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Full text of "Key to the translation exercises of Kempson's syntax and idioms of Hindustani"

KEY 

TO THE TRANSLATION EXERCISES OF 
KEMPSON'S 

SYNTAX AND IDIOMS OF 
HINDUSTANI 



BY THE AUTHOR 



LONDON 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY 

Limited 

t. itunstan's ;Sj<rast 
FETTER LANE, FLEET STREET, E.G. 

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE 
1895 

[All riglitf mrf] 



PREFACE. 



THE object of this Key is to enable the learner to correct 
his own attempts at translating from the English. 

It will be seen, too, that Parts I. and II. may be 
utilised as a Second Series of Exercises in the fashion of 
the original Work. 

The Roman character is used because it costs less to 
print ; but the student will of course write out his Exer- 
cises in the native character, for in no other way can he 
learn to spell correctly. 

Constant reference to a Dictionary for the orthography 
of words, with respect to which he cannot fail to be in 
doubt at first, is an absolute necessity. 

M. K. 

Uley, 1890. 



2000210 



KEY TO 

EXERCISES IN HINDUSTANI 



TRANSLATION OF THE EXEECISES 
IN PART I. 



EXERCISE I. 

4. (1) Who are you, Sir? (2) Hallo there! who 
are you ? (3) What place is that ? (4) Who are these 
men ? (5) What means this ? (6) What 's all this ? 
(7) How do you do ? (8) Where is the post-office ? 
(9) How far is Dehli ? (10) What is the price ? 
(11) How many sowars are in waiting? (12) When, 
will dinner be ready ? (13) Why was he sullen ? 
(14) How is this known ? (15) How do you come to 
be here ? 

0, (1) Tar-ghar kahan hai. (2) Ghat kitni dur hai. 
(3) Mahsul kitna hai. (4) Kai rupaya baqi hai. 
(5) HAziri kab tayyar hogi. (6) Teh kaunsi kitab hai. 
(7) Yeh kaun 'aurat hai. (8) Yeh galati kyunkar hui. 

1 



TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



(9) Turn gair-hazir kyun the. (10) Itni der kyun. 
(11) Turn kahan the. (12) Teh kaun nadi hai. 
(13) Sabab kya. (14) Yeh kaisa bandobast hai. (15) Sahib- 
khana kaun hai. 



EXERCISE II. 

(1) You too be in attendance to-morrow. 
(2) Yesterday a great bit of fun occurred. (3) It does 
not matter. (4) Here there is no water at all. (5) Some 
little bread there is. (6) There is no other servant. 
(7) No other girl was there. (8) Some hundred or 
Imndred and fifty rupees are in hand. (9) Yes; that 
was the very person. (10) The time is very short 
indeed now. (11) Cotton is never grown here. (12) There 
was no trace anywhere. (13) Some bungalow or other 
must be vacant. (14) There must have been a fall of 
rain somewhere or other. (15) To-day not the slightest 
effect was produced. 

12. (1) Yahan ko'i hai. (2) Kal yahan kuchh bhi 
garmi na hui. (3) Yeh ghori bahut hi bad mizaj ma'lum 
hoti. (4) Kaisa 'umda bag. (5) Kya aj Munshi sahib 
bimar hain. (6) Yehi bat to thi. (7) Khak bhi sabab 
nahin. (8) Kuchh na kuchh galati hui hogi. (9) Kuchh 
muzayaqa nahin. (10) Abhi to ko'i dha'i sau rupaya 
darkar hai. (11) Qil'a kos bhar dur hai. (12) Kha- 
bardar kal zarur hazir ho. (13) Pandit ji bare hazir- 
jawab hain. (14) Kya yeh nadi payab hoti hai. 
(15) Kahin na kahin bazar to hoga. 



PAET I. 6 

EXERCISE III. 

i (1) The parents and children were assembled. 

(2) Most Hindi, Persian, and Arabic books are cheap. 

(3) About fifty Sepoys must have started. (4) There is 
some little extra baggage too. (5) The bearers all want 
food and rest. (6) All three thieves were caught. 

(7) The royal provinces must be in a ruinous condition. 

(8) Well, you and I will be partners. (9) Both he and 
I are recent arrivals. (10) Flour, pulse, ' ghee,' salt, 
etc., will be provided. (11) Many such native medicines 
as 'neem,' aconite, borax, potash are useful remedies. 
(12) Indigo, tobacco, and cotton also are grown here. 

2O (1) Ka 'i ek Thag giriftar hue honge. (2) Choba 
mekh qanat wagaira sab durust hain. (3) Chhapa aur 
kagaz aur jild-bandi achchhi hai. (4) Kya turn-log razi 
ho. (5) Bhala, ham turn sab eksan admi hain. (6) Ta- 
mam daftar-logmuztarr o pareshan hote honge. (7) Kal 
to Ismit Sahib aur Mem Sahib aur baba-log rawana hue. 
(8) Zemindar-log sab naraz hain. (9) Mamalik magrabi 
o skimali wasi' hain. (10) 'Aql shuja'at haya aisi sifateu 
kam-yab hoti hain. (11) Wahan to saikron rupaya bar- 
bsid hua hai. (12) Turn charou admi sazawar ho. 



EXERCISE IV. 

(1) How was this emeute put down ? (2) What 
is your authority for this statement ? (3) You are the 
graudson of a man held in great esteem. (4) Which is 
the road to Agra? (5) I am very thankful for your 
Honour's kindnesses. (6) How much for this black 

1 * 



4 TBANSLA.TION OF EXEECISES. 

mare ? (7) The office- work is certainly heavy now-a-days. 
(8) Terrible injustice must have occurred. (9) Why is 
your middle finger so rough ? (10) What is the good of 
such extravagance ? (11) The whole of them wish to 
see me disgraced. (12) Wealth and riches are of small 
account in comparison with virtue and breeding. (13) The 
* dak-bungalow ' is quite close to the railway. (14) Each 
was a man like you and me. (15) What companionship 
is there between a footman and a horseman ? 

29. (1) Tere bap ka nam aur zat kya hai. (2) Yeh 
to kuchh hansi ki bat nahin. (3) Kasad ka bandobast 
kis ka zimma hai. (4) Is ghore ki shakl aur rang 
achchha hai. (5) Do mil ka ek kos hota hai. (6) Teh 
kahan ki sarak hai. (7) Tin din ki rukhsat manzur 
hui. (8) Yeh tattu kitne ka hai. (9) Is mazmun ka ek 
hukm jari hai. (10) Uske sath ek hathi aur do unt bhi 
the. (11) Meri kothi kachahri ke pas hi hai. (12) Par- 
sal bala ki qaht-sali hui thi. (13) Kisi na kisi baniya 
ki dukan hai. (14) Imsal kis qadr naf hasil hua. 
(15) Teri <umr kitni. 



EXEECISE V. 

34. (1) Your circumspection is commendable. (2) The 
procedure of this office is regular. (3) This news was 
communicated by the messengers. (4) A marriage is on 
the tapis at the Nawwab's. (5) There will be a caste 
entertainment at my house to-day. (6) The syce has 
nothing whatever for expenses. (7) I have table, chairs, 
carpeting and everything. (8) There must be some 
around for his reproof. (9) The ignorance of the 



PART I. 5 

weavers is inconceivable. (10) Some stranger is desirous 
of an interview with you. (11) It is the difference 
between earth and heaven. (12) By Heaven ! I dare not 
do this deed. (13) The word fe'l is good idiom here. 
(14) An old man of the name of Durga is standing 
without. (15) A scholarship of twenty rupees a month is 
founded for the benefit of the students. 



(1) Tumhare pas kis qadr naqd hai. (2) Yeh 
to kalke ghore ka 'ajib qissa hai. (3) Bilfe'l mere yahan 
ko'i jagah khali nahin. (4) Mudda'i ka da'wa ja'iz hai. 
(5) Yahan to Dehli ka, mohawara murawwaj hai. (6) Roz 
roz ka jhagra har-giz pasandida nahin. (7) Be-tamiz 
adini qabil-e'tibar nahin. (8) Hata ki diwar marammat- 
talab hai. ,(9) Wajh ke lafz ki lugawi rna'ni kya hai. 

(10) Yeh guin-nain 'arzi km makkar ka kam hoga. 

(11) Yeh sanduq yahan ke logon ki karigari ka namuna 
hai. (12) Albatta bhatija ap ka taraqqi ke la'iq hai. 
(13) Ek kana faqir Shah 'Ali nam phatak ke ssimhne 
khara hai. (14) Ba'zon ke nazdik sarkari intizam galat 
hai. (15) Is zila* ka bandobast bahut hi nann ma'lum 
hota hai. 



EXERCISE VI. 

(1) I am taking leave. (2) I bear my misfor- 
tunes constantly in mind. (3) At that moment I recol- 
lected my native country and my parents. (4) The 
Dasehra holidays will begin ten days hence. (5) Where 
does this road go ? (6) Some half n ser of milk must have 
been left. (7) All my property was stolen. (8) After 



O TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 

some days your proficiency will be perfect. (9) The 
train must have come in some time since. (10) I have 
no leisure now. (11) Everyone has his own fashions 
(gangs his ain gait). (12) I dislike this fashion of for- 
getting. (13) I am coming with you myself. (14) My 
lesson was left unfinished yesterday. (15) The support 
of one's own people is a condition of humanity. 



, (1) Kal sham ko woh rukhsat hua. (2) Uski 
charb-zabani mujhe pasand nahin ati. (3) Aj do pahar 
bare Sahib wapas a'enge. (4) Mujhko apni be-wuqufi 
yad-ai. (5) Chand roz ke ba'd unke sab naukar chakar 
mauquf hoga'e. (6) Pachiswin tarikh mah hal ko Sahib 
Kalektar ke yahan darbar jari hoga. (7) Turn sab apne 
apne ghar jao. (8) Ek na ek din salah meri tujhko yad- 
hogi. (9) Ap ke khatt kl 'ebarat aur mazmiin mujhko 
pasand aya. (10) Is khata ka natija jald tujhko zahir 
hoja'ega. (11) Kis qadr mahasil wusul hua. (12) Pir 
ko usi waqt imtehan shuru' hoga. (13) Yahan to aksar 
tandurust rahta hun. (14) Is makan men kaun sahib 
tashrif rakhte hain. (15) Teri yeh na'i hikmat kab ijad- 
hui. 



EXERCISE VII. 

51, (1) His staying in Dehli in this way is inexpe- 
pedient. (2) How long shall I have to stay here ? 
(3) Rain will fall in a short time. (4) There is much 
difference between this and that. (5) I received your 
Honour's letter. (6) The contractor will receive an 
advance of two hundred and fifty rupees. (7) Friend, 
why are you so angry with him ? (8) This slipping out 



PART I. 7 

at night of his was no novelty. (9) Money is a thing 
which comes and goes. (10) Meanwhile the guests' 
litters began to arrive. (11) In this triangle the square 
on the side AB is equal to the square on the side AC. 
(12) I mean to go thus far and no farther. (13) As yet 
1 haven't caught a single fish. (14) Wealth gratis comes 
amiss to none. (15) He received a fatal wound, 

53 i (1) Mazhabi baton men Sarkar ki dastandazi 
maslabat nahin. (2) Woh to mujhpar bahut hi gusse 
hua. (3) Athwen bab tak ka inujhe irada hai bas. 
(4) Is qism ka kapra kahan milta. (5) Ap ka is majlis 
men shamil hona rava hai. (6) Uske agle din mujhko- 
Agra jana para. (7)_Gumnam 'arzi'an ani shuru' huin. 

(8) Meri danist men ap ko yeh makan khush-kharid mila. 

(9) Kisi ke chot na lagi. (10) 'Ilm aur 'amal men bara 
farq hai. (11) Ap ka beta shash-mahi initehan men awwal 
nikla. (12) Is riyasat men be-sa'i o sifarish kisi ko 
naukari nahin milti. (13) Is kue men ka pani pina haram. 
hai. (14) Kunji qufl men nahin lagti. (15) Ham par 
shari'at ka paband hona farz hai. 



EXEECISE VIII. 

(1) B e in attendance at the Dispensary at noon 
to-morrow. (2) Nothing contrary to your wishes shall 
happen. (3) I was a terrible sleeper from childhood. 
(4) Alas ! I was deprived of the sight of my father on that 
occasion. (5) Is there any family relationship between 
you and the Serishtadar? (6) There will not be in the 
whole world a smaller bird than this. (7) Which is the 



S TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 

best horse in you: stable ? (8) Compared with the 
others this bay mare is the fastest. (9) The Sayyids 
rank highest among the Mahomedans. (10) The Captain 
treated me with courtesy. (11) There is an iron chain 
on this elephant's leg. (12) There is no poet like me at 
the present day. (13) His pronunciation is rustic. 
(14) Your pluck is that of a Bengali. (15) A great 
many foreign travellers have come into the Serai to- 
day. 

f>2i (1) Ferishton ka sa mizaj uska hai. (2) In 
men se bahut se saudagar Kabul se ae hain. (3) Hazari 
Mai hazar mahajanon ka ek mahsljan hai. (4) Mere 
yahan to yeh 'Arabi sab se garib hai. (5) Be shakk is 
shakhs ki surat chalan ki kaif iyat se milti. (6) Huzur ke 
nam ki yeh tin cbitthi daftar se a'i hain. (7) Tamam 
gird-nawah men Pir Khan se ko'i achchha chabuk- 
sowar nahin. (8) Mujhko Hardwar ke mele men yeh 
jora khush-kharid mila. (9) Ham to tumhare bulawe se 
nahin ane ke. (10) Khuda ke waste shahr ke is mahalla 
men na ana. (11) Be-kar mat baitho. (12) Maktab 
men sab se achchha khush-navis kaun hai. (13) Kal to 
mera dost apne ghar par na tha. (14) Rel par sowar 
hona (rel ka safar) mujhko pasand ata. (15) Usko 
kamar men chandi ki peti thi. 



EXEKCISE IX. 

68. (1) What shall I say at all, at all? (2) With 
what face shall I interview my father ? (3) This new 
fashion (of life) will astonish them. (4) At your age are 
you not ashamed ? (5) The river Jamna falls into the 



PAET I. 

Oanges. (6) What is the sum of nine, eighteen, and 
twenty-seven? (7) The proceedings were recorded, and 
the (following) order given. (8) Two doctors, let alone 
one, carne to see me. (9) Clean my gun well and bring 
it. (10) Search for and seek him everywhere. (11) The 
natives of this country ride without saddle or bridle. 
{12) Explain briefly the cause of the Mutiny of Fifty- 
seven. (13) Where is a recluse like me to lookifora 
photographer? (14) Who took away the pens, ink, and 
paper hence ? (15) Thief knows thief. 

7Oi (1) Nau aur unis aur untis milkar sattawan hote 
hain. (2) Ko'i makkar jakar meri jutiyan legaya hoga. 
(3) Yeh chitthi kaun laya. (4) Yeh sab kitaben tartib 
se mez par rakh-do. (5) In bagi'on ke sath kis tarah se 
pesh-aun. (6) Sindh darya Hind ke samundar men ja 
mila. (7) Sham ko mujhe hawa khane ka shauq hai. 

(8) Mukhtasar karke apni tamam sarguzasht bayan kar. 

(9) Haqiqat-hal daryaft karke likh-bhejo. (10) Is danga 
fasad ka asli sabab kyunkar ma'lum kariin. (11) Ek 
chhor tin samp isi badar-rau se nikle. (12) Kya munh 
leke apne bare bha'i se milun. (13) Hargiz pith 
pichhe kisi se bura bhahl na kahna. (14) Mujhe ghar 
jake bukhar aya. (15) Maulavi sahib ki e'tiraz ko taslim 
karta hun. 



EXERCISE X. 

(1) How shall I have the purchase-money sent 
you ? (2) Just drive the sheep and goats out of the 
.garden. (3) He must have reached home long ago. 



10 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 

(4) The cure of cholera is beyond the resources of medi- 
cine. (5) It was bad manners for him to call out thus'. 
suddenly in your Honour's presence. (6) I have no power 
to move in this affair. (7) It was not very difficult to- 
make my son understand my wishes. (8) Find out the 
road from the villagers as you go along. (9) I was pre- 
vented by indisposition from answering your letter. 
(10) Well, how can we assent ? (11) He has already- 
taken leave and gone. (12) Talk about this and that 
commenced afterwards. (13) Beware this secret do not 
get abroad. (14) No female was allowed to go outside 
the courtyard. (15) Hang it ! let him in and have done 
with it. 



M (1) Ap ke su'al ka jawab sar-i-dast nahin de- 
sakta him. (2) Mujh se kuchh na ban-para, bas. (3) Dudh 
ko billi pi-ga'i hogi. (4) Us bag ke uttar men dehra 
khara kar-do. (5) Mere ane se pahle ka.ni to kav-chuka. 
(6) Kashtkar log zemana ki shikayat karne lage. (7) Usk& 
ane dene men kya qabahat. (8) Hata se bahar ko'i na 
jane pslwe. (9) Is tahrir ki naql mutabiq-asl kar-lena.. 
(10) Is gsVon ki iia-safi ki kaifiyat roznamcha men darj- 
kar-dun. (11) Apasmen takrarna honepawe. (12) Munb 
andhere gend khelue ke maidan men pani chhirakwa-do_ 
(13) Bala se yeh khurafat raddi men pheuk-dalo. (14) Woh 
to bazar hoke aya hoga. (15) Kal sab ghoron ki na'lbandt 
karwsUdo. 



EXERCISE XI. 

