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Full text of "Khartoum and the Blue and White Niles"

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BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARIES 




Graduate School 
African Studies 



KHARTOUM, 



THE BLUE AND WHITE NILES. 



VOL. I. 



KHARTOUM, 



THE BLUE AND WHITE NILES. 



BY GEORGE MELLY. 



| 




Second lEtitticm. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



LONDON: 
COLBURN AND CO., PUBLISHERS, 

GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 
1852. 



LONDON: 

Printed by Schulze and Co., 13, Poland Street. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOL. I. 



KHARTOUM AND THE NILES 



DRAGOMEN . 



MAP OF NUBIA . 



. Frontispiece. 

Vignette. 

To face page 237 



VOL. II. 



IPSAMBOUL . 



THE AUTHOR 



Frontispiece. 
Vignette. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



PREFACE. 



The Work now presented to the public, 
is nothing more than a transcript from a 
Journal kept by the Author during a tour 
in Egypt and Nubia, (undertaken in company 
with other members of his family) only a 
few months ago. The peculiarity of the 
relations of Egypt and the Porte at the present 
moment, affords the Author the best excuse 
he can put forward for appearing in print, 
and he hopes that observations so recently 
made over a very interesting portion of the 



Vill PREFACE. 

dominions of the Pasha of Egypt, by a 
perfectly disinterested spectator, may be 
though not unworthy the attention of the 
reader. 

It is only here necessary to add, that we 
succeeded in penetrating Nubia as far as 
Khartoum, the place of junction of the Blue 
and White Niles, where few travellers had 
preceded us, and to which town no ladies 
had ever penetrated before. 



LONDON, 

OCTOBER 5, 1851. 



CONTENTS 



THE FIRST VOLUME. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Adriatic — Alexandria — The Grand Square — 
Pompey's Pillar — English invaders — Egyptian 
Cemetery — Cleopatra's Needles — Stroll through 
the streets — The Great Canal — The first pipe . 1 

CHAPTER II 

Up the Canal — Arab boats — Shoal of swimmers — 
Beautiful mirage — Egyptian tillage — Atfeh — The 
lock— The Nile 19 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

Cairo — Description of the inhabitants — Treatment 
of women — Adventure of an Arab boy — Encounter 
with a native lady — Courtship and marriage in the 
East — Taking home the bride . . .36 



CHAPTER IV. 

The water-carriers of Cairo — An Egyptian bath — 
The bazaars — Turkish gallantry — Shopping in the 
East — The slave market —The Court of the Cadis 
— Turkish justice . . . . .51 



CHAPTER V. 

The Citadel of Cairo— Mosque of Mehemet Ali — 
Moslem Carnival — The College of Dervishes — 
Curious religious ceremony — Presentation to the 
Viceroy — The Nepaulese Ambassador — Visit of 
the ladies to Ibrahim Pasha's hareem . .70 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER VI. 

Disgrace and flight of Artira Bey — Visit to Achmed 
Bey — Palace of an Egyptian noble — Arabian 
horses — Tombs of the Caliphs — The gardens of 
Shoobra — The imprisoned lady — Grotto of the 
Virgin Mary — Heliopolis — Boulac — Ishmael Bey 
—The boats 87 

CHAPTER VII. 

Departure from Cairo — Ascending the Nile — In- 
vasion of rats — Our dragoman and retinue — The 
Pyramids — Nile etiquette — An evening on shore — 
The Tombs of Beni Hassan — The first crocodile — 
Shock of an earthquake . . . .106 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Ossioot — The city gate — The mountain of tombs — 
Visit to Ismail Pasha — Encounter with a Latin 
monk— Ekekian Bey— Story of a cat— Arrival at 
Keneh — Visit to Hassan Said — The dancing girls 
— Departure from Keneh . . . .127 



Xll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Plain of Thebes . . . . .151 

CHAPTER X. 

Karnac and Luxor . . . . .165 

CHAPTER XL 

Esneh — Dancing girls — Mehemet Ali — Summary 
justice — The mountain of the Chain — Angling in 
the Nile — A battle with the natives . .183 

CHAPTER XII. 

Assouan — The treaty with the Reis — The quarries — 
The Persian invasion — Caravan of slaves — Hunting 
for jackalls — Daireh's love story . .177 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Philae 208 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The first Cataract of the Nile . . .227 

CHAPTER XV. 

Korosko — Shooting excursion — Crocodiles — Ipsam- 
boul — Colossal statue . . . .231 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Retrospect 255 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Itinerary for the Desert .... 282 



Appendix ....... 285 



KHARTOUM, 



THE BLUE AND WHITE NILES. 



CHAPTER L 

The Adriatic — Alexandria — The Grand Square— 
Pompey's Pillar — English invaders — Egyptian 
Cemetery — Cleopatra's Needles — Stroll through 
the streets — The Great Canal — The first pipe. 

After a pleasant journey through Lom- 
bardy, and a very agreeable stay at the city 
of gondolas and palaces, we arrived at 
Trieste on the 25th of September, 1850, 
on our way to Egypt. Our party con 

VOL. I. B 



2 KHARTOUM 

sisted of my father and mother, my brother 
and sister, and myself. We had all travelled 
much, and were thus pretty well accus- 
tomed to the small annoyances, which those 
who leave comfortable homes in England 
to visit other lands, must expect to en- 
counter. But it should be borne in mind 
that two of our number were ladies, which 
may show that the journey we contem- 
plated was neither too fatiguing nor too 
difficult ; many may therefore follow in 
our steps, and enjoy, as we did, a tour full 
of new and interesting scenes. 

We hoped, before returning, to be able 
to penetrate far into the depths of Nubia ; 
departing from the beaten track of Nile 
travellers, to reach the 14th degree of 
north latitude, and add our names to 
those of the few English who have gazed 
on the junction of the White and Blue 
Niles. Some of us might have had wild 



AND THE NILES. 3 

wishes relative to the undiscovered source 
of that mighty river : while others might 
have looked with some degree of appre- 
hension to the task of making a road where 
none existed, and traversing a country 
hitherto explored only by men. We all 
agreed, however, to go as far as it appeared 
safe and easy ; meanwhile to bind ourselves 
to nothing, but to be ruled entirely by cir- 
cumstances ; which, in fact, are the real 
guide-books of travellers — more especially in 
an unknown country. 

The morning of the 27th of September, 
far as the year had advanced, was a most 
charming one ; for summer, like other 
visiters, lingers long on the beautiful shores 
of the Mediterranean — never leaving the 
southern, and but for a few brief months 
the northern coast of that blue lake. 

In the middle of the harbour, of Trieste, 
gay with Austrian frigates, and Neapolitan 



4 KHARTOUM 

corvettes, lay the ' Europa,' a large steamer, 
which was to start for Alexandria at half- 
past eight. Before that hour we were 
all on board ; soon afterwards we bade 
adieu to Europe, and doubling the Pirano 
point, stood down the Adriatic, skirting its 
rocky shores that were backed by the distant 
blue hills of Illyria. Up to this moment 
we had scarcely been able to look round us, 
so crowded were the decks with shore- 
people, bidding adieu to Indian passengers, 
and Alexandria merchants ; but when deli- 
vered from these intruders, we found our- 
selves in a large and commodious vessel, 
about the size of the boats plying between 
Liverpool and Glasgow. Some thirty persons 
were walking the deck, a few smoking 
cigars, and others lighting long chibouques, 
as if, on weighing anchor to quit Europe, 
we were already in the East. We might 
have thought that this was indeed the case; 



AND THE NILES. 5 

for the thick awning could not protect us 
from the intense heat of the sun ; and the 
Gulf of Venice, unruffled by a single wave, 
looked more like a mirror than a sea. 

As soon as we were well off, I observed 
a young Englishman, in a spirit charac- 
teristic of our country, attack the captain 
about the passage — as to whether it was 
likely to be rough or pleasant, with many 
similar unanswerable questions as though 
the weather could be insured for the 
next five days in the most changeable of 
waters. The captain — and when does that 
authority not pretend to know the future 
movements of the winds and waves? — 
averred that it would be a dead calm to 
Corfu, and thence a " nasty bit." That 
the dead calm might to a landsman be a 
stiff breeze, I well knew; but the prospect 
of the " nasty bit " was really serious, and 
remained a bug-bear to all concerned till 



6 KHARTOUM 

the end of the voyage. Like many such 
things, however, it proved more imaginary 
than real ; and we arrived at Alexandria 
after a beautiful passage of five days, no 
one on board having any cause for dis- 
agreeable impressions. 

Alexandria is flat, as is indeed all Egypt, 
up to the mountains which form the Valley 
of the Nile. We were nearly at the end of 
our voyage before we discerned any trace of 
the famous shores of Egypt ; and then we 
saw only the summit of Pompey's Pillar, 
rising up, like some witness from the past, 
to notify their antiquity and fame. Almost 
at the same moment, we distinguished the 
masts of the Pasha's fleet, and about half 
an hour afterwards we could see the sand 
hills of Alexandria. At length, we reached 
the port, entering through a channel between 
two rocks, not two hundred yards apart, 
which constitute the natural defence of one 



AND THE NILES. 7 

of the strongest harbours in the Mediter- 
ranean. 

The instant we dropped anchor, the 
steamer was surrounded by boats, some 
bringing off friends, and others sanitary 
officers; while many twenty-four or thirty 
oared boats, full of sailors of the Pasha's 
fleet, dressed in white, kept continually 
passing and repassing, spite of the burning 
sun, with all the animation of a regatta. In 
a few moments our deck was covered. We 
had several ladies on board, who had come 
to rejoin their husbands: they had deserted 
them and fled to Trieste on the approach 
of the cholera — notwithstanding their con- 
jugal vow as to sickness and health. Their 
neglected spouses had hastened to receive 
them, and were much affected at the 
reunion, sobbing like so many children. 
Whether this, however, was in token of 
gladness, or in lamentation for the loss of 



KHARTOUM 



the liberty enjoyed during their bereavement, 
it were hard to say. I observed that the 
gentlemen kissed one another, and was 
surprised to find, on inquiry, that no rela- 
tionship existed between them, but that 
they were merely acquaintances. The ladies, 
though it is their peculiar privilege in our 
own happy land, were not complimented 
with these marks of affection; so com- 
pletely is the order of things reversed in 
this country ! 

Accompanied by a friend, who had kindly 
taken rooms for us at the principal hotel, 
we made our way to the shore, where a 
carriage and some donkeys, the animals most 
in fashion here, were pressed into service, 
and we proceeded towards the great square, 
the chosen quarter of the Franks. In the 

afternoon Mr. acted as our cicerone 

to the lions of Alexandria. 

This, the first Eastern town to Europeans, 



AND THE NILES. y 

and last of their country to the Arabs — is 
of considerable extent. The houses are all 
flat-roofed, and being chiefly white, look 
peculiarly glaring under the burning sun of 
Egypt. The principal European square is a 
very gay place ; and there the traveller may 
take a last look at the mantillas, polkas, silks, 
crapes, large-pattern trowsers, and black hats, 
which adorn the English and French visitors 
and merchants, as they w 7 alk up and down 
on the shaded side, parading themselves in 
the latest imported fashions. Each Consul 
has his national flag flying from a high flag- 
staff, surrounded by a circular staircase, 
from the top of which he can command a 
view of the flat-roofed houses ; the harbour 
sparkling with the flags of all nations, and 
the beautiful blue sea beyond. English 
people, averse as they are to public scrutiny, 
would, if exposed to it, consider these points 
of view extremely disagreeable, they afford 



10 KHARTOUM 

the means of discovering all that is going on 
in neighbouring houses which they overlook. 

In our way round the town we were 
obliged to resort once more to the donkeys, 
and, to say the truth, they made no bad 
steeds. They are a different race from those 
of England. The Egyptian donkey is always 
pulling away at his bit, and is anxious to 
be off as fast as possible. He never lies 
down, goes well, and scarcely ever seems 
spent. Instead of a saddle, his equipment is 
a cushion of carpets, strapped over his sleek 
and well-kept hide affording a comfortable 
ssat. 

The first of the Alexandrian antiquities 
that we visited was Pompey's Pillar, which, 
though it bears the name of the renowned 
General, was raised by Diocletian. We 
could not but approach it with feelings of 
veneration, as a tribute paid in a remote 
age to genuine heroism, and majestic mis- 



AND THE NILES. 1 1 

fortune; but were disappointed to find that 
it was simply a column of red granite, of 
great height, placed on the top of a hill. 
We here, for the first time, noticed the 
disgraceful practice which has grown up 
among travellers in the East, of defacing 
the temples and other monuments of anti- 
quity, by printing, smoking and carving 
their names on stones which, apart from 
historical associations, Time has rendered 
venerable. Pompey's pillar has not escaped 
this irruption of the Huns and Vandals ; 
it is emblazoned in letters, two or three feet 
in length, with the names of its barbarian 
invaders. I am sorry to add, that they are 
British, as were most of those which we 
met with subsequently. After expressing our 
disgust at the bad taste of such people, and 
their effrontery in so parading it, we left the 
spot, wondering how so noble a monument 
could have been subjected to such an outrage. 



1 2 KHARTOUxM 

The hill on which this pillar stands, over- 
looks the burial-ground of Alexandria, which, 
like all cemeteries in the East, is outside the 
town. We learnt, on inquiry, that it is 
the custom to inter only one body in every 
grave; and we were much struck with the 
curious appearance the cemetery presented, 
each grave being marked by a little dome 
of plaster, instead of a tombstone; being 
thus covered over as a protection from the 
attacks of the numerous dogs that here 
prowl about at night. They are also often 
surmounted by an aloe, the emblem of 
Eternity. 

We rode homeward by Cleopatra's 
Needles, — two fine obelisks of red granite; 
one of them now lies prostrate, but the other, 
seventy feet in height, may yet stand for 
ages. The fallen column is the property 
of the English government, to whom it 
was presented by the Pasha; but a 



AND THE NILES. 13 

disgraceful parsimony has hitherto prevented 
its removal.* Though erected in honour of 
Ramesis III., an early King of Egypt, it is 
the name of the wondrous Queen, that 
serpent of old Nile, that lends interest to 
the spot, and we lingered to recal her strange, 
eventful history, not without a feeling of 
sadness at the change which, since that epoch, 
has come over her once mighty realm. 

The streets of Alexandria are made of 
mud, battened down, which renders them 



* Since the above remarks were written, public 
attention has been called to this neglected relic 
of antiquity through the all-powerful medium of 
The Times. In such hands the question may be 
very safely left; but surely the nation that can 
throw away untold sums on a fabric like the 
Marble Arch, can spare £2,000 for the preserva- 
tion of this fine column, which, transplanted to 
English soil, might commemorate the deeds of 
an Abercrombie or a Nelson. 



14 KHARTOUM 

very dusty ; and it is difficult, as there are 
no pavements, and many people in the 
streets, to move along rapidly. Indeed, 
the crowds in the Eastern towns excite 
great surprise in travellers; and it was not 
till I went into the houses of some of 
the inhabitants, that I was able to account 
for them. In England there are always, 
except in the leading thoroughfares, more 
persons in the houses than out of them ; 
but in Egypt, during the afternoon especially, 
the entire population is from home, except 
a few women employed in domestic duties. 
The children are playing in the streets ; 
the industrious are buying and selling in the 
bazaars; and the idle, if poor, are lolling 
against the street walls, or, if rich, smoking 
pipes and drinking coffee in the coffee- 
shops. Here and there a carriage, full of 
gaily-dressed Frank ladies, preceded by an 
out-runner, dashes by, in the avenue cleared 



AND THE NILES. 15 

for it by the Nubian's thick-lashed whip. 
Here a troop of soldiers, dressed in white, 
march past, to the beat of a drum, which 
sounds as if it were broken ; and with the 
accompaniment of a fife, like a penny whistle, 
played grievously out of tune ; while in 
another quarter janissaries, in their hideous 
costume, and armed with cracked pistols, 
hustle the people out of their way, as 
they walk up and down. Every place is 
full of people, all trying who can do the 
least, and kill time in the easiest manner ; 
though occasionally, at rare intervals, some 
young English clerk may be seen bustling 
along, with his head full of business, quite 
indifferent to the scene around. He is a 
new-comer, animated by our national activity, 
and it will take some months to make 
him walk, and smoke, and loiter like one 
thoroughly acclimated. 

In the way back to our quarters, we 



1 6 KHARTOUM 

passed the Mahmoudieh Canal, which con- 
nects Alexandria with the Nile. This is 
one of the vast works of Mehemet Ali, and 
the one, perhaps, in which he most signally 
displayed his indifference to human suffer- 
ing, and recklessness of human life. It 
is said that 30,000 men were carried off 
by hunger and disease in the prosecution 
of this gigantic undertaking — a fact which 
almost makes one forget its great utility. 

Here we saw many boats, but though they 
appeared sufficiently commodious, they were 
generally very large, and we determined to wait 
till we reached Cairo to select there the kind 
which we required, to ascend the first cataract. 

The thermometer being at 103°, the heat 
was very oppressive; we were therefore 
anxious to get away as soon as possible, 
leaving the remainder of the Alexandrian 
lions till our return. Accordingly, we 
made interest with the Overland Transit 



AND THE NILES. 17 

Administration, who kindly entered into an 
arrangement for providing a steamer to 
convey us up to Cairo. 

Before we started, I was initiated into the 
art of smoking. We went to call on a 
merchant, who received us in a room fur- 
nished all round with divans — low sofas 
piled with cushions ; and on our entrance, 
three servants at once presented us with 
our first pipe of Latakia. 1 found it 
more agreeable than I had expected, though 
— perhaps on the principle that practice 
makes perfect — not so pleasant as many I 
smoked subsequently. After this, little coffee- 
cups, holding about two spoonsfull, came 
on. The cups were mounted in silver 
filagree ; the coffee made thick, and was 
extremely fragrant. ' I have never tasted 
any equal to what is made in Egypt, though 
I am convinced it might be had, if we took 
as much trouble to prepare it. The Ori- 

vol. i. c 



1 8 KHARTOUM 

entals only roast the coffee when it is 
actually wanted, and then put it, ground 
rather coarse, in boiling-water in a little 
pot, containing just the quantity wanted. 
The moment it rises, it is ready, and 
must be instantly drunk. 

The custom of smoking, and coffee- 
drinking, is universal here, even amongst 
the poorest Arabs, and you often see a 
peasant, arrayed in rags, smoking out of a 
chibouque, the mouth-piece of which is 
worth at least two or three pounds. It 
is often an hereditary pipe, handed down 
as an heir-loom. 



AND THE NILES. 19 



CHAPTER II. 

Up the Canal — Arab boats — Shoal of swimmers — 
Beautiful mirage — Egyptian tillage — Atfeh — The 
lock— The Nile. 

The wind was blowing strongly from the 
south on the day we left Alexandria. Thus 
we were at once to be exposed to all the 
hardships of Eastern travelling, beginning the 
day with the sirocco, followed by the worst 
night we ever had in Egypt. At an early 
hour we quitted our hotel, and leaving our 
baggage to come on in an omnibus, proceeded 
in cars past Pompey's Pillar to the canal, 

c 2 



20 KHARTOUM 

where we discovered the small steamer which 
was to convey us to Cairo. We at once 
proceeded on board, and found more than 
a dozen other passengers assembled, in- 
cluding several Jewesses, and the Indian 
officers and their ladies who had accom- 
panied us from Trieste. A few minutes 
afterwards we heard with surprise, and with 
some degree of pleasure, the familiar direction 
to " go a-head." Soon our ears caught the 
corresponding cries of " stop her," " ease 
her," we therefore made no doubt that the 
engineer was an Englishman ; but, -on inquiry, 
he proved to be a black slave, whose whole 
stock of English was summed up in these 
words. An Arab, anything but prepossess- 
ing in appearance, was stationed in the prow, 
and kept up an interchange of abuse, for- 
tunately in his native tongue, with all the 
trading boats, which seemed to make it their 
aim to offer us every interruption;- and 



AND THE NILES. 21 

certainly it was not their fault that they 
were unsuccessful. 

We saw some pretty villas, though, for 
the most part, the passage on the canal was 
in the highest degree monotonous. Its 
tedium was relieved, however, from time 
to time hy our watching the troops of 
children, of all ages, who sprang into the 
water as our boat approached, and followed 
us for some distance, gamboling alongside 
like a swarm of porpoises. Indeed, water 
seems almost the natural element of the 
Egyptian ; and it was most amusing, when 
the wind fell, to see the crews of sailing 
vessels jump into the stream, headed by a 
man with a rope in his mouth, and swim 
ashore, where they towed away till, turning 
some sweep, the white lateen sail again 
caught the breeze, when they all returned 
on board. They swim well, but not in 
the European manner, for they use only 



22 KHARTOUM 

one hand at a time, which, though more 
expeditious, is much more fatiguing. 

When ahout ten miles from Alexandria, 
we came on a rare, and, to strangers, most 
novel spectacle. It was the Egyptian mi- 
rage ; and the illusion was so perfect, that 
for some time, I could not be persuaded 
that what I saw with such distinctness was 
not real. The vast plain of sand, stretching 
far into the distance, assumed the appearance 
of a boundless lake, smooth and serene as 
glass ; the trees bordering the Desert, became 
capes and headlands, washed by the tranquil 
waters, and the white towers of the Suez 
telegraph, far in the background, were 
transformed into a fleet of ships. The 
scene held us spell-bound, and it w T as with 
a strong feeling of disappointment that we 
saw it vanish. 

I have already mentioned that a sirocco 
was blowing ; and though we had a thick 



AND THE NILES. 23 

awning overhead, the heat was intense, 
rendering the steamer a floating furnace. 
At last, we were fairly driven from the deck, 
and took refuge in a small, close cabin, 
where, with every contrivance our ingenuity 
could suggest, we were unable to obtain a 
breath of air. In this situation, it was a 
relief to learn that we were approaching 
Atfeh, the point at which we should quit the 
canal, and be launched on the waters of the 
Nile. 

Atfeh is a large village, composed of miser- 
able mud huts, about six feet high, sur- 
rounded by pigeon-houses ; for everybody 
seems to keep pigeons. We landed for a 
short time, and walked through the place, 
which we found inhabited by the lower class 
of Arabs, and dreadfully infested by dogs. 
What particularly struck us, was the ugli- 
ness, if I may be allowed so harsh a word, of 
the Arab women ; yet we found, as we 



24 KHARTOUM 

proceeded further, that it could be even more 
striking — in the lowest depth, a lower still. 
The children suggested the idea of a plague 
of locusts, they were so numerous ; and, 
as if clothing was considered a superfluity 
in such a climate, were all perfectly naked. 
And here I may remark, that in the villages 
we visited, we found the inhabitants were 
all either very young, or elderly ; there were 
no persons of middle age ; and it can scarcely 
be conceived what a strange hiatus the absence 
of this link created. 

Returning on board, our steamer entered 
the lock, and as the water poured in, gra- 
dually rose to the required level, when the 
flood-gates were opened, and we floated on 
the Nile. 

This was only an arm of the river, here 
scarcely broader than the Thames at Putney, 
and muddier than ever was Thames at 
Blackfriars. Yet how can I describe the 



AND THE NILES. 25 

feelings it awoke in us ? or how eager and 
earnest was our first glance at its waters ? 

From the earliest antiquity, the Nile 
has been everything to Egypt, and, though 
no longer held in such high veneration, it 
is still her nurse and mother. But for 
the Nile, her soil would be barren ; her 
rich valleys, a desert; her interior inac- 
cessible. It is the Nile that fertilizes her 
fields and pastures ; the Nile that opens a 
highway to her remotest villages. 

It was, no doubt, for these reasons, 
that their great river was associated by the 
ancient Egyptians with everything they held 
sacred. On its waters they performed 
their solemn pilgrimages; celebrated their 
festivals and triumphs ; and when life was 
extinct, the bodies of the dead were ferried 
over to their final resting-place. No wonder 
that they regarded it with superstitious 



26 KHARTOUM 

reverence — that they loved it as a benefactor 
and worshipped it as a god. 

Of course, till this moment, we held as 
an article of faith that the Nile annually 
overflowed its banks, and inundated the 
whole country ; we found, however, that this 
was a vulgar error, as the river was now 
at its highest elevation, yet remained within 
bounds. Indeed, the natural level of the 
country is almost everywhere nearly two 
feet above the reach of the w T ater, and 
where this is not the case, artificial banks 
have been raised, which effectually confine 
the river, while sluices supply the means 
of irrigation. We saw this attained by 
other means as w T e proceeded, — the water 
being drawn up in earthenware jars, secured 
round large wheels, turned by oxen or 
camels ; and each jar, as it came up full, was 
emptied into a large trough, w T hich poured 



AND THE NILES. 27 

its contents in moderate quantities over a 
portion of soil. This machine is called a 
sakiea. Another plan is to place a pole 
between two mud pillars, with a weight at 
one end, and a goat-skin bucket attached by 
a rope to the other. A man pulls the rope 
down till the bucket is filled with water, 
when the weight brings it up again, and 
he overturns it into little dykes, which, 
emptying themselves into sluices, are gradually 
discharged on the land. Four men are 
required day and night to work one of these 
shadoofs, and two or three are generally seen 
asleep, or smoking, while another is hard 
at work. There is a similar contrivance 
every forty or fifty yards, and thus the coun- 
try is profusely w r atered. 

We had gone but a short distance, when 
we came in view of a most charming scene, 
and in the midst rose the little village of 
Foua, composed of only a few mud huts, 



28 KHARTOUM 

which, however, in this spot looked exceed- 
ingly picturesque. A beautiful Egyptian 
sunset shed its glories around, gleaming 
like gold on the tall palm trees, w T hile 
the minarets of the mosque, white as snow, 
stood strongly out on the dark blue sky. 
Flocks of pigeons careered to and fro over- 
head, or alighted on the glaring pigeon- 
house ; and before us flowed the Nile, 
in her calmest mood, giving a look of 
completeness and repose to the picture. 
It came opportunely to compensate us for 
our hitherto monotonous passage, and 
our eyes were unwilling to withdraw from 
it, for we now began to find that 
the sketches of Roberts were not altoge- 
ther imaginative, and that we could recog- 
nise some of the places pourtrayed by his 
pencil. 

This little oasis was succeeded by a flat, 
uninteresting country, overgrown with reeds, 



AND THE NILES. 29 

and by extensive marshes, which abounded 
with various species of birds ; I noticed, 
among others, plovers, pigeons, gray 
crows, variegated king-fishers, and huge 
hawks. Soon afterwards we discovered two 
beautiful gazelles, which stood looking at our 
little vessel for a moment, as if lost in amaze- 
ment, and then flew with the swiftness of 
light across the plain. Nothing could exceed 
the grace and nimbleness of their move- 
ments, and we watched their progress with 
the greatest interest. They are, I learnt, 
seldom found so low down the river, though 
met with in great numbers up the 
country. 

We were much amused by seeing a 
herd of buffaloes swimming for one of 
the numerous islands. They were in charge 
of several men, who sat on the hindmost 
of the drove, controlling the movements of 
the rest. It was, however, no easy task to 



30 KHARTOUM 

keep them in order, and the men had fre- 
quently to jump from one buffalo to another, 
at the imminent risk of a ducking, to reach 
some unruly beast which would not be re- 
strained by moral influence. I was surprised 
to see that these animals swam almost entirely 
under water, only their heads being visible ; 
yet they are always drawn with the whole 
back above the surface. Such are the tricks 
of artists ! 

It was now time to think of how we were 
to pass the night, and, with our limited 
accommodations, this became a very grave 
question. The Jewesses had taken posses- 
sion of the ladies' cabin, and with their in- 
herent predilection for garlic, and other 
national peculiarities, possession on their 
part was tantamount to an exclusion of the 
English ladies. After a consultation, how- 
ever, it w^as determined to dispatch an em- 
bassy to the fair Hebrews, to see if it were 



AND THE NILES. 31 

possible to effect some arrangement as to 
windows, so as to secure a circulation of 
air ; but, of course, the mission proved 
abortive. We were now in a dilemma, and 
it required all our ingenuity and gallantry 
to suggest a means of relief. At length, 
it was resolved that the Jewesses should 
be left undisturbed, and that the whole of 
the representatives of Christendom, num- 
bering some twenty persons, should pack 
in the gentlemen's cabin — a little close 
place, which gave an admirable idea of the 
black-hole of Calcutta. 

Now Greek met Greek, and English good- 
humour and good-nature came out in the 
most favourable colours. Here lay a captain 
of the Indian army, a most agreeable fellow ; 
but, in our restricted space, about a foot too 
long, being of the unconscionable stature of 
six feet two. His head rested on a sofa, and 
his feet on the table, in a very comfortable- 



32 KHARTOUM 

looking slant. In another corner, a Scotch 
lieutenant arranged some cushions for his 
bride, whose wedding trip was by the Over- 
land Mail ; and good care he seemed to take 
of her, though he took much more of him- 
self. My party disposed themselves as they 
best could. For my own part, I made a 
good pillow of a carpet-bag, and went off 
to sleep with as little delay as possible. 

Morning found us very early on deck, in 
a tolerably dirty condition, from the steam 
and soot which had poured through the open 
windows, and with very narrow resources 
for amending the same. Indeed, a reso- 
lution seemed to have been tacitly adopted, 
that henceforth every one was to eschew T 
razors, and moustachios and beards were 
to be allowed to develop themselves in the 
wildest luxuriance. 

On looking round, we found the country 
much improved, and could well imagine it a 



AND THE NILES. 33 

land of perpetual plenty. The richly-culti- 
vated plain, scarcely two feet above the level 
of the river, was a perfect garden of wheat, 
sugar-canes, beans, and lentils. Hundreds of 
men were baling water with shadoofs, which 
discharged themselves over the fields, while 
milk-white oxen, worthy successors of Pha- 
raoh's flit kine, walked round and round 
in little sheds, turning the creaking sakiea. 
It was indeed a scene such as only Egypt 
could furnish. 

After breakfast, we came in sight of the 
Pyramids, which loomed out of the horizon 
like huge mountains. They were still an im- 
mense way off, and we were able to form some 
notion of their real height, when, though 
standing on a plain of sand, they assumed 
at a distance such gigantic proportions. 
From the moment they became visible, we 
could talk of nothing else ; and every one 
looked with impatience for the time when 

VOL. I. D 



34 KHARTOUM 

he should stand at the foot of these Alps 
of art, and be able to inspect them closely. 
Even the Jewesses were in raptures, — 
perhaps they went back in their minds to 
that dark period when " the officers of the 
children of Israel, which Pharaoh's task- 
masters had set over them, were beaten, 
and demanded, wherefore have you not 
fulfilled your task in making brick as 
heretofore ?" 

Early in the afternoon, we reached Bou]ac, 
the Wapping of Cairo, having accomplished 
the passage from Alexandria in about thirty 
hours. We landed amidst the greatest 
hubbub imaginable — as if all the population 
had turned out to receive us. With some 
difficulty we made our way through the 
crowd, — which had assembled to witness 
the arrival of the boat, and conducted our 
ladies to a perfect London omnibus that we 
found standing in readiness. We then saw 



AND THE NILES. 35 

our luggage hoisted on camels, which bore 
our enormous packages, some weighing a 
thousand pounds, with the greatest ease ; 
but we were afterwards less astonished at 
this, when we beheld a porter walk nimbly 
up a flight of stairs with a box weighing 
three hundred weight, supported solely on 
his back, by a cord round his forehead. 

