatum. 

Paired calyx-lobes quite disconnected. 

Often less tall and robust ; leaf from far above the base of 
the stem; spike with several or many flowers; flowers 
dark-colored or greenish ; paired petals linear-lanceolar ; 
labellum sessile, its membranous margin paler, flat ; 
fruit somewhat oblique-turgid. P. fuscum. 

1762. Paired calyx-lobes quite disconnected. 

Leaf from far above the base of the stem; spike with 
several or many flowers ; calyx-lobes greenish or slightly 
yellowish ; paired petals rather narrow, nearly blunt, 
pale ; labellum sessile, its membranous portion whitish 
and crisped ; fruit somewhat oblique-turgid. 

P. patens. 



406 Key to the System of 



Paired calyx-lobes partially or much connate. 

Leaf from far above the base of the stem, sometimes rather 
short ; spike with several or many flowers ; calyx-lobes 
and paired petals greenish, pointed, somewhat dark- 
streaked ; labellum sessile, concave at the base, its mem- 
branous portion whitish and crisped ; fruit hardly turgid. 

F. australe. 

1763. Labellum wit.hout any ciliolation ... ... 1764 

Labellum with a conspicuous ciliolation ... ... 1766 

1764. Labellum gradually much pointed. 

Very slender, leaf undeveloped or proceeding separately 
from the flowering stem ; spike very short, with a folia- 
ceous bract or rudimentary leaf near below it ; flowers 
very small, dark-reddish ; paired calyx-lobes disjointed ; 
labellum almost straight, reddish, slightly denticulated ; 
as well as the other petals narrow-lanceolar ; fruit some- 
what oblique-turgid. P. despectans. 

Labellum hardly pointed or blunt ... ... ... 1765> 

1765. Paired calyx-lobes bulging at the base. 

Very slender ; leaf undeveloped or proceeding separately from 
the flowering stem or developed at a different time ; spike 
very short, .with a foliaceous bract or rather rudimentary 
leaf near it below ; flowers very small, dark-purplish and 
somewhat greenish ; paired calyx-lobes disjointed ; paired 
petals deltoid -lanceolar ; labellum lanceolar-ovate, ex- 
tremely short ; fruit somewhat turgid. P. nigricans. 

Paired calyx-lobes almost flat at the base. 

Quite slender ; leaf proceeding separately from the flowering 
stem, but often simultaneously ; spike very short, with a 
rudimentary leaf or foliaceous. bract near it ; flowers 
minute, closely approximated, reddish ; paired calyx-lobes 
disjointed^ as well as the paired petals and labellum 
almost lanceolar ; fruit oblique-ellipsoid. P. rufum. 

1766. Length of the labellum hardly double that of its 

breadth. 

Very slender ; leaf undeveloped or proceeding separately 
from the flowering stem ; spike very short, rather distant 
from the rudimentary stem-leaf ; flowers quite small, 
yellowish and reddish ; paired calyx-lobes disjointed, 
much longer than the paired petals ; labellum extremely 
short, almost ovate, its ciliolation very minute ; fruit 
oblique-ellipsoid. P. iiitricatum. 



Victorian Plants. 



Length of the labellum fully triple that of its breadth 1767 

1767. Labellum rather dilated towards the upper end. 

Very slender ; leaf undeveloped or proceeding separately from 
the flowering stem ; spike very short, somewhat distant 
from the rudimentary stem-leaf ; flowers quite small, dull- 
reddish ; paired calyx -lobes disjointed, somewhat bulging 
and then contracted at the base ; paired petals streaked ; 
labellum narrow- elliptical, conspicuously fringed ; fruit 
oblique-ellipsoid. . P. fimbriatum. 

Labellum rather attenuated towards the upper end. 

Very slender ; leaf undeveloped or proceeding separately 
from the flowering stem ; spike usually few-flowered, 
with a rudimentary leaf close to it ; flowers rather small ; 
paired calyx-lobes somewhat pale ; petals deltoid-lanceolar, 
pointed, reddish, streaked ; labellum lanceolar-elliptical, 
dark -purplish, conspicuously fringed ; fruit oblique -ellip- 
soid. P. Archeri. 

SFIRANTHES. 

1768. Flowers small, with the exception of the white 

labellum red. 

Lowest or lower leaves often from broad- to linear-lanceolar, 
upper gradually shorter and clasping, sometimes quite 
diminutive ; spike elongated, bearing numerous closely 
approximated spirally uniseriate flowers, often somewhat 
beset with hairlets ; bracts hardly as long as the flowers or 
shorter, rarely longer ; labellum upwards dilated, crisped 
and denticulated ; fruit very small, quite turgid. 

S. Australia. 



1769. Calyx-lobes and petals bluish or violet or almost 

greyish ... ......... 1770 

Calyx-lobes and petals reddish or yellowish ... ... 1774 

1770. Appendages of the gynostemium bright-yellow, rough. 

Bather dwarf, slender ; lower leaf linear, channelled ; upper 
leaves bract-like ; flowers few or two or one, violet-blue ; 
appendages of the gynostemium firm, nearly elliptical, 
somewhat distant, much longer than the interjacent 
terminal plate ; fruit almost ellipsoid. 

T. Mackibboni. 

Appendages of the gynostemium terminated each by 
a tuft of hairlets ............... 1771 



408 Key to the System of 



1771. Lower leaf narrow ... 1772 

Lower leaf broadish ... ... ... ... ... 1773 

1772. Bearded appendages reaching only the height of the 

hood-like entire or slightly bilobed middle summit 
of the gynostemium. 

Hardly or somewhat tall ; lower leaf from broadish- to 
narrow-linear, channelled ; upper leaves much abbreviated ; 
calyx -lobes and petals dotless ; smooth portions of the 
appendages of the gynostemium shorter than the tuft of 
hairlets ; fruit almost narrow-ellipsoid. T. longifolia. 

Bearded appendages reaching much beyond the sharply 
denticulated middle summit of the gynostemium. 

Hardly or seldom tall, often rather slender ; lower leaf 
channelled-linear ; upper leaves diminutive ; calyx-lobes 
and petals somewhat dotted inside ; smooth portions of 
the appendages of the gynostemium longer than the tuft 
of hairlets ; denticulation between them irregular ; fruit 
almost ellipsoid. T. ixioides. 

1773. Calyx-lobes inside and petals bluish. 

Quite tall, comparatively robust ; .longitudinal venules of 
leaf thick and beneath prominent ; upper leaves two or 
three, rather conspicuous, though very much shortened ; 
flowers many in the raceme ; gynostemium nearly twice ' 
as long as broad, its terminal crest bright-yellow ; the . 
narrow glabrous portion of the two appendages about as 
long as the tuft of hairlets ; no lobes between the crested 
summit and the lateral . appendages ; anther minutely 
apiculate ; fruit almost ellipsoid. T. aristata. 

Calyx-lobes inside and petals almost greyish. 

Quite tall, comparatively robust ; longitudinal venules of 
leaf thick and beneath prominent ; upper leaves two or 
three, conspicuous, though much shortened ; flowers many 
in the raceme, opening tardily ; petals inside somewhat 
bluish ; gynostemium hardly longer than broad, the 
narrow glabrous portion of the two appendages much 
shorter than the tuft of hairlets ; terminal crest of the 
gynostemium pale-yellowish, two semilanceolar connivent 
lobes between the crested summit and the appendages; 
anther conspicuously pointed ; fruit almost ellipsoid. 

T. epipactoides. 



Victorian Plants. 409 



1774. Calyx-lobes and petals wholly reddish ... ... 1775 

Calyx-lobes and petals wholly or partly yellowish ... 1776 

1775. Appendages extending in height to the summit of 

the gynostemium. 

Slender ; lower leaf linear, channelled ; upper leaves bract- 
like; flowers small, few or two or sometimes one; 
appendages of the gynostemium bright-yellow, hardly 
rough, separated by the slightly crested and undivided 
middle-summit ; fruit almost narrow-ellipsoid. 

T. carnea. 

Appendages extending much beyond the summit of 
the gynostemium. 

Slender, rather dwarf ; lower leaf linear, channelled ; flowers 
few or two or one ; gynostemium without hood or 
conspicuous plate at the summit ; its two appendages 
bright-yellow, crenulated, elliptic-cuneate, approximated, 
overtopping the anther ; fruit almost narrow-ellipsoid. 

T. Llacmillaiii. 

1776. Gynostemium terminated by two purplish-dark smooth 

appendages. 

Slender, rather dwarf ; leaves narrow-linear, channelled ; 
flowers rather large, few or two or one, yellow inside, 
often somewhat reddish outside ; gynostemium without 
hood or terminal plate ; it appendages ovate- or obcordate- 
cuneate ; fruit almost narrow-ellipsoid. 

T. antennifera. 

Gynostemium terminated by two orange-yellow rough 
appendages. 

Slender, rather dwarf ; lower leaf narrow-linear, channelled ; 
flowers rather small, two or one, yellow inside, often 
somewhat reddish outside ; plate at the middle-summit 
of the gynostemium shorter than the anther ; fruit almost 
narrow-ellipsoid. T. flexuosa. 

CALOCIIILUS. 

1777. Narrowed apex of the labellum extremely short. 

Hardly tall ; lower leaf elongated, broad-linear, channelled ; 
upper leaves much abbreviated; bracts mostly equal in 
length to the flowers or surpassing them ; flowers generally 
several in the raceme, rather large ; calyx-lobes greenish ; 
labellum exserted, its hair-like processes purplish or some- 
what yellowish and brownish ; gynostemium lined by a 
transverse callosity across the base ; anther short-pointed ; 
fruit clavate-ellipsoid. C. Hobertsoni. 



410 Key to the System of 



BXXCROTIS. 

1778. Flowers variously small, but never minute. 

Hardly dwarf, very slender ; flowers light-green ; bracts 
very short ; fruit quite short, obovate-ellipsoid. 

M. porrifolia. 

Flowers always very minute. 

Very dwarf ; remarkably slender ; flowers yellowish-green,, 
only through decay or exsiccation blackish ; bracts ex- 
tremely short ; fruit minute. 

(M. atrata.) M. minutiflora. 



DIURXS. 

1779. Petals lilac-colored. 

Tubers thick, occasionally bilobed ; basal leaves broad- 
linear, channelled, usually two ; rudimentary leaves one 
to three, almost bract-like ; flowers five or less, rarely 
reduced to one ; bracts conspicuous ; lower, lobes of 
the calyx much longer than the labellum, greenish or 
somewhat brownish ; petals spotless, narrowed into a 
stalk-like base ; middle lobe of the labellum semiorbicular- 
rhomboid, with two longitudinal white but purplish- 
dotted narrow elevations towards the base ; lateral lobes 
much shorter ; fruit slightly turgid. 

(D. elongata.) D. pimctata. 

Upper calyx-lobe and petals white or yellowish or 
somewhat brownish... ... ... . . ... 1780 

1780. Upper calyx-lobe and petals white. 

Tubers thick, occasionally lobed ; basal leaves usually two> 
broad -linear, channelled ; rudimentary leaves two or three,, 
bract-like ; flowers generally two or three ; bracts con- 
spicuous ; lower lobes of the calyx much longer than the 
labellum, greenish and somewhat brownish ; petals spot- 
less, narrowed into a stalk-like base ; middle lobe of the- 
labellum more than twice as long as -the lateral lobes, 
often slightly pink, almost rhomboid, with two narrow 
dotted elevations towards the base ; lateral lobes some- 
what indented ; fruit slightly turgid. (Possibly a variety 
of the former.) D. alba. 

Upper calyx-lobe and petals yellowish or somewhat 
purple-brownish ... ... ... ... ... 1781 



Victorian Plants. 411 



1781. Flowers comparatively small. 

Dwarf ; basal leaves narrow-linear, usually more than two ; 
flowers few or reduced to two or one ; petals yellowish, 
marked with several dark spots ; lower calyx-lobes some- 
what longer than the labellum, greenish or rather 
brownish ; the latter with two narrow longitudinal 
elevations towards the base, its middle lobe very blunt, 
slightly exceeding the lateral lobes ; fruit rather slender. 

D. palustris. 

Flowers comparatively large ... ... ... ... 1782 

1782. Middle lobe of the labellum less than twice as long 

as the lateral lobes, obtuse ... ... ..." ... 1783 

Middle lobe of the labellum more than twice as long 
as the lateral lobes, acute ... ... ... ... 1784 

1783. Upper calyx-lobe and petals confluently yellowish 

and brownish. 

Root-fibres tuberously thickened ; basal leaves usually two 
or three, broad - linear, somewhat channelled ; upper 
leaves one or two, almost bract-like ; flowers few, 
occasionally reduced to two or even one; bracts con- 
spicuous ; lower calyx-lobes hardly twice as long as the- 
labellum ; paired petals narrowed into a short stalk-like 
base, with the upper calyx-lobe and labellum rarely 
turning plain-yellowish ; labellum without prominent 
longitudinal narrow elevations towards the base, its 
middle lobe dilated upwards ; fruit rather slender. 

D. longifolia. 

Upper calyx-lobe and petals yellow, all dark-spotted. 

Tubers thick ; basal leaves usually two, broad-linear, 
channelled ; flowers few or several ; lower calyx -lobes 
about twice as long as the labellum, greenish or partly 
brownish, somewhat turning across each other ; paired 
petals narrowed into a stalk-like base; labellum with 
two longitudinal narrow elevations towards the base ; 
its middle lobe hardly longer than broad, of scarcely 
double the length of the lateral lobes or even shorter; 
fruit slender. D. maculata. 

1784. Upper calyx-lobe and petals in part dark-blotched. 

Tubers rather slender; basal leaves usually two, broad- 
linear, channelled ; upper leaves generally bract-like ; 
flowers six or fewer, occasionally only two ; bracts con- 
spicuous ; lower calyx-lobes about twice as long as the . 



412 Key to the System of 



labellum, brownish-green ; upper calyx-lobe and petals 
of nearly equal length, light-yellow, the spots large, 
generally two on the upper calyx-lobe and labellum ; 
paired petals with short stalk-like base ; middle lobe of 
the labellum rather acute, without prominent longitudinal 
narrow elevations towards the base, much' exceeding the 
short lateral lobes ; fruit rather slender. 

D. sulplrurea. 

Upper calyx-lobe and petals in part minutely dotted. 

Tubers thick ; basal leaves few or several, from broad- to 
narrow -linear, often rather short ; upper leaves two or 
three, very much abbreviated or bract-like ; flowers few or 
two, seldom one, the lower on rather long stalklets ; lower 
calyx-lobes greenish or somewhat brownish, little longer 
than the labellum ; paired petals yellow, acute, narrowed 
into a very short stalk-like base ; labellum with two 
narrow prominent longitudinal elevations towards the 
base, these beset with very minute hairlets ; its middle 
lobe quite acute, downward dilated, very much exceeding 
the minute lateral lobes ; fruit rather slender. 

D. peduncnlata. 

ORTHOCERAS. 

1785. Paired calyx-lobes much extending beyond the other 
parts of the flower. 

Somewhat tall ; longest leaves at and towards the stem- 
base approximated ; flowers rather distant, comparatively 
large ; bracts conspicuous ; lateral lobes of the labellum 
quite short ; fruit oblique-ellipsoid. O. strictum. 



CORYSANTHES. 

1786. Upper-calyx lobe gradually narrowed to the base. 

Quite dwarf ; leaf green also underneath ; flower of con- 
siderable size, purplish-dark except part of the outer side 
of the upper calyx-lobe ; labellum conspicuously contracted 
towards the base, slightly or shortly denticular-fringed, its 
upper portion dilated, curved forward and streaked ; fruit 
slender- ellipsoid. C. pruinosa, 

LYFERANTHUS. 

1787. Radical leaf present at the flowering time. 

Somewhat dwarf, but robust, turning black in drying ; basal 
leaf rather large, from ovate to orbicular-cordate, of thick 
texture, sessile ; flowers large, several, few or two, largely 
reddish, but to some extent colorless and transparent ; 



Victorian Plants. 413 



bracts very conspicuous; calyx-lobes and petals much nar- 
rowed upwards ; upper calyx-lobe arched ; labellum down- 
ward longitudinally inflexed, upwards recurved, fringed 
and gradually narrowed ; fruit somewhat turgid. 

L. nigricans. 
Eadical leaf absent at the flowering time. 

Quite dwarf ; basal leaf rather small, ovate -lanceolar, of thin 
texture ; flowers rather small, one to three ; calyx-lobes 
and petals reddish-brown and partly whitish ; labellum 
almost as broad as long, slightly denticulated, truncate- 
blunt ; fruit rather slender. 3j. Burnetti. 

ACXANTHUS. 

1788. Upper lobe of the calyx very much elongated. 

Mostly dwarf and slender ; leaf sessile, somewhat pointed, 
purplish underneath ; flowers except the calyx-tube dark- 
or dull-purplish ; bracts very short ; calyx-lobes very 
narrow, the lower many times longer than the petals ; 
labellum very short, gradually pointed ; gynostemium 
very narrow ; fruit slender. A. caudatus. 

Upper lobe of the calyx quite short. 

Dwarf and slender ; leaf sessile, somewhat pointed, purplish 
underneath ; flowers few or several, very small, except 
the calyx-tube pale-pink ; bracts very short ; calyx-lobes 
pointed, about twice as long as the petals, the upper 
almost erect ; labellum narrow, acute, smooth or slightly 
papillular ; gynostemium very narrow ; fruit slender. 

(A. Brunonis.) A. exsertus- 

CYRTOSTYX.XS. 

1789. Flowers small, except the calyx-tube pale- or dull- 

purplish. 

Always dwarf, quite slender ; leaf sessile, shining, green 
on both sides or reddish below ; bracts very small ; 
calyx-lobes and petals delicately membranous, nearly of 
equal length ; labellum comparatively narrow, yet broader 
than the lower calyx-lobes and other petals, blunt, lined 
with two dark-red elevations ; gynostemium dilated to- 
wards the summit ; fruit slender. C. reniformis. 

ERIOCKIZiirS. 

1790. Labellum ovate -cuneate, much recurved, slightly 

fringed. 

Never tall, always very slender ; basal leaf from cordate- to 
lanceolar-ovate ; stem-leaves none ; flowers rather small, 
three or two or one ; lower lobes of the calyx very tender, 



414 Key to the System of 



from ovate- to narrow-lanceolar, pointed, much narrowed 
towards the base, about twice as long as the petals, white 
or slightly pink ; upper calyx-lobe and petals somewhat 
red ; gynostemium narrow ; fruit slender. 

E. autuninalis. 

Labellum semiorbicular - cuneate, nearly flat, con- 
spicuously fringed. 

Never tall, always very slender ; basal leaf lanceolar-ovate, 
not rarely accompanied by a second ; stem-leaf distant, 
elliptic -lanceolar, somewhat or considerably shorter ; 
flowers rather small, one or less commonly two ; lower 
lobes of the calyx narrowly elliptic-lanceolar, reddish, 
about as long as the petals ; gynostemium narrow ; fruit 
rather slender. Figure 113. E. finibriatus. 

CALADENIA. 

1791. Paired petals erect, longer than the calyx-lobes and 

much narrower. 

Never tall, slightly beset with hair lets ; basal leaf almost 
glabrous, from broad-lanceolar to nearly ovate, usually 
much shorter than the stem ; upper leaf bract-like ; 
flowers one or two, the lower if present on a rather long 
stalklet ; bracts conspicuous ; calyx-lobes mostly pale- 
reddish ; paired petals almost linear, dark-red ; labellum 
transversely striped, its glandules yellow, its middle lobe 
upwards much narrowed and recurved ; fruit somewhat 
turgid. C. Menziesii. 

Paired petals spreading and similar to the calyx- 
lobes ... 1792 

1792. Calyx-lobes as well as the paired petals much 

narrowed upwards and thus conspicuously elongated. 

Often somewhat tall, but slender, always conspicuously 
beset with soft spreading glandule -bearing hairlets ; 
basal leaf from linear- to elongate-lanceolar ; stem-leaf 
diminutive ; bracts conspicuous ; flowers large, one or 
two, seldom more, almost white or variously reddish or 
somewhat greenish or pale-yellowish, except the calyx- 
tube ; labellum broad, variously fringed or denticulated 
and callous-glandular, the middle lobe often more deeply 
colored ; glandules variable in copiousness, arrangement, 
shape and color, but mostly seriated ; gynostemium 
upwards dilated; fruit somewhat turgid. "Spider- 
Orchid." C. Fatersoni. 

Calyx-lobes slightly narrowed upwards 1793 



Victorian Plants. 415 



1793. Flowers except the calyx-tube pink, whitish or 

reddish- or brownish-yellow ... ... 1794 

Flowers except the calyx-tube blue ... ... ... 1797 

1794. Quite glabrous. 

Rather tall, somewhat robust ; basal leaf much elongated, 
from lanceolar- to broad-linear; stem-leaves two or three, 
diminutive, bract-like ; flowers two or oftener few or 
several, nearly sessile, often reddish or brownish upwards 
and yellowish towards the base ; bracts very conspicuous ; 
upper lobe of the calyx narrow- or linear-lanceolar ; lower 
calyx-lobes as well as the petals almost linear; labellum 
arched-curved, slightly trifid, generally white towards the 
base and pale-yellowish towards the summit, the lateral 
lobes dark -red, its middle lobe almost semielliptical ; 
glandules copious, yellow ; fruit slender. 

C, snaveolens. 
More or less beset with hairlets ... ... ... 1795 

1795. Basal leaf elongate- or elliptic-lanceolar. 

Much beset with soft hairlets ; stem-leaves one or two, 
diminutive ; bracts conspicuous ; flowers, mostly two or 
three, seldom more ; calyx-lobes and petals almost elliptic- 
lanceolar, pink or occasionally whitish ; labellum com- 
paratively short, conspicuously trifid, the middle lobe 
narrow -lanceolar, glandular -notched ; glandules con- 
verging in the middle of the labellum ; fruit slender. 

C. latifolia. 
Basal leaf broad-linear ...... ... 1796 

1796. Glandules of the labellum yellow or whitish or 

reddish. 

Slender, usually rather dwarf ; somewhat beset with often 
glandule-bearing hairlets ; stem-leaf diminutive, bract- 
like ; bracts conspicuous ; flowers one to five, rather 
small ; calyx -lobes and petals almost lanceolar, pink or 
whitish, or outside somewhat brownish or greenish ; the 
upper calyx-lobe somewhat curved inward ; labellum 
slightly trifid, as well as the gynostemium transversely 
streaked ; the middle lobe semilanceolar-deltoid, re- 
curved, pointed, smooth or somewhat glandular, slightly 
fringed ; fruit slender. C. carnea. 



Glandules of the labellum purplish-black. 

Slender, beset with minute glandule-bearing hairlets ; flowers 
one to three, pink ; calyx-lobes and petals almost lanceolar ; 
labellum deeply trifid, the middle lobe semi-lanceolar, 
recurved, quite covered with glandules ; fruit slender. 
(Perhaps a variety of the preceding.) C. congesta. 



416 Key to the System of 



1797. Glandules of the labellum mostly yellow. 

Dwarf, slender, slightly beset with glandule-bearing hair- 
lets ; basal leaf linear, evidently shorter than the stem ; 
stem-leaf bract-like ; flower rather small, solitary ; calyx- 
lobes and petals elliptic-lanceolar, outside dotted ; labellum 
recurved, slightly trifid, transversely streaked ; its middle- 
lobe white towards the base, yellow towards the summit; 
glandules occupying almost only the longitudinal 'axis of 
the labellum ; fruit slender. C. coerulea. 



1797&. Glandules of the labellum mostly blue. 

Dwarf, slightly beset with glandular-hairlets ; basal leaf 
broad-linear, about as long as the stem ; stem-leaf diminu- 
tive ; flower solitary, fragrant ; calyx-lobes and petals 
nearly lanceolar-elliptical, outside dotless ; labellum re- 
curved, almost entire, completely blue, denticular-fringed, 
... its glandules occupying nearly the whole surface of the 
labellum, their basal attenuation whitish and rough ; 
fruit slender. C. deformis. 



GX.OSSODXA. 

1798. Labellum provided at the base with a slender shortly 
bilobed appendage. 

Rather tall, conspicuously beset with soft spreading hairlets ; 
basal leaf from broad- to narrow-lanceolar, much shorter 
than the stem ; upper leaf one, bract-like ; flowers one or 
seldom two, rather large ; calyx-lobes and paired petals 
elliptic-lanceolar, bluish inside, often pale outside, rarely 
quite pink -or white on both sides; lower portion of the 
labellum dilated, bulging, beset with minute white hair- 
lets ; upper portion bluish and gradually pointed, hardly 
curved ; summit of the appendage yellow ; fruit slender. 

G. major. 

Labellum provided at the base with two parallel 
linear somewhat club-shaped appendages. 

Rather dwarf, very slender, much beset with soft spreading 
hairlets ; basal leaf almost lanceolar ; upper leaf one, 
bract-like ; flowers rather small, usually solitary ; calyx- 
lobes and paired petals elliptic-lanceolar, bluish inside, 
rather whitish outside ; . lower portion of the labellum 
dilated, bulging, beset with white minute hairlets ; upper 
portion bluish, deltoid, pointed; summit of the appendage 
dark-purplish ; fruit slender. G. minor. 



Victorian Plants. 417 



CHIIiOGLOTTIS. 

1799. Upper lobe of the calyx quite narrow ; labellum 

broadest upward. 

Slender, never tall ; leaves mostly elliptic- or elongate- 
lanceolar, generally almost sessile ; flowers except the 
calyx-tube and gynostemium dull-purplish ; upper calyx- 
lobe somewhat dilated near or above the middle ; paired 
petals lanceolate-linear, bending downward ; labellum 
almost rhomboid, more narrowed towards the base, above 
imperfectly beset with small glandular usually numerous 
callosities, and bearing a nearly central callous depressed 
appendage ; gynostemium narrow, greenish ; fruit rather 
turgid. C, diphylla. 

Upper lobe of the calyx quite broad ; labellum broadest 
downward. 

Usually dwarf, but rather stout ; leaves mostly ovate- 
lanceolar and short-stalked ; flower comparatively large, 
dull-purplish or greenish ; bract conspicuous ; upper lobe 
of the calyx lanceolar-ovate, lower quite narrow ; paired 
petals oblique -lanceolar ; labellum nearly sessile, almost 
cordate-ovate, somewhat pointed, beset with small cal- 
losities towards the middle and base only ; fruit rather 
turgid, its stalklet sometimes very much elongated. 

C. Gunnii. 

PTESLOSTYLIS. 

1800. Flowers two or more in the raceme or spike, excep- 

tionally one ... ... ... ... ... ... 1801 

Flower always one only ... ... ... ... 1806 

1801. Lower and upper calyx-lobes nearly parallel ... 1802 
Lower calyx-lobes divergent from the upper ... 1803 

1802. Calyx-lobes acute. 

Basal leaves small, few, on a shoot distinct from the flowering 
stem, rhomboid-ovate ; stem-leaves two or three, almost 
bract-like, distant ; bracts rather conspicuous ; flowers 
small, from two to several, anteriorely often somewhat 
tinged with red ; lower calyx -lobes connate to beyond the 
middle, hardly reaching to the summit of the upper calyx- 
lobes ; labellum glabrous, linear-elliptical, its basal ap- 
pendage slightly setular ; gynostemium suddenly dilated 
near the summit, and bearing two minute linear erect 
segments ; fruit somewhat turgid. P. parviflora. 

2 E 



418 Key to the System of 



Calyx-lobes obtuse. 

Often dwarf ; basal leaves small, few, on a shoot distinct 
from the flowering stem and usually appearing at a 
different time, rhomboid-ovate ; upper leaves about four, 
very small, almost bract-like, nearly lanceolar, approxi- 
mated at the lower half of the stem ; flowers small, from 
two to several, exceptionally one only, anteriorely often 
somewhat tinged with red ; lower calyx-lobes transparent 
and almost colorless, connate to near the summit ; 
gynostemium suddenly dilated near the summit and 
bearing two minute linear erect segments ; fruit some- 
what turgid. Perhaps variety of the preceding. 

P. aphylla. 

1803. Basal leaves absent or early perishing ... ... 1804 

Basal leaves always present ... ... ... ... 1805 

1804. Upper calyx-lobe lined with narrow streaks. 

Often rather tall ; stem-leaves several, from lanceolar to 
broad-linear, sessile, somewhat clasping, those towards 
the middle of the stem the largest ; the basal leaves 
stalked, much shorter and broader, but early fugacious ; 
flowers rather small, several or many in the raceme or 
occasionally few only ; bracts very conspicuous, the lower 
leaf -like ; lower calyx-lobes connate to beyond the middle, 
pendent ; labellum rough, bidenticulated or truncate- 
blunt, anteriorely turgid near the base ; gynostemium 
suddenly dilated upwards, somewhat fringed ; stigma 
distant from the anther ; fruit ovate -ellipsoid. 

F. longlfolia. 

Upper calyx-lobe banded with broad streaks. 

Rather robust, often dwarf ; stem -leaves several, mostly 
narrow-lanceolar, sessile, somewhat clasping, those towards 
the middle of the stem the largest ; bracts leaf -like ; flowers 
rather large, almost axillary, somewhat reddish-banded, 
few or several in the raceme, very seldom reduced to one, 
provided with an extremely thin vestiture ; upper calyx- 
lobe very bulging, its streaks dull-purplish ; lower calyx- 
lobes connate to near the summit, pendent, brownish-red ; 
labellum slightly fringed, truncate-blunt, emitting ante- 
riorely from the base a semilanceolar minute appendage ; 
gynostemium gradually expanded towards the middle, its 
terminal appendages quadrate and downward narrowly 
lobed ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. P. vittata. 

1805. Flowers usually large, the calyx-lobes pointed. 

Hardly ever tall ; basal leaves from ovate- to elliptic- 
laiiceolar, crowded; stem-leaves two or generally more, 



Victorian Plants. 419 



clasping, almost bract-like ; flowers rather large, two or 
oftener few or several, somewhat brown-reddish ; lower 
calyx-lobes pendent, generally transparent between the 
reticular ventilation, from rather short-pointed to much 
filamentous-elongated; labellum blunt, variously ciliolated 
and at the anterior base turgidly swollen ; gynostemium- 
appendages ciliolated, both its angles blunt or the upper 
slightly pointed ; fruit somewhat turgid. P. rufa. 

Flowers always small, the calyx-lobes blunt. 

Dwarf; basal leaves from orbicular- to lanceolar-ovate, 
rather short ; stem-leaves from few to several, approxima- 
ted, clasping, almost bract-like ; flowers few or oftener 
several or many in the spike ; bracts rather short ; lower 
calyx-lobes connate to near the summit; labellum glabrous, 
almost orbicular-ovate, its appendage anteriorely basal, 
almost clubshaped, dark-green upwards ; gynostemium- 
appendages truncate at the summit, blunt-lobed down- 
ward ; fruit somewhat turgid. P. mutica. 

1806. Lower calyx-lobes diverging from the upper. 

Dwarf ; basal leaves rather short, from ovate to narrow - 
lanceolar, crowded ; stem-leaves few, with exception of 
the lowest almost bract-like ; flower large, its stalklet 
usually much extending beyond the bract ; upper calyx- 
lobe nearly straight and erect, short-pointed ; lower two 
quite narrow, semi-connate ; labellum elongated, almost 
filiform, long-exserted, much beset with yellow hairlets, 
ending in a small purplish glabrous dilatation ; gynoste- 
mium-appendages very narrowly protracted at the upper 
angle ; fruit truncate-ovate. P. barbata. 