(1) I was forced to take three days' leave. (2) I 
owe it to your good fortune that I have built this house- 



PART I. 11 

(3) God endowed him with intelligence, virtue, and 
modesty, in fact, with every good quality. (4) Of 
course you will have put him into Court. (5) Beginning 
with a hide of land, the English appropriated the whole 
of India. (6) I bought the be-choba in Fatehgarh. 
(7) He told off two chokidars to show the road. (8) I 
was honoured by the arrival of your letter. (9) My 
nephew Khwaja Badruddin Khan has translated the 
Bostan-kbayal into Urdu. (10) Brother and sister 
described all their adventures. (11) What made you 
allow these mutineers to remain on your premises ? (12) I 
borrowed the MS. from him and corrected all my books. 
(13) I have sent Babu Kali Charn your letter to his 
address. (14) I adjourned the case in expectation of 
your coming. (15) He left nothing unsaid. 



i Nahaqq main ne apni hansi kara'i. (2) Mere 
sathi'on ne apas men yeh 'ahd o paiman kar-liya. (3) Ram 
Lai nam ek baniya ne mere upar jhiithi nalish karwa-di 
hai. (4) Nij ki sowari ke li'e main ne do desi ghoriyan 
Hardwar men lin. (5) Turn ne apni kaifiyat men bahut 
se matalib likhe hain. (6) Sas ne mujh ko khanadari 
men kuchh bhi dakhl na diya. (7) Kya samajhke tu ne 
sahib ko jane diya. (8) Ap ne to bari jokhim utha'i 
thi. (9) Mushkil se main ne bis rupaya par kifa- 
yat ki. (10) Burhape ne mujhe nikamma kar-diyA. 
hai. (11) Ek ek karke mariz ne ghar-walon ki khair a 
'afiyat puchhi. (12) Is raqm ko turn ne hisab men kyim 
qalam-andaz kiya tha. (13) Kar-pardazon ne dana ghas 
bichhali sab chiz risala ke waste baham pahuncha'in. 
(14) Unhon ne upar tale char sher banduq msire. (15) Is 
men ap ne meri bari qadr-dani farma'i hai. 



12 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



EXERCISE XII. 

<> 1 (1) A privateer was visible a long way off. (2) The 
"voices were quite inaudible. (3) Once loose, these horses 
will not let themselves be caught. (4) He accompanied 
me of his own accord. (5) I went off in alarm by the 
back door. (6) I began to lose sight of the earth entirely. 
(7) Ask the teacher for a dictionary in my name, and 
bring it. (8) Be good enough just to correct this rough 
draft. (9) Be pleased to pay ray bouse a visit. (10) Pray 
don't be angry. (11) Then where will you be pleased to 
go ? (12) The sight of others in misfortune should be 
an admonition to ourselves. (13) You ought to wear 
full dress. (14) You ought to have confessed your 
fault. (15) Under no circumstances ought one to be 
indolent. 



(1) Das m il ke fasila par pal ek jahfiz ke dikha'i 
di'e. (2) Woh rukhsat hoke chal-diya. (3) Woh to 
adhi dur tak haniara sath diya. (4) Mujhe tar ke zari'a 
se unki tashrif-awari ki ittila' bhej-diji'e. (5) Bha'i ki 
saza dekhke usko 'ibrat pakarni chahi'e thi. (6) Mujhko 
unki zaban mutlaq nasamjha'idi. (7) Mansha-e-rnusan- 
nif mujhko tashrih kiji'e. (8) Mehrbani karke apni hida- 
yaten tafsil se tahrir farma'iye. (9) Kal parson mere 
yahan tashrif farma'iye. (10) Chalis kos ke fasila par 
topon ki awaz suna'i di. (11) Pesh-lashkar dushman 
ka Satlaj par uazar para. (12) Be-dii na huji'e. 
(13) Ba-har-kaif logon par ziyadati na karni chahi'e 
(14) Meri haveli ke sahn men be-takalluf tashrif la'iye. 
(15) Eishta-daron men parda kya chahi'e. 



PART I. 



EXERCISE XIII. 

i (1) What will not a dying man do ? (2) In the 
rear of the combatants in the van of the runaways. 
(3) Religious mendicants of various kinds pester the 
wayfarers. (4) I am present at your summons. (5) That 
same Jinn appeared to me as I lay awake. (6) On hearing 
of it he was seized with longing. (7) No one falls into a 
well by order. (8) On awaking from sleep the patient 
will, of course, feel thirsty. (9) He may, perhaps, be 
brought to accept two rupees (a month). (10) He will 
be better looking still when he is grown up. (11) How 
can a disease be diagnosed without a sight of the 
patient? (12) Who can measure (the altitude of) a 
minaret of the Jami' Masjid without a yard-measure, 
without a rope, and without ascending it ? 



(1) Ra'sha ke mare men to ungliyan kahe men 
nahin. (2) Abtak mere ga'e ka qalaq unke dil men lagta. 
(3) Ma'muli phirta garibanon ko de-dena. (4) Jawan 
hu'e par uski maharat awwal darja hogi. (5) Matlab 
'arzi ka be parhe hue kyunkar ma'luru hosakta hai. 
(6) Woh to be rukhsat li'e chal-diya. (7) Hisab sentte 
ke sath mujhko khazanchi ki bad-diyanati khuli. 
(8) Ganga ki chaura'i be par hue kaun kah-sake. (9) Is 
tarah munh laga'e se niri nafrat paida hogi. (10) Sam- 
jha'e se woh to naukari qabul kar-lega. (11) Ham to 
sirf ap ke bula'e hue a'e hain. (12) Apni taraf se dallal 
ko dharta denu parega. 



TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



EXEECISE XIV. 

tO2i (1) Fill the tea-pot with boiling water. 
(2) Everywhere the statement of an eye-witness is most 
relied on. (3) Address your elders in subdued tones. 
(4) Define a recurring decimal. (5) Describe a triangle 
on the given straight lina AB. (6) I saw a vessel filled 
with chaff standing in the ' go down.' (7) A carpet is 
spread in the drawing-room. (8) Have you got henna 
on your feet ? (9) Sewing especially is very tiresome 
work. (10) The boy, laughing, mounted to house-top 
and sat down. (11) Who is this man lying on the bed ? 
(12) Daily quarrelling and fighting is, so to say, the 
curse of this village. 

1O4 (1) Zarra us bhaunkte hue kutte ko chup 
kara-do. (2) Tarke men bap-dadon se mujh ko yeh chalta 
kar-khana mila. (3) Aj mujhko us ne ek bolti chirya 
pinjre men lagi hu'i nazr guzra.ni. (4) Khuda ki di hu'i 
roti ko sab khate hain. (5) Dastar-khwan mez par bichha 
hai. (6) Is bat ki tamsil men mujhko ek bare maza ki 
hikayat yad-ati. (7) Mujhko yeh bana'i hu'i baten 
pasand nahin atin. (8) Balti men khaulti hu'i ghungh- 
iiyan bhar-do. (9) Khauf ke mare woh buzdil ulte pa'on 
phira. (10) Bahuteri dilchasp kitaben kutb-khana men 
maujud hain. (11) Fauj to bhagti hu'i hazar mushkilon 
se sarhadd pahunchi. (12) Woh to bazar hota hua logon 
ka salam leta. 



PART I. 15 



EXERCISE XV. 

(1) He recognised his brother's signature 
directly he saw it. (2) The whole civil and financial 
administration came into our hands by degrees. (3) He 
(or she) passed the whole day in tears. (4) What have 
you to do with these matters while I am here ? (5) Why 
need you make yourself ridiculous to no purpose without 
an effort to avoid it ? (6) The preceptor was seized with 
cholera as he was writing his letters. (7) The tyrant 
found my wife and myself sound asleep, and cast us into 
the stream. (8) I have left my horse tethered to a peg. 
(9) You must have observed the moon scudding through 
the broken clouds. (10) Two slave-girls issued, lamp in 
hand. (11) The girl has eaten nothing since this time 
yesterday. (12) The Vazir came on tiptoe in great alarm 
;and looked. 

111. (1) Mujhko itm bari hokar alif-be parhte hue 
diqqat hoti hai. (2) Chhote bare kal isi waqt ka kha'e 
hue hain. (3) Woh shakhs sher ka sa munh li'e hue 
kaun hai. (4) Ganj men khali is dukan ko khula hua 
pay a. (5) Chalte hue Begam mujhe ek ashrafi dene 
lagin. (6) Hote hote Afganon ne Panjab ko fateh-kar- 
liya. (7) Ankh bacha 'aurat-log zenana ke andar se sir 
nikale thin. (8) Sab ke sab ek dvisre ka munh dekhte 
ke dekhte rah-ga'e. (9) Masjid ke andar ko'i Maulavi 
jae-namaz bichha'e sijda men masruf raha. (10) Is dara 
ko main apnl qabr samjhe hue tha. (11) Afwah sunte 
hi gabra-gaya. (12) Mere rahte bhulkar bhi rishwat ka 
niiiu na lena. 



16 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



EXERCISE XVI. 

i (1) The news was known in the city about an 
hour after sunrise. (2) As day declined, the Rani's 
panJcha began to swing. (3) The forenoon was well 
advanced when he awoke. (4) Three or three and a, 
half months have passed since I went there. (5) Why 
have you come so late at night? (6) He rose very early 
while it was yet night. (7) My eyes begin to close before 
the day is over. (8) Noon passed as he lay on and on 
he did not even turn in his sleep. (9) Put the horses to 
before gun-fire. (10) I intend to march as soon as the 
day breaks. (11) The wretch did not cease from his. 
wickedness up to the moment of his death. (12) Sick- 
ness, medicine, prayer, the death-agony, and death itself 
were over in a quarter of an hour. (13) What o'clock 
is it? It is just a quarter to eight now. (14) The 
discussion continued from half past one till evening. 
(15) May you be hourly blessed. 



1 C 1 ) Rel kai baje chhutegi. (2) Ab to imtehan 
ke ko'i bis din pare hain. (3) Daura ga'e unko ek mahina 
guzra hoga. (4) Itne din rahe se turn ne apna kam kyun 
chhora. (5) Itne din charhe turn kyun uthe. (6) Das. 
baje se lekar panch tak daftar jari hai. (7) Hamari 
paltan kuchh rfit rahe se para'o pahunchi. (8) Itni rat 
ga'e meri mulaqat ko kaun sahib a'e hon. (9) Din charhte 
charhte dur se ek jazira dikha'i dene laga. (10) Din 
dubte dubte ulti hawa chalne lagi. (11) Be mere ishara. 
di'e hue ghanta mat maro. (12) Aj gyara baje rat ko 
chand khet karega. (13) Kya chalte waqt un se na, 



PART I. 17 

miloge. (14) Tanibih hue pichhe us ne baithe-bitha'e ek 
aur shararat ki. (15) Main to jite ji ap ka suluk na 
hhulunga. 



EXERCISE XVII. 

i (1) Come, let us all, each in turn, tell our own 
names and our parents' names. (2) Female education, I 
warrant, will increase and spread. (3) He thus went on 
embracing each of them in turn as he recognised them. 
(4) Do you now inspect the jars from one end (of the 
row to the other). (5) Notwithstanding (my) reprimand 
he grew more and more insolent and wicked. (6) He 
remained gazing open-eyed at the passing trains. (7) At 
this rate of extravagance all (his) wealth will disappear. 
(8) They were much disgusted at the adjournment of 
the trial. (9) Nearly ten thousand men were killed at 
the siege of Dehli. (10) Let the editor of the paper be 
searched for. (11) Hundreds of rupees per mensem come 
in to me from the tena,nts. (12) A. man ran off to the 
doctor's before daylight. 



0) Asai ^ l&r&i men ko'iderh hazar admi khet 
rahe. (2) Qatil ko is 'aurat ke khub talash kiya ja'e. 

(3) Roz-ba-roz woh shokh aur na-hamwar hota jata hai. 

(4) Aisi 'adat thore se shuru' hokar barhti jati hai. (5) Is 
se farig hokar dekha ja'ega. (6) Kahani ka multavi kiya 
jana bachchon ko na-guwar hua. (7) Usko ate jate dekhta 
rah. (8) Mujhse raha nahin gay a. (9) Tumhari jahalat 
ke sabab meri bhi nek-nami jati rahegi. (10) Na-ba-kar 
naukar ek ek karke nikale ga'e. (11) Hath pa'on men 
sansani si chali ati hai. (12) Sharab pipe se nikla ata hai. 



18 TRANSLATION OB' EXERCISES 

EXERCISE XVIII. 

13Oi (1) The brothers sat down to eat and drink 
with much zest and zeal. (2) I went to see him every 
day for nine days consecutively. (3) In imitation of 
me, the monkey let her left-hand pulse be felt every 
day. (4) How may we be kept informed of your con- 
dition ? (5) After this a conversation on indifferent 
topics was maintained. (6) You will be pleased to keep 
in your own hands the general superintendence only. 
(7) I am desirous of adopting you as my son. (8) Some- 
thing awful is about to happen. (9) Accordingly I shall 
go on thus begging you from time to time (to grant my 
request). (10) Keep your hand placed upon the sleeping 
child. (11) I will go and send bedding, etc., at once. 
(12) I shall instantly split this beam in two. 

132, (1) Be shakk is zila' men rasn>i-dukhtar-kushi 
hua barti hai. (2) Ka'i din tak shadi ka jashn hua kiya. 
(3) JBarah baja chahte hain. (4) Mariz ko barf ka pani 
pila'e ja'o. (5) Ap ki yadgari men is anguthi ko apni 
ungli men pahne rahunga. (6) Woh to har roz meri 
'eyadat ko do hafta tak aya jaya ki. (7) Khanala'e deta 
him. (8) Is mujrim ko qatl-kiya chahi'e. (9) Main 
tujhse man' ki'e deta hun. (10) Faisal-i sunkar mudda'i 
mudda'a 'alaihi donon ek dusre ko taka ki'e. (11) Mere 
rahte yeh dastur hua kare. (12) Waqt pare par isko mere 
pas ane ki ijazat diya kiji'e. 



19 



TRANSLATION OF THE EXERCISES 
IN PART II. 



EXEECISE XIX. 

(1) ket that one of you precede who is qualified 
to take precedence. (2) Why should that be done which 
may be a cause of dissension? (3) Whatever people 
thought, they thought wrong. (4) What anyone is in 
want of shall be given him. (5) After this wear what 
you like. (6) Instantly report to me any unusual pro- 
ceeding on his part which you may observe. (7) I prac- 
tice the profession of marauding, which has come down to 
me from my fathers. (8) What kind of man is he that 
eats no salt ? (9) Your mother and sister are in the same 
house as yourself. (10) He suffered a retribution which 
was in accord with his deserts. (11) I have no book in 
my possession which is worthy of your Excellency's in- 
spection. (12) What you tell me is the weight of the 
air is inconceivable. (13) The higher I ascended, the 
lighter the air became. (14) Let a contribution be levied 
in proportion to the supposed income of each. (15) The 
younger women of poor folk, among whom parda is not 
maintained, work in the fields like men. (16) What I 
observed when I came into your family was that no men- 
tion was made of religion. 

2 * 



20 TEANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



. (1) Jo 'auraten parhua nahin jantin kaisi buri 
tarah unka waqt katta hai. (2) Larki ko'i chha baras 
ki thi bas bi'ainihi jitni hamari Hamida. (3) Wohi 
Sindbad jise tuni rnua jante ho main huii. (4) Ba-sabab 
ru'i ke jo kanon men bhari hui thi mutlaq awazen sunfi'i 
na din. (5) Siwae iske jo main ap se 'arz karchuka aur 
kuchh hai main nahin kah-sakta. (6) Buddhe naukar 
jin se kam nahin ho-sakta unkehuquq ko bhul-jana bari 
na-ehsanmandi hai. (7) Ham to isi pech men ki turn ho 
hain. (8) Jitni main teri parwarish karta raha usi qadr 
tii sust aur kahil hota gaya. (9) Jisko jitni tankhwah 
baqi hai di ja'egi. (10) Qoran men jo ap batate haiii 
aisi ko'i ayat nahin. (11) Khasskar ko'i taklif hai jo 
usko iza deti ho. (12) Jo amr ki zuhiir men ay a hai 
mere haqq men behtar hai. (13) Turn ne jitni qimat 
kahi thi behiida kahi. (14) Jo jo afwah ki bazar men 
suniyo fauran mujhse kahla-bhejiyo. (15) Mere yahan 
ko'i aisa ghora nahin ki jo ap ki sowari ke la'iq ho. 
(16) Mahkama men akar jo dekha to mu-shigafi'on ka 
dastur hua kiva. 



EXEECISE XX. 

(1) ^7 family is fortunate in your arrival. 
(2) It is impossible he escaped by this road. (3) How 
did you know, without counting, that they were sixty ? 
(4) What did L see on getting there but the thatchers' 
ricks on fire. (5) He put a mirror into his hund and 
said ' Now, look at yourself and me, and see if there is 
any difference at all between us.' (6) An idea came into 
nay mind to rail to Agra. (?) You ran a great risk in 



PART II. 21 

going after tigers on foot. (8) I hope your Honour will 
give me three days' grace. (9) I could not guess from 
his countenance that he was deceiving me. (10) I don't 
know what answer to give to the manager's letter. (11) I 
saw it stated in a newspaper that an eclipse of the sun 
would be visible on the 15th inst. (12) It is a sad job 
that I gave him leave. (13) He said that he was expect- 
ing you. (14) Ask the Bearer if his master is awake yet. 
(15) People began to be afraid that the police would 
hear the noise and burst into the house. 



i (1) Avadh akhbar men likha dekha ki sani- 
char ko do baje Kaisar Bag ki barahdari men Ta'alluqdaron 
ka jalsa darpesh hai. (2) Is jhagre ke tasfiya men ap 
ko chahi'e ki zarra da'en ba'en dekhi'e. (3) Guwah se 
puchho ki turn se angrezi ati. (4) Sa'is ko hukm do ki 
turn adhi dur Jake baitho. (5) Ap ne bari peshbandi ki 
jo usko be amanat li'e chhutkara diya. (6) Hairan hun 
ki yeh bohtan kyunkar tardid-karun. (7) Usne lafzani 
ki thi ki main unko farzin uthake mat duuga. (8) Ap 
ne bari khair-khwahi ki jo pahle pahal men mufsidon ko 
dabaya. (9) Mujhe guman-i-galib hai ki woh bhi is dake 
men tera shamil-hal hua hogsi. (10) Main is 'adat ka 
rawadar uahin ki turn har phirkar meri khushamad karte 
ho. (11) Uska yeh ma'mul tha ki fajar ko chihal-qadaim 
karta. (12) Apas men 'ahd kiya ki a'o ham charon mil- 
kar shikar karenge. (13) Dar par dastak deke puchho 
ki sahib ghar par hai. (14) Usne mere bete se kaha tha 
ki kal main tere bap ke yahan jata hun. (15) Multamis 
hun ki ap mere is pahle qusur se darguzar kiji'e. 