All being ready, we joined the ladies in 
the omnibus, which was dragged off by 
four miserable Arab horses ; and we soon 
found ourselves in comfortable quarters at 
the Hotel de l'Europe. • 



D 2 



36 KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER III. 

Cairo — Description of the inhabitants— Treatment 
of women — Adventure of an Arab boy — Encounter 
with a native lady— Courtship and marriage in 
the East — Taking home the bride. 

Alexandria had enabled us to form a 
conception of what we should see at Cairo ; 
but, in some respects, we found Cairo essen- 
tially different. What first struck me, was 
the variety of race and caste distinctly 
marked in the inhabitants, and the conse- 
quent diversity of costume, producing an 



AND THE NILES. 37 

effect highly picturesque. Three-fourths of 
the population are Arabs, and these are 
divided into two classes — rich and poor, or 
traders and working-men. The latter are fine, 
well-made fellows, and being generally about 
six feet high, with noble foreheads, and dark 
eyes, would present an imposing appearance, 
were it not marred by a bad expression of 
countenance. They have been denounced as 
excessively dirty, but I must confess, that, 
on a pretty close view, I saw nothing to 
create such an impression. Nor did I 
observe among them so many cases of 
blindness and ophthalmia as I had been led 
to expect — though these diseases certainly 
are more prevalent here than in Europe. 
In other points, however, I found the 
labouring class in a much better position 
— healthier and better fed, than the poor 
in our large towns; and I have seen more 
squalor and wretchedness in fhe back streets 



38 KHARTOUM 

of Liverpool than among the very dregs of 
the people of Egypt. 

The dress of the poorer sort of Arabs 
is generally a blouse of brown cloth, or 
blue calico, sometimes it consists solely of 
a piece of cloth thrown with something of 
a classic grace over the whole person ; and 
a tarboosh, or Greek cap, which, wrapped 
round with a roll of white calico — a fashion 
much discouraged by the Pasha, as injurious 
to health — becomes a turban. Their wives 
wear a long robe, also of blue calico, a 
square of the same material thrown over 
the head; and a strip of white or black 
cotton, secured across the nose by a brass 
clasp, covering the whole face, except the 
eyes — the only attraction they have to 
display. None but the very poorest and 
— since the dreadful truth must be told ! 
— the very plainest, have their faces un- 
covered in the streets; hence it is fair to 



AND THE NILES. 39 

presume that these are the ugliest of their 
sex. Indeed, though it may seem in- 
excusable to speak of the Arab women 
with so little gallantry, I believe that they 
might all show their faces without exciting 
the least sensation. Their complexions are 
very bad ; and, when married, they are 
tattooed over the chin, and their eyes, 
though fine, are insufficient to light up 
features utterly vacant. They seem to be 
regarded with consideration by their 
husbands, and are treated with' great 
politeness by the Arab donkey-boys, and 
others of the male sex, with whom they 
come in contact in the streets. 

The next class are the shop-keepers and 
native merchants, who dress much better, 
wealing wide Turkish trousers, of white 
cotton or cloth, richly braided; a jacket of 
the same colour, covered with braid ; satin 
waistcoat, and red pointed shoes. Their 



40 KHARTOUM 

favourite colours are black, blue, and cho- 
colate, though many adopt a mixture of 
all. In this class, besides the richer Arabs, 
must be included Greeks, Armenians, Copts, 
and Jews. The Jews are marked by a 
slight difference in their costume, having 
the trousers much longer, and wearing heavy 
turbans, made of muslin and gold thread. 
Some of their dresses are very handsome, 
and all are exceedingly expensive — the price 
of a common suit of cloth, including gaiters, 
which, in wet or dirty weather, entirely 
cover the stockings, being about eight 
pounds. Of course, it is easy to increase 
this to thirty or fifty pounds, and even 
the last-named sum does not include the 
magnificent turban and belt, and richly- 
ornamented sword. In this superb attire, 
the rich citizen presents himself in public, 
riding a donkey — a steed which may be 
thought very ill-adapted to such an equip- 



AND THE NILES. 41 

ment, though here it does not present the 
sony appearance that might be supposed. 

The wives of these bourgeois are costly 
articles, and their apparel often amounts 
to a little fortune. A large, very full dress, 
slightly fastened at the waist, and commonly 
made of shot silk, ranging over such bright 
tints as red, yellow, orange, blue, and lilac, 
falls over wide silk trousers, fitting on yellow 
boots, like demi-Wellingtons, which are 
thrust into thick-soled clogs of the same 
colour. Over all this, from head to heel, 
comes a sort of capacious cloak, of black 
silk ; and a rich lace veil completely covers 
the face and neck. Such a heap of clothes 
naturally forms itself into a bundle ; and 
it is no exaggeration to say that one of 
these ladies, when in proper walking costume, 
takes the street to herself, filling up the 
passage from w T all to wall. 

The highest class of native inhabitants 



42 KHARTOUM 

embraces the Beys and Pashas, or nobility. 
These personages dress something in the 
European manner, with frock coats buttoned 
up the front, decorated with a star or 
crescent of diamonds, which, by their de- 
grees of splendour, denote the rank or 
office of the wearer. Their wives are 
never seen in public, and a glimpse of 
them can only be caught by great alertness, 
when they are taken out, with an ostentatious 
cracking of whips, in a large close carriage, 
emblazoned with gold or silver, and so 
jealously guarded and curtained that even 
the air can scarcely reach them. 

The vehicle is drawn by four horses, 
driven at full speed, and preceded by a 
Nubian outrunner, whose long whip secures 
it a clear passage. The adroit observer 
may then distinguish, through the half- 
screened windows, certain piles of silk and 
muslin, and a few pairs of eyes ; this 



AND THE NILES. 43 

is all that appears of the lights of the 
harem. 
* The Nubian outrunners exercise their 
vocation in a very merciless way ; however, 
with equal surprise and pleasure, I saw one 
thwarted in his vindictive purposes, in a 
manner that I cannot but record. An 
Arab boy, with the mischievous propensities 
of his age, had scrambled up behind the 
carriage of Ali Bey, a son of Ibrahim 
Pasha's, when proceeding through one of the 
streets of Cairo ; but being perceived by the 
Nubian, sprang down again, and made off. 
This, however, did not satisfy the out- 
runner, who instantly dashed after him, his 
face distorted with rage, leaving no doubt 
that he intended to inflict a most severe 
chastisement. The poor little urchin ran 
for his life ; at least one blow of the Nubian's 
whip, wielded by such a muscular arm, must 
certainly have crippled him. So desperate 



44 KHARTOUM 

were his efforts to escape, now darting up the 
street, and then wheeling round and round, 
that the chase became quite exciting, causing * 
every one to stop and look on, though only 
one dared to interpose. Just as the boy was 
sinking from exhaustion, a Turkish lady drew 
him towards her, and threw her robe over 
him. Oriental chivalry forbade the Nubian 
to advance ; after a few moments' hesitation, 
he turned sullenly away, and the boy was set 
at liberty. Thus, the ministering gentleness 
of woman everywhere makes itself apparent, 
and her influence is felt and acknowledged. 

Egyptian ladies of rank, as I have already 
remarked, are seldom seen in the street ; but 
soon after the adventure here described, it 
was my good fortune to encounter another. 
I was alone in a narrow street, on my way 
to the Consulate, when I saw a heap of 
female attire coming towards me, taking up, 
as usual, the whole passage. My dismay 



AND THE NILES. 45 

may be conceived, as I looked around in vain 
for some recess, where I might instal my 
poor proportions till the pile had passed by. 
I was on the verge of despair, when the lady, 
possibly in endeavouring to squeeze herself 
into a smaller space, put her foot on her 
veil, which instantly brought it down, dis- 
closing a face of the most perfect beauty, a 
brilliant complexion, and dazzling eves, at 
this moment lit up by a smile. As she 
picked up her veil, I caught a glimpse, 
through her half-open domino, of a red silk 
dress, tied with a blue sash, white satin 
trowsers, and red boots. She was evidently 
of high rank, and if so, could only have 
got out alone in some clandestine manner. 

The cruel seclusion in which the sex are 
kept by the Turks and Egyptians, commences 
with infancy, and is preserved till death. This 
makes an Eastern courtship and marriage as 
matter-of-fact an affair as can well be imag- 



46 KHARTOUM 

ined. As women are never seen by any of 
the opposite sex but their husbands — not 
even by their cousins or brothers, except in 
the streets, when it would be a gross breach 
of decorum to address them — a gentleman 
who wishes for a spouse, having no oppor- 
tunity of choosing for himself, is obliged to 
communicate the circumstance to his mother, 
and this worthy matron, who in all pro- 
bability has previously well considered the 
subject, soon indicates one whom she con- 
siders suitable. The candidate for matri- 
mony then requires a list of the lady's good 
qualities and attractions, which, of course, are 
in every case of the most unexceptionable 
kind ; and when he has made up his mind, 
he waits on the lady's father, and makes his 
proposals. These are to pay down a certain 
sum, varying from £1000 to £20,000, not 
as a settlement on the wife, but as compen- 
sation to the father, wives being always pur- 



AND THE MLES. 47 

chased here. A part, however, of this money 
is laid by as a provision for the wife, in case 
of her being divorced ; and, as the husband 
would then have to refund this, it serves to 
strengthen the bonds of matrimony in a 
surprising manner. All being arranged, the 
father, suitor, and friends repair — without the 
lady — to a mosque, where they celebrate 
the marriage, which is little more than a 
simple question and answer. The ques- 
tion is put to the father by the bride- 
groom, who asks, " Will you give me your 
daughter to be my slave ? " The reply is 
equally to the point, " My daughter is your 
slave." 

Some days now elapse, when the bride- 
groom, accompanied by his friends, proceeds 
to the house of his father-in-law, and brings 
away the bride, who is placed, completely 
veiled, in a palanquin, which is covered by 
a canopy, borne by the bridesmaids, who are 



48 KHARTOUM 

under the direction of the bridegroom's 
mother. The palanquin is preceded by a 
grand procession, composed of the bride- 
groom and his friends, a company of sol- 
diers, and two or three camels, carrying 
young children ; and the whole are marshalled 
forward by a band of music. Tn this way 
they traverse the town, and at length reach 
the bridegroom's residence, where the bride 
is conducted by him, with great ceremony, to 
the apartments prepared for her. He then 
offers her some magnificent presents, which 
she receives in silence ; and his mother and 
the other matrons, who are standing round, 
politely recommend him to go and pray. 
On his return from the mosque, he repairs 
to the apartment where he left his bride, and 
finds her alone. 

He has not seen her face, or heard her 
speak, and a thousand anticipations of her 
beauty flash across his mind. What if 



AND THE NILES. 49 

these should disappointed ? if her charms 
should be only imaginary, and her loveliness 
an invention of his mother's? With eager 
steps he approaches her., and throwing off 
her veil, for the first time beholds his bride ! 
As I was not present at this interesting 
moment, it cannot be expected that I should 
be able to state what the gentleman said. 
As a conscientious traveller, I feel myself 
obliged to have recourse to that extremely 
original phrase — the scene may be more 
easily imagined than described. 



VOL. I. 



50 KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER IV. 

The water-carriers of Cairo — An Egyptian bath — 
The bazaars — Turkish gallantry — Shopping in the 
East— The slave market — The Court of the Cadis 
— Turkish justice. 

The water-carriers of Cairo, who rejoice 
in the not very flattering appellation of 
beasties, form a large section of the popu- 
lation, there being one attached to every 
house. An abundance of water, everywhere 
so desirable, is here an absolute necessary, 
and, at the same time, is made the means of 



AND THE NILES. 61 

the most luxuriant enjoyment. Who has 
not heard of the cool fountains of the East, 
and of the value which is set upon them by 
Oriental nations ? Those of Cairo, with the 
ever-flowing Nile, furnish a lavish supply 
of the precious element, which is carried in 
the goat-skin buckets of the beasties to 
every house, and poured in floods into the 
baths. 

The baths are a feature in Eastern life, 
with which every European is impatient 
to be acquainted, and I had been but a 
short time in Cairo, ere I made my way 
to one — not, I must confess, without some 
dread of the severe handling of the attend- 
ants for which I had been warned to prepare. 
On entering, I found myself in a large 
octagonal room, encircled by a raised divan, 
several feet wide, and covered with matting. 
Here I resigned myself to a valet, who, after 
fulfilling the duties of his office, conducted 

e 2 



52 KHARTOUM 

me into a narrow passage of white marble, 
having a stream of tepid water, about an 
inch deep, running through it, leading to a 
small room, where the water, now quite 
warm, covered my feet, and ran over a 
marble slab on which I sat, enveloping me 
in vapour. I was then taken along another 
marble passage, where the water was warmer, 
into a second room, where it was still hotter, 
and so, through another passage and another 
room, in which the temperature gradually 
increased, to a large marble chamber, where 
the water was very hot, forming a complete 
vapour bath. This prepared me for the 
Arcanum, a room about nine feet square, as 
hot as a furnace, where the water, at scalding 
heat, was continually running over the floor, 
which sloped downwards, and was very 
slippery. There I was rubbed with a horse- 
hair glove, then plunged into a bath of the 
hissing water, about five feet deep, and, 



AND THE NILES. 53 

being dragged out, was well soaped and 
scrubbed, drenched with cold water, turned 
on my back, and treated in the most 
violent manner. This process was followed 
by a second immersion, when I was again 
pulled out, and shaved — a difficult operation 
in a dark room, filled with steam ; but which 
was happily accomplished, and all traces of 
it effaced by a third and final plunge in the 
bath which completed the course. 

I had yet to undergo the severe operation 
of shampooing, for which I was led back 
through the various passages, with the 
graduated scale of water-heat, to the oc- 
tagonal room, where beds had been laid out, 
and eveiy other preparation made. Reclin- 
ing on one of the beds, I gave myself up to 
the Philistines, and was shampooed till I 
seemed almost at the last gasp, when, to my 
great relief, I learnt that all was over. 
Coffee and pipes were then brought, and, 



54 KHARTOUM 

under their soothing influence, I began 
slowly but steadily to recover. Two shil- 
lings was the charge for this luxury, which 
was certainly most agreeable in its effects, 
but must be very enervating if used fre- 
quently. 

The bazaars of Cairo constitute one of 
the attractions of the city. A rather wide 
street, to the left of the Hotel de FEurope, 
leads to the European bazaar, which is, 
in fact, nothing but a succession of small 
and miserable shops, where every English 
luxury is sold, and, considering the distance 
they have travelled, at not very exorbitant 
prices. This is succeeded by a new street, 
the haunt of usurers and money-changers, 
conspicuous among whom stand the sons 
of Judah ; who may be seen, with not a few 
Arab millionnaires, sitting at their well-worn 
desks, with a large Milner's safe open behind 
them, their features impressed with that 



AND THE NILES. 55 

peculiar look of cunning, and sharpness, 
which stamps the Shy lock * Hence you 
immediately emerge on a more crowded 
thoroughfare, and here, at last, a Babel of 
contending voices, and a scene of bustle, 
baffling description, announce the native Arab 
bazaar. 

The street, nowhere more than ten feet 
wide, is thronged in every part, and the 
purchasers bargaining at the shops, are 
unceremoniously jostled by donkeys, which 
are continually passing, laden with flour, 
sand, and water, giving the idea of a 
Lilliputian market, while every now and 
then they are pushed aside by a cart, drawn 
by a buffalo, and loaded with sumptuous 
furniture, plate, or china, which the Pasha is 
removing, under an escort of soldiers, from 
one palace to another. On one occasion I 
was much surprised at the indifference with 
which the guards saw a piece of gilding 



56 KHARTOUM 

chipped off a magnificent looking-glass as the 
cart moved clumsily by, crashing against a 
massive archway. 

The whole of the people are in the 
street, as the shops, which are more like 
little cages, can hold only the proprietor, 
who sits on a floor, four feet from the 
ground, from which he can put his hand 
on all his commodities, ranged in a small 
chamber behind. These consist chiefly of 
the produce and manufactures of the country, 
such as pipe mouth-pieces, and tobacco, 
corn, fruit, and every species of grain, Arab 
cotton fabrics, and abundance of hardware 
and shoes. A savoury odour calls your 
attention to a shop, where a quantity of 
little pieces of meat, pinned through by a 
wire, are roasting at innumerable charcoal 
fires. They are just a mouthful, and such 
a mouthful ! the toughest beefsteak ever 
cooked being tender to these kabobs. Yet 



AND THE NILES. 57 

the people eat them, with the coarse bread 
bought at a neighbouring floor, with 
wonderful relish ; washing all down with 
water, which they buy for the tenth of a 
penny of the water-carrier, who walks past 
calling out " moira ! moira !" After this 
plain breakfast, they adjourn to the coffee- 
shop, and regale themselves with the never- 
forgotten pipe, and a cup of pure and 
fragrant Mocha, undefiled by chicory, and 
pleasant in taste as in smell. 

As the stranger advances, a different 
scene meets his eye. He has escaped from 
the throng, and only two or three rich 
natives, mounted on gorgeously -housed 
donkeys, are in the street, or a few Turkish 
ladies, closely veiled, each attended by two 
of the watchful ogres of the hareem. The 
richly-carpeted shops are enclosed in front 
by a divan, and an old Turk or wealthy 
Arab sits in the midst, smoking a handsome 



58 KHARTOUM 

silver or gold narghileh, and complacently 
looking round on his wares, which consist 
of Parisian jewellery, splendidly-mounted 
pipes, mouth-pieces of lemon-amher, worth 
almost their weight in gold, rich silks from 
China, muslins from India, swords from 
Damascus, and costly hilts from Con- 
stantinople. A chain runs across the street 
in some places, and it becomes necessary to 
dismount from the donkey and walk. 
Strangers attract little attention, and T 
walked about here alone without exciting 
any observation; but when accompanied by 
an English lady, she became the centre of 
all eyes, and I have no doubt the old 
Turks were much shocked at such a public 
exhibition of an unveiled lady, though I 
overheard them likening her to a beautiful 
full moon, and making other nattering 
remarks on her charms. 

But though not stared at, the moment I 



AND THE NILES. 59 

accosted any of the merchants, they replied 
to me in the kindest manner, and I was 
invited to sit on the divan, and smoke the 
hest pipe, whilst gold filigree coffee-cups 
were dispatched for the thickest coffee, which 
made its appearance in the most compli- 
mentary quantities. My hosts did not talk 
much, and were very laconic in their replies 
to my questions as to the state of the nation. 
They inquired after our ladies, but had I 
made any such inquiry of them, they would 
have deemed it an unpardonable liberty. 
They were, however, very communicative 
about their children, and, from what I could 
learn, they all had a beautiful daughter at 
home. I went sometimes with the drago- 
man, and sometimes alone, when, indeed, I 
was best received, though I could only 
converse by signs, and this amused them 
much. But I soon picked up a few words, 
particularly " taib," good, which I told an 



60 KHARTOUM 

old Turk was the only word wanted there, 
as all was " taib." He immediately set to 
work unlocking case after case for my 
amusement, displaying, among other precious 
things, some very rare slippers, which I was 
afterwards assured were worn by ladies in 
bed. They were one mass of pearls, and 
cost about £40 a pair. I was shown hand- 
kerchiefs of the Parisian open work, in every 
stitch of which was a pearl, rendering the 
article entirely useless ; and mouth-pieces of 
amber were produced, varying in price from 
£100 to £150, the value being thus raised 
by diamonds, mounted in the gold rings 
between the joints. 

I was never tired of this old man, and 
I saw him very often. He always ad- 
dressed me as the " Cavaghi," a word 
which I had at first half suspected to mean 
" dog of a Christian," but was subsequently 
persuaded, meant " Illustrious Stranger." 



AND THE NILES. 61 

He never seemed to expect me to buy 
anything — which indeed I never did, being 
content to see this done by others. A lady, 
very richly dressed, came to him one day, 
and negotiated for a pair of pearl slippers. 
She began by talking of all sorts of things, 
and then offered about one third of the 
price named. The Turk turned to me, 
and a long smoke ensued, when he came 
down a fourth, and she came up, after 
another interval, to within about six pounds 
of his last offer, and then she went off 
with the slippers, having stood the best 
part of an hour. While the negociation 
was in progress, I offered her my seat; 
but she did not seem to have the least 
idea of what I meant, and stared at 
me with her beautiful but expressionless 
eyes, as if she thought me extremely 
restless. 

Lower down are numerous streets, com- 



62 KHARTOUM 

posing the Greek bazaar and the guild of the 
shoemakers'. In the former are the Man- 
chester goods ; the latter is a sort of museum 
of red and yellow leather shoes. 

One of the first of the public places in 
Cairo that I visited, was the slave-market. 
It is a small square, the four sides of which 
form a sort of barrack, or lodging-house, for 
the accommodation of the female slaves. The 
males are exposed without, and I found here 
some eight or ten little boys, from six to 
twelve years old, lolling about as they 
pleased. They were a jet black, with very 
glossy faces, and thick hair, matted with 
grease. They had a stolid look, and 
seemed very drowsy, but appeared to be 
well-fed and contented. From them I 
turned to the female slaves, and was intro- 
duced to one who was a beauty in her 
way, though of the negro style, having 
large lips and a reduced nose, but remarkably 



AND THE NILES. 63 

fine eyes, which, however, a tinge of dark 
blue round the lids sadly disfigured. I put 
several questions to her, for the purpose of 
ascertaining how far she was reconciled to 
her condition, and was surprised to find, 
from her replies, that she did not consider 
captivity irksome, preferring Cairo to her own 
country, and having a sanguine expectation 
that she should obtain a good master. One 
of her hopes for the future was, that she 
would be able to procure a good supply 
of grease, to use in the adornment of 
her hair, which was dressed in little plaits, 
having a very peculiar look, but was not 
at all dirty. Her ambition being so humble, 
I could not refrain from gratifying it on 
the spot, and won the life-long gratitude of 
herself and three other young slaves, by 
giving them sufficient money to command 
the largest supply of grease they had ever 
possessed. The price of these girls, I was 



64 KHARTOUM 

informed, was about thirty pounds each, 
but some younger ones were rated at forty 
pounds. The boys ranged from five pounds 
to ten pounds. One point in this melancholy 
exhibition I remarked with pleasure, not the 
less because it was unexpected ; and that was, 
the good understanding that seemed to 
subsist between the slaves and their masters, 
and the care with which the poor creatures 
were treated. 

Our next ramble was to the Court of the 
Cadis, which, from its notorious corruption, 
should be called the court of ^justice. Here 
the scales of justice are turned, not by the 
merits of the cause, but by the weight of the 
bribe ; and witnesses as w T ell a judge must 
be purchased. The judgment-hall includes 
three distinct tribunals, each of which has 
its separate Cadi, and its own particular 
jurisdiction. The Cadis are all appointed by 
the Sultan, at Constantinople, and pay a 



AND THE MILES. 65 

high price for their offices, which invest 
them, in return, with the power of dispensing- 
justice to the highest bidder, and of practising 
the most audacious acts of oppression. 

The Court of the thud Cadi, who tries the 
least important causes, was a large open 
gallery, having a divan at one end, on 
which the reverend functionary was seated, 
while a group of lawyers and scribes sat in 
a semicircle before him. In this space two 
miserable Arabs, who had had a quarrel, 
were arraigning each other with great acri- 
mony, and witnesses were called on both 
sides, who flatly contradicted each other in 
every point — a common occurrence here, 
where a witness may be obtained to swear 
anything for twopence halfpenny. Such 
petty causes are usually decided in a sum- 
mary manner, and the party who has the 
least money, not only loses his cause, but is 
severely bastinadoed into the bargain. 

VOL. I. F 



66 KHARTOUM 

In a large room above, we saw the second 
Cadi, a fine old man, with a long white beard, 
which gave him a very venerable appearance. 
None but great civil causes are tried by this 
court, which consists only of the Cadi, and 
his clerk. We were passing on, when the 
Cadi invited us to stay, and on our complying, 
ordered us coffee. Being accompanied by an 
interpreter, we were able to converse with 
him, which we did for about twenty minutes, 
and found him a strange compound of good 
sense, shrewdness, and simplicity. He was 
very inquisitive about English jurisprudence, 
and would hardly believe that corporal punish- 
ment was not administered in our courts of 
justice, or that there was frequently a long 
interval between the commission and the ex- 
piation of an offence. In the East, a man 
commits a theft, and is tried, convicted, and 
punished within the half-hour. 

Leaving this hospitable magistrate, we 



AND THE NILES. 67 

proceeded to another room, where we found 
the first Cadi, who is the supreme judge of 
the vice-royalty, and tries only very difficult 
causes. He was magnificently dressed, in 
red and gold, and was sitting alone, in great 
state, on a divan of rich silk, where he 
smoked his long pipe in perfect ease. He 
seems to have duties corresponding with 
our Lord Chancellor's, is perfectly inde- 
pendent of the Pasha, and suhject only to the 
Sultan, from whom he derives power, when 
the ends of justice require it, to summon 
the Pasha and all his officers into his court, 
and call them to account. But I have 
already intimated that no one well supplied 
with money need have any misgiving about 
this great functionary. I must record one 
curious instance of this. Mr. P — , the agent 
of a well-known house, had a bill on a native, 
which he wished to recover, but it was neces- 
sary, as a first step, to prove that the bill 

f 2 



68 KHARTOUM 

belonged to him, and, of course, it bore the 
name of the firm. The difficulty seemed 
insurmountable, but a native lawyer suggested 
a resource ; and a shilling being invested in 
witnesses, it was proved in court that Mr. 

p W as the son of the firm ; on which 

the money was ordered to be paid. 



AND THE NILES. 69 



CHAPTER V. 

The Citadel of Cairo — Mosque of Mehemet Ali — 
Moslem Carnival — The College of Dervishes- 
Curious religious ceremony — Presentation to the 
Viceroy — The Nepaulese Ambassador — Visit of 
the ladies to Ibrahim Pasha's hareem. 

On the heights, behind Cairo, rises the 
citadel, commanding a splendid view of the 
city, and of the surrounding country. It 
forms the eastern boundary of Cairo, and 
is strongly fortified and garrisoned. From 
its ramparts, the spectator may survey 



70 KHARTOUM 

all the public buildings, which rear their 
stately minarets and cupolas on every side. 
Chief among these, is a mosque founded 
by Mehemet Ali, and now nearly completed. 
It is an extensive structure of stone, sup- 
ported by twelve massive pillars, formed of 
large pieces of Oriental alabaster, and sur- 
mounted by a lofty and capacious dome, 
and two minarets of great height and beauty. 
A large quadrangle, in the centre of which 
is a covered fountain, of polished alabaster, 
gives a character of solemn quietude to the 
whole. But it is impossible to do justice to 
the grandeur and beauty of the interior of 
the edifice, which, when finished, will exceed 
in magnificence the far-famed mosque of 
St. Sophia. - 

The majestic proportions of the dome, 
empanelled to the very top with blue and 
gold, rise from many rows of stately pillars, 
superbly polished, and gleaming in the 



AND THE NILES. 71 

light like mirrors, while the vast walls and 
floor are of purest marble. The expansive 
ceilings are overlaid with gold, and rich blue 
mosaic, producing a most imposing effect, 
subdued by the chaste elegance of the 
alabaster columns. Hundreds of gilt 
cnains hang down from the roof, to 
which lamps may be attached during 
festivals. 

The structure is in the form of a 
Maltese Cross, and I should suppose the 
interior to be larger than our St. Paul's; 
but as hundreds of men were at work 
there at the time of our visit, I 
could only make a guess at its dimen- 
sions. 

Only three of the mosques are open to the 
inspection of Europeans ; and these have, 
from some circumstance or other, almost lost 
their sacred character in the eyes of the 
natives. One was polluted by Napoleon, 



72 KHARTOUM 

who converted it into a stable, quartering a 
regiment of cavalry in its holiest precincts. 
Another is the mosque of Hassan — a very 
large building, inclosing a square, in the 
centre of which is a magnificent fountain, 
where the devout, carrying out the Moslem 
ritual, may perform their ablutions before 
they enter the place of prayer. Four 
spacious arches surround the quadrangle, 
one of which spans the pulpit, and an- 
other extends itself over the reading- 
desk. 

Our stay at Cairo was enlivened by a 
Moslem festival, which lasted four days. 
It seemed to be a sort of carnival, and 
booths were erected under the trees, the 
coffee-houses were crowded, every one turned 
out in holiday attire, and some of the 
dresses were magnificent. No one could 
be induced to work, and the feasting was 
general and lavish. 



AND THE N1LES. 73 

I witnessed a curious religious ceremony 
at the college of Dervishes. Entering a 
large court-yard, I found hetween twenty 
and thirty persons seated on cane divans, 
smoking pipes, and apparently waiting 
the time appointed for commencing the 
service. A young boy offered me a seat, 
and invited me to take a pipe and some 
coffee; so indiscriminate and spontaneous 
are Eastern hospitality and courtesy, dis- 
played even to strangers, in the most public 
places. After a considerable interval, we 
took off our shoes, and entered a spacious 
hall, rising to a dome of great height, 
and hung round with knives, bucklers, and 
bows. Five Dervishes were seated in a 
circle in the centre, on sheepskins; and 
round the sides of the hall, bear and tiger 
skins were spread for visitors. The Der- 
vishes were now joined by others, and by 
a crowd of devotees, on which they all 



74 KHARTOUM 

began a low and rather monotonous chant, 
though the effect, from the union of so 
many voices, was not inharmonious. The 
Dervishes now numbered thirteen, but the 
devotees, who seemed equally zealous, 
amounted to twenty-four, and were com- 
posed of a captain in the army, a janissary, 
three or four soldiers, several men in rich 
dresses, and a residue of beggars. Gradually 
their tones rose higher, and they marked 
time with a motion of the body, swinging 
gently from side to side. As the chanting 
grew louder, the swinging became more 
violent, till, after an interval of about half 
an hour, they suddenly became silent, and, 
jumping to their feet, threw off their coats 
and waistcoats, and ranged themselves in 
a row, still standing on the sheepskins. The 
singing was now resumed, and the whole 
party began to swing their heads backwards 
and forwards ; at first gently, but gradually 



AND THE NILES. 75 

declining lower and lower both before and 
behind, till their heads almost touched the 
ground each way, at every oscillation. So 
rapid was the motion, that I counted fifty 
declinations in a minute. 

From time to time, the dervishes left 
their places, in regular rotation, and, rushing 
into the circle, incited the devotees to 
accelerate their movements, seizing each 
by the hands, and making him a profound 
bow. Suddenly a dervish darted round, 
and tore from every head its cap or 
turban, which he flung into a heap in 
the middle of the hall. On this two half 
naked negroes started up, and whirled 
furiously round on one toe, keeping their 
arms outstretched, and moving so rapidly, 
that the eye could scarcely follow them. 
In about a quarter of an hour they stopped 
with the same abruptness, but only for 



76 KHARTOUM 

an instant ; they commenced jumping to 
and fro, sometimes rising three feet from 
the ground, and one young dervish, who 
joined in the exhibition, performed feats 
that were worthy of Risley. This ended the 
first act, but so exhausted had the per- 
formers become, that when, after a brief 
interval, the second act commenced, only 
nine came forward ; for the third there were 
only four. As a denouement, one of the 
most zealous of these fanatics, who had 
become excited into a perfect frenzy, en- 
deavoured to kill himself, by dashing his 
head against the wall. Being prevented 
from accomplishing his design, he made a 
rush at me, which it was with some difficulty 
I avoided. All the others, however, seemed 
calm and serious ; and I particularly re- 
marked the grave demeanour of the soldiers, 
whom I observed go home very quietly, 



AND THE NILES. 77 

beguiling the way with their pipes. I then 
left the place, after paying about a shilling 
towards the entertainment. 