Lower calyx-lobes placed across the upper .. ... 1807 

1807. Basal leaves absent at flowering time ... ... 1808 

Basal leaves present at flowering time ... ... 1810 

1808. Labellum quite blunt. 

Never tall ; stem-leaves three or four, short, narrow-lanceolar, 
much pointed and clasping, the largest towards the flower ; 
basal leaves roundish-ovate, only occurring in the early 
stage of the plant ; flower rather large, sometimes ante- 
riorely slightly reddish ; bract similar to the stem-leaves ; 
calyx-lobes ending in narrow elongations, the lower from 
above their junction separated by a wide sinus, extending 
far across the upper ; labellum very much longer than 
broad, blunt, smooth ; appendages near the summit of the 
gynostemium glabrous, acute upwards, obtuse downward ; 
fruit rather slender. P. obtusa. 



420 Key to the System of 



Labellum gradually pointed ... ... 1809 

1809. Upper calyx-lobe extended into a short and but 

slightly incurved elongation. 

Never tall ; stem-leaves small, few, from linear- to narrow - 
lanceolar, the largest towards the flower ; bracts in size 
and shape quite leaf-like ; lower calyx-lobes from above 
their junction separated by a rather wide sinus, hardly 
surpassing the upper ; labellum pointed ; upper angle of 
the gynostemium-appendages acute, lower obtuse ; fruit 
rather turgid. Probably to be united with the following. 

(P. alata.) P. praecox. 

Upper calyx-lobe extended into a long arched- 
incurved elongation. 

Never tall ; stem-leaves small, few, from linear- to narrow- 
lanceolar, the largest towards the flower ; bract in size and 
shape quite leaf-like ; flower often large, sometimes an- 
teriorely slightly reddish ; lower calyx-lobes from above 
their junction separated by a rather narrow sinus, much 
surpassing the upper ; labellum upwards gradually much 
narrowed, at the base provided with a brush-like appen- 
dage; upper angle of the gynostemium-appendages 
pointed, lower blunt and ciliolated ; fruit rather slender. 

F. reflexa. 

1810. Labellum excised at the summit. 

Dwarf and slender ; basal leaves rather small, nearly 
ovate or somewhat rhomboid ; stem-leaf one only, bract- 
like ; flowers comparatively small ;. bract near the calyx- 
tube ; upper calyx-lobe simply acute, sui-passed by the 
almost setular ends of the lower lobes ; labellum several 
times longer than broad, glabrous, its basal appendage 
brush-like ; upper angle of the gynostemium-appendages 
much pointed ; fruit somewhat turgid. P. conciiina. 

Labellum entire also at the summit ... 1811 

1811. Flower quite small 1812 

Flower large or of moderate size ... ... ... 1813 

1812. Labellum cordate-ovate. 

Dwarf, very slender ; leaves quite small, from rhomboidal- 
to lanceolar-ovate, all basal or one at some distance from 
the stem-base and often conformous ; all three calyx -lobes 



Victorian Plants. 421 



upwards almost setular; labellum very short, ovate- or 
orbicular- cordate, glabrous, its basal appendage almost 
brush-like ; gynostemium upwards much pointed ; fruit 
slender. F. pedaloglossa. 

Labellum linear-elliptical. 

Dwarf; basal leaves quite small, from orbicular- to 
rhomboidal-ovate ; stem-leaf one only, bract-like ; upper 
calyx-lobe simply acute ; lower calyx-lobes upwards almost 
setular, the wide sinus between them bearing a minute 
inflexed lobule in the middle ; labellum short, blunt, its 
appendage imperfectly penicillar ; upper angle of the 
gynostemium-appendages pointed ; fruit rather' slender. 

I*, jiana. 

1813. Basal and stem-leaves of nearly equal size. 

Rather tall, occasionally very much so ; basal leaves few, 
large, sometimes very long, rather firm, from ovate- to 
elongate -1 an ceolar ; stem-leaves one or two, nearly as 
long as the others but narrower ; bract large, quite leaf- 
like ; flower very large, its stalklet soon elongated ; 
upper calyx-lobe short-pointed ; lower calyx-lobes almost 
setularly narrowed, reaching across and somewhat beyond 
the upper ; labellum glabrous, narrowly elliptical-lanceolar, 
hardly pointed, its basal appendage brush-like ; append- 
ages of the gynostemium minutely apiculated, glabrous ; 
fruit somewhat turgid. I*. CUCUllata. 

Basal leaves much larger than the stem-leaves. 1814 

1814. Flower much bent downward. 

Somewhat tall or comparatively dwarf; basal leaves from 
lanceolar-to roundish-ovate ; stem-leaf only one, generally 
near the others but much smaller or bract-like ; flower on 
a long stalklet ; bract conspicuous ; upper calyx-lobe 
longitudinally much curved inward, slightly pointed, 
about equal in length to the two lower ; labellum narrow- 
elliptical, blunt, glabrous, its basal appendage somewhat 
brush-like; upper angle of the gynostemium-appendages 
ending in very narrow and pointed lobules ; fruit rather 
slender. P. nutans. 

Flower hardly or slightly bent downward ... ... 1815 

1815. Labellum much pointed. 

Never tall ; basal leaves from lanceolar- to orbicular-ovate ; 
stem -leaves one or two, bract-like; flower large, much 
incurved from above the middle longitudinally ; upper 



422 Key to the System of 



calyx-lobe short-pointed from between the summit of the 
adherent petals ; lower calyx-lobes upwards very narrow, 
much pointed, reaching across and somewhat beyond the 
upper ; labellum glabrous, gradually much narrowed up- 
wards, its basal appendage brush-like ; upper angle of 
the gynostemium-appendages ending in a minute pointed 
lobule ; fruit rather slender. P. acuminata. 

Labellum hardly pointed or quite blunt ... ... 1816 

1816. Lower calyx-lobes almost or quite surpassed by the 

upper, their free portion separated by a wide sinus. 

Often somewhat tall ; basal leaves from lancelolar- to 
orbicular-ovate ; stem -leaves one or two, bract-like ; 
flower large, its stalklets soon elongated ; upper calyx- 
lobe hardly pointed or somewhat blunt, about as long as 
the lower or somewhat longer ; labellum linear-elliptical, 
glabrous, its basal appendage brush-like ; upper lobule 
of the gynostemium-appendages very narrow and acute, 
the lower broadish, blunt and ciliolated ; fruit rather 
slender. P. curta. 

Lower calyx-lobes considerably surpassing the upper, 
their free portion separated by a rather narrow sinus. 

Seldom tall ; basal leaves from lanceolar- to roundish-ovate ; 
stem-leaves one or two, clasping, almost bract-like ; 
flower of moderate size, on a long stalklet, often ante- 
riorely somewhat reddish ; upper calyx-lobes simply acute ; 
lower calyx-lobes almost setular upwards ; labellum lan- 
ceolar -elliptical, glabrous, its basal appendage somewhat 
brush-like; both angles of the gynostemium-appendages 
pointed, more acutely the upper ; fruit rather slender. 

P. peduncnlata. 

HYDRO CH ABIDE AE. 

OTTELIA. 

1817. Leaves mostly floating, very firm, from narrow- 

elliptical to broad-ovate. 

Leaves somewhat succulent, their venulation reticular ; 
flowers rather large, but of two sizes, those with smaller 

Eetals more copiously seed -bearing ; involucre and calyx 
rm ; petals upwards white ; fruit nearly ovate ; seeds 
ellipsoid. Figure 115. O. ovalifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 423 



VALLISNERIA. 

1818. Leaves largely or totally submerged, somewhat trans- 

parent. 

Leaves broad -linear, almost blunt, with any denticulation 
only at and near the summit ; sepals of the staminate 
flowers minute, ovate-lanceolar, membranous ; calyx-lobes 
of the pistillate flowers rather firm, lanceolar-ovate ; 
stigmas sessile, cleft, subtile-papillular ; fruit thinly cylin- 
drical ; seeds minute, ellipsoid. V. spiralis. 

HAXiOPHXXiA. 

1819. Leaves from narrow- to broad-elliptical, long-stalked. 

Dwarf, submerged, creeping ; leaves basal, transparent, 
entire, occasionally five times longer than broad ; primary 
venules three, one carinular, two intra-marginal ; second- 
ary venules subtile, costular ; anthers cordate-ovate, 
almost sessile ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid, the surrounding 
calyx-tube pellucid ; seeds almost globular. 

(H. ovalis.) H. ovata. 

EXiODEA. 

1820. Leaves usually from elliptical- to linear-lanceolar, 

often serrulated. 

Much submerged, elongated, branched ; leaves three or four 
or seldom more in the numerous whorls or some simply 
opposite, of tender texture ; flowers solitary ; the stami- 
nate on a short stalklet, the pistillate sessile ; stamens 
and stigmas usually three ; fruit slender ; seeds few or 
several, ellipsoid, but the outer membrane slightly pro- 
tracted at both extremities. 

(Hydrilla verticillata. ) E. verticillata. 



DE AE. 
SISYRINCHIUBI. 

1821. Calyx-lobes and petals blue. 

Often somewhat tall ; leaves long, rather rigid, broad-linear, 
much pointed, mostly distichous -basal ; floral leaves 
shortened ; flowers rather large, in paniculated clusters, 
each lasting only one day ; bracts broad, crowded, con- 
cealing the calyx-tubes ; calyx-lobes and petals almost 
obovate ; stamens and pistil shorter than the petals ; 
filaments almost disconnected ; fruit ellipsoid, somewhat 
angular ; seeds brown. S. cyaneum. 



424 Key to the System of 



Calyx-lobes and petals white... ... 1822 

1822. Calyx-lobes as well as the petals ovate-elliptical and 

all of almost equal size. 

Dwarf; leaves comparatively short, rather lax, linear, acute, 
pointed, mostly distichous-basal ; flowers small, on very 
thin elongated stalklets, in somewhat paniculated umbels 
or fascicles ; bracts narrow ; stamens and pistil about as 
long as the petals ; filaments almost disconnected ; style 
shorter than the stigmas ; fruit small, nearly globular, 
slightly angular ; seeds few in each fruit-cell, reddish- 
brown. S. pulckellum. 

Calyx-lobes from linear- to elliptic-lanceolar, con- 
siderably smaller than the elliptical-obovate petals. 

Rather tall ; leaves long, somewhat flaccid, broad-linear, 
pointed, mostly distichous-basal ; flowers rather small, in 
much paniculated umbels or fascicles ; bracts narrow ; 
stamens nearly as long as the petals ; filaments connate 
towards the base ; style hardly or considerably shorter 
than the stigmas ; fruit globular-ovate, slightly angular ; 
seeds several in each fruit-cell, reddish-brown. 

S. paniculatum. 

PATERSONXA. 

1823. Quite glabrous ... 1824 

Somewhat beset with silk-like vestiture ... ... 1825 

1824. Stems abbreviated. 

Usually rather dwarf ; stems leafless, hardly compressed ; 
leaves rigid, greyish -green, narrow-linear, pointed, convex 
on both sides, usually much exceeding the stems ; outer 
bract rigid, streaked ; tube of the calyx upwards filiform, 
somewhat exserted ; filaments connate towards the base ; 
summit of style continuing erect ; fruit slender. Figure 
114. P. glauca. 

Stems elongated. 

Stems somewhat compressed, leafless ; leaves firm, broad- 
linear, elongated, much pointed, flat, surpassed by the 
stems ; outer bract rigid, pointed, almost smooth ; tube of 
the calyx very slender, enclosed ; summit of style soon 
turned downward; fruit slender. P. longiscapa. 



Victorian Plants. 425 



1825. Stem leafless. 

Stems long, blunt-edged, silky-cottony towards the summit ; 
leaves elongated, linear, pointed, flat, beset with short 
somewhat cottony vestiture on the edge ; outer bracts 
rigid, acute, streaked, also somewhat invested ; calyx-tube 
very slender, enclosed ; summit of style soon turned 
downward ; fruit narrowly trigonous-ellipsoid, somewhat 
beset with vestiture ; seeds numerous, dark-brown, short- 
cylindrical, streaked. P. sericea. 

Stem leafy below the middle. 

Stem somewhat compressed; leaves in two rows, but spread- 
ing, flexile, elongated, narrow -linear, flat, very imperfectly 
beset with silky-cottony vestiture ; outer bract rigid, 
much pointed, narrow in proportion to its length, slightly 
beset with silky-cottony vestiture ; summit of style soon 
turned downward ; fruit gradually attenuated at the base 
and apex ; seeds numerous, rhomboid -ovate, angular, light- 
brown. P. glabrata. 

DXPX.A.RRHENA. 

1826. Flowers large, unsymmetrical. 

Comparatively tall ; stem compressed, occasionally branched; 
perfect leaves mostly basal, narrow-ensate ; flowers on 
conspicuous stalklets ; lobes of the calyx petaloid, from 
orbicular- to cuneate-ovate, somewhat inflexed at the 
margin, the upper larger and more concave ; petals about 
half as long as the calyx-lobes, not rarely violet-venuled 
and yellow towards the summit ; stamen disconnected ; 
third filament unprovided with an anther ; fruit trigonous- 
ellipsoid ; seeds brown, orbicular. D. Moraea. 



AMARYLLIDEAE. 

CALOSTEItfMA. 

1827. Flowers pink or purplish. 

Seldom tall ; bulb nearly globular ; stem leafless, rather 
robust ; leaves developed later than the flowers, few, 
broad-linear, of thick and somewhat succulent texture ; 
flowers on conspicuous stalklets ; calyx-tube narrowed 
downward, dilated again around the ovulary ; calyx - 
lobes and petals cuneata-elliptical, deciduous ; connecting 
membrane of the stamens ending often in denticles between 
the filaments ; style capillary ; stigma undivided ; fruit 
small globular. C. purpureum. 



426 Key to the System of 



CRINUIVI. 

1828. Lobes of the calyx from cuneate- to lanceolar-elliptical, 

shorter than the tube. 

Tall; leaves comparatively broadish, lax; flowers the 
largest in the Victorian vegetation, somewhat greenish 
outside ; calyx-tube long and very slender ; stamens 
nearly as long as the petals or shorter ; anthers compara- 
tively short, oscillating ; style longer than the stamens, 
ascending ; stigma very small, undivided ; fruit on a 
short stalklet. " Murray -Lily." Figure 116. 

C. flaccichim. 
KVPOXIS. 

1829. Beset with hairlets. 

Dwarf ; vestiture of rather long soft scattered hairlets ; 
bulb small ; leaves all basal, from broadish- to narrow- 
linear, channelled, pointed, usually surpassing the stem ; 
flowers one to five, rather small, somewhat greenish out- 
side ; calyx -lobes and petals of equal length, persistent, 
mostly lanceolar-elliptical ; bracts one for each flower ; 
anther- cells much divergent downward ; style short; 
stigmas three ; fruit nearly obovate-ellipsoid ; seeds 
black. H. hygrometrica. 

Quite glabrous. 

Very dwarf, occasionally somewhat taller ; bulb very small, 
almost globular ; leaves all basal, from broadish- to narrow- 
linear, channelled, pointed, usually surpassing the stem ; 
bract large or small, distant from the flower or near it ; 
flower one only, from small to almost minute, somewhat 
greenish outside ; calyx-lobes and petals of equal length, 
from lanceolar- to narrow-elliptical, persistent ; anther- 
cells throughout parallel ; style short or almost oblite- 
rated ; stigmas three ; fruit from ellipsoid to almost 
globular ; seeds black. H. glabella. 

LILIACEAE. 

SMILAX. 

1830. Leaves very firm, from lanceolar- to cordate-ovate, 

with usually five longitudinal venules. 

Somewhat shrubby and prickly, quite glabrous ; leaves on 
short stalks, of nearly equal green on both sides, some- 
times assuming a slightly purplish hue, always quite 
entire ; umbels mostly scattered ; flowers small, greenish 
or slightly reddish, when in bud clavate-ellipsoid ; sepals 
lanceolar-elliptical ; petals slightly narrower ; filaments 
from twice to four times as long as the anthers ; fruit 
globular, black outside ; seeds exteriorely reddish -brown, 
smooth. Figure 117. S. Australis. 



Victorian Plants. 427 



RHXFOGONT7IK. 

1831. Racemes spike-like, glabrous, undivided. 

Somewhat shrubby and prickly ; leaves very firm, on jointed 
short stalks almost opposite or ternately whorled or some 
scattered, mostly fromlanceolar to nearly ovate, with three 
or five longitudinal venules ; flowers small, fragrant, 
somewhat distant ; bracts minute ; sepals and petals 
nearly ovate, of almost equal length, whitish, anthers 
curved-pointed; style very short, almost undivided, 
slightly surpassing the stamens ; fruit globular, dark-red 
outside ; seeds exteriorely brownish. R. album. 

DRYIVIOFHILA. 

1832. Fruit outside blue. 

Never tall, branchless or scantily branched ; leaves placed 
somewhat vertically, sessile, from linear to elliptical- 
lanceolar, finely venular-streaked, none near the root ; the 
lowest leaves or leaf-stalks scale-like shortened ; flowers 
small, on conspicuous stalklets, bractless, turned somewhat 
downward ; sepals and petals membranous, spreading, 
white, deciduous ; styles very short ; stigmas revolute ; 
fruit globular or somewhat ovate ; seeds brownish, smooth, 
shining. D. cyanocarpa. 

SCHEXiHAXKlKERA. 

1833. Flowers often singly terminating the branches. 

Dwarf, often diffuse, usually branched ; root-fibres ending 
into very small tubers ; leaves of thin texture, sessile, 
slightly clasping, from almost lanceolar to ovate, at the 
margin somewhat crisped ; flowers on conspicuous stalks, 
bractless, occasionally two together ; sepals and petals 
membranous, spreading, almost lilac, nearly lanceolar- 
elliptical, deciduous ; stamens short ; anthers dark- 
purplish ; style longer than the stigmas ; fruit globular, 
slightly three-lobed ; seeds globular, their appendage 

S. undulata. 



BT7RCHARDXA. 

1834. Fruit sharply triangular, gradually much pointed. 

Seldom tall ; stem annual, usually branchless ; leaves few, 
linear, the lower on a cylindric stalk, the upper shortened 
and clasping ; umbels one or rarely two or three, supported 
by narrow and short bracts ; flowers rather small, occa- 
sionally reduced to three or two ; sepals and petals spread- 
ing, from lanceolar to almost elliptical, white or somewhat 
reddish -tinged, deciduous; anthers almost horizontal, 
either black-purplish or yellow ; style very short ; stigmas 
acute ; fruit generally trigonous-ellipsoid, soon three- 
pointed ; seeds many, small, brown. B. umbellata. 



428 Key to the System of 

WURnXBXSA. 

1835. Sepals and petals almost or entirely disconnected. 

Always dwarf and branchless; leaves two or three, filiform- 
linear, but unless the lowest excepted towards the 
clasping base dilated, the floral one sometimes bract-like 
shortened ; flowers quite small, bractless, occasionally 
bisexual ; sepals and petals persistent, from narrow- to 
ovate-elliptical, usually white, often with a reddish tinge 
and spotted across by a dark -purplish doubly glandular 
line below the middle ; stamens short ; styles dis- 
connected ; fruit from globular to ovate, somewhat 
trigonous ; seeds many, brown, turgid-ovate or almost 
globular. Figure 118. W. dioica. 

ASTELIA. 

1836. Stem always much exceeded by the basal leaves, often 

quite abbreviated. 

Bather dwarf and truly alpine, forming ample patches ; 
silk-like vestiture extensive and copious ; basal leaves 
from linear to elongate-lanceolar, rather crowded ; stem- 
leaves only near the flowers and much shortened ; panicle 
short, that of the pistillate flowers almost condensed into 
a cluster ; flowers small ; sepals and petals persistent, 
generally narrow-lanceolar ; style obliterated ; stigmas 
very short; fruit almost ellipsoid-ovate, red outside; seeds 
several, shining-black, somewhat angular. A. alpiiia. 



XEROTES. 

1837. Flowers in whorls or clusters ... ... ... 1838 

Flowers scattered ... ... ... ... ... 1841 

1838. Staminate flowers in simple whorls. 

Often rather tall ; leaves flat or channelled, blunt, longer 
than the stem ; panicle occasionally reduced to a raceme ; 
branches of the panicle whorled ; bracts very short ; 
sepals and petals equal in height ; staminate calyx very 
gradually narrowed into a capillary conspicuous stalklet, 
somewhat purplish outside ; pistillate calyx almost sessile ; 
petals yellowish ; fruit wrinkled ; seeds trigonous-ovate. 

X. Browuii. 

All flowers in clusters ... ... ... ... 1839 



Victorian Plants. 429 



1839. Clusters of flowers in a whorled panicle. 

Tall ; leaves long, tough, flat or channelled, from broad- to 
narrow-linear, always excised and sometimes additionally 
denticulated at the summit ; flower-stem compressed ; 
panicle with occasionally simply opposite branches or 
even reduced to a spike ; primary bracts narrow, often 
elongated and pungent ; sepals outside towards the 
summit brownish or sometimes blackish ; petals yellow ; 
stamens very short ; style obliterated ; fruit ovate- 
globular, smooth, pointed ; seeds trigonoiis-ellipsoid. 

X. longifolia. 

Clusters of flowers in a spike or headlet ... ... 1840 

1840. Petals upwards bright-yellow. 

Dwarf ; leaves usually short, flat or channelled, often blunt, 
seldom twisted ; bracts abbreviated ; flowers quite small ; 
clusters of staminate flowers arranged in a short usually 
interrupted and rarely ramified spike ; clusters of pistil- 
late flowers singly solitary ; sepals and petals very small, 
blunt, somewhat succulent, equal in height, the sepals 
also yellow but sometimes purplish outside ; stamens very 
short ; fruit small, slightly wrinkled. X. glauca. 

Petals upwards whitish. 

Tall ; leaves usually much elongated ; clusters of flowers 
very dense, two or more separately superposed or some- 
times singly solitary or occasionally forming a cylindric 
uninterrupted spike ; bracts breaking up into capillary 
fringes ; sepals and petals membranous, the latter slightly 
yellowish, downward connate into a tube, the sepals 
pellucid and but faintly colored ; fruit smooth ; seed 
trigonous-ovate. X. lencocephala. 

1841. Flowers comparatively large. 

Almost prostrate ; leaves long, linear, channelled, excised 
and sometimes additionally denticulated at the summit; 
flowers in an almost sessile spreading panicle, fragrant, 
singly dispersed or less frequently two or three together ; 
stalklets mostly very conspicuous ; sepals and petals 
transparent, upward gradually much pointed; stamens 
very much shorter ; fruit longitudinally somewhat 
streaked ; seeds trigonous-ovate, brownish outside. 

X. effusa. 

Flowers minute ... 1842 



430 Key to the System of 



1842. Petals dark-colored. 

Leaves narrow- or channelled-filiform, streaked beneath ; 
flowering stem slender and often short ; flowers in a 
panicle or in a somewhat branched raceme ; bracts all 
very small; fruit quite small, depressed-globular, smooth. 

X. micrantha. 

Petals yellow. 

Leaves very narrow, channelled or nearly flat, seldom 
somewhat filiform ; flowering stem slender and often 
short ; flowers in a panicle or in a somewhat branched 
raceme ; stalklets usually conspicuous, recurved ; sepals 
membranous, blunt, shining, pale at the margin, brownish 
towards the summit ; petals without lustre, slightly 
succulent, nearly disconnected ; fruit generally ovate- 
globular, smooth. X. Thuiibergi. 



XANTHORRXXOEA. 

1843. Tufty, comparatively dwarf, constantly trunkless, 
the spike rather thin and always short. 

Leaves rather long, often somewhat channelled, the carinular 
angle very prominent ; spikes shorter than their slender 
bractless stalks, generally several or many from each 
plant; floral bracts from cuneate- to filiform-linear, 
glabrous, enclosed ; sepals short, hard, greenish, narrow, 
wider upwards ; petals quite glabrous or at the summit 
slightly beset with hairlets, hardly longer than the sepals 
and thinner, dilated and whitish towards the upper end ; 
stamens about half exserted ; filaments white ; style 
thin ; stigma undivided ; fruit somewhat exserted, short- 
pointed ; seeds black outside. X. minor. 

Comparatively tall, the trunk almost undeveloped or 
oftener conspicuously elongated, the spike rather 
thick and usually very long. 

Trunk occasionally divided ; leaves very long, slightly 
angular or flattened above, prominently angular beneath ; 
spikes usually longer than their robust bractless stalks, 
generally one only from each tuft of leaves ; sepals 
hard, pointed, glabrous ; petals hardly longer than the 
sepals but thinner, whitish upwards and slightly beset 
with hairlets towards the summit ; stamens usually less 
than half exserted ; filaments white ; fruit hardly 
emerged ; seeds trigonous-ovate, black outside. 

X. Aus trails. 



Victorian Plants. 431 



EUSTREPHUS. 

1844. Flower-stalklets from the axils of leaves. 

Root-fibres ending into small tubers ; leaves almost sessile, 
from broad-linear to lanceolar-ovate, dull-green beneath, 
without any distinct basal articulation, thus long per- 
sistent ; flowers rather small, their stalklets jointed 
towards or near the middle, often rather long ; sepals 
and petals dull-purplish or pale-pink, deciduous ; fila- 
ments wholly connate into a membranous tube ; anthers 
conniving ; style filiform ; fruit rather large, almost 
globular, brownish-yellow or orange-colored outside ; 
seeds numerous, externally black, shining, provided with 
a small appendage. E. Browiiii. 

GEITONOPLESIUM. 

1845. Flowers in stalked cymes or umbels. 

Minutely and scantily prickly ; leaves on very short stalks, 
with a basal articulation, thus readily seceding, very 
shining, from broad-linear to lanceolar-ovate, their venti- 
lation subtile ; cymes often paniculate ; flowers rather 
small, their stalklets unjointed near the middle, often 
rather short ; sepals and petals often greenish, deciduous; 
filaments disconnected ; anthers conniving ; style filiform 
fruit almost globular, bluish-black outside, nearly indehis- 
cent ; seeds several, externally shining-black. 

(Calcoacymosa.) G. Cymosum. 



1846. Stem leafy along its lower portion. 

Leaves long, broad-linear, nearly flat, rough at the margin 
and cariiiular angle, when along the stem distichous, 
when terminating branches f ascicular ; clasping leafstalks 
closed ; stalklets often shorter than the flowers, the latter 
somewhat pendent ; anthers very narrow, pale-yellow, 
twice or three times as long as the thickened orange- 
colored portion of the filament ; style filiform ; stigma 
minute ; fruit nearly globular ; seeds few or several, 
shining-black outside. D. coerulea. 

Stem almost leafless ... ... ... ... ... 1847 

1847. Leaves comparatively broad, rough at the margin. 

Leaves very rigid, almost ensate, hardly recurved along 
the margin, there as well as on the carinular angle rough ; 
clasping leafstalks closed, compressed ; sepals and petals 
from the down-bent flowers soon verging towards the 



432 Key to the System of 



stalklet ; anthers yellow, broadish, hardly as long as the 
large thickened orange-colored portion of the filament or 
shorter ; style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit rather 
large, from globular- to cylindric-ovate ; seeds few or 
several, shining-black outside. D. Tasmanica. 

Leaves comparatively narrow, smooth at the margin 1848 

1848. Anthers yellow. 

Leaves long, nearly flat ; clasping leafstalks quite opened 
towards the summit, posteriorely almost blunt ; sepals and 
petals of the down-bent flowers soon verging towards the 
stalklet ; anthers about twice as long as the small orange- 
colored thickened portion of the filament ; style filiform ; 
stigma minute ; fruit nearly globular ; seeds few or 
several, shining-black outside. D. loiigifolia. 

Anthers almost black. 

Leaves long, very rigid, soon recurved or re volute along the 
margin ; clasping leafstalks closed ; anthers three or more 
times as long as the small thickened bright-yellow portion 
of the filament ; style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit 
nearly globular ; seeds few or several, shining-black 
outside. D. revoluta. 

BUX.BZNZS. 

1849. All filaments beset with hairlets. 

Root bulbous-tuberous ; leaves usually rather thick, all 
basal ; flowers comparatively large, fragrant ; bracts 
small ; filaments from very partially to quite extensively 
invested ; style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit small, 

. globular ; seeds few, black outside. B. blllbosa. 

Three of the filaments quite glabrous. 

Root entirely fibrous ; leaves usually rather slender, all 
basal ; flowers comparatively small ; bracts very short ; 
style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit small, globular ; 
seeds few, black outside. B. semibarbata. 

TRICOHVNE. 

1850. Stem branched. 

Almost ever-flowering ; root procurrent, fibrous ; stem and 
branches wiry ; leaves distantly scattered, flaccid, the 
upper gradually bract-like ; umbels more than one, with 
few or several flowers ; sepals and petals almost alike, 
quite yellow or outside partly reddish ; style filiform ; 
stigma minute ; fruitlets very small, oblique- or clavate- 
ovate, one-seeded. T. elatior. 



Victorian Plants. 433 



Stem unbranched. 

Leaves lax, grass-like ; umbel singly terminal, with many 
flowers ; sepals and petals almost alike, quite yellow or 
outside partly reddish ; style filiform ; stigma minute ; 
fruitlets very small, one-seeded. T. simplex. 

STYFANDRA. 

1851. Leaves in two rows along the stem and branches. 

Often tall, somewhat woody at last ; branches often 
somewhat twisted ; leaf-stalks closed ; leaves numerous, 
broad-linear, acute, somewhat curved, the floral leaves 
much shortened ; flowers on recurved stalklets, in an 
often elongated panicle ; sepals and petals acute, always 
blue ; upper portion of the filaments tumid from yellow 
densely approximated papillular hairlets, lower portion 
glabrous ; fruit small, almost ellipsoid ; seeds several or 
many, nearly ovate -ellipsoid, outside dull-black. 

S. glauca. 
Leaves nearly all basal. 

Leaves broad-linear, their stalks opened ; floral leaves much 
shortened ; flowers on straight stalklets, often umbellate - 
corymbous, occasionally only two together or solitary 
from their axil ; sepals and petals almost blunt, inside 
blue or pale-yellowish ; filaments in their whole length 
beset with yellow extremely short papillular hairlets ; 
fruit somewhat ellipsoid ; seeds compressed-ellipsoid, 
outside shining-black. S. caespitosa. 

ARTKROFODXUM. 

1852. Hairlets of stamens quite along and around the upper 

part of the filaments ... ... ... ... 1853 

Hairlets of stamens restricted to two short protrusions 
from near the base of the anthers ... ... ... 1854 

1853. Comparatively tall. 

Root-fibres elongated, ending in slender tubers ; leaves 
broad-linear, mostly basal ; panicle often amply branched ; 
flowers rather small ; stalklets jointed towards their 
upper end, soon bent downward ; bracts short ; sepals 
and petals long-persistent, purplish, occasionally quite 
pale or even whitish, the latter broader and somewhat 
crisped, about as long as the stamens ; filaments longer 
than the elliptic anthers, only towards the base glabrous ; 
fruit small, globular ; seeds several, angular, black 
outside. A. paniculatum. 

^ P 



434 Key to the System of 



Comparatively dwarf. 

Root-fibres abbreviated, ending in small slender tubers ; 
leaves narrow -linear ; flowers quite small, in a simple or 
hardly branched raceme ; sepals and petals purplish ; 
filaments longer than the ovate anthers ; its hairlets 
yellowish ; fruit quite small, globular ; seeds few. 
(Probably a variety of the preceding. ) A. minus. 