22 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 



EXERCISE XXI. 

i (1) I cannot help laughing when I recollect 
this matter. (2) I enjoy good health since I came here. 
(3) Wait in the verandah till I come. (4) It is a long 
time since my father died. (5) He had no sooner said 
this than I was rooted to the earth for shame. (6) Wher- 
ever you perceive a new dome-shaped tomb, know that it 
is the door of the place I speak of. (7) Anyone will 
have leave to go where he pleases. (8) Each found his 
things intact in the place where he left them. (9) He 
went off in the direction he came. (10) I do not belong 
to the dwellers here as you imagine. (11) Sweep out 
all these carriages before the train starts. (12) The only 
plan I could think of was to go myself. (13) Both of 
us are all but caught. (14) When you yourself see them 
eating, you will allow that I am right. (15) One more 
blemish may be put up with where there are a thousand 
already. 



i (1) Siwae iske ki turn naukari karo aur ko'i 
surat nahin. (2) Jabtak ki ap meri istid'a na qabul 
karenge pind na chhoriinga. (3) Jahantak hosake ifsha 
is raz ka na hone pawe. (4) Malika ne pachas baras 
se ziyada guzre honge ki julus farmaya. (5) Aisi jagah 
baitho ki jahan se meri awaz ba-khubi kan pare. (6) Jahfin 
turn bahut baras za'e' kar-chuke ho chand din aur sahi. 
(7) Jab apne sir par an-bani chin bol-gaya. (8) Abhi 
tare chhitake hue the ki woh apne ma'mul par namaz-i- 
subh ke waste utha. (9) Ankh ka band hona tha ki woh 
ek dusri dunya men tha. (10) Jo tohfa jahan kahin hath 
ana amanat mere pas le-ana. (11) Pauch chha qadam 
na gaya hoga ki daf'atan awfiz ek admi ki nazdik se suni. 



PART II. 23 

(12) Usi jagah ja baitho jahan pahle main turn se do 
char hua. (13) Ba'd iske ki main ne tere sath aisi neki 
ki thi ab to bura'i kyun karne la gun. (14) Main ne qabl 
iske ki woh kuchh shikayat kare ma-fi-zamir uska daryaft 
kiya. (15) Usko ek hafta hua ki shikar khelne gaya 
tha. 



EXERCISE XXII. 

(1) TJ e * some external pressure be brought to 
bear that he may drop legal proceedings. (2) My 
comrades determined to drown themselves in the sea 
that they might escape such a cruel death. (3) My 
brothers held out inducements to the end that I might 
journey in their company. (4) So much explanation 
suffices to let you know that I am informed of your cir- 
cumstances. (5) Keep your hand upon the child lest she 
should start up in alarm during her sleep. (6) As this 
verb is intransitive, the sign of the Agent is not used with 
the Past tenses. (7) As you are fond of obliging me, I 
feel sure you will not grudge me (help) in this matter 
also. (8) You had better post a sentry here too, for this 
ravine is, so to speak, the postern of the place. (9) I 
cross-examined him because they say he was one of the 
deceased man's intimates. (10) Do not take his part, 
for his criminality is unquestionable. 



(1) Ajb kya hai ki fareb diya ho ta tujhko apne 
se razi kare. (2) Azbaski meri taraf mukhabbiron ke 
bay an se ko'i bat pa'i nahin ga'i lihaza talabi nahin hu'i. 
(3) Udhar se tarikh-i-rawanagi likh-bhejna ta ki main 
istiqbal ki tayyari'an bar-pa kar-dun. (4) Zarra, unka 



24 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 

munh nritha karo aisa na ho hamare mo'amalamen klialal 
dalen. (5) Chunk! yeh fe'l muta'addi hai to siga-i-mazi 
men 'alamat-i-fa'il zarur ati. (6) Tujhko apni khata ka 
iqrar karna chahi'e kyunki bagair iqrar ki'e safa'i nahin 
ho-sakti. (7) Is murad se tadaruk diya. chahi'e ki log 
use dekhkar 'ibrat pakren. (8) Zaban sambhalkar bplo 
kis li'e ki auron ki mazammat tumhare haqq men pesh 
na ja'egi. (9) Usne lote ko hilaya ta daryaft ho usmen 
kya chiz bhari hai. (10) Jo ki usne bachpan men 
angrezi sikhi thori bahut maharat rakhta hoga. 



EXEEC3SE XXIII. 

i (1) Aristotle has written this proverb If a 
single swallow appears, it is no proof that Spring has 
come. (2) If you study with application, I warrant 
you will be able to read (correctly) in four months. (3) I 
will narrate my adventures if you wish to hear them. 
(4) If it can be managed, the bridge will be ready to- 
day. (5) If you value your life, act on my advice. (6) If 
he escapes danger this year, he will have a long life. (7) I 
will send the (missing) leaf if I find it. (8) Were you 
to see my condition at all hours, you would wonder how 
I keep alive. (9) If I have erred inadvertently, I hope 
you will pardon my error. (10) Would that this sick 
man may be your brother Ganim. 



(1) Sach puchhi'e to kah-dun ki woh ahmaq 
hai. (2) Bane to kahin iski na'lbandi karwa-dun. 

(3) Jo turn khafa na ho to ukhri ukhri baton se kya garz. 

(4) Agar tu chillaya to main tujhko mar hi dalunga. 



PART II. 25 

(5) Agar teri shadi in tanon men se jiske sath kar-dunga 
dusre do naraz honge. (6) Apni 'izzat agar manzur hai 
puch-bafi'on se baz a'o. (7) Mauqa' ho kal iski kasr 
nikal-lunga. (8) Kya khub hai ki barsat shuru' ho. 
(9) Kash mujhe rukhsat ri'ayati mil to ja'e. (10) Mera 
bas chale to rishwat-sitani ka insidad tajwiz-hoga. 



EXERCISE XXIV. 

171 1 (1) If I had answered him back, he would not 
have left me alive. (2) Had there been any necessity, I 
should have helped without your telling me. (3) Had 
he been familiar with this science, he would have easily 
solved this problem. (4) If you had not arrived, I should 
have been off long ago. (5) Had the earth opened, I 
would (gladly) have been swallowed up. (6) If this 
garden had contained three things more, it would have 
been unrivalled. (7) How well were it if this money 
had been given to the needy ! (8) You ought to have 
inspected the riding-school. (9) Would that all pos- 
sessed the discretion which God has given you ! 
(10) Would that before inviting (your friend) to dinner 
you had asked (whether it was convenient) at home ! 



(1) Haisiyat se agar ham basar auqat karte to 
yeh tihidasti hargiz na hoti. (2) Woh shikayat kar raha 
tha ki kash main paida hi na hua hota. (3) Mera bas 
chalta to qimarbazi band kar-deta. (4) Usko itni firasat 
kahan thi ki is ima ko samajh-leta. (5) Log usko chhura 
na dete to main usko adh-mua kar-chuka hota (or tha). 
(6) Tujhe chahi'e tha ki is nazuk waqt men meri ham- 



26 TRANSLATION OF EXEECISES. 

dardi karta. (7) Idhar se pesh-qadami hoti to udhar ki 
fitrat khul- parti. (8) Hakim ka kaha manta to main ne 
kab ka sharab ko chhor-diya hota. (9) Kash main is 
phande men na phansta hota. (10) Khush to main tabhi 
hota ki jab safa'i hoga'i hoti. 



EXEECISE XXV. 

i (1) Though these monkeys may not have the 
gift of speech like men, yet they must be talking to- 
gether in such language as they have. (2) Although all 
tried to make him understand, he did not abandon his 
opposition. (3) My brothers will never obtain such a 
rarity as this, though they traverse the universe. (4) You 
have no love or affection left for me, albeit I ara so 
devoted to you. (5) Granted that thousands wander 
about in search of employment without success, yet those 
who have employment are men like yourself. (6) I am a 
silly sucking babe, no doubt, but all the same I don't wish 
anyone to interfere with my proceedings. (7) No matter 
in what circumstances a man is placed, he will derive 
advantage from knowledge. (8) No matter how many 
cases are on the file, it is impossible but that they should 
be decided on the appointed date. (9) Though it may 
be four kos distant, an object will be as visible to you 
by means of the telescope as if it were close at hand. 
(10) Where a man's condition remains the same for 
years, no matter how good and pleasant it may be, he 
cannot help becoming discontented with it. 



(1) Qarzdar harchand 'uzr karta raha ki yeh 
dastawez ja'li hai, tahain harkar apne dastkhat se inkar 



PART II. 27 

na kar-saka. (2) Go ki turn mujhe nahin pahchante ho, 
magar main tumko khub pahehanta him. (3) Kaisa hi 
asan kam ko nau-amoz ko mushkil ma'lum hua karta hai 
(4) Ba-wujudeki turn ne apne ta'in mardon ke bhes men 
banaya hai, lekiu awaz se mujhe ma'lum hai ki turn 
'aurat ho. (5) Mana ki insan ki tabi'aten mukhtalif 
hoti hain, magar yeh kya sabab hai ki khandan men 
muwafaqat na ho. (6) Agarchi larkon ki tarbiyat aur 
tahzib la-budd hai, lekin namuna shart hai. (7) Main 
to isko farokht nahiu karne ka, agarchi tu ab kitna hi 
kuchh de. (8) Go ki woh qissa tul tawil hai magar 
bahut hi dilchasp hai. (9) Fauj ne agarchi is qadr 
niehnat o jan-fishani ki fateh-yab nahin hu'i. (10) Mai- 
noshi par marte ho, halanki yeh amr mahz khilaf-shar* 
hai. 



EXEECISE XXVI. 

182, (1) Say 'Sir,' and 'Sir' will be said to you. 
(2) I gave you this very order, did I not ? (3) It is 
easy for some folk to tell lies difficult for others. 
(4) Having heard the application he remained silent, 
and gave no answer to the applicant one way or the 
other. (5) Thousands of much better men than me are 
knocking about (in search of employment) ; no one 
notices them. (6) I looked for him in all directions 
not a trace was to be found. (7) I never even heard the 
name of the place, to say nothing of having seen it. 
(8) Well, I have enjoyed a sight of you please God, I 
shall (soon) hear you speak too. (9) I did not print 
these volumes at my own cost ; the publisher printed 



28 TRANSLATION OF EXERCISES. 

them at his own risk. (10) The earth moves round the 
sun, I allow. Why ' allow ' ? Say, rather, it does move 
(round the sun). 



, (1) Ba'z log 'ilm-i-hikmat par fida hain 
ba'zon ko riyazi ka ziyada shauq hai. (2) Mujhko bat 
karne ka bhi yara na tha hansne ka kya zikr. (3) Main 
ne rukhsat ki darkhwast ki saf jawab mila. (4) Ap 
ne taj-mahall ~ko dekha hai na. (5) Ko'i kambakht 
kiwar ke darzon men jhankta hai hushkardo. (6) Ham 
to sara jangal jhar-chuke kahin shikar ka surag na 
mila. (7) Is men meri kya e'tiraz main ahbab ka 
khadim hun. (8) Main bhi bala ki sonewali thi 
murdon se shart bandhkar soti. (9) Yahan ek akhbar 
naya jari hone-wala bai uske do ishtehar is khatt ke 
sath bhejta hun. (10) San 1282 hijri shuru' hue san 
] 212 ki meri wiladat hai ab ke Rajab ke mahine se 
sattarwan sal shuru' hoga. 



EXERCISE XXVII. 

t (1) What is right is one thing, and what one 
wishes is another. (2) Nausea was no sooner felt 
than irresistible death arrived. (3) What comparison 
is there between Kaja Bhoj and the oilman Ganga ? 
(4) Such a big business as this, and you not to know of 
it ! (5) Look to your own insignificance before you 
abuse your superiors. (6) What need was there for him 
to put in his word ? Then, too, he had no right to con- 
tradict me. (7) There has been a terrible dacoity in this 
village : accordingly the Tehsildar has come in person to 
investigate. (8) He has asked for you, so you must go. 



PART II. 29 

(9) Write me word about Maulavi Fazl Haqq, as to why 
he was not released, and what his condition is in the 
Island how he passes his life. (10) His Excellency 
presented me with a watch ; well, it was of no use to me. 
For four days I kept thinking I would return it, then 
I thought he would be offended, so at last I retained it. 



(1) Kahan turn mard aur kahan main 'aurat. 

(2) Pahle woh aya tha phiryeh aya aur bhi ate honge. 

(3) Mera beta aur chori karne qabil. (4) Is qadr 
mehnat aur dam nak men ana. (5) Kharif ka bira par 
hua phir rabi' ki khetiyan shuru' hu'in. (6) Turn ne itni 
lakriyan thons-din ki hawa k? A i guzar na hua phir bhi 
turn puchhte ho ki ag kahe ko na jalti. (7) TJsko akela 
chhorjaua maslahat nahin chunanchi tumhara uska sath 
raha kare. (8) Pahli bazi ko sahib jita, aur dusri tisri 
bazi maia ne pa'i sahib ko do bazi harne se malal hua. 
(9) Sang-i-miqnatis men yeh khassiyat hoti ki lohe ko 
jazb karta hai, aur jisqadr ki loha uske nazdik hota hai 
usmen quwwat-i-jTizibah ziyada hoti jati. (10) Isi san- 
gat ne tumko pet bharkar bigara hai pas ab pachhtata 
hun ki main ne tumko unke yahan kyun jane ki par- 
wanagi di thi. 



EXEECISE XXVHI. 



(1) -^- re ^ e an( i y u a ^ enmity, or not? 
(2) Either do your work, or be off. (3) Am I awake or 
dreaming? (4) I love the sons of Adam, be they 
Musalman, Hindu, or Christian, and count them my 
brethren. (5) Search as you will, no Musalman is to be 
found in the city prince, pauper, or tradesman. 



30 TRANSLATION OP EXERCISES. 

(6) Neither is he satisfied with his pay, nor am I pleased 
with bis work. (7) Do not take fire from between two 
men, or they will quarrel. (8) I did not get your first 
letter, which you refer to in this, else I should have 
answered it as a matter of course. (9) Neither the 
Sultan nor the Czar did aught it was the cartridge, and 
nothing else, that caused the Indian Mutiny. (10) His 
temper was so bad before his illness, that his family 
regarded him as an ogre. He no sooner set foot inside 
the house than a panic fell upon all, small and great 
alike, whereas now you may beat a drum over his head 
and he does not mind. 



0) Main ne ko'i qusur na to khuda ka kiyfi 
hai aur na insan ka. (2) Ya to mera sath do ya chalte 
phirte nazar a'o. (3) Saya men lota rakho nabin to 
dudh bigrega. (4) Sara shahr chaho Hindu chaho Mu- 
salman unke ifaqa ki du'a mangta hai. (5) Kya Maul- 
vi'on ne fatwa diya hai ki Hindustan daru-1-harb hai ki 
nahin. (6) Makan ke girwi-rakhne se kam nikle to 
khair waraa bech-dalna. (7) Ek hafta huarnain ne jail 
se hath dhoya ya aj ap se ap uthkar mahfil men sha- 
mil bun. (8) Hais bais men bun ki aya wilayat ja'un 
ya garmi'on men pahar par charb-baithun. (9) Aysl 
turn ne apne ap se iqrar to kiya, ya kisi ne turnko ta'lim 
di thi. (10) Kagaz to nibar-gaya, nahin to dil bahlane 
ke waste aur bhi likhta. 



EXERCISE XXIX. 

C 1 ) He said Do not put the people out of 
heart; I don't care a fig if my own expenses are reduced, 
but do not bully my poorly paid employes. (2) All 



PART II. 31 

the rest of the chiefs are seated, but the Maharaja has 
not yet arrived. (3) I can't think of a good man just 
now but stay, the list of applicants is at hand some- 
one or other suited to my ideas may turn up. (4) There 
is nothing wrong in taking money from your father 
nay more, there is nothing wrong in asking for it his 
money is really your own. (5) No one speaks of him by 
the bare name of Hasan, but they call him Khwaja 
Hasan. (6) Black indeed ! why, he is, so to say, an up- 
turned griddle ! (7) You were very ill, but now your 
counlenance shows that this is a thing of the past. 
(8) The horse lashed out again and again, but no one 
was kicked. (9) This is not a dog you keep but a money- 
changer. (10) All the girls were poor in comparison 
with the Begam, but, compared with each other, one was 
well-of, another middling, another very poor. 

2OO. (1) Tumhara chain balki hifazat is men mun- 
hasar hai ki turn unki sohbat se dast-kash ho. (2) Der 
tak meri uski baham mushawarat hui, to bhi is fasad ke 
bara men kuchh tadbir na ban-pari. (3) Aisi ko'i 
kitab dastyab nahin magar han sarkari kutb-khana 
men ka'i ek sarf-nahw ki kitaben maujud hain irshad 
ho manga-bhejun. (4) Main ne bahut koshish ki 
dhaga to nake ke munh men a a-jata tha magar piroya 
na gay a. (5) Ap ne 'elaj kya kamal hi kiya hai. 
(6) Galat-fehmi kya ma'ni balki saf bat yehi hai ki turn 
ne jan-bujh-kar 'udul-hukmi kar to di. (7) Na main 
parhunga aur na tu parhega balki jis ki bari hogi. 
(8) Zehin kya yun kahi'e ki pet men darhi hai. (9) Ham 
log to khair sara shahr unki aniad ka mushtaq hai. 
(10) Lakh ko'i kahe magar sab se ziyada apni jan har 
ek ko pyari hoti hai. 