We desired, before leaving Cairo, to be 
presented to the Viceroy, Abbas Pacha, 
and thought to have obtained this distinction 
on the occasion of the presentation of the 
Nepaulese Ambassador, who had just arrived 
here at this time, on his return to India. 
Our wish, however, could not be complied 
with, as the Court was held expressly for 
the illustrious envoy, and it would be an 
infringement of etiquette to make it a 
general reception. All we could obtain, 
therefore, through the good offices of Mr. 
Walne, her Majesty's Consul, was permission 
to go in the ambassador's suite, and be 
passive witnesses of the spectacle. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon — an 
early hour for courtiers — we mounted our 
donkeys, and proceeded in full evening 



78 KHARTOUM 

costume to the palace. Here we waited 
for the ambassador's cortege, which soon 
arrived. It was composed of three carriages, 
the first of which, drawn by four horses, 
contained the ambassador and his two 
brothers, with Mr. Walne, the Consul ; and 
the other two, his personal suite, and Major 
Cavanagh, the political agent. We joined 
them on the grand staircase, and, ascending 
a flight of marble steps, passed through two 
or three ante-chambers to the reception-room, 
a large saloon, with a fine, chastely-carved 
ceiling, terminated by a spacious recess, 
raised tw T o steps from the floor. This was 
fitted up with a divan of rich Indian shaw r ls, 
and some state chairs ; which, however, failed 
to give it an imposing or even a furnished 
appearance. The Pasha was seated in a 
chair, dressed in European clothes, and 
wearing a tarboosh. We all took our 
seats on both sides of him, Mr. Walne then 



AND THE NILES. 79 

advanced, and presented the ambassador, his 
brothers, and one English officer ; and the 
ceremonial was completed. 

The striking figure of the Pasha, in his 
state chair, occupied the chief place, giving 
greater effect, by the sober colour of his 
attire, to the sumptuous apparel of the 
ambassador, which consisted of a complete 
suit embroidered with silver lace, trimmed 
with rare sables, and his far-famed turban, 
radiant with precious stones. His two 
brothers stood next, in robes scarcely less 
royal, though of far less value. Four 
Nepaulese nobles w T ere gorgeously attired ; 
and the uniforms of the British officers had 
a particularly handsome appearance. Mr. 
Walne wore the full consular dress, which 
is very rich. And a group of the Pasha's 
ministers and principal officers stood on one 
side, in the usual stately dresses of the 
Egyptian court. 



80 KHARTOUM 

A series of complimentary speeches were 
now interchanged, commencing with one 
from the Nepaulese Ambassador, which was 
repeated by Major Cavanagh to an inter- 
preter, who communicated it to the Pasha; 
and the Pasha's reply went the same round. 
All was in the most flattering strain ; which, 
if we are to put any faith in proverbs, this is 
the practice at all courts, and is most certainly 
the etiquette in the East. 

A more agreeable ceremony followed, 
which was the appearance of eighteen white 
slaves, dressed in extravagant Parisian 
costume, each carrying a splendid pipe, with 
bowl of gilt clay, and sticks embossed with 
gold and silver lace, alternating on red or 
blue silk. The mouth- pieces were of the 
most choice description ; and rich tassels 
hung from the stem. One was presented 
to each person, but I observed that there 
were scarcely two of the same kind, and 



AND THE NILES. 81 

that each above me, was a degree more 
costly ; the choicest remaining with the 
Pasha, who had one about nine feet in 
length, with a mouth-piece of lemon-amber 
held in the highest degree of estimation, 
encircled by a ring of very large diamonds. 
The ambassador's pipe was even more 
valuable than this, and was magnificently 
decorated. 

As soon as we had received our pipes, 
another troop of slaves advanced, bearing 
brazen saucers, on which to rest the bowls 
whilst smoking, to prevent injury to the 
fine matting which covered the floor. A 
third troop, dressed in the same style, 
presented us coffee, the cups decreasing in 
splendour, like the pipes, as the recipients 
were removed from the Pasha. Those of 
the Pasha and ambassador were overlaid 
with diamonds and pearls ; mine was of 
wrought gold. As it contained only half a 
vol. I. u 



82 KHARTOUM 

tea-spoonful, I thought it had been emptied 
by mistake, but 1 found afterwards, when 
I became more familiar with Eastern 
customs, that the presentation of an empty 
cup is a high compliment, while one two- 
thirds full is considered an insult. 

We remained in the divan for about 
twenty minutes, when we all took leave, 
and my party returned to our hotel, very 
much gratified by their reception. 

Our ladies were, of course, excluded from 
this visit to the Pasha, but they were 
admitted to a higher privilege ; and obtained 
access to the late Pasha's hareem. They 
left our hotel about one o'clock, accompanied 
by an Italian lady, who, being in the habit 
of introducing European ladies to these 
imprisoned houris, undertook to be their 
chaperon. A long drive through the narrow 
streets of Cairo brought them to the palace, 
alighting, they crossed a spacious court, filled 



AND THE NILES. 83 

with Nubian slaves, and entered a lofty and 
commodious hall, hung with lamps, and the 
floor covered with fine matting. Here they 
found a number of female slaves, whose 
forms were models of grace, and some with 
features almost beautiful. They were 
dressed in white calico, with wide or full 
trousers, and a Cashmere shawl wrapped 
round them. Passing these, our ladies 
ascended a superb staircase, almost lined 
with slaves, some very fantastically attired ; 
and were met on the landing by a daughter 
of Ibrahim Pasha — a beautiful girl, about 
seventeen years of age, possessing a dazzling 
complexion, and lustrous black eyes. The 
young princess wore a bodice, scarf, and 
trousers of rich green brocaded silk, embroi- 
dered with gold and coloured flowers, with 
priceless slippers covering the tiniest of feet. 
Her long black hair was gathered up on 
one side, and fastened by a brooch ; on the 

G 2 



84 KHARTOUM 

other it was cut short, though hehind it fell 
in long plaits down her neck, and its luxu- 
riance was partially concealed by a turban of 
light green satin, put on very naively, which 
gave an exquisite completeness to her ap- 
pearance. At the summit of the stairs they 
were received by the first wife — the head 
of the hareem — a woman of commanding 
appearance, dressed in black brocaded silk, 
with a very long train. By her they were 
led into a stately room, furnished with silk 
divans, piled with cushions, and — what 
looked strange amongst such Oriental furni- 
ture — two or three tables, the velvet cover- 
ings of which were heavily embroidered with 
gold. Here they were joined by two other 
wives, who, being extremely plain, had pro- 
bably been married from mercenary motives, 
though it is impossible to fix a limit to 
Turkish taste. After a little time, two or 
three sons — of course, only children — were 



AND THE NILES. 85 

introduced; and the company was further 
augmented by ak)ut thirty slaves. The 
wives and their fair visitors now began to 
converse, and, as usual in the East, paid 
each other some nattering compliments. 
The former were very curious in their in- 
quiries respecting a young lady of the party, 
who they were astonished to find that she 
was not yet married, concluding that she 
was at least betrothed, and would shortly be 
claimed by her lover. When undeceived 
on this point, and assured that she was 
perfectly free, they expressed their surprise 
in the most amusing manner. During the 
conversation, a slave presented sweetmeats 
and water, with napkins embroidered with 
gold. A second slave then came forward, 
and kneeling, offered coffee in gold cups. 
Sumptuous pipes were given to some of 
the ladies, but not to our party, who, as 
Europeans, were known not to smoke. 



86 KHARTOUM 

All this time the conversation proceeded, 
and, turning on the subject of dress, was 
maintained with great sprightliness — dresses 
on both sides being very closely examined. 
The entire of the hareem were very ani- 
mated, and seemed perfectly happy and 
contented, as if their imprisonment and 
bondage, so mourned over by Europeans, 
never cost them a sigh. At parting, the 
principal wife attended our ladies to the foot 
of the stairs, and the door of the court; 
and after an offer of sherbet (which was 
declined) the gratified visitors came away. 



AND THE NILES. 87 



CHAPTER VI. 

Disgrace and flight of Artim Bey— Visit to Achmed 
Bey — Palace of an Egyptian noble — Arabian 
horses— Tombs of the Caliphs— The gardens of 
Shoobra— The imprisoned lady— Grotto of the 
Virgin Mary— Heliopolis— Boulac— Ishmael Bey 
— The boats. 

As soon as we were settled in Cairo, 
we proceeded to deliver our letters of intro- 
duction; one was for Artim Bey, who had 
for many years held a high post in the 
government. To our great disappointment, 



88 KHARTOUM 

however, he was not to be found, having 
absconded only a few days previously, in 
order to avoid an examination of his ac- 
counts, which had been called for by Abbas 
Pasha. It was said that he had gone to 
Italy, but it afterwards turned out that he 
made his way to Constantinople, where he 
was favourably received by the Sultan, and 
is now filling a distinguished office in his 
service. 

Another of our letters was for Achmed 
Bey, a son of Ibrahim Pasha, and third 
in succession to the Vice- regal throne. I 
may here observe that the title of Bey, 
which is hereditary, is given to all the 
sons of Pashas; it is also frequently be- 
stowed on men eminent for their scientific 
attainments. Pasha denotes a much higher 
rank, though this is sometimes conferred 
on Beys. Achmed Bey is by far the 
richest man in Egypt. He possesses one of 



AND THE NILES. 89 

the largest estates in the vicinity of Cairo ; 
this alone brings him in £10,000 a year. 
He has numerous other estates, and many 
ships and manufactories, besides upwards of 
five hundred slaves, and last year he shipped 
from Alexandria twelve thousand bales of 
cotton. He is said to be worth altogether 
about £200,000 a year. 

On calling at the town residence of the 
great Bey, we found he was from home, 
but were most politely received by his 
agent, with whom we had a long conver- 
sation. The next day, this Afendi, as he 
was called, brought us a message from 
the Bey, apologising for not visiting us, 
on the ground of illness, and requesting 
that, as he was unable to shew us Cairo 
himself, we would make use of his carriage 
for our ladies, and his horses for ourselves, 
and go wherever we pleased. We thank- 
fully accepted his offer, and on the morrow. 



90 KHARTOUM 

at nine o'clock an elegant English carriage 
was driven up to the door, drawn by four 
Arabian horses, and attended by two out- 
runners, with one of the Prince's Afendis for 
our guide : in this order we set off. 

Our destination was one of the Bey's 
palaces, a suburban residence, then under- 
going extensive repairs. We soon arrived 
there, and found it a large white structure, 
of two stories, the lower one spanned by 
arches, which had a very stately appearance. 
There were two wings, one of which was to 
be appropriated to the white, and the other 
to the black slaves. The lower apartments 
were intended for offices, and are on a scale 
commensurate with the Bey's dignity. On 
the first floor, opening from a spacious hall, 
of greater dimensions than any I ever saw 
in a private house, are the receiving and 
withdrawing-rooms, the guard-chamber, and 
the apartment of the agent. The floor above 



AND THE NILES. 91 

comprises another large hall, of the same size 
as the first, and four lofty rooms, painted 
with the most exquisite art, and hung with 
dazzling chandeliers ; while very high 
windows, (inaccessible from the floor), give 
abundance of light. These are the apart- 
ments of the four wives, or chief ladies of 
the hareem, and could not have been ap- 
proached at another time. I ought to add 
that the upper floor is reached by a fine 
staircase, and that all the recesses, both above 
and below, are gorgeously painted, and fur- 
nished with superb candelabras. 

On leaving the house, we drove to the 
stables, having had our curiosity greatly 
excited by the stories we had heard respecting 
his stud. We were first shown the great 
stable, which is about one hundred and 
twenty yards long, and affords stabling to 
thirty-six horses, eighteen on each side, 
every horse being allowed a space of about 



92 KHARTOUM 

seven yards. They are not kept in stalls, 
as in England, but are tethered by a rope 
to the manger. The large stable was 
devoted exclusively to first-rate Arabs ; 
some of these were certainly very beautiful 
creatures, though small, being not more than 
fourteen hands high. I particularly admired 
their fetlocks and cleanness of limb, yet 
I have seen horses in England, which, in 
my judgment, presented a more striking 
ensemble, and especially excelled them in 
the shape of the head. The Bey's horses 
were all estimated at very high prices, 
varying from £500 to £1500, and a 
filly three months old was valued at two 
hundred bourses, or £1000 ; but these sums 
were merely nominal, as such animals are 
never bought or sold. In an adjoining stable, 
we saw twenty or thirty carriage horses: 
fine animals, but in no way remarkable. 
There was one magnificent horse in the stud. 



AND THE NILES. 93 

He was an iron-grey Aral), thorough bred, 
with his pedigree as carefully preserved, and 
as much prized as that of a German prince. 
That we might see him to greater advantage, 
he was brought out of the stable ; and stood 
with lamb -like gentleness till an Arab boy, 
an Eastern " petit Ducrow," sprang on his 
back, when he became the wild horse of 
Mazeppa. But the young slave was his 
master, and galloped him furiously about, 
making him turn on one leg, and plunge and 
rear and kick in a manner trulv astonishing-. 
During this performance, he quite realized 
the masterly conceptions of Horace Vernet. 

From the stables we strolled round the 
gardens, which are laid out in the Italian 
style, without beds ; are traversed by covered 
walks, while streams of water, running in 
stone channels, (form continual cascades), 
imparting a delicious coolness to the air. 
Shaded paths lead to a circular pavilion, 



94 KHARTOUM 

rising from marble columns, and overgrown 
with the most beautifully- variegated creepers, 
red, blue, and jasmine. In the centre is a 
bath of white marble, and a large marble 
fountain, carved and polished in as finished 
manner, as if it had come fresh from the 
chisel of Canova. Several handsome chairs 
and sofas were ranged around. 

We were presented, on leaving, with two 
large baskets of fruit, containing pome- 
granates, pears, grapes, peaches, and walnuts, 
all of immense size, and of rare excellence. 
With these we returned to our hotel, grate- 
fully impressed by the civility and kindness 
of the Pasha. 

We desired to see as much as possible 
of the environs of Cairo, particularly the 
antiquities, and early one morning rode 
out to the Tombs of the Caliphs ; a 
most disagreeable ride, through a perfect 
Sahara of sand. The tombs lie in a 



AND THE NILES. 9 

hollow, between some hills, from which 
may be obtained a charming view of 
Cairo, the Pyramids, and the Nile, which 
almost compensates for the blinding glare 
of the sand, and the scorching heat. 

At a distance, the place has the appearance 
of a large town, but it is a city of the 
dead, being merely a collection of tombs 
and mosques, among which the Caliph's 
mosque, an extensive and stately building, 
now falling into decay, is pre-eminent. 
Here, in a stone which no chisel can cut, or 
impress with the slightest indentation, we 
saw some of Mahomet's footmarks, with 
indelible traces of his toes, left as a memorial 
to believers through all time. The tombs, 
fast mouldering away, were of every kind 
of architecture ; varying in date from as 
early as 400, to the present year. 

Having ended our meditations among the 
tombs, we once more mounted our donkeys, 



96 KHARTOUM 

and an hour's ride brought us to the petrified 
forest — an area of about a mile square, covered 
with pieces of petrified wood, the largest of 
which is not more than two feet in length. 
We were shown three or four fragments, 
half embedded in sand, which still retain 
a resemblance to trees. Searching about, 
I found some helix, which I never met 
with before, and some fossils, chiefly fan- 
shells The whole journey, including Caliphs- 
Town, and our return home, occupied us 
from nine till four o'clock. 

Through the good offices of a Turkish 
merchant, with whom we had made ac- 
quaintance, we obtained permission to visit 
the gardens of Shoobra. The road thither, 
unlike that to Caliphs-Town, is one of the 
most pleasant imaginable, winding through a 
picturesque avenue of acacias and mimosas. 
The gardens are very extensive, and are 
laid out with admirable taste. More flowers 



AND THE N1LES. 97 

are grown here than at any spot near Cairo ; 
and most of the walks, radiating from the 
centre to every part of the grounds, are 
covered with trellis-work, overgrown with 
beautiful creepers. Abbas Pacha, however, 
has destroyed the retirement of the place, 
by laying out carriage drives, which cut 
through the finest walks. 

The great feature of Shoobra is the 
fountain: it rises from an immense basin, 
seventy yards square, and nearly two in 
depth, and is surrounded by a balustrade, 
dividing it from a sort of cloister, from 
which kiosks project into the water. At each 
corner is a handsome room, expensively fitted 
up, in the European manner, with easy chairs 
and sofas, and divans, each in a different 
style of rose-coloured satin. The fountain, 
which is the work of some eminent Italian 
artists, is supported by columns of marble, 
of the most chaste and elegant design, and 

VOL. I. H 



98 KHARTOUM 

is ornamented with curiously carved fishes 
and quadrupeds, over which the water falls 
in glittering showers. In another part of 
the gardens is a pavilion, the interior formed 
entirely of alahaster. From the windows, 
looking in every direction, the eye may range 
over the gardens and a wide extent of country, 
including the Nile and surrounding hills. 

A palace, one of the residences of the Vice- 
roy, rises in the midst of the gardens. It 
is a stately structure, commanding a varied 
and extensive prospect, and is fitted up with 
Asiatic splendour. It derives a higher 
interest from its connection with a mystery, 
that has excited many conjectures and 
speculations, and an incalculable amount 
of curiosity; but has never yet been pene- 
trated. That palace is a prison ; and the 
captive who pines within its walls, amidst 
everything that dazzles and enchants the 
eye, is a young and lovely woman. Who 



AND THE NILES. 99 

she is, or what has been her offence, no 
one can tell ; or if a few possess the secret, 
fear and prudence have effectually sealed their 
lips. Her captivity has already extended 
over several years, and will probably last till 
her death. 

An hour's ride from Cairo, along the 
picturesque bank of the river, brought us 
to Old Cairo, a walled city, about a mile 
in circumference. Here there is little to 
admire, though there are some strange-looking 
buildings; and the archaeologist, versed in 
antiquarian lore, will find many objects of 
interest. The city is chiefly inhabited by 
Greek and Coptic Christians, who seem to 
be a very simple and credulous people. We 
were shown a Greek church, erected over a 
grotto, in which the Virgin Mary, on reach- 
ing Egypt, is said to have found refuge 
from the Herodian massacre; the building 
is regarded with the greatest veneration by 

H 2 



1 00 KHARTOUM 

the devout Greeks. We were much more 
impressed by the flowing white beard of the 
high-priest, than we had been by his 
Church. 

Heliopolis, another vestige of antiquity, is 
a ride of two hours from Cairo. The obelisk 
is very fine, resembling that in the Place de 
la Concorde at Paris, though it is not in 
such good preservation. The English Van- 
dals have been at their work here, covering 
with vulgar names a memorial honoured by 
a Ptolemy and a Cleopatra. A tree pointed 
out to us as having given shelter to the Virgin 
and Child, during the flight into Egypt, 
does not appear to be of this great anti- 
quity ; judging from some I have seen, I 
should conceive its age not to exceed eight 
centuries. 

We frequently visited Boulac, the distance 
being not more than a mile and a half; 
the road leading through the public gardens, 



AND THE NILES. 101 

under an avenue of fine trees, chiefly acacias. 
The grand drive is terminated by three 
immense mounds, looking like enormous 
barrows, enclosed by walls ten feet high. 
We were surprised to find that these minia- 
ture mountains were composed of provisions, 
such as corn, barley, beans, and lentils, which 
the Pasha, like another Joseph, had laid up 
for the winter. 

The streets and houses of Boulac are more 
spacious than are generally seen in an Arab 
village ; though much less clean, and 
commodious, than those of Cairo. There 
is, however, quite a European air of bustle 
in the town ; the population having no 
lack of employment, is not seen, as at Cairo, 
lolling about the leading thoroughfares, 
and in the coffee-shops, eternally smoking 
and idling. On approaching the river from 
the bank, one is nearly stifled by the clouds 
of dust rising, where vessels arc being loaded 



102 KHARTOUM 

with corn or cotton, beans or lentils, shipped 
for every country of Europe ; and the stir 
among porters and lightermen strongly 
recalls to mind an English dock. 

There is a fine palace at Boulac, formerly 
a residence of Ishmael Pasha, one of the sons 
of Mehemet Ali — a monster of iniquity and 
vice, who came to a terrible end. He was 
engaged in a war with the Ethiopians, on 
whom he had practised the most refined 
cruelties, when they fell upon him in an 
unprotected spot, called Shendy, and heap- 
ing his huts round with reeds, set them on 
fire, and burnt him alive with his whole 
hareem. 

We availed ourselves of the opportunity 
afforded by our excursions to Boulac to 
inspect the Arab boats, hoping to procure 
two, with suitable accommodations for our 
transit up the Nile. We found a great 
many in the river, of all classes and sizes, 



AND THE NILES. 103 

and with some difficulty escaped the polite 
attentions of the Arab owners, who, when- 
ever we presented ourselves, would insist on 
our joining them with a pipe. Not seeing 
any boats that exactly met our wishes, we 
one day proceeded from Boulac to an arsenal 
belonging to Ali Bey, some distance up the 
river, where we hoped to be more successful. 
Two young urchins, of the respective ages of 
six and seven, carried us off in a small ferry- 
boat, the cumbrous lateen sails of which, 
puffed out by a strong north wind, were 
almost more than they could manage. 
About an hour and a half brought us to our 
destination, where we had our choice of 
boats; and having fixed upon a pleasure- 
yacht, very clean, and just ready, were 
brought back by our juvenile navigators, 
whom we dismissed with two piastres, 
(anglice 5d.J as a handsome remuneration 
for their services. 



104 KHARTOUM 

At Boulac, we picked up another boat, 
for which we were asked £20 a month ; 
we secured it at the rate of £20 for the first 
month, and £17 105. for every subsequent 
month, and the contract was signed at the 
Consul's the next day. This we named 
' The Fanny,' and it was taken formal 
possession of by my brother and myself, as 
joint occupants and commanders. The 
pleasure-yacht, which was not secured till 
after some days' bargaining, and considerable 
difficulty, at the high terms of £30 a 
month received the designation of ' The 
Eagle ;' and was appropriated to my father 
and our two ladies. 

We had now to make our preparations. 
' The Eagle' was soon equipped, and ' The 
Fanny,' to get rid of all redundancies, was 
first sunk, and then painted inside and out, 
the divans being covered with new calico, 
the floors matted, and muslin curtains sus- 



AND THE NILES. 105 

pended as a protection against the swarms 
of flies. The awning was repaired, and the 
provisions and luggage stowed. At length, 
after four or Ave days' incessant toiling, 
everything was announced to be ready. We 
had then to wait a day for the Pasha's 
firman, or letter of command, and it was 
not till the very last moment that we 
received our game-certificates, which serve as 
a kind of passport. Our boats, meanwhile, 
had been brought together, between Rhoda 
Island and Old Cairo, about half a mile 
from the grand city, and there awaited our 
arrival. 



106 KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER VII. 

Departure from Cairo — Ascending the Nile — In- 
vasion of rats — Our dragoman and retinue — The 
Pyramids — Nile etiquette — An evening on shore 
The Tombs of Beni Hassan — The first crocodile — 
Shock of earthquake. 

A lovely full moon rose clear and calm 
on the blue sky, shedding its silver radiance 
over the islet of Rhoda, and its dark green 
woods, and over the calm and majestic 
Nile, which looked like a stream of light. 
On the other side, the sun sank behind the 



AND THE NILES. 107 

hills, leaving his last rays, upon the stately 
minarets of Cairo, whose groves of tall date- 
trees grew darker every instant. The huge 
sails were loosed, and expanded to a mild 
breeze, that had just strength enough to 
blow out the folds of our Union- Jack, which 
waved proudly over our heads. It was an 
exciting moment, but I cannot say that it 
was wholly free from melancholy ; for while 
we looked up the mysterious river with eager 
impatience for the wonders we anticipated, 
we could not but feel, when our anchor was 
hauled, that we threw off our last hold of 
society and completely severed ourselves from 
all communication with our friends and 
country, for we had crossed the confines of 
barbarism. 

It was late before I went to bed, and I had 
scarcely fallen asleep, when I was aroused by 
a pressure on my feet. At first, I thought 
some one must be sitting upon my bed and 



108 KHARTOUM 

was about to remonstrate but a sudden 
squeaking undeceived me, and there I dis- 
covered that the intruders were three enor- 
mous rats, which had settled themselves very 
comfortably on the coverlet. Fortunately 
my boots were at hand, and I flung one 
into the midst of them, on which they 
scampered off in great dismay, vehemently 
protesting against such uncourteous treat- 
ment. I then got up, and barricaded the 
door, in which I was assisted by one of our 
servants ; these men being rare specimens of 
their class, now claim a word of notice. 

Abdel Fateeh el Daireh, our dragoman, is 
a native of Ossioot. He was recommended to 
us by the English Consul, Mr. Walne, and 
can produce a heap of testimonials, all com- 
mending him in the highest terms, some 
particularly lauding him as a lady's man, in 
which light he was certainly most attentive to 
our own ladies. He has attended several 



AND THE NILES. 109 

distinguished characters, and been mentioned 
with praise in some well-known works on 
Egypt. Being thus eminent in his voca- 
tion, the reader may wish to hear what he is 
like, and I am but too glad to find a niche 
for him in these ephemeral pages. 

Daireh is thirty years of age, is not stout, 
and is about five feet seven inches in 
height. His face, which is rather long, has 
the usual Eastern expression of gravity and 
is adorned with scanty outlines of a beard, 
moustache, and whiskers, apparently destined, 
spite of the pains bestowed on them, never to 
arrive at luxuriance. A gay handkerchief 
covers one eye, which he has lost by ophthal- 
mia ; the other beams out kindly and bright. 
He wears a suit of fine brown cloth, a la 
Turque, and a dashing red tarboosh. Daireh 
speaks Italian, French, English, Turkish, and 
Arabic ; harangues the crew, waits at table, 
washes up, and performs a dozen other 



110 KHARTOUM 

inestimable duties ; charging for the same 
the sum of thirty dollars a month, which 
those who know him consider very reason- 
able. 

Next comes Mahomet el Daireh, the 
brother of the dragoman. He is a good 
valet, and when required, an excellent cook ; 
is very clean and willing. He speaks Italian 
and Arabic, and can wash, wait, and cut hair. 
He lets out his services at ten dollars a 
month. 

Our cook was Abbas, esteemed the best 
on the Nile, and the same who attended 
Miss Martineau and Mr. Yates. He is a 
very handsome man, and his dinners might 
be compared with any in the best res- 
taurants of Paris. His wages were twenty 
dollars a month. 

Our fourth native servant was an Arab 
boy, whom w T e had impressed into our ser- 
vice ; and who, after being well washed, 



AND THE NILES. Ill 

and dressed in a new suit of clothes, made 
a most respectable page. Under the tutelage 
of the servants, he became very useful, and 
especially excelled in lighting pipes. 

I should now add, that each boat had a 
reis or captain, a pilot, and a crew of twelve 
men, all of whom were restricted from 
entering the cabin. An order was also issued 
prohibiting smoking abaft the drawing-room, 
in consequence of the proximity of the 
powder magazine. 

After my first night on board, I rose early, 
and by six in the morning was on deck. The 
sun was already high in the heavens, pouring 
his dazzling beams over the sky, and making 
wood, field, and river sparkle with light. 
We had advanced but little during the night, 
Cairo, where w r e had spent so many pleasant 
hours, was still only three miles distant. Its 
thousand cupolas and minarets, its marble 



1 1 2 KHARTOUM 

palaces, and winding streets, its groves and 
gardens watered by refreshing fountains, 
could still be seen, spread out against the 
hills; hills that had looked down on the 
wide plain for fifty centuries, unmoved by 
the fall of empires, of dynasties, and of 
nations. 

Mahomet made us some coffee and mac- 
caroni, and we went on shore, taking our 
guns, in case we should start any game. We 
passed through a number of date plantations, 
and several villages, in one of which, called 
Turnond, we found a manufactory of indigo. 
The country was so interesting, and the 
objects so novel, that we were induced to 
walk a considerable distance, beguiling the 
way with an occasional shot, by which we 
brought down a crow, an owl, and several 
doves and hoopies. At half-past nine we re- 
turned on board to breakfast, which on the 



AND THE NILES. 113 

Nile is a perfect banquet ; ours spoke 
volumes for the skill and proficiency of the 
renowned Abbas. 

After breakfast, we passed the pyramids 
of Abou-seer, Sakara, and Dashour, and 
then beheld the mountains from which the 
stone used in their construction had been 
excavated. We did not stop, intending, in 
accordance with the established usage, to 
examine them narrowly on our return. 
The landscape, as we advanced, became 
strikingly picturesque. From the deck 
we could see a great distance — the banks 
of the river, now at its highest point, 
rising but little above the level of the water, 
and opening to view a wide sweep of richly 
cultivated land, interspersed with villages 
and groves of date trees. Some interest- 
ing spot continually presented itself, sur- 
passing all that we could imagine of Nile 

VOL. I. I 



114 KHARTOUM 

scenery. As day closed, the Mokatam moun- 
tains, on the east side of the river, lent a 
thousand new features to the landscape, 
elevating their rugged and fantastic peaks 
into the sky, to which the moon gave a 
clearness and softness of tone impossible to 
describe. Surrounded by such objects, 
we could scarcely tear ourselves from the 
deck ; for even at midnight - so marvellous 
is the light of the moon — this land of beauty 
does not veil its charms. 

The wind dying away, we were tracked up 
the river for some hours, at a very good 
speed, by our active crews ; they were at last 
relieved by a fine fresh breeze, which carried 
us cheerily onward. We found the scenery 
as interesting as on the previous day, though 
rather flat. Striking objects, however, were 
not wanting; and the False Pyramid on one 
side, and on the other a range of irregular 



AND THE NILES. 115 

rocky hills, stretching far into the desert, 
varied its character. We anchored at about 
8 P.M. 

The next morning, a brisk wind earned 
us up to Benisooef, a large town, situated 
on a picturesque bend of the river. It peeps 
out from a grove of mimosas, of great size, 
that screen with their rich, green foliage 
all the Arab quarter, disclosing only the 
dwellings of the wealthy, among w T hich two 
large white palaces, are pre-eminent. The 
mimosas yield a delicious fragrance, that 
was w T afted to us over the rippling water; 
on looking round, I counted no less than 
fifteen plantations of date-trees. We flew 
swiftly past, impelled by the fairest wind 
we had yet obtained, aided by a spirit 
of emulation in the respective boats' crew T s, 
growing out of the most ridiculous rivalry. 
The race tested the relative sailing quali- 
ties of the boats, and it was ascertained, 

I 2 



1 1 6 KHARTOUM 

on a comparison of the result with their 
feats on other occasions, that " The Eagle " 
carried the palm in a high wind, but in a 
mild or light air, " The Fanny " was her 
equal, or even superior. This, as "The 
Eagle " was a Pasha's yacht, exceeded our 
most sanguine expectations ; but I should 
not omit to say that she was far the 
most heavily laden, as she carried all our 
stores. The racing was kept up all day, and 
sometimes very unfairly : " The Eagle," on 
one occasion, in trying to get the bank, 
where there is less current, ran her 
second mast straight through our mainsail, 
and tore it to shreds. We had several 
other collisions, but this, the most serious 
of all, obliged us to anchor for five hours, 
in order to repair the tattered sail. 