1854. Fruit-bearing stalklets almost erect. 

Root-fibres ending in somewhat turgid tubers ; leaves almost 
all basal ; panicle scantily branched ; flowers rather large, 
fragrant ; stalklets often scattered ; bracts conspicuous ; 
sepals and petals purplish, the former acute, the latter 
obtuse and somewhat crisped ; stamens considerably 
shorter than the sepals and petals ; anthers longer than 
the filaments, almost linear, usually dark-colored ; style 
filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit rather small, globular ; 
seeds several, black outside. A. strictum. 

Fruit-bearing stalklets reflexed. 

Root-fibres ending in somewhat turgid tubers ; leaves 
almost all basal ; panicle scantily branched ; flowers 
rather large, fragrant ; stalklets often two or more to- 
gether ; bracts conspicuous ; sepals and petals purplish, 
the former acute, the latter obtuse and slightly fringy ; 
stamens considerably shorter than the sepals and petals ; 
anthers longer than the filaments, almost linear, usually 
yellow ; style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit rather 
small, globular ; seeds several, black outside. 

(A. laxum.) A. fimbriatum. 

THYSANOTUS. 

1855. Twining. 

Dwarf ; root-fibres tuberously thickened ; stem branched ; 
basal leaves few, very short, channelled, linear ; upper 
leaves rudimentary or nearly obliterated ; flowers rather 
small, solitary or two together ; bracts quite short ; sepals 
narrow, firm, in part greenish ; petals broad, tender, mem- 
branous, extensively purplish; anthers six, very slender; 
style filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit quite small, 
trigonous-globular ; seeds few, black outside. 

T. Fatersoni. 

Erect ... 1856 

1856. Stem much branched from near the base. 

Often rather tall and rigid ; root irregularly thickened, its 
fibres without tubers ; basal leaves somewhat short, 
linear or nearly obliterated or very fugacious ; lowest 



Victorian Plants. 435 



branches often flowerless ; flowers intricate-paniculated ; 
bracts quite short ; sepals narrow, firm, acute, in part 
greenish ; petals broad, obtuse, extensively purplish, 
tender membranous ; anthers six, particularly slender 
upwards ; fruit small, globular ; seeds few, black outside. 

T. dichotomus. 

Stem unbranched in its lower portion ... ... 1857 

1857. Flowers in an interrupted seldom divided raceme. 

Dwarf ; root-fibres tuberously thickened towards the outer 
end ; leaves all basal, linear, abbreviated, flaccid, fugacious; 
stalklets two or three together or umbellately more, often 
quite short ; sepals narrow, firm, acute ; petals broad, 
obtuse, tender-membranous, extensively purplish ; anthers 
six, slender particularly upwards ; seeds few, black 
outside. Figure 119. T. Baueri. 

Flowers in a panicle. 

Often rather dwarf ; root-fibres tuberously thickened towards 
the outer end ; basal leaves usually elongated, flaccid, 
linear, somewhat channelled ; stalklets solitary or from 
two to four together ; sepals narrow, firm, acute, in part 
greenish; petals extensively purplish, broad, obtuse, 
tender - membranous ; anthers six, slender particularly 
upwards ; fruit small, almost globular ; seeds few, black 
outside. T. tuberosus. 

HERFOIiIRION. 

1858. Flowers almost sessile between the short rigid leaves. 

Leaves linear, acute, somewhat distichous ; sepals and 
petals elongated, persistent, bluish particularly inside ; 
the former lanceolar-linear ; the latter almost elliptic- 
linear ; anthers narrow, yellow ; style filiform, rather 
long ; stigma minute ; fruit very small, globular ; seeds 
several, somewhat ellipsoid. H. Novae Zelandiae. 

SOWERBAEA. 

1859. Sterile filaments present between the antheriferous 

stamens. 

Never tall ; stem branchless and bractless ; leaves almost 
filiform, somewhat rigid ; umbel many-flowered ; bracts 
small, but forming an involucre ; stalklets short ; flowers 
rather small ; sepals slightly pointed ; petals blunt ; anthers 
less than half as long as the sepals and petals ; fruit 
very small, globular ; seeds slightly rough, black out- 
outside. S. juncea. 



436 Key to the System of 

CAXiSXA. 

1860. Flowers blue. 

Seldom tall; tubers turgid; leaves rather broadly linear, 
lax, mostly basal; flowers generally somewhat pendent, 
small, irregularly compound-racemous ; stalklets two or 
more together ; filaments often blue at the middle ; fruit 
small, somewhat depressed ; seeds rough, black outside, 
their appendage pale. C. vittata. 

Flowers pale. 

Tubers slender ; leaves rather narrowly linear, lax, mostly 
basal ; flowers very small, in a scantily or hardly divided 
raceme ; fruit quite small ; seeds black outside, their 
appendage pale. C. parviflora. 

CHABXAESCXXiZjA. 

1861. Stem up to the inflorescence undivided. 

Leaves often shorter than the stem; inflorescence occasionally 
reduced to two flowers or one, rarely with numerous 
flowers ; producing rather long stalklets ; sepals and petals 
blunt, tender, considerably longer than the stamens ; fruit 
small, upwards broader ; seeds shining-black. 

C. corymbosa. 

COHYNOTHECA. 

1862. Ramification almost wiry and often dichotomous. 

Desert-plant ; basal leaves short, linear, fugacious ; upper 
leaves distant, bract-like ; flowers bending downward, 
their stalklets very short ; fruitlets very small, from ovate- 
to clavate-ellipsoid ; seeds shining-smooth, as well as their 
appendage black. C. lateriflora. 

BARTX.XNCXA. 

1863. Flower-headlets on much elongated terminal stalks. 

Never tall ; stem thin but rigid, branched ; leaves some- 
what fasciculated, thinly filiform, pointed, shining, the 
lower rather long ; leaf -stalks membranously dilated and 
somewhat fringed ; headlets almost hemispherical, involu- 
crated by bracts ; sepals and petals persistent, the latter 
less shining and somewhat longer ; anthers roundish ; 
style very short ; fruit quite small, ovate-globular, short- 
pointed ; seeds several, angular, black outside. 

B. gracilis. 



Victorian Plants. 437 



Jlower-headlets on very short stalks. 

Very dwarf, hardly erect, well branched ; some scattered 
fulcrating rigid root-fibres partly above the ground, 
originating occasionally far up on the stem; leaves often 
fascicular, quite short, trigonous-filiform, almost acicular, 
often somewhat curved and rough ; stipular expansions 
of the leaf -stalks fringed ; headlets very small, on generally 
recurved stalks ; outer bracts blunt ; flowers occasionally 
reduced to two or one ; sepals and petals transparent ; 
anthers roundish, purplish-black ; fruit globular-ovate, 
slightly trigonous ; seeds usually three, black outside, 
without any lustre. B. sessiliflora. 

CAX.ECTASXA. 

1864. Branches hard, closely beset with rigid pungent leaves. 

Root-fibres rigid; leaves from their clasping persistent 
stalk soon spreading or remaining appressed, somewhat 
trigonous, occasionally beset with minute hairlets ; flowers 
sessile ; lower portion of the calyx tubular, densely beset 
with appressed hairlets ; calyx-lobes and petals almost 
narrow-lanceolar, somewhat elastic, outside imperfectly 
invested, occasionally purplish ; filaments hardly as long 
as the conniving anthers or shorter ; style capillary- 
filiform ; stigma minute ; fruit glabrous, narrow -ellipsoid, 
pointed, enclosed in the calyx-tube ; seeds about three 
times longer than broad. C, cyanea. 



A.LISIVI ACE AE. 
AXiXSlKA. 

1865. Fruitlets several or many, smooth. 

Usually tall ; leaves large, long-stalked, from lanceolar- 
to elliptic- or cordate-ovate, their primary venules five to 
nine, longitudinal, their secondary venules transverse ; 
flowers rather small, in paniculate whorls ; sepals rather 
firm ; petals larger, very tender, often somewhat pink ; 
fruitiets quite small, almost obovate, much compressed. 

A. Plantago. 

DAIKASONXUIK. 

1866. Fruitlets normally nine. 

Usually dwarf ; leaves rather small, conspicuously stalked, 
from cordate-ovate to lanceolar, their primary venules 
three or five, longitudinal ; their secondary venules trans- 
verse ; flowers quite small, whorled in an usually short 
panicle ; sepals shorter and firmer than the petals ; fruitiets 
semilanceolar-deltoid. Figure 121. D. Australe. 



438 Key to the System of 



PHILHYDREAE. 



1867. Sepals much longer than the petals. 

Leaves narrow-ensate, passing gradually into their much 
compressed stalks, the uppermost shortened into bracts ; 
spike occasionally branched ; flowers comparatively large, 
bending their bract downward ; spike somewhat inter- 
rupted ; bracts exceeding the flowers, much pointed ; 
sepals and petals yellow ; fruit ellipsoid ; placeiitaries fixed 
to the walls of the fruit-cells ; seeds numerous, minute, 
ovate-ellipsoid. P. lanuginosum. 

XYRIDEAE. 

XYRIS. 

1868. Paired sepals hardly keeled. 

Rather tall, quite slender ; leaves often somewhat twisted, 
narrow - linear ; flower - headlets rather small, usually 
ellipsoid-ovate ; bracts scarcely seriated, dark, but paler 
towards the middle ; flowers few ; base of the petals very 
narrow ; stigmas undivided ; fruit without any prominent 
dissepiments ; placeiitaries very short, almost disunited ; 
seeds numerous, minute, ellipsoid. Figure 122. 

X. gracilis. 
Paired sepals distinctly keeled. 

Rather tall ; leaves long, hardly ever twisted, compressed- 
filiform ; flower-headlets usually globular-ovate, their axis 
elongated ; bracts dark, lax, irregularly arranged in five 
rows, glabrous, soon torn at the margin, the lower empty 
and gradually smaller ; petals orbicular-obovate ; stigmas 
globular ; fruit bursting transversely, producing three- 
imperfect dissepiments ; placentaries highly extended, 
downward somewhat united ; seeds numerous, minute. 

X. operculata. 

TYPH^CEAS. 
TYPHA. 

1869. Upper spike often conspicuously separated from the 

lower. 

Quite tall, unbranched : leaves of soft texture, very long, 
but narrow, plan-convex, blunt, without any prominent 
venulation ; both spikes usually much elongated, but the 
lower occasionally interrupted, the upper externally 
yellowish, the other externally brown, both on the same 
rhachis ; sepals and petals pappus-like ; stamens usually 
three, somewhat connate ; stigma unilateral ; fruit quite- 
concealed, oblique, narrowed into a stalk-like base. 

T. angustifolia. 



Victorian Plants. 



SPARGANItrm. 

1870. Inflorescence branchless or scantily branched. 

Generally riparian, rather dwarf or somewhat tall ; leaves 
broad-linear, keeled, the lower much elongated, the floral 
leaves gradually more abbreviated ; headlets several or 
many, sessile, rather distant along the flexuous upper 
portion of the stem ; stamens three or more, surpassing 
the sepals and petals ; anthers many times shorter than 
the filaments; stigma unilateral, elliptical- or linear- 
lanceolar, occasionally doubled ; fruits small, globular- or 
ellipsoid -obovate, pointed by the persistent style. 

S. angustifolium. 

X. E M W A C E A E . 



1871. Root-fibre one only ...... ... 1872 

Root-fibres two or more ... ... ... ... 1873 

1872. Fronds almost lanceolar, submerged. 

Fronds quite small, membranous, transparent, finally 
stalked, slightly serrulated towards the upper end, often 
crosslike-coherent through new shoots, and occasionally 
connected into extensive masses ; fruit one-seeded. 

L. trisulca. 
Fronds from elliptic to ovate, floating. 

Fronds minute, firm, almost flat ; shoots sessile, soon de- 
tached; fruit one-seeded. "Duck-weed." L. minor. 

1873. Root-fibres two or few. 

Fronds floating, very small, from elliptic to ovate, slightly 
convex underneath ; shoots sessile, soon detached ; fruit 
unknown. L. oligorrhiza. 

Root-fibres several. 

Fronds floating, firm, comparatively conspicuous, roundish- 
ovate, somewhat convex on both sides, purplish under- 
neath ; shoots sessile, soon detached ; fruit imperfectly 
known, two-seeded. L. polyrrhiza. 

WOX.FFXA. 

1874. Fronds extremely minute, but very convex underneath. 

Increasing readily by offshoots ; fronds rather solid, sonorous 
when touched in masses ; anther sessile ; fruit one-seeded. 

W. Michelii. 



440 Key to the System of 

FLUVI ALES. 
TRIGZ.OCKZN. 

1875. Annual 1876 

Perennial ... 1877 

1876. Flowers minute, with very slender pistils. 

Very dwarf and thin ; leaves almost setular-linear ; lower 
flowers in the spike often with three sepals and one 
stamen only ; terminal flower with six stamens ; fruitlets 
longitudinally adnate, very narrow, three fertile and 
bidenticulate at the base. T. centrocarpa. 

Flowers rather small, with comparatively thick pistils. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves filiform ; lower flowers in the spike 
mostly with one stamen only ; terminal flower with three 
stamens ; fruitlets six, longitudinally adnate, alternately 
sterile and fertile, the latter truncate and terminated by 
the spreading style. T. mucronata. 

1877. Somewhat tall, quite slender. 

Root producing offshoots ; leaves filiform-linear ; flowers 
generally numerous, with three stamens ; fruitlets six, 
three sterile and three fertile, placed alternately, the 
latter oblique-orbicular, dorsally streaked. T. striata. 

Usually tall and robust. 

Root producing tubers ; leaves very long and propor- 
tionately broad, somewhat succulent, sometimes floating ; 
spike quite long; flowers numerous, comparatively large ; 
fruitlets usually six, all fertile, from almost orbicular to 
occasionally obliquely lanceolar-ellipsoid, adnate only 
towards or at the base, often somewhat twisted. 

T. procera. 
POTAlttOCETON. 

1878. Leaves of two very distinct forms ... ... 1879 

Leaves all alike or similar in form ... ... ... 1880 

1879. Floating leaves firm. 

Leaves all scattered and stalked ; floating leaves from 
cordate- to elliptic-ovate; submerged leaves membranous, 
narrow-lanceolar, quickly decaying ; stipules long-pointed ; 
stalks of the spikes rather thick ; fruitlets comparatively 
large, when fresh at the outer margin blunt, their style 
very short. P. natans. 



Victorian Plants. 441 



All leaves membranous. 

Leaves all scattered and short- stalked ; floating leaves from 
cordate- to elliptic-ovate ; submerged leaves almost lanceo- 
lar ; stipules blunt ; stalks of the spikes slender ; fruitlets 
comparatively small, when fresh at the outer margin blunt, 
their style obliterated. P. plaiitagineus. 

1880. Leaf-stalks none or unclasping ... ... ... 1881 

Leaf-stalks elongated, almost cylindrically clasping... 1885 

1881. Leaves much crisped. 

Branches compressed ; leaves all submerged, membranous, 
transparent, from linear- to oval-elliptical, the upper 
opposite ; flowers few in the spikes ; fruitlets compressed, 
terminated by the conspicuous style, when fresh at the 
outer margin blunt. P. crispus. 

Leaves almost flat 1882 

1882. Leaves distinctly stalked. 

Leaves all submerged, rather large, membranous, trans- 
parent, shining, from ovate- to elongate-lanceolar, pointed, 
slightly serrulate ; stipules conspicuous ; stalks of the 
spikes thickened upwards ; fruitlets when fresh slightly 
angular at the outer margin. P. lucens. 

Leaves quite sessile ... ... ... 1883 

1883. Leaves from ovate- to orbicular-cordate. 

Leaves all submerged, membranous, transparent, clasping 
at the base, slightly rough at the margin, the upper 
opposite ; stalks of the spikes hardly thickened upwards ; 
fruitlets compressed, when fresh blunt at the outer 
margin. P. perfoliatus. 

Leaves elongate-linear ... ... ... ... 1884 

1884. Leaves rounded-blunt. 

Branches considerably compressed ; leaves all submerged, 
scattered except the uppermost, membranous, transparent ; 
their longitudinal venules three to five ; stipules obtuse ; 
flowers usually several in the spike ; fruitlets curved- 
attenuated at the summit, bluntly angular at the outer 
margin, their style almost straight. 

(P. ochreatus.) P. obtusifolius. 



442 Key to the System of 



Leaves sharp-pointed. 

Branches strongly compressed ; leaves all submerged, 
membranous, transparent, scattered except the uppermost, 
their longitudinal venules five or more ; stipules acute ; 
flowers usually few in the spike ; fruitlets straight- 
attenuated at the summit, prominently angular at the 
outer margin, their style recurved. P. acutifolius. 

1885. Fruitlets conspicuously longer than broad. 

Branches thread-like ; leaves all scattered, submerged, 
narrow-linear, pointed ; flowers usually few and some- 
what separated in the spikes ; fruitlets when dry almost 
semiorbicular and then prominently biangular near the 
outer margin, their style almost terminal. 

F. pectinatus. 

Fruitlets hardly longer than broad. 

Branches thread-like ; leaves all submerged, thinly linear - 
filiform ; flowers in the spikes often somewhat whorled ; 
fruitlets very small, when dry almost orbicular, but 
laterally truncate, blunt at the outer margin, their style 
distinctly lateral. P. filiformis. 

POSIDONIA. 

1886. Connective of the anthers gradually pointed. 

Submerged stem and branches long, in their lower portion 
much beset with the fibrous remnants of decayed foliage ; 
leaves firm, broad-linear, rounded-blunt, shining, their 
venules numerous, subtile ; spikes approximated, jointly 
stalked ; flowers quite small, few or several in each spike ; 
sepals from ovate to orbicular, fixed beyond their base ; 
connective much longer than the anther cells ; stigma 
capillary -tuf ted ; fruitlet lanceolar - ellipsoid, oblique, 
carnulent, without any stalk-like basal elongation, large- 
seeded. P. Australis. 

RTJPFIA. 

1887. Stalk-like elongations thin, but rigidly straight, much 

longer than the fruitlets. 

Submerged, preferring brackish waters ; stem and branches 
very slender, often elongated ; leaf -stalks clasping, some- 
what turgid ; leaves rather long ; anthers almost sessile, 
their lobes from ellipsoid to globular ; fruitlets turgid 
towards the base, much attenuated towards the almost 
pointed summit. R. maritima. 



Victorian Plants. 443 



ZOSTER A. 

1888. Flowers provided each with a bract. 

Maritime, creeping ; leaves comparatively short, narrow- 
linear, truncate or excised at the upper end, with only 
one conspicuous longitudinal venule ; stalk of the inflores- 
cence filiform ; clasping stalk of the floral leaf rather 
short ; flowers few, extremely small, both kinds alter- 
nating in two rows on their membranous rhachis ; anther 
narrow, one-celled ; fruits very minute, ellipsoid ; seed 
dark. Z. liana. 

Flowers unprovided with bracts. 

Maritime, creeping ; stems compressed ; leaves broadish- 
linear, comparatively long, rounded-blunt at the upper 
end, with only one conspicuous longitudinal venule ; 
clasping stalk of the floral leaf rather long ; flowers 
many, both kinds alternating in two rows on their mem- 
branous rhachis ; bracts exceptionally and then only 
scantily developed ; fruits minute, ellipsoid ; seed pale. 

Z. Tasmanica. 
NAJAS. 

1889. Leaves very narrow, minutely denticulated. 

Leaves rather short, their stalks clasping, provided with 
stipular appendages ; flowers minute ; style one ; stigmas, 
two, capillary ; fruit very small, sessile, cylindric-ellipsoid, 
its envelope bract-like. N". tenuifolia. 

AX.THENXA. 

1890. Flower-stalks very short. 

Stem and branches threadlike-thin ; leaves rather short, 
their stalk clasping, the floral leaves reduced to bracts and 
almost opposite; flowers somewhat spicate, distant; 
anthers almost sessile, two-celled ; styles conspicuous, 
thin, as well as the stigmas solitary, the latter almost 
ovate, concave ; fruitlets very small, raised on stalk-like 
bases, obliquely narrow-ellipsoid. Figure 120. 

(Lepilaena Preissii.) A. Preissii. 

CYIKODOCEA. 

1891. Leaves almost semicircularly excised at the summit. 

Propagation mainly by leafy buds ; stems and branches 
elongated ; leaves rather long, broad-linear, quite firm ; 
flowers very small, concealed by the clasping appressed 
leaf-stalks ; united filaments very thin ; fruitlets termi- 
nated by the persistent style and stigmas. 

C. zosterifolia. 



444 Key to the System of 

F AX.3MCA.E. 
LIVISTONA. 

1892. Leaves almost fan-like in outline and folds. 

Finally very tall ; trunk quite straight ; leaves very large, 
terminally crowded, long-stalked, rigid, deeply lobed, each 
lobe narrow and again short-bifid, the lobules acute ; 
panicle very ample, glabrous, bent downward ; flowers 
unprovided with stalklets ; petals somewhat carnulent, 
yellowish, longer than the stamens ; fruitlet globular, 
dark-colored outside. L. Australia. 

JUNCEAE. 
X.UZTTX.A. 

1893. Seeds provided with a basal funicular appendage. 

Never tall ; leaves flat, flaccid, mainly basal, sparsely beset 
with scattered long hairlets, but getting occasionally 
glabrous in age ; flowers quite small, in paniculate or 
umbellate or sometimes crowded clusters ; bracts short, 
scarious ; sepals and petals longer than the fruit, gradually 
pointed, variously brownish, often pale-margined ; fila- 
ments considerably shorter than the anthers ; fruit quite 
small, one-celled, its vertex blunt ; seeds basal, ovate- 
globular. I., campestris. 

JUNCTTS. 

1894. Annual. 

Dwarf, often of a rather pale or somewhat reddish hue ; 
stem thin, branched, scantily leafy ; leaves narrow-linear, 
channelled, pointed ; flowers scattered or two or few to- 
gether, arranged in a cyme, occasionally only one on a 
whole plant, mostly unprovided with stalklets, often 
cleistogamous ; bracts broadish ; sepals and petals much 
pointed ; stamens three or oftener six ; fruit narrow- 
ellipsoid, quite blunt, three-celled, considerably shorter 
than the sepals and petals, often reddish ; seeds globular- 
ovate, without any appendage. (Probably immigrated.) 

J. bufoiiius. 
Perennial 1895 

1895. Stems branchless 1896 

Stems branched ... 1904 

1896. Leaves flat 1897 

Leaves channelled- or filiform-cylindrical ... ... 1899 



Victorian Plants. 445 



1897. Leaves rather rigid. 

Alpine, never tall ; root producing offshoots ; stems com- 
pressed ; leaves nearly all basal, somewhat sickleshaped- 
linear, streaked ; flowers crowded into an usually 
solitary terminal capitular cyme ; bracts short, largely 
dry and colorless ; sepals more acute than the petals ; 
stamens six ; fruit dark-brown, three-celled, blunt ; seeds 
ellipsoid. J. falcatus. 

Leaves quite flaccid ... ... ... 189S 

1898. Leaves broad-linear. 

Never tall, simply tufted ; leaves all basal, much like 
those of grasses ; flower-clusters in unequally compound 
spreading terminal cymes ; sepals and petals very small, 
brown; stamens three; fruit ovate-ellipsoid, three-celled, 
somewhat pointed ; seeds without any appendage. 

J. planifolius. 
Leaves narrow-linear. 

Never tall, simply tufted ; stems very slender ; leaves all 
basal, much like those of grasses, but towards the summit 
somewhat channelled ; flower-clusters in terminal spread- 
ing cymes ; sepals more pointed than the petals ; stamens 
six ; fruit rather blunt, three-celled ; seeds without any 
appendage. J. caespitititis. 

1899. Leaves channelled ... 1900 

Leaves filiform-cylindrical ... ... ... ... 1901 

1900. Flowers dispersed. 

Usually dwarf ; root producing conspicuous offshoots ; stems 
somewhat compressed ; leaves rigid, channelled -linear ; 
the floral leaves almost bractlike -shortened ; flowers, 
almost spicate, in a dichotomous cyme or small panicle, 
sometimes reduced to few ; sepals and petals slightly 
pointed ; stamens six ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid, three-celled, 
slightly exserted ; seeds without any appendage. Figure 

Flowers clustered. 

Usually dwarf ; root producing hardly any offshoots ; stems 
much compressed ; leaves rigid, almost semicylindric ; 
flower-clusters in a slightly branched leafy cyme ; sepals 
and petals much pointed ; stamens six ; fruit ovate - 
ellipsoid, three-celled, shorter than the sepals and petals ; 
seeds without any appendage. J. honialocaulis. 



446 Key to the System of 



1901. Seeds with appendages at both ends. 

Tall, one or two or few basal leaves stem-like, pungent, 
the others rudimentary ; main floral leaf erect, pointed, 
continuing the stem, dilated at the base ; flower-clusters 
in an almost terminal irregularly compound cyme ; sepals 
more pointed than the petals ; stamens six ; filaments 
flat ; fruit ellipsoid but pointed, three-celled, as long as 
the sepals and petals. J. maritimus. 

Seeds without any appendages ... 1902 

1902. Flowers rather pale-colored. 

Usually tall, almost leafless or some basal leaves stem-like ; 
main floral leaf erect, pungent, continuing the stem ; 
flowers scattered, in an irregularly compound almost 
lateral cyme ; sepals and petals pointed ; stamens usually 
three ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid, three-celled, about as long 
as the sepals and petals. J. pallidus. 

Flowers rather dark-colored .. ... ... 1903 

1903. Flowers usually quite numerous. 

Tall, almost leafless or some basal leaves stem-like ; main 
floral leaf erect, contimiing the stem ; flowers either 
scattered or much clustered in a nearly lateral irregularly 
compound cyme; sepals and petals much pointed, occa- 
sionally pale-colored ; stamens generally three ; style 
extremely short ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid, slightly im- 
pressed at the summit, shorter than the sepals and petals 
or nearly as long, three-celled ; seeds ellipsoid. 

J. communis. 
Flowers usually rather few. 

Rather tall, almost leafless or seldom few basal leaves stem- 
like ; stems particularly slender ; main floral leaf con- 
tinuing the stem ; flowers very small, in a nearly lateral 
cyme, mostly scattered, seldom many ; sepals and petals 
pointed ; stamens generally six ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid, 
slightly exserted, three-celled. J. pauciflorus. 

1904. Somewhat tall, with numerous clusters of many 

flowers each. 

Lax ; root producing offshoots ; stem compressed ; leaves 
several, scattered, compressed-filiform, imperfectly jointed, 
extensively hollow, placed vertically ; sepals and petals 
much pointed ; flower-clusters in a terminal cyme ; stamens 
usually three ; fruit almost one-celled, somewhat exserted, 
narrow, angular ; seeds without any appendage. 

J. prismatocarpus. 



Victorian Plants. 447 



Quite dwarf, with several clusters of few flowers 
each. 

Alpine or subalpine, dwarf ; root producing offshoots ; 
leaves subulate-linear, somewhat jointed; flower- clusters 
in a simple terminal cyme or reduced to three or two or 
even one ; stamens usually six ; filaments longer than the 
anthers ; fruit three-celled, rather longer than the sepals 
and petals, gradually much attenuated towards the sum- 
mit ; seeds without any appendage. J. pusillus. 



EB.IOCA.ULE AE. 

ERIOCAULOK. 

1905. Pistillate flowers provided with sepals and petals. 

Dwarf ; stems undivided ; leaves all basal, soft, short, 
broad-linear, pointed, the cellules of their tissue very 
conspicuous ; headlets globular ; involucrating bracts 
almost ovate, quite small ; floral bracts ciliolated ; sepals 
and petals beset with hairlets at the summit, there bear- 
ing a glandule and often dark -colored ; stamens six ; 
stigmas three ; fruit minute, three-celled ; seeds normally 
three. . Smithii. 

Pistillate flowers without sepals and petals. 

Quite dwarf ; stems slender, undivided ; leaves all basal, 
soft, short, broad-linear, pointed, the cellules of their tissue 
very conspicuous ; headlets very small, globular ; involu- 
crating bracts almost lanceolar, rather dark-colored; 
sepals of the staminate flowers coherent at the base ; 
petals connate into a tube, glabrous, bearing a glandule 
at the summit ; stamens six ; stigmas three ; fruit minute, 
three-celled ; seeds normally three. 

E. electrospermum. 



CE A. E. 

TH.ITHTTRXA. 

1906. Delicate, almost transparent, often of reddish hue. 

Glabrous ; often submerged ; leaves all basal, very narrowly 
linear, pointed ; headlets of flowers singly terminal ; 
involucral bracts often lanceolar ; flowers centrifugal- 
developed ; anther ellipsoid ; style none ; stigmas capil- 
lary ; fruit very minute, trigonous-ovate, usually one- 
seeded, its three or occasionally two valves separating 
from the narrow interstices. T. submersa. 



448 Key to the System of 



AFHELXA. 

1907. Floral bracts narrowly membranous at the margin. 

Very dwarf ; leaves often shorter than the stem ; spikelet 
compressed, mostly reclining ; bracts often beset with 
minute hairlets, the lowest much longer than the next 
and only that one pointed ; flowers mostly unisexual, 
reduced to a single stamen or single pistil, stamen besides 
supported by a colorless pellucid inner bract or sepal ; 
anther narrow ; stigma hardly broader than the style ; 
fruit almost ellipsoid. A. gracilis. 

Floral bracts broadly membranous at the margin. 

Extremely dwarf; leaves almost as long as the stem; spike- 
let mostly erect, much compressed, broadish, beset with 
short hairlets ; the lowest bract hardly longer than the 
next, all bracts pointed ; stamens and pistils each clasped 
by an inner colorless sepalaceous bract and externally 
supported by as many floral bracts ; stigma narrow ; fruit 
almost ellipsoid. A. pumilio. 

CENTROLEFIS. 

1908. Glabrous ... ... 1909 

Beset with hairlets 1911 

1909. Spikelet very narrow. 

Quite minute, somewhat rigid, sometimes of a reddish tinge, 
resembling a branchless slender moss ; leaves almost setu- 
lar; outer floral leaf bract-like and often somewhat 
recurved in its upper portion ; spikelet containing several 
or many or even very numerous flowers, only the lowest 
staminate ; pistils extensively coherent or connate, each 
representing a flower or regardable as component parts 
of a single flower ; fruits very minute. C. polygyna. 

Spikelet rather broad ... 1910 

1910. Floral leaves abbreviated. 

Minute ; leaves almost capillary ; floral leaves bract-like, 
capillary-pointed, thus almost awned ; spikelet contain- 
ing several flowers, only the lowest staminate ; stigma very 
narrow, elongated ; base of fruit stalk-like. C. glabra. 

Floral leaves elongated. 

Stems compressed ; leaves narrow-linear, rather firm ; floral 
leaves two, similar to the others but shorter, particularly 
the second ; spikelet containing several or many flowers ; 



Victorian Plants. 449 



inner bracts few, colorless and transparent ; pistils in 
two rows, somewhat coherent ; stigma elongated, hardly 
broader than the style ; fruits ellipsoid, their base stalk- 
like. C. aristata. 

1911. Floral leaves long-pointed. 

Stems very thin, rather short ; leaves extremely narrow, 
forming tufts ; floral leaves two, broadish, clasping and 
then suddenly filiform-narrowed ; spikelet broad ; flowers 
-few or several ; inner bracts few, colorless, supporting 
nearly as many stamens and pistils ; fruits generally few, 
their base stalk-like. C. fascicularis. 

Floral leaves short-pointed. 

Stems very thin, quite short ; leaves extremely narrow, 
forming tufts, much shorter than the stems ; floral leaves 
two, changed into bracts, broadish, clasping, acuminated ; 
spikelet broad ; flowers several or many ; inner bracts 
few, colorless, supporting only partially the stamens and 
pistils, often blunt and torn ; fruits usually several, 
through torsion strongly connected ; ripe seeds obovate- 
ellipsoid, their base stalk-like. C. strigosa, 

Z.EFYRODXA. 