32 TRANSLATION OP PASSAGES 



TRANSLATION OF SELECTED 
PASSAGES IN PART III. 



SECTION I. 



Ek murg bhuk se be-tab hokar dana ki just-ju men 
kure ke anbar ko kurid-raha tha bahut der ke ba'd 
nagah ek besh-qimat moti nikla moti ko dekhkar murg 
ne dard o hasrat ke sath ah ki aur kaha afsos meri bad- 
qismati itni jankahi ke ba'd mujhko mila bhi to moti jis 
se na mere dil ko tashaffi hosakti hai aur na meri bhuk 
ko taskin yeh moti agar kisi jauhari ya daulatmand ko 
milta to woh iski qadr karta aur isko 'aziz rakhta lekin 
mere li'e aisi bhuk men jowar ka ek dana aise aise lakh 
moti'on se bahut behtar tha. 

2, 

Ek sust admi se kisi ne puchha ki tumhari ankh to 
subh ko savere khulti hai lekin itne din charhe tak 
bichhone men pare pare kya kiya karte ho usne jawab 
diya ki main ek bara pechdar muqaddama faisala kiya 
karta hun jab men ankh khulti hai to do shakhs mere 
pas ate hain ek ka nam chalaki hai aur dusre ka nam 
susti woh shakhs jiska nam chalaki hai mujhse kahta 



IN PART III. 33 

hai ki jald uthkar dunya ke kar o bar men masruf hona 
zarur hai iske jawab uien woh dusra shakhs jiska nam 
susti hai kahta hai ki abhi uthna kuchh zarur nahin 
dunya ke kain ke waste tamam din para hai yeh khunuki 
ka waqt aram ke waste hai garz bahut der tak yeh 
demon mukhalif ek dusre ko qa'il ma'qulkarte rahte hain 
aurmain donon men panchayat kiya karta hun turn hi 
insaf karo ki aisa mushkil muqaddama kyunkar jald 
faisala hosakta. hai. 

3, 

Ek pir-mard aur uska beta donon safar men the aur 
ek tattu sath tha tattu par orhna bichhona ladte aur 
donon bap-bete pa' on pa'on chalte logon ne dekha aur 
kaha dekho yeh donon kaise ahmaq hain tattu ko kotal 
rakhte hain aur khud taklit' uthate hain yeh sunkar pir- 
mard khud tattu par sowar ho-liya tab phir logon ne 
kaha dekho be-rahm bap ko Tip to maze men tattu par 
sowar hai aur beta pa'on pa'on pichhe ghisatta hua 
chala ata hai tab pir-mard tattu par se utar-para aur 
bete ko sowar kar-diya phir bhi logon ne kaha dekho be- 
adab aulad ko buddha bap to pa'on pa'on chalta hai aur 
khud be-haya hatta-katta jawan sowar hai tab buddha 
tattu par age sowar hua aur bete ko apne pichhe bitha- 
diya tab bhi logon ne kaha ma'lum hota hai tattu mange 
ka hai asbab ke 'alawa do admi lad-li'e hain inko bhi 
kuchh tars nahin ata. 

4, 

Sher aur richh aur chita aur bheriya charon shikar ki 
just-ju men the sab ne salah ki ki a'o charon milkar 
darya ki tara'i men chalen aur shikar karen jo shikar 

3 



34 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

milega charon milkar barabar hissa bant-lenge - ittifaqan 
nilgae ko mara aur ba-mujib qaul o qarar ke char hisse 
ki'e qarib tha ki har ek apna apna hissa le itne 
men sher bola suno bha'i yeh ek hissa to ba-mujib 
'ahd o paiman ke mera hai aur dusre hissa ka main is 
waste da'widar hun ki main jangal ka badshah hun kahin 
shikar ho mujhko chaharam ba-taur khiraj ke milta hai 
aur tisra hissa main is wajh se lunga ki us men dil o jigar 
hai jisko turn jante ho ki meri giza hai raha chautha hissa 
so main nahin janta turn tinon men usko kyunkar taqsim 
karun is se behtar hai ki usko bhi apne hi sarf men 
la'un yeh kahkar sher charon hisse chat-kar-gaya aur 
sab ke sab munh dekhte ke dekhte rah-ga'e. 

5. 

Ek murg darakht ki dal par baitha hua khuslii ki 
halat men azan par azan de-raha tha ek billi ne 
usko dekha aur chaha ki kisi dhab se niche utarkar 
u ska kam tamain kare billi ne be-takalluf hokar murg 
se sahib-salamat ki aur kahne lagi ki miyan rnurge kya 
turn ne manadi nahin suni murg ne kaha kaisi manadi 
billi ne kaha aha tumko abtak khabar nahin das din se 
barabar panchayat ho-rahi thi dunya bhar ke janwar cha- 
rand parand jam' the sab ne qaul o qasam kiya ki 
ayanda do ko'i janwar kisi par zulm na kare aur na kisi 
ko sita'e sab amn o chain se zist karen is qaul o qasam ka 
ek mahzar bankar sab janwaron ke dastkhatt hu'e bad- 
shah ya'ni sher ke darbar men woh mahzar parha-gaya 
murg ne kaha ki subhana'1-lah bari khushi ki bat hai aur 
bara khadsha daf hua isi darmiyan men murg apni 
gardan ko daraz karke is tarah kurkuraya ki goya ko'i 
khaufnak chiz nazar pari billi ne puchba khair to hai kya 
dekhkar dare murg ne jawab diya kuchh nahin do shi- 



IN PART III. 35 

kari kutte daure chale ate hain yeh suiikar billi dura 
daba chalne lagi mure: ne kab.fl kyun bi gurba khanam 
kahjin tashrif li'e jate ho ab to amn-chain ka waqt hai 
billi ne kaha sach hai lekin kva ma'lum ki in kutton ne 
bhi manadi ko suna hai ya nahin shay ad tumhari tarah 
abtak be-khabar hon. 

6. 

Ek dehati garib admi ne chhatt >n men se shahad jam' 
kiya aur ek ghare men bharkar shahr ki taraf bechne ko 
le-chala rah men tanha tha dil hi dil men baten karta 
jata tha is ne yeh khayali mansuba bandha ki is shahad 
ko bechkar murgi ka jora lun aur jab murgi pure ba'is 
ande de to us se bachche nikalwa'un aur jab bachche bare 
hon aur sab ande dene lagen to sab ko andon par bithata 
ja'un isi tarah sau murgiyan jam' karke bechun aur bak- 
riyon ka rewar palun phir bakriyon se barhate barhate 
ga'en aur bhainsen palun aur isi tarah bara admi ho-ja'i A in 
kisi amir ke ghar byah karun aulad ho bete ke waste dar- 
waza par ustad naukar rakhun ate jate larke ko pukar 
pukar parhta hua dekhun aur khush hokar larke ko god 
men utha-lun larke ko uthane ke khayal men uska sir 
jhuk-gaya aur shahad ka ghara girkar tut-gaya aur sab 
aude bachche bakri gae bhains bibi larka ustad kunbe ka 
kunba usi shahad men bah-gaya. 

7, 

Ek garib aur munis admi thore dinon men amir-kabir 
bangaya jis kam men hath dalta naf' hota jo tijarat 
karta fa'ida milta to woh shakhs logon men apni dauish- 
mandi aur tadbir ki ta'rif karta ki yeh daulat main ne 
apni 'aql ke zor se paida kiya hai fulane sal main ne 

3 * 



36 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

ru'i kharidi aurmainne samajh-liya ki mulk Amerika men 
lara'i shuru' hogi aur tab ru'i bahut giran bo-ja'egi chii- 
nanchi jaisa main lie socha tha waisa hi hua fulan ga'on 
jab main ne mol liya to usmen bar sal khasara hota tha 
main ne aisa intizam kiya ki ab hazaron. rupaya ki bachat 
hoti hai Batesur ke mele men das bachhere main ne mol 
li'e aur log unko giran ankte the main ne Eajwara men 
chaugune damon par farokht ki'e aur isi tarah ki hazaron 
misalen logon ke rubaru bayan kiya karia tha-chand 
roz ke ba'd zamana ki gardish aur bad-iqbali ne usko 
ghera do baras men khali hath rah-gaya makan girne 
shuru' hii'e kirayadaron ne kiraya ki ek kauri na di ga'on 
men pani na barsa aur kuchh anaj paida na hua gA,e 
bhains ghora unt sab ke sab aisi waba a'i ki faint ho-ga'e 
ghar men ag lagi tainam asbab jalkar khak hogaya naqd 
jo tha chori hogaya to woh shakhs qismat ko bura 
kahta qismat ne apni bura'i sunkar us se kaha ki o na- 
shukr bad-zat jitiii behtari thi woh to apni 'aql aur tadbir 
ki taraf mansub kartA. tha aur jis qadr bura'i hai tnujh- 
ko lasrata hai. 



8. 

Ek musafir ko bayaban men zor ki bhuk ma'lum hu'i 
dekha to ek khajur ke darakht men lal lal khajuren lag- 
rahi hain yeh shakhs rassi ki anti pa'on men laga da- 
rakht par charh-gaya, jab choti par pahuncha to anti 
pa'on se nikal zamin par gir-pari yeh hai dekhkar iske 
hath pa'on phul-ga'e aur khajuren torni bhul-gayjl bahu- 
tera chillaya madd-i-nazar tak adam-zad ka pata na tha 
ab to is shakhs ko apne marne ka yaqin hua ki anti 
hai nahin jiske sabare se utrunga ko'i admi nazar nahin 
ata jo kuchh meri madad karega kabtak khajur se liptfi- 



IN PART III. 37 

rahunga ko'i dam jata hai ki gira aur chikna-chur hua 
aisi na-ummedi ki halat men is ne mannat mani ki -cigar 
main salamat zauiin par pahunchun to gbar pahuuchkar 
untni khuda ke nam halal karun yeh kahkar ahista 
ahista darakht se khisalna shui-u' kiya adhi dur tak 
maze men utar-aya tab to iski niyat badli aur socha ki 
untni gabhin hai iska halal karna thik nahin bhains 
zabh karunga phir thori dur aur khisla aur yeh socha 
ki bhains dudh deti hai iske halal karne men bhi nuqsau 
hai bakri ko be-shakk zabh karuiiga yahan tak ki zamin 
se thori dur raha to bakri ka irada bhi faskh kiya aur 
socha ki hakri do ser dudh ki hai har chhate mahme tin 
bachche deti hai phir aisi bakri milni mushkil hogi aur 
matlab to jsin qurban karne se hai murgi kafi hai 
zamin par utar-kar murgi ka Lilacb aya aur kahue laga ki 
khuda se bad-'ahdi buri bat hai main ne khuda ki rah 
men ek jan dene ka wa'da kiya so jan to zarur deni 
chahi'e shailan ne salah di ki nefe se jun pakar aur 
mannat ad a kar is ne jhat jun nikal chat-mar-di aur 
woh untni jo khajur ki choti par thi pahle bhains phir 
bakri phir murgi phir juu bankar khuda ki rah men hala.1 
hii'i. 

9. 

Ek martaba hath pa'on munh zaban dant halq tamam 
a'za pet j-e jo inka badshah hai bagi hoga'e aur sab ne ba- 
khudha salah ki ki dekho ham sab ke sab rat din isi 
ki khidmat men lage rahte hain aur yeh pet be-sabab 
hamko apni golami men rakhta hai hath ne kahsi main 
pet ke waste kam karte karte thak-gaya kabhi mujhko pet 
ke \vaste lakriyan chirni parti hain kabhi iske waste bojh 
uthana parta hai pa'on ne kaha pet ke waste daurte 
daurte main 'ajiz a-gaya munh ne kaha pet ne mujhko 



38 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

apni chakki bana-rakha hai garz isi tarah bar ek 'azw 
pet se shaki hua aur sab ne yeh 'ahd kiya ki 'ayanda ko 
pet ki khidinat na karenge jab yeh tamam lashkar pet 
se inunharif hua to pet ko har tarah ki taklif hone lagi 
pyas ma'lum hu'i to hath paui lene ko nahin hilta pa'on 
gharonchi tak nahin chalta bhuk lagi to hath roti naiiin 
torta munh laqma nahin leta tab pet ne bhi sab lashkar 
ki tankhwahen aur jagiren mauquf aur zabt kin khun ka 
ratib band kiya aur bagion ka lashkar bhukon marne laga 
har ek sipahi kamzor hogaya akhir ko majbur hokar 
tamam a'za ne pet ke huzur men hazir hokar khata mo'af 
kara'i aur ba-dastur-i-sabiq pet ki khidinat karni qabul 
ki. 

to, 

Ek kachhwe ko safar darpesh tha is ki just-ju hu'i ki 
ko'i sathi mile to safar karun ittifaq se ek khargosh bhi 
usi taraf ko janewala tha kachhwe ne kaha ki miyan 
khargosh 510 ham turn sath chalen khargosh be-ikhtiyar 
hansa aur kaha abe ahmaq kahan tu bhadda phappas reng 
reng-kar paharon men ek balisht zamin chalta. hai aur 
kahan main bijli ki manind lapakta hun hawa ki tarah 
urta hun bhala mera tera kya sath kachhwe ne kaha 
yeh sahih magar nianzil par khuda ne chaha ap se age hi 
pihunchunga yaqin na ho to shart bandh-liji'e chunan- 
chi yeh shart hu'i ki jo hare uske kan kate ja'en kachh- 
wa ahista ahista apni chal chalne laga khargosh do chha- 
langon men nazar se ga'ib hogaya thori dur age j/ikar 
khargosh ne socha ki jitna main chal-chuka hun sham tak 
kachhwe ko yahanana mushkil hai main jaldi kyun karun 
la'o so-rahun khargosh aram se so-raha kachhwa bari rler 
ke ba'd gbisatta ghisatta aya dekha to harif sota hai chupke 
chal-diya bari rat ga'e khargosh jaga to kacliwa nazar na 



IN PART III. tf 

aya ap hi ap kahne laga allah re sust-qadam niiy an kacbh- 
we abtak tashrif nahiu la'e khair chalen sara'i men rat ko 
raheii kal to miyan kachhwe a hi ja'enge jaun sara'i 
men qadain rakha dekha to kacbhwa maujud khargosh 
ko dekhte hi kachhwa bola ki la'iye hazrat kan khargosh 
dum dabakar aisa bhaga ki aj tak kanon ke dar ke mare 
bhaga bhaga phirta hai. 

11, 

Aftab aur hawa men ek martaba bahs ho-pari har ek 
apne ta'in zabardast kahta tha hawa ne kaha. main bare 
bare darakht aur 'alishan makan balki pahar ukharkar 
phenk-deti hun jahaz dubo-deti hun andhi bankar din 
ko rat bana-deti hun jis din zarra phurahri Km dunya ke 
tamam kam band kar-dun aftab ne kaha meri taish ke 
age ko'i nahin thair sakta pahar jalne lagte hain lakhon 
man barf pigalkar pani hojata hai samundar khaulne 
lagtii hai jo mera. muqabala karta hai uska munh hi to 
jhulas-deta hun akhir ko yell qarar paya ki a'o donon ek 
khass cbiz par zor-azma'i karen ek musafir be-chara ki 
shamat a'i yeh garib lubada orhe chala jatatha yeh shart 
hu'i ki dekhen iska lubada kaun utrwa-sakta hai hawa 
ne tezi shuru' ki aur lubada men bharkar musafir ko le- 
uri lekin musafir ne lubada khiib har taraf se lapet-liya 
phir aftab ne ahistaci ke sath dhup nikali to mu- 
safir ne thori der men lubada utar-phenka aur maidan 
aftab ke hath raha. 

12, 

Ek bheriya aur lomri aur gadha tinon baithe hu'e 
apas men baten karte the dunya ki na-pa'fdari ka taz- 
kira tha akhir sab ne yeh salah ki ki chalo fulane bu- 
zurg ke mazar par apne apne gunahon ka iqrar karke 



40 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

tauba karen jangal men kisi kamil ka maqbaratha tinon 
wahan ga'e aur bar ek ne apne gunah bayan karne shuru' 
ki'e bheriye ne kaha hae meri magfirat kyunkar hogi 
main ne to ek zulm aisa kiya hai ki jab mujhko yad-ata 
hai mere rungte khare ho-jate hain ek kambakht bakri 
ke char bachche the woh bakri in bachchon ko chhorkar 
apna pet bharne ke li'e logon ke gharon men phira karti 
thi bakri ki yeh be-rahmi ki woh bachchon ki khabar 
nahin leti mujhko na-pasand hu'i aur main ne bakri ko 
mardala phir main ne socha ki ab yeh bachche be ma 
ke akhir ko mar-ja'enge nahaqq kyun musibat utha'en 
khuda 'alim hai sirf isi kbayal se main ne unko bhi kha- 
liya yeh kahkar bheriya rone laga. 

13. 

Lomri ne kaha ae mere nek-mizaj aur narmdil dost mat 
ro aur mat afsos kar harchand tu ne bakri aur uske 
bachchon ko mara lekin khuda to niyat ko dekhta hai 
donon martaba teri niyat men bhala'i thi bakri to wajibu- 
1-qatl thi is waste ki bachchon ki parwarish nahiu karti 
thi aur bachchon ke marne men bhi main khub janti hun 
tera kuchh apna matlab na tha tu ne unko yatimi aur 
be-madari ke 'azab se najat di aur tujhko be shakk sawab 
ki ummed rakhni chahi'e phir lomri ne kaha mushkil to 
mujh kam-nasib ki hai dekhi'e qiyamat men mera kya 
hai hoga aur kyunkar main bakhshi-ja'ungi main ne to 
woh kam kiya hai ki duzakhbhi mujhse panah mangegi 
ek shahhs ke ghar men bahut murgiyan pali hu'i thin 
har waqt yeh kambakht apas men lara karte aur 
chikhte aur gul machate tamam hamsayon ka dam nak 
men tha na sirf darba balki tamam mahalla in murgiyon 
ne najis kar-diysi tha jehan dekho bit jidhar jao gandagi 



IN PART III. 41 

aur yeh niurg aise na-hamwar the mahalla-walon ke bar- 
tanon men psiui pite the roz faryad hu'a karti thi ma- 
halla-walon ki yeh musibat sunte sunte mera kale j a pak- 
utha tha - ek roz mujhse zabt na ho-saka aur main ue darba 
men jakar sab ko chir-phar safa-chat kar-dala yeh kah- 
kar lomri be-tahasha rone lagi. Bheri'e ne sunkar kaha 
ae nek-bakht bibi kyiin itua roti hai ismeu to tera kuchh 
bhi qusur nahin woh inurg sab ke sab isi saza ke la'iq 
the tu ne unko markar aisa sawab kamaya hai ki be-hisab 
jannat men chali ja'egi. 