It can never be said that Nile travelling 
is tedious or irksome. With a fair wind, the 
boats move rapidly along, and one finds 



AND THE NILES. 117 

abundance of amusement in contemplating 
the changing scenery, so full of novelty and 
interest, or watching the amusements of the 
crew. When the light breeze dies away, 
leaving the broad and deep river beautifully 
calm, and the tall woods silent and stationary, 
the traveller can go on shore with his 
gun, and stroll through fields, meeting 
with abundance of objects to engage his 
attention. 

Our boats communicated with each other 
about four times a day. Generally this 
could be done without difficulty, but in a very 
high wind, the task was not so easy. " The 
Eagle " then came before us, and letting her 
gig drift astern, we jumped into it, and were 
towed alongside, returning to her consort 
in the same w 7 ay. 

Off Benisooef, we were entertained by a 
ludicrous demonstration of Nile etiquette. It 
is the custom, it should seem, in passing this 



1 1 8 KHARTOUM 

place, to give the crews a dollar to buy a 
sheep. The douceur was thankfully received 
by the crew of " The Fanny," but as " The 
Eagle's " men were employed by Govern- 
ment, the reis, after some hesitation, thought 
it w r ould be infra dig to accept it, and 
declined. The men, however, were not so 
particular as their captain ; his conduct 
gave rise to a very lively debate, ending 
in a compromise, by which it was agreed 
that the present should be increased to 
two dollars, when it might be ac- 
cepted with perfect propriety. But this 
arrangement was decided on without 
reference to a very important party — 
namely, the donor ; he naturally demurred, 
considering it unreasonable that the dignity 
of these men should be maintained at 
his expense, and refused to advance a 
farthing beyond the dollar. We considered 
the affair at an end; but in this were 



AND THE -NILES. 1 1 9 

premature, for soon afterwards the crew, 
wisely resolving to pocket their dignity, sent 
a deputation to my father, and carried off 
the dollar! 

On the third day from Cairo, we for the 
first time saw several pelicans, and flocks of 
herons. Next day, owing to the lightness of 
the winds, we made but little progress. About 
half past five we anchored off a miserable 
village : in the evening my brother and 
myself went on shore, accompanied by 
Mahomet, and bent our steps to the coffee- 
house. There, to our surprise, we found 
the crews of our two boats, drinking coffee 
and smoking; we could not refrain from 
joining them w T ith a pipe, while we contrived, 
through the medium of Mahomet, to engage 
some of them in conversation. The moon 
was glancing through the branches of the 
date trees with a light so serene, it gave 
an air of holiness to the entire landscape, 



1 20 KHARTOUM 

which was marked hy the most attractive 
features of Eastern scenery. In the midst 
flowed the Nile, reflecting the stars of heaven, 
winding past a village on her opposite shore, 
which reposed under the shade of a forest 
of palms. Through the trees we heheld 
the figures of the villagers engaged in a 
rustic dance : what most impressed us was 
the appearance of the women, loitering 
about at that late hour, in their singular 
drapery. 

We left this place next morning, 
with a fair, though mild breeze, that 
was soon succeeded by a dead calm. 
This made the heat very oppressive; and 
it was decidedly the hottest day w T e had 
yet experienced. A rack of clouds, of 
which we had not seen any since our 
departure from Milan, would now have 
been a welcome sight, as the sun was 
never screened, and the glare was almost 



AND THE NILES. 1*21 

beyond endurance. We passed the fine 
cliffs of Beni Hassan, starting up abruptly 
from the water like the heights of Dover, 
by their white front reminding us still 
more strongly of the chalky shores of Old 
England. But here the resemblance ended ; 

to 

and the face of the country, the character of 
the landscape, the drooping palms, and the 
majestic mimosas, with the almost naked forms 
of tall, copper-coloured Nubians, constantly 
appearing, told too plainly how far we were 
from home. 

As night came on, our Arabs were still 
propelling the boat, accompanying every 
movement of the pole with a general shriek, 
—a poor substitute for the Canadian boat- 
song. It was very dark, as the moon had 
not yet risen, and our little craft floated 
gently along, leaving a streak of light in 
her wake. Suddenly, I heard a louder cry 
than usual, and starting round, saw one of 



122 KHARTOUM 

the crew, who had dropped his pole in the 
river, spring headlong overboard. In an 
instant he rose to the surface, struck out 
manfully through the waves, and, seizing 
the stray oar with his left hand, swam 
after us for about fifty yards, when he 
scrambled on board, and was soon seated 
again at his oar. 

We were grumbling at the long calm, 
when morning brought us a favourable 
wind, which carried us gallantly along, and 
we got over a greater distance than we had 
gained on any previous day. About noon we 
passed Min'ieh, a very large village, con- 
taining a sugar-refining establishment belong- 
ing to Mehemet Ali, which looks like 
a small Manchester factory. Mountains 
of bones were heaped on the shore ready 
for use. The country presented much the 
same appearance as before, occasionally open- 
ing very beautiful vistas. 



AND TiiE MLES. 123 

To wile away time, I asked the crew to 
sing. My request met immediate com- 
pliance ; to divert us still more, one man, 
a particularly sprightly fellow, bundled him- 
self up in a heap of clothes, and proceeded 
to dance in a wild manner to very exciting 
music. Gradually he took of! every article 
of dress, flinging each in a different direction, 
with singular dexterity. When perfectly 
stripped, he sprang overboard, and dived 
under the vessel, then re-appearing on the 
other side, he clambered to the deck, and, 
with similar antics, resumed his clothes. 
Throughout the performance, the whole 
crew accompanied the music with terrific 
yells. 

We were much won by the simplicity and 
the ingenuous nature of these men, who 
were always desirous to please, and gratified 
at being noticed. The most trifling acts 
of kindness made a sensible impression 



1 24 KHARTOUM 

upon them, and were in every case appre- 
ciated. They set a high value on everything 
we did for them ; I may as well add that 
they considered us perfect Crichtons in our 
attainments. One of them, while employed 
aft, having caught sight of a sketch of the 
diahekeeh, described it in such glowing 
colours to the others, that I had no rest 
till it was displayed. I asked them if they 
observed a resemblance, and they clapped 
their hands, and pronounced it " taib catere" 
(very good). The feeling was unanimous; 
every man instantly requested that a sketch 
might be made of himself. 

For three successive days we made but 
little progress, the wind being too feeble to 
impel us against the stream. The men did 
their best to track us, but the towing ropes, 
owing to the continual strain upon them, 
were constantly breaking; and in the whole 
three days we did not get over thirty miles. 



AND THE NILES. 125 

We passed Manfaloot, whence our course 
lay under a range of towering crags, starting 
boldly up, and overhanging the river for 
some miles. Their appearance was very 
grand and imposing. 

Soon afterwards we caught sight of the 
Tombs of Benihassan, scarcely visible in the 
distance ; they made us long for the moment 
of our return, when we agreed to examine 
them carefully. Other marvels, however, 
were before us, luring us eagerly on. We 
had gone but a short distance further, 
when we discovered our first crocodile. It 
was quite a young one, about five feet 
long, and w T as lying comfortably on a 
bank, basking in the sun. We flew for 
our rifles ; they were unloaded, and before 
we could get them ready for action " the 
illustrious stranger " took the alarm, and 
toppled into the water. 

On the third day, about half-past nine in 



126 KHARTOUM 

the morning, we encountered a slight shock of 
earthquake. The boat was aground, and I 
was writing in the cabin, when I was startled 
by a concussion, like the trembling of the 
engine on a steam-boat, and rushed on deck 
to see what had happened. One of our 
party was ashore, and felt it much more 
perceptibly. The earth, we found afterwards, 
split in many places a full inch ; and though 
the shock lasted only half a minute, it 
extended for many miles. 

We arrived at Ossioot, or Siout, or Essoot 
— for it is spelt thus differently — at one 
o'clock on the following morning, having 
been ten days in coming from Cairo ; the 
journey is usually accomplished in seven. 



AND THE NILES. 127 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Ossioot — The city gate — The mountain of tombs — 
Visit to Ismail Pasha — Encounter with a Latin 
monk — Ekekian Bey — Story of a cat — Arrival at 
Keneh — Visit to Hassan Said — The dancing girls 
— Departure from Keneh. 

At six o'clock I was aroused by Mahomet, 
with an intimation that the donkeys were in 
attendance to take us to the mummy tombs 
of Ossioot. They would have been reserved, 
like all the other antiquities, for our return, but 
in their contract, the men had made a stipu- 



1 28 KHARTOUM 

lation that they should halt here to make 
bread. And while they halted, we explored. 
The way led through a grove, or, more 
properly, an avenue of fragrant mimosas and 
umbrageous oaks, interspersed with sycamore 
and fig trees, which extended for more than 
a mile, when w T e passed through a very 
pleasant garden, teeming with luxuriant vege- 
tation, to the town. The first view of 
Ossioot is very striking — no less than eleven 
dazzling minarets, towering over the grove 
of mimosas, above which also peer the 
cupolas of several mosques. A gate opens 
into a small square, planted with fine trees, 
that offer a grateful shade, in which scores 
of Arabs and turbaned Musselmen, in their 
picturesque attire, were strolling or staring 
in admiration at two or three richly capari- 
soned horses, in attendance on Ismail Pasha, 
who was transacting business in a range of 
offices which form one side of the square. 



AND THE NILES. 129 

Round the other side is a kind of exchange, 
where the merchants, of whom there is a 
tolerable sprinkling, assemble and trade in 
corn, beans — and human beings ! 

Crossing the square, we came out at a 
bridge, which spans a branch of the Nile, 
then almost overflowing its banks, and 
brought us to the town. This is exceedingly 
well built, in which respect it surpassed any 
town we had yet seen, not excepting Cairo, 
though it is much less populous, and the 
streets have less animation. We soon made 
our way through it, and arrived at a viaduct, 
bordered with beautiful trees swarming with 
doves. This led us to what appeared to 
be another town, but, though it displayed 
a profusion of domes and minarets, peeping 
through a forest, and covered almost as much 
ground as Ossioot, I learnt from Daireh that 
it was the cemetery. A bridge immediately 
adjacent crosses a wide canal, constructed for 

vol. I. K 



1 30 KHARTOUM 

the purpose of irrigation, and comes out in 
front of a mountain, the resting-place of 
thousands of mummies. 

A steep ascent brought us to one of the 
massive entrances, and in a moment we stood 
among a multitude of dead. The mountain 
seems to be entirely hollow, and serves the 
purpose of a vault, on a prodigious scale. 
A strange but ample light was admitted 
through the portal, penetrating to the inmost 
recesses ; but, disregarding the close, earthy, 
sepulchral smell, we pushed our way forward. 
Pitfalls and heaps of rubbish, the result of 
antiquarian researches, met us at every step ; 
and mingled with the stones and earth were 
fragments of mummies, encased in their parch- 
ment skin. Numerous chambers diverged from 
this centre, strewn with these sad reliques. 
Never had so many vestiges of mortality 
been presented to me : nor can I say that 
the spectacle was either pleasing or profitable- 



AND THE NILES. 131 

After inspecting several of the chambers. 
I crawled through an aperture into a dark 
cave, filled by myriads of skulls, heaped 
curiously round. I hastily retraced my way 
to the hall. As I reached the entrance, a 
far different prospect met my eye, for, 
through the yawning porch, I caught a 
glimpse of the pleasant corn-fields and 
luxuriant trees without, watered by the bright 
blue river, and backed in the distance by the 
lofty hills. 

An hour's ride took us back to the boats, 
where we enjoyed a hearty breakfast, which 
I think we had fairly earned. About ten 
o'clock I again went on shore, for the purpose 
of paying my respects to Ismail Pasha, the 
Governor of Upper Egypt. He received me 
with marked courtesy, and I found him a 
most gentlemanly and agreeable man. His 
person is strikingly handsome ; and sitting on 
his divan, in an easy and graceful posture, 

K 2 



132 KHARTOUM 

he looked the model of Eastern satraps. 
He entertained me with pipes and coffee, and 
much more, by his conversation, which, 
though displaying a strange ignorance on 
what we consider in England, ordinary points 
of information, showed him to be extremely 
shrewd and intelligent. His mode of account- 
ing for the difference of climate between 
England and Egypt, a subject we happened 
to touch upon, is extremely original. He 
thought that it admitted of easy explanation, 
and that, as we descended the Nile in going 
from Ossioot, London was so much colder 
because it was two thousand miles further 
from the sun ! But Ismail Pasha makes a 
very adroit governor, notwithstanding the 
paucity of his acquirements ; I could not 
but admire the dexterity with which, while 
wholly destitute of military power, he con- 
trives to carry on and administer the govern- 
ment. Even the lawless Bedouins submit to 



AND THE MLES. 133 

his rule, and dare not violate his commands. 
An instance of this transpired while we were 
at Ossioot. A murder, no uncommon occur- 
rence in Egypt, was committed hy a Bedouin, 
who effected his escape ; not being able to dis- 
cover him, Ismail sent a message to the Sheiks 
of his tribe, requiring them to give him up, or 
surrender themselves, and be punished in his 
stead. It might be supposed, that being without 
soldiers to enforce obedience, his commands 
would have been treated with derision ; but 
the Sheiks knew that he possessed another 
power. In fact, the various tribes regard 
each other with the most rancorous hatred ; 
and the Pasha has but to give the word, 
when they would fall on any who might 
be refractory. By thus setting man against 
man, Ismail succeeds in keeping them all in 
order. 

On taking leave of the Pasha, I made a 
tour of the town, and visited several grinding 



134 KHARTOUM 

mills, and some indigo works; passing 
thence to the bazaars. These are of some 
importance, and are well stocked with goods, 
among which I noticed a number of bales 
bearing the widely-know impress of Man- 
chester. The entente cordiale subsisting 
among the traders in these emporiums is very 
new to an Englishman. Here you have a 
whole street of persons embarked in the same 
trade, or following the same calling ; you pass 
from a range of pipe-shops into an avenue 
of tailors, or through a hive of shoe-makers. 

In another quarter of the town, I noticed 
some slaves, but they had not the same 
happy look as those I had seen at Cairo, 
and, moreover, seemed fagged and jaded. 
They are brought here from Darfour, a long 
and wearisome journey, to them a most 
trying one, many dying of fatigue on the 
road. They are not all for sale here, but 
Ossioot, from its central situation, is a halting- 



AND THE NILES. 135 

place for the caravans, and thence they diverge 
to the most opposite points. 

On my way back to our boats, I en- 
countered a Latin monk of the Franciscan 
order; as he was dressed in Turkish cos- 
tume, I should have set him down for a 
devout Mussulman had he not answered my 
salaam with a " buona notte." We fell into 
conversation, and I found that he was 
attached to a mission sent out by the Propa- 
ganda, who have established no less than ten 
churches in this country, over a space extend- 
ing from Alexandria to Khartoum. He 
had been out ten years, and had yet to re- 
main at Ossioot two years longer, ere he 
would be recalled to his convent at Rome, 
to which he looked forward with tears of joy. 
During his long exile, he had met with but 
one or two missionaries like himself, proceed- 
ing to the different stations ; and he described 
his life as very lonely. I took him on board 



136 KHARTOUM 

our boats, and showed him round, by which 
he was much gratified ; and, after partaking 
of some refreshment, he invited me to accom- 
pany him home. 

It was a delightful evening, and as we 
stepped ashore, a gentle breeze wafted us the 
fragrant odour of the woods. At the same 
moment, the deep sonorous voice of an 
Imaum uttered the call to prayer from a 
neighbouring mosque, and True Believers 
turned to respond. It acted like a spell on a 
motley crowd in the street, collected round a 
convicted thief, who was undergoing the 
ordeal of the bastinado, and, at every touch 
of the lash, yelled out most manfully. While 
all turned to the temple of the False Pro- 
phet, I followed the priest through a low 
door, and found myself in a chapel dedicated 
to the Messiah. 

My surprise was great when I looked 
about me; I could almost have imagined 



AND THE NILES. 137 

myself in Italy. The little church was 
clean and neat in the extreme, with a quiet 
religious light creeping through the windows, 
and falling softly on the three altars, each of 
which was adorned with an admirable paint- 
ing, such as one does not see often out of 
Italian cities. The centre dome contained a 
picture of St. Ferdinand, presented by the 
Emperor of Austria: there was another of 
St. Catherine, the gift of the Empress. The 
good priest, who took great pride in his 
church, was much pleased at my surprise, 
and at the estimate I formed of his paintings ; 
this led to a long conversation. His flock, 
he told me, consisted of about seven hundred 
Copts, converted Turks and Armenians. 
We smoked a friendly pipe, and took leave of 
each other with the most cordial feeling on 
both sides. 

We brought out some newspapers for 
Ekekian Bey, a distinguished officer of en- 



138 KHARTOUM 

gineers, who had been some time in the 
service of Abbas Pasha, but, like all the 
Viceroy's scientific officers, had just been 
dismissed. The Bey is an elderly man, 
well-informed, and of courteous manners, 
though rather abrupt. He is accustomed to 
English society, having been educated at 
Stonyhurst, and resided for a long time at 
Leasowes Castle, near Liverpool. By such 
intercourse, he has been led into more en- 
larged views than are generally adopted by his 
countrymen. He came on board to dinner, 
and entertained us with some amusing stories 
and anecdotes, interspersed with shrewd re- 
marks upon his countrymen, to whose 
peculiarities, as a travelled man, he was 
singularly awake. 

One thing he mentioned, in which w T e all 
most heartily concurred — that the Egyptians 
have no idea of truth, time, or distance ; and 
it requires but one day in Alexandria to 



AND THE NILES. 139 

impress this on the dullest understanding. 
The Bey had made part of the Khartoum 
journey, and gave us a lively narrative 
of what we should have to encounter ; 
encouraging our ladies to look forward 
to the deserts with courage, and even 
confidence. 

We left Ossioot early the next morning, 
and proceeded slowly up the river, unwilling 
to remove our eyes from the scene we were 
leaving. The wind was, for the first time, 
decidedly adverse, and we tacked all day, 
moving at a very slow rate, and only accom- 
plishing about six miles in ten hours. The 
sun blazed fiercely the whole time, and 
seemed to concentrate its rays upon our 
boat. We should have spent the day 
more pleasantly, and perhaps as profitably, 
among the tombs, but on the Nile it is well 
not to lose time ; these six miles is a step 
onward. 



140 KHARTOUM 

Three more days of adverse winds, or 
calms, under a still raging sun, were spent 
much in the same way ; the Arabs towing us 
along very unsteadily ; with our stoppages, 
we did not cover more than five miles each 
day. Our crews were certainly very lazy 
fellows ; but their good-humour was so per- 
fect, that it almost atoned for their indolence. 
As we proceeded, we saw many ibis and peli- 
cans at a distance, but we did not shoot any ; 
and, during the whole time, we had but little 
sport. 

On the third morning, we missed our cat, 
a most sprightly animal, which had been 
engaged at Ossioot, and had become a par- 
ticular favourite with the crew, who were 
much dejected at its disappearance. Hear- 
ing, however, that a heaven-born cat had 
fallen from the clouds into the other boat, I 
thought that such a procrigy might possibly 
be able to give some account of ours. On 



AND THE NILES. 141 

boarding our consort, I found its resemblance 
so striking, that when four of ' The Fanny's ' 
crew made a solemn declaration it was the 
same, I laid claim to it. ' The Eagle's' men, 
undaunted by our scepticism, persisted in 
asserting that they had seen it come down 
from heaven ; but the earthly character of the 
cat was proved beyond dispute, and she was 
carried back in triumph, to the great joy of 
our crew. 

A fair wind came with the following 
morning, and carried us along rapidly for 
about a dozen miles, when it grew so boiste- 
rous, that we were obliged to draw up by 
the bank, and drop the anchors. It con- 
tinued blowing all day, and during the 
greater part of the night, whirling past our 
cabin windows in furious gusts, such as 
might be looked for in rough weather on 
the coasts of England. It lulled towards 



142 KHARTOUM 

morning, and with the first light we hoisted 
sail, and resumed our voyage. 

This day we gained sixty miles, passing 
Giorgeh, and many other towns and villages, 
all nestling under the pleasant shade of date 
and palm trees. These trees, viewed at a 
distance, appear like dwarfed oaks, with 
sturdy, wide-spreading branches, covered with 
luxuriant foliage, but on coming nearer, their 
leaves take a fan-like shape, and their grace- 
ful boughs are found to be loaded with fruit, 
some of the clumps comprising as many 
as two or three hundred separate nuts. 
Soon after passing Giorgeh, we saw an 
enormous crocodile, which, as if to show its 
fair proportions, scrambled out of the water 
on to a small islet, where he strolled 
leisurely about. Unfortunately we could not 
get a chance of a shot, for before he came 
well out, the breeze bore us swiftly past, and 



AND THE NILES. 



143 



he was soon out of sight. By the evening 
we advanced as far as Shandowak. 

The wind continuing propitious, we made 
considerable progress next day ; and on the 
day following we had a gentle breeze, which 
carried us past Farshook, with its countless taU 
chimneys and busy sugar-works, and in front 
of Dishnek, and graceful Esneh, famed 
for its Almi or dancing girls. At eight 
o' clock on the morning of the 5th of 
November, in honour of which day we 
had hoisted our three flags, the boats came to 
anchor about five miles from Keneh, having 
accomplished the journey from Cairo in 
seventeen days, the time it usually occupies. 

Early next morning we reached Keneh, 
and immediately going on shore, proceeded to 
our Agent, who is Her Majesty's Consul, for 
our letters, which were to await us here. 
We were directed to the bazaar, and on our 
way, passed through several spacious coffee- 



144 KHARTOUM 

shops already pretty well attended. Among 
the company, we noticed some fine-looking 
Arabs, in their high turbans and flowing 
robes, with long white beards falling on their 
breasts. Pipes and coffee were in great 
request among these sages. 

The bazaar, whither we soon arrived, was 
equal to that of Ossioot. Our dragoman 
brought us to the Consul, a son of Anak, of 
colossal dimensions, and upwards of a 
century old, having confessed to ninety-seven 
five years ago, though, in accordance with 
Eastern custom, he has since retrograded to 
ninety-four. He was enveloped in no less 
than five togas, the outermost of which was 
a blanket, and the one next his skin com- 
posed of fine linen. His head was immured 
in a turban, at least three feet in diameter, 
forming a perfect mountain of white muslin, 
intervolved with a Cachmere shawl. This 
venerable patriarch, who bore the name of 



AND THE NILES. 145 

Hassan Said, was seated in a sort of box, in 
front of his shop, which was stored with 
a variety of commodities. By his side 
sat his grandson and great grandson, the 
former of whom had reached the mature 
age of twenty-five. 

Hassan, though a very intelligent old 
man, and the representative of England 
in these parts, can neither read nor write, 
He was a good ripe age when the French 
invaded Egypt, and talks very glibly about 
Napoleon and Kleber. He is reputed ex- 
tremely wealthy, and possesses a great deal of 
land, and herds of camels and shee] 
His grandson, by his direction, conducted us 
to his house, where we obtained our letters, 
and our firman, giving us permission to 
traverse Nubia. Some chairs were brought 
into the court-yard, which was cold and 
muddy ; and here we were regaled with pipes 
and coffee, both of inferior quality. 

VOL. I, L 



146 KHARTOUM 

We lost no time in looking over our 
letters, and were thus engaged, when a man 
came into the court, dressed in a short 
English pea-coat, and ci-devant fashionahle 
trowsers, the work of a Parisian artist ; and 
introduced himself as a Greek merchant, 
who could give us some information about 
the country. The fellow made the most 
extraordinary gestures I ever saw ; the atti- 
tudes he assumed were so ludicrous, that 
it was with difficulty I could refrain from 
laughing. By his own account, he was 
familiar with the route to Khartoum, and had 
often crossed the desert ; it is but justice to 
say, that when we resumed our journey, the 
information he had given us proved both 
valuable and correct. I invited him on 
board ' The Fanny' to smoke a pipe, and, on 
our way down, questioned him about the 
hippopotami and millia, on which he stopped 
in the middle of the road, and commenced a 



AND THE NILES. 147 

series of antics, illustrative of the habits of 
those animals, till all the Arab children 
within hail, though not easily aroused to 
action, came rushing up to see what was the 
matter. Then he showed me how the 
gazelle runs, and how it could best be shot, 
winding up with a lesson in camel riding, 
during which he swung himself backwards 
and forwards in the drollest manner, as if he 
were actually on a camel's back. I was glad 
to retreat to the boat, where we had two 
pipes, and talked about Khartoum, with 
illustrations by the Greek, till the subject was 
exhausted. 

Meanwhile, our Consul, being lifted on 
his ass, came down, heavy with years and 
turban, to call upon us, under the pretext of 
paying his devoir to our ladies, but his real 
mission was maraschino. The fact is, old 
Hassan is noted for his impudence, and 
his penchant for brandy, and is always on 

l 2 



148 KHARTOUM 

the look-out for presents. We gave him 
a pipe and some coffee, but he was dis- 
appointed in the brandy ; and finding, after 
an interval of about half an hour, that it was 
not forthcoming, he went off. 

In strolling through the town, I saw some 
of the dancing girls. They were standing at 
their doors, laughing and joking, and seemed 
a merry and reckless set. Their forms, more 
liberally displayed than was strictly consistent 
with Oriental decorum, seemed elastic and 
graceful, and were attired in gorgeous dresses 
of pink silk, bedizened with jewellery. 

A melancholy contrast to these nymphs 
met us on the beach — a party of wretched 
old hags, bent with age and want, and 
having their half-naked forms hung with 
rags. These were the dancing girls of a 
past age. 

By noon, Daireh, who acted as our caterer, 
had completed his purchases, and hoisting 



AND THE NILES. 149 

our sail, a mild breeze bore us away. We 
kept on our course for five hours, when we 
hauled in the sails, and anchored for the 
night. The evening passed in comparing 
notes respecting what we had seen, in 
looking over and filling up our journals, in 
making drawings, and — in talking about 
home. 

The next two days we had but little wind, 
and were obliged to resort to tacking. 
Meanwhile, one of our Arabs, whose services 
could ill be spared, went on the sick list, and 
I had a strong suspicion that he was skulk- 
ing. Whether he were or not, his docility 
and obedience to orders made him a pattern 
patient ; could we imitate the Arabs in these 
points, we should prove much less profitable 
to the doctors. He was given a dose of medi- 
cine, and kept without food for twelve hours, 
when he came aft, and petitioned for a pipe. 
This was refused, but gruel allowed, and next 



150 KHARTOUM 

day he was convalescent, and showed himself 
very alert. 

As we advanced further up the river, the 
flies, which had all along been very trouble- 
some, became a perfect torment, and so bold, 
that we had great difficulty in keeping them 
out of our eyes. The breeze dying away, 
left us completely at their mercy ; when 
evening fell, we had the mortification of 
learning that we were still two hours' sail 
from the point we had hoped to reach. 
Even the next day brought us no wind, and 
it was not till one in the afternoon that we 
anchored off a grove of sycamores, and 
turned our eyes on the majestic ruin around. 
It was Thebes ! 



AND THE NILES. 151 



CHAPTER IX. 

The Plain of Thebes. 

Many miles from the renowned city, 
we could distinguish in every direction its 
vast remains, lying about in confused heaps. 
Rounding a bend in the river, a wide plain 
extends from either bank, sweeping back to a 
range of mountains, which lock it in on every 
side. It is cultivated to the water's edge, 
and groups of date-trees rise amidst waving 
sugar-canes, or encircle the fields of golden 



152 KHARTOUM 

corn, that stretch far back, covering with 
verdure the fragments of one of the noblest 
capitals of the ancient world. 

Geologists have displayed to us the 
changes which the crust of the earth has 
undergone from a period long anterior to 
any history, sacred or profane; and have 
made known its strange inhabitants, during 
these remote times. On the surface, there 
are wonders quite as marvellous as those 
beneath it, in the various strata which 
have been created by the convulsions of 
Time, wherein are fossils, apparently as 
extravagant in their proportions, as any 
that figure in Palaeontology. Thebes stands 
prominent among the wonders of the buried 
Past — the most stupendous of the Saurians 
of history — colossal in its proportions, 
extraordinary in its character, and totally 
distinct in all its features from the cities of 
the Present. The fossils of Natural History, 



AND THE NILES. 153 

however different as organized beings from 
the fossils to which I am alluding, possess 
much similarity with them. To carry the 
simile further, Egypt may be looked upon 
as the old red sand-stone of history, abound- 
ing in traces of a remote age, and a different 
state of being. It is impossible to express 
the sensations which the modern traveller, 
with his modern sympathies and associations, 
experiences on being, for the first time, 
brought under the influence of a long-buried 
century. In gazing upon Thebes, he looks 
back upon the world some thousands of 
years. There is nothing, either in art or 
in nature, in the observation of which he is 
so completely detached from himself and his 
era. 

It was Sunday, and an atmosphere of 
silence and repose spread from one ridge 
of mountains to the other, as if the Sab- 
bath here extended even to nature. The 



154 KHARTOUM 

sun, as we advanced up the river, had 
risen slowly over the heights, breaking the 
mist into silvery fleeces, and steeping the 
lofty peaks in the most radiant tints. We saw 
the temples in the distance, looming through 
the haze, like cities of refuge ; and it seemed 
as if they would never come nearer. A 
breath of wind filled our sail, propelling 
the bark for a few moments, and inspiring 
us with new hope ; but soon we were again 
becalmed, and slowly and with difficulty 
made any progress. The telescope passed 
from hand to hand ; and as we looked 
more narrowly, the confused mass took shape 
and order, and we gazed with wonder over 
the acres of ruin, which bear the proud 
name of Karnac, to the summit of Medeenah 
Haboo, under whose picturesque crags lie 
the tombs of the kings. 

On reaching the anchorage by the famous 
sycamores, we were obliged to wait two 



AND THE N1LES. 155 

hours for ' The Eagle,' which had been left 
far in our wake ; and we spent the interval 
in making arrangements for an excursion 
on shore. At length she came up, but 
took the wrong side of the river ; and it was 
not till after considerable further delay that 
our party united, and were all safely landed. 
We were then quickly in the saddle, and 
after passing through several fields of corn 
and sugar-cane, emerged on an expanse of 
bare stony land, full of holes ; doubtless 
once smooth as a lawn, and tracked with 
the fairest avenues of the city. It now 
verges on the desert, near which is the small 
temple of Gournou — an interesting ruin, 
but from its humble dimensions, scarcely 
noticed by the traveller. After strolling 
through it, we spurred forward with increased 
impatience, and a short ride brought us to 
the Memnonium. 

The astonishment and awe which the 



156 KHARTOUM 

first view of this stupendous fabric inspires 
can scarcely be conceived. We glanced 
from one pillar to another, on every side of 
the vast area, till we became perfectly 
bewildered, and felt inclined to doubt that 
we were contemplating a work of man. 
The grandeur and magnitude of the struc- 
ture, wrought out in the minutest details, 
revealed the hand of those reckless builders 
who thought to raise " a city and a tower 
whose top should reach unto the heavens ; " 
beholding what they achieved, one hardly 
wonders at what they designed. They have, 
indeed, made themselves " a name upon the 
earth," which the storms of thirty centuries 
have failed to obliterate. The enormous 
pile, surviving the fall of thrones, and the 
extinction of races, still rears its countless 
columns, erect as cedars, and immoveable 
as rocks. Unincumbered by the heaps of 
fragments which entomb the fair proportions 



AND THE NILES. 157 

of other ancient works of art, it stands up 
in massive nakedness, invulnerable to the 
attacks of weather or the encroachments of 
time. 