1912. Rudimentary leaves reflexed. 

Somewhat tall ; branches weak, sometimes flexuous ; leaves 
very minute, occasionally deficient ; flower-fasiclesi distant 
in a simple spike ; bracts pale-brownish, partly crowded, 
but without any spicular arrangement ; staminate and 
pistillate flowers on distinct plants ; sepals of the stami- 
nate flowers shorter than the petals j style obliterated ; 
fruit trigonous. L. internipta. 

Rudimentary leaves erect .... ... ... ... 1913 

1913. Stems distinctly branched. 

Somewhat tall, often lax, sometimes quite bent down ; 
branches slightly rough ; leaves very minute, their clasping 
stalks often close ; bracts partly approximated, but with- 
out any spicular arrangement ; flowers in small panicles ; 
staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant ; sepals 
of the staminate flowers shorter than the petals, three each, 
gradually much pointed, style obliterated ; fruit trigonous. 

L. Tasmanica. 
Stems almost branchless. 

Somewhat tall ; leaves minute, appressed ; flowers in small 
often contracted panicles ; staminate and pistillate flowers 
on the same plant ; sepals somewhat longer than the petals, 
all acute ; fruit trigonous. Ii. 

2 G 



450 Key to the System of 



RESTXO. 

1914. Stems much compressed. 

Seldom tall ; stems undivided ; leaf -stalks .closely clasping, 
only partly open, occasionally bearing a short leaf, some- 
times along the stem undeveloped ; spikelets in a simple 
panicle or raceme, rarely reduced to two or one ; floral 
bracts pointed ; sepals, petals and stamens two each ; 
anthers pointless ; styles disconnected ; fruit two-celled ; 
seeds whitish. R. complanatus. 

Stems cylindrical 1915 

1915. Stems producing repeatedly divided branchlets. 

Often tall and robust ; sterile branches bearing numerous 
minute leaves, mostly fascicular-crowded ; spikelets very 
numerous in a generally elongated panicle, from ellipsoid- 
ovate to globular, of both kinds uniform ; bracts shining- 
brown, fine-pointed ; sepals and petals of the staminate 
flowers three, of the pistillate flowers two ; stigmas two ; 
fruit very small, often only tardily opening ; seeds turgidly 
ovate, colorless. R. tetraphyllus. 

Stems branchless ... .. ... ... ... 1916 

1916. Leaf-stalks closely clasping. 

Rather tall, slender ; stem-leaves seldom developed and 
then extremely small, setular, appressed ; leaf-stalks rather 
short ; spikelets usually numerous, from ellipsoid-ovate to 
globular, the staminate smaller; floral bracts brown, 
transparent, often finely pointed ; sepals and petals of the 
staminate flowers three, of the pistillate flowers two ; 
stigmas two ; staminodia absent ; fruit minute, roundish, 
slightly pointed. R. gracilis. 

Leaf-stalks laxly clasping. 

Alpine, somewhat tall ; leaf -stalks without even rudimentary 
leaves ; spikelets several or few, seldom two or solitary, 
racemous or spicate ; bracts deep-brown, pointed ; sepals 
and petals of the staminate flowers three, of the pistillate 
flowers two ; staminodia present ; style obliterated ; fruit 
two-celled. R; australis. 

LEPTOCARPUS. 

1917. Staminate spikelets many, comparatively small. 

Often tall ; stems almost greyish, seldom divided ; leaf -stalks 
closely clasping, terminating in a deciduous tender mem- 
brane ; leaves quite rudimentary or absent ; staminate 
spikelets amply paniculate ; stamens very short ; pistillate 



Victorian Plants. 451 



spikelets in a quite contracted panicle or spike almost 
obverse-conical ; their bracts rigid, the upper spreading ; 
their sepals keeled, about as long as the petals and some- 
what pink ; stigmas red, hardly longer than the style ; 
fruit trigonous-ellipsoid. !L. tenax. 

Staminate spikelets few, comparatively large. 

Rather tall ; stems undivided, pale-green, very slender, some- 
what shining ; leaf-stalks very closely clasping, terminated 
by a soon seceding tender membrane ; leaves quite rudi- 
mentary ; staminate spikelets almost ellipsoid, generally 
bent downward, their stalks grey or whitish from a very 
short vestiture ; pistillate spikelets almost spicate ; floral 
bracts dark-brown, of either kinds of spikelets glabrous ; 
sepals and petals minute ; stamens very short ; stigmas 
hardly longer than the style ; fruit minute. 

L. Brownii. 

CAX.OSTROFHUS. 

1918. Spikelets axillary. 

Seldom tall ; branches thin ; leaves minute, setular, very 
spreading ; leaf-stalks laxly clasping, at the margin densely 
beset with hairlets ; spikelets all solitary and sessile, the 
staminate two- to four-flowered ; sepals and petals tender- 
membranous, of about equal length ; styles disconnected ; 
fruit minute, about as long as the persistent sepals and 
petals, brownish, without any stalklet. Figure 124. 

C. lateriflorus. 
Spikelets terminal. 

Never tall ; branches thin, from an extremely short vestiture 
grey ; leaf -stalks closely clasping ; leaves quite rudimen- 
tary ; staminate spikelets quite small, laxly paniculated, 
bearing several flowers ; sepals and petals three each, of 
about equal length ; anthers on a very short filament, 
erect ; pistillate spikelets comparatively large, solitary 
or occasionally two to four together ; bracts brown, 
shining, hardly pointed ; style undivided ; stigmas three ; 
fruit very small, hard, longer than the sepals and petals, 
provided with a short thick stalklet, pale, angular around 
the middle. C. fastigiatus. 

X.EFXDOBOX.US. 

1919. Floral bracts hardly fringed, quite pointless or only 

minutely pointed. 

Never tall ; stems either straight or somewhat flexuous ; 
spikelets capitular, comparatively small, occasionally 
two ; sepals ciliolated ; petals three ; anthers emerging ; 
style very thin ; fruit very small. L. drapetocoleus. 



452 Key to the System of 

ACALYCEAE HYPOGYNAE. 

CYPERACEAE. 

CHORXZANDRA. 

1920. Stems slender, with indistinct transverse partitions. 

Developed leaves stem-like ; leaf -stalks slit ; base of the 
floral leaf slightly dilated ; involucral bracts dark-colored ; 
the two outer floral bracts keeled, all ciliolated ; the 
innermost narrow ; stamens often about twelve ; anthers 
red ; stigmas two ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid, towards its 
base conical, streaked. C. enodis. 

Stems robust, with distinct transverse partitions. 

Developed leaves stem-like; leaf -stalks broad, pale and 
shining inside, soon slit to the base ; headlets usually 
depressed ; base of the floral leaf broadly dilated ; involu- 
cral bracts dark-colored ; floral bracts all nearly elliptical 
or somewhat spatular ; stamens often about twelve ; 
stigmas two or three ; fruit blackish, suddenly pointed, 
longitudinally and transversely streaked. 

C. cymbaria, 

OREOBOLUS. 

1921. Leaves exactly distichous. 

Leaves short, closely set, almost straight, often rather pale r 
their stalks much broader and open ; spikelets very small, 
solitary, axillary, on short and compressed stalks ; sepals 
and petals minute, rigid, persistent ; style with its stigmas 
deciduous ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid, very blunt, somewhat 
trigonous. O. Pumilio. 

CYATHOCHAETE. 

1922. Spikelets comparatively short, few or several to each 

principal floral leaf. 

Rather or quite tall ; leaves long, some on the stems, 
channelled, very much narrowed upwards ; panicle 
elongated, slender-branched, hardly spreading ; spikelets 
narrow; floral bracts brown, setular-pointed ; rudimen- 
tary sepals and petals ciliolated towards the base ; stamens 
and style partly exserted ; stigmas two ; fruit slender. 

C. diandra. 



Victorian Plants. 453 



CAUSTXS. 

1923. Spikelets unisexual. 

Rather tall ; flowering branches slender, hardly or only 
moderately curved ; spikelets rather large ; stamens 
generally four ; fruit turgidly ovate, the persistent por- 
tion of the style shorter. C. restiacea. 

Spikelets bisexual 1924 

1924. Flowering branches much curved. 

Somewhat or quite tall ; branches usually fascicular, very 
thin ; stem-leaves about as long as their stalk or shorter ; 
spikelets slender, glabrous ; bracts pointed ; stamens 
generally three ; fruit ovate-globular or ellipsoid, the 
persistent portion of the style about as long. 

C. flexuosa. 
Flowering branches hardly curved. 

Finally tall ; branches robust, unilaterally flattened or 
somewhat channelled ; spikelets rather large ; bracts ex- 
ternally beset with a subtle vestiture ; stamens generally 
five in the pistillate flower, less in the other ; anthers 
brown, pointed ; stigmas occasionally four ; fruit ellipsoid, 
the thick persistent portion of the style shorter. 

C. pentaudra. 

GAHNIA. 

1925. Leaves undeveloped. 

Rather dwarf and even occasionally minute ; stems slendei, 
quite straight, cylindrical ; leaf-stalks close, bearing merely 
a rudimentary leaf, none or only one towards the middle 
of the stem ; panicle very short, spikelike-contracted or 
quite spicate ; floral bracts brownish ; stamens three ; 
fruit turgidly ovate, somewhat black. 

(Cladium junceum.) G. jtincea. 

Leaves developed ... ... ... 1926 

1926. Stems and leaves hollow, with distinct transverse 

partitions. 

Very tall ; leaves stem-like, robust, cylindrical, the principal 
floral leaf continuing the stem ; panicle long, repeatedly 
compound, spikelets scattered ; floral bracts brownish ; 
stamens and stigmas three ; fruit trigonous-ovate. 

(Cladium articulatum. ) G. articulata. 

Stems and leaves solid, with faint or without any 
transverse partitions ... ... ... ... 1927 



454 Key to the System of 



1927. Leaves prominent- or compressed-quadrangular. 

Rather tall ; stems somewhat quadrangular ; leaves rather 

long ; panicle moderately or hardly spreading ; spikelets 

crowded ; floral bracts brownish, pointed, somewhat 

fringed; stamens and stigmas three; fruit turgidly obovate. 

(Cladium tetraquetrum). G. tetraqiietra. 

Leaves flat or channelled or cylindrical ... 1928 

1928. Leaves flat. 

Rather dwarf ; stems much compressed ; leaves placed ver- 
tically, moderately long, all basal, flat, hardly raised along 
the median line ; panicle contracted ; spikelets somewhat 
clustered ; floral bracts brownish, pointed ; . stamens and 
stigmas three ; fruit turgidly ovate, not rarely retained by 
the elongated stamens. 

(Cladium schoenoides.) G. schoenoides. 

Leaves channelled or cylindrical ... ... ... 1929 

1929. Floral bracts blackish 1930 

Floral bracts brownish ... 1934 

1930. Panicle much contracted ... 1931 
Panicle amply spreading ... 1932; 

1931. Spikelets minute, their fruit narrow-ellipsoid. 

Rather tall ; stems slender, leafy ; leaves long, channelled, 
much narrowed upwards, rough, straight-pointed ; panicle 
long ; spikelets scattered ; bracts much pointed ; stamens 
mostly four ; stigmas three ; fruit somewhat trigonous. 

(Cladium microstachyum.) G. microstachya. 

Spikelets of considerable size, their fruit trigonous- 
ovate. 

Rather tall ; stems leafy ; leaves long, channelled or along 
the margin involute, rough, straight-pointed ; spikelets 
scattered, narrow ; lower bracts much pointed ; stamens 
three ; anthers very narrow ; stigmas three ; fruit rather 
prominently triangular. 

(Cladium Radula.) G. Radula. 

1932. Well-matured fruit bright-red. 

Very tall, densely tufted ; stems leafy, many ; leaves very 
long, channelled, rough, much narrowed and recurved at 
the upper end ; panicle ample and much elongated, partly 



Victorian Plants. 455 



drooping ; spikelets almost scattered, turgid ; lower floral 
bracts usually pointed ; stamens three or more ; fruit 
turgidly ovate, shining, long retained by the elongated 
stamens. 

(Cladium erythrocarpum.) G. erythrocarpa. 

Well-matured fruit brownish or black ... 1933 

1933. Fruit brownish. 

Very tall, densely tufted ; stems leafy, many ; leaves very 
long, channelled, rough, much narrowed and recurved at 
the upper end ; panicle ample and much elongated, partly 
drooping ; spikelets almost scattered, turgid ; lower floral 
bracts usually blunt ; stamens from four to six ; stigmas 
three, generally bifid ; fruit turgidly ovate, long retained 
by the elongated stamens. 

(Cladium psittacorum. ) G. psittacoram. 

Fruit shining-black. 

Tall, tufted ; stems leafy, cylindrical ; leaves very long, 
channelled, much narrowed upwards, rough ; panicle long ; 
spikelets rather small, the ultimate somewhat clustered ; 
stamens usually three ; stigmas three, undivided ; fruit 
very small, turgidly ovate, long retained by the elongated 
stamens. 

(Cladium melanocarpum.) G. melanocarpa. 

1934 Leaves filiform or compressed-cylindrical ... ... 1935 

Leaves quite flat or along the margin incurved ... 1936 
1935. Stems and leaves filiform, somewhat hard. 

Rather tall; stems slender, cylindrical, as well as the scanty 
leaves grooved on one side ; panicle rather contracted, 
distantly branched ; spikelets scattered ; bracts pointed ; 
stamens and stigmas three ; fruit turgidly ovate, often 
shining-whitish and long retained by the elongated 
stamens. (Cladium Gunnii ) G. Gunnii. 

Stems and leaves compressed-cylindrical, somewhat 
soft. 

Rather tall ; steins cylindrical, hardly firm ; leaves mostly 
basal and elongated, occasionally across-partitioned, some- 
times hardly compressed ; floral leaves abbreviated ; 
panicle moderately spreading or contracted, the spikelets 
much clustered ; floral bracts fringed ; stamens and stigmas 
three ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. 

(Cladium glomeratum. ) G. glomerata. 



456 Key to the System of 



1936. Clusters of spikelets scattered in the panicle, their 

bracts blunt. 

Very tall ; leaves very long, channelled, rather broadish- 
linear, but at the upper end much narrowed, greyish- 
green, rough ; panicle leafy, widely spreading, often 
somewhat corymbous, partly recurved ; spikelets quite 
small, in ultimate capitular clusters ; stamens mostly 
two, occasionally three ; stigmas three or sometimes two 
or four ; fruit hard, turgidly ovate, slightly trigonous ; 
seed black outside. 

(Cladium Mariscus.) G. Mariscus. 

Clusters of spikelets crowded in the panicle, their 
bracts pointed ... 1937 

1937. Fruit narrow-ellipsoid, pale-colored. 

Very tall, large-tufted; stems leafy, rigid; leaves very 
long, channelled, much narrowed and recurved at the 
upper end, rough ; panicle leafy, very elongated ; spike- 
lets often irregularly crowded ; floral bracts pointed ; - 
stamens three ; fruit elongated, slightly trigonous. 

(Cladium Filum.) G. Filnm. 

Fruit turgidly ovate, dark-colored. 

Very tall, large-tufted ; stems leafy, rigid ; leaves very 
long, channelled, much narrowed and recurved at the 
upper end, rough ; panicle leafy, very elongated ; spike- 
lets often interruptedly crowded into clusters ; floral 
bracts much pointed ; stamens four to six ; stigmas three, 
one occasionally subdivided ; fruit short. 

(Cladium trifidum.) G. trifida. 

XiEPXDOSFXSRBKA. 

1938. Quite or rather tall ... ... ... 1939 

Rather dwarf 1946 

1939. Stems hollow ... ... 1940 

Stems solid ... ... 1941 

1940. Leaves rather blunt-edged. 

Stems hardly broad, compressed, leafless, blunt-edged, as 
well as the leaves of comparatively soft texture ; leaves 
very long, broadly linear, somewhat turgid, smooth, the 
lowest floral leaf already quite short ; spikelets in an 
elongated rather contracted panicle, slightly pointed ; 
rudimentary sepals and petals of only about one-third 
the length of the fruit. L. longitudinale. 



Victorian Plants. 457 



Leaves rather sharp-edged. 

Stems broad, compressed, leafless, as well as the leaves of 
comparatively soft texture ; leaves extremely long, very 
broadly linear, somewhat turgid, hardly rigid, smooth; 
the lowest floral leaf already short ; spikelets in a very 
elongated somewhat spreading panicle, slightly pointed ; 
floral bracts of this and other species occasionally almost 
distichous ; rudimentary sepals and petals of about one- 
third the length of the fruit. (Possibly a variety of the 
preceding.) L. exalt at um. 

1941. Stems and leaves quite broad ... ... ... 1942 

Stems and leaves rather narrow ... ... ... 1943 

1942. Spikelets in a comparatively short and rather con- 

tracted panicle. 

Maritime ; stems leafless, sharp-edged, much compressed ; 
leaves hard, almost ensate, the floral leaf already quite 
short ; panicle dense ; spikelets mostly ellipsoid, pointed ; 
fruit turgidly ovate. "Sword-Rush." L, gladiatum. 

Spikelets in a much elongated and rather spreading 
panicle. 

Sylvan, very tall ; stems leafless, much compressed, sharp- 
edged ; leaves very long, ensate-linear ; floral leaves much 
abbreviated, passing gradually into bracts ; branches of 
the panicle often turned to one side and somewhat bent 
downward ; spikelets mostly ellipsoid, pointed ; fruit 
globular-ovate. L. elatius. 

1943. Stems almost blunt-edged. 

Stems leafless, flat ; leaves elongated -linear ; spikelets never 
very numerous, clustered in a contracted panicle, very 
short, globular-ovate ; rudimentary sepals and petals 
shorter than the fruit. L. globosum. 

Stems rough- or sharp-edged ... ... ... ... 1944 

1944. Rudimentary sepals simply pointed. 

Stems leafless, flat or slightly convex on one side, rough- 
edged ; leaves rather long, broad-linear, the lowest floral 
leaf occasionally elongated ; spikelets in a contracted 
rather short panicle ; rudimentary sepals and petals 
always shorter than the fruit. L. viscidum. 

Rudimentary sepals extending into a capillary bristlet 1945 



458 Key to the System of 



1945. Spikelets in an elongated much contracted panicle. 

Stems leafless, quite flat or slightly convex on one side, 
sharp-edged ; leaves rather long, broad-linear ; panicle 
much exceeding the lowest floral leaf; spikelets closely 
approximated but hardly clustered, narrow-ellipsoid, 
somewhat pointed ; rudimentary sepals and petals often 
longer than the fruit. L. late rale. 

Spikelets in a short somewhat spreading panicle. 

Stems leafless, almost flat or slightly convex on one side, 
sharp-edged ; leaves rather long, broad-linear ; panicle 
rather dense, often only slightly exceeding the last floral 
leaf or even shorter ; spikelets narrow-ellipsoid, some- 
what pointed ; rudimentary sepals and petals often 
longer than the fruit. L. concavum. 

1946. Leaves almost flat. 

Stems leafless, very narrow, considerably compressed, 
dwarfed in the alps ; leaves broad-linear ; panicle quite 
short, often exceeded by the lowest floral leaf ; spikelets 
small, narrow- ellipsoid, pointed, exceptionally reduced to 
two. L. lineare. 

Leaves nearly filiform-cylindrical or almost unde- 
veloped ... ...... 1947 

1947. Spikelets large, crowded into a single fascicular 

cluster. 

Stems leafless, filiform-cylindrical, usually grooved on one 
side ; leaves similar to the stems but shorter ; floral leaves 



bract-like, hardly surpassing the spikelets, dark-colored ; 
fruit globular-ovate, longer than the rudimentary sepals 
and petals. Figure 125. L. carphoides. 



Spikelets small, arranged in a panicle ... 1948 

1948. Panicle much twisted, spike-like. 

Alpine ; stems leafless, very thin, compressed-cylindrical, 
furrowed ; leaves somewhat angular and compressed, 
slightly rough ; panicle very short, often reduced to three 
or two or even one spikelet and somewhat bent down- 
ward ; rudimentary sepals and petals about half as long 
as the fruit. 1. tortuosnm. 



Victorian Plants. 459 



Panicle without much curvature, often only scantily 
branched ... 1949 

1949. Panicle somewhat spreading ... ... ... 1950 

Panicle almost spike-like ... 1951 

1950. Stems somewhat compressed. 

Stems leafless, very narrow, almost semicylindrical ; leaves 
very narrow, rather flat ; spikelets narrow and pointed ; 
rudimentary sepals and petals shorter than the fruit. 

Ii. semiteres. 

Stems quite filiform. 

Stems leafless, thin, without any groove ; leaves rather 
elongated, rigid, somewhat compressed and channelled ; 
panicle contracted ; spikelets pointed ; style twice as 
long as the stigmas. L. canescens. 

1951. Spikelets scattered in the spike. 

Stems leafless, thinly filiform-cylindrical ; leaves much re- 
duced or almost undeveloped ; spikes quite short, few 
or two or often one only, the rhachis flexuous or nearly 
straight ; spikelets slender, occasionally reduced to three 
or even two or one ; fruit ellipsoid, much surpassing the 
rudimentary sepals and petals. L. filifbmie. 

Spikelets clustered in the spike. 

Stems leafless, thin, nearly cylindrical, grooved on one side ; 
leaves shorter, somewhat channelled, some slightly com- 
pressed ; spikelets slender ; rudimentary sepals and 
petals much shorter than the fruit. L. 



X.EPIDOSPORA. 

1952. Spikelet erect, unsupported by any floral leaf. 

From dwarf to rather tall ; stems leafless, very slender ; 
leaves basal, very narrow and channelled or obliterated ; 
spikelet broadish, considerably compressed, much nar- 
rowed upwards ; floral bracts few, dark -brown or almost 
black ; rudimentary sepals and petals shorter than the 
fruit, from lanceolar to ovate ; stigmas red ; fruit very 
small, globular-ovate, slightly trigonous, brown outside. 

L. texmissima. 



460 Key to the System of 

CARFHA. 

1953. Spikelets almost corymbously arranged. 

General appearance rather grass-like, from dwarf to rather 
tall ; leaves quite narrow, shorter than the stem, all basal 
except two floral leaves, nearly flat or somewhat chan- 
nelled, blunt ; floral bracts few, pale-brown, somewhat 
pellucid; rudimentary sepals and petals persistent, devoid 
of plume-like ciliolation at the upper end ; persistent por- 
tion of the style comparatively long and rigid ; fruit 
trigonous-ellipsoid. C. alpina. 



K.YLLINGIA. 

1954. Spikelets capitular-crowded, a second flower of each 
staminate only. 

Never tall ; leaves similar to those of grasses, shorter than 
the stems ; floral leaves generally three, unequally abbre- 
viated ; spikelets very small ; the two larger bracts unequal, 
venular-streaked, the carinular venule hardly prominent; 
fruit nearly as long as the bract, turgidly ovate, pale 
outside. K. intermedia. 



CYFERUS. 

1955. Annual ... 1956 

Perennial ... 1957 

1956. Spikelets numerous, crowded into a solitary cluster. 

Dwarf ; leaves very narrow ; conspicuous floral leaves 
usually three or two ; spikelets minute, flat ; floral bracts 
pointed, pale-greenish ; stamen often one only ; stigmas 
usually two ; fruit ovate, compressed particularly at the 
inner side. C. pygmaeus. 

Spikelets three or two or one only. 

Often very dwarf ; leaves linear-filiform ; the longer floral leaf 
erect, a shorter besides ; spikelets flat ; floral bracts blunt, 
rather pale ; stamens one or two ; stigmas three ; fruit 
trigonous-ellipsoid. C. tenellus. 

1957. Fruit triangular 1358 

Fruit triangular ... ... ... ... ... 1960 



Victorian Plants. 461 



1958. Floral bracts blunt, laterally very dark. 

From quite dwarf to somewhat tall ; stems trigonous, very 
weak ; leaves comparatively short ; spikelets flat, forming 
one to five mostly or partly sessile fascicles, seldom 
reduced to two or one ; floral bracts towards the carinular 
venule greenish- or yellowish-brown ; stamens two ; anthers 
very short ; stigmas two ; fruit roundish-obovate, com- 
pressed. C. Eragrostis. 

Floral bracts somewhat pointed, laterally brownish 
or yellowish ... 1959 1 

1959. Spikelets comparatively narrow. 

Often rather dwarf ; leaves very narrow ; conspicuous floral 
leaves two or three, of unequal length ; fascicles of spikelets 
crowded into a solitary or two or few clusters, partly 
umbellate, stalked ; spikelets flat ; floral bracts pale- or 
dark -brown, quite narrow; stamens two; fruit com- 
pressed, roundish-obovate, short in proportion to its floral 
bract. C. globosus. 

Spikelets comparatively broad. 

Often rather tall ; leaves flat ; conspicuous floral leaves one 
or two ; fascicles of spikelets partly umbellate or some- 
what spicately or capitularly arranged ; spikelets flat ; 
floral bracts pale-yellowish- or greenish-brown, hardly 
pointed, shining ; stamens often three ; stigmas two ; fruit 
much compressed, from ovate to rhomboid-orbicular, short 
in proportion to its floral bract, greyish outside. 

C. unioloides. 

1960. Comparatively dwarf 1961 

Comparatively tall ... 1965 

1961. Floral bracts pointed ... 1962 

Floral bracts blunt ... ... ... 1963. 

1962. Fascicles of spikelets singly terminal. 

Rather or quite dwarf ; stems very thin ; leaves very 
narrow ; conspicuous floral leaves one to three ; spikelets 
flat, quite small, one to three or few, seldom numerous ; 
floral bracts greenish, lined with prominent venules ; 
stamens three ; stigmas three ; fruit trigonous, broadish 
upwards. C. gracilis. 



462 Key to the System of 



Fascicles of spikelets umbellate. 

Stems weak, very thin ; basal leaves flat, few or occasionally 
undeveloped ; conspicuous floral leaves lax, four or fewer ; 
spikelets few in each fascicle, flat ; floral bracts slightly 
distant, acute, pale, with three venules ; stigmas three ; 
fruit sharply triangular, smooth. C. trinervis. 

1963. Floral bracts about as long as broad, minute. 

Stems slender ; leaves mostly rather short, occasionally 
undeveloped ; floral leaves one to three ; spikelets very 
short and narrow, densely crowded into several partly 
umbellate fascicles ; floral bracts numerous, dark-brown, 
nearly orbicular ; stamens one or two ; stigmas three ; 
fruit sharply triangular. C. difformis. 

Floral bracts longer than broad, small ... 1964 

1964. Root without any tubers. 

Stems slender, sometimes rather dwarf, always lax ; leaves 
narrow ; conspicuous floral leaves three or four ; fascicles 
of spikelets in a compound umbel ; spikelets much com- 
pressed, few in each fascicle ; floral bracts laterally dark- 
brown ; anthers very narrow ; stigmas three ; fruit 
broadish, much shorter than its bract, pale, prominently 
triangular. C. COUCiuutlS. 

Root producing tubers. 

Seldom tall ; leaves rather short ; conspicuous floral leaves 
usually one or two ; fascicles of spikelets somewhat 
spicate, forming a simple umbel or a solitary cluster ; 
spikelets much compressed ; floral bracts brown, venular- 
streaked ; stigmas three ; frait considerably shorter than 
its bract, pointed, prominently triangular. 

C. rotundas. 

1965. Stems quite cylindrical. 

Seldom dwarf ; stems generally numerous, tough ; basal 
leaves almost undeveloped ; floral leaves rigid, often 
several, rarely much elongated ; spikelets crowded into 
a solitary cluster or arranged into few or several umbellate 
fascicles ; floral bracts laterally dark -brown, somewhat 
pointed ; stigmas three ; fruit broadish, prominently 
triangular. (C. textilis.) C. vaginatus. 

Stems conspicuously triangular ... ... ... 1966 



Victorian Plants. 463 



1966. Floral bracts moderately approximated, of conspicuous 

size. 

Stems robust, often very tall, rough at the edges ; leaves 
much elongated, comparatively broad ; floral leaves three 
or often more, also very long and broadish ; spikelets 
narrow, rather long, very spreading, pointed, in rather 
long often compound-umbellate spikes, or sometimes 
almost in fascicles ; floral bracts blunt, deep-brown, few 
or several, seldom numerous ; stigmas three ; fruit 
narrowly trigonous-ellipsoid, pointed. C. lucidus. 

Ploral bracts closely approximated, very small. 

Stems often very tall, smooth at the edges ; leaves much 
elongated, comparatively broad ; one or two of the floral 
leaves particularly long ; spikelets rather short though 
usually with many flowers, gathered into compound- 
umbellate quite elongated spikes ; floral bracts laterally 
brownish, somewhat pointed, shining ; anthers pointless ; 
stigmas three ; fruit very small, rather narrow, trigonous. 

C. exaltatus. 

SCHOENUS. 

1967. Leaves conspicuously developed ... ... ... 1968 

Leaves almost undeveloped ... ... 1972 

1968. Stem-leaves usually present ... ... 1969 

Stem-leaves usually absent ... ... 1970 

1969. Spikelets minute, only two or three together. 

Quite dwarf, often pale -green ; stems very thin ; leaves 
setular- or filiform-linear ; spikelets mostly axillary, each 
producing only one fruit ; sepals and petals reduced to 
bristlets ; fruit pale outside. S. axillaris. 

Spikelets rather small, few or several together. 

Stems rather thin and dwarf ; leaves narrow-linear, most of 
the floral leaves much abbreviated ; fascicles of spikelets 
sessile or stalked, often axillary and clustered ; floral 
bracts comparatively narrow, dark- or black-brown ; 
flowers usually two ; sepals and petals reduced to brist- 

. lets ; anthers very short ; fruit pale outside. 

8. apogon. 



464 Key to the System of 



1970. Very robust. 

Very tall ; amply and densely tufted, finally forming quite 
big and very ponderous trunks above ground ; stems com- 
pressed, very long, many from each trunk ; leaves also 
of great length, broad-linear, very rigid, slightly chan- 
nelled, the floral leaves quite rudimentary; leaf -stalks 
open, somewhat fringed ; spikelets numerous, in a large 
terminal capitular cluster ; flowers two, but only one fruit- 
bearing ; rudimentary sepals setular ; rudimentary petals 
absent ; fruit compressed or trigonous, cuneate-obovate, 
pointed. "Trunk -Rush." S. sphaerocephalus. 

Very slender 1971 

1971. Floral bracts light-brown, without any lustre. 

Rather dwarf ; stems very thin ; leaves few, short, thinly fili- 
form, sometimes channelled, occasionally obliterated, the 
lowest floral leaf generally somewhat distant, one rudi- 
mentary leaf occasionally near the middle of the stem ; 
spikelets one to four, almost terminal, quite small, soon 
somewhat turgid ; floral bracts pointed ; flowers two but 
only one fruit-bearing ; sepals and petals reduced to 
minute bristlets ; fruit turgid, blunt, from prominent 
streaks somewhat angular. S. p auditor us. 

Floral bracts black-brown, shining. 

Chiefly maritime, dwarf, producing offshoots from the root ; 
stems very thin ; leaves few, filiform, short, slightly 
channelled ; the lowest floral leaf often well developed 
and erect ; spikelets one to seven, very small, almost 
lateral; floral bracts blunt; flowers two; sepals and 
petals reduced to bristlets, conspicuously ciliolated to- 
wards the base ; fruit shining. S. nitens. 