14. 

Phir lomri aur bheri'e ue kaha ki miyan gadhe turn l.hi 
apni khatzi bayan karo gadhe ne kaha na mere panje ki 
kisi ko pharun aur na mere dant ki kisi ko katun 'umr 
bhar men mujhse do qusur hue ek to yeh ki ek din main 
bahut bhuka tha aur mujhpar ghas ladi hu'i thi main ne 
malik ki be-ijazat thori ghas nikalkar kha-li dusre ek 
roz main chala jata tha larke mujhko nahaqq sitane lage 
main ne ek larke ki taraf du-latti chala'i magar kisi ke 
lagi nahin lekiii main phir bhi gunah ka iqrar karta 
hun bheriya bola o badzat aise bare bare ikhatte do do 
gunah aur tu ummedwar bakhshish ka hai tu ne malik ke 
mal men khiyanat karke ghas kha-li jis se nahin ma'lum 
kitne jauwar bhuke mare aur tu ne larke par du-latti 
chala'i agar woh larka mar-jjita to ek jan ka ziyan huatha 
uske mabap aur 'aziz o aqarib kunbe ka kunba uske 
gam. men halak hota lomri ne kaha waqi' men 
aisi khata'on ki mo'afi uahin ho-sakti main ne aj tak 
aisi bat nahin suni thi yeh gadha sirf gunahgar nahin 
hai balki kafir-ni'aniat kha'in safl'ak-i-bebak hone ki wajh 
se waj ibu-1-qatl hai yeh kahkar bheriya aur lomri gadhe 
ko lipat-ga'e aur phar-dala. 



42 TRANSLATION OP PASSAGES 



SECTION II. 

1. 

Zamana sabiq men ahl-i-farang ko Hindustan men 
ane ke H'e samundar ka rasta ma'lum na tha yahan ki 
tijarat sirf Iran 'Arab Misr aur Chin-walon ke sath hua 
karti thi log apne jahaz khalij-i-'Arab aur Bangala tak 
chalaya karte samundar ko bahr-i-be-kinar jaiikar un 
khalijon se qadam bahar nahin dharte phir yeh to kab 
unki himmat ho-sakti ki bahr-i-Hind se barhkar Afrika 
ki magrabi taraf balir-i-Atlantik men pahunchte magar 
jo chizen ki Hindustan se jahazon par Misr aur Basra 
ko jati thin aur wahan se khushki ki rah Farangistau 
men a'i thin un chizon men itna naf hota, tha ki ahl-i- 
farang yahan ki rah-i-rast talash karne men bare sargarm 
rahte the ko'i yeh sochkar ki zamin ba-shakl-i-kura hai 
apna jahaz sidha magrab ko chalata aur Amerika ke 
kinare se jakar ruk-jata ko'i yeh samajhkar ki zamin 
ki cbaron taraf pani hai kinare kinare shimal ko le-jata 
aur bahr-i-shimali ke jame hue barf men phans-rahta 
aur ko'i is khayal se ki Hindustan Afrika ke mashriq 
men waqi' hai uske gird ghumne ko nikalta aur adhi dur 
Jake mare tufan ke pichhe mur-ata aur us jagah ka nara 
Ras-tufan rakhtsl yahan tak ki san 1497 'iswi men Por- 
tugal ke badshah Emmanuel ne Vasco da Gama ko tin 
jahaz dekar janubki rah Hindustan ke jane kahukm kiya 
chunanchi us ne na kuchh tufan ka khayal kiya aur 
na Ras-tufan ka chalte chalte gyara mahine ke 'arse men 
Afrika ke gird ho Malebar ke kinare Kallikot men a Ian- 
gar dala. 



IN PART III. 43 

2, 

Portugal- walon ki dekba-dekhi Dach aur Farasis bhi 
apne jahaz idhar lane lage phir yeh kab ho-sakta tha ki 
Angrez chiip-chap baithe rahen san 1599 'iswi men 
London ke chand tajiron ne bahara shirkat karke tis 
lakh riipaya ka sarmaya jam' kiya aur malika Elizabeth 
se jo us zamana men wahanki farman-rawa thi is mazmun 
ki ek sanad le-li ki pandra baras tak bagair unki ijazat 
ke ko'i dusra hamwatan admi bilad-i-sharqi men tijarat 
na karne pawe aisi shirkat ko angrezi men Company 
kahte hain isi li'e un sharikon ka nTim East India Com- 
pany par-gaya jo jalsa un shuraka, ka sih-mahiwar sal 
men char daf'a hua karta tha woh Court of Proprietors 
ya'ni malikon ki kachahri kahlata tha is jalsa men jo 
shakhs ki panch hazjir rupaya ya us se ziyada ka hissadar 
tha woh mujaz rae dene ka mutasawwar hota tha aur 
ikhtiyar waz' karne a'in aur qanun aur taqsim-i-naf ka 
bhi inhin logon ko hasil tha bahVi intizam ke waste yeh 
log apne darmiyan se jo chaubis adrni niuqarrar kar- 
dete the unka, laqab Court of Directors ya'ni nazimon ki 
kachahri tha. aur jo sharik bis hazar se kam ka hissadstr 
tha woh khidmat-i- Directory ke li'e muntakhab nahin ho- 
sakta thii aur is Court ka mir-majlis ko Chairman kahte 
the. 

Hindustan men hote hote tin ehata, hoga'e jo Kalkatta 
Bomba'i Mandras ke nam se mashhur hain aur tinon men 
ek ek President ya'ni peshwa apni apni Council samet rahne 
lage us waqt sarkar Company ke mulazimon ke kull 
char darje the ek mutasaddi jo panch baras tak Hindu- 
stan men rahte the dusre factors ya'ni kothi-wale jinki 
muddat-i-qiyam ptmch baras se ath baras tak thi tisre 
chhote saudagar jinki muddat-i-qiyam ath baras se gyara 
baras tak thi chauthe bare saudagar jinko gyara baras 



44 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

se ziyada bud o bash thi inhin bare saudagaron ke 
purane sahib muntakhab hokar Council ke Member hua 
karte the. 

3, 

San 1715 'iswi men Kalkatta ke President ne kuchh 
tohfa taha'if dekar do Factor ko ba-taur elchion ke 
Farrukhsiyar ke darbar men bheja us zarnana men bad- 
shah ki tabi'at sakht 'alii thi lekin jab husn-i-ittifaq 
se badshah Doctor Hamilton ke mo'alaja se jo ham- 
rah un safiron ke gaya tha changa hogaya. to farmaya 
ki in'am to rnang jo mslngega munh manga pawega 
is ne apne li'e kuchh nahin manga lekin 'arz kiya ki agar 
jehan-panah manzur karen to Company ko Bangala men 
arthtis ga'on ki zamindari kharidiie ki ijazat mile aur jo 
jo mal Company ksl rawa,na hua, kare uske mahsul ke li'e 
talsishi se mo'af rahe sach pvichho to Doctor Hamilton 
ne bari 'A,li-himmati ka kitm kiya ki apne hi fa'ida se 
apne mulk-walon ka fa'ida muqaddam samjha un dinon 
men Hindustan se chint aur suti kapra Inglistiln ko 
bahut jaya kartA, tba chvmanchi angrezon ka us waqt yeh 
matlab tha ki Kalkatta ke gird-nawah zamindari leke is 
<jadr julahe abad karen ki phir kapron ki just-ju men 
ga'on ga'on na phirne pare. 

Kya shan-i-izadi hai ki yahan ke julahe to wobi julahe 
rahe aur Inglistan-wale is fann men yaktae rozgar hokar 
apne jahaz bhar bhar-kar ulte ap yahsin suti kapra lane 
lage zamindari to us waqt Bangala ke subahdtir ne 
angrezon ke hath na lagne di ya'ni zamindaron ko uske 
bai' karne ki mumana'at kar-di lekin Company ke mal 
par mahsul mo'af ho- jane se usko bahut nuqsan hua 
kyuiiki President siwae Company ke mal ke apne aur apne 
4 azizon ke mal par bhi dastkhatt-i-mo'afi kar-deta tha. 



IN PART III. 45 



4, 

Phir Sirajuddaula ne zabani ek qasid ke angrezon se 
yeh kahla-bheja ki turn qil'a ki uiazbuti mat karo is 
bat par angrezon ne kuchh tawajjoh na ki tab Sirajud- 
daula ka khun josh men aya aur gusse ho pahle to Qasim- 
bazar ki kothi zabt kar-li aur ba'd uske Kalkatta ke qil'a 
men ja ghera ittifaqaii us waqt qil'a men sau gore 
sipahi bhi maujud nathe qil'a ke bachue ki ko'i ummed 
na rahi bahut se angrez mayus hokar Governor Drake 
ke sath jahaz aur kishtiyon par sowar hokar chale ga'e 
jo bechare qil'a men rah-gae the diisre din nawwab ki fauj 
ke hath giriftar hu'e jab unke at'sar Holwell sahib ko 
mushken baudhkar Sirajuddaula ke rubaru hazir la'e tab 
usne fauran uski mushken khulwa-din aur kaha ki turn sab 
khfitir-jam' rakho tumhara. kuchh zarar na hoga lekin 
rat ko jab qaidion ke rahne ke li'e ko'imakan na mila tab 
Sirsijuddaula ke admion ne 146 angrezon ko ekkothri men 
jo sirf 18 foot tul aur 14 foot 'arz men thi band kar-diya 
is kothri ko angrezi zaban men Black Hole ya'ni kala 
bil kahte hain jo kuchh un qaidion ki jan par guzra wohi 
jaiite honge bahutere zakhmi the bahutere sharab ke 
nasha men garmi ki shiddat thi pyas be-qiyas thi subh 
ko jab darwaza khula to un men se sirf 23 zinda nikle 
magar unki suraten murdon se bhi badtar thin. 

5. 

Glive tin hazar admi aur nau zarb-top lekar Kalkatta 
se rawana hua aur udhar se Sirajuddaula ma' chalis 
pachas Farasison ke ba-jarni'at pachas hazar sowar 
aur paidal aur top-khana ke jis men chalis se ziyada 
topen thin Palasi tak a pahuncha 23 May san 1757 



4G TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

'iswi ko usi jagah lara'i hu'i - pahle to Sirajuddaula ne 
apni pagri Mir Ja'far ke qadamon par rakh-di aur kaha 
ki ap darguzar farma'iye us ne yehi salah di ki kal par 
lara'i mauquf rakhi'e fauj ko pichhe hata-liji'e aur Rai 
Dullabh Diwan ne bhi yeh 'arz kiya ki huzur ka Murshid- 
abad hi tashrif le-chalna behtar hai -fauj ka pichhe hatna. 
tha aur angrezon ka chiton ki tarah hiranon par lapakna 
nawwab ki fauj bhagi aur Company ki fauj chha mil tak 
barabar ta'aqqub ki'e chali a'i isi fateh-jang Palasi se 
g-oya angrezi 'amaldtlri ki bunyad Hindustan men qa'im 
hu'i phirto Sirajuddaula ke panon Murshidabad men 
bhi na jame bharosa to use kisi ka tha hi nahin aur 
bharosa use tab ho-sakta ki jab usne kisi ke sath bhala'i 
ki hoti nachar ek begain aur ek khwaja-sara. ke sath wahan 
se bhaga lekin jab Rajmahal ke nazdik pahuncha use ek 
faqir ne jiske kisi zamana men usne nak kan katwa-dale 
the pahchan-liya aur fauran uski khabar wahan ke hakim 
ge jo Mir Ja'far kfi bha'i tha kar-di us hakim ne nawwab 
ko mushken bandhkar Murshidabad bhej-diya Mir Ja'far 
ko to khair nawwab ke hal par kisi qadr rahm bhi aya 
lekin uska beta Miran nira patthar tha Lagair apne bap 
ke ittila' ki'e use qatl karwa-dala. 

6. 

Is zamana men Haidar 'All Maisur ka farmaii-rawa 
tha is ka bap nawwab Sira ki riyasat men rutba-i- 
piyadagi se mansab-i-faujdari par pahunch-gaya tha. aur 
yeh khud Maisur ke Diwan ki fauj men rahte rahte aur 
shuja'at aur mardanagi ka kam karte karte aisa barha ki 
wahan ke Raja ke li'e to pension muqarrar kar-di aur ap 
tamam mulk ka malik ban-baithaaur Bidnaur mendafina 
pakar charou taraf apni 'amaldari ko barhane laga san 



IN PART III. 47 

1767 'iswi men Nizam 'Ali ne Maisur par charha'i ki 
angrezi fauj bhi 'ahd ke muwafiq uska sath di Haidar to 
isi fauj se maidan men shikast khiikar subahdar se akar 
mil- gay a phir in donon ne muttafiq hokar sattar bazar 
fauj se angrezon ka muqabala kiya lekin angrezon ne 
barah hazar fauj se un sab ko shikast di aur 64 zarb topen 
nnki ohhin lin ba'd iske Nizam 'Ali ne to kuchh de dila- 
kar angrezon se phir sulh kar-li aur Haidar 'Ali ba-dastur 
mutawatir lara'iyan larta raha in lara'iyon men kabhi 
uska kuchh nuqsan hojata aur kabhi angrezon ka yahan 
tak ki san 1768 'iswi men Haidar 'Ali ne bhi angrezon se 
sulh ki tarafain ne jisne jiske 'alaqa le-li'e the woh sab 
wapas kar-di'e aur donon ne babam apni apni hifazat ke 
H'e mo'awanat-i-ham-digar ka 'ahd o paiman kar-liya. 

7, 

Majbiir hokar Tipu ne sarkar Company se sulh kar-li 
thi kya 'ajb ki atish-i-'adawat uske sine men bharak-rahi 
Governor-General ko sabit hua ki Tipu Farasison ke 
sath khatt-kitabat rakhta hai aur un se fikr talab karne 
madad ki karta hai bara zabardast hakim to lha bat 
ki bat men Madras men faraham hone fauj ka hukm diya 
aur Tipu ko likh-bheja ki ya to Malebar ki taraf kinare 
samundar ke sab 'alaqa ko hawala karke farahami fauj ka 
kharcha chukado aur ayanda ko is mazmun ka 'ahdnama 
likh-do ki Fantsison se kabhi kisi tarah ka kuchh sarokar 
na rakhenge aur jitne Farasis tumhari 'amaldari men 
rahte hon unko fauran apne yahan se nikaldo aur sarkari 
Resident ko qabul karo ya sarkar Company ko apna dush- 
man samjho jab Tipu ki taraf se iska kuchh jawab na 
aya to Madras aur Bombay donon janib se angrezi fauj 
ue Maisur par cliarha'i ki nawwab Haidarabad ki fauj 



48 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

bhi is mohimm men hamrah-i-sarkar thi lekin Mabaraj 
Sendhia ke warglanne se Pesbwa sharik-i-imdad na Ima 
jab Shrirangpatan bis kos rah-gaya wahan angrezon ki 
fauj se aur Tipu se muqabala hua aur Tipu shikastkhakar 
pichhe ko hata. 

8, 

Phir yeh socli-kar ki angrezi fauj usi rah se jis se pesh- 
tar a'i thi ab bhi awegi bilkull ghas sarnan-i-rasad wagaira 
nist o nabud karta chala gaya lekin jab suna ki Angrez is 
rah se iiahin a'e dusri rah ikhtiyar ki uska dil aur bhi 
raha saha tut-gaya aur apne sipahiyon se kahne laga ki ab 
mere din an pahunche unhon lie jawab diya ki jahan ap 
ka pasina girega wahau hamara khun girega bila tawaqquf 
angrezon ne jakar Shrirangpatan ka muhasara kiya 
nawwab ki fauj to tamasha dekhti rahi Governor- General 
khud ba-zat-i-khass musta'idd-i-karzar hu'e aur chauthi 
May san 1799 'iswi ko nishan augrezi qil'a par nasab kar- 
diya Tipu ki sirf lash mili aur larke uske hazir hu'e 
929 zarb top aur ek lakh banduq ma' saz o saman ke 
aur qarib ek karor ek lakh rupaya ke naqd aur jawahir 
angrezon ke hath laga agarchi qa'ida ke ba-mujib Tipu 
ka sara mulk chahi'e tha ki sarkar aur nawwab ke darmi- 
yan munqasim ho-jata lekin Governor- General ne Nizam 
ke 'amaldari ko barhana munasib na jankarkuchh to Tipu 
ke 'alaqa men se apas men taqsim kiya aur Maisur ka 
qadimi Eaja jise Haidar 'Ali ne be-dakhl kiya tha uske 
waris ko baqi 'alaqa sipurd kar-diya aur yeh iqrar kara- 
liya ki ayanda ko hifazat ke li'e fauj sarkari us men raha 
kare aur sat lakh rupaya salana kharch ada hu'a kare aur 
jab zarurat pare to mulk ka intizam bhi sarkar apne taur 
par farmawe. 



IN PART III. 49 



9. 

