Skip to main content

Full text of "The Kindergarten magazine"

See other formats

For Reference 


SERIAL 37E.E1B K51 v.B 
ThR Ki nriRrgart.Rn magaT-inR 


fJL:iMnL ^JVll.^lo ksi v.b 

The Kindergarten magazine 

Nalional-Louis UnivrrRity 



2840 Sheridan Road 

Evanston, Illinois 60201 



Kindergarten Magazine, 


Vol. Vl.-September, 1893-June, 1894. 


Kindergarten Literature Co. 

t^OLLEGf Of 


Copyright, iSqs 




Printed and Bound at the Pestalozzi-Froebel Press, Chicag'o. 



" Garden and Child Culture " September, i8g3 

The Gleaners Millet October, 1893 

" The Shepherdess " J. F. Millet November, 1893 

The Child Jesus and St. John Murillo December, 1893 

Madonna and Child Gabriel Max January, 1894 

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody (portrait) February, i8q4 

Hans Christian Andersen. . .yi//^r 6'/a/«t' /'J/ /. (9^/rr/ March, 1894 

Froebel's Monument April, 1894 

Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus Medallion From exhibit 

at World's Fair May, 1 894 

Play of the Birds June-July, 1894 



A History of the Tonic Sol-fa System Einjua A. Lord 177 

A Nature Seer Rebecca Pcrley Reed 768 

A Plea for Greater Knowledge of the Child Grace ^l. IVood 612 

Art in Early E !ucation Mary Dana Hicks 589 

Astronomy for Children Mary Proctor 1 7 

A Tribute.— Poem Agnes M. Fox 605 

A Week with Goethe -iinalie Hofcr 679 

Between the Lines of the Report of the Committee of Ten Jo- 

sephinc C. Locke 773 

Books and Periodicals 156, 244, 346, 430, 508, 585, 665, 743, 847 

Congress Notes 31 

Culture, Character, and Conduct 183 

Delsarte Interpreted by One of his Disciples. ...Mari Ruef LLofer 361 

Directing the Self-activity of the Child. .Hannah Jo/mson Carter 77 

Early Education through Symbols Marion Foster Washbiirtie 

I 351 

n 448 

Editorial Notes 33, 113, ig8, 290, 381, 459, 536, 614, 694, 784 

Everyday Practice Department (See special index), 35, 115, 200, 

293. 383- 462, 539, 617, 698, 787 
Exhibit of the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus of Berlin 9 



Field Notes 7i. 159- 246, 339- 422, 497, 577, 655, 733, 827 

Foretastes of Winter.-- Poem [Seit'cit-d) 275 

Garden of the Pestalozzi-Froebel House Elizabeth Harrison 770 

Good Night.— Poem Enii/y Huntington Miller 678 

Hans Christian Andersen and the Children Nico Bech-Meycr 513 

Henrietta Goldschmidt on "The Ethical Influence of Women in 

Education " 607 

How can We Acquire a Better Appreciation for True Art? 

Walter S. Perry 

I 688 

11 758 

How Froebel Influenced the Character of George Ebers ig4 

How shall the Primary School be Modified?. . .R. Pickman Matin 167 

International Congresses of Education 21 

International Kindergarten Union i 

Kindergarten as a Preparation for Right Living 

Frau Henrietta Schrader 

I 435 

n 519 

Kindergarten Section of the International Educational Congress.. gg 

Kindergartners in Congress Assembled 24 

Lessons L arned from the Columbian School Exhibits. . . .Amalie 

Hofer 286 

Literary Notes 70 

Mothers' Department (See special index), 60, 144, 232, 325, 408, 

485, 562, 643, 721, 816 
Obstacles to Kindergarten Progress in Large Cities Eliza A. 

Blakcr 357 

Pestalozzian Literature in America Will S. Monroe 673 

Pestalozzi's Chief Lesson to Educators Elizabeth Harrison 6j7 

Place and Value of Song in the Kindergarten Constanee 

Mackenzie 367 

Publishers' Notes 76, 165, 254, 349, 432, 510, 588, 669, 747, 84g 

Relation of the Kindergarten to the Public School System. .James 

L. Htcghes 74g 

Relation of the Kindergarten to the Sunday School Lucy 

Wheelock '. 173 

Resolutions Presented before the World's Congress Auxiliaries.. . 

Ida M. Condit 764 

Sloyd for Elementary Schools as Contrasted with the Russian 

System of Manual Training Gustaf Larsson 92 

Some Children's Books that have stood the Test of Thirty Years. . 

Margaret Andrews A llett 87 

Some Tendencies of the American Child. . . .Annie Branson King 271 

St. Louis Kindergartens and Schools Amalie Hofer 373 



Parents, Instruct Yourselves as to Reliable Educational Methods 

A.H.P 570 

Pictures in the Fire. — Poem '. Sopha S. Bixby 647 

Practical Suggestions for Home Teaching K. B. 730 

Proper Chairs for Schoolroom L. S. F. 650 

Reasons Why Children are not Sent to Kindergarten B. H. 239 

Scissors, and How to Use Them H. B. 60 

Service Uncounted A. H. 417 

Should Santa Claus be Banished from Our Homes? Ida S. 

Harringto7i 332 

Some Lessons from Mother Nature M. H. Jennings 237 

The Buttercup Meadow.— Poem Emma L. Clapp 62 

The Children's Garden. — Poem Annie C. Scott 155 

The Child's Questions Emily Huntington Miller 652 

The Dark. — Poem Forrest Crissey 495 

The Five Little Sheep Virgitiia B. Jacobs 576 

The Gift. — Poem Helen Douglas Saxe 574 

The Kindergarten for the Mother Nellie Nelson Amsden 330 

The Lesson of the Winter Boughs JM. H. J. 336 

The Mountain Maple Leaf's Story A Bealert 415 

The Old-fashioned Child 67 

The Philosophy of the Nursery Anna N. 

Kendall 325, 408, 485, 643, 816 

The Play of the Pigeon M.H. J. 242 

The Sandman. — Poem Hal Owen 68 

The World's Regeneration hrough the Mother. . .Louis H. Allen 723 

To Parents, Grandparents, Nurses, and Teachers. .A. N. Kettdall 721 

Topics for Mothers' Meetings H. M. 495 

Unmeasured Results Dora H. J. Ttmier 148 

What about Baby's Birthday? 144 

What Books will Help 241 

What the Child-Garden Brings to the Home 154 

Work is Worship A. H. 153 

Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARL!: Consortium of Academic and Researcli Libraries in Illinois 



A Little Talk about Taxation Nellie Nelson Amsden 235 

A Mother Inquires about Kindergarten Materials M. E. L. 6g 

An Active Child S. S. E. 650 

A New Year's Motto.— Poem 494 

An. Open Letter Mrs. L. B. Skitine?- 825 

A Plea for Children's Pets Katherine Beebc 566 

A Plea for Originality .■ Nellie Nelson Amsdeii 648 

A Reason for the Faith Katherine Beebe 818 

A Slumber-time Song. — Poem E. Addie Heath 337 

A Spirited Mothers' Meeting L. IV.T. 402 

Ball Song for the Babies Martha L. Sanford 65 1 

Child Training vers^is Tammg Wilder Grahamc 146 

Christmas Night (with music) 338 

Conference over Home Problems Frances E. Neimton 328 

Conferences over Home Matters Frances E. Newton 562 

Discovered, the Fountain of Perpetual Youth Barretta Broiun 410 

Doll's Cradle Song From the German of Carl Reinecke 492 

Do We Need the Parents' Help? Laura Pixley, in ''Western 

School Journal" 645 

Extract from "The True Education and the False" William 

Ordivay Partridge, in ''A rena " 487 

Fairy June.— Poem Annie McMullen 823 

Finger Game.— Poem Hal Owen 68 

Five Little Boys.— Play with Baby's Toes Rose 

Hartwick Thorpe 496 

Florine's Visit to Kindergarten Alys Day 63 

Good Night.— Poem M.H.J. 243 

Helping Santa Claus Hal Owen 418 

Henry's W. odpecker Susan P. Clement 1 50 

How Much the Kindergarten does for Mothers A Chicago 

Mother 67 

How the Kindergarten is Misu derstood S. C. V. 574 

How to See the Fair with the Children Elizabeth Harrison 232 

How 10 Select Schools to Fit the Children {Hoine Companion) 490 

Jake's Work and Play Norma B. Allen, Cora M. Allen 725 

Kindergarten and Public School — Extract from a Letter. ..G. V. 

Buchanan 494 

Kmdergarten Literature {Flleanor Kirk's Idea) 653 

Kindergarten Spirit in the Home and School C. G. Swingle 723 

Little Finger-eyes Hal Owen 572 

Mothers' Study Classes: Kmdcrgartners must Meet the Demand. 568 

Named at the Creche 152 

Notes from our Mothers' Parliament 149 

On.- Hour of Play.— Poem Grace Faye Kcon 421 

Our Home Club Mrs. S. B. 824 



Some Interesting Nature Transformations A. H. 387 

Some Plant Babies Ella F. Mosby 630 

Some Points on the Daily Program 123 

Song for Opening Gift Boxes Esther Gill Jackson 221 

Song of the Sewing Machine (with music). ...From "Song Stories 

for the Kindergarten " 407 

Story of Siegfried Maude Menefee 40 

Story of the St. James Shell 47 

Supplementary Reading Books B. H. 217 

Supplies and Materials 788 

Telling Star Stories to Kindergarten Children Mary Proctor 628 

The Broken Ring. — A Criticism Mary H. Peabody 471 

The Cube, the Cylinder, and the Sphere Kate Stearns 632 

The Dandelion.— A Nature Study Mrs. S. O. Spencer 714 

The Dandelion. — Poem Grace E. Loring 44 

The Fairy (with music) Sopha S. Bixby 50 

The Froebel Monument at Schweina 622 / 

The Giant Sun Mary Proctor 1 27 

The Goblins in Starland Mary Proctor 707 ^^' 

The Object, Aim, and Instruments of the Kindergarten Aurie 

E. Bloss 701 

The Reason Why [St. Nicholas) 48 

The Roller — Free Play J. A. K. 719 

The Snowflakes.— Poem S.J. Mulford 316 ' 

The Star Folk. — Poem Lesley Glendower Peabody 386 

The Three Weavers. — Poem Caroline L. Dinzey 642 

The Ugly Duckling Adapted fi-om Hans Christian Andersen 544 

The Worcester School Experiment [Harper's Magazine) 131 

Things Seen and Heard among the Kindergarten Exhibits. .A.H. 307 

Things to Determine in Your Summer Study 804 

Tonic Sol-fa System Emma A. Lord, 467, 555, 709, 789 

Typical Program Applied to the Daily Vicissitude Laura 

P. Charles 299, 396, 479, 552, 632 

Twenty Books for the Kindergartner's Library 641 

What has the World's Fair Done for Our Music? A Kiiider- 

gartner 135 

What the Fifth Gift Tells Us Clara B. Rogers 640 

What to Read and What not to Reaa A.H. 805 

Wool and Leather versus Child Growth Elizabeth Harrison 209 

World's Fair Treasures for the Schools 796 


A Garden.— Poem Esther Gill Jacksoji 826 

A Little More about Questions Nellie Nelson Amsden 728 



Development of the Spirit of Prayer Antoinette Choate 124 

Elementary Science Lesson Frederica Beard 53 

English Lullaby. — Poem [Selected) 1 26 

Every Teacher a Musician 803 

Finger Play of the Flowers Catherine Watkins 798 

First-gift Song and Game Cornelia Fulton Crary 220 

For Columbus' Birthday (Song, " Long Time Ago") F. R. G. 137 

Fourth-of-July Game Mary E. Sly 796 

Free-hand Paper Cutting .5". T. AI. 219 

Froebel Birthday Lines J/. E. P. 623 

General Talks in the Kindergarten Bertha Savage 38 

Geography and Arithmetic as They are Taught O. T. Bright 806 

Hans Christian Andersen's Birthday A. H. 542 

How a Kindergarten was Organized Minnie M. Glidden 55 

How the Frost Man Works. — Poem Haiinah Gould 406 

How the Milkweed Took Wings Margaret Dewey 140 

How to Apply the Story of Siegfried A. H. 44 

How to Assume Individual Responsibility 709 

How to Study Froebel's " Mutter und Kose-Lieder" Anialie 

Hofer 35. J-i^pSOO, 293, 383.^162, 539, 618, 698, 804 

How to Study Sea Life r^. Jane S. M. 46 

Important Items 561 

Kindergarten Christmas Festival 311 

Kindergartners, Notice 799 

Learning to Read Thoughts, not Words 706 

Mr. Snider's Interpretation of Froebel's Mother-Play Book 

Elizabeth Harrison 807 

Music, Negatively and Positively Considered. . .^llice H. Putnam 226 

Old Danish Rhymes Nico Bech-Meyer 717 

Open Questions Answered by the Editor 390 

Our Favorite Stories H. B. 548 

Pestalozzian Methods in England and America 716 

Play in the Kindergarten Grace A. Wood 401 

Primary Language and Form Study M. Helen Jennings 475 

Public School Kindergartens of Superior, Wis., no Expe iment. . . 212 

Pure Music (with music) Calvin B. Cady 138 

Questions Asked by our Correspondents 801 

Quiet Song for the Hands V. B. J. 717 

Reconstruction of the Grammar-school Curriculum 627 

Rhyme for Opening the Third-gift Boxes C. R. W. 800 

Round-table Chat among Kindergartners C. M. P. H., 211, 323 

Second-gift Play C. S. N. 478 

Some Criticisms of a Pioneer Worker Beta 811 

Some Homely Questions 403 

Some Homely Questions Answered A. H. Wardle 470 



The Children's PaviHon.— Poem Emily Hu7itington Miller 269 

The Kindergarten and the Boston Drawing Discussion 526 

The Kindergarten at the Columbian Exposition. . . . Amalie Hofer 186 
The Mother Watching the Development of her Child. — Poem 

Emily HwitiMgton Miller 783 

The Place of "Admiration, Hope, and Love" in Elementary Edu- 
cation T. C. Horsfall 257 

The Schools of Uruguay, South America igi 

The Shoemaker's Barefooted Children Emilie Poulsson 276 

The Summer-Child Questions. — Poem Andrea Hofer 1 11 

The Whole Child Josephine C. Locke 102 

Toledo Manual Trainmg School Mary E. Law 455 

Welcome to Kindergartners of the International Congress. . .Ada 

Marean Hughes 14 

William L. Tomlins on Children and Music 441 


A Child's Questions. — Poem Juliette Pulver 224 

A Comprehensive Program Mary Z. Lodor 205 

A Letter from Peking, China 314 

A Letter from Vancouver N. C. 718 

An Easy Art Lesson John Ward Stimson 624 

A New Kindergarten Song Collection Calvin B. Cady 222 

A New School of Work — Tearing Jeatt Mac Arthur 639 

Another Kindergarten Primary N. C. 216 

An Outdoor School Z. S. Loveland 52 

A Secularist Plea for Santa Claus H. E. O. Hcinemann 321 

A Song to the Shellfish E. G. S. 49 

Astronomy for Children Mary Proctor, 229, 317, 404, 559 

A Swinging Song Alwin B. Jovenil 22 1 

A Toast Millicent Olmsted 617 

A Typical Program Sketched Laura P. Charles 1 19 

Autumn Leaves. — Poem Emma Lee Benedict 140 

A Valentine. — Poem Cornelia Ftilton Crary 478 

Bible Texts and Sequences in the Kmdergarten 134 

Books that Tell of Starland Mary Proctor 797 

Bye Baby Bye (with music) From "Song Stories for the Kinder- 
garten' fc. 225 

Can You Answer these Candul Questions? 549 

Character as Applied to Musical Sounds Emma A. Lord 296 

Character as Applied to Musical Sounds in the Tonic Sol-fa Sys- 
tem Emma A . Lord 393 

Child and Thirsty Flowers Bertha Pay7ie 220 

Criticism and Remedy 794 



Vol. VL— SEPTEMBER, iSgj.—No. i. 


(The following is an abridgment of the official report rendered by 
Miss Sarah Stewart, chairman of the executive committee, to the Con- 
gress Department of the International Kindergarten Union. It is not 
amiss to say that this exposition of an ideal for an association voices the 
heretofore unexpressed wishes of the many individuals who go to make 
it up.) 

The International Kindergarten Union is now one year 
old. It seems fitting that a statement be made of its aims 
and purposes, its growth, and its prospects for the future. 
It was organized at Saratoga, 1892, in the interests of con- 
certed action among the friends of the Kindergarten cause. 
As a beginning, four distinct aims were stated: 

1. To gather and disseminate knowledge of the Kinder- 
garten movement throughout the world; 

2. To bring into active cooperation all Kindergarten in- 

3. To promote the establishment of Kindergartens; 

4. To elevate the standard of professional training of 
the Kindergartner. 

As stated in the preliminary circular — 

The principles underlying the Kindergarten system are 
the groundwork of modern primary education. An intelli- 
gent interpretation of the philosophy and method is being 
presented by many independent workers in various parts of 
the world; something like a complete system of primary 
education is being slowly evolved from the repeated experi- 
ments of these investigators. Much of value to the world 
is being lost from the lack of coordinated effort and some 
common channel of communication. 


The International Kindergarten Union was formed to 
meet this need. It seeks to unite in one stream the various 
Kindergarten activities already existing. Its function is to 
supplement, not to compete with, to coordinate, not to sup- 
plant, the agencies which are already at work. It combines 
the advantages of central council and suggestion with local 
independence and control. Its mission is to collect, collate, 
and disseminate the valuable knowledge already attained, 
and to inspire the greater and more intelligent efforts in the 
future. It falls naturally into the spirit and method of the 
times, which is no longer that of isolated effort, but of con- 
centrated harmonious action. 

In most of the states the Kindergartens are outside of 
the public school system, in the hands of private societies. 
It is obvious that an International Kindergarten Union can 
deal only with large units. It is hoped that all of the Kin- 
dergarten societies in each state, whether public or private, 
will unite to form one state organization for representation 
in the International Kindergarten Union. The great ad- 
vance which has been made in the growth of Kindergartens 
in the recent past makes it hopeful that the time is near 
when there will be no state without such an organization. 

The International Kindergarten Union is pledged to 
promote such organizations, and to the establishment of 
Kindergartens. It invites cooperation from public and pri- 
vate schools, churches, and benevolent societies, of every 
kind and grade, which have for their object the educational 
interests of little children. 

The establishment of a high standard of training for the 
office of Kindergartner has long been felt to be a necessity 
by those most intimately connected with the work. It is of 
first importance that some standard be reached that shall 
direct the future action of training schools in the prepara- 
tion of teachers. The time is past when "anybody can 
teach little children." We are no longer in the experi- 
mental stage. No position calls for more native ability and 
thorough training. The Kindergartner must take her place 
with other trained professional teachers, if she can hope to 


hold her place in the great army of educational progress; 
she must be able to see that principles are more than 
method, spirit more than form, and organic relations to 
other departments of education of vital importance to suc- 
cess in her own. 

It will be the work of the International Kindergarten 
Union to prepare an outline of study, to advise its adoption, 
and to give aid and counsel whenever they are sought. 
The executive committee includes the leading Kindergart- 
ners of this country and of Europe. Their experience and 
knowledge give ample security that wise counsel will be 
given in all questions of importance to the cause. 

The immediate aim of the International Kindergarten 
Union for the coming year will be to prepare a fitting rep- 
resentation of Kindergarten progress at the Columbian 
Exposition at Chicago in 1893. This time will furnish an 
occasion for an interchange of views and an organization of 
forces for future growth unequaled in the history of the 
world. An international congress is planned for this time, 
in which will be discussed questions of vital importance to 
the cause by the most eminent Kindergartners of the world. 
Foreign correspondence is now being held to bring together 
products of the system in countries much older than our 
own. It is hoped that not only finished products may be 
displayed, in well-graded sequence, but that practical illus- 
trations of method may be given with the little children 

A provisional constitution was adopted, the terms of 
which were very simple and very elastic. (See distributed 

Each local center retains complete autonomy, and con- 
tinues the activities which were begun before joining the 
general union. 

So much for what was hoped to be done. Allow me to 
make a brief review of what has been done. It was early 
discovered that certain important changes must be made in 
membership and in dues. At a meeting of the executive 
board, held in Chicago in December, it was decided to re- 


organize only cities as members in the International Kin- 
dergarten Union, with the exception of the original charter 
members, and that dues for membership should be fixed as 

Five dollars for small societies under the number twenty- 

Twenty-five dollars for large societies over the number 

At the last meeting of the executive board in April it 
was decided to recommend that a change be made and 
read. Each city branch shall pay into the general treasury 
one-third of its membership dues. This was considered to 
be a more equitable adjustment of dues between the large 
and small cities. 

Sixteen of the leading cities in the United States have 
joined the union, and two others are considering the matter. 
This means that all the Kindergarten societies in each city 
have united to form a membership in the International Kin- 
dergarten Union. 

The cities are the following: Boston, Philadelphia, Wash- 
ington ("not yet" New Britain, Conn.; New York), Provi- 
dence, Wilmington, Albany, Buffalo, Chicago, Indianapolis, 
Cincinnati, Toledo, Cleveland. St. Louis, Des Moines, San 
Francisco, Smyrna (Turkey). These are called city 
branches of the I. K. U. 

Indications are given that foreign countries will also 
join the union. Most of them have responded promptly to 
the invitation to give reports of Kindergarten progress in 
their countries, and have expressed hearty sympathy with 
the movement. 

Each city branch has its own constitution, carries on its 
own line of activities, each differing in some particular from 
every other, and yet all uniting to help secure the broad 
general aims embodied in our constitution. 

A long stride has been made toward reaching a standard 
which can be indorsed by the International Union for the 
training of Kindergartners. This has been done by calling 
for reports of work which is already being carried on in 


Kindergarten training schools in this country and in Eu- 
rope. It was thought best to find out first what was being 
done, and to seek some common ground upon which to 
make a broader and higher standard. 

The union has helped materially in aid and counsel in 
arranging an exhibition of Kindergarten work for the 
World's Fair. It has not made an especial exhibit of its 
own, but has cooperated with the other authorities in cities 
of which it forms a part. In October, 1892, the International 
Kindergarten Union, by virtue of its already national impor- 
tance, if not of size, was invited to become a member of the 
National Council of Women. The executive committee, 
having full sympathy with the objects as set forth in their 
constitution, decided promptly to accept the invitation, and 
we feel today honorecj by the privilege of standing side by 
side with the members of this great army and working with 
them toward the same ends, although by different means. 

The International Kindergarten Union is on a sound 
financial basis. The rare spectacle is presented of a year- 
old organization having paid all its debts and found the 
surplus figures on the credit side of the balance sheet; but 
perhaps the most important thing of all that it has done is 
to find out the immensity of the work and the many things 
which remain to be done. 

"We are confronted not by a theory but by a situation," 
Among others we are asked to answer the question. What is 
the advantage of an I. K. U.? Or to put it in the words 
which I overheard from one of the members of our branch, 
"What am I going to get for my dollar?" Let me attempt 
to sketch briefly what I think one will get for her dollar; 
but first let me say, the same arguments which can be urged 
for organization for any purpose can be urged with equal 
force for organized effort among Kindergartners. The 
great word of the day is organization, and the reason for 
this is, because the world has discovered that more can be 
done through combined action than through isolated effort. 
Moreover, it is beginning to discover that more can be done 
through ^(?-ordination than through .yz^^-ordination. The 


day of the thousand-legged (and handed) monster with one 
head is drawing near its close. The day of many local cen- 
ters combining to delegate direction to a strong central body, 
begins to dawn. The time is near when all the factors in 
the world forces are to be counted, and not, as now, when 
the many serve as ciphers to give distinction and value to 
the unit one. The unity of the universe is made, not by 
ignoring, but by counting the factors which go to make it 
up, and we are beginning to learn that we must build on the 
same foundations, and shape our work accordingly. 

But in answer to the question of my timid, short-sighted 
little friend, as it is no doubt a question that hundreds are 
asking all over this land, and will continue to ask, — Ciii 
bono? — what good, for the individual, is the old, old ques- 

First, then, it is a saving in the three primal values, — 
energy, time, and money (which represents the first two). 
By frequent and complete circulation of the work of each 
branch of the union, each gains from the experience of all. 
Each center is a new field of experiment and discovery. 
That which is of value can be published for a thousand 
almost as easily as for one. Each valuable experience in 
one branch becomes an inspiration and incentive to renewed 
efforts in another. An enthusiasm is created which carries 
the whole body much farther than isolated action ever can- 
There is strength in numbers. The moral sentiment of a 
multitude is infinitely more compelling than the opinions 
of one. It inspires the same relative emotion that comes 
from being a member of a kingdom rather than a tribe. It 
is the man with a country and a cause, rather than one who 
is in doubt as to whether life is worth living, because he is 
alone and has no vital interests. Obstacles and difficulties 
melt away before a multitude, that pile up and magnify be- 
fore a few; indeed they never arise. The world instinctively 
makes way for a large body, and does not so easily question 
its prerogatives. Each, then, partakes of the honor and 
dignity of the whole. Who today does not feel a thrill of 
almost divine power from joining hands with this body of 


noble women, which encircles -the world in its beneficent 
grasp? In being a member of the International Kindergar- 
ten Union one stands shoulder to shoulder with an army 
which is moving onward with single aim, moving by the 
compelling sound of the "cry of the children" for love and 
life and light. 

Again, it meets a need in woman's education which is 
paramount today, which is a training in organization, and 
power to act together. By meeting for united action in the 
smaller centers for immediate ends, each will learn to co- 
operate with her peers and be led gradually, by the most 
potent of all methods — experience — to the broader con- 
ception of the larger well-being, and finally, let us hope, to 
the highest conception of all the universal good. By the 
very force of woman's life her vision is limited to the near 
necessities which press so heavily upon her; but the day is 
at hand when from her isolated position in the family and 
the school she is called to take also the view which links 
her with others in working for the general good. What bet- 
ter way for a Kindergartner to learn this all-important les- 
son, than to begin where she is, with the vital interest which 
she has most at heart, and organized to secure their success? 
This organized effort also may bring her in touch with the 
choicest literature of her profession. It is one of the chief 
aims of the I. K. U. to select, out of the whole field of liter- 
ature, that which will bear most directly upon her pro- 
fession, and mark out courses of reading for general culture. 
It is at this point that the selective intelligence of the whole 
counts for the most for the individual. No one has time to 
read even a tithe of the mass of literature which is put forth 
upon the subject. We want to make a journal of journals, 
which will collect and disseminate the products of the best 
thinking of the world in the direction of the child's educa- 
tion, and make it possible for every mother, Kindergartner, 
and teacher to have this journal for one dollar. 

I consider it significant of future growth and power that 
the International Kindergarten Union was organized in this 
Columbian year. At this time, when all the nations of the 


earth are uniting to celebrate the most important event in 
history, it seems eminently fitting that those to whom are 
committed the interests upon which the greatness of nations 
most depends, should "form a more perfect union" for se- 
curing the highest development of the new education. In 
some sense, the I. K. U. may be considered symbolic of the 
future brotherhood of man. As it is itself an offshoot of 
the great world spirit in that direction, so it may be consid- 
ered a type of the organizations for the advance which the 
next four hundred years will bring to perfection. At least 
let us hope that our united efforts may help swell the tidal 
wave which seems setting in that direction, and that it may 
be said of us, that we have done what we could! 


IN the northeast corner of the mammoth Manufactures 
Building, among the exhibits of fine papers, stained 
glass, and other liberal arts, stands an obelisk, to 
typify the efforts and aspirations of the Pestalozzi- 
Froebel Haus of Berlin. The triangular pyramid rises to a 
good height from a massive pedestal, which encases under 
glass covers the exhibit of hand work done by the student- 
teachers and children of the institution, as well as the books 
from the library, and a series of most attractive drawings 
representing the actual daily life of the inmates. In the 
center of the front panel are the bronze-relief portraits of 
Pestalozzi and Froebel, giving, as it were, the stamp to the 
exhibit. A neat placard reads as follows: "Berlin society 
for the education of the people, under the patronage of her 
Majesty the Empress Frederick, — the Pestalozzi-Froebel 
Haus." Under this society the exhibit was arranged and set 
forth for public view in Berlin, in the Art Industrial Insti- 
tute, a week prior to its transportation across the water to 
Chicago. While still there it attracted great attention 
among edrxators, as well as prominent persons whose inter- 
est and influence have been only too long withheld from 
this work. 

The entire exhibit is under the direction of Fraulein 
Annetta Hamminck-Schepel, vho, together with Frau Schra- 
der, of Berlin, has been the presiding genius of the Pesta- 
lozzi-Froebel Haus for seventeen years. The work has 
grown from small beginnings and under many discourage- 
ments, until it is today recognized as a permanent and im- 
portant factor in the educational as well as social progress 
of the continent. Foreigners of every land are drawn to 
Berlin to investigate and acquire the pedagogics of this 
"educational home," — such a one as Pestalozzi and Froebel 
aimed to establish. 


It is of the greatest import to the revival of natural 
methods in America that this complete exposition of the 
work, supplemented by the personal attention of Fraulein 
Schepel, may be viewed and studied at this World's Fair. 
The work of this Berlin society branches into many chan- 
nels, and fills the places of our many specific institutions 
under one direction. It includes the Volks-Kindergarten, 
corresponding to our Free Kindergartens, as well as the 
preliminary and elementary classes for children just passing 
beyond the Kindergarten; also industrial schools for boys 
and girls, classes in domestic economy, training school of 
Kindergartners, nurses, and governesses, a day nursery with 
meals for children, and free baths for the poor children. 

The Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus is the concentric point 
from which all these activities emanate. It is situated at i6 
Steinmetz street, in the midst of the working classes of Ber- 
lin, and though not a spacious building, its influence is far 
reaching. It houses daily some two hundred children left 
for the day, and has an annual enrollment of eighty or more 
student-teachers in normal training. There are in charge 
of this family (for the atmosphere of the home and family 
is ever maintained) twenty directors and special instructors. 

We asked of Fraulein Schepel: "What is the keynote, 
the central motive of your institution?" She replied: " Its 
objective point is to elevate the people by right education. 
The means to this end is emphatically to develop the indi- 
vidual through doing. By 'doing' is always implied the sat- 
isfyi7ig of a yieed. We do not consider that doing which is 
merely play in imitation of what is seen done by others. 
Every deed must have a real motive and purpose. Therefore 
we provide the full home environment, and create the fam- 
ily of many members, each with his duty and his obligation, 
as well as his blessed opportunity to develop by real doing. 
The family is the highest sphere for activity. Activity is 
educational only when placed in relationship to real life." 

We find' this principle clearly worked out and illustrated 
in the exhibit of the institution in the Manufactures Build- 
ing. The triangular pyramid, adorned with garlands of 


flowers enwreathing the bronze bas-relief portraits of the 
Emperor and Empress Frederick, is supported by the work 
actually demonstrated in the institution. Ideals may be 
substantiated by daily making them real. Placed about this 
are four life-sized groups, also in bronze, of the children and 
students at their work. The largest of these represents one 
of the Kindergartners with two children looking at Froe- 
bel's wonderful picture book, the "Mother-Play Songs." 
Another group represents the domestic work of the chil- 
dren, knitting and sewing, while the next brings in the ar- 
tistic side of the work, in a boy and girl busily drawing and 
sketching. Another of these we have reproduced for the 
frontispiece of this number of the Kindergarten Maga- 
zine. It represents a group of children with their garden 
tools ready for actual work; not the work of an adult, but 
such of the actual requirements of garden culture as their 
strength and insight admit of. The Pestalozzi-Froebel 
Haus is truly a Kindergarten in which nature is not given 
to the children by proxy, but as she is when man unites his 
efforts with hers to the profit of the family. A professional 
lady horticulturist is in charge of the garden, under whose 
direction four student-teachers each day take their turns to 
do the regular work, whatever that may be, according to 
the season and the progress of the work. Each of these 
students has one or more children under her direction, and 
in this wise the older and the little ones work together for 
the common benefit of their common home. But it never 
becomes drudgery, as every phase of the work is taken up 
with a view to self-development and knowledge. Scientific 
instruction, not excluding the soul or poetry of nature, ac- 
companies it all, and the actual planting, caring for, and 
harvesting brings the individual near to the heart of nature. 
This practical experience of their surroundings forms the 
basis for the more specific knowledge along school lines. 
Hence this group of the gardeners typifies a large phase of 
the work of the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus. Pestalozzi strove 
to establish education in the home, and bring the school 
back to its rightful place. Froebel systematized the occu- 


pations of children into an educational sequence, and the 
two are brought together here in this institution as nowhere 
else in the world. "Where Froebel's mathematical and sci- 
entific adaptations to the child's comprehension are applied, 
without the only true corollary of the home and family at- 
mosphere, we are still keeping school and not cultivating 
humanity in the broader sense. 

Among the drawings, charcoal and otherwise, by the 
German artist, F. Grotemeyer, are such as tj^pify the daily 
life at the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus- — the Christmas tree 
being decked and beautified by the children and students, 
and the distribution of gifts by the Empress Frederick and 
her daughter. Again, there is a scene in the family nursery, 
where the students are bathing and undressing the little 
ones, then putting them down for the daily nap. 

It is not a great dormitory with its uniform beds, nor is 
it a scene of wholesale bathing, such as institutional life too 
often provides; but it is a quiet, cozy room, with the hand 
tub and the student-mothers to provide the true homelike 

A scene in the class room has this motto in German: 
"Wouldst thou leach, first learn." The normal students 
must understand and be able to do any and all domestic 
work which goes to make up the atmosphere of home, 
wherever little children may grow up. This sentiment, also 
from Froebel. accompanies the pictured domestic occupa- 
tions: "Home labors open and widen all the possibilities 
and powers which are essential to the fulfillment of human 

Everywhere one reads between the lines of this exhibit, 
that actual daily life, with its infinite daily opportunities 
and experiences, is the goal of education; to fit a child for 
that which is about him, not for some far future special en- 
vironment which overfond parents may dream of for him. 
Another set of pictures illustrates the joy and gladness at- 
tendant upon such a natural life. The line of Jean Paul is 
given, which we transfer from the German, "Joy and hap- 
piness make up that heaven under which all things thrive." 


The group of many children wait in the doorway ready for 
home after a busy, glad day, with this title to the picture: 
"A happy heart — A sunny world." 

While this institution honors domestic economy, — knit- 
ting, mending, and the crude hand work of little children, — 
it is honoring the great God over all, by declaring the unity 
of life and the brotherhood of man through actual service 
one for the other. The children are taught of the cow as 
well as the birds, and are led to see that man's activity, 
whether in the humblest or the highest sphere, is counted 
of value by the love which prompts him. 

Through the favor of Fraulein Schepel, we translate the 
following paragraph from a recent writing of Frau Schrader, 
in which she expresses her thought clearly and strongly: 

"The majority of Kindergarten normal schools see in 
the Kindergartens merely a preliminary to school life, while 
Froebel would have the children prepared for life itself. 
The youngest should be led through the gentle beginnings 
of every phase of life, each according to his strength, and 
therein find opportunity to prove all things. Therefore the 
Kindergarten is not merely a matter of weaving, folding, 
building, or tone-study, considered as the beginnings of in- 
dustry, art, and science, but high above all these the child 
should be taught of the beginnings of a noble social struc- 
ture, of the ethical relations of man to his fellow man. How 
can this be experieticed \xn\tss the child, through his own liv- 
ing and doing, learns to shape these relationships? What 
environment is more simple than that of the reciprocal life 
of the family? The activities arising from home relation- 
ships, put to the service of education, will reach far down 
into all social conditions." 


G> than half a century ago the name of the great 
lostle of the "new education" — which name today 
we honor as that of the prophet of a spiritual free- 
dom which we have at least begun to realize — was 
one of derision. The old man who played with the little 
children was by the villagers called "the old fool." Today 
one of the most important of the many departments of this 
World's Educational Congress is that of the conference of 
the followers of Froebel. We in this New World have seen 
the light of that "star in the East," and have followed rever- 
ently and earnestly to the birthplace of that new revelation 
of divine truth, — a divine childhood, — and seek for more 
light and clearer insight. Today we hold out both hands in 
welcome to all who gather here. It is a great joy to take 
the hand of those who have known the immediate followers 
of the great apostle, those who have wandered through the 
same paths in the fields, rested under the same skies, been 
surrounded by the same associations and local experiences; 
and we say to them, "Tell us of the everyday life and 
words of the master, that we may feel more deeply the 
inner life from which this great truth sprang into material 
expression." To those who have come from across the sea, 
who speak the same language as ourselves, as well as those 
of other tongues, we extend the welcome as members of 
one family; to sisters and brothers separate in space, differ- 
ent in custom, but one in spirit and desire. We pray that 
this conference shall be a season like Pentecost of old, when 
each, whether from our own land or the dwellers beyond 
the sea, shall hear in his own language the things of the 
living spirit. 

Our German friends say of us in this country, that we do 
not run or leap, we simply fly; and therefore we are in dan- 


ger of losing sight of the solid foundations on which all 
permanent building must be based; and we acknowledge 
our danger, and say, "Give to us of your insight," and your 
wealth of personal expression of the great apostle, that our 
rapid action may still be rapid and at the same time safe, 
because we have material landmarks to guide us. Mothers 
and little ones love Froebel's "Die Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder," but few educational people have caught its marvel- 
ous power, or have seen it as the wonderful interpretation it 
is of child growth and instinctive mother love. His " Edu- 
cation of Man " has given wonderful insight into the growth 
of being as a whole; but it is in personal letters to mothers 
and dear friends that we seem to come close to the person- 
ality of the man. 

We have given the Kindergarten a hearty welcome in 
this broad republic, and, as our foreign friends say, our 
progress in the last few years has been that of flight rather 
than touching earth; obstacles vanish before us, friends 
receive the Kindergartens with open arms, enemies and 
doubters are reconciled and believe. The truth does make 
us free, and we need the strong, sure balance of insight into 
the eternal truth of principle, to steady our movement and 
calm our enthusiasm, to keep us united in a conscious ex- 
pression of that foundation truth. The highest unity is that 
of unity in variety. 

When we begin to resolve an inspiration into formal ex- 
pression, or law, that it may be given to others, we lose the 
spontaneity which was the life of the inspiration. The 
ten commandments are dead-letter tables of stone until in- 
terpreted by the divine expression of that law, — viz., to love 
thy neighbor as thyself. Then alone it becomes no longer 
an external thing, but written upon our hearts, revealing it- 
self ever anew in our lives and actions. External expres- 
sion of any truth is a lie, therefore dead, unless it reveals 
the living truth from within, which is its life. 

We have striven with conscientious earnestness to an- 
alyze the marvelous expression of truth, whose compelling 
force has made alive to its real importance and filled us 


with inspiration. We have outlined the great underlying 
principles of educational science, and said, Learn these and 
you will know Froebel. But our results have been too often 
lifeless formalities, as foreign to child development as possi- 
ble. We have addressed a personal interest to science; 
Froebel got his clew to great laws in nature. We will fol- 
low the steps of the great leader. We broaden our thought 
with literary culture, and strive to cultivate the artistic in 
our natures. But while we bring all these elements to- 
gether, we have no power to produce life from our formali- 
ties. Too often it is a valley of dry bones, and our most 
intellectual women do not make our best Kindergartners. 
No applied mechanical activity can produce life. 

And we turn back again to our original expression nat- 
uralized, — child's play, a wisdom that seemed foolishness to 
those who saw it externally, but which embodies the truth 
of the growth of the human toward the divine. 

"And Jesus took a little child and set him in the midst 
and said. Except ye become as a little child ye cannot enter 
in." It is the divine life of the child finding free expression 
in natural activity, in an atmosphere of loving insight, that 
we need to study. We feel more and more deeply that it is 
the truth in actual living expression that we need. To be a 
Kindergartner one must live with the children in the Kin- 
dergarten; and her vital training must be through the inter- 
pretations of that actual life by her guide, according to 
these great universal laws and principles. Culture is good, 
but facts as facts will come to anyone who hungers for 
them; and the appetite is the first requisite. To be a Kin- 
dergartner in a true sense means to get rid of the self-con- 
ceit of thinking ourselves over and over, as though any one 
of us was God's crowning thought. We have come to feel 
ourselves as individual units in a great harmonious whole, 
and we are striving to consecrate ourselves as individuals to 
the one central purpose, — that nurture of the child's soul 
according to the divine nature implanted in it. 

Ada Marean Hughes. 



(Address delivered by Miss Mary Proctor, daughter of the late Prof. 
R. A. Proctor, before the Kindergartners at the Art Institute, Chicago, 
July 21, 1893, by special request.) 

I have been invited to say a few words about astronomy 
for children, and it is with pleasure that I comply with this 
request. Astronomy is such a fascinating study to me, that 
it is my great desire to make it fascinating to others, and 
especially to children. There is no reason why they should 
not learn to love the flowers of the sky as dearly as they 
love the flowers in the garden. But how can they learn the 
wonders of the heavens, unless books are written within 
their comprehension? Astronomy was distasteful to me at 
school, because the books provided, and the methods of 
teaching, were alike distasteful, whilst at home my father 
made this study as interesting as a fairy tale. He would let 
me look at the stars and the sun and the moon through his 
large telescope, and tell me wondrous legends about the 
constellations, about the craters on the moon, and about the 
wonders of the nebula and the colored stars, until my cu- 
riosity was excited and I became anxious to learn more. 
Thus he led me on by easy stages, until I was old enough to 
enjoy the more advanced works on astronomy. In the 
same way I wish to interest little children, even the children 
in the Kindergarten; and there are a variety of ways in 
which the solar system, the colored stars, and other wonders 
of the heavens can be taught to them. I gave a series of 
lectures at the Children's Building last week, in which I 
told them that the Brownies paid a visit to the sky; and as 
all little children love the Brownies, they were very much 

It is possible to teach the solar system by games, 
such as the following: Place a yellow ball in the middle 
of the room, and call it the sun; about a foot away 


draw a circle and station a little girl, calling her Mercury, 
and give her strict orders that she must not move away 
from the circle, but go steadily round and round. In her 
hand the must carry a flag labeled "eighty- eight days," 
showing that Mercury takes eighty-eight days going round 
the sun. About a foot and three-quarters away from the 
path of Mercury mark another circle and place there 
another little girl, called Venus, letting her carry a flag 
labeled 225 days; and so on, with Terra (the earth). Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; whilst the asteroids 
which travel in a path between Mars and Jupiter could be 
represented by little toddlers of two years of age. Each of 
the children representing the planets should wear colored 
sashes, — such as a red sash for Mars, a green sash for Nep- 
tune, a blue sash for Uranus, a striped sash for Jupiter, and 
so on. Now for the comets, to complete this simple method 
of teaching the children the solar system: A little child 
might be labeled Encke, moving in an egg-shaped path 
nearly as far as the circle round which Jupiter travels. As 
she gets near the sun she must go faster and faster, but as 
she recedes from the sun she must get slower and slower, 
till she merely creeps along. Another little girl could be 
comet Biela, which travels in a path beyond Jupiter; and 
another, comet Halley, which travels beyond Neptune, the 
most distant planet. The comets must be very careful as 
they make their way across the solar system, as there are 
many obstacles to be encountered on their way. Should 
they rush into Terra, our earth, what a terrible catastrophe 
might occur! or should they stumble over an asteroid, it 
would surely be utterly demolished. 

This is only a suggestion of the many different ways in 
which astronomy may be made interesting for very little 
children. It would be only a game for them, and yet a 
game conveying a lesson they would never forget. In the 
same way children could easily learn the leading constella- 
tions, by seeing the pictures and learning the legends of the 
sky. There is scarcely a constellation without a legend, 
and for this reason the study of the constellations can be 


made very interesting. Show a child the picture of Orion, 
the heavenly hunter of the sky, warding off Taurus the bull, 
who glares at him out of his bright eye Aldebaran. On the 
shoulder of the bull glitters the well-known constellation of 
the Pleiades, about which so many beautiful legends are 
related. Behind Orion follows the little dog {Ca7iis Minor) 
and the great dog {Canis Major), and between them is to be 
found the unicorn. At the feet of Orion flows the Eridanus, 
into which river Phaethon fell as he was trying to drive the 
chariot of the sun across the sky. Tell these legends to 
children, and they will at once connect the constellations 
Orion, Taurus, the Pleiades, Canis Major with its leading 
star Sirius, Canis Minor with its leading star Procyon, the 
unicorn, and the river Eridanus. As soon as they learn 
how to locate Orion, they will know that the other con- 
stellations are near by, and that they are all to be seen at 
the same time in the starry heavens. Then again, take the 
legend of Bootes the bear driver, who ceaselessly chases the 
Great Bear (the dipper) and the Little Bear round the 
heavens, and who is followed by his two hounds, Asterion 
and Chara. Grouping these ideas, the child will learn to 
look for Bootes in the region of the well-known dipper, 
and will not think of looking for him anywhere else. 

This seems a very simple and easy way of teaching chil- 
dren the sublime truths of astronomy, and why should not 
this delightful study be made easy for them? Among the 
rising generation may be numbered some day a future Her- 
schel, a Galileo, a Copernicus, a Mary Somerville, or a Maria 
Mitchell; who knows? Instead of beginning their study of 
astronomy at an advanced age, so that fame is only attained 
with their failing powers, or possibly never, they have 
learned the wonders of the heavens whilst they struggled 
with their A, B, C's, and when the proud era of graduation 
from school arrived, they were already well grounded in a 
fundamental knowledge of this noble science. Some of the 
most distinguished astronomers of the day — such as Pro- 
fessor Barnard, Professor Burnham, Professor Young, Pro- 
fessor Newcomb, Professor Langley, and a host of others — 


are Americans. Let these ranks be swelled by the rising 
generation, who, cheerfully playing at astronomy in the 
Kindergarten system I wish to introduce, will later on find 
their own way to the knowledge of the stars, and become so 
famous that Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, and the rest of 
these celebrated heroes of the sky, will fade into compara- 
tive insignificance. This is my hearty wish, and all honor 
to the future learned astronomers of the coming twentieth 

Mary Proctor. 


SINCE May i, 1893, the Memorial Art Palace, which 
studs the lake front of Chicago, has been the stage 
for much important drama, the actors in which 
have ranged from every conspicuous department 
of the world's work. The women met in international de- 
bate over their specific interests, men have discussed poli- 
tics and finance, while men and women mingled together 
have earnestly interchanged their deeds and dreams in the 
realm of music, art, literature, journalism, and science. The 
personnel of the greatest thinkers and otherwise distin- 
guished men and women of the world have appeared in suc- 
cession, that the creator and his works might be glorified 
together. The motto of the Auxiliary Congress, which has 
headed every printed program sent out, has been most truly 
substantiated: viz., "Not things, but men"; "Not matter, but 

The educational congresses, which convened during the 
latter half of July, seemed to gather up the many threads 
of discussion which the previous special conventions had 
thrown out. It was found to be the privilege of education 
to consider all the special lines of man's higher work in 
relationship to man himself. How to produce music or a 
work of art, or even an acceptable philosophy, is but one- 
half the question. The other half of the question is, In how 
far are these means by which man may reveal himself, and 
how valuable are these as tools by which to construct a 
higher manhood? 

The educational congresses, when viewed from the 
standpoint of the Kindergarten, by no means lose in force 
or vital import. The generally granted recognition of this 
department by every other marks an epoch in the history 
of natural education, of which the tendency of the N. E. A. 


at the Saratoga session of last year was a partial prophecy. 
The Kindergarten, considered not as a method of teach- 
ing a sub-primary grade, but as the right beginnings of all 
education, could command and hold such recognition. 

The two distinct congresses of education, while under 
separate management, and varying largely in scope and in- 
tent, were happily blended into one by the frequent inter- 
change of representative speakers and delegates among the 
range of special departments. It was considered no irreg- 
ularity for a representative from the rank of higher edu- 
cation to participate in a discussion of the manual or art 
training section, and the opening morning session of the 
Kindergarten congress had, among other platform guests. 
Dr. Wm. T. Harris himself. Dividing lines between the 
departments, like those of the longitude and latitude of our 
wonder-working world, were matters of the imagination, for 
purposes of convenience only. 

The same spirit which has been breathed down the cen- 
tury by Pestalozzi, Herbart, and Froebel permeated every 
discussion: viz., life should be the starting point, the 
method and goal of all education. This was reiterated by 
the Kindergarten section, the manual and art training sec- 
tion, and the departments of higher education, university 
extension, and Chautauqua study. 

Twelve distinct department congresses were carried on 
simultaneously during the week of July 17 to 23. Each of 
these departments was under the full control of a local Chi- 
cago committee, which has served for a year preparing its 
programs and statistics, each in conjunction with an inter- 
national advisory council. In this wise the entire list of 
prominent professional educators has been canvassed in 
every direction, and much valuable correspondence has 
been accumulated. The letters from those who could not 
participate in the congress were in many cases read as re- 
ports of work from interesting foreign points, so that every 
nook and corner of the schoolmaster's world has been pried 
into. The programs, as finally presented by these com- 
mittees to their departments, represent the available grist. 


in the form of valuable papers, letters, and reports. No 
cordiality or hospitality has been spared on the part of the 
Chicago people to make the foreign and visiting guests 
thoroughly at home in this city. Many homes have been 
thrown open, and glimpses into the characteristic features 
of American life have been occasioned. The informal social 
intercourse of the visiting educators has brought about a 
closer sympathy and fraternity, wherein head and heart 
have each had a part. The reflex influence of this warm 
and friendly contact will be felt all along the lines of public 
and private schools, from Kindergarten to university, in the 
coming year. Methods and theories have not counted for 
more than men and women, and the demand has come, 
loudly and urgently, that these two no longer be separated. 
Rounds of applause greeted the enthusiastic utterances of 
the younger generation, as well as those who have stood at 
the helm for a quarter of a century. 

The International Congress of Education was held under 
the direction of the National Educational Association of 
the United States, July 25 to 28, with Dr. Wm. T. Harris in 
general charge. This congress provided for sixteen special 
sectional congresses, covering all the important depart- 
ments of education. This congress reaped, as it were, the 
full harvest of the preliminary week's work, and was able to 
cover a more comprehensive though less technical ground. 
With the assistance of the department chairmen, Mr. Harris 
made up a program which provided a thesis on each im- 
portant topic, followed by an outline of points for the 
further discussion of the same. As a result every phase of 
the most important subjects was brought before the con- 
gresses, thus securing excellent oral as well as impromptu 
discussions. These are to be printed in full, in the volume 
of the proceedings of the congress, by the National Educa- 
tional Association. 


T^HE special congress of Kindergartners held its first 
session July 17, at ii A. M. A most earnest body 
of workers from far and near met, on an average, 
in three daily sessions for a full week, with an ad-' 
ditional Sunday program of appropriate topics. 

Professor Wm. N. Hailman presided over the regular 
sessions as chairman, and the happy fulfillment of the con- 
gress was in no slight degree due to his tact and humor. 
He opened the program with a most eloquent and impress- 
ive paper on Froebel and his work, wherein he sketched 
the entire province of the "new education." Mr. Hailman 
placed stress upon the so-called religious training embod- 
ied in Froebel's teachings, emphasizing the necessity of 
fathers and mothers all becoming educators. To be a par- 
ent or a citizen is not enough; they must also be teachers, 
in the true sense of that word. He urged that parents 
cease to abdicate their divine rights and privileges as guard- 
ians of their children. The self-activity of the child is 
honored by no one educator more than by Mr. Hailman. 
In this paper he illustrated how the achieving s\d& of child 
nature should be given full play, and this through right, 
spontaneous motives from within the individual child. He 
condemned vigorously the sentimental, benevolent turn 
wdiich is given to the children's doing for others. They 
should do for each other, prompted by that altruism of the 
soul which looks always to the good of humanity. He re- 
futed the too-long-accepted materialism that the little child 
is a little animal, since such could only grow into a greater 
animal and would culminate in the opposite direction from 
that of spiritual development. The child is a growing, liv- 
ing organism, which can attain all he dares hope. He is not 
a physical, cellular structure, but an expression of the larger 


life of all humanity. Mr. Hailman added, with strong feel- 

"We have reason to congratulate ourselves that this 
man Froebel has come among us, to show us what a living, 
pulsing thing the school may be. His sense of knowledge 
has a living quality, is full of action and fertility." Mr, 
Hailman closed with a cordial word of encouragement to 
every effort made in the right direction, whether on the 
part of parents, schools, teachers, or pedagogues. Progress 
is being made in all these directions. 

Among the congress guests who occupied the platform 
during this opening session were Mrs. E. W. Blatchford, 
chairman of the local committee; Miss Caroline T. Haven, 
of New York; Miss Mary McCulloch, of St. Louis; Miss 
Angeline Brooks, of New York; Mrs. Eudora Hailman, of 
La Porte; Mrs. Louisa Pollock, of Washington; Mrs. Alice 
H. Putnam, of Chicago; and Commissioner Wm. T. Harris, 
of Washington. 

On the evening of July 17 Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, of San 
Francisco, read a paper on "Every Mother a Kindergart- 
ner." The topic was of her own choosing, and was handled 
with feeling and force. Many young women and mothers 
listened to her appeal for more intelligent mother love, 
which should combine wisdom with affection, and which 
should unfetter the child to fulfill his highest possibilities, 
Mrs, Cooper's own motherliness and sincerity of purpose 
inspired her words, while her happy invitation to the audi- 
ence to applaud her arguments brought them near to her. 

Mrs. Cooper was followed by Mr. Wm. L. Tomlins, of 
Chicago, present choral director of the World's Fair, who 
gave an extemporaneous address on the Place of Music in 
the Kindergarten. The practical demonstrations made by 
Mr. Tomlins with his large classes of children have aroused 
•the inquiry of how it is done. With a few graphic illustra- 
tions he pointed out his effort and its results. The humani- 
tarian basis of all true education was again emphasized, as it 
had been in all previous papers, but from another stand- 
point, — that of art for man's sake. The strong individuality 


of Mr. Tomlins, as reflected in his thought and work, ap- 
pealed directly to the Kindergartners, whose creed unites 
the man and his works. Not this or that method of teach- 
ing music should be the goal, said Mr. Tomlins, but music 
as a means of expressing the brotherhood of man, in mutual 
sympathy and. cooperative service. 

The second forenoon session was devoted to the con- 
sideration of the Professional Training of the Kindergartner, 
which was provided to be discussed from several stand- 
points; but owing to failures in attendance, one paper only 
was presented, that by Mrs. Eudora Hailman, of La Porte. 
Mrs. Hailman outlined the ideals which should be aimed at 
by the Kindergarten training teacher, as well as the scope 
of study and application of principles essential to an under- 
standing of the work. The paper was discussed by a num- 
ber of prominent training teachers present, who hailed the 
height of the ideal and approved its adoption. Mrs. Hail- 
man recommended that above all else the Kindergartner 
should be trained to be individual. Her natural instincts 
should be strengthened, and the bond of sympathy between 
students and training teachers should be constant. She 
said: When true psychology shall have become one of the 
everyday rather than a special study, fruits will be harvested 
as never before. 

Miss Angeline Brooks closed the program with a paper 
on the Relation of Play and Work, in which the educational 
values of play were closely calculated and happily illus- 

Tuesday evening was devoted to the discussion of Froe- 
bel's Religion, which was opened by the reading of a letter 
from Miss Eleanor Heerwart, and participated in by Mr. 
Arnold Heinemann, Miss Brooks, Rev. Mr. Mercer, Mrs. O. 
A. Weston, and many others. 

Wednesday morning, July 19, found the Kindergartners 
in a joint session with the congress of manual and art educa- 
tion. It is a significant fact that these departments should 
find so much in common as to profit by joint sessions. The 
individual energy which the Kindergartner seeks to engen- 


der is the quality which art and manual training hopes to 
apply in good works. It was a rich program, opened by 
a very comprehensive historical sketch of the manual train- 
ing work in this and other countries, prepared by Mrs. 
Louisa P. Hopkins, of Boston. Character Building through 
Work was a suggestively written story by Mrs. Chas. Dick- 
inson, of Denver, Colo. The story showed in a dramatic 
way how parents may influence the forming characters of 
their children. The situation of the plot illustrated many 
of the most vital points in child training, doing so without 
directly condemning wrong methods. 

The paper on Symbolism in Early Education, read by 
Mrs. Marion Foster Washburne, of Chicago, was one of the 
most aggressive as well as effective appeals for nature and 
life as they are, that has. ever been produced. It will ap- 
pear in full or in part in the October number of the Kinder- 
garten Magazine. Mrs. Washburne clearly presented the 
law of symbol-making as is manifest in all history, art, and 
language, and gave the poet his true place above all other 
men, because of his true use of symbols as a means of in- 
terpreting truth. 

Professor Hannah Johnson Carter, of the Philadelphia 
Drexel Institute, discussed the Promotion of Child Activity, 
from the standpoint of the average conditions of school and 
teacher. She pointed out many weaknesses, many errors, 
and worse ignorance on the part of teachers. Ignorance of 
pedagogics leads to the use of devices by which to hold the 
child's interest. 

It was an elect audience which was brought together by 
this joint program, since it included the promoters of the 
most progressive measures ever brought to the schoolroom 
door. At the close of the most hearty attention of the 
large gathering to the programs, discussion was abandoned 
and Miss Susan B. Anthony was introduced to this assem- 
bly, which, as she reminded them, had sat for two hours to 
listen to women, — no gentlemen having participated in the 

The joint session resumed its program in the evening, 


presided over by Dr. Hailman and Miss Josephine C^ Locke, 
respective chairmen of the two departments of Kindergar- 
ten and art and manual training. 

The relation of the Kindergarten to the primary school 
was discussed with much force and profit by Wm. T. Harris, 
Miss Mary E. Burt, James L. Hughes, and Dr. Hailman. 
Mr. Hughes, with his accustomed eloquence, testified to the 
importance of carrying the Kindergarten spirit into the 
primary grade. The schoolmen have learned much from 
the Kindergarten. As a result, the past twelve years show 
the methods of discipline revolutionized. The secret of 
discipline is to give appropriate work, work fitted to the 
child's activity and capability. In the home the child finds 
his problems and brings them to the parent; but in the 
school, the master hunts up the problems and foists them 
upon the child. 

The influences of the home and school upon child char- 
acter were practically discussed by Miss Constance Macken- 
zie and Rev. Mr. Mercer. Mr. Edward Boos-Jegher, official 
delegate of the Swiss Confederation to the Columbian Ex- 
position, made an earnest appeal for better home training. 
We could hear the spirit of his great countryman, Pestalozzi, 
speak through him, as he reiterated with fervor the words 
of his predecessor: Mothers should go into the Kindergar- 
tens, and bring home with them the disciplinary secrets of 
right training. 

Miss Josephine C. Locke added her glowing word in 
favor of finding joy and gladness in work. Faith in the 
divine possibilities of every child, followed up by apprecia- 
tion of every righteous effort, is the only fruitful education. 

At the following morning session Mr. Edward G. Howe 
read a spirited paper on elementary science teaching, reject- 
ing all temporary experiments that are not based upon the 
actualities of nature. He showed how teachers may classify 
and group the things visible, and laid down as a rule: "If 
you are not sure of a thing yourself, do not teach it." Mrs. 
Louise P. Hopkins' paper was also read, wherein she shows 
that the study of science is becoming more and more a 


study of poetry, — the record of the beauties of nature par- 
allel with the feelings of man. 

Was there not an appropriateness in this program group- 
ing the topics of natural science study with physical culture? 
Man is a part of nature, and expresses the beauties of nature 
in his body. Baron Nils Posse, of Boston, opened the dis- 
cussion of gymnastics. He is a young, energetic, quick-eyed 
man, who carries his work in his heart. His practical and 
common-sense views of this oft-sentimentalized subject ap- 
pealed to his hearers, especially as these were based upon 
experiments made with little children rather than adults. 
The object of physical exercise is to regain bodily equi- 
librium. In the case of the child this can only be done as 
the child is lost in the idea he is expressing. The Kinder- 
gartner should have elementary gymnastic training in order 
to properly direct the daily energy of the child along cor- 
rect lines. A drill is never educational in itself, but the 
playing of soldiers may be introduced with good results. 

Miss Margaret C. Morley added her plea that beauty of 
motion might not be divorced from use. She said gymnas- 
tics are only a means for the soul to tell its message. 

A full morning session was given over to the discussion 
of art in the Kindergarten. Mrs. Mary Dana Hicks, who is 
such a favorite with Kindergartners because of her clear- 
sighted pedagogy as well as her complete personality, 
presented a paper covering a broad scope of the subject, 
illustrating many points by her own experiences and experi- 
ments. We will hope to bring this paper to our readers in 
some future number, as also that of Mrs. Mary H. Peabody, 
whose able psychological arguments impelled the closest 

Professor Jno. Ward Stimson, of the Artist-artisan Insti- 
tute of New York city, proved to be one of the most inspi- 
rational speakers of the week. In a characteristic way he 
rapidly sketched his own struggle for artistic life, — seeking 
at all the schools, of all the masters, the food with which to 
satisfy his ideals. Finally he went to the works of the mas- 
ters, and here found the key and saw how these great 


artists had applied nature's laws throughout. He made an 
earnest appeal for individualized expression, for an Amer- 
ican art rather than an imitation of the Grecian or Roman. 
Throughout the sessions of this department congress, 
sincerity and individual convictions reigned supreme. Time 
was not occupied for the sake of filling it, but rather, an 
overflow of strong feeling and responsibility to utter the 
truth revealed to the individual, often prolonged the ses- 
sions beyond the hour. The closing session of the week's 
fullness gathered on Sunday afternoon a large assembly to 
hear of the relation of the work to the church and Sunday 
school. Congregational and solo singing interspersed the 
papers by Misses Wheelock, Bryan, and Howe, and closed 
the busy week with a restful and peaceful spirit. Mrs. E. 
W. Blatchford, chairman of the local Chicago committee, 
presided at this session, and the year's earnest labor, by 
which the way for this congress had been made straight, 
was again reflected back to the laborers in its gratifying re- 


We have left a report of the Kindergarten section of the 
International Educational Congress, as well as the Round- 
table discussions, for next month. They were fruitful and 
suggestive, and brought Kindergartners closer together in 
the contemplation of mutual problems. 

On Saturday, July 29, Mr. Geo. L. Schreiber, the artist 
who decorated the Children's Building, met a party of Kin- 
dergartners informally, and told them of the scheme of the 
decorations as well as of the educational service of true art. 
This was of great interest to many of the Kindergartners 
who had contributed to the decoration fund. 

Among the pleasing foreign representatives who at- 
tended the congresses were Mrs. Mary Eccleston of the Ar- 
gentine Republic, whose work has been to bring the Froe- 
bel doctrine, through the Spanish language, to the South 
Americans, and Miss Nannie B. Gaines, from Hiroshima, Ja- 
pan, who reported great growth and many unusual experi- 
ences in the establishing of the work. Miss Gaines will 
spend a year here before returning to her work. 

The several social gatherings which were arranged for 
during the congress time were by no means the least profit- 
able share of the program. Mrs. E. W. Blatchford enter- 
tained the Kindergartners and other department educators 
at a most cordial reception, while the Free Kindergarten 
Association opened its rooms to a family gathering for a 
happy afternoon. Other informal excursions about the city 
and the World's Fair, added to the mingling of the many 

The visiting Kindergartners and educators were invited 
by Mrs. Geo. L. Dunlap, chairman of the Children's Build- 
ing Committee, to make that unique building their home 
and headquarters when at Jackson Park. Aside from the 


many interests centering about the creche, Kindergarten, and 
classroom work, a series of educational lectures were con- 
ducted under the direction of Colonel Francis Parker. 
Among these were the following: Miss Proctor, on "Stars 
and Children"; Mrs. Frank Sheldon, on "African Travels"; 
Fraulein Schepel, on "Every Mother an Educator"; Miss 
Mari Ruef Hofer, on "How to Teach a Song to Children." 

Among the many interesting guests attending the con- 
gress were Miss Nora Smith of San Francisco, and her sis- 
ter Mrs. Kate D. Wiggin. Miss Smith came directly on 
from her year's work, and while indisposed to take an ac- 
tive part in the program, her presence gave great pleasure 
to her friends and the many who know of her work on the 
coast. Mrs. Wiggin was just returned from England, and 
brought greetings from the workers there, which she deliv- 
ered in person from the platform. Mrs. Wiggin is now a 
permanent resident of New York city, and it is thus that 
the sisters with the same thread of work span the country 
from coast to coast. Miss Smith will travel for six months 
and then return to her Silver-street Kindergarten. 

The work-charts and writings of Miss Emma Marwedel, 
who founded the Kindergarten work in California, were dis- 
cussed between the programs of the congress. Her mate- 
rials were described by Miss Nora Smith and Professor 
Earl Barnes, both of San Francisco, who testified to their 
practicable qualities. The charts illustrating the possibili- 
ties of the materials were on exhibition both at the Cali- 
fornia State Building and the Memorial Art Hall. A pam- 
phlet titled "Hints to Teachers," was circulated accompa- 
nying the charts, setting forth Miss Marwedel's theory of 
color, form, and number combinations, through the use of 
her wooden ellipsoids, rings, and circular drawing. Cordial 
greetings were sent Miss Marwedel by the Kindergartners. 


It is with sincerest gratitude that the editors of the 
Kindergarten Magazine receive the congratulations so 
generously forwarded them during the past Summer, from 
teachers, editors, and parents. When a grade teacher or 
Kindergartner tells of the growth that has gone on in her- 
self, and therefore in her work, during the past year, and 
gives credit to the reading of the Kindergarten Magazine 
for part or all of this improvement, we know that its work 
has .been parallel to the needs of the teacher. When edu- 
cational journalists cordially welcome our monthly to their 
desks and place it among their most highly respected con- 
temporaries, we know that our professional standards are 
not low. When business men and women point to the Kin- 
dergarten Literature Company as a model and substantial 
business enterprise, we know that the institution has grown 
to be a permanent factor in educational history. The man- 
agement hereby acknowledges the warm words and warmer 
cooperation which have been extended it from all the above- 
named sources. 

The following letters speak for themselves. 

A Kindergartner of long standing, and lecturer at nor- 
mal schools in New York State, writes under date of May 
22: "I cannot tell you how helpful your magazines are to 
me in my school work! They are all the more so as our 
Kindergarten is the only one in this county and we have 
little or no intercourse with others in the work." 

A primary teacher of long experience writes from Wis- 
consin: "The last number of the Kindergarten Magazine 
came today; it is an especially attractive number. I cannot 
tell you how helpful it has been to me. It broadens and 
uplifts to a wonderful degree. How can any teacher afford 
to be without it — especially d^ny primary teacher?" 

During the past Summer the editors of the Kindergar- 
ten Magazine and Child-Garden, as well as many other Kin- 

Vol. 6-3 


dergartners, have had occasion to feel the pulse, as it were, 
of the people's interest in right child training. One of the 
most notable facts is that the Southern visitors to the Fair 
have shown a marked interest, asking many intelligent ques- 
tions, and showing a determination to lift the condemnation 
under which their schools labor. Parents have expressed 
the desire to see their Southern children as liberally edu- 
cated as are their Northern brothers and sisters. Calls for 
Kindergartens and better primary methods come from all 
the Gulf States. 

Bv the way, it was noted that the "other half " was fre- 
quently more intent upon finding proper literature and sane 
toys to take back to the children at home, than was the 
mother. One father, after listening to an earnest appeal 
for more "doing" in the schools and less "book learning," 
said in a characteristic Southern voice, "Then I reckon 
there'd be less big heads than there be." It has been a rev- 
elation to many a teacher to watch the methods and manner 
of work carried on at the World's Fair Kindergartens. We 
are convinced that a new impulse has been given to inquiry, 
and that the coming year will show a growth in this special 
branch of work, which will greatly change our Kindergarten 
statistics. This so-called reform in education has its double 
work today, — that of opening the eyes of the parent and 
teacher, that these in turn may not seal those of the chil- 
dren. It is doing this work effectively, and with permanent 

Who is the more helpful companion, — the one who over- 
shadows his friend with his superabundant personality, or 
the one who draws out the better self of his friend at every 
turn? What is the most helpful educational journal, — the 
one which formulates every idea for its readers, and pre- 
sents its own notions of progression as final, or the one 
that throws out broad natural suggestions, which, because 
they are vital, will impel the reader to apply them accord- 
ing; to the necessities of his own case? 

No. I. 

The increased interest and earnest inquiries of educators 
on all sides have prompted us to work out a practical plan 
of how best to investigate this all-important book. Several 
leading Kindergartners have from time to time revealed its 
wonders with all the inspiration and zeal of revelators. In 
Germany the Baroness von Bulow of Dresden, and Frau 
Henrietta Schrader of Berlin, have devoted the energy of 
mind and heart to establish and make practical the sug- 
gestions of this book. In England Emily and Francis 
Lord, after fully realizing the import of the mother's 
book, translated it into English about 1885, it having been 
translated in America some years previous. Among those 
who have most assiduously labored to bring the home and 
the mother's influence into the school, not as a matter of 
sentiment but a matter of psychological necessity, as re- 
vealed in this book. Miss Susan E. Blow has stood foremost. 
During many years of inspirational work she taught and 
demonstrated the philosophy of the child, touching fire to 
the earnest hearts of many students, who have since carried 
her work forward. 

Like Froebel himself, every Kindergartner is turned at 
last from the child to the parent,— to the mother,— there to 
do the crowning work of her educational effort. Every 
Kindergartner finds that human nature runs along the same 
lines, whether manifested by child or adult. She f^nds that 
the same principles apply in her daily contact with men 


and women which she seeks to live out among her children. 
Froebel's "Mutter und Kose-Lieder," above all else, for- 
mulates and illustrates these general universal principles. 
Hence its value to the student of human nature or child 

The humanitarian studies embodied in its songs and ser- 
mons are full of the most vital interest to parents and teach- 
ers, since the illustrations are drawn from human daily life, 
and stand for themselves, as psychological arguments. The 
author of this book was confronted with the problem of 
helping the mothers, often unlettered and full of unformu- 
lated feelings, to realize the scientific, philosophic, and eth- 
ical import of the everyday experiences of their children. 
Wise man he was, to take a little child — one of their own 
little ones — and set it in their midst! He gave them a 
series of pictures from real life, and then, together with 
them, sought to read the story between the lines, and to 
find the soul behind the simple experience there recorded. 

It is our firm conviction that the great good-will and 
sincere idealism poured into this book for mothers will in 
time be fully received. While its truth of conception is 
deep and broad, and may be interpreted from the most 
philosophic or abstract standpoints, it is our purpose to give 
merely a suggestive outline of how Kindergartners may 
draw near to the book and assimilate the mother spirit 
which was breathed into it forty years ago. 

To such as read the German we would recommend a 
parallel study of Pestalozzi's "Letters to His Friend," which 
we believe has not yet been translated into English. Here 
the same truth is voiced from another standpoint, but with 
a heart's overflow of feeling, such as cannot fail to warm the 
reader into a new appreciation of ideals, and the faith which 
makes these real. 

The following outline of how to prepare for the fuller 
study of "Die Mutter und Kose-Lieder" has been recently 
provided by Miss Susan Blow, and will be supplemented by 
a series of articles by different workers, discussing the 
points in full detail: 


1. Like otfier great books, "Die Mutter und Kose-Lie- 
der" requires both private and social study. A class of five 
or six, meeting once a week and preparing for this meeting 
by individual work, might accomplish excellent results. 

2. This is primarily a book for mothers, and should be 
read and studied from that point of view. 

3. The book presupposes a mother's feelings and experi- 
ences; hence two or three members of each class or study- 
group should be mothers. Froebel's aim in making it the 
basis of his lectures to Kindergartners was to fan to flame 
the spark of spiritual motherhood which each woman carries 
in her heart. 

4. In studying any great book one must begin by find- 
ing its seed thought. Find the central thought of the book 
as a whole first, then of each individual song. 

5. The seed thought of "Die Mutter und Kose-Lieder" 
is given in Froebel's "Education of Man," pages 65-75 "^^ 
Dr. Hailman's translation, which discusses mother instinct 
and mother insight as related to the spontaneous activity of 
the child. 

6. Seventeen years elapsed between the publication of 
the "Education of Man" and that of "Die Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder." During all this time the thought was growing and 
unfolding in Froebel's mind. To seize it in its germinal 
form, as in above reference, is a great help toward grasping 
its more complete expression. 

7. Begin by reading the book through, seeking to catch 
its general aim and spirit, remembering Froebel's principle, 
that each thing must be grasped as a w/io/e, then seized in 
its details, then more concretely apprehended as a unity 
penetrating these details. 

8. Next read the seven introductory songs between 
mother and child, and stanzas entitled "Closing Thoughts." 

9. After this give a week to the careful study of the two 
chapters, "Songs between Mother and Child," and " Glance 
at a Mother who is Absorbed in Looking at her Child." 
Do not study these critically or from the literary standpoint, 
but with the desire to feel out broadly into the mother 


mood. You will then be ready to begin the 'study of indi- 
vidual songs and plays. 


General talks are in connection with every subject of 
experience in the Kindergarten, and will necessarily be of 
wide and varied range. Whether we study works of nature 
or those of man, there is one principle to remember, and 
that is, to symbolize a decprr truth tliaii appears o?i the surface, in 
order to appeal to the child's higher nature. " Nature is of 
service to man only as he sees through and beyond her." 
Since the child is a physical being he is subject to the same 
laws that govern the physical world. " Everything in na- 
ture contains all the powers of nature." Laws of gravitation, 
harmon}' through contrasts, unity in variety, cause and ef- 
fect, interchange of matter, etc., are evidenced in the small- 
est of nature's works, and in sympathetic living with these 
the child's inner life develops in accordance with natural 
laws. One of the greatest aids in attaining this end is the 
imagination, the mediation between the world of sense and 
the world of spirit. In the gifts and occupations the child 
is never required to compare or reason abstractly, so in the 
talks he must have something to perform the same duty as 
his balls, blocks, etc., do in the gifts; and this he finds in 
the imagination. He thinks through images. In the story 
of Lily Bulb or Baby Calla the imagination transforms the 
bulb, a thing perceived through the senses, into a person- 
ality, and Lily Bulb learns the lesson of waiting and con- 
tentment, experiences the care and kindness of the gar- 
dener, the sunshine, and the rain, and at last blooms into 
marvelous beauty, giving joy to all who behold. "The 
world is a mirror wherein the child sees himself reflected," 
and the experiences of Lily Bulb are his own. 

Further, the imagination does not give mere facts, but 
facts clothed in a fanciful dress, and hence full of meaning. 
Thus the sunbeams, instead of being rays of light coming 
from the sun millions of miles away, are dancing fairies 
sent to the earth on messages of helpfulness and love. The 


imagination also opens the eyes to the poetic or beautiful 
in life, for "Imagination is the foundation of all art. The 
poet, painter, or musician — all \vhose creations afford us 
delight — could have given us nothing without it, nor can 
we understand and enjoy their creations unless we, too, 
have the power to image for ourselves their conceptions. 
The scientist imagines, then verifies his imaginings by re- 
peated experiments and careful extended observation. 
Here, too, we shall fail to understand his discoveries unless 
we call to our aid the imagination." Through the imagina- 
tion the child becomes acquainted with a world not per- 
ceived by his senses, and is preparing himself to receive 
the truth of conscious spiritual life when he is ready for it. 

The providence of our heavenly Father is plainly shown 
in every work of his creation. In all forms of life there is 
provision made for sustenance. Seeds, bulbs, and plants 
store nutriment on which they feed till leaves are formed 
to take in the required . nourishment. Eggs of frogs are 
surrounded by a jelly-like substance which is the food of 
the young until it is capable of propelling itself in search of 
food. Birds and animals have instinct to select proper food 
for their young. Parents, by labor, convert the products 
of nature into food for their children. In each of these the 
child sees the evidence of the same law, and the creative 
spirit within him refers it to an invisible creative cause; and 
thus he feels the unity in all life, and the spirit that ani- 
mates each variety. 

It is necessary in talks, as well as in all other depart- 
ments of Kindergarten work, to relate each day's work to 
the preceding; one day's talk will grow naturally from 
those of the previous days. The change of seasons will 
bring change of subjects in related order, until the child 
sees the mutual dependence of all things, and their rela- 
tion to one another. 

In a year's work the following subjects and many others 
will introduce themselves, beginning in September: Fruit, 
flowers and their seed, leaves, grain, nuts, the squirrel. 
Thanksgiving day; the preparation for Winter, which brings 


under our notice, first, migration of birds; second, woolen 
things for which we are indebted to the sheep; third, fuel, 
introducing the begrimed miner; fourth, Christmas time 
and Santa Claus, with the beautiful lessons of love in ac- 
tion. Then come ice, snow, rain; and between the seasons, 
wind, light, — sun, moon, stars, and artificial lights. The 
joint work of sun, wind, and rain leads to the awakening of 
the numerous forms of life which symbolize the Easter 
thought — resurrection; in plant life, sap and buds of trees, 
bulbs, roots, and seeds; in animal life, the egg, butterfly, 
bee, frog, snail, lizard, the bear, and return of birds; in civil 
life, the farmer and gardener, bringing us back to fruit and 

In the Spring of the year we have the anniversary of 
the birth of the "new education," arising from the faulty 
systems preceding, — faulty inasmuch as they were not based 
on natural laws. The patriotic sentiment also has its place 
here, in the celebration of the queen's birthday. 

In this sketch of work thus briefly outlined, the Kinder- 
gartner requires a knowledge of botany, zoology, geology, 
and physics, also of the different manufacturing processes 
in their primitive stages. 

Results to be looked for from successful talks with the 
children: Introduction to natural science; observation quick- 
ened; expression through language; enlarged sympathy in 
every direction; imagination strengthened, developed, and 
exercised; a striving up to the ideal, higher power over ma- 
terial manifesting itself in artistic creation; and all these 
combined aid in forming a character in unity with nature, 
man, and God. — Bertha Savage, Hamilton, Can. 