1972. Inflorescence abbreviated ... ... .. ... 1973 

Inflorescence elongated ... ... ... ... 1976 

1973. Base of the style finally much enlarged. 

Never tall; stem threadlike-thin, very weak; tubular 
leaf-stalks as well as the floral bracts quite glabrous, the 
latter dark- or black-brown ; spikelets from one to eleven, 
quite short and narrow, sessile or when more than few 
together somewhat paniculated ; sepals and petals absent ; 
fruit ovate, terminated by the large turgid base of the 
style, only one developed. S. capillaris. 

Base of the style remaining unenlarged ... ... 1974 



Victorian Plants. 465 



1974. Floral bracts at their margin densely beset with 

hairlets. 

Seldom tall ; steins thin, furrowed ; clusters of spikelets 
two or few, partly stalked ; spikelets small, curved and 
pointed ; flowers two ; floral bracts nearly black ; rudi- 
mentary sepals and petals absent ; fruit blunt, rugulous. 

S. ericetorum, 

Floral bracts nearly or quite glabrous ... 1975 

1975. Stamens usually three. 

Seldom tall ; stems slender, slightly furrowed ; spikelets 
small, crowded into a solitary cluster ; flowers two ; rudi- 
mentary sepals and petals absent ; fruit blunt, rugulous. 

S. imberbis. 

Stamens usually four to seven. 

Never tall ; stems undivided, subtile -streaked ; leaves quite 
rudimentary, basal and floral only ; spikelets many, 
crowded into a solitary almost terminal cluster ; floral 
bracts brown ; flowers two ; rudimentary sepals and 
petals absent ; fruit smooth, blunt, slightly angular. 

S. aphyllus. 

1976. Leaf-stalks quite glabrous. 

Rather tall ; stems rigid ; the lowest of the rudimentary 
floral leaves occasionally distant ; spikelets rather long, 
somewhat clustered in a narrow panicle ; floral bracts 
brown ; flowers three to five ; rudimentary sepals and 
petals absent ; stamens three ; fruit pale-brownish out- 
side. S. brevifolius. 

Leaf-stalks at the summit beset with hairlets. 

Tall ; stems straight, rigid, undivided ; tubular leaf -stalks 
basal and floral only ; leaves rudimentary or obliterated ; 
spikelets mostly stalked, much compressed, clustered in a 
somewhat unilateral panicle ; floral bracts blunt, nearly 
black ; flowers one to three ; rudimentary sepals and 
petals almost or quite absent ; fruit pale outside, rugular- 
rough. S. melanostachys. 



SCXRPUS. 

1977. Tall ... ... ... 1978 

Dwarf 1982 

2H 



466 Key to the System of 

1978. Stems triangular 1979 

Stems cylindrical or somewhat compressed ... ... 1981 

1979. Leaves nearly trigonous. 

Shoots creeping ; stem firm ; leaves two or few, elongated, 
rigid, channelled and keeled-angular ; spikelets few or 
several in a lateral cluster, all sessile ; floral bracts usually 
dark -brown, pointed from below the bilobed summit ; 
rudimentary sepals and petals reduced to bristlets or 
partly absent; apex of the anthers pointed, rough; 
stigmas two or three ; fruit bi- or tri- angular, broadest 
upwards. S. pungens. 

Leaves nearly flat ... ... ... ... ... 1980 

1980. Spikelets quite large, but hardly numerous, yellowish- 

or dark-brown. 

Stems leafy, often partly submerged ; leaves very long, 
broad -linear, keeled, but otherwise flat ; spikelets gene- 
rally in a leafy somewhat compound terminal cyme ; 
summit of the floral bracts receding from the terminal 
point ; rudimentary sepals and petals reduced to bristlets 
or partly absent ; fruit bi- or tri-angular, almost truncate 
but pointed, shining. S. maritimus. 

Spikelets very numerous, but hardly large, blackish- 
green. 

Stems leafy, very tall ; leaves broad-linear, at the margin 
and keel rough, the floral leaves also much elongated ; 
spikelets large, dispersed or oftener clustered in a com- 
pound leafy cyme ; rudimentary sepals and petals changed 
into much elongated capillary bristlets, variously curved 
and towards the upper end densely ciliolated ; fruit pale ; 
plan-convex, on the outer side bluntly angular, slightly 
pointed. S. poly st achy us. 

1981. Stems robust, bearing a cyme of large spikelets. 

Often very tall and partly submerged ; stems of soft texture, 
cylindrical or very slightly compressed ; basal leaves 
often undeveloped, occasionally flattened, one conspicuous 
almost cylindric and pointed floral leaf continuing the 
stem ; spikelets large, many-flowered, in an almost ter- 
minal generally compound cyme, either dispersed or 
clustered ; floral bracts brown, broad, blunt or infra- 
terminally pointed ; rudimentary sepals and petals reduced 
to reversedly rough bristlets or partly absent ; stigmas 
two or three ; fruit bi- or tri-angular. S. lacustris. 



Victorian Plants. 467 



Stems slender, bearing a cluster of small spikelets. 

Never very tall ; shoots creeping ; stems rather rigid, gene- 
rally somewhat compressed ; leaves almost undeveloped, 
but the floral one terminating the stem ; spikelets many, 
in an infra-terminal cluster; floral bracts dark-brown; 
rudimentary sepals and petals absent ; stigmas three ; 
fruit on an elevated base, inequally triangular, shining. 

S nodosns. 

1982. Stems somewhat robust. 

Tufted ; stems cylindric, lax, of soft texture, streaked, partly 
somewhat prostrate ; basal leaves undeveloped, generally 
a mere leaf -stalk developed also towards the middle of the 
stem ; floral leaf much elongated, comparatively thick, 
continuing the stem often very much beyond the inflores- 
cence ; spikelets two to six together, sessile, rather long, 
narrow- or cylindric -ellipsoid ; seldom a solitary flower 
developed also from the inner base of the stalk of a radical 
leaf ; floral bracts pointed, often pale, rather fugacious ; 
rudimentary sepals and petals often absent ; stamens three 
or occasionally two ; stigmas three or two ; fruit tri- or 
bi-angular, blackish, transversely rugular-striate. 

S. supinus. 

Stems quite thin ... ... ... ... ... 1983 

1983. Often creeping and floating ... ... ... ... 1984 

Often simply tufted ... 1985 

1984. Spikelet usually very small, few-flowered. 

Shoots often elongated, very thin ; stems solitary, short and 
quite thin ; leaves short, thinly linear-filiform, often only 
one or two or three at each node ; floral leaf generally un- 
developed ; spikelet terminal, solitary ; floral bracts faintly 
streaked, blunt, usually pale ; rudimentary sepals and 
petals absent ; stamens three ; stigmas two ; fruit flat, 
pale, orbicular-obovate, thin-edged, slightly pointed. 

S. fluitans. 

Spikelet usually conspicuous, many-flowered. 

Alpine ; seldom floating, but emitting elongated shoots ; 
stems very short, thin, solitary ; leaves thinly linear, 
never numerous from any of the nodes or for any of the 
stems ; floral leaf undeveloped ; spikelet terminal, solitary; 
floral bracts blunt, rather strongly streaked, greenish with 
a brown tinge ; rudimentary sepals and petals absent ; 
stamens three ; stigmas two ; fruit almost orbicular, flat, 
rather thick-edged, pale. (Perhaps a variety of the pre- 
ceding.) S. crassiusculus. 



468 Key to the System of 



1985. Floral leaf undeveloped. 

Often very dwarf ; stems quite thin ; leaves all undeveloped ; 
spikelet minute, solitary, terminal, rather many-flowered; 
floral bracts blunt, without any prominent streaks ; rudi- 
mentary sepals and petals absent ; stigmas two ; fruit pale, 
almost orbicular. S. arenarius. 

Floral leaf developed ... 1985 

1986. Normally one stamen only. 

Seldom floating, but often emitting elongated shoots ; stems 
thin ; leaves short, very narrow, usually only one well 
developed for each stem, but several or few at each node ; 
the floral leaf erect, much abbreviated, yet extending 
beyond the inflorescence ; spikelets quite small, several or 
few in a simple or prolifically double or triple cluster, or 
reduced occasionally to two or one ; floral bracts blunt, 
somewhat streaked, greenish with partly brown coloration; 
rudimentary sepals and petals absent ; stigmas much 
oftener three than two ; fruit smooth, mostly triangular, 
hardly longer than broad. S. inuiidatus. 

Normally three stamens ... ... ... ... 1987 

1987. Sides of the fruit longitudinally well-streaked. 

Often very dwarf ; stems almost setular-thin ; leaves 
capillary -narrow ; floral leaf erect, extended beyond the 
inflorescence; spikelets one to three, minute, few-flowered; 
rudimentary sepals and petals absent ; stigmas three ; 
fruit very minute, roundish-turgid, slightly triangular. 

S. setaceus. 

Sides of the fruit with hardly any streaks. 

1988. Floral bracts almost streakless. 

Stems very thin ; basal leaves often undeveloped ; floral leaf 
usually much extended beyond the inflorescence ; spikelets 
one to three, very small, few-flowered ; floral bracts blunt; 
rudimentary sepals and petals absent ; stigmas three ; fruit 
bluntly triangular, smooth or slightly granular-rough. 

S. riparius. 
Floral bract prominently streaked. 

Often very dwarf; stems quite thin; leaves very narrow; 
the floral leaf somewhat or much extending beyond the 
inflorescence ; spikelets quite small, few in a solitary 
cluster, or reduced occasionally to two or one, few-flowered ; 
floral bracts rather firm; rudimentary sepals and petals 
absent; anthers from linear to ellipsoid; stigmas three; 
fruit prominently triangular, slightly longer than broad. 

S. cartilagineus. 



Victorian Plants. 469 



HELEOCHARIS. 

1989. Stems hollow, the cavity intercepted by transverse 

partitions. 

Tall, somewhat submerged ; root tuber-bearing ; stems tall, 
comparatively thick ; spikelet long, cylindrical ; floral 
bracts numerous, blunt, often intra-marginally dark- 
colored, without any prominent keel ; anthers very nar- 
row ; stigmas two or three ; fruit somewhat compressed, 
subtile-dotted, greyish-brown, shining. 

H. sphacelata. 

Stems solid 1990 

1990. Stems almost capillary. 

Quite dwarf, often producing offshoots ; stems quite short, 
somewhat angular ; spikelet minute ; floral bracts few, 
dark-brown, blunt ; rudimentary sepals and petals only 
partially present ; stigmas three ; fruit extremely small, 
trigonous, pale. H. acicularis. 

Stems thickly filiform 1991 

1991. Fruit triangular. 

Producing radical offshoots ; stems rather dwarf ; spikelet 
short, ovate-ellipsoid ; floral bracts mostly blunt, dis- 
tinctly keeled, laterally brown ; stigmas three. 

H. inulticaulis. 

Fruit biangular. 

Producing offshoots ; stems without any angular lines ; 
spikelet ellipsoid-cylindrical, somewhat pointed ; floral 
bracts dark- or black-brown, distinctly keeled ; stigmas 
two ; fruit convex on both sides. H. acuta. 

FXIVXBRISTYXiZS. 

1992. Perennial ... 1993 

Annual 1994 

1993. Fruit longitudinally and transversely streaked. 

Rather tall and firm ; stems somewhat angular or com- 
pressed ; leaves few, quite narrow ; spikelets in a 
generally compound cymous umbel, ovate-ellipsoid ; floral 
bracts brown ; stamens two or one ; style flattened, cilio- 
lated ; stigmas two ; fruit biconvex, whitish. 

F. c omniums. 



470 Key to the System of 



Fruit almost smooth. 

Rather tall and firm ; stems somewhat angular ; basal leaves 
few, quite short ; one or two of the floral leaves some- 
times rather elongated ; spikelets in a simple or somewhat 
compound cymous umbel, ovate-ellipsoid, exceptionally 
reduced to two or one ; stamens three ; floral bracts 
brown ; style ciliolated ; stigmas two ; fruit biconvex. 

P. ferruginea. 

1994. Style fringed-ciliolate. 

Rather dwarf and lax ; stems thinly filiform ; basal leaves 
many, short, very narrow, mostly beset with minute 
hairlets ; floral leaves several ; spikelets in a compound 
cymous umbel, ovate-ellipsoid ; floral bracts light-brown ; 
stamen one only ; stigmas two ; fruit covered with the 
reflexed hairlets of the styles. P, velata. 

Style nearly or quite glabrous. 

Rather dwarf and lax ; leaves many, short, very narrow, 
mostly beset with minute hairlets ; floral leaves several ; 
spikelets quite small, in a compound cymous umbel, ovate- 
ellipsoid ; floral bracts light-brown ; stamens less often 
two than one ; stigmas two ; fruit transparent, digonous, 
smooth. P. aestivalis. 

X.IFOCARFHA. 

1995. Annual, dwarf. 

Leaves quite short, very narrow ; spikelets six or fewer, 
generally globular ; floral bracts numerous, very narrow, 
usually pale, pointed, soon fugacious ; rudimentary sepals 
two, scale-like, colorless, narrow, connivent, to be re- 
garded rather calycine than bracteal ; stigmas two ; fruit 
linear-ellipsoid, compressed. L. inicrocephala. 

CAREX. 

1996. Stigmas two, fruit-coyer and fruit biangular ... 1997 

Stigmas three, fruit-cover and fruit triangular ... 2006 

1997. Spikelet constantly one only. 

Alpine, comparatively dwarf ; stems very thin ; leaves 
narrow-linear; floral leaf undeveloped; spikelet from 
globular to ellipsoid-ovate ; staminate flowers few, 
terminal; pistillate flowers several; floral bracts almost 
ovate, brown ; fruit-cover (perigynium) lanceolar-ovate, 
short-pointed, greenish but black -brown at the summit; 
fruit orbicular-ovate, brownish-yellow, shining. 

C. cephalotes. 



Victorian Plants. 471 



Spikelets few or several, seldom two, exceptionally 
one 1998 

Spikelets numerous .- .. .. ... ... 2004 

1998. Spikelets abbreviated 1999 

Spikelets elongated ... 2003 

1999. Floral leaves elongated. 

Comparatively dwarf ; leaves linear ; spikelets crowded 
into an irregular spike or into a cluster, small, almost 
ellipsoid-ovate, with the staminate flowers at the base of 
each; floral bracts pointed, usually greenish, occasionally 
brownish, but towards the margin pale ; fruit-cover ovate, 
plan-convex, venular-streaked, ciliolated, much con- 
tracted at the summit ; fruit much compressed, sessile. 

C. in versa. 

Floral leaves almost obliterated 2000 

2000. Bracts blunt 2001 

Bracts pointed ... ... ... 2002 

2001. Spikelets globular-ovate. 

Here alpine only ; stems often comparatively dwarf ; offshoots 
short ; leaves broadish-linear, flaccid ; spikelets small, from 
turgid-ovate to ellipsoid, sessile, either somewhat distant 
or irregularly crowded into a single spike, with the 
staminate flowers at the base of each ; floral bracts tender, 

Eale, hardly pointed ; rhacheole rudimentary, occasionally 
ract-bearing, often absent; fruit-cover ovate, faintly 
streaked, plan-convex, short-pointed ; fruit flattened. 

C. canescens. 

Spikelets narrow-ellipsoid. 

Alpine, comparatively dwarf; leaves broadish-linear ; lowest 
floral leaf occasionally elongated ; spikelets irregularly 
crowded into a single spike, the staminate flowers particu- 
larly developed only at the base of the terminal spikelets ; 
floral bracts nearly black, ovate, blunt ; fruit-cover much 
compressed, ovate, simply acute, pale, glabrous. 

C. hypandra. 



472 Key to the System of 



2002. Spikelets finally about as long as broad, with upwards 

much attenuated fruit-covers. 

Here alpine only, comparatively dwarf; leaves broadish- 
linear, the floral leaves undeveloped ; spikelets small, 
always few only, somewhat distant or irregularly 
crowded into a single spike, with the staminate flowers 
at the base of each ; bracts somewhat pointed, pale- 
greenish or rather brownish ; fruit- covers very spreading, 
lanceolar-ovate, plan-convex, subtily streaked, the bi- 
denticular apex rough ; stigmas two ; fruit roundish, 
compressed. C. e chin at a. 

Spikelets finally about doubly as long as broad, with 
upwards slightly attenuated fruit-covers. 

Comparatively dwarf, producing offshoots ; leaves broadish- 
linear, often rather short, the floral leaves seldom well 
developed ; spikelets small, irregularly crowded into a 
single spike, with the staminate flowers at the summit of 
each ; floral bracts oftener partly greenish than brownish, 
pointed ; fruit-cover much compressed, ovate-lanceolar, 
hardly pointed, ciliolated ; fruit flat. C. chlorantha. 

2003. Bracts blunt. 

Often comparatively tall, producing offshoots ; stems acutely 
and roughly angular ; leaves elongated, broadish-linear ; 
lowest floral leaf rather long ; spikelets few, distinct, erect, 
sessile unless the lowest, somewhat cylindrical, the termi- 
nal one and occasionally also the second entirely staminate, 
the others pistillate or only at the upper end staminate ; 
floral bracts almost black, often with a green mid-line ; 
fruit-cover much compressed, nearly ovate, almost or quite 
blunt, venular-streaked, slightly pointed. 

(C. Gaudichaudiana. ) C caespitosa. 

Bracts much pointed. 

Often quite tall ; stems acutely and roughly angular ; leaves 
long, broad-linear, conspicuously keeled, lowest floral leaf 
much elongated ; spikelets several, distinct, somewhat 
bent over, elongate-cylindrical, the upper two to five en- 
tirely staminate, the lowest of them occasionally ramified; 
pistillate spikelets three to five, the lowest of them gene- 
ally on a long very thin stalk, its lower flowers often remote; 
floral bracts quite narrow, almost black, pointed ; fruit- 
cover orbicular- or ellipsoid-ovate, brownish or greenish, 
slightly compressed, suddenly contracted at the summit, 
faintly venular-streaked; fruit orbicular-ovate, yellowish, 
smooth, shining. C. acnta. 



Victorian Plants. 473 



2004. Stems cylindrical. 

Comparatively tall, light- or greyish-green, of rather soft 
texture; stems smooth, somewhat hollow; leaves linear, 
almost smooth, channelled -folded ; floral leaves un- 
developed ; spikelets very small, ovate, crowded into a 
spike-like panicle ; floral bracts pointed ; fruit-cover 
plan-convex, ovate-roundish, venular-streaked, suddenly 
contracted into the short apex, slightly ciliolated. 

C. tereticaulis. 

Stems triangular 2005 

2005. Fruit-cover ciliolar-rough, upwards suddenly con- 

tracted. 

Often very tall and robust; leaves much elongated, broad- 
linear ; floral leaves never well developed ; spikelets very 
small, mostly ellipsoid -ovate and slightly pointed, crowded 
into an often very long and contracted panicle, with the 
staminate flowers at the summit of each; floral bracts 
often dull-brownish, ovate, slightly pointed; fruit-cover 
ovate, much compressed, venular-streaked. 

C. panicnlata. 

Fruit-cover glabrous, upwards gradually contracted. 

Comparatively tall ; leaves very long, broadish-linear, rough 
at the edges ; floral leaves undeveloped ; spikelets very 
small, crowded into a rather long very contracted panicle, 
with the staminate flowers at the summit of each; floral 
bracts tender-membranous, quite pale ; fruit-cover slender, 
glabrous, venular-streaked, slightly compressed. 

C. declinata. 

2006. Spikelet one only. 

Alpine, quite dwarf; stems very thin; leaves threadlike- 
linear; lowest floral leaf short, erect, almost continuing 
the stem ; spikelet minute, with only two or few flowers; 
floral bracts much pointed; fruit-cover upwards very 
slender ; rhacheole minute, setular ; fruit trigonous- 
ellipsoid, pointed. C. acicularis. 

Spikelets few or several ... ... ... ... 2007 

2007. Spikelets all sessile, unless the lowest 2008 

Spikelets mostly or all conspicuously stalked ... 2012 



474 Key to the System of 



2008. Terminal spikelet only staminate towards the base. 

Alpine, hardly tall ; leaves broadish-linear ; edges of the 
leaf -stalks fibrous-reticularly held together; lowest floral 
leaf rather conspicuous ; spikelets few, distinct but 
approximated, almost ellipsoid or short- cylindrical, sessile 
or the lowest slightly stalked, the terminal one broader, 
with pistillate flowers from below the middle to the sum- 
mit, the other spikelets entirely pistillate; floral bracts 
very small, much pointed, dark-brown with green mid- 
line ; fruit-cover greenish, trigonous-ellipsoid, blunt, 
venular-streaked ; fruit trigonous-obovate, dotted. 

C. Buxbaumii, 

Terminal spikelet entirely staminate ... .. 2009 

2009. Contracted apex of the fruit-cover quite short. 

Rather tall ; stems slender ; leaves broadish-linear, the 
floral leaves elongated ; spikelets few, distinct but mostly 
approximated, rather short, the terminal one entirely 
staminate, the others pistillate, the lowest often stalked 
and sometimes distant ; floral bracts narrow, finely 
pointed, to some extent colorless ; fruit-cover dark- 
colored, strongly streaked, ovate-globular, bidenticular- 
pointed. C. Brownii. 

Contracted apex of the fruit-cover rather long ... 2010 

2010. Fruit-cover of thick texture. 

Widely creeping, rather dwarf ; stems faintly angular ; 
leaves rather long, broad-linear, much pointed ; the 
floral leaves also elongated ; spikelets few or several, 
distinct, the two or three upper approximated, slender 
and entirely staminate ; the lower spikelets stout, mostly 
ovate-cylindrical, almost entirely pistillate, somewhat re- 
mote ; floral bracts dark- colored but pale towards the 
margin, pointed ; fruit-cover comparatively large, ovate- 
ellipsoid, narrowed into a conspicuously bidenticular 
apex ; fruit dark-brown. C> pumila. 

Fruit-cover of thin texture ... ... ... ... 2011 

2011. Fruit-cover usually beset with very minute hairlets. 

Often dwarf ; leaves broadish-linear ; principal floral leaves 
generally elongated ; spikelets few or occasionally two, 
distinct, short-cylindrical, the terminal one more slender 
and entirely staminate, the others pistillate or staminate 
at and towards their upper end ; floral bracts mostly fine- 
pointed ; fruit-cover trigonous-ovate, attenuated towards 
the summit, venular-streaked. C. breviculniis. 



Victorian Plants. 475- 



Fruit-cover always glabrous. 

Rather tall ; leaves broadish-linear ; floral leaves elongated ; 
spikelets few, distant, rather long, nearly cylindrical, the 
terminal one entirely staminate and sometimes accessorily 
doubled or tripled, the others pistillate ; floral bracts 
pointed ; fruit -cover turgid, attenuated into a rather long 
apex. C. Guuniaua. 



2012. Spikelets more than one from most of the axils. 

Tall ; leaves very long, broad-linear ; floral leaves also much 
elongated, their stalks closely cylindrical ; spikelets 

' usually many even to the number of twenty, much elon- 
gated, slender, the majority long-stalked and thus some- 
what pendent, the few upper staminate, the others largely 
or some completely pistillate and often from two to five 
together ; bracts pale yellowish-brown or to some extent 
colorless, suddenly pointed ; fruit-cover rather long, 
trigonous- ellipsoid, streaked, much attenuated into the 
bidenticular summit and also constricted towards the 
base, rough along the angles. C. long'ifolia. 

Spikelets all single, and from distinct axils 2013 



2013. Bracts of the pistillate flowers gradually pointed. 

Tall ; stems robust ; leaves long, broad-linear ; floral leaves 
also much elongated ; spikelets several, distant, almost 
erect, rather slender, the lowest often particularly long, 
one to three of the upper entirely staminate, the others 
pistillate ; fruit-cover comparatively long, greenish, 
smooth, few-streaked, trigonous-ovate, much attenuated 
towards the bidenticular summit. C. alsophila. 

Bracts of the pistillate flowers setular-pointed. 

Often very tall ; stems robust, rough along the angle ; leaves 
very long, broad-linear ; floral leaves also much elongated, 
all rough at the edges ; spikelets few or several, distant, 
mostly very long, cylindrical, the terminal one staminate, 
the others pistillate, on long almost capillary stalks and 
thus bending downward ; bracts proportionately small, 
particularly narrow, long- and rough-pointed ; fruit-cover 
very spreading, greenish, trigonous-ellipsoid, closely 
streaked, pungently attenuated towards the bifid summit, 
constricted at the base. C. Fseuclo-Cyperus. 



476 Key to the System of 



ITNCINIA. 

2014. Slender. 

Sylvan, rather dwarf; steins very thin; leaves flaccid, 
narrow-linear, scattered along the lower portion of the 
stem ; spikelets comparatively short, never turgid, gene- 
rally unsupported by any conspicuous floral leaf ; staminate 
flowers few, terminal ; stamens two only ; pistillate flowers 
several ; stigmas three ; floral bracts greenish, pointless ; 
utricular cover of rhacheole and fruit greenish, gradually 
much attenuated upwards ; fruit about twice as long as 
broad. U. tenella. 

Robust ... ... ...... 2015 

2015. Leaves usually shorter than the stem. 

Alpine ; leaves broadish-linear, somewhat rigid, chiefly 
towards the base of the stem ; spikelet rather short, 
many-flowered, often supported by a conspicuous floral 
leaf; staminate flowers terminal; floral bracts either 
greenish or brownish, oval-lanceolar ; stamens three ; 
stigmas three ; utricular cover of rhacheole and fruit gra- 
dually attenuated upwards ; fruit fully twice as long as 
broad. U. compacta. 

Leaves usually longer than the stem. 

Rather tall ; leaves broad -linear, somewhat flaccid, chiefly 
along the lower portion of the stem ; spikelet elongated, 
very slender, generally unsupported by any conspicuous 
floral leaf ; floral bracts greenish, pointless ; staminate 
flowers terminal, few or several ; stamens three ; pistillate 
flowers numerous ; stigmas three ; utricular cover of 
rhacheole and fruit much attenuated upwards ; fruit 
about three times as long as broad. U. riparia. 



(Grasses). 

KIEROCKX.OA. 

2016. Outer bracts about as long as the inner. 

Here mostly alpine or subalpine, often tall ; leaves broadish, 
somewhat channelled ; membrane inside at the upper 
end of the leaf -stalk conspicuous ; spikelets somewhat 
crowded in an usually elongated and lax panicle ; bracts 
(glumes) pellucid, the supra-basal two ciliolated and often 
produced into a short setular elongation (awn) ; stamens 
of the pistillate flower only two ; anthers bilobed at both 
ends (like those of most other grasses) ; styles disunited. 

H. redolens. 



Victorian Plants. 477 



Outer bracts much shorter than the inner. 

Somewhat tall ; leaves rather narrow, much pointed ; spike- 
lets scattered, in a comparatively short panicle ; outer 
bracts often somewhat purplish, all rather firm, constantly 
awnless, the inner blunt, pale -greenish and more opaque ; 
stamens of the pistillate flowers only two ; styles about 
as long as the stigmas. H. rariflora. 

EHRHARTA. 

2017. Inflorescence paniculate. 

Rather tall, long enduring through the season ; leaves 
upwards narrow, gradually pointed, seldom much elon- 
gated ; panicle quite long, lax ; lowest bracts minute, 
quite rudimentary, the next two large, but narrow and 
ending in long awns, particularly so the inner, a tuft of 
hairlets below their base ; the fruit-covering bract absent ; 
stamens four ; styles very much shorter than the stigmas. 
Figure 126. E. stipoides. 

Inflorescence spicate ... ... ... ... ... 201 

2018. Climbing, very intricately branched. 

Often reaching a considerable height and then widely rami- 
fied ; leaves narrow, rather rigid, never much elongated ; 
spikelets slightly distant in the spike or all quite approxi- 
mated ; bracts blunt, glabrous and awnless, the inner 
gradually longer except the last ; the fruit -cover ing 
bract absent ; stamens four ; styles shorter than the 
stigmas. E. junceae. 

Ascending or erect, branchless or scantily branched ... 2019 

2019. All bracts blunt. 

Partly creeping, often beset with minute hairlets ; leaves 
short, rather rigid, gradually pointed, the upper incurved 
along the margin ; spikelets usually closely together in 
the spike ; fourth and fifth bracts very much longer than 
the first and second, all these venular-streaked ; the fruit- 
covering bract absent ; stamens four ; styles shorter than 
the stigmas. E. distichophylla. 

Inner bracts pointed. 

Partly prostrate, then ascending ; leaves rather short, 
broadish ; spikelets slightly distant in the spike ; bracts 
strongly venular-streaked, the two lowest very much 
shortened ; the fruit-covering bract absent ; stamens 
four ; styles shorter than the stigmas. E. acuniinata. 



478 Key to the System of 



LEPTURUS. 

2020. Spike often curved. 

A coast-grass, never tall ; stems slender, generally ascend- 
ing ; leaves short, quite narrow, soon incurved along the 
margin ; stalk of the upper leaves turgid ; lowest bracts 
two, pointed, the outer five-streaked, t. incurvatus. 

Spike often straight. 

A coast-grass, usually dwarf and ascending ; leaves rather 
narrow, never long ; lowest bract one, pointed, five- 
streaked. L. cylindricus. 

PAPFOPXORUM. 

2021. Fruit-supporting bracts terminated each by nine very 

short setular awns. 

Seldom tall ; leaves moderately long ; spike-like panicle 
short, somewhat cylindrical, from pale-greenish varying 
to dark-colored ; outer bracts longitudinally several- or 
many-streaked, surrounded and partly invested by soft 
hairlets ; undivided portion of the fruit-supporting bract 
very short. P. commune. 

ERXANTHUS. 

2022. Spike-like panicles usually two or three, jointly ter- 

minal, brownish from dense vestiture. 
Desert-grass, often tall ; leaves rather narrow, much 
pointed ; panicular or racemous spikes occasionally in- 
creased to five or diminished to one ; awn quite short. 

E. fulvus. 

ANDROPOGON, 

2023. Spikes of spikelets terminating the stem 2024 

Spikes of spikelets paired in a contracted panicle or 
most of the spikelets ternately dispersed in an ample 
panicle ... 2027 

2024. Outer bract always with an impression towards the 

middle. 

Nodes glabrous ; leaves narrow, much pointed, the stem- 
leaves never long ; spikes from two to five, without any 
floral leaves ; outer bract elliptical, longitudinally venular- 
streaked, beset with soft shining hairlets ; last inner bract 
provided with a long twisted awn. A. pertusus. 

Outer bract usually without any impression ... 2025 



Victorian Plants. 479 



2025. Outer bract beset with long hairlets particularly at 

the summit. 

Leaves narrow, much pointed ; nodes bearing a short indu- 
ment ; spikes from two to very numerous, without any 
floral leaves, the rhachis beset with soft vestiture ; outer 
bract oval ; last bract provided with a long twisted 
brownish shining awn. A. sericeus. 

Outer bract almost glabrous or only ciliolate ... 2026 

2026. Spikes two or three, quite terminal. 

Leaves narrow, generally greyish-green ; spikes relatively 
long, without any floral leaves; outer bract elliptical, 
longitudinally venular-streaked, ciliolate ; last bract pro- 
vided with a conspicuous twisted shining awn. 

A. annulatus. 

Spikes several or many on a short axis. 

Leaves narrow, much pointed, the stem-leaves involute 
along the margin ; spikes rather long, their rhachis beset 
with soft hairlets, without any floral leaves ; outer bract 
elliptic-lanceolar, almost glabrous, occasionally marked 
by a foveolar impression about the middle ; last bract 
provided with a twisted shining awn. 