Sendhia ne chaha ki Gohad ko wahfm ke Rana se iekar 
apne 'alaqa men milsi'e lekin chunk! us Rana ka 'ahdnama 
sarkar Company se hogaya tha is li'e us ne Company se 
madad ki darkhwast ki aur Kaplan Popham jo thori si 
fauj li'e hu'e General Goddard ke lashkar men shamil 
hone ko jata tha usne ba-mujarrad pahunchne hukm-i- 
sarkar ke Marhaton ko Gohad se nikal-diya aur phir 
unke qil'a Lahar ko fateh karke Grwaliyar ke qil'a ka 
ja muhasara kiya yeh qil'a khare pahar par aisi maz- 
V)uti aur istehkam se bana hua hai ki wahaii ke log 
samjhe hu'e hain ki agar das ad mi bhi qil'a men sirt' 
patthar dhalka-diya, karen ko'i dnshman hamla karke 
nahin le-sakt;\ chahe woh lakhon fauj kyun na lawe aur 
ab to Sendhia ke ek hazar sipahi chune hu'e ma' sab 
saman-i-harb o zarb ke maujud the Popham hairan tha 
ki kis dhab se us pahar par charhe ki husn-ittifaq se ek 
chor use aisa milgaya, ki jo qil'a men chori karne ke li'e 
ek chhipi hu'i pagdaudi se jaya karta tha isi rah se 
dusre din subh ko Kaptan sahib age ap aur pichhe 
fauj sirhiyan laga rassiyan latka khontiyan gar ghas 
jhariyan pakar nahin ma'lum admi hain ya bandar 
sab ke sab bat ki bat men pahar par charh diwar par 
phand qil'a ke andar ja ghuse Marhaton ne jo yakayak 
apne bistaron se uthkar dushman ko ajal ki tarah sir 
par sowar qil'a men dekha usi dam chakke chhut qil'a 
khali kar-diya. 

10, 

Ab sirf ek Jaswant Rao Holkar Indaur ka Raja baqi 
rah-gaya ki jisne na to Company ke sarnhne sir jhukaya 

4 



50 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

aur na ko'i vakil apna sarkar men bheja balki sarkari 
'alaqon ko bhi be-tahasha luta kiya uske tadaruk ke 
li'e kuchh thori si fauj Colonel Monson ke zer-hukm 
rawana hu'i sahib mausuf ne Tonk ko darwaza urakar 
fateh kar-liya lekin kahia dhoka, khakar Mukandara ki 
ghati men phanskar Holkar ke lashkar se ghir-gaya 
akhir-kar angrezi fauj bari bari mushkilon se wahan se 
nikalkar larti bhirti garmi aur barsat ki saikron taklifen 
uthati aur nuqsau sahti chhinn bhinn ho Agra pahunchi 
ab Holkar ki shekhi ka kya thikana tha fauran bis 
hazar sipah aur ek sau bis zarb top lekar Dilli ka ja mu- 
hasara kiya wahan sarkari fauj to kull fith sau thi aur 
top gyara par Dilli ke Resident Auchterlony ne isi muthi 
bhar fauj se khub Marhaton ke dsint khatte ki'e \voh 
to nau roz tak sir pit pitkar akhir jab Lord Lake ke ane 
ki khabar a'i wahan se chal-di'e. 

11. 

Tisri January sari 1805 'iswi ko General Lake ne 
Bharatpur ghera nawin ko ham la kiya. lekin jab fauj 
khandaq ke kinare pahunchi to ma'lum hua ki pani 
chhati bhar gahra hai admi bahut kam a'e ikkiswin 
ko dusri taraf se phir hamla kiya lekin wahan khandaq 
chauri itni thi ki pul jo bana-la'e the chhota para aur jab 
sirhi jorkar barhana chaha to woh pul pirni men gira is 
men bhi bahut se admi kam a'e phir ba'iswin ko tisri 
taraf se hamla kiya Hindustani sipahi to khandaq par 
hokar diwar par charh-ga'e lekiu goron ne unka sath 
dene se inkar kiya is li'e unhen bhi laut-ana para 894 
admi khet rahe dusre din Lake ne un goron ko jinhon 
ne 'udul-huknii ki thi bara sharminda kiya unhon ne 
gairat men akar nehayat dilawari se chautha hamla kiya 



IN PAET III. 51 

lekin is 'arse men qil'a-walon ne burj aur diwar ki 
marammat kar-li thi hamla-awaron ko rah na mili aur 
hazar se ziyada admi mare ga'e log thake mande aur 
be-dil hoga'e gola barut bhi baqi na raha rasad ka 
saman kharch men a- gay a nachar Lake ko fauj hatani 
pari. 

12, 

Is zarnana men Ahmed Shah Durrani ke pote Shah 
Shuja' ko jo Afganistan ka amir tha uske bha'i Mahmud 
ne wahan se nikal-diya tha Shah Shuja' to chand roz 
tak Ranjit Singh ke yahan tnuqaiyad raha aur woh hira 
jo Koh-i-nur nani se mashhur hai Eilja mazkur ne us se 
le-liya phir ba'd khrabi bisyar ke sarkari 'amaldari men 
akar panahgir hua Mahmud ko is sabab se ki us ne apne 
vazir Fateh Khan Barakza'i ko andha karke mar-da! a tha 
vazir-i-mutawaffa. ke bete Dost Mahomed ne takht se 
utarkar Kabul par apua qabza kar-liya Count Simonich 
ne jo Irfin ke darbar men Russ ka elchi tha yeh niauqa' 
apne Qaisar ka is taraf ikhtiyar barhane ke li'e bahut 
ganimat sauiajhkar Sbah Iran ko ubhara ki Afgauistan 
par da'wa kare yahan tak ki kuchh fauj Hirat ke muha- 
sara ko rawana kara'i balki uske kharch ke li'e kuchh 
riipaya bhi apne yahan se dilwaya lekin woh fauj Hirat 
se harkar laut-a'i aur jab Inglistan ne is bab men Russ 
se jawab talab kiya to Qaisav ne apne elchi ke 'amal- 
daramad se bilkull inkar kar-diya ba-har hal sarkar 
Company ko guman-i-galib hua ki albatta Russ ka 
Hindustan par dant hai jab qabu niilega idhar zarur 
qadam barhawega aur is bat ki ta'id men Kaptan 
Burnes ne jo san 1837 'iswi men elchi hokar Kabul 
gaya tha yehi bayan kiya ki Dost Mahomed bilkull 
Russwalon ki salah men hai balki Russwalon ne us se 

4 * 



52 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

pakka wa'da kiya hai ki ham to Peshawar Ranjit Singh 
se tumko wapas dila-denge. 

13. 

i 

Sarkar ne zarra bhi is bat par tawajjoh na farma'i ki 
bhala Russwale idhar kyunkar a-sakte hain agar ko'i 
kahe ki kya woh to Iran Turan aur Afganistan-walon ko 
bahkakar aur lalach diklakar unhen Hindustan par nahin 
charha-sakte hain to gaur karna chahi'e ki ab woh 
Mahmud Gaznawi aur Changez Khan ka zamana nahin 
raha ki jab sar o pa barahna Gakkar logon ne Mahmud 
ke risfilon ko qatl kar-dala tha aur na woh zamana hai 
ki ek hathi ke bhag-jane se Aiiandpal sa rslja maidan 
men shikast khata aur na woh waqt hai ki jangal se 
sonte kat katkar bailon par sowar ho Jelaluddin Khwa- 
razmi ke admi Sindh Sagar Doab men jakar Changez 
Khan ki fauj se larte aur woh waqt bhi nahin hai ki 
bare bare badshah bilkull apna madslr lara'i ka tirandazon 
par rakhte balki ham barabar dekhte chale ate hain ki 
sarkar Angrez bahadur ki zarra zarra si fauj se Shah 
Sultan Nawwab Marhate Naipali aur Barhma-walon ke 
kaise kaise dal-badal lashkar shikast khakar bhag-ga'e 
bat to yeh hai ki jab fauj-i-ta'lim-yafta zer hukumat-i- 
Dupleix aur Bussy angrezi topkhana ke samhne ru'i ke 
galon ki tarah urga'i to phir Iran Turan wagaira ki kya 
haqiqat hai. 

14, 

Agar ko'i yeh hujjat lawe ki Russwale kya apni faujen 
Panjab tak nahin la-sakte to ham kahte hain ki bar 
taqdir farz mumkin hai magar akhir gaur karna chahi'e 



IN PART III. 53 

ki Euss aur Panjab ke darmiyan kaissi kaisa bayaban 
aur kohistan para hai ki jiska 'ubur kisqadr dushwar 
hai phir to Russ ke pas is qadr rupaya kahan hai ki 
jo pachas hazar fauj achchhi qawa'id-dan ke bhi ma* top- 
khana zaruri ke is rah se lane ka kharcb. de-sake phir 
bhi jitne din us fauj ko ek koh Hindu Kush par hone men 
lagenge us se do chand fauj hamari sarkar ba-zari'a 
dhuwsin-kash aur relgari ke daryae Sindh men Ingli- 
stan se pahuncha-sakti hai iske 'alawa ahl-i-Russ to 
thake thaka'e raste ki sakhtiyan uthate hu'e ba-ba'is- 
i-qillat-i-rasad Mganistan se bhuke pyase tabdil-i-ab o 
hawa se kamzor pahunchenge aur yahan se angrezi fauj 
taza-dam khwsthan-i-jang apni hi sarhadd par hogi aur 
sarkar ko Panjab se jiski zarkhezi mashhur o ma'ruf hai 
kis qadr asani ba-hainrasi-i-asbab-i-rasad men hogi 
siwae iske un pachas hazar Russion ke li'e ek hi paltan 
goron ki dara Khaibar par kaf i hai. 



54 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 



SECTION III. 



1, 

Mausim-i-bahar san 1838 men jab hanoz woh qaht raf 
lione nahin paya tha jis se bashandagan-i-mamalik 
magrabi o shimali sakht musibat men mubtala the mera 
khima ek maqam par jo Bewari se chandan dur na tha 
nasab hua tha is pergana men jadid paima'ish hu'i thi 
aur main wahan malguzari ka si-sala bandobast karne 
gaya tha jab main wahan tha to qasba ke Musalmanoii 
aur Hindu'on men ek aisa jhagra paida hua ki agar 
hukkam sarkari mauqa' par pahunchkar dastandazi na 
karte to balwa ho-jata ya balwa na hota to khunrezi zarur 
hoti binae fasad Hindu'on ka mashhur ta'assub tya'ni 
gao-kashi ki mukhalafat thi jisko woh muqaddas janwar 
iasawwur karte hain Musalma,non ka to yehi matlab tha 
ki gae ka gosht khane ko milta kyunki bheri bakri ke 
gosht se yeh arzan tha aur go ba-muqabala kull abadi ke 
Musalmanon ki ta'dad bahut kani thi lekin akhir apni 
murad puri karni ka irada bandh-chuke woh log har sal is 
bat ki darkhwast kiya, karte the ki hamko ya to qasba ke 
andar ya uske bahar munsisib fasala par gao-kashi ki 
ijazat mile lekin unki yeh darkhwasten ra'egan ga'in 
kyunki Hindu'on ne 'ahd kar-liya tha ki agar is bab men 
hamare mazhabi aqa'id kinsira ki'e ga'e to ham zabardasti 
karne par amada honge aur is sabab se Musalman log 
kashida-khatir aur dabe rahe. 



IN PART III. 55 



2, 

Akhir-kar ek din jab main daura par tha Musalm&non 
ke sar-gurohon ne meri khimagah men jake ek na'i 'arz- 
dasht qarib qarib is rnazniun ki pesh ki ki Garib-parwar 
salamat huzur purnur par roshan hai ki is qasba ke 
Hiudu'on ne barason se aj tak hukkam-i-baladast ki 
khidmat men darog o daga 'arz kar kara ke ham logon ko 
gao-kashi se rok-rakha, hai aur yeh banana kiya hai ki 
yeh janwar muqaddas hai uska zabh karna. na-ja.'iz hai 
hamare khudawandjin-i-ne'mat ya'nf angrezon ne ab tak 
yeh peshnihsid rakha ki ek qism ki ri'aya dusre guroh par 
ziyadati na karne pawe aur har shakhs ke sath bila, irnti- 
yaz-i-zat mazhab rang qaum wagaira ek tarah par insaf 
kiya ja'e chunanchi unke saya-i-himayat men sab log 
yaksan fa'ida uthjlte hain goya bheriya bakri ek ghat 
psini pite hain pas ham mazlumon ne kya qusur kiya hai 
ki jo fawa'id aurou ko hasil hain hamko nabin milte 
ummed hai ki huzur namak-khwaron ke istegasa par jald 
lihaz fannakar yeh liukm sadir kar-denge ki Musalnulnon 
ko gae ka gosht khiine ki ijTizat hai ilslhi aftab-i-daulat 
o iqbal hamesha tabj A m rahe faqat yeh darkhwast bar-i- 
'amm men hazilrha Hindu Musalnianon ke samhiie pavhi 
ga'i aur jo kuchh ho-raha tha, usko har shakhs dekh sun- 
raha tha kyunki khima ki qauateD tinon taraf se hata di 
ga'i thin. 



3. 



'Arzi parhte waqt tamrim hazirm-i-ijlas adab se kha- 
mosh khare rahe Musalman log mere faisala ke intizar 
men mutafakkir hu'e aur Hindu log chori se mera chehra 



56 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

dekh dekhkar cbahte the ki mumkin ho qiyafa se daryaft 
karen ki is mo'amala men kya hukm nafiz hoga sach. 
puchhi'e to dunya bhar men kahin ke admi aise nahin 
liain jo Hindustanion se fann-i-qiyafa-shinasi men ziya- 
datar zud-fahm aur 'aqlmand hon ma'lum hota hai ki woh 
har harakat aur ishara se andaruni hai daryaft kar-lene 
men ek qism ka tafarrus rakhte hain yeh kuchh ta'ajjub 
ki bat nahin woh to sadha baras se aise logon ke taht-i- 
hukumat rahte a'e ki jinki marzi hi qanun thi phir 'adat 
ka. qiyas karna aur apne hakimon ka. ma-fi-zamir ko pahle 
se daryaft kar-lena unki ta'lim ka zaruri hissa hogaya 
hai qanun aur 'adalat ke ru se mere danist men haqq 
Musalrasinoii ka tha magar yeh dekhkar ki Hindu logon 
ko is qadim dastur maht'uz rakhne ki dill murad hai 
balki mukhalafat par amada hain main ne yeh sala,h di ki 
behtar hai ki tumlog ek ba-zabita darkhwast sahib Com- 
missioner ke huziir men jo Superintendent polis ke ikhti- 
yarat rakhte hain pesh karo chunfinchi sahib inausuf ne 
gao-kashi ka hukm nafiz farrnaya main ne qasba se paun 
mil ke fasala par is ka.ni ke li'e ek jagah muqarrar ki is 
nmmed se ki raiijish Hindu'on ki kamtar ho lekin unka 
gussa aur taish ki hadd hi na thi aur jahan jahan main 
jata tha. rnustagis mujhko ghere rahte the jab dekha ki 
main unki taraf zarra bhi tawajjoh na karta to woh apne 
*azizon ki inashwarat ke waste ghar ga'e aur upari kha- 
moshi ikhtiyar ki lekin jab chha hafta pichhe Moharram 
ke din pahunche to daf'atan uth khare hu'e aur Musal- 
manon ke ta'ziyon par yorish ki aur iut patthar balki 
murda sur aur kutte jin se ahl-i-isla.ni nehayat nafrat 
karte hain unpar phenk-di'e. 



IN PART III. 57 



4. 

Is se bala ki shorish aur gazab ka fasad paida hu'a aur 
guman tha ki an jam ko nehayat hi sakht hangama aur 
ziyan-i-jan hoga rnagar khairiyat yeh hu'i ki Tehsildar ne 
jo bara mustaqill-mizaj aur ro'bdar admi tha fauran polis 
ko mauqa' par talab kar-liya aur go woh khud Hindu aur 
zat a Brahman tha magar Musalmanon ki peshrawi 
karke unke ta'zi'e ba-hifazat shahr se nikalwa-legaya 
donou firqon ke log ek dusre ko dhamkiyan de deke juda 
hoga'e aur Musalman log apne buzurgon ki turbaton ki 
qasam kha khakar kahte the ki ham is tauhin ka dag qasba 
ke har har Hindu ke khun se dho'enge agarchi ham sab 
ke sab shahid kyun na hoii Tehsildslr sahib apni is kar- 
bara'i se khush to the magar is khayfd se ki bagair 
Magistrate ke a'e hu'e fasild ksi insidad nahin hone ka 
unhon ne mere pas khass qa.sid bheje meri khimagah to 
sidhsi rasta chillis mil ke fasala par thi magar jodarmiyan 
men be-rah khari paharon ka silsila waqi' tha ane jane 
men bis aur mil ka pher par-gaya aur isi sabab se mere 
p$is dusre roz do pahar ke waqt khabar pahunchi aur 
khabar kaisi bad-i-samum nehayat tez chal-rahi thi am- 
is shiddat ki dhup aur jalti ret men safar karna bare 
hausila ki bslt thi main ne qurb o jawar ke ba'z ba'z 
ga'onwalon ko talab kiya aur puchha ki kyun turn log 
paharon ka sidha rasta jante ho aur jankar mujhko^us 
rah se pahuncha-sakoge ga'onwalon ne jawab diya ki 
garib-parwar rasta to hamko ba-khubi ma'lum hai lekin 
siwae paidalon ke aur bakriyon ke aur ko'i us rasta nahin 
chal-sakta main ne kaha yeh kuchh parwa nahin main 
to ja-sakta hun tumhin rasta bata do chunzlnchi ek rah- 
numa usi waqt rawana kar-diya-gaya ki paharon ke 



58 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

nichhe muntazir rahe ta anki jab dhup ki tezi zarra karn, 
ho-ja'e main bhi maidan se guzarne ka irada kar- 
sakun. 

5. 