Long, long ago, before the sun learned to shine so 
brightly, people believed very strange things. Why, even 
the wisest thought storm clouds were war maidens riding, 
and that a wonderful shining youth brought the Spring- 
time; and whenever sunlight streamed into the water they 
said to one another, "See, it is some of the shining gold, 


some of the magic Rhine-gold the mist men have left us. 
Ah, if we should find the stolen Rhine-gold we would be 
masters of the world — the whole world"; and they would 
stretch out their arms and look away on every side. Even 
little children began looking for the stolen gold as they 
played, and they say that Odin, a god who lived in the very 
deepest blue of the sky, came down and lay in the grass 
with his spear beside him, to watch the place where it 
was hidden. 

It was in the deepest rocky gorge, and a dragon that all 
men feared lay upon it night and day. Alberic and his 
mist men wove chains of clouds to bind him, and Mimi, an 
earth dwarf, strove to mend a broken sword to slay him; 
but though they worked always, nothing was ever done. 
The cloud chains mfelted away at morning, and no one who 
feared anything in the world could mend the sword, be- 
cause it was an immortal blade; it had a name and a soul, 
and it was a gift to the child Siegfried from his mother. 

This boy Siegfried lived with the earth dwarf in the very 
deepest forest. He was the free child of the world. He 
had not known his mother, even though he dreamed faint 
dreams of her when the leaves trembled and birds came 

He lived as wild as bird and beast. He chased the wild 
boar for play, and bridled bears, and laughed with the 
mountain torrent. He knew nothing of the magic gold or 
the mist or the world; he did not know who Odin was, and 
Mimi — he only laughed at Mimi, and waited for his sword. 
Each day at evening he thought, "What if it is done!" and 
he would come bounding down the mountain, blowing great 
horn blasts. 

Once he came laughing and shouting, and leaped into 
the cave, driving the bear on the poor frightened Mimi, 
who ran round and round; he darted here and there, and 
jumped about until Siegfried could go no more for laugh- 
ing, and the bear broke from the rope and ran into the 

Then the dwarf crouched, raging and trembling, behind 


the anvil. The boy stopped and looked at him. "Why do 
you shake and cry and run?" he asked. The dwarf said 
nothing, but the fire glowed strangely, and the sword shone, 
and Mimi trembled more as he looked at the face of the 

"Dost thou not know what Fear is?" he cried, in rage. 
"No," said Siegfried; and he went over and took up the 
sword, and the blade fell apart in his hand. 

They looked at each other. " Can a man fear and make 
swords?" asked the boy. The dwarf said nothing, but the 
forge fire flashed and sparkled, and the broken sword 

The boy smiled, and gathering up the broken pieces he 
ground them to fine powder. The dwarf raged and wept, 
but Siegfried laughed as he worked. And when he had 
done, he placed the precious dust in the forge and pulled 
at the great bellows. The fire glowed into shining, the 
whole cave was light, and the face of the boy was like the 

Always the dwarf was growing blacker and smaller, and 
always Siegfried laughed as he pulled at the bellows; and 
when he had poured the melted steel into the mold, he 
laid it again in the fire. The light was more shining than 
before, and the joy. in his heart broke into song. When he 
took out the bar and struck it into the water there was 
great hissing, and a mist rose up about him, and Alberic 
stood there with Mimi, and they raged and wept together. 
But Siegfried only laughed and sang, as he pulled at the 
bellows or swung his hammers. At every blow he grew 
stronger and greater, and the sword bent and quivered like 
a living flame. 

At last, with a joyful cry he lifted it above his head with 
both his hands; it fell with a great blow, and behold! the 
anvil lay apart before him, and the blade was perfect. 

The joy in Siegfried's heart grew peace, the light melted 
into full day, and the immortal sword was again in the 
world; but Mimi and Alberic had vanished. 

Siegfried smiled. He went out into the early morning; 


the light glittered on the trembling leaves and sifted 
through in splashes. He lingered, listening to the hum and 
chirp and twitter all around him. Two bn'ds were singing 
as they built a nest; he wondered what they said to one 
another. He cut a reed and tried to mock their words, but 
it w^as like nothing. He wished so that he might speak to 
some one like himself, and he wondered about his mother. 
Why had she left him? did all mothers leave their children? 
even bird and beast had mates; it seemed to him he was 
the one lone thing in the world. He wondered what a 
mortal's mate was like, and lifted his silver horn and blew 
a sweet blast; but no friend came. He raised it and blew 
again, louder and clearer, when suddenly the leaves stirred 
to a great rustling and the very earth seemed to tremble; 
for behold! he had waked the dragon that all men feared. 
It was coming nearer and nearer, breathing fire and smoke. 
But Siegfried only laughed, and leaped over him as he 
plunged; and when he reared to spring upon him, he drove 
the immortal blade into his heart. 

And there the great evil lay, dead, with no more power 
in the world! 

Now when Siegfried plucked out his sword he smeared 
his finger with the blood, and it burned like fire, so that he 
put it in his mouth to ease the pain, when suddenly the 
most strange thing happened: he understood all the hum 
and murmur of the woods; and lo! the bird on the very 
branch above was singing of his mother and of him, and of 
the gold that would make him world-master if he'd give up; 
and more, she sang on of one who slept upon a lonely 
mountain; a wall of fire burned around, that none could 
pass but he who knew no fear. 

Siegfried listened in wonder to hear, but the bird flut- 
tered away before him. He saw it going, and he forgot the 
gold and the whole world, and followed it. It led him on 
and on, to a lonely mountain, where he saw a glow of light 
at the top. He climbed up and up, and always the light 
grew brighter. And when he was nearly at the top, and 
would have bounded on, he could not, for Odin stood there 


with his spear across the way. The firelight glowed and 
flashed around them, but the sword gleamed brighter than 
anything that ever shone, as Siegfried cleft the mighty 
spear and leaped into the flame. And there at last, in the 
great shining this Siegfried beheld a mortal like himself. 
He stood still in wonder. The light glinted on armor, and 
he thought, "I have found a knight, a friend!" And he 
went over and took the helmet from the head. Long ruddy 
hair, like flame, fell down; he stopped in wonder. Then he 
raised the shield, and behold! in white glistening robes he 
saw the maid Brunhilde. And she was so beautiful! The 
light glowed into a great shining as he looked, and, hardly 
knowing, he leaned and kissed her" and she awoke. 

The light broke into full day, and it seemed to Siegfried 
that he had found his mother and the whole world. — Maude 


Pretty little dandelion 

Growing in the grass. 
Lifts up its yellow head 

To look at those who pass. 

But ere the Summer's ended 
His yellow head turns gray; 

His petals bright, to angels turn, 
And then all fly away. 

■ — Grace E. Loving. 


Just one year ago the September work in the schools 
opened with a study of Columbus, preparatory to the Colum- 
bian year and its historic dhwiiemetit. The faith, substan- 
tiated by works, and the noble endeavors of the man, have 
been retold and sung, pictured with pencil, needle, and in 
sand, while children in every grade have acted out the 
drama of the great life of the navigator. In all this study 
the one man, with his history, has stood for the ideals of a 
race, which repeat themselves in every child. The contem- 


plation of any great man will feed this same ideal in the in- 
dividual; hence it is not necessary to repeat the study of 
the same man annually. 

In view of pres*enting a fresh field for the coming year's 
study, we bring this month the Story of Siegfried, with sug- 
gestions for applying the same. "The Life of Siegfried," 
written by James G. Baldwin, will be found ripe in color and 
dramatic element., with which the Kindergartner may fill 
herself. Out of the superabundance of a subject only, can 
a teacher feed the children properly. In the case of the 
connecting class, or primary, the book may be partially 
read aloud to the children. For the youngest children it 
should be told simply and naturally, suggesting the parallel 
experiences in the previous stories of Columbus or other 
heroes. All myths that interpret nature are healthy and full 
of meaning to the child. If the thought of the tale is high, 
it needs little garnishing. Dainty adjectives do not take 
the place of strong, clear, forceful sentences. The latter 
will impel the child to work out the story with his pencil or 
his other materials. 

In a certain school where the work is graded from the 
Kindergarten up, preserving the same elements of training 
in the higher grades, this story was carefully presented. At 
the close, some of the children came to the blackboard, the 
others taking their paper and pencils. The drawing re- 
sulted in graphic and dramatic figures. Each child chose 
his own epoch, no two proving the same; but all were vigor- 
ous and full of meaning. The drawings were gathered and 
arranged in their order in a frieze about the room, remind- 
ing one not a little of the stretch of warriors and other fig- 
ures of the Parthenon frieze. 

The Kindergartner emphasized the light and joy which 
marked the Siegfried, and the bird talk which he so well 
understood created much comment. The sand table fur- 
nished the means for their expression, and mountains and 
streams were the chief form of this expression. These were 
afterwards repeated in the outlines with sticks and rings, 
one little one insisting upon a "birdie" in her tree. 


Such spontaneous work comes in proportion to the feel- 
ing stirred among the children. A trutli story, such as the 
eternal myths, will ever bring the result. The systematic 
development of form or numbers, of materials and succes- 
sive school work, must grow out of this. Series of Froebel 
occupation and gift work can be adjusted to reflect the same 
intent feeling, and will be none the less pedagogical. If 
the child's nature is untouched by the Kindergartner's 
thought, it will never respond to the bare materials. — A. H. 


A teacher asked me the other day what object I should 
begin with in my Fall science lessons with the little chil- 
dren. She said it was difficult to decide, as there were so 
many interesting things in the world. I told her, in sub- 
stance, the following, and present it here as it may chance to 
answer a similar question from others. My first object is to 
secure a family atmosphere in the Kindergarten; hence we 
observe 2i family. We study the several objects, — if you care 
to consider them as such, — but always as a group of related 
objects. The family is the highest type of this. It may 
begin with the human home circle in a general way, and 
then be more closely considered by the study of some ani- 
mal family. The latter being more compact, will tell the 
story of related members clearly to the child. 

Having thoroughly established my central object, — 
namely, the family relationship, — I may then go on and 
illustrate it by the fishes, birds, flowers, or any other group 
of objects. Soon the children, together with me, find the 
family element in all things. This September we will study 
the sea shells, and group the varieties which are brought 
back by the children. At the close of our work last June 
each promised to bring a contribution of sea shells, and no 
one will fail to keep the promise, I am sure. There will no 
doubt be more of the scallops than of any other variety, 
therefore we shall study them quite exhaustively,' The pic- 
tures of the "dancing scallops" will be utilized in our 


games, and I can already see the bobbing wee folks playing 
themselves out at sea. 

Very nearly all of our children will have been at the sea- 
shore or the World's Fair. We shall have the pictures of 
the Fisheries Building and its fascinating inmates. In time 
we will accumulate an aquarium, and so our science work 
will grow on and out into a most wonderful study of these 
things, interesting in themselves, but doubly and much more 
vitally so when closely interwoven with the children's own 
experiences. Meanwhile I have carefully studied out all 
that the good books have to say on the subject of sea life, 
and have prepared myself to answer any impetuous ques- 
tions that will only too surely be poured upon me. I shall 
not, however, inform the children about what we are investi- 
gating. They must find out all for themselves. They can 
read the story of the living creature from the shells, and 
little by little trace out the entire history. 

Object teaching is so much misunderstood. The single 
object may render limited information of itself, or it may 
become the "rosetta stone" by which whole chapters of 
nature's hieroglyphs are interpreted. The latter should be 
every teacher's aim. No object is complete by itself. It 
must be considered in relation to others, and above all else 
to the life of the child or student who seeks to learn its 

The book I shall use for the background of my sea-life 
study, and which I have been delighted to penetrate this 
Summer, is Damon's "Ocean Wonders." There are many 
other side helps, but when compelled to make a choice be- 
tween several books, I always seek out the one whose author 
is an enthusiastic and experimental investigator of his sub- 
ject.— J^w^ 5. M. 


The dainty scallop shell which every child cherishes, 
and which is the chief stock in trade at the coast fish mar- 
kets, has a unique history. In the misty days of the Cru- 
sades, when the success of these long journeys was almost 


a miracle, the travelers sought some sign by which they 
might prove on their return that their feet had touched the 
holy soil. These scallop or St. James shells bordered the 
shores of Palestine, floating like fairy fans along the edges 
of the water. The pilgrims found them as the first greeting 
of the desired land, and in time it became the custom to 
attach a scallop shell to their cloaks, as a sign unmistakable 
that they had realized their visions. 

In time the fluted shell, with its radiance of sea-tint 
color, became a symbol of saintship, and was worn by a 
certain order of chivalrous knights during the Middle Ages. 
The pilgrims called this (to them) precious shell after St. 
James, since he who once was but a poor fisherman became 
a glorified saint. 


Oh, happy birds among the boughs, 
And silver twinkling brook below, 
Why are you glad. 
Though skies look sad? 
'Ah, why? And would you know?" 
A pleasant song to me replied; 

"For some one else we sing; 
And that is why the woodlands wide 
With rapture round us ring." 

Oh, daisies crowding all the fields, 
And twinkling grass, and buds that grow. 
Each glance you greet 
With smiles so sweet! 
'And why — ah! would you know?" 
Their beauty to my heart replied; 
" For some one else we live; 
And nothing in the world so wide 
Is sweeter than to give." 

— St. Nicholas. 




Rock-a-bye, babies, 
Upon the great sea; 

The billows are bringing you 
Swiftly to me! 

Sleep, Winkle and Conch, 
On the high foamy tide; 

For in your hard shells 
You safely will ride. 

Your cradle's your house. 
Your ship, and your coat. 

On the waves of the ocean 
You're gayly afloat! 

With no houses to build 
And no clothing to make. 

Pray what do you do 

When you get wide awake? 

You eat the bright seaweed? 

You think that is good? 
You have nothing to do 

But to hunt for your food? 

Thanks, little Shellfish; 
You fill children with glee 
When you leave them your house 
By the great, restless sea! 
—E. G. S. 



Sophia S. Bixby. 

Wm. G. Dietrich. 



— i^ N I 

I'he pairy. 







1. Have you heard of the dear lit - tie fair- y, 

2. She is look - ing at you lit - tie chil-dren, 

That is 
And for 





-^ ^ 


watch in- us all the long day; How she loves the bright smiles and 

lilethat is found She'll fly to our gar -den this 

ev-er - y snu 
-0- -*- ^ 



Copyright, : 

by W. L. Tomlins. 



I'he paipy— Concluded. 





^— -# 

eve - ning 

And would ban- ish th-^ frowns from our way. Then 

And plant a new flower in the ground. 


-• — •- 


^— #- 



#— » 

sure we will try and re-mem-ber 

To look at the fairy and smile. 





Editor Kindergarten Magazine: — I find in the June 
number of the Kindergarten Magazine a few words re- 
garding open-air Kindergartens, and thought it might not 
be amiss to send to your magazine an account of mine, 
which has opened for the Summer. Anxious to start a 
Kindergarten and knowing that every town is the better for 
such a movement, I was not to be deterred because no room 
could conveniently be procured, so decided to have it on 
the front porch of my boarding place. It is in the midst 
of great grounds filled with various kinds of beautiful shade 
and fruit trees, among whose branches three varieties of 
birds have already set up housekeeping. A nice lawn, 
flower beds filled with plants from the tiny shoot first peep- 
ing above the ground to the perfected blossom, charm the 
children and awaken interest in nature's wondrous store- 
house. In the rear of the house are grapevines, fruit trees, 
and a large vegetable garden. Birds, dog, cats, hens and 
chickens, horse, cow, butterflies, bees, and others make up 
the animal population. We have music for our songs, 
marches, and games, as the porch opens from a room with 
the piano. Soon the children will have a sand pile, and I 
hope, gardens of their own. The porch is not a large one, 
but suffices, considering all other outdoor privileges. In 
stormy weather we go to my room. Today the children 
modeled from clay a hen's nest with the good hen sitting 
upon it, our hens and chickens in the barn furnishing the 
text. So that the children may draw pictures of what they 
see, a yard of slated cloth is for the morning tacked upon 
the side of the house. In emphasizing color by means of 
the balls, the blue ones are hidden beside lobelia or blue 
pansies, while red and yellow rose bushes offer excellent 
hiding places for red and yellow balls. The open-air Kin- 
dergarten is, however, far from being idealistic, and requires 
quite as much tact, patience, and hard work as one indoors. 
There are advantages in favor of each; but before we can 
have an ideal Kindergarten either in or out of doors, we 


must give birth to the ideal Kindergartner and child. We 
look to the congress in July to help this good day along. 
Sincerely yours.-7-Z. S. Loveland. 
June tj, i8gj. 


Much has been said, much might be said, on elementary 
science. What does it really imply? What part of such 
work is (^^.y^" adapted for the Kindergarten? Do we Kinder- 
gartners consider these points sufficiently, or do we accept 
science work because accepted by others? These questions 
may be suggestive for thought. 

The subject cannot now be fully handled, but one lesson^ 
from a series, with its purpose, may aid the thought of the 

The children had been working on that most interesting 
subject, water. From the science standpoint, water drops 
and water confined in certain space had been illustrated. 
They had seen how water finds its own level by means of 
sand hills, slanting roofs, etc. In the practical illustrations 
of the uses of water, and the construction of pipes and 
pnmps, we came to the negative side of the same truth: 
viz., that water never rises higher than its source. The 
question was put, "How does the water come to us?" and 
the children answered, "It runs through"; or again, "What is 
the pump for?" and the answer, "It makes the water come 
out." Then one day the children built a two-story house, 
with a number of Second-gift cubes, with cardboard laid 
across to serve as a division between the two floors; the cyl- 
inders served well for the large pipes; Second-gift- cylindri- 
cal beads were used for the house pipes, and several formed 
a vertical pipe "for the water to go upstairs." It was now 
planned to show by the children's own experiment the need 
of mechanical appliances, and the conjunction of other 
forces with water, in service to man. 

A hill of sand was arranged; at the top of this a reser- 
voir was to be represented, the idea of which had become 
familiar to the children; a tin box was used for this. A 


hole at one end admitted a glass tube, which was bent to go 
first in a horizontal, then a vertical direction, and was "the 
pipe into which the water ran from the reservoir." The 
children eagerly watched and assisted in the arrangement. 
Water was then gradually poured into the box, and the chil- 
dren discovered it rise simultaneously in the tube. "More 
water in the box, more water in the pipe," they said. 

To make the truth very clear, the water was then gradu- 
ally taken out of the box, and the corresponding difference 
in the pipe noted. The children so enjoyed the experiment 
that they repeated it over and over. A slat was used as a 
measure, to prove how the height of the water in the one 
was always the same as in the other. 

When the sand and water were removed, a little conver- 
sation was held, on "how the water could get up higher, 
and the people who live upstairs have some at the top of 
their pipe"; also, on "how the water 'way down in the well 
came up so high." This was carried further the next day. 
The working of a play pump, and the watching of real 
ones, made it clear that, as one small boy said, "the pump 
pushed it up." 

It was decided that when the reservoir was large, and 
the water had to go to a great many places, a machine 
moved the pumps, instead of man, and thus one thing 
helped another. 

Now perhaps some one says, "What is the use of little 
children knowing such things?" 

The knowledge of certain facts is, without doubt, of the 
least importance. The investigation, as investigation; the 
inciting of the observation to note the action of water gen- 
erally, and a consequent wonder in so common a thing; the 
recognition of a principle always obeyed by the water 
drops; and the realization that in the world of nature and of 
industries one thing unites with another for the general 
good, — these things seem to me of the greatest value. And 
z/ these are the aim of the teacher m a ?iumber of lessons, 
they will not prove — as some one said the other day — 
"only a beautiful theory," but become a practical reality 


gained by the children, at least in some degree. — Frederica 


Atkinson is a little town of about five hundred inhabit- 
ants, on the Rock Island road, one hundred and fifty miles 
west of Chicago. There are two distinct classes of people 
in the town, having separate churches and schools, — the 
American (of English descent) and Belgian. The former 
and larger portion are Protestant, the latter Catholic. All 
are honest, law-abiding citizens, possessed of a spirit of 
thrift and enterprise unusual in so small a place. The busi- 
ness portion of the town contains some nine or ten stores of 
various kinds, in one of which is located the post office. 
Besides this there are two large grain elevators and a bank. 
The town can boast of but one hotel, nor is there demand 
for more, as there are few visitors to this quiet, peaceful 

In December last, some of the leading men of Atkinson 
decided to organize "an Improvement Association." The 
name tells its purpose. To quote the words of one of its 
members: "We never did anything very great; only every- 
thing we have had as a town, I think, came from that. We 
didn't have any fire protection before that, and now we 
have a fire engine and house. The next thing we gained 
was a street sprinkler, and then we decided to lay sidewalks 
where they were needed, and in general planned to beautify 
the town. Then came the idea of the Kindergarten, and 
you know how that has grown." 

At Christmas a Kindergartner in Chicago sent to a 
friend at Atkinson Miss Harrison's "A Study of Child Na- 
ture." The book made a very deep impression, the young 
mother receiving it thinking much of how desirable a thing 
it would be if all children could have the benefit of such 
training. Shortly after this she called upon another wide- 
awake, energetic young mother, and asked her if she had 
seen the book. The reply was in the negative, but some 
Kindergarten articles had been read which had appeared in 


The Ladies' Home your?ial, and she had thought very seri- 
ously about having a Kindergarten in Atkinson, if sufficient 
interest could be aroused. 

These two ladies commenced a series of calls, taking in 
the greater portion of the town, making between one and 
two hundred visits. They first interviewed all the people 
who had children of Kindergarten age (three to six), after- 
wards making a second round of calls upon those who had 
not children, but whom they hoped to interest. No one 
knew anything whatever about Kindergartening, but these 
ladies explained it as well as they could. They then issued 
postal cards to everyone whom they had visited, requesting 
each to be present at a meeting to see whether a Kinder- 
garten could be secured. It was decided that it could, and 
the giver of the book was requested to come out and speak 
to the mothers, her expenses being paid. She came and 
spoke very intelligently and simply of the benefits to be 
derived from the training, and the mothers listened with 
keen mterest and appreciation. 

There were seventy-five at this meeting, and an associa- 
tion was then and there formed, officers elected, and com- 
mittees on finance and entertainment appointed. Then the 
question came up and was voted upon, as to whether to 
have a trained Kindergartner or a primary teacher who had 
read much about Kindergartening, who tried to follow its 
principles, and who was really an excellent teacher in her 
own department. She had many warm advocates who 
pressed hard, but after hearing the address of this Kinder- 
gartner, it was decided to have a regularly trained teacher. 
It remained now to raise the funds. The committee on 
finances divided the town into fifths, each taking a fifth as 
her portion, calling first upon the people who had children, 
and asking them if they would send their children, and 
what they could give a week, desiring each to give some- 
thing, if only five cents, but wishing none to be excluded 
from the Kindergarten. They obtained seventy-five dollars 
in this way. They next called upon those who had no chil- 
dren, and raised the amount to $125. Confident that they 


could raise $150, it was decided to proceed with the work, 
and hire a teacher. If all of the material could not be paid 
for, an entertainment could be given, and the remainder 
raised in that way. This was eventually done, twenty-five 
dollars being netted. 

At the next meeting a report was made of what had 
been done, and everyone was very much delighted. After 
that two or three meetings were held, at which chapters 
from Miss Harrison's book were read, and it was then 
thought best to discontinue these meetings until the Kin- 
dergartner should be there to conduct them. A business 
meeting was held in April, at which it was definitely de- 
cided just what each would contribute. The school board 
gave a room in the village schoolhouse, took out the seats, 
and cleaned the room. The ladies who were interested 
(and a great many of them had no children) went over to 
the schoolhouse one Saturday morning, taking such pictures 
as had been contributed, — about fifty in number, — and hung 
them. Two ladies, one the daughter and the other the sis- 
ter of a carpenter, came with hammers, nails, and boards, 
and made four tables, and two long benches for the little 
ones to stand upon so that they could reach the blackboard. 
They asked no help; they carried in the boards themselves, 
measured them off carefully, sawed them, and put them to- 
gether as neatly as anyone could have done. 

It should be said of the pictures hung upon the walls, 
that all were carefully selected, not merely that they should 
be pretty and attractive, but full of meaning, those of chil- 
dren, animals, and birds being given the preference. An 
ungainly post in the center of the room was draped with 
red; white, and blue, and all unsightly places upon the wall 
were covered by flags. Oilcloth marked in inch squares 
was then sent for to cover the tables, and "pineapple tis- 
sue" cloth sash curtains put up at the windows. That came 
to one dollar for four windows. A square piano was do- 
nated by a friend, and willing hands formed a circle on the 
floor, by driving in brass-headed tacks. The Kindergarten 
friend in Chicago was then authorized to order all necessary 


material for twenty-five children. This came to $34.90 
including two dozen chairs. The material for the entire 
Summer has cost $50.58, which includes the $34.90. There 
have been, however, thirty children in regular attendance. 

This same young lady secured the Kindergartner at a 
salary of thirty-five dollars a month, her board and laundry 
being furnished. The girls of the town had been depended 
upon for assistants, but this proved unsuccessful. At the 
end of five weeks the ladies met and decided to procure an 
assistant, to make it less hard for the Kindergartner. A 
young lady was sent for from Aurora, her board, car fare,, 
and laundry being provided. This has proven a wise meas- 
ure. At the outset a great many more children came than 
were expected, there being thirty-eight on the opening 
day; and many of them were beyond the Kindergarten age. 
After some discussion the ladies concluded to allow them 
to remain if they showed by their contented, happy man- 
ner it was better for them to be there. The spirit in the 
Kindergarten from first to last has been beautiful, made so 
by these happy, loving children. The schoolhouse is situ- 
ated in the center of a square, s-urrounded by magnificent 
trees, so closely set that only the flag pole of the school 
can be seen from without. The soil of the place is a rich 
black loam, so that everything grows well. During the 
warm Summer mornings the tables have been moved out of 
doors, and there we have worked and played, watching the 
birds build their nests and feed their young. A large col- 
lection of nests has been made, the last being one most dif- 
ficult to obtain, — that of an oriole, curiously woven of twine 
and leaves and horsehair. We have had many curious and 
interesting pets, our last foundling being a young robin that 
opened its mouth to an enormous extent every time anyone 
approached, much to the delight of the children. Not long 
since a large number of "walking stick " insects were found 
by the children, crawling up the trees, and one morning 
only a dozen frogs were brought by the older boys to be 
examined and admired. Nature is to be found here on 
every hand in her most attractive form, and the children 


are, as one would expect to find them, as free and unharmed 
by others' thoughts as the birds, and quite as joyous. 

To meet the needs of the older girls, a sewing class was 
organized by the Kindergartner, and excellent work has 
been done by them in a most careful, painstaking way. 
The model book of sewing used at Pratt Institute was sent 
for, and has served as a guide. The mothers have ex- 
pressed hearty approval of this work. Every Friday after- 
noon the mothers have gathered at the schoolhouse, and 
listened to readings and talks upon child training, varied by 
songs and games and explanations of the work being done 
daily in the Kindergarten. In the Kindergarten itself each 
child has had a book in which all of his hand work has 
been placed in regular sequence as completed. They 
admire these books, and like to see them grow step by 
step. The Kindergarten will close August i8, having be- 
gun June 12. It has been to the entire village a center of 
activity and helpfulness, and another year it will be an easy 
matter to raise funds. It is with the hope that other small 
towns may go and do likewise, that this article has been 
written, and also with the desire that other Kindergartners 
may know how rich and profitable they can make a Summer 
in their lives. — Minnie M. Glidden. 



A pair of scissors and a bit of paper are to be found in 
any nursery or living room. Let children have scissors of 
their own as soon as they are able to handle them at all, 
which should be when they are passing three years. The 
round-bladed are better than those with sharp points. Let 
the children practice cutting, from any old paper or maga- 
zine, the pictures, and with a few hints help them to arrange 
a collection of animals, of flowers or birds. Having a defi- 
nite purpose adds interest to the effort. Many little girls 
show whole boxes of paper dolls and their wardrobes as the 
fruits of their industrious cutting. It is quite as well to 
give them other than fashion books, however. After the 
children have mastered the handling of the scissors they 
can begin to cut free patterns. Give them fresh, unprinted 
paper for this, as they are better able to carry the design in 
mind, and follow its imaginary outline with the scissors. 
The mother, or older person about the children, can do 
much to encourage the skill and create the ability to cut 
free-hand patterns, by finding the similarity in the scraps of 
paper to actual objects. As the child watches the clouds to 
find camels and ducks and mountains, so in this his imagin- 
ation will be strengthened. The next step will be to encour- 
age the child to decide what he will make, before he puts 
the scissors to the paper, and as nearly as possible to carry 
out his design. Instead of purchasing fancy toys to amuse 
her children, any mother can cut a Noah's ark, with all the 
varieties of animal kind which go to make up such a treas- 
ure-house. "Is there anything 'Kindergarten' about that?" 
you will ask. Certainly. Any productive activity is educa- 
tional, especially when coupled with the mother's earnest 
desire to help her boy or girl in the right direction. The 
Kindergartners have arranged a series of free cutting exer- 
cises, which apply to home use as well. Some few of the 



former are given below, which will illustrate their own pur- 

Use a uniform size of paper. The four-inch squares of 
colored paper, to be bought at any Kindergarten or school- 
supply store, are very good; or the uniform scraps which 
can be secured at any country printing office or paper house 
will answer the purpose as well. The color adds greatly to 
the realism of the forms when cut, and serves at the same 
time to form the child's taste. 

Taking a square of paper, cut into it one half inch from 
the edge. Then follow out a spiral curve, cutting ever 
closer and closer to the center, until the entire sheet is one 
spiral th. 3ad of paper. If the children are too young 
to make a "snail," as they call it, it will afford them no 
small interest or profit to watch the mother or Kindergart- 
ner, with steady hand, cut on and on. Taking another 
square, cut in this a continuous series of squares within 
squares, never breaking the thread until the center is 
reached. As in the effort to pare a whole apple without 
breaking the paring, so here, great skill and foresight are 
demanded. As in the other illustrations, life forms may be 
cut, which modify the circle or square. Giving the child a 
guide as to general form, makes his work more sure and 

correct. Keep both the form cut, and the background from 


which it has been taken. Paste both side by side in a 
scrapbook, and enjoy them with the children. One little 
lame girl, who began her simple "scissoring" in the Kin- 
dergarten, developed such skill that in after years she was 
able to support herself by the artistic forms she created, 
which were purchased by the city confectioners. Another 
unique artist cuts exquisite silhouettes of any face brought 
before him at a glance. The scissors, like the pencil, can 
become the tool for artistic work, with practice. — H. B. 


I have heard of the buttercup meadow. 

And think I have seen it tonight; 
It was just on this side of the woodland, 

And was dotted with yellow and white; 
And sweet little birds hcwered o'er it, 

And flew in and out 'mid the flowers, 
And the daisies all nodded approval, 

And the buttercups dropped golden showers. 

Yes, I think it must be the same meadow 

I have heard of for many a day; 
The children all know where to find it, 

And all gather there for a play. 
It is "Daisy, you sweet, precious daisy, 

Your nightcap's as white as the snow; 
And, buttercup, give me your gold, sir! 

And do you love butter? — ah, no!" 

And then the sweet hands are laden 

With daisies, and buttercups too; 
The children run home from the meadow. 

Away, before fast falls the dew; 
And then merry elves from the woodland 

Flock down to the m.eadow to drink 
All the dew from the sweet nodding blossoms; 

It must be the same meadow, I think. 

— Emma L. Clapp. 

mothers' department. 63 

florine's visit to kindergarten. 

"Florine," said Mamma one morning early, "shall we go 
to Dot's Kindergarten today?" 

Florine is only two years old, and does not understand 
what a Kindergarten is; but she knows who Dot is, so she 
claps her tiny hands and dances with glee. 

• Dot is only two years old, also; but as his mamma is 
one of the helpers, he has begun Kindergarten early in life. 

When Florine arrives, the children are seated in their 
red chairs, placed in a circle in the center of a large, sunny 
room. The organ plays softly and the children sit quietly 
listening. When it ceases, Mrs. Gay says, "Good morning, 
children," and all respond with a bright good morning. 
Then all repeat in reverent tones, with folded hands and 
bowed heads, first a morning prayer, which is then softly 

Little Dot peeps at Florine from between his fingers, but 
Florine looks soberly about the circle. She is too intent to 
encourage Dot's mischief. 

"Good morning" songs are now sung, to teachers and 
pupils, to our dear little school, and to the merry sunshine. 
Then follows a charming finger play, set to music, and 
Florine watches Dot as he tries to "Dance little thumbkin." 
His little fat fingers crook themselves in a comical manner, 
but "little gold man" refuses to dance without help, and he 
gives him up in despair, as the others are already dancing 
"little baby." 

"Helen, have you a story for us this morning?" said 
Mrs. Gay. The little three-year-old, twisting her apron 
with her restless fingers, recites: 

" Once I had a little kitty 
White as snow; 
In a barn she used to frolic 
Long time ago." 

The children clap their hands with delight, as she returns 
to her place. Then a trio sing "The Merry Brown Thrush," 
with appropriate gestures. 

It is Dot's turn now. Florine eazes at him with won- 


der as he gathers up his apron, with Mamie-doll in it, and 
swaying to and fro, half sings, half recites: 
"Wock-a-bye, baby, t'ee top; 
Wind b'ow, baby crow, 
Swing high, swing low," 
then laughingly capers back to his tiny chair beside Mamma. 
The quiet music begins again, and all settle comfortably 
back in their chairs for a rest. At a certain chord all rise, 
and stand behind their chairs. Another chord, — the chairs 
are raised over their heads, and resting there, are carried on 
the march around the room to the low tables. A third 
chord, — the chairs are lowered and the children seat them- 
selves, with folded hands placed upon the table, as the quiet 
music soothes them once more into stillness. 

Dot brings a chair for Florine, and they sit with the 
three-year-olds at Mamma's table. A basket with balls of 
bright colors stands in the center of the table. Dot wants 
to give one to Florine, but Mamma shakes a warning finger 
at him; so he folds his hands like the rest, till the music 

Then begins an interesting talk about the birds, their 
colors, their food, their nests, and their habits. A bird's 
nest is passed about the table. 

"Now make a little nest with your hands;" and each 
child receives a ball, as Mrs. Gay sings: 
" Now take this little ball, 
And do not let it fall; 
Birds of yellow, red, and blue, 
Some for me and some for you. 
Now take this little ball, 
And do not let it fall." 
Helen volunteers the information — "I have a little blue- 
bird." Dot echoes, "boo-bird," and lovingly pats his ball. 

Then all sing: 

" In the branches of a tree 
Is a bird her nest preparing; 
Laying in one little egg, 
Coming out a little bird, 
Calling its mother, — peep, peep, peep; 
Mother dear, peep; Mother dear, peep; 
You are much loved; 
Peep, peep, peep; peep, peep, peep." 

mothers' department. 65 

"Mary," says Mrs. Gay, "has your little bird any feath- 
ers?" "No," replies Mary, "they haven't grown yet." A 
further talk follows, about the faithfulness of the parent 
birds in their care of the young, and of the similar care 
given to them by the children's parents, till the birds begin 
to get restless. 

Raising the balls by the strings, in time with the song, 
the children make "the little birds hop in and out the nest," 
rock them to sleep and wake them up, to "fly, little bird, 
fly round the ring." Olive shows how they do it, skipping 
around the table, waving her arms for wings, while Dot fol- 
lows with wavering footsteps. 

Now they talk of the shape of the ball, and — "one, two, 
three, — roll" them across the table to their teacher. Then 
they liken each to some fruit, and Clara begs to be a little 
gardener. So she wanders around the table singing: 

"Oh, I'm a little gardener 

With nice fresh fruit to sell; 
And if you'll please to buy of me, 
I'll try to serve you well! " 

The others eagerly respond: 

"We see your basket is quite full 
Of different kinds of fruit; 
And we should like to buy of you, 
If you'll make prices suit." 

Each one except Annie buys an apple, an orange, a 
lemon, a plum, some grapes or cherries, while the basket is 
returned. Now Annie starts on a search for the fruit, which 
the children hide in their laps. There is a shout of laugh- 
ter when Dot holds up a "boo apple," but Annie finds the 
green apple, red cherries, and purple plums, then asks Ruth 
for a yellow lemon. Ruth shakes her head and offers to 
find the lemon, which she soon coaxes from Florine, who 
has hidden it under her apron. The children guess that 
Ruth has the orange, so all are found. 

To quiet the boisterous little ones, "the soft ball loves 
to wander from one child to another." They play wind- 
mill, water wheel, church bell, and other games, joyfully 


imitating and telling about the real things, when a single 
note, sounded three times on the organ, says to the chil- 
dren: "Fold your hands." 

Their instant obedience is pleasing to behold. Even 
little Dot shakes his finger at Florine, who does not under- 
stand that the ball must be placed on the table at once, and 
then shows her how to fold her hands. 

As the quiet music follows, the balls are collected by a 
child helper. 

A chord is sounded; all stand; the children from the 
three tables form a single line, with the drummer at the 
head, and Flora, with the triangle, second. Mrs. Gay places 
a pink, blue, or yellow soldier-cap on each head, as the 
mimic soldiers pass. They march and counter-march, in 
single file and double line, separate, pass, and unite again, 
with a skill wonderful to see in such a tiny company, and 
then form a circle for the games. 

A leader is chosen, who selects a game — "the Pigeons," 
perhaps. Crouching in the center he beckons to four or 
five children, who crouch down also, and walk into the ring. 
Dot hops in, but the children laugh and say, "That is a 
sparrow; he hopped; pigeons walk." Willie, the leader, 
counts his pigeons; then all sing while the pigeons go to 
sleep, wake up, and fly, come back to the house and sing 
"Coo, coo," then back to their places in the ring. 

Dot now chooses the skipping game. Ned and Arthur 
take partners, and they dance while the others sing. Dot 
follows with Mamie-doll, and as they "bow with gentle 
grace," his head nearly touches the floor in his endeavor to 
make Mamie-doll bow too. 

A quiet occupation fills the rest of the morning. Model- 
ing in clay is the favorite, and the little ones model a bird's 
nest with tiny eggs in it, to take home to Mamma. Dot is 
very proud of his, while Florine is inclined to taste hers, as 
the clay upon her lips shows; and upon looking, we find 
that the eggs are missing from her nest. 

"Now Kindergarten's out, and we are going home. 
Good-by; good-by! be always kind and good," sing the chil- 

mothers' department. 67 

dren; and cloaked and bonneted they march out, giving a 
polite hand shake and happy smile to each teacher. 

With a sigh of satisfaction Florine and Dot walk out 
hand in hand, while their , lammas follow, smiling at their 
pleasure. — Alys Day. 


"Are you not interested in the Kindergarten work?" 
"Oh, no; my baby is so awkward and clumsy, he never 
could do those fancy things." 

This reply of a mother suggests the mistaken impression 
which has gone out concerning the Kindergarten work. It 
is by no means a pretty, dainty play, nor is it for a select 
few children who are rarely gifted. It is the means by 
which any child can be helped to find himself and be him- 
self. It is not an outside grace of body or alertness of 
mind, but it is an inner natural growth which every child 
should be granted. It is not a method of fancy dancing; it 
is only an effort to reinstate those normal qualities which 
every child possesses. Just as at the present stage of art, 
the old-fashioned flower garden or antiquated china are 
most beautiful, so with the little child, those simple, straight- 
forward qualities of the olden day are growing more and 
more desirable. The Kindergarten, or any other means 
that can help bring us back to this condition, is a true 


Editor of the Kindergarten Magazine: — It might be of 
interest to some disheartened mother to know that the Kin- 
dergarten principle can become a great factor in her own 
self-education. Truly the child can lead us to a higher life 
and to a realization of our spiritual possibilities. How triv- 
ial and selfish our past appears to us in the light of our new 
life — a true regeneration! Through the child our own lim- 
itations rise before us. Every moment of anger becomes 
one of painful consciousness; every unworthy passion as- 
sumes its real proportions. Life in its true relation be- 


comes revealed to us. To each of us who wish to receive it, 
the children may bear this message. — A CJiicago Mother. 


I've two pretty boots, so soft and small. 
When I run, they noise at all. 

I'm a friend of the children, that's easy to tell, 
And though they can't see me, they know me quite 
Hush! I run quickly up the long stairs. 
Where I find children saying their prayers. 
And standing behind them, cunning and wise. 
Two grains of sand I drop right in their eyes. 
Then they sleep sweetly the long dark night, 
Till angels bring them the morning light. 
— Hal Ozven. 

(Holding up successively the fingers of the right hand.) 
This is the father so good and kind, 
This is the mother whom I always mind. 
This is the brother so large and tall, 
This is the sister who plays with a doll. 
This is the baby so cunning and wee. 
And this the whole family now you see. 
Now it is night, and they've all gone to sleep; 
Keep very quiet, and just take a peep. 
The sandman and dream man have both been 
But they are so quiet they don't make a 

(Laying all the fingers to rest in the palm of the left hand and waiting 
for signal.) 

Cookoo! Cookoo! Cookoo! 

Hear the birds singing so sweet and clear; 

Good morning; good morning! the morning is here. 

— Hal Ozven, 

mothers' department. 69 

a mother inquires about kindergarten materials. 

Dear Editor: — What will be the best Kindergarten gifts 
for me to get for my little girl, who is six years old, who 
does not go to school? Where shall I begin, to give her 
the right start? Shall I take the First Gift even as old as 
she is, to see how much she does comprehend? We live in 
a small village thirteen miles south of Kalamazoo, and by a 
creek, a small lake not far distant. It is not books, but the 
gifts, and whatever will help her that we can afford, that I 
want. Kindly yours. — M. E. L. 

[It is not possible to tell in a letter what course of instruction to take 
up with your six-year-old daughter. The Kindergarten rule is, Com- 
mon sense applied daily in every detail, beginning with the baby up. 
If you understand the gifts, as I take it from your letter you do, by all 
means begin with the First Gift, adapted, however, to the age and com- 
prehension of your little one. You understand that Kindergarten ma- 
terials in themselves will not give your child Kindergarten training. It 
is the spirit of the Kindergartner which makes the gifts or any other 
near-at-hand materials valuable. You will find the occupations, weav- 
ing, sewing, etc., very valuable to use with your child. Also the current 
Kindergarten Magazine would be suggestive to you, and Child- 
Garden will provide you with stories, rhymes, songs, and plays sufficient 
for everyday use. The use of systematized materials can only be edu- 
cational when fitted to the individual child. Study your child, and then 
use such materials as will develop her along those lines in which she is 
lacking. ' With a six-year-old child begin the free drawing, reproducing 
stories and experiences. Take some one favorite story and lead her to 
work that out, whether with block, door-yard pebbles, or sand on the 
creek's edge. She is old enough to begin natural geography. See sug- 
gestions in Mothers' Department of June Kindergarten Magazine.] 


A SERIES of World's Fair Studies, by Denton J. Snider, is just issued 
by the Kindergarten College. Each number of the series appears as a 
booklet, and under the following titles: "The Organization of the Fair," 
"The Four Domes," The State Buildings — Colonial and from East to 
West," " The Greek Column at the Fair." Mr. Snider, who is well 
known as a commentator of Goethe and Shakespeare, transfers his in- 
terpretive power in this series to help men read the story behind the 
fact of the Fair. He considers the Fair as an organic whole, which 
stands for the product of civilization, rather than as the work of any 
man or set of men. He then traces out the meaning of the individual 
national and state buildings, finding how these reveal many most sug- 
gestive and characteristic traits of the respective builders. The analy- 
sis of the architecture of the World's Fair, from this philosophic stand- 
point, is highly valuable, and every student, teacher, or educator should 
possess himself of this series. After leaving the busy though beautiful 
scene behind, a careful reading of these Studies will not only revive and 
hold fast the crowded impressions, but will unify them, that they may 
never again be lost. The study of the state buildmgs is brimming with 
historical allusions, contrasting the past with the present in such a for- 
cible, withal playful, way, that one seems to gather up all the old half- 
realized facts in a new and interesting parcel of knowledge. Mr. Snider 
has truly caught the universal story which the nations have uncon- 
sciously set down in visible pile and pillar, and though every stone be 
removed from Jackson Park, there will have been left a record of the 
relative values of the nations such as- has never before been registered. 
The series of five booklets are sold for 60 cents. Order of the Kinder- 
garten College, or the Kindergarten Literature Co., Chicago. 

The Columbian Congresses and exposition have called forth many 
pamphlet reports and syllabi of work from all schools and educational 
institutions. A full collection of these, together with the recent report 
of the United States Commissioner of Education, makes a most interest^ 
ing statistical library. There is a neat volume, dated Montevideo, 1893, 
with an account of the public schools of Uruguay, and similar ones from 
Berlin, London, and Paris. 

The Bttffalo Kindergarten News, which was organized and carried 
on by Mr. Louis H. Allen, of Buffalo, has been transferred to the firm of 
Milton Bradley, of Springfield, Mass. The earnest, uncounted labor 
and enthusiasm which Mr. Allen poured into the little monthly has not 
been in vain, though at times not fully appreciated. The News has 
made many friends during its short career, and will no doubt hold them 
fast under the new management. 


Clara Beeson Hubbard. — In St. Louis, on June 4, 1893, there passed 
to the higher life a Kindergartner of many and rare gifts. Clara Bee- 
son Hubbard, the author of " Merry Songs and Games," has, through 
the happy medium of this book, endeared herself to all children who 
sing her songs and play her games. She had been denied the great 
privilege of active Kindergarten work for several years, but never for a 
moment did she lose her interest in and enthusiasm for the cause so 
dear to all who come under its divine influence. The study and prac- 
tice of the principles and philosophy of the Kindergarten develop the 
genius of character, and it is well for us to know how stanchly these 
principles and this philosophy bear the hardest strain, the severest 
tests. From this beautiful and joyous personality, stricken down in the 
prime of lovely womanhood, we can learn how great and universal prin- 
ciples apply to every phase of human life. The child of the humblest 
intelligence and the fully awakened genius are alike benefited by the 
system that develops character. While it is to be regretted that Mrs. 
Hubbard did not live to fully round out and complete her work as a 
Kindergartner, all may rejoice in her demonstration of patience, hope, 
and courage. It is not so much what we accomplish in deeds that the 
world can see, that is the final test of character, but when the " soul is 
matched against its fate," and wins, we can study with profit the educa- 
tional process of this development that resulted in victory. — A. N. K. 

The Kindergartens of Los Afige/es. — As early as 1876, Miss Mar- 
vedel, a self-taught Kindergartner, encouraged by letters from Mrs. 
C. M. Severance, came from Massachusetts and opened a private Kin- 
dergarten school in Los Angeles. After a short time, not finding suffi- 
cient encouragement to continue, she removed to San Francisco, and 
opened a school in that city. This was before Mrs. Cooper, whose ex- 
tensive system of Kindergartens in San Francisco is now so well known, 
had made public her interest in this method of education. After Miss 
Marvedel had left Los Angeles, several small attempts at private Kin- 
dergarten teaching were made. Miss Stewart, now teacher of training 
classes in Philadelphia, being the most successful worker. 

In June, 1885, inspired by the enthusiasm of Mrs. Severance, presi- 
dent of the Woman's Club of Los Angeles, many of the club members 
and some non-members formed an association, called the Free Kinder- 
garten Association of Los Angeles. Mrs. Severance was chosen presi- 
dent. The vice presidents were Mrs. H. T. Lee, Mrs. R. M. Widney, 
Mrs. A. H. Judson, Mrs. S. C. Hubbell, Mrs. E. F. Spence, Mrs. L. V. 
Newton, Mrs. E. B. Millar (deceased), Mrs. Milton Lindley, Rev. A. J. 


Wells, and Mrs. W. R. Blackman; secretary, Miss Nellie Mackay; 
treasurer, Mr. T. C. Severance. Through their pastor, Rev. A. J. Wells, 
the Congregational church offered one of its chapels for the use of the 
association. This offer was gladly accepted. The members of the so- 
ciety were so zealous, that at the time of the opening, on October i, there 
were over thirty pupils. Miss Mackay was chosen teacher, and being 
possessed of the true missionary spirit, she soon brought the influence 
of her system of instruction to bear not only upon the minds and hearts 
of her pupils during school hours, but she carried that influence into 
their homes and shed a blessing upon the parents, careworn and 
thoughtless, often ignorant and improvident. 

In 1888 a second school was opened by the association, in the vicinity 
of the Southern Pacific railroad station, in another mission chapel of the 
Congregational church, the rent of which was donated. Miss Ella 
Clark was placed in charge. This school was discontinued after two 

In the Winter of 1889-90 so much influence was brought to bear upon 
the Los Angeles school board, that the Kindergartens were adopted as 
part of the public school system. These schools only admitted pupils 
five years of age and over, consequently the work of the association was 
not superseded, as it was felt that the principles of the Froebel system 
should be instilled into the child's mind before the age of five. 

At first twelve schools, and at present date (June, '93) twenty-two, 
have been ingrafted upon the public school system of Los Angeles. 

The association, at its meeting of October, 1892, formally gave over 
to Mrs. J. A. Wills and Mrs. T. D. Stimson the free Kindergarten, until 
that time conducted by that society. This school has been housed in a 
permanent building, erected by the ladies mentioned above. At the 
same meeting of Octoh^r^ the annual! — it was voted to elect the offi- 
cers and managers for the ensuing year, and then to allow the somewhat 
overworked members to rest for a few months, subject to the call of the 
president, when it might be found necessary or feasible to open another 
charity school or to do any other work in their particular line. 

The officers and members of the board of the preceding year were 
reelected, and were as follows: President, Mrs. C. M. Severance; vice 
presidents, Mrs. J. A. Wills, Mrs. Jessie Benton Fremont, Mrs. Milton 
Lindley; secretary. Miss Ella Clark; treasurer. Miss Alice Severns; 
board of managers, Mrs. A. L. Whitney, Mrs. M. F. Woodward (de- 
ceased), Mrs. L. V. Newton, Miss Carrie Seymour, Mrs. Geo. Fitch, Mrs. 
T. D. Stimson, Miss Margaret M. Fette, Mrs. E. Enderlein, and Mrs. 
Major Elderkin. Besides these of the old board, Mrs. Margaret Hughes 
and Mrs. D. C. Cook were elected members. The life members of the 
association are Mrs. A. H. Judson, Mrs. Jotham Bixby, Mrs. I. W. Hell- 
man, Mrs. E. F. Spence, Mrs. C. W. Gibson, Mrs. C. M. Severance, H. 
C. Mills, George Hanson, Wm. Lacy, Geo. A. Dobinson, and the Los 
Angeles County Bank. 


The latest step of interest in Los Angeles, in regard to this system of 
education, is the establishment of the Froebel Institute, for carrying out 
the principles of Kindergarten education for children from the tender 
age of three to the tmie of their entering college. This work is to be 
undertaken by Mrs. Carolyn M. Alden, who for years has successfully 
carried on such an institute in Providence, R. I. A beautiful plan for a 
building, incorporating the old Spanish idea of the interior court, has 
been prepared by Mr. Hunt, a promising young architect of Los An- 
geles. In this court instruction in the many out-of-door branches of the 
Kindergarten course will be given. The genial character of the Los 
Angeles climate will allow this to be made a prominent feature. 

The new building, in process of erection at the west end of Adams 
street, on what is commonly known as " the Triangle," will be finished 
by October, and the institute will then be dedicated to its noble use. 
Mrs. Alden's success is already assured, as she is warmly and gener- 
ously supported by many of the advanced thinkers of her adopted 
home. — Margaret M. Fette, Los Angeles, Cal., Jtine, i8gj. 

ToPOLOBAMPO, Mex., May 5, 1893. 
Editors Kindergarten Magazine: — You will no doubt be sur- 
prised to hear that even in this hidden nook in glorious Mexico, the 
good work is going on. Under the auspices of the Credit Foncier Com- 
pany a free Kindergarten was established in December, 1892. The col- 
ony here aims at being cooperative, and as a matter of course the Kin- 
dergarten should be free. We have sixteen children enrolled at this 
camp on the beautiful Bay of Topolobampo. It is our experimental sta- 
tion in this line. On the Mochis, one of our other camps, we have more 
children, and as soon as we have the necessary school building, and 
have trained another teacher, a Kindergarten will be opened there. 
The Kindergarten is a prime necessity for our colony, — for by what 
other method could we train children to become good cooperators, un- 
selfish, loving, industrious, and skillful? As yet we have only colonists' 
children in training, but I hope we may soon be enabled to gather into 
our fold the children of the natives. These children are bright, with 
open eyes for nature's beauties, and with souls sweet and responsive. 
What if we have for our dwelling place only the rough stone wall, with 
natural floor? Have we not brightened it up with mats woven by skill- 
ful Indian fingers, and all the pictures available? Chief among the pic- 
tures is "Uncle Froebel's," framed with paper folding, and that of A. K. 
Owen, founder of our colony. For all those not calloused by the expe- 
riences of life, the loveliest spot in camp is the Kindergarten, and to be 
deprived from participating in it for even one hour is the greatest pun- 
ishment for our little ones. The Mexican authorities (the prefect and 
superintendent of instruction), on a visit to the colony, saw the Kinder- 
garten. Never having seen anything of the kind, it was a revelation to 
them. The superintendent of education, who rules over one-third of 


the territory of the state, told me to learn Spanish as soon as possible, 
that I might go to the seat of government and start a training school. 
I think our Kindergarten is the only one in our state (Sinaloa), and per- 
haps the fourth or fifth m the whole country. Mexico is far behind in 
the stride of civilization. The people have few needs, and are therefore 
contented and happy. — Adelaide Klueber. 

Mr. Franklin Adams, of the Kansas State Historical Society, has 
presented us with a photograph of the colored children's Kindergarten 
of Topeka. Forty-five typical curly heads and double the number of 
shining eyes look out from the picture, eliciting the supremest interest. 
Some of the children are holding up pieces of their work, while the ba- 
bies are fondling the colored balls. The Kindergarten is one of two 
which have been established by the Topeka Kindergarten Association, 
of which Mrs. Hunt is president. The teachers are students in Miss 
Dolittle's Topeka training school. The children in this Kindergarten 
number over forty. The establishment of this particular Kindergarten 
has been chiefly due to the missionary work of Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, 
of the Central Congregational Church of Topeka. 

The St. Louis Society of Pedagogy has reorganized its plan of work 
for the coming year, providing sections for special study in the follow- 
ing lines: pedagogics (including the science and art of education), psy- 
chology (rational and experimental), ethics (theoretical and practical), 
literature, history, science, art. Kindergarten, and observation of child 
life. The last-named sections of art and Kindergarten are directed re- 
spectively by Misses Amelia Fruchte and Mary C. McCulloch. 

The Columbus (O.) Kindergarten Association has sent out a very 
attractive circular of its work for the coming year. Mrs. L. W. Treat 
serves another year as the general director of the training school, Miss 
Alice Tyler superintendent, assisted by Miss Elizabeth Osgood. The 
Misses Tyler and Osgood spent part of the Summer in Chicago, and 
made many friends among the Kindergartners. 

The Southern Kindergarten Association of Jacksonville, Fla., opens 
a regular training class this month, under the principalship of Mrs. O. 
E. Weston, assisted by Miss Lulu Cassel, both of Chicago. A most ex- 
cellent schedule of work is offered by the association, and will no doubt 
meet the needs of many Southern workers, who have heretofore been 
compelled to come North for study. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Hailman entertained a party of Kindergarten 
guests at their ideal home in La Porte, Ind., at the close of the Educa- 
tional Congress. A happy evening was spent in games and songs in 
the model Kindergarten room, interspersed with earnest conversations 
and the meeting of students and friends invited to participate in the 


One of the most attractive commencement programs which have 
reached us is that of the Western Normal College, Lincoln, Neb. A 
handsome brown-sienna engraving of the buildings and invitation to the 
exercises is put upon a rose-colored background, with fine effect. Miss 
Bertha Montgomery, of the Kindergarten department, adds her compli- 

One of the most encouraging visits paid the Kindergarten Mag- 
azine office during this busy Summer was that of Mr. and Mrs. E. O. 
Neely, of Guntersville, Ala. Not professional Kindergartners, they have 
still caught the spirit of the movement, and speed it along with their 
broad interest. 

Miss Mary N. Van Wagenen, of New York city, was one of the 
most cordially interested visitors to the Kindergarten Congress. Her 
quiet, earnest work at training and conducting the Kindergarten is 
being felt in many strong workers who go out from her each year. 

Mrs. Whitehead, of Rochester, N. Y., reports an extension of the 
St. Andrews Kindergarten, to include industrial classes and other lines 
of work. One strong Kindergarten soon becomes the center about 
which other departments may cluster with mutual advantage. 

Miss Hannah D. Maury, supervisor of the Kindergarten depart- 
ment of the Pratt Institute, spent several weeks in Chicago, and an- 
nounces two additional workers to that department: Mrs. Marion Lang- 
zettel, of Rockford, 111., and Miss M. Glidden, of Chicago. 

Miss Anna Littell has accepted a position on the faculty of the 
Buffalo Free Kindergarten Training School, also the directing of one 
of the free Kindergartens. The prospect for this association for the 
coming year is full of promise. 

Miss Laura P. Charles, of Lexington, Ky., was one of the visitors 
to the World's Fair, in August, and rearranged the Kindergarten ex- 
hibit from that point, adding much to its import by so doing. 

Miss Mabel McKinney, of the Chicago Kindergarten College, has 
been engaged as director of the Kindergarten department of the Min- 
nesota normal school at St. Cloud, Minn, 

Mr. John L. Hughes, of Toronto, addressed the Summer assembly 
at Hackley Park, Mich. A teacher writes: "He gave us a live and 
awakening lecture." 

Miss Amalie Hofer will conduct the. studies of Froebel's " Mother- 
Play Book " with the Chicago Free Kindergarten Association the com- 
ing year. 

An announcement comes from the Kindergarten and Potted Plant 
Association, which supports a free Kindergarten in New York city. 

Mrs. C. C. Taylor again opens her Kindergarten and school at 
No. 99 Lee Avenue, Brooklyn. 


Foreign Subscriptions, — On all subscriptions'outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada, and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents) for 
postage, save in case of South Africa, outside of the postal union, which 
amounts to 80 cents extra on the year's numbers. 

Many training schools are making engagements for next year's 
special lectures through the Kindergarten Literature Co. We are in 
correspondence with many excellent Kindergarten specialists in color, 
form, music, primary methods, literature, art, etc. 

Young Mothers should early learn the necessity of keeping on hand 
a supply of Gail-Borden Eagle Brand Condensed Milk for nursing 
babies, as well as for general cooking. It has stood the test for thirty 
years. Your grocer and druggist sell it. 

Child-Garden Samples. — Send in lists of mothers with young chil- 
dren who would be glad to receive this magazine for their little ones. 
Remember some child's birthday with a gift of CJiild-Garden, only $1 
per year. 

Always — Send your subscription made payable to the Kindergarten 
Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111., "either by money order, 
express order, postal note, or draft. (No foreign stamps received.) 

Portraits of Froebel. — Fine head of Froebel; also Washington, Lin- 
coln, and Franklin; on fine boards, 6 cents each, or ten for 50 cents. 
Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago. 

Always. — Our readers who change their addresses should imme- 
diately notify us of same and save the return of their mail to us. State 
both the new and the old location. It saves time and trouble. 


Always. — Subscriptions are stopped on expiration, the last n„...^ 
being marked, "With this number your subscription expires," and 
return subscription blank inclosed. 

All inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, literature, song 
books, lectures, trained Kindergartners, etc., will be freely answered by 
the Kindergarten Literature Co. 

Send for our complete catalogue of choice Kindergarten literature; 
also give us lists of teachers and mothers who wish information con- 
cerning the best reading. 

A '\ 


Vol. VL— OCTOBER, 1893.— No. 2. 


T is such a rare thing to find any lack of activity 
in the healthy child, that, its promotion seems 
to mv mind rather unnecessary; but there is 
greai need of the proper development and 
guidance of the child's self-activity. Activity 
undirected results in restless mischief. Self- 
^^^^^^="— activity is an expression of the child's own 
endeavor, and to wisely direct it to the child's advantage is 
worthy of our deepest thought and most earnest effort. 

Bowen, in his recent book on Froebel, reminds us that 
Froebel urges from the very first that the senses should be, 
as far as possible, exercised as organs of the mind, and the 
activities should be made expressions of mind, or at least 
kept in close association with ideas. Development is pro- 
duced by exercise of function and use of faculties, and neg- 
lect and disuse lead to weakening or loss of power to use. 
This law is absolute in both animal and human life. What 
can be done with the individual depends, first, upon the 
latent ability; and secondly, upon the chances of develop- 
ment through environment and careful training. Froebel 
also seeks to give the young child experience, rather than 
instruction, and to educate him by action rather than by 
books or anything in the nature of abstract learning. 
Where it is possible, idea and action should be connected. 

The kindergarten has done much to relax undue severity 
in the methods of the primary school, but it has not done 
everything; and to my mind, kindergarten exercises carried 
bodily into the primary school, without change or modifica- 


tion to suit the more expanded mind, do far more harm 
than good. We all know from Froebel's correspondence 
that his last years were devoted to the problem of adapting 
the kindergarten principles to the later stages of develop- 
ment of the child. It is the spirit of the kindergarten that 
we need in the schools beyond, not its numerous exercises 
and devices, or its particular methods, which are better 
adapted to very young children. 

In the same way we need the spirit of art, — the children 
guided by reasonable method to good tecJinique, while the 
mind and purpose of the teacher are always fixed on the 
high and all-'round education of the child. 

There are dangers that threaten our "new educational 
methods" at the present time. One is the natural out- 
growth of freedom after long repression, and the other is a 
reaction from this freedom. In many of the primary 
schools all over our country at the present time, and even 
in the higher grades, freedom has developed into restless, 
ever-demanding activity on the part of the children, and 
nervous, overworked teachers. 

What does this activity of the children demand? little 
short of the life and heart's blood of the teacher. This 
teacher must be a walking encyclopedia of learning — 
though, alas! often a very poor edition. She is told that 
she must "be kind to the children"; and for a similar rea- 
son that " Mary was kind to the big dog," she humors and 
molly-coddles, until the children, surfeited with jelly and 
jam, have no honest appetites for anything really whole- 
some. Is it any wonder that those who do not realize the 
possibilities that result from wiser and better-directed effort 
when the child is led to do his part and do it with all his 
heart — I say, is it any wonder that they cry, "Is this your 
new education? Where is the honest effort to master the 
task, to learn the lesson, to overcome the difficulty?" The 
effort is often entirely with the teacher, who not only does 
all her own work, but, with the best intentions possible, all 
the children's too. She spreads before the children a mass of 
disconnected and trivial devices whose only claim to notice 


would be their ingenuity in the marvelously bad combina- 
tions in form, color, or design. She works hard, and the 
children do not. The American taste for novelty — which, 
by the way, is the bane of our country — seizes her also, and 
a method, even if it prove good, is only temporary. To be 
sure, in educational methods there are change and growth; 
but it need not be with every new moon; and a really good 
method in the presentation of a subject should not be put 
aside like the fashion of a year. For example, a teacher 
said to me, "I do not teach form that way this year; I have 
something later." 

Valuable as they are, teachers' institutes and educational 
journals are responsible for a vast amount of trash in the 
way of papers and articles on methods of teaching color, 
number, language, and drawing, — undoubtedly results of 
honest but misdirected effort. The teachers most readily 
imposed upon by these devices are often the most earnest 
and faithful, but ignorant of fundamental principles of jes- 
thetics, or lacking in educational training. 

The freedom of the child may easily degenerate into 
lawlessness and utter lack of self-control, while the teacher 
loses forever that delight which children may be led to feel 
for law and order. It is hard for nervous, driving Ameri- 
cans to comprehend the value or possibilities in slow, all- 
'round development, whether it be in art, manual training, 
or general school work. Really fine technical results come 
only through years of effort on the part of the child, and 
under patient guidance on the part of the teacher. The 
one grand result of education is individual power; and that 
can only come by earnest and ceaseless effort, a self-expres- 
sion of the child wisely directed by the teacher. 

Another menace to our free educational art methods, 
and which might be even more dangerous than too great 
freedom, is the advocacy on the part of a few who would 
i»^._ the teaching of drawing from the first directly for 
accuracy, and to gain this would even go back to the rule 
in the hands of the babies, and the ancient fetich of the 
straight line. It has been said that the advocates of man- 


ual training demanded this return to rigid method and 
straight jacket; but I have been delighted to find that the 
leaders in manual training disavow any such desire, and 
affirm that they, too, feel that accuracy is a matter of 
growth, and that the rule in the hands of very young chil- 
dren would be more dangerous than useful; and that it is 
beyond the mental comprehension and physical ability, at 
such an age, to get absolutely accurate results. They also 
say that paper folding and cutting, and intelligent free- 
hand drawing, are the best possible preliminaries to the use 
of the rule. It is cruel and unnatural to begin with labored 
and tiresome insistence upon accuracy, though there should 
be steady endeavor to lead up to it. As one authority says, 
"We should grow it, and by so doing produce at the same 
time an ever-increasing appreciation of its value." 

The attainment of technical ability through develop- 
ment and the intense interest of the student, seems to be 
just as psychologically and practically true in the studios 
as in the schoolroom. There should be the same study of 
the whole before the parts, and the same growth through 
constant effort. In an art school, students will waste time 
in various ways unless kept busy and their work varied and 
made thoroughly interesting. In the ateliers of Paris the 
greatest freedom of action prevails. The student may work 
all day and every day, if he wishes, or may play with time 
and opportunity. The studios are visited — not very often 
— by the celebrated artists, who give their time for art's 
sake, and who show very slight interest in those who evince 
no decided talent. English schools, on the contrary, have 
paid instructors who direct the students more definitely to 
immediate results. Their curriculum is rigid in its require- 
ments, and there is a strong tendency to the repression of 
the individual, and the consequent attainment of a set, 
academic style. South Kensington is less tight and severe 
than years ago, but the technique there, while most pains- 
taking, still lacks aesthetic quality and art feeling. 

Experience has shown me that if a student — a young 
child, young girl, or young man, even an adult — is trained 


in art through the natural method of discovering, taking in, 
assimilating, and expressing to his or her best ability, con- 
stant improvement comes by such doing; the student not 
dwelling too long on one effort of expression, — that is, one 
drawing, — but having the advantage of an interested self- 
acting force or self-activity which eagerly presses on with 
the unrestrained desire to excel. This evolution of expres- 
sion reveals to the teacher the pupil's knowledge, increases 
his confidence, and trains muscles, nerves, and organs of 
sense to be willing and dependable servants of the mind; it 
encourages patience and endeavor, through constant ex- 
pression under the control of the will. Such method, how- 
ever, requires wise and constant guidance, and it takes a 
very patient teacher, especially for the beginners; for the 
older the pupil, the more self-conscious and the more 
doubtful of his powers. 

You would be surprised to see the good results finally 
obtained in drawing and color from a class of dressmakers 
and milliners, by training them in this way. The object of 
their work was the direct practical value, more, perhaps, 
than aesthetic culture. In their own technical work they 
improved in their ideas of proportion and their ability to 
draft patterns, to hang draperies, and to see the beauty of 
the curve balanced by the straight fold. Directly, their 
training was to gain the power of sketching, in a simple 
way, for practical use. The lessons were one hour per 
week, three terms, or twelve months in all. The members 
of the class were adults, and nearly all of them with little 
or no previous training. Their one apologetic remark was, 
"I cannot draw a straight line;" and much surprise was ex- 
pressed that we did not expect they could. The first point 
in their teaching was leading them to see the change of ap- 
pearance in simple geometric forms placed in different po- 
sitions, and leading out the student's own naive expression, 
by language and by drawing, of what they saw. As a help 
to freedom of expression in their drawing, exercises were 
given to use the muscles, limber the hand, and to secure 
free arm movement. The work of the class was only fit for 


the waste basket for a long time, and bore the same rela- 
tion to fine art rendering, as do the early language lessons 
in the primary school to the prize essay or poem. The 
whole course was absolutely sequential, and each lesson the 
result of careful thought on the part of the teacher. In 
connection with geometric forms the class studied objects 
based upon such forms, — as simple groups of still life, va- 
ried with branches of foliage and flowers. The pencil was 
the medium used, with a slight expression of effect in light 
and shade, after the class had drawn a long time in simple 
outline, carefully studying the objects with a view to their 
characteristics, the proportion of the whole, and the rela- 
tion of parts to the whole. Finally they dtew draperies, 
costumes, bonnets and hats, and colored them in water 
color. For home work they designed hats, bonnets, and 
costumes. The general feeling of the class at the close of 
the course was, that their eyes were opened to see in a way 
hitherto unknown, and their feeling for color and its proper 
combinations was improved. Technically, the results were 
really good, though not beautiful; they were, however, thor- 
oughly educational, and helpful in direct professional work. 
In my opinion^ had those pupils been trained for immedi- 
ate results in the way of correct seeing and rendering, such 
results would have been attained at a sacrifice of mental 
development, and the rendering would have remained la- 
bored and self-conscious to the last. 

Another point about their work that was very gratifying 
was the constant use of the pencil. I think some do not 
realize what really very strong work may be done with this 
simple and easily handled medium; it is always so accessi- 
ble for quick expression, as well as careful drawing, and 
leads so well to pen and ink, and practical illustrative work. 

Undoubtedly too many things are attempted in some of 
our schools; but I have faith to believe that we shall work 
out of that as teachers become better trained and various 
subjects of study are combined and coordinated. The reign 
of the "three R's " is over, though their advocates may de- 
nounce our efforts as "fads." It is to be expected that we 


should not always be understood; but that need not damp 
our ardor or check our effort. 

This desirable interlacing of various studies has some 
dangers, to be sure. Drawing, for example, should be made 
use of in other studies, but it should not stop there. In- 
deed, for that very reason there should be constant tech- 
nical training in drawing. Suppose the "physical culture" 
people should tell us that in order to strengthen the lungs, 
as many recitations as possible should be in song. What a 
pandemonium the schoolroom would be if the children 
never had any voice training! In instrumental music think 
of the long hours of practice necessary before Chopin or 
Beethoven can be proficiently rendered. Suppose the cry 
is raised, "The public school is no place to train artists." 
True; distinctly as artists it is not the place, neither does 
proper art training in the public schools claim that as an 
end. As narrow and foolish would it be as to use manual 
training in the public schools to turn out carpenters, wood 
carvers, and metal workers; yet who would not say that a 
method in manual training so opposed to good tecliniqiie as 
to make a boy incapable of ever being a good carpenter 
was not fundamentally wrong! 

When art education became general in the schools of 
this country, it was taught on a distinctly geometric basis, 
with a decided industrial tendency. It was all the people 
were ready for at that time, and in some ways it did distinct 
good, though there was not much art in it. Drawing from 
the flat, industrial design, and theoretical perspective, were 
the main subjects taught, and it is a revolution indeed to 
reverse all this, and begin with learning to see from the ob- 
ject itself rather than from some one's drawing of that ob- 
ject. To study the facts and construction of form with the 
direct industrial bearing of free-hand working drawings; to 
present the beautiful in ornament and understand the lead- 
ing principles of good decoration; to discover the laws of 
perspective as applied to common things about us, — in the 
schoolroom, the cube, the box, the chair; in the street, the 
car track, the chimney, and the tower, — with ever-changing 


point of vision and line of direction, instead of being fixed 
upon paper; these stand for some features of art teaching 
in the public schools today. In the old days it was theory 
before practice; now it is practice before theory. We re- 
joice when we see the fresh awakened interest of the pupils; 
but to keep this interest, to direct without undue restraint, 
and yet not to encourage freedom to the extent of license, 
— this is our sacred duty. For a long time in education we 
lost the child; now we have found him, and we must look 
to ourselves and our methods lest it were not better that he 
were lost again. 

All the self-activities or self-expression should tend to 
art; and yet how can this be possible when general school 
subjects are taught all out of harmony with the art idea? 
when number lessons, for example, are given in hideous 
combinations of shape and color? Of what use to attempt 
to strengthen the color sense, or to strive for the uplifting 
of the popular taste, if the rest of the time is spent in un- 
doing our effort? We must make use of the text-books of 
specialists in various studies, in literature, science, and art. 
This may be done in some studies by sending children to 
the libraries to make abstracts of various authorities, their 
research to be discussed in the class or returned as written 
work to the teacher. I have found this method very valu- 
able in the study of the history of art and historic orna- 
ment. In this connection children in the grammar schools 
may draw examples of historic ornament in pencil, and pu- 
pils in the high school render similar work in charcoal and 
water color. I do not myself believe in work in charcoal, 
below the high school. It is not suitable for the child in 
the schoolroom, and would, I fear, tend to careless, thought- 
less work on the part of children and teachers, as it is such 
a very loose medium and its proper treatment presents so 
many technical difficulties. Schoolroom conditions are too 
difficult as to effects in light and shade for the thoughtful 
individual expression of the child, and it is taking a back- 
ward step to be content with conventional effect. Good 
casts and reproductions of famous works of art should hang 


on the schoolroom walls, and photographs be used in the 
hands of the teacher and the children to illustrate the les- 
son and add greater interest. Manuals and text-books 
should be studied by the teacher, and when expedient, used 
by the pupils. Because in the old days we crammed our 
children with dry, uncomprehended facts, I see no reason 
for banishing the proper use of the text-book forever from 
our schools. It behooves us as educators to take a broad, 
'impartial view of the present situation, and as I said before, 
to be careful, in our effort to give freedom to the child, 
that we do not injure where we desire to benefit and im- 
prove. Pampering the children with literary sweets, weak- 
ening the power of self-control and the endeavor to^do 
right for right's sake, by the cooing and molly-coddling 
which is all too prevalent in many of our schools, we must try 
to overcome, or bur progressive and free methods will prove 
failures where they might bring great success. 

I feel and speak earnestly on this point. Some one must 
protest in the name of thousands of overworked teachers 
who with mistaken zeal are trying to carry the burden of 
school- work on their own shoulders, unmindful that the 
children must work also, — in a happy, free way, to be sure, 
but with the intention to do their part. It is unreasonable 
to expect the average teacher, often with narrow opportu- 
nity and environment, to be equal to her great responsibility 
without assistance: not in the guise of certain tricks and 
devices of presentation to catch the fancy of the child, as 
though he were still to be "pleased with a rattle, tickled 
with a straw," but help from the best specialists and author- 
ities who devote their lives to their subjects. Such assist- 
ance should be largely suggestive, allowing scope for the 
play of individuality on the part of the teacher and pupil. 
I do not mean to be censorious or severe, but it is true that 
" Fools rush in where angels fear to tread." 

A noted scientist said to me not long ago, "Much of the 
subject matter taught now in the schools in the name of 
'science is the veriest rubbish, and productive of far more 
harm than good. A few truths well understood by the chil- 


dren, and the awakening in them of the spirit of investigation 
and a love for nature, would be far better. It comes from 
the ignorance of the teachers of what is best to teach, and a 
desire to bring out, perhaps by analogy, a conclusion on the 
part of the children, which being forced on a basis of little 
investigation and knowledge, results in false ideas and 
statements." It is so in everything; we are not willing to 
drop a seed and wait. 

When will people give up the wholly erroneous notion 
that real attainment in art comes without effort? All the 
great artists of the world, past and present, have striven or 
are striving. The ideal is ever evading, ever eluding, but 
always leading upward and onward. It is wrong for us to 
let the child run riot in his freedom; he must work, he must 
strive, he must give himself, and it will be returned to him 
fourfold. Our duty is to patiently guide, to study his indi- 
viduality, leading him this way or that way according to his 
needs, and while gently guiding, to be patient for results. 
We are pioneers in this movement, and we must not lose 
heart or courage. We must look upon art education as 
something more than training in modeling, in drawing, in 
painting, or any technical art expression, but rather the 
development in the American people of the art idea 
through the children; the cultivation of the sense of the 
beautiful, which should be a part of their mental growth to 
their spiritual uplifting. And remember, also, that for us 
must it have been especially written — 

Let us, then, be up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate; 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Learn to labor and to wait. 

It is hard for Americans to wait. 

Hannah Johnson Carter. 

Philadelpliia, Pa. 

[This paper was read by Professor Hannah Carter of the Drexel In- 
stitute of Philadelphia, before a joint session of the Manual and Art 
Training and Kindergarten Congresses, held at Chicago in July.] 


IN the little Wisconsin town of Wilton, last Arbor Day, 
the children, in making their selection of names for the 
trees they planted, chose these three: "Washington, 
Longfellow, and Jane Andrews," — names which must 
have embodied for them some real personality, and thus 
secured their affection and loyalty. Last autumn a class of 
children in Portland, Ore., met at the house of their teacher, 
for a " Jane Andrews afternoon," to talk about this friend of 
theirs, and her books, making her one of themselves for 
those pleasant hours. And yet none of these persons — 
teacher or pupils — had ever seen Miss Andrews, and it was 
only through her books that she had become a real person 
to them. This has made me think that some account of 
my sister, and how these books came into being, might in- 
terest her many friends all over the country, who know her 
merely through the children of her thought. 

Through all her life my sister had a great fondness for 
children, and a power of winning their confidence and love. 
But she had never thought of putting into writing the 
stories with which she often fascinated them, till in i860, 
after intimate association with the children in her little 
school (in our old home in Newburyport, Mass.), "the 
stories grew of themselves," as she said. These stories ap- 
peared in 1862, under the title of "The Seven Little Sisters 
who Live on a Round Ball that Floats in the Air." This 
was soon followed by "Each and All," carrying on the story 
of the "Seven Sisters." 

I have always thought that we people who grow up on 
the seacoast feel our connection with all the nations of the 
world, the unity of races, more as a matter of instinct and 
circumstance than of reason. 


The middle sea contains no crimson dulse; 

Its deeper waves cast up no pearls to view. 
Along the shore my hand is on its pulse, 

And I converse with many a shipwrecked crew. 