A. intermedius. 

2027. Spikes of spikelets paired in a contracted panicle ... 2028 

Most of the spikelets ternately dispersed in an ample 
panicle ... ... 2029 

2028. Spikes much beset with soft white vestiture. 

Tall and robust ; leaves long, almost flat ; spikes clasped by 
floral leaves, somewhat crowded into a rather narrow 
panicle, finally bent downwards, their rhachis also densely 
clothed with soft hairlets ; outer bract pointed, glabrous ; 
last bract provided with a short awn or almost awnless. 

A. bombycinns. 

Spikes glabrous. 

Leaves narrow, pointed ; spikes in an interrupted and very 
narrow panicle, clasped by floral leaves, soon spreading 
or bent downwards, their rhachis also glabrous ; outer 



bract pointed ; last bract awnless. A. refractus. 



giat 



480 Key to the System of 



2029. Spikelets quite small. 

Leaves narrow, rather flat, gradually pointed ; panicle 
scantily beset with short hairlets, its ultimate branchlets 
capillary ; pistillate spikelets sessile, between two stalked 
agynous spikelets ; outer bract pointed, often of dark- 
bluish hue ; last bract with a short fine awn. 

A. montanus. 

Spikelets comparatively large ... ... 2030 

2030. Panicle almost glabrous. 

Tall ; leaves long, narrow ; panicle elongated, its branches 
much whorled ; pistillate spikelets sessile between two 
stalked agynous spikelets, slender, with a tuft of hairlets 
at their base ; outer bract rigid, rather long, pointed, 
with a short but very rough ciliolation ; last bract pro- 
vided with a long twisted awn. A. Gryllus. 

Panicle much beset with hairlets. 

Tall; leaves narrow; nodes bearing a dense indument; 
panicle elongated, its vestiture soft, brownish and shining, 
its branches much whorled ; spikelets somewhat spicately 
arranged, the pistillate with a tuft of hairlets at their base ; 
outer bract indurating, elongated, soon smooth, often 
darkened at maturation ; last bract provided with a very 
conspicuous twisted awn. A. australis. 

ANTKISTIRIA. 

2031. Fruit-bearing spikelet largely glabrous outside. 

Tall ; leaves long, rather narrow, gradually pointed ; 
fascicles of spikelets sessile, within clasping very short 
floral leaves, somewhat paniculated ; non-pistillate spike- 
lets without any stalklets, four basal, one or two higher, 
sometimes long-ciliolated, usually producing only one 
inner bract ; outer bract of the fruiting spikelet soon 
hardening; awn long, somewhat twisted. "Kangaroo- 
grass." A. ciliata. 

Fruit -bearing spikelet completely silklike -invested 
outside. 

Tall ; leaves long, rather narrow, gradually pointed ; 
fascicles of spikelets stalked, within clasping very short 
floral-leaves, somewhat paniculated ; non-pistillate spike- 
lets without any stalklets, glabrous, four basal, one or two 
higher, usually producing two inner bracts and all stami- 
nate ; outer bract of the fruiting spikelet soon hardening; 
awn long, somewhat twisted. A. avenacea. 



Victorian Plants. 481 



IMFEHATA. 

2032. Spike-like panicle somewhat cylindrical, whitish. 

Tall and firm ; leaves long, rigid, hardly spreading ; in- 
florescence often rather elongated ; spikelets very small ; 
bracts very tender, almost colorless, transparent ; stigmas 
soon dark-colored. "Sugar-Reedgrass." 

I. arundiuacea. 

HEBIARTHRXA. 

2033. One of the outer bracts often hooked-pointed. 

Creeping, much depressed, permanently vivid-green ; stems 
rigid, compressed ; leaves almost in two rows, broadish- 
linear, nearly flat ; spikes rather long, but narrow, singly 
stalked ; spikelets appressed, very small. 

H. compressa. 
ZOVSXA. 

2034. Hardened outer bract quite closed towards the base. 

A coast-grass, far-creeping, sometimes very depressed ; 
stems always short and often quite dwarfed ; leaves in 
two rows, short but rigid, sharply pointed ; spike very 
narrow, often assuming a dark tinge ; spikelets very 
small, their stalklets still shorter, thickened upwards. 

Z. pimgens. 
SFXNXFZSX. 

2035. Much beset with silk-like vestiture. 

Coast-plant, robust, diffuse, extensively creeping, often 
straw-colored or pale-greenish ; leaves broad-linear, elon- 
gated, gradually narrowed upwards, incurved along the 
margin ; floral leaves several or many, often much shorter 
than the others ; staminate and pistillate spikes generally 
numerous, placed together in very large often solitary 
clusters, occasionally long-stalked, the rhachis far ex- 
tended beyond the spikelets, particularly those of the 
pistillate plant ; bracts few to each spikelet, the lower 
sometimes as long as the others ; stigmas elongated ; fruit 
loosely enclosed within the supporting and covering bract. 

S. liirsutus. 
Glabrous. 

Desert-plant, diffuse, lax, light-colored, spreadingly and 
often fascicularly branched ; leaves usually short and flat, 
on conspicuous clasping stalks ; one of the floral leaves 
occasionally elongated, the rest very short or rudimen- 
tary, but their membranous stalks also ample ; clusters of 
spikelets small ; rhachis quite abbreviated ; bracts few, 
rather acute, longitudinally-streaked, the outer mem- 
branous ; fruit- enclosing bracts shining, smooth, finally 
brownish ; fruit ovate -ellipsoid, brown. S. paradoxus. 

21 



482 Key to the System of 



SETARIA. 

2036. Spike-like panicle small, uninterrupted. 

Annual, slender, seldom tall ; leaves flat, lax, greyish-green ; 
involucrating bristlets short, soon brownish-yellow, their 
roughness verging upwards; lowest bract much the 
smallest ; fruit-supporting bract wrinkled. (Possibly 
immigrated.) S. glauca. 

OFLXSaXENUS. 

2037. Clusters in the panicle somewhat spicately arranged. 

Forest-plant, from dwarf to rather tall, usually beset with 
hairlets ; lower portion of the stem often rooting ; leaves 
flaccid, comparatively broad ; panicle rather distantly 
branched ; awns somewhat sticky, but without any rough- 
ness, sometimes also developed on the second bract ; 
fruit -supporting bract smooth, shining, somewhat pointed, 
rather narrow. O. compositus. 

FAN! CUIK. 

2038. Spikelets forming radiatingly terminal spikes. 

Depressed and partly creeping ; leaves flat, somewhat beset 
with hairlets ; spikes eleven or less, very slender, uni- 
laterally flowering, often purplish- or bluish-dark ; spike- 
lets in pairs, one of the two on a stalk, all narrow and 
mostly glabrous ; lowest bract quite minute ; second bract 
longitudinally three-streaked ; third bract five-streaked ; 
fruit-supporting bract smooth. (Probably immigrated. ) 

F. sauguinale. 

Spikelets forming either panicles or crowded into 
solitary or scattered spikes... ... ... ... 2039 

2039. Lower branches of the panicle fasciculated or whorled 2040 

Panicle spike-like or all its branches and branchlets 
scattered ... ... 2045 

2040. Lower branches of the panicle fasciculated ... ... 2041 

Lower branches of the panicle whorled ... ... 2043 

2041. Lowest bract very much shorter than the spikelet. 

Tall, glabrous ; leaves rather long, gradually pointed ; 
panicle widely spreading ; spikelets scattered, stalked, 
rather narrow, acute, pale ; lowest bract truncate-blunt ; 
second and third bracts five- or seven -streaked ; stamens 
only in the pistillate flower ; fruit-supporting bract smooth 
and shining. F. decompositum. 



Victorian Plants. 



Lowest bract nearly or fully half as long as the 
spikelet ... 2042 

2042. Totally glabrous. 

Tall ; leaves long ; panicle widely spreading ; spikelets 
scattered, stalked, somewhat pointed, pale ; lowest bract 
also acute ; second and third bracts five-streaked ; fruit- 
supporting bract smooth and shining. P. Mitchell! . 

Leaves and their stalks beset with hairlets. 

Often tall ; leaves broad -linear, mostly flat ; nodes of the 
stem conspicuously invested with spreading hairlets ; 
panicle amply spreading ; spikelets scattered, stalked, 
acute, glabrous, pale ; lowest bract fully half as long as 
the spikelet ; second and third bracts five- or seven- 
streaked ; fruit-supporting bract smooth and shining. 

F. effusum. 

2043. Spikelets glabrous. 

Rather tall, glabrous ; leaves greyish -green, the membrane 
at their inner base elongated, almost entire ; panicle 
widely spreading ; spikelets scattered, rather elongated, 
ovate-lanceolar, stalked ; lowest bract blunt, more than 
half as long as the spikelet, three- or five-streaked ; 
second and third bracts acute, five- or seven-streaked ; 
fruit-supporting bract smooth and shining. 

P. prolutum. 

Spikelets beset with silk-like vestiture ... 2044 

2044. Second bract with five or seven longitudinal streaks. 

Often somewhat depressed ; leaves flat, beset with short 
soft hairlets ; lower divisions of the panicle spike-like 
but thin ; spikelets narrow, rather elongated, in pairs 
along one side of the panicle -branches or rhaches, one of 
each pair on a short stalk ; lowest bract quite minute ; 
third bract seven- to eleven-streaked ; fruit-supporting 
bract smooth, acute, shining. P. coeiiicolum. 

Second bract with three longitudinal streaks. 

Often rather tall ; leaves flat, generally beset with short 
hairlets ; lower branches of the panicle spike-like, finally 
much spreading ; spikelets rather elongated, narrow, 
acute, often paired along one side of the panicle-branches 
or rhaches, one of each pair on a stalk ; lowest bract quite 
minute ; third bract five-streaked ; fruit-supporting bract 
smooth, shining. P. divaricatissimum. 



484 Key to the System of 

2045. Panicle spikelike-contracted ... 2046 

Panicle spreading-branched ... ... ... ... 2048 

2046. Spikelets beset with silk-like vestiture. 

Leaves mostly glabrous ; panicle consisting of but few elon- 
gated scattered and very slender branches, or occasionally 
reduced to one or two spikes ; lowest bract very minute ; 
the second bract three-streaked ; the third bract five- 
streaked ; fruit-supporting bract smooth. 

F. leucophaeum. 

Spikelets almost or quite glabrous ... ... ... 2047 

2047. Spikelets very small, in unilaterally flowering distant 



Leaves from broad- to narrow-linear, involute along the 
margin, glabrous ; spikes short, rather distant along the 
undivided upper end of the stem, sometimes reduced to 
mere clusters, their rhachis often setular-pointed ; spike- 
lets usually close together in two rows, almost ovate- 
ellipsoid, pale ; lowest bract ovate, about half as long as 
the others ; second and third bracts five-streaked and 
empty ; fruit-supporting bract wrinkled. P. gracile. 

Spikelets relatively large, almost racemously arranged. 

Never tall, somewhat prostrate ; leaves rather short, flat, 
broadish ; branches of the inflorescence very short, pro- 
duced from below the spikelets into an awn-like rough 
elongation ; lowest bract minute, blunt ; second and 
third bracts gradually much pointed, streaked by several 
venules ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid. P. paradoxum. 

2048. Branches of the inflorescence awnlike-spinescent. 

Semiaquatic, much elongated and spreading ; stems and 
branches compressed ; leaves broad, flat, their stalks lax ; 
branches of the panicle spreading, very thin, scattered, 
mostly undivided ; spikelets appressed but short-stalked, 
scattered, comparatively long and proportionately narrow, 
much pointed ; lowest bract minute, blunt ; second and 
third bracts many-streaked ; stamens also within the 
third bract ; fruit-supporting bract remaining tenderly 
membranous, thus allowing of a ready secession of the 
fruit. P. spinescens. 

Branches of the inflorescence without any awn-like 
elongations ... ... ... ... .. ... 2049 



Victorian Plants. 



2049. Spikelets mostly crowded along the branches of the 

panicle ... . 2050 

Spikelets all scattered ... 2052 

2050. Fruit-supporting bract beset with minute hairlets. 

Rigid, the lower portion of the stem depressed and rooting ; 
branches elongated ; leaves mostly broadish-linear, flat, 
prominently margined ; panicle rather short, occasionally 
reduced to an interrupted spike ; lowest bract very small ; 
second and third bract three- or five-streaked. 

F. margiuatum. 

Fruit-supporting bract glabrous ... ... 2051 

2051. All bracts simply acute. 

Rigid, the lower portion of the stem depressed and rooting ; 
leaves narrow but rather flat, often beset with hairlets ; 
spikelets obliquely ovate, turgid, glabrous or slightly 
ciliolated ; lowest bract about one-third as long as the 
spikelet ; second and third bract three- or five-streaked, 
stamens in the third; fruit-supporting bract scarcely 
smooth. F. repeiis. 

Nearly all the bracts much pointed or some awned. 
Annual or of short duration, often diffuse or somewhat 
prostrate ; stems rather succulent, from dwarf to very 
long ; leaves broad-linear, flat ; leaf-stalks without any 
membranous or ciliolar expansion at the inner end ; 
spikes or clusters of spikelets in a dense almost uni- 
lateral panicle, sometimes emitting awn-like hairlets ; 
spikelets comparatively large ; bracts often rough from 
very short rigid scattered hairlets ; lowest bract about 
half as long as the next ; second and third bract three- or 
five-streaked, a long awn not rar on the third bract ; 
fruit-supporting bract smooth and very shining. 

F. Crus Galli. 

2052. Spikelets always one-fruited, the outer bract about 

half as long as the next. 

Ascendant, almost glabrous ; leaves broad -linear, flat ; 
panicle spreading, with capillary divided branches ; spike- 
lets dark-colored, scattered, turgidly ovate-lanceolar, 
separately short-stalked, glabrous ; lowest bract three- 
nerved ; second and third bract five-streaked ; fruit- 
supporting bract smooth and shining. 

F. melananthum. 



486 Key to the System of 



Spikelets often two-fruited, the outer bract about as 
long as the next. 

Ascending, somewhat creeping or producing offshoots ; 
leaves broad, often narrow-lanceolar, quite flaccid, flat ; 
panicle spreading, almost capillarily branched ; spikelets 
scattered, separately stalked, turgid, often in part dark- 
colored ; all bracts blunt, the outer finely several-streaked ; 
fruit -supporting bract slightly beset with very minute 
hairlets. (Isachne Australis.) P, atro-virens. 

NEURACHNZi. 

2053. Lowest bract with an opening at the middle or towards 

the base. 

Desert-plant, never tall ; leaves short, broadish, usually 
flat ; spike cylindrical, rather slender ; opening of the 
lowest bract at its thickened upper margin conspicuously 
beset with hairlets, at first membranously closed ; second 
bract almost blunt; fruit finally dropping from the sup- 
porting and the corering bract. N. Mitchelliana. 

Lowest bract without any opening ... ... ... 2054 

2054. Lowest bract closely ciliolated. 

Desert-plant, never tall ; leaves mostly narrow, somewhat 
rigid ; spike ellipsoid- cylindrical, occasionally almost 
globularly shortened, often assuming a somewhat dark 
color ; lowest bract and the next gradually much pointed, 
seven- to eleven-streaked, both conspicuously ciliolated ; 
fruit finally dropping from the supporting and the 
covering bract. N. alopecnroides. 

Lowest bract almost glabrous. 

Desert-plant, never tall ; leaves narrow, longitudinally in- 
curved ; spike narrow-cylindrical, never dark-colored ; 
lowest bract greenish, five-streaked, the next longer and 
much more pointed, seven-streaked ; fruit finally dropping 
from the supporting and the covering bract. 



TRAGUS. 

2055. Annual and relatively dwarf. 

Often of diffuse growth ; leaves flat, lax ; spike singly ter- 
minal, somewhat raceme-like ; lowest bract rudimentary 
or undeveloped ; second bract the largest, somewhat 
pointed, bearing numerous minute hooked prickles ex- 
teriorely ; fruit ellipsoid, free within its own thin bracts. 

T. racemosus. 



Victorian Plants. 487 



ERZOCKX.OA. 

2056. Spikes few or several, scattered. 

Rather tall ; leaves generally flat ; spikes forming a con- 
tracted panicle, very narrow, unilaterally flowering, often 
beset with soft hairlets ; spikelets pointed, their short 
stalks at the summit dilated and there often dark-colored ; 
fruit-supporting bract ending in a very short awn ; fruit 
free within its bracts. 

(E. punctata.) E. polystachya. 

ALOFECURUS. 

2057. Stems prostrate in the lower portion, thence often 

abruptly bent upwards. 

Annual or of short duration ; leaves lax, flat ; leaf-stalks 
often somewhat inflated, particularly those of the upper 
leaves ; spike-like inflorescence dense, rather short, cylin- 
drical ; outer bracts along their keel ciliolate, only near 
the base connected ; fruit-supporting bract emitting from 
near or below the middle a very short awn ; fruit free 
within its bracts, but retained by them. (Possibly immi- 
grated.) A. geniculatus. 

SPOROBOX.US. 

2058. Mostly prostrate. 

Coast-plant, never tall ; leaves rigid, short, narrow, 
gradually pointed, longitudinally incurved, almost form- 
ing two rows ; panicle short, closely contracted ; outer 
and inner bracts of nearly equal length, often somewhat 
dark-colored ; stamens three ; fruit obovate-ellipsoid, 
minute. S. Virginicus. 

Mostly erect ... 

2059. Panicle spikelike-contracted. 

Rigid; lower leaves elongated, upper but few, all narrow, 
gradually pointed, longitudinally incurved ; panicle 
rather long but almost cylindrically contracted, occa- 
sionally interrupted ; bracts somewhat dark-colored, the 
outer transparent, hardly blunt, unequal in length but 
both shorter than the inner ; fruit obovate- or globular- 
ellipsoid, minute. S, Iiidicus. 

Panicle quite spreading. 

Desert-plant, never tall ; leaves narrow, very acute ; panicle 
somewhat elongated, its lowest branches whorled ; bracts 
pointed, the lowest quite narrow and shorter than the 
two next, all somewhat dark-colored ; anthers very 
minute ; fruit obovate -globular, minute, loosely enveloped. 

S. Lindleyi. 



488 Key to the System of 

FENTAFOGON. 

2060. Middle awn slightly twisted. 

Seldom tall; leaves short, principally basal, mostly quite 
narrow, gradually pointed, often beset with hairlets ; 
panicle contracted ; spikelets rather large ; outer bracts 
of almost equal length, pointed ; rhacheolar stalklet of 
flower very short, silklike-invested ; middle awn seldom 
very long ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

F. Billardieri. 

ANXSOFOGON. 

2061. Spikelets few or several, hardly paniculated. 

Often tall ; leaves much elongated, longitudinally involute, 
gradually pointed ; spikelets on thin mostly elongated 
stalks, drooping ; rhacheole very short ; outer bracts very 
long, but proportionately narrow, membranous, gradually 
much pointed ; fruit-supporting bract outside imperfectly 
beset with short soft hairlets ; fruit-covering bract firm ; 
anthers long, but quite narrow ; styles about as long as 
the stigmas ; fruit beset with minute hairlets at and 
toward the summit. A. avenaceus. 

AZIISTZDA. 

2062. Awn three-branched from far above its base. 

Desert-plant, rather tall, occasionally dwarfed ; leaves 
through longitudinal involution almost filiform, much 
pointed ; panicle contracted and usually somewhat 
twisted j outer bracts longer than the inner, generally 
of a purplish hue, much pointed, the lowest shorter than 
the other ; stalklet very short, producing hairlets at the 
summit ; awn very long, its undivided portion thinly 
filiform, but spirally twisted, jointed at the base, its 
divisions slightly rough ; fruit loose within its bracts, 
narrow. A. arenaria. 

Awn three-branched from its base ... ... ... 2063 

2063. Branches of the panicle very much elongated, with 

spikelets towards the summit only. 

Desert-plant, rather tall : leaves long and narrow, much 
pointed; panicle elongated, distantly branched ; spikelets 
on very long and thin stalks ; outer bracts of unequal 
length ; awn rather long, without any torsion ; fruit nar- 
row, loose within its bracts, comparatively long. 

A. leptopoda. 

Branches of the panicle short ... ... .... 2064 



Victorian Plants. 489 



2064. Awn of about the length of the spikelet. 

Seldom tall ; leaves rather short, much pointed, flat towards 
their base ; panicle somewhat spreading, its branches 
rather short and rigid ; spikelets on very short stalks, few 
or several ; outer bracts shorter than the inner, often 
purplish-dark ; awn without any torsion, sessile and con- 
tinuous with its bract, the three divisions very short ; 
fruit narrow, loose within its bracts. A. vagaiis. 

Awn of considerably greater length than that of the 
spikelet ... 2065 

2065. Spikelets almost racemously approximated. 

Rather tall ; leaves very narrow, filiform upwards, much 
pointed ; panicle rather long, contracted, its branches 
mostly short ; spikelets from rather few to several, sessile 
or on very short stalks ; outer bracts often purplish-dark, 
finely pointed, about as long as the inner ; awn sessile, 
without any torsion, continuous with the fruit-supporting 
bract, its divisions of moderate length ; fruit narrow, loose 
within its bracts. A. calycina. 

Spikelets almost fascicularly approximated. 

Desert-plant, somewhat diffuse, never tall ; leaves upwards 
almost filiform ; panicle dense, comparatively broad, its 
branches short ; spikelets numerous ; outer bract about 
half as long as the next, both gradually much pointed, the 
second longer than the inner bracts ; awn sessile and con- 
tinuous with its bract, without any torsion, its divisions 
rather long, slightly rough ; fruit narrow, loose within its 
bracts. A. Behriana. 

STIPA. 

2066. Fruit-supporting bract beset with hairlets ... ... 2067 

Fruit-supporting bract glabrous ... ... ... 2073 

2067. Membrane at the inner base of the leaves without 

any cilioles ... 2068 

Membrane at the inner base of the leaves much 
changed into cilioles 2070 

2068. Membrane at the inner base of the leaves elongated. 

Slender, somewhat tall ; leaves rather short, narrow, 
involute along the margin ; panicle spreading, its branches 
mostly short, nearly glabrous ; outer bracts gradually 
pointed ; fruit-supporting bract much abbreviated ; awns 
long, capillary, somewhat bent, slightly rough, hardly 
twisted ; fruit loose within its bracts. S. setacea. 



490 Key to the System of 



Membrane at the inner base of the leaves abbreviated 2069 

2069. Outer bracts colorless. 

Coast-plant, tall and quite straight; leaves very long, 
filiform-cylindrical, very rigid, pungent, often light-green ; 
panicle long, much contracted, somewhat twisted ; outer 
bracts elongated, much pointed ; fruit-supporting bract 
beset with short but spreading somewhat deciduous 
indument ; awn moderately long, capillary, flexuous, 
glabrous ; fruit loose within its bract. S. teretifolia. 

Outer bracts yellowish. 

Often tall ; leaves mostly long, almost filiform from marginal 
involution ; panicle elongated, rather contracted, its 
branches often short ; spikelets rather large ; outer bracts 
much pointed, inner bracts somewhat shorter ; awn long, 
only slightly invested with very short hairlets or almost 
glabrous ; fruit loose within its bracts. S. flavescens. 

2070. Outer bracts at their summit somewhat truncated 

and denticulated. 

Tall ; leaves long, narrow, involute along the margin ; 
panicle elongated, somewhat spreading; spikelets large, 
blunt at the base ; awn long, usually invested with very 
short hairlets along its lower portion ; fruit loose within 
its bracts. S. pubesceus. 

Outer bracts much pointed ... .. ... ... 2071 

2071. Awn at least to the middle beset with hairlets. 

Generally tall ; leaves long, narrow, often marginally in- 
flexed ; panicle long, somewhat contracted, its branches 
almost glabrous ; spikelets large ; outer bracts gradually 
pointed, much exceeding the inner bracts ; awn very long, 
its vestiture conspicuous ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

S. semibarbata. 

Awn glabrous... ... ... ... ... ... 2072 

2072. Outer bracts ending in three points, the two lateral 

short. 

Desert-plant, often tall ; leaves long, often involute along 
the margin ; panicle elongated, moderately spreading ; 
spikelets rather large ; middle point of outer bracts the 
longest ; fruit-supporting bract turgid, its vestiture 
greyish, appressed and shining; awn rather long, twisted, 
slightly rough ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

S. aristiglumis. 



Victorian Plants. 491 



Outer bracts ending in one long point. 

Rather tall ; leaves almost filiform from marginal involution, 
gradually pointed ; panicle elongated, generally some- 
what dense, its branches almost capillary and sometimes 
twisted ; fruit-supporting bract quite small, its vestiture 
appressed and shining ; awn long, capillary, glabrous ; 
fruit loose within its bracts. S. crinita. 

2073. Panicle very dense, almost spikelike-contracted. 

Often tall, always robust ; leaves elongated, rather flat, 
gradually much narrowed upwards ; panicle pale, some- 
what cylindrical in outline, attaining considerable length ; 
spikelets very numerous, quite small ; bracts of almost 
equal length ; awn very thin, many times longer than 
the fruit-supporting bract, without any torsion, infra- 
terminal ; stamens one or two or rarely three ; fruit loose 
within its bracts. S. Di chelae line. 

Panicle open, variously spreading ... ... ... 2074 

2074. Branches of the panicle short, glabrous. 

Seldom tall ; leaves comparatively short, rather flat but 
gradually much narrowed upwards ; panicle only mode- 
rately spreading ; awn generally about three times longer 
than the bracts, almost without any torsion, slightly 
rough ; stamens three ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

S. micrantha. 

Branches of the panicle long, provided with vestiture 2075 

2075. Panicle-branches beset with very short hairlets and 

bearing rather small spikelets. 

Desert-plant, dwarf ; leaves rather flat, closely beset with 
very short vestiture ; branches of the panicle rather long, 
much spreading, the lower whorled, the upper mostly 
fascicled, their vestiture soft, whitish and patent ; outer 
bracts many times shorter than the awn ; fruit loose 
within its bracts. S. Tuckeri. 

Panicle-branches beset with very conspicuous hairlets 
and bearing rather large spikelets. 

Desert-plant, finally very tall, branched ; leaves narrow, 
glabrous ; branches of the panicle very long, weak, soon 
spreading, the lower whorled, their vestiture soft, whitish, 
patent ; outer bracts several times shorter than the awn ; 
fruit loose within its bracts. S. elegantissima. 



492 Key to the System of 

AIVXFHIPOGON. 

2076. Inflorescence almost cylindrical, short. 

Seldom tall ; leaves comparatively short, quite narrow, 
pointed, somewhat rigid ; spike-like panicle dense, occa- 
sionally shortened to an ovate-ellipsoid form ; outer bracts 
broadish, but short; awns of the fruit-supporting and 
fruit-covering bracts lobe-like and ciliolated, finally some- 
what divergent ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

A, strict us. 

ECHINOFOGCm. 

2077. Inflorescence often almost capitular. 

Rather tall, somewhat harsh ; leaA r es comparatively short, 
nearly flat, rather rough ; inflorescence varying from 
narrow-ellipsoid to almost globular, greenish ; spikelets 
quite small ; lowest bract about as long as the next ; 
inner bracts slightly longer ; awn straight, rough, about 
twice as long as the pertaining bract ; fruit loose within 
its bracts. E. ovatus. 

AGROSTIS. 

2078. Outer bracts much shorter than the inner, truncate- 

blunt. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves very narrow, involute along the 
margin ; panicle short, somewhat spreading ; spikelets 
remarkably small ; outer bracts broad in proportion to 
their length ; fruit-supporting bract awnless ; additional 
rhacheolar stalklet present, flowerless, glabrous. 

A. breviglumis. 

Outer bracts about as long as the lowest inner or 
longer, usually acute ... ... ... ... 2079 

2079. Panicle contracted ... 2080 

Panicle spreading 2084 

Lowest bracts about as long as the fruit-supporting 
bract ... 2081 

Lowest bracts considerably longer than the fruit- 
supporting bract 2082 



Victorian Plants. 493 



2081. Awn from near the summit of the fruit-supporting 

bract. 

Alpine, rather dwarf, but somewhat robust ; leaves broadish, 
nearly flat, never of conspicuous length ; panicle spike- 
like, often of a darkish hue ; spikelets very small ; fruit- 
supporting bract slightly shorter than the outer bracts, 
minutely awned ; additional rhacheolar stalklet glabrous. 

A. iiivalis. 

Awn from near the middle of the fruit-supporting 
bract. 

Seldom tall ; leaves narrow, but nearly flat ; panicle rather 
short, almost cylindrical or scantily open ; spikelets much 
crowded ; fruit-supporting bract nearly as long as the 
outer bracts, acute ; awn slightly twisted and somewhat 
exserted ; rhacheolar extension flowerless, beset with 
. minute hairlets. A. densa. 

2082. Awn absent. 

Alpine, often dwarf ; leaves narrow, longitudinally bent 
inward, the lower leaves rather elongated ; panicle 
abbreviated, closely or moderately contracted, capillary- 
branched ; spikelets somewhat violet-darkish ; fruit- 
supporting bract awnless, considerably shorter than the 
outer bracts ; fruit-covering bract undeveloped ; addi- 
tional rhacheolar stalklet absent. A. Muelleri. 

Awn present, but short 

Flowerless stalklet within the spikelet quite rudi- 
mentary or absent. 

Often tall; leaves generally broadish, flat or along the 
margin somewhat incurved, gradually pointed ; panicle 
often long, almost cylindrical or scantily open ; spikelets 
always crowded ; fruit-supporting bract terminating in 
four extremely short setular points ; its awn arising from 
below the middle, hardly semi-exserted ; additional 
rhacheolar stalklet almost or quite undeveloped. 

A. quadriseta. 

Flowerless stalklet within the spikelet conspicuous. 

Rather tall and somewhat robust ; leaves hardly long, 
gradually pointed ; panicle almost cylindrical or scantily 
open ; spikelets all crowded ; fruit-supporting bract nearly 
as long as the outer bracts, somewhat rough outside, 
slightly denticulated at the summit ; its awn arising from 
below the middle, semi-exserted; additional rhacheolar 
stalklet generally ciliolated, seldom bearing a bract. 

A. moutana. 



494 Key to the System of 



2084. Lowest bracts considerably longer than the fruit- 

supporting bract. 

Usually tall ; leaves generally flat, elongated and broadish ; 
panicle very spreading, the spikelets singly terminating 
capillary mostly elongated branchlets ; fruit-supporting 
bract usually somewhat beset with minute hairlets outside, 
occasionally two-pointed ; its awn arising from near or 
below the middle, about semi-exserted, slightly bent ; 
additional rhacheolar stalklet beset with short hairleta, 
but bractless. A. Solandri. 

Lowest bracts about as long as the fruit-supporting 
bract 2085 

2085. Flowerless stalklet within the spikelet absent ... 2086 
Flowerless stalklet within the spikelet present ... 2087 

2086. Awn present. 

Slender, seldom tall ; leaves quite narrow, gradually pointed ; 
branches of the panicle capillary ; spikelets mostly short- 
stalked ; awn from near the middle of the fruit-supporting 
bract and considerably exceeding its length, almost 
straight, slightly rough. A. veuusta. 

Awn absent. 

Often rather tall ; leaves narrow, gradually pointed ; panicle 
elongated, its branches subtile-capillary, the lower 
whorled ; spikelets very small ; fruit-supporting bract 
blunt, rather shorter than the lower bracts, neither pro- 
vided with any stalklet of its own, nor surrounded by 
hairlets ; fruit-covering bract almost or quite undeveloped. 