The propylon, which is almost perfect, is 
covered with masterly sculpture, depicting a 
triumph of Rameses, who, is represented 
by a gigantic figure, at least thirty feet 
high. His hand grasps a club, with which 
he is in the act of smiting a number of 
comparatively pigmy captives, whose stature 
does not exceed six feet, and whom he holds 
up by their hair. His queen Amnure looks 
on with admiration, strangely blended with 
queenly dignity and repose. The effect of 
the whole is singularly grand. 

The propylon is exactly opposite the 
temple of Karnac, on the other side of the 
river ; and an avenue of sphinxes, leads from 
each edifice to the water's edge, but whether 
they were connected by a bridge or a ferry, 



158 KHARTOUM 

no fragment remains to declare. From the 
propylon we passed to a large chamber, en- 
closed by peculiarly light and graceful 
columns, the capitals of which, still in their 
prime, are ornamented with rich paintings, 
in red, green, and other bright colours, as 
fresh as though they were of yesterday's 
creation. Close by is a prodigious block of 
grey granite, which, on nearer inspection, 
proved to be a portion of the celebrated 
statue of Memnon. Its dimensions may be 
conceived from our knowledge of its weight, 
which has been computed at 887 tons. It 
was hewn in one piece out of the rocks of 
Assouan; but how it -could have been 
removed to this place, a distance of so many 
miles, is one of the mysteries of ancient 
science. The monster idol was represented 
sitting on his throne, his hands resting on 
his knees, and his face and posture im- 
pressed with majestic repose. Every morning, 



AND THE NILES. 159 

if we are to believe the testimony of certain 
chronicles, he greeted with a melodious 
welcome the rising sun, and at night 
lamented his setting, giving utterance to a 
sound full of melancholy sadness. Age 
followed age — the boundaries of nations 
were changed — empires past away — still this 
Colossus was firmly seated on a throne that 
appeared likely to last out the world. At 
length, it was overthrown by Cambyses, the 
Eastern Attila, and only the upper part of 
the statue now remains. This, however, 
sufficiently attests its once colossal propor- 
tions, and it seems likely to outlast many 
a modern monument.* 

* The remains of the statue of Memnon, as well as 
a splendid obelisk at Karnac, are, like the prostrate 
Cleopatra's Needle, the property of the English 
Government, but the wealthiest nation of the earth 
cannot afford the outlay required for their removal, 
and they are, therefore, left unclaimed. 



1 60 KHARTOUM 

The temple of Memnon, though in a state 
of exquisite preservation, was much larger 
than its present appearance suggests. Two 
only of its nine chambers now exist. A 
centre circle of columns, which marks 
another precinct, is still standing, and the 
earth is strewn with the fragments of the 
massive roof, gleaming with stars on a 
ground of deep blue. 

The sun was sinking behind the hills, 
before we could tear ourselves away, to 
finish, if possible, in one day our hurried 
inspection of the left bank of the river. 
Galloping along the stony ground between 
the Memnonium and Medeenah Haboo, we 
passed by the Sphinxes — which the receding 
waters prevented us from approaching very 
close. 

We gazed in wonder down the line, 
mutilated and deranged thought it was, 
remarking the solemn and majestic features, 



AND THE NILES. 161 

bearing the impress of their mystic character; 
and even where the face was broken, we 
could trace the same expression of thought- 
fulness and sorrow. In strange contrast 
with these wondrous ruins, hundreds of 
paddy-birds, the loveliest birds of Egypt, 
were stalking about, displaying their brilliant 
plumage in all its beauty, and hovering 
round the fallen temple like the birds which 
Jupiter called from Memnon's funeral pile, 
when it flamed on the plains of Troy. 

We soon reached Medeenah Haboo, which 
is almost buried by the modern buildings 
that surround it. After scrambling over 
heaps of crude bricks and mud walls, we at 
last gained entrance to one of the largest 
and most interesting of the Egyptian 
monuments. It consists of the usual 
propylon and several chambers beyond, one 
of which is more than one hundred and 
twenty feet square. 

VOL. I. M 



162 KHARTOUM 

This spacious area was once encompassed 
by two rows of pillars, measuring in cir- 
cumference almost as much as in height ; 
many of them still stand erect. In the 
midst are the remains of an early Christian 
church, the unpretending dimensions of 
which contrast strongly with the vastness 
and solemn grandeur of the surrounding 
structures. But the church is characteristic 
of the faith that was taught within its 
walls : that had its origin in simplicity, 
modesty and humility. It was left for 
later times to make the worship greater 
than the God, and the temple a grand 
accessory in establishing the deification of 
the priest. 

While strolling through the chambers, 
some Arabs, with a great show of secrecy 
(the sale of ancient reliques being prohibited 
by the Government), offered us a number 
of rings, scarabaei. and other antiquarian 



AND THE NILES. 163 

treasures, which, however, our dragoman, 
Daireh, pronounced to he "no original, all 
home manufacture," and there was no 
denying that they wore a very Brummagem 
look. We procured some, however, of a 
less questionable character, among which 
was a mummy hand — the hand of a young 
girl, looking painfully perfect, though dug 
up, we learnt, only a few days previously 
from its tomb of three thousand years. 
What if it were the hand of a Pharoah's 
daughter — perhaps a sister of Thermeuthis, 
who looked on when the favoured child, 
the future lawgiver of Judah, was rescued 
from his ark on the Nile! It may, in its 
day, have a crowd of suitors, and power 
to interpose between life and death ; now 
— none so poor to do it reverence ! 

We left the temple just in time to see 
the sun sink behind the hills, leaving his 
last beams on their craggy points, and 

M 2 



1 64 KHARTOUM 

casting a gleam of light far beyond, on 
the hoary walls of Karnac and Luxor. In 
a few minutes more, the Union-Jack, which 
floated proudly over our boats, was hauled 
down, and the shadows of evening began to 
creep over the plain. We had no time to 
lose, and therefore started at once for the 
anchorage. 

On our way, we were overtaken by 
two Bedouins, mounted on camels, which 
bore them quickly past. As we were now 
shortly to adopt the same mode of transit, 
when we should commence the passage of 
the desert, our eyes followed them, as they 
rode on, with the greatest interest ; but 
their forms gradually grew more and more 
shadowy, and, before long, were lost in 
darkness. 



AND THE NILES. 165 



CHAPTER X. 

Karnac and Luxor. 

A brilliant Egyptian morning succeeded 
our visit to the left bank of the river, and 
found our boats moored, pursuant to a plan 
previously arranged, under the opposite 
shore, close to the frowning ruins of Luxor. 
A fresh breeze came cheerily up the stream, 
as if to tempt us onward ; but not the sweet 
south, stealing o'er a bank of violets, could 
that day have lured us from Thebes. The 



166 KHARTOUM 

sky was cloudless, as it ever is here, for in 
Egypt at this season there are neither clouds 
nor rain. Indeed the fertilizing shower so 
precious in other regions, is not required in 
such a region as this, where art irrigates the 
thirsty soil with its thousands of sluices, 
drawn from the inexhaustible Nile. In 
Egypt all is the Nile. 

Our two captains w T ould gladly have 
prevailed upon us to take advantage of the 
fair w T ind, and push forward ; deferring the 
inspection of the remaining section of Thebes 
for our way down — an arrangement fre- 
quently made by travellers, though it leaves 
too much to be done — almost a surfeit of 
temples and tombs in a very limited period, 
while the curiosity is tantalized during the 
first part of the voyage. At the same 
time, progress, when there is a favourable 
breeze, is only too agreeable to the crews, 
who abhtr the labour of tracking, and like 



AND THE NILES. 167 

to take advantage of the wind when it blows. 
The dragoman, equally eager to proceed, lends 
his powerful aid to the conspiracy, and 
the traveller usually yields. In our case, 
however, all pleaded in vain, happily as on 
our return we did not even land, and it was 
determined to devote the day to Thebes. 

We soon completed our equipment, which 
included the very important item of water, 
secreted from light and heat in a capacious 
" goolah," — a kind of bottle, made of un- 
dressed clay, in which, when wrapt round 
with a wet towel, let the sun blaze as it may, 
the water lies as cool and as fresh as in a 
well. All travellers, particularly if they 
meditate a journey beyond Wady Haifa, 
should provide themselves with a good 
supply of these bottles at Keneh, where they 
are made, as it is impossible to procure them 
afterwards, and the want of them would 



1 68 KHARTOUM 

be severely felt. We found ours invaluable 
and in the desert they were a never-failing 
spring, yielding us delicious draughts of cool 
and sweet water, during a scorching torrid 
heat, under which we must have sunk but 
for such aid. So useful had they been, that 
when we learnt, towards the end of our south- 
ward journey, that our last goolah was 
broken, we felt as though we had lost a 
friend, and it was long before we could bring 
ourselves to endure the warm and nauseous 
water which swung in leather bottles at our 
saddle-bows. 

Daireh wiled away the time, as we pro- 
ceeded, with reminiscences of his former 
visits to Thebes ; and we were much amused 
by his anecdotes of gentlemen sallying forth, 
like knights-errant, armed with dagger and 
pistol, in search of adventures for their 
journals, and finding none. In fact, Egypt 



AND THE NILES. 169 

under Abbas Pasha, has become so pro- 
vokingly quiet, that a second Don Quixote 
might traverse the whole country without 
finding occasions for the display of his 
valour. 

We deferred visiting Luxor till our return, 
and galloping through some fields of wild 
grass, came out on a wide tract savouring 
more of the neighbourhood of Birmingham 
than of Thebes. This is the site of a 
large powder manufactory; we found whole 
acres covered with heaps of charcoal, 
while a number of Arabs, whose dark skins 
were perfectly coated with grime, moved to 
and fro like so many demons. A powder 
manufactory on the sight of ancient Thebes, 
overlooked by the propylon of Karnac ! 
The sublime and matter-of-fact in singularly 
close conjunction. But such are the meta- 
morphoses of Time. In some future age 



1 70 KHARTOUM 

perhaps, the gunpowder manufactory may 
give place to a Club for the use of the 
Peace Congress. 

Clearing this Cimmerian waste, we ar- 
rived at Karnac, the grandest and most 
renowned ruin of Egypt. It is approached 
through an avenue of sphinxes, of which 
nothing remains but the mutilated bodies, half 
embedded in sand. This leads to a triumphal 
arch of extreme beauty, covered with hiero- 
glyphics and sculpture, in many parts still 
fresh and perfect. Beyond is a wide tract of 
ruin, heaped with blocks of time-worn stone, 
of extraordinary magnitude, each weigh- 
ing several tons; while, here and there, a 
few columns stand up, transformed from 
decorations of a populous city, to be 
monuments of a deserted sepulchre. Hence 
the spectator, passes to " the grand hall of 
the temple," — a noble area, surrounded by a 



AND THE NILES. 1 71 

forest of columns, rising to the height of 
eighty feet. Right and left, at each point 
of the compass, the eye is carried down 
vistas of pillars, uniform in height and 
girth, and differing only in the quaint 
and grotesque capital. Occasionally the 
order is broken by a column half impending, 
but held up by a monster block, which 
attaches it by its weight to the roof. Many 
of the blocks composing this roof have 
fallen, and through the apertures the eye 
comes on the clear blue sky, that lights up 
the vivid colours immediately beneath, leav- 
ing only gloomy shadows beyond. At the 
end rise up walls twenty-five feet in thick- 
ness, from which colossal stones have 
fallen, forming a sort of ascent almost to 
the roof. Here a boundless prospect is 
opened, and vast ruins, now grouped in 
perfect order, now thrown in mighty heaps, 



172 KHARTOUM 

rear themselves on every side. There was 
something even touching in the spectacle 
presented at intervals, of a solitary pillar, 
the last vestige of a court or vestibule, 
standing up amidst mounds of prostrate 
and crumbling fragments, while far in the 
distance rose two triumphal arches, once 
entrances to the temple. 

We stood in silence on the roof, and 
looked round in wonder and awe. We 
felt that it was a time and place for 
reflection. It afforded us an opportunity 
from the world of the Present to look back 
upon the world of the Past — to contrast 
a period of the highest social elevation, and 
intellectual development, with another marked 
by the most degraded slavery and the most 
intense ignorance — a state of existence en- 
joying the advantages of railway travelling, 
steam voyaging, and electric communication, 



AND THE NILES. 173 

contrasted with one which wrapped every 
phase of life in mystery, and shrouded all 
the better impulses of humanity in a 
darkness more gloomy than that of the 
grave. 

At length we tore ourselves from Karnac, 
and rode home by Luxor, which is ap- 
proached through a village of wretched 
hovels, branching off from the magnificent 
obelisk presented by the Pasha to the 
English government, is the companion to 
that erected in the Place de la Concorde, at 
Paris. This obelisk is of red granite, hewn 
out of the rocks of Assouan, and is covered 
with symbolic sculptures and hieroglyphics. 
The propylon follows, opening on the temple, 
now so completely perverted to modern 
purposes, that it famishes a site and 
materials for a mosque, which is reared 
against a part of its wall, and rests its little 



1 74 KHARTOUM 

weight on several of its columns. We 
found the place a perfect hive of Arab 
children, mingling in happy harmony with 
sheep, kids, and fowls ; while howling 
dogs, mounted on every heap and wall, kept 
up an incessant barking. 

Beyond the mosque are many ancient 
chambers, and spacious areas, crowded with 
lofty and colossal pillars, which open on a 
colonnade of great beauty, formed of noble 
and very massive columns. This is the most 
striking part of Luxor, and is peculiar, 
as no vestige of wall remains. When the 
ground was unencumbered with rubbish, so 
grand a range of pillars, extending over 
such a space, must have had a singularly 
imposing effect from the Nile ; but it is now 
intercepted by a mountain of sand and 
fragments, choking up numerous chambers, 
and almost shutting out the river. We 



AND THE NILES. 175 

had hardly time to scramble through 
all these marvels ; for the sun, our 
real cicerone, was fast sinking to a level 
with the hill, and we were soon warned to 
withdraw. 

At six we returned on board ; the dozing 
crew, lying on the deck, wrapped up in their 
coarse blankets, were aroused, and the boats 
were cast from their moorings. ' The 
Fanny' swung slowly round the creek of 
Luxor ; the large sail was unloosed to the 
too eager breeze, and she darted off. As 
' The Eagle' wore after her consort, we all 
assembled under her awning, and turned 
our lingering eyes on the classic shore. 
The stupendous obelisk of Luxor, and the 
propylon of Karnac, loomed up against the 
blue sky, as the last gleam of sunlight 
crowned them with gold, and a solemn 
hush seemed to fall on the scene. The 



176 KHARTOUM 

Union-jack was hauled slowly down, and 
'The Fanny/ obedient to the concerted 
signal, struck her flag at the same moment. 
The sun had set ! 



AND THE NILES, 177 



CHAPTER XL 

Esneh — Dancing girls — Mehemet Ali — Summary- 
justice — The mountain of the Chain — Angling in 
the Nile — A battle with the natives. 

Our dragoman, Daireh, had made a 
solemn prediction, that the favourable breeze, 
which lasted all the time we lingered at 
Thebes, would, on the morrow, entirely die 
away ; and though modern prophesies are 
seldom realized, the result proved him a 

VOL. I. N 



178 KHARTOUM 

complete Murphy. For two days we were 
becalmed, and with our utmost efforts, could 
only accomplish ten miles. But the morn- 
ing of the third brought out iEolus once 
more, and the huge sail swelled to the wind, 
and bore us rapidly on. Gradually the 
breeze increased, and the water became quite 
troubled, making the motion extremely 
disagreeable. This lasted till three o'clock, 
when we arrived at Esneh, distant from 
Thebes between fifty and sixty miles ; 
here we anchored, being under an engage- 
ment to remain twenty-four hours, that 
our crews might bake a fresh supply of 
bread. 

Esneh is, in point of size, a town of 
some importance, but has little else to 
recommend it. It is the Egyptian Botany 
Bay, — all loose and depraved characters 
being sent there from Cairo. We had 



AND THE NILES. 179 

a glimpse of the staple of the population in 
some dancing-girls, who, immediately on our 
arrival, came down to the shore, and danced 
for some time before our boat. The per- 
formance was anything but graceful, and by 
no means delicate. All the time it lasted, 
these Eastern Undines kept up an incessant 
cry for baksheesh, making our ears ring 
with their voices ; and certainly, if a douceur 
could ever be turned to account, baksheesh 
would have been well bestowed in getting 
rid of them. 

Soon afterwards we had a visit from a 
person of a different stamp, but who was 
scarcely less importunate. This was an 
officer in the service of the Governor, who, 
with as little ceremony as can well be ima- 
gined, quietly ensconced himself in our 
cabin, and seemed determined on retaining 
possession. He was very inquisitive, asking 

N 2 



1 80 KHARTOUM 

questions with American avidity, and took a 
strange fancy, which he by no means strove 
to conceal, to everything his eye fell upon. 
One moment he wished to be presented 
with our rifles ; the next, he begged hard for 
the inkstand ; and what was more amusing, 
refusal made not the least impression upon 
him. It was with some difficulty that, after 
repeated efforts, we got rid of him, at last, 
with the help of some cigars and a little 
wine. 

The people on shore were at the same 
pitch of barbarism ; on going over the 
town, we were mobbed in every street, 
while swarms of children, who followed in 
the background, cheered us in the most 
vehement manner. This did not prevent 
our visiting the various places of resort, and 
I had the satisfaction of hunting out a 
temple, which almost escapes the notice of 



AND THE NILES. 181 

travellers, and is not mentioned in the guide- 
books with sufficient praise. It is approached 
from the bazaar, on emerging from which it 
presents itself. Thirty-six lofty and massive 
columns, with capitals of distinct orders, 
support the roof, which is entire, and in 
beautiful preservation. Three of the sides, 
embellished with hieroglyphics, both in- 
dented and in relief, are also standing ; and, 
having been cleaned by Mehemet Ali, look 
amazingly fresh. The columns are extremely 
grand, and are untainted by the grotesque. 
Antiquaries, fix the date of the structure 
at about a.d. 20, which would make it 
of Roman origin ; and from the unique 
character and beauty of the architecture, 
superior to anything we had yet seen, 
we were inclined to concur in their verdict. 

Esneh also boasts a royal palace, which, 
as one of the retreats of the renowned Me- 



182 KHARTOUM 

hemet Ali, we could not leave unvisited. 
It is a quiet little villa, furnished with in- 
numerable divans, and painted and decorated 
in the usual manner. In one of the rooms 
we found a handsome French bedstead, 
which seemed strangely out of place, the rest 
of the furniture being so essentially Oriental. 
The grounds, though not extensive, are laid 
out in good taste, and include a tolerable 
kitchen-garden. In the time of Mehemet 
Ali, they were kept in admirable order, 
though on one occasion, arriving unex- 
pectedly, the great Pasha found they had 
been neglected, and sending for the Governor 
of Esneh, admonished him to take care this 
did not occur again, giving him two hundred 
lashes with the bastinado to impress it on 
his memory. The lesson had its effect, and 
there never was any further cause for com- 
plaint. 



AND THE NILES. 183 

We were much concerned, in our way 
through the town, to observe the numbers 
of men who had maimed or mutilated them- 
selves to escape the hateful yoke of the con- 
scription. So great is the repugnance to 
this cruel servitude, that in Esneh there is 
scarcely one man in five, between the ages 
of twenty and fifty, who has not been 
hideously disfigured by his own hand. Some 
have deprived themselves of an eye ; others 
have torn out their teeth ; and several, more 
desperate, have chopped off their fingers, or 
their good right hand. Such are the horrors 
of Eastern despotism ! 

It was nearly five o'clock before we could 
get away from Esneb, when the wind, which 
had been pretty steady hitherto, began to 
fall, and our progress became slow. On the 
two following days we had a succession of 
little breezes, carrying us on a few miles, and 



184 KHARTOUM 

then dying away. The second evening 
brought us to Gebel-Silsilus, or the Mountain 
of the Chain, where, according to Arab 
authorities, one of the ancient kings fixed 
a chain across the river, and exacted toll of 
all vessels passing beneath. Here we went 
on shore, and climbing a lofty hill, obtained 
a commanding view of the desert, which 
stretched far away on either side, while the 
Nile, girded with a narrow strip of vegetation, 
growing every moment "beautifully less," 
lay stretched out below. The desert was 
not the boundless, unbroken plain of sand 
of our home traditions ; and ridge upon 
ridge of towering hills met our eyes, 
following at intervals upon each other, nearly 
all crowned with the tomb of a Sheik, which 
in the distance formed a most picturesque 
object. There was one of these rude 
memorials on the hill where we stood ; and 



AND THE NILES. 185 

a few of our sailors, who had followed us up 
from the boat, deposited some five para-pieces 
in its centre heap, as an offering to the 
mouldering bones beneath. 

While our boats were at anchor, we made 
some experiments in fishing, and not 
without a degree of success. First we 
hooked up a turtle, eighteen inches long, and 
weighing twelve lbs., which our ingenious 
Abbas very soon converted into capital soup. 
Our next prize was a more startling one, 
though no great delicacy, being nothing less 
than an alligator-lizard, about four feet long, 
supposed by the ignorant natives to be the 
product of an addled crocodile's egg. We 
preserved its skin as a trophy. 

These tranquil occupations were inter- 
rupted by a dire uproar, such as would have 
disturbed the serenity even of Izaak Walton. 
Our two crews, like all Arabs, had very 



186 KHARTOUM 

imperfect perceptions of meum and tuum, 
and in this respect, were aptly described by 
the dragoman as " very rascal people." It 
was their constant practice, whenever an 
opportunity presented itself, to carry off from 
the shore every fragment of wood they could 
lay their hands on, wholly regardless as to 
who was the lawful owner ; and on the 
present occasion, being hard pushed for 
fire-wood, and finding nothing portable, they 
had pounced upon a shadoof, at that moment 
actually in operation, and brought it bodily 
off. This outrage aroused the indignation 
of some labourers, by whom it had been 
observed, and they collected on the shore, 
demanding restitution. Our men, however, 
were in no mood for it — stripping to the 
waist, they snatched their sticks from the 
boat, and announced their determination to 
retain their spoil. On this, the enraged 



AND THE MILES. 187 

labourers set up a yell, that would have done 
honour to Tipperary, at the same time 
throwing handfuls of dust in the air, which, 
I presume, is the Egyptian mode of declaring 
war, being invariably followed by an on- 
slaught. The tocsin sounded by their voices 
elicited a prompt response ; and from every 
quarter — 

" On right, on left, above, below, 
Sprang up at once the lurking foe." 

At least fifty half-naked savages came rush- 
ing down, armed with murderous-looking clubs, 
and not a few with spears, while one gaunt 
fellow, a very Ramesis in stature, ostenta- 
tiously brandished a sword. They made a 
desperate attempt to board the boat, but 
were driven off, when the fight was con- 
tinued in a cotton-field, the owner of which, 



1S8 KHARTOUM 

a poor, inoffensive old man, had his arm 
broken in the melee. At length, the enemy 
gave way, though not till we had lost a 
tarboosh, belonging to one of the crew, 
that was displayed as a trophy by its 
captor, who, however, made an overture for 
the suspension of hostilities. Orders had 
already been given to restore the shadoof; 
and, now that a truce was established, it 
was most amusing to see some of our men, 
who were natives of this part of the country, 
recognizing brothers and kinsmen among 
their antagonists, and kissing them in the 
most loving manner. To render the spec- 
tacle more ludicrous, these fraternizing war- 
riors exhibited on their faces significant 
tokens of each other's prowess. On the 
whole, however, the casualties were slight. 
Our dragoman, who greatly distinguished 
himself, received a blow in the height of the 



AND THE NrLES. 189 

combat, from one of his own comrades, 
which sprained his wrist ; and our two 
captains were both severely bruised. One 
had maintained, for some time, an unequal 
contest with an Arab, armed with an axe, 
which he most adroitly parried with a stick, 
though, with all his dexterity, it frequently 
came much too near his head. But the 
occurrence, however annoying in some re- 
spects, taught all a lesson, and strict orders 
were issued that no such provocation should 
be given again, and no more wood stolen. 
Meanwhile, peace was re-established, and all 
but the crew and two or three of their 
friends dispersed, leaving the shore de- 
serted — 

" It seemed as if their mother earth 
Had swallowed up her warlike birth." 

A light wind brought us next morning to 



190 KHARTOUM 

Assouan, after a passage of twenty-seven days 
from Cairo — an average run, the range of 
passages being from twenty-one days to 
thirty-one. 



AND THE NILES. 191 



CHAPTER XII. 

Assouan — The treaty with the Reis — The quarries 
— The Persian invasion — Caravan of slaves — 
Hunting for jackals — Daireh's love story. 

The approach to Assouan is through a 
scene singularly beautiful. The river, sweep- 
ing abruptly round, opens into a kind of bay, 
shut in by the picturesque island of Elephan- 
tina, and terminated by high, bold rocks, 
looking like the boundaries of a lake. As- 
souan lies, like a nest, under towering crags, 



192 KHARTOUM 

crowned with ruins, the remains of a town 
of importance, and is itself a village of some 
pretensions. It is on the left bank of the 
river, here much contracted, entering upon a 
region of a totally different character. The 
prospect from the heights is of great extent, 
and surpassing interest, including a wide 
sweep of Egypt and Nubia — countries most 
distinct in their features — and a noble expanse 
of wood and water, hill and lowland, in the 
midst of which lie the lovely shades of 
Elephantina. 

We had arranged to receive our letters at 
Assouan ; and after being so long without 
intelligence from home, and a full month 
having elapsed since we had even seen a 
European face, we were most impatient to 
ascertain what awaited us. We were soon 
on our way to the Post-office, where the post- 
master, a fine old Arab, received us very 



AND THE NILES. 193 

courteously, and produced two budgets of 
letters and a copy of the " Times," for which 
we paid the not unreasonable charge of six 
shillings and sixpence. These treasures had 
been brought from Cairo overland, by pedes- 
trian messengers, called runners, who relieved 
one another at stated distances ; and the 
packets had been fingered by every Pasha 
and Bey of the various towns on the route. 
The " Times" was a month old, but quite 
fresh to us ; even the advertisements were 
devoured, and proved tolerably digestible. 

Assouan is the porch to the first cataract 
of the Nile; and our news from England 
was scarcely discussed, when the cataract 
authorities, ever alive to business, paid us a 
visit, and set to work to get as high a price 
as possible for carrying us over. One would 
have supposed, however, from the tenor of 
their conversation, that such a project was 

vol. I. o 



194 KHARTOUM 

the very furthest from their thoughts, and 
it was long before they could be entrapped 
into the most remote allusion to it. Daireh 
predicted that the negotiation would last 
three days ; but we were determined, if our 
united tact could accomplish it, to finish all 
at one sitting. Pipes and coffee were in- 
troduced, and the most alluring hints thrown 
out ; but the Reis of the cataract, who saw 
a trap in every word, would speak of any- 
thing but what he had come about. At 
length, he remarked, with great gravity and 
decision, that it was quite out of the question 
to think of taking our boat up, as it was 
too large, and could not possibly be got over. 
Hereupon the bargaining commenced, and 
after a contest of two hours' duration, it was 
definitively settled that we should be taken 
up the cataract on the morrow, and let down 
on our return, for the sum of £7, being 
£3 10s. for each boat. 



AND THE NILES. 195 

While the various articles of this im- 
portant treaty were being discussed, a crowd 
collected in front of the boats on shore, 
gradually increasing to several hundreds, and 
giving great animation to the scene. Some 
had friends among our crews, a few of whom, 
as old hands, had ascended the cataract 
again and again ; and these kept up a 
dialogue of the most sprightly character. 
Others were connected with the Reis of the 
cataract, or felt interested in the negotiation ; 
and many were venders of articles of vertu, 
as it is understood here, embracing in their 
stock an assortment of spears and clubs, 
ostrich eggs and feathers, and some genuine 
modern antiquities, among which I noticed 
the blade of a knife, marked with the hiero- 
glyphics of Rogers & Co. But as soon 
as the contract was settled, the Reis took 
his departure, and the crowd dispersed. 

o 2 



196 KHARTOUM 

In the afternoon, when the heat of the 
day had subsided, we rode out to the quarries 
of red granite and sienite, which are a short 
distance from the village, on the other side of 
the Nile. The excavations are on a scale com- 
mensurate with the vast works they were 
destined to construct, and the rocks have 
been hewn out as easily as if they had 
been clay. The wedge, which seems to have 
been used from the earliest ages, was the 
great power in requisition for such service. 
When the block was marked out by wedges, 
water was poured in, which, causing the wood 
to swell, the rock burst asunder, and gave forth 
material for a column, or a god. The 
shattered heights are covered with rude 
inscriptions, referring to blocks cut out, 
and some commemorating victories of the 
ancient Pharoahs, by whose command the 
excavations were made. All seems as if it 



AND THE NILES. 197 

were the creation of yesterday ; as if the 
artificers, called off by some emergency, 
had but just left their mighty labour. 
Even the traces of the wooden wedges are 
still apparent in the rocks ; and the obelisk 
which was hewn out for removal, but in con- 
sequence of some flaw not taken away, still 
stands where it was left by the workmen. 
The excavations are said to have been arrested 
by the Persian Conquest, which, at the same 
time, overthrew the proud temples they had 
helped to raise, and heaped the country with 
ruins. It would almost seem, on glancing round, 
that the same imperious hand had diverted 
the natural course of the river, as a strip of 
desert lies between the quarries and the high 
ground near the water, strewn with enormous 
boulders, looking as though they had but just 
been washed from the heights by some 
resistless torrent, while the Nile forces a 



198 KHARTOUM 

passage over rocks beyond, forming the first 
cataract. But this may appear an idle 
speculation, and standing here, only one 
problem presents itself — how such stupen- 
dous blocks, cut in one mass from the 
quarries, could be removed to such a 
distance as Thebes? The exact means of 
transit indeed must ever remain a mystery, 
but it seems certain that they were conveyed 
by land ; and Herodotus, who took infinite 
pains to arrive at the truth, mentions that 
two thousand men were employed three 
years in transporting one block to its 
destination. 

It was with some reluctance that we 
turned from these strange diggings, and 
retraced our steps to the boats. On our 
way we descried a covey of partridges, the 
first we had yet seen, but which proved 
the harbingers of many others. Fortune, 



AND THE NILES. 199 

however, delights in cross-purposes, and 
it so happened that this was the only time 
we had come on shore without our guns, 
being utterly weary of carrying fire-arms 
for no purpose. But we had now a 
prospect before us, and for the future went 
prepared. 

Just before reaching the boats, we came 
upon a large party of female slaves, on 
their way down to Cairo, where, in the 
lottery of the slave-market, they were to 
pass to new masters. They were penned 
like sheep in a range of little huts, formed 
by hanging matting round a clump of palm 
trees, which spread their grateful shade 
above. It was most amusing, as we drew 
near, to see the rush they made to gain 
cover, and how they ducked their heads 
under the matting, to avoid being seen, 
though curiosity, the weak point of the 



200 KHARTOUM 

sex, brought up again many a pair of bright 
eyes, to look at us as we passed. They were 
nearly all young girls, varying in age from 
twelve to sixteen ; and a merrier set could 
not be met with. The woods rang with 
their pleasant laughter ; and one might have 
thought — what perhaps was not very far 
from the truth — that in place of now entering 
the house of bondage, they had left it 
behind in their own country. Their masters, 
from all we could learn, are uniformly kind 
to them; and whenever we encountered a 
party, we found that the girls were much 
attached to the head of their caravan. The 
bevy we now saw was from Abyssinia — 
whence, indeed, most of the female slaves 
of Egypt are drawn — and was destined, as 
the Abyssinian girls usually are, for the 
Turkish hareems, or as wives of shop-keepers 
and affluent Arabs. Their colour was a 



AND THE NILES. 201 

glossy black ; they were exceedingly well 
made, and had bright cheerful faces, lit up 
by sparkling black eyes. They all seemed 
very shy, and could not be induced to 
come out of their huts, or even to let us 
approach them. There was but one who 
showed more confidence, a very fine young 
woman, apparently about twenty-five years 
of age, who brought out her baby, a most 
beautiful child, almost a Murillo in colour, 
and exquisitely formed. We offered to 
purchase it, but, though she seemed nattered, 
the mother's heart clung to her child, and 
she could not be tempted to part with it. 
We gave her some money for grease, which 
had an immediate effect on her spirits, and 
then left her, the envy of the whole sister- 
hood. 