To add to this natural tendency from position, was the 
fact that our ancestry on one side belonged to the merchant 
marine of New England; and many a tale of their adven- 
tures by sea and land, in strange countries and among 
strange people, were the fireside entertainment with which 
our mother beguiled the long winter evenings, while the 
distinct sound of the sea lent reality to the tale. And to 
her stories were added our father's rich store of old Scot- 
tish and English legends and ballads, and the stories of old 
New England, of which he had an endless store. Thus we 
grew up with a wide interest and a realization of things be- 
yond our sight. The great outside world was peopled for 
us with real beings, not the dim shades which many chil- 
dren glean from second-class geographies. In after years, 
looking back on these stories of our childhood, we under- 
stood that only that which is endowed with life and reality 
is capable of interesting a child and bearing a vital part in 
his education. We learned, also, how the bent and interests 
of one's life are always influenced, and often determined, by 
the education of early years. 

When my sister graduated from the normal school of 
West Newton, Mass. (now the Framington normal school), 
in her valedictory she first put into writing her ideas on the 
teaching of geography, — the same ideas which she after- 
wards carried out in teaching the children of her little 
school, — and in the writing of "The Seven Little Sisters," 
which grew out of that teaching. In this she was led, as all 
true lovers of children are, by the thoughts of the children 
themselves, stimulating her thought and enabling her to 
give her "Seven Sisters" a real personality. "The Brown 
Baby" is just as real a baby, to many a child, as her own 
baby sister in the cradle by her side; and many a child with 
her sled, longs for Agoonack's brisk little dogs, and looks 
with added interest at the dogs in the Eskimo Village at 

SOME children's BOOKS. 89 

the World's Fair, or the seals in the zoological gardens at 
Philadelphia, because they are old friends of hers through 
these stories. 

In a report of an entertainment given some years ago at 
the Perkins Institute for the Blind, we find that even there 
the "Seven Sisters" have found their way. I will quote the 
account as it appeared in the Boston Transcript -aX the time: 

"While Mr. Hawkes was speaking, the little kinder- 
gartners had been diligently modeling in clay; and when 
he had ceased they gave an exercise called 'The Seven Sis- 
ters.' The first tiny creature showed a round ball, and told 
us that it was a large ball that could float through space, 
and had men and trees on it; in short, it was the earth, which 
contained the homes of the Seven Sisters. The next child 
told of the little dark sister who lived in a warm country 
and ate cocoanuts, and she showed a cocoanut. The next 
child told of the Eskimo sister, who dwelt in a hut, and 
exhibited a clay hut. The fourth one described the life of 
an Arab and her country, and had a successful model of 
an ostrich. Then a little girl told of the Swiss maiden who 
dwells high on the Alps, and of her brother the wood 
carver, and held up a bowl and spoon which were like the 
little Swiss girl's. The sixth girl showed some chopsticks 
with which the little Chinese girl eats, and the seventh told 
a very pretty story of the African sister, who wears brace- 
lets and anklets of gold. The last of the Seven Sisters was 
the German maiden who lives on the Rhine. Then the sixth 
girl explained that though the Seven Sisters lived on differ- 
ent parts of the globe, they were all under the loving care 
of one Father." 

Quite a number of these stories grew out of real events. 
The story of "Louise, the Child of the Rhine," had its rise 
in the account a German emigrant gave my sister of his 
early life of hardship not far from Chicago, after happy 
days of prosperity near the Rhine. In "Each and All," 
sequel to the "Seven Sisters," Agoonack's wonderful voy- 
age on the ice island is modeled after the real adventures 
of the crew of the Polaris. The little figures of clay, in 


Christmas Time for Louise ("Each and AH"), were really 
modeled by some little children in Kansas, when a little 
circle of educated people tried to bring something beside 
the toil and privations of pioneer life into their children's 
lives. The spirit of all this is brought out in the story of 

Geographical plays grew naturally out of her work in 
the little school which she carried on in our house for many 
years, and each play was enthusiastically acted by her 
school children. 

To "The Ten Boys on the Road from Long Ago to 
Now" — probably the most widely known of all her books 
excepting the "Seven Sisters" — she gave the most careful 
study, and it remained longest in her mind before commit- 
ting it to paper. She cared greatly that each fact should 
be accurate as well as interesting. Her respect for children 
was too sincere for her to give them anything but the best 
work. She wished to make the noblest traits of all times 
and nations helpful to the boy and girl, of today. The rul- 
ing lesson which her "Boys" teach is embodied in the clos- 
ing sentence: "It is not what a boy has, but what he is, that 
makes him valuable to the world and the world valuable to 

The "Stories Mother Nature Told Her Children," is a 
collection of the articles which appeared in The Young Folks 
and Riverside Magazi7ie, shortly after the publication of the 
"Seven Sisters," and wei*e collected by my sister Emily and 
myself after the death of my sister Jane. She had intended 
to do this herself, and had already told me of the title 
which we have used. In this book, also, there are many 
articles which I can easily place. The sixty-two little tad- 
poles lent joy to my childhood. "What the Frost Giants 
Did to Nannie's Run," really happened to some friends of 
ours in the early days of Washington Territory. "Sea 
Life" is founded on the shipwreck of my sister Caroline m 
the Caribbean Sea, and "Little Sunshine" is a real child. 
The same story was told by Colonel Higginson in The 
Young Folks, under the title of "Carrie's Shipwreck." 



But the book which contains the most of personal inci- 
dent, and which is much less widely known than the others, 
since it has not found its way into the schools, is "Only a 
Year, and What It Brought." The story tells how a 
thoughtless but warm-hearted girl learned the joy of lead- 
ing a helpful life, by not only accepting, but putting her 
whole heart into, the opportunity which came to her. 
"Something to do, and the power to do it," I remember, 
was my sister's answer, when asked her idea of a happy 
life. On page iii is a description of my sister's room, as 
she fitted it up for herself when about sixteen years old. 
"Katie's Auction" is one which my sister really conducted 
for an old black woman in "Guinea," the African suburb of 
our town. The Thanksgiving party, in which the portraits 
of the ancestors are the only guests, brings in the old stories 
of our fireside when we were children. The flood in the 
river, and the little Irish baby left motherless, are all real 
events, as are many other facts in the book, which my sister 
cared to bring together to illustrate the beauty and nobility 
of our everyday life that "thanks God for the opportunity 
offered and accepted." 

Margaret Andrews Allen. 

Mad is 071, Wis. - 


I HAVE been invited to say a few words about sloyd, 
and especially to consider in what ways its methods 
are different from those of the Russian system of man- 
ual training. 
Although I believe in educational manual training for all 
ages, I have concentrated my thought chiefly on work for 
all boys and girls in elementary schools (children of eleven 
to fifteen years). The reason for this is, that the kinder- 
garten and primary schools have been well supplied with 
occupations and the technical high schools have long been 

The question is often asked, "Why use the word 'sloyd'? 
Would not a name more familiar to American ears, such as 
manual training, or carpentry, answer the purpose just as 
well?" It might be replied that this system had its origin 
in Sweden, where it has been practiced for over twenty 
years, and that the word "sloyd" at once suggests its his- 
tory, and gives credit where credit is due; also that the very 
fact of its being an unusual word attracts attention and 
stimulates inquiry and study. 

But the main reason for retaining the name "sloyd" lies 
in the fact that the word has no equivalent in the English 
language. The expression "manual training" is too indefi- 
nite, as it may be manual only, and given only for industrial 
purposes, while the term "carpentry" entirely fails to ex- 
plain the full and true purpose of sloyd. 

The word "sloyd" means manual training for the sake of 
general development, physical, mental, and moral, and it 
also means that kind of hand work which will best stimulate 
the right kind of head work; and as this word alone sets 
forth the true aim of this system, it seems desirable that it 
be retained. 


The general aim of sloyd, then, is the moral, mental, and 
physical development of the pupil, the mental development 
being secured by help of the physical. In other words, a 
definite effort is made to provide such manual work as will 
arouse a mental enthusiasm, the value of which will be felt 
in all the intellectual work of the school. I am aware of the 
fact that this is the aim of all truly educational manual 
training. The difference is found here in means and meth- 

The question now is. What are the best methods? Obvi- 
ously that method is best which secures the greatest interest 
of the pupil, independently of the teacher, and which pro- 
vides a progressive series of exercises of the greatest educa- 
tional value physically and mentally. The methods of the 
Swedish sloyd system are based upon the following ideas: 

1st. The exercises should follow in a progressive order, 
from the easy to the difficult, from the simple to the com- 
plex, without any injurious break, and with such carefully 
graded demands on the powers of both mind and hand that 
the development of the two shall be equal and simultaneous. 
This duality of progression is an essential feature of sloyd. 
It cannot be shown in any course of manual work; nothing 
but careful observation of the child's gain of power in many 
directions will show the result aimed at. 

2d. The exercises should admit of the greatest possible 
variety; they must avoid any tendency either to too great 
mental tension, confusion, ox physical strain. There is a dan- 
ger here, not always recognized; for it takes a careful ob- 
server and a true teacher to discover that a model may be 
at the same time too easy for the hand and too difficult for 
the mind; or in other words, the hand may be well trained 
by a model which gives the mind little or nothing to do. 

3d. The exercises should result in the making of a use- 
ful article from the very outset, — that is to say, an article 
the use of which is appreciated by the child. This arouses 
and sustains the child's interest in his work, helps him to 
understand the reason for every step; for he can see to 
what these steps lead. It makes him careful in his work, for 

Vol. 6-7 


he soon learns that poor work will spoil a model which is 
worth something. The child's self-respect and pride are 
also aroused; he is not only learning to make, but is actually 
making. He has joined the great army of producers, and 
he has before him tangible proofs of his progress. If the 
child is encouraged to make these things for others, it helps 
to develop unselfishness. Much of the moral value of sloyd 
centers in this " useful" model. Some persons, ignorant of 
its true purpose, have thought it owed its place in this sys- 
tem to its industrial value only. But the truth is, that the 
useful model is valued above all for the mental and moral 
development secured by use of the creative faculty. 

4th. Sloyd seeks also to cultivate the aesthetic sense by 
combining in the models beauty of form and proportion 
with utility. It has been said by one interested in manual 
training, that "The pupil must be led to see and feel the 
simple beauty of proportion, of harmony of parts, as well as 
grace of outline, elements o^ beauty which are a direct out- 
growth of the useful, as well as the beauty of mere orna- 
ment which is sometimes more or less externally added. 
For this reason sloyd attaches much importance to the free- 
hand modeling, in wood, of solid forms." Throughout this 
system, as in the kindergarten, the sense of beauty is re- 
garded as an important factor in education, and an eye for 
symmetry and grace, although but rarely developed, has 
been proved to have great practical value even for an arti- 

5th. Every model should be so constructed that it can 
be drawn' by the pupils themselves, not copied or traced. 
Drawing is an essential feature of sloyd as applied in Bos- 
ton, and should always be preliminary to the making of the 

6th. For children who are old enough for the regular 
sloyd, it is believed that the knife should be the first and 
fundamental tool. There are several reasons for this which 
will be mentioned later. 

These are some of the ideas which have served to guide 
the arrangement of the models which I have the honor of 


showing in Chicago. It should be mentioned that sloyd 
models are always to be adapted to the needs of different 

A radical difference between the Russian and the Swed- 
ish system is, that the Russian methods are based upon the 
idea of teaching the use of certain tools by making incom- 
plete articles, with the belief that out of such teaching will 
come good educational results, even without much attention 
to the special needs and capacity of the growing child, 
either by the choice or the sequence of tools or exercises. 

The Swedish system, on the other hand, is based upon 
the Froebelian idea of the harmonious development of all 
the powers of the child, tools and exercises being chosen 
with reference to this end, and all merely mechanical meth- 
ods being carefully avoided. The sloyd teacher does not 
say, "Now, I will teach this boy to saw, and he shall con- 
tinue to saw until he can saw well," regardless of monotony 
or the too-prolonged use of the same muscles. The prob- 
lem of the sloyd teacher is to find the tool, whether knife 
or saw or plane, and also the series of exercises, best adapted 
to the present need, not of man, but of the average pupil, 
and also to vary or alternate the tools and to graduate the 
exercises with constant reference to the growing capacity, 
the formative age, and to the various activities of body and 

It should be said right here, that while the methods of 
sloyd are less like those of the mechanic than those of the 
Russian system, — not aiming at immediate technical skill, 
— there is abundant proof that the results of a thorough 
sloyd training will be found to include all that is gained 
even mechanically by the Russian methods, plus a far more 
ge?ierous ge?ieral development, including greater delicacy of 
observation and of manipulation. The sloyd course now be- 
ing used in Boston calls for the use of forty-five different 
tools in the making of seventy-two exercises applied in 
thirty-one models. Among these exercises are fifteen dif- 
ferent joints. 

Another difference is seen in the importance which sloyd 


attaches to the use of the knife as the first tool given to the 
child, regarding it as the most familiar and least mechanical 
of tools, which gives a development of the muscles of hand 
and wrist peculiar to itself, — a development which modern 
psychologists teach us is also conducive to the physical de- 
velopme?it of the brain, the familiarity of the tool as well as 
its danger making it possible to secure constant concentra- 
tion of thought upon the exercise at the outset. 

Again, sloyd methods are unlike Russian methods in 
giving great prominence to form study and in the method by 
which all form work is made, — methods which are quite un- 
like those of the carpenter, because the first care of the 
sloyd teacher is that the muscular sense of form be devel- 
oped in the child, rather than that the curves be accom- 
plished in the quickest and easiest way. 

Again, the exercises o*f sloyd furnish greater variety than 
those of the Russian system, and the fact that small models 
can be finished in a reasonably short space of time helps to 
increase and maintain a healthy interest and to train the 
sense of completeness which is so unfortunately wanting in 
many educational processes. 

Again, sloyd methods provide more carefully, than is 
true of some others, for the physical development, by a 
judicious choice and sequence of tools, positions, and exer- 

Finally, and most prominent of all differences between 
the systems, is the insistence of sloyd upon the use of the 
completed model in place of the prevalent Russian exercise 
with tools. The reasons for this faith in the educational 
value of the completed, useful model are identical with those 
which have so largely influenced modern pedagogical meth- 
ods in other departments of education, that the phrase has 
now driven the word spelling book out of school and the 
writing lesson is no longer confined to the copy book. 

Sloyd demands a trained teacher. It is easily seen that 
the successful carrying out of these ideas depends upon the 
teacher's comprehension of the object of the teaching, and 
of the capacity and needs of the child, as well as upon his 


ability to impart the knowledge he has acquired. A 
teacher is not necessarily possessed of the manual skill of 
an expert, but he must understand childish intelligence, and 
know how to lead the child in his work. I am happy to 
state that a large number of Boston teachers are now study- 
ing the subject of manual training, and that over ninety-five 
are taking a normal course in sloyd. 

It is not always enough that a child should be told how 
to use a tool. The teacher must oversee the work of each 
child to make sure he has a clear idea of what he has tp do. 
Sloyd puts much emphasis on the value of individual in- 
struction, but it must not be supposed that by individual in- 
struction is meant a constant watchfulness of each pupil, 
much less that the teacher shall take the work into his own 
hands and give the pupil too much help. A good teacher 
will not teach too much, even if he has but one pupil. 
Class instruction can be given as regards much of the man- 
ual work, — drawing, positions at the bench, the use, ad- 
justment, and care of tools, etc.; but the best results of sloyd 
will not be attained unless a teacher is able also to oversee 
individual work enough to satisfy himself that his pupil has 
a clear idea of what he is to do, that he understands the 
reasons for it, and is not working without thought,' mechan- 
ically following half-understood directions, and so losing the 
intellectual value of the exercises. To do this it will be 
seen that classes must not be too large. Allowance must 
be made for difference in physical and mental capacity. It 
is no matter if two-thirds of the class are in advance of the 
other third, provided that each pupil receive as much as he 
can digest. This is not a lesson in memorizing, a test of 
which is easily applied; here is an attempt to appeal to the 
perception, the judgment, the ingenuity, the reason, by 
means of the hand^nd eye, the visidle results of which may 
be good while the unseen object 0/ it all is unattai?ied. Spe- 
cial individual care, therefore, is necessary to make sure 
that the intellectual development of the child is secured, 
and teachers must be constantly warned against the danger 
of satisfactio7i zvith mere ntamial skill. 


True sloyd is taught only when, by the exercise of many 
faculties, the mind is led step by step to careful and accu- 
rate thinking. 

Sloyd, like the kindergarten, has suffered much from in- 
adequate presentation, and the public have been made more 
or less familiar with its outward form while wholly ignorant 
of the aims and psychological basis of its methods; it is for 
this reason, that while a certain number of persons are al- 
ways to be found who are attached to the sloyd models 
merely because they are useful, others equally unthinking 
are suspicious of the same models because they are not 
those of the carpenter shop, for which reason they are char- 
acterized as impracticable. Neither of these classes of per- 
sons is in a position to do justice to the subject, because 
neither of them understands tlie aim of the system, or the 
significance of the exercises embodied in the models, each 
one of which holds its place in a progressive course of work 
for a definite reason and as an essential step in the ladder. 
It will be seen that although sloyd models may be adapted 
to the differing needs of times and places, they must not be 
taken bodily out of the course, — transported, and even arbi- 
trarily combined with other systems and methods, whereby 
they at once lose all their educational value; it is by such 
rough handling of its outward symbols that sloyd has suf- 
fered as its mother the kindergarten did before it. Let us 
hope that a better understanding of its methods and of the 
principles upon which they rest may commend it to stu- 
dents of the philosophy of education. 

GusTAF Larson, 
Principal Sloyd Training School. 

Bosto7i, Mass. 


Tk HE Kindergarten Section of the International Edu- 
cational Congress, under the direction of Commis- 
sioner Wm. T. Harris, enjoyed three forenoon ses- 
sions, July 26, 27, and 28. Mrs. Ada M. Hughes, of 
Toronto, served as president of this department, and Amalie 
Hofer, of Chicago, as secretary. The opening address of 
the president was published in full in the September num- 
ber of this magazine. The topics of the department were 
carefully drawn up by Dr. Harris and his special commit- 
tees, and we present them in full here for the future gui- 
dance of kindergartners. It will be noted that every point 
of view of the various essential topics is exposed. This 
outline would form an excellent program for the closer 
study of clubs or individuals during the coming year. 
^ Every kindergartner has opportunity to answer questions 
and objections along these same lines. Study them out and 
be prepared to meet them intelligently and permanently. 

The first general topic was on the essential character- 
istics of the kindergarten as distinguished from the primary 
school, and the practical adjustment of the former to the 
latter. The thesis was divided into general heads, as fol- 
lows: I. The essential characteristics of a kindergarten. 
2. Its gifts and occupations. 3. Should the kindergarten 
attempt to teach reading or writing? 4. Should the plays 
and games, which Froebel invented, be modified? should 
substitutions be made for any of them, or others be added? 
5. What is the place and value of the song in the kinder- 
garten, and the degree of dramatic element which should 
accompany the song? 

Among the leading kindergartners who discussed these 
topics were the following: Mrs. A. H. Putnam, Miss Sarah 
Stewart, Miss Constance Mackenzie, Miss Mary McCulloch, 


and Dr. Hailman. Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper presented a 
strong paper on the Organic Union of the Kindergarten 
and Primary School, showing why this union should take 
place. Mr. Hailman added his own experience and ten 
years of experiment showing ho%v it had been done in the 
case of the La Porte schools. He voiced the sentiment of 
all sound kindergarten workers when he closed his remarks: 
The only organic connection is neither more nor less than 
the infusing of the kindergarten spirit — not its materials — - 
into the primary and grade departments. The program 
outlined this topic as follows: i. The organic union of 
kindergarten and primary school. 2. What modifications 
in the primary school are necessary or desirable in order to 
adapt it to continue the work of the kindergarten and reap 
the advantages of the training already received? 3. What 
are the essential differences in discipline and instruction 
that should characterize the primary school and distinguish 
it from the kindergarten? 

The second session took up the discussion of the kin- 
dergarten training under the following headings, which 
were thoroughly handled by Mrs. Eudora Hailman, Mrs. , 
J. N. Cfouse, and others: i. Preparation of the kindergart- 
ner for her work. 2. Should all kindergarten teachers be 
required to pass examination in secondary studies, includ- 
ing such as algebra, geometry, modern or ancient languages, 
general history, natural science, psychology, and English 
literature or the literature of the native country? 3. What 
training in Froebel's philosophy should be prescribed in a 
professional course of training for the kindergartner? 4. 
What work in the gifts and occupations, the plays and 
games, theoretically and practically, should be required for 
the graduate from a kindergarten training school? 5. Edu- 
cative value of hand work in the kindergarten. 6. Cautions 
to be observed as to the limits of certain of the occupations, 
— such, for example, as pricking paper, and other work that 
is liable to strain the eyes if too long continued. 7. The 
Froebel system of drawing, in contrast to free-hand draw- 
ing. 8. The characteristic mental and physical conditions 


nition of his power to enjoy, of his power to do, of the 
of the first seven years of childhood, which determine the 
special educative value of hand work in the kindergarten. 

The third session of the congress covered, in substance, 
the following topics: i. To what extent is the use of sym- 
bolism justifiable in the kindergarten? 2. Is there any va- 
lidity to the claim often urged, that the child under seven 
years of age is to be distinguished in psychological devel- 
opment from the child of more than seven years of age, 
through his greater dependence upon symbolic modes of 
instruction? 3. Is the distinction a valid one, between sym- 
bolic and conventional studies, conventional studies being 
understood to mean reading, writing, written arithmetic, 
and appliances useful in intercommunication, but not em- 
blematic or symbolic of a second and higher meaning? 4. 
What should be the character of the stories told in the kin- 
dergarten, and to what extent should stories be told? 

The topic of "symbolism" was discussed b}' INIiss Eliza- 
beth Harrison, Mrs. Hailman, Professor Earl Barnes, and 
others. The eminently practical outline of the various 
theses brought much grist to the surface, and succeeded in 
classifying the more general work of the preceding special 


EVERY great educational movement has originated 
in the grown-up person laying aside his or her 
personal opinions, traditions, preferences, and hon- 
estly trying to look at things from the child's 
standpoint, — literally denying himself or herself, and be- 
coming "as a little child." 

This study has been its own reward, for it has brought 
with it the revelation that grown-up people are but echoes 
of what they might have been, as well as the other fact that 
humanity is not a constant fixed quantity, but an ever-un- 
folding, infinite equation, or, as Lord Macaulay states it — 
"We may regard the generations of men as one individual 
continually learning." 

If humanity as we know it is not a constant quantity, 
then it is not a finality, but simply a process; it is not fruit 
or flower, but seed and embryo; it is not the majestic King 
Charles oak, but the scrubby, poverty-stricken half shrub, 
half tree of the Arctic regions, only suggestive of its possi- 
bility if given fairer conditions. Granted humanity to be 
an unfolding equation, so must be its education, or the in- 
struction provided for its children. 

This brings us directly to the question, What is educa- 
tion? And shall the state put the whole boy, the whole 
girl, to school, or only a part of it? If the latter, who shall 
decide what part? Is education information, the acquisi- 
tion of data, facts and phenomena, ability to read, write, 
and cipher? or is it these and more? Was there an educa- 
tion prior to the advent of the printing press and the spell- 
ing book? If so, what was it? and has the present im- 
proved on it so very much? 

Who built the world's cathedrals? Who developed the 
arch and constructed the bridges and roadways of the Ro- 


man Empire? Whence did the poets, saints, heroes, and 
statesmen of the classic and the middle ages derive their 
inspiration to right living and noble doing? Who initiated 
Moses and Solon into the study of law, so that their deci- 
sions sway all the courts of justice in Europe and America 
to the present hour? Whence the learning of the three 
Hebrew children, the wisdom of the fishermen of Galilee 
and the carpenter of Nazareth? How knew these men let- 
ters, having never learned? These are race questions; 
some time or other they confront each thinking man and 
woman. Every fresh cycle of history, every new turn in 
the road of human unfoldment, every collision of spirit 
striving after its God-consciousness, necessarily must rrieet 
and answer them. 

The pendulum swings first to this side, then to that; 
now to the extreme of book learning, classic lore, and scho- 
lastic training, where the mind is fed only on the ''ipse dixit 
of authority," then into the recesses of the mountains, away 
from the moods and haunts of men. Into the frolicsome 
arins of Mother Nature it swings, only to bring forth to our 
admiring gaze a shepherd lad like David, the sweet singer 
of Israel; or Giotto the father of Italian painting; or a St. 
Catharine of Sienna, the wool dyer's daughter, at whose 
wishes thrones trembled and the proudest monarchs of 
Christendom did obeisance; or a Tintoretto, a dyer's son 
whose vision of Paradise has for hundreds of years been 
the despair and admiration of lesser men; or a common 
day-laborer like Robert Burns, who convulses English aris- 
tocracy with a new standard of manhood; or a nation's sav- 
ior like Joan of Arc, who left milking the cows to lead the 
armies of France; or a great inventor like Stephenson, who 
first turned the world upside down with his mechanics and 
then learned to sign his name; or a peasant painter like 
Jean Francois Millet, whose "Angelus" commands the mar- 
kets of two continents. 

Mystified at the seeming paradox, one asks. What is 
the relation between scholasticism and education? between 
earning- a living- and doine noble deeds? between art and 


labor? between genius and a mediocre uniformity? be- 
tween Benjamin Franklin's utilitarianism and the divine 
philosophy of William Wordsworth? between working for 
food, clothing, and shelter, and "living by admiration, faith, 
and love"? Should education limit itself to one or the 
other side of this equation, or should it include both? Is 
there an eternal law that man cannot, shall not, dare not, 
must not live by bread alone? Has the soul a right to its 
nourishment as well as the body? And w^iat is soul nour- 

'Says Froebel, "Education should lead and guide man to 
clearjiess concerning himself and in himself; to peace with 
nature and unity with God." Says Herbert Spencer, "Edu- 
cation is preparation for complete living, which is the^r^^ 
exercise of all our faculties." 

Let us look at this subject, then, in an all-'round way, 
from the standpoint of the artist, the poet, and the philoso- 

It goes for the saying, that the product of an education 
based on "admiration, faith, and love" is always an art prod- 
uct, a work of art. But this art may express itself in song, 
in picture, in play, in brave lives bravely lived, or in discov- 
ery and invention, — something by which the stupid is re- 
deemed, drudgery glorified, the commonplace caused to 
shine with a new light, and life made worth living; some- 
thing by which a light that never was on sea or land is 
thrown around ordinary circumstances and people. 

The product of food, clothing, and shelter is itself — 
always and ever itself — an imitative externality; "The 
primrose by the river's brink" is always, to it, "a common 
primrose, nothing more." Now the child is father to the 
man. Kill out, starve, repress the art imagination, the po- 
etic instinct, the play impulse, the fairy dreamland of child- 
hood, and the world may go a-whistling for its Robert 
Burns and Jenny Linds. 

Every word Mr. Ruskin says of the art of man is equally 
true of the art of the child. In "Two Paths" we read, 
"Perfect art is that which proceeds from the heart, which 


involves all the noble emotions; associates with these the 
head, yet as inferior to the heart; and the hand, yet as in- 
ferior to the heart and the head, and thus brings out the 
whole man." Again, in "Stones of Venice," he continues: 
"All art which is worth its room in the world is art which 
proceeds from an individual mind working through instr- 
ments which assist but do not supersede the muscular action 
of the human hand, upon materials which most tenderly 
receive and most securely retain the impressions of such 
human labor." 

Evidently Mr. Ruskin believes that all art workmanship 
for man or boy roots itself in the emotional nature; but in 
its expression it includes the exercise of the intellect and 
of the play impulse, and culminates in the acquisition of 
manual skill. In other words, an art workman cannot be 
an ignorant man or woman. But he also insists that an art 
product must be the outcome of an individual mind allowed 
to express itself freely through a nonresisting material 
which will at once "tenderly receive and securely retain the 
impress of the human hand"; or as he expresses it in an- 
other place, "that the delicate sensibility of the fingers be 
not obliterated." 

Think over all the materials known, — wood, paper, clay, 
cloth, iron, straw, — and decide which of these it was that so 
charmed Phidias, Myron, Michael Angelo, Ghiberti, Delia 
Robbia, Palissy, Josiah Wedgewood, with every great sculp- 
tor, architect, and potter since the world began, — that they 
forgot for it their sleep, food, money, fame, the flesh, and 
used it as the vehicle for those mighty thoughts which 
have placed the laurel crown on the brow of humanity and 
made it only a little lower than the angels. Would Olym- 
pian Jove, or the Elgin Marbles, or the Venus de Milo, or 
the Gates of the Baptistry, or the Choir Boys, ever have 
seen the light of day if wood or iron or paper had been 
substituted for common clay? No; for these materials 
would not have transmitted the same exquisiteness of feel- 
ing, the sensibility of human fingers united with the deep, 
strong emotions of human hearts. 


Indeed, history recognizes the precious "mud baby" as 
the dividing line between the intelligence of the East and 
the West, between Pekin and Athens, between a Chinese 
automaton and "the hand that rounded the dome of St. 
Peter's." When one thinks that the Apollo Belvedere, for 
which the late Czar of Russia offered seven millions of gold 
roubles, was once a despised "mud baby," and that there 
is not money enough in Chicago to buy — broken and muti- 
lated as it is — the Olympian Mercury, another "mud baby," 
or to purchase the original statuette of the David, — there 
surely must be a commercial value to clay and mud pies, 
though Wall Street be ignorant of it and American history 
omit it from her ledger. 

And what of its political value? This most psychic ma- 
terial of nations is at once the treasure-house of their rude 
barbaric thoughts and the cradle of the leapt lightning of 
their genius. Call the roll from Thermopylae to Gettys- 
burg, you will find wherever hearts have been stirred with 
lofty aspiration and that peculiar love of freedom that 
counts not its life dear unto itself, so it fights the battle of 
ideas, — from Mithridates to Savonarola, by these hearts of 
oak has the "mud baby" ever been tenderly cherished and 
fondly loved. 

Little tiny Greece is the least of the countries of Europe, 
and no larger than our smallest state; yet she stands for 
the light of the intellect and the light of the imagination, 
for the cradle of genius, of law, and for the freedom of the 
individual to all eternity! Had not Greece been true to 
herself, true to her love of "mud babies," where would 
America — would Europe — be today? simply in nowhere; 
in the darkness of chaos. But this is the external evidence 
of art. What of the internal truths of psychology, the 
truths of the philosopher? Says Thomas Arnold: "The 
old man clogs our early years, and simple childhood comes 
at last." Such is the confession of an intellectual life; it 
counts itself happy as it recovers its child nature. A simi- 
lar experience comes from Thomas Carlyle, when at the 
close of life, realizing what of the riches of the imagination 


and the joy of lofty emotions he had been deprived of, he 
declares that he would rather he had been taught to draw 
than to write, for then fantasy and heart would have been 

One must remember that all truth is made up of para- 
doxes, to understand how it is that the feelings, desires, 
emotions, energies of the poet, the artist, the seer, are al- 
most identical with those of the child; the only difference 
is, that one is conscious heart-hunger after what Dante 
would call "knowledge of God," while the other is uncon- 
scious instinct. The artist uses the clay because of its 
quick responsiveness; because it answers so readily to his 
slightest thought. He forgets the material in finding him- 
self, in realizing his thought. 

Not so with the child; his thought is dim and shadowy, 
crude and unborn. He scarcely knows what he is going to 
turn out; nevertheless the soft, yielding clay charms him, 
just as it does the artist. "Why? Because it reveals him to 
himself. As the form changes, takes on proportion and 
size, a corresponding wonder goes on in the child's mind; 
he finds that he is a causing power. He can make and un- 
make, build up or destroy "the mud baby"! 

To grasp this joy of childhood at finding itself a creative 
activity, — a causing intelligence, one must become a child, 
and recall his first feelings on making a "snow man," or 
even a snowball. The amount of energizing gladness that 
arises from the discovery that in him is cause, that he can 
change, sends through him a thrill of delight. Is there a 
mother who does not know the physiological effect of the 
first baby smile, the first glad thump of joy, as, seeking to 
exercise its baby activity, it strikes its little fists right and 
left, regardless of whom or where it hits? This is part and 
parcel of the joy of the child when he pokes his fingers into 
clay. With results he has nothing to do; if they come, well 
and good; if not, he tries again, undismayed. 

Childhood is a process, not a finality; and the products 
of childhood are only means to an end, — the end being the 
discovery of the child to himself, or self-recognition, recog- 


gladness and sweetness of being in the body. Why is it 
that in the first three years of life the human embryo un- 
folds faster, acquires more, learns more, than in the ten suc- 
ceeding years? Why, but that it is given its freedom; it is 
permitted the exercise of pleasurable sensation; and best 
of all, in its kickings and tantrums, in its laughter and tears, 
it has the sympathy of those around. 

Directly the child reaches the school age all this is with- 
drawn; parents change their views; frolicsome ways are 
now frowned on, and he is sent to school to keep him still 
and get him out of the way. Once there, the activity which 
expressed itself in so many ways, — or, as Aristotle puts it, 
"in breaking things about the house," — is reduced to the 
holding of a book and the handling of hard, resisting medi- 
ums such as pencil or pen, slate or paper. What wonder 
that his spontaneity ebbs lower and lower; that he becomes 
duller and duller; makes slower and slower headway in his 
intellectual work, so that the middle grades in a public 
school system are invariably the dragging grades, where the 
least interest abounds! That which was the vitalizing qual- 
ity in his blood, which quickened the circulation and puri- 
fied the waste particles, has been eliminated, — joy in self- 
activity; no more clay to poke fingers into, no more pretty 
things to make and paste; no more "hyacinths" — using the 
language of Mohammed — wherewith to delight his eye and 
feed his soul! 

Jean Paul Richter gives us as his experience, "that activ- 
ity alone can bring and hold serenity and happiness; hence 
play is the first creative poetic utterance in man." Plato 
claimed that the plays of children had the mightiest influ- 
ence on the maintenance and non-maintenance of laws. 
But it remained for Froebel to make the great connection, — 
the connection between outward activity and inward unfold- 
ment. It was Froebel who saw that play, to be nourishing 
and educative, must also be orderly and regulated. In the 
French Revolution, in the uprising of the Communes, in the 
restless discontent of the people, in war and bloodshed, in 
the love and tyrannical use of power, in the monopoly and 


selfishness of the individual, he recognized the inverted, 
wrongly directed play impulse. Froebel reasoned: The 
child is a spiritual being; that "God created man in his own 
image, therefore man should create and bring forth like 
God." God — pure Spirit — is activity in perfect repose. 
Childhood is a condition of unconscious, undirected activity 
in restlessness. Man is in a condition of inverted — there- 
fore perverted — activity; hence his rebellious discontent. 

True education should mean leading man back to God, 
to harmony and his highest self, through the right exercise 
of his activities. Activity was to Froebel so much God 
energy, so much God power, to be lovingly guarded and 
gently encouraged. Now the creative activity and the play 
impulse are one. He tells us that "Jesus, in his life and 
teachings, constantly opposed the imitation of external per- 
fection. Only spiritual striving, living perfection, deathless 
aspiration, is to be held fast to as an ideal." External 
activity is not to be sought for its own sake, but for the 
mental activity that it promotes; but this is law, that the 
younger or more rudimentary the being, the more it de- 
pends on external activity for the awakening of its internal 
thought power. 

Pestalozzi had previously introduced objective methods 
in education; but .there is a vast difference between his ap- 
preciation of the child and Froebel's. Pestalozzi would 
have the child acquire his knowledge through observation 
and imitation of the works of others; but Froebel stands 
squarely on the axiom — Learn to do, by doing; Learn to 
love by loving; Learn to live, by living, — which means, 
Let child and teacher get their experience first hand; let 
them enter into the process; be one with it; be it. Let the 
whole child engage in this exercise; appeal to him through 
as many materials and in as many ways as are suitable to 
his age and conditions. Such an all-sided activity must 
bring as its reward joy and understanding; the pain will be 
extracted from labor, and the agony from the human ex- 

It is through his activity that the child comes to know 

Vol. 6-8 


the world he lives in. Knowledge of the world he lives in 
is a necessary step to knowledge of himself, or to self-rec- 
ognition. But the world he lives in is a world of things, 
and the child recognizes them only through such qualities 
as color, weight, size, form, observation; and handling of 
these things is only a partial acquaintance. Familiarity, 
friendship, and sympathy, or the development of the al- 
truistic side, arises from living the life of the thing with it, 
so far as it can be lived; that is, acquainting himself with 
the process of its construction, knowing how it is made. 
Hence arises the necessity for making, or reproduction, by 
the child. So long as he simply looks on and handles 
things, the products of other people's genius and work, so 
long he is unconscious of himself, of his own power to do 
or make that special thing; he is left in a state of feeling 
that the one who made the things is more gifted than him- 
self. Now the great value of bringing the child to con- 
sciousness of himself, of his power to remake and to trans- 
form, is that he may later see himself as a spiritual being; 
able to master circumstances and conquer destiny; to rise 
superior to fate. As Mr. Hailman says in his Notes on 
"The Education of Man," "With proper guidance this kind 
of manual training becomes the most positive agency in se- 
curing for the pupil that habit of success, that calm sense 
of power, that firm conviction of mastership, which is so 
essential to fullness of life, and almost indispensable to the 
success of the school." Mr. Hailman continues: "The ma- 
terial used for the manual training of children should adapt 
itself to the capacities and needs of the little workers, so 
that it may yield readily to their limited skill, adapt itself 
without worry to their aims, and thus secure for manual ex- 
pression an automatism similar to that of speech." 

This is where the primary school differs radically from 
the kindergarten. It concerns itself chiefly with the ac- 
quirement of the tools of intercourse, — how to read and 
write, the calling and making of abstract characters, — rather 
than mental training or unfoldment of soul. 

In the earliest attempts to master reading and writing 


no new ideas are given to refresh the child. He must wait 
until he has first familiarized himself with the barren forms 
of printed words; he is obliged to be patient till the new 
vocabulary is acquired, before he can stretch his imagination 
or enter a fresh field of discovery. It is at this time, when 
he is contending for the mastery of abstract signs and sym- 
bols in order to enter the world of his parents and teachers, 
that plastic material like clay and paper supplies a perma- 
nent need for self-expansion, for soul-unfoldment. 
• Is it not time that an intelligent society should cease to 
accept of education as a fixed quantity, a something which 
can be measured out to its children from between the cov- 
ers of books, and that it should begin to adapt the forms of 
its instruction to the nature of the child? To do this, par- 
ents, teachers, all who are interested, must go back to a 
basis of axiomatic principles, to a common-sense philoso- 
phy that recognizes man as mind, as intelligence, and not 
an imbecile mass of inert matter. When humanity comes 
to regard itself as x in an infinite equation, the dead form- 
alism of the primary and grammar schools must yield to a 
more elastic and spontaneous way of instruction. It re- 
mains for society to assert its right to live a life independ- 
ent of traditions and opinions. 

Josephine Carson Locke. 


O wild bird, where are you flying? 

The winds are a-blowing 

The same way you're going. 
And thither the clouds are hying. 

The cold has come in the North. 
We haste 
From its blast 

To the South. 


O leaves, your blossoms are dropping; 
They're falling so quickly, 
The ground is spread thickly; 

And some of your branches are snapping 

The wind and cold doth blow. 

We fall 

At the call 
Of the snow. 

O brooklet, why were you waiting 

This morning, 'neath the rushes 
And 'mong the willow bushes. 

Your journey southward belating? 

The ice had barred my way. 

Its chain 

I am fain 
To obey. 

O bright sun, why are you sinking 
At evening more lowly. 
And come back so slowly 

That stars in the morning are blinking? 

I follow the night-land's track. 

To bring 

A sweet spring 
I'll come back. 

O mother, what are they saying 
Of blowing and snowing? 
And why are they going. 

And leave me alone at my playing? 

'Tis but the night of the year. 

My mild 

Summer child. 
Dry your tear. 

Andrea Hofer. 


It is the policy of the Kindergarten Magazine to bring 
less discussion of materials, or even methods, and to en- 
courage on the part of all teachers a closer observation of 
the child itself. We welcome all experimental discussions 
to these columns, and would encourage the exchange of 
personal experiences such as grow out of the varying con- 
ditions of daily work, rather than the formulated doctrines 
of the most approved leaders. This is the day of growth 
and of groiuing, and premature or final conclusions do not 
find place therein. Every teacher, every kindergartner, 
every parent has a right to test the newer method born of 
every yesterday's experience and of every today's necessity. 
This alone constitutes an educational reformer. 

Among our permanent contributors for the coming vol- 
ume, which numbers VI, we take pleasure in announcing 
that Miss Mary Proctor, daughter of the late astronomer 
Richard A. Proctor, will provide a series of illustrated 
articles on "Astronomy for Children," of which the second 
number appears this month. She will bring, in succession, » 
studies of the moon, the stars, the giant planets, the inner 
planets, nebula, and the constellations. Miss Proctor will 
fill a series of lecture engagements in Brooklyn, New York 
Philadelphia, and Chicago during the fall and winter. Her 
heart is in this work of acquainting the child with the heav- 
ens, and therefore her suggestions are of vital value to edu- 

Among other contributors whose names and work will 
command the interest of our readers are Miss Anna Bron- 
son King, niece of that great lover of children, A. Bron- 
son Alcott, who will bring us Studies of the Child in Art; 
Miss Josephine Carson Locke, who is best known by her 
practical demonstrations in educational art, and who will 
discuss the subject in her inimitable way, carrying force and 
inspiration to every reader. The opening number of Miss 


Locke's articles appears in this issue of the magazine, en- 
titled, "The Whole Child." As supervisor of drawing and 
form study in the Chicago public schools, as well as by her 
personal genius, Miss Locke was one of the most conspicu- 
ous figures of the recent educational congresses. 

Mr. Gustav Larsson, at present director of the sloyd 
normal classes in Boston, will discuss in clear and compre- 
hensive style the subject of the truth in hand work. Miss 
Frances Newton, for several years conspicuous as special 
director of the kindergarten department of Chautauqua 
summer schools, will contribute a regular series of talks for 
that most important department, for the parents and home. 
Among others who will share with us of their store the 
coming year, are the following: Miss Sarah Griswold of the 
Cook County Normal, on the practical primary school; 
Miss Elizabeth Harrison, of the Chicago Kindergarten Col- 
lege; Miss E. A. Lord, of Brooklyn, on the much-mentioned 
but slightly understood subject of Tonic Sol-fa; Miss Lucy 
Wheelock, than whom Boston holds no greater favorite 
among kindergartners; Mrs. Ada M. Hughes, of Toronto; 
and Mrs. Mary Dana Hicks, of Boston. 

The opening article of this number, entitled, "Directing 
the Self-activity of the Child," by Professor Hannah Carter 
of the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, is a sound and well- 
balanced criticism of the many methods in vogue which 
pass for new education. Mrs. Carter's argument leads back 
again and again to that grim fact which the educational 
congress so repeatedly unveiled, — that the pedagogical 
crimes committed in the name of school-teaching are due 
not to the children, nor the methods, nor the tendencies of 
the day, but invariably to the ig/wrancc of those professing 
the profession of education. The paper is well worth close 
attention. It hints broadly how to find the golden mean 
between the two extremes of the so-called old and new 


No. II. 

If you have followed out the instructions for preparatory 
study of the book, as outlined in the previous paper, you 
are now ready with questions. If you have merely skimmed 
through its pages, your comments may verge on criticism 
and objection. One says, "How poor the rhymes are! they 
are mere doggerel, and far from poetry; they are by no 
means lucid, and the mottoes are well-nigh mystic in their 
obscurity." Another speaks from his eye, and declares the 
illustrations crude and inartistic; even discovers grotesques 
of anatomy and pose which compel merriment. A third 
smiles that this book should be held in such earnest esteem 
by men and women of intellect: there is far too much senti- 
ment and too little sound sense expressed concerning it. 
Others, who have opened the pages with an earnest effort 
to read their secret, will be charmed by its quaint and pic- 
turesque tone. Those who have mused over the book have 
found much more of its inner meaning than those who have 
viewed it from the intellectual or literary standpoint. 

Let us remember that this book was compiled from 
among the nurseries of the people, — nurseries presided 
over by simple-hearted but unthinking mothers; we will 
not say ignorant women, so much as unthinking. The Ger- 
man peasant women are often full of deepest feeling, — ap- 
proaching the poetic, always tinged with the symbolic. 
Like veritable children, they needed to be led, — led into 
formulating their often over-full but unapprehended feel- 
ings. Froebel took them on their own plane, and accumu- 
lated these nursery rhymes, under the direction of his wife; 
and from these texts from real life, he preached the doc- 
trine which he longed to unfold to mothers. Put yourself 
into their place; for like them, you have been largely un- 
thinking about these things which concern the spontaneous 


right culture of little children. A contemporary of Froebel 
has said: "His poetry may in places be improved. But 
who does this, must be equally as great a teacher as a 

Taking the familiar home songs, which were enveloped 
in that wonder-cloak of family associations, Froebel came 
home to the mothers' sympathies; through their own babes 
in arms, he opened the doors. Did he begin to show them 
pictures of their ignorances, prejudices, or grievous mis- 
takes? Did he urge them to awaken from their dense 
apathy or indifference to the most vital work in the world, 
— their rearing of children? Did he draw them sketches 
of the morbid, uncleanly, irritable, willful, unloving, or un- 
childlike little ones coming up about them on all sides, 
with eyes, ears, and souls closed even to the stars above 

No, he went to them as to a little child, showing a pic- 
ture book. The illustrations of "Die Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder" are crude. They are often poor in perspective, 
and worse in drawing; but they do tell stories. Some of 
them reveal the play within the play, and have been found 
by great artists — who always look behind the external de- 
ficiency, into the "feeling" of a picture — to possess that 
one most essential of all qualities, — a keen, sincere, undying 
purpose. The illustrations were made under the immediate 
supervision of Froebel himself, and executed, after many 
discouragements as to financial and artistic ability, by the 
young boy Friedrich linger, who was filled with the spirit 
of the thought, but, forsooth, was only a sign painter by 
trade. Herr Fr. Seidel, the first publisher of this book, 
says of the illustrations: "They are noble, pure, naive 
throughout, free from every effort for the sake of effect." 
There is no trace of insincerity or caricature. Their influ- 
ence is all that should be, as opposed to the comic illustra- 
tions, or fantastic quality of the modern picture card or 

How often it has been asked and as often attempted by 
new students of this book: Why not have a new set of illus- 


trations, in which the figures and surroundings shall be 
taken from modern life? As well reproduce the Orbis 
Pictus of the good John Comenius with drawings from the 
pen of a Parisian art student who has never seen the lair of 
a serpent or the forest haunts of wild beasts! The modern 
child you have with you in abundance. Study it; picture 
it; familiarize yourself with every detail of its garments, 
features, and temperament, and remember that a baby is a 
baby still, to the little children who look at 3^our picture 
book, whether it be swaddled in Lapland furs or clothed 
in nature's own sun-browned skin of tan. A picture as a 
story, must not exhaust its possibilities. In fact, it must 
suggest; it must impel imagination; it should set the whole 
child's fancy to work, since this can make such pictures as 
no photographic camera has yet succeeded in catching. 

This brings us to the purpose of the "Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder," the songs and illustrations of which, together, form 
a symbolic picture of universal child life. There are touches 
of local coloring, but these are lost in the essential thought 
of the author: viz., to illustrate typical experiences common 
to all normal growing children. These experiences are al- 
ways considered relative to the typical home and the model 
mother, whose influence creates and keeps the atmosphere 
of the child's environment. Not tables and chairs, nor 
even luxuries and good food, make up the home. The 
quality of mother-thought and feeling is everything. In- 
stead of showing these mothers — whose sins of omission 
far outnumber those of commission — the negative picture, 
our author goes direct to the mark and presents the remedy, 
made up from their own possible resources. 

The mother is now possessed of a concrete means by 
which she and her child together may work out into higher 
consciousness and mutual understanding. Does the kinder- 
gartner now see that it is not so much the method as the 
mood which, makes her work of avail to the child? not so 
much what she docs for hhn, as with him? The child must 
be ever considered relative to her ov/n life, — the mother and 
the child, not the mother for her child. 


Let US now follow out our formulated plan of studying 
the individual songs, as led up to last month. 

1. In studying each particular song, follow the same 
method as with the book: first get a clear idea of its germi- 
nal thought. This thought is always some i?istinctwe 7nani- 

festation of the child, — e. g., the instinct of action, movement, 
as in the " Play with the Limbs," or the imitation of exter- 
nal activities, as in the "Weather Vane," or the instinctive 
right of recognition, as in the "Hiding Child." 

2. Study carefully the pictures illustrating the songs, 
and seek to find the connection between every detail and 
the central thought illustrated. \\\ the picture of " Mowing 
Grass," for instance, what hint of the general thought is 
conveyed by the two children sitting under opposite trees 
and making dandelion chains? Why are the chariots of 
the gods introduced into the picture illustrating the "Wheel- 
wright"? What is the significance of the flock of sheep in 
the picture showing the "Wolf and Boar"? 

3. From the song and picture advance to the motto and 
commentary. Rewrite the motto in prose, and reproduce 
the commentary in your own words. 

4. By all means write out the questions that arise in 
your own mind, and submit them to the class at its regular 
meeting. If each member of the class does this, much light 
will be thrown upon the play under study. 

5. The songs and mottoes will soon be found to be re- 
markably suggestive. Be on your guard not to discuss un- 
important points to the exclusion of the essentials. 

6. If advisable have some one keep a record of the best 
points brought out in the class, particularly of the practical 
illustrations gleaned from the actual experience of the 

7. At the close of the study of any one song, review it 
broadly and generalize the seed-thought gleaned. 

8. Each song should be studied, — first, from the stand- 
point of the mother and her needs, the mother and her 
duties to the child; second, from the spontaneous growth 
of the child into normal consciousness. 


9. As a final delight, present the picture to the children 
at home and see what they find in it. Do not inform them 
of what you have extracted, but let them know that you 
warmly and sincerely feel interest, and they will reciprocate 
by finding many things and asking many questions. 

In our next paper we will read out the meaning of that 
group of first songs, — the mother and child. — Ainalie Hofer. 


''No Man Livetli to Himself Alone." — This thought, or text, 
lies within the truth that all forms of life have a vital 
relationship, which unifies and binds all things into one 
connected and harmonious whole. The child might ex- 
press the same thought by such a question: "Is there any- 
thing there is only one of?" and again: "Is this 07ie by 
itself, and not belonging. to anything else?" This question 
in turn will lead out into the still higher thought of the 
purpose and use of every related thing. Beginning in the 
nature thought, we trace out how here nothing lives to itself 
alone, and plan this work to cover the months of Septem- 
ber, October, and November, — twelve weeks in all. 

Our nature study for Septem.ber, by way of portal to the 
larger thought, is the life of the rocks, — how they grow, 
their place in nature, their use to man, the many stones to- 
gether, and how they give us paved streets, sidewalks, 
walls, bridges, gateways, churches, and houses. Men in 
early times used stone so much that the time in which they 
lived was called the Stone Age. By means of specimens 
such as slate and marble, we grow acquainted with this 
wonderful rock family, and note the dissimilarity of its many 

In October we follow out the same general plan, study- 
ing the trees and their place and purpose in nature, — the 
fruit-bearing trees and plants. » In November the seeds lead 
us to the subject of grain, in which we lay special emphasis 
on the corn, — the one ear made up of many kernels; and 
the harvest study brings us at last to Thanksgiving. 

What do we read in all this? The rocks, trees, plants. 


seeds, and cereals give us their fruit (their method of ren- 
dering service), and thus they do not live for themselves 
alone. This thought is by no means formulated for the 
children, but lived out by them, leaving their own experi- 
ences to prompt the expression in words. 

During this fall work we seek to emphasize the fact that 
there is no such thing as inanimate nature, as materialists 
would have it, but that nature is one ; the various forms of 
nature live for the common benefit of all. 

The Thanksgiving thought transfers to and deepens our 
interest in Jiuman life. We come then to the family and 
community, with a certain element of historic association; 
but the main reason for this is that we wish naturally to 
approach man, have come through nature first. This shapes 
our work for the next three months. 

December is speiit with the family, — after some such 
outline as the following: How does the father work for the 
family? how the children? the domestic help? The mother 
is the heart of the family life, and from this picture of 
mother love we merge into the Christ thought, — the family 
of the Christ child. 

January brings us to the consideration of the commu- 
nity, the neighborhood, — made up of many families, each of 
which makes glad the new year; the pleasures of the neigh- 
borhood, indoors and out; snow and ice, — many flakes and 
crystals again serving together give us sleighing and skat- 
ing; snow and ice, — their use in nature, and their crystal 

The industries of the community, merging into state or 
national life, bring us, in February, to the related life of 
the individual, to the town, as well as the relation of town 
and city to the state. George Washington is our type. 
What did the American people of those days do for us? 
Thanksgiving and Washington's Birthday are contrasted, 
and from them we culminate again our thought of each for 

From community of interests where no one works for 
himself alone, we have led to the higher thought of sacri- 


fice for a nation's good. The best life is that which is will- 
ing to sacrifice self for the good of others. Washington 
did this through defensive war. There are other ways. We 
take up the story of the child who saved Holland from in- 
undation by stopping a leak in the dike with his hand, 
remaining thus all night; then other stories illustrating 
greater sacrifices. Even animals will unselfishly sacrifice 
themselves, and we tell stories of such instances. 

We approach the Easter thought upon this basis. Christ 
gave up earthly power and glory, choosing to be poor and 
lowly, in order, by so doing, to get nearer to humanity. 
The thought of sacrifice must never be separated from that 
of greater love, emphasizing throughout the glory and glad- 
ness of doing for others. Therefore the month of March is 
spent in working out the stories of sacrifice. The child 
who saved Holland; characteristics of Holland: low, flat 
countr}^ dikes, the great windmills; other true heroes and 
heroines: Florence Nightingale, Admiral Taylor of the Vic- 

April brings us nearer the Easter story: The life of 
Jesus on earth one of self-abnegation; his ascension to 
glory; the glory of awakening nature; the awakening of the 
flowers,- -taking the snowdrop, violet, and crocus for special 
color study. Systematic color work is carried all through 
the year, but is not confined to the schools of geometric 
work. The six standards have been used as decorations 
upon certain wall spaces, and the plays with the First Gift 
as well as the prism have broadened the general color sense 
of the children. 

During the month of May we formulate the color work, 
bringing out its freest and most artistic side. As in the 
race, color, music, sculpture, etc., were the overflow of a 
certain awakened spiritual condition, so b}^ the end of our 
kindergarten season the children are ready to formulate 
and express themselves in the more artistic forms. We 
study the violet, beginning with the violet end of the spec- 
trum. Green, blue, and violet are too cold coming together 
this time of the year, therefore let us rather begin with vio- 


let and red, where they merge one into the other. The 
living green of nature as seen in all plant life is also em 
phasized, and during June we follow out conventional de- 
signs with borders made up of number groupings based 
upon green leaf and plant forms. 

The Easter time corresponding to the awakening of na- 
ture, we perceive the glory of form and color in the flora. 
We return again to nature, as in the beginning of our kin- 
dergarten year, but from a different standpoint. The older 
children should now appreciate the abstract qualities of 
color, form, and number, and this through the most delight- 
ful of ways, — through the study of the beautiful in plant 
life. Here, indeed, nature emphasizes in every grouping of 
tiny leaves that nothing lives to itself alone. We conven- 
tionalize these designs in paper folding, cutting, and draw- 
ing, but we never dissect our natural patterns. We do not 
analyze too much, for our purpose is not so much scientific 
as artistic. We do not confine ourselves to the use of 
rosette forms cut from one piece of paper, or forming the 
design in one piece, but freely combine separate elements, 
the children making their own forms, applying the thought 
of how many different elements or parts may go to make 
up a beautiful whole. 

In the daily gift work we arrange for frequent group 
work, at least once a week. In other work we seek to con- 
nect not only the thought, but to work it out in a most con- 
nected manner. Again all the children together work upon 
one task, — for example, the defining of a large body of 
water, by outlining with lentils all around the table. In all 
this detail, which is daily adjusted to our children and 
workers, — first according to individual needs and growth, 
second, to the establishing of each one as a part of the 
whole, — we must not lose our logical order of the right per- 
ceptions which grow out of the use of the gifts in their 
proper sequence of development. The vital principle, then, 
of our current year's work shall be "each for all," because 
each is necessary to the whole; for children, in their growth 
into conscious egos, have a tendency to absorb too much 


for the individual. True growth is the establishing of rela- 
tive values, — man not unto himself alone, but as one of a 
family, a community, a universal fraternity. — Laura P. 
Charles, Lexington, Ky. 


As in telling a story, so in making a program, determine 
upon a point, — then make it. 

Select a point worth making, and one that embodies 
essentials rather than trivialities. 

The general thought of the program is all-important, 
providing it fit your children. Do not lose it in favor of 
detail, however pretty. 

Sequences and the logic of your materials must always 
be made secondary to the child. 

It is as necessary to have a sound logical plan to your 
work as is a vertebral column to anatomy; but be sure to 
cover the bones with healthy, beautiful flesh. 

Contrary to traditions, the kindergarten system has 
nothing to do with object lessons merely as a study of 
things. The things must stand for thoughts. Make your 
program topic a principle rather than an object. 

See to it that such expressions as "harmonious develop- 
ment" be less on your lips and more in your heart. Let it 
cease to be a phrase, and make it a fact. 

Fill yourself with the spirit of your program, as well as 
the letter. A musician who sacrifices all else to his interest 
in music, inspires his hearers. The teacher should appeal 
to his audience because of the same reason. 

It is better to have the work hour end before you are 
ready, and to the regret of the children, than to have the 
work all in order and hands folded waiting for the signals. 

The same is true of vacation time. Your year's work is 
an unquestioned success if you and the children regret va- 

Never keep one eye on the clock to hurry the hands 


around, if you are eager to close the work. Those hands, 
like your own, will only half do their duty. 

Program work should be the outgrowth of your own 
deep interest in your children. Let it be the overflow from 
your superabundance, rather than a pile of accumulated in- 

Do not reserve your best qualities as too good for the 
daily service. The general rides his finest steed into the 
thick of the battle. 

Study yourself as well as your children, and put to their 
service that which you best know and cherish. 

The kindergarten should be an actual home, with all its 
home duties. In proportion as this is made a fact, will it 
be unnecessary to play at housekeeping or arrange your 
program to encourage domestic interest. 

If you have a new hobby, — of color, form, or any other 
special feature, — do not be afraid to take it into your kin- 
dergarten and sincerely work it out with the children. 

Study the children at the close of each day. Do not 
waste your time merely repeating their "cute" or abnormal 
sayings and doings. Trace their growth toward conscious- 
ness, and you will have an addition to your store of psy- 

Whenever you are particularly depressed, get your as- 
sistants and the parents together, to talk over the benefits 
of the kindergarten to the neighborhood and children. 

Don't let the word or thought of teach creep into your 
program. The kindergarten is not a sub-primary; it is a 
sweet, serene home for yourself and little children. 


To the thoughtful kindergartner, the opening of school 
in September brings with it a feeling of serious responsibil- 
ity. We are overwhelmed by the "alchemy of influence." 
One who has made this subject a study says: " No man can 
meet another on the street without making some mark upon 
him. We say we exchange words when we meet; what we 


exchange is souls. It is through this law of influence that 
we become like those whom we admire." If this be true 
with persons in mature life, how much greater the influence 
of the kindergartner, who must necessarily stamp her very 
life and soul upon the receptive little ones, day after day. 
week after week, and month after month, as they look con- 
fidingly to her, believing all things. With what care should 
she live out her very best self! 

Of the many delicate subjects to be considered by the 
true kindergartner, that of leading the children up to and 
preparing them for the first prayer in the kindergarten, and 
later, the introduction of succeeding exercises of devotion, 
claim a prominent place. We would suggest the following, 
which may be helpful to some one. On entering the kin- 
dergarten, the children are led to observe the clean floor, 
fresh curtains, and other indications of care for their happi- 
ness. They are prompted to question to whom they are 
indebted for these kindnesses. The persons who have done 
these favors are sent for, and some expression of gratitude 
is called forth from the children. A heartfelt "Thank 
you!" is soon spontaneously given, as, day after day, the 
little ones recognize that to some one's care and thought 
they are indebted for the enjoyment of every comfort and 
pleasure. Especial pains is taken every day, to trace favors 
to their sources, which frequently reveals one of the chil- 
dren as the doer. 

After a week has passed, during which time no hymn 
has been sung or prayer repeated at the morning circle, a 
slight surprise is expressed by the kindergartner, that 
though the children have daily thanked the janitor for nu- 
merous favors received, and have found occasion to thank 
their teachers for kindnesses every day, there is something 
which they have welcomed and sung to every morning, but 
for which they have never yet said "Thank you." Who 
sends us the sunshine that 

Comes into our circle, and joins us in our play ? 
Who makes the flowers that grow for us to enjoy? 

Vol. 6-9 


Some child is sure to give a response, and all repeat, with 
bowed heads, "We thank Thee for the sunshine and for the 
pretty flowers," which, though a short prayer, is understood 
diwd felt by them. 

The following morning the first installment of a con- 
tinued story is told the children, of a little homeless boy 
named Jack, who has found a protector and home, and who 
for the first time enjoys the luxury of a clean bed and good 
food. With hearts full of sympathy for this little waif, the 
children listen to a hymn sung, which was taught to Jack as 
a "Thank you" to his Father in heaven, for the night's rest 
and new home. The little hymn, "Father, we thank Thee 
for the night," thus introduced, will have a meaning to every 
child. But one verse of this hymn is sung, the second verse 
not being given until the children are made ready to re- 
ceive it. 

It seems to me that all hymns and prayers should be 
developed and introduced in such a manner as will call 
forth responsive sympathy on the part of the children, and 
neither hymn nor prayer should be used so continuously as 
to become meaningless to the little ones. — Antoinette Clwatc. 


Plump little baby clouds, 
Dimpled and soft, 
• Rock in their air cradles, 
Swinging aloft. 

Snowy cloud mothers. 

With broad bosoms white. 

Watch o'er the baby clouds 
Slumbering light. 

Tired wee baby clouds. 

Dreaming of fears. 
Rock in their air cradles, 

Dropping soft tears. 

Great brooding mother clouds. 

Watching o'er all. 
Let their warm mother tears 

Tenderly fall. — Selected. 




(Written for the Kindergarten Magazi 


Once upon a time there was a 
great giant who lived up in the sky, 
and he was called Giant Sun, and he 
looked like this. His house was 
known as the Solar System, and he 
had a large family of children called 
Planets, and little baby planetoids, 
or asteroids. First of all there was 
his oldest son, the giant planet Jupi- 
ter, the largest of all the planets. ^ '^ 
Then came his big brother Saturn, p. 
who was very proud of some rings J^ 
he wore. .See how he smiles! Uranus 
and Neptune were great chums, who 
went on their way without noticing ''° 
the rest of the family. Mercury and 
Mars were always fighting and fuss- 
ing, and gave a great deal of trouble Fio.l. 
to Giant Sun. Venus and Earth 
were the twins, being just about the 
same size, and were as good and 
quiet as Giant Sun could wish them 
to be. It is very true that Jupiter 
had a way of tugging at the Earth 
and trying to get her away from 
Venus, whilst Venus would hold on to 
the Earth with all her little strength. 
Mars and Saturn often tried to inter- 
fere in these childish squabbles, but 
only made matters still worse. How- 
ever, this did not seem to worry the 
Earth very much; but it did worry 
the Sun. He was very much dis- 
gusted with his quarrelsome set of 
children, and he made up his mind 
to put an end to all their foolishness. 

s^ "k 

Fig. 4 






One day a great fight took place among the planets and 
the asteroids, or planetoids, or "baby planets," as Jupiter 
sometimes called them. The three comets, who are the 
servants of the Sun, and belong to his house the Solar Sys- 
tem, tried to interfere and make peace in the family. See 
the sad results. The names of these comets, as you will see 

by the labels on their collars, were Encke, Biela, and 
Halley; and right fine comets they were, too; but, alas! in 
this terrible fight Comet Biela lost his head and split in 
twain. Can you imagine his distress? But the Sun was 
still more distressed when he saw his own dear little Biela 
flying along in two pieces; so he sent his rays .out as far as 
they would reach, and surrounded his troublesome little 

family and frowned at them till he looked like this, whilst 
each separate hair on his head stood on end, and he said: 
" Planets, planetoids, and comets, lend me your ears. 



[As the planets, etc., had no ears, they could not make the 
desired loan — but no matter.] From this day you shall all 
go on a path, or orbit, which I shall mark out for you'on 
the sky. I shall keep naughty, frisky little Mercury close 
beside me, and next to him will toddle my dear little Venus. 
I shall put the Earth near to her, as it would never do to 
separate the twins. .As the Earth will not get quite enough 
light to find her way, being further away from me than 


Mercury and Venus, I shall give her a lamp called the 
Moon. Next to the Earth I shall place Mars, and give him 
two lamps. • [See Mars and his two lamps, or moons.] On 
the other side of Mars is Jupiter, with five moons, and Sat- 
urn, with eight moons. Far away from Saturn will be 
Uranus, with four moons, and Neptune, with one moon. 



"Neptune is to have charge of the Solar System, and go 
round on the outside with his lamp, to see that none of the 
planets or asteroids escape. The asteroids are to travel on 
a path between Mars and Jupiter, and as there are nearly 
three hundred of them, they had better march carefully, or 
they will be running into Mars or Jupiter some day; then 
there will be war in the sky. I have made Encke the serv- 
ant of Jupiter, to carry messages from him to me; Comet 
Biela is the messenger boy for Saturn, whilst Halley goes 
on long trips out into space, returning again with messages 
from far-distant stars." 


Fib. 17. 

When the Sun said this must be so, the planets and 
planetoids and comets knew that he meant what he said. 
So smiling as if they liked it very much indeed, they ar- 
ranged themselves on their paths, or orbits, and have never 
moved off them since. See them as they walk round hand 
in hand at the start; but they will soon have to let go 


hands. Do you see why? See what a little distance Mer- 
cury has to go, and then notice what a long trip Neptune 
has to take. Would you like to know how long it takes the 
planets to get round the Sun? Well, I shall tell you, as I 
am sure you would like to know. Mercury takes 88 days, 
Venus 225 days, our Earth 365 days, and Mars 687 days; 
Jupiter takes 12 years, Saturn 29 'years, Uranus 84 years, and 
Neptune 165 years. Just think! if you were to live a hun- 
dred years, you would have to live sixty-five more, if you 
intended waiting for Neptune to complete one trip. In 
other words, if you lived on Neptune you would not be 
even one year old, for a year on Neptune is 165 times as 
long as a year on our Earth, whilst a year on our Earth is 
equal to a little more than four years on Mars; so that if 
you were four years old on our Earth, you would be a 
grown-up person of sixteen on Mars. The comets also take 
some time to make their trips. Encke takes a little more 
than three years, Biela takes about seven years, and Halley 
takes seventy-five long years before it reaches the Sun 

After the Sun had arranged his family on their paths 
and told them the way they must go, there was peace and 
quiet in the family, and although the comets do sometimes 
seem as if they were going to fly against the planets, yet 
they generally manage to escape before they get too near. 
— Mary Proctor, St. Joseph, Mo. 

[These outline drawings are suggestions for simple but graphic 
blackboard work to accompany the story.] 


We are making experiments in all directions. For eight 
years one has been going on in the State Normal School at 
Worcester, Mass., and the recently published results of it 
demand attention and excite curiosity. This is a study of 
children — a psychological study, instead of the physiolog- 
ical one formerly conducted in schools with the birch and 
the ruler. Considering the length of time we have had 


children with us, it is astonishing how little we know about 
them. This is partly because we have never applied the 
inductive method to them, the habit of scientific observa- 
tion being recent in all branches of knowledge. There has 
been a theory that all children are naturally liars, and 
another theory that all are naturally truth tellers, neither of 
which is confirmed by observation. We have got so far in 
our observations already as to find that children cannot be 
treated in a lump, any more than criminals can be, and that, 
especially for pedagogic purpose, they must be studied in- 
dividually. In short, the teacher must understand the ma- 
terial he is to operate on; and this sort of understanding is a 
recent idea. Whether we shall ever have a trustworthy and 
working psychology of childhood may be doubted, even 
after the most extensive records of observations; but a wide 
induction will certainly improve our methods of teaching. 
There is no doubt that the normal pupils at Worcester are 
much better fitted for their work with children by reason of 
their systematic study of them. The system at Worcester 
is simply that of observation and faithful records. There 
are no lines of special inquiry laid down, nor any theories 
to be supported or disproved by facts. The object is to 
observe the real nature of child activity; and this can only 
be successful when the child is freely acting out his nature, 
and is unconscious that he is observed. He is very quick 
to see when he is being "drawn out," and to attempt to fit 
his replies to the inquiries; and thus the inquiry arrests the 
exhibition of the phenomena we are in search of. The only 
testimony that is of value is of the doings of the child when 
he does not know he is observed, and his sayings when they 
are spontaneous and unprompted. 

The great interest of this study as a means of training 
teachers in the habits of exact observation, which will best 
fit them for dealing with the minds of children, aside from 
its character as a contribution to a science of psychology, 
warrants its widest publicity. Mr. E. Harlow Russel, prin- 
cipal of the Worcester school, in his exposition of the 
method, says that the records already number over 19,000, 


and they are increasing at the rate of 3,000 a year; Mr. H. 
W. Brown, teacher, publishes a selection, classified, of 375 
records, from 500 which he has read. The observations 
were mostly made by young women from seventeen to 
twenty-one years of age, and they are of children from the 
age of one year and two months to the age of twelve years. 
These records are as amusing as they are curious, and taken 
all together, they reveal the thoughts and limitations of 
childhood in an almost startling way. They are, however, 
only observations in a small field, and of children under 
certain local influences, and offer no safe guide for wide 
generalization. Observation of children of other nations 
and of children differently reared would give, no doubt, 
different records. Especially is this to be said of the 
thoughts and reasonings about God, Christ, and heaven. 
These are mainly reflex indications of adult clouded and 
illogical religious ideas. With these ideas the merciless 
logic of children often plays havoc. It is difficult to judge 
also how far their misconceptions are their own. The 
thought occurs in reading these records, that adults may 
see themselves more clearly in the children than in any 
other mirror. For example, clergymen addicted to making 
prayers full of information might reflect on the reason of 
the refusal of the boy to say his prayers at night: "Why, 
they're old. God has heard them so many times that they 
are old to him too. Why, he knows them as well as I do 
myself." Perhaps there is a suggestion for artists, in regard 
to illustration, in the remembered preference of a little girl: 
"As a rule, I preferred story books which were not illus- 
trated. This was because the illustrations were not so beau- 
tiful as the pictures which came into my mind while listen- 
ing to or reading a story. I used to turn the pages over 
quickly, or, if there was print above and below the picture, 
I used to hold my hand Over the picture, so that it could 
not blot out the one in my mind." Lessing agreed with 
this little girl about the futility of this attempt of one art to 
copy another. — Harper's Magazijie. 



The July number of the Cliicago Free Khidergcwten Quar- 
terly was an exceptionally valuable issue. The commence- 
ment papers took the usual place of programs. Among 
other papers, one by Miss Mary May has interested us 
greatly. It is a spirited discussion on the use of Bible texts 
in the daily kindergarten work, with special reference to 
the Free Association. We recommend this article to all 
kindergartners who are ignorant of the methods of this 
work, or who ma}' hold mistaken impressions of the same. 
Miss May touches also upon the misapprehended use of 
sequences and the literalism in the kindergarten, which is 
ever to be deplored. She says in part: 

"The children do not have texts given them that they do 
not understand, nor does intellectual cramming take the 
place of spiritual development. The subject is ahvays ap- 
proached from the broad standpoint of the material, so that 
the child can go easily from the thing he knows to that 
which he does not know. Further, the transition can be 
made so slowly and gently, that he never is conscious of the 
coupling that hitches his 'wagon to a star.' 

"In our kindergarten and class work we lay great stress 
on the creative development. Therefore in the gift and oc- 
cupation work we have abandoned the lecture system, think- 
ing that it is better for each teacher to have a little theory 
of her own, as a germ for future growth, than to have it 
poured in from the outside, undigested and chaotic as to 
place and subject. For the same reason we do not use the 
gift sequences as laid down in the guide books (as they are 
purely arbitrary), and we adapt the occupations directly to 
the best line of work. 

"The students and children are encouraged to make 
their own sequences; for results attained by one's own ef- 
forts are of vastly more educational value, even if crude, 
than those worked out by some more experienced mind. 
Then, too, these cut-and-dried sequences do not readily 
adapt themselves to our line of work, where everything must 
'lend a hand' in the development of some thought. Time 
is too precious to allow the wasting of a moment, nor do 
we despise even the smallest aid in elucidating so great a 
thing as some spiritual thought, and in helping to develop 
naturally so sacred a thing as a human soul. 


"While we do not use the accepted gift and occupation 
sequences, do not think that the idea embodied in such work 
is lost sight of. Our work for a year is an orderly sequence 
of subject. We use sequences of song, game, and stor}-. 
Our children can take and execute directions in many ways, 
besides the placing of blocks or the folding of papers; and 
what is more to the point, they can and do express their 
own thought in sequences. 

"What is the kindergarten for? Is it to teach a child a 
certain amount of number, form, and color work? The 
kindergarten is a failure in which the thought of character 
building is lost sight of. An harmonious character devel- 
ops naturally along the three lines of body, mind, and spirit. 
No human educator has given us such plain guideposts along 
the highway of life as Froebel; but that kindergartner is 
not worthy her leader, who could not carry on her work 
with strict adherence to his laws, even if deprived the use 
of the conventional materials. Too slavish a following of 
the letter always deadens. It is the spirit that quickens 
and eives life." 


The World's Fair has brought us in touch with the 
thinking of all minds upon all subjects. What has it 
brought to us in thoughts upon art? We have looked upon 
beautiful forms, we have been uplifted by great architecture, 
satisfied with color, and filled with harmonies of sound. 
What does it all mean to us, and how much will it color our 
lives and work? Hoiv mitcli will never be known, can never 
be estimated. We have assimilated the beauty of the Fair 
as our natural food, and have grown rich and strong in its 
nurture. Never can its influence be erased from our minds; 
ever must its glorious record be inscribed in our lives. 
What practical hints and suggestions for truer work along 
the lines o'f art have we received by comparison? 

For music, we have heard Mr. Tomlins' children sing, 
and have seen and felt the great power of pure song living 
and throbbing through the hearts and voices of little chil- 
dren. We are glad in our hearts to know that these children 
are all their lives long to be the better for in their child- 


hood to have breathed and lived for a little while at least in 
the sunshine of pure art. Not only their hearts but their 
bodies must be different. Their whole attitude toward life 
seems changed, and new impulses toward the good, the true, 
and the beautiful must be the result. Are we not the better 
for having seen living harmony, and carry deeper the pur- 
pose in our hearts to make the music of the coming year 
mean more to the little ones in our charge? 

We have been to the music congresses, and while per- 
haps there was less of inspiration here than we expected, in 
what we heard and saw there was much to think about. 
There was less of the doing here, and much more thinking 
of the hows and whys. 

As kindergartners we are in the doing stage, and so when 
children illustrated, quite wonderfully, intellectual musical 
feats, but sang with poor voice quality, the art, the work of 
the children was but half done. The question arose. Shall 
not the children live purely, simply, and spontaneously in 
music first, and sing in sweet, true tones? Can we, in music 
with children, ever sacrifice the result for which we work, 
to the best theory in the world? Can we put theory before 
practice, when music is to be gained? 

Among the educational exhibits we saw something 
which would catch the eye of every teacher inquiring after 
the how to present things in the "new kindergarten way" to 

It is an attempt to make music notation easy to children, 
by substituting, for notes, flowers and 'birds and anything 
they may be singing about. Here are squirrels frisking and 
birds flitting about the staff in most happy and ingenious 
style. For every day a new play of fancy, new pictures, 
new eye concepts; but how about the ear, and how about 
the intervals, — which seems to be the main point? Whether 
notes or daisies, is not the work to be done, the same? In 
this day of "fads" we must be careful not to sacrifice prin- 
ciple for pretty methods of working. — A Kindergart7ier. 



I send you a song which we greatly enjoyed in our kin- 
dergarten last fall. I found in an educational journal some 
interesting rhymes about Columbus, to be sung to the tune 
"Comin' Through the Rye." I am sorry not to be able to 
give the author's name. We changed many of the words, as 
they were beyond the comprehension of our children. I 
send you our version of it. 

(Tune, "Comin' Through the Rye.") 

Once a boy both brave and noble, 

Long time ago, 
Down beside the ocean wandered. 

Long time ago; 
Down beside the bright blue waters 

Oft he used to go. 
And he learned to be a sailor. 

Long time ago. 

Many thought the earth was flattened. 

Long time ago; 
Some there were who said 'twas rounded, 

Long time ago. 
Then said Christopher Columbus, 

"Why not westward go? 
I the land, the land will show you" — 

Long time ago. 

When he asked for ships and sailors. 

Long time ago, 
Said the king, "You're wildly dreaming, 

No, no, no, no!" 
Then to Spain went brave Columbus; 

The good Queen said, "Go." 
And she gave him ships and sailors. 

Long time ago. 

Then with vessels three he started. 

Long time ago — 
Then with vessels three he started. 

Long time ago. 


Ten long weeks they sailed to westward; 

Long the way, and slow, 
Then — the land, the land they sighted! 

Four hundred years ago. 

An excellent way to connect the past with the present is, 
before singing the song, to furnish each child with a small 
flag which may be laid near at hand or fastened in the dress, 
leaving the hands free for gesture; then after the words, 
"The land, the land they sighted, four hundred years ago," 
all raise their flags and sing one verse of "America." — 
F. R. G. 