A. scabra. 

2087. Awn far infra-terminal. 

Alpine, tall ; leaves flat, gradually pointed ; panicle elon- 
gated, its branches mostly scattered ; spikelets of rather 
conspicuous size ; awn from near the middle of the 
fruit-supporting bract, extremely short, somewhat bent, 
deciduous. A. frigida. 

Awn nearly terminal. 

Rather tall, but generally slender, sometimes bent down- 
ward ; leaves usually flat, gradually pointed ; panicle 
elongated, slightly or moderately spreading ; outer bracts 
about as long as the two inner ; awn very short, thus 
slightly or hardly reaching beyond the summit of the 
fruit-supporting bract, anthers very short ; rhacheolar 
stalklet often beset with minute hairlets. A. rudis. 



Victorian Plants. 495 



CHLORIS. 

2088. Spikelets on the rayed spikes narrow and pointed. 

Seldom tall ; leaves broadish, flat, greyish-green, their stalks 
often compressed ; spikes from few to numerous, soon very 
spreading, often of a darkish somewhat violet hue, occa- 
sionally by elongation of the axis of the inflorescence 
separated into more than one whorl ; spikelets rather 
small, unilateral-biseriate, hardly crowded ; lowest bracts 
finely pointed ; fruit-supporting bract rather conspicuously 
awned, so also the always narrow bract on the accessory 
stalklet ; fruit loose within its bracts. C. acicularis. 

Spikelets on the rayed spikes broadish and truncate- 
blunt. 

Seldom tall, often somewhat prostrate in its lower portion ; 
leaves rather broadish, flat, their stalks generally com- 
pressed ; spikes from few to several, rather long, soon very 
spreading ; spikelets very small, unilateral-biseriate ; 
lowest bract extremely short and narrow, the next fine- 
pointed ; fruit-supporting bract roundish-blunt, slightly 
ciliolated, its awn straight, rather conspicuous, but very 
thin ; sterile flower consisting only of a truncate bract ; 
fruit loose within its bracts. C. tniucata. 

CVNODON. 

2089. Lowest bracts shorter than the fruit-supporting bract. 

Prostrate and partly ascending, forming dense patches, 
rooting from the lower nodes ; leaves short, narrow, nearly 
flat, acute, almost in two rows ; spikes very narrow, 
usually from two to five, occasionally six or seven, often 
of a darkish somewhat violet hue ; spikelets extremely 
small, unilateral-biseriate ; lowest bract narrow ; fruit- 
supporting bract slightly ciliolated, rather acute, laterally 
much compressed ; rhacheole extended into a very short 
glabrous flowerless stalklet ; fruit loose within its bracts. 
"Doorva-Grass." C. Dactyloii. 

AIRA. 

2090. Panicle much expanded. 

Tall, ample-tufty ; leaves long, rather rigid, rough above, 
flat or somewhat involute along the margin ; panicle lax, 
elongated, its branches much whorled, less expanded 
before and after flowering time ; spikelets small, com- 
pressed, about as broad as long, yellowish- or purplish- 
tinged or sometimes pale ; fruit-supporting bract hardly 
extending beyond the outer, denticulated at the summit ; 
awn emanating from near the middle of its bract and 
barely reaching beyond its summit, straight ; rhacheolar 
bractless stalklet generally present ; fruit slightly fur- 
rowed on the outer side. A. caespitosa. 



496 Key to the System of 



Panicle much contracted. 

Seldom tall ; leaves rather long, hardly rigid, almost flat, 
gradually pointed ; panicle rather short, in its lower 
portion often somewhat interrupted, mostly pale ; spike- 
lets much compressed ; fruit-supporting bract finely two- 
Eointed, emitting a short somewhat bent and rough awn 
rom near the summit ; rhacheolar extension seldom 
bract-bearing. A. subspicata. 

UISTICHLIS. 

2091. Leaves short, almost in two rows, somewhat pun- 
gent. 

Chiefly a coast-plant, prostrate, forming ample patches ; 
stems and branches leafy up to the inflorescence ; leaves 
rigid, narrow, incurved along the margin ; spikelets few, 
soon dull-yellowish, much compressed, lanceolar-ellipti- 
cal ; flowers several or sometimes many, closely approxi- 
mated ; bracts simply or hardly acute ; those supporting 
the stamens or the fruit several-streaked. 

D. maritima. 

AGROPYRON. 

2092. Fruit-supporting bract shorter than its awn. 

Rather tall, somewhat harsh ; leaves chiefly scattered along 
the stem ; narrow, flat or incurved along the margin ; 
spikelets elongated, almost appressed, alternating, often 
somewhat distant ; flowers several or occasionally many ; 
fruit-supporting bracts narrow, gradually passing into the 
straight or slightly spreading awn. A. scabrum. 

Fruit-supporting bract longer than its awn . ... 2093 

2093. Spikelets almost appressed, beset with very short 

hairlets. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves chiefly near the base of the stem, flat 
or incurved along the margin ; spike comparatively short ; 
spikelets rather crowded ; flowers few or several ; fruit- 
supporting bracts pungent. A. velu.ti.nuni. 

Spikelets very spreading, almost glabrous. 

Rather dwarf ; leaves chiefly near the base of the stem, flat 
or incurved along the margin ; spike comparatively short ; 
spikelets rather crowded ; flowers few or several ; fruit- 
supporting bract narrow, pungent. 

A. pectinatum. 



Victorian Plants. 497 



BROIKUS. 

2094. Spikelets from long stalks at last mostly bending 

over, at first gradually attenuated towards the 
summit. 

Annual, rather tall, beset with short soft hairlets; leaves very 
flaccid, rather broadish, almost flat, gradually narrowed 
upwards ; panicle very lax, somewhat unilateral ; spikelets 
comparatively large, several-flowered; anthers very short; 
fruit-supporting bract usually seven-streaked, convex 
along the middle, cleft at the apex ; awn conspicuous, 
straight, almost terminal, rough ; fruit slender, at the 
summit bearing minute hairlets. B. arenarius. 

FESTTTCA. 

2095. Leaves comparatively short. 

Here alpine, seldom tall, quite slender ; leaves very narrow, 
involute along the margin, very thin upwards, few on the 
stems ; panicle short, much contracted, especially at last, 
its branches capillary-thin ; spikelets few- or several- 
flowered; fruit -supporting bract narrow, gradually ending 
in a very short awn, somewhat rough outside ; fruit rather 
narrow, blunt. P. duriuscula. 

Leaves quite long ... ... ... ... 2096 

2096. Leaves very rigid. 

Maritime, tall, robust, amply tufted, soon assuming a dull- 
yellowish or pale hue ; leaves straight, by marginal 
involution almost cylindrical, much narrowed upwards, 
pungent, beset with hairlets on the upper much concealed 
side ; panicle contracted, usually long ; spikelets rather 
large, few- or several-flowered, awnless ; fruit- supporting 
bract firm, five-streaked, beset with very thin vestiture 
outside ; fruit ovate -ellipsoid, turgid on one side. 

F. lit or alls. 

Leaves hardly rigid. 

Generally sub-alpine, tall, robust, rather harsh ; leaves 
comparatively broad, almost flat, somewhat rough, the 
upper less elongated ; panicle long, moderately or much 
spreading ; spikelets broadish, few- or several-flowered, 
occasionally dull-purplish ; fruit-supporting bract imper- 
fectly five- or seven-streaked, slightly lobed at the 
summit, minutely awned or awnless ; styles slightly 
lateral ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. F, Hookeriana. 

2 K 



498 Key to the System of 



ELEUSINE. 

2097. Spikes usually four, broad in proportion to their length. 

Annual, generally dwarf, seldom tall ; stems often near the 
base prostrate and rooting ; leaves flaccid, rather short, 
broadish, flat, pointed ; spikes from two to eight or 
exceptionally one only, usually much spreading, slightly 
pointed by the protruding apex of the rhachis ; spikelets 
crowded, usually few-flowered ; second lowest bract 
ending in a short rather thick and slightly curved elon- 
gation ; fruit-supporting bract much pointed ; seed readily 
seceding from its pericarpous envelope* short but com- 
paratively broad, almost granular-rough. 

E. cruciata. 

ERAGROSTXS. 

2098. Spikelets usually with only few flowers. 

Annual, weak, generally dwarf ; leaves flat ; panicle much 
spreading, with capillary partly whorled branches and 
branchlets ; spikelets minute ; flowers two to six, rarely 
seven to ten flowers ; fruit-supporting bracts transparent, 
blunt ; anthers very minute, almost cordate, dark-violet ; 
fruit ovate-ellipsoid, smooth, shining, reddish-brown. 

E. teiiella. 

Spikelets usually with many flowers ... ... 209 

2099. Spikelets abbreviated. 

Perennial, rather tall; leaves narrow, longitudinally in- 
volute ; panicle contracted, its lower branches often 
distant ; fruit- supporting bracts prominently venular- 
streaked, opaque ; stamens often two ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. 

E. diandra. 

Spikelets elongated ... ... ... ... ... 210 

2100. Fruit-supporting bracts transparent. 

Annual, rather or quite tall, but weak, bearing hairlets only 
at the base of the leaves and in some of the axils of the 
panicle ; leaves flat, narrow ; panicle much elongated, 
laxly spreading, its branches capillary ; spikelets narrow, 
separately stalked, of a somewhat dark tinge, occa- 
sionally reduced to five flowers ; fruit-supporting bract 
with only the carinular venule prominent ; fruit pellucid, 
ovate- ellipsoid, brownish. E. pilosa. 

Fruit-supporting bracts opaque ... ... ... 2101 



Victorian Plants. 499 



2101. Stem-base and lowest leaf-stalks enveloped in a 
whitish dense vestiture. 

Desert-plant, perennial, seldom tall, rather rigid, often of a 
pale or dull-yellowish hue ; leaves narrow, longitudinally 
involute, much pointed ; panicle short-branched ; spike- 
lets conspicuously compressed, hardly provided with any 
stalks of their own ; flowers sometimes very numerous, 
rarely reduced to six, always closely approximated ; fruit- 
supporting bract occasionally of a dull-purplish tinge, 
their venular streaks rather prominent ; fruit ovate- 
ellipsoid. E. chaetophylla. 

Stem-base and lowest leaf-stalks glabrous ... ... 2102 

5102. Spikelets conspicuously compressed, broadish. 

Rather tall, flowering for a long while ; leaves flat or oftener 
somewhat inflexed along the margin ; panicle spreading, 
almost straightly but rather scantily branched ; spikelets 
often assuming a somewhat dark hue, occasionally 
clustered, without any conspicuous stalks of their own ; 
flowers seldom very numerous, always closely approxi- 
mated ; stamens three or two ; fruit-supporting bract 
prominently venular-streaked ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. 

E. Brownii. 

Spikelets almost cylindrical, very narrow ... ... 2103 

2103. Spikelets straight, the fruit-supporting bracts faintly 
streaked. 

Perennial, seldom tall ; stems very thin ; leaves very narrow, 
longitudinally involute, pointed ; panicle rather con- 
tracted, short-branched ; spikelets straight, provided 
with short stalks of their own ; flowers many ; fruit- 
supporting bract almost blunt. E. lacunaria. 

Spikelets curved, the fruit-supporting bracts strongly 
streaked. 

Desert-plant, perennial, seldom tall ; stems very thin ; 
leaves short and narrow, longitudinally involute, pointed ; 
panicle short-branched, moderately spreading ; spikelets 
perceptively curved, without any conspicuous stalks of 
their own ; flowers many, sometimes very numerous, 
always closely approximated ; anthers very short ; fruit- 
supporting bract almost blunt ; fruit ovate-ellipsoid. 

E. falcata. 



500 Key to the System of 



POA. 

2104. Root thickened into one or more tuberous enlarge- 

ments. 

Desert-plant, hardly tall ; protuberances of the root pale, at 
intervals placed in one row ; leaves elongated, narrow, 
nearly flat or along the margin incurved ; panicle rather 
short, somewhat spreading, scantily capillary -branched ; 
spikelets comparatively broad, from ovate to almost 
roundish, rather turgid ; flowers few or several ; lowest 
bract sometimes purplish ; fruit-supporting bract five- 
streaked, slightly ciliolated, blunt. P. nodosa. 

Root without any tuberous enlargements ... ... 2105 

2105. Perennial ... 2106 

Annual ... 2111 

2106. Floating or creeping. 

Semi-aquatic, much elongated; stem somewhat compressed;, 
leaves flat, comparatively broad ; membrane inside at 
the upper end of the leaf-stalk elongated ; panicle very 
long but narrow, somewhat unilateral, its branches 
simple, mostly distant, bearing at best only few spikelets 
each, the lower at first spreading, at last almost erect ; 
spikelets slender, rather pale-greenish, mostly appressed ; 
flowers several or many ; fruit-supporting bract generally 
seven-streaked, blunt, convex along the middle. " Manna- 
Grass." P. fluitans. 

Erect or diffuse ... 2107 

2107. Stem much branched. 

Swamp-plant, very tall, widely and often fascicularly 
branched, very rigid ; leaves distant, most of them mar- 
ginally involute particularly upwards ; panicle elongated, 
generally much spreading ; spikelets shining ; rhacheole 
glabrous ; flowers several or few, seldom many ; fruit- 
supporting bract lax, thin, three-streaked, somewhat 
pellucid, blunt. "Bamboo-Grass." P. ramigera. 

Stem almost or quite branchless ... 2108 

2108. Fruit-supporting bracts almost granular-rough outside. 

Forest-plant, always tall, sometimes enormously elongated, 
yet not of long duration and hardly rigid ; leaves very 
long, almost flat, proportionately broad ; membrane 
inside at the upper end of the leaf-stalk elongated, with- 
out ciliolation ; panicle often very long, spreading, thinly 



Victorian Plants. 501 



branched ; spikelets few only to each main branch of the 
panicle, rather turgid ; flowers few or several ; fruit- 
supporting bract blunt, five-streaked, dark-brownish in 
age. P. dives. 

Fruit-supporting bracts smooth ... ... 2109 

2109. Fruit-supporting bracts seven- or nine-streaked. 

Rather tall ; leaves flat, hardly pointed ; membrane inside 
at the upper end of the leaf -stalk conspicuous ; panicle 
spreading, often elongated, capillary-branched ; spikelets 
much compressed, ovate- or elliptic-lanceolar ; pale- or 
yellowish-green ; flowers several or few ; fruit-supporting 
bract blunt, beset with shining hairlets outside towards 
the base. F. For de ana. 

Fruit-supporting bracts five-streaked... ... ... 2110 

2110. Fruit adherent to the covering bract. 

Coast-plant, finally tall, rigid, often amply tufted ; leaves 
very long, involute along the margin, gradually pointed ; 
panicle elongated, usually much contracted ; spikelets 
mostly crowded, often early dull-yellowish ; flowers few 
or occasionally reduced to three ; fruit- supporting bract 
towards the base beset with short crisped hairlets ; fruit 
ellipsoid, somewhat pointed, with a broad furrow at the 
upper side. P. Labillardierii. 

Fruit free within its bracts. 

Generally tall, often amply tufted; leaves flat or longi- 
tudinally somewhat or quite incurved, gradually pointed, 
the lower particularly long; panicle elongated, some- 
times much so, moderately or considerably spreading ; 
spikelets rather short ; flowers few, hardly in contiguous 
proximity to each other ; fruit-supporting bract towards 
the base usually beset with short crisp hairlets, five- 
streaked. P. caespitosa. 

2111. Fruit-supporting bracts five-streaked. 

Coast-plant, seldom tall ; soon assuming a dull yellowish 
hue ; leaves very narrow, quite straight, through mar- 
ginal involution filiform, gradually pointed ; panicle much 
contracted ; spikelets very narrow, many almost or quite 
without stalks of their own ; rhacheole glabrous ; flowers 
several or few ; fruit-supporting bract firm, convex along 
the middle, glabrous ; fruit ellipsoid, concave on the 
upper side. P. syrtica. 



502 Key to the System of 



Fruit-supporting bracts seven- to eleven-streaked. 

Desert-plant, dwarf ; stems very thin, often purplish ; leaves 
flat, narrow, lax ; membrane inside at the upper end 
of the leaf-stalk conspicuous ; panicle small, slightly 
spreading, few-branched ; spikelets much compressed, 
mostly elliptic-ovate ; flowers several or few or occa- 
sionally reduced to three ; fruit-supporting bract thin, 
blunt, its keel ciliolated towards the base ; fruit very 
slender. P. lepida. 

TRXODXA. 

2112. Tufts very large, with extremely pungent leaves. 

Desert-plant, with hardening base, often assuming a pale- or 
dull-yellowish hue ; leaves numerous, very long and rigid, 
straight, cylindrically convolute, the majority much 
spreading ; panicle long but rather narrow ; spikelets 
somewhat crowded ; fruit-supporting bract much streaked, 
outside towards the base beset with short dense and 
somewhat shining vestiture, terminated by three blunt 
denticles; fruit loose within its bracts. "Porcupine- 
Grass." T. irritans. 

TRXRAPHXS. 

2113. Panicle close and soft, its awns short, without any 

twist. 

Desert-plant, from quite dwarf to somewhat tall, rather 
weak ; leaves simply acute, hardly involute along the 
margin ; panicle often pale-green or purplish ; spikelets 
very numerous, narrow, the lowest flowers fruit-bearing ; 
fruit-supporting bract outside laxly beset with minute 
hairlets and producing setular denticles between its awns, 
the middle awn the longest ; fruit minute, narrow- 
ellipsoid, loose within its bracts ; seed transparent. 

T. mollis. 



ELYTHROPHORUS. 

2114. Clusters of spikelets copiously pointed by the minute 
setular awns. 

Annual, dwarf, erect; leaves flat; spikelets in the clusters 
closely crowded, few-flowered, very short but compara- 
tively broad ; fruit-bearing flower the lowest ; bracts all 
narrow, gradually ending in their minute awn ; fruit- 
supporting bract hardly extending beyond the lowest 
bracts ; fruit loose within its bracts. E. articulatus. 



Victorian Plants. 503 



BIFZ.ACKNB. 

2115. Spikelets in a single slender spike. 

Annual, rather dwarf; leaves very narrow, also rather 
short, few on the stem ; spikelets small, apprcssed, 
verging somewhat unilaterally in the spike ; flowers few 
or several ; fruit-supporting bract very short, three- 
streaked, terminated by two minute tender blunt lobes ; 
awn quite diminutive ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

D. loliiformis. 
Spikelets in a contracted panicle. 

Perennial, rather tall ; leaves narrow, lax, incurved along 
the margin ; panicle elongated, often only simply rami- 
fied ; spikelets pale-greenish or somewhat dark-colored, 
usually unprovided with stalks of their own ; flowers 
from few to several ; fruit-supporting bract transparent, 
three-streaked, short-pointed, but only indistinctly or 
minutely bilobed ; fruit loose within its bracts. 

D. fusca. 
DANTHONXA. 

2116. Bracts supporting the fruits uncleft, minutely den- 

ticulated at the summit, without any tufts of 
hairlets. 

Swamp-grass, often tall ; leaves almost flat, somewhat 
pointed ; panicle elongated, slightly or considerably 
spreading ; spikelets capillary-stalked, particularly the 
lower in age bending over ; rhacheole beset with short 
hairlets ; flowers ten or less ; lowest bracts surpassed by 
the others ; awn one only, slightly infra-terminal, twisted 
towards the base ; fruit ellipsoid, quite loose within its 
bracts when ripe. 

(Amphibromus Neesii ) D. nervcsa. 

Bracts supporting the fruits cleft into two lobes, 
beset with mostly tufted hairlets outside ... ... 2117 

2117. Bracts supporting the fruits cleft to near the base. 

Desert-grass, rather tall ; stem-base enveloped in a close 
whitish vestiture ; leaves almost flat ; panicle contracted, 
short-branched ; spikelets rather large, seldom numerous ; 
flowers several, hardly reaching beyond the lowest bracts ; 
fruit-supporting bracts hardly ever exceeded by their awn, 
their tufts of hairlets whitish, arranged in two tranverse 
rows, their lobes simply pointed ; awn twisted towards 
the base. D. bipartita. 

Bracts supporting the fruits cleft to near the middle 
or still less divided ... ... 2118 



504 Key to the System of 



2118. Bracts supporting the fruits cleft to near the middle, 

hardly ever exceeded by the awn. 
Usually dwarf ; leaves very narrow ; panicle quite short ; 
its spikelets almost racemously arranged, rather small ; 
flowers few or reduced to three ; lobes of the fruit- 
supporting bracts with tufts of seriated whitish hairlets ; 
awn delicate. D. carphoides. 

Bracts supporting the fruits cleft to less than the 
middle, always exceeded by the awn ... ... 2119 

2119. Normally quite dwarf, with few usually three-flowered 

spikelets. 

Alpine grass, sometimes forming patches ; leaves extremely 
short and narrow, but rigid ; spikelets small, sometimes 
reduced to two, always short-stalked ; lobes of the fruit- 
supporting bracts simply pointed or very slightly awned ; 
hairlets whitish, hardly tufty, forming two irregular 
transverse rows ; awn about twice as long as the lobes, 
rather rigid ; anthers hardly longer than broad ; fruit 
obovate-ellipsoid. D. pauciflora. 

Normally rather tall, with many usually several- 
flowered spikelets. 

2120. Slightly tufted, with often slender and moderately or 

hardly tall stems. 

Seldom dwarfed ; leaves generally long, but narrow, often 
involute along the margin ; panicle of spikelets short- 
branched, moderately or slightly spreading or racemously 
narrowed ; lowest bracts nearly always somewhat sur- 
passing the others ; tufts of hairlets of the fruit- support- 
ing bract whitish, usually arranged in two transverse 
interrupted rows ; lowest portion of the middle awn (as in 
most congeners) spirally but closely twisted ; lateral awns 
variously shorter than the middle one, occasionally almost 
undeveloped ; fruit more narrowed towards the base than 
towards the summit. D. peiiicillata. 

Amply tufted, with often robust and very tall stems. 

Alpine grass, very tall and robust, somewhat succulent ; 
leaves very long, almost flat, rather broad ; leaf-stalks 
laxly clasping; panicle much elongated, somewhat 
spreading ; spikelets comparatively large ; flowers few 
or several, sometimes extending beyond the lowest bracts; 
hairlets of the fruit-supporting bracts whitish, rather 
irregularly dispersed or hardly tufted. D. robusta. 



Victorian Plants. 505 



ARUNDO. 

2121. Semi-aquatic, very tall, with ample very soft inflo- 
rescence. 

Stems renewed annually, very robust and rigid ; leaves very 
long, comparatively also of great breadth, harsh ; panicle 
iax, partly bending downwards, often somewhat grey- 
purplish; spikelets flaccid; flowers few, rather remote 
along the rhacheole, almost concealed by the copious but 
very tender vestiture, the lowest flower imperfect; bracts 
thinly membranous, shining ; fruit -supporting bracts ter- 
minating in a straight, weak, awn-like elongation ; fruit 
loose within its bracts. " Thatch-Reed." 

A. Fhragmites. 



RHIZOSPER1YIAE. 



2122. Rootlets extensively beset with very subtle fibres. 

Fronds succulent, generally somewhat deltoid in outline, 
pinnatisected, the segments often slightly distant ; leaf- 
like organs crowded on the segments, from almost 
rhomboid to nearly obovate, rather turgid ; generative 
masses enveloped in a tender membrane ; those of each 
sex separate ; caselets containing the numerous antheroids 
(Antheridia) largest, often globular ; those containing 
the spores often ovate-ellipsoid. (Nourishing often by 
symbiosis an extremely minute algic organism, always 
restricted either to this species or to others of its 
congeners). A. pinnata. 

Rootlets simply capillary. 

Fronds succulent, generally somewhat rhomboid or orbi- 
cular in outline, pinnatisected, the segments often closely 
approximated ; leaf-like organs crowded on the segments, 
from almost rhomboid to nearly obovate, rather turgid; 
organs of fecundation similar to those of the foregoing 
species. Figure 127. (A. rubra.) A. filiciiloides. 



2123. Frond-segments resembling leaflets. 

Dwarf, emitting rooting offshoots, glabrous or variously 
beset with often ap pressed hairlets ; frond -stalks much 
longer than the segments, solitary or two or more together, 
very slender ; frond-segments small, frequently cuneate- 



506 Key to the System of 



rhomboid, occasionally indented; conceptacles oblique, 
from dimidiate- to roundish-ovate, when moistened 
bursting into two valves ; fruit-masses cylindric-ellipsoid, 
alternating on an in-growth almost gelatinous and pro- 
truding stalk, very spreading, each containing numerous 
caselets with antheroids and besides spore- caselets few 
in number with a single spore in each. Figure 128. 
"Nardoo." M. quadrifolia. 

FXXiUXiARXA. 

2124. Fronds stalk-like, coiled during vernation inward. 

Quite dwarf ; fronds imperfect, merely filiform, very slender, 
gradually pointed ; fruit-masses solitary, hardly stalked, 
four-celled, valvular-dehiscent, each cell containing as 
well caselets with numerous antheroids as others with 
a single spore. P. globulifera. 

XSOETXSS. 

2125. Fronds stalk-like, straight also during vernation. 

Dwarf, always submerged ; tufted, without any offshoots ; 
fronds imperfect, succulent, erect or some slightly 
spreading, comparatively short, very thinly filiform, 
gradually pointed, seldom numerous ; fruit-masses in- 
serted into the inner base of fronds, provided with trans- 
verse dissepiments ; caselets with numerous antheroids on 
the inner fronds, caselets with several spores on the outer 
fronds. I. Drummondi.. 



LYCOPODINAE. 

FHYZiXiOGSiOSSUM. 

2126. Leaves (or leaf-like organs) several, linear, often about 
half as long as the stem. 

Very dwarf ; generally of a pale-yellowish hue ; tubers two, 
one formed annually, small, obversely ellipsoid-clavate, 
accompanied by one or two or few thickish rootlets ; 
stem solitary, erect, comparatively thick ; leaf-like organs 
rather carnulent, gradually somewhat pointed ; spike 
always one only, cylindric- or ovate-ellipsoid ; bracts 
appressed, somewhat rigid, roundish, at the base pro- 
truding, ending in a narrow but blunt apex ; spore- 
caselets firm, renate - orbicular, vertically dehiscent} 
spores extremely minute. Figure 131. 

F. Drummondi.. 



Victorian Plants. 



SELAOINELLA, 

2127. Annual. 

Minute, erect ; branches few or occasionally none ; leaf-like 
organs all uniform, opposite, spreading, extremely short, 
mostly linear-lanceolar, pointed, hardly crowded, their 
carinular venule faint ; spikes singly terminating branch- 
lets, but often extending far downward ; bracts ovate- 
lanceolar, spreading ; lower spore-caselets of greater size,, 
containing large spores normally to the number of four. 

S. Preissiana. 
Perennial. 

Dwarf, erect or ascending ; branches seldom numerous ; 
leaf -like organs all uniform, opposite or nearly so, quite 
small, spreading in four rows, mostly ovate-lanceolar y 
their carinular venule prominent ; spikes terminating, 
branchlets, rather elongated, somewhat quadrangular ;. 
bracts lanceolar-ovate, pointed, protruding at the base ;. 
lower spore-caselets of greater size, containing large 
spores normally to the number of four. S. uliginosa. 

LYCOFODIUB1. 

2128. Leaves of two forms, each kind biseriate. 

Alpine, dwarf, partly creeping ; branches ascending, some- 
what flattened ; leaves small, slightly decurrent, in two- 
layers, the larger almost semilanceolar, somewhat in- 
curved, the smaller leaves stipule-like, quite narrow,, 
occupying the lower side of the stem and branches,, 
appressed in a direction parallel to that of the larger 
leaves, blunt or somewhat acute, very thin upwards ; 
spikes ellipsoid - cylindrical, terminal, often solitary, 
nearly or quite sessile ; bracts in four rows, almost 
rhomboid, often blunt and sometimes minutely append! - 
culated ; spore-caselets renate-orbicular. 

L. scariosum. 

Leaves all of one form, equally crowded all around 
the stem and branches ... ... ... ... 2129 s 

2129. Spikes lateral. 

Often creeping at its lower portion, thence ascending or 
erect, scantily branched ; leaves small, linear, gradually 
pointed, spreading, generally somewhat incurved ; spikes 
solitary, sessile, almost ellipsoid-cylindrical, somewhat 
tetragonous; bracts appressed, pale-yellowish, finally 
brownish, roundish, but short-pointed, forming four rows ; 
spore-caselets renate. L. laterale. 

Spikes terminal ... ... ... ... ... 2130 



508 Key to the System of 



2130. Leaves very dissimilar to the bracts ... ... ... 2131 

Leaves quite similar to the bracts or the transit 
gradual ... ... ... ... ... 2132 

2131. Leaves of all the branches almost equal in size. 

Rather tall, almost entirely erect, towards the base usually 
branchless, towards the summit often much branched ; 
leaves small, rather appressed, narrow-lanceolar, gradually 
narrowed into a short-pointed apex ; spikes almost cylin- 
drical, singly terminating the highest branchlets ; bracts 
very thin, somewhat spreading particularly their upper 
end, from a broad base gradually short-pointed ; spore- 
caselets almost renate. 1. densum. 

Leaves of the fruit-bearing branches much smaller 
than those of the other branches. 

Here alpine, partly creeping, thence ascending or erect; 
leaves small, crowded, from narrow lanceolar to almost 
linear, ending in a conspicuous bristlet, spreading but 
slightly incurved, turning somewhat to one side on the 
lower portion of the plant ; fruit-bearing branches elon- 
gated, straight, slender, terminating in very short 
branchlets; spikes terminal, often in pairs, occasionally 
three or more together or one only, thin- cylindrical ; 
bracts appressed, from a broad base gradually narrowed, 
often setular- and spreading -pointed ; spore -caselets 
renate, pale-yellow. " Medicinal Clubmoss." 

(L. Magellanicum. ) L. clavatnm. 

2132. Short and generally erect. 

Chiefly alpine, tufted, robust, often dichotomously few- 
branched ; leaves rather large, firm, lanceolate-linear, 
mostly appressed ; spikes terminal, leafy, solitary ; bracts 
all leaf -like ; spore-caselets almost renate, pale-yellowish. 
Figure 130. (Passing into the following.) L. selago. 

Long and generally pendent. 

Chiefly on stems of fern-trees, robust, distantly or hardly 
branched ; leaves rather large, firm, lanceolate-linear, 
mostly spreading, simply acute or rather blunt; spikes 
stalkless, often elongated, solitary or two or three to- 
gether ; bracts in four rows, either leaf -like or the upper 
gradually much shortened and then closely appressed ; 
spore-caselets almost renate, pale-yellowish. 

L. variuni. 



Victorian Plants. 



T1TCESIFTERIS, 

2133. Leaves comparatively large, placed vertically. 

Chiefly on stems of fern-trees ; stem branchless, from quite 
short to rather long, often bending downward ; leaves 
of thin texture, nearly transparent, from obovate- to 
lanceolar-elliptical, flat, somewhat decurrent, without any 
denticulation, inequilateral, often ending in a setule ; 
their carinular venule very distinct ; segments of the 
fruit-supporting leaves similar to the simple leaves, but 
rather smaller, far extending beyond the fruit ; spore- 
caselet formed by the concrescence of two or rarely three, 
fixed to the sinus of the bracteal leaves, much broader 
than long, somewhat indurating, soon pale-brownish, 
opening vertically ; spores extremely minute. Figure 129. 

T. Tanneusis. 

FILICES. 

(Ferns.) 

OPKIOGZ.OSSUBX. 

2134. Frond placed far above the base of the stem, but at a 

distance also from the spike. 