In the evening we went out with our 
guns, and accompanied by a guide, in 



202 KHARTOUM 

quest of jackals, which he undertook to 
find for us. It was quite dark, and 
we walked silently along, in Indian file, 
over the hill, keeping both eye and ear 
on the alert, and our guns ready for 
service. We soon discovered traces of the 
enemy, and heard his wailing cry, but 
this was the limit of our success. The 
moon rising, rendered it light as day ; and 
though our companion, putting a good face 
on the matter, was still profuse in promises, 
it required no long time to convince us 
that there was but little chance of our 
obtaining any sport. The pursuit, however, 
had not been unattended with excitement, 
and we were amply compensated for our 
walk by the brilliant landscape, which, in that 
mystic light, surpassed anything that could 
be imagined. 

Returning on board, we found that the 



AND THE MLES. 203 

crew had retired, and all was made snug 
for the night. Daireh, our dragoman, was 
lying on his rug at the cabin-door, his 
usual resting-place, and was half asleep ; 
but quickly aroused himself, and in another 
moment was seen smoking. The two 
watchers were amusing each other by 
recounting the Arabian Nights ; and Daireh, 
between the long puffs of his pipe, translated 
one story, recording the eventful fortunes of 
the prince who was carried off from 
Damascus in his drawers, in the dead hour 
of the night. From this, being in a 
communicative mood, he turned to some 
incidents of his own life, and then related 
how he first fell in love, and with what 
result, expressing himself with indescribable 
delicacy and feeling. 

Poor Daireh, it should seem, was attending 
a traveller in the Syrian desert, when they 



204 KHARTOUM 

encountered a large caravan of slaves, one 
of whom, a lovely young girl, who had seen 
some fifteen summers, won the dragoman's 
heart. He described her as very fair, with 
beautiful soft eyes, like a gazelle's, and raven 
hair, and as having a light, ringing laugh, 
which struck on his ear like music. All 
at once, Daireh discovered that he should 
be very lonely when he returned home, 
and he mentioned the subject to his master, 
who, with the sagacity of Achitophel, re- 
commended marriage. Accordingly, Daireh, 
only too eager, went to the head of the 
caravan, and bought the girl for fifteen 
pounds, on which, with a delicacy very 
foreign to the usages of his country, he 
asked her to marry him, at the same 
time telling her that she was perfectly 
free, and could act as her own choice 
directed. Even if she could, under such 



AND THE NILES. 205 

circumstances, have hesitated, a tempting 
promise of the dresses and delicate food, 
with which Daireh adroitly backed his offer, 
was irresistible, and the fair enslaver gave a 
glad consent. They were married at Bey rout, 
and thence proceeded to Cairo, where, having 
a competent income, they lived very happily 
for two years, in the course of which Daireh 
was presented with a very fine boy, on whom 
both he and the fond mother centred all their 
hopes. Now came the blight on the honest 
dragoman's life. The child sickened and died ! 
It was most touching to hear the poor 
fellow describe, in his mournful tones, how 
he had tried to console and support his 
wife under their sad bereavement. Like all 
the women of the East, she had a passion 
for dress, and he thought to win her from 
her sorrow by costly, presents ; but the time 
was gone when, in the freedom of a happy 



206 KHARTOUM 

heart, such things could bring light to her 
eye, or a smile to her lip. Her tears still 
flowed, and the world, which had just before 
been so full of promise, had for her lost 
all its charms. Her heart was weary and 
heavy-laden, and pined for that last resting- 
place, which held in its cold embrace her 
buried treasure. On the third day the 
poor mourner died. 

Such was Daireh's tale, evincing a tender- 
ness and a flow of sentiment which seemed 
quite incongruous in one of his race and 
caste. Who, under so rugged an exterior, 
would have looked for the pearl of genu- 
ine love, or the cherished memories of 
a secret sorrow? But nature asserts her 
sway under every peculiarity ; and savage 
indeed is the bosom that is not moved 
in some way by the impulses of human 
kindness ! 



AND THE NILES. 207 

I could offer him no consolation, when 
he had finished his story, though I felt, 
without a word being said, that his emotion 
was all the more painful for being repressed. 
Perhaps the unwonted stillness, and the 
solemn repose of the surrounding scene, 
resplendent with almost unearthly light, 
were more in unison with his feelings, 
and exercised over him both a soothing 
and consoling influence, He finished his 
pipe in silence, when I bade him good 
night, and left him to his reflections. 



20 S KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER XIII. 



Philse. 



Eight o'clock on the following morning 
brought us the various authorities of the 
cataract, eager to secure their prize ; and 
we instantly set sail, beating up the river 
with a fair wind, without which it would 
have been impossible to force our way 
against the current. The Nile, hitherto 
as broad as an estuarv, is here very narrow, 



AND THE NILES. 209 

and strewn with islands and shoals. The 
richly-cultivated banks, the groves of palm 
and date trees, the busy shadoofs, and 
the troops of husbandmen, giving such 
animation to the scene, have vanished; and 
in their place, we now see a wild and desolate 
shore, choked with sand-banks, over which 
frown high precipitous rocks. Though 
attended with danger, the passage was full 
of novelty, which made it agreeable and 
nature appeared more striking in her naked 
grandeur and simplicity Perhaps a sense 
of peril was not without effect on the crew ; 
I never, during our stay in Egypt, knew 
Arabs so quiet, and never saw them so active 
and prompt. 

At every turn, there was something to 
excite new caution ; and the river, opening 
like a lake, wound its way through banks 
and rocks, where the least oversight would 

VOL. i. p 



♦210 KHARTOUM 

have led to the most disastrous con- 
sequences. In these intricate channels 
the steering was inimitable, and showed 
a thorough mastery of the navigation. The 
water, usually so smooth and gentle, had 
become a rapid, and in mid-channel dashed 
along like a torrent ; but our boats pushed 
on, and stemmed it bravely. Once only 
a fall of about two feet impeded their pro- 
gress, but the Sheik, with surprising alert- 
ness, immediately sprang overboard, and 
with a rope over his neck, made his way 
through the current to a small rock, round 
which he fastened the rope, and then pulled 
us on. In two hours a sweep in the 
river opened the view to some distance, and 
we came in sight of the cataract, pouring 
down its volume of water in a sheet of foam, 
which sparkled in the sun like light. We 
now drew on one side, and anchored under 



AND THE NILES. 211 

the lee of an island, whose eastern shore, 
girded by bold and rugged rocks, forms 
one of the barriers of the cataract. 

At this place we expected, according to 
our agreement with the Sheik, to find a 
number of natives assembled, for the purpose 
of dragging us up the falls ; but, of course, 
not a solitary individual could be seen. The 
Sheik, who was one of the coolest fellows 
imaginable, understood all this, and very 
deliberately went on shore, loaded with 
the imprecations of the crew, to enlist 
the men whom he had promised to have 
awaiting us on the spot. We found, there- 
fore, that grumbling w T ould have no effect, 
and that we must be content to remain 
stationary for the next tw T enty-four hours, as 
there was not the least chance of our being 
able to proceed earlier. 

The scenery w T as such as might have re- 

p 2 



212 KHARTOUM 

conciled us to a longer sojourn, and the eye 
was never weary of its attractions, glancing 
from the whirl of waters, as they dashed 
over the fall, to the abutting rocks, which 
reared their flinty summits in a thousand 
fantastic shapes, or at the little islands 
further down, rising from the rapid waves 
through a framework of lupins and beans, 
with their gay blossoms washed by the 
stream. But we were impatient to visit 
a spot, pre-eminent even here for its beauty 
and renown. Philae, was only a short dis- 
tance above the cataract, and we determined 
to spend the day in an excursion to its 
shores. 

Our two jolly-boats were hoisted over the 
cataract in a quiet way, with the greatest 
facility, and now awaited us just beyond. 
We walked round, and on reaching the ren- 
dezvous, were surprised to find that, not- 



AND THE NILES. 213 

withstanding our unobtrusive movements, a 
crowd had assembled to see us set off. 
There were the usual venders of antiquities 
and ostrich eggs, and all the idlers the 
neighbourhood could furnish. Some, who 
could devise no other means of laying us 
under contribution, proposed to swim across 
the river, at the point where the current was 
most violent, for the smallest consideration 
imaginable ; and it was with difficulty we 
escaped from their overtures. No feat they 
could perform in the water would have ex- 
cited our astonishment, being aware, from 
what we had seen on our way up, that 
habit had made it almost their element. 
As we shoved off, we saw a woman ferrying 
herself over on a plank, which she moved 
along by paddling her feet, at the same time 
bearing an enormous load of grass on her 
head. It was amazing to see how com- 



2 1 4 KHARTOUM 

posedly she sat, while piloting herself among 
the roeks and reefs, and supporting such a 
heavy weight. 

The river here opens into innumerable 
little creeks and channels, flanked by rocks, 
which assume at a distance the appearance 
of temples, and on coming nearer, are found 
to impend over the water in the most singu- 
lar manner, as if the slightest touch would 
hurl them down. Through this romantic 
avenue the traveller obtains his first glimpse 
of Philse, which rises up out of the deep-blue 
of the Nile, its whole front covered by the 
temple, the chaste columns and granite walls 
of which are overshadowed by trees. 

On either side, the main land is embanked 
by mighty boulders, piled up with such a 
show of art, and so much precision, it is 
difficult to believe that they have been thrown 
there by the hand of Nature. 



AND THE NILES. 215 

One immense heap surprized us greatly. 
It was by far the highest, and rose at the 
summit in the form of a triangle — one half 
abutting from a huge mass below, hung in 
mid-aii', while the boulder on which it thus 
partially rested appeared also to be suspended. 
We could not resist the temptation to climb 
these dangerous heights ; looked down from 
their grotesque peaks on the fairy island 
below, which, Narcissus like, seemed to be 
contemplating its image, so faithfully mirrored 
in the bright, clear waters. 

Philae undoubtedly owes much to its posi- 
tion, which combines with its peculiar attrac- 
tions, to render it the most beautiful island in 
the world. It is belted round w 7 ith a quay, 
though the work of very early times, some 
still in good condition ; and where the stones 
have mouldered away, or fallen, some minis- 
tering hand has planted lupins, which clothe 



2 1 6 KHARTOUM 

the whole place with verdure. The island 
seems to have formed one vast temple, and 
its crumhling ruins, spread over its surface, 
still retain an appearance of order, and of 
completeness, strange even in Egypt. We 
landed at some hroken stairs, and made our 
way through a court-yard, heaped with fallen 
pillars, to a spacious hall, decorated with 
paintings, in red, yellow, green and hlue, 
brighter and fresher than any we had yet 
seen. The ground was carpeted with grass ; 
moss and wild flowers sprang from the 
ancient stones; and, here and there, a tall 
palm-tree threw its shadow on the wall, or 
a mimosa drooped gracefully over a broken 
column. Thence we wandered away into the 
dark chambers, which the light of day had 
never entered. There are a great number 
of these rooms, and it is impossible to con- 
jecture the purpose they were devoted to. 



AND THE NILES. 217 

Perhaps here were solemnized, under a veil of 
darkness, rites which outraged every feeling 
of humanity ; or mysteries which masked, in 
idolatrous myths, the principles of true reli- 
gion. Here the candidate for the priesthood 
may have been taught the duties of his office ; 
here the sacrifice may have been prepared 
and adorned for the altar. The long range of 
chambers once probably resounded with mid- 
night orgies, and bacchanalian shouts; or, 
which seems more probable, may have been 
the prison of groaning captives, destined as a 
propitiation to Moloch. 

From these mysterious precincts we passed 
to a propylon, and then, through a noble 
porch, into a large open court, once enclosed 
by double rows of columns, most of which 
still remain. It was no doubt in this area 
that the laity congregated, previously to enter- 
ing the temple to worship. Some authorities 



218 KHARTOUM 

have asserted that, on certain great days, the 
priests assembled here to prophesy, and even 
to display their erudition to the people. 

A massive staircase, constructed in the 
thickness of the wall, brought us to a plat- 
form above, where we came on a beautiful 
little temple, standing quite alone, on the 
verge of the quay, which commanded a mag- 
nificent prospect of the river. The columns, 
that run along the whole front, are sur- 
mounted by square blocks, instead of the 
usual elaborate capitals, and have a very 
striking effect. The island here expanded 
before us like a map, showing all its pic- 
turesque features at a glance ; and, with one 
consent, we instantly fixed upon it as our 
most eligible resting-place. 

In sauntering through the ruins, we fell 
upon some amusing and even ludicrous in- 
scriptions. By one it appeared that, in those 



AND THE NILES. 219 

olden times, Philse was a favourite haunt of 
the Egyptian nobility; who, however, with 
an eye to economy worthy of more modern 
days, expected, on visiting this sacred retreat, 
to be feasted and lodged at the expense of 
the priesthood. The consequence of this 
custom was, that the priests were im- 
poverished, and the temple left unprovided ; 
at last the former, losing all patience, made a 
representation of the circumstances to the 
King. The petition is duly set forth on the 
stone ; and above, couched in the same 
magniloquent phrases, is the King's answer, 
which prohibits the nobility for the time to 
come victimizing these holy men. 

Tn strange conjunction with these vener- 
able memorials, stand inscriptions by the 
travellers of to-day, usurping equal pro- 
minence on the time-honoured walls. All 
who are interested in the sentiments of a 



220 KHARTOUM 

tourist named Smith, who lately visited the 
ruins, may find his impressions of the place 
legibly recorded, with his classic and unique 
name written in full, below. A long list of 
other names, with kindred pretensions to 
renown, are paraded on the adjoining wall, 
in letters of fearful length, and the traveller 
has the satisfaction of ascertaining that he 
has been preceded in his visit by divers 
representatives of the Thompsons and the 
Browns. To impress this more indelibly 
on his memory, the fact is emblazoned on 
fragments which even the ruthless hand of 
Time has scrupled to touch, that retain the 
perfect beauty and even the bright fresh 
colours with which they were originally 
decorated. 

Our boatmen, indifferent alike to the 
beauties of nature and the wonders of art, 
had become impatient at our long stay, and 



AND THE NILES. 221 

at length we gratified them by returning. 
They pulled along most vigorously, and soon 
reached the landing-place, where we scrambled 
ashore, and made our way round the cataract 
to our vessels. 



222 KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER XIV. 

The first Cataract of the Nile. 

The cataract is an incline of about one 
hundred feet in length, and eight or ten feet 
in depth. The river narrowing just above, 
precipitates its immense volume of water 
down this slope, with prodigious violence, 
and with a noise like thunder. The rocks 
on either hand, washed by the flood, make 
the picture more striking, and add to the 
difficulty and the danger of the ascent. 



AND THE NILES. 223 

Soon after breakfast, a very long and 
staunch rope was fastened round the masts 
of ' The Fanny,' and then laid along the rocks 
as far as it would go, to be pulled on a 
concerted signal ; a shorter one was laid out 
in the same way ; and a third was fastened 
midships, and thrown ashore, to keep the 
vessel, on her way up, close to the rocks, as 
the current would otherwise drag her into 
the middle of the stream, when certain 
destruction would ensue. This catastrophe 
nearly happened a few years ago, when 
one of the Pasha's boats got into the 
rapids, and his Highness, who was on 
board, had a narrow escape of his life. 
From that time, the greatest precautions 
have been taken to prevent any similar 
occurrence. 

Hundreds of people had now assembled 
on shore to witness the ascent ; at length 



224 KHARTOUM 

the boats were manned, and the boat loosed 
from her moorings, The cataract pilot seized 
the helm ; the Reis, a fine, hale old man, 
gave the word to proceed ; and a hundred 
and thirty men on shore, and about thirty 
on deck, hauled away at the ropes. The 
cataract came thundering down ; the air 
rang with the cries and shouts of the 
pullers; the water flew past in foaming 
waves, dashing its clouds of spray over the 
deck ; and the gallant boat held on her way. 
In a moment more, she bounded against 
the bottom ; the rushing flood seemed to 
struggle for the mastery, making her tremble 
in every plank. But instantly the old Reis 
darted overboard, dived under her stern, 
and, with a desperate effort, shoved her on. 
Then he sprang ashore, struck in among the 
lazy pullers, who were invoking help from 
Allah, and laid about him risrht and left with 



AND THE NILES. 225 

a whip. Thus driven, the men hauled away 
at the ropes, while those on bread, who 
worked with great diligence, kept thrusting 
planks between the vessel and the rocks, to 
prevent her grazing against them. Others 
ran alongside, and every now and then 
plunged into the water, to shove her off a 
sunken shoal, or over a shallow. Stronger 
and stronger became the torrent ; the waves 
beat more furiously against the boat; the 
spray and the foam whirled over her; the 
roar grew more and more deafening ; and 
then, with one mighty lift — one lurch 
forward, she passed the fall, and floated in 
smooth water. 

The hauling-up occupied sixty-five minutes, 
though less than half the number of English 
sailors would have accomplished it in half 
the time. Indeed, ' The Eagle,' though a 
heavier boat, was hoisted up within the 

VOL. I. Q 



226 KHARTOUM 

fifty minutes, and moored alongside her 
consort. 

A small island lay between the boats and 
the shore, and over this the men brought all 
our stores and baggage, which, in order to 
lighten the vessels, had been taken out below T 
the cataract, and piled up on the bank. 
It was really quite exciting to watch them 
coming across this romantic spot, bearing 
every kind of burden, in regular succession, 
as if the place were a haunt of pirates or 
smugglers collecting their booty. This booty 
constituted a very miscellaneous assortment ; 
but barrels of flour and rice, bags of sugar, 
books and guns, formed, after all, no bad 
supply of the munitions of war. 

At noon our sails were again loosed, and 
expanding to the breeze, bore us steadily 
on. After proceeding a short distance, we 
hove-to for a few minutes, to land the Reis 



AND THE NILES. 227 

of the cataract, who, as the navigation was 
somewhat difficult at first, came with us 
till we were perfectly clear of all obstacles. 
I was much taken with this old man, whom 
Mr. Warburton, in his widely-known work, 
has already introduced so favourably to the 
English reader. Having a copy of 'The 
Crescent and the Cross ' at hand, I showed 
him his portrait, and made Daireh translate 
what the Author has said of him, at which, 
as may be imagined, he was much gratified. 
He remembered Mr. Warburton very well, 
and expressed a hope that he would soon 
come to Egypt again, and pay him another 
visit. 

We now entered the narrow channel that 
washes the banks of Philse, and as we 
sailed past, obtained a charming view of 
the island, which at different points, broke 
upon us like a fresh scene. Then we came 

Q 2 



228 KHARTOUM 

on the wild and desert shores of Nubia, 
with their battlements and pinnacles of rock, 
starting up in every diversity of height and 
form. At long intervals, villages of wretched 
huts crown the heights, or straggle down 
to the river ; and a few palm-trees or acacias, 
instead of groves of date trees, and planta- 
tions of the fragrant mimosa, throw a scanty 
shade around. The people, too, have 
changed ; and the hardy Nubian, with his 
unveiled wife, and dark, chubby children, 
forms a striking contrast to the effeminate 
Egyptian. A fine open countenance, lit up 
by expressive eyes, with stalwart limbs, and 
magnificent proportions, express both his 
character and his strength. The Nubians 
have the same reputation in Egypt that has 
been won by the Swiss in Europe, and are 
distinguished alike for honesty, courage, and 
sagacity. The women, tutored only by 



AND THE NILES. 229 

nature, have a style and beauty peculiarly 
their own. Their little blue dress, which 
but half veils their forms, is worn with an 
air almost classic, and they possess in a high 
degree the grace of motion. This is espe- 
cially apparent in the young girls, whose 
only attire is a girdle of leather, thickly hung 
with beads. The children abandon dress 
altogether, though in presence of strangers, 
they go about very timidly, and can hardly 
be tempted to closer acquaintance by any 
amount of biscuit. When once their diffi- 
dence is overcome, however, they are ex- 
tremely docile ; indeed, in their conduct, 
they might teach a lesson to the children 
of the polite world. It is a pleasant sight 
to watch a troop of the little urchins follow- 
ing their mother or sister from the well, 
playing merrily about her, with shouts of 
mirth and ringing laughter, as she walks 



230 KHARTOUM 

thoughtfully along, bearing on her head a 
large jar of water, and displaying in every 
movement a grace unstudied and un- 
conscious. 



AND THE NILES. 231 



CHAPTER XV. 

Korosko — Shooting excursion — Crocodiles — Ipsam- 
boul — Colossal statue. 

Korosko, situated on the bend of the 
river, was the first Nubian village we visited. 
It is merely a collection of huts, formed of 
mud walls, covered in at the top with mat- 
ting. There are no turreted pigeon-house 
towers over the roof, as in the villages of 
Egypt, and there is an absence of all attempt 
at ornament. The little hovels, however, 



232 KHARTOUM 

are much cleaner, and there is even an ap- 
pearance of comfort about them, which is 
never seen in Arab domiciles. As we stayed 
here all night, we saw a good deal of the 
people, and were much prepossessed by their 
simplicity and integrity. They possess many 
excellent characteristics ; in short, they pre- 
sent us with the Oriental character under 
one of its most agreeable aspects. In 
personal appearance they differ from the 
Egyptians only in colour, but their fine 
limbs have no covering, and a cloth round 
their loins is all their dress. They wear 
their beard long, and reeking with oil ; and, 
like the Eastern nations of antiquity, have 
the nose hung with a ring, generally of gold 
or silver. The women also wear these 
pendants, both in the nose and ears. 

A caravan had just arrived, which, with 
our boats, made the little community quite 



AND THE NILES. 233 

busy, and brought every one out of doors, 
flocking to the river, just in front of our 
anchorage : the scene, as evening came on, 
was exceedingly animated and picturesque 
The camel- drivers, a rugged, unsophisticated 
race, were prominent figures in the crowd ; 
from them the eye turned on the patient and 
submissive camels, lying down by their huge 
burdens, after their long march over the 
burning sand. The drivers trafficked in 
ostrich feathers and eggs ; and, to make 
friends with them, we bought some of each, 
paying almost a London price for the feathers ; 
which, however, were very fine ones. They 
told us, among other things, that we need be 
under no fear of wanting water in the desert, 
as it had lately rained there, and this would 
insure a good supply. We found they had 
been thirty days coming across from Khar- 
toum, and had suffered much from the heat. 



234 KHARTOUM 

At Korosko, we lost what, in our emigrant 
vessels, is called a stow-away; a man, 
named Ali Suleiman, who had come on 
board at Cairo without our knowledge, and 
obtained a passage to Nubia, After we 
started, he well earned this indulgence by 
his assiduous attention and diligence, and we 
had learnt to consider him an acquisition. 
He was a most devout Mussulman ; and, in 
accordance with the Prophet's command, 
knelt five times a-day in prayer. I have 
seen his fine form bending on the deck 
under the glare of the noon-day sun; and 
frequently, when I have come late on deck, 
have found him praying at midnight. He 
was still some distance from his native 
village, which we should not reach till the 
next day ; but, impatient to arrive at home, 
he determined to walk on, and was soon on 
his way. 



AND THE NILES. 235 

We left Korosko ourselves early in the 
morning, and borne along by a fine southerly 
breeze, the first we had had from that quarter 
since our departure from Cairo, came to 
Dour by half- past three in the afternoon. 
The shore, as usual, was crowded with per- 
sons awaiting our approach ; and foremost 
in the throng was honest Ali Suleiman, 
easily distinguished by his flowing robe of 
white calico, and his yellow turban, drooping 
at the end. He came to renew his thanks, 
and to present us an offering of dates — a 
simple but gratifying tribute, rendered in the 
most graceful manner. 

Soon afterwards we went on shore, taking 
our guns, but there was little shooting, ex- 
cept doves, of which we might have brought 
down any number. As we proceeded we met 
a boy with a camelion, which he offered for 
sale, and we were only too willing to become 



236 KHARTOUM 

its purchasers. This, however, was no easy 
matter, as its owner, like the robber-boy in the 
" Heart of Midlothian," who preferred the 
white siller to the more precious and un- 
known gold, knew only one class of coin, 
and could not be brought to appreciate any 
other. We offered him half a piastre, but 
he refused it, demanding ten paras, about 
half the sum in copper ; and it required our 
last halfpenny to make up the amount. At 
length we concluded the bargain, and carried 
off our camelion. 

The day closed with a sunset of surpassing 
beauty, such as no language could adequately 
describe, or any imagination conceive. The 
brilliant red glow gradually softened away in 
a thousand varied tints, appearing in the 
distance with new distinctness, in numberless 
bright reflections like liquid flame. Then 
the gorgeous colouring blended with the first 



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AND THE NILES. 237 

shades of twilight, ushering in the dawn of 
Venus, followed by the rising moon, in whose 
silver light, as it spread over the heavens, 
the planet set. Beneath were the creeping 
shadows, the calm, placid w T aters, and the 
silent and quiescent landscape, composing 
altogether a scene bright enough to awaken 
inspiration. 

As we penetrated further, the country un- 
derwent a material change. Palm trees, of 
which there had hitherto been but a sprinkle, 
increased in number ; and, no longer stripped 
of their upper leaves, assumed a beautiful 
appearance. Doom trees, too, though not 
so numerous as in more northern latitudes, 
started up here and there along the heights, 
and attained great luxuriance. In the 
fields, durra and castor-oil plants, the staple 
of Nubian vegetation, quite superseded the 
crops of cotton ; and lupins and beans grew 



238 KHARTOUM 

in the mud on the banks. At intervals, the 
ground was lying waste, too sterile and too 
stubborn to invite the labour of the husband- 
man ; here the banks were clothed with 
thorny mimosas, over which, at every dozen 
yards, bright green creepers threw their 
graceful festoons, and we could see the 
golden sand pouring in a stream between the 
stems below, like a tributary to the river. 
These strips of desert became more and more 
frequent as we advanced ; and even where 
tillage resumed its sway, the cultivated tracts 
were rarely more than half a mile in breadth. 
Animal life, too, had more than propor- 
tionately decreased. There was no game ; 
iguanos comprised the whole of what we met 
with in the way of sport, from the time of 
our leaving Assouan. These were by no 
means scarce ; and we killed one, which, on 
being dissected, was found to contain twenty- 



AND THE NILES. 239 

seven eggs. They were immediately handed 
over to our cook, the ingenious Abbas, 
whose skill in gastronomy would have pro- 
cured him immortality under the Caliph 
Haroum Alraschid ; and he served them up 
at dinner, converting them into a very pala- 
table, if not a dainty dish. 

We kept a sharp look-out for crocodiles, 
but for some time were disappointed, though 
once, in the evening, when it was too dark 
to distinguish objects, we heard a loud 
splashing close by, which we had no doubt 
was caused by some of these monsters 
gamboling in the water. Next morning 
we heard from an old shepherd, who came 
to sell us some milk, that a man had 
been carried off by a crocodile during the 
night, while mending his sakeia. It appeared 
that the monster had first struck him down 
with his tail, and then seized him, and threw 



240 KHARTOUM 

itself into the river. The same crocodile 
carried off a man last year, in a similar 
manner, and about the same hour. It is 
said to be a well known individual, though 
very rarely showing itself; that in consequence 
of its cunning, careful observation of its 
habits is extremely difficult. From the 
moment the circumstance was reported, our 
crews, who were incorrigible news-mongers, 
would talk of nothing else; they were not 
so willing to plunge into the water as they 
had been heretofore, though they had shown 
no hesitation in places where crocodiles are 
more common, as at Manfaloot. 

At Kreem we anchored under a lofty 
crag, crowned by a ruined castle, which 
formed a most striking object from the river. 
The cliff contains several caserns, once 
repositories of the dead, who, though in 
their day, mighty men on the earth, have 



AND THE NILES. 241 

left no name behind. Being almost per- 
pendicular, the ascent was very difficult, 
but with the aid of a rope, fastened to one of 
the lintels above, we managed to scramble 
up. Our first discovery was a square 
chamber, in which we found three idols 
in a sitting posture, niched in the rock, 
each recess being enframed in hieroglyphics. 
The ceiling was coloured yellow, in square 
patterns. With the help of a rope, we made 
our way to two other chambers, constructed 
on the same plan. They were, however, 
in better preservation, and in one there were 
four idols, tolerably perfect. Another cave 
is of comparatively modern date, and is 
inscribed with hundreds of names. 

We had now two days' calm, and it was 
not till Sunday evening that we reached 
Ipsamboul, having been just a week from 
Philae, and two from Thebes. For miles 

VOL. I. R 



242 KHARTOUM 

before we arrived, we could see the colossal 
statue which watches over the temple, 
standing up erect at his post, a landmark 
and a beacon to all who approach. The 
temple is an excavation in the heart of 
the rock, and the three great figures which 
guard the entrance, as if it were the portal of 
another world, are cut out on the face of the 
rock, in one solid piece. The expression 
of the face is solemn repose, and, judging 
from the portion still visible, the attitude 
is full of grandeur and majesty. The 
pedestals are embedded in sand, which rises 
to the knees, and, indeed, has covered one 
of the figures as high as the neck. It falls 
down between the two hills like a mountain 
torrent, and has been converted into an 
ascent to the idol's beard, on which, with 
their usual discriminating taste, several of 
the Thomsons and Smiths have inscribed 



AND THE NILES. 243 

their names. The poor god's face, too, still 
retains traces of the cast in plaster of Paris, 
which was taken for the British Museum. 
I followed in the steps of more notable 
travellers, and paid my devoir to his remains. 
Standing on his lips, a man of ordinary 
height will be unable to reach his eyes — a 
fact which may give some idea of the 
enormous magnitude of the figure. There 
was formerly a fourth statue, of the same 
gigantic dimensions ; but some relentless 
antiquary, in a paroxysm of love and devo- 
tion, cut it down. Such is the fate of gods 
and men ! 