What is pure music? Melody, harmony, rhythm, — the 
essence of poetry, and therefore requiring no word-pig- 
ments for its transference to the pure canvas of the child 
mind and heart. The kindergarten needs this pure music 
many times during the day, to bring the hush of reverence, 
kindle the lamp of love, open the door to joy, paint the 
cheeks with life's flush. The kindergarten needs those who, 
out of a childlike heart and manhood's and womanhood's 
intelligence (musical), can, through that universal instrument, 
the piano, si/ig pure music purely — that is to say, truth- 
fully — to the minds and hearts of the little ones. 

What could be more beautiful than the following little 
song of the three angels of Love, Purity, and Beauty, to 
prepare mind and heart for a vocal morning song, or the 
opening study or play of the children? 

It looks very simple to you, my good fairy of the "nim- 
ble Jacks," but it may cost you a good night's vigil to reach 
the mastery of its thought and form, so that you can speak 
out of a full mind and heart. 

Here is its motto: 

Three angels once sang so sweet a refrain, 

That deep into heaven God caught the clear strain. 

Let these three angels of your thought transform the 
piano into a radiant messenger from the kingdom of heaven 
— harmony. — Calvin B. Cady, Chicago Conservatory. 




Ruhij' und ernst. 

Es sangen drei Engel eiaen siissen Gesang, 
Sie sangon, ddss us Gott in dern Himmel epklang. 



1^ J n 

11 J J = 

ij 1 ] 1 

— 1 — j — ■ 


~p 1 — 

~d m m 

— * 4 . 

L^^ - r 

:i= — ^ — 

'^ r r 1 

iinmer Mser und /ei'ser 



t — [ 

f — p 









-n ^-^^ 


-i F — 

,„---«l „rt-i ,-rfi 

pp zogernd 





J>^ IJ"f 



jJ JJ^-- 


J^JjjJ jjj 


f ^^ ' 

•z>' •Zy • 


-•_y •Lx^ ^_^' 

g ■ '■ 



Crimson and scarlet and yellow, 

Emerald turning to gold, 
Shimmering here in the sunlight. 

Shivering there in the cold; 
Waving farewells as the tempest 

Ruthlessly tears them apart, 
Fluttering, dancing, and rustling, 

As hither and thither they dart. 

Recklessly stemming the rapids. 

Lazily swimming the pool. 
Playing "I spy" with a down-head 

Under a puffy toadstool; 
Wreathes for the walls of her dwelling 

Each neat little housekeeper weaves; 
There, amid delicate fern-sprays. 

Nestle the bright autumn leaves. 

Emma Lee Benedict. 


It was a warm midsummer day. While the bees were 
humming around the flowers where they gathered their 
honey, and the birds were searching food for their little 
babies, a beautiful butterfly flitted about, alighting now on 
this, now on that flower. 

Down in one corner of a meadow ran a little brook, with 
many pretty flowers bordering its edges. The air was cool 
and comfortable here, even on this hot day, for some 
friendly trees made a little grove, spreading wide their 
strong branches to shelter and shade the flowers growing 
about their roots. 

Two little girls, Annie and Elsie, who lived in the farm- 
house on the top of the hill, often came here to play. 
They built many houses with the sticks and leaves which 
fell from the trees, making carpets of pretty mosses that 
cuddled close to their roots. Then sometimes they would 
take off their shoes and stockings and wade in the brook. 
Such fun! They found so many nice round stones in the 
bottom of the brook, and queer polliwogs! 


This afternoon Annie and Elsie sat under the trees, 
trimming their hats with big yellow daisies. Suddenly An- 
nie said: "Oh, Elsie, see that lovely butterfly!" "Where?" 
said Elsie. "On those milkweed blossoms close by the 
brook," answered Annie. Sure enough, our pretty butter- 
fly had alighted on some milkweed blossoms. He stayed 
there still for a moment, as if to rest his wings, which were 
closed over his back. As he lingered there he heard a lit- 
tle voice say: "How nice it must be to be a butterfly, and 
go wherever you wish! " 

The butterfly at first could not tell where the voice came 
from; but as he listened he was sure something was talking 
within the little flowers. "Who are you, and where are 
you?" he asked. 

And the little voice answered, "Oh, you cannot see me; 
I am a tiny little thing. I have a great many brothers and 
sisters growing here with me. Our mamma flower calls us 
her baby seeds. We are all very close together, our house 
is so small. We have had happy times; the sun has shone 
on us, and the rain and dew have given us drink when we 
were thirsty, and we have grown together all summer; but 
I do think it must be much nicer to be a butterfly, and not 
always have to stay in just the same place, but go wherever 
you want to." 

The butterfly opened his wings and lifted himself up 
into the air, but alighted again on the milkweed blossoms, 
and said, just as he started to fly away: "Keep on growing, 
little seed, and when you are 'full grown and old enough, 
you too shall fly. Mr. Wind will take you and play with 
you and toss you about until you will be glad to alight, just 
as I do to rest my wings." He opened his wings and flew 

What became of the little seed? It grew; its brothers 
and sisters grew; and the little house they lived in grew. 
At last the house was no longer green, but brown, — grow- 
ing browner every day. One morning it cracked open, 
making a long door of one whole side. The little seeds 
looked out, and saw, for the first time, the great, lovely 

Vol. 6-9 



world. Some of the seeds that were bolder than the others 
actually scrambled out of the door; but not daring to leave 

the house, they clung 

to the outside. As 

they sat there and 

looked at each other, 

they saw that they too 

had changed. They 

weie not dressed in 

ight green now 

but wore dark 

brown instead. 

How queer 

everything was! 

One of the little 

seeds said, "I 

do believe what 

the butterfly 

said is really 

true, and that I shall 

fly away. I feel very 

light and strange. This 

funny silky stuff that is 

spread out around me 

must be my wings. I 

do wish Mr. Wind would 

come and take me off 

with him; I want to see 

all of this big, beautiful 


Mr. Wind was very 
busy those days, so 
many things needed a 
good blowing and air- 
ing, and soon he would have to shake off all the leaves from 
the trees, as they must come to the ground and keep the 
seeds and plants warm. Now he came from the north full 
of business; but as he hurried along he blew upon the milk- 


weed seeds, and oh! what a time there was! It seemed as 
if the seeds had each fifty wings! He whirled them around, 
tossed them up and down, now to the right and now to the 
left. Occasionally one would get dizzy and stop for a mo- 
ment on some plant; but Mr. Wind would not let him rest, 
and away they all went, whirling, dancing, skipping, flying. 
Suddenly Mr. Wind thought of all the other things he had 
to do, and was gone as quickly as he came. 

"Well, what the butterfly told me has come true," said 
the little seed. "How warm this sunlight feels! I really 
believe I am sleepy. I guess. I will go — to — sleep." 

Mr. Wind had left him on some soft earth close by the 
great red barn, and there he fell asleep. When the cold 
rains came they did not wake him; he only settled more 
deeply into his earthy bed. One night Jack Frost touched 
all the leaves of the trees, and they turned different colors, 
— some red, some yellow, some brown, and some orange. 
Now Mr. Wind had his work to do, and he did it well; for 
in a few days the leaves left the trees and covered the earth 
with a warm blanket. Some of them covered our little seed 
close by the barn. Soon the snowflakes came, and every- 
thing was buried under their white coverlet. 

The plants and seeds slept until the warm springtime. 
Then the bluebirds and robins came home from their long 
southern journey; the buds of the trees grew, and the little 
leaves unfolded; the snowdrops and crocuses and dande- 
lions blossomed, and it was time for our little seed to grow. 
He had not been idle a single moment. Annie and Elsie 
were playing around their papa's barn, picking dandelions 
and digging in the sweet earth. It was here, close to the 
red barn, that they found the milkweed growing tall and 
green. — Margaret Dezvey . 

(In preparing stories and talks for the children of my kindergarten, 
I felt the need of a story which should trace the whole history, as it 
were, of the seed. The above was arranged for that purpose. It has 
an added interest when illustrated with the milkweed pods and seeds, 
such as are kept in many kindergartens. The whirling and flying of 
the winged seeds may be experienced by the children themselves, as 
well as by blowing the seeds about the room. — M. D.) 

[See poem, "Little Seed Babies," in Child-Garden for September.] 



The keeping of birthdays is as salutary to the experi- 
ence of childhood as it is universal to the race. It should 
always be an occasion of simple pleasure and childish fer- 
vor. A large birthday /tVt' is quite unnecessary to accom- 
plish these results. Simple preparations, in which the child 
may take a part, are counted among the greatest epochs of 
childhood. It is a quaint German custom to have the birth- 
day child rise early on his day, and call at the door of his 
god-parents to wish them a happy day. These good people 
greet him in turn, adding a few words of serious comment 
on life, often couched in the form of an adage which the 
child must remember. It has been the experience of many 
to remember these far on into later life, preserving the bene- 
diction thus pronounced upon childhood's morning. 

It might well be reckoned a privilege on birthdays which 
come such long years apart, for the little folks to make a 
visit to grandparents. Grandmamma will be sure to tell the 
ever-welcome story of when Mary first came to father and 
mother; how small she was; how short her yellow hair; and 
her queer little eyes that were always shutting up tight. 
As she draws this picture, Mary is contrasting every step 
with how big she now is; how strong her legs, and how long 
her curls. Grandma traces the story of how Mary first 
learned to say "mamma," one day when she awoke from 
her nap; how she learned to walk on Christmas, and how, 
now that she was such a great girl, she would soon be ready 
for school. 

Such reviews of the past are as full of interest to a four- 
year-old child as are the remotest stories of ancient history 
to men of older years. This is the first making of history 
to the child. It helps him tally his growth physical, as in 
time he will discern his inner growth. The mother should 
never depreciate or regret the fact that her baby is "grow- 
ing up." To grow is his business in life, and parents should 


be the last to interfere with this divine purpose. The birth- 
day must be a happy, exuberant day, full of work and inter- 
course with the various members of the family. It is a wise 
plan, toward the close of the day by which this particular 
child has* been so markedly singled out, to tell a simple 
story about some one's else birthday; or, as the family are 
gathered together, for each member to tell some experience 
on his or her birthday. This overcomes any undue self- 
importance which might be developed in the birthday 
child's mind, as well as universalizes the blessing as coming 
to all. The following is the true story of a certain baby's 

We called him Baby, but his last birthday made him five 
years old. I must tell you about how we celebrated this 
fifth birthday. It came on Saturday, and Baby was so full 
of "becoming a great boy," that he told everyone he saw 
for a week — " Going to have a birthday pretty soon." Baby 
went down town with Aunt Mary on Saturday morning. 
While he was gone we set a nice big sand table under the 
apple tree in the back yard, and filled it with fresh white 
sand from the lake shore. There were a few little presents 
for our five-year-old boy, — one for each year. These we 
buried deep in the sand. We planted flowers around the 
edge of the table and wrote Baby's name, "Stephen," 
through the middle, from left to right. We had some 
bright kindergarten sticks, which we laid all along the 
letters of his name. They were of all colors. Aunt Mary 
said afterwards, we might have used acorns or daisies just 
as well. Under the name were five long, straight lines, — 
one, two, three, four, five. Soon Baby came back, and the 
little face was bright and wondering when he discovered 
the table. "See! see! here is Baby's name!" It was not 
long before he was playing in the sand, discovering the 
bundles one by one. His delight was as great as our own. 
After a good play, and his usual bowl of crackers and milk, 
he took a nap, his face^covered with one generous smile as 
he slept. After dinner we all went together for a quiet row 
on the river, and Baby Stephen was now as quietly happy 


as before he was boisterous. He fell asleep in the boat, and 
never knew how he got to bed or who tucked him in. And 
that was the end of Baby's birthday. 


Child energy is usually supplied in sufficient quantity 
by nature, the purpose of training being to direct it into 
proper channels. Like all of the direct gifts of God, it de- 
mands, for its proper development, healthy surroundings. 
The too-frequent efforts made by parents and teachers to 
curb and restrain the healthy expression of action is cer- 
tain to defeat, to some extent, its object, by producing an 
abnormal growth, by substituting for the natural instincts 
given the lowest as well as the highest order of the animal 
kingdom for its complete development, an unnatural nature, 
wholly or in part deficient of certain qualities required for 
its sphere in life. So common has this miscarriage of at- 
tempts at training become, that it is hardly to be wondered 
at that many have been undecided whether the best train- 
ing is not an entire absence of any check beyond that 
which is necessary to counteract artificial influences, with 
which every child comes in contact. 

It is evident, however, that this course would cause to a 
great extent an abnormal development on the animal side, 
— a result at least as undesirable as its opposite. The true 
end to be aimed at, in formulating any course of training, is 
to give the hearty energies of childhood full swing, to al- 
low them the most complete development nature will per- 
mit, and at the same time to turn this splendid physical 
development into the channels of intellectual growth; to 
depend upon, rather than curb, the physical for the attain- 
ment of the highest intellectual growth. 

Physical nature supplemented by the healthy brain, is a 
close attribute of the moral nature; without it, a dangerous 
approach to an immoral one. On the other hand, brain 
growth without the physical development to sustain it, 
leads either to the destruction of the body or to the direct- 


ing- of the mental faculties into most unhealthy channels. 
Each is a naturally provided check upon the other, at the 
same time that both are mutual supporters, and partners in 
the higher product, — a moral life. The importance, then, 
of keeping each in touch with the other, and stimulating 
the growth of neither beyond that of its mate, cannot well 
be overestimated. But the very common neglect of this 
point, and its results, are seen about us every day. 

Here is an over-cautious mother, who, fearing that a lit- 
tle healthy brain work will be detrimental to her child's 
health, discourages, all attempts at knowledge seeking. 
The brain demands action, and either — under the influence 
of the unnatural condition placed upon it — becomes dwarfed 
and warped, or seeks some unhealthy outlet. Or an ambi- 
tious teacher forgets the body, in her efforts to stimulate 
the mental faculties. The results of this are too well known 
to need repeating here; and yet they are every day repeated 
in actual life. Both of these cases are caused by over-care 
in one of the two directions. Similar consequences or 
worse may result from under-care. It is by no means rare 
to see the energetic call for action in children, constantly 
thwarted by the authority of parent or teacher: "Johnny 
must be quiet;" or "must not ask so many questions;" and 
the demands of nature must give way to the commands of 
human caprice. In the course of time one of two results 
must come. Either the child listens to nature, and thus 
becomes rebellious against human control, or else he sub- 
mits to being robbed of his very life. " I wonder what 
makes John so lazy. He used to have energy enough." 
Yes; what? It has been crushed out of him by years of 
enforced idleness. 

I know it is not always pleasant to have the labor of 
perhaps a day or week destroyed by mischievous hands; 
but I would rather that than to destroy the motive force of 
a human life, — energy. It is not always agreeable to an- 
swer questions constantly; but we may never have a more 
productive employment. I know the trainer of that child 
in whom the instinct of action is sometimes so unpleasant 


must be more patient, thoughtful, and tactful than for its 
quieter mate; I also know, that with this extra patience, 
thought, and tact, there is a higher future of action for the 
first than for the second. The flutterings of today foretell 
the stronger flight for tomorrow. I would as soon think of 
clipping the wings of the young bird that it might not use 
them beyond its strength, as to attempt curtailing the natu- 
ral energies of youth, — the physical forces, the mental 
forces. Child taming is not child training; nor will the 
first be necessary if the second is done properly. But let 
me say again, to train is to build up, to strengthen, not de- 
stroy; to guide, not to restrict; and, greatest of all, to ele- 
vate and ennoble. — Wilder Grahame. 


The cities of the Netherlands could well have afforded 
to meddle in other people's business and establish kinder- 
gartens throughout all Spain, if thereby the Duke of Alva 
had learned to say upon his baby fingers: 

This is the mother so good and dear, 
This is the father so full of cheer, 
This is the brother so strong and tall, 
This is the sister who plays with her doll, 
And this is the baby, the pet of them all; 
Behold the good family, great and small. 
That same hand could then never have indited the exultant 
message — "We butchered the whole garrison! Not a moth- 
er's son was left alive." 

If the members of the Bonaparte family had gone to 
kindergarten, played with the Third Gift, and learned the 
possibilities of eight little cubes, they might have learned to 
be content with what they had, and stopped grabbing for 
the blocks belonging to their next-door neighbors. In our 
own America, the colonists, in their extreme poverty, could 
well have afforded to pay teachers to sit up nights to study 
up cunning devices to teach the baby minds of that day 
that all black and white belonged on the circle and had an 
equal right to a "good time." 


When we try to measure results, we are to remember 
that mothers do not say, I must weigh my child to be sure 
he is growing. It may be a case of fatty degeneration due 
to over-feeding, even in a child. The processes of nutri- 
tion and assimilation are invisible. The healthy balance 
between food and exercise, waste and repair, cannot be 
weighed. There is a kingdom that "cometh not with obser- 
vation." Can you find a tape measure that will tell just the 
value of a love of plant life? ' A little girl the other day in 
the circle game, on receiving the gift of a flower, raised it 
in her hand and gleefully repeated the words of her finger 


Till the plant some happy day 
Blossoms into flowers. 

Where is the board of education that can furnish a rule 
to measure the strength and the worth of that tendency? 
Who can estimate the worth of a nature broadened, deep- 
ened, and quickened? 

The kindergarten is the poetic child of the nineteenth 
century. Upon the head of this growing child the hand of 
the century rests most lovingly. To this the hearts of men 
are turning with the hope that this child shall bring to both 
home and school the blessings of a new life. — Dora H.J. 


Every sweet, happy circle of children about a sympa- 
thetic mother, whether on an avenue o,r in the alleyway, is a 
kindergarten. If this condition lasts but ten minutes in the 
day, it is, for the time being, kindergarten. If it is ex- 
tended over the whole day, where the mother goes about 
her work, gladly assisted by the children at her heels, all 
working together harmoniously to a worthy end, this is kin- 
dergarten. If the mother has tact enough to discover her 
children's natural bents, and wit enough to follow this out, 
in a sound, normal way, she is a kindergartner. A home 
where every child is an integral part, not only to be done 
for, but to do for others, is the ideal kindergarten. 


Many a so-called kindergarten is a far more artificial 
surrounding and more seriously abnormal environment than 
is the street or the unlettered home. Babies are not to be 
taught in the true kindergarten, any more than in the true 
nursery. They should live as does the brood of chicks, 
close to the mother, but always as one among many others. 

Folding papers, piling blocks, weaving a few mats, — 
these things do not constitute the kindergarten. Gesture 
songs are not always kindergarten songs. A thoroughly 
drilled roomful of children, who always fold their hands in 
a proper way, and never stir out of position, is not proof 
sufficient of a kindergarten. 

A rattle is by no means an instrument which adds to the 
harmonious development of a child. The nervousness of a 
race may be traced to nurses who jump and rock children 
out of their wits or shake unmelodious rattles to astonish 
them into being quiet. Add an occasional ghost story, 
and numerous threats to the effect of policemen and "bugoo 
man," and you have an adequate mixture which would upset 
the fiber of an oak tree, to say nothing of a tender babe in 

It is not enough to feed and clothe a child. It is not 
enough to educate him and start him in the business of life. 
He must be cherished, nourished, and cultured by human 


One warm October day, Mabel was lying on the grass 
under an old oak tree and looking up into its branches, 
when she noticed a hole in the trunk of the tree just large 
enough for her to put in her little hand. She called Henry 
to look at it. He said it was like the holes the squirrels 
hid their acorns in, and he was going up to see. So he 
climbed up the tree and tried to look in, but he could see 
nothing; then he reached in and down to the bottom of it, 
and it was all smooth, with only a few bits of soft wood and 
a few pieces of white eggshell there. 



Then he remembered one day in the spring, when he was 
making a whistle, sitting on the grass under this very tree, 
and he heard some one knocking, knocking. It sounded 
like some one knocking at the door, — "tap-tap, tap-tap," — 
only there was no door there to knock at; or like a carpen- 
ter hammering with a small hammer, — "rat-tat, rat-tat," — 
but no carpenter was there. Henry looked all around, 
under the bushes, up in the tree; there was no one. 

Then he sat still and listened: "rat-tat. rat-tat, rat-tat," 
right over his head. He looked up again and saw a red- 
headed woodpecker at work with his sharp, strong pickax. 
"Pick, pick;" his hard bill went 
right into the bark of the tree. 
Some little chips fell at Henry's 
feet on the grass. Mr. Woodpecker 
looked down at Henry, but as he 
stood perfectly still, the carpenter 
did not seem to mind, but went on 
with his work. He would turn his 
little head to one side and listen, 
then pick away as busily as any 
housebuilder you ever saw; and 
this was what he was doing, — mak- 
ing a house for his family to live in. 
at his work! 

But where are all the babies now? 
where are Papa and Mamma Woodpecker? 

Mabel and Henry are going to watch for them, and see 
if they stay near the old nest all winter, or if they go away 
to the South, like the barn swallows and martins. 

They have not forgotten what a great time the martins 
had last October, when they all packed up and started off 
one day for their journey south. Everyone went just that 
one day. Henry remembered because it was his birthday 
— the tenth of October. Hundreds of martins came from 
all around, and flew about, and talked and talked, and grew 
more and more excited, until they started off from the top 
of the maple trees; and there was not a martin to be seen 

How happy he was 
Who can tell? And 


that afternoon, nor the next day, nor all winter long. — 
Susa?i P. Clement, Raci?ie, Wis. 

Note. — The red-headed woodpecker has a stout bi//, which serves 
for a pickax; a long, slim tongue, sticky at the end, which he runs into 
the holes he has made, to bring out the grub which he had heard at 
work there, and to reach which he was boring the hole; his stout toes 
stand two forward and two back, to help him in running sideways 
around the tree, and in holding on tight to the tree while he works; his 
tail, too, is as good as another leg; so strong and stiff that he pushes it 
against the bark of the tree for a prop to keep him steady while he 
hammers. His nest, hollowed out of a tree, is not lined; eggs, translu- 
cent white. He does not migrate. 

These facts are intended for the parents' guide, not for children's 
information, only so far as they can discover them from the birds, a 
stuffed bird, or pictures. Stuff birds, but do not stuff children. — 5". P. C. 

[See the story and song of the woodpecker, May Child-Garden. ^ 


The baby was five months old, and, as often happens, 
the father and mother disagreed on the subject of the little 
fellow's name. When either offered a suggestion in this 
direction the other was apt to cite the fact of extreme 
youth as an argument in favor of devoting more time to the 
selection of a patronymic. But this was only a harmless 
subterfuge and a pleasing little piece of fiction played by 
the parents. It deceived themselves, but not each other. 
It was a species of sparring for an opening wherein one or 
the other hoped to get in the name of his or her selection. 
The struggle for the honor of giving the baby a name ended 
one day last week in the nursery of the Children's Building 
at Jackson Park, and the outwitted little mother will doubt- 
less always think the baby's father took an unfair advan- 
tage. This is how it happened: Mr. and Mrs. Samis, of 
Spokane, Wash., came to the Fair, and of course brought 
the baby along. The young couple had strolled through 
the creche one day, and admired the excellent care be- 
stowed on the babies left there by parents who wished to 
be unencumbered while sight-seeing. The next day they 
surrendered their own little silken-haired darling to the care 
of the creche. Before affixing a numbered brass tag to the 


baby, the assistant matron requested Mr. Samis to register 
the child's and the parents' name, permanent and temporary- 
residence, etc. Here was the father's golden opportunity; 
and he grasped it. He wrote on the register "V. Elton 
Samis," as he had always determined his son should be 
called. He turned the tag over to his wife, who, when she 
called for the baby at night, was requested to give the 
baby's name. "We haven't named him yet," replied Mrs. 
Samis. "But he must have been named or he couldn't have 
been received," persisted the matron. "The baby's name," 
announced the father, "is V. Elton Samis. It went on rec- 
ord this morning, and the record stands." Then Mrs. 
Samis realized that she had been duped. It was finally 
agreed to say no more about it, and as an expression of 
gratitude for what the Children's Building had done for 
him, Mr. Samis subscribed five dollars to the creche. 


The following questions were asked at a recent mothers' 
parliament, in quick succession: What would you do with a 
lazy child.? What would you do for a nervous child? How 
would you keep a restless boy quiet? What would you do 
to rouse an aimless, listless girl of six years? What would 
be kindergarten discipline for a petulant, exasperating 
child? The undaunted kindergartner answered them all in 
one single word, — a word in which the great sages of all 
time have culminated their philosophies — 7vork. Work is 
not drudgery. That work which is fitted to the daily, en- 
larging capacity of a child has the charm and tense interest 
which invigorates the winning oarsman. The good judg- 
ment required to so distribute effort to meet the energy 
ready to be put forth, is the art of child culture. As has 
been well said, occupation is the salvation of all disciplinary 
needs. A group of friends were recently discussing the 
religious qualities of a certain lady. One of the speakers 
said, with deep emphasis, "I don't know her creed, nor 
where she goes to church; but a woman who works with 
such energy and constancy has gotten hold of the philoso- 


phy of all religion." At the recent religious parliament 
held in Chicago, a great divine defined soul as "energy 
applied." Carlyle, who was an indomitable worker in what- 
ever he undertook, declares, in his "Sartor Resartus": 
"Work is worship." Uncounted, unmeasured effort is the 
sign of utter self-forgetfulness. — A. H. 

WHAT THE "child-garden" BRINGS TO THE HOME. 

Mothers will find Child- Garden, the children's magazine 
of story, song, and play, full of such suggestive matter as 
will always solve the riddle-answer made to the petition for 
a story: "A story, my dear; what shall it be?" A special 
feature of the little monthly is, that it brings the seasonable 
science and nature stories and songs, as well as those appro- 
priate to the varying holidays of each month. It never 
brings a rhyme or story whose only mission is being "cute." 
It aims to feed children hearty, sound, and none the less 
sweet meat. It brings many suggestions of things to do, 
things to learn, and things to absorb. One father says: "It 
comes the first week of the month, and keeps the children 
busy the other three, working out all the busy thoughts and 
things it has brought. The secret of good story-telling for 
children is to lead up to the climax in such a way that the 
child is impelled to seize upon it himself." Another corre- 
spondent writes: "We do not call it the children's paper. 
It is our family and home magazine." Today's mail brings 
a cordial letter from a father of a six-year-old daughter, in 
which he says, among other gratifying words: 

"The discovery is no new one that ^Ci^r/ writing for wee folk is inter- 
esting to the children of riper years. You will hardly need to be told 
that not alone the children, but their parents, in this family, send their 
sincere and hearty thanks and congratulations to you as editors of the 
Child-Garden, for the success thus far achieved, with best wishes for its 

Child-Garden is largely the volunteer work of a number 

of contributors who desire to see the kindergarten thought 

made accessible to the home. It requires no technical 

knowledge on the part of parents, but applies the essence 

of this theory in every story, song, or play. 


THE children's GARDEN. 

Once, by a very high mountain, 

In a place called "Children's Dell," 

There was planted a lovely garden 
Where the little folks might dwell. 

It wasn't like other gardens. 

With flowers you must not touch. 
And grass that is not to be walked on, 

And fountains that spoil so much; 

And trees that grow 'way up above you, 

And birds that fly over your head, 
And posies so high }'ou can't reach them, 

With spikes round the flower bed. 

Oh, this was a wonderful garden. 

Where naught could be hurt, you see! 

The flowers bloomed to be gathered; 
The grass said, "Roll on me." 

The pond that lay in the center 

You could play in and needn't drown; 

And the fish weren't always hiding, 

But stayed where they might be found. 

Then when the children were hungry. 

In an arbor, so cozy and snug, 
They ate gingerbread men and horses, 

And drank milk from a crystal mug. 

When the sun set over the garden. 

The children left their play 
And went home to bed and mother. 

To dream of another day. 

— Annie C. Scott. 


The Kindergarte7i Union comes, dated Baltimore, September, 1893. 
It is an eight-page pamphlet sheet, and promises to be one more lever 
in the kindergarten cause. Its price is fifty cents a year; it is issued 
alternate months, and brings practice work, stories, reports, and articles 
appropriate to the kindergarten work. The editor is Miss Esther Jack- 
son; address, 326 Equitable Building, Baltimore, Md. The growing 
interest in the work in Mai-yland and surrounding states justifies this 
publication. We are glad for its existence, and know that the manage- 
ment of the Union will never regret the personal effort and immeasur- 
able good will which are necessary to make similar publications a suc- 

The first issue of the Kindo-garten News, under its new management, 
fulfills all the unwritten pledges which its readers are justified in expect- 
ing from the Milton Bradley firm. The frontispiece is an excellent cut 
of Miss Nqra Smith, with sketch written by her student and colleague, 
Miss Martha Sanford, of Worcester, Mass. There is much of current 
news and interest. The new editor, Mr. Henry Blake, who has long 
been identified with the firm, is in a position to wield great influence 
among the ever-growing rank and* file of kindergartners. In his edi- 
torial introduction Mr. Blake makes the following comment, which all 
friends of the previous publisher will cordially second: "To Mr. Allen 
and his colaborers The iVeivs owes what it is, and should success attend 
it in coming time, we must give large credit to those who toiled in this 
particular field before we entered it." 

Popular Astronomy, volume I, number i, has reached us. It is pre- 
pared expressly for popular readers, teachers, and amateur students of 
astronomy. It treats of all astronomical topics, but not in a technical 
manner, and is well illustrated. Among articles on the index face of 
this first number are the following, which elicit interest: Astronomy with 
a Small Camera; A Lesson on Harvest Moon; Shooting Stars — How to 
Observe Them and What They Teach. This is an open field, and one 
which the teachers and parents of young children will find not only en- 
joyable, but eminently profitable. Swinging in a hammock by moon- 
light is made more "heavenly" when the mystery of the stars is made 
the topic of conversation, even with little children. Popular Astronomy 
is published monthly by the Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.; price 
§2. 50 per year. 

" Pieces to Speak," by Emma Lee Benedict, is just published by Lee 
& Shepard, Boston; price 50 cts. 


The making of children's books is a modern art. The Jane Andrews 
books, heretofore pubHshed by Lee & Shepard, of Boston, are now 
under the management of the Ginn Publishing Co. The volume of the 
"Seven Little Sisters" has an introductory memorial to Jane Andrews, 
written by Louisa Parsons Hopkins, of Boston. This number of the 
Kindergarten Magazine contains an article written by Margaret 
Andrews Allen, the sister of Miss Jane Andrews, in which she traces 
the growth of the popular stories for children in a most interesting 

"Color in the Kindergarten" is a new manual of the theory of color 
and the practical use of color material in the kindergarten, by Mr. Mil- 
ton Bradley; price 25 cts. 

The Second Musical Congress Number of the Music Review of Chi- 
cago brings a most valuable collection of the best papers, thoughts, and 
discussions called forth by the July Columbian Congress. In reading 
this periodical one is ever conscious of a clear-sighted individuality on 
the part of its editor, Mr. Calvin B. Cady. There is a flavor throughout 
the Review which belongs to it, and to no other magazine of this depart- 
ment of art. Among the interesting papers of this number is one on the 
Influence of Women's Musical Clubs in America, by Mrs. Theodore 
Thomas; Music in Philanthropic Work, by Miss Charlotte Mulligan, of 
Buffalo, whose practical experience in this line has probably been un- 
equaled. The usual music reviews and literary notes by the editor are 
full of suggestion and discrimination. The Music Review is published 
by Clayton F. Summy, 174 Wabash Ave., Chicago; price $2. 

" Manu et Mente," a text-book of woi'king drawings of models in 
sloyd, adapted to American schools, has been brought out during the 
past summer by the Sloyd Training School of Boston. This handbook 
contains forty-six progressively arranged illustrations of models as 
adapted to pupils from nine to fifteen years. It also brings concise but 
clear descriptions of the exercises and tools, as well as kinds of wood 
employed; also illustrations of the most prominent working positions. 
This latter is of great importance to the quality of work, as well as de- 
velopment of students. The author of this book is Mr. Gustav Larsson, 
principal of the sloyd training school located on Appleton street, Boston. 
Mr. Larsson was a student in Naas, Sweden, after investigating and ma- 
turing several special lines of this work, including cabinetmaking, 
wood carving, and general wood turning. Through his own experience 
Mr. Larsson is prepared to distinguish most closely between hand work 
which supplies shops at the expense of men, and that handicraft by 
which the individual evolves himself. He expresses himself more fully 
in the article on page 1 13 of this number. The price of the text-book is 
$1.50, and it can be supplied direct by the Kindergarten Literature Co.; 
also, by the same author, the " Portfolio of Working Drawings," and 

"Whittling in the School Room." 

Vol. 6-10 


The " Prang Course of Art Education for the Public Schools," comes 
In an illustrated fifty-page pamphlet, which in itself is an artistic pro- 
duction, and embodies the growth of a great educational movement ex- 
tending over twenty years of experiment. 

The Public School Journal of Bloomington, 111., has caught the 
spirit of the time, and comes each month with bright suggestions, as 
well as varied experimental work. This latter work opens the eyes of 
teachers, and an educational journal can do no better than give its 
readers suggestive experiences, leaving them to formulate their own 

The Alumni Association of the Chicago Free Kindergarten Normal 
School is issuing a series of booklets, the first two of which are already 
in print. "Stories as a Mode of Thinking," by Richard G. Moulton, is 
the first, which, in substance, is a lecture delivered in his regular Uni- 
versity Extension work of last year. The second is on physical culture, 
by Margaret C. Morley, author of "The Song of Life." These are 
called the " Star Series," and can be secured for a nommal price of the 
Alumni Association at the Armour Institute. 

" Practical Suggestions for Kindergartners, Primary Teachers, and 
Mothers," is the title of a large volume just brought out by C. B. Wood- 
ward Co., St. Louis. Jeannette R. Gregory, an experienced Kindergart- 
ner of that city, has prepared this program, with suitable talks, stories, 
and illustrations to the extent of two hundred and thirty pages, taking 
the Froebel Mother-Play Songs as the basis for the same. We read in 
the introductory: The program is based upon the principle of relation- 
ships. Every child must adapt himself to three great relationships, — 
nature, man, and God. Miss Gregory has produced an exhaustive vol- 
ume, providing a program for every day in the year, and most system- 
atically evolving each day's work from the preceding. She has drawn 
upon the best story-writers for help, and has compiled these appropri- 
ate to the season and the scope of the child. 


The Kindergarteti in India.— " I believe the kindergarten friends in 
America will be glad to know that kindergarten work is making a be- 
ginning in India. During my nine years of service in this land I felt 
that this system was needed, so on my return to America, two years 
ago, I took the normal course. Friends gave me money to buy ma- 
terials, and I have begun kindergarten work in my own girls' school in 
this place. As yet the system is quite new to all here. Lately I have 
been writing it up for both English and Hmdoostanee papers, and about 
two weeks ago gave a talk on this subject before the educated gentle- 
men of Aligarh. I could not give it before the native ladies, since they 
are secluded in the zenanas, and are never allowed to come out. This 
talk was in English. I never met a more enthusiastic company. They 
were delighted with this, to them, new system. I was requested to hold 
another meeting, this one to be in Hindoostanee, for the benefit of those 
who do not understand English. I was asked also to open up a branch 
kindergarten school for those in the city who are too far away to attend 
school where we now hold it. We have nine high-caste Hindoo pupils 
now, and would have more if they had conveyances for coming. I shall 
open up this branch school, and afterwards, when we get our new build- 
ings near the city, will have all together. This kindergarten work has 
been the means of making many friends for us among the educated 
natives. There are fully eighty millions of little children among India's 
two hundred and eighty-five millions. These are only the little ones; 
the older children are not included. There are more little children in 
India than the entire population of the United States." 

This extract is made from the letter of Mrs. J. C. Lawson, from 
Aligarh, India, who is an enthusiastic missionary, in the right sense of 
that word. The kindergarten will appeal to the Oriental thought, we 
fully believe. It should never be used as a means of winning their in- 
terest in the church mission. Let it stand on its own merit as a uni- 
versal Christianity, and soon the so-called "heathen" will reach out 
toward it. We believe that if every foreign missionary could be armed 
with a sound, rational kindergarten training it would add more power 
to his or her work, than any other preparation can do. 

The Toronto Normal School Journal brmgs, in a recent number, a 
sketch of the development of the Kindergarten system in Canada, writ- 
ten by Miss E. Bolton of Ottawa. We reprint the following paragraphs: 

"About fifteen years ago James L. Hughes, inspector of public schools 
in Toronto, became convinced of the value of kindergarten training. 
In order to gain sympathy for the movement, Mr. Hughes established 


a system of weekly talks, on new methods, with his primary teachers, 
getting them thoroughly permeated with the idea that the only true basis 
of education is the child's 'own activity,' or, to use Froebel's formula, 
'From life, through life, to life' — from living experience, through living 
thought, to living action. His teachers thus prepared to receive kinder- 
garten prmciples, the school board and the Minister of Education for 
Ontario invited Miss Blow of St. Louis, one of the ablest exponents of 
the system in America, to come to Toronto and address the students of 
the normal school as well as the teachers in the city schools, on kinder- 
garten principles, Mrs. Hubbard, one of Miss Blow's teachers, teaching 
about thirty of the songs to the students and teachers. 

"In December, 1882, or at the close of their visit, the school board, 
advised by Mr. Hughes, asked Miss Marean, a pupil of Madam Kraus- 
Boelte, to go to St. Louis for one year to study the working of the kin- 
dergarten as conducted in the public schools of that city under the 
fostering care of Miss Blow. In September, 1883, Miss Marean returned 
to Toronto and opened the first kindergarten in the public schools of 
Toronto, having also a class of six young ladies in training. There are 
now from thirty-five to forty kindergartens in connection with the public 
schools of Toronto, under the supervision of Miss Currie, advised by 
Mrs. James L. Hughes (Miss Ada Marean). 

"Halifax, Truro, and Yarmouth (Nova Scotia), St. John and Fred- 
ericton (New Brunswick), and Winnipeg, Brandon, Regina, and Van- 
couver, in the west, each has one or more, not all connected with the 
public school system as in Ontario, but all doing good work. Thus the 
inspiration of one man's wisely directed effort to realize an ideal system 
of education has stimulated an ever-widening insight into the benefits, 
to childhood, of a system of education which has for its aim 'the devel- 
opment of all the faculties and powers of the child according to inner 
organic laws.'" 

A SCHOOL for teachers has been opened in Denver, Colo., which vir- 
tually opens the kindergarten training to teachers of every grade 
and ambition. As the state provides the kindergarten to the public 
school system, there will be demand for many kindergartners. The 
State Normal School at Greeley provides most excellent training, and 
sets the standard for the professional examinations throughout the state, 
subject to the state board of education. The kindergarten department 
at Greeley is in charge of Miss Laura Tefft. ' The regular catalogue of 
this normal school is a valuable addition to any school library, as it 
aims at model buildings, class work, curriculum, and professors. Miss 
Tefft was one of the many welcome guests in Chicago this summer, and 
expresses the sincerest enthusiasm over the prospects of the Greeley 
scheme of work. She is a student of the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus of 
Berlin, and combines experience with personal fitness for this work. 
The state of Colorado is determined to progress along the most vital 
lines. We wish the kindergarten pioneers of the "foothill" state God 

Dr. Dittman Finkler, professor in the Lhiiversity of Bonn, in a 
German discussion before the Congress of Higher Education, made an 
emphatic distinction between the so-called lectures to students, as given 


in Germany and America. The university lecture is never read from a 
prepared paper, but delivered by the professor, often without prepara- 
tion other than that of years of study and research, into which he reaches 
that he may provide his students food and stimulus for thought. The 
following figures were full of interest to his hearers: Germany's twenty 
universities accommodate 28,000 students, only 700 of whom are Amer- 
icans. The government expends 20,000,000 marks annually for the serv- 
ice rendered in these universities, while the real estate, improvements, 
libraries, and apparatus values reach over 500,000,000 marks. 

Fraulein Annette Hamminck Schepel arrived safely in Berlin 
the last of August, and writes back to her American friends with great 
feeling concerning the life and freedom accorded American women, and 
the educational progress which permeates this country. The Pestalozzi- 
Froebel Haus exhibit has been left in charge of an able attendant, who 
explains its unwritten meaning to visitors every afternoon from three to 
five o'clock. • An arrangement has been made to dispose of much of this 
exhibit at the close of the Exposition. The four bronze life groups are 
for sale, as well as a number of the illustrative drawings. Many of the 
latter are the property of the National Gallery of Berlin. A list of 
these, and prices, can be further known by inquiring of the Kindergar- 
ten Literature Company. 

The Columbus Kindergarten Association provides a systematic 
course of practical kindergarten work, to which the principals and 
teachers of the public schools of that city are cordially invited free of 
expense. It also arranges a course of eighteen lectures for the benefit 
of mothers, at a nominal expense of $2.50 for the course. The officers 
of this association are as follows: President, Mrs. J. W. Brown; first vice 
president, Mrs. S. E. Young; second vice president, Mrs. Florence Gill; 
financial secretary, Mrs. Geo. T. Spahr; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
H. F. Wilgus; treasurer, Mrs. R. A. Harrison. 

" Many of our state and city superintendents are ready to put the 
kindergarten into their public schools; but two obstacles confront them: 
first, there is a great missionary work to be done in order to secure the 
permission and necessary funds from their school boards, the sympathy 
and cooperation of their principals and teachers; the second, and by far 
the greater, obstacle is that the supply of kindergarten trainers and 
teachers is not equal to the demand. The people have decided that 
what they want for their children is the kindergarten, and we are not 
ready to give it them." 

Mrs. Edina Davidson Worden is principal of the kindergarten 
normal school of the Glen Industrial Home, Cincinnati, which opened 
September 11. This normal class provides a two years' course, with 
special feature of classes for primary school teachers and a review 
course for kindergartners. 


The Misses Law of Toledo, O., announce extended opportunity and 
work in both their kindergartens and normal training classes. These 
progressive ladies have arranged a blank certificate to aid parents in 
registering the daily growth of their children. This certificate allows 
space for observation credits in number, form, color, music, concentra- 
tion, originality, construction, execution, attention, and will development. 
By carefully following these reports, signed by the principal, parents 
are able to supplement the work at home along the needed lines of each 

Miss Mary McDowell, president of the kindergarten department 
of the national W. C. T. U., opens a private kindergarten in her own 
home at Evanston this fall. She will also carry on classes for the study 
of child nature, with special reference to adapting the kindergarten 
principle to home education. This tendency on the part of kindergart- 
ners to meet parents more than half way, is adding greatly to the mo- 
mentum of this work. Everyone whose heart is full of the importance 
of such study, can do no better than overflow to the profit of others. 

Miss Margaret C. West, of Evanston, is in charge of the free 
kindergarten under the broad roof-tree of Hull House. This Chicago 
social settlement is fast becoming conspicuous as a standard type of the 
"successful mission." The kindergarten of Hull House has an oppor- 
tunity granted few others, — that of caring for a brood of unkempt wee 
ones, and at the same time showing to the many visitors who come there 
to see its methods, the power and possibility of this work. Miss West 
is eminently the right person in the right place. 

Miss Anna M. Pennock, of Lancaster, Pa., announces an oppor- 
tunity to young ladies to study the Froebel system, in connection with 
her private school and kindergarten. In her circular to parents, setting 
forth the pledges of the kindergarten, she wisely adds: "Please do not 
expect book instruction in the kindergarten department. That is a pri- 
mary work, and should not begin until after the child is six years old. 
Kindergarten room is ample in size, light, airy, and pleasant. Examine 
it before you enter your children." 

The songs which have appeared in the recent numbers of this mag- 
azine, as well as Child- Garden, are taken from the New Souvenir Song 
Book, arranged by William L. Tomlins, and which contains the music 
rendered by the large World's Fair Children's Chorus. Among the 
seasonable songs of special interest to kindergartners will be found, 
"Far Out at Sea Lived a Little Wave," and " Every Night a Star," and 
" There was a Soft-shell Crab." 

The Kindergarten Association of South Oil City, Pa., which less than 
a year ago numbered six members, has now enrolled thirty-five, with the 
prospect of opening their second kindergarten. 


Miss Sarah Stewart, of Philadelphia, has been in Chicago during 
the Columbian Fair, as superintendent of the Pennsylvania school ex- 
hibit. She reports a most profitable summer,— in fact, a memorable 
season. We hope later to reap some of t^he benefit of her summer's 
study, in the form of articles for this magazine. Miss Stewart is well 
known by her earnest efforts in forwarding the work of the I. K. U. 

Miss Emma G. Saulsbury, who is well known to all readers of 
Child-Garden and the Kindergarten Magazine, is engaged in work 
in the Nashville College for Young Ladies. A series of mythological 
plays for young children, by her, will soon be published in the Child- 
Garden. These will be suggestive to home plays, for winter evenings, 
in which father, mother, and all may participate. 

All kindergartners are invited to visit the Uruguayan educational 
exhibit in the Agricultural Building, near the central door. The Com- 
missioner, Senor Alberto Gomez Ruana, aided by an interpreter, will 
take great pleasure in showing the work of that South American state, 
and is especially desirous of gathering advice and information, even 
criticism, to carry back with him. 

The kindergarten has been regularly incorporated into the public 
schools of Jamestown, N. Y., with Miss Mina B. Colburn in charge, 
Under the direction of Superintendent Rogers, who has been taking pre- 
liminary steps to this end for some time. Miss Colburn has just closed 
a post-graduate course of study under the Chicago Free Kindergarten 

Kindergartners, teachers, and parents who are inquiring about 
books, and where to get them, will find the complete catalogue just pub- 
lished by the Kindergarten Literature Company of inestimable value. 
It is a descriptive catalogue of the best books for children, by all pub- 
lishers. Send a two-cent stamp and secure one of these lists. 

Mrs. S. C. Eccleston returns to Parana, Argentine Republic, to 
resume her kindergarten work there. She promises to send her many 
friends a report of her work through these columns upon her arrival. 
Mrs. Eccleston has translated "The Child and Child Nature" into 
Spanish for the use of her normal students in Parana. 

Miss Frances Newton, the president of the Chicago Kindergarten 
Club, spent the summer in conducting the kindergarten work at the 
Chautauqua assembly. She reports increased interest from every 
source, and for the first time organized regular study classes for parents. 
The new calendar of the Chicago Kindergarten Club is in process 
of publication, and will as usual bring a correct directory of all its mem- 
bers; also of the kindergartens in the city, and other items of growth 
and importance, including the prospectus of the coming year's work. 


Miss Sara L. Severance writes from West Superior, Wis., of great 
growth in the work, which now employs a working force of seventeen 
trained enthusiastic kindergartners, and which is less than four years 
old. Over six hundred children are enrolled in the kindergartens. 

The necessary qualifications for admission to Mrs. Van Kirk's 
Philadelphia Training School for Kindergartners are an excellent Eng- 
lish education, a true voice for singing, culture and refinement of char- 
acter, and a natural love for children. 

Miss Mary A. West opens a training school for kindergartners at 
Tampa, Fla. The far South is expressing its desire for such progress- 
ive measures in a substantial way. Schools are opening at many points 
to meet this desire. 

Kindergartners or primary teachers who desire to exchange pri- 
mary experiments with a vitally interested worker would do well to cor- 
respond with Miss Mary E. Beckwith, at 1109 Madison avenue, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Miss McBride, formerly director of the Galveston (Tex.) Free Kin- 
dergartens, has resigned her position, and opens a private school in that 
city, — which makes three kindergartens for Galveston. 

Morristown, N. J., has a promising free kindergarten association, 
with Miss Burr as kindergartner in charge of a successful school of 
thirty children. 

Mrs. Susan Payne Clement, well known to our readers, has 
opened a regularly organized kindergarten training school at her home, 
Racine, Wis. 

The street between the Woman's Building and the Children's Build- 
ing at the Columbian Exposition is called "Kinder Court" on the re- 
cent maps. 

Mrs. Nora D. Mahew is returned to Los Angeles, Cal., after a sum- 
mer in the East, including the World's Fair and the educational con- 

The Cincinnati Kindergarten Association offers a training to those 
who are well qualified to undertake the work,/r^^ of expense. 

Madam Van Calcar was the first woman in Holland who appeared 
on a platform to plead for the children and their rights. 

During the past summer a union of kindergartners for the deaf was 
organized, with an opening membership of twenty. 

Austria has incorporated the kindergarten as a regular part of the 
public schools. 


Vol. VI.— NOVEMBER, 1893.— No. 3. 


("What modifications in the primary school are necessary or desir- 
able, in order to adapt it to continue the work of the kindergarten and 
reap the advantages of the traming already received?" — Prepared for 
the Department Congress of Kindergarten, Chicago, July 26, 1893.) 

The most crying need of the primary school is the giv- 
ing of an opportunity to the teachers to devote personal 
attention to the scholars individually. This need is to be 
met by confining the number of pupils under one teacher 
within such limits that there may be time to devote the 
needed attention to each scholar. It is recognized that one 
kindergartner cannot properly take care of more than 
twenty-five children, and it would be better if she had not 
more than eighteen or twenty. It is widely recognized also 
that fifty or sixty children are too many to be cared for 
properly by one primary teacher, and that she could do 
much better with one-half of that number. 

In placing the employment of more teachers first, as a 
modification needed in the conduct of primary schools, I do 
not forget that quality is needed more than quantity. But 
I believe that the quality needed will come largely through 
the quantity. At present the teachers cannot act to the 
extent of their native ability, because overburdened with a 
mass of work. If their work be lessened in quantity, or if — 
in better words — the same amount of work can be directed 
into fewer, more diversified, and more appropriate channels, 
the quality will be greatly improved. The teacher can do 
for each child more nearly what the child needs to have 


done for it. One of the important elements in the excel- 
lence of kindergartens is the ability of the kindergartner to 
give to each child the individual attention he needs. 

While I believe that the present teachers are capable, in 
great measure, of much better work than they are given an 
opportunity to perform, I believe the qualifications of teach- 
ers are capable of great improvement. The kindergarten 
method is more than a practice; it is a philosophy. The 
discovery of Froebel is an epoch-making discovery, and yet 
it is simplicity itself. It is but the recognition and the em- 
bodiment of the processes of nature. In order to realize its 
significance, its embodiment in practice must be observed. 
The primary school teacher, therefore, should have been a 
kindergartner, that she may know how to continue the work 
of the kindergarten. 

The greatest value of the kindergarten rests in the power 
it has to develop the higher and nobler side of individual 
character and ability. This power comes from the con- 
formity of the kindergarten practice to the methods of na- 

Conformity to nature is more and more recognized every 
day to be the path of wisdom and of right. 

The day is not yet past in which the nature of man is 
considered by some persons to be corrupt, and the natural 
tendencies of man to be wrong; but a brighter and truer 
faith in human nature and its Creator is dawning, and the 
school curriculum, as well as other practices, should be 
made to conform to our higher light. 

If the kindergarten practice conforms to the method of 
nature, it should be continued so long as the conformity 
continues. As the child grows, his needs and abilities grow; 
but all growth is by degrees and not by leaps; so the transi- 
tion from the kindergarten to the school should be gradual. 

In conforming to the processes of nature the kindergar- 
ten gives to the child those things to be done which the 
child wants to do. The needs of the child find expression 
in his impulses. The child in the kindergarten learns and 
grows as he plays. He grows physically, mentally, and 


morally, while he plays spontaneously. His play is at the 
same time serious work, but it is not labor. It is good for 
him. It is healthful. 

Will anyone say that a change comes over the child sud- 
denly, when he reaches a certain age, so that after that age 
it is no longer good for him to play as he learns? or that 
suddenly he must be snatched from the kindergarten, where 
at the same time he does what he wants to do and does 
what the kindergartner wants him to do, and must be placed 
in a school where he must do as the teacher wants him to 
do whether he wants to do so or not? This would not be in 
conformity to the processes of nature; for as his nature has 
not changed suddenly, the processes to which he is sub- 
jected should not be changed suddenly. 

After the child leaves the school his development does 
not stop. If he has a fondness for business, for medicine, 
for art, lor science, he pursues those vocations, or studies, 
diligently and — as those who do not sympathize with his 
tastes -might say — laboriously; but he pursues them for 
pleasure. His work is play. 

Is there, then, an intermediate time in his life, when 
work is not or should not be pla\'? I believe there is no 
time when it should not be play. 

Reduced to a general statement, therefore, the primary 
school curriculum, as well as that of the later schools, 
should be so modified that the children should not be called 
upon to do what they do not want to do. Their schooling 
should be play, and not labor. It should be work, and not 
drudgery. The art of pedagogy should be that which will 
adapt the supply of the needs of the child to the natural 
desires and disposition of the child. This necessitates the 
adaptation of the method to the individual, and the compe- 
tency of the teacher to her task, and the liberty of action of 
the teacher in the execution of her task. 

The fault of all schooling has been, and still is, for the 
most part, that the schooling has not been carried on for its 
own sake. Secondary motives have been substituted for 
primary ones, as inducements to continue in school. The 


children of a well-educated kindergartner are impatient to 
be in the kindergarten. They plead with their mothers not 
to let sickness or bad weather keep them from attendance, 
and they are sorry when they must go home, and say they 
"wish the kindergarten could keep all the time." Is it 
usually so with the school? There may be teachers who so 
keep school, but such is not the rule. It is not always, if 
generally, the fault of the teachers that such schools are 
not more numerous. It is in most cases because the teach- 
ers are driven to force upon their scholars tasks for which 
the scholars are not ready. 

The occupations of the kindergarten should be continued 
into the school, until by gradual development the transition 
has been made from the kindergarten work to the school 

The essential modification needed in primary teaching 
is not the addition of one or the elimination of another sub- 
ject of study. It is not the change, in any general way, of 
the methods of teaching, although these, especially in teach- 
ing to read, are capable of great improvement in most 
schools. It is the waiting until the child is ready to take 
hold of specific kinds of work before giving him this work 
to do. Meanwhile his education should be conducted upon 
the lines and according to the methods already found suited 
to his nature, so that he may enjoy going to school, and 
shall develop in the needed directions while feeling that he 
is but playing. 

What are the daily and nightly labors of the physician 
who loves his profession, but play? What is the reformer 
doing when he buffets against the waves of popular opposi- 
tion, and mayhap suffers obloquy or death in behalf of his 
beloved cause, but playing? Play is but the gratification of 
desire to accomplish certain work; and all human activity 
will become play and a delight when it is adjusted to na- 

The faults bf our schools are largely the faults of our 
national life. There is too much hurry. Because children 
can be made to read at five or six years of age they are 


driven to learn to read at that age, when they do not natu- 
rally develop to the stage at which learning to read is their 
need, until they are seven or eight years old. When they 
should be filling their minds with observation of nature they 
are driven to the acquisition of second-hand knowledge, 
which they are not competent to digest. 

When Agassiz had his first class of students at his mu- 
seum in Cambridge, he set before each student a pile of 
shells or a collection of fishes, or some other subject of 
study, and told them to find out what they could about 
them by observation. He did not give them text-books to 
read, with ready-made classifications, but set them to classi- 
fying for themselves. Their observation might be inade- 
quate, their classifications might be crude; but whatever the 
immediate, practical outcome of the study, the habit was 
formed to see for oneself and to think for oneself. Each of 
these students became a distinguished naturalist. 

We know that some children have a natural fondness for 
numbers and measures — let us say for mathematics — from 
an early age; some children have an equal fondness for 
stories, not only for what they are about, but for the way in 
which they are told — let us say for history and literature; 
others for form and color and their representations — let us 
say for art and architecture. Such children do not need to 
be driven, but only to be led, in the direction in which they 
tend to go. 

If we are justified in our attempts to teach mathematics 
to those who do not naturally or at the outset love mathe- 
matics, to teach history and a familiarity with literature to 
those who have no first taste for these studies, it is because 
we recognize or at least believe that the germs of love for 
these studies exist in every soul. If such germs exist, why 
should we not develop them naturally? Would we make a 
bean plant grow by seizing its stem and pulling it until it 
reached the desired length, or would we supply its roots 
with nourishment and its leaves with sunlight, and trust to 
the power within for the rest? 

That our unnatural, unsympathetic method of schooling 



has not worse results than we observe, is due to inherent 
power of the soul to resist distortion. The forces of nature 
prevail as it is, to a great degree, over the artificial inter- 
ferences of unnatural systems of instruction. 

The function of the teacher is to lead, and not to drive. 
Those only should be teachers who can lead. 

Let us double or treble the numbers of our primary 
school teachers. Let us secure the best teachers for the 
youngest scholars, and promote teachers from the older to 
the younger classes. Let us give freedom to the natural 
teacher to carry out her own ideas, not aiming to run the 
schools as machines, at the minimum of cost and the maxi- 
mum of gross material ground out of them. 

Then we may safely leave it to the practical teachers 
themselves to follow such methods as shall continue the 
work of the kindergarten in the schools, and reap the ad- 
vantages of the training already renewed. 

B. PicKMAN Mann. 

Washington, D. C. 


IN the catechism which formed the basis of the religious 
training of our Christian forefathers, the first question 
is: "What is the chief end of man?" And the answer 
— "The chief end of man is to serve God and to glo- 
rify him forever." In stating the purpose of his scheme of 
education, Froebel employs very similar terms: "To know 
God is the chief end of all knowledge and the beginning of 
knowledge." The Sunday school holds as its ideal the real- 
ization of the divine" in the human, the seeking after God; 
and the kindergarten has no higher reason for being, than 
to bring the children, nurtured within its walls, to this be- 
ginning of knowledge. 

So we find these two institutions for child culture reach- 
ing toward the same ultimate end. The means employed 
will vary, but the principles must be the same; for child 
nature is not put off when the Sunday gown is put on. 
"The phenomena of nature," according to Froebel, "form 
the ladder from earth to heaven." 

The office of the kindergarten is to place the little feet 
on the lowest round of this ladder, that the human being 
may climb ever higher and higher toward the heavenly. In 
order to climb, the child must learn to use hands and eyes 
and ears. He must gain power. He must instruct himself 
from the pages of the storybook which the Father has writ- 
ten for the children of earth. 

This book of nature is the only text-book of the kinder- 
garten. "The heavens declare the glory of God!" sang the 
shepherd bard of Israel. From the beginning man has 
spelled the name of God in the star letters of the heavens. 
He has heard him speak in the thunders from many a 
mount, or in the whisperings of the wind. The flower from 
the crannied wall, the leaf and the rock, written over with 


the hieroglyphics of the Creator, are the living preachers to 
the children of the race everywhere. These the kindergart- 
ner brings to the child-garden. She strives to find "tongues 
in the trees, sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

But we recognize another revelation of the divine. "The 
law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul," sang the 
same sweet singer of Israel, who had seen the hand of the 
Creator in the glory of the heavens. Man lives not by 
bread alone, not only in the life of nature, but among men. 
Some more perfect guide to the relationships of man with 
men was necessary, — a more definite moral code. The 
"word" was needed, to give completeness and assurance to 
what man dimly discerned from the voices of nature. While 
the kindergartner finds her lessons on the pages of the first 
book given to man, the Sunday-school' teacher makes pre- 
eminent that other book, which we name the Word of God. 
To show that these two books do not contradict each other, 
but that one interprets the other, is the mission of the Sun- 
day school. 

In the kindergarten the child learns the virtues of self- 
control, self-denial, helpfulness, and generosity, by their 
continued practice. In the Sunday school he has presented 
to him an ideal for all his moral activities, in the life of the 
boy and man who went about doing good. 

The Sunday school does not need to borrow the name, 
nor the tables, nor blocks, nor any of the material of the 
kindergarten, but rather its spirit and method of presenting 
truth. The thing must come before the word, the idea be- 
fore its formulation, the invisible through the visible, the 
abstract through the concrete; these are the fundamental 
principles of the kindergarten practice. When the Sunday 
school accepts these with the Froebelian idea of growth, it 
has received its best gift from the kindergarten. If the 
kindergarten could be put into one word, it would be this 
one: growth. Think of all that it implies! Does it not in- 
volve the idea of gradual, orderly, and continuous develop- 
ment? It necessitates the adaptation of instruction to the 
stage of development where the child is found; for the hu- 


man mind, like any other organism, requires right condi- 
tions, which will vary at different stages, for its complete 
unfolding. There must be progression, then, orderly and 
continuous, in the teachings given. A lesson system which 
considers this idea of continuous growth cannot be uniform, 
for the child must think and understand and speak as a 
child, not as an adult. 

The birds, the lilies, the grass, the vine, were the themes 
for the teaching of the great Teacher who spake as never 
man spake before. To his simple peasant followers he gave 
the most abstract of all conceptions, clothed in the concrete 
form. To the woman by the well, weary and thirsty, he 
gives through the sparkling water which she may see, the 
thought of the unseen fountains of life. He translates, for 
her, earthly terms into heavenly. The mountain at which 
her fathers worshiped, the temple at Jerusalem, are real 
and tangible. She can understand these, and through these 
external symbols of a divine presence, her mind is led to 
faintly comprehend that the outward is only a form for 
spirit and truth. 

The child of today likewise is to be led in his progress 
toward the spiritual and invisible, by the concrete and the 
visible. The Sunday school, like the kindergarten, may 
use all visible things as emblems and as interpreters of the 
Word. It may bring to the child those truths "whereon 
our lives do rest," in this symbolic fashion. "If a man die 
shall he live again?" is a question which still most deeph^ 
concerns the human heart, as it did the man of Uz, so long 

The ancient Greek found his answer in the yearly resur- 
rection of nature, and embodied it in a story which is im- 
mortal. "The restoration of Persephone from the darkness 
of Hades to the light, is an answer given from the heart of 
man, an assurance that death is no more the end of life 
than is winter the end of the flowers that sleep under its 
snows." In the seed and the bulb, falling into the ground 
to die, only to live again in a fairer form, we find for the 
child the beginning of his Easter story. Nature's parable 


of life from death helps him to comprehend the story of 
the resurrection. Will a child whose eyes have been 
opened to see the wonderful clothing, every spring, of the 
barren earth, find it difiicult to conceive of the multitude in 
white robes who live still? 

To help a child to look upon a crawling caterpillar as 
holding the promise of a beautiful winged creature, is to 
lead him toward the realization of the meaning of the 
words, "If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things 
which are above." Without some such symbol, the text is 

In his book of "Mother-Play," Froebel shows how some 
of the most abstract truths may be felt by the child through 
the visible representation. "To give a child a truth too 
early, in words," says Rousseau, "is to plant seeds of vice 
in a pure mind." But the truth may be given symbolically, 
long before it can be formulated by the understanding. 

The clear stream in which the fish live and move freely, 
may become a continual gospel for the child, and proclaim 
to him, as it flows, that in Him we live and move and have 
our being. The broken window pane, which the little one 
tries in vain to repair by himself, explains how it is that 
only the pure in heart see God, who is the light of the 

The Sunday-school teacher, like the kindergartner, needs 
to be trained in Froebel's method of interpreting the sym- 
bolic language of all outward things. The book itself, 
which she teaches, abounds in suggestions for the right sort 
of lessons. From the first announcement of light to the 
world, in Genesis, to the vision of the city of light- in Reve- 
lation, it is full of types and symbols. That the beginning 
and the end of knowledge is to know God in his world is its 
constant theme; "for the invisible things of Him from the 
creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by 
the things that are made." Lucy Wheelock. 

Chajincy Hall, Bostofi. 


THERE has been among educators, for some time 
past, a desire to have a method of teaching sing- 
ing which will produce such results as shall com- 
pare favorably with those obtained in other de- 
partments of science and art. This desire is especially 
commendable on the part of kindergartners, because of the 
importance in their work of music, both vocal and instru- 

The years passed in the nursery and in the kindergarten 
comprise the most essential period of life, and all that the 
child learns during that time is of paramount importance 
for the future. Viewing the subject from this standpoint, 
instructors of the young should, for the accomplishment of 
their purpose, employ those methods in their work which 
will give to their pupils a thorough understanding of the 
subjects taught, and the ability to make the knowledge ac- 
quired practical. 

In teaching singing, that method should be considered 
the best which regards the subject as of first importance 
and its signs or notation as subordinate, giving only as 
much of the latter as is necessary for the present stage of 

We are told that the first thing which should be taught 
in music is key relationship. The pitch of a musical sound 
may be regarded as absolute and also as relative; absolute 
when viewed independently of other musical sounds, and 
relative when taken in connection with a governing or key 
tone. Mode in music is that which gives to each tone of 
the scale a particular importance which makes of the key 
tone a tonic, etc. It is the importance attached to key re- 
lationship — i. e., the connection between each tone of the 
scale and the tonic — which has given to the Tonic Sol-fa 
method its name as distinct from other sol-fa methods. 
This method is also called the system of the "movable 


do," because the key tone, regardless of pitch, is always do. 
If, as Dr. Lowell Mason says, we use the syllables at all, 
we should have the do "immovably" fixed to the key tone; 
nevertheless this method is included among the "movable 
do" systems. 

To be able to sing at sight is considered necessary for 
singers. At one time the ability to do this was regarded as 
part of the education of a gentleman; but for various rea- 
sons music, so to speak, has been misused,- and at the pres- 
ent time comparatively few are able to read music intelli- 

It remained for Miss Glover, of Norwich, England, to 
invent, and for Mr. John Curwen, also a native of England, 
to improve and complete, a method of teaching to sing, at 
once simple and easy to learn, which has for its prime ob- 
ject the teaching of music itself, called the "Tonic Sol-fa 
Method of Teaching to Sing." In this method the sol-fa 
syllables are used, but the manner of spelling has been 
changed, so that instead of the old familiar Italian ''do,, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la, si," we have "Doh, ray, me, fah, soh, lah, te." 
The first letter of the last syllable is altered to "t," so that 
two of the syllables shall not have the same initial letter. 
This is done for facility in writing, when only the initial let- 
ters of the syllables are used. 

In order to preserve musical thoughts it is necessary to 
have a notation; and it is obvious, that to be simple, and 
therefore more natural, a method which uses only what is 
required for the stage which is being taught, has a great 
advantage over one which requires an abundance of signs 
at the start, thus burdening the mind with unnecessary 
things and consigning to a subordinate place the real thing 
to be taught, which in this case is music. 

A reference just here to the early history of the Tonic 
Sol-fa method will be appropriate. 

In the summer of 1891 was celebrated in England the 
jubilee of the Tonic Sol-fa system, it being then just fifty 
years (1841) since John Curwen, a young Congregational 
minister, was solemnly charged by the Rev. T. Stratten, at 


a conference of Sunday-school teachers at Hull, "to find 
out the simplest way of teaching music, and get it into use." 

Mr. Curwen had always been interested in the education 
of children, and some years previous to 1841 he taught a 
number of children under his charge to sing. Having no 
natural aptitude for music, he was obliged first to learn the 
songs which afterwards, with the assistance of a friend, he 
taught to the children. In order to give a certain amount 
of stability to their work they endeavored to impart a 
knowledge of the signs of the notation then in use, — 
crotchets, quavers, sharps, flats, etc. 

For a time the results were encouraging; for they learned 
that the children, instead of quarreling and doing other 
things which were not commendable at their play, were 
heard to sing the songs they had been taught. Their teach- 
ers, however, were conscious that the knowledge of music 
gained did not extend beyond these songs. Mr. Curwen 
regarded it as pretty, but not as educational. 

The height of his musical ambition at this time was to 
be able to "make out" from notes the songs he would 
know. With this object in view he sought the instruction 
of a teacher, who, as he relates himself, "drummed much 
practice into me, but no independent power." In learning 
intervals he was constantly stumbling, and longed for some 
plan by which he might detect the small intervals, which 
troubled him most. About this time a book was loaned 
to him which described Miss Glover's system of teaching 
music. At the first reading he threw the book aside, ex- 
claiming that it made music more puzzling than ever; but 
subsequently he read it with interest, and taught himself 
and a little child who lived in the same house, to sing with 
great success, being enabled to sing at sight — which was 
what he had desired to do for so long a time — in a fort- 
night. He discovered that the old methods of teaching had 
presented to him only the shell, not the kernel of musical 
knowledge. He now understood that the thing itself was 
very different from its names and signs. He could also 
fully appreciate that in her teaching Miss Glover taught, 


first, music, and then its notation, as soon as that which was 
taught had been mastered. He discovered that her method, 
more than other methods, was based on the principles of 
science; that it was the simplest, the easiest to teach, and 
the easiest to learn — consequently, the least artificial. 

Following up the pleasure derived from the impressions 
thus received, a visit to the school under Miss Glover's 
patronage, at Norwich, confirmed them. Among other 
points of excellence in the singing of the children assem- 
bled there, he noted particularly the accuracy of tone; that 
throughout a long tune the voices did not fall in pitch. 

It was after his visit to Norwich that he received the 
commission from the Sunday-school conference. He re- 
garded the charge as sacred, and did not hesitate to bestow 
upon it much time in earnest study and practice. The ces- 
sation, for a season, of other duties, gave him leisure to test 
the method by teaching both children and adults, and to 
promote its use. At the conference, Mr. Curwen, after 
what he had witnessed in Miss Glover's school, felt justified 
in stating that an art which the holy Scriptures record as 
being demanded of all, must be simple and easy of attain- 
ment, if one did but understand the way, instead of being 
complex and difficult to learn. Therefore it was agreed 
that the method must be easy, true, and cheap, to meet the 
needs of the people intellectually, spiritually, and finan- 

Mr. Curwen modified the mode of writing which Miss 
Glover had used, in several ways to meet these needs. 
First he substituted the small letters for the capitals, to 
save space and time; then changed some of the marks and 
signs used, because others were more available among print- 
ers. But the change which was welcomed by many teachers 
as most advantageous was the plan which Mr. Curwen 
adopted for measuring time by placing the accent marks at 
equal distances from one another. All of the changes noted 
above gave greater facility in writing, and the last caused 
the introduction of the sol-fa music paper and blackboard, 
on both of which the accent marks were printed or painted 


at equal distances ready for use, for what Mr. Curwen has 
styled "musical shorthand." Thus, by means of the sol-fa 
music paper, many pieces, taken from expensive works 
quite beyond the reach of numbers of the pupils, were 
made available, and this paper was gladly welcomed by the 
pupils. Teachers themselves were also enabled to have a 
larger and more suitable collection of tunes. Another 
change was the establishing of a closer relationship with 
the old notation, by retaining the old names of the pitch 
notes, — the first seven letters of the alphabet, — which made 
ihe transition into the old notation much easier. 

We will now mention the principal points of the Tonic 
Sol-fa method which distinguish it from all other methods 
of teaching music. In this method the scale is thrown into 
prominence, and absolute pitch into the background. Miss 
Glover forbade her pupils even to think of absolute pitch. 
The sol-fa letters are used as an auxiliary to the staff, and 
also to form an independent notation. These were the two 
points in Miss Glover's method which most delighted Mr. 
Curwen, and he used them in building up his own method. 
For very many years the sol-fa syllables or their initials 
had been placed against the notes of the staff, to aid begin- 
ners; but Miss Glover believed that they alone were suffi- 
cient, and Mr. Curwen adopted her theory. 

It was to these ideas rather than to details that Mr. Cur- 
wen was indebted to Miss Glover. Although we are told 
that Miss Glover did not consider Mr. Curwen's develop- 
ment of her plans an improvement, but ever expressed a 
good-humored disbelief in them, they remained friends, and 
the spirit of unselfishness and good-will manifested by each 
of them is worthy of imitation. 

That which we owe to Mr. Curwen alone is the theory 
of the mental effect of tones; i. e., that in singing we do not 
calculate the distance of one tone from another, but that a 
consciousness of the independent, definite character which 
each tone possesses, when sung in relation to the governing 
or key tone, is impressed on the mind, and compels it to 
recognize each tone as soon as it is heard. 


This idea of the mental effect or character of tones is 
that which when once thoroughly grasped will give to the 
Tonic Sol-fa student. a power in the realm of musical sound 
which makes him an independent reader of any musical 
notation. To this end the sol-fa teacher spends much time 
in training the ear to recognize tones not only consecu- 
tively, but simultaneously; as melody and as harmony. 

In teaching the musical scale by this method, the tones 
are not given in step-wise order, but by chords; which 
means that the pupil is led to associate the tones which are 
concordant, and not those which are discordant. In this 
way he will learn to tune his voice correctly and to keep 
the pitch. In part-singing this is very necessary, and is an 
invaluable aid to all students of music. Thus will the pu- 
pils learn to thiiik musically, as well as to sing ?misically. 

In the matter of time or rhythm, that subtile universal 
essence of all movement, the Tonic Sol-fa pupil acquires a 
precision which becomes habitual, and which will carry him 
safely through all the divisions and combinations of mu- 
sical measure. 

We are told that the greatest things are the simplest. 
Tonic Sol-faists claim for their method that its chief charm 
is simplicity. We feel constrained to say that had Fried- 
rich Froebel, the father of the kindergarten, and John Cur- 
wen, the father of "Tonic" Sol-fa, worked together, each 
would have been delighted with the other's work; because 
both labored for little children, and each fully appreciated 
that what was done for them must be founded on simplic- 
ity. The one said, "Come, let us with our children live." 
The other said, "My object is to make the people of this 
country, and their children, sing, and to make them sing 
for noble ends." Emma A. Lord. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 


(The following eloquent paragraphs are culled from various public 
addresses made during the past summer by Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, of 
California, They are here preserved as valuable campaign argu- 
ments for the use of kindergartners when compelled to meet the same 

The science of the unfoldment of a human being is the 
grandest science to which the mind of man ever devoted 
itself. The art of developing true manhood and woman- 
hood is the noblest art that ever challenged human thought 
and investigation. Therefore it is, that true educators are 
the kings and queens of this world; and just so long as 
Brain is master and owner of this universe, they will con- 
tinue to be the supreme potentates of earth. It is grand to 
be an artist in marble. It is grander still to be a fashioner 
of men. And I rejoice, dear friends, that the regnant aim 
of kindergarten training is heart culture. We want that 
sort of education which has in it more of the element of 
character building. The end of all culture must be charac- 
ter, and its outcome in conduct. 

"Conduct," says Matthew Arnold, "is three-fourths of 
life." When our fathers would conserve liberty for their 
children and mankind, they "fed the lambs"; they looked 
to the proper training of the young. We have a vast num- 
.ber of humane institutions for the reclamation and recovery 
of the wayward and the erring. We have reformatory insti- 
tutions, prisons, jails, and houses of correction; but all of 
these are only repair shops. Their work is secondary, not 
primal. It is vastly more economical to build new houses, 
than to overhaul and remodel old ones. 

Virtue, integrity, and well-doing are not sufficiently 
aimed at in earliest childhood. And yet right action is far 
more important than rare scholarship. The foundation of 
national prosperity and perpetuity is laid deep down in the 
bed rock of individual character. Let the plodding, the 

Vol. 6-12 


thriftless, and the unaspiring of any country have the mo- 
nopoly of peopling that country, and the race will become 
gradually deteriorated, until finally the whole social fabric 
gives way, and the nation reverts back to barbarism or is 
blotted from the earth. Ignorance and lack of character in 
the masses will never breed wisdom, so long as ignorance 
and lack of character in the individual breed folly. 

"The most delicate, the most difficult, and the most im- 
portant part of the training of children," says Friedrich 
Froebel, the founder of kindergarten, "consists in the de- 
velopment of their inner and higher life of feeling and of 
soul, from which springs all that is highest and holiest in 
the life of men and of mankind, — in short, the religious life, 
the life that is at one with God, in feeling, in thought, and 
in action. What, then," he asks, "must education do? It 
must proceed as gently and gradually as possible, and in 
this respect, as with all other kinds of development, work 
first only through general influences." 

Some kind of moral education is inevitable. It is im- 
possible to send the intellect of a child to school, and keep 
the heart at home. You cannot send one part of the nature 
without sending the whole. Nay, more, you cannot touch 
one chord of our curious nature, that the others do not 
vibrate. There is no such thing as educating one part of 
the nature, and leaving the rest at a standstill. 

Froebel laid great emphasis upon the personality of the 
teacher. "It is the man or woman that makes the impres- 
sion on the child, and not the marks upon the blackboard." 

It was Thomas Arnold who made the school at Rugby. 
I believe, with that eminent authority on educational affairs 
— Dr. Mayo — that no one is fit to become a teacher of little 
children who has not a deep, patient, enthusiastic love, 
founded on a religious faith in their spiritual nature as chil- 
dren of God, their moral obligation to God and man, and 
the mighty issues, private and public, involved in their com- 
ing life. 

You cannot, says Froebel, do heroic deeds in words, or 
by talking about them; but you can educate a child to self- 


activity and to well-doing, and through these to a faith 
which will not be dead. The kindergarten child is taught 
to manifest his love in deeds rather than words. A child 
thus taught never knows lip service, but is led forward to 
that higher form of service, where their good works glorify 
the Father, thus proving Froebel's assertion to be true, 
where he says: "I have based my education on religion, 
and it must lead to religion." 

Character building in the kindergarten goes forward by 
means of personal activity in an atmosphere of happiness 
and contentment. Froebel insisted that education and hap- 
piness should be wedded; that there should be as much 
pleasure in satisfying intellectual and spiritual hunger as 
physical hunger. And should not this be so? Is it not 
more or less the fault of methods, when school and misery 
are closely allied in the thought of the little child? Does 
it not, as a rule, argue some radical defect in the personal- 
ity of the teacher, when little children hate the schoolroom? 

The kindergarten child must learn to help himself. He 
must be taught self-reliance. The simple fact of the matter 
is, all helps that smother self-help are bad. The help of 
others should be to us what phosphates are to the soil; 
they should not be tlic timig grozv/i, but they should stimu- 
late the growth of the desired thing in us. The work of the 
teacher is to stimulate, not to supersede. The finding out 
is the educating power. Only paralytics should be carried. 
The design of all education is to make men and women to 
be the sovereigns of their own faculties, the popes of their 
own senses. 