Dwarf, sometimes quite minute ; frond near or below the 
middle of the stem, firm, from lanceolate-linear to ovate, 
sessile, flat ; spike narrow, somewhat pointed ; spore - 
caselets from few to numerous, depressed -globular. 

(0. Lusitanicum.) O. vulgatum. 

BOTRirCHXUXK. 

2135. Sterile frond sessile, simply pinnate. 

Here alpine, always quite dwarf ; vernation folded but 
straight ; sterile frond sessile about the middle of the 
stem ; segments mostly flabellate-rhomboid or somewhat 
crescent-shaped, often bluntly denticulated in front, 
seldom incised or somewhat fruit-bearing ; fertile frond 
simply or doubly pinnate, its segments unilaterally quite 
occupied by the almost globular spore-caselets. 

B. Lunaria. 

Sterile frond long-stalked, ternately and pinnately 
much divided. 

Rather dwarf ; primary divisions of the sterile frond often 
almost deltoid in outline, repeatedly pinnate-dissected, 
each short-stalked, firm throughout ; fertile frond also 
on a long stalk, rhomboid or deltoid in contour, much 
pinnately divided ; ultimate segments or lobes small, 
mostly ovate and indented ; spore-caselets almost globular. 

B. ternatum. 



510 Key to the System of 

SCKIZAEA. 

2136. Stalk of the fertile fronds undivided, filiform, slightly 

channelled. 

Vernation coiled-involute ; sterile fronds simple, very nar- 
row ; stalk of the fertile frond very slender, stemlike ; 
pinna one only, dense, short, somewhat recurved ; spore- 
caselets in two rows, ovate-ellipsoid, their terminal ring 
comparatively broad, transversely furrowed. 

S. fistulosa. 

Stalk of the fertile fronds once, twice or oftener 
divided into linear rather flat segments. 

Sterile frond simple or bifid or dichotomously divided into 
linear segments ; fertile frond with a terminal dense short 
somewhat recurved pinna to each segment, its primary 
stalk elongated ; spore-caselets ovate -ellipsoid, in two 
rows, their terminal ring comparatively broad, trans- 
versely furrowed. Figure 132. 

(S. dichotoma partly. ) S. bifida, 

GXiEXCHENXA. 

2137. Segments of the pinnas by deep division formed into 

pinnules ... 2138 

Segments of the pinnas quite undivided ... ... 213 

2138. Segments of the pinnules almost flat or somewhat 

recurved at the margin. 

Often of intricate growth, rarely dwarfed ; root (or root- 
stock) much creeping ; stems scattered, slender ; pinnules 
linear, developed additionally also along the short portions 
of the ramification below each pair of the main-pinnas ; 
segments of pinnules roundish or semi-ovate or deltoid- 
ovate, rather firm, paler and often greyish beneath ; fruit- 
caselets three or four, seldom more or only two, almost 
globular, generally pale-yellowish. Figure 136. 

G. circiuata. 

Segments of the pinnules with only a small opening 
at the lower side from broad marginal recurvature. 

Ascending to alpine elevations and there often dwarfed, also 
particularly then beset with a brownish somewhat scaly 
vestiture ; root much creeping ; stems scattered, slender ; 



Victorian Plants. 



segments of pinnas very firm, almost orbicular or quadrate- 
roundish, blunt-edged from the broad and close recurva- 
tion of their margin ; spore- caselets two or three or seldom 
more or one only, almost globular, pale-yellowish or 
turning light-brownish. G. dicarpa. 

2139. Short ramification below each pair of pinnas also 
beset with pinnules. 

In miniature somewhat of a palm-like aspect ; stems 
scattered ; fronds of rather tender texture ; pinnas 
crowded, lanceolar in outline, their segments broad- 
linear, flat, all except the uppermost quite separated 
down to the rhachis, entire or towards the summit 
slightly denticulated, paler green or seldom grey 
beneath ; spore -caselets nearly globular, often four or 
five, occasionally three or six, hardly contracted towards 
the base. G. flabellata. 



Short ramification below each pair of pinnas bare 
except at the base. 

Stems scattered ; fronds of rather tender texture ; pinnas 
lanceolar in outline, but generally truncate at the base, 
their segments semilanceolar- or broad-linear, often flat, 
greyish beneath, all except the uppermost separated 
almost down to the rhachis, never denticulated ; the 
solitary pair of pinnas at the base of the ramifications 
diminutive ; spore-caselets nearly globular, but conspicu- 
ously contracted towards the base, several or sometimes 
many, seldom few. G. Hermann!. 



OSIKUNDA. 

2140. Trunk finally tall and enormously broad, always of 
irregular form. 

Trunk at advanced age very ponderous, bearing many tufts 
of fronds ; stalks rigid, of conspicuous length ; fronds 
large, occasionally very long, always doubly pinnate, 
of very firm texture ; segments of the pinnules mostly 
elongate- or narrow-semilanceolar and towards the summit 
denticulated ; spore-caselets occupying the under-side of 
the lower segments either fully or only towards the -base, 
closely crowded into generally somewhat elliptical and 
often confluent masses, dark-brown, almost globular, on 
very short stalklets. Figure 137. "The Square-Fern," 
(Todea Africana.) O. barbara. 



512 Key to the System of 



ALSOPHILA. 

2141. Trunk tall, but comparatively slender. 

Tree-fern, occupying forest ridges ; trunk of hard texture 
almost throughout ; frond-stalks prickly-rough, the base 
of the stalks of decayed fronds for a long while persistent ; 
fronds extremely large, and particularly broad, bi- or tri- 
pinnate ; main-rhachis usually pale -brownish ; pinnules 
mostly elongate-semilanceolar, gradually much narrowed 
into the acute apex, beneath somewhat greyish, divided 
towards the base into usually oblique -semilanceolar seg- 
ments, towards the summit into lobes of more deltoid form; 
divisions entire or slightly denticulated ; receptacle of fruit- 
masses beset with minute hairlets ; spore-caselets almost 
obovate-ellipsoid, their ring jointed, as also in all the now 
following ferns. Figure 138. " Slender Fern-tree." 

A. australis. 

CYATHEA. 

2142. Trunk very slender. 

Tall, sometimes very much so ; frond-stalks light-colored 
and rough, those of decayed fronds completely seceding, 
leaving clear scars ; fronds very large, of rather thin 
texture, bi- or tri-pinnate ; segments of the pinnules 
obliquely and often narrowly semi-lanceolar or semi- 
elliptical, rather conspicuously denticulated or quite 
indented, the terminal segments confluent ; fruit-masses 
sparse, roundish ; cover very tender, surrounding only the 
lower portion of the fruit-masses even in their young 
state, without any terminal closure ; ring of spore- 
caselets imperfect. Figure 135. C. Cunningham.!. 

DXCK.SONXA. 

2143. Trunk tall and robust. 

Tree-fern, occupying irrigated valleys ; trunk externally 
much of soft texture, rough-fibrously coated ; frond -stalks 
almost smooth ; fronds extremely large, rigid, bi- or tri- 
pinnate, beneath paler green ; main-rhachis often greenish ; 
middle pinnas gradually longest ; pinnules mostly elongate- 
semi-lanceolar in outline, their segments only about twice 
as long as broad or often still shorter, towards their sum- 
mit sharply denticulated ; outer valve of the fruit-masses 
rather firm, greenish, partly formed by a lobe of the seg- 
ment of the pinnule, semi-globular, deeply hollowed ; 
inner valve quite membranous, at first lid-like covering 
the outer; spore-caselets provided with an imperfect ring. 
Figure 139. " Stout Fern-tree." 

(D. antarctica.) D. Billardierii. 



Victorian Plants. 513 



CXXEXXjANTHXSS. 

2144. Beset with a velvet-like often brownish vestiture. 

Always dwarf ; indument sometimes greyish, occasionally 
lanuginous ; fronds imperfectly bi-pinnate, their vestiture 
less copious on the upper side ; pinnules mostly semi- 
elliptical in outline, the lower deeply divided ; segments 
or lobes blunt. C. vellea. 

Beset with mostly scattered hairlets or narrow scale- 
lets or almost glabrous ... ... ... 2145 

2145. Length of fronds several times exceeding their breadth. 

Always dwarf ; vestiture colorless or slightly brownish ; 
fronds imperfectly bi-pinnate, narrow in outline ; lowest 
pinnas about as large as the others, many rather rhomboid 
or even somewhat deltoid in contour, only the upper 
pinnas closely approximated, but all sessile ; pinnules or 
lobes blunt. Figure 143. C. distans. 

Length of fronds from hardly to trebly exceeding their 
breadth. 

Never tall, sometimes much -dwarfed ; fronds bi- or tri- 
pinnate, rather rigid, from almost semi-lanceolar to nearly 
deltoid in outline ; lowest pinnas evidently larger than the 
others and often somewhat stalked ; ultimate pinnules 
mostly small, from slightly to deeply lobed, often some- 
what recurved at the margin and irregularly crisped, 
without any acute denticulation. Figure 144. 

C. tennifolia. 

GRABiaXXTXS. 

2146. Perennial, tufty, beset with brownish vestiture. 

Dwarf ; indument "often copious, consisting of tender some- 
times glandule-bearing hairlets ; fronds simply pinnate, 
flaccid ; pinnas or segments short, mostly sessile, from 
ovate-cuneate to almost rhomboid, often oblique, usually 
blunt, either few-lobed or but slightly incised or indented, 
the lower sometimes deeply cleft ; spore-caselets stalked. 
Figure 152. G. rutifolia. 

Annual, minute, pellucidly membranous, glabrous. 

Very delicate, often single-stemmed ; fronds simply or doubly 
pinnate, the basal fronds occasionally single and without 
any deep incisions, usually sterile ; pinnas flat, mostly 
short-stalked, from flabellular to cuneate-rhomboid, few- 
lobed or anteriority blunt, denticulated ; fruit-masses 
often single in the direction of each principal frond-lobe; 
pore-caselets on very thin stalklets. G. leptophylla. 

2 L 



514 Key to the System of 



POX.YPO3DXUBX. 

2147. Fronds mainly beset with appressed roundish cilio- 
lated scalelets. 

Chiefly on trunks of fern-trees, dwarf ; root-stock much 
creeping ; rootlets copious ; fronds scattered, stalked, of 
very thick texture, entire ; sterile fronds often quite 
short, from orbicular- or rhomboid -obovate to elliptical- 
spatular ; fertile fronds somewhat elongated, from 
narrow-elliptical to broad-linear ; vestiture appressed, 
shining, greyish or brownish, occupying closely the under- 
side of the fronds ; venules concealed ; fruit-masses large, 
occasionally oval, rather crowded or even merging into 
each other. P. serpens. 

Fronds glabrous or mainly beset with short spreading 
hairlets 2148 

2148. Fronds all entire. 

Chiefly on trunks of fern-trees, dwarf, sometimes quite 
minute ; fronds tufted, short-stalked, firm, exceptionally 
somewhat bisected, from narrowly lanceolar-elliptical to 
broad-linear, gradually attenuated towards the base ; 
venules all diverging ; fruit -masses large, from oval- to 
linear-elliptical, biseriate. P. Australe. 

Fronds all or mostly divided 2149 

2149. Fronds quite small. 

Chiefly on the trunks of fern-trees, tufted; fronds firm, 
mostly simply pinnatisected, seldom any undivided, 
much decurrent at their stalk-like base, the segments 
from narrow-semilanceolar to broad-linear, almost serrate ; 
longest towards the middle of the frond ; venules 
all diverging ; fruit masses from oval to orbicular. 

P. grammitidis. 

Fronds comparatively or quite large ... ... 2150 

2150. Fronds of firm texture. 

Chiefly on stems and branches of trees and also on trunks of 
arborescent ferns ; root-stock widely creeping, with 
numerous rootlets ; fronds pinnatifid or some undivided, 
slightly flexuous, very shining, their lobes often seini- 
lanceolar and generally few only, sometimes long, rarely 
again divided ; venulation rather prominent, reticular ; 
fruit-masses orbicular, comparatively large, distant, 
biseriate, their receptacles protruding on the surface of 
the frond. Figure 151. P. pustulatum. 



Victorian Plants. 515 



Fronds of membranous texture ... ... 2151 

2151. Fronds simply pinnatilobed or some entire. 

Perceptibly fragrant, chiefly on stems and branches of trees, 
also on trunks of arborescent ferns ; root-stock widely 
creeping ; fronds much decurrent along the stalk, thir 
lobes often semi-lanceolar and generally few only, seldom 
much elongated ; venulation hardly prominent, reticular ; 
fruit-masses orbicular, distant, biseriate. 

P. scandens. 
Fronds repeatedly pinnate. 

Tall ; root-stock creeping ; fronds very long and also of ample 
breadth, mostly tri-pinnate, much beset with short often 
glandule-bearing hairlets, usually rather membranous, but 
occasionally also somewhat rigid, broadest towards the 
base ; stalk somewhat rough ; ultimate pinnules almost 
semi-elliptical, from deeply to slightly but always bluntly 
lobed, often reflexed at the margin ; fruit-masses rather 
small, often approaching towards the middle of the pin- 
nule, though singly near a sinus, occasionally somewhat 
concealed under a recurved lobule, sometimes almost 
confluent ; spore-caselets on conspicuous stalklets. 

F. puuctatum. 

HYFOLEFIS, 

2152. Fruit-masses placed basally each into a sinus of the 

ultimate frond-lobes. 

Tall ; root-stock creeping ; frond long and of ample breadth, 
mostly rather flaccid, tri-pinnate, somewhat beset with 
very short hairlets ; ultimate pinnules or segments almost 
semi-lanceolar, from deeply to slightly lobed ; fruit-masses 
strictly marginal, never reaching towards the middle of 
the pinnule ; fruit-cover somewhat renate, only at and 
towards its upper margin membranous ; spore-caselets on 
conspicuous stalklets. H. tenuifolia. 

DAVALLIA. 

2153. Length of the fruit-cover much greater than its 
breadth. 

Hardly tall; root -stock far - creeping ; frond very firm, 
generally somewhat deltoid in outline, glabrous, bi- or tri- 
pinnate ; pinnules or segments indented or pinnatifid, 
gradually much narrowed upwards, the ultimate lobes 
often excised at the upper end ; cover of fruit-masses 
longitudinally adnate, thus only terminally open, hemi- 
ellipsoid, denticularly overreached by their pertaining 
lobes ; spore-caselets on conspicuous stalklets. 

D. pyxidata. 



516 Key to the System of 



Length and breadth of the fruit-cover about the same 2154 

2154. Fronds firm, almost rigid. 

Tall, chiefly on outskirts of forests or riparian ; fronds large, 
pale-green or even of a slightly yellowish green, generally 
thrice pinnate, somewhat beset with very short hairlets ; 
pinnules upwards gradually much narrowed ; segments 
almost semi-lanceolar, deeply lobed towards their base ; 
cover of fruit-masses very small, also laterally open, some- 
times partly concealed by recurvation of the nearest lobule 
of the frond ; spore caselets on conspicuous stalklets. 
Figure 140. (Dicksonia dubia.) D. dubia. 

Fronds tender, flaccidly membranous. 

Tall, restricted to umbrageous irrigated forest-valleys ; root- 
stock creeping ; fronds large, dark-green, repeatedly 
pinnate, slightly beset with hairlets ; pinnules elongate- 
semilanceolar in outline, much narrowed into the apex, 
their segments somewhat elliptical- or rhomboid-ovate, 
deeply incised, rather oblique, most of the lobules slightly 
indented, the lowest of the anterior lobules protracted ; 
fruit-covers very small, nearly hemispherical, almost 
exserted ; spore-caselets very minute, provided with stalk- 
lets. (Dicksonia davallioides. ) D. dicksonioides, 

ADXANTUBX. 

2155. Densely beset with short hairlets. 

Dwarf, tufted ; vestiture slightly rough ; stalks and rhaches 
very dark and shining ; fronds consisting of but few pinnas, 
these dark-green, almost fascicularly crowded, all verging 
upwards and short-stalked, very narrow in outline, the 
outer the smallest ; segments small, often numerous, nearly 
sessile, rather rigid, finely streaked, mostly semiorbicular- 
rhomboid, somewhat dimidiated, bluntly denticulated 
along the upper margin ; fruit-masses in close approach 
to each other ; fruit-cover orbicular-renate, externally 
prominent. A, hispiduluni. 

Glabrous or scantily beset with bristlets ... ... 2156 

2156. Frond-segments roundish-rhomboid, on conspicuous 

stalklets. 

Rather dwarf ; fronds repeatedly pinnate ; stalk and rhaches 
very dark and shining ; segments thin, light-green, rather 
irregularly dispersed, nearly always few only on the 
ultimate pinnas, in front often slightly incised, at the base 
truncate or somewhat cuneate ; fruit-cover circular- 
renate, retracted. Figure 142. "Maidenhair-Fern." 

A. Aethiopicum. 



Victorian Plants. 517 



Frond-segments dimidiate-rhomboid, almost sessile ... 2157 

2157. Cover of fruit-masses elliptic-renate, placed on the 

denticles, thus almost exserted. 

Tall ; fronds quite large, repeatedly pinnate, almost deltoid 
in outline ; stalk and rhaches very dark and shining, 
somewhat rough ; rhaches of the ultimate pinnules beset 
with minute hairlets ; segments thin, numerous, alterna- 
ting, regularly bi-seriated, slightly indented along the 
upper margin ; venulation close, dichotomous. 

A. formostiin. 

Cover of fruit-masses broad-renate, placed between 
the denticles, thus almost retracted. 

Dwarf; very scantily beset with bristlets, otherwise glabrous; 
stalk and rhaches very dark and shining ; fronds generally 
consisting of few crowded pinnas only ; segments very thin, 
closely alternating, usually blunt, regularly biseriated, in 
front shortly indented ; fruit-covers overtopped by the 
denticles of the segments. A. diapliamim. 

LINDSAYA. 

2158. Fronds very narrow in outline, simply pinnate. 

Dwarf ; root-stock creeping ; rootlets rather copious ; stalks 
very thin, as well as the rhaches dark and shining ; some 
of the fronds sterile ; segments quite small, mostly 
opposite, sessile, from cuneate to rhomboid and flabellular, 
often inequilateral ; fruit-cover narrow, extending along 
the terminal margin of the frond -segments ; spore-caselets 
on conspicuous stalklets. Figure 141. 3J. linearis. 

PTERIS. 

2159. Fronds simply pinnate or imperfectly bipinnate ... 2160 

Fronds repeatedly pinnate ... ... ... ... 2162 

2160. Frond-segments decurrent and adnate at the base. 

Tall; fronds rather membranous, dark-green, often bi-pinnate 
in its lower portion ; segments very long, from linear- to 
narrow-lanceolar, mostly opposite, very acute, the upper 
half of each narrowed at the base quite to the carinular 
line, minutely serrulated towards the summit ; lateral 
venules almost parallel-spreading; spore-caselets placed 
on a filiform-linear axis. P. nmbrosa. 

Fronds segments truncate and free at the base ... 2161 



518 Key to the System of 



2161. Frond-segments flaccid, hardly paler beneath. 

Seldom quite tall, occasionally dwarfed ; fronds almost 
lanceolar in outline, simply pinnate ; segments sessile, 
from a broad base mostly linear-lanceolar, rather acute, 
their base sometimes rather rounded or even slightly 
bi-lobed, the terminal segment much elongated ; lateral 
venules very divergent, almost parallel ; spore-caselets 
placed on a filiform-linear axis. P. longif olia. 

Frond-segments firm, much paler beneath. 

Rather dwarf ; fronds almost lanceolar in outline, simply 
pinnate ; rhachis as well as the stalk dark- colored and 
beset with rigid hairlets or narrow scalelets ; segments 
sessile, nearly semi-lanceolar, often entire and slightly 
curved upwards, exceptionally at the base bluntly bi- 
lobed and also throughout more dilated, always beneath 
greyish-green and without any lustre ; venules concealed ; 
fruit-cover very narrow; spore-caselets occupying a broad- 
linear space intra-marginally, arising from the upper 
portion of venules. (Pellaea falcata.) Figure 145. 

F. falcata. 

2162. Fronds rigid. 

Often very tall; root -stock far - creeping ; fronds ample, 
broadest towards the base ; segments rather distant and 
unequal, mostly broad-linear and blunt, somewhat de- 
current, the terminal segment more elongated, some of 
the lateral segments much abbreviated, all rather convex 
and transversely impressed -streaked above, at the margin 
recurved, beneath often ,beset with hairlets ; spore- 
caselets placed on a filiform -linear axis. " Brake-fern. " 

P. aquilina. 

Fronds flaccid ... *.. 2163 



2163. Segments of pinnules narrow-lobed. 

Rather tall, glabrous ; fronds ample ; rhaches as well as the 
stalk rather pale and slight-yellowish, but occasionally 
dark -brown, smooth ; segments rather approximated, 
from lanceolar- to broad-linear, blunt, confluent at the 
base, serrulated towards the summit, the terminal 
segment somewhat elongated ; venules diverging ; spore- 
caselets placed on a filiform-linear axis. P. arguta. 

Segments of pinnules broad-lobed 2164 



Victorian Plants. 519 



2164. Fronds much paler beneath. 

Tall, glabrous ; root-stock widely creeping ; stemlike stalks 
scattered ; fronds very ample, pale- or greyish-green, 
without any lustre ; segments mostly semi- elliptical, 
without any denticulation, confluent at the base, the 
uppermost segments gradually passing into the attenuated 
short-lobed end of the pinnule ; venules scarcely or im- 
perfectly reticulating ; spore-caselets placed on a filiform- 
linear axis. P, incisa. 

Fronds hardly paler beneath. 

Tall, sometimes slightly beset with minute hairlets ; fronds 
very ample, dark-green ; upper pinnules somewhat 
decurrent; segments from semi-elliptical to semi-lanceolar, 
confluent at the base, often denticulated at the summit ; 
venules completely reticulating ; spore-caselets placed 
on a filiform-linear axis. P. co mans . 

X.01KARIA. 

2165. Fronds all or some undivided. 

Seldom tall; frond -stalks short; sterile fronds or their seg- 
ments narrowly elongated -lanceolar, rigid, shining, dark- 
green, entire or slightly denticulated, pointed at the 
summit ; fertile fronds or their segments broad-linear, 
also rigid, rather acute ; segments of neither kind of frond 
numerous. L. Fatersoni. 

2166. Fronds rather flaccid ... ... ... ... ... 2167 

Fronds rather firm or quite rigid ... ... ... 2168 

2167. Fronds extensively pinnate. 

Often rather dwarf, scantily beset with pointed narrow 
scalelets ; fronds rather narrow in proportion to their 
length, short-stalked, hardly paler beneath, pinnate in 
their lower portion, pinnatisected in the upper ; segments 
of the sterile fronds membranous, from almost oval to 
elliptical, the lowest segments gradually much abbreviated; 
segments of the fertile fronds mostly linear-elliptical. 

L. fluviatilis. 
Fronds pinnatisected throughout. 

Rather dwarf, glabrous, sometimes forming a very short 
trunk ; fronds lanceolar in outline, somewhat membranous, 
hardly paler beneath ; segments of the sterile fronds 
mostly semi-lanceolar, adnate at the base, rather pointed, 
hardly denticulated, conspicuously venular-streaked, the 
lowest shortened to a roundish or even semi-orbicular 
form ; segments of the fertile fronds broad-linear. 

L. lanceolata. 



520 Key to the System of 



2168. Dwarf. 

Alpine, glabrous ; rootstock creeping ; fronds small, few in 
each tuft ; sterile fronds rather short-stalked ; fertile 
fronds long-stalked, the segments of either almost semi- 
elliptical or the fruit-bearing somewhat narrower ; fruit- 
cover comparatively broad. Figure 146. L. alpina. 



Tall 



2169. Fronds very much paler underneath. 

Rather tall, sometimes forming a short trunk ; fronds large, 
on conspicuous blackish stalks, lanceolar in outline, 
glabrous, placed circularly, exceptionally bi-pinnatisected ; 
rhachis dark-colored ; segments of the sterile fronds 
narrowly semi-lanceolar, entire, adnate at the base and 
mostly somewhat confluent ; venules subtile ; segments of 
the fertile fronds lanceolate- or broad-linear ; spores 
dark-brown or almost blackish. L. discolor. 

Fronds slightly paler underneath. 

Often very tall, sometimes forming a very short trunk ; 
fronds conspicuously stalked, somewhat semi-lanceolar in 
outline, scantly beset with narrow pointed scalelets ; seg- 
ments of the sterile fronds often much elongated, from 
almost elliptical to narrowly semi-lanceolar, shining, 
nearly or quite sessile, free at the base and there truncate 
or slightly bi-lobed, lowest segments seldom much abbre- 
viated, all prominently and closely venular-streaked, 
minutely serrulated ; segments of the fertile fronds rather 
long, broad linear. L. Capensis. 

BLECHNUM. 

2170. Fronds pinnatisected, the bases of the segments mostly 

confluent. 

Often on outskirts of forest ; fronds rather firm, light- 
green, somewhat lanceolar in outline ; segments numerous, 
narrow- and elongate-semilanceolar, quite flat, with broad 
base adnate except the lowest, transversely venular- 
streaked, very minutely serrulated ; spore-caselets on 
conspicuous stalklets. Figure 147. 

B. cartilagineum. 

WOODWARDIA. 

2171. Fronds throughout pinnatisected. 

Tufted, rather rigid, sometimes forming a short trunk ; 
fronds lanceolar in outline, their stalk as well as the 
rhachis rough ; segments firm, sharply denticulated, the 



Victorian Plants. 521 



middle elliptic -semilanceolar, all adnate at the base or 
exceptionally the lowest free beyond the point of attach- 
ment ; fruit-cover very small, somewhat curved. 

(Doodia aspera.) W. aspera. 

Fronds pinnate in their lower portion. 

Tufted, never tall, occasionally somewhat prostrate ; fronds 
often narrow-lanceolar in outline, pinnatisected in their 
upper portion, much protracted and undivided at the 
summit ; their stalk and rhachis dark-colored, hardly 
rough ; segments minutely denticulated, the middle 
narrowly elliptic-semilanceolar, the lower free at the 
base, exceptionally some three-lobed ; fruit-covers con- 
spicuous, but never long, slightly curved. Figure 148. 
(Doodia caudata.) W. caudata. 

ASFXiENXtrilX. 

2172. Fronds undivided. 

Tufted ; fronds very large and firm, somewhat circularly 
arranged, almost sessile, from elliptic- to broad -lanceolar, 
pointed, shining, quite entire, glabrous, the keel mostly 
black ; the lateral venules in close approach to each other, 
parallel, the peripheric venule almost contiguous to the 
margin of the frond ; fruit-masses very long, but narrow, 
closely parallel, opening upwards, approaching the median 
line of the frond, but remaining distant from its margin ; 
spore -caselets on conspicuous stalklets. " Birdsnest- 
Fern." A. Nidus. 

Fronds divided .. .. ... ... 2173 

2173. Fronds doubly or repeatedly pinnate ... 2174 
Fronds simply pinnate ... ... 2178 

2174. Frond-segments streaked by prominent venules. 

Tufted, rigid ; fronds on rather long stalks, firm, bi-pinnate 
when well developed, almost semi-lanceolar in outline; 
pinnas nearly all opposite, much pointed at the summit; 
segments sessile, from rhomboid- to linear-cuneate, irregu- 
larly incised, partly confluent, acutely denticulated in 
front, considerably paler beneath and there often beset 
with hairlets; venules dichotomously longitudinal, the 
carinular venule hardly more prominent than the others ; 
spore-caselets provided with stalklets. A. furcatum. 

Frond-segments traversed by subtile venules ... 2175 



522 Key to the System of 



2175. Cover of fruit-masses tumid. 

Tall, finally developing a real though never tall trunk ; 
fronds long-stalked, flaccid, sometimes very large, re- 
peatedly pinnate, somewhat deltoid in outline ; segments 
almost ovate-semilanceolar, the upper confluent, slightly 
or distinctly denticulated, occasionally incised ; fruit- 
masses rather short ; fruit-cover almost ellipsoid, at first 
closed by its margin meeting from each side contiguously 
beneath, soon anteriorely but often irregularly dehiscent. 

A. umbrosum. 

Cover of fruit-masses depressed 

2176. Comparatively dwarf. 

Sub-alpine, tufted ; fronds small, on slender stalks, firm, 
bi-pinnate when well developed ; segments often somewhat 
scattered, from roundish- to ovate-rhomboid or occasionally 
cuneate, oblique, mostly very narrowed at the base, incised 
or indented in front; fruit -masses seldom more than three 
to any of the segments. A. Hookerianum. 

Comparatively tall 

2177. Fruit-masses almost marginal. 

Often on trunks of fern-trees, somewhat pendent ; fronds 
of very thick texture, even sometimes almost carnulent, 
often only imperfectly bi-pinnate ; pinnules elongated, 
much narrowed upwards ; lobes of segments from lanceo- 
late-linear to semi-lanceolar, the lower slightly distant, 
the upper confluent ; fruit-masses broadish ; spore-case- 
lets on conspicuous stalklets. A, flacciduni, 

Fruit-masses quite dorsal. 

Somewhat beset with pointed narrow scalelets ; fronds 
rather flaccid, bi-pinnate, often generating proliferously 
some young plants from near the summit ; pinnas mostly 
alternate, almost semi-lanceolar in outline, pointed ; 
segments from rhomboid- to elliptic-ovate, somewhat 
decurrent, indented ; fruit-masses rather broadish. 

A. bulbiferum. 

2178. Segments of fronds quite long. 

Usually also here a coast-fern, robust but never tall, occa- 
sionally quite dwarfed ; fronds conspicuously stalked, of 
very thick texture, almost lanceolar in outline ; segments 
elliptic- or lanceolar-ovate, slightly acute or oftener blunt, 
rather obtusely denticulated, seldom somewhat incised, 
very narrowed only at the base, occasionally reduced to 
very few ; fruit-masses comparatively large and often 
especially long. A. marinuni. 



Victorian Plants. 523 



Segments of fronds quite short ... ... 2179 

2179. Flaccid, the frond-segments membranous. 

Small and weak, mostly prostrate, at least the lower portion ; 
fronds very narrow ; rhachis filiform-elongated towards 
the summit, there much beyond the segments bare and 
often very flexuous ; segments short, from roundish- to 
semiorbicular-rhomboid, usually in rather distant pairs 
or some scattered, always denticulated in front, seldom 
deeply lobed ; fruit-masses few or several to any of the 
segments. Figure 149. A, flabellif olium. 

Eigid, the frond-segments firm. 

Tufted; fronds very narrow, their rhachis very slender, 
blackish and shining as well as the stem ; segments usually 
from elliptic- to orbicular-ovate, bluntly denticulated, 
mostly opposite, always sessile, occasionally minute ; 
fruit-masses rather crowded. A. Trich.oman.es. 



ASFXDXUJK. 

2180. Fronds simply pinnate. 

Tall, beset with short soft hairlets ; fronds long-stalked, 
membranous, broad -lanceolar in outline ; segments 
elongate-semilanceolar, often almost pinnatifid, nearly 
truncate at the base, much narrowed at the summit, the 
lobes blunt and entire ; fruit-masses generally biseriate 
from any of the lobes to the carinular line of the segments ; 
fruit- cover renate. A. molle. 

Fronds doubly or repeatedly pinnate ... ... 2181 

2181. Fronds often doubly pinnate. 

Tall, particularly very much so in subalpine regions ; fronds 
circularly crowded, almost lanceolar in outline, quite 
rigid, rather often proliferous at the summit, their stem and 
rhachis generally much beset with shining pointed narrow 
often dark-brown scalelets