Tin baje din ko main apne sab se 'umda 'arabi ghore 
par sowar ho aur ek sowar ardali men sath le chal- 
diya phir jab wahan pahuncha jahan rah-numa ko mun- 
tazir paya to ham log zin par se utarkar aur ghoron ko 
bagdori se le le pahar par charhne lage thori dur ga'e 
the ki ardali ka ghora gir-para jaldi ke sabab se usko 
wonhin chhora jis qadr age barhte ga'e us qadr char- 
hao sakht hota gayfi ba'z maqAm&t se to guzarna na- 
mumkin ma'lum hota tha aur agar wahan itna rasta hota 
ki main apne ghore ka munh pher-deta to irada tha ki 
apna qasd faskh karke wapas chala ja'un magar taham 
age barhte ke barhte upar charhte ke charhte akhir choti 
par puhunche mere bechare ghore par jo charhao ki 
musibat an bani us se sau hisse ziyada mushkilen utar 
men pariu agar zarra bhi uska qadam la^zish khata to 
aundha niche a rahta lekin jab woh phisalne ya lagzish 
khane lagta tha to ham khabardari se usko saubhsil-lete 
the yahan tak ki sham ko chha baje ham sahih salamat 
pahar ke niche an pahunche baqi safar ke waste din ki 
roshni ka ko'i ek ghanta raha aur tis mil se ziyada regis- 
tuni aur be-lik maidan ka rasta tai karna para jismen ja- 
ba-jsl nale aur gar bhi waqi' the siwae kisi magrabi 
sitare ke ya khabar-i-ittifaqiya ke jahan kahin ga'on 
mujhko mile aur ko'i rah-numa'i ka wasila iia dekhkar 
aur apne bahadur ghore ki raftar aur sslbit-qadmi par 
jiseuiain peshtar bhi aksar auqat azma-chuka tha bha- 
rosa karke main lie rah -bar ko rukhsat-kiya aar ghore ki 
bag utha'i. 



IN PART III. 59 



6. 

Ko'i das baje rat ko mujhko shahr ke hazarha chhi- 
takte hu'e chiragon ki roshni nazar a'i shahr men 
dakhil hua to logon ko hoshyar paya mujhko pahchan 
kar, kyunki sab log mujhe aur mere ghore ko khub jante 
the bat ki bat men yeh khabar zabanzad hu'i ki Larens 
sahib a-gaVmeri na-gahA.ni surat dekhkar bahut ghabra'e 
aur apne apne gharon men ja dabak rahe thori der tak 
main ne gali kuchon ki gasht ki aur jab dekha ki ab to 
fasad ka khadsha na raha Tehsildar ke pas gaya aur ishti- 
dad-i-shorish ki kaifiyat suni phir main ne qurb-jawar 
ke ahalian-i-polis ki talabi ka payani phirwaya aur ba'd 
iske shahr-paiiah ke bahar jo khrab-khasta sara thi usmen 
qiyam kiya khush-qisniati se yahan political malikama 
ka ek ka.ptan sfihib mujhko mila jo 'alalat ki wajh se ba- 
niuqabala khimon ke yahan rahne men ziyada aram 
samjha kyiiuki main ne isi sara ke do tin kaniaron ko 
marammat kara-rakha. tha aur un men kuchh saman bhi 
jam' kar-diya tha ki agar ko'i aj jaisi zarurat pesh a'i to 
taklif na ho ghore koapne samhne malwane aur danakhil- 
wane ke ba'd main to so-raha fajar hote main ne polis 
ko phatakon bazaron aur dusre sadr maqarnon men ta'i- 
nat kiya ki agar Hindu hathyar utha'en to rok-tok ban- 
pare chunanchi tin haftatak polis log is kam par musta'id 
rahe. 

7, 

Khair is taur par khatra guzar-gaya kyunki awwal to 
ahl-i-islam khud hi chust-chahik aur jang-jo hote the 
dusre bam log unki pusht par rahte the pas unka apne 
mukhalifon par galib hoiia chandan dushwar na tha 



60 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

phir Hindu'on ne jo na'i 'arzi pesh ki uska saf jawab 
mila is li'e inhon ne ek anokha sa tariqa 'amal men lane 
chsiha ya'ni yeh ki ba-ittifaq-i-hamdigar in logon ne apni 
sari dukanen band kar-din bar qism ka len-den aur kar- 
bar mauquf rakha balki zahir kiya ki jab tak yeh gao- 
kashi ka, hukm mansukh na ho ham na ko'i chiz khari- 
denge aur na farokht karenge balki fariq-i-mukhalif se 
kisi qism ki dad o sitad hi na rakhenge burdbarana ta- 
qabul ki jo tadbir Hindu'on ne nikali woh fil haqiqat 
nehayat hi kari thi harifon ke hath pa'on phul-ga'e aur 
sach puchho to mujhe bhi bahut hi taraddud hu'a 
kyunki kull shahr ki rasad-rasani kya thok-faroshi aur 
kya, khurda-faroshi inhin logon ke hath thi dusreroz subh 
ko Musalman to khair adna darje ke Hindu bhi hasb-i- 
ma'mul sauda lene a'e to sab dukanen band pa'in 
chunki yeh log jo kuchh din men paisa kamate hain usi 
men basar karte hain sakht mayus hoga'e aur meri 
qiyam-gah jake multaji hu'e ki agar huzur dukanon ko 
nahin khulwa-saken to hani log galla-danon ke qufl tor- 
kar apna kam nikal-len main ne jawab diya ki byopa- 
riyon ne ko'i amr khilaf-qanun nahin kiya hai mujhko 
kisi tarah se unpar jabr karne ka ikhtiyar nahin. 

8, 

Akhir ko mujhe ek tadbir sujhi ki jis se main Hindu'on 
ko samjhane ki fursat pa'un aur mumkin ho unko rah-i- 
rast par hVun chunfmchi main ne aspas ke dihat se ba- 
hutere chakre galla ke apni zimmadari par mangwa-rakhe 
aur samjha ki jab sarkar ko is khadsha ka hal munka- 
shif hoga to phir mujhko qimat milne ki unmied hai 
veh sab galla main ne ek maqam par jama' karaya aur ba'z 
admiyon ko chunkar aur galiyon men bithakar isi galla ko 



IN PAKT III. 61 

khurda-faroshi ke li'e unko sipurd kiya is taur par qalil 
qalil hajaten jo ahli Asia ko hoti ham raf hoga'in aur 
ull bandobast is ehtiyat se kiya gaya ki akhir sarkar ka 
kuchh bhi khasai-a nahin hu'a is isna men main ne ish- 
tiyar jari kara'e ki nahaqq Hindu log apne panditon ke 
kahne par na-ja'iz kamon men 'amal na karen warna 
kisi tarah ki ziyadati hu'i to ma'an uska tadaruk kiya 
ja'ega aur aksar juda.ga.na suraton men yehi to kar- 
rawa'i chal-saki kyunki ab to ziyada in logon ko apas men 
sazish karni muhal thi pahle to unhoane saliib Commis- 
sioner aur ba'd iske pahar par sarkar-i-'ali ki khidmat 
men 'arziyan bhejin aur un men meri aur Tehsildar ki 
shikayat likhi waqt par yeh 'arziyan hasb-i-zabita mere 
pas kaifiyat likhne ke li'e wtlpas a'in main ne to apni 
shikayaton ki nisbat jawa,b dena muuasib na samjha 
lekin Tehsildar ki albatta khub ta'id ki. 



Ba'is roz tak Hindu byopari isi tarah zidd ki'e ga'e aur 
main mutawatir nigrani sar-kobi aur shikayaton ki jawab- 
dihi karte karte 'ajiz a-gaya akhir-kar un Hindu'on ne 
jo ziyada garib the dekha ki is men hamara aur Musal- 
maaon donon ka nuqsan hai chunanchi ja-ba-ja ba- 
tadrij dukanen khulti ga'in aur ba'iswen din sham ko ek 
guroh Hindu'on ka bari 'ajizi se mere 'pas aya aur bay an 
kiya ki golamon ko apne panditon ne bahka-diya, tha.qusur 
mo'af kiji'e qasam khate hain ki phir aisi khata na ka- 
renge aur dukanen abhi khole dete hain main is amr 
par razi hogaya aur is taur se woh yorish jis se qasba 
bhar men mahz khal-bali machga'i thi mauquf hoga'i aur 
sharr o fasad band is mo'amala men apni kisi qadr aza- 
dana kar-rawa'i par jo sarkar ki taraf se baz-purs hu'i 



62 

thi main to uska jawab-i-kafi de-saka aur niz Tehsildar 
ki khush-nazmi aisi sabit kar-di ki jiske sila men uska 
khass shukariya ada kiya gaya lekin afsos woh bahut din 
tak zinda na raha ki jo wah-wah us ne hasil ki thi us se 
fa'ida utha sakta chand mahine ke ba'd yak-a-yak haiza 
karke margaya. 



10. 



Eajput madarzad sipahi the har ek got ka ek bapoti 
ra'is tha aur yeh got misl aur mulkon ki qaumon ke alag 
alag hote aur gotiyon ko apne apne sardaron ke sath aur 
Apas men bhi tarah tarah ki wa-bastagi hoti aur jat- 
dharm ka tariqa bhi jo barabar jari raha is wa-bastagi 
kii ziyada ba'is-i-istehkam hua chuuki goton ke sarda- 
ron ka raja ke sath wohi ta'alluq hu'a. karta tha jo apne 
gotwalon ka ap hi ke sath tha is li'e raja ra'is sipah sab 
ke sab biradarana ham-dili aur jangi fidwiyat se ba- 
darja-i-gayat munsalik hokar ek khass jama,' at banga'e 
aur jagir khidmat dene lene ke tariqa se jaisa ki Raj- 
putou men riwaj tha is jama'at men aur bhi istehkain 
A,-gaya jis se rnilkar woh khandani fakhr aur 'ali-himmati 
aur fasana-amez khayalat paida hu'e jo us zamana men 
fauji jama'at ki goya 'alamat-i-'alaniya thi in sargarm- 
iyon ko unke bhaton ke git-bhajanon se aur un janghae 
niutawatir se jo kabhi barae nang o nam aur kabhi 
barae 'ishq o mahabbat wuqu' men a'in ishte'al diya 
gaya yeh log ba-nisbat aur sharqi qaumon ke 'aurat- 
zat ziyadatar ba-adab suluk kiya karte the aur apne 
dushmanon ke sath bhi ba-qawa'id-i-izzat-parwari 
bartao kiya karte jiska khihlf-karna bad-nami mutasaw- 
war hoti. 



IN PART III. 63 



It, 

In ausaf ke sath agar unka kahili par az hadd ma'il 
hona bayan kiya ja'e aur agar is amr par bin lihaz kiya 
ja'e ki inpar zamana-i-daraz se kaisa kaisa dabao par- 
gaya to bal ke Rajputon ki chal-dhal wohi hogi aur yeh 
chal-dhal apne bap-dadon ki si hai jis nisbat se unki bhi 
Mahabharat ke yoddhon ki si thi agle Rajputon ki is 
sharafat ke sath ek sadagi bhi hoti tbi jo gair qaumon se 
juda rabne se paida hui thi aur isi sabab se woh hikmat- 
i-'amali men balki jang-awad men bhi un logon se kam- 
rutba rah-ga'e jo ba-muqabil unke aise 'ali-himruat na 
the min-jumla un got-bandi ke nata'ij ek yeh natija tha 
ki go Rajputon ko hargiz naql-i-makim pasand nahin ata 
magar taham jab kisi bahar ke dabao se unko apna 
watan chhorna para to aksar giroli ke giroh misl qaum- 
i-Tiitar ke nikal jayti karte aur jab kisi na'e rnulk men ja- 
base to jis tarah apne watan men khet-bant hua karta 
usi tartib se yahan ki zamin bhi taqsim hua karti 
siwae tabdil-i-jagah ke aur kuchh farq na atii tha. 



12, 



Be-sakhta gair-ta'lim-yafta Marhate kya Sudra aur kya 
Khatri usi waz' se jisse woh kheti-kiyari karte hain ya 
maweshi charate shugl-i-sipahgari bhi ikhtiyar karte 
hain aur bil-'umum un inqilabat men ki jin men woh ek 
waqt darja-i-'ali jah o jalal par pahunche hain aur phir 
apni asali halat par a-ga'e unki wohi be-sakhtagi ba- 
dastur bani rahti iska, ba'is shfiyad Hindu-mat ki rasm 
o riwaj men aur Sivaji aur uske sardaron ki naza'ir men 



64 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES. 

aur niz aisi aisi~'adaton men paya jata hai ki jin se fateh- 
mandi men suhuliyat basil hoti thi jab ki Marhaton men 
aur magrur o sanjida Musalmanon men imtiyaz kiya 
gay a aur jab ki Hindu'on ke sath un mulkon men jin 
par Marhaton ne charha'i ki thi unki amezish hu'i aur 
jab ki woh karr o farr aur nakhwat band hoga'i jo aksar 
bare bare fatehmandon ki muzahim balki mani'-ul- 
mohimm hoti hai is firqa ke khass madh-khwanon ko 
bhi inkar nahin hai ki Marhate sipahi ba-nisbat baha- 
duri ke fann o fitrat men mashhur to the aur bhagne ko 
bhi misl hamla karne ke apna fakhr jante the aur go ki 
har ko'i in umur ka qa'il hai balki is bat ka bhi ki woh 
kahin past-himmat aur khasis the magar taham unke 
ausaf-i-hamida ko taslim karna waqi' men insaf se ba'id 
nahin tahammul-i-takan o gursinagi o tishnagi ke bab 
men aur niz us mardanagi men jo ba-halat-i-iqbal o 
idbar yaksan rahti hai bahut kam log Marhaton se sab- 
qat le-jate the tispar bhi yeh amr qabil-i-ta'rif hai ki 
agle zamana men aur qabl iske ki unka lashkar futuhat- 
i-wasi' men aur gair qaumon ki 'amezish men is qadr 
barh-gaya ki ek qaum ka lashkar na raha yeh log apni 
qazzaqana fauj-kashi aisi mard-admiyat se kiya karte the 
ki us khiin-khwar tarz-i-jang ke na-ham-saz mutasawwar 
hoti thi. 

13. 

Atwar o kirdar Marhaton ke ba-hama wujuh nirale 
the fil-waqi* un ke se auza' agar kisi aur qaum men 
hu'e bhi hon to kamtar hu'e jin wasa'il se bare bare 
ahli-zafar ne aksar nafrat ki'e honge yeh firqa-i-'ajib 
unhin ka iste'mal karna behtar samajhte the unke 
jhande tale na sirf haris o mufsid jam' note the balki 



IN PART III. 65 

chor aur lutere bhi misl fauj-i-madadgar ke rafiq ho- j ate 
aur kuchh 'arsa tak apne taur par aur apne fa'ida ki nazar 
se kam karne pate jab ko'i gair mulk ya sub a uuke 
qabza met", ay a to is surat men bhi ba-nisbat jabr o 
ziyadati dagabazi se wahan ki hukuinat men dakhl pana 
aur bashindagan ke sath sazishen karni yeh log apni khubi 
jante the aur is amr men inka sabr o inkisar bahut kam 
ata pahle to Hindu raja'on ke sath jo wahan ki hukm-rani 
karte the intizam-i-mulki o mali men sharik hone par 
iktifa karte the aur itminan karte the ki ba'd chand 
muddat ke aur ba-zari'a sazishon ke rafta rafta tashkir 
ki naubat a-ja'egi. 



Bhil jo dihat men rahte hain wafadari aur diyanat- 
dari men niashhur hain aksar chaukidari ka pesha karte 
hain aur kuchh hissa zamin ka ya rupaya paisa ujrat pate 
hain in Bhilon ki apne pahari bha'i'on ke sath jo kasir- 
ut-ta'dad aur ziyada azad hain kam amad o raft rahti hai 
jo jama'at kashtkari men masruf hai woh chhote chhote 
kheron men zer hukm apne Tarwiyon ya'ni sardaron ke 
raha karti hai aur go woh jafakash bhi hote hain lekin 
unki wohi tarz-i-zindagi aur wohi hathyar bhi hain jo un 
jaugali qaurnon men murawwaj hain aur niz unki tarah 
sharab-khwari men nehayat hi be-bak hain yeh log bhains 
ka balki ga'e ka bhi gosht khalete hain jis se 'ala darja 
ke Hindu' on ko ek dili nafrat hoti hai aur isi sabab se 
Bhilon ka darja chamaron aur mochiyon se sirf bara gina 
jata hai jo murda janwaron ko bhi khalete hain aur is 
qadr napak gine jate hain ki unko bast iy on ki abadi men 
jagah nahin dete lutere aur jangali Bhil jo kohistan men 
bud o bash rakhte hain ek past-qadd paji-surat kal ki 

5 



t> TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

mari qaum hain magar taham chalak aur mandagi ke bare 
bardasht karnewtile hain yeh log mashhur rah-zan aur 
chori-pesha hain hathyar unke tir o karaan kamzor 
aur be-nawa'on ki ghat karte hain zabardast aur 
zorawaron se bhag-jate aur is qadr jahil aur puch-parast 
hote hain ki apne Tarwiyon par fida hote hain ki jin ka 
hukin ba-manzila-i-qanun hai aur be chun o chira ta'mil 
hua karta hai. 

15. 