THE so-called educational exhibit in the Manufac- 
tures Building stands for the greatest compilation 
of school methods, materials, and records that 
has ever been massed together. Who shall say, 
however, that the entire Exposition is not one vast and 
varied educational exhibit? The cutting of many-facet dia- 
monds in the Mining Building, or the majestic colonnade 
of fragrant tree trunks about the Forestry Building, the 
composite of races on the Midway Plaisance, — yes, even the 
tiniest sea-urchin while lazily stretching its arms in the 
marine department of the Fisheries, — all these are as emi- 
nently educational as the profoundest tomes of foreign uni- 
versity or bound volumes of public school examination 
papers. Let us rather call the exhibit in the gallery of the 
Manufactures Building the exhibit of the schools. 

Every state and national building is an object lesson of 
history, geography, and political economy, a text-book of 
unlimited resource to such as have eyes to read the story 
of universal mankind in every individual man's efforts and 
accomplishments. Horticultural Hall is nature's veritable 
gazetteer, teaching, first and foremost, the wonder lesson of 
her unmeasured profusion of beauty and variety. The 
effects of this vast educational exposition will be felt far 
down the school years to come, and will permeate and up- 
lift every schoolroom in the land, working on unto right- 

The school exhibit does credit to every department of 
pedagogy, from the kindergarten to the university. We 
dare say that it does not express the ideals of the modern 
school men, nor present an adequate illustration of the great 
and good intentions of the average school commissioner or 
teacher. But this much it does stand for: that result which 
is ever being aggregated by the law of balance between the 


extreme ideal and the possible application of that ideal to 

The kindergarten is generously sprinkled in among the 
more formal but often less attractive exhibits. Thirty- 
two states of our Union have systematic and extensive 
exhibits, tracing their school work up from the primary 
grade. Many of these show how strongly the kindergarten 
methods have influenced the lower grades. In every case 
where there are public school kindergartens to exhibit, it is 
done with a certain pride of being progressive which can- 
not be misunderstood. The following are among the more 
conspicuous cities which exhibit public kindergarten work: 
Des Moines and Clinton, la.; Lexington and Louisville, 
Ky.; Boston, Mass.; Grand Rapids, Mich.; Minneapolis and 
St. Paul, Minn.; St. Louis, Mo.; Rochester, Albany, and 
Buffalo, N. Y.; Columbus, O.; Milwaukee, Wis.; Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Indianapolis and La Porte, Ind. 

The more progressive state normal training schools show 
well-organized kindergarten departments. At Greeley, 
Colo., the teachers are prepared for the public kindergar- 
tens which that state provides; the Albany (N. Y.) normal 
school conducts a training school and a model kindergarten; 
the state normal at Madison, S. Dak., gives all its primary 
teachers a kindergarten course, and we find that the primary 
grades are permeated with the occupation work. Cedar 
Falls (la.) normal school has its full-fledged kindergarten 
department; also that of Emporia, Kan., and Cook County 
Normal School, Illinois. There are others also, but these 
are among those we noted in passing through the exhibit. 
The rural schools of Utah, North Dakota, Nebraska, Michi- 
gan, Kansas, and parts of other states, boast of public kin- 
dergartens, while Oregon and Ohio are among the states 
which have recently legislated optional public kindergar- 

The Indiana state exhibit, under the direction of Mr. W. 
N. Hailmann, has a most practical display of the kindergar- 
ten applied to grade work. 

The private training schools which display most charac- 


teristic work are those of Mrs. Eudora Hailmann, of Indi- 
ana; the National Kindergarten Normal of Mrs. Pollock, 
Washington, D. C; the Chicago Kindergarten College and 
the Chicago Free Kindergarten Association; and the Louis- 
ville Free Kindergarten Association. 

The composite exhibit of twenty-five deaf-mute insti- 
tutes reveals, the extent to which color, form, and nature 
studies have been adopted as means of making the mute to 
speak, while both blind and feeble-minded institutions show 
the principle — handiwork — practically applied with their 
youngest children. 

Several private schools and institutions — such as Pratt, 
Working-men's School of New York city, Jewish Manual 
Training School of Chicago — show systematic kindergarten 
work. The large Catholic exhibit is sprinkled throughout 
with the hand work peculiar to the kindergarten system. 

There are four powerful exhibits which are not in the 
galleries reserved for the schools; one is that of the Cook 
County Normal School, in the Children's Building, which 
shows the kindergarten as applied to every grade, not ex- 
cluding the normal training of teachers. Another is that of 
the California Mission Kindergartens, which line the gallery 
of the California Building. Again, the school work of the 
state of Illinois is found in the state home, where the ex- 
hibit of the Chicago public schools is recorded as attracting 
more visitors than that of any other one city. The fourth 
exhibit, which stands by itself in the northeast gallery of 
the Manufactures Building, is that of the Pestalozzi-Froebel 
Haus of Berlin. The Froebel Verein of Berlin, also the 
Kindergarten schools of Eisenach and Breslau, have their 
exhibits, largely in reports and pamphlets, included in the 
German educational exhibit. 

The French mission exhibits include the public nurseries, 
which correspond in some degree to our kindergartens, 
though scarcely on such an educational basis. 

Canada has contributed a goodly display of public 
school kindergartens, including the Union School exhibit of 
Nova Scotia. 


The territory of New Mexico has evidence of kindergar- 
ten primary work, under the direction of the sisters of 
charity, who constitute the main teachers of the territory. 

New South Wales has record of public kindergartens in 
Sydney; also Uruguay and the Argentine Republic have 
exhibits of government kindergartens. In the Russian 
book exhibit we find a volume on the methods of Froebel, 
by Roffkovskay of St. Petersburg, also several cases of chil- 
dren's hand work. The printed reports of Finland and 
Denmark mention well-organized kindergartens under pub- 
lic direction. 

The Japanese exhibit of the government schools dis- 
closed the remarkable fact of over five hundred government 
kindergartens, accommodating 13,809 children, all under 
the direction of Japanese kindergartners regularly trained 
for this work. It is not for us to say whether these children 
schools are according to our standard of good work or not. 
The government educators of that country have investigated 
the Froebel method themselves, and we must accept their 
interpretation as measured by national judgments. In 1885 
there were but fifty kindergartens; now there are ten times 
that number. Text-books are supplied to the female train- 
ing school at Tokyo, and the ethical, moral teaching is made 
the substructure of their version of Froebelianism. The 
expression used by our Japanese guide was this: We believe 
much in fostering the moral virtues in the school. There 
are also several mission kindergartens under the direction 
of American mission schools, but these are not always ac- 
ceptable to the native educators. The exhibit of hand work 
in the government schools has much to do with the rice and 
silk industries, and the materials are peculiar to the country, 
as they should be. The records and statistics are most 
complete, and show a growth in modern directions which is 
not always granted the island Japonica. 

All of these displays testify that the various exhibitors, 
whether they be individuals, institutions, or nations, have 
faith in the kindergarten system. They testify that the 
most progressive sections have the most faith, and they also 


testify that by this faith the old man who has sat upon the 
neck of our public schools is about to be thrown off, and 
freedom to be secured. 

However interesting the concrete exhibits of weaving 
mats, bright paper foldings, and clay modelings may be, 
they must by no means be considered the sum and sub- 
stance of the kindergarten work. These are but the ex- 
ternal signs, the values of which must ever be relative to 
children and their native environments. 

The school exhibit is by no means the only department 
which has done honor to the kindergarten during the past 
memorable summer. The active kindergartens in operation 
— the one in the Children's Building, the other in the Illi- 
nois State Building — have been teaching daily lessons of 
this art applied. The kindergarten section of the educa- 
tional congresses has carried forth the pedagogic discus- 
sions to practical issue, while the literature and general 
information which have been most generously circulated, the 
thousands of questions which have been answered, and the 
infinite wrong impressions which have been righted, all go 
to make up a sum total which marks an epoch in educa- 
tional history, since what adds to the spreading of the kin- 
dergarten work affects the whole educational world. The 
commingling of the workers from every city, state, and 
nation has enlarged not only the information, but also the 
brotherhood of kindergartners. The year 1893-4 will be a 
Pentecostal year, I believe, for the thousands of little chil- 
dren who in the end are to gather up the essence of all 
these other great benefits. Amalie Hofer. 


THE Oriental Republic of Uruguay, South America, 
has much to tell us of its educational ideals, and 
brings with its national exhibit a careful state- 
ment of what its people have done for the boys 
and girls, as well as in teaching and training. They most 
enthusiastically tell us that they have had their Horace 

Joseph Peter Varela, 
The Horace Mann of Urugiiay. 

Mann, as well as the republic of the United States. Sefior 
Joseph Peter Varela most certainly has been a reformer 
with the true principle of education at heart, for out of the 
movement set on foot by him as late as 1877 has come a 
school system so entirely on the line of the Froebelian 
method as to be amenable to all that is newest and best. 


The exhibit in the Agricultural Building at the World's 
Fair is a complete statement, in substance, of the condition 
of the Uruguay school. Large cases of beautiful photo- 
graphs show the development of the schoolhouses from the 
kindergarten to the pedagogical museum, with everything 
in working order. Although the kindergarten has been 
adapted but three years as a part of their public school 
system, they have already begun, the manufacture of mate- 
rials at the expense of the government. The hand work 
shown will bear careful criticism in most parts. A case of 
clay modeling done by the children themselves, consisting 
of seventy pieces, carefully packed and brought to the 
Columbian Exposition, proves the real appreciation they 
have of the newer methods. There are fifty specimens 
of hand work applied in the same practical form, also 
numerous portfolios of weaving, paper folding, cutting, and 
designing. Studies in color are limited entirely to inade- 
quate color materials, in which considerable help is needed. 
There are over seven hundred children in the kindergartens, 
which is a good percentage when we realize that the entire 
republic of Uruguay does not contain more than one-half 
the number of the inhabitants of the city of Chicago. The 
teachers for this special work were trained in Germany and 
Belgium, sent over by ,the government, and have now 
adapted their attainments to their national conditions and 
the Spanish tongue, already training many of their native 
sisters in the beautiful work of the kindergarten. The 
general training schools are fast turning out teachers, the 
great purpose being to reduce the number of children 
under individual training. 

The Uruguay school exhibit, near the center north door 
of the Agricultural Building of the Exposition, has been 
under the charge of the commissioner, Senor Alberto 
Gomez-Ruano of Montevideo, with his interpreter. Sefior 
Gomez-Ruano has made known the work and the hopes of 
his country during the past season, both before the educa- 
tional congress and the many individuals professionally 
interested in the records of growth of these less accessible 



countries. There is a warm enthusiasm and receptiveness 
about these Spanish-speaking peoples, which falls like 
romance upon our clear-cut, ready-to-the-muzzle Ameri- 

In a land where the government commissioner of educa- 
tion is known and loved personally by every child in the 
schools, who on the street is accompanied by their cordial 
chatter, there must "be an element of naturalness which 

Alberto Gomez-Ruano, 
Commissioner of Education. 

forestalls the so-called natural education. Mr. Gomez- 
Ruano leaves with us a portfolio of illustrations of their 
pedagogical museum,— of which he is director,— showing 
the architecture, decorations, furnishings, and especially the 
illustrations of the pedagogical sciences, in which are shown 
methods, complete apparatus, and educational help, col- 
lected from all parts of the world. He leaves a cordial 
invitation to kindergartners and educators who have 
not already seen this exhibit, to do so at this office. The 
summer's intercourse between pedagogues of many tongues, 
illustrating individual methods and all seeking for the 
inspiration in each other's demonstrations, will weave an 
international fraternity into the world's schoolrooms, which 
will mark a new chapter in general history. 


THE desire has frequently been expressed that we 
might trace the actual results of the work of 
Froebel in the life of his students, and so reach 
some adequate estimate of this work's efficacy. 
The Forum for August, 1893, brings such evidence in the 
autobiographical sketch of George Ebers, in which he 
states the influences which helped shape his character and 
after-activity. We reprint the following paragraphs, as 
they convey much of deep interest to educators: 

In my novel, "Homo Sum," the anchorite Paulus says, 
"the mother of every child is the best of mothers," — an 
opinion I still hold today. Truly many injudicious and 
headstrong women are blessed with children, in relation to 
whom, however, they possess intuitive fostering powers 
which make the most vicious appear good and the stu- 
pidest wise; for the best mother-gift is derived rather from 
an overflowing love than from any particular state of intel- 
ligence, there being also a wisdom of the heart. Thus is 
the mother herself reacted upon and ennobled. Like a 
teacher earnestly instructing, many a fervent mother, even 
though limited in her nature, develops into an excellent 
educator; and among such my own mother was worthy to 
be classed with the best, wisest, and most truly beautiful. 
Over me she exercised a strong educational influence, oper- 
ating together with that of another with whom I came in 
contact later in life. 

Few, I believe, individually appreciate the enormous 
hidden force in educational, and moral influence exerted 
upon them by their mothers. Were a college founded for 
the propagation of morality, its professors would touch 
only superficially the inner life of the students; it would 
be, in fact, a superfluous institution; for life itself is just 
such a school. We begin here like children, understanding 
such instruction alone as appeals to the heart; and of this 
every man's mother, like mine, holds the key. Compre- 
hending this, a wise mother should therefore improve every 


occasion as a stimulus to an exercise in morality, teaching 
even by the glance of her eye, as it appeals to the innate 
love of her child; and this fundamental instruction will 
take root as deeply as though the pupils were already 
older, excluding superficiality, from the fact that she can 
touch the soul to its innermost core. When one leaves the 
motherly influence, one is already a moral man, or one is 
not; and of a hundred who are so, ninety-nine, even though 
unconsciously, are indebted to the mother. . . . 

Friedrich Froebel, founder of the Kindergarten, once 
kept a school in Kilhau, situated in a beautiful valley amid 
the mountain forests of Thuringia, and thither in my boy- 
hood I was sent. Froebel, in 181 3, had taken part in the 
uprising of the German people against the Corsican con- 
queror, and had more than once looked death in the -face 
while serving in the volunteer corps of the " Schwarzen 
Jager," celebrated by Theodore Korner in his poem "Liit- 
zow's Wilde verwegene Jagd." After the declaration of 
peace, he founded his Kilhau school and called on Lange- 
thal and Middendorf, his whilom companions -in -arms, to 
associate themselves with him here, all three electing to 
abandon personal advancement in order thus again to serve 
their country in that remote forest valley. Deep religious 
idealists, as became the hour of a nation's spiritual expan- 
sion, these men proposed to dedicate themselves to the 
growing youth of the country, employing in their work the 
steadfast natures discerned by Froebel amid the tramp and 
turmoil of war. While Froebel had been for several years 
prior to the war a scholar of Pestalozzi in Yverdun, Switzer- 
land, he had at the same time assisted in the completion of 
Pestalozzi's well-known system. The effort made by Froe- 
bel with the youth confided to him was to form true men 
by a harmonious development of both mind and body, not 
on the usual lines of education, but through a complete 
study of the individual, presuming that the richest endow- 
ment for life within his gift lay in imparting a tenderness of 
mind united to strength of character and body. Earnest 
men and lovers of childhood, they used the simplest forms 
of our daily life, at work or play, as opportunities for carry- 
ing out their principles; even the miniature battles we 
fought on summer evenings on the crest of some wooded 
height were made to bear a moral; for an awakening of the 
intelligence, preparatory to a higher instruction, weighed 
more seriously under the Froebel' system than the success 
of a mere prodigy of learning. 


An institution conducted by such methods represented 
solid educational force, although to ascribe to this tutelage 
any special factor in my own development would be as 
difficult as to define the sequence of each flaky crystal of 
the falling snow. Nevertheless, I can still trace the endur- 
ing mastery over me of that old champion of freedom, 
Heinrich Langethal; for though he deserted Kilhau as 
early as my sixteenth year, he coerced my tastes into a 
path from which I have never swerved. A favorite pupil 
of Schleiermacher and Friedrich August Wolf, the great 
philologist and propounder of the " Homeric Question," 
Langethal attained an unusual scholastic acquaintance with 
classic antiquity, joining the elect whom the goddess alone 
permits to enter understandingly into the true spirit of 
Grecian art. An affection of the eye, produced by camp- 
ing on wet ground during the war, had culminated, when I 
first knew him, in total blindness; but the eye of his soul 
discerned with augmented force and in purer light the 
pictures and forms so richly thronging his imagination. 
He knew the whole of Homer accurately by rote, as is 
attestable by living witnesses; and his interpretation of the 
Iliad aroused within us a feeling that he too marched with 
Achilles on the sanguinary field of battle, or was again at 
home in the palace of Priam. When he elucidated the clas- 
sics, the very spirit of antiquity emanated from him, and to 
have read directly from the page, when required by the 
blind rhapsodist to translate or recite, would have im- 
pressed us as a shameful crime, like striking a fallen hero. 
Using no precautionary rule against deception, he incul- 
cated a respect for truth, impressing upon us that conscience 
could inflict a more condign punishment than the severest 
school penalty. When I left school, his epigrammatic part- 
ing was, "Be veracious in love," a motto which has guided 
me in life as the Polar Star guides the desert wanderer. . . . 

Among the greatest educational powers are quietude 
and introspective reflection, which in this progressive age, 
that tends so strongly to association, are so difficult for all 
to obtain. Later, when traveling across the desert, I 
strongly realized my indebtedness to the enforced retire- 
ment consequent on my long illness, and which, holding the 
germ of my inclination, shaped it then into a firm resolu- 
tion. The energy of health presented variegated inspira- 
tions, which rose, like some lovely mermaid on the waters, 
to disappear again as suddenly when I stretched out my 
hand to detain them. But in that period of quiet I marked 


the first successful retaining of ideas crowding through my 
brain, with the ability to force a thought to its extreme 
limit. When traversing the silent desert, the same phe- 
nomenon presented itself, and I now learned why the 
prophets and law-givers of most nations passed into the 
desert to find there the infinite quiet they sought. Thus 
Sakya-Muni, the founder of Buddhism, Moses, Zoroaster, 
and Mohammed conceived their high mission. But where 
shall the growing youth of toda}' — God defend it from a 
compulsory retirement like mine! — find such repose? . . . 

In tracing the career of others who have done more 
than I for human progress, the tendency to formulate the 
best in solitude becomes apparent of each one. Goethe 
found the quiet of early morning most favorable for com- 
position; the teeming brains of the great physicist Helm- 
holtz and the mathematician Gausz marked as most pro- 
ductive the silent hours or walks abroad in sunn}^ weather; 
the universe opened to Kant on solitary wanderings; and 
the famous electrician, Werner Siemens, after being incar- 
cerated in a fortress as punishment for a duel, declared 
that it was with regret he regained his freedom from an 
imprisonment in which work and thought had reaped 
incredible benefit from solitude. 

Sheep and geese become restless when separated from 
the flock; the eagle and lion seek isolation. From quiet 
and solitude spring the greatest thoughts, inventions, and 
compositions of art; hence their potentiality in character 
formation. I hold the theory that the child exerts on the 
child, as the friction of life on man, the greatest educa- 
tional influence, while our most valuable acquisition in the 
time of our development through nature, art, and circum- 
stance is the fruit of hours spent in quietude, desirable for 
our growing youth and absolutely essential for our future 
philosopher, poet, and artist. . . . 


During the summer educational congress one depart- 
ment of this work was considered which should be of more 
vital interest to all wide-awake school men and women. It 
is this subject of educational journals. The congress ses- 
sion devoted to this discussion was arranged by educa- 
tional journalists and carried out by members of their own 
circle. This method of handling the important subject was 
interesting, valuable, and eminently suggestive. There is 
another point of sight, however, by which to establish the 
relative values of the educational journal. It is that of the 
reader, — of the reader who consciously subscribes for the 
journal of his choice. If a specialist periodical passes the 
criticism of its fellow journals, should such be inclined to 
be candid in their opinions, it does much. If it meets the 
needs of its known audience, — not the daily, detailed ne- 
cessity of any one individual, but the essential interests of 
its group of readers, — it does more. The editor and pub- 
lisher, however competent, reliable, idealistic, and business- 
like, are but two factors in this trinity of journalism. The 
reader must serve as regulator and inspirator. If the latter 
has merely a passive interest, taking what is given without 
protest or comment, the vital standard of any journal is 

Among the educational journalists whose monthly edi- 
torials reveal the man in his words and works, we would 
name the following: Mr. Henry Sabin, of the Iowa Schools, 
formerly state superintendent of schools, and at present a 
candidate for the same post; Mr. George P. Brown, of the 
Bloomington (111.) Public School J oimial, whose reputation as 
a pedagogue and philosopher has been secured through hon- 
orable service; Mr. C. W. Bardeen, of the Syracuse School 
B7dleti7i, who is traveler, litterateur, and historian combined 
in one, and whose culture of mind is not above the service 
of the common schoolmaster. Among the recent men 
who are rising into prominence because of their ideals, and 


their fearlessness in voicing the same, we may note Mr. J. E. 
Wells, of the Toronto Ediicatioiial Journal ; Mr. R. J. Guinn, 
of the Atlanta Sotither?i Educatio?ial yonrnal ; and J. H. Mil- 
ler, editor and publisher of the Northwest Joitr/tal of Educa- 
tion, of Lincoln, Neb. These latter journals voice the hon- 
est sentiments of the men behind them; not the \'agaries of 
dreamers, but the substantial facts which they have doubt- 
lessly proven in active lives. Their words are not always 
rhetorically selected, but they bespeak a discrimination 
which is bred of inner convictions and inevitable policies. 
The motto of the great auxiliary congress of 1893 will 
apply here as it does in so many other \'ital connections, — 
viz.: "Men, not things; mind, not matter!" 

A MARKED influence is felt from kindergarten training 
schools which constantly indulge in the fresh currents of 
thought received through special lecturers from outside 
their own fold. Where the associations are not prepared 
to provide these advantages, in many cases the students 
themselves combine, and meet the expense themselves. 
This is a certain sign of progressive work, and each 
year these specialists who make rounds among the lesser 
cities become more numerous, giving opportunities for spe- 
cial lessons in color, general art, music, " mother-play," slojd, 
form and clay, science, astronomy, piano. There is no longer 
any excuse for a training school, calling itself such, which 
does not each }'ear bring in the fresh ideas from the great 
world of demonstration which is pressing around it. 

Home and family papers no longer fill the bill by bring- 
ing crochet patterns or recipes for codfish balls. Their 
readers demand current events, even matters of religion, 
education, and politics. The school journal which feeds its 
audience with the set patterns of routine work will as cer- 
tainly become a thing of the past. Teachers demand ideals, 
and prefer them when the text is illuminated by the actual 
character and life and strong individuality of the writer. 
Even the journalist maist put himself into his work before he 
can lead his teacher-readers to desire that individuality which 
should radiate and infuse every detail of schoolroom life. 

Vol 6-13 


No. III. 

The so-called teacher has as much to do with un-teach- 
ing, with tearing down, as with building up. According to 
accustomed school tenets, she has often to empty the child- 
flask before she may refill it with the more approved wine 
of better methods. If this is not feasible, and the child be 
grown to adult, — that means, to one fixed in certain habits 
of thought and knowledge, — then she must inject bit by 
bit her better thought, and let that go on to do the work of 
displacing the old with the new. This is nature's process, 
by which all vacuum is avoided, since there is never a 
moment during the process which admits of a void. Had 
Columbus been dealing with little children, instead of 
adults inured to the indisputable flatness of the earth, his 
voyage eastward had been less the dream of a visionary. 
When the inspirational desire to become a teacher — ein 
Lehrer — first came to Friedrich Froebel, his ideal of such 
a master was doubtless after the university pattern, — one 
of those largely blessed men whose opportunities to infuse 
the forming generation of young manhood with philosophy, 
wisdom, and knowledge are golden beyond compare. But 
step by step he worked backward. From the teaching of 
young men he sought to work with boys, and finally little 
children became the objects of his pedagogical research. 
These in turn led him back from the Kinderschule to the 
home, and he finally paused before the babe in its mother's 

Here must begin the work of rational education; that 
is, the right living, not of one creature by himself, but of 
companions, one of whom stands ever to the other as the 
supreme ideal of his soul. The mother and child represent 


the relative value of the one individual to another, and the 
relative growth of man — not afar on an enchanted or 
desert isle, as the case may be, but in the presence of his 
fellow men. The equilibrium of the individual can only be 
found in his relationships; hence we find the opening- 
chapters of this family book, as Froebel himself has named 
it, devoted to the mother and her child. 

This is the simplest, at the same time the highest rela- 
tionship. As the sphere, in" the study of type forms, is the 
unit of simplicity which admits modifications to an unlim- 
ited extent, so here we have the typical relationship for our 
consideration and study. The mother is not limited to 
national or temporal qualities; she is a type of what 
mothers may and should be. The child is not a thing of 
temperament, environment, nor even of specialized phy- 
sique, but the type of universal childhood, which is su- 
premely 7iormal and sound. 

When Froebel had reached this point in his conclusions, 
he named the enviro}nnc)it which he believed consisted of 
this typical relationship, the kindergarten; out of this, as 
out of a type. form, might grow all the infinite modifications 
which constitute life and living. It is unnecessary to dwell 
here upon the sad misinterpretations of this inclusive title, 
which have embodied themselves in poor "infant schools" 
all about us. The author's meaning of this word can in no 
wise be construed into "a sub-primary method," nor into a 
system of step-by-step processes in which the steps are 
controlled by the teacher instead of the relative growth of 
mother and child. 

When the teacher has taken upon herself the relation- 
ship of mother, — and the term "relationship" implies a 
blending of two or more, — all such attitudes as teacher, 
instructor, tutor, controller, constrainer, and manipulator 
fall away. For are there not two individuals here to be 
considered? Is there not a mutual consideration, a growth 
of the one, though many years older, dependent upon the 
growth of the other? Instead of teacher, she becomes i7iter- 
prcter. This is Froebel's thought of spiritual motherhood. 


This is the law of spiritual individuality, which he places 
as the corner stone of his ethics. 

Is this child before me a spiritual or a material being? 
Is he partly spiritual, partly material? Is he a thing of ab- 
solute or accidental potentialities? Is he the result of mor- 
tal or divine law? The type-mother in the first picture of 
"Die Mutter und Kose-Lieder" (page 9, Lee & Shepard 
edition) is looking upon her child, not in morbid brooding 
nor in p-hlegmatic indifference, but in joy and inexpressible 
gladness. Read the song; it is the initial, introductory 
song to this book, which was the culmination (not the first 
burst) of Froebel's experiments. 

The mother is pictured in unity with her child, breathing 
back poetry, music, deep religion to the babe in her arms, 
who has inspired all this in her heart. 

Is this mere sentiment? Let each student ask himself 
the direct question whether all the great art, the music, the 
poetry to which this relationship of mother to holy child 
has led, is an external product. Could all this have ema- 
nated if the child were a material offspring of a mortal law? 

Froebel did not believe that motherhood was indifferent 
to childhood. To him childbearing was no more physical 
(in the sense of animal) than child training should be. 

The following songs, in which the mother's "commun- 
ing" with her babe in arms, as he grows on out of her 
arms, trace the reflections, the feelings, the semi-conscious 
thoughts of the sound, normal mother. These are not 
empty sentimental musings, much less resentments over 
either the added burden accrued by increasing responsi- 
bilities, or regrets that her life is swallowed up in the petty 
details of the nursery; for such mean negations there is no 
room in the heart of natural motherhood. In these songs, 
through these lines, Froebel seeks to interpret the true 
mother nature to itself. This is not based on ignorance of 
true mothers, but upon a devout knowledge which he accu- 
mulated through a long experience in many families and 

In a hymn of praise, the mother expresses her feelings 


on beholding her first-born child. Husband, father, 
mother, wife, child — all these relationships she gathers 
together in one: 

God and Father, life's eternal source! 
Let purity and power attend his course! 
Thy children we; one life, one love 
Forever binds us below to thee above. 

This is but another expression of the same truth which has 
been voiced all down the Christian ages, and which has 
recently been put into the following eloquent sentence: 
"It is our privilege at this Supreme moment to declare that 
man is, not ivill be, spiritual." 

Again the mother looks upon her child; her overfull 
eyes trace the perfected beauty of limb and feature, and 
mark the life signs which permeate his whole being. She 
foresees the moral courage and strength, the ability to meet 
all that may come before him. There are no doubts or 
fears or maudlin qualms over the "terrible responsibility" 
which is now laid upon her, lest this thing of beauty be 
suddenly transformed into a thing unrighteous. But fol- 
lowing the law of life, which is in God's hand, not hers, she 
watches it unfold; see, she unfolds with it: 

The highest life which in me rules, 
Through your pure light I now behold; 
When thus daily I cherish and tend. 
Fresh joys unto my soul you lend. 

Now come the many "serene but powerful" manifesta- 
tions of child life. The mother gladly welcomes every 
sign of this growing gift; she sings of the days to come, 
through her knowledge of the days gone by, and, true 
philosopher that she is, knowing that the conclusion of her 
premise can only bring more joy, greater beauty, and 
nobler aspirations, she cheers on each new response to 
life's law. Her babe never was a little animal, hence he 
may not grow into a greater animal; nay, he was and ever 
will be one of God's human children, none the less inspi- 
rational than green glade or rippling brook. Read the last 


lines of this song, and see how our ideally practical mother 
interprets her child's every effort: 

Soon among other children he'll find 
Food and experience to busy his mind. 
These things even now in beginning I see; 
They shall all be nurtured in silence by me. 

There are many noble sermons in the following two 
songs, but we can only hint at the most vital points, in this 
paper. Read them over, and then talk them over with 
every mother you know. Test and sound this philosophy 
of everyday spirituality, and prove its practicability in your 
free or mission kindergarten, where children's inheritances 
seem incongruous. Note how frequently the mother uses 
the word "both," as in — 

Repose thou calmly on thy mother's breast; 
Not thou alone — we both are blest. 

This brings us to the last of the group, — the child at its 
mother's breast, eagerly and yet contentedly taking milk. 
Is this done in animal instinct, and must mother's fond 
philosophy be set aside for the time being? Froebel thus 

A native instinct now doth move 
The child who knows his mother's love. 
As he from her takes daily food, 
From her he seeks the highest good. 
Mother, not only food he takes from thee, 
But, to deep-hidden instinct true, 
Fellowship he searches, too, 
From mother's heart of sympathy. 

These simple songs bring much meaning to such as 
interpret intuitive feeling, doing, and influencing as spir- 
itual quantities. It can scarcely be the result of mere 
chance that Froebel places them at the portal of his book 
of interpretations. They certainly set the standpoint from 
which he views not only humanity, but the education of 
humanity. We may not agree with his doctrine in detail,. 
but we must recognize it in order to justly read him and his 
book. — Amalic Hofer. 


(Written for the I. K. U.) 

Unity of thought and unity of action are now consid- 
ered essential requirements in planning and carrying out a 
day's program in the kindergarten. 

The days of disjointed, disconnected, haphazard min- 
gling of gift plays, songs, and games are happily things of 
the past; so far distant do they seem, that it appears almost 
incredible that they ever lived and animated a present time. 

We congratulate ourselves that now our day is so well 
designed that one thing is but a continuation or enlarge- 
ment of another; everything follows in such orderly pro- 
cession, that one but supplements and amplifies the other. 

• We do not cease our efforts here; we even extend the 
connecting link through a week, using the same thought to 
bind all together. Frequently we enlarge still more. We 
find the original thought thread serves for a whole month; 
and how satisfactory such months are, only those know 
who have felt and seen their awakening influence. 

We have all tried this plan. We have found it more 
fruitful than the same number of weeks' work when each 
week has had a different story to tell. The child has had 
more time and opportunity to see the connection of things. 
It may be that he has had such a kindergarten environment 
that he discovers, to his great awe and boundless delight, 
that he is indebted to earth, air, and water for many of his 
treasured possessions, — so precious that he, as every kinder- 
gartner knows, cannot bear to leave them behind him, but 
fills his pockets with them to overflowing. What an un- 
folding is this of the secret springs of life! It is no mean 
return for a month's expenditure of time. 

But probably most of us will grant that our efforts have 
been commensurate with our conviction of the scope of our 
principal topic, so that its sub-headings have filled not a 
month, but months. We ourselves then perceive more 
truly the import and bearing of our subject, and conse- 
quently are enabled to place things in their proper relation 
and connection. 


If this be so, then we should see that the subject se- 
lected for consideration is a comprehensive one, including 
a wide range of topics, yet all embraced in one main sub- 

Do not fear monotony because one subject is held for 
such a length of time. It will be anything but wearisome, 
because there are so many different aspects of it to be 
viewed; and what has already been seen will give but suffi- 
cient experience to comprehend, and consequently enjoy, 
the new. 

Neither need there be shipwreck because of the magni- 
tude of the subject. It progresses step by step, so naturally 
that it but unfolds itself, revealing its hidden truths only 
when apprehension has been quickened by truth already 
become instinct with meaning. 

Is it not desirable to so measure forces that they will be 
presented in their true proportion and proper environment? 
Is it not also of unmeasured importance that childhood 
should recognize the close ties of all nature, of all human- 
ity, and be cognizant of their claims and privileges? Can 
childhood's heart not feel that, 

Like warp and woof, all destinies 
Are woven fast? 

Is it possible to do this in the best way without a long 
look ahead? Then only can we sketch our program to the 
very best advantage. 

That which presents itself most strongly as the central 
and controlling power is the one we would select for our 
principal subject. 

So intricate and manifold are the linkings and inter- 
lacings of life, that we may rest assured we will never be at 
a loss for a comprehensive subject, and yet, as is most 
requisite, one including things well within the grasp of our 
children. Indeed, the sub-subjects must be those we are 
speaking of every day, the only difference being — though 
that difference is a most radical one — that they are so pre- 
sented as to show their true significance as factors in 
life's history. Does it seem as though this could be rightly 


done, unless the various subjects are from time to time 
grouped together under some large truth? 

Suppose, for sake of illustration, we wish to reach the 
children through the home. We dwell on the mother's 
work, — the daily round of duties that each new da}- brings 
in its train. While this talk is still proving absorbing, 
natural phenomena demand attention in the form of ice 
and snow; the beautiful cr}'stals must be examined when 
they visit us; the white snow and the glistening icicles will 
not come at our bidding, therefore it seems imperative that 
we devote some time to them. With regret we abandon 
home life, and watch the falling snow instead. 

When this subject is ended perhaps we take up miner- 
als, including coal, iron, and silver. 

Each subject has been well chosen and well treated, but 
isolated; no one truth Has permeated them all and helped 
to make their influence lasting. 

If the controlling thought had been wide enough to 
hold all, the}- could have run hand in hand, or at least one 
subject need not have been closed for the sake of another. 

If the subject chosen had been "The Interdependence 
of All Things," starting with the familiar home life, how 
naturalh' the miner's work would ha\'e been carried right 
into the home. 

Elvery child, even the tiniest, knows how necessary an 
article is coal in the family economy; and now how it has 
enlarged his horizon! He knows not only its source, but 
also how much labor has to be expended before the family 
coal bin can be filled. He feels himself drawn into union 
with the miner of the coal, the train hands that carry it to 
his city, and all the other, helpful agencies that may have 
been mentioned. 

The railroad tracks, the cars, the engine, are always ob- 
jects of interest to the child; but now they assume fresh 
import as factors in transportation of coal. 

This would be an opportunity for making the acquaint- 
ance of iron ore. We instantly think of numberless ways 
of introducing it into the family circle; in fact, it is already 


there, transformed into the beneficent stove that holds the 
coal, the knife that cuts the bread, and — but I'll not weary 
you by repeating the familiar list. 

What shall come next? The very magnitude of our 
subject gives us liberty. 

It is a snowy day. The crystals are unusually fine. 
Such an opportunity for examining the fairy stars must not 
go unimproved. They are caught as they fall, and eagerly 
gazed upon; but we have to look quickly, for the fairy star 
so soon disappears to give place to — a drop of water. 

An observing child brings into kindergarten a giant 
icicle. It is delightedly commented on. It is so cold to 
handle, that by common consent it is put in a bowl where 
all can see it. The giant dwindles slowly but surely, until, 
when closing hour comes, only a baby icicle remains, and 
the bowl is half full of — water. Very little questioning 
elicits many answers, showing how invaluable water is to 
mother and children, and also to the miner; for the children 
know it is used in mining operations. 

But suppose our snowy day deferred its arrival, and we 
were talking of that never-ending branch of home indus- 
try, — sewing, — when little Susie delightedly pipes out, 
"My mamma has a thimble to help her; it's made of sil- 
ver." Well, then, we must find out whether thimbles grow 
on trees, or how we get them. You see, of course, that sil- 
ver now binds together animate and inanimate nature in 
the source of its supply, the power of water, the agency of 
the miner, and its own utility in the home. 

Henry is now the proud bearer of a toy lantern which 
shows unmistakable marks of Japanese handiwork. 

The children admire it so greatly, that the morning talk 
clusters around it; in the games we board the steamer and 
sail away to far Japan to visit our strange little brothers 
and sisters, not neglecting to thank the miner for the nec- 
essary coal and steel, and admiring the power and beauty 
of the great sea waves. 

We find so many delightful things that the talk is re- 
sumed next morning. The gay parasols and fans, the kites 


and dolls, that are brought into the kindergarten make it 
very realistic and altogether charming. 

While we are discovering in how many wa5^s we and the 
interesting Japanese are dependent upon each other, we 
also find ourselves fully launched in our spring work. The 
kite suggests the work of the wind; the tea plant, warmth 
and sunshine; and the silkworm, the awakening of dormant 

And so through no intermeddling words of ours, but 
simply by presenting our subjects in their true connection, 
the child sees their inherent controlling influence upon 
each other, and knows trtdy, though in part, that all things 
are dependent one upon another. 

It may seem, on the moment, that this is truly so gener- 
ous a subject that few others like it can be found; but a lit- 
tle thought proves this false. Take the thought of life as 
shown in movement or growth: the little seed awakes and 
climbs to the light; the baby bird flutters its tiny wings, 
and at last, through effort achieved, gains fuller life; the 
little child grows as it also uses its powers; and so the 
thought might be extended to the limit of the vision of our 
kindergarten babies. 

Still another subject might be the certainty of cause and 
effect. It includes in its inevitable consequences the tiniest 
as well as the mightiest; all the laws of nature^ physical, 
mental, and moral — are involved and controlled by it. 

Thus examples might be multiplied; but the desire is 
simply to show the advantages of a comprehensive program. 
— Mary L. Lodor, Philadelphia. 


1 was glancing over the kindergarten department of an 
eastern educational journal the other day, when my eyes 
fell upon these words: "The morning talks for September 
will be on wool and leather." 

Shades of Froebel deliver us! Is this what kindergar- 
tening is coming to? Is it not time that we rise up in 
righteous indignation and protest? What is the purpose 


of the morning- talk? Is it not to connect tlic outside life of 
the cliildren with the thought which the kindergartner 
wishes to have them dwell upon that day? Ought not this 
central thought of the day to have some connection with 
the inner, spiritual development of the child? Wool and 
leather are very g-ood utilitarian articles, and it is well 
enough that all children should learn certain facts concern- 
ing- them. But is the accumulation of these wool-and- 
leather facts the "training of the child's emotions," about 
which we heard so much at the recent international con- 
gress? Will all the facts that can be learned about ivool 
and leather, even if the precious morning talks of a whole 
month are given to the task, be "teaching the child to enter 
into life with a sympathetic presentiment of its meaning"? 

Let us suppose, for example, that the little ones of one 
kindergarten are so fortunate as to live near some trees; 
and they come to the kindergarten with their hands full of 
the rich red and yellow leaves of the autumn's splendor, — 
leaves so beautiful that they have stirred the young hearts 
and have been brought as treasures to the kindergarten. 
They must be laid aside; wool is the subject to be discussed! 
Perchance some wise and loving mother has taken her dar- 
ling to the park, or better still, on a day's excursion to the 
real country, and the young explorer has brought back a 
cocoon, or a bunch of autumnal twigs with their cunningly 
wrapped baby leaves so securely protected from the com- 
ing storms of winter. These must be ignored, or, at best, 
only politely admired; leather is the subject for the day! 

By no great stretch of imagination we can conceive of 
another kindergarten in a neighborhood where some build- 
ing is going on. With eager interest the children watch 
the masons lay brick upon brick on the ever-growing 
wall, or gaze with unbounded admiration upon the carpen- 
ters mounted high upon their ladders. Veritable heroes 
are these skilled workmen to the childish heart. But all 
talk about them must be suppressed. "The morning talks 
for September are to be upon zvool and leather^ 

Is it not time that a stop be put to this wholesale issu- 


ing of the details of program work? Must not each kinder- 
gartner work according to her own children's needs? Let 
us never lose the thought that facts are subordinate to 
growth in the kindergarten world. — Elisabeth Harrison, 


"It is a surprise to me that my children have been in 
kindergarten a month, and have scarcely mentioned the 
World's Fair in that time. They have gone back to last 
year, and are full of exclamations — 'Do you remember this, 
and that?' It does not trouble me, however. My program 
can wait until they have bridged over the gap of the sum- 
mer and established themselves in their own 'nests of 
thought,' as Ruskin describes this home feeling." 

"Do you not think that we. attempt to begin our so- 
called regular work too soon at the opening of the year? 
Should we expect the children to fall into our organized 
plans so readily? Should there not be more time given to 
the nesting of themselves into our organic plan of work 
and life? It seems to me that if the entire time from Sep- 
tember to Christmas were spent in these gradual adjust- 
ments, in which, thread by thread, the kindergartner gath- 
ers together her children's past, their temperaments, their 
abilities and affections, — that the latter part of the year 
would be more blessed in its fruition." 

"I am one of those kindergartners whose ideals are 
many and lofty, but at times very vague. It was said to me 
not long ago, that I make too great an effort to realize my 
ideals. I go so far avv'ay from the children to fetch great, 
fine thoughts; but I do not always make clear to them 
what I mean. This was a hard criticism at the time, but it 
has done me much good. After all, why should I strain 
so to work out a beautiful sequence of materials, hoping 
thereby to challenge the respect of other kindergartners. 
when nature herself pours all forms, colors, qualities, and 
all manner of things about the children without hurting 


"We need more old-fashioned common sense in our 
work. We are so busy 'fetching' up our programs, that 
we don't half live with our children; and yet that is our 
foundation text. If we did no more than live comfortably, 
happily, and cordially with the children from nine to twelve 
o'clock, we would do a great deal." 

" I have always opened my program with a study of 
family life, using the bird family as my text. We traced 
out the home and habits of the birds, in order to picture to 
the child in a symbolic way his own family relationship. 
Why not take the cat or dog to illustrate this principle? 
What do you think about this? The evolutionists say that 
these animals do not show true parental care. But we 
would not be teaching the absolute facts, but merely illus- 
trating the family thought, — as a child does when he sees 
the stars, and calls the large one Papa-star, another 
Mamma-star, and ever so many Baby-stars!" 

"The first day is still a problem to me. How can we 
avoid so much talking and explaining?" 

"That seems scarcely a problem; do not try to tell it 
all in one day. If the children are shy and quiet let them 
be so, and you meet them half way, but no more." 

" I know a kindergartner who tells a very dramatic story 
the first thing. She says it sets them to thinking and talk- 
ing. My private opinion is that it frightens them. It 
seems to coerce them, take them by surprise, and then she 
can do anything she wishes with them." — C. M. P. H. 


The First Annual Report of the Board of Education of 
Superior, Wis., bears every mark of progressive educational 
intelligence. The fact that this board directs nine public 
school kindergartens is practical evidence of the above 
statement. The following report was made by Miss Sara 
Severance, supervisor of these kindergartens, and embodied 
in the general report. It \vi 


and sound kernel for the many interested in the combina- 
tion of the kindergarten and the public school: 

To some, the extension of kindergartens in the public 
schools means but a matter of statistics, and it is not with- 
out interest that we find such an astonishing number of 
four-year-olds ready to enter the educational arena. Our 
state laws are such that the four-year-old infant is legally 
entitled to entrance into the public schools. But while 
mere statistics are interesting, to many the chief interest 
lies in the vital importance of the work — I had almost 
written "work done"; perhaps it would be better to put it, 
"work attonpted. 

To some our work will always seem but the merest 
child's play; but to many who can see below the surface, 
the evolution which brings from the lawless, thoughtless, 
destructive, home-ruling despot of four or five years a think- 
ing, reasonable, law-abiding, industrious, happy creature, is 
not so strange or wonderful as it might be. People are slow 
to see that the laws of nature must underlie all true work. 
The very name given our school — kindergarten, i. e., child- 
garden — suggests the method of culture. 

Each teacher finds it necessary to study and know each 
child under her care, as well as its home interests and en- 
vironments. She must know the general laws underlying 
the development of the human mind. She must possess 
the intelligence, tact, and good sense to supply just what 
each child seems to need for the furtherance of its growth 
physically, mentally, and morally. Our work with the child 
is many sided; from the first it must be disciplinary in the 
highest sense of that word, — that is, a developing and edu- 
cating power. Some one else has truthfully said, that 
"Much of the 'stupidity' which we see in children — and 
even in grown people — is largely the expression of long- 
continued unwholesome mental discipline; the truth is, dis- 
cipline is not discipline unless it is wholesome." 

"Beginnings hold the germs of all fulfillments;" and it is 
here, in kindergarten, at the threshold of life, that the child 
must learn that true happiness comes only through obedi- 
ence to law. The child is not conscious of the educational 
purpose which is ever in the teacher's mind, but she must 
secure his self-activity as well as self-control, — not merely 
spontaneous activity, but intelligent activity. Cooperation 
must be secured from each individual in the small republic. 

The freedom from constraint which is essential in any 
school for children from four to six years of age, allows 


much interference of each pupil with the work of others, 
hence much distraction of attention. It is often difficult to 
preserve the perfect balance; but there are kindergartens 
and kindergartens; and wherever is found not only the 
spirit of genuine play, glad interest in physical and mental 
activity, of hearty good-fellowship, but in addition to all 
this a strong and peaceful inward or atmospheric order, tJicre 
is found the true kindergarten; and for such it is that we are 

But we are living in a practical age, and our first inquiry 
concerning any scheme of thought or action is, Of what im- 
mediate, material use is it? We take the children before 
they are ready for school life. Our task is to employ and 
stimulate the awakening minds of the children, and to exert 
an influence over their entire beings. Ours is the work of 
preparation. We furnish the connecting link between home 
and school. 

The success of any systematic teaching must depend 
largely upon the extent to which the mind of the pupil has 
been rendered receptive before the particular instruction 
began. The purpose of material devised for kindergarten 
use is to facilitate from the first the perception of outward 
objects. This is accomplished by the simplicity, by the 
method, and above all by the fitness of the things set before 
the child to enable it the more easily to take in form, size, 
number, color, sound, etc., and by their definiteness, serial 
order, and connection, to produce clear and distinct impres- 
sio/is, which shall correspond to the first budding powers of 
comprehension. They serve to assist the development of 
the senses in the easiest manner: viz., through the action of 
the child; and in all this the little blocks, clay, paper, thread, 
sticks, etc., the thousand and one little things used in the 
small industries of kindergarten, are the rounds in the lad- 
der, only means toward an end, the means being brought 
down to suit the simplicity of the child's mind. The basis 
is truth, in whatever form it may be embodied. But kin- 
dergarten can never bring something out of nothing. The 
best tillage cannot raise knowledge out of a mind where 
nature has not planted the germ. Nor can we, in the short 
time which we are able to keep those who are put into our 
care, expect to send forth the ideal kindergarten graduate. 
In many cases the spring and fall avalanche of four-year-old 
humanity has crowded into the primary grade the little five- 
3'ear-olds whom we had hoped to keep another year. Often 
they must leave to make way for the new ones when they 


are but three months old in kindergarten work. You will 
realize how^ this may be when you read the figures repre- 
senting the number left on the roll after promotions are 
made in the fall, and then remember that some kindergar- 
tens will have more than thirty new applicants at the begin- 
ning of the fall term. In such cases, one grade must be 
passed out and on. I know of only two instances, in our 
city kindergartens, where children have been retained 
longer than one year. 

Though ours is a school of preparation, not of results, I 
think we may expect the following developments in a nor- 
mal child w^ho has attended kindergarten regularly for one 
year — from five to six years of age. 

Concepts will have been gained by the constant handling 
and observing of objects. He will have learned to talk and 
express himself intelligently. Eye has been trained quickly 
to detect differences in form and direction. A quick eager- 
ness is excited to learn about objects by which he is sur- 
rounded. Thus the very foundation for reading has been 
laid. In addition to this, through the use of stories told by 
the teacher and reproduced by him, a love for good, pure 
literature, for the study of history, and the seeds of patriot- 
ism have been planted. 

He has learned to count to twenty, using objects, and he 
has also prompt recognition of groups of objects to six. 

In his plays of trade life he has become familiar with the 
halves in one whole, the quarters also; the number of pints 
in one quart; number of inches in a foot; number of feet in 
one yard. He is practically acquainted with elementary 
geometry, in the different direction of lines and angles and 
the inclosing of spaces by lines. Thus the child gains dis- 
tinct perceptions of form, size, and direction, and acquires 
a skill of hand and training of the eye which will be invalu- 
able in future life. 

By constant use of them, he has a knowledge of the 
fundamental forms of all nature, as seen in the ball, cube, 
and cylinder. He is awakened to a sense of the practical 
use of mathematics. 

The child becomes familiar with terms: up, down, back, 
front, under, above, right, left; cardinal points of compass; 
source, direction, and use of clouds, rain, hail, snow, and 

In each kindergarten the children make their daily 
record of weather. Names of days, months, and seasons 
are learned; also the use of the calendar is taught. Much 

Vol 6-14 


attention is attracted to the clock and its usefulness, prepar- 
atory to learning- to tell time. He studies the usefulness of 
heavenly bodies, especially that of the sun. Some knowl- 
edge is gained of different soils, bodies of water, their use- 
fulness to man; interdependence of nations as well as of 
individuals; national life and resources. All this furnishes 
foundation of the formal study and appreciation of geogra- 

In drawing, as in all our work, there is no attempt at 
teaching art; it is used only that we may further impress 
truths, or see with what degree of accuracy the child has 
observed and can give outward expression to inward im- 
pression; also to give the teacher added insight into the 
child's mind and native ability. First we teach the length 
of stroke for steadiness and freedom; then the smaller work 
with pencil, mat weaving, stick laying, paper folding, etc., to 
give flexibility of fingers and wrist. 

The child has learned all the principal parts of his body, 
their use, needs, and care. He has learned economy of 
force by daily exercise suited to his need in the overcoming 
of physical weakness or awkwardness. This knowledge is 
shown in the quick, quiet, and easy movements of all parts 
of the body. Personal cleanliness and neatness are en- 

Ability is given to distinguish and name the primary 
colors, to follow dictation, to concentrate. He is trained to 
obedience and attention, and a logical, orderly method of 
thought and work. A love for good music and harmony is 

Is the perfect kindergarten upon earth? No, for the 
perfect kindergarten presupposes the perfect teacher. 

Is there, then, no perfect kindergarten teacher? 

No; there has been but one perfect Teacher upon earth, 
and he knew the oid from the beginnhig ; and it is only as 
we follow his plan that we can in any degree realize our 
ideal for each soul in our charge. The true ideal kindergar- 
ten would bring to earth the love and law of heaven. 


Kindergartners have long stood upon the bank of a 
rushing stream which the little people cross with their 
hands and aprons full of blossoms from the seed planted by 
Froebel. The primary teacher on the other side says 
firmly, "These are pretty, but you cannot use them here;" 


and too often, when putting books into their hands, she for- 
gets to keep before them the book of nature, which, in their 
beautiful gartefi, they had been so ready to read. The kin- 
dergartner thinks sadly that the flowers they gather so ea- 
gerly w^ill be piled upon the bank, while the little ones will 
forget even the fragrance of the bloom. The primary 
teacher longs to use the blossoms that made the garten so 
bright, but reading, spelling, and writing — these claim the 
time. Sometimes she thinks she prefers children who have 
picked no blossoms, who do not know the freedom of the 
garten, who will go to the work she gives them with no 
longing to recross the stream. 

Gradually the seeds shaken from some mature plant are 
springing up on the primary side. It grows to look more 
like the garten. This change is noticeable in all the best 
primary schools of the country. Sometimes, too, the little 
folks are allowed to go back into the garte?i for awhile 
every day. The connecting class in National City, Cal., is 
"kindergarten" in its work and surroundings, while at the 
same time it does the grade work of the first-year primary. 
The kindergarten of National City, during the first two 
years of its existence, was supported by Mr. and Mrs. F. A. 
Kimball. Adopted by the public school, it remained for 
three years in no way related to the other departments. 
This year it was removed to the primary school building, 
and now the primary and the kindergarten join hands in a 
connecting class of twenty-two who enter school for the 
first time, and, instead of beginning at once the routine 
work of the primary, remain for the greater part of the time 
downstairs in charge of a kindergartner with whom they 
carry on the higher kindergarten work. Twice a day they 
go upstairs for the reading and number work, ^he rest of 
the grade work is taught in connection with gifts and occu- 
pations. — A^. C. 


The progress made in primary methods in education has 
brought about a need for reading matter that cannot be 
found in the ordinary First and Second Readers. We must 


have something to supplement our work in science, his- 
tory, and literature, is the great cry coming from the teach- 
ers of primary grades. 

When the child's interest has been aroused through the 
science lesson in a tree, shell, or whatever the subject has 
been; when he has handled it, expressed it in drawing, writ- 
ing, painting, or other means of expression; after all this is 
done, when the time comes to read, he is handed a First 
Reader. The lesson has nothing to do with what he is in- 
terested in or is thinking about; his reading lesson comes 
to him an isolated thing, and he goes through it mechan- 
ically with little or no thought but the form of the word or 

Perhaps you could picture to yourself the delight a child 
would express if handed a book with a lesson on the very 
subject which has so interested him. It would be as great a 
delight as eating his dinner if he were very hungry. 

Some of the first supplementary reading can be the 
natural step, using the child's own sentences, reproducing 
them with typewriter, having them printed, or writing 
them. Here the child finds the result of his own observa- 
tions, expressing his own thought in the written sentences; 
he meets an old friend, and welcomes it. From this step 
you can take the next easily, and use some of the new 
books written to answer this need. Among them are " Na- 
ture Studies for Young Readers." This delightful book is 
made up of some sentences children have expressed them- 
selves; it will be a great aid to teachers who have done little 
in this line, in its suggestiveness. It is one of the simplest 
of Readers. The "Seaside and Wayside" books, though not 
always entirely scientific, are good for this reading. 

All th^ following books are good when used wisely by 
the teacher: "Leaves and Flowers," by Spear; this greatly 
enhances your science lessons on trees, leaves, the principal 
flowers of the seasons; "The Stories Mother Nature Told," 
by Jane Andrews; "Seven Little Sisters," by Jane Andrews; 
"Cats and Dogs," by Johonnot; "Fables and Folk Stories," 
by Horace Scudder; yEsop's Fables. 


These books must be adapted to the grades and needs 
of the children. To use them satisfactorily, the interest 
must first be aroused in the subjects they present. This 
will result in thought reading, not merely word reading, at 
the same time cultivating a taste for science and literature. 
— B.H. 


"In the Mothers' Department of the September number 
of the Kindergarten Magazine is an article entitled 
'Scissors, and How to Use Them.' In this article refer- 
ence is made to the kindergartners having arranged a 
series of free-cutting exercises. I am very anxious to get 
hold of such a series, as I wish to use it at once in my 
school. Kindly tell me where I can get it. — L. /?' 

The series so arranged by the kindergartners is based 
upon geometric form, as already indicated in the September 
number. The first step being spirals, the strength of hand 
is steadied and at the same time the child is illustrating 

The second step is that of cutting simple life forms, in 
which the underlying forms of circle, oval, square, triangle, 
or oblong, are modified by some outer addition, such as 
the apple, other fruits, etc. 

The third step is the modification of these forms within 
the set geometric outline, such as a house front with 
windows and doors, or a hemisphere which outlines the 

The fourth step is that of artistic designs, — such as 
snowflakes, floral or historic art forms. A series in this 
department may be developed from the seaweeds and 
ferns, which present such an unlimited variety of fancy 
traceries. A so-called school of work is here suggested, 
which any kindergartner may work out to her own profit 
and pleasure. But when adapted to the kindergarten she 
must use the art of arts, — that of meeting the needs of her 
children and their environments. A kindergartner in the 


far South would not spend much time in snowflakes, nor 
would an inland circle evolve many sea-life forms. The 
child will ever guide the kindergartner into the application 
of this or any other means of expression. — S. T. M. 


This song embodies the same thought of nurture and 
care which is found in Froebel's "Little Gardener." It 
may be adjusted to include the potted window-plants dur- 
ing the winter. If you have such, by all means give them 
into the care of the children, — at first attended by you; but 
soon leave the children to fulfill their duty to the plant 

Straight and tall in the garden beds 

The flowers stood yesterday; 
But now they are nodding their dainty heads, 

And each one seems to say, 

"O Wind, bring a shower of summer rain; 
Come, Night, and bring cool dew; 
O dear little Child, come back again; 
We are thirsty, and wait for you." 

Now nod and beckon, for down the path 
He comes with a merry call: 
" Poor dears, here's a drink and shower bath, — 
Fresh water for each and all." 

"We'll drink and bathe and grow strong again; 
We'll raise our cups to the sun. 
And thank the child for loving care. 
With blossoms for everyone." 

— Bertha Payjie. 


Red and blue and yellow gay, 
Out together come to play; 
Blending' with them may be seen 
Purple, orange bright, and green. 
Count them as they stand in line; 
See how bright their colors shine: 
Red and orange, yellow, green, 
Blue and violet too, I ween! 


So the rainbow colors bright 

Meet to form the ray of light. 

Gentle ray, come visit me; 

I your cheerful light would see. 
One child stands in the ring, and the balls are distrib- 
uted to six children. During the first two lines of the song, 
those holding the primary colors come into the ring to 
play, holding their balls high. The secondary-color bearers 
follow, and all form in line for the count, which is made a 
feature of and done by the child in the ring, who then 
kneels, and the beam of light, represented by the balls held 
out in line, rests over his head. 

If there is to be a second round of the game, each child 
may present his ball to the chosen successor, and the child 
in the ring may choose who shall take his place. — Cornelia 
Fidtoii Crary, Poughkcepsie, N. Y. 


One — our hands fly up so high; 
Two — these hands on the box now lie; 
Three — and over the box they turn; 
Four — the twist again they learn; 
Five — now out the lid they draw; 
Six — the box is lifted o'er; 
Seven — 'tis put at the table's back. 
See our cube, with its criss-cross crack. 

— Esther Gill Jackson, Baltimore. 


Ha, ha, ha! free as a lark. 

Up, up, up we go; 
Ha, ha, ha! swift as a shark, 

Down, down, down we go. 
Up, up, up, and down, down, down, 
Now to the sky and now to the ground; 
Through the air in our beautiful swing. 
Like a bird on a tireless wing, 

Oh, oh, oh! and ho, ho, ho! 

Merrily, merrily go. 

— Alzvin B. Jovenil. 



"Song Stories for the Kindergarten," by Mildred J. and 
Patty S. Hill, is the title on the blue cover of the new song- 
book just completed. Kindergartners have long been wait- 
ing for these promised songs, which have been demonstrated 
for several years among the children of the simpler classes. 
Owing to the necessity which compels a simple and yet 
living quality in the music for very young children, this 
collection stands unique and eminently valuable. 

A kindergarten song, viewed from the standpoint of 
music, is one of the most difficult things to write, — cer- 
tainly just as difficult to construct as a kindergarten story. 
Old heads do not readily reach that height of "sweet sim- 
plicity" which enables them to think as the child, and 
hence their efforts at writing for children are apt to fall 
into the Charybdis of drivel or be wrecked on the Scylla of 
highly complex art. 

Many years' experience with the child thought has 
made clear to me this fact: that there is a childlike trend 
of tones in key which must give to the writer of children's 
songs a clew to the construction of 'melodies which the 
youngest child can easily grasp and retain; that outside of 
this childlike melodic progress an effort must be put forth 
which is beyond the capacity of the average kindergarten 

Some have made the effort to meet the child's wants by 
diluting the great masters, somewhat upon the plan of the 
one-legged — I beg pardon! I mean the one-syllabled — 
Shakespeare. This, however, has not succeeded. No 
doubt many melodies, seemingly simple enough, as far as 
melodic progress is concerned, might be selected from the 
great composers, but somehow they have a character which 
would seem to be infinitely beyond the child's thought; and 
the very simplicity of the melodic form becomes a stum- 

Among all the well-known classic writers perhaps no 
one embodies in his melodies so much of the real essence 


of childlike song as Mozart; but one would have to use him 

Nor will many of the folk-songs answer; for they are 
apt to reflect national characteristics in either melodic or 
rhythmic forms of expression that are not easy for Amer- 
ican children, to say the least, to apprehend. 

It is not strange, therefore, that one brought up in the 
atmosphere of the kindergarten would be strongly moved 
to original construction of melodies which should meet the 
exigencies of the child's thought in both its musical aspect 
and the inner meaning of the play or song. 

What Miss Bryan says in her preface to this new book, 
regarding verse, is just as applicable to the song. 

She says: "It must be evident that in the selection of 
songs for different phases in the development of a truth, 
there frequently will be the need of one to convey a certain 
impression, a shade different in meaning from any that can 
be found in the song books at hand; this will lead to the 
necessity of creating a song, since for conscious, definite 
work, not every song on the general subject will answer. 
. . . . Every song in this collection was directly in- 
spired by a need for some special expression, and the result 
in each case was original work or adaptation of the verses 
of others." 

And in speaking of the melodies themselves, she 
remarks that "The selections have been made not only 
with reference to their adaptability to the idea, but for the 
reason that the intervals are easy and the music childlike. 
In no instance has the choice been the result of the music 
happening to 'fit' the words. On the contrary, frequently 
when music was found which embodied the sentiment of a 
desired song, the words were written for or changed to suit 
the music, and sometimes a change made in both." 

The music cannot be judged, therefore, wholly from the 
standpoint of a Reinecke, but from the basis of a pure 
music thought springing from the actual conditions of the 
child mind as found in the kindergarten. 

.Speaking from this point of view, and the experience of 


many years of work with the child mind, the majority of 
the original and adapted songs in this work seem to me 
more truly suitable to the kindergarten child than any col- 
lection known to me, admirable as many of them are. 

Attention should be called to the accompaniments, 
which are simple enough to be within the capacity of many 
mothers, but which are characteristic, and so all-inclusive 
that it is possible for the accompanist who is also a miisi- 
ciafi, to sing the whole songy^r the children, with the piano- 
forte. — Calvin B. Cady, Chicago Conservatory of Music. 

The song " Bye Baby Bye," published in this number, is 
taken from the newly published kindergarten collection by 
Miss Mildred and Patty Hill, of Louisville. They can be 
secured by prompt mail through the Kindergarten Liter- 
ature Co. 

A child's questions. 
Tell me, you dear little leaves, 
Falling so gently down, 

Did the old mother tree 

Write a story to me, 

On your tinted pages 
Of red, gold, and brown? 

Tell me, you little oak leaf. 

Where are the babies now 
Of the robin red breast. 
That built her warm nest j 

And rocked them to sleep 

On your strongest bough? 

Dear little brown oak leaf, 
W^here do your acorns go? 

Do the squirrels take them all, 

As soon as they fall, 

And store them away. 
Or leave some to grow? 

— yiiliette Pulver. 


Author (>f words unknown. 


shad-ow lies, Bye, ba-by 

tiok - le link -le, Bye- ba-by 
guard and bless thee, Bye, ba-by 













'I fJ i J 






T T f f 



r f 1 .1 iJ 


(From "Song Stories for the Kindergarten," by permission. 



To discover the office of music in elementary education, 
we must, of course, consider the special conditions of the 
child. Briefly stated, they are these: Man is born upon a 
physical plane, with the faculty to become a rational, moral 
being. He is a creature with germ of thought and will 
power. To what end shall he strive for this development? 
What means are at hand to aid him? What help can come 
from within? What comes from without? 

Everyone knows that an attempt to analyze the power 
of music over man is much like an experiment in vivisec- 
tion, turn on the search light as fully as we may. This is a 
province where we shall always feci far more than we can 
explain. We shall surely blunder if we look only at one 
point. Mrs. Browning shows where our error is, when she 
says: "Very many Christian teachers are wrong in just my 
sense, who understand life too insularly, as if 

" No spiritual counterpart completed it, consummating its meaning, 

rounding all 
To justice and perfection, line by line, form by form, nothing single or 

The Great Below clenched by the Great Above." 

We need to know these spiritual counterparts; for the 
stream can never rise higher than its fountain, and there 
must be in the beginning of things, in the first sense train- 
ing, in the first feeling,. knowledge which shall lead to the 
study and expression of art forms from the best motives 
which impel us to action. 

Froebel makes the way very plain. We need but to find 
from the "Mother-Play" how a right taste, a right hearing, 
a right seeing, all stand for a groundwork on which to 
build the higher taste, the enlarged seeing which is faith, 
and the spiritual counterpart of the hearing which Christ 
himself tells us is doing. The Bible and our own human 
experience constantly speak of this inner connection of 
hearing and doing. So who shall say that it matters not 
when and how and what little children hear? Charles 
Kingsley says that there is music in heaven, because there 


is no self-will.there. Have we not a definite lesson to learn, 
then, in our dealings with children,— to use such tones as 
will call forth the minimum of resistance, the maximum of 
a willing obedience? Music should call into play — good 
music does call into thought and feeling— the eternal lesson 
of life, — self-subordination, self-renunciation, — and should 
rouse a child to an action which at first may be nothing 
more than the letting go of self, and yielding passively. 
But woe betide us if we stop here, if we carry the child no 
further! for no greater wrong can be done than to leave 
him to the mercy of an emotion, unguided by thought. 

I believe that there are fundamental musical types as 
reliable for this great purpose of music, as are our typical 
forms and typical colors; that just as much continuity and 
strength can be presented to the child through this medium 
as through any other sense training, with this additional 
power,— that the right music will serve to govern, as well 
as arouse those germs of feeling which later become life- 
controlling emotions. It needs no great technical or scien- 
tific knowledge of music to bring this heavenly lesson into 
the kindergarten, for it is all ready and waiting for us. 
We need only use discrimination in choice of what lies open 
to our needs. 

With the child's first effort to sing comes an inner de- 
mand for the physical relaxation of the sound-producing 
organs, as well as a balance of power, by which tone can be 
sustained, which condition is in itself no mean illustration 
of the law of reconciliation of contrasts. This inner im- 
pulse to give and to hold, projects itself fearlessly at first, 
and by a free expression of tone and movement the kin- 
dergartner should soon learn to know something of the 
characteristics of her children. Believe me, fellow kinder- 
gartners, we have not led the child to gain its own ex- 
periences along this line, as we have in our work with gift 
and occupation. 

We have formulated and dictated here after a fashion 
worthy of the condemnation of some of the members of 
some boards of education and some journalists of today. 


When God made man he breathed into him the breath 
of life; and I cannot doubt that there are in every child 
vessels which still retain the vibrations of this Spirit, need- 
ing only a right environment in which to be again breathed 
forth by the little human, as it were of himself. Do not let 
us, in our songs and games, stifle this power of hearing and 
doing, by too arbitrary a prescription for the form of the 
song and game. Let the child play with his voice, play 
with gesture, as he plays with his ball. Let the song and 
game be the expression of the child's feeling rather than 
ours; and one word more: do not give words too soon; the 
open vowels mean so much for the child, though he may 
not know it! The musical tone of your own speaking voice 
means so much to him in the matter of willing obedience! 
I am not asking for any gushing sentimentalisms in address- 
ing children in nursery, kindergarten, or school or home. 
A child has need to feel the strength and authority of his 
elders, as well as their tenderness. 

See to it that when the time comes to unite word and 
melody, the words have elements of imagery; and do not 
let us try to make poetry without poetic ideas to build upon. 
Each thing in its season. Life would be a queer medley 
had it no prosaic side; and the children — we all — need the 
stern lessons of use which this side of life teaches; but our 
life today offers fifty opportunities for practice of these 
exercises, where there is time and opportunity for but one 
lesson from the other book. 

We are really learning in the kindergarten what 7iot to 
do; and when one ceases from evil, one may learn to do 
well. — Alice H. Putnam. 

The Martin Luther birthday dates November lo. It 
may also be called a "thanksgiving" day. Many beautiful 
photographic reprints of the greatest pictures on the home 
life and work of Luther are to be had. He was musician, 
poet, gentleman, orator, and noble father all in one. 



( Written for the "Kindergarten Magazine.'") 


Near the Giant Sun, either early in the 
morning or early in the evening, one can 
sometimes see frisky little Mercury, about 
whom I told, you in the story of Giant Sun. 
The sun keeps Mercury ver}' close to him, 
so that he may not get into mischief, and 
'.!llliy_ ^, - ^^,|-^gj^ Qj-^g ^j^j^ gg^ ^ glimpse of him he 

appears as a small white star slightly tinged with red. 
Sometimes he is called the Twinkler, because he twinkles 
and seems to be laughing at the people who are trying to 
watch him dov/n on Earth. In fact, it is not at all easy to 
see him, for he is either up very early in the morning, when 
most little girls and boys are fast asleep, or very early in 
the evening, just about the time Giant Sun is thinking about 
putting on his nightcap and going to sleep. Even then he 
twinkles so merrily that it is not easy to get a good steady 
look at him. Besides, Mercury is a very small planet, as 
you can see from this picture, which shows the difference 
between the size of the earth, on which we live, and Mer- 

A long time ago. people thought the morning Mercury 
was one star, and the evening Mercury another; so they 
called the morning star "Apollo, god of day," and the 
evening star, "Mercury, the god of thieves," because he 
stole so nmch light from the sun. But it was not long be- 
fore astronomers found out that this frisky little planet was 
both the morning star and the evening star, at different 
times. However, he kept his name Mercury, which he well 
deserves, as he steals more heat and light from the sun than 
any other planet. He is like a spoiled child, and takes all 
he can get. If people are living on Mercury, they must be 
first cousins to the salamanders, who are just as comfortable 
hopping round in a fire as the little brownies would be 
playing round in the snow. If we were to leave our com- 


fortable little planet Earth, and go to Mercury to live, we 
would surely find it very warm. When Mercury is nearest 
the sun, he receives ten and a half times more light than we 
do; and even when he is at his greatest distance from the 
sun, the light and heat he receives are four and a half times 
greater than for us. What would we do if the sun shone 
ten times more brightly than it does on our earth? We 
woulci certainly be scorched and destroyed in no time. 
The polar regions may be a little more com- 
fortable as a ciwelling place on Mercury; 
and by making a tunnel through the middle 
of the planet, the people at the north pole 
^ , could call on their friends at the south 

T^^pu or, M=-<:,„y polc. It wouM bc impossible to live at the 
^9 '''" " "' regions near the equator, nor could the Mer- 
curials reach the polar regions by taking an ocean trip; 
for the sun's heat is so great that it would boil any water 
away. Not only would there not be enough water to float 
an ocean steamer, but not even enough to float a straw. 
Everything on Mercury weighs less than it does on our 
earth, so that the elephant and hippopotamus, which are so 
clumsy here, would be quite graceful and agile on this planet. 
However, we ought to feel very pleased that we are not 
living on Mercury, but on this comfortable planet Earth, 
for which we are so well adapted. If we find it too warm 
we can go north; or if we find it too cold we can go south; 
and we have enough heat and cold to make it always pleas- 
ant for us all the year round. If we were living on Mer- 
cury, it would not be quite so nice. The seasons on Mercury 
change more rapidly than they do on Earth, as a year on 
Mercury only lasts eighty-eight days; so that 
there are forty-four days of midwinter and 
forty-four days of midsummer. Then, again. 
Mercury travels round the sun at the rate of 
about twenty-nine miles a second, or a hun- 
dred times more rapidly than a rifle bullet. 

Mercury is lighted by the sun's rays, and has phases, 
like the moon. At first Mercury appears round, like a cres- 



cent; then it gradually gets larger and larger till it appears 
like a round star; then it changes again, as shown in the 

Copernicus, a very great astronomer who lived during 
the fifteenth century, was very anxious to get a glimpse of 
Mercur}', for he despaired of ever seeing it. "T fear," said 
this great man, "that I shall descend to the tomb without 
having seen the planet." And indeed, he who had made 
the planets the study of his life, died without seeing the 
first among them. Galileo was able to observe it through a 
telescope he had invented; but he could not see the phases. 
For this reason the enemies of Copernicus, Galileo, and 
Kepler said they must be mistaken in teaching that Mer- 
cury and Venus (which also has phases) revolve round the 
sun. "For," said they, "if these planets revolved round the 
sun they would change their aspect to our eyes, as the 
moon does, according as we see in front, in profile, or in 
rear the illuminated part — the side, in fact, which they turn 
toward the sun." You see, the old astronomers believed 
that the sun went round the earth, instead of the earth go- 
ing round the sun; but even the little boys and girls in our 
day know better than that, and could teach those old as- 
tronomers many things they did not know. But now we 
must say good-by to Mercury; and next time we shall have 
something to say about Venus, his next-door neighbor. — 
Mary Proctor. 

Vol 6-15 



The following happy suggestions were made in one of 
our city daily papers by Miss Elizabeth Harrison, of Chi- 
cago, with particular reference to the school children's 
week at the Fair. They contain so much that is valuable 
which may be applied to the reviewing of the Fair during 
the coming winter, that we reproduce them here for our 
parents' column. 

" Many mothers, embarrassed by the wealth of interest- 
ing things which the World's Fair offers, have asked me 
from time to time to help them decide where to take and 
what to show their six, eight, and ten year old children. 
This appeal for assistance has suggested the printing of the 
following list for mothers who may be somewhat puzzled as 
to how to best utilize next week's gift of a vacation from 
the school board. Of course various children will want to 
see various objects, and some peculiar children will need 
peculiar guiding; but the average child wants to see that 
in which his mother has interested him. It is for such I 
send these suggestions. Many are interested in the his- 
torical side of the Fair. Those 1 would take first to the 
statue of Columbus, in front of the east entrance of the 
Administration Building (having previously told them the 
story of Columbus' life). Next visit the Convent, not stop- 
ping for the confusing lot of pictures upon its wall:,, but to 
get an idea of the quiet retreat this discouraged great heart 
found. Sit in the inner court and rehearse the stor\ ul the 
brave, hot, stormy life. The older children might jcrhaps 
have the quaint old geographies and maps points wut to 
them. But too many impressions must be careful! \ ..\ >ided. 
Next visit the caravels, that they may the moi. vidly 
realize the perils of that daring journey of discov. > . End 
the day by a visit to the Russian exhibit ni the a, ; iery, 


where those marvelous pictures have caught the spirit of 
Columbus and reproduced it on canvas. This would be 
enough study for the average child for one day. 

"The rest of the time might be spent in some amuse- 
ment. Let us remember always that a few good and last- 
ing impressions are far more valuable than many hurried 
and confused ones. 

"The next day might be given up to a leisurely stroll 
through the Horticultural Building, attention being called 
to the tropical plants and trees which are so foreign to us. 
The dwarf trees from Japan, the orchids, and a few such 
curious oddities might be sought out. The Florida Build- 
ing contains many interesting sea shells, corals, seaweeds, 
and the like. A visit to the aquarium in the east wing of 
the Fisheries Building might finish up the day. A view of 
the Swiss Alps panorama is a treat to any child. I have 
been asked again and again if the Hagenbeck animal show 
was not to be included in this list of visits to the curious 
and beautiful in nature. I will let one of my blessed kin- 
dergarten trained mothers answer from her experience. 
' Everybody told me,' said she, 'that I must let the chil- 
dren see the trained animals. So one afternoon I bought 
tickets for the Hagenbeck show. We all went — my hus- 
band, my seven-year-old boy, five-year-old girl, and I. 
Next morning I was attracted to the window by the loud, 
harsh cries of my usually quiet boy. I looked out, only to be- 
hold our dear old Tom, the pet cat who had shared all their 
joys and their sorrows for years, tied by a string to a stake 
and galloping round and round in a perfect frenzy of fear, 
urged on by the whip and shout of|my son, while my gen- 
tle little daughter stood by and aj^lauded. As they had 
both been taught to be always tender and considerate 
toward all that were more helpless than they, I was struck 
with consternation. Upon my indignantly reproving their 
cruelty, I found that they were merely reproducing the 
scene of the previous afternoon as well as they could with 
the material at hand. My kindergarten training had taught 
me that the reproduction in dramatic play of the activities 


of life was the natural and wholesome effort of children to 
understand life.' I will only add that another friend was 
present when some of the animals became unruly, and red- 
hot irons were applied to them to compel them to submit 
to the will of their masters. Each parent may judge for 
himself or herself as to whether such sights ennoble child 

"A third day might be given up to a study of the 
curious habitations of mankind, beginning w^ith the Indian 
tents and wigwams at the south end of the grounds, stop- 
ping for a few minutes before the ruins of Yucatan and the 
fairly good reproduction of the cave-dwellers. A visit to 
the pioneer's log hut in the same locality will help the child 
to realize something of the hardships our forefathers en- 
dured. The South Sea Island and the Javanese dwellings 
will delight the kindergarten child with their weaving.. 
The Japanese temple on the Wooded Island may be visited 
next. The Eskimo and the Dahomey huts are for the tem- 
porary convenience of their inhabitants, and they hardly 
deserve study. The child who has learned to love Jane 
Andrews' 'Seven Little Sisters' will find five of the little 
sisters on the grounds. This day, given up to the study of 
the races of men, may well end by a walk through our Gov- 
ernment Building, where the wax figures so excellently 
represent the various citizens of our republic. The Smith- 
sonian exhibit in the same building will be interesting to 
the older children. 

"One of the most suggestive as well as profitable visits 
to the World's Fair would be a day spent in tracing the 
processes by which the raw materials of nature are trans- 
formed into objects of industry and art. A visit to the 
glass works in Midway Plaisance should be followed by an 
examination of the rich and beautiful stained -glass exhibits 
in Liberal Arts Building. The Forestry Building is espe- 
cially attractive in its many illustrations of what trees may 
be changed into by the skill and thought of man. The 
Japanese exhibit in this building will attract almost all 
children. A visit to the sawmills should precede this visit. 