The entrance to the wondrous temple, 
which is nearly blocked up by sand, and 
threatens to be completely so in a short 
time, is through an aperture about four feet 
high, which can only be penetrated in a 
stooping posture. The visitor, to gain 

R 2 



244 KHARTOUM 

admittance, slides down on his back, carry- 
ing with him a good addition to the accumu- 
lations of sand ; and then, with the aid of a 
torch, which the darkness renders in- 
dispensable, finds himself in a wide and lofty 
chamber, forming the principal hall of the 
temple. On either side rise four square 
pillars, massive and tall; each faced by 
a huge figure, cut, as usual, in one piece. I 
climbed on the shoulder of one, and standing 
there, was not able, with my arms extended, 
to reach the top of the head. The walls 
of the chamber are covered with representa- 
tions of battle scenes and triumphs, as if the 
heroes of those olden days despised the 
fugitive page of history, and would only 
record their deeds on imperishable stone. 
From this chamber we passed to a smaller 
one, adorned on each side with similar rows 
of square pillars, though of smaller dimen- 



AND THE NILES. 245 

sions. This was terminated by a sanctuary, 
in which, as we advanced, our torch flashed 
upon the mutilated remains of four colossal 
idols, sitting on a stone divan, fronting 
a block of granite, which had probably been 
an altar. A number of chambers opened 
beyond, and we wandered through room 
after room — formerly, perhaps, accessible 
only to the priesthood. The walls are 
carved and coloured with an almost endless 
picture, commemorating new scenes of 
conquest and triumph, illustrated by 
hieroglyphics; many of which, though we 
had seen , them in almost every direction, 
were quite new to us. We particularly 
noticed a troop of black slaves, and copper- 
coloured natives, drawn with great boldness 
and power. In another chamber, all the 
figures from the foremost to the last, wore 
black bracelets, armlets, and necklaces. The 



246 KHARTOUM 

vigour of outline, and brightness and 
delicacy of colouring, apparent in every 
figure, could scarcely be surpassed. Many 
of the faces were beautiful, and we were 
especially impressed by the serene and 
benevolent expression, and the air of great- 
ness and dignity w T hich characterized all 
the colossi. Rameses, the hero of the 
pictures, was represented at his customary 
pastime, holding up a bunch of captives 
by the hair ; but, as usual, his vast stature 
made the achievement anything but difficult. 
In another place, he is dismounting from an 
immense chariot, while his Queen, a woman 
of great beauty, stands by, and presents 
him with a goblet of wine. There are 
many other drawings of women in 
this temple, more than we have ever 
seen in one place before ; and the hiero- 
glyphics, designed to illustrate the mar- 



AND THE NILES. 247 

vellous pictures, present an almost endless 
variety. 

The subordinate temple, constructed on 
the same plan as the other, is of much 
smaller dimensions. There are several suites 
of chambers, all adorned with figures and 
sculptures, but everything is on a reduced 
scale, and the impression created is not so 
striking. The colossi, unlike those in the 
larger temple, are represented standing, and, 
though executed in a masterly manner, have 
not the same majestic appearance. The 
facade of the temple, however, which is 
hewn out of the rock overhanging the river, 
is very grand and imposing. 

After exploring the whole, we returned to 
the principal chamber of the great temple, 
and regaled ourselves with a pipe% The 
silence around was absolute, and we did not 
care to break it. For the scene was of a 



24 9 KHARTOUM 

character to engross all our thoughts. 
Around and above were the dark mysteries 
of the past : while our torch, flashing 
brightly up, threw its ruddy light over our 
own figures, lying at the feet of those grim 
idols. 

In the background were our Arab attend- 
ants, sitting or lying down, and half shrouded 
in the darkness. A legion of bats, which 
had been startled by our invasion, flew 
wildly about ; the only tenants of the 
temple. 

With reluctance we turned our steps from 
this wondrous fabric, and as evening was 
now stealing on, repaired to our boats. 
Next morning, however, we were up at sun- 
rise, and took one more look at its mystic 
chambers. Then all was over, and we bade 
an unwilling adieu to Ipsamboul. 

As soon as the anchor was weighed, a 



AND THE NILES. 249 

fresh breeze, which had been blowing all 
night, swelled our sails, and carried us 
merrily on. It lasted through the day, 
and by five o'clock w T e reached Wady-Halfa, 
where our w 7 ater journey was to terminate. 

From the size of Wady-Halfa on the 
maps, we had expected to find a large town, 
or, at least, a place of some importance ; 
but, to our great disappointment, it proved 
a miserable Egyptian village, with about 
three hundred inhabitants. We paid a 
visit to the Governor, who, on being shown 
our firman, treated us with marked courtesy, 
and promised his aid in making an arrange- 
ment for our transit across the desert. 
Whether his interference was of any service, or 
did not tend to raise the terms, is a difficult 
question to decide, but such good offices are 
generally dictated by self-interest in this part 
of the world. 



250 KHARTOUM 

Next morning we crossed to the other 
side of the river, the rendezvous for camels, 
and thus escaped both the noise of the 
busy sakeias, and the gaze of the idle 
cmwd, to which we had hitherto been 
subjected. Here we landed, and for the 
first time mounted some camels, and tested 
their capabilities. The experiment was satis- 
factory ; and we found the new way of riding, 
though a little difficult at first, by no means 
uncomfortable. From this we made our 
way to the Mount of Names, and the second 
cataract. 

The mount so enviably distinguished, 
rises perpendicularly from the river, but to 
no great height, and on the land side, the 
elevation is only a few yards. These elevations 
are entirely covered with names, including 
some of European celebrity. On a spot dedi- 
cated to the purpose, we felt a pleasure in 



AND THE NILES. 251 

inscribing our own, a task of no great difficulty, 
as the rock, which is composed of white 
lime-stone, is easily marked. We could 
not but think, on inspecting the great tablet, 
that the name of Belzoni appeared to more 
advantage here than on the sphinx at Karnac, 
or the doorway of Ipsamboul ; and it was 
a satisfaction to ascertain that a name so 
widely popular as Miss Martineau's could 
be found nowhere else. I am happy to 
say that we can make the same boast of 
ours. 

It was not till the following morning that 
we reached the Cataract, which we skirted, 
on our way back, in our little boat, and 
viewed its whole extent from the summit 
of a cliff. It is inferior to the Cataract of 
Assouan, both in the grandeur of the fall, 
and in its situation. The river is so broken 
and contracted by a number of little islets 



252 KHARTOUM 

of black rock, sprinkled through it for about 
three miles, and nowhere leaving the channel 
wider than from twenty to thirty yards, that 
the water is necessarily impeded, and descends 
with but little force. The flat shores, almost 
level with the river, offer no object of interest; 
and memory reverts with more pleasure to the 
romantic heights and rushing waters of the 
first Cataract. 

We have now reached the first stage of 
our journey, and have accomplished the 
passage from Cairo in thirty- six days, which 
is about the usual time. The boats, with 
a fairer allowance of wind", would have done 
it in less, having throughout sailed in the 
most creditable manner; but we have had 
many calms, and the process of tracking 
is very slow and tedious. Of the winds on 
the Nile it is impossible to speak in anything 
but the most severe terms. Thev are of the 



AND THE NILES. 253 

most variable nature, and more fickle than 
Fortune. It is impossible to count on a 
breeze for a single day. 

We had every reason to be satisfied with 
the boats, though 'The Fanny,' spite of 
the precautions of the Reis, was, at starting, 
somewhat infested with rats. But the strong 
remedy of a cat obviated this inconvenience, 
and we had no further ground for com- 
plaint. 

The two crews I cannot commend too 
highly. For Arabs, they worked uncom- 
monly well, and were exceedingly willing. 
The plenary power of the Reis, as adminis- 
trator and disciplinarian, were exercised very 
seldom, when one or two of the men received 
a box on the ear, in the heat of argument 
or remonstrance ; and once a sailor was 
bastinadoed for being tipsy. This was 
but a lame affair, the Reis being, in 



254 KHARTOUM 

fact, very reluctant to administer the punish- 
ment at all; however, as he had sworn 
to do so, he made the man lie down, and 
receive a dozen over his coat, which, being 
of no common thickness, effectually protected 
his skin. 



AND THE NILES. 255 



CHAPTER XVL 

Retrospect. 

Before I proceed to describe our journey 
through the desert, it may be as well to 
take a glance at the country we have 
passed, and look once more at its people. 

The Egyptian Fellah, who forms the staple 
of the population, rarely exceeds the middle 
stature. His head, and the whole of his 
face is generally shaved; of course leaving 
him neither moustache nor beard. He is 



256 KHARTOUM 

not industrious; nature has not given him 
much to do, and he has scarcely energy to do 
that. 

The land will annually produce, at least 
four times as much as is required for the 
subsistence of the people. With a rude 
instrument, not unlike the pointed stick with 
which cabbages and lettuces are planted in 
England, he bores a hole in the mud, on the 
islands left by the receding river, and the 
beans or lentil-seeds, which are dropped 
into it, will become ready for gathering 
without further attention. More labour is 
necessary to make the land, not imme- 
diately on the banks of the river, produce 
its wonted harvest, and shadoofs, so often 
spoken of in these pages, are requisite for 
its irrigation. 

This is managed in the following way : 
the ground is parcelled out in beds about 



AND THE NILES. 257 

twelve feet square, which are raked in the 
most careful manner ; while little acqueducts 
run round each, and a slate filling up 
the sluice, lets the water, ever running 
from the shadoofs, on and off, as it may be 
required. 

As far as I could learn, these fields, if 
properly attended, will produce three crops 
annually. Pigeons, and sometimes hares, 
are devouring the seed as it is thrown into 
the prepared mud, or nibbling the corn- 
sprouts as they raise themselves to the 
surface. Every two or three days, the little 
sluices are thrown open, and the flower- 
beds covered with an inch or tw T o of 
water. 

As you walk along, you are struck with 
the great amount of population ; five or six 
fellahs are working in each field, and their 
wives and children are assisting them, or 

VOL. I. S 



258 KHARTOUM 

play about, awaiting their return to the village. 
These villages, as I have already shown, are 
exceedingly pretty. Up to Ossioot they 
are all on the brink of the river, which 
flows tranquilly past. A dozen mud 
dwellings, a whitewashed mosque, with its 
tall minaret, and a grove of waving palms 
form the picture ; and a very charming one 
it is. A few clumsily-built boats are lying 
moored against the high bank, and the 
gaudy blue and yellow dhabehee of the 
Cavaghi adds another feature to the 
scene. 

In entering their humble dwellings, you 
must stoop low to pass through the doors. 
There are four or five rooms, all filled with 
smoke, from a miserable fire in the outer 
room, made of little cakes of dung and 
sand, emitting a most disagreable odour. A 
few old women, often as many as four or 



AND THE MILES. 259 

five, are warming their withered hands over 
the embers, or stirring the large cauldron 
in which the soup of lentils, or the mess of 
beans is preparing for the family repast. 
These ancient women almost suggest the 
question : 

" What are these ? 
So withered, or so wild in their attire, 
That look not like the inhabitants o' th' earth, 
And yet are on 't ?" 

But they are not witches, and as they 
hurriedly drop their veils (I always thought 
they meant a kindness to the spectator), 
they resume the very domestic occupations 
of spinning, and nursing some little grand- 
child. 

Around the outer room hang household 
utensils and agricultural implements; in the 
others, mats stretched on the ground, or 

s 2 



260 KHARTOUM » 

little bedsteads covered with undressed sheep- 
skins, constitute the only furniture. Dogs, 
sheep, and pigeons dispute every inch of 
territory, and the smoke soon forces you to 
retire. 

Women, in their ever-graceful blue robes, 
carry up jars of water from the river side, 
while their children are playing on the 
shore, or swimming round the boat for 
backsheesh. I was particularly struck with 
the invariable good-humour of the little 
urchins on the Nile. They have not the 
sharp, impertinent look of the juvenile 
mendicants in our large towns, and are as 
far removed from the stolid stupidity of the 
youth of our rural and agricultural districts, 
who, as they open a gate not a mile distant 
from some large village, respond to your 
question as to its whereabouts, with a 
" Doan't know/* or a long stare. They 



AND THE NILES. 261 

seem intelligent and bright ; familiar, though 
always respectful. I never saw them ill- 
treating each other; might does not, in 
their estimation, essentially constitute right, 
nor did I ever observe any bigger boy 
bullying a weak or delicate child, as is too 
often done in England. 

What I missed most in my visits to these 
people, was the affection and filial tender- 
ness which should naturally subsist between 
children and their parents ; but this, though 
not ostentatiously displayed, is not always 
wanting. The existence of such feelings 
was strikingly evinced in the behaviour of 
our Reis to his son. 

The Reis had brought his son away from 
home, preferring the corrupting influences of 
boat life to the chances of his being torn 
from his mother's care by the hateful con- 
scription, and a parent more affectionate, 



262 KHARTOUM 

or a child more dutiful, I never beheld. 
Said — so the boy was named — was about 
ten years old, and of- most engaging 
appearance, with fine bright eyes, and a 
clear copper complexion, beautifully shaded. 
He was very intelligent, and from the day 
of his appearance amongst us, we dressed 
him in bright chintz, always clean. 

We promoted him from the office of do- 
nothing to the very important one of gun- 
cleaner and pipe-bearer, and he always ac- 
companied us on our shooting excursions, 
proving himself a capital retriever. On one 
occasion, he had broken some dinner knives 
of ours, and as far as I could learn had 
not confessed with his usual veracity, as 
he was a very honest boy. For this, he 
was most mercilessly punished — a duty his 
father evidently disliked ; this clouded the 
harmony previously existing between them, 



AND THE NILES. 263 

as the son did not take the well-deserved 
chastisement in the way he probably would 
have done previously to the indulgence and 
independence he had enjoyed on board. The 
next night, as he was leaning over the prow 
of the boat, then darting forwards under 
a heavy gale, he fell overboard, and instantly 
disappeared beneath the waters. I was 
standing by his father, who was at the helm, 
on the top of the high cabin, and was a 
witness of the catastrophe. He would not, 
even to save his son, neglect his duty, which 
at that moment involved the safety of others, 
and it was left to strangers to rescue his 
only child from destruction. Quick as 
thought, however, three men dashed over- 
board ; the boat was lowered to pull them 
up ; and in a few minutes, the boy, though 
in a state of insensibility, was restored to his 
father. The latter neither exhibited deep 



264 KHARTOUM 

anxiety at his threatened loss, nor intense 
gratitude at his child's almost miraculous 
preservation ; we were much surprised at his 
apparently stern indifference and apathy. But 
in his desire to conceal his feelings which 
nature had given him, he had overrated his 
strength ; the same night he was taken very 
ill, and several days elapsed hefore he re- 
covered his usual energy. 

As I lay on the deck one night talking 
to Daireh, and enjoying the exquisite moon- 
light and soft cool air, among other stories 
which he told me was the following, account- 
ing as he said in a curious manner for 
the origin of the three varieties of Arab 
character. 

"When Noah was about to enter into 
the Ark, he went to the first shipwright 
then dwelling in the world, and asked him 
if he would build him a boat, according to 



AND THE NILES. 265 

the measurements he had prepared ; but the 
man answered : 

" ' You have asked God to make us 
equally rich, and as I am as rich as you, 
why should I build you a boat ?' 

" Noah answered : 

" ' I will give you my beautiful daughter in 
marriage.' Then the great builder of ships 
agreed, and built the Ark. 

" But in its construction, they wanted the 
great worker in iron, and Noah offered him 
in vain heaps of that money which he pos- 
sessed in as sufficient quantities as himself; 
and again the much-coveted daughter was 
promised as the price of the iron fittings. 
The Ark was built, but had to be furnished 
for its long voyage, and the corn merchant 
refused to stock the vessel with the requisite 
provisions, except at the already twice pro- 
mised price of the beautiful daughter. This 
was agreed to, and now all was prepared, the 



266 KHARTOUM 

ark was ready, and the three sons-in-law 
wended their way towards the embarrassed 
parent. The young maiden was carrying 
water from the ever-flowing well, as, every 
one being equally rich, no one would work 
for another ; but her dog had strayed into 
her room, and as the father entered the house 
with the great ironmonger, he found a beauti- 
ful daughter where he had only left a dog, 
and the happy man departed with the mira- 
culously changed animal. Then came the 
grain factor, and departed with an ass trans- 
formed into the shape of its mistress ; and 
Noah felt relieved of the anxiety which his 
indiscreet promises had caused him. And 
now together approached the real daughter, 
conversing with the shipwright, and Noah 
joined their hands, and they all went into 
the Ark together, and when the waters rose, 
they sailed away." 

As Daireh finished his tale, he turned to 



AND THE NILES. 267 

the least intelligent of the sailors, and as he 
called him, and he answered with a long 
and stupid " What ?" He said : " you see he 
come from the donkey mother ; and that man 
which so quarrel with the other Reis, you 
see, he come from dog parent ; and when 
you see our young lady, you no can doubt 
she descend from real Noah daughter." 

" But Daireh," said I, "do you really 
believe that tale ?" 

" Why ! clever Dervish tell it me." 
I was unable, by frequent conversations 
with the dragoman, to discover what position 
the Dervishes filled among the village people. 
An old grey-headed man was always to be seen 
smoking or idling about in the court-yard of 
the mosque; he, though having evidently no 
salaams, was attached to these Dervishes, who 
have the monopoly of professional begging, 
and are always wonderfully dressed in piles 



268 KHARTOUM 

of clothes, of all ages and fashions, from 
European frock coats, to untanned tiger and 
lion skins. They made very free with our 
party, always laying their hands upon me, 
and invoking many blessings on my head, 
in which, if I am to trust the interpretations 
of Daireh, length of years and eternal youth 
figured conspicuously. 

These are the real Dervishes, or priests, 
but all clever Arabs are called by the same 
title. We have a sailor on board one of the 
boats, or rather a man taken by the crew as 
a servant, who we were assured, " was quite 
real Dervish." He was dressed as the rest of 
the crew, and used to read aloud from some 
dirty manuscript, which he kept in his hat, 
nearly every night ; it was generally the 
" Arabian Nights," but sometimes a more 
modern work. He wrote all the agreements, 
kept all the accounts of the other men, 



AND THE NILES. 269 

and prayed much more frequently than any 
of them. 

The people pray on rising and on going to 
rest, and once or twice besides, in the middle 
of the day. In our boats, these devotions 
were very regularly performed ; and nearly 
all day some one or other of the crew was 
prostrating himself on the roof, his face 
turned towards the city of his Prophet ; or 
washing, previously to his devotions, in the 
little boat behind. 

Most of the crew were married, and some 
had many children, though they all seemed 
to have lost a good number, whom they 
talked of meeting again in Heaven. 

Women are invariably spoken of with 
great respect, and always treated with 
kindness. " He very bad man, beat his 
wife," was Daireh's severest censure ; nor 
could I find any who had had more than 



270 KHARTOUM 

one wife at a time. They divorce them- 
selves, however, very easily; a quarrel, or 
even a difference of opinion, seems to con- 
stitute sufficient cause for a separation ; 
while the wife can demand a divorce, 
in Egypt, because her husband does not 
give her as much sweet-smelling scents 
as she wishes, or in Nubia because he does 
not give her the quantity of oil and grease 
to which her rank, as his wife, entitles 
her. 

I was surprised, under these circum- 
stances, that divorces were not more fre- 
quent ; but on Daireh's explaining the man- 
ner in which the dowries are managed, I 
began to understand it without difficulty. 
At the wedding, the husband settles a 
dowry on his wife — perhaps a pigeon-house 
and its feathery occupants, or a few acres 
of land, or a diabeheeh, or some household 



AND THE NILES. 271 

utensils ; and should he dismiss her, from 
whatever cause, except, of course, those 
which w T ould seem sufficient in more civil- 
ized lands, he must hand over her dowry, 
which, as no odium is attached to the dis- 
carded wife, speedily procures her another 
husband. 

The Arabs are very tenacious of property, 
and one can hardly guess how many matri- 
monial squabbles are happily prevented by 
the wholesome fear of losing the pigeon- 
house, or having to give up the diabeheeh. 

Pigeon-houses, as the reader may have 
observed from my descriptions, are quite a 
feature in Nile scenery ; and the upper story 
of every dwelling, in some villages, is crowded 
with pigeons and their nests. They are kept 
solely for their manure, and seem in them- 
selves common property. We were always 
allowed, and even encouraged to kill as many 



272 KHARTOUM 

as we liked, except close to the village, 
where the owners were afraid we should 
scare them. Not so the doves, which, as 
Abbas told me, " are not lucky for man to 
kill," though, when killed, he appeared to 
have no objection to cooking them in the 
most approved style ; and very good they 
were, our ladies preferring them to part- 
ridges. 

I expected to have found the Arabs more 
superstitious than they are. Our servants 
were as much so as any one we met ; our 
crews, wild and courageous, were the reverse. 
The most popular and deep-rooted prejudice 
was against Wednesday ; and all the under- 
takings commenced on that day, were, they 
thought, sure to be disastrous. At Cairo, 
bricklayers will not begin a work, or finish it, 
on Wednesday ; nor will native merchants be 
easily induced to buy or sell ; business on 



AND THE NILES. 273 

Wednesdays, therefore, is " very dull," and 
articles " heavy of sale." On Friday, on the 
contrary, business is peculiarly " brisk," as on 
that day there is a lucky hour, which 
is to be seized upon, as the unlucky 
one on Wednesday is, if possible, to be 
avoided. 

It often occurred to me, that what was 
lucky to the seller might be unlucky to the 
buyer ; but this does not seem to have 
struck the Egyptian, and he persists in being 
very prudent on Wednesdays, and very rash 
on Fridays. 

Our crews were a constant source of 
amusement to us, they were always merry 
and good-humoured, and particularly so when 
the wind blew strong from the north, filling 
our huge sail ; and then our Reis at the helm, 
telling his son some tale, in a low and mono- 

VOL. I. T 



274 KHARTOUM 

tonous voice, would leave the sailors free to 
amuse themselves as they liked. They had 
but one enjoyment, but it seemed never to 
fail. Gathering round the man whose duty 
it was to sit at the rope which held the main- 
sail, the drum was produced — a sheep-skin 
stretched over a kind of earthenware jar, open 
at the other end — and a pipe wonderfully con- 
structed ; and then commenced a concert, 
the airs being all in one key. They had 
but few songs ; and some I recognised 
as having been thought worthy of transla- 
tion. I insert two, the composition of a kind 
friend — 



Like the low sweet music of thy voice 
Is the whispering stream ; 

And my soul, in its melody, fain 
Would for ages dream 1 



AND THE NILES. 275 

ii. 

Thine eyes resemble the wild gazelle's, 

And thy perfumed hau- 
ls soft as robes of embroidered silk, 

Such as proud Sheiks wear. 



Oh ! beautiful maiden of Araby, 
Fair as a young new moon, 

I'll prize for ever one smile of thine 
As life's dearest boon. 



Sell me, I pray, in the Turk's bazaar 

As a Moslem slave, 
Or bid me in the Nile's dark stream 

Find a watery grave : 



For sooner shall I forget to swim, 

And my lips to eat, 
Than cease to recall the hour when first 

I knelt at thy feet. 

T 2 



276 KHARTOUM 

VI. 

But I know by thy shy radiant glance, 

Which I dimly see, 
An obedient wife, and a faithful slave, 

Wilt thou be to me. 

VII. 

Costly and rare the gifts I'll bestow 

When once thou art mine, 
Gums and rich jewels, spices and shawls, 

They shall all be thine. 

VIII. 

Oh ! beautiful maiden of Araby, 
Fair as a young new moon, 

I'll prize for ever one smile of thine 
As life's dearest boon ! 



Sing, boatmen, sing, it will beguile 
Our voyage up the dark-blue Nile ; 



AND THE NILES. 277 

Pray we for a northern wind, 
Though leaving homes and wives behind ; 
Too fierce the heat for us to row, 
Against the rustling current's flow. 
The great Cavaghi is on board, 
And we to home shall be restored, 
When safely shall his hareem reach 
The wind-kissed, pebbly Theban beach. 



ii. 

Sing, boatmen, sing, our hearts are free 
From grinding care, though poor we be ; 
Our wives locked up, are well secured, 
And happiness for them ensured 
By food in plenty ; so no Beauty 
Need to swerve from her heart's duty. 
But, comrades, should the bad Turks come, 
With clash of cymbal, beat of drum, 
Will not our ardent bosoms burn, 
When we to Cairo shall return, 
Should they have forced our wives away, 
And treachery thus our love repay ? 



278 KHARTOUM 

in. 

No, boatmen, no, our Arab wives 
Shall happy make our future lives ; 
Since skies midst storms retain their blue 
Our lovely maids will still be true. 
And when our purses shall be lined, 
May Allah send a southern wind, 
To speed us on our homeward way I 
And hail we soon that blissful day, 
Which shall to us our wives restore, 
Whom absence makes us love the more. 
Then, boatmen, sing, it will beguile 
Our voyage down the dark-blue Nile. 

At the end of each verse, which is sung 
by one person, the crew join in, sometimes 
with a yell of horror, sometimes with a shout 
of delight, as the occasion may require, and 
sometimes only repeating the last line in 
chorus. That apathy which so especially 
distinguishes the Arab, disappears altogether 



AND THE NILES. 279 

when under the influence of music; and I 
have seen some of the men worked up to a 
state of wild enthusiasm, or fearful rage, by 
a well-sung account of their domestic circle 
going wrong during their absence. But 
Daireh had such an aversion to translating 
the words of their numerous effusions all to 
one tune, that I was obliged to conclude 
that there were but few of them adapted to 
" ears polite." I have often thought, how- 
ever, that Daireh was a very free translator. 
The first time I had any doubt about his 
veracity as an interpreter, was at Ossioot, 
where the following conversation ensued be- 
tween the Governor and myself, through his 
agency. 

" Daireh, tell his Excellency, that' I could 
not pass through this city without having the 
honour of seeing him." 

" No, Herr George, I not say that, I 



280 KHARTOUM 

say his having honour to see you : then give 
you pipe directly." 

The Pasha. " What are you saying ?" 

Daireh. " He say he very great man 
from England, come on purpose all the way 
to call upon very mighty Governor of 
Ossioot." 

The Pasha. " Taib, hat tchibouque." 
(Good, bring a pipe for him.) 

" Daireh," I asked, " what did you tell 
him?" 

" Oh ! I tell him he ought to make much 
honour to see you. You very great man." 

" Undeceive him directly. Tell him I am 
an English traveller." 

Pasha {evidently uneasy about our pro- 
longed u asides".) " Is the Cavaghi come by 
himself?" 

Daireh. " No ; he have very big family on 
very fine boat." 



AND THE NILES 281 

Pasha. " Taib" (and a long smoke en- 
sued). 

I now began to insist on a real translation 
of my speeches, and I made some progress 
in Oriental conversation. I think it was in 
this interview I discovered that crossing one's 
legs whilst sitting in a divan or chair, and 
putting one's hand's in one's pockets, were 
abominations to the Egyptians. 



282 KHARTOUM 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Itinerary for the Desert. 

Our plan was to ride from Wady Haifa 
to Dongola, cutting off all the bends of the 
river, but endeavouring to sleep nightly on 
its banks. From Dongola, we intended to 
cross over to Gebel Berkel, passing through 
the desert of Argab-Teschagoa. We should 
cross the river at Merowah, and make our 
way through the desert of Bayiouda to 
Metamneh, or Wady Bashara, as our guides, 
in that country the supreme authorities, 
should direct. From this point, we should 



AND THE NILES. 283 

proceed to Khartoum, whence boats were to 
carry us to Berber, where we could procure 
camels to Korosko, about seventy miles above 
Assouan. No ladies had ever as yet succeeded 
in penetrating to the south of Dongola, and 
we by no means bound ourselves to that 
adventurous course. 

Our three tents, and innumerable boxes 
were got out of the hold of the two boats : 
the Cairene water-skins, which of course all 
leaked, were repaired, and our small desert 
wardrobe was already stowed in our little 
carpet-bags. We then explained to the Reis 
that five weeks were to elapse before he left 
Wady Haifa, on his downward journey to 
Korosko, but Daireh took the word out of our 
lips, and said : 

" You see the moon • when it go away, 
and come again big as now, you still wait 
till you have prayed seven times on the top 



284 KHARTOUM 

of the cabin, in the night ; and when the 
moon come small before it go, and you 
have had your prayer seven times, then turn 
the boat, and row." 

In my anxiety to try how a tent served 
for a bedroom, I carried up all my things, 
and pitched my canvass dwelling on the 
shore, regardless of a violent gale blowing 
at the time, I installed myself within; but 
my house was indeed founded on the sand, 
and about midnight, the whole fabric was 
blown down. I passed a very uncomfortable 
night indeed, but the morning broke at last, 
and we prepared for our first real day in the 
desert. 



APPENDIX 



VOL. I. 



The annexed observations were made by my 
father up to the time of his death, and have been 
continued with, I hope, the same accuracy and 
attention. 

We used an aneroid barometer, winch we found 
had not varied the least during this long journey, 
when we compared it at Cairo on our return there. 
As the greater portion of the observations refer 
to the journey described in the first volume, they 
are introduced here, in preference to placing them 
at the end of the work. 



APPENDIX. 



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VOL. I. 



290 



APPENDIX. 





























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1— 1 



LONDON : 

Printed bv Schulze and Co., 13, Poland Street. 



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FOURTH EDITION REVISED. 

In One large Vol., Svo. 15s. bound. 

LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, 

A POLITICAL BIOGRAPHY. 

BY B. DISRAELI, M.P. 



From Blackwood's Magazine. — " This biography cannot fail to attract the 
deep attention of the public. We are bound to say, that as a political biography 
we have rarely, if ever, met with a work more dexterously handled, or more 
replete with interest. The exertions of Lord George Bentinck in behalf of every 
assailed or depressed branch of British and Colonial industry — the vast pains 
which he took in procuring authentic information — and the enormous amount 
of private labour he underwent in the preparation of those materials which have 
thrown a novel light upon disputed doctrines of economy — are faithfully 
chronicled in this most interesting volume. The history of the famous session 
of 1846, as written by Disraeli in that brilliant and pointed style of which he 
is so consummate a master, is deeply interesting. He has traced this memorable 
struggle with a vivacity and power unequalled as yet in any narrative of Parlia- 
mentary proceedings." 

From The Dublin- University Magazine. — "A political biography of 
Lord George Bentinck by Mr. Disraeli must needs be a work of interest and 
importance. Either the subject or the writer would be sufficient to invest it 
with both — the combination surrounds it with peculiar attractions. In this 
most interesting volume Mr. Disraeli has produced a memoir of his friend in 
which he has combined the warmest enthusiasm of affectionate attachment with 
the calmness of the critic, and in which he has not only added to his reputation, 
but we verily believe must increase his influence even as a politician." 

From The Morning Herald. — " Mr. Disraeli's tribute to the memory of 
his departed friend is as graceful and as touching as it is accurate and impartial. 
No one of Lord George Bentinck's colleagues could have been selected, who, 
from his high literary attainments, his personal intimacy, and party associations, 
would have done such complete justice to the memory of a friend and Parlia- 
mentary associate. Mr. Disraeli has here presented us with the very type and 
embodiment of what history should be. His sketch of the condition of parties 
is seasoned with some of those piquant personal episodes of party manoeuvres 
and private intrigues, in the author's happiest and most captivating vein, which 
convert the dry details of politics into a sparkling and agreeable narrative. 
But the portrait which will stamp the book as one of the most extraordinary 
productions of the time is that of Sir Robert Peel. It is written with wonderful 
force and extraordinary impartiality." 



4 COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

NEW TRAVELS IN THE HOLY LAND. 

In Two Vols., with Illustrations, 21s. bound. 

EIGHT TEARS 
IN PALESTINE, SYRIA, AND ASIA MINOR, 

FROM 1842 TO 1850. 
BY F. A. NEALE, ESQ., 

LATE ATTACHED TO THE CONSULAR SERVICE IN SYRIA. 

Opinions of the Press. 

" One of the best accounts of the country and people that has been published 
of late years." — Spectator. 

" A highly entertaining book, presenting a lively picture of Levantine life in 
all its varied aspects." — John Bull. 

"A very agreeable hook. Mr. Neale is evidently quite familiar with the 
East, and writes in a lively, shrewd, and good-humoured manner. A great 
deal of information is to be found in his pages." — Jthenceum. 