Mard log aur khaskar 'aurat log jis halat men basar 
auqat karte hain usi ke muttafiq 'aql rakhte ya'ni phurtile 
hote hain aur unki zati tabi'at khatra-shinas aur dagabaz 
aur makkar hot! hai apne Tarwi ke hukm se kisi ko halak 
karna ya apni jan bhi de-dena unke nazdik kuchh bari 
bat nahin sari qaum na-khwanda hoti hai aur log sab ke 
sab ba-darja-i-gayat tamaku aur sharab pite hain unke 
sab jhagron ka agaz aur anjam sharab-khwari men hua 
karta hai bagair da'wat-i-biradari na ko'i lara'i jhaghra 
tasfiya kiya jata hai aur na ko'i gunah mo'af yahan 
tak ki murawwaj aur ma'muli jarimana sharab hi to hai 
jo har ek jurm ke 'ewaz liya jata hai aur jis se 'ayyashi 
unki muddaton qa'im rahti hai 'auraton ko qaumi 
mo'amalat men ziyadatar dakhl hai lekin ta'ajjub yeh 
hai ki aksar iiiki 'adat aur tabi'at bilkull Pindarion ke 
khilaf hai kyunki yeh apne mardon ke sath lara'i men 
nahin jatin aur jab kabhi dushman qaid hojate hain uiiki 
khass umined zindagi ki in 'auraton ki mashhur insaniyat 
par munhasar hoti hai is qaum ki 'auraten aksar apne 
bap ya khawindon ke jura'im men pahle mubtalae stfat 
hoti hain kyunki mard log jab kisi jurm ke muttahini 
hote hain to hamesha unke larke aur 'auraten sarkar ki 



IN PART III. 

taraf se giriftar hua kartin aur aisi halat men woh t 
izhar apne kamal sabr o istiqlal ka kiya kartin kis li'e ki 
inko yaqin hota hai ki hamare mard hamen riahin chhorne 
ke balki jo mujriin hain woh apne ta'in waste saza-yabi 
hawale karenge go woh saza-e-maut bhi kyun na ho aur 
yeh guwara nahin karenge ki ahl o 'ayyal qaid men rahen. 

16. 

Bhilon ki jama'at-i-kasir ki islah men jo aj kal wasat 
Hind men hua karti hai 'aurat-log ne albatta bari pesh- 
dasti ka balki apni jinsiyat ke la'iq karn kiya, hai haqiqat 
yeh hai ki 'auraton ko hamesha khush-nazmi margub- 
khatir hoti hai aur is qadr mehnat aur jafa-kashi kt 'adat 
parga'i hai ki zarur inko is bat se bari khushi hoti hog 
ki mard log apni be-lagami se baz ane lage jo peshtar sirf 
ma'siyat aur 'ayyashi men apna waqt katte the Bhil 
agarchi mukhtalif firqon men munqasim hain to bhiek hi 
rang men hain khana pina unka ek hai apas men shadi 
byah karte hain dharm-rit yaksau hai asal men wohi 
puja hai jo aur Hindu'on men hoti hai magar judagana taur 
par is jangali qaum ki dharm-rit aksar is men khatm 
hai ki woh nichhawar aur balidan adna patal-wale deota'on 
ke li'e kiya karte hain aur khaskar Mata Debi ke li'e jiski 
mutafarriq nauion se puja kiya karte ta ki is gazab ke 
wabal se chichak ke dinon men rnahfuz rahen yeh log 
Mahadeo ko bhi bahut mante hain jinki aulad men hone 
ko apna fakhr samajhte hain. 

17. 

Thagon men sab zat ke admi hua karte hain Musalman 
bhi un men dakhil ho- j ate hain magar beshtar Hindu hua 
karte hain aur Hindu'on men khaskar Bundelkhand ke 



68 TEANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

Brahman ziyada hote hain jo aksar mukhtalif girohon ki 
kar-rawa'iyon ka ehtimam karte hain un men qawa'id-i- 
nm'ayyan bhi hote hain aur khasusan taqsim-i-ganimat 
ke bab men apne muhimmon men adna 'ala sab qism ke 
log madad-gari ke li'e bharti kar-lete hain aur khaskar uu 
riyasaton ke sharir sharir 'ohdadaron ke khwahan hain 
ki jahan jane ka irada hai ba'd tahqiq karne is amr ke 
ba-zari'a kaifiyat-i-tahriri ya zabani ki ab mauqa' muna- 
sib hai unka dastur hai ki agwan waste daryaft karne 
mufassal hai us jagah ke bhejte hain yeh jasus kabhi 
faqiron ke kabhi saudagaron ke aur kabhi sipahi muta- 
lashi-i-rozgar ke bhes men hote hain aur wahan ke auba- 
shon se mile rahte hain aur asal jama'at ki amad ke li'e 
tayyari karte hain jiski ta'dad aksar tin char sau se kam 
nahin hogi magar yeh nahin ki kabhi baham ikhatte 
dikha'i dete warna sab giroh apas men khub laga'o karke 
safar karte hain ba'zon ke pas ghore unt khima sab 
saman-i-tijarat hota hai aur ba'ze sipahiyon ka libas pahnte 
hain ki jo kisi sardar ke yahan ba-jihat-i-mulazamat jsite 
hain ba'ze apne ta'in Musalman faqir ya Hindu bairagi 
gosa'in wagaira zahir karte hain qissa kotah Thag log har 
qism ka bhes rakha karte hain hamesha bahaduron aur 
chalakon ka ek na ek dasta asal jama'at se juda rahta hai 
jinka yeh kam hai ki ya to musafiron se mohafazat mangte 
hain ya khud unki mohafazat kar-lete har surat men 
bechara musafiron par shamat a'i. 

18, 

Thag log apne pas ek Iambi phand-wali dori resham ki 
poshida rakhte hain jis se gardanon men apne be-khabar 
sathiyon ki dalkar phansi dete hain aur lut-lete hain 
Thagon ka matlab sirf mal-dar musafiron se hai aur agar 



IN PART III. 69 

yeh musafir kasir-ut-ta'dad ya kisi qadr khabardar bhi 
hon to bazar chalakiyon se unko dam-i-fareb men lakar 
phuslate hain chunanchi aksar unki ziyafat bbi karte 
bain aur khane pine ke saman men ko'i shai-i-khwabawar 
ya zahr-aluda mila-dete bain jiske asar se woh in phansi- 
garon aur rab-zanon ke qabu men asani se a-jate bain 
'ajib kftr-barili in shararaton ki sirf un mulkon ki halat 
ke sath mansub bo-sakti hai jahan wuqu' men a'in 
Tbaglog kbaskar wasat Hind men afzun bu'e aur bar sal 
unki ka'i ek jama'aten is mulk se hokar Nizam aur 
Peskwa ki riyasaton ki taraf jaya karti thin san 1819 
'iswi men Mandesur ke hakim ne Thagon ki ek jama'at 
ko ghera tha jo khud izhar karte the aur surat se ma'lum 
bbi bote the ki ham log ek giroh paidal aur sowar ka 
bain jo apne mal o asbab ko unton aur bailon par lade 
Dakkhan se pahunchate hain lekin hakim-i-mausuf ko 
unki asali baqiqat daryaft hu'i thi sir dharne ka hukm 
kiya jab Thagon ne inkar kiya lara'i hu'i Thagon ne 
sbikast kha'i kuchh to mare ga'e kuchh to qaid hoga'e 
unka sara mal makhuz hua jiski qimat ek lakh rupaya 
se ziyada thi aur usmen sab qism ke kapre aur zewar kya 
amiron ka aur kya garibon ka tha kyunki yeh log sab ko 
be tashkhis-i-ashkhas luta karte bain minjumla aur 
chizon ke bahut si doriyan phansi ki bhi hath a'in aur 
numa'ish ke waste rakhi ga'in. 



70 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 



SECTION IV. 

Ishtehar-i-malika-mo'azzama 

ba-ijlas-i-Kaunsil ba-nam-i-waliyan o sardaran o 
bashindagan-i-Hind . 

Janab malika - mo'azzama Victoria ba-fazl-i-Khuda 
khadiv-i-mamalik Great Britain o Ireland o abadiha 
o muzafat waqi' Europe o Asia o Africa o America 
o Australasia aur zahir-ul-mazhab ki taraf se khass 
o 'amm ki ittila* ke li'e hasb-i-tafsil-i-zail mushta- 
har kiya jata hai 

Wazih ho ki ba-wujuh-i-kamila o ba-salah o ittifaq-i- 
rae-i-uraarae-millati o mulki o mukhtaraii-i-'awamm 
hazirin-i-jalsa-i-ParZiamew^ hamne apne is irade ko inu- 
sammam kar-liya hai ki mamalik-i-fiind ka intizam jinka 
insiram Honourable East India Company ko aj tak ama- 
natan mufawwaz tha apne ehtimam men lewen. 

Pas is qirtas ke ru se hain ittila' dete aur e'lan far mate 
hain ki ba-salah o ittifaq-i-rae-i-mazkura-i-bala ke hamne 
intizam mulk-i-mazkur ka apne ehtimam men liya aur 
is qirtas ke ru se apni jam!' ri'aya ko jo qalam- 
rau-i-mazkur men maujud hain takidan farmate hain ki 
hamari aur hamare warison aur ja-nishinon ki wafadari 
aur ita'at karen aur jis kisiko ham apne nam aur apni 
taraf se mulk ke intizam ke li'e waqt ba-waqt ayanda 
muqarrar karna munasib samjhen uski farman-bardari 
kiya karen. 



IN PART III. 71 

Aur jo farzand-i-arjmand mo'azzaz aur mo'tamad 
'alaihi mushir-i-khass nawwab Charles John Viscount 
Canning sahib ki wafadari aur qabiliyat aur fahm o firasat 
ki nisbat hamko itrninan aur khatir-jaru'-i-kulli hasil bai 
is li'e hamne sahib-i-mausuf ya'ni Viscount Canning 
sahib ko waste karne intizain mamalik-i-mazkur ke 
hamari taraf aur hamare nam se ba-ri'ayat hamare ahkam 
aur un a'in ke jo uske pas ma'rifat hamare wazir-i-a'zam 
ke bheje ja'en qa'im-maqam-i-awwal aur mamalik-i-maz- 
kur ka Governor- General muqarrar kiya. 

Aur jo jo log bilfe'l kisi 'ohda par kya mulki kya fauji 
sarkar Honourable, East India Company ke mamur hain 
unko is qirtas ke ru se apne apne 'ohda par ba-hfil aur 
qa'im farraate hain lekin woh hamari marzi ayanda ke 
muti' rahen aur sab a'iu o qawanin ki ita'at karte rahen 
jo ayanda nafiz ki'e ja'enge. 

Aur waliyan-i-Hiud ko ittila' di jati hai ki jis jis 'ahd 
o paiman ko khud Honourable East India Company ne 
kiva ya woh uski ijfizat se mun'aqad hua un sab ko ham 
pazira aur qabul farmate hain aur unka ifa ba-kamal 
ehtiyat hota rahega aur chashm-dasht hai ki un waliyon 
ki taraf se bhi isi tarah ta'mil hoti rahegi. 

Jo mulk bilfe'l hamare qabza men hai use ziyada karna 
nahin chahte aur jab yeh hamko guwara nahin hai ki 
ko'i aur shakhs hamari mamlikat ya huquq men dast- 
andazi kare to ham bhi pesh-qadmi ki apni taraf se ba 
nisbat mamlikat ya huquq auron ke ijazat na denge aur 
waliyan-i-Hind ke huquq aur mauzilat aur 'izzat misl 
apne huquq aur manzilat aur 'izzat ke 'aziz samjhenge 
aur hamko arzu hai ki waliyan-i-Hind aur hamari ri'aya 
ko bhi woh sa'adat aur husn-i-akhlaq ki taraqqi hasil ho 
ki jo mulk men sulh aur husn-i-intizam se paida hoti 
hai. 



72 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES 

Jo lawazim ba nisbat apni dusri ri'aya ke hampar 
wajib hain wohi lawazim ba nisbat apni ri'ayae Hind ke 
ham apne zimme lazim janenge aur ba fazl-i-Khuda wafa- 
dari aur rasti ke sath ham lawazim-i-mazkur ka lihaz 
karte rahenge. 

Agarchi hamko mazhab-i-'isa'i ke sidq ki nisbat yaqin- 
i-kulli hasil hai aur jo tasalli-i-khatir us se hoti hai uska 
ba kamal shukrguzari e'tiraf hai to bhi hamko na yeh 
mansab na yeh arzu hai ki kisi ra'iyat se khwah-ma- 
khwah apne 'aqide taslim karawen balki yeh hamara 
hukm-i-shahana aur marzi hai ki na kisi ahl-i-mazhab ki 
ba-wajh uske mazhab ke ta'id ki ja'e aur na kisi ko ba- 
wajh uske e'tiqadat ke taklif di ja'e balki sab ra'iyat 
ki ba-mujib qanun ke ba-gair tarafdari hifazat hoti rahe 
aur jo log hamare farman-pazir intizam-i-mulk-i-Hind ke 
li'e mamur hain unko ba kamal takid irshad farmate hain 
ki kisi hamari ra'iyat ke e'tiqad aur 'ibadat-i-mazhabi ki 
nisbat dastandazi na karen wa ilia hamara nehayat hi 
gazab hoga. 

Aur yeh bhi hamara hukm hai ki jahantak munikin ho 
hamari sab ra'iyat ko go kisi qaum ya mazhab ki ho bila 
ta'arruz o tarafdari ke hamari mulazamat men un 'ohdon 
par jinko woh apni 'ilmiyat aur qabiliyat aur diyanat se 
anjam de-sakte hon muqarrar karte rahen. 

Iska hamko ba-khubi 'ilm hai ki ahl-i-Hind us arazi ko 
jo unke buzurgon se unhen wirasatan pahunchi hai bahut 
'aziz rakhte hain is li'e hamko bhi iska bara lihaz hai 
balki ham chahte hain ki yeh huquq unke jo arazi se 
muta'alliq hain ba shart ada karne mutalaba-i-sarkari ke 
mahfuz rahen aur hamara hukm hai ki ba-waqt tajwiz o 
nifaz-i-qanun ke 'umuman huquq-i-qadinii aur mulk-i- 
Hind ki rasin o riwaj par lihaz-i-kamil hota rahe. 

Ba-istima' is hai ke ki ba'z mufsidon ne jhuth-muth 



IN PART III. 73 

afwahen urakar apne ham-watanon ko vrarglan un se 
bagawat-i-fash kara'i aur mulk-i-Hind par ek bala 
nazil kara'i hamko nehayat afsos hua aur hamare 
iqtidar ki kaifiyat to logon ko faro karne fasad 
men bich maidan-i-karzar ke ma'lum ho-ga'i bogi 
lekin ab hamara yeb mansha bai ki un logon ka 'afu-e- 
jura'im karke jo is tarab dhoka kha-ga'e bain aur phir 
ita'at men ana cbabte bain apna izhar-i-tarahhum karen. 

Is niyat se ki ayanda ziyada khunrezi na bone pawe 
aur hamare mamalik-i-Hind men jaldi se amn o ama.ii ho- 
jawe hamare qa'im-maqam aur Governor-General bahadur 
ne ek 'alaqa men ki jahan logon ne in aiyam-i-gadar-i- 
makruh men jurm-i-mukbalafat-i-sarkar ki'e the un men 
se aksaron ko mutarassid 'afu-e-qusiirat ka ba-shara'it-i- 
makhsus kiya bai aur jin logon ki taqasir ne unkoehata-i- 
tarabbum se bahar kardiya bai unki saza'on ki bbi tashrih 
kardi bai. 

Cbunanchi ham apne qa'im-maqam aur Governor- 
General ke is 'amal-i-mazkur ko pazira aur qabul karte 
bain 'alawa iske hasb-i-zail e'lan farmate hain ya'ni 
siwae un logon ke jinki nisbat sabit hua ya ab sabit bo 
ki woh ra'iyat-i-sarkar angrezi ke qatl men bi-zatihi sharik 
hu'e baqi aur jumla mujrimon ki nisbat izhar-i-tarahhum 
kiya ja'ega magar ba nisbat shuraka-e-qatl ke insaf muq- 
taza is bat ka hai ki unpar tarahhum na ho. 

Jin logon ne jan-bujh-ke qatilon ko panah di ho ya jo 
log bagiyou ke sardar hu'e hon ya targib-i-bagawat di ho 
unki nisbat sirf yehi wa'da ho-sakta hai ki unki jan- 
bakhsbi hogi lekin aise logon ki tajwiz-i-saza men un sab 
abwal par jinke e'tibar se woh apni ita'at se phir-ga'e 
kamil gaur kiya ja'ega aur un logon ki nisbat jo be soche 
mufsidon ki jhuti baton men akar mujrim hoga'e bari 
ri'ayat ki ja'egi. 

6 



74 TRANSLATION OF PASSAGES IN PART III. 

Baqi aur sabhon se jo sarkar ke muqabil hathyar-band 
hain ba-mujib i? qirfcas ke wa'da hota hai ki agar woh apne 
apne ghar chale jawen aur apne pesha-i-sulh o satad men 
masruf hon to unke qusurat jo hamari nisbat aur hamari 
saltanat aur manzilat ki nisbat sarzad hu'e bila shart 
mo'af aur darguzar aur faraniosh kar-di'e-ja'enge. 

Hamari yeh marzi shahana hai ki rahm aur 'afu ki 
shara'it-i-mazkur un sabhon se muta'alliq hon jo qabl az 
tarikh yakam January san 1859 'iswi ke shara'it-i-mazkur 
ki ta'mil karen. 

Aur hamari ba-dil o jan yeh tamanna hai ki jab niulk- 
i-Hind men Khuda ke fazl se phir amn chain ho-ja'e to 
wahan sana'i'-i-sulh ki taraqqi karen aur ifada-i-khala'iq 
ke li'e kam misl-i-tayyari-i-sarak o nahr wagaira jari 
karen aur mulk ka aisa intizam kiya ja'e ki jis se ha- 
mari sari ri'ayfie bashinda-i-mulk-i-mazkur ko fa'ida ho 
kyunki unki farag-bali hamare li'e mujib-i-iqtidar aur 
unki qana'at hamare li'e ba'is-i-bekhatri aur unki shukr- 
guzari hamare li'e pura sila hai aur .Khudae qadir hamko 
aur hamare farmrin-bardaran-i-mataht ko aisi taufiq dewe 
ki yeh hamari muniden waste fa'ida-rasani-i-khala'iq ke 
achhchi tarah husn-i-ikhtitam ko pahunchen. 



FINIS. 



London : Printed by W. H. Allen & Co., 13 Waterloo Place. S.W.