In the Mining Building are to be seen the rough ore as it 
comes fresh from the mines, and every step in its marvel- 
ous transformation until it becomes finely finished steel in 
cutlery and hardware. The Transportation Building will 
delight the aspiring young heart, as it tells in such an em- 
phatic way the fascinating story of the growth of means of 
transportation, from the crude ox cart to the resplendent 
Pullman palace train. The primitive mode of spinning is 
to be seen in an upper room of the Louisiana Building, and 
hand weaving and lace making are shown in the Irish 

"These are a few of the many wa}^s in which a visit to 
the World's Fair may be made a pleasant and profitable 
event to children, rather than a taxing, confusing episode, 
wearying both body and mind and leaving scarcely any 
definite impression. — Elizabctli Harrison!' 


Every faithful, earnest mother has beautiful theories 
about bringing up her children; but it has seemed to me 
that one is hardl}' ever able to appl}^ one's theories to 
one's own children. Your methods might work success- 
fully with some children, but not with the ones yoit happen 
to be loving and training. As a mother told me not long 
ago — "I thought I would know just how to bring up Kate 
from the experiences I had with John; but she was alto- 
gether different, and I had to learn the lessons all over 

I do not think that little children should be worldly 
wise about money. If I could help it I would never have a 
child hear the expressions "rich people" and "poor peo- 
ple." Let them grow up thinking the best is to be happy 
and good, and not that a great deal of money is the best 
thing in the world. 

For these reasons very little has ever been said before 
my own little lad about the cost of articles. He has fived 
in a happy little world, not knowing that there are either 
rich or poor people, — only that people are good or bad. 


About the time he was five years old I began to see that 
he must be taught that his father earned the money to buy 
his food, clothes, and toys, and that all things were not 
showered down without working for them, in order that he 
would take better care of his things. And, moreover, he 
was only too willing to give away any plaything which 
some other little playfellow chose to ask for. Naturally 
generous, he seemed to think it the easiest matter in the 
world to replace a favorite toy. 

Then the puppy came to my aid. 

A friend offered to give him a puppy, and I said he 
could accept it if he were willing to take care of it and save 
his pennies to pay the dog tax with. Then of course I had 
to tell him in as simple a way as I could what taxation 

He was devotion itself to the puppy, and not without a 
pang, I am sure (it is such a delight to a child to spend a 
penny, choosing from a long shelf fuH of pretty things), he 
put away the pennies to pay his dog tax. It was his dog, 
and he seemed to realize that its welfare depended on him. 

One day when we were out driving we met a most 
charming performing bear. He immediately wanted me to 
get one for him. 

"If you had a bear," said I, "could you take care of it?" 

"Oh, yes," said he; "it could sleep in the barn with 
Phyllis; but oh, Mamma, do they have to pay taxes on 

"I suppose they do," I replied. And then he sat silent, 
thinking. I was waiting for his next thought about the bear. 

After some time he gave a sigh, and said: "Well, 
Mamma, let's not get a bear; for you know a bear is bigger 
than a dog; so the tax would be bigger, and I don't feel 
like paying any more taxes." 

A few weeks later we went to call on a friend who had 
a loyely new baby. 

He admired the baby very much, and wished to take it 
home with him. But while there he came to me and said, 
"Mamma, do they have to pay taxes on babies?" 


"No, dear," said I; "because they are a gift from God." 

That evening when I put him to bed I told him that 
when God gives us anything — a new baby, beautiful sun- 
shine, a sky full of stars, or a happy day — we do not have 
to pay a money tax for it, only be happy and enjoy it; but 
that when we bought anything from a man, such as a horse, 
a house, or a dog, we had to be taxed for it. 

Since his experience with his dog he has taken better 
care of his playthings. Before that he had sometimes been 
very careless about leaving his velocipede, a ball, or train 
of cars out in the yard; and I had felt that he was getting 
old enough to have considerable care, at least of his own 
playthings. He was very proud of the fact that he was the 
chief support of the dog, very watchful to see that the best 
bones were saved for his dogship, and anxious that he 
should be happy in his new home. Anyone who has ever 
taken care of a young puppy will know how many times I 
had to get up in the night and warm milk for it in its first 
few lonely nights away from its mother. Its little master 
woke up one night and asked me what I was out of bed for. 
"Oh," said I, "your dog is crying, and I didn't want to 
call you, because I want you to have a good sleep." 

The next day I heard him saying to a little playfellow, 
"I tell you what, my mother she's good. She gets up in 
the night and gets milk for Columbus, my puppy, and don't 
make me do it 'cause she wants me to sleep and be nice 
and rested in the morning." 

Not only is he more careful, but since our talk about 
taxes I think he more than ever appreciates the gifts of 
his heavenly Father which are given so freely. — Nellie 
Nelson Amsden. 


Just think how beautiful this world must seem to little 
children! As they go about, everything is so new, so won- 
derful, so attractive! Their inquiring, investigating minds 
lead them here, there, and everywhere that their little feet 
can carry them, and each object met with presents to them 


a new phase of life. Thoughtful parents and teachers will 
realize that these early impressions should not be dulled, 
but strengthened, as the years come and go. Each bird, 
flower, or even a stone, should be to the childish minds a 
living thought which speaks of the loving Father who for a 
wise purpose has created all things. 

It is possible for children to gain as much pleasure from 
simple weeds picked by the wayside as does my Lady 
Croesus from her conservatory filled with the rarest orchids. 
To them the mayweed may be introduced as first cousin to 
the garden daisy, and, as such, be lifted from the common- 
place to an idealized plane of life. It may speak to them a 
cheery "Good morning," and tell man)- a story of the hap- 
penings in its corner of the world. It may tell how in the 
darkness it drank in the drops of dew which the cooling 
night air sent to its relief; of the bees and birds and butter- 
flies that flitted above it in the morning sun; of the songs 
of merry children as they passed it by on their way to 
school; and of the whole joy and delight of summer. 

Down in the meadow or out on the lawn the clover 
leaves give to observing little ones an object lesson which 
is well worth noting. As night comes on the twin leaflets 
nestle lovingly together, while the upper one broods pro- 
tectingly over them through all the chilly hours till the 
dawn. An inspiration will thereby lead Nellie and Katie 
and Fred to care more tenderly for those who are yoiinger 
than they. 

The leaves dancing upon the trees, or gayly fluttering 
downward at the will of the autumn wind, have manifold 
lessons to unfold. Those of the springtime tell of their 
long winter's sleep as buds wrapped up snug and warm. 
They tell, besides, of the fairy color-bearers — red, blue, 
orange, yellow, green, violet, and deep indigo — which the 
sun sends to the earth, and how each leaf keeps all of these, 
but the green, to nourish and sustain its life. The leaves of 
September and October, both the bright-hued and the 
brown, as they cover the earth from the frost, speak of the 
providence by which even so helpless a thing as a leaf is 


enfolded; and the children will realize that the}', more than 
all else in the universe, are held in that same loving pro- 

To most bo\'s, and some girls, too, a stone is only a 
missile, to be aimed at the first convenient object. When, 
however, they learn its marvelous history, — how its birth- 
time dates back to that long, long ago when this world of 
ours was newly created; that it was not formed by chance, 
but with wise foresight for the needs of man, — it becomes 
to them a thing of wonder and reverence. Gathering the 
pebbles, bits of quartz and jasper, which they find along the 
way, may thus direct the thoughts of the children toward 
the Infinite, and they may be led to "Look from Nature, up 
to Nature's God." — M. H.Jciinijigs. 


There are many most excellent reasons why the children 
of approving parents are not sent to the kindergarten. 
One father says, "There is none in the neighborhood. I'd 
rather have my child in one than not, and would rather pay 
any amount of money to ha\'e him there, than see him toted 
about forever by nurse Annie." 

If you have the money and the inclination, why not start 
the movement and can\'ass the field for a new kindergarten? 
You could open one in your own dining room. Limit the 
children, if you desire, to a select few; or better still, open 
a free class in the neighborhood, where a few stray street 
children could participate with your boy. 

Another family prefer not to send their children to the 
kindergarten in the next block, because of the kind of chil- 
dren who attend, and because the kindergartner herself 
does not always use good grammar. 

To be sure, the little world that goes its rounds in this 
kindergarten is made up of various temperaments. But this 
"new education" claims as its chief aim that of preparing 
the child for life; not Robinson Crusoe alone on an island, 
but citizens and brethren together. The business world will 
not always be grammatical, but it will be found largely gen- 


ial and kindly. It will be of more importance in those later 
years if your boys and girls have the power to detect a 
generous, kindly soul, than to catch the grammatical flaws 
of their neighbors' language. 

"Why do you not send your children of four and a half 
years to our kindergarten?" was recently asked of two 
mothers, when the autumn term opened. Both mothers 
were conscientious in devoting much time to their children; 
both had lofty ideals, and gave evidence of wishing to do 
the verybest in their power for these babes. To the ques- 
tion each gave, in substance, the same answer: 

"My child has an over-developed mind now. She had 
spasms the other day, and I know the kindergarten would 
be very bad for her; it is so taxing." 

The kindergartner answered: "Your child needs the 
very thing you are withholding. She needs avenues of ex- 
pression, and less watching. She is suffering for want of 
occasions to put outside her overcrowded self. Instead of 
them, you teach her letters and show her books until she is 
weary. Give her a handful of clay for half an hour, or leave 
her alone at the sand table; give her the blocks and the 
quiet work hour, or the games, so full of natural action, and 
you cannot fail to have a normal, happy child." 

The well-meaning ■ mother answered: "She has daily 
exercise with the nurse, who takes her for a long walk 
every day, and I tend to her letters myself." 

"The nurse at best is a poor substitute for the com- 
panionship of other children of her own age; and the walk, 
with its many restrictions, par convoiicncc, will not take the 
place of happy games, which supply not only the body but 
also the heart and soul with truer energy and activity." 

One last and always pathetic reason for not sending the 
children to kindergarten is that justifiable one of hundreds 
of earnest, intelligent parents, who want but cannot afford 
it. In far Arizona there is a home, many miles from such a 
luxury as a kindergarten. The boy has been told all about 
it, and the parents have read and studied eagerly to provide 
him with as much as possible of the spirit of it. 


The happiest Christmas of the boy's life was over his 
Christmas tree, made of fringed green tissue paper and dec- 
orated with his own handiwork. All of the non-essentials 
were lacking, — even the candles; but there were the essen- 
tials of cooperation between parents and child, and unmeas- 
ured faith in childish activity. — B. H. 

" Kindergarten Literature Co. — I come for advice. I am a mother 
with three children; the oldest has gone to school quite awhile, but I 
have one seven and one four, that I very much desire to teach at home, 
well knowing that it is not all of education to learn to read, write, 
figure, etc. We live in the country, and cannot have a kindergartner. 
I want to know what books I can get that would give me the proper 
help in the first steps of the work. I am a very earnest worker in all 
that lifts humanity higher, and well know when is the time to begin. 
Respectfully.— yl/ri-. L. B. S., Denver." 

There is no one book which will give you instruction in 
kindergarten methods. The fundamental study of this 
natural education is that of the child. When you have 
learned to detect the needs and outreachings of your child, 
then you may be able to apply the methods of paper folding 
or block building to his needs. For a very young child 
and a young mother I would recommend the book called 
"The Nursery Finger Plays." Do not use it merely as a 
picture book, but learn the nature stories there put into 
rhyme, and sing or say them with the child. This book 
embodies the facts of the kindergarten work, even though 
you may not know these facts. The stories appeal to nor- 
mal children, and in time they learn to work out the little 
plays with feeling and meaning. 

If you have time to study deeper into the work, and if 
you must choose one of two things, take the Kinder- 
garten Magazine, which will give you the general pur- 
poses of the work, and many practical hints for daily study, 
not of the system, but of your child. Again, Froebel's own 
book of Mother-Plays, as interpreted and made practical, 
will lead you on into the study of yourself as well as the 
child. Miss Elizabeth Harrison's book of "Child Nature" 


is a volume of forceful and practical studies of the child, 
from the standpoint of this book. The "Finger Plays" 
first mentioned will take the place of a song book as well, 
as the baby will appreciate the rhythm and gesture long 
before the words of the story. Send for the new catalogue 
of kindergarten literature issued recently by the Kindergar- 
ten Literature Company, and you will find many valuable 
and discriminating points on this subject of the right books. 


Little folks always find this story attractive, and it is a 
pretty sight to see the chubby fingers interlaced or flutter- 
ing in the air as do the birds. 

The exercise is begun by placing the backs of the hands 
together and interlacing the fingers, while the thumbs just 
touch the table. The latter are the father and mother 
pigeons, the children will imagine, and the eight fingers are 
their children. 

Now come a few words about the dangers to which birds 
— especially very young ones — are exposed, and then the 
pigeon house, with the parents on guard near the door, is 
closed up snug and tight. 

With the words, 

" I open now my pigeon house," 
the birds begin to appear; and as the little ones recite, 
" Out fly the pigeons once more let loose," 

the fingers flutter gayly, sailing higher and higher with the 
succeeding lines of the stanza: 

"Away to the broad green fields tliey fly; 
They pass the day right merrily; 
But when they come home to rest at night" — 

with this line the bird-like fingers flutter slowly down- 
ward — 

"Again I close my pigeon house tight;" 

when lo! all the birdies are once more safe at home. — M. 
H. J. 




The angels never say "good night," 
For no night comes in Paradise; 
And lilies never close their eyes. 
The angels smile, and say "God's light," 
Instead of saying our "good night." 
And we shall say what angels do. 
When Heaven's gate God leads us through; 
Till then — "Good night." 

Downward sinks the setting sun; 
Soft the evening shadows fall; 

Light is flying, 

Day is dying. 
Darkness stealeth over all. 

Good night. —M. H. J. 


"The Center of the Sphere " (a pamphlet, price 25 cents). This is 
the title of a lecture by Mrs. Mary H. Peabody, which has just been 
printed by the young ladies for whom it was originally written. The 
paper deals with the phrase as an illustration of natural law traced to 
its fulfillment in the processes of human life; as a symbolism which is 
based upon nature and finds its outcome in society. The sphere is 
studied in nature, as the form of individual force. Its divisions are 
shown to be the result of force working from within, producing three 
exact planes, and these, as the basis of geometric measurement, are con- 
sidered as representative of the measurement and unfolding of human 
character. Mrs. Peabody says: "The three planes are these: the verti- 
cal, which indicates the connection of the life of any created form with 
that of the Infinite; the horizontal, which defines the great circle of 
nature; and that third and last plane, which represents the return of 
life from nature to God, — the plane of humanity, which mathematically, 
as from front to back, humanly, from man to man, cuts through the 
other two at their own meeting place, the center of the sphere." From 
this basis of mathematics the law of the relationship of the parts to the 
whole is followed, from nature into society. "The lesson that is given 
at the center of the sphere is progress, balance of parts, the control of 
the outside from within." "All principles are taught by means of form, 
for forms of nature are illustrations of law." The paper, dealing in this 
way with the first form of the kindergarten, leads from babyhood to 
manhood, and shows " the eternal verity " of the laws of life, which, 
under Froebel, have become the first laws of education. A journalist 
has said of this pamphlet, " It is a paper that any intelligent man would 
like to read and think about." Whatever can lead intelligent people to 
consider the real idea of the kindergarten must be welcome to those 
who already know it and labor for its progress. The pamphlet can be 
secured of the Kindergarten Literature Co. by return mail. 

"In the Child's World," by Emilie Poulsson, author of "Finger 
Plays," is at last upon the market. It is illustrated by L. J. Bridgman, 
and arranged as a series of morning talks and stories for a full year. 
It is substantial and attractive, being a gift book as well as a text-book. 
Mothers and kindergartners will welcome a new book from the pen 
of Miss Poulsson, and this one in particular they have been awaiting 
for over a year. It is one of the few kindergarten books that are bound 
to live forever, since it is not a recording of developing methods, nor a 
set program of work, but a pure child's storybook with scientific truth 


and deep purposes behind every line. The book is listed at $2, but in 
reality this price is low when the real value and quality of each par- 
ticular is estimated. 

"Paper and Scissors in the Schoolroom" is a paper-covered hand- 
book, compassing a practical and systematic course in paper folding 
and cutting for all grades in the public as well as private schools. The 
author is Miss Emily A. Weaver; publishers, Milton Bradley Co. The 
book takes up a progressive plan of work, giving full details and illus- 
trations. Price 25 cts. 

"The Classic Myths in English Literature " is a new work, though 
nominally based upon Bulfinch's "Age of Fable," by Professor CM. 
Gayley. It is destined to a wide-reaching usefulness as a school manual. 
A knowledge of Greek fable can perhaps be acquired only through a 
familiarity at first hand with the antique; but since few can expect to 
attain to this, an attractive survey of the whole field, from a literary 
rather than a learned point of view, with constant indication of the 
sources of every myth, is of the highest value and importance. Price 

" Song Stories for the Kindergarten," by the Misses Hill, of Louis- 
ville, is the latest and newest collection of exquisite songs for every day 
in the year. It is written and adapted by practical kindergartners, is 
tested by actual use in kindergarten, is a dainty book, which will add to 
the home library much of the kindergarten spirit, and enlarge to kin- 
dergartners their choice of adaptable songs. See review in Practice 
Department of this number, with song entitled "Bye Baby Bye." 


The A'i/ider^ar/en Growth in So/ne Foj-cigii Lands. — The Swiss Kin- 
dergarten Verein, of which Herr M. C. Kiittel is president, holds its 
meetings but once in two years. At the last meeting, held at Lucerne, 
in September, 1892, the following topics were discussed: i. Will a reg- 
ular visit of the different kindergartens by members of the general 
assembly be an incentive to kindergartners? 2. Shall the general 
association furnish material aid to needy kindergartens? 3. Would 
it not be advisable to assign to the object lesson a much more promi- 
nent place in our curriculum, and thus replace exciting games and the 
more difficult and exhausting occupations? 4. To what extent are 
religious influences admissible in the kindergarten? This assembly has 
the following special aim before it: the spread of the kindergarten 
work throughout Switzerland, by means of literature and lectures, by 
the establishing of kindergartens, and by urging the state to establish 
public kindergartens. It also hopes to gain the union and cooperation 
of kindergartners and those interested in the work. 

The first kindergarten in Holland was organized at Sommelsdyk, in 
1859, by Elise Von Calcar. At present the kindergarten is partially 
instructed at the female normal schools of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, 
while at Leiden' there is a professional training school for " Froebel- 
teachers." This work has permeated the infant schools of Holland, and 
instituted free playgrounds for the children. Madam Von Calcar her- 
self has written books on the following subjects: The Hope of the 
Future for Teachers; Froebel Handwork; The Little Workmen; Froe- 
bel Method of Harmonious Development; Make the Children Happy — 
a handbook for kindergartners; How Fr. Froebel Became an Educator, 
and What the Children Taught Him. She is at present writing the life 
of Bertha Von Marenholtz, who was so long a companion to Froebel in 
his work. She writes, with reference to the partial practice of the kin- 
dergarten: "My great sorrow is the imperfect understanding and the 
voluntary mutilation of a splendid whole, which only can reach its end 
if it is taken and applied as a whole, but must give only small advan- 
tage and imperfect results if it is broken up into fragments." 

A unique private educational institute was organized in 1880 in 
Athens, Greece, by Catherine Lascarida, who was and still is a devoted 
disciple of Froebel. This school, called HcUcnlkon Parthenagogion, 
was on the Froebel plan, every grade of work being permeated by this 
spirit. The mistress of the school has also trained kindergartners who 
still conduct private kindergartens, and has written a Greek treatise on 
Froebel, besides several readers and song books. She writes, under the 


date of April 12: "Unhappily my countrymen, having been so many 
centuries under the yoke of barbarian tyrants, are not yet sufficiently 
prepared to acknowledge the benefits of this perfect system; nor had I 
means to convince them of its perfection and usefulness, as this could 
only be done by a general reform of our present imperfect school 

The Province of Ontario, Dominion of Canada, has sixty-six public 
kindergartens, which accommodate 6,375 children, with an average 
attendance of 3,287. Toronto has twenty-seven of these infant schools, 
with seventy-six trained kindergartners in charge. 

The kindergarten is made the foundation of the normal schools of 
the Argentine Republic, and the principles of Froebel are a regular 
department of the study of pedagogy. 

All active kindergartners should endeavor this year to become 
actively connected with the Kindergarten Literature Company as stock- 
holders. Shares are still available, and with this year's remarkable 
growth behind us we can foretell the prosperity of this company with 
surety. Write if you think you will be able to take one or several 
shares, with which a small installment can be held for future payment. 
The work of this company has done more during the past summer 
to spread the kindergarten gospel that that of any one organized body; 
and as it is a kindergarten motto that all reform should be put on a self- 
sustaining basis instead of a charitable one, we are happy to report that 
it is being demonstrated beyond our hope, in the widespread returns 
that we are now receiving in valuable support and business growth. 
The policy of this company will ever keep it as a strong supporter of 
each and every enterprise and branch of the great cause, and as a care- 
ful and guarded critic of the movement going on in the world at large 
in the acceptance by general progress for the Froebelian ideal in edu- 
cation. And above all, this movement deserves whole-hearted and 
active support from every earnest lover of the kindergarten. 

The California Froebel Society held its regular monthly meeting at 
64 Silver street, on Friday, October 6, 1893. The meeting was called to 
order by Mrs. Uohrmann, president /rc> teni. Minutes of the preceding 
meeting were read and approved. The sad news of the death of Mrs. 
Clara Beeson Hubbard was received, and it was unanimously resolved 
by the society to forward resolutions of condolence to the members of 
her family. A committee was appointed to draft resolutions, composed 
of the following ladies: Mrs. Dohrmann, Mrs. S. Johnson, Miss Gris- 
wold, and Miss M. Bullock. The committee' presented the following 
resolution, which was adopted: 

"Resolved — With heartfelt and sincere regret were the tidings of the 
demise of the late Mrs. Clara Beeson Hubbard, of St. Louis, received by 
the members of the California Froebel Society, at their monthly meeting, 

Vol. 6-16 ' 


held Friday, October 6, 1893. California mourns, with St. Louis, the loss 
of so active and untiring a laborer in the kindergarten cause; and it was 
unanimously resolved that the deep and heartfelt sympathy of the Cali- 
fornia teachers be hereby tendered to the members of her family in 
their great bereavement, hoping that the thought that she has gone to 
join Him in unity with whom she ever strove to live, may bring con- 
solation to their broken hearts. She who endeared herself so to little 
ones by her sweet songs and games, has gone to join her voice to the 
heavenly hosts. Peace to her ashes! Her memory will ever be kept in 
loving remembrance, and her noble works live after her." 

It was also resolved to set apart a special afternoon to be devoted to 
a talk to the children, commemorative of Mrs. Hubbard, impressing 
them with what she did for them, how patient she had been through the 
long years of suffering, and how her noble, unselfish life endeared her 
not only to children, but to all good men and women. After the busi- 
ness meeting, a pleasant afternoon was spent in play, the subject for the 
day being "General Playday: Mother-play in this connection." The 
cabinet chosen for the afternoon consisted of the following: Miss M. 
Gamble, Miss H. Eastman, and Miss Chase. The games and songs 
consisted of the following: The Blacksmith, Rain Song, Clock Song, 
Cart-wheel Song, Ring Song, and The Pendulum. Mrs. Eisner, Mrs. 
Plise, Miss Howard, Miss K. Knowlton, and Miss Duisenberg were 
chosen to serve on the November program, the subject of which is, 
"Cooperation of Kindergartner and Mother, Mothers' Meetings, Home 
Visiting." — Martha L. Bullock, Rec. Sec. 

The congress of the Evangelical Alliance held its sessions in Chi- 
cago during the week of October 10-15. One section was devoted to 
the practical consideration of the primary Sunday school, from the kin- 
dergarten standpoint. This provision in itself betokens progress and 
practical efforts to reach children's needs, not merely to teach creeds. 
The chairman of this session was Mrs. E. W. Blatchford, of the Chicago 
Froebel Association, assisted by the following speakers: Miss Stella 
Wood, Miss Bertha Payne, Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, all of Chicago; Miss 
Grace Dodge and Rev. Mrs. Tyndall, of New York City; Mrs. Mary 
H. Peabody, of Chicago; Miss Amalie Hofer, of the Kindergarten 
Magazine. The suggestions most profitably put forth may be con- 
densed as follows: Religion should never be taught as a dogma to a 
little child; it should ever be a growth from the natural to the spiritual. 
The truths of nature should not be shut out from the truths of the Bible. 
Simple, clear statements of these truths will be understood by children. 
Idiomatic expressions should be made plain to the child. Hymns and 
songs must be cleared of unmeaning words. The work done by 
apprenticed hands is no more acceptable in Sunday-school teaching 
than in the kindergarten. The child must be studied more. Better no 
Sunday school than one which gives out false impressions. It is impos- 


sible to give the infant class the regular international lessons; these 
must be administered according to the growth of the child. Kinder- 
garten materials will not create the kindergarten spirit, nor interpret 
the truth back of things, without a true kindergartner to present them. 
A most comprehensive paper on the subject was read by Miss Payne, 
in which she clearly set forth Froebel's interpretations of religious 
teaching. Such discussions foretell more rational methods in infant- 
class work. 

Mr. Henry Wood has recently written an essay on "The Unity of 
Diversity," which is full of meat for kindergartners. It appeared in the 
October number of the new Journal of Realistic Idealism. The open- 
ing paragraph is as follows: "The inspirational truth which is perme- 
ating modern thought is the essential interrelation of all things. The 
negative conditions which are so widely prevalent in human conscious- 
ness are largely due to the lack of a discriminating sense of the num- 
berless lines of mutual relationship. Emerson, the great intuitive phi- 
losopher of modern times, voiced this sentiment in the simple words. 

All are needed by each one; 

Nothing is fair or good alone. 

The law of unselfishness is so fundamental that it is written every- 
where. Every leaf, twig, and branch informs us of dejiendence and 
interdependence; and every organ of the physical body works unceas- 
ingly, more for its neighbors than itself. Reciprocity is the all-prevail- 
ing order. In all the varied phenomena of mind and matter nothing 
stands alone. Selfishness, which is the negative of this universal posi- 
tive, may be said to be the mainspring of all the woes of humanity. 
One life permeates all things, and there is no corner of the universe too 
remote to feel its heart-throb." 

The Philadelphia branch of the I. K. U. held its first annual meet- 
ing on October 3, in Association Hall. The reports read showed a 
gratifying increase all along the line. Miss Mary Mumford, the re- 
cording secretary, gave a most entertaining as well as encouraging ac- 
count of the year's growth of the society, which now numbers one hun- 
dred and sixty-five members. After the election of officers for the 
ensuing year. Miss Anna W. Williams took us in spirit to the " White 
City," and charmed her audience by her graphic pictures of the Fair as 
she saw it. Especially interesting was her description of the kinder- 
garten exhibits, culling, as she did, the best from them all; and after 
listening to her account of the educational congress, she brought us so 
completely in touch with the tone of the meeting that our regret at our 
absence was greatly lessened. The marked success of the society is 
principally due to the able management of our valued president. Miss 
Constance Mackenzie. We also feel that we have cause for congrat- 
ulation in the possession of a library, presented to the society by Miss 


Hallowell, and which is to be known as the "Anna Hallowell Library." 
- — Jean C. Whittlesey, Cor. Sec. 

The Pittsburg and Allegheny Free Kindergarten Association an- 
nounces a full schedule for a two years' course of normal training, with 
three kindergartens for the observation fields of the students, as well as 
a course of twelve lessons for mothers. The following paragraph tells 
of the plan of study on the subject of education: The history of educa- 
tion will be given from the standpoint of the history of civilization, with 
a course of reading, including such books as Quick's "Reformers," 
autobiography of Froebel, " Reminiscences of Froebel," "Education of 
Man," Rousseau's " Emile," " Life and Work of Pestalozzi," and other 
works on educational themes. There will also be given a course of 
fifty lectures on psychology, with supplementary readings from Herbert 
Spencer and Sully. Frequent essays upon the various phases of the 
instruction and training of children, and abstracts of the books read, 
will be required. 

The Froebel Society of St. Louis held its first meeting of the season 
September g, in the assembly room of the board of education. There 
was a large attendance of kindergarten directors, who listened atten- 
tively to a report of the president, Miss McCulloch, of the kindergarten 
congress held at Chicago in July. The need for closer study of the 
child, and broadest culture for the kindergartner, was stated to be the 
vital points for successful results in the work. The annual election of 
officers then took place, with the following result: President, Mary C. 
McCulloch; vice president, Lena G. Shirley; recording secretary, An- 
nie Harbaugh; corresponding secretary, Ella Lyon; treasurer, Irene F, 
Wilson. — E. L., Sec'y Froebel Soc'y, St. Louis. 

A COURSE of lectures on Goethe will begin the second week in Jan- 
uary, 1894, at the Chicago Kindergarten College, 10 Van Buren street, 
preparatory to the Literary Goethe School, which will be held the week 
commencing February 20. Mr. Denton J. Snider, the director of this 
course, has recently published a valuable series of live Studies on the 
World's Fair, comprising "The Four Domes," "Organization of the 
Fair," "State Buildings — Colonial," "State Buildings from East to 
West," "The Greek Column," and a sixth which is now in press, on 
" The Midway Plaisance." The latter can be supplied by the Kinder- 
garten Literature Company. 

The kindergarten of National City, Cal., is earning money in a 
homely and practical way, for the decoration of its room. The chil- 
dren, with the help of those in the primary department, and with occa- 
sional assistance from an older brother or sister in the other depart- 
ments, are doing the work of the janitor. Their first money earned in 
this way went to buy a bust of Froebel, and the next to pay for putting 
up and draping a shelf, from which he looks down upon his little sol- 


diers. They have also bought a piano cover and music stand, and look 
forward to tinting the walls of the room. The kindergartner is Mrs. 
Prudence G. Brown. 

The kindergarten of the Buffalo (N. Y.) state normal opened Sep- 
tember II, with twenty-eight little folks, and eight young women in the 
training class. Only graduates of good schools are admitted, and the 
course is one year and a half. Miss L. S. Palmer is in charge of both 
the kindergarten and the normal training class. The principal of this 
normal school, Mr. James Cassety, has been cordially committed to the 
kindergarten doctrine for many years, and it is no doubt the result of 
his earnest effort which has brought about this opportunity for his 
student-teachers to investigate the work in their home normal. 

The following note, dated April, 1893, is from Sharada Saden, over 
the signature, " Ramabai," addressed to the I. K. U.: " Yes, you may 
put my name among the workers in the interest of spreading the kin- 
dergarten system. We are getting on fairly well. My kindergarten 
training class is doing nicely, and as soon as our new school building is 
ready we hope to have a kindergarten for the children, where the newly 
trained teachers will practice what they have learnt." 

The seventieth birthday of the novelist, Miss Charlotte M. Yonge, 
was celebrated by her many friends in rather an original way. All who 
have enjoyed her books were invited to subscribe one shilling, and what 
is of more importance, a sheet of paper on which was written their 
criticism of her works, with their names signed below. These sheets 
of paper, coming from all parts of the world, were bound and presented 
to Miss Yonge, together with a purse. 

The editors of the Kindergarten Magazine are addressing circu- 
lar letters to all the live family papers, making a plea for better Christ- 
mas reading to be bought for children. Many journalists became inter- 
ested through our exhibit at the Children's Building during the summer, 
and have returned home warmly championing the bringing of kinder- 
garten literature to the general home circle. Great advances were 
made during last summer's season. 

The Grand Rapids Kindergarten Association closed a very success- 
ful summer training class September i, and on September 11 the reg- 
ular winter training school opened. The work now includes a three 
years' course, and the students already number forty, eight of these 
taking the third-year work. Other students will enter later, as they 
can be received at any time during the year. 

"Do YOU enjoy your school work?" was recently asked of an " en- 
nuied" city teacher. "Oh, I dare say I do in a certain way; but I am 
always glad to hear the gong at four o'clock." "How about your chil- 


dren,— do they enjoy school?" "Oh, they can't wait until vacation 
comes, they are so glad to have it all over!" 

Mrs. M. L. Van Kirk edits the kindergarten department of the 
//onse/io/^ jVe7vs, published at Philadelphia. It is known as "Mrs. S. 
T. Rorer's Home Magazine." It is coming to be a frequent department 
in home journals, — this of the kindergarten. Where should the kinder- 
garten find place, if not in the home? 

Don't fail to send five one-cent stamps and receive for yourself 
and friends the beautiful Christmas catalogue of the Kindergarten 
Literature Co. It will be fully illustrated with kindergarten authors, 
many faces never having appeared before, and will give a special list of 
children's Christmas books. It is in itself a valuable gift to a mother of 
young children. 

Froebel says: "Knowledge gained only through literary instruc- 
tion, without contemporaneous personal experience, does not suffice to 
make men capable of the self-government and self-restraint necessary 
for true freedom." And again, " Formative activity makes each indi- 
vidual know himself." 

The school board of EI Paso, Tex., are deserving of much credit. 
They have this year introduced the kindergarten into the public school, 
El Paso being the first city in Texas to show such intelligence and 
enterprise. The board also furnishes a room for a private kinder- 

A PRIVATE kindergarten under the direction of Mrs. Underbill has 
been opened in the private home of Mrs. Alice Bierhaus, at Vin- 
cennes, Ind. Mrs. Bierhaus is one of those mothers whose conviction 
that the kindergarten being good for her own children, all should 
have it. 

Several energetic training schools are pushing to get funds by 
special means for the purchase of a kindergarten library. We are 
making a good rate on a complete collection, and anyone interested may 
correspond. See list on front pages of this issue, revised and annotated. 

A select private school has recently been opened at 103 Pine 
street, Chicago. Several inquiries have come to us for a kindergarten 
in that district. We trust that such inquirers will note the excellent 
kindergarten advantages offered here, with Miss Vaugn in charge. 

Mrs. M. H. Barker, formerly of Buffalo, N. Y., is now director of 
a kindergarten training school at Lincoln, Neb., including a large class 
of the city public school teachers. We acknowledge a forceful paper 
by Mrs. Barker in a recent copy of the N. JV. Journal of Education. 

Miss Susan S. Harriman is principal of the Froebel school at 
Providence, R. I., which was founded by Mrs. C. M. C. Alden. We are 


in receipt of Mrs. Alden's card to the opening exercises of tier new 
work at Los Angeles. 

A CORDIAL letter from Miss Mary Lyschinska, of London, an- 
nounces that she is translating a valuable paper prepared by Frau 
Henrietta Schrader, of Berlin, for publication in the Kindergarten 

Mrs. Louise Pollock Bush is opening a course of mothers' kin- 
dergarten study classes at Seattle, Wash. She hopes to organize a 
model kindergarten library for the use of all interested in this line of 

Miss Mary E. Burt, author of the "German Iliad" for children, 
is one of the literary editors of the Ginn Publishing Co., Boston, Mass., 
as well as otherwise connected with educational pursuits in New York 

A Colorado school exhibit at the Columbian Exposition shows a 
geography lesson objectified in an Indian camp, including noble red 
men of all ages and conditions, following their historic occupations. 

Mrs. Anna B. Ogden is principal of the Minneapolis Froebel Insti- 
tute. Mrs. Ogden has been one of those inspired public school workers 
who never fail to grow on into success amid earnest well-wishers. 

A free kindergarten at Galveston, Tex., numbers forty pupils. 
Miss Margaret Wakelee, of Galveston, is kindergartner in charge, and 
she has three assistant?. 

The Thomas Charles Co., of Chicago, has purchased the entire kin- 
dergarten supply stock of the W. A. Olmsted school supply company 
of the same city. 

Mrs. Mary H. Peabody is prepared to make lecture engagements 
before kindergarten normal classes or kindergarten clubs. See her card 
in this issue. 

The normal department of the Norwich (Conn.) Free Academy 
opens a kindergarten training class with this year. 

There were over 50,000 exhibitors in the art-manufacture depart- 
ment of the Columbian Exposition. 

Roman schoolboysr used a wax tablet and pointed stylus instead of 
slate and pencil. 


The Nickel Plate. — For the convenience of all our friends to and 
from Chicago, we make the following important announcements con- 
cerning the superior advantages of the Nickel Plate Road, having 
found it agreeable beyond telling to have had these facts this summer 
for the benefit of World's Fair guests who constantly came to us for 
guidance and advice, and at a busy season when time was of necessity 
cut short. The Nickel Plate Road goes-out from Chicago at 7.30 A. M., 
2.30 P. M., and at 9.30 P. M., giving all travelers between Buffalo 
and Chicago a choice of hours, supremely convenient. We give 
this information for the benefit of our traveling friends who are making 
points between Buffalo and Chicago. On a direct through ticket this 
road furnishes accommodations on all the important trains through 
to New York city, and besides this, issues interchangeable mileage 
books for prominent points in Michigan, Ohio, etc. To Chicago parties 
coming and going it is an important item of information that all 
through trains stop at Twenty-second street and corner of Clark for 
the convenience of South Side residents, saving the troublesome trip 
across town to distant stations. We would advise all who have any idea 
of traveling to or from Chicago, east, to send to T. Y. Calahan, igg Clark 
street, Chicago, for full information concerning connections and con- 
veniences on the Nickel Plate Road. 

We take great pleasure in editorially expressing our deep apprecia- 
tion of the courtesies received during the past busy summer at the 
hands of the officials of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad 
Co. Handling as it does the bulk of the business done in the great 
Northwest, it has been our experience, and the ringing word of our 
visiting friends from the West, that in spite of the crowds everywhere, 
the comforts and attentions over this road, have been unparalleled. We 
recommend it to all going west from Chicago this winter. 

Foreign Subscriptions. — On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada, and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents) for 
postage, save in case of South Africa, outside of the postal union, which 
amounts to 80 cents extra on the year's numbers. On Child-Garden the 
rate of postage is 25 cents per year; on foreign subscriptions and to 
South Africa, 50 cents. 

Always. — Our readers who change their addresses should imme- 
diately notify us of same and save the return of their mail to us. State 
both the new and the old location. It saves time and trouble. 

Always. — Subscriptions are stopped on expiration, the last number 
being marked, "With this number your subscription expires," and a 
return subscription blank inclosed. 


Mrs. E. A. Blaker, of Indianapolis, has put into the market a beau- 
tiful Froebel spoon (which please find notice elsewhere). She offers in- 
ducements to kindergarten associations to sell it to make money for 
their own work. We have not yet seen the spoon, but from the sketch 
would judge it to be quite artistic in effect. 

Wanted. — The following back numbers of Kindergarten Maga- 
zine in exchange for any other number you want in Vols. II, III, IV, or 
V, or for books: Vol. I, Nos. 3, 4, and 9; Vol. II, Nos. 1,8, and 13; Vol. Ill, 
No. 8. Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Chicago. 

Send in your orders early for bound volumes of the Child-Cafdeti 
for 1892-93. There will be a limited number only, and the holiday trade 
is already beginning to engage them. Price $2.00. We will bind back 
numbers handsomely in cloth for anyone sending their files, for $1.00. 

Many training schools are making engagements for next year's 
special lectures through the Kindergarten Literature Co. We are in 
correspondence with many excellent Kindergarten specialists in color, 
form, music, primary methods, literature, art, etc. 

Child-Garden Samples. — Send in lists of mothers with young chil- 
dren who would be glad to receive this magazine for their little ones. 
Remember some child's birthday with a gift of Child-Garden, only $1 
per year. 

Always — Send your subscription made payable to the Kindergarten 
Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111., either by money order, 
express order, postal note, or draft. (No foreign stamps received.) 

Portraits of Froebel. — Fine head of Froebel; also Washington, Lin- 
coln, and Franklin; on fine boards, 6 cents each, or ten for 50 cents. 
Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago. 
(Size 6x8 inches.) 

All inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, literature, song 
books, lectures, trained Kindergartners, etc., will be freely answered by 
the Kindergarten Literature Co. * 

Back numbers from February, 1889, to date, except issues of May 
and December, 1889, May 1890, and April, 1891, can be had to complete 
your files; price 25 cents each. 

Send for our complete catalogue of choice Kindergarten literature; 
also give us lists of teachers and mothers who wish information con- 
cerning the best reading. 

Bound VoIumes.^=^Vols. IV and V, handsomely bound in cloth, giv- 
ing the full year's work in compact shape, each $3. 

Lost time is money lost. Time saved is money saved. Time and 
money can be saved by using the Gail Borden Eagle Brand Condensed 
Milk in your recipes for Custards, Puddings, and Sauces. Try it and 
be convinced. Grocers and Druggists. 



Prang's Primary Course. Prang's Shorter Course. Prang's Complete Course. 


These papers are designed for the purpose of carrying out in pubhc schools the 
elementary features of the Prang Course of Instruction in Color. 

The Standards of Color presented are reliable for educational purposes, having been 
adopted after long study of the theory, and wide experience in the actual use of Color, as 
well as after conference with leading artists and colorists in this country and abroad. 

Each Normal Color is supplemented, on the one side by two tints making a gradual 
approach toward the light, and on the other side by two shades approaching the dark, thus 
producing a scale of five tones for each color. Each Normal, Tint, and Shade has been 
considered not merely m itself, but also in its relations to the monochrome scale of which 
it is a part, and to the corresponding scales of other Colors. 

These papers are cut in various shapes and sizes, and put up in packages ready for 
School use. 


THE PRANG COURSE represents and typifies in its evolution, during a period of 
more than twenty years, THE ART MOVEMENT in America. 

Send for New Catalogue of TEXT BOOKS and EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS. 





special terms to 

Training Teach- 
ers, to Superin- y^|A 
tendents of Free ''^^^' 

and to Free Kin- 
dergarten Societies, Address ELIZA A. BLAKER, 

1 196 N. Meridian Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 


And Articles for "Busy Work" in 
the Home and the School. 

We have purchased the entire stock of Kindergarten goods heretofore carried by 
W. A. Olmsted. These, with the full line of Milton Bradley Co.'s goods always on hand, 
make much the largest stock ever carried in the West. 

Send to us for complete catalogue of Kiiiderg'arten Furniture, Kinderg'arten Books, 
and general Kiudergarten Supplies. 


211 & 213 Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO. 


Vol. VI.— DECEMBER, 1893.— No. 4. 


(Mr.Horsfall, Director of the Art Museum of Manchester, Eng., pre- 
sented this paper on the Manchester experiments, to the Art and Manual 
Education Congress held at Chicago in July.) 

PROBABLY most of the per.sons who have given 
much thought to the subject of education agree in 
believing that the object which ought chiefly to be 
sought in elementary schools is the making boys 
and girls who pass through them into good and useful men 
and women; that consequently, in the schools we ought to 
give boys and girls the kinds of knowledge, and evoke in 
them the modes of feeling and thought, and the habits of 
life, in which we believe the goodness and usefulness of men 
and women who are good and useful to consist; and further, 
that if there be not time to give or evoke all these kinds of 
knowledge and modes of feeling, thought, and habits of 
life, preference in the allotment of the time at command 
should be given to those of the essential conditions of 
goodness and usefulness which experience shows that most 
children cannot, or do not, gain for themselves or by help 
of their parents; while less time should be given to those 
conditions which, though essential, experience has shown 
that children can obtain elsewhere than at school. 

But though most people who have thought about educa- 
tion would, if this proposition were put before them, say 
that it is true, the management and curriculum of elemen- 
tary schools would be very different from those of any 
elementary schools known to me, if the truth of the propo- 
sition were accepted by educational authorities. 


For a couple of my twenty minutes let us look at the life 
of the men and women whom we know to be good and use- 
ful, and see in what their goodness and usefulness consist, 
and what relation exists between the qualities and habits in 
which we find it to consist and the training given in our 
elementary schools. 

Do all the people we are examining show great achieve- 
ment in respect of the "three R's"? Do they all spell 
well, write rapidly a legible hand, speak grammatically, 
do sums quickly and correctly? We find that many of the 
people whom we know to be keeping the communities of 
which they form part from corruption, do not differ from 
the rest of the world in respect of knowledge of this kind; 
that many of the best people say, " Between you and I," 
spell the word "traveler" with one / in England and with 
two /'s in America, write a hand which drives their friends 
wild, and make many mistakes in arithmetic; and we find, 
too, that there is no more direct connection between their 
goodness and usefulness and any other subject taught in 
elementary schools, than exists between the "three R's "and 
their good qualities. 

Further, though most people probably think that the 
great object of the training given in elementary schools is 
the gaining of the power to earn an honest livelihood, we 
find that the excellent persons in question do not and could 
not all of them carii an honest livelihood, and that while 
many of them are very poor, not a few of them are and 
always have been rich, having inherited the money by 
which they live, from their parents. On the other hand, 
we find that they all most strongly desire, if not to ear7i 
an honest livelihood, to live honest and useful lives; and 
that though some of them, if deprived of the means they 
now possess, would very likely starve, they would all then, 
at least, try hard to earn an honest livelihood. 

Further, we see that all these excellent persons have 
settled habits of doing right things, and therefore are 
not exposed to strong temptations to do wrong things. 
When we try to find out why their lives go rightly, we find 


that of these people it is certainly true that they live by 
admiration, hope, and love, and that their lives are good and 
useful because they are molded by admiration and love of 
things which are really admirable and lovable. If we seek 
to get clear ideas respecting the nature of the objects of 
the admiration and love which keep their lives wholesome, 
as we must do if we are to be successful reformers of 
elementary education, we find that all the kinds of love and 
admiration which decide what shall be the general tenor of 
their life, in what relation they will try to stand with their 
fellow creatures, what shall be the occupations of their 
leisure time, fall into two great classes, one the class of 
studies of and interests in that which we call Nature, — inter- 
est in botany, geology, astronomy, and the other kinds of 
study of nature, — and in the kinds of art which represent 
nature; and the other, the class of studies of and inter- 
ests in man, — interest in his feelings, his thoughts, his ac- 
tion and passion now and in the past. 

In order to gain right views respecting the education of 
boys and girls either of the poorest, the richest, or any 
intermediate class, it is absolutely necessary to grasp the 
unquestionable truth that, apart from religion, all the 
interests which keep human life in right courses belong to 
one or other of these two classes; that no human being can 
live a healthy life unless he have admiration and love either 
of nature or of the best feelings, thoughts, and actions of 
man. Further, it is necessary to grasp this other truth, that 
without much admiration and love of nature, it is impossi- 
ble to gain real knowledge, and therefore true admiration 
and love, of what is noblest in man. For all the men of 
finest heart and brain have been deeply influenced by 
admiration of nature, and it is of course quite impossible 
to understand and be helped by the expression of their 
feeling and thought, unless we possess knowledge of and 
interest in the things which evoked the feeling and thought. 

A great picture of landscape, a great poem, or even a 
book of travels, written by a man who loved nature, hardly 
exists for those who do not themselves know nature. If, 


then, the chief function of elementary schools should be to 
help to make children become good and useful men and 
women, whatever else be omitted from the curriculum, 
every child ought to be made to know that a good and 
useful life is possible, by being made familiarly acquainted 
with some very interesting good and useful lives; and 
unless it is found that elsewhere than in school most 
children gain the kinds of knowledge needed to enable 
them to share the thoughts, the feelings, and the habits of 
life of good and useful people, they ought to be helped to 
gain those kinds of knowledge at school. 

It is certainly very desirable to make school help chil- 
dren to gain the power to earn their living; but it is incom- 
parably more important that it shall make them desire that 
the "living" they gain shall be used for the maintenance of 
a good and useful life. Happily, any successful attempt 
to gain the more important object involves the use of the 
means which are best adapted for gaining the less im- 

There is much evidence to show that many children — I 
fear I may truly say ynost town children — at present fail to 
gain, out of school, the kinds of knowledge needed to 
enable them to share the admiration and love by which 
alone life can be kept healthy. Twenty years ago an 
attempt to ascertain the real nature of the contents of the 
minds of children living in a large town was very carefully 
made in Boston. Of the report of the investigation, Dr. 
Charles Roberts gave a summary in the London Journal 
of Education, of March, 1885. It was found that ■]'] per 
cent, of the children, who were all at school, and whose ages 
ranged from four to eight years, had never seen a crow, 65.5 
per cent, an ant, 57.5 per cent, a sparrow, 50 per cent, a 
frog, 20.5 a butterfly; 91.5 per cent, did not know an elm 
tree, 83 per cent, a maple, 66 per cent, blackberries grow- 
ing; 63 per cent, had never planted a seed; 61 per cent, did 
not know growing potatoes, 55.5 per cent, growing butter- 
cups, and 21 per cent, growing apples; 75.5 per cent, did 
not know what season of the year it was; 65 per cent, had 


never seen a rainbow; 93.4 per cent, did not know that 
leather things come from animals, 89 per cent, what flour is 
made of, and 50.5 per cent, the origin of butter. 

Two pieces of evidence will suffice to prove that a large 
proportion of the children who live in the large towns in 
England suffer from the same kind of ignorance. A few 
years ago Mr. Oakley, the chief inspector of schools in the 
Manchester district, found in a school in Manchester a 
whole class of children who did not know what a bee is 
like or where it is to be found, and in another school in 
Manchester, a class of about twenty boys in the sixth 
standard, of whom only four had ever seen a skylark. The 
children who are growing up in towns in ignorance of all 
such things as flowers and trees and birds, are ignorant also 
of all kinds of human work made interesting by beauty of 
form or color; and the place in their hearts and minds 
which ought to be filled by feelings and thoughts given by 
beautiful things of nature and by beautiful products of 
human skill, is filled by thoughts and feelings given by the 
grimy surroundings of small, gloomy houses. 

Experience has proved that a large proportion of the 
persons who have reached the age of thirteen, ignorant of 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, but have before that age 
acquired a desire to live rightly, have after that age learned 
as much of reading, writing, and arithmetic as they needed 
to enable them to live good and useful lives. But experi- 
ence has also proved that the persons who reach the age of 
thirteen without feeling admiration and love of admirable 
and lovable things, seldom make good that defect in after 
life, however much knowledge they may have gained in 
childhood of reading, writing, and arithmetic, and are com- 
pelled to live comparatively empty and useless lives, 
exposed to grave risk from the temptations of the senses. 
It cannot, therefore, be doubted that the all-important 
function of elementary schools is not the teaching of the 
"three R's," but is the creation, in children, of admiration 
and love of admirable and lovable persons and things. 

Before I speak of some of the means by which this 


terrible ignorance can be removed and children be enabled 
to gain the kinds of knowledge needed to feed their hearts 
and brains with wholesome thought and feeling, let me 
speak very briefly of one set of instruments by which the 
ignorance cannot be removed. It cannot be removed' by 
zvords alone. It is desirable to say this, because, in England 
at least, the most firmly established part of our system of 
education is based on belief in the value of the meaningless 

Though all intelligent teachers know it, it has long 
been overlooked by the controllers of educational systems, 
that English words are as incomprehensible to English 
children who hear or read them, if the children do not know 
the things they name, as they would be if they were Hebrew 
words. A teacher who knows the things can give his 
pupils some knowledge of part of the meaning which the 
words have for him; but if both teacher and taught are 
ignorant of the things, — and many teachers now are town 
children grown up, — the words are valueless to all but that 
very small number of children who are incited by hearing 
a word to desire to know the thing it refers to. The most 
effective way to give children knowledge of admirable 
things is of course, as all teachers know, to take the children 
to the places where the things can be seen to the greatest 
advantage; to take children, for instance, into the beautiful 
country is the best way of giving them vital knowledge of 
flowers, trees, and birds; but unfortunately this way is not 
open to most teachers. 

An incident of which an account was given me by a 
lady who had been a member of the Birmingham school 
board, would sufifice to prove that there are other means 
which can be made of very great use. Two children were 
seen by her standing in a public garden in the town, in 
front of a foxglove, and one was heard to say to the other, 
"That's the flower we've a picture of in our school." No 
doubt the children looked at the real flower because they 
had seen the picture of it, and would look at the picture 
again because they had seen the real flower. Of the power 

"admiration, hope, and love." 263 

of pictures to give clear ideas I cannot hope to say any- 
thing not already known by almost all thoughtful teachers; 
but I hope to direct attention to a system now in use in 
Manchester, by which pictures are more fully used than 
they are, I believe, anywhere else for the purpose of giving 
children in elementary schools as many clear ideas as pos- 
sible of beautiful and interesting things. 

The system to which I refer is that of the Manchester 
Art Museum. Sixteen years ago the committee of the 
museum began to lend pictures to as many of the elemen- 
tary schools in Manchester as they could then afford to 
supply; and after ascertaining by experience what kinds of 
pictures are most useful in schools, they have formed a 
system of "circulating" loan collections by which they 
already supply 104 school departments and which will soon 
be extended to ninety-six more departments. The system 
on which the committee work is this: Twelve pictures are 
lent to each school department, and, at the end of a year, 
are replaced by another set of twelve pictures, and are 
moved on into another department in the same or a neigh- 
boring school. Thus every year each department receives 
twelve pictures, which have the interest given by novelty 
for teachers and scholars. The collections lent to schools 
are divided into two classes: i. Those for use in the in- 
fants' and junior departments; 2. Those for use in the de- 
partments for older boys and girls. The pictures of the 
first division now consist of ninety-six collections, each of 
twelve pictures. Each of the first six collections contains 
pictures, all of which are different from those in any of the 
other five collections; but the other sets of six collections 
are just the same as the first six. This arrangement is 
made for the purpose of keeping the labor of preparing 
explanatory labels, already very heavy, within manageable 
compass. As six collections, if each remain a year, will 
keep a department provided with fresh pictures for six 
years,- — a period longer than that spent by a child in one 
department, — the plan has no drawbacks to its convenience. 
Each collection for an infants' department contains sixteen 


colored plates, framed together, of common kinds of wild 
flowers; sixteen colored plates, framed together, of common 
kinds of garden flowers; twenty-eight colored plates, in two 
frames, of common kinds of wild birds, for one frame of 
which sixteen colored plates of butterflies in one frame are 
substituted in some of the collections, and in other collec- 
tions twelve colored plates intended to show how much 
beauty of form and color there is in the commonest weeds, 
insects, etc.; one frame containing colored plates of orchids, 
intended to give some idea of the splendor of tropical 
vegetation; one frame of Hofmann's beautiful representa- 
tions of events in the life of Christ; two frames each con- 
taining all the colored pictures and text and most of the 
black and white pictures of one of Randolph Caldecott's 
delightful tale-books, or the fine colored pictures and text 
of one of Walter Crane's tale-books; one frame containing 
sixteen of the beautiful colored plates of animals from the 
last edition of Brehm's Tliierleben; and in alternate collec- 
tions a large colored picture of such beautiful scenery as 
even Manchester children can see by walking a few miles 
from the town, and colored plates of twelve common kinds of 
trees, and of their branches, foliage, and blossoms and fruit. 
Thus in the course of the six years which elapse before 
the last of the six collections is removed from a depart- 
ment and the first collection returns to it, the children, if 
the teachers have made good use of the pictures, have 
become acquainted with the appearance of ninety-six wild 
flowers, ninety-six garden flowers, a large number of birds, 
thirty-six trees, many kinds of butterflies, tropical plants, 
and animals, and some beautiful scenery, and have had 
their mental picture-making power stimulated by seeing 
twelve sets of Caldecott's and Crane's delightful pictures, 
and twenty-one of Hofmann's fine Scripture pictures; and 
a large number of words which they will often meet with in 
books and newspapers, and which, but for the pictures, 
would probably have always been without definite meaning 
for them, will by means of the' pictures have clear mean- 
ings and very pleasant associations for them. 


Each collection for a boys' or girls' department con- 
tains pictures of some of the kinds already mentioned; but 
as only twelve pictures can be lent at one time to a depart- 
ment, and there are many more than twelve different kinds 
of subjects of which the committee wish to show pictures to 
the older children, some of the kinds of pictures can only 
be included in every other collection, and others only in 
one or two in each set of six collections. Amongst the 
kinds used for boys' and girls' departments and not for 
infants' departments are etchings of towns in Belgium, 
large colored plates published by Hoelzel of Vienna, which 
show the effect of the great forces of nature; Langl's 
plates of great works of architecture intended to illustrate 
history, large colored plates representing historical scenes; 
examples of good wood engravings and line engravings, 
framed together; autotype copies of plates of Turner's 
Liber SUuiionim, framed with the Rev. Stopford Brooke's 
explanations of the plates. No charge is made to a school 
for the pictures lent to it, or for any injury not due to gross 
neglect, and the museum defrays the cost of carriage and 

Each picture has at least one explanatory label, and most 
have several such labels; but before I can describe the 
labels I must briefly describe the Art Museum, as to con- 
nect each picture lent to a school as closely as possible 
with the collections in the museum is one of the purposes 
of the labels. 

The Art Museum contains a large number of the best 
pictures that we could get of flowers, trees, birds, and other 
animals, butterflies, etc., and of examples of beautiful 
work in which the forms of these things have been used for 
decorative purposes. It contains also a collection of pic- 
tures of many of the most beautiful places near Manchester, 
intended to give town people a desire to go to the places; 
collections of pictures of beautiful scenery in many differ- 
ent parts of the world; collections of pictures illustrating 
the history of painting, of sculpture and architecture; a 
collection of pictures showing the action of the forces 


which have shaped the surface of the earth; sets of plates, 
blocks, and tools used in all such processes as lithography, 
chromolithography, wood engraving, line engraving, etching, 
mezzotinting, etc., with clearly printed explanations of all 
the processes and of the effects which each can best give, 
and sets of pictures produced by the various processes; and 
collections of fine products of the chief industrial arts. 

Every picture has a label describing its subject as clearly 
as possible. A penny handbook, explaining the contents of 
the museum and connecting the various groups of its con- 
tents with each other, a penny pamphlet on "What to Look 
for in Pictures," and another penny pamphlet which points 
out the bearing of the study of beautiful things on mental 
and moral health, are sold in the museum. It is placed in 
the midst of one of the poorest and most crowded parts of 
Manchester, and is open every night in the week except 
Sunday and Tuesday till half-past nine, and it is also open 
on Sunday afternoon from two till five o'clock. The curator 
is always ready to explain the collections to children and 
grown-up people, and various members of the committee 
often meet parties of work people for the same purpose. 
The committee encourage societies of work people to hold 
their meetings in the museum on Tuesday evenings by 
allowing its rooms to be used without charge. 

Now to return to the labels framed with the pictures lent 
to schools. Each picture has a label which explains its 
subject and tells that it is a chromolithograph, or a woodcut, 
or whatever else it may be, and that the way in which it is 
made is explained in the Art Museum. If the picture be 
cheap enough to be bought by work people, its price is 
stated, and often the title and price of a book describing its 
subject are mentioned; and as frequently as possible, refer- 
ence is made to the Manchester Free Libraries, the art gal- 
lery, the Owens College Museum, the botanical gardens, and 
the public parks, so that the pictures may give knowledge 
of, and desire to use, all the resources of civilization which 
Manchester possesses. The pictures of landscapes have a 
label which gives some of the reasons for acquiring love of 


beautiful scenery; the labels to the etchings of towns in 
Belgium point out that towns are not necessarily hideous, 
and ask the children who look at the pictures — future 
rulers of Manchester — to think how much pleasanter their 
lives would be if their town were as beautiful as Bruges or 
Ghent, and, like them, contained trees and pure air; and it 
begs them to make up their minds that when they are men 
and women they will help to make healthy life possible in 

By the use of these labels each collection lent to a 
school is as far as possible made virtually a part of the 
museum, and some of the teachers and of the older and 
more active-minded scholars are induced to come to the 
museum, not to wander about aimlessly as so many visitors 
do in art galleries, but to acquire this or that kind of 
information which the labels have made them desire to gain 
and have told them they could get at the museum. 

Concerts, lectures with lantern illustrations, and other 
entertainments are given twice a week at the museum dur- 
ing half the year, tickets for which are sent to the nearest 
schools for distribution among the scholars who have at- 
tended most regularly; and in this way the museum is made 
a favorite resort for a good many children. But we wish 
the connection betw^een it and elementary schools to be still 
closer and more useful, and with the strong approval of the 
Manchester school board, we have asked the education de- 
partment to allow that, within limits to be fixed by the 
department, time spent by scholars in the museum in school 
hours, under the control of a teacher, shall count as time 
spent in school; and we have promised that, if this be 
allowed, we will add to the very large number of pictures 
now in the* museum which could be used to illustrate 
lessons on history, geography, physical geography, botany, 
and many other subjects, series of other pictures chosen 
for their fitness to give children clear ideas of interest- 
ing and admirable things. 

We are convinced that if our request be granted, as it 
probably will be before long, and an hour or two a month 


be regularly spent in the museum by many of the chil- 
dren from elementary schools in its neighborhood, their 
school life will give them a great deal of the knowledge 
best fitted to increase wholesome feeling and thought, and 
to influence for good their habits of work and play for 
the whole of their lives; and we are convinced also that if 
this one museum be found to produce this effect on the life 
of even a few hundred children, other parts of Manchester 
and many parts of many other towns will soon provide 
themselves with similar museums; and that the committee 
of the Manchester Art Museum will be able to feel that 
they have done something toward winning attention for 
the great truth, which is the key to all right life and there- 
fore to all right education, — the truth that "we live by ad- 
miration, hope, and love." 



N holy errands for the Lord of Love 
Sped the glad heralds from the courts above; 
And, all unseen, they passed among the throng 
Of men who toil, and strive, and suffer wrong. 

They saw how Might the crown and scepter bore. 
While Love was but a suppliant at his door; 
They saw how Greed, with cruel, careless feet. 
Trod in the dust Life's blossoms frail and sweet. 

They saw how human brotherhood had grown 
A radiant dream, for poet's song alone. 
While Sorrow's wail and Passion's stormy cries 
Jarred the fine chords of all earth's harmonies. 

" Master," they cried, " have men forgot the speech 
Of that great love thy life was given to teach? 
If hearts be mute, and human lips be dumb, 
How can on earth thy glorious kingdom come? " 

And then they saw, set like a small white flower 
That blossoms, trembling, in a woodland bower, 
That sends no perfumed breath upon the breeze, 
Yet opes its heart to roving honeybees, 

A modest temple, with its doors swung wide, 
Banners and garlands wreathed on either side. 
And children of all nations, linked in love, 
As gracious warders set to watch above. 

In pictured beauty shone the myths of old. 
By loving lips to listening childhood told; 
And fairy tales in dear familiar guise 
Showed their sweet parables to answering eyes: 


The spring's new birth, the winter's silent sleep, 
Green woodland arches, cool with shadows deep, 
The glowing treasures of the autumn sere. 
And all the glad procession of the year. 

There stood the names, in shining letters traced, 
That Love among her household saints has placed; 
Their faces smiled a welcome from the walls, 
And sunshine ran like laughter through the halls. 

Swift, dancing feet went pattering everywhere. 
And merry voices shook the sunny air; 
While dimpled babes, with only smiles for words, 
In downy cradles swung like nestling birds. 

Back to their dwellmg in the courts above 
Sped the glad heralds to the Lord of Love. 
"Master," they said, "in spite of hate and sin. 
The radiant dawnings of thy day begin. 

" Men hold thy lesson in their memory yet; 
For in the midst the little child is set. 
And by a heavenly wisdom, simple, sweet. 
The children's hands shall lead them to thy feet." 

Emily Huntington Miller. 
Evanstoii, June i, 180^. 



THERE is no more pathetic and beautiful picture 
in literature than that of the old German to 
whom God had denied any children of his own, 
walking- day after day through the gentle hill- 
slopes of his own country, followed by throngs of happy 

The country people looked with contemptuous smiles 
upon his pale, benignant face, his tender eyes, the tall, 
stooping form, clad in quaint homespun; they saw not that 
a great spirit had come unto his own; but his own, the little 
children, knew him. 

Priest and prophet of the baby soul, God denied to thee 
a child in the flesh that he might give thee thousands in the 

The quaint German babies in white frilled caps, that 
trotted after Froebel, have followed him into another coun- 
try now. What of the children who in this new world are 
treading- in the paths he made? What of his methods, 
transplanted, from the simplicities and sanctities of German 
village life to the dusty city thoroughfares? 

The Italian baby in its virgin mother's arms has long 
possessed the love of the world. The placid German ma- 
donna has as long held her baby before adoring eyes. It is 
only very lately that a painter has dared to give to the vir- 
gin the face and features of an American woman, and to sur- 
round her with angels who look at us with the faces Ameri- 
can children wear. 

The picture of Mr. Abbott Thayer, an engraving of 
which appeared in the holiday Ce7itnry, marked an epoch in 
the development of our country. It fixed a type by which 
we shall, amid all the cosmopolitan life of America, come 
to know ourselves. In this dark-eyed woman with the ten- 


der face, there are many hints of gracious breeding, and 
something, too, of the sweet, insistent grace which clung 
to the Puritan girl. The type of face is akin to that of 
Raphael's Madonna Sedens. The angels on either side are 
simple children, very charming and very human. 

From the child angel of the old-time painter in its con- 
ventional drapery, to these living, breathing, dewy-faced 
children in their earthly gowns, the change is very signifi- 
cant. Mr. Thayer's angels are idealized children of the 
type which we are coming to recognize as the American. 

As the American child's mother oftentimes now wor- 
ships for herself cleverness, so she worships for her child 
prettiness. The Kate Greenaway gowns that swept all our 
babies into combinations of color that no babies had ever 
worn before, were types of many things which have con- 
spired to sweep away much of the old ideal of childhood. 
Purity and simplicity count for less than picturesqueness. 

As the mother sought to heighten her own perhaps a 
little faded beauty by touches of bright color, so she sought 
to increase that of her child by the use of hues which had 
been reserved always for mature years. The dewy face of 
babyhood peeping out from beneath a hat as large as its 
own mother's, and heavy with drooping plumes, had a cer- 
tain charm in its incongruity. The hair that had been 
closely shaven for a generation began to droop in long 
love-locks about the face. The result was a certain type of 
beauty, a beauty such as belongs not to childhood, but to 
later years, when love and longing steal from the heart into 
the eyes. 

We have made our children look like poets. Are we 
keeping for them the poet-heart? 

The love of "the pretty" is accented not only in the 
child's dress, but in the pictures which it sees of itself, in 
the books which it reads about itself, and in the conversa- 
tion which it hears. The child is quick to learn. 

"I saw such a nice little girl today," says some one. 

"Was she pretty?" asks five-years-old, with absorbing 


There are no sage grandmothers now to reply with old- 
time maxims; and indeed, perhaps it would be impossible 
to find an American child who would seriously consider the 
possibility of conduct outweighing appearance. 

Next to "the pretty" in daily life and literature and 
song, "the little" is emphasized. Innumerable are the 
songs and stories wherein the little birdies and the little 
kitties play their part. God never made a child with soul 
so small that it could not take in the idea of a bird or a 
kitten. We narrow the horizon and pen in the baby spirit 
by these impertinences of diction. 

The beautiful and the grand belong to childhood. The 
world has not yet dimmed its capacity for understanding 
them. Keep the little and the pretty for the grown-up 
people who have narrowed their souls to love them, but 
give to the children only the beautiful. That is God's way. 
It is not the man, but the boy. 

Who by the vision splendid 
Is on his way attended. 

We take the baby soul endowed by God with high im- 
aginings, and teach it our feeble fancies. 

It is from the little John Ruskin, penned in his corner 
like an idol by the great book, and set to learn the splendid 
imagery of the Psalms; from the little Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning, with her doll clasped in one arm and the "Iliad" 
in the other; from baby hearts thrilled by the noblest im- 
pulses of the past, — that the genius of the future is born. 

Not from the fair children who pore above "Lord Faun- 
tleroy" or "Patsy," from whose pretty lips fall trippingly 
the jingles of our time, shall we have thoughts in later 
years that brush the stars. 

Genius and character are not cradled by the draperies 
that keep the winds away; not by the thousand charming 
books that beguile child eyes, nor by pretty mammas in 
aesthetic gowns; but by hours when the child heart is so 
alone with God that it learns to think his thoughts; by 
courage and high hopes, and by the white silences of the 
night and the language that the stars speak. 

Vol. 6-18 


Heaven is hid by portieres. Even our angels no longer 
come on snowy pinions, but on graceful wings, long curved, 
of peacock dyes; it is a pretty world, and we are clever 

But prettiness is not beauty and cleverness is not great- 
ness; and better that the children should never be at all 
than that they should not be great. 

The breath of poetry seems not to linger so much about 
our fair child daughters with their dark, haunting eyes, as 
about the down-town child. 

"I asked a ragged little tot in the street," said a man the 
other day, "which she would rather have, the geranium in 
my buttonhole, or a dime. She took the flower. Nor could 
I persuade her by big stories of all the nice things she could 
buy with the money, to change. She only held the flower 
tighter. But when I asked the up-town boys and girls, they 
looked contemptuously at the geranium and took the 

The glory of that scarlet texture woven on some invisi- 
ble loom by sun and dew, and spread in happy gladness 
by the plant, awoke no pleasure in those little hearts. In a 
heavy, drooping jacqueminot most of them would have seen 
beauty. But the significance of life lies in the number of 
impressions of beauty that our hearts are capable of register- 
ing. They should be like that Memnon statue upon which no 
ray of light ever fell without calling forth a thrill of music. 

It would seem that the great antidote to these tenden- 
cies lay in its own nature in the kindergarten. To the 
fancy the dear German, as some Pied Piper, played so tender 
and enchanting a tune that all who followed, followed him 
into the kingdom of heaven. 

Simple and tender and beautiful are the traditions of 
the kindergarten. The blur of softly tinted skies, the peace 
of German valleys, the quaint and simple children a-tune 
with nature, — these are the influences which shall leaven our 
work-a-da}- world, if only those who take up the pipe of 
Froebel will care first of all to play upon it with simplicity 
and sincerity. 


For Froebel would have turned as sadly from many of 
those children whose poses are the prettiest in the kinder- 
garten, as he would from the babies who "do" the skirt 
dance in hotel parlors. 

Only those whose hearts lie as close to God and nature 
as Froebel's can rightly interpret him. If the little pitcher 
and the large jar go together to the fountain, it is inevitable 
that the one should bring away more than the other; but 
the dimensions of the human soul are not fixed: the little 
pitcher may become the large jar if it will. 


The corn is reaped, and stacked in sheaves; 

The golden pumpkins lie revealed; 
And through a purple haze the sun 

Shines softly over hill and field. 

In orchards fair, like precious gems 
Glowing beneath the deep blue sky. 

In great rich hoards the splendid heaps 
Of red and golden apples lie. 

High overhead migrating hosts 

Of feathered songsters wing their flight; 

The grapes hang heavy on the vines, 
And early fall the shades of night. 

Forward and back across stone walls 

The agile squirrel makes his way, 
Adding new treasures to his store. 

Through all the sweet autumnal day. 

Long since was heard the katydid; 

The nights of frost are here at last; 
And with the drooping of the sun 

Come foretastes of the winter blast, 

— Selected. 


(Read before the May session of the International Kindergarten Union.) 

BLACKSMITHS' horses and shoemakers' children 
always go barefoot," says the old proverb, and 
over and over again has its homely imagery oc- 
curred to me as I have found it proved by many 
an instance. 

One of the most famous physicians in New England, — 
one whose medical wisdom is consulted by seekers from far 
and near, — says: "Yes, my eldest boy is a great student. 
He is going to be ready for college two years too soon. 
He studies within an inch of his life from Monday to Fri- 
day, and then, poor fellow, he is entirely used up over Sun- 
day, — has no vitality at all. It's just so every week." All 
this is said with pride in the boy's intellect instead of 
shame at his own neglect, and off goes this wise physician 
to order fresh air and rest and tonics for other people who 
are suffering from overwork; and we who know his big- 
brained, delicate boy feel the applicability of the proverb. 
The leather is there, and the tools, but all are at the service 
of outsiders. The shoemaker's child is barefoot. 

To make a wider application: The Chinese among us, 
ignored and untaught, if not hooted at, derided, and abused, 
are the neglected children of us shoemakers who are spend- 
ing our labor and substance in providing "shoes" — in this 
case schools and missions — for the Chinese across the sea. 

Still another and most striking instance is found in the 
attention paid by Americans to Ireland's problem of the 
evicted tenant, while the same distress, only to far greater 
numbers of people, exists in America unregarded. A full 
statement of this is given in The Arena for December, 1892, 
in the article entitled "Evictions in New York Tenement 
Houses." I will quote two or three of its startling items: 


"In the great city of New York alone more than twice the 
number of evictions took place in 1891, in three of the judi- 
cial districts into which the city is divided, than occurred 
in all Ireland in the same year. In 1890, the figures for 
New York were 23,895 evictions, while the grand total for 
Ireland was only a little in excess of 5,000." 

"Last year the spectacle of eighty of these hapless fam- 
ilies living for a week on the sidewalks was the feature of 
New York's civilization that made English visitors smile in 
derision, and remark, as one of them did in the Brevoort 
House, 'Well, Ireland is not as badly off under its English 
landlords, after all. There an evicted tenant has a fund 
on which to draw, contributed by Americans.'" 

The shoemakers have pitied their neighbor's children 
and covered their feet with shoes; but alas! the feet of 
their own children are left shoeless and bleeding. 

That kindergarten training is not appreciated as it 
should be no one can doubt who compares the small num- 
ber of private kindergartens with the many wealthy fami- 
lies. If we add, as is surely fair, the number of families 
who, without being wealthy, could afford to send their chil- 
dren to the private kindergarten, we begin to see what a 
meager proportion of these children is received in the kin- 

Everywhere we hear the kindergarten extolled as the 
saving, uplifting influence for the children of the tenement 
houses. Pleaders for its efficacy find unanswerable argu- 
ments with which to approach every mother and father, 
every charitably disposed person, every religious organiza- 
tion, and the public at large. 

The manual training afforded by the kindergarten is the 
claim which convinces some; the formation of correct men- 
tal habits is easily demonstrated and appeals successfully 
to others; while the culmination of the other two in the 
moral growth which the kindergarten nourishes, is the plea 
which reaches the hearts and purses of many. These con- 
siderations appeal to educators, to philanthropists, to all 
thoughtful people; but even the thoughtless and careless 


are often touched by the obvious joy and beauty which the 
child of poverty finds in the kindergarten. Childhood's 
title to happiness is granted by universal consent. Child- 
hood without happiness seems too unnatural for toler- 

Owing to all these considerations the kindergarten is 
growing more and more in favor as a greatly uplifting agency 
for the children of the slums. Many of the same argu- 
ments are just as forcible when the kindergarten is viewed, 
not as a charity, but as the foundation of the public schools. 
Through^ a growing belief in its value it is gradually being 
introduced into the educational system, and will thus reach 
most of the children of the land. 

But there are still other children who are not having 
kindergarten advantages, and who should not be deprived 
of them. In this country of ours, pride ourselves though 
we may upon having all men equal, and without barriers of 
rank and class, still we must acknowledge that, to a degree, 
and inevitably, classes do exist here, though the divisions 
are not like those of old and monarchic countries. The 
most democratic spirit will admit that classification is pos- 
sible on many grounds, — on the ground of character, on the 
ground of learning, on the giound of occupation, on the 
ground of money; and individuals would change from class 
to class according as the basis of classification changed. 
For instance, all the workers are not among those who lack 
money; all the learned men are not among the wealthy; 
many members of the criminal class lack neither wealth 
nor education; many of the good citizens have little of 

For convenience sake, we will speak of our people as 
they fall into three classes, — the rich, the poor, and the 
middle classes, with the common meaning of those terms. 
Now the rich people are the shoemakers of our proverb. 
They listen to our pleas for kindergartens for poor chil- 
dren, they acquiesce in our representation of the need of 
kindergarten in the public school, they give us help by 
tongue and pen and purse toward the accomplishment of 


both these great objects. Everywhere the establishment 
of free kindergartens testifies to the interest and generos- 
ity of those who have the not-to-be-despised wherewithal 
which buys kindergarten furniture and materials, and pays 
rents and coal bills and salaries. But most of these peo- 
ple who give so generously to the establishment and sup- 
port of kindergartens for the poor children, have yet to 
learn its importance for their own darlings. The shoe- 
maker's children are barefoot while he is covering the feet 
of other people's children. 

The reasons, I think, are easily found in two misconcep- 
tions: the one as to the full purpose of kindergarten, the 
other as to the peculiar needs of the child in the home of 

The kindergarten is a great child-saving institution. It 
is a great engine of reform, because it reforms in the truest, 
most radical way, by preventing the need of reform. That 
telling, oft-quoted item about the nine thousand kindergar- 
ten children of the San Francisco slums of whom only one 
has ever been arrested, is proof enough that the kindergar- 
ten will deplete the prison. Grand as this is, however, a 
misconception of the kindergarten arises from dwelling 
upon such results alone, without examining further. The 
whole truth is far grander; for the kindergarten is not an 
institution for children of the submerged tenth only, nor for 
the children of the great middle class only. It is for all 
childhood, of whatever race or rank, of whatever spiritual 
endowment or material condition. It is for the child of gen- 
ius and the child of defective intellect. It is for the child 
who is reaching out to possess the external world in a nor- 
mal way by all its senses; for the deaf child, for the blind, 
and even for the child who is both deaf and blind, — for all 
of whom the remaining senses perform in a wonderful man- 
ner the physic offices of those which are lacking. 

The kindergarten is not merely a medicine to be pre- 
scribed for certain cases and unnecessary in others. It is 
like food or oxygen; it is necessary for the sound as well 
as the unsound. It is development; it is growth. It is the 


nurture and culture of all the unfolding powers of the hu- 
man being. 

Kindergartners and all advocates of kindergarten should 
keep well in view its fitness for universal application, for 
this is what many people have not grasped. For instance, 
Mrs. Nabob, who gives liberally of time and money to the 
free kindergarten in her city, said to me that she consid- 
ered the kindergarten of inestimable value to the poor 
children who had such unlovely homes; but that, of course, 
children in a better condition of life had no need of its 
ministry of beauty and love. With this still in my ears, 
the next thing I heard was an exactly opposite verdict from 
her neighbor, who considered that kindergarten methods 
were so luxurious, so expensive, that they were suitable 
only for the children of wealthy parents, who needed the 
beauty and refinement of the kindergarten because they 
were accustomed to that sort of thing at home. 