" Deeply interesting volumes. We have rarely met with a work from which 
we have derived so much pleasure and profit." — Messenger. 

" We have derived unmingled pleasure from the perusal of these interesting 
volumes. Very rarely have we found a narrative of Eastern travel so truthful 
and just. There is no guide-book we would so strongly recommend to the 
traveller about to enter on a Turkish or Syrian tour as this before u?. The 
information it affords is especially valuable, since it is brought up almost to the 
last moment. The narrative, too, is full of incident, and abounds in vivid pic- 
tures of Turkish and Levantine life interspersed with well-told tales. The 
author commences his narrative at Gaza ; visits Askalon, Jaffa and Jerusalem, 
Caipha and Mount Carmel, Acre, Sidon and Tyre, Beyrout, Tripoli, Antioch, 
Aleppo, Alexandretta, Adana, and Cyprus. Of several of these famous localities 
we know no more compact and clearer account than that given in these volumes. 
We have to thank Mr. Neale for one of the best books of travels that we have 
met with for a very long time." — Literary Gazette. 

° Mr. Neale's book will claim the highest rank among works of this class 
His long wanderings of eight years in the regions he describes have made him 
thoroughly familiar with localities, and with the domestic life of the population. 
Nothing can be more graphic than his picturesque descriptions ; nothing more 
amusing than his sketches of native society ; more piquant or more diverting 
than his stories, anecdotes, and adventures. He takes us out of the beaten 
tract of tourists into the nooks and corners, as well as into the cities and towns. 
He tells us everything of such places as Jerusalem, Antioch, Aleppo, Beyrout ; 
but we now go for the first time to Beilan, Nargheslik, Alexandretta, Daphne's 
Cataracts, &c, &c. As might be expected in the narrative of one so familiar 
with what he treats of, the book is replete with new and valuable information.' 
— United Service Magazine. 



COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



CAPTAIN SPENCER'S NEW WORK. 

In 2 vols. Svo. with Illustrations, and a valuable Map of European Turkey, from 

the most recent Charts in the possession of the Austrian and Turkish 

Governments, revised by the Author, 28*. bound. 

TRAVELS IN EUROPEAN TURKEY 

IN 1850: 

THROUGH BOSNIA, SERVIA, BULGARIA, MACEDONIA, ROUMELIA, ALBANIA, AND 
EPIRUS ; WITH A VISIT TO GREECE AND THE IONIAN ISLES, AND A HOME- 
WARD TOUR THROUGH HUNGARY AND THE SCLAVONIAN PROVINCES 
OF AUSTRIA ON THE LOWER DANUBE. 

By EDMUND SPENCER, ESQ. 

Author of " Travels in Circassia," &c 

" These important volumes appear at an opportune moment, as they describe 
some of those countries to which public attention is now more particularly 
directed: Turkey, Greece, Hungary, and Austria. The author has given us a 
most interesting picture of the Turkish Empire, its weaknesses, and the era- 
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tent of its Christian, and the turbulence of a great portion of its Mahominedan 
subjects. We are also introduced for the first time to the warlike mountaineers 
of Bosnia, Albania, Upper Moesia, and the almost inaccessible districts of the 
Pindus and the Balkan. The different nationalities of that Babel-like country, 
Turkey in Europe, inhabited by Sclavonians, Greeks, Albanians, Macedonians, 
the Romani and Osmanli — their various characteristics, religions, superstitions, 
together with the:r singular customs and manners, their ancient and contem- 
porary history are vividly described. The Ionian Islands, Greece, Hungary, and 
the Sclavonian Provinces of Austria on the Lower Danube, are all delineated in 
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" We cordially recommend Mr. Spencer's valuable and interesting volumes to 
the attention of the reader. They are replete with information upon countries of 
which we know but little ; they will be interesting to the military man for the 
details they give of the strength and defensive positions of the various countries 
through which the author travelled ; to the merchant for the insight given into 
the state of trade ; and to the man of the world as they place before his view the 
present political and social state of an empire, whose welfare it is the interest of 
England to promote. The work must be considered a standard production, 
enriched, as it is, by an excellent map derived from the most authentic modern 
charts, added to, and improved by the observations of the author during his 
travels." — United Service Magazine. 

" A work of great merit, and of paramount present interest. — Standard. 

" This interesting work contains by far the most complete, the most en- 
lightened, and the most reliable amount of what has been hitherto almost the 
terra incognita of European Turkey, and supplies the reader with abundance of 
entertainment as well as instruction." — John Bull. 

" An excellent and admirable work. Mr. Spencer is a very able writer, a 
shrewd, experienced, and philosophical observer, an eminently thinking and yet 
practical man. His work forms the most valuable addition that our literature has 
lately received. He sets forth to inquire and learn ; he returns to inform and 
suggest ; and information most valuable and interesting has he here bestowed 
upon us." — Tail's Magazine. 



U COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

ARCTIC MISCELLANIES, 

A SOUVENIR OF THE LATE POLAR SEARCH. 
BY THE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN OF THE EXPEDITION. 

DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO THE LORDS OF THE ADMIRALTY. 

Second Edition, with a new Preface and Introduction by P. O'Brien, Esq. 

1 v. with numerous Illustrations, 10s. 6d\, elegantly bound. 

Amongst the Contributors to the "Arctic Miscellanies" are Admiral Sir John 
Ross, Captain Ommaney, Commanders McClintock and Cator, Lieutenants 
Osburn, Meecham, Browne, and Markham, Dr. Donnett, and Dr. Ede. 



From the " Times." — This volume is not the least interesting or instructive 
among the records of the late expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, com- 
manded by Captain Austin. The most valuable portions of the book are those 
which relate to the scientific and practical observations made in the course of the 
expedition, and the descriptions of scenery and incidents of arctic travel. Many 
of the latter possess considerable literary merit, and all are impressed with the 
vividness of fresh observation. From the variety of the materials, and the 
novelty of the scenes and incidents to which they refer, no less than the interest 
which attaches to all that relates to the probable safety of Sir John Franklin and 
his companions, the Arctic Miscellanies forms a very readable book, and one that 
redounds to the honour of the national character. 

From the " Globe." — Captain Austin's little squadron, which sailed in 
May, 1850, in search of Sir John Franklin, consisted of the Resolute, com- 
manded by Captain Austin ; the Assistance, commanded by Captain Ommaney ; 
and two steamers under the command of Lieutenants Osburn and Cator. To 
assist in whiling away the dreary time in the arctic regions, the officers and 
sailors of the expedition contributed to a journal which was circulated amongst 
them in manuscript, and once a month the weather-beaten tars enjoyed the 
luxury of their own newspaper. That journal has now been brought before the 
general public under the title of " Arctic Miscellanies," in a shape more worthy 
of its instrinsic merits, beautifully printed, and carefully illustrated. All the 
varied incidents, pleasant and painful, of life in the frozen zone, are vividly 
and good-humouredly chronicled in the " Arctic Miscellanies," which contains 
besides some capital seamen's stories, superstitious "yarns" and drolleries. As 
a record of the pastimes, adventures, fancies, and feelings of our true-hearted 
gallant sailors, while undergoing the most appalling hardships in the frozen 
seas, the volume is invaluable; and it is unusually interesting as demonstrating 
the high intellectual capacities, the mental vigour, and the refined tastes of our 
rough-looking blue-jackets. 

From the " United Service Magazine." — Beautifully got up, and 
profusely illustrated, this most pleasant book really charms as much by its 
appearance and its matter, as its novelty. We cannot take leave of this Arctic 
Souvenir without expressing our admiration of it in every point of view. Such 
productions should be encouraged by those in authority, and a copy of this 
work ought to be found on board every ship in commission. 



COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



DARIEN 



THE MERCHANT PRINCE. 

By ELIOT WARBURTON, Esq. 

Author of " The Crescent and the Cross," &c, 3 v. 



" The present production, from the pen of the author of • The Crescent and the 
Cross,' has the same elements of a very wide popularity. It will please its 
thousands. It is a tale of substantial interest." — Globe. 

" The best work of fiction which has proceeded from Mr. Warburton's pen. 
It is full of absorbing interest." — Messenger. 

11 The theme of this book is a fine one. It is full of eloquent writing." — Examiner. 

" Darien,' like all Mr. Warburton's previous productions, has many passages of 
rich imaginative beauty. This eloquent narrative will be extensively read, and 
deserves to be so." — Daily News. 

" A most interesting narrative, and one in which the versatile talents of its 
author are conspicuously and agreeably apparent. The characters are delineated 
with delicacy and skill,' and there is a vigorous vitality in the dialogue which 
carries the reader along with a movement at once easy and rapid. The descrip- 
tions are remarkable for splendour of illustration and brilliancy of language, and 
the incidents are involved with such ingenuity as to preserve the interest to the 
last." — Morning Post. 

" Few writers have so many admirers as Mr. Warburton. His ' Crescent and 
the Cross' is one of the standard works of the English language, and we shall be 
disappointed if the charming story of ' Darien' does not obtain an equal degree of 
success. The vicissitudes and stirring adventures of the hero, forming such a 
marvellous episode of real life — the beauty and striking characteristics of the 
heroine-— and tbe vein of pathos and romance that pervades the whole tale, give 
the book a peculiar and irresistible charm. By those who love excitement it will 
be read with breathless interest. Mr. Warburton excels in the delineation of 
those incidents which call up the first powers of the novelist, and enchain the 
sympathies of the reader. His situations are admirably conceived, and wrought 
out with singular skill. His characters are strongly marked, and show the 
felicitous touch of a master." — United Service Magazine. 

" The scheme for the colonization of Darien by Scotchmen, and the opening of 
a communication between the East and West across the Isthmus of Panama, 
furnishes the foundation of this story, which is in all respects worthy of the 
high reputation which the author of the ' Crescent and the Cross' had already 
made for himself. The early history of the Merchant Prince introduces the 
reader to the condition of Spain under the Inquisition ; the portraitures of 
Scottish life which occupy a prominent place in the narrative, are full of spirit ; 
the scenes in America exhibit the state of the natives of the new world at that 
period ; the daring deeds of the Buccaneers supply a most romantic element in 
the story ; and an additional interest is infused into it by the introduction of 
various celebrated characters of the period, such as Law, the French financier, 
and Paterson, the founder of the Bank of England. All these varied ingredients 
are treated with that brilliancy of style and powerful descriptive talent, by which 
the pen of Eliot Warburton was so eminently distinguished." — John Bull. 



COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



JUDGE IIALIBURTON'S NEW HISTORICAL WORK. 

In 2 vols, post 8vo. 21s. bound. 

RULE AND MISRULE OF 

THE ENGLISH IN AMERICA 

By the Author of 
"SAM SLICK," "THE OLD JUDGE," &c. 



" A most attractive work." — Standard. 

" The cleverest volumes Judge Haliburton has ever produced." — Messenger. 

" We conceive this work to be by far the most valuable and important Judge 
Haliburton has ever written. The exhaustless fund of humour — quiet, yet rich 
and racy, and at the same time overflowing with the milk of human kindness 
— which his writings display on one band, and the wonderful knowledge of 
man's character, in all its countless varieties, which they exhibit on the other, 
have insured for them a high, and honourable, and enduring station in English 
literature. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to arise from the perusal of 
any of Mr. Halliburton's performances without having become both wiser and 
better. His ' English in America' is, however, a production of a yet more 
exalted order. While teeming with interest, moral and historical, to the general 
reader, it may be regarded as equally constituting a philosophical study for the 
politician and the statesman. It will be found to dissipate many popular errors, 
and to let in a flood of light upon the actual origin, formation, and progress of 
the republic of the United States." — Naval and Military Gazette. 

" Those who wish for an accurate history of the rise of republicanism in 
America to its grand development in the United States revolution, will here find 
a narrative that is invaluable for its accuracy, its impartiality, its admirable order 
in arrangement, and that true philosophy of statesmanship which can attach to 
each incident a fitting moral, from which every honest politician can derive 
instruction. The work is one equally useful in the double aspect in which it 
may be regarded — first, an insight into the causes of past transactions ; second, 
as a warning to guide mankind amid the many perplexing political questions of 
the day. The spirit of impartiality animates every page of this work. It is 
deserving of a place in every historical library." — Morning Herald. 

" We believed the author of this work to possess a power of humour and 
sarcasm second only to that of Rabelais and Sydney Smith, and a genuine pathos 
worthy of Henry Fielding, or Charles Dickens. In his particular line of literature 
we beiieved him to be unrivalled. In the volumes before us he breaks upon a 
new, and, according to his method of breaking the subject — untrodden ground. 
We hail this book with pleasure; we consider it an honour to Judge Haliburton, 
as by it he has proved himself to be a Christian, a scholar, a gentleman, and, in 
the true sense of a mis-used word, a patriot. Mr. Haliburton places before us, 
fairly and impartially, the history of English rule in America. The book is not 
only a boon to the historic student, it is also filled with reflections such as may 
well engage the attention of the legislating statesman. Mr. Haliburton also 
shows us the true position of the Canadas, explains the evils of our colonial 
system, points out the remedies by which these evils may be counteracted, that 
thus the rule of the ' English in America' may be something better than a 
history of the blunders, the follies, and the ignorant temerity of colonial 
secretaries." — Irish Quarterly Review. 



COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 9 

SAM SLICK'S NEW COMIC WORK. 

In 3 vols, post 8vo. 31s. 6d. bound. 

TRAITS OF AMERICAN HUMOUR. 

Edited 
By the Author of " SAM SLICK," &c. 

' ; We have seldom met with a work more rich in fun or more generally 
delightful." — Standard. 

" Those who have relished the racy humour of the ' Clockmaker,' will find a 
dish of equally ludicrous and amusing Transatlantic wit in the volumes before 
us." — Herald. 

" A new book by the author of ' Sam Slick' causes some stir among the 
laughter-loving portion of the community ; and its appearance at the present 
festive season is appropriate. We hold that it would be quite contrary to the 
fitness of things for any other hand than that of our old acquaintance, the 
facetious Judge Haliburton, to present to us a Christmas dish, and call it ' Traits 
of American Humour.' But even without the recollection of ' Sam Slick' to 
evoke the spirit of fun within us, we should have been forced to yield to the 
racy humour of these American ' Traits.' Dip where you will into this lottery 
of fun, you are sure to draw out a prize." — Morning Post. 

" The untravelled European who has not made the acquaintance of Sam 
Slick, can have but little knowledge of the manners, customs, humours, eccen- 
tricities, and lingos of the countless varieties of inhabitants of North America 
who we are accustomed to conglomerate under the general name of Yankees. 
Assisted, however, by Sam Slick's graphic descriptions, literal reports, and racy 
pen-and-ink sketches, gentlemen who sit at home at ease, are able to realize with 
tolerable accuracy the more remarkable species of this lively family, to com- 
prehend their amusing jargon, to take an interest in their peculiarities of person 
and speech, and to enter into the spirit of their very characteristic humours. 
No man has done more than the facetious Judge Haliburton, through the mouth 
of the inimitable ' Sam,' to make the old parent country recognise and appreciate 
her queer transatlantic progeny ; and in the volumes before us he seeks to render 
the acquaintance more minute and complete. His present collection of comic 
stories and laughable traits is a budget of fun full of rich specimens of American 
humour." — Globe. 

" The reader will find this work deeply interesting. Yankeeism pourtrayed, in 
its raciest aspect, constitutes the contents of these superlatively entertaining 
volumes, for which we are indebted to our facetious old friend ' Sam Slick.' 
The work embraces the most varied topics, — political parties, religious eccen- 
tricities, the flights of literature, and the absurdities of pretenders to learning, 
all come in for their share of satire ; while in other papers we have specimens of 
genuine American exaggerations, or graphic pictures of social and domestic life 
as it is, more especially in the ruder districts and in the back settlements, or 
again sallies of broad humour, exhibiting those characteristics which form in the 
country itself the subject of mutual persifflage between the citizens of different 
States. The work will have a wide circulation." — John Bull. 



10 COLBURN AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



KHARTOUM, 
AND THE BLUE AND WHITE NILES. 

By GEORGE MELLY, ESQ. 

2 v. post. 8vo., with Map and Illustrations, 21s. bound. 

" Mr. Melly is an animated writer, and a quick observer — his style is buoyant, 
lively, and agreeable, and his book is from first to last instructive and enter- 
taining." — Morning Post. 

" Independently of the amusement and information which may be derived 
from Mr. Melly's interesting work, the references to the relations which exist 
at this time between the Sublime Porte and Egypt are worthy of every conside- 
ration which statesmen and public men can bestow upon them." — Messenger. 

" We cannot feel otherwise than grateful to the author of these valuable and 
useful volumes for having kept so faithful a journal, and for giving the public 
the benefit of his adventures and experience. The manners and customs of 
the natives, as well as the natural curiosities, and the relics of antiquity which 
the travellers visited, in turns engage the reader's attention ; and, altogether, the 
book is a most entertaining and instructive vade-mecum to the interesting portion 
of the East of which it treats." — John Bull. 



SCENES FROM SCRIPTURE. 

By the REV. G. CROLY, LL.D. 

Author of " Salathiel " &c, 1 v., 10s. 6d. bound. 

PRINCIPAL CONTEXTS : 

The Last Dav of Jerusalem— Esther— The Third Temptation— The Vision of 
God— The Sixth Seal— The Power of Prayer— Belshazzar— Malachi— Balak 
and Balaam— Ezekiel— John the Baptist— The Prophecy of Jerusalem— 
Elisha in Dothan— The Woe upon Israel— The Judgment Day, &c. 

" Eminent in every mode of literature, Dr. Croly stands, in our judgment, first 
among the living poets of Great Britain— the only man of our day entitled by his 
power to venture within the sacred circle of religious poets." — Standard. 

"The appearance of a volume of poems from a writer of such high repute as 
the author of ' Salathiel,' is an event in the history of modern literature. With 
a vigour of language in harmony with the subjects he has chosen, Dr. Croly has 
presented to us, in a poetic form, some of the most striking and instructive inci- 
dents in the sacred volume." — Messenger. 

" This volume will be extensively read and admired. It is one of great 
interest, variety, and merit." — Post. 

" This work deserves to be placed in the highest ranks of sacred poetry." — 
Atlas. 

" An admirable addition to the library of religious families." — John Bull. 



COLBURN AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 1 1 

LORD PALMERSTON'S OPINIONS 

AND POLICY; 
AS MINISTER, DIPLOMATIST, AND STATESMAN, 

DURING MORE THAN FORTY YEARS OF PUBLIC LIFE, 

WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL MEMOIR. 
BY GEORGE HENRY FRANCIS, ESQ., 

Author of "Maxims and Opinions of the Duke of Wellington," &c. 
1 v. 8vo., with Portrait, 12s. bound. 



THE LITERATURE AND ROMANCE 

OF NORTHERN EUROPE. 
BY WILLIAM AND MARY HOWITT. 

2 v. post 8vo. 



FIVE YEARS IN THE WEST INDIES, 

BY C. DAY, ESQ. 2 v., with Illustrations. 



HISTORY OF THE 

BRITISH CONQUESTS IN INDIA 

BY HORACE ST. JOHN. 2 v. 



HISTORY OF CORFU; 

AND OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE IONIAN ISLANDS. 
BY LIEUT. H. J. W. JERVIS, Royal Artillery. 



1 v., with Illustrations. 



MEMOIRS OF COLONEL LANDMAN 

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. 2 v. (Just Ready.) 



12 COLBURN AND CO.'S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



A NEW HISTORICAL WORK, 

By MISS PARDOE, 

Author of 

"Louis XIV.," "The City of the Sultan," &c. 

(In Preparation.) 



A NEW WORK ON CANADA, 

By the late Lieutenant-Colonel Sir It. Bonnycastle. 

With considerable Additions, and an Account of Recent Transactions, 

By SIR JAMES E. ALEXANDER, K.L.S., &c. 

2 v., with Maps. (Just Ready.) 



NARRATIVE OF 

FIVE YEARS' RESIDENCE AT NEPAUL, 

By CAPTAIN THOMAS SMITH, 

Late Bengal Native Infantry ; Assistant Political Resident at Nepaul. 
2 v. (Just Ready.) 



SPAIN AS IT IS. 

By G. A. HOSKINS, ESQ. 

Author of " Travels in Ethiopia, and Visit to the Great Oasis," &c. 
2 v., with Illustrations, 21s. bound. 

" To the tourist this work will prove invaluable. It is the most complete and 
most interesting portraiture of Spain as it is that has ever come under our 
notice." — John Bull. 

" Mr. Hoskins is a pleasant companion and a very useful guide. He describes 
a route abounding in all the attractions afforded by noble works of art, interest- 
ing historical association, and exquisite scenery ; and he does justice to them all. 
His narrative is rendered both attractive and valuable by the intrinsic interest of 
the subject, and the graphic truthfulness of description which appears in every 
page." — Morning Post. 



COLBURN AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 13 

3frat ItTnrks nf /irttnn, litj flistragnisjiti Wtftm. 
ADAM GRAEME OF MOSSGRAY. 

A NEW STORY OF SCOTTISH LIFE. 

By the Author of 

1 Passages in the Life of Mrs. Margaret Maitland," " Merkland," 
and " Caleb Field." 3 v. {Just Ready. j 



HEARTS AND ALTARS, 

BY ROBERT BELL, ESQ., 

Author of "The Ladder of Gold," &c. 3 v. 



ADVEiNTURES OF A BEAUTY. 

BY MRS. CROWE, 

Author of "Susan Hopley," "Light and Darkness," &c. 3 v. 



EMILY HOWARD. 

BY MRS. DUNLOP. 3 v. 



THE HEIR OF ARDENNAN. 

A STORY OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN SCOTLAND. 

Bv the Author of " Anne Dysart." 3 v. 



CLARA HARKING TO N ; 

A DOMESTIC TALE. 3 v. 

" The writer of ' Clara Harrington' possesses thought, fancy, and originality, 
in no common degree." — Athenamm. 



14 COLBURN AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

FALKENBURG. 

By the Author of " Mildred Vernon." 3 v. 

" A tale of singular and fascinating heauty." — Britannia. 

" All discriminating readers will he of one accord as to the excellence of 
' Falkenhurg.' Be it truth or romance, it is a capital story. The characters are 
well delineated and cleverly contrasted — the descriptive passages are full of 
grace and elegance — the reflective full of strength and earnestness." — Morning 
Post. 



MRS. MATHEWS; OR, FAMILY MYSTERIES. 

By MRS. TROLLOPE. 
Author of " Father Eustace," " The Barnabys," &c. 3 v. 

" A production unique in character, and of singular merit. This interesting 
story displays remarkahle knowledge of life and motive, and unites with great 
variety and fertility in the conception of character, greater freedom, energy, 
and minuteness of delineation, than any other of Mrs. Trollope's novels." — 
Morning Post. 

" Those who open the present volumes with the expectation of enjoying 
another of those rich treats which Mrs. Trollope's clever pen periodically provides 
for the novel-reading puhlic, will not he disappointed. The author proves the 
undiminished vigour of her inventive and descriptive powers." — John Bull. 



CLARE ABBEY. 

By the Author of " The Discipline of Life," &c. 2 v. 

" Lady Ponsonby's ' Clare Abbey' is a delightful book, full of powerful and 
graceful writing." — Standard. 

" In this story the talented author of ' The Discipline of Life,' has displayed 
all that power of painting the passions of the human heart, and the hard strug- 
gles between inclination and duty, of which her former work gave such ample 
proof. The tale has a fascinating interest, while its lofty moral tendency raises 
it above the ordinary level of works of fiction." — John Bull. 



CALEB FIELD. 

A TALE OP THE PURITANS. 

By the Author of " Passages in the Life of Mrs. Margaret Maitland," 
" Merkland," &c. 1 V. 

" This beautiful production is every way worthy of its author's reputation in 
the vfiry first rank of contemporary writers." — Standard. 

"Asa delineator of manners and character, this author has scarcely an equal 
among living writers ; while for the nobility of her sentiments, she stands all 
but alone above them all. ' Caleb Field' is a vindication of the Puritans— a 
sketch of their character and illustration of their deeds ; in a story of moving 
interest, deeply exciting, full of novelty, and abounding in scenes of graphic 
beauty." — Sunday Times. 



COLBURN AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 15 

RAVENSCLIFFE. 

By the Author of 
" Emilia Wyndham," " Two Old Men's Tales," &c. 3 v. 

" ' Ravenscliffe contains scenes not surpassed in power and heauty by those 
in 'The Admiral's Daughter,' which announced an addition to the phalanx of 
English authoresses so remarkahle as that of ' The Two Old Men." No reader 
can hear the heroine company without feeling in some degree the same sense of 
powerlessness to cope with the fascinations of a dark destiny which is conveyed 
by the stories of Richardson's ' Clarissa,' and Scott's ' Lucy Ashton.' This is 
praise enough — yet not too much." — Athenceum. 

" A story of remarkahle power and beauty." — Post. 

" A picture of an ill-starred marriage, such as Scott has not surpassed in the 
noble ' Bride of Lammermoor.' " — Examiner. 

"'Ravenscliffe' is beyond all question a work of genius, and full of power 
and originality. Its strength and vigour are extraordinary — the force with 
which scene after scene is unfolded, each rising above the other in power and 
interest, carries us breathless through the volumes." — Guardian. 



JACOB BENDIXEN, THE JEW. 

By MARY HOWITT. 

From the Danish. 3 v. 

" This tale has the fascination and the value of a glimpse into a most strange 
world. We heartily commend the novel." — Athenceum. 

" A very remarkable and delightful book, full of delicate beauty, elegant 
playfulness, and deep wisdom. It is a most fascinating tale, fraught with an 
important and touching lesson of mutual tolerance." — Daily News. 

" As interesting as anything of Fredrika Bremer's." — Spectator. 

" This new work, by Mary Howitt, will be found peculiarly attractive, no less 
from the interest of the story itself than from the entire novelty of its characters, 
scenes, and incidents. Mrs. Howitt says, in her preface : ' At the moment when 
we are searching into ths social and moral condition of all classes, a faithful 
transcript of the life and feelings of the Jews cannot fail of being welcome. 
These pages unlock, as it were, that mysterious and sealed book, the heart of 
the Jew, and enable us to peruse the history of a human soul, which is as 
interesting as it is new — at the same time it makes us familiarly acquainted 
with the domestic life, manners, and feelings of a portion of the community 
which is, in general, as little known as if it belonged to another hemisphere.' " — 
Globe. 



16 



COLBURN AND CO. S NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



POPULAR WORKS OF FICTION. 



MARIAN WITHERS. 
By GERALDINE E. JEWSBURY, 

Author of 
" Zoe," " The Half Sisters," &c. 3 v. 

"Full of cleverness and originality." — 
Examiner 

" The best of Miss Jewsbury's novels." — 
Critic. 

" One of the noblest works of fiction that 
has been for some time published in this 
country."— Observer. 

"A work of singular beauty, aiming at a 
noble purpose, and affording a vivid and 
faithful view of society in the nineteenth 
century." — Sunday Times. 

"A clever and brilliant book, full of the 
results of varied knowledge of life. The 
personal sketches remind one of Douglas 
Jerrold. The style is admirable for its 
caustic and compressed vigour. Marian 
Withers will take a hitrh rank among con- 
temporary fictions." — Weekly News. 

CECILE ; 

OR, THE PERVERT. 

By the Author of "Rockingham." 1 v. 

"We cannot too highly recommend this 
remarkable work. It is earnest and elo- 
quent, charitable and kindly. The story is 
full of strong and genuine interest. The 
charm of the book is that it is so liie-like, so 
full of home-truth and reality." — 3Iorning 
Chronicle 

"The author of ' Cecile' is a writer to 
whom the scenesof high life in which he finds 
the matter of his stories are not mere guess- 
work — who puts his own experiences into 
the form of fiction." — Examiner. 

THE LIVINGSTONES. 

A STORY OF REAL LIFE. 3 v. 

"This work has a real interest. The pic- 
tures of the Scottish homes, in which the 
heroine's youth is past, are excellent." — 
Examiner. 

"Great freshness of matter is the cha- 
racteristic of this novel The writer pos- 
sesses a knowledge of society, especially in 
Scotland, dramatic power in depicting cha- 
racter, and exhibiting scenes with moral 
purpose and soundly elegant reflection." — 
Spectator. 

RALPH RUTHERFORD. 

By the Author of " The Petrel." 3 v. 
" Admiral Fisher's interesting nautical 
tale of ' Ralph Rutherford' is a worthy 
member of the Marryat class, full of ani- 
mated scenes, serious and droll, with the 
halo of a love story thrown around it. 
There are passages and incidents which 
Tom Cringle might have been proud to have 
described."— United Service Gazette. 



The LADY and the PRIEST. 
By MRS. MABERLY. 3 v. 
" The sustained, the ever heightening 
interest, with which the story progresses to 
the end, and the power with which the 
characters are delineated, together with the 
allusions and illustrations applicable to the 
mighty conflict of the day between Home 
and England, combine to make the fiction of 
'The Lady and the Priest' one of the most 
exquisite romances, which, we doubt not, 
will, in addition to the keen enjoyment of 
the perusal, do more than hundreds of dry 
discussions and platform orations to impress 
the popular mind with the dangerous cha- 
racter of the Popish creed and system." — 
John Bull. 

THE TUTOR'S WARD. 

By the Author of 
" Wayfaring Sketches," " Use and 
Abuse," &c. 2 v. 
" 'The Tutor's Ward' is a masterpiece of 
fiction. The plot of the story is charged to 
the full with extraordinary incidents and 
adventures. The characters are delineated 
with graphic p'ower, the scenes finished 
with dramatic effect, and the tale conducted 
to its close with sustained interest. Rarely 
has the power of love over the female heart 
been more beautifully ponrtrayed than in 
this splendid tale." — John Bull. 

ARTHUR~CONWAY ; 

OR, SCENES IN THE TROPICS. 

By CAPTAIN MILMAN, 
Late 33rd Regiment. 3 v. 

"A book of very rare merit. As a ro- 
mance, replete with striking and affecting 
incidents ; as a picture of life in the West 
Indies, as a delineation of tropical scenery, 
and of the grand and mysterious visitations 
of nature, 'Arthur Conway' stands unap- 
proached by any modern work." — United 
Service Gazette. 

"This work is not only interesting as a 
well-written, lively, exciting work of fiction, 
but valuable as a series of sketches of the 
civilisation and progress of the West Indies, 
embodying the reminiscences of scenery and 
character preserved by the author during a 
residence in the Caribbee Islands. The 
scenes where the Caribs are introduced are 
quite original in romance." — Sunduy Times. 

ALBAN; 

A TALE. 
By the Author of " Lady Alice." 3 v. 

"Written with unquestionable ability. 
The story is exciting, and the scenes display 
considerable skill " — United Service Mag. 

"A remarkable novel, carried out with a 
great deal of spirit and effect." — Critic. 



Y 



Ill i 1 ''' -'HIT i|llif|, 



INTERESTING VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 

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MR. BREMNER'S NORWAY, DENMARK, AND SWEDEN. 

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LORD LINDSAY'S LETTERS FROM THE HOLl r LAND. Fourth 

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THE SPIRIT OF THE EAST. By D. URQUHART, Esq., MP. 

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THE HON. COL. KEPPF T '? 'NOW LORD ALBEMARLE) PER- 
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LETTERS '"ROM THE VAST. Bv JOHN CARNE, Esq. Written 

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TRAVELS IN PALESTINE. I'y J. S. BUCKINGHAM, Esq. 
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TRA" :^LS IN MESOTCVAMx^, ■ clu : ng Journey to the Ur o ? the 

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