We often find this incomplete comprehension of the 
kindergarten, and an acceptance of it for one class or an- 
other because of some particular case which happens to 
appeal to the observer. The real reason for the adoption 
of kindergarten for all classes is, that it is the method of 
nature; i. e., development through self-activity, which the 
genius of the great educator has applied in the education 
of the human being, by providing materials and environ- 
ment upon which and in which that self-activity shall find 
its most profitable exercise. This reason is as strong for 
the child in the palace as the child in the hovel. So, speak- 
ing of kindergarten in its essential purpose, all children 
need it for the same reason. Just as the first food of child- 
hood is the same in every land, class, or condition, so their 
earliest education should be the same. Not until this fuller 
and truer conception of kindergarten becomes general, in- 
stead of the partial idea of its purpose which now prevails 
so largely among the wealthier classes, can we hope for the 
kindergarten to be adopted by them for their children. 

Nor will this fuller understanding be convincing enough. 
There is another misconception, as I said before, which is 

shoemaker's barefooted children. 281 

also in the way, — a misconception with regard to the needs 
of child nature. These needs will not be met simply by 
the child's being in a home of culture and luxury. An en- 
vironment of poverty develops some kinds of evil tenden- 
cies, but just as certainly does the environment of riches 
develop others. How the disadvantages of poverty are 
especially met by the kindergarten is often told; but the 
peculiar disadvantages in the proper development of the 
child of wealth, and how kindergarten would meet them, 
is seldom considered. With due respect to the advantages 
which the mighty dollar can purchase, the disadvantages to 
the child are certainly not to be ignored. In the first place, 
little Croesus Blueblood often has as little, and sometimes 
has less, of genuine "mothering" than the tenement-house 
child whose mother works for her living. Mother love and 
mother instinct is not always enough to teach the woman 
hitherto engrossed in society the importance of cherishing 
the close union with her child; so the mother frequently 
relegates too much of the holy duty and pleasure of caring 
for her child, to the nurse who is so conveniently at hand. 
This much will be readily conceded, even though we all 
know many mothers who are devotion itself to their chil- 
dren, notwithstanding that they utilize the services of one 
or two nurses. 

It is circumstances, rather than the mother, which create 
the undesirable tendencies in these children, and thus lead 
to their especial faults. Taking little Croesus at three and 
a half or four years of age, we find him possessed of a 
chaotic mass of general information. His alert powers of 
acquisition have gathered in a great many fragmentary, un- 
related, half-notions on a wide range of subjects. The 
child is helped to organize and unify this scrappy knowl- 
edge by the kindergarten training; for in the kindergarten 
all things are regarded in their relation to one another. 
The child learns to seek unity, and thus forms the habit of 
orderly connected thinking which is an essential of mental 
growth. Nor of mental growth alone. Professor Adler, in his 
"Moral Instruction of Children," explains clearly how "the 


virtues depend in no small degree on the power of serial 
and complex thinking." His demonstration of the moral 
defects arising from the " lack of connectedness of ideas," 
is a forceful warning. 

Another disadvantage which besets little Croesus is, 
that in his elaborate home he is exposed to such a multi- 
plicity of impression, succeeding each other with such 
rapidity that each is overlaid by a new one before his con- 
sciousness has had time to fix any. This is one of the re- 
sults of general elaborateness of the home life; but there 
are others whose manifestations are especially evident. 

His nurse is often changed, and he is expected to trans- 
fer his affections to the new incumbent and encouraged to 
forget the old nurse. His toys are too many and quickly 
replaced by new ones before they have been familiar and 
dear. Fickleness and caprice, and a restless looking for 
novelty are thus directly fostered. In the kindergarten is 
found the influence to counteract these tendencies. There 
he plays again and again with the same little box of blocks, 
only eight in number and of one shape. He finds how 
readily they respond to his fancy, and takes delight in them 
day after day. He has the same experience with a few 
sticks, a square of paper, a lump of clay. The new idea 
dawns: How much can be done with how little? Is not this 
a reliable idea for him to grasp? Is it not infinitely pre- 
cious compared with the joyless finding of little in however 
much one has, — which is the pitiable condition of some of 
the "gilded youth"? The kindergarten teaches the child 
the superiority of the pleasure which comes from the use of 
his own thought and power upon simple material, and pre- 
pares him to understand Carlyle's noble thought: "Not 
what I have, but what I do, is my kingdom." The over- 
powering muchness of what little Croesus has, too often 
crushes his power to do; therefore, that his self-activity 
should be roused and directed is of priceless importance. 

In a household of many servants the child is apt to be 
in such a relation to them as is false and injurious. The 
child is allowed to command before he has learned to obey. 

shoemaker's barefooted children. 283 

He sees himself to be an object of consideration and even 
deference from these grown people. His untrained judg- 
ment cannot withstand this, and the sentiment of reverence, 
whose first form is in the child's looking up to its elders, is 
marred in the budding and thwarted in its growth. 

As I said before, it is not always the fault of the mother; 
but the circumstances are too strong for her unaided. 
Some help she must have. The kindergarten offers this 
help by its teaching of respect for labor and the laborers, 
and by showing the child his dependence on the work of 
all. Its lesson is ever that all live for each and each must 
live for all; that this is a world of universal brotherhood 
and mutual service. I admit that this lesson is dangerous 
to the aristocratic exclusiveness which some branches of 
the Croesus Bluebloods prefer to cultivate; but these who 
learn it by heart and not by rote belong thereafter to the 
genuine nobility, — to a rank not external and fleeting, but 
of the spirit and perpetual. 

Another disadvantage which the rich child suffers is, 
that his home life allows such little chance for self-reliance 
to develop. It is always more trouble to teach a child to 
do things for himself than to do them for him; and nurses 
are more likely to work for the present smooth running of 
nursery affairs than for the later effect upon the child's 
character. The sturdy pleasure of doing for himself is one 
of the gains of the kindergarten child, and he soon comes 
also to the joy of helpfulness. A sense of personal re- 
sponsibility is aroused also, for the tiny fellow finds himself 
regarded as accountable for his actions. At home he too 
often discovers (with that astuteness of which a small child 
is capable) that the servants are held responsible for his fail- 
ures and misdoings, even where he alone was to blame. 

The children of the Croesus families are less likely to 
have companionship with those of their own age than the 
children of poorer people. The latter are turned out to 
play, and can gratify the natural instinct of association with 
their equals in age, while little Croesus walks along the 
avenue, lonely and deprived of his rights, however kindly 


and sympathetic his nurse may be. Older or younger chil- 
dren in the family do not answer a child's need fully. 
Social relations with his equals in age and development 
give him a standard by which to get a true estimate of him- 
self, and a natural opportunity for the growth of justice 
and unselfishness. Social union is the basis of all culture. 
The play of children among themselves is especially the 
basis of all moral culture. 

"Without the various relations between man and man, 
morals and culture \-anish; the desire for society is at the 
foundation of church and state, and of all that makes hu- 
man life what it is." — Baroness Marenholtz von Billoiv. 

Evei'y normal child has this desire for society. Where 
is it so healthfully gratified as in the kindergarten? 

Let us briefly review these observations. The circum- 
stances of his home life tend to make the child of wealth in- 
active, superficial, self-regardful. He needs the kindergar- 
ten because his home life is against the development of 
definite related mental perceptions, and therefore against 
orderly thinking, — an essential of mental and moral power; 
against the development of his self-reliance, of a sense of 
personal responsibility; against the development of a power 
for persistent work; against the development of respect and 
reverence, and of the idea of supremacy of thoughts over 

Because these children are like a city set upon a hill, 
because they will soon be leaders of society and centers of 
influence, it is all-important that they should receive such 
an education as has for its object "the realization of a faith- 
ful, pure, inviolate, and hence holy life." The kindergarten 
gives the beginning of such an education. Let us plead 
that all children, rich as well as poor, have their right be- 
ginning, recognizing that it is, first, for all childhood, irre- 
spective of class or condition; secondly, that it provides 
counteracting influences for the disadvantages which arise 
from any particular environment. 

The kindergarten — ^the beginning; however strong our 
faith, we do not trust all to the kindergarten. The plant 

shoemaker's barefooted children. 285 

may be brought to a beautiful, vigorous growth, with every 
bud and blossom upon it the heart of a gardener could wish 
to see; but bud and blossom are only promise. Fulfill- 
ment and fruitage depend on the continuance of proper 
nurture and culture. Nevertheless, the best of care cannot 
perfect the fruit if the young plant is thwarted in develop- 
ment before or during blossom time. 



MAN, like God, is known only by his works. The 
school exhibit, as that of every other depart- 
ment comprising the Columbian Exposition, 
could only be made concrete in the products of 
the school. These products, like those of any other har- 
vest field, tell the story of seed planting, proper environ- 
ment and care, and the final reproduction of all these ele- 
ments in ripened grain. The results of school culture are 
not necessarily invisible or unmeasurable. The child must 
and may prove his impressions in noble expressions. The 
fact that acres of walls were covered with the fruits of the 
schools of the world does not entirely prove that these 
fruits grew and ripened from the heart outward. The fact 
of such a great exhibit does not prove that the hundreds of 
thousands of children thereby recorded, were being given 
individual nurture; but it shows the field as a whole, its 
possibilities and necessities. 

It has been hinted in a detrimental tone, that the bulk 
of the school exhibit was drawing, sewing, and other hand 
work. One critic has facetiously remarked that if a man 
from the moon were to drop down upon the American 
school display, he would say, "These schools are all draw- 
ing schools." Such critics have failed to learn the lesson 
of the centuries, — the lesson that learning, mathematics, 
observation, like art, must be applied, must be turned to a 
purpose before it can be estimated, tested, or represent a 
value. Even though drawing and manual training have 
received the lion's share, are they not as good gauges of 
school progress as any concrete form to be found? Geog- 
raphy, history, language, and arithmetic papers, bound in 
substantial quartos and placed on shelves in a more com- 


pact form, are none the less honored. In order to exhibit 
these lines of study, it would be necessary to bring the 
boys and girls who, like sponges, have absorbed their juice. 

A work of art embodies in a concrete form all the 
aroma of the special studies which boys and girls have 
inhaled and' exhaled. What has a growing child, who 
radiates quite in proportion to his power of absorption, — 
what has this growing thing to do with numbers or letters, 
except as they enter into his growth and life, and become 
tools by which he may measure living quantities? 

Another critic says: "The exhibits of foreign countries 
show that they are not indifferent to the training of the 
hand and eye, but in the ordinary schools these subjects do 
not monopolize space and attention." The critic forgets 
that all we know of manual training, industrial education, 
natural methods, and modern schooling originated on the 
continent. Russia first taught us manual training, Switzer- 
land and Germany pleaded for natural methods, and today 
the representatives of these countries come to America to 
study our schools. They say: "You have applied the prin- 
ciples we honor; you have made them practicable; you 
have established such schools as we only dream of." 

Is it a slight matter for American educators to defame 
the effort of the home school, which, because of its greater 
freedom from shackles, dares to make glaring mistakes in 
order to test the new order of humanity, which says that 
education should produce not scholars nor soldiers, but 

Professor Shinn, of the committee on awards of the 
educational exhibit, has had an opportunity to make a com- 
parative test of the exhibits of the various nations. In a 
recent public address he urged that we infuse more of 
the continental sincerity and prolonged fidelity into our 
schools, in order to hold our own with that proficiency 
which comes alone through unstinted application. This 
advice is timely and may be applied to all American life, of 
which the schools are such a vital portion. A young 
Englishman who has spent the six months of the Exposi- 


tion in charge of a London art exhibit, declared, in sub- 
stance, on leaving Chicago: "I have criticised your climate, 
your crude society; 1 have wept over your un-English cul- 
ture and the total barrenness of the art spirit; I have 
sighed for congenial London circles; all this I have ex- 
pressed publicly and privately for six months. Now I am 
going back to all for which I have sighed, but I go with a 
new sense of individual spirit. Henceforth no man shall 
override me, force class distinctions upon me, nor lead me 
by that subtlest of all errors, to underestimate and despise 
my own humble efforts. This I have learned, have assim- 
ilated by degrees here in your Western world, and I would 
not exchange that bit of knowledge for a university 

The method of adjudging the educational exhibit has 
been the same as that followed in every other department, 
— viz., the single judge system. The following are the 
names of the judges on awards, who acted individually, and 
then debated their judgments in committee sessions: 

Otillia Bondy, Austria; A. E. Carqua, Italy; E. M. Chu- 
carro, Uruguay; L. L. Dimcha. Russia; Dr. R. Ekstrand, 
Sweden; Kirsten Frederikson, Denmark; J. C. Heard, Rus- 
sia; Hilda Lundin, Sweden; Dr. O'Rielly, Great Britain; 
F. F. Perez, Mexico; Mrs. M. J. Surano, Spain; Mr. Sev- 
wanad, Mme. Semetchken, Russia; W. F. Terry, New South 
Wales; Prof. Weatzolt, Germany; Y. Yambe, Japan. Also 
the following for the United States: Mrs. Bartle, W. E. 
Cameron, Mrs. Augusta J. Chapin, Jno. P^aton, Wm. W. 
Folwell, Mrs. Fair, Mrs. Brozillia Gray, D. S. Jordan, W. R. 
Smith, J. L. Spaulding, J. H. Shinn, Miss Ella Sabin, Miss 

The results of these judgments are not yet made public, 
but it is a well-known fact that the judges have sought to 
find the substantial evidences of the actual school work 
behind the exhibits. For example, where a school pre- 
sented the everyday work of each pupil, greater credit was 
allowed than where a partial percentage of the pupils was 


Meanwhile, thousands of teachers, parents, and students 
have wandered through the exhibits and passed their com- 
ments and expressed their conclusions. One has heard 
sweeping comparisons made between the various exhibits, 
often without reference to the differing purposes of such. 
Here is the work of a single private school, — we may say 
of one individual, — which is advantageously compared with 
the composite exhibit of a city's public schools. Or again, 
the work of a foreign country has been estimated accord- 
ing to American standards and possibilities, regardless of 
the governmental and climatic differences. 

Race traits and national characteristics stand behind 
every exhibit, and nowhere should these be more con- 
spicuous than in the work of the children and youth of a 
nation. In order to give due credit to such qualities, it is 
necessary to have knowledge of international values. 

This school exhibit has brought together an extensive 
library of printed statistics, as well as plans and organiza- 
tions. These official documents have added great value to 
the exhibits, and have done their part in wiping out igno- 
rances and prejudices which have gathered about their 
respective lands. Every progressive educator should have 
secured the collection. The statistics of the educational 
ministries of Japan and Russia alone have provided the 
writer with a broader appreciation of the world's progress, 
and the ability of each nation to work out its salvation. 
International ignorance will never generate the brotherhood 
of man. 

The committee on awards for this department of the 
great Exposition, in being selected from among many na- 
tions, has accomplished much to establish this true esti- 
mate of the relative values of the world's school work. 
Through a knowledge of the magnificent men and women 
who have stood for the products of the various schemes of 
education, we have anew learned the lesson of education's 
aim and purpose, — namely, that of revealing humanity in 
its brotherhood. 

Vol. 6-19 


Our Christmas message to the earnest readers of the 
Kindergarten Magazine is a reminder of the great gift of 
growth which has come to us during the past season, in- 
dividually and collectively. The kindergarten cause has 
widened its borders, has received a host of new workers and 
sympathizers, and stands this Christmas day as one of the 
portals by which educators may enter into the Kingdom. 
As espousers of this cause, let us unite in thanksgiving and 
gratitude. The favors of progress have showered about us 
even more than we can measure or count. Let our appreci- 
ation of this growth be manifest in more sincere fellowship, 
in a more candid interchange of opinions, and a warmer, 
more cordial intercourse among the workers. And in all 
our growth and enlarged capacities, let us not forget one 
of the least of these newcomers into the work. The hun- 
dreds of young women, some scarcely more than girls, who 
yearly join our ranks, should have the right of way to our 
hearts. Let us occupy every opportunity to say the word 
and do the deed which shall inspire them to ennobled aim 
and effort. It lies with every earnest kindergartner to fire 
and kindle a hundred more into sincerity and ability. 

Many inquiries come concerning the Kindergarten Lit- 
erature Company and the conditions for membership to the 
same. For the information of such we repeat what has been 
extensively published among our readers: The Company is 
organized and capitalized for the purpose of publishing and 
disseminating kindergarten literature, and also as a central 
station for answering questions and increasing the public 
interest in the work. The Company is composed of some 
thirty stockholders, who in annual meeting have a voice in 
shaping and controlling the . policy of the work. These 
also elect a board of directors and the customary officers. 
The list of stockholders is made up completely of profes- 


sionally trained kindergartners and sympathizers with our 
cause, with the definite purpose of holding close to Froe- 
bel's ideals all the productions of literature, text-books, 
etc., besides the planting and working of new fields every- 

We earnestly desire that all organizations in this line 
make an effort to take at least one share of stock before 
this first year is out, and assist in making it possible for the 
Kindergarten Literature Company to prove that an ideal 
may succeed as a business venture, and further show forth 
that organization for educational reform is not an idle 

We would practically suggest that each energetic, live 
body of kindergarten workers plant one share of stock in 
the name of their association, subscribing for the same with 
a small cash payment, the rest to be met in installments. 
We request correspondence on this matter, and solicit the 
early attention of all our workers. 

This organization is not a private venture, but is of the 
most vital importance to each individual worker as well as 
each organized body; and that the kindergarten cause be 
recognized as a business factor as well as professionally has 
become necessary, as perhaps few realize so completely as 
do the prime movers in the Kindergarten Literature Com- 
pany. The year just closing has already done much to 
establish this recognition. The unprecedented growth of 
the kindergarten movement is everywhere acknowledged, 
and our w^orkers must not lose this opportunity to guide 
and mold their own cause. The business control of a work 
should be held by the persons who hold the ideals of it, and 
those who have already joined the Kindergarten Literature 
Company fully realize what a strong stroke its organization 
has been for the cause. 

The well-trained, earnest, and womanly kindergartner 
has an unprecedented opportunity to do a great work. She 
may take her rank among the leading women workers of 
her land. Even though her ambition be not among the 



stars, she will still need to be most thorough, most compre- 
hensive in her calling, and most receptive to all that is 
known as progress. A little training, less experience, and 
general indifference are not the elements of success in this 
high calling. As teachers, as parents, as kindergartners, we 
need, not more methods, mot more facts and information at 
our tongue tips, — but we need more womanliness, higher 
ideals, and less self-interest. 


No. IV. 

It is to "souls that are gentle and still" that revelations 
of great truths come. It is in the moments of uncounted 
quiet and self-communion that a great book renders up its 
treasure. Analytical study or compulsory study do not 
winnow out the sweetest kernels or the choicest grains of 

Take your "Mother-Play Book" for a quiet hour, and 
turn to page seventeen. Allow yourself to search out the 
illustration of the song entitled "Play with the Limbs." 
What story do you read in the picture? How many differ- 
ent stories can you find? If little children were looking at 
the picture, what would they find? What is the central fig- 
ure in the picture? Why does one-half the story tell of in- 
door life, the other half of outdoor life? Is 'baby a passive 
quantity? Is mother a silent, inactive figure? Has the 
little lamp no meaning to bab)'? Why is the mill brought 
into the picture? Does it tell a story of passivity? And 
the running stream which turns its wheels, and which at- 
tracts the group of equally busy children, holding them by 
its spell half-way up the hillside? 

Why should good mother sing a story as she plays with 
her baby? Which does the child understand best, — her 
words, or her frolicsome play, *or her generous good-will? 
Why does she carry him to see the old mill, which, like 
himself, is never still? What is her purpose in accompany- 
ing to the hillside stream the children, who are certainly 
old enough to take care of themselves? Why is the little 
group of five pictured as busy, each in his own way? 

What is the meaning of other mills, other homes, other 
mothers, as introduced into the upper part of the picture? 


Do you notice the tiled floor in baby's nursery, and the or- 
namentation of every detail of the furnishings? 

In arranging these illustrations, it was the clear intention 
of Froebel to make them tell the story, which is also em- 
bodied in song and motto. A child finds every detail of 
value and meaning. The moral of the simple nursery rhyme 
is pointed in the motto, that mother's eyes may not fail to 
find the meaning in her play. The law of unbroken, unin- 
terrupted activity which every detail of the picture illus- 
trates, is the law of child life, of human life, of nature. 
Mother in her unthinking play with the child is fulfilling 
this law. It is the same law which is fundamental to all life. 
Growth and onward movement are the proofs of existence. 
Every child of nature, whether seedling or infant man, re- 
sponds to and expresses ceaseless activity. It is baby's right 
to be forever kicking and tossing about. 

Is mind ever inactive? Mind and man may be at rest, 
but are never passive. Thought is the constant action of 
mind, and in the case of the child the deed or action follows 
the former instantaneously. Hence mother's first lesson 
from baby is the knowledge of this fundamental principle 
of his being, — namely, self-activity . 

The following literal translation of Froebel's motto to 
this song may throw a varying light upon its simple mean- 

When baby arms and legs throws about, 
Mother's spirit of play at once is called out; 
This from the Creator she is prompted to do: 
Young though her child, 
She may, deftly and mild, 
Through outer things help his spirit life grow; 
Through frolic and fun and purposeful teasing. 
Deep feeling and thought will some day awaken. 

What is the application of the homely Kose-lied to a 
modern nursery or kindergarten? Shall it be transferred 
literally from some mountain village of the continent to an 
American metropolis? You answer: child nature has its 
universal qualities. Whatever has an application to child- 
hood in common, may be safely transferred. Shall we sing 


the song as it stands, in our now more and more honored 
"Mother-Play Book," even though its quaint story paints 
no familiar picture for our babies? Let us not forget that 
the singing of the story, and the rhythmic play with those 
plump legs or arms, are quite as important as the words 
themselves. The words should tell a story, the song should 
be musical, and the mother's play with the bubbling baby 
should be truly frolicsome. 

The lighted lamp has a charm for all wide-eyed children. 
The song does well to attach its story to so attractive and 
familiar an object. What makes the lamp bright? is a 
question upon which the child verges long before he knows 
how to ask it. Mother anticipates, and plays that sturdy, 
stout legs shall tramp out the oil to feed the lamp. The 
song might be translated to run as follows: 

Plip, flap! How plump little legs toss about! 
From out the poppy and hemp let's tramp 
Oil for pretty, shining lamp. 
That it may burn both clear and bright, 
While mother-love all through the night 
Keeps watch, keeps watch with baby. 

Any other song, rhyme, or story which fits the condition of 
your children, and which embodies their activity, giving it 
scope and interest, is equally valuable. There have always 
been many such nursery songs used, from "Trot, trot to 
Boston," to "Pat-a-cake." They are from hence on to be 
used not merely as instinctive amusement, but with con- 
scious reference to the daily enlarging capacity of the baby. 

The explanation in the back of our book gives P^roebel's 
own interpretation of his purpose in presenting the song. 
Here .we gather such general facts as these: 

I. All development comes through activity. The child 
expresses himself instinctively. The mother hitherto re- 
sponds unconsciously. 2. Feeling life within, it must be 
expressed. The mother suggests a channel for this doing. 
3. By means of the particular action, if only so slight a 
thing as pressing his feet against the mother's palms, the 
child comes to a conscious experience. 


This song and its study give us the form of all the others, 
each of which typifies and illustrates an equally important 
law in universal life, therefore in child life. 

As it will be impossible to handle all of the fifty songs 
in detail in this series, as we must confine ourselves to the 
few, it will be helpful to have suggested the groups of songs 
to consider between the numbers. The unillustrated song 
entitled, " Falling, Falling," may be readily grasped as suc- 
ceeding this of the "Tossing Limbs." The latter states the 
law: self-activity is the necessity of self-expression. The 
"Falling, Falling," makes a practical and wider application 
of that law. Trace it out, following the signposts of your 
individual experiences. — Amalic Hofer. 


In the article of last month a brief history of the method 
of singing known as the Tonic Sol-fa was given, with such 
information of the method as was necessary to a proper 
presentation of the subject. 

It is our purpose in this and in succeeding articles to 
consider the special features which characterize this system 
of musical instruction, with sufficient elaboration to make 
them understood and appreciated. 

We will choose for our present discussion the chief char- 
acteristic of the Tonic Sol-fa method as developed by John 
Curwen, by whom, as we have remarked heretofore, it was 
discovered and put into practice: we refer to the theory of 
the mental effects of tones. 

The primary object of instruction in music is the devel- 
opment of musical intelligence. This statement contains 
much which at first will not be appreciated. The ability to 
produce certain results without knowing just how and why 
we produce them, and the ability to produce these same re- 
sults intelligently, differ very materially. Therefore to be 
truly musically intelligent is to possess the ability to pro- 
duce musical results, knowing the why and the wherefore of 


The inclination to sing is natural to the human race. 
Among the first sounds which greet the awakening of in- 
telligence in the infant mind is the voice of the mother with 
her sweet lullaby, soothing his pain and driving away his 
childish grief. So through life does the power of music in- 
fluence us. 

Why is this? Because music is the language of the emo- 
tions, which are closely allied to thought, the source of 
action, the sum total of which is the conduct of life. 

The power of music is a much-used expression; but to 
be truly sensible of this power we must be able to appre- 
ciate wherein it exists. If it exists in the emotions from 
which proceed thought and action, this emotional language 
must necessarily portray the various phases or character- 
istics of the human being. 

The alphabet of this language is the musical scale, which 
consists of seven primary tones. Each of these seven mu- 
sical sounds or tones must naturally produce an impression 
on the mind peculiar to itself and at the same time charac- 
teristic of that quality of emotion which it portrays. 

From among these seven tones one is chosen as the 
foundation upon which this musical structure is reared. As 
in material building each succeeding stone bears a certain 
relation to the first, so in this musical structure, or the scale, 
each succeeding tone is peculiarly related to the first or 
foundation tone. 

The awakening of musical intelligence begins when the 
mind has presented to it the Tonic or Doh chord, composed 
of the three most important tones of the scale, — the first or 
Tonic (doh), so called because of the peculiar office it per- 
forms, the fifth or Dominant (soh), and the third or Medi- 
ant (me). These three tones are the strong elements of 
the scale; the reason why this is so will be given later. 
The Tonic (doh ), w^hich must by virtue of its office be the 
strongest tone, is characterized as firm; the Dominant (soh), 
the next in importance, as bright and bold; the Mediant 
(me), as the calm, gentle, and peaceful constituent of the 


These tones when sung with proper expression make 
such an impression on the mind that in a first lesson the 
pupil is enabled to tell instantly the character of each tone 
when it is heard, and to sing the required tone when the 
character alone is mentioned after the first tone has been 

To further develop the special features of these tones 
suitable words are sung to them in short sentences or in 
phrases, and their characters are brought out more strongly 
still by the use of words not in sympathy with them; or the 
suitability of these tones to certain words may be shown by 
contrast, with the use of tones possessing opposite charac- 

As music is the language of the emotions, it performs its 
highest office when united to words; and a more complete 
union will be established when, as just shown, the music 
sympathizes with the words, which, springing from the intel- 
lectual nature, require certain conditions in order to become 
more effective. These conditions are supplied through mu- 
sic, and the union of these two natures, the emotional (mu- 
sic) and the intellectual (words), leads to a better apprecia- 
tion and interpretation of both. 

The effects of these tones are still further enforced by a 
series of signs which form a silent but very expressive lan- 
guage. These signs are made with the hand, and strongly 
suggest the characters of the tones. 

As in the study of painting the eye is constantly trained, 
so in the study of music the ear is being trained; and if ac- 
cording to this method, so effectively that the pupil will be 
able to recognize musical sounds with certainty. This is 
considered by the exponents of the Tonic Sol-fa method as 
the most important step in the direction of musical intelli- 

This subject will be resumed in the next article, when the 
remaining tones of the scale will be considered. 

As the subject of Christmas music is just now engaging 
the attention of most people, we would suggest that future 
songs of this kind be simple and heartfelt, calculated to 


arouse the emotions which the season suggests; and as 
Christmas songs seem peculiarly adapted to little children, 
they will, if of a suitable character, be more certainly ap- 
preciated. — Emma A. Lord, Brooklyn. 


For the first month's work in our public school kinder- 
gartens this year, we chose the "rock family" for our sub- 
ject, because of its suggestiveness as a foundation for the 
subsequent thought that all objective life has vital connec- 
tion with the earth, and that the rock family, though 
belonging to inorganic nature, so called, is closely related to 
all organic forms of life through the substance of rock and 
soil being interchangeable, and from the bosom of Mother 
Earth all \-egetable and animal life is nourished. The 
human being has relation to the animal or physical life on 
the one side, and to the spiritual or God-like life on the 
other; therefore there is actual, living connection between 
the highest and lowest forms of life, and our mission 
should be to live out this vital relationship in the kinder- 
garten, with the motto. Nothing lives to itself alone, but 
prepares the way for the next stage of progress. 

Our aim, from the public school standpoint, is to pre- 
pare the children for the primary grades, along practical 
lines of awakened perceptions of certain qualities of num- 
ber, form, color, etc., with musical feeling (music is taught' 
in our public schools) and the increasing ability for ab- 
stract thought. We are to connect the logical order of 
the gift work with the subject of the day, week, or month, 
not losing through our subject this connection of the gifts, 
but rather letting them interpret our subject, while we, 
from our kindergarten standpoint, know that we should 
incorporate these essential qualities of the gifts into the 
very substance of the thought underlying our use of them. 
It is not enough to give ideas, no matter how truly they 
are facts, unless they are living thoughts to the child, and 


the mental powers cannot grow except with the growth of 
the entire nature. We know the "whole child" should go 
to kindergarten. 

The first week we opened we decided to take plenty of 
time in learning to know one another in the sense of estab- 
lishing a home feeling, and growing into the perception 
that we carry our chairs together, move in line, obey sig- 
nals, etc., because this is the way we find we like. When 
the talk about the "rock family" began, Clinton, who was 
with us last year, was asked to tell us if there were other 
kinds of families besides people's families that he knew of. 
"Ves, indeed; horses' families, cats' families, dogs' families, 
camels' families" (some of our children have been to the 
World's Fair, and camels are fascinating beings to them). 
Many children are interested in the subject of the camel 

After the children's mentioning many domestic and 
wild animals as having little ones and comprising families, 
and bringing into the conversation some members of the 
insect world, they were each asked to bring a small stone 
next day, such as they could find in the street or that lay 
in their yard. One little fellow said he could bring one 
'' tliis big'' — showing the space inclosed within his two arms 
curved outward. "Oh, not so large as that! Look, chil- 
dren" (and the kindergartner shaped her hands into the 
form represented for the "ball for baby" in the Poulsson 
book); "even this will be too big for some of you. Little 
stones easy to carry are what I want." As a result, numer- 
ous limestones gave us quite a collection of this branch of 
the rock family; and as the members of the family increased 
on our shelves, and as specimens of quartz, felspar, sand- 
stone, stalactites, lead and iron ore, and a beautiful sili- 
ceous rock with great dazzling crystals like veritable dia- 
monds encrusted on its surface, came to take their places 
among the limestones, the children's interest deepened, and 
they could see here was a family indeed, with dissimilar 
members, yet all showing a certain relationship. Clay mod- 
eling, drawing, and cutting and pasting were the materials 


used for expressing our interest in the rocks in these early 
days of their coming among us. In what follows, only a 
small part of what can be done with this subject is given. 
This, however, is our essential thought: The rocks are of tJie 
very substa?ice of which our earth is composed, and all life is 
governed by one laiv. 

Pari I — Study Outline for Kindergartner. — i. Limestones: 
The children can see that these stones, once large pieces 
of rock, when broken small at the roadside and then spread 
upon our streets, are crushed by heavy wagons, and finally 
form part of the roadway. 

2. Other stones, giving the idea of the "rock family'': 
Different colors and appearance. Main division now, 
those that are smooth, showing no corners, and those that 
are rough, having many points or corners. Water-worn 
rocks, and those not so acted upon by water, or the rubbing 
of the rocks against one another. 

3. Aqueous rocks and igneous rocks. The six strata of 
the rock families. The upper four containing fossils. 

4. The Stone Age. Cave dwellers (quaternary strata). 
Part II — I. The uses to which men have put various 

members of the rock family since the earliest times. The 
implements of flint and stone used by primitive man. 

2. The great variety of uses to which we put stone and 
rock: roadways, bridges, houses, fences, curbstones, flag- 
ging, foundation walls. 

3. The beautiful pillars and marble floors of some 

Part III — I. Some relations of the rock family: chalk 
and marble related to the limestones (soft rocks). 

2. Sandstone: plaster, slate, clay, mortar, glass. 

The First Gift was introduced to all the children at 
pnce one morning, when they sat on the circle in one of 
our quiet times; hands still, feet still, heads still, eyes still 
and fixed upon the yellow disk painted in the center of the 
floor. "All can close their eyes." After a moment, " Now 
you can open them. What do you see?" "A ball! a red 
ball!" exclaimed the children. "Can you do what this red 


ball does? See, it is rising high and higher." Children rise 
also. It moves this way, now that way, and the children 
take delight in following the motions of the graceful ball. 
"A clock, a bell; a bird, and how birds love to fly!" 

Another time the red ball came to them on the morning 
circle as little Millie Ball in a bright red dress. She had 
come to kindergarten to have a good time with the children, 
— to play with them and work with them; and we will like 
her because she always speaks softly, moves quietly, and 
tries to do what is right, never being rough or rude, though 
she loves to skip, and jump, and play she is a bird, a 
bright flower, the pendulum of the clock that tells us it is 
time to go to school, and many other things. But now see 
whom she has brought with her to kindergarten today 
(holding up sphere of Second Gift): Billie Ball, a little 
friend of Millie's, who lives quite near her. She. thinks he 
will like the kindergarten too. Do you think Billie looks 
much like Millie? 

"Yes," "No," "He's hard," "He'll make a noise," comes 
from the children. "Yes, sure enough, he cannot move as 
softly as Millie Ball; but today he is going to try to do just 
as Millie does." (Rolling them along the floor, the children 
rolling back, holding them by their strings, and hopping 
them along together, the sphere makes more noise than the 
worsted ball; but the children see that the noise can be 
controlled, and that wood h.3.s a different sound from stuffed 

At one of the tables Millie Ball has five little sisters 
with her, each in a different-colored dress. They play a 
game. Millie, dressed in red, stands first; next to her 
comes her sister in the orange-colored dress; then the 
sister in the yellow dress, and so on, through green, blue, 
and violet. Millie runs over to one of the children, her 
next sister to another. When they have all left the row, 
the kindergartner says, "Who came first?" (Millie takes 
her place.) "Who comes next?" (Sister in the orange 
dress;) and they are finally, after some mistakes, ranged 
as before. " Millie is number one. What number is sister 


in the orange dress?" She is number two, and so on. 
When the children have finished counting the six sisters in 
their order, we take them away again. " Now^ let us put 
number four on the table; number six;" and we skip about. 
Mistakes are made, but the children are learning the color, 
with the place where it belongs in the spectrum. 

At another table Millie Ball is playing she is a pendu- 
lum, and the baby children are swinging their arms, with 
fists doubled up to represent theirs. The little ones' arms 
move stiffly, and the kindergartner goes to each to see 
what is the matter with the works. The "de-energizing" 
of the muscles is accomplished with many, thus giving 
more free and joyous swing to the movement. 

On the morning circle certain children are chosen, and 
asked to sit upon the floor looking as much like rocks as 
possible: elbows and knees angular, like the sharp corners 
of the limestones. With soft, flowing melody from the 
piano the kindergartner moves slowly along, representing a 
stream, and letting her hands drag themselves over the 
children's bodies that they may feel their contact. "These 
rocks in the water feel it flowing, flowing, flowing, along, 
over, under, around them. After years, and years, and 
years, it smooths, and smooths, and s-m-o-o-t-h-s the cor- 
ners away." The rocks are very still while this goes on, 
and all the children seem much pleased with the impres- 
sion made in this way. When they are asked the next 
morning "What helps to rub away the sharp places on the 
rocks?" they exclaim, "The water." "Yes, and they get 
thrown against one another, too," said the kindergartner, 
"and they have some of their rough corners rubbed off 
that way." (Children imitate motion of stones rubbing 
one another.) 

Clinton, Cherry, Eddie, Maurice, Florence, Lillie, Sun- 
shine, and Millie (one of the older girls) are beginning to 
take the lead in answering questions and giving suggestions 
and observations relevant to the subject at hand, while 
Phil is already becoming conspicuous for irrelevant re- 
marks thrown in at all times; and Lenoir, a fair-haired. 


innocent-faced child, of most sturdy physique and bellig- 
erent tendencies, enjoys pinching and poking his near 
neighbors. There are a score of children (mostly babies) 
who are not yet accustomed to the idea of sitting quietly 
in a chair. These require much of arm and leg movement. 
"We will all stand. Now we will double up and be as 
roly-poly as we can, and play we are round pebbles." We 
curl up on the floor, and twist and turn to get as round as 
possible. Again, we find our right hands, beginning thus 
to learn left from right, and talk a little about the mother 
and father, the sister and brother, with baby, least of all, 
enlarging the relationship by finding on the left hand — 

This is grandmother, good and dear; 

This is grandfather, with hearty cheer; 

This is the uncle, stout and tall; 

This is the auntie who loves one and all; 

This is the cousin, pet of all. 

Behold the good family, great and small. 

And how all the children want to talk at once about their 
mammas, grandmammas, brothers and sisters, and the ba- 
bies.— all except certain children who gaze intently at you. 
and whose sensitive faces take on a self-conscious .look 
when directly addressed. These are the children who are 
receiving intelligent impressions of all that goes on around 
them, but who are by temperament averse to expression or 
action. These contemplative but not indolent little ones 
need such careful treatment, that a wrong method might 
spoil all. We soon know these children, and refrain from 
bringing them "before the public," knowing that their time 
will come, and that unconsciously to themselves they will 
find the "dreaded public" to be only children like them- 
selves, with sympathy born of community of interests. 

But these vacant-eyed children, who, though they look 
at you, do not see you, or who look out of the window 
when all else are interested in what is going on in the 
room, — one of these is a type of his class. "Sam. what are 
you thinking of ?" "I ain't thinking o' nothin'." His wits 
are woolgathering, and while the others are gathering 


wool, he is the lamb who comes back from every mental 
excursion shorn. These children, of parents not only poor 
in purse but in intellectual and moral caliber, are hard to 
reach; but we are not discouraged. It is difficult for them 
to concentrate the mind upon anything, even for a moment. 
They have no vivid imaginings; their sense impressions are 
not keen. Their whole being seems dull and apathetic. 

We now have the children arranged for w^ork in three 
rooms, with one assistant in each room, to about twenty 
children. The tables are placed in the form of a hollow 
square, or L shaped. In one room are the advanced chil- 
dren, in another the babies, in the third the middle divi- 
sion of children. Clinton, Cherry, Lillie, Sunshine, and 
Millie are in the first division. Eddie, Florence, and Phil 
are in the second, while Maurice, Lenoir, and Sam are in 
the third division among the babies. 

Johnnie Cube came to kindergarten one morning with 
his little friend Billie Ball (sphere of Second Gift), who 
had first been brought by Millie Ball ( red ball of First 
Gift). Johnnie Cube lives in the same house with Billie 
Ball; in fact, he is his brother; }'et how unlike they look! 
Children see resemblance to the rocks, in Johnnie Cube. 
"A rough rock or a smooth sawn stone?" The latter; they 
count the cube's faces and corners. Johnnie Cube cannot 
run like Billie Ball, but likes to sit still or slide on a 
smooth surface. Next day Sister Cylinder is shown com- 
ing out of the same house with Billie Ball and Johnnie 
Cube. The children are delighted to see that she can run 
with the roly-poly Billie, and can slide with the stolid 
Johnnie. She is indeed sister to both; thus all three are 
related. "They have come to stay now in the kindergar- 
ten, and there is a wonderful game they can pla}^ When 
they spin themselves a certain way Johnnie Cube turns 
himself into Sister Cylinder, and Sister Cylinder turns her- 
self into Billie Ball; and whom do you think Billie Ball 
turns himself into?" Some of the children exclaim, " John- 
nie Cube!" We shall see. (Revolve the forms.) Children 
notice resemblance in sphere and c}'linder to water-worn 

\o\ . 6-20 


rocks, and they find resemblances to these fundamental 
forms in various objects about them. They particularly 
delight in outlining these forms in the air, while at the 
tables they play sawing stone, hauling rock, etc. With the 
Third Gift stone walls, gateways, houses, chimneys, tunnels, 
monuments, steps, bridges, etc., are made. These eight 
little Johnnie Cubes are the children of the big Johnnie 
Cube of Second Gift; for when they all put themselves 
together, into the form of big Johnnie Cube, they are just 
the same size and shape. 

Modeling, drawing, and sewing of the ball: Our black- 
boards are a delight to many of the children. Two of our 
youngest become so absorbed at the blackboard that it is 
difficult for them to leave it. The oldest children have 
their drawing books, and in the combination of lines are 
learning to master the elements of writing. These oldest 
children (most of them six years of age) modeled the cube 
from the sphere by topping, and the result showed care 
and accuracy. The pasting of circles and squares by all 
the children is a great pleasure. To some they are the 
pictures of the ball, or apples, or marbles, while the squares 
are stone flagging, stone walls, etc. 

The six strata of rock were drawn upon the blackboard, 
showing the igneous rocks at the bottom. Another day a 
picture of Vesuvius, with the cities between it and the Bay, 
was drawn upon it, with boats and ships upon the water. 
After hearing this story of the eruption of the mountain, 
with its lava and ashes covering the cities of Pompeii and 
Herculaneum, the children thought they would like to make 
the volcano at the sand table, one child taking especial 
charge of it while the others supplied the sand, not stop- 
ping until one would have thought it the veritable mount 
itself. Then the city at its foot must be built. This was 
soon accomplished by using the Second-gift cubes for the 
houses. One, a temple, was larger, having several cubes, 
and finished in a more lofty style with cylinders. When 
asked what else was needed, one answered "Water," another, 
"Men." Soon men (Second-gift beads and sticks) were 


running toward the Bay, a large pan sunk to its rim in the 
sand and filled with water, where ships and boats (folded 
paper) were floating. But now comes the climax. Having 
secured a toy volcano, it was placed in the crater of Mount 
Vesuvius, touched with a match, and the fire, flying upward, 
made it indeed realistic in effect. — Laura P. Charles, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

( Concluded next month.) 


The Louisville (Ky.) Kindergarten exhibit attracted 
much attention during the summer. It illustrated the work 
of one of the free kindergartens of that city, and was 
largely typical of the work which this association aims to 
accomplish. We bring this sketch of it to help those who 
have studied it to retain its points. The plan covered a 
full year's work, dividing the same into five general seasons: 

First, the organizing work, which covered the first four 
weeks of the kindergarten year: This time is spent in grad- 
ually instituting law and order, and the children are al- 
lowed to experience the terms and rules which go to secure 
order. They learn the application of the principle that 
there is a time and place for everything. 

Second and third, the Thanksgiving season and Christ- 
mas time are evolved from this first preliminary work, but 
illustrating in each case some fundamental principle rather 
than miscellaneous object teaching. The Christmas program 
has this sentiment at the head: "Happiness is the result of 
loving forethought." The steps by which the child should 
learn to interpret this sentiment were {a) what the Creator 
does to make man happy; {b) what father and mother do 
for the children; {c) making of Christmas presents, to show 
what children can do for others. In finding out what the 
Creator has done to make his children happy, the stars, 
moon, trees, flowers, and many other beautiful objects of 
nature are illustrated. These in turn are applied in the 
decorating of simple Christmas gifts. Among the latter 


we find simple articles such as the children can make: 
the paper bonbons, representing bright-colored fruits and 
flowers; picture frames, blotting pads with decorated cover, 
book marks, and letter boxes; some dainty lamp shades of 
tissue muslins reminded us of the one made by Frau Froe- 
bel, with the pressed ferns and flowers placed in between 
the two layers of oiled paper, the light from the lamp 
illuminating their delicate stems and leaves. The motto 
underneath the exhibit of the great winter festival read: 

A light snow fell, and the little stream 

Ran very slow, as if in a dream; 

The windows were covered with lace so white, 

While the people slept through the winter's night. 

Fourth, the midwinter or after-Christmas season is that 
calculated for the more definite and formulative work. 
Again a thought is taken for the point of sight, from which 
all the details of work are radiated. Unity is made the 
center point, and is considered under these subdivisions: 
the relation of individual effort to the effort of a com- 
munity; subordination of the individuals to the community, 
— the many individuals working toward a common end; 
and finally, many small things working together can attain 
a large result. This treatment of the sentiment of //////]' is 
very suggestive, and is a protection against the tendency 
toward analysis. Color, form, and number are more di- 
rectly dealt with in this department. There is a broad hint 
here, that long preparation produces admirable results. 
The children are led up gradually, and through life, to an 
appreciation for the specific properties and qualities of 
things. Each step is illustrated in many ways, before any 
deduction is made. Many street lamps light the street, 
many snowflakes cover the earth, and many rounds make a 
ladder. Everywhere the purpose is made plain, that the 
child should be led to rediscover the principle common to 
life, and the same should never be presented as infor- 

Fifth, the Easter thought is elaborated in flower and 
plant study, of which the early spring of Louisville admits. 


The series of designs adapted from nature studies to art 
forms is most interesting and original. The promise of the 
bud, and its fulfiUment in twig, leaf, or blossom, blended 
both sentiment and works in a most satisfactory manner. 
The feeling and expectation of the children were wrought 
out into forms of conventional art. This result could only 
be reached after a long experience on the part of the chil- 
dren, — experience with use of materials, familiarity with 
natural objects, and above all else, the effort to express 
these experiences in works of their own hands. 

We found some good applications of paper folding in 
the California kindergarten exhibit. Among others, a se- 
ries of borders .was designed out of the circular folding. 
Again, a large form was made up of folded rhombs radiat- 
ing from a common center, shaded from the darkest point 
at the center, through several tints, to a light halo around 
the edge. There were also some excellent splashes of 
water color in this exhibit, the work of the children, 
whereby they crudely but truly represented the orange 
poppy of their golden state. A beautiful, clear color was 
secured, such as never fails to permeate the child with 
strong and noble feeling. 

There was a peculiar fitness in the fact that the exhibit 
of the Silver-street California kindergarten told the story 
of the "Seven Little Sisters." The photographs of this 
school showed many nationalities, such as Mrs. Wiggin 
has described in "Patsy," — pows of variegated hues. There 
was a coincident in this study of the nations by the chil- 
dren of the many nationalities. The usual kindergarten 
materials were pressed into the service of telling these 
stories in a graphic manner. Realistic houses were made 
of the pine slats laid like boards and shingles, and many a 
sturdy animal Vv'as cut from heavy cardboard and colored 
to suit the taste, or, better, the observation of the child. 
Certain graphic Indians revealed how little hands and 
heads had struggled to overcome the resistance of scissors 
and materials, and produce the noble red man of their con- 


The Pennsylvania state exhibit of school work we found 
very comprehensive and well arranged. A unity of method 
prevailed throughout the work, such as we do not find in 
newer states. The city exhibits showed in some cases the 
work from primary to university, including manual training, 
cooking, sewing, and the kindergarten. The scheme of 
public school sewing is thoroughly systematized and oper- 
ated. The time will come when this work will have a more 
direct application to life and its vicissitudes. Then old ma- 
terials will be darned instead of new, and patches will be 
sewed in order to redeem an old garment, instead of being 
placed into a new muslin to show the stitches. 

The Pittsburg public schools showed a series of paper 
cutting and pasting in fabric designs. The plaids in Scotch 
and American patterns, as well as figured calicoes and silks, 
were reproduced very effectively in the color and cutting. 
It must have evolved keen observation as well as a study of 
color effects proportioned to the designs, for the boys and 
girls who made these paper fabrics. 

In the Massachusetts school exhibit we found less kin- 
dergarten work than elsewhere, but plenty of substantial 
volumes and statistics. Some original materials and de- 
signs for sewing cards were represented. 

In the Egyptian school exhibit we found woodwork, in- 
laid with pearl and ivory, which revealed a long patience 
and uncounted hours of labor. Another form of manual 
training in this exhibit, which traced the peculiarity of the 
country, was the cluster of reeds sharpened into pens. 
Again, bronze and woodwork were found dedicated to fan- 
tastic gods carved by students. 

The exhibit of the kindergarten training school of Mrs. 
Eudora Hailmann, of La Porte, Ind., showed an industry 
and subjection of materials which is not found in much 
other American work. The elaborate designs and progress- 
ive patterns in paper folding, weaving, intertwining and 
cutting, revealed an exhaustive study and effort to produce 
not only geometric but artistic forms from most limited 
materials. The black mounting boards, in some cases, 


threw the color designs into unique relief. The training of 
eye and hand is a most certain result in each work. 

A group of kindergartners commented upon the geomet- 
ric sewing illustrated in the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus exhibit. 
It is called the Lyschinska sewing, after Miss Mary Lys- 
chinska of London, who claimed that the child should use 
his needle from the first as he is expected to use it later on. 
The oiled paper or cloth is used for this purpose, as the 
stiff cardboard would break in placing the needle through 
both holes at once. The child is taught to take the whole 
stitch at once, and thereby learn the proper use of his tools. 

A case of one hundred pieces of clay modeling was 
placed in the Agricultural Building, illustrating the work of 
the kindergarten babies in Montevideo, Uruguay, S. A. 
Each bit of cup, or cap or mouse, had the touch of baby 
fingers. It was without exception some of the most sin- 
cere and honest clay modeling exhibited. The Spanish 
child was not coerced, nor did it imitate the handiwork of 
others. It told its own crude but natural story, subject to 
the limitations of baby fingers. 

In several instances we traced an effort to alternate the 
opportunity for spontaneous, free drawing with that of me- 
chanical and geometric work. In the compromises which 
must necessarily be made in the higher grades, where boys 
and girls have not had the early advantages in the primary 
grades, this is a legitimate exercise. The time is fast com- 
ing when there will cease to be a war between law and free- 
dom, between discipline and spontaneity, for it will be 
found that the spontaneously strong teacher will lead her 
children into self-elected work and self-effort which shall 
no longer necessitate the teaching of the law. Let the 
teacher know the law, live it herself, and command the 
freedom which is the fulfillment of the law. — A. H. 


A visitor who drops into a kindergarten just before 
Christmas is quite sure that something is going to happen. 


Either some important person is coming or they are about 
to give some one a great surprise — perhaps both. The 
children are very coy, and look at a visitor as if to say, 
"We are not receiving j?/st fiozc ; at any other time we will 
be most happy to see you." Such a coming together of 
heads and whisperings one never sees or hears except at 
Christmas times. 

At the coming festival the mystery disappears. There 
is no longer a secret to keep. 

Each of these mischievous little bodies is like the merry 
brown thrush, to whom the world is running over with joy. 

It was at one of these festivals that the children sang 
their Christmas songs, the last of which was that lovely one 
— "Oh, see; the snow^ is falling fast!" Sure enough, the 
snow was falling on the window panes, as if to say, "You 
see, little ones, we're on time. While you have been sing- 
ing "Somebody is coming," we have powdered the house 
tops and streets, making ready for dear old Santa." Some- 
body is coming with him: Jack Frost; "we feel his'icy 

There was a huge Christmas tree in one corner of the 
room, with everything on it that little hands can make. 

The mammas looked at the tree as if to say, "There is 
something there for me, I know." How these mammas do 
like to get anything their little ones make! 

The children had marched into the circle and were about 
to hop and fly.^anything a bird can do, — when the ringing 
of sleigh bells set every pair of hands and feet in motion. 
Such a clapping of hands and stamping of feet, with — 
"He's coming; he's coming!" But where? There was no 
chimney in the room. There; there; don't you see? the 
window is up! It is Santa! Don't you see his long white 
hair and whiskers, and blue eyes? We know him; he has 
been here before. Oh, if he would just come in! 

Just here a voice, quite unlike any other voice, called 
out: "Is this a kindergarten? If it is, Iwant to come in." 

In another moment dear old Santa was in the midst of 
as happy a set of children as he had ever met. While they 


were singing "Dear Santa, now we greet }'Ou," he was danc- 
ing, first with one and then another, and sometimes with a 
child in each arm. 

After a time the piano said, "We must have quiet now; 
Santa may have something to say." "I have come to this 
kindergarten," said he, "because I love it, and I love all 
bus}' little bodies. You help me. When I'm with }^ou, I 
feel young and strong, like a child myself. Now I would 
like to see what you have been doing for your parents. 
When the children remember their parents, I have more 
time to look after the little ones." At this the children 
gathered around their Christmas tree, and bursting into 
song, they sang: 

Oh, see the branches bending low! 
We'll lighten them before we go. 
Please, Santa, do, before they fall, 
Read the names, with love to all. 

Say how these busy little hands 
Have woven mats in single strands. 
Have sewed and folded every day; 
Surely we'd rather U'ork than play! 

See, papa's shaving case is there, 
And mamma's basket, too, somewhere; 
And all the pretty things you see 
Here and there upon the tree. 

They are, dear Santa, all our own, 
Made in our kindergarten home. 
Loves our motto, — see it on the wall,-*- 
Love for each other, love for all! 

The presents were taken from the tree and handed to 
Santa, who read the names, giving each mother her own 
and Papa's. Then such a time of hand shaking! The 
mothers looked at each other as much as to say, " I can 
hardly believe my ow^neyes!" 

. The piano spoke again. How these kindergarten pianos 
do talk! What it said the children understood, and, falling 
into line, marched onto the circle. 

When all was quiet one of the teachers said: "Dear 
Santa, here in this bag are some presents the children have 


made for the Bethel Mission, and here are some baskets 
filled with candies. These they have made for the chil- 
dren's hospital. They would like to have you distribute 
them." Just then a little boy with clean face and hands, 
dressed in calico shirt, pants all too short for that winter 
morning, and shoes that were worn but nicely blackened, 
walked up to Santa, who asked: "What is it. my little 
man?" John was a bashful boy; while looking up into 
Santa's kind face he forgot all about himself. Running his 
hands into the pockets of his pants, he brought out a bright 
new nickel. "And what is this for?" "I want you," said 
John, "to give this to somebody else for me." 

Laying his hand on John's head, Santa exclaimed: "Such 
a little boy with such a big heart!" 

Throwing the bag over his shoulder, with the baskets of 
candy, dear old Santa Claus said good-by, and disappeared. 

St. Louis, December, i8go. 


You will perhaps be much astonished to get a letter 
from Peking, the far-away capital city of the Celestial 
Land. You probably have read of the growing work of 
Miss Howe in Japan and Miss Bartlett in Turkey. There 
is no reason why there should not be just such an opening 
in China; and if ever a land needs the influence of the kin- 
dergarten it is this land of wooden people. Children are 
the same the world over, and I am sure, could you see the 
dear little bright faces, and the joy they take in pretty and 
bright things, you would feel, with us, the importance of 
getting an influence in their lives at an age when they can 
be molded. Mrs. Ament, of our station here, has just re- 
turned from a visit to Japan, and I am going to send an arti- 
cle to you, or rather, a paragraph from a letter she has writ- 
ten to a missionary paper. It sets our needs in a more vivid 
light than I could. She says: "I have just returned from 
Japan, and while there my feeling about the need of our 
work for a kindergarten and a system of free kindergartens 
was confirmed by what I saw of Miss Howe's work. We 


have long realized the waste of power in giving the world, 
the flesh, and the devil an opportunity to plant and nourish 
bad seed for years before we take up the work of instruct- 
ing children. We cannot be content with drawing into our 
day schools girls and boys of seven years. We must take 
the little ones who come pulling at their sisters' dress 
sleeves, and w^ith the help of all the beautiful songs, plays, 
and gifts, the occupations of the kindergarten, with God's 
help we will develop the upward tendencies, and discover 
his image in these little hearts. To do this great work it 
needs experienced teachers. But let them understand the 
situation. There are multitudes of children waiting to be 
taught; not waiting in the sense that they know for what 
they are waiting, but appealing to us by the possibilities of 
their natures and the deadening atmosphere in which they 
are growing up. There will be for years no paywg constitu- 
ency, but free kindergartens are now a part, an essential 
part, of the benevolent work of our cities in Christian lands, 
and they should be in foreign lands. We need a trained 
kindergartner, that she may prepare a corps of teachers 
from among the Christian women to carry on the work 
in out-stations and in various parts of the great cities occu- 
pied by our 'seven churches in Asia.' What Miss Howe 
has done for Japan needs doing for China. May God 
raise up another woman full of love for children, no mat- 
ter what the environment, and with the courage of her con- 
victions! There was never a country which so needed as 
China the opportunity for individual development of the 
thinking and inventive powers. Her scholars have for cen- 
turies been run into the same narrow mold, by the system 
of memorizing now in use. For three years the patient 
pupil learns by rote, with no word of explanation, the vari- 
ous books of the curriculum, after which he leaves the cut- 
and-dried comments upon these books. And this is called 
education, — a process which maybe draws out patience and 
a sort of memory, but little besides. What wonder that 
there is little investigating, so little reasoning, even about 
the Gospel when practiced in its simplicity! An intelli- 


gent question — how welcome it would be to the faithful 
preacher, as he stands day after day in the street chapel! 
But there is no task more difficult to the unaccustomed 
mind than to discriminate between truth and error, to 
swing aloof from tradition and usage and look at the merits 
of a new ethical question or system. With weary pains 
and earnest prayers the evangelist gathers the company of 
believ^ers. Let tis take the childre?is hearts at a time when 
it is easy to believe, and by love, gentleness, and faith in 
them lead them by the hand into the green pastures in- 
tended for them." 

[The above appeal is so earnest that the Kindergarten College gladly 
offers a year's tuition and every possible added help in the way of prep- 
aration to any young woman who is willing to consecrate herself to 
this much-needed work, and whose church denomination or friends will 
agree to send to the field. Any communication on the subject may be 
addressed to Chicago Kindergarten College, lo Van Buren St., Chicago. 
— EHzabefh Harrison . ] 


1. Out from Gloud Land, one cold day. 
Some feathery snowflakes floated away; 
Sailed through the air in joyous mood. 
Hoping to do the brown earth some good. 

2. North Wind met them on their track. 
Tried to drive little snowflakes back; 
On they fluttered, calling in glee, 
"Old Mr. North Wind can't catch me!" 

3. Little Jack Frost had been playing around, 
Nipping all the flowers he found, 

When down to the earth came the flakes so gay, 
Looking about for a place to stay. 

4. "Here is the spot!" cried the bright little elves; 
"We'll help the flowers a bit, ourselves." 

So over the flower roots, long before night. 
They spread a thick blanket, fair and white. 

— S.J. Mulford, St. Pmd. 



( Wtriiten for the "Kindergarten Magazine.^'') 



It was Christmas, eve, and the ground was covered with a 
mantle of snow which sparkled and glistened in the moon- 
light. The branches of the trees snapped and crackled 
under the weight of snow, for the feathery flakes were fall- 
ing thick and fast. Riding on these flakes of snow were 

Gq^It-ti s ^n 

some little goblins, who had been invited to attend a grand 
snowball party to be held in the woods; and no wonder the 
branches snapped and crackled, as the goblins crowded on 
to those slender twigs and pelted the goblins below with 
miniature snowballs! These mischievous goblins did not 
only pelt the goblins, but also the Earth folk who were pass- 
ing on their way to the village beyond the woods. One old 
lady received a snowball right on the top of a fine new 
bonnet; and when she opened her umbrella to keep the 
snow off, the goblins clambered on top, until it became so 
heavy that the poor old lady could scarcely hold it, and 
she had to close it up. "Dear me!" she thought, "this is a 



terrible snowstorm; I must hurry home before it becomes 
worse." And all the way home those naughty goblins 
pelted her, till she was covered all over with snowflakes, 
and looked like a veritable Santa Claus. Soon, however, 
they tired of this, and one who seemed a leader for the rest, 

"Goblins, this is Christmas eve; and where shall we 
spend Christmas day?" 

Just then, one little goblin who was inclined to be 
dreamy, glanced up at the Moon, which was beaming 

"Let us go to the Moon," he said, as if going to the 

or the. Ploon 

Moon was an everyday occurrence; and in truth it must 
have been, for in the twinkling of an eye all those goblins 
mounted on a moonbeam and went up to the Moon. What 
fun they had up there, as they scampered in and out of the 
round holes they found on the Moon, clambering up and 
down the walls leading to those holes, and playing hide 
and seek in the shadows. The shadows on the Moon are as 
dark as night, so that it was not easy for the goblins to 
find each other. Some of the holes, or "craters" as they 
are called, were joined together like a string of beads, and 
the goblins amused themselves by jumping from one crater 
to another. 

As the Moon is so much smaller than the Earth, every- 


thing weighs six times less. Therefore the goblins were as 
light as feathers on the Moon, and instead of walking they 
could scarcely keep themselves down. Their feet seemed 
to have wings on them, for they were no sooner down than 
they were up. Jumping was a very easy matter, and the 
goblins found that they could jump across from one crater 
to another, though some were half a mile apart. As 
for jumping over the craters, that was the easiest thing in 
the world; and the goblins even scrambled up to the top of 
some of the highest mountains; for there are mountains in 

A cxafpT o-n t^e Moorx. Called Kepler 

the Moon, as you will see in the map. They thought it 
would be very great fun to play at ball with the rocks they 
found at the foot of the mountains. Imagine how sur- 
prised they were when they found that they could throw 
these rocks six times further than on Earth. This was 
nearly the destruction of one of the goblins, for a rock was 
thrown at him from the top of a crater, and had that goblin 
been a foot nearer, he would have been utterly demolished. 
You see these rocks weigh six times less on the Moon, and 
therefore go much further; but the goblin had forgotten 
this, though fortunately he missed his mark. 

What a good time Santa Claus would have had on the 
Moon! for he could have carried enough presents for all 


the little girls and boys he knew, if he had been living up 
there; but as it is, he has to drive through the air in a snow 
chariot piled up with good things, and when he finds the 
houses where good little boys and girls live, he drops his 
gifts down the chimney, or gets the Wind to blow open the 
front door, whilst he leaves them in the front hall. 

After the goblins tired of jumping over craters, and 
scrambling up mountains, and throwing rocks at each other, 
they started on a trip to find the "Man in the Moon"; but 
he was not to be found anywhere. The goblins climbed up 
the Apennines and scrambled down the side of a crater 
called Copernicus; they peeped into crater Tycho, and even 
ventured into the Ocean of Storms; but finally they reached 
the Sea of Cold, where they made a wonderful discovery. 
Right in the middle of a crater they found a frozen image 
of the "Man in the Moon," and beside him was a board, on 
which the following lines were written: 

"This is not the "Man in the Moon," but what he would 
have become had he stayed on the Moon. He carved this 
figure out of the rocks, as a terrible warning to people who 
want to live on the Moon. He left the Moon because he 
could not find air to breathe nor water to drink. He could 
not hear, and worse than all, he could not speak. This 
would have been the death of him; and rather than live in 
such a country, he preferred to go to Mars, where he can 
be found upon inquiry at the Bureau of Information." 

When the goblins read this terrible warning, they fell 
all over themselves trying to escape from the Moon. The 
alarm was given, and in the twinkling of an eye the goblins 
were down on Earth again. On their way they met Santa 
Claus, who was returning home in his snow chariot, and he 
gladly gave them a lift, till he landed them safely at their 
home in the woods again. Mary Proctor. 

To LEARN to comprehend nature in the child, — is not 
that to comprehend one's own nature and the nature of 
mankind? The love of childhood in its widest sense, — is it 
not a love of humanity? — Fricdrich Froebel. 



The following is taken from an exhaustive article in 
which the myth of Christmas is traced through the history 
of all peoples to our present time, written by Mr. H. E. O. 
Heinemann, who is an unquestioned authority on folk lore 
as well as student of race philosophy: 

"And if the children are to be taught to love the Christ 
who himself stands as a personification of principle, what 
better method is there to reach their hearts than to tell 
them of some representative of the Redeemer, whose mis- 
sion is to make happy all who are good or try to be so; to 
carry out the promise of love to all mankind, and the weak 
and helpless in particular? All we accomplish by talking 
to children about abstract principle is to rob them of the 
poetry of childhood. We neglect the most important part 
of education, the education of the feelings, by neglecting 
to furnish objects on which to exercise the feelings. And 
when such children grow up, their hearts will be barren, 
their minds closed to all that is good and great; they will 
be dissatisfied with everything around them and with them- 
selves. For as their hearts are sterile, so they look upon 
all around them as equally desert. It is idle to talk about 
the dangers of filling the minds of children with supersti- 
tion. With the proper development of the understanding 
the symbols will disappear, but the good effect they have 
had will remain through life. Poetry is the life of the 
child, fancy is its kingdom. Rob the child of these and 
you kill its heart. No matter what a giant it may become 
in intellect, the motive power for that intellect, that would 
propel it in the direction of that which is good and great 
and beautiful, will be wanting. For however we may flatter 
ourselves that we are entirely governed by our understand- 
ing, — if it is flattering to think we have developed one part 
of our nature at the expense of the rest, — it still remains 
true that every thought is begotten by our feelings, that no 
thought leaves our brains but what is dictated by our 
heart. Hence the immeasurable importance of the educa- 
tion of the feelings. The feelings cannot be educated by 

Vol. 6-21 


dry precept, but only by exercising them upon objects ex- 
ternal to ourselves; and it is the duty of the educator to 
furnish proper objects to the child so as to arouse and cul- 
tivate the proper emotions. 

"Therefore, leave to the children the myth of Santa 
Claus. He is to them the representative of the Eternal 
Good, by whatever name the different creeds may call it. 
It is to the source of all that is good, that the child extends 
its thanks for the happiness bestowed at Christmas. And 
if after years of faith in the powerful and benevolent being, 
the mind arrives at a realization of the fact that it has been 
believing in a phantom, it will appreciate that love of the 
parents, brothers, sisters, and friends, which has exerted 
itself to bring joy to the child for the sole purpose of mak- 
ing it happy, with no selfish object, no expectation of reward, 
actuated simply and purely by love, by that lofty emotion 
which is the foundation of the religion preached by Him in 
whose honor Christmas is today celebrated. And the heart 
of the child will be filled, in return, with the same lofty 
emotion that showered joy upon it before it could properly 
appreciate. The place where, in its mind, Santa Claus 
stood in all his reverend kindliness will be occupied by 
those emotions and principles of love toward God and man. 
The lesson that Christmas is designed to convey will be 
stamped forever on the characters of the men and women 
who received the lesson in their childhood, and will form 
the better part of their natures. If those who rail against 
superstition, if the fathers and mothers who are ashamed to 
speak to their children of Santa Claus because they are told 
that children must know the truth about everything and 
not be fed on poetry and myths, if they really intend, at 
Christmas time, to inculcate as firmly as possible the lesson 
of love, and not simply blind adherence to a denomination 
or a creed consisting of words that will be but half under- 
stood unless there is a responsive chord within their breasts, 
— then let them not deprive education of one of its most 
potent and beneficial helps by destroying the poetry of 
childhood and of life." 



"It is not a question of telling about Santa Claus or not 
telling about him, which troubles me in my Christmas 
plans. I know that it is my business to create the desire 
for impersonal giving. The mystery which always sur- 
rounds an impersonal act is the Christmas charm. But is 
not that a very high form of development?" 

"The little book of the 'Christ-Tales' has helped me to 
present the stories to the children in a gradual advancement 
of the thought, and to present them in such a manner that 
the children may draw their own conclusions. If we arouse 
the feeling of unbounded good-will in the children it will 
express itself in one way or another. If the children get a 
conception of a great univ^ersal good-will, they will formu- 
late that. They may call it a Santa Claus or the Christ 
Child or Kris Kringle. The mistake is when we formulate 
these things for them." 

"A mother told me this week that her little daughter 
has been taught to think of Santa Claus as a dear old man 
like her grandfather. Whenever she sees a white-bearded 
man she calls him a Santa Claus. This seems an external 
point, which should not be emphasized so much as the more 
essential thought of the giving." 

" In the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus exhibit at the Fair, the 
Christmas keeping is fully illustrated. Here the children 
take an active part in the Christmas preparation. They 
attend the man to the forest or market to secure the Christ- 
mas tree. They help place it and decorate it. They 
share the pleasure of making and giving gifts. In their 
case the good Empress Friedrich and her daughter come 
as the recipient givers and distribute gifts. After the holi- 
day pleasure is over, the tree is parted into branches for 
home decorations, and distributed among the children, 
while the central trunk is utilized in the woodworking of 
the institution." 

"In selecting materials for your Christmas work, refrain 
from tinsel effects if possible. Wherever the child's homely 


effort can furnish the ornamentation, let that be sufficient. 
Simple and truly useful articles are always to be preferred, 
since the after-valuation of them has much to do with the 
Christmas lesson of giving. There should be an appro- 
priateness in the gift to the person remembered, and con- 
versations about what to give mother, or what to make for 
John, will in many cases arouse the child's own sense of 
fitness. Let joy be put into the work, and do not hurry it 
all up the last moment to such an extent that the pleasure 
in doing is lost. In the larger kindergartens, where many 
children are being Santa Claus, the finishing of the work is 
left to the assistants. Wherever it is possible, have this 
finishing done by the children or in their presence. The 
grouping of families of Christmas workers is a happy 
thought, the same group coming together each time for the 
Christmas work." 

There is nothing more certain than that a man cannot 
know Christ and the fullness of his errand, who lives the 
life of a hermit. Moral instruction in our schools should 
fit the child for a life full of activity and of every manly 
nature. He cannot hope to escape from the evil that is in 
the world. The tares grow with the wheat; the perishable 
flourishes side by side with the imperishable. Only by 
painstaking, persistent culture of the conscience can the 
child be led to distinguish between that which at the last 
shall be gathered for the burning, and that which shall be 
garnered to fill the storehouse of infinite existence. Our 
duty is with today. I believe it consists very largely in 
solving the problem of putting the best teacher possible 
into the little schoolhouses on the prairie, by the cross- 
roads, among the mountains, and in the village; for there 
in the district school is to be determined the destiny of the 
American nation. — Henry Sabin. 





The right care of the baby is the "science of sciences 
and the art of arts," which is Aristotle's definition of phi- 
losophy. In this study of the baby we will treat him as an 
infant philosopher in whose unconscious mind philosophy 
is to be nurtured and the science of the soul given practical 
demonstration in the human life. So the care of the young 
babe seems to us to be of the utmost importance, as his fu- 
ture power for good depends in no small degree upon the 
wisdom of his parents in caring for him during the first 
seven years of his human life. It is the period when the 
psychological atmosphere is formed around the child, and 
the harmonious unfoldment of his whole earth life promoted 
or retarded. 

Of the prenatal conditions it is not in the province of this 
journal to speak. This only can we say: when taking up 
the sacred mission of parenthood the man and the woman 
should seek to unite the wisdom of the ages with the desires 
of the heart, the well-being of the child constituting the 
primal motive, that the young philosopher may come as an 
invited guest and receive joyous welcome, wholesome com- 
forts, and peaceful surroundings. We know of no better 
preparatory reading than some of the so-called apocryphal 
books of the New Testament, which tell the story of the 
simple, holy lives of the parents of the Virgin Mother. She 
was conceived without sin; that is, the lusts of the flesh had 
no part in her conception. It is from these uncanonical 
writings that the Roman church promulgated the doctrine 
of the Immaculate Conception, which refers entirely to the 
conditions under which the Virgin herself was conceived. 
It was not a iniraailotis conception, but an immaculate one. 
The great artist, Giotto, has made this the subject of one of 


his immortal frescoes on one of the walls of the cloister of 
the Church of Santa Maria Novella, in Florence. The an- 
gels of heaven are represented as rejoicing that a man and 
a woman are found united in marriage who have consciously 
determined to conceive a child after the desire of the Spirit 
only, the unimpassioned flesh being the media through 
which Spirit can manifest itself in absolute purity. Hence 
the immaculate conception of the Virgin, and through her 
the miraculous conception of the Christ.* 

The young philosopher having arrived and caught his 
breath, wrap him in old, soft white flannel, and lay him 
aside for two or three hours, or until deep breathing is thor- 
oughly established; then gently oil him all over with olive 
oil, and tenderly wash him with a pure vegetable soap, in 
soft water, at a temperature near his own, and dry him with 
old soft linen. 

The babe's clothing is very important, and should be 
selected with the idea of his perfect comfort. The simpler 
the clothing the prettier it is for the young child, for the 
soul hovers closely about a babe, and beautifies it as no tri- 
umph of the dressmaker's art can. In fact, ruffles, laces, 
and embroideries cover up or cloud over the innate, inborn 
beauty of the child. 

Carefully adjust a band of old, soft linen around the ab- 
domen, which can be the band of the "pinning blanket" as 
well. Always have at hand an old, soft piece of white wool 
stuff to wrap the babe in, and undress, wash, and dress 
it with this loosely wrapped about it, that the surface 
temperature may be kept as even as possible and always 

Over the pinning blanket there is need of only two gar- 
ments, — two gowns simply made, with long sleeves, one 
yard in length. One of these gowns should be of French 
mull, the other of soft white wash-flannel; and for conven- 
ience to both nurse and child, fit the mull gown inside the 

*This is a favorite subject of thegreatest of the old masters, who have immortalized 
their names by painting the mother of the Virgin Mary, Anna, surrounded by angelic 
children, who rejoice that one of their number can tind, through her, a pure avenue to 
human life. 


flannel one, the two wrong sides coming together, that only 
a smooth surface may come against the babe's skin. Seams 
and wrinkles are not conducive to the comfort of the new- 
born. Until the babe is two months old it needs only these 
four garments on at one time, besides the diaper and socks, 
and an old soft shawl to wrap it in. 

As soon as our young philosopher is washed and dressed 
he will need to be fed; and it is to be hoped that his own 
natural food is in readiness for him. He should be kept 
near the mother day and night, that she may nurture him 
with her soul's magnetism, which can best manifest itself 
through this physical contact in the early years of the 
child's life. 

While the babe should be near the mother he should 
not be meddled with, not even looked at, beyond the abso- 
lute necessities of his helpless state. He has been invited 
into the household, and should be treated with the consid- 
erate respect that is due a distinguished guest. We do not 
pry open the eyelids of a guest to see the color of the eyes, 
nor pinch his nose to change the shape of it, nor pull his 
cheeks, nor chuck his chin; then why, oh, why, mother, do 
you permit these indignities to be practiced upon your 
helpless babe? He should be treated from the very first as 
if he were a Plato, his person and his individuality re- 
spected to the uttermost. If you do not respect him, and 
do not insist that others do the same, be not surprised if he 
does not respect himself nor you later in life. 

The psychological atmosphere that is being formed 
about the young child assists or retards the harmonious 
unfoldment of the will; therefore it is very necessary that 
one strong mind should prevail in the home, and intelli- 
gently brood over the souls of the children of the family. 
This mind should be the mother's, whose soul sphere is 
provided with everything needful — if she is a true spiritual 
mother, as was Anna to Mary, and Mary to Jesus — for the 
babe's physical and mental nourishment; and in this spirit- 
ual atmosphere the child will "grow and wax strong" 
month by month, year by year. 


If the psychological conditions are harmonious, the 
babe will be quiet and sleep twenty hours out of the 
twenty-four, the first six weeks of its life. It will cry a 
little, an instinctive method of exercising the diaphragm, 
expanding the lungs, and strengthening the action of the 
heart; but the difference between this instinctive cry and 
one of pain or unrest will soon become apparent to the 

The babe should not realize that it is in our bustling 
world before it is six months old; therefore it should not 
be kissed, nor squeezed, nor tossed in play, but should be 
allowed to coo and kick and grow in peace, the wise 
mother brooding over it almost silently, guarding it with a 
divinely inspired love, sternly holding in abeyance all fool- 
ish emotions. The reasons for all this are that the child's 
physical health may become firmly established; so the 
nervous equilibrium must be maintained that he may 
peacefully grow into his new surroundings; thus he be- 
comes self-centered, later on will become self-acting. Also, 
because he is a divine entity, an individual soul, and as such 
is entitled to all the sacred rights of manhood. 

Treat the young child as if he were a prince of the 
house of David and you his queen mother, the custodian of 
the future ruler, — king and master of himself. — An7ia N. 


[All questions of this nature will be answered from month to month by Miss Frances 
E. Newton, whose work with Chautauqua students in the kindergarten department is 
well known. Parents are invited to send their queries by mail to the Kindergarten 

What makes children restless' on rainy, stormy days? 
In rare cases it may be due to an extremely sensitive 
nervous organization easily affected by a change 'of atmos- 
phere; but usually it is due to far more healthy and natural 
causes. All out of doors, the illimitable reaches of sky, un- 
stinted liberty to express in action or sound the joy that 
healthful normal life brings and the life that healthful joy 
brings, — these are the child's on pleasant days. His whole 


nature responds unconsciously to the length and breadth, 
the depth and height of his environment; 'tis his "natural 
way of living," and in it his very restlessness becomes rest 
at the center, because he is in harmony with the laws of his 
being. On stormy days he is "cribbed, cabined, and con- 
fined." The four walls of the house seem to imprison his 
free spirit, and if he be not led to some action which will 
give him the same i?mer sense of freedom and rest which he 
feels out of doors, he will rebel simply because he cannot 
help it; he is compelled to violate the most active princi- 
ple of his being in force at this time, by being made, tacitly 
or otherwise, to "keep quiet." This impulse to noise and 
action is God's finger pointing out his inmost needs. It is 
his mother's privilege to supply them. 

Do you believe in the topsy-turvy romps which men invariably in- 
stigate in the nursery? 

We heartily commend the nursery romps in which the 
men of a family take an active part. The only caution 
which we suggest is that the romps gradually subside into 
the quiet story or cozy talk before the children's eyes grow 
too bright or their cheeks too red with overexcitement. 
Every such good time in that "together" way is an extra 
strand in the golden cord which binds the hearts of fathers 
and children together. The influence is twofold: the fa- 
ther's manhood is loftier and purer every time he breathes 
that child-life atmosphere; and the children feel themselves 
understood, strengthened, and completed' in their father's 
love and cheer. 

What kind of "liieces" would you let children speak at school? 
We object most seriously to any public exhibitions of 
children. They are apt to give birth to a painful self-con- 
sciousness in sensitive children — in those of truly delicate, 
appreciative natures; or to over-boldness and egotism in 
those who have been led by undue praise to look upon any 
small power in their possession as a means of winning ad- 
miration and applause from others. The beautiful flower- 
like unconsciousness of self, the essence of all true courage, 


is destroyed, and cannot be brought back any more than 
the bloom of a peach that has been roughly handled. 

Nevertheless, if the present rules of the school are such 
that "pieces" must be spoken, let them be on some theme 
in which the boy or girl is vitally interested, something 
which he loves so dearly that he delights to talk about it; 
he will then more readily forget himself. 

My boy is too studious, and is only six years old. He draws and 
looks at pictures and reads all the time. He is getting round-shouldered. 
Shall we let him do it? 

May not your boy be taught in some pleasant, agreeable 
way that there is a time for everything, — a time to dress, a 
time to eat, and a time to sleep; a time to exercise, a time 
to read, and a time to study; a time to work and a time to 
play? May he not learn that in nature there is temperance 
in all things? Perhaps he could be influenced to be like 
some of his heroes who did things they did not like to do, 
for the sake of future beneficial results. If he could get 
some idea in a natur-al, logical way that his future depends 
upon his present; if you can make that future a real thing 
to him, he will be more apt to make the necessary present 
sacrifice of self in order some day to be the man he now 
thinks he would like to be. Of course his ideals will grow 
as he grows. — Frances E. Neivton. 


I wish all mothers could see something of the ivork in 
the kindergarten. Many of them go only on special occa- 
sions, when they see the children playing games and singing 
their little songs. And they go away with the idea that the 
kindergarten is a "lovely place for the children, where they 
are amused so prettily." They have little idea of the care- 
ful study a good teacher gives to each child's character, to 
the careful following out of traits to observe their motives 
and effect. 

I became interested in a little fellow whom I had the 
pleasure of observing in my almost daily visits last year to 
a kindergarten. 


I knew something of the family affairs. The father had 
died when the three children were very young, and had left 
them very poor. The mother was a woman of fine educa- 
tion, — fine rather than practical, — and moreover, had a 
voice which gave great promise. Giving lessons from morn- 
ing till night, anxious that her children should receive a 
good education, it was more than uphill work for her. In 
that house jokes were unknown, frolics unheard of. 

A wealthy relative sent the little boy to the kindergar- 
ten for a year. He was a very industrious little fellow, but 
so unimaginative a child I had never seen; and as for a 
joke, he seemed to have no sense of humor whatever, at 
first. But you may be sure it did not take very long in that 
flock of bright, sunshiny chicks to develop in him a decided 
sense of fun and the keenest appreciation of anything in 
the way of a joke. 

The days spent in the kindergarten were for him very 
bright spots in a life which, I am sure, was rather dull at 
home. And he changed so from a grim, sober little chap, 
into such a lively, happy child, that I had more faith than 
ever in kindergarten training. 

It does not take long for a good teacher to discover 
laziness or the lack of a bump of order. One day I was 
watching a tableful of little folk who were doing some 
rather difficult work with the blocks. As I watched them I 
noticed how attentive some of them were to the teacher 
when she was giving the directions. There were two chil- 
dren who did not listen, but who watched to see what the 
others did with their blocks, and then copied. The teacher, 
whose eyes were watchful of every pair of little hands, soon 
told them they must work for themselves and listen to her; 
and then I saw that it was not because they did not know 
how, but because it was easier to do the other way. In this 
way children are taught not only to work, but to work zvell, 
and to think for themselves. A friend of mine always de- 
clares that her distaste for mathematics came from the care- 
less manner in which she was taught the multiplication 
table, or rather, only half taught it. 


Mother love blinds many to the faults of their children. 
Often, could they talk frankly with the kindergartner about 
the children, they would find much to help them in the 
home training. All mothers wish to make their children 
good, to build a good foundation for the work in after life; 
but a mother's life is generally so full of cares and perplexi- 
ties that she often fails to see the good qualities as well as 
the ones not so good in her child's character. There are 
many mothers who are nearly always overwearied, and so 
tired from the care of babies all day and babies all night, 
and the flood of family sewing, that it is all they can do to 
take care of the little bodies and trust to God for the rest. 
And to these the kindergarten is the greatest blessing, for 
the kindergartner goes to her little circle fresh from a good 
night's rest, ready to develop all that is good in her little 
flock. So, in a way, the mother receives training from the 
kindergartner as well as the children. — Nellie Nelson Ams- 


It has so often been urged, of late, that we harm our 
children by cultivating their faith in a saint who does not 
exist, and then leaving them disappointed, and doubtful of 
our veracity, when they discover that there is no Santa 
Claus, — that it has grown to be quite a vital question. 
What and how much shall we tell our little ones in regard 
to the giver of their Christmas surprises and pleasures? 

That there should be surprises, mysteries, and secrecy, 
is indispensable to a right enjoyment of this feature of 
Christmas keeping. Even we grown people are anxious 
that our gifts should have the charm of fulfilling a wish 
which the one who receives them was never conscious of 
having expressed. Children take twice as much pleasure in 
trifles that come to them unexpectedly, as in greater things 
they have felt sure of getting. 

We also — all of us — feel like giving the mystery, the 
delightful spirit of the season, a name. It is not that we 
forget Him whose nativity we are celebrating. It is rather 


a feeling, born of the blessed time, of wishing to put away 
ourselves as much as possible. We should like to smuggle 
in our gifts without appearing on the scene at all, and to 
turn off any thanks with — "Oh, it was Santa Claus who 
brought it!" It is this in a great degree that makes the 
saint precious to us, long after we have learned that he is 
not a real person. 

But when our little tots of three or four come to us and 
say, "Where do the presents come from?" what is it best 
to tell them? Suppose we tell them the plain and un- 
adorned truth, — that the presents come from father, mother, 
brothers, or sisters? Then will follow at once the question, 
"Where did they get them from?" Now unless we can 
evade this, and "deceive" them again, it will break up one 
of our oldest traditions, — viz., that children should be kept 
as long as possible in happy ignorance that "pennies" 
serve any useful purpose besides spinning round and round 
on the table, and falling with a pleasant jingle. It seems to 
me we should be particularly loath to let any thought of 
money mingle with their Christmas thoughts. Of course 
this is a matter of feeling, possibly of sentimental feeling. 
I know I should consider it sacrilege even now to criticise 
my Christmas gifts, or speculate on what they cost, while 
many people think it perfectly natural and allowable. 

Different legends have solved or increased the problem 
in different ways. The people in some parts of Germany 
tell their little ones that the Christ child returns to earth 
and brings the Christmas tree and presents to good chil- 
dren. With them it is an indispensable part of the celebra- 
tion to have a manger, with a figure representing the Christ 
child, under the tree. 

This would seem at first sight to be the best way of pre- 
senting the matter to our children. It would then be merely 
enlarging the idea, when they learned, as they grew older, 
that every good thing comes from God. But perhaps the 
people who keep most staunchly to this custom, are them- 
selves responsible if we shrink from it. They speak of 
and apostrophize the Deity with a familiarity and an ac- 


cumulation of endearing diminutives that seem to us shock- 
ingly irreverent, and make us tremble lest we should lead 
our little ones to picture the Savior as a wooden doll who 
comes to life once a year and brings a Christmas tree and 
presents to good children. 

A little one of three or four or five years cannot realize 
anything except what he sees. When he says his little 
prayer at bedtime, he understands only that it is some won- 
derfully sweet verse which it is a privilege to repeat at 
mother's knee. It affects him as solemn music does, with- 
out his knowing why. His religion must consist in loving 
and being kind to father, mother, and friends. His idea of 
divine love must grow out of his faith in his parents' love. 
You can no more teach a child to be pious before you teach 
him to be good, than you can set him on his legs and 
expect him to walk, before he is strong enough to sit up. 
The result will be disastrous in either case. In the former, 
he will in all probability be a hypocrite; in the latter, he is 
likely never to walk at all. 

Why should he not for a time believe as heartily in 
Santa Claus as he does in the characters of his fairy tales? 
Has any boy or girl ever accused us of deception, when he 
or she became old enough to know that there are no 
fairies? Did they love the fairies any the less? 

Long after they are old enough to understand hard 
facts, they prefer to take them tucked away in a fable or 
an allegory. No one ever dreamed of calling ^sop a liar, 
and no one would ever have dreamed of reading him if he 
had not stated self-evident truths in a new and attractive 
way. We none of us think less highly of "Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress" because we know that "Christian" was not one par- 
ticular man, but merely a type of Christians in general. 

Our Lord himself taught in parables. Are not his 
teachings the more forcible? Many and unreasonable as 
the criticisms on the Bible are, has anyone ever exclaimed 
"How can I have faith when this Man has deceived me? 
history gives no record of any king's sending his servants 
out into the highway to bid guests to his table"? 


I said before that Santa Claus ought to be considered a 
personification of the spirit of Christmas. In this way we 
need never lose our faith in him, for he will never lose his 
power. And instead of depriving our children of the 
pretty fancy, I think we should let them keep it as long as 
they can. They will hardly become skeptical on the sub- 
ject until they go to school. At any rate, a mother will 
soon detect it, if the busy little brain begins to wonder if 
"Santa Claus isn't Papa." If the child in question is as 
ardent an admirer of his father as most children are, this 
will be a pleasant surprise rather than the reverse, a new 
* dignity added to "Papa's" many perfections. A few words 
from his mother will be sure to dispel any disappointment. 

And then will come the promise, "Now that you are 
such a great boy as to have found out who Santa Claus is, 
you shall help trim the tree this year!" Oh, the delight, to 
a child, of seeing it all done for the first time! the tree 
made fast, the pretty globes, candy boxes, and other orna- 
ments, all to be supplied with strings or wire; apples and 
nuts to be covered with gold and silver foil (to make it 
complete, there must be the "initiation," — i. e., a bit of gold 
foil clapped. onto the little novice's nose); then hanging 
all these beautiful things on the tree! Surely, in the new 
helper's opinion, no tree ever looked quite as nice as this 
one! And he must hang these gorgeous birds low down, so 
that little sister can see them. That last sentence ex- 
presses it all. The true spirit of Santa Claus has entered 
into the boy. His delight in Christmas is greater than it 
ever was before, and the thought that perhaps he, even he, 
can add to the perfection of what he considers the most 
perfect festival in all the year, has crowded out any latent 
feeling of being ill used because there is no Santa Claus, 
and put something sweet and pure and good in its place. 

And so, till we can replace the dear old saint by a 
better one, let us be true to him, and devote the coming 
year to instilling into our children the true belief in him and 
his good works. — Ida S. Harrhijrto7i, Hamilton, N. Y. 



I have been thinking of something of late that has given 
a great deal of pleasure to children in the past, and which 
may be of use to some mother who has restless little ones 
to be amused during the stormy, wintry days. 

There is almost always to be found standing by some 
window of the house a tree whose bud-tipped branches are 
near enough the glass to be watched by the keen-eyed boys 
and girls. This tree may be a source of profit as well as. 
entertainment, if the mother wishes. 

By November the buds will have donned their winter 
overcoats, and the little folks will enjoy studying the fall * 
fashions from the window. Each child may choose a par- 
ticular branch for his or her "very own," and learn from it, 
day by day, many lessons. The buds may be imagined to 
have this motto: "Face to the sun, no matter what comes;" 
and the brave little fellows will excite both pity and admi- 
ration as the rough winds toss them about. 

Then their characteristics may be noted and commented 
upon, and the special providence by which they are kept 
alive cannot fail to impress the childish minds. A very 
large or conspicuous bud may be considered a special hero, 
and given a name, and there may be many a story woven 
about it, as it sways about or taps on the window pane. 

By February, a branch may be broken off and brought 
into the house. Being put into a large jar or pitcher which 
is kept filled with water in a sunny window, the children 
will watch eagerly as the buds unfold, sometimes into leaf- 
buds, and again into fairylike blossoms. — M. H. J. 

The child mind is an epoch-maker. When adults look 
back upon childhood they note what happened on this or 
that occasion, and chronicle the stages of growth by some 
special experience. Why not make a Christmas eve a 
"special epoch" by the reading of some wonder-stirring 
tale or historical sketch of grandfather's day? Every 
Christmas brings new gift books. Select the choicest for 
consecutive reading during the holy week, when the family 


is gathered together. The general good-will and cheer x)t 
the gathering will be blended with the reading, until ail 
together make an eternal impression, ^an epoch. Hans 
Christian Andersen's story, "The Last Dream of the Old 
Oak," would blend in with the waning fire of the Christmas 
log, and create a mood never to be forgotten. — A. H. 


Baby and I have wandered 

Out 'ncath the dreamland tree; 

Baby its fruit has gathered. 
And some has fallen on me. 

By-low, my baby; 

The tall slumber tree 
Is spreading its branches wide, 

O'er you and o'er me, 
And two little dreams 

That live up so high 
Are flying down gently. 

To rest in each e}'e. 

By-low! oh, softly 

Your dear head droops low; 
By-low! oh, softly 

To Dreamland we'll go. 
By-low! now softly 

You fold dimpled hand; 
Baby the gate has reached 

Of Slumber Land. 

— E. Addic Heath. 

" Long before the majority of mothers are conscious of 
the fact, the child's ideas of life, of right, of duty, of pleas- 
ure, of usefulness, are receiving a bent which all the educa- 
tion of schools and colleges cannot uproot." — Emerson. 


. Reverently. 

y '•• J ^ J- j'l J ^ w J I J jj ^ w^^ I r r "1- p 

Once with -in a low-ly sta-ble ,Wherethe sheep and ox -en lay, A 
God sent us this lov-ing ba-by, From his home in heavn a-bove, 

lov - ing moth-er laid her ba -by, In a -nan-ger fill'd with hay. 
He came down to show all peo-ple, How to help and how to love. 

Ma - ry was the Moth-er there, And the Christ that ba -by fair. 
This is why the an- gels bright, Sang for joy that Christmas nigit. 







"What is Education?" was the question which Miss EHzabeth Harri- 
son answered in her opening lecture to the Mothers' Class of the Kin- 
dergarten College, which began its five months,- course of study Novem- 
ber 8. She looked into the systems of the Orient, of Egypt, of the 
Hebrews, of the Greeks and the Romans, -rnd found in each something 
good, but in none the idea of the perfect uriioldment of the whole nature 
of man. In China, India, and Egypt a few individuals were highly edu- 
cated, the masses being entirely neglected. Moses was a perfect giant, 
and he was trained by the Egyptian priesthood; but his influence was 
for the good of all, so the Hebrews stand almost alone among ancient 
nations in calling the masses to righteousness and peace, and to the 
thought of one God. The Gre:5ks had an ethical system, as is portrayed 
by Homer, and the Athenians would not allow a man to take out papers 
of citizenship until he had reg'stered a vow that he would leave his 
country better than he found it; and in Athens we first find the peda- 
gogue. She recommended all mothers to study Plato's Republic. The 
Spartans trained the women physically, that they might give birth to 
strong sons. Rome was the first nation to leave the child entirely to the 
mother until six or seven years old; but their mistake was in making the 
whole of education utilitarian. Cicero was the first Roman who taught 
that the soul came from God and could never be destroyed. Seneca 
taught that man was a spirit born into time, but for eternity. The great 
teacher was Jesus Christ, and from him and all the past Friedrich Froe- 
bel gathered his ideas and organized them into a system which included 
the whole nature of man; and he treats the little child as a spiritual be- 
ing, from God and for God. Froebel stands as the greatest educator, 
for he saw all life in its totality, and all children as possessing divine 
possibilities. The kindergarten school is but one step in the education 
of the child. The soul is the thing to begin with in its individual, racial, 
and divine development. This lecture was followed by a practical talk 
on the gifts, and a detailed explanation of the First Gift. Miss Harrison 
has introduced the Socratic method of questioning into her mothers' 
classes in order that the mothers may themselves discover the psycho- 
logical laws upon which the play and work of the kindergarten are 
based, that they may become independent students of their own chil- 
dren's mental and spiritual growth, and may meet new emergencies 
with new devices based upon principle. The illustrations given may be 
good ones of the principle involved, but may not at all suit the new case 
in hand. The primal motive of the mothers' class work is that each 
student mother may become a center of kindergarten thought in her 


home and in her neighborhood, able to deal successfully with each phase 
of the child's unfoldment and the obstacles that arise from day to day. 
To develop individuality and originality in the individual is the high 
aim of this phase of the mothers' class work in the Kindergarten Col- 
lege, where a three years' course has now become established. — A. A\ K. 

A CIRCULAR from San Jose, Cal., announces a class for women, in a 
new study, — namely, that of child culture. We (piote from the an- 

" This is an age of study. Women's clubs and classes multiply on 
every hand: classes in literature, art, history, science; clubs for scien- 
tific study of music, physical culture, chemistry of cooking, political 
economy, scientific charity. One has scarcely a friend or an acquaint- 
ance who is not a member of an interesting class composed of bright, 
studious women. It is the aim of this little leaflet to call the attention 
of such women to a new study for this year, — the study of child culture. 
'The study of child culture!' exclaim some of our friends; 'we have no 
children to cultivate, and we have no vocation for tea.ching; this study 
lies out of our domain.' To this it might be replied, that we are inter- 
ested in the popular lectures of specialists, though we do not intend to 
become specialists ourselves. We listen to lectures on art, history, and 
literature, not that we may become artists, historians, or poets, but that 
we may understand the works of those who are. We may have no wish 
to spend our lives shut up with microscope and specimens in the study 
of biology, yet we may be eager to hear talks from those who go deeply 
into these matters. Our lives are enriched by each great thinker and 
worker, in so far as we exert ourselves to enter into his life, to think his 
thoughts after him. We were all children once; each has lived through 
this experience, so that those who study children, and seek to under- 
stand them, often find that they are learning to understand themselves. 
A child, an immortal being, is certainly as legitimate an object of 
respectful study as a starfish, or a microbe, or a plant. He is as im- 
portant as a freshly exhumed hieroglyphic stone, or a bone of an extinct 
species, and is not he, 'the living poem,' worthy of as careful and con- 
centrated thought as the masterpieces of literature or the languages of 
foreign countries? Not that we decry research, observation, and study 
in all these fields. Not at all. We simply wish to express, first, that 
the scientific study of children is of deep importance; second, that its 
importance is not confined to teachers and mothers; it should claim a 
portion of the time of every woman of culture; third, it is an interesting 
study, and not dry and heavy, as some suppose." Mrs. Morehouse 
Lawrence is conductor of these classes. 

" Flowers and the Children," was the topic of a paper prepared by 
Mrs. A. F. Hofer, of Salem, Ore., and read before the floricultural 
society of that place. The following paragraph will illustrate the argu- 
ment of the paper: 


" But more important than all this is that the child learn early in 
life the perfections of nature and the beauty of its works. Do the man- 
made names and botanical appendages make the lily more pure or the 
violet more sweet? Let us rather keep the children free from these 
bugbears and allow them to imbibe unconsciously the higher lessons 
taught by the blossoms so pure and simple. Show the child that a 
flower never bloomed that was not perfect in form and harmonious in 
color. They can be taught at one time the commercial and aesthetic 
value of flowers. Let the children have seeds and plants of their own, 
no matter how small the garden plat, that their thoughts may work with 
nature and thus become as chaste and pure as her blossoms. Teach 
them the wonderfulness of the Creator through contact with his richest 
gifts. Let them learn that only by the aid of his light and power is it 
possible for us to have these beautiful surroundings to inspire us to 
nobler and higher impulses. We all remember with joy the happiness 
of our childhood days, and of gathering the flowers of the field. We 
knew to a day when the wild crocus would bloom, and the lapse of time 
between the appearance of the anemone and that of the violet. We 
needed no guide to direct us to the mossy beds and shady nooks to 
witness the uncurling of the delicate fern. From the opening of the 
first spring bud to the gathering of the harvest of nuts and mottled 
autumn leaves, can you recall a day spent in the fields and forests that 
was not one of purity and peace? The recent observation of Arbor 
Day by the children of our public schools, only leads to the higher 
suggestion of cultivating flowers about the school buildings. This can 
be most successfully done, both indoors and out, with good effect, not 
only from the acquirement of knowledge by the children, but by the 
higher moral discipline involved. As the larger portion of the school 
year is during the winter months, the greater attention in this work 
should be applied to plants that can be successfully grown inside, as 
they can be made a great source of pleasure the year round." 

The members of the Froebel Society of St. Louis, at the meeting held 
October 28, had the pleasure of welcoming and listening to Miss Amalie 
Hofer, of Chicago, who addressed them on the subject of "Right Rela- 
tionships." " Every man should find his premise," was the opening 
pregnant sentence of the speaker; and the thought which seemed to be 
the underlying meaning of these words and permeate every part of the 
theme, pointed the necessity that each individual is under to find within 
himself l\\?i\. power of heart and mind which shall make him a force for 
good in the world, and then to exert it. This adjustment secures "right 
relationships." To women, to whom the spiritual education of the race 
seems specially intrusted, the message comes with particular emphasis. 
"What is civilization?" asks Emerson. "The power of good women in 
the world." If we could all feel the force and responsibility of that 
answer! — Secy Froebel Society. 


There are persons who are natural teachers. There are more who 
absorb the professional spirit easily from only the slightest contact with 
those who possess it. But these are unfortunately few in comparison 
with the whole mass. The overwhelming number need a comprehen- 
sive and intelligently laid out course of instruction, and constant inter- 
course with trained teachers and with other students in a professional 
atmosphere. Experience, home reading, institutes, circles, and lectures, 
serve to keep teachers at the front of educational activity, but for the 
purpose of making teachers they cannot take the place of a regular 
course in a professional training school for teachers, which is such not 
only in name, but as much in fact, as the medical and law and theolog- 
ical schools are professional training schools for those established pro- 
fessions. — Hon. A. S. Draper. 

The Colorado Kindergarten Normal School, under the superintend- 
ence of Miss L. E. Spencer, resumed its work in September. There are 
twenty-four students, — ten seniors and fourteen juniors. These young 
ladies have the privilege of practicing in the Wilfored, the Arthur, and 
the South Denver kindergartens, which are now a part of the public 
school system. Many of the graduates of last year are successful kin- 
dergartners in Colorado and other states. Mothers' meetings are held 
in different parts of the city. A club has been organized for primary 
teachers and kindergartners wishing to pursue their studies. An associ- 
ation has been lately formed in Cheyenne, for the support of a kinder- 
garten, of which Miss Richard, a graduate of the class of '93, is director. 
There is a good prospect for a pleasant and successful year's work. 

The Chicago Kindergarten Club has issued its prospectus, which 
includes an annual report, the matters of organization, list of members, 
also a directory of the kindergartens of the city. The first regular meet- 
ing of the club was called to order by the president, Miss Frances New- 
ton, Saturday, November 4, with a good attendance. The series of lec- 
tures brought before the club by Professor F. Starr, of, the University of 
Chicago, promises great practical profit to the members. Special course 
ticket or single tickets may be secured by others than regular members. 
The social features of the club will be largely extended during the com- 
ing year, and the enthusiasm of old and new members promises a profit- 
able winter's work. The club meets at Lincoln Hall, 66 and 70 Adams 

A PRIVATE kindergarten, though small, exerts an influence as im- 
portant as that of the largest free school. If young kindergartners will 
learn the lesson of patience, and instead of changing their tield of work 
so often, hold fast to one location, greater benefit would come to them as 
well as to the community. We congratulate every private kindergart- 
ner who can show a record of three or more years at the same post. 
Miss Axtell of Pittsfield, Mass., announces her third year, with enlarged 


capacity and assistants. Also the Misses Johnson and Alcott announce 
the fourth year of their kindergarten at Port Chester, N. Y. Miss Alice 
Butchart has opened her fourth year at Duluth, Minn. 

The regular monthly meeting of the California Froebel Society was 
held at 64 Silver St., Friday, November 3, 1893. Miss A. Pelham was 
chosen to fill the chair, and the meeting was called to order. The mem- 
bers of the society were then formally notified of Mrs. Dohrmann's be- 
reavement, in the recent death of her husband, and a committee was 
appointed to frame resolutions of condolence. A motion to adjourn, out 
of respect to and sympathy with Mrs. Dohrmann, was unanimously car- 
ried. The next regular meeting will occur on Friday, December i, 1893, 
the subject under discussion to be — "Modeling and its \^alue; What 
and How Shall we Model?"— J/. L. Bullock, Rec. Sec. 

The Alumnae Association of the Chicago Kindergarten College 
began its work of supporting a free kindergarten in September of 1889, in 
the Bohemian district of the city, at Halsted and Twelfth streets. It 
has continued to carry on this work ever since. The association has 
increased its membership to about forty-five active members. One of 
its aims is to encourage a spirit of friendliness among all the students 
of the college, and several receptions are given from time to time dur- 
ing the college year, to the members of the college. — Nellie A. Lloyd, 

Miss Carrie S. Newman has recently opened the first kindergarten 
in Vancouver City, British Columbia. She writes: "Much curiosity 
seems to have been aroused, and I am anxious that the parents should 
gain a true knowledge of the system." Miss Newman's ambition is a 
worthy one. There is no excuse for mistaken impressions of the work 
or its value going out from the kindergarten itself. Every new field 
should be entered as holy ground, and every step of that entrance should 
be counted as a lesson to the " curious people," of what the true kinder- 
garten is and is not. 

Wanted. — Vols. I and II of the Kindergarten Magazine, at $3 
apiece. Anyone wishing to part with these first volumes can secure the 
prompt payment for the same. Public libraries are demanding the 
bound volumes, in order to possess the complete file of the publication. 
Let us know at once if you have such, of which to make disposal. 

Reports of clubs and societies, which are desired for publication in 
this department, should be mailed to reach the editor by the 15th of each 
month, in order that they may appear in the magazine of the follow- 
ing month. These reports are valuable to the fellow workers, and 
keep an interchanging interest in the work far and near. 

Miss Eva O. Farnsworth, of Minneapolis, has worked out a set ot 
architectural building blocks, which, if brought into the market, will 


make a transition step from the kindergarten over into the grade school. 
The creative power of the kindergartners is developed as well as that 
of their charges by this transforming method. 

Every kindergartner may become the central sun of a social plan- 
etary system, through her intelligent enthusiasm and sincere convictions 
substantiated in a good, wholesome kindergarten. It is not reserved for 
the few to be successful, but each of the least may be in proportion to 
her self-abandon to the work. 

Mrs. Edwin Sawtell addressed the Women's Educational Union 
of Brockton, Mass., on the " Moral Value of the Kindergarten." After 
the lecture questions on every phase of the subject were answered. 
This is often the best part of such an occasion, since it brings out both 
sides of the question. 

The article entitled " Shoemaker's Barefoot Children," which ap- 
pears on page 276 of this number, gives the friends of Emilie Poulsson a 
different view of her powers, both of writing and thinking. She is well 
known through her nursery rhymes. She now gives the world a sermon. 

The women of Wayne, Penn., are organizing for study and work to 
the profit of their home making and keeping. They meet regularly to 
read and discuss matters of child training. A handful of earnest women 
can create an influence in a community which is unlimited in its force. 

The Golden Gate Kindergarten Association has recorded 16,242 
children during the past fourteen years. The past year has enrolled, all 
told, 3,318. Mrs. Cooper is now preparing her fourteenth annual report, 
and says, with her native fervor, " Our work goes bravely on!" 

Portland, Me., has had the pleasure of hearing and seeing Mrs. 
Kate Douglas Wiggin. The author's reading netted to the purse of the 
free kindergarten $200, and to the audience who welcomed a fellow 
Maine woman, great pleasure and profit. 

Mrs. p. S. Knight, a graduate of the Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Association, has organized a study class among the parents of Salem, 
Ore. This work is supplementary to the regularly organized training 
class already existing in Salem. 

The paper prepared by Miss Heerwart, of Germany, on " Froebel's 
Religion," which was presented and discussed at the Kindergarten De- 
partment Congress during the past summer, will appear in pamphlet 
form during the winter. 

The female seminary at Charleston, S. C, has a well-equipped kin- 
dergarten department in charge of Miss Schleppengrell, who promises to 
be one of the leaders in the Southern work. She is also organizing a 
study club for parents. 


The November meeting of the Philadelphia Society of Froebel 
Kindergartners discussed "A Day in Kindergarten," with the apple as 
the objective point of interest in examination, story, poem, hymn, games, 
and modeling in clay. 

Is THE faculty of memory of enough importance to have three- 
fourths of all the time spent in school devoted to its development? — 
William Hawley Smith. 

Miss Amalie Hofer spent a week recently among the schools and 
kindergartens of St. Louis. A fuller report of this visit will appear in 
our next number. 

Geography, as a science, was introduced into Europe by the Moors 
about 1240. 

The Chicago school board now fathers twelve public school kinder- 

London, Ont., has eight public school kindergartens. 


The simultaneous appearance of two such books as " In the Child's 
World," and " Practical Suggestions for Kindergartners," emphasizes 
the need which teachers have long felt for a volume of practical assist- 
ance and guidance in their work with the children. They must know 
their materials or text-books, in order to take charge of a roomful of 
children. But how to apply this knowledge to the children has not al- 
ways been a matter so easily acquired. " In the Child's World," by 
Miss Emilia Poulsson, has been looked forward to many months. It 
has arrived in time for the kindergartner's Christmas stocking. And a 
welcome gift it will prove, in that it combines storybook, science, his- 
tory, morning talks, list of books for reference and study, as well as sug- 
gestions enough for many months of school days. The subject matter 
of the book is classified according to the seasons and the school year, 
supplying suitable materials for the individual kindergartner to embody 
in her program work. A thread of purpose runs through the entire col- 
lection, binding together the parts into a story of the seasons. The 
original matter by Miss Poulsson herself is full of her native touch, in- 
cluding adaptations and revisions of many familiar rhymes. In the case 
of "Lisa and the Birds" she has translated a quaint Norwegian story. 
The "Old Fashioned Rhyme " is a parody on "This is the House that 
Jack Built," and runs: 

This is the tree of the forest; 

This is the ax, whose steady blows 

Cut down the tree of the forest. 
In this happy manner is traced the entire process by which strong tree 
becomes strong house; at the same time is applied the fundamental rule 
of the kindergarten, which urges that school work lead more and more 
into processes, never merely an examination of unrelated objects. The 
stories from Miss Poulsson's own pen, many of which have never been 
published before, reveal a knowledge of child nature as well as a thor- 
ough experience in how to make the most vital impressions upon him. 
A joyous and sweet undercurrent characterizes the individual tale as 
well as the \yhole volume. This in itself is the essence of the kinder- 
garten doctrine. There is no greater or more wholesome moral to point 
than these of joyousness and sweetness. The practical suggestions at 
the head of each chapter give much general information to the kinder- 
gartner, as well as hints as to methods of talking with, not merely at the 
children. Many old familiar tales are retold, often retouched to advan- 
tage, such as " The Golden Touch," " The Honest Woodman," etc. The 
illustrations, calculated to let additional light into " The Child's World," 


will be of great interest in reading the stories with the children; they 
are simple and direct in their references to nature and man's activities. 
Every mother or teacher who has enjoyed the privilege of making her 
own scrapbook, gathering here and there the bits which have charmed 
or instructed, will appreciate the labor and the discriminating judgment 
which has been thrown into this volume of many scraps. The teacher 
who has no time for making her own collection will appreciate this book, 
which has been culled with special reference to her exigencies. The 
child who loves his "great, wide, wonderful world," will love this book 
also, which on a rainy day can still take him out into the woods, into 
other lands, often carrying father and mother with him on his journey- 

" Practical Suggestions for Kindergartners," as announced hereto- 
fore, comes published by its author, Jeannette Gregory, of St. Louis. It 
is a large volume, behind every page of which we find a sincerity and 
conviction which cannot other than secure a permanent value to the 
book. Miss Gregory is one of that group of vigilant St. Louis workers 
which has made such lasting impression upon American school life. In 
the effort to bring out a book which should reveal to teachers the psy- 
chological law of their work, and at the same time put into their hands 
the tools and methods for operating this law. Miss Gregory assumed a 
great undertaking. The fidelity to her twofold purpose has presented 
to the kindergartners a volume of infinite suggestion and worth. As the 
author states, the plan of the work here recorded is that applied to chil- 
dren of six years, such only being admitted to the kindergartens of St. 
Louis. This must be borne in mind, since it admits of and necessitates 
much more organized work than the little nursery kindergarten with 
babies of three and four years. The introductory remarks of the author 
clearly set forth the purpose and point of view of the subject matter. 
The index covers the following general departments: Talks on the 
songs of Froebel's "Mutter und Kose-Lieder "; Talks on animals, birds, 
and insects; Talks on plants and flowers; Talks on general subjects; 
Stories, including fifteen typical stories; An appendix of practical di- 
rections, such as the arranging of charts, selection of materials, room 
decorations, etc. One hundred and thirty-eight pages are devoted to a 
detailed model program, including the proper divisions of time and the 
proportionate balance of work, play, and chat. In spite of the elaborate 
detail, the unity of the plan is fully sustained, and Froebel's education 
of man is elucidated: namely, that the child should be led to know him- 
self as a part of a great organic world, through his daily dependencies 
and relationships. No special value is claimed for any one part of the 
material or work, other than as these are turned to the one purpose of 
revealing the child to himself. The individual kindergartner is ex- 
pected and urged by the author to substitute her own application of this 
principle and adjust the detail plan to fit her environment and neces- 


sity. We congratulate Miss Gregory upon her laborious but sincere 
work, and frankly believe that she agrees with us in saying that no one 
book can ever take the place of systematic training or experience. The 
price of the volume is $3, and it can be secured through the Kindergar- 
ten Literature Company. 

"Child-Stories from the Masters," by Maude Menefee. This book 
will be ready for the holidays of 1893-94. It is one of the greatest 
attempts of this age to give to the child the greatest themes of the mas- 
ters, introducing the youngest readers to the masters through the door 
of interpretation rather than fact or fiction. Some of her stories have 
appeared from time to time in our m.agazines, and have won the highest 
expressions of praise from those who are looking into the child's needs 
for pure and classic literature. We can only say for the book that it is 
bound to take its place among the permanent works of art for children. 
Price $1.50, bound in white cloth and gold, and laid paper; most 
durable and elegant. 

A NEAT pamphlet in white and gold comes bearing this title: "Pro- 
fessional Training; To What Extent is Symbolism Justifiable in the 
Kindergarten? Two addresses before the educational congress of 1893," 
by Mrs. Eudora L. Hailmann, of La Porte, Ind. These valuable papers 
will be of advantage in this form for future reference and study. The 
sincerity of Mrs. Hailmann in all her work is well known, and hence her 
statements will be read with great interest. 

" The Friendship of the Faiths," an ode by Louis James Block, ap- 
pears in pamphlet form, inscribed to the International Congress of Re- 
ligions. Published by C. H. Kerr & Co., Chicago. Mr. Block is known 
as a philosopher-poet, and this addition to his productions is cordially 
welcomed by his many friends. 

The following books are received: "The Psychology of Childhood," 
by Frederick Tracy, D. C, Heath & Co.; "Boston Collection of Kinder- 
garten Stories," published by J. L. Hammett, Boston. (Price 60 cts.) 


"Mother Goose in the Kindergarten," by Fannie S. Bolton, which 
will be ready by December i, 1893, has already a large and eager 
demand. The book will be put on heavy rope manilla paper with scar- 
let and black letters, and made in a manner most durable. The illus- 
trations are the work of the author, who gives them to show how any 
mother or teacher can express in crayon whatever jingle the children 
may love to repeat. The edition will be very small, and made espe- 
cially for this Christmas time. Price in boards, 75 cents; m cloth, $1. 
Send for it to the Kindergarten Literature Co., 1207 Woman's Temple, 

There are only about one hundred copies of Vol. I of Child-Garden 
to be had. They are now bound, and partially exhausted. We desire 
to give our readers the tirst chance at purchasing them. Price S2. 

The Christmas Catalogue of the Kindergarten Literature Co. is 
just ready. It contains portraits of the most prominent kindergarten 
writers, many of the faces never having appeared before. 

The price of Miss Poulsson's "In the Child's World" was given in 
an edition of our catalogue as §2.50. It was a mistake in our advices, 
which have since changed to §2. 

An energetic lady kindergartner in Wichita, Kan., has sent this fall 
1 12 subscribers to Child-Garden. There is nothing unprofessional in 
the work of introducing this beautiful magazine, and half the profit goes 
into the workers' hands. 

Send for a bundle of sample copies of Child-Garden, and put it into 
the hands of as many children as possible, for a Christmas gift from 
their parents. 

■Wanted. — The following back numbers of Kindergarten Maga- 
zine in exchange for any other number you want in Vols. II, III, IV, or 
V, or for books: Vol. I, Nos. 3, \, and 9; Vol. II, Nos. i, 8, and 13; Vol. 
Ill, No. 8. Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Chicago. 

Send in your orders early for bound volumes of the Child-Garden 
for 1892-3. There will be a limited number only, and the holiday trade 
is already engaging them. They are handsomely bound in silk cloth, 
and make a very attractive volume, Price $2. We will bind back 
numbers in cloth for anyone sending their files, for $1. 


Many training schools are making engagements for next year's 
special lectures through the Kindergarten Literature Co. We are in 
correspondence with many excellent kindergarten specialists in color, 
form, music, primary methods, literature, art, etc. 

Child-Garden Samples. — Send in lists of mothers with young chil- 
dren who would be glad to receive this magazine for their little ones. 
Remember some child's birthday with a gift of Child-Garden, only $i 
per year. 

Always — Send your subscription made payable to the Kindergarten 
Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111., either by money order, 
express order, postal note, or draft. (No foreign stamps received.) 

Portraits of Froebel. — Fine head of Froebel; also Washington, Lin- 
coln, and Franklin; on fine boards, 6 cents each, or ten for 50 cents. 
Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago.' 
(Size 6x8 inches.) 

All inquiries concerning training schools, supplies, literature, song 
books, lectures, trained kindergartners, etc., will be freely answered by 
the Kindergarten Literature Co. 

Back numbers from September, 1888, to date, except issues of Janu- 
ary, May, and December, 1889, May, i8go, and April, i8gi, can be had 
to complete your files; price 25 cents each. 

Send for our complete catalogue of choice kindergarten literature; 
also give us lists of teachers and mothers who wish information con- 
cernmg the best reading. 

Bound Volumes. — Vols, IV and V, handsomely bound in fine silk 
cloth, giving the full year's work in compact shape, each $3. 

A Sensational Story has attracted attention lately, but as a matter 
of fact the public has also devoted time to things substantial, judging 
by the unprecedented sales of the Gail Borden Eagle Brand Condensed 
Milk. Unequaled as a food for infants. Sold by Grocers and Druggists. 

Foreign Subscriptions. — On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada, and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents) for 
postage, save in case of South Africa, outside of the postal union, which 
amounts to 80 cents extra on the year's numbers. On Child-Garden the 
rate of postage is 25 cents per year; on foreign subscriptions and to 
South Africa, 50 cents. 

Always. — Our readers who change their addresses should imme- 
diately notify us of same and save the return of their mail to us. State 
both the new and the old location. It saves time and trouble. 

Always. — Subscriptions are stopped on expiration, the last number 
being marked, "With this number your subscription expires," and a 
return subscription blank inclosed. 

MADONNA AND CHILD, by Gabriel Max. 


Vol. VI.— JANUARY, 1894.— No. 5. 




BEFORE taking up the specific topic of this paper, 
"Early Education through Symbols," it seems fit- 
ting that we should examine somewhat into the 
general use and meaning of symbolism. When 
we have found what it is, and what its peculiar value to the 
individual, we can the more easily apply it to the little 
child; for it is a truism that that which we would teach, we 
must first know ourselves; and I suspect that there are 
some of us who have never realized the part symbolism has 
played in our own lives, and who therefore fail to recognize 
its importance in all development. Who has not discov- 
ered that on attempting to teach a little child to draw or 
sew, one had to examine into the way that oneself held the 
pencil or the needle, and so for the first time made the 
process conscious? 

In this paper, therefore, I propose fii^st to discover how 
much and what symbolism has done for us, and then to 
judge of its value to the child. 

Symbol, says that obliging lexicographer, Mr. Webster, 
who has helped so many embarrassed essayists to begin 
their papers, comes from two Greek words, — sti/i, with or 
together, and ballo, to throw; and it means "the sign or 
representation of any moral thing by the images or proper- 
ties of any natural thing;" also, "an emblem or representa- 
tion of something else;" or "a letter or character which is 


You will please notice the breadth of this definition. It 
is not perhaps all that might be desired in some respects, 
for the expression "a moral thing" is, to say the least, unen- 
lightening; but at any rate it gives us scope. The deriva- 
tion of the word is more satisfactory; a symbol is the put- 
ting together of the thing and its meaning. This is, I take 
it, the exact significance and right use of a symbol. It 
shows "the existence of an internal in an external." 

It does not leave the things of this world, things of 
sense merely, disconnected with things of the other, the 
inner world; but it shows that in the truth of sense lives the 
truth of spirit; that in and through the material lives the 
immaterial, which was in the beginning with it, and without 
which was nothing made of that which is made. 

The use of symbolism is more widespread than is per- 
haps usually recognized. Many have said that they knew 
nothing about symbols, while at the very time they were 
using them. For all language is a symbol; and not a nat- 
ural, but an arbitrary symbol, like the symbols of algebra. 
You remember Webster defined a symbol as a "letter or 
character which is significant." The letter S, that crooked 
quirligee, is an arbitrary symbol of a certain sound, which 
sound might be represented by any other kind of mark, as 
indeed it is by different peoples; for instance, the Greeks 
sometimes write it, of course, like an o with a handle to it. 
This symbol again, in combination with three others, just 
as arbitrary and unreasoning, we have accepted to mean 
the word "self," and this word again to stand for the won- 
derful, complex, incomprehensible idea of the self,— ^an 
idea written differently, yet not thought so differently, in 
every little petty divisiorl of a language under the sun. - Al- 
though the double combination of artificial and forced sym- 
bols which takes place in the writing of a language might 
justly be considered as clumsy a use of symbolism as any 
that could be devised, yet think of what infinite value it is! 
Without it we should have no further communication with 
each other than that which takes place between the un- 
taught deaf and dumb. Yet in written language, even of 


the baldness of a mathematical proposition, or the aridity, 
as of mountain peaks above the verdure line, of Hegelian 
categories, there is a double use of symbolism, and symbol- 
ism of the most forced and artificial kind. There is first 
the symbol of the letter, and then of the combination of 
letters, or word; and this, as we well know, bears no or- 
ganic relation in its resultant meaning to the meaning of its 
various parts. Thus the letters of the word "self" indicate, 
indeed, its sound; but the transition between its sound and 
its meaning is as violent, as apparently unreasonable, as 
the relation between its appearance and its sound. We 
have made speech so much the vehicle of our thought, and 
used writing so constantly to indicate speech, that it often 
requires some thinking to prove to ourselves how purely 
arbitrary the whole performance is. Children see it. They 
continually ask: "Why is this a shoe?" "Shoe, shoe, shoe," 
my little boy repeated the other day, over and over, "I 
don't see why they said shoe. Why didn't they say cat or 

Well may he ask, and we with him. There is a why, 
but what is it? I take it, we are all content to assume that 
there is a reason for everything. What is the reason of 
this universal parallelism? Why should all peoples express 
thought in sound which bears no immediate organic rela- 
tionship to it, any more than touch, or taste, or smell, or 
heat, or light? and then, when they reach a certain phase 
of development, express this sound again to the sense of 
sight? Here is a curious thing happening, — an idea, sound- 
less, intangible, not evident to any of the senses, translating 
itself into something that touches the ear, and that, again, 
moving out, through the fingers, into something that touches 
the eye. Why? Why doesn't it stay thought, and commu- 
nicate itself as such, without the clumsy and insufficient 
medium of sound? Why, moreover, if it uses sound, does 
it use it so differently in different places? Why is the 
thought of the Chinese utterly unintelligible to you and me 
in its written form, though entirely germane to you and me 
in its entity? 


These are difficult problems, and not to be settled in a 
limited paper. The most we can do, in this time of symbol- 
izing together, is to discover that we are symbolizing, and 
to be convinced that there is a reason why, and to look 
later for that reason, at our leisure. In the mean time, I 
am going to tell you what I think is the reason. You 
probably will fail to agree with me; but that will be pro- 
ductive of a more vigorous discussion afterwards, which is, 
I believe, desirable. 

I think we use symbols because we half recognize, uncon- 
sciously, that things of all sorts, — pen-scratches, chopped- 
up vibrations of air, all our senses, and all the outer world, 
are here as containers of spirit, exactly as our kitchen uten- 
sils hang shining on the wall ready to contain anything 
with which we may choose to fill them. This world and all 
that in it is, is here for use, and for the use, not of the dead, 
but of the living. A pen-scratch by itself, without meaning 
and without life behind it, could not exist; but if it could, 
it would be dead. By itself, it would be silly and useless; 
made by a living hand, moved in obedience to a living will, 
inspired by a lofty thought, that pen-scratch may move the 
world and alter the face thereof! Not, however, if the will 
is an unreasoning will or the thought a thought which will 
not bend itself to be contained within the prescribed form. 
If a Shakespeare or a Dante, even a David or a St. Paul, 
should take up his pen, think high thoughts, and will his 
hand to move through some eccentric orbit, more equal to 
the inspiring thought than the set characters of the alpha- 
bet, he would not succeed in communicating his thought 
at all, any more than the feeblest child who scribbles a 
page full of crooked lines to tell papa he loves him. The 
thing that makes a language of any value is the consent of 
many people to bow their individual wills to the will of the 
majority, to submit to even unreasonable caprices, like the 
caprices of our English spelling, for the sake of being in a 
position to communicate. I want to emphasize that the 
consent of a large number of people is necessary to make a 
symbol of value; and the larger number of people so con- 


senting, the greater the value of the symbol; as for instance, 
the English language is a higher means of communication 
today than ancient Greek, not because the Greek language 
is less flexible and rich than the English, — for some of the 
highest thoughts of which the human mind is capable have 
been voiced in Greek, — but because today fewer people 
consent to use the ancient Athenian tongue. If Goethe had 
written in Greek, he would probably have died unknown al- 
together by this time. Since he is mellowed a little by age, 
some few scholars might have found him out, and have 
vainly entreated the world to read him, as they entreat it to 
read Sappho in the original. 

So a symbol, to be of value, must be accepted by large 
numbers of people — the larger the better. Hence arbitrary 
symbols — as letters, words, and algebraic signs — are of 
less value than universal symbols, which reach home to all 
people, and have reached home through all time. 

We do not any of us need to be convinced of the value 
of language, nor even of symbolic language. There are 
some of us who consider higher thinking that form of 
thinking — the philosophic — which dispenses with the use 
of images; but most of us turn a cold, deaf ear to philoso- 
phy, and a warm and willing one to poetry. Why does 
poetry move us more than prose? Is it its form and 
rhythm, its jingling repetition of words that end alike? or 
is it that subtler thing, — its use of symbolism? Every 
poem is full of symbols; every line teems with references 
to the natural world as an explainer of the spiritual. 

At various times in the history of the world, learned 
men, having discovered the value of symbolism, through 
their experience of what the world of nature can teach him 
who will listen, have attempted to construct what may be 
called a human system of symbolism; and hence we have 
the extraordinary sculptures and paintings of the old Ori- 
ental temples and caves, of the Egyptian pyramids, of our 
own Indian and Aztec relics. This using of pictures of 
objects, natural and unnatural, to indicate spiritual truths, 
varies from the crudest imagery to the most elaborate. We 



have the hundred-breasted goddess — nourishing mother — 
of the far East, and the careful hieroglyphics of the valley 
of the Nile; and strange to say, it is the crudest of these 
systems which most easily interests and affects us. Or, to 
be more accurate, that system which most nearly approxi- 
mates nature, which is the least artificial, and has the least 
of the man in it, means the most to us. Why? 
[Concluded next month.) 



(Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, who has superintended the substantial growth 
of the public school kindergartens of Indianapolis, speaks with authority 
on the above practical subject. This paper was prepared for the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union Congress.) 

THE obstacles to kindergarten progress in large 
cities are manifold; but after a careful sifting, 
they may be classed under two heads, — namely, 
the hindrances arising from a lack of knowledge 
of the purpose of the work, and a wrong impression of the 
necessary expense. Upon the solution of these is depend- 
ent the early and permanent establishment of the practical 
phase of the kindergarten idea. 

The kindergarten as a part of the public school system 
is the only avenue to reach all classes of children. In order 
to pave the way for this, and to lessen the number of bar- 
riers that naturally arise where a new department of educa- 
tional work is not generally understood, time must be given 
for the information of the public mind. There are two 
avenues through which to accomplish this purpose, — two 
avenues which represent the extremes of society, — the free 
or charity, and the private kindergarten. These in turn 
have mountains of obstacles to surmount; but many of the 
difficulties may be overcome if the first step be wisely 
taken. The right organization of a system of free kinder- 
gartens is dependent upon a few earnest, persevering, and 
well-informed persons, who, working among their friends, 
not only create an opinion in favor of the cause espoused, 
but in this way constantly widen the circle of workers, until 
enough are deeply interested to form a society. 

Then follows the careful selection of an executive board 
and the appointment of a superintendent or organizer. 


The latter must be a thoroughly educated and cultured 
woman, possessing executive ability, discretion, tact, and 
an especial training for the work. She must have the qual- 
ities of mind and heart which ever keep her in touch with 
child life, and an enthusiasm to which is added the power 
to make the theory clear to the public through speech and 
press and practical work. Her personal discouragements 
must not become a hindrance to the labor of the executive 
board. The superintendent, being especially prepared for 
her work, with a high ideal of its purpose and an ever-living 
faith in its value, should be the source of encouragem.ent 
to every member of the society. 

The following are some of the mistaken views which 
tend to hamper kindergarten progress: that the expense 
is too heavy for the number of children reached; that the 
kindergarten unfits the child for the duties of school; that 
the children are too young to leave home; that the system 
is good enough for the poor, since it furnishes a place of 
shelter, etc.; that the kindergarten is a school, and it is 
wrong to give children regular instruction previous to the 
age of six; that the eyes of children are not in a condition 
to be employed in kindergarten occupations before the 
seventh year; that the auxiliaries of the free kindergar- 
ten, such as food and clothing, tend to pauperize; that 
the expenses could be decreased by keeping the salaries 
low, because it does not require much ability to play with 
little children. These attacks arise from ignorance of the 
subject, and they point to the line of work that must be 
done to bring the opposers into a right understanding of 
and sympathy for the Froebel idea. 

By way of answering some of these objections, it may 
be stated that it has been our observation that it costs less 
than two dollars a year to keep a child in a free kinder- 
garten. This amount includes such items as luncheon and 
aid in clothing. What if it cost three times this sum? 
Would it not be economy and wisdom to aid the child in 
the habit-forming period of his life, to strengthen the 


One of the most formidable obstacles to overcome is 
the low salary, which prevents many a well-adapted per- 
son from becoming a kindergartner.. 

Clothing given to a destitute child of the free kinder- 
garten need not engender poverty, if it be given on the 
condition of regularity in attendance except in cases of 

Again, the kindergarten is not a school. Its very name 
denies such a statement. There is abundant testimony, 
however, to combat each objection. 

The meetings and the classes for the pleasure and in- 
struction of the mothers, both of the private and free kin- 
dergarten, serve as a strong ally in aiding the overthrow 
of prejudices against the system and in furthering the di- 
rect work of the kindergarten. 

The kindergarten system thus reaches into the home 
through the training afforded the younger children and 
the mother; but the work does not benefit the family as 
fully as it should, nor does it embrace every opportunity 
for overcoming opposition, until it establishes the domes- 
tic training school, with its miniature and practical depart- 
ments of every phase of housework. The latter opens its 
doors to the older brothers and sisters once a week, and 
at nine-thirty a. m. This gives the children time to help 
at home before the hour of opening. The pupils are held 
responsible for the daily practice of the weekly lessons in 
bed making, etc. Under a Free Kindergarten Society and 
with a normal training school, the additional expense of 
the domestic training departments need not be heavy. 
Kindergartners should not allow a chance to escape them 
for the elevation of the family and for the testing and 
explanation of the value of the work. 

Obstacles are to be overcome, not alone in the solici- 
tation of money to support the system, but in the gather- 
ing of the children for the kindergarten. 

Although the Free Kindergarten Society helps to pave 
the way for the permanent establishment of the public 
school kinderearten, its work will never cease; for is not 


the neglected, the poor child, of less than four years, to 
be trained and housed and fed? The friendly visiting, 
too, must go on. Some provision must be made to keep, 
as much as possible, school machinery out of the public 
school kindergarten, and the mother-heart, the home feel- 
ing, in. 

In laying stress upon the value of the charity phase in 
preparation for the public kindergarten, care must be 
taken not to lose sight of the private kindergarten and 
its great responsibility and worth; for out of the self-sac- 
rificing pioneer labor of the latter has developed the free 
kindergarten. The work of the private kindergarten can- 
not stop. The three phases of the Froebel system are 
necessary to reach all classes and to form a circle of kin- 
dergarten training. 



DURING the last half century it has been the good 
fortune of America to bear upon the pages oi'jts 
guest book two noble names, — Froebel and Del- 
sarte, — the inception of whose ideas into ;_ old 
methods are revolutionizing the educational world. 

With charming frankness and ingenue, we have hospita- 
bly received and encouraged these pioneers of new thought. 
We have as fearlessly sifted and tested their ideas, meta- 
phorically "trying them on," pruning the worthless and_ re- 
taining the good. 

This scoring process has been applied to the Delsar- 
tean system of physical development in our country, which 
has been so largely investigated during the last ten years. 

The detail and application of the Delsartean system is 
sufificiently well known. Its methods, however inadequately 
rendered at times, have been gratefully received among 


teachers of all classes, suggesting new elements of beauty 
in their work and lives, strongly opposed to old angulari- 
ties and awkwardnesses. 

It has had its exponents, good and bad; its interpreters 
and misinterpreters; but through all the movement there 
has been such a constant progress toward a truth to be 
revealed, that it has attracted and held the attention of 
our ablest thinkers and workers. 

Through the new happiness of the rhythm of our bodies, 
we began to realize the hunger of our hearts for art, — the 
desire for the beautiful to be brought into our lives. 

In this spirit we welcomed the graceful interpreters 
of the Delsarte system, as inspired beings who were to 
restore to us the lost art of personal beauty and repose. 
We were charmed by the graceful waving arms and the 
lithe and sinuous movements. We have passed safely 
through all the phases of this movement, from the sen- 
timental attitudinizing and. statuesque posing in Greek 
drapery to the other extreme, the semi -scientific basis 
of combined muscle and emotion. Between these two 
has stood the interpreter, on the intellectual basis, finely 
poised in her differentiations, holding the balance of com- 
mon sense with the well-defined logic of the principles of 

The Delsarte fever, or craze, is over. Its artificial con- 
stituents have fallen away. Only to its most earnest and 
sincere seekers has its truth become revealed, and, as they 
have understood, has it become embodied in their lives. 
Of these it maybe truly said: "They have found and are 
living in the poise of Being, and radiating out from this 
vitality the powers God has given them." 

The art of life — the art of living graciously, beautifully, 
serenely, yet vitally — is becoming understood among us. 
We are beginning to look more to the true interpretation 
of ourselves as a necessary accompaniment to daily duties. 
We are beginning to question deeper and closer into the 
meaning of Delsarte the 7na7i, as we move in the rhythm 
of his theories. 


Is not art in the inner, nature sense, such as interpreted 
by Millet, Corot, or Ruskin, the secret of his thought? 

Would he not repudiate — as we must feel to do when 
we learn better things — the over-scientific, analytically in- 
clined work which'iargely represents the Delsarte training 
of today? 

Is not art — real art, whose mellowing influence is be- 
ginning to touch us on all sides — as different from this 
conception as the downy pink flesh of a child from a hid- 
eous skeleton? 

Such a consideration of Delsarte, from the words of one 
of the masters of its artistic interpretation, we would like 
to present to our readers, many of whom, standing in the 
intuitive presence of the child, and in daily touch with the 
wellsprings of his action, will feel their peculiar power and 

Mr. Edmund Russell says: "I believe that Delsarte is 
the connecting link between Froebel and the 'new educa- 
tion.' He would train the 'Froebel instinct' into the con- 
scious acting and being man. Delsarte is the tuning of the 
instrument by which to bring the life within into relation to 
the world without, thereby leading to a higher unification of 

"Everything we do is an act. We open our eyes, we 
breathe, we walk, we bathe, we eat, we clasp the hand of 
a friend; our whole life is a series of personal activities. 
With animals, savages, primary people, these personal ac- 
tivities are the whole life, and their constant execution 
gives them naturalness and ease and charm. Their per- 
sonal observations are not contemplative, and call for no 
unnatural nerve concentration, contraction of brow, or con- 
centric turning in of their nature to fix itself upon thought. 
Their life is a natural radiation of being, embodying in cir- 
cles their experiences, — living, loving, learning, and grow- 
ing in harmony and completeness. 

"The baby opens his eyes; he lies for a long time drink- 
ing in the light and color around him. Each day the eyes 
take in a wider circle. It is some time before the head next 


moves in the succession, and very far before the neck lifts 
the head; then the trunk is added, and the shoulder, elbow, 
hand, reach out for the object. 

"The child sees things as a whole. Its first enjoyment 
is the thrill its breathing sends all over its body; and its 
enjoyment of light, air, and color as one with it, and all 
its little breathings and ecstasies, are as unified as the forces 
that hold the planets together. The breathings and turn- 
ings and spiral movements are not to give us higher grace, 
but higher life and a continued and further-reaching power 
of expression, adequate to the emotive impulse within. 

"The body must learn to do; then only thinking be- 
comes incarnate, and then it is that personality stands for 
influence and does work in the world. It is not the action, 
but the beautiful doing of it, that makes it complete. Wash 
dishes as an accompaniment to your soul thought. Our 
education now consists of separating, dividing, naming ob- 
jects, and intellectualizing our being until we no longer live 
in the frank wholeness of the Italian fisher boy, but in a 
concentration of thought so intense that our whole being 
seems to lie in the contraction of a little cell or fiber be- 
tween the eyebrows. 

"Turning without, instead of within, we must get back 
by art this lost kingdom of God-given expression." 

In reference to a physiological basis for our work toward 
art results, — the bane and curse of all modern schools of 
art, — Mr. Russell's words are very strong and to the pur- 

"The study of bones must only come when we are filled 
with the wonders of body expression, with its harmonious 
and divine mission as mediator between the God within and 
the universe without. 

"If I were to interest you in a piece of decorative mate- 
rial, artistically speaking (unfolding a piece of texture), 
I should first call your attention to its beautiful harmony 
of color, to the subdued gold of the background in rela- 
tion to the rich brown of the figures. Then I should speak 
of the beautiful pomegranate pattern, — a conventionalized 


pomegranate, not a real one. A decorative design is not a 
botanical lesson. Even in giving you a botany lesson I 
should send you out into the fields to first study the gesture 
of the flower, the harmony of its color and form; for that 
is, after all, what makes the flower. The child does not 
see or care for the detail, or the structural processes of its 
growth. It is only conscious of delight in its beauty. 

"To return to our design: — the great good of the les- 
son to you .would be to excite in you a higher appreciation 
of beauty, a stronger desire to have beauty in your own 
life; above all, to show the harmony which is the beautiful, 
and help you select and arrange the things that come into 
your own life. Beauty does not depend upon external 

"When you purchase a chair for your room, be sure that 
it bears some relationship to the general furnishings, and 
especially let it speak something more of its owner than 
the fact of a goodly bank account. Relate the garments 
you wear to yourself. Let them speak something of your 
character, your personality. Buy a gem because it suits 
you, not because it will tell how rich you are. 

"We must tr^in man to the synthetic use of his power 
throughout. His work is not to create the universe, but 
to create himself. He has been given the power to build 
himself. Scientists look upon him as the crowning feature. 
There is no other physical climax. All evidence reaches its 
highest in man, and Delsarte teaches us that man's era has 
just begun, and the next step is to lift him to the arche- 
typal, — the man made in the image and likeness of God." 

In conclusion, Mr. Russell outlined the three great 
groups of the Delsartean theory of development, which, 
classified and organized in this way, will help students to 
better understand the paths of their own development. 

"1st. Relaxing exercises to shake off old contractions 
and prepare the body for the study of motion. The be- 
ginning of nervousness is contraction; the beginning of 
congestion is disease, which in turn is the beginning of 
all ugliness. 


"2d. Then come floating curves and spirals, to unify 
the body and promote personal growth through reflex 
action of physical harmony. Most people stop here, and 
try to weave these beautiful movements into life. The 
real life expression has yet to follow, from the impulse 
within, moving through a free body. 

"3d. The study of the laws of expression, which sub- 
ordinate these motions to meaning. This is attained 
through the law of succession, the flowing of movement 
from one rhythm to another." 

Mr. Russell illustrated the third point in the greeting or 
hand shake of one of our Oriental World's Fair visitors as 
an undulation of his whole being. His emotion radiated 
itself through speech, voice, through the glance of the eye. 
The action traveled from his emotive center to the shoul- 
der, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, ankle, in one succession of cour- 
teous gesture. Compared with this, a curt, impassive Ameri- 
can greeting with the accompanying poking out of a wooden 
hand attached to a wooden arm, is an insult. He believes 
we have much to learn from the natural but physically 
happy condition of the savage. 

In relation to the games and life of the kindergarten, 
the kindergartner must understand motion and the laws 
of motion, as the basis of her work. Never make unnec- 
essary motion. Never make motion for motion's sake. 
Keep to your great Froebelian, Delsartean principle of 
radiation from a creative center, and you will not only 
fulfill God's great natural law of development in man, and 
fill with joy and delight the life of the unfolding child, but 
bring about growth and results, as spontaneous and fresh as 
the eternal source from which they spring. 



(Read before the kindergarten section of the International Congress 
of Education.) 

THE song seems to claim a place for itself in every 
nook and corner of the kindergarten. It is appro- 
priate almost everywhere. It welcomes the chil- 
dren into the morning ring, and accompanies, with 
delightful freshness, the subject of the morning talk. It 
leads them in the march and through the games, and fol- 
lows them to the tables. It introduces the gift, and closes 
it. It brightens and lightens the occupation, making the 
informal busy time a glad union of voice and finger exer- 
cises. And its last friendly strain dies away only as the 
kindergarten is left empty of children at the session ending. 
Other reasons aside, its place is assured because the chil- 
dren love to sing; and this love of song in childhood leads 
me directly to the second heading of my paper, — What is 
the Value of the Song in the Kindergarten? 

To start with reasons physical, for the value of the kin- 
dergarten song, we may draw attention to the chest devel- 
opment induced by good singing. To achieve its best re- 
sults, the physical training of children should possess an 
interest to them entirely outside of the development of the 
body. Gymnastics, as such, have no place in the kinder- 
garten. In the song this condition of good physical train- 
ing is met to the extent of the song's possibility. 

The child learns to sit and stand with back straight and 
shoulders well back, not formally, but with the understand- 
ing that it is the song's requirement and preamble. The 
action at once tends to broaden and elevate the chest. So 
also does the habit of deep breathing, which, as the children 
learn to sing well, they unconsciously adopt. There, too, is 

Vol. 6-24 


the development of the voice, a result not alone of depth of 
chest, but also of the interest of the children in interpreting 
the sentiments of the song-story. And the children's inter- 
est in the story, and the delight in the music, form the foun- 
dation of all that is valuable in their singing. There are 
reasons manifold for the value of the song in the kindergar- 
ten, from the point of view of the child's unfolding intelli- 

The song offers one of the most attractive means of em- 
phasizing all that is received through the talk, story, game, 
gift, occupation. It is an ever-varying, ever-pleasing repeti- 
tion of the child's knowledge, and an always popular means 
of following up new experiences. The rhyming, measured 
language impresses itself upon the childish mind as prose 
can seldom do. It is to him the language form most read- 
ily retained and most delighted in. It is furthermore, when 
chosen as it should be chosen, — with a due regard for its lit- 
erary and artistic value, for the most fitting and the most ex- 
quisite in wording and music, — a means of training in fine 
taste, surpassed in opportunity by nothing else in the kin- 

The child who has learned to appreciate beauty of word 
language and of tone language is, to the extent of his appre- 
ciation, both a poet and a musician; and in being both or 
either he is intellectually greater — and morally greater — 
than he was before the unfolding in him of the aesthetic 
sense. Bad music and paltry rhyme are dying out of our 
kindergarten song books. It is hardly possible nowadays 
to hear, as I have heard, of Mary's lamb, that he "waited 
patientlee about, lee about, lee about," in order to accommo- 
date words poor enough in themselves to worse music. 

Moreover, the good song offers to the child a standard 
of expression in language and music especially valuable 
while he stands on the threshold of expressive power, and 
is then permanently impressed by the earliest examples 
brought to his notice. 

The chief and estimable value of the song lies not, how- 
ever, in the physical nor in the intellectual, but in the moral 


training it affords. The song is the uplifting of the spirit. 
Its effects are as various as the ever-changing childish 
moods. Well and judiciously used, it is a means in the 
hands of the kindergartner of ci^ating moods. Harmful 
influences may be confronted and overcome, good ones 
strengthened, by the right song in the right place, sung as 
it should be sung. Weariness and irritation are changed 
into a sense of peace by the introduction, without preface 
or preparation, of a soothing song without action. Dull- 
ness and heaviness may be dissipated by an unexpected 
dash into a stirring bit of music. And many are the quietly 
pointed morals — not too evident, but sinking all the deeper 
because undisturbed by direct allusion — of which the song 
becomes the happy vehicle. 

Music is, as we know, essentially an appeal to feeling; 
and when we wed fitting words to fitting melody, so that 
between the motive of the one and the motive of the other 
there shall be no discrepancy, we shall have laid a direct 
avenue of approach to the child's sympathies, to his better 
and more refined instincts. The road to reverence lies 
through the feelings, and to it the song leads the way. It 
winds by way of sympathy and respect for the lower forms 
of life, lifting itself up to a tenderness for the human in life, 
and in and through the human it sees and reaches the di- 

Take a song like the following, to observe how a child's 
reverential feeling is first stirred: 

The alder by the river shakes out her powdery curls; 
The willow buds in silver for the little boys and girls; • 
The little birds fly over, and oh, how sweet they sing, 
To tell the happy children that once again 'tis spring! 

When a child shall have learned to feel the sentiment in 
such a bit of musical poetry, and to recognize a loving rela- 
tionship between himself and the alder, the willow buds, 
and the little birds; when he shall have begun to stretch 
out in friendly greeting to things and people not himself, — 
he will have taken the first step in religion. And as he 
keeps on singing the song again and again, and adds others 


of the same uplifting tendency, with music that also ele- 
vates, the sentiment of reverence deepens and widens, until 
by and by it embraces all that he can know of what is true 
and good and beautiful. 

The answer to the question as to how far the dramatic 
element should enter into the song, can be broadly stated 
in three propositions: 

First, the subdued song, with the thought turned inward, 
should be sung without further action than may be ex- 
pressed by undisturbed attitude, as in the winter prayer: 
Loving Friend, oh, hear our prayer! 
Take into thy tender care 
All the leaves and flowers that sleep 
In their white beds covered deep; 
Shelter from the wintry storm 
All thy snowbirds; keep them warm. 
Here the only unforced action is the lifting of the head 
in appeal. If further gesture be introduced, — such as an 
imitation of the movement of the storm, or of the covering 
over of the flowers, — the simplicity and unity of the song 
are marred, the thought is distributed among the objects 
for which the appeal is made, instead of being centered 
upon the One appealed to, and the intended effect of the 
little hymn is destroyed. 

Proposition second: The song that tends to project 
thought outward — the song of joyous, leaping action — 
needs action in its expression, as in the well-known bluebird 


I know the song that the bluebird is singing 

Up in the apple tree where he is swinging. 

Brave little fellow! The skies may look dreary; 

Nothing cares he while his heart is so cheery. 

Hark! how the music leaps out of his throat! 

Hark! was there ever so merry a note? 

Listen awhile and you'll hear what he's saying 

Up in the apple tree, swinging and swaying. 

In such a song as that, the child is living among things 

external. "Up in the apple tree" lifts his hand with it. 

The listening attitude of the hand to the ear, or the finger 

lifted and the head turned, are almost instinctive, and the 


cradling movement in time to the music goes by itself as 
the birds tip the branch. The charm of the words, the 
swing of the rhythm, the catch of the music, set him "swing- 
ing and swaying," until he is a bit of nature, at one with the 
rapture of the outburst of the song. If we here separate 
gesture so instinctive, from the singing, we check the child 
and spoil the song. It is in songs of such character that 
children most naturally select their own form of action, be- 
cause they feel it so keenly in the blood. Let them choose. 
Encourage choice, and adopt the best they propose. 

My third proposition is, that songs requiring movement 
so violent as to interfere with natural breathing action 
should be acted out only by those of the children who are 
not singing. This proposition should be laid down as a prin- 
ciple. There are many songs which in their suggestiveness 
call for quite violent movement, — ^movement delightful to 
the children and of great physical value. Such gestures may 
be employed by half of the class as a sort of a Greek Cho- 
rus, illustrating objectively the story told in the song. In 
no other way is violent gesture for a moment to be consid- 
ered, unless one would counteract all physical benefit de- 
rived from the act of singing. 

Every song, no matter how classified, calls for interpre- 
tation through the movement of the muscles of the face. 
The intention of the song should transfuse the countenance 
of the child; its very spirit must shine through its eyes. 
But this expression is pernicious in the extreme if it be 
"put on." The song-story and the music must be felt, or it 
ought not to be used at all; for unfelt expression is utterly 
false and artificial. 

Thanks to the sunshine, 

Thanks to the rain, 

Little White Lily is happy again, 

sing the children. It will not do to say to one dismal-faced 
little songster, "James, look happy." One cannot look 
happy to order — not honestly happy. And with feeling of 
any kind that is not honest we want nothing to do. But if 
one says for the class generally, for James to hear, "I can 


see that Mary is a happy little lily; see how her face shines," 
then James forgets himself, ceases to be a child, and enters 
wholly into the fresh gladness of the flower. And at once 
the feeling will show in his face. 

While care should be taken that no song that does not 
suggest action should have action thrust upon it, one should 
be equally observant not to discard gesture which the very 
nature of the song almost compels. I have heard singing 
rendered lame and lagging, because the kindergartner 
missed the impulse in it striving to push outward into ac- 
tion. A suggestion from her would have animated the sing- 
ers and have wakened the song into life. 

Finally, I would urge that, be the song what it may, no 
gesture be permitted that does not mean something, that 
does not add to the song's value as a means of expression, 
and that is not natural. I have seen songs so crowded with 
movement that not one gesture could be clearly and defi- 
nitely finished. I have seen marred by gesture songs which 
would have been tenfold more effective had they been sung 
quietly, without action, as both words and music demanded. 
And I have seen songs made ridiculous by misfitting every- 
day words to gestures that the child would never use in like 
connection in everyday life; as in some of the songs of 
greeting and of farewell: 

Good-by, happy work; 

Good-by, happy play, 

with both hands outward thrown as each good-by was said, 
in farcical exaggeration of expression. 

I have hardly begun to plead the cause of the song in 
the kindergarten; but it needs no special pleader. Other 
things have their place, but the song belongs to all times 
and places; and at every time and in every place it has its 
special hundred-sided value. It is the very breath of the 
kindergarten. And it behooves us all to see to it that our 
children breathe in only the fresh, pure air of the best we 
have in song. 



IT is twenty years since the first kinderp^arten stake was 
driven into the public school system of our country. 
It was the semi-southern city of St. Louis (whose 
people are far famed for their unstinted cordiality and 
open-handed hospitality) which first opened a door, how- 
ever slightly, to the newcomer education. As is ever the 
case, a certain keenly convinced individual, who has experi- 
enced and proven this conviction into practicability, turned 
the knob of the door. 

As is known on two continents. Miss Susan E. Blow 
secured permission from the school board of St. Louis 
twenty years ago, to utilize a public school room for an 
experimental kindergarten. She threw the full force of her 
womanly energy into the experiment, and by means of un- 
daunted perseverance and intelligent demonstration, this 
first trial kindergarten attracted the earnest attention of 
the school men of St. Louis, and was destined to become 
the nucleus of an extended and eminently vital school sys- 

In less than a year sufificient proof of kindergarten effi- 
cacy was gathered, and the superintendent of schools, then 
Wm. T. Harris, recommended to the board of education 
that the kindergarten be incorporated into the school sys- 
tem of that city. Five kindergartens were opened to the 
urchins of St. Louis, whose numerous response has repeated 
this necessity until today almost every public school in 
their fair city has its inner temple for the little ones. This 
progress has not been without attending difificulties and 
labor pains, and the change of interpretation which made 
the law to provide schools only for children over six years 
is still one of its obstacles. This, too, will be met as the 


understanding of child nature grows apace, and as men and 
women of power reach so great a distance from their own 
childhood as to see its possibilities in perspective. 

The growing necessity of kindergartners and assistants 
in the care of the children was early met by the opening of 
a normal training class by Miss Blow herself. It was in 
these early days that an impress was made which still 
stamps itself upon all Western kindergarten effort. It was 
in the pioneer struggle in this direction that the stanch 
workers were called forth who today are carrying forward 
the principles then revealed. One who lived during that 
time of inspirational zeal, and experienced the awakening 
which ever flows from a formative period, has said with 
emphasis: "Those were indeed pentecostal days!" 

A wholesome, homelike atmosphere prevailed in the 
various kindergartens which we visited. At the Marquette 
school we found a baby visitor whose birthday was being 
commemorated by the sixty or more children, whose good- 
will and admiration radiated through song and greeting to 
meet this future candidate for a place among them. On 
the wall of this same kindergarten we found a collection of 
so-called "home work." This consisted of pieces of hand 
work such as sewing, drawing, crude carpentry, etc., which 
the children had devised and executed at home. The kin- 
dergartner explained that every effort was made to encour- 
age spontaneous industry at home, in order that the chil- 
dren might not only more fully appreciate mother's and 
father's work, but that self-effort and cooperation in the 
home might be generated. 

Much of this work was clearly a reproduction of what 
had previously been done in the kindergarten; but in every 
case the materials used were the crude findings of the chil- 
dren. In several cases these materials were adapted and 
utilized in a most ingenious manner. 

An instinctive desire "to be busy" pervades the child, 
when he sees mother working about the home. It should 
be the aim of education to direct this innate desire into 
self-elected work. It is a great step to direct it by pre- 


scribing tasks; another and nobler step, to inspire the child 
to find his own work. 

It was interesting to note that in the very building 
where this lesson of cooperative usefulness was being incul- 
cated, there were neither chairs nor tables, and scarcely 
floor space sufificient for the children who demanded admit- 
tance. Nevertheless good will and fellowship reigned, and 
dry-goods boxes were crowned with busy hands and at- 
tractive materials. 

Again, we were ushered into a long room well filled 
with children whose efforts to overcome native unkempt- 
ness and original earthiness were only too visible. Here 
we found an unbounded good will, which sang us songs 
both lustily and tenderly, and which welcomed as comrade 
a much- soiled street pigeon to a home among them. Such 
experiences brought to little children in the name of edu- 
cation bring tears to the eyes of the stanchest adherent to 
those old-fashioned days of the rule of the ferule. 

The Stoddard school is an unique structure, with gener- 
ous court and surroundings. A portion of the building has 
served in the past as a religious chapel, but is now dedicated 
to the holy work of elementary education. The kindergar- 
ten, which the principal of the school candidly confesses to 
be the plum of the altogether excellent pudding, has an at- 
tractive room in the center of the building. A flood of 
light entered the ornamental windows from three sides of 
the room. The worktables were here arranged in the form 
of two horseshoes, the kindergartner standing in the open- 
ing, faced by the semi-oval of attentive children. 

It is evident that school people as well as other connois- 
seurs are seeking out the appropriateness and fitness of 
things. Several of the special kindergarten buildings in St. 
Louis are veritable caskets for their precious jewels. One 
is shaped with many cheerful windows in a half-circle, se- 
curing a most effective light for the busy children and kin- 
dergartners. Another building is octagonal, giving attract- 
ive wall spaces which were decorated with the children's 
handiwork. Again, we found stained glass windows, — one 


called the Froebel window, and another dedicated to the 
memories of Miss Susan Blow. 

An unique charm prevails in every kindergarten, and no 
class of people is so susceptible to its indescribable power as 
are kindergartners themselves. Every song and story calls 
up reminiscences of other children and their gathering im- 
pressions. Every passing word, every glance from child to 
kindergartner, every expression of enthusiasm coming from 
the young cadets which warms the surrounding atmosphere 
into generous good will, all the signs and countersigns of 
childhood's own inimitable unfolding, — all these qualities 
contribute to that composite charm before which the initi- 
ated lay down their worldly all. 

As we passed from one kindergarten to another, we 
found cordial greetings and welcomes everywhere. Chil- 
dren, like poets and artists, carry their hearts on their 
sleeves, and respond to every touch, be it but the gentlest 
approach of a stranger. 

A hearty cooperation was noticeable between directors, 
children, grade teachers, kindergartners, principals, and 
oflficers of the board. This internal family spirit is to be 
commended, and is sufficient to counterbalance lesser faults 
and failings. 

The confidence placed by Superintendent E. H, Long in 
his large corps of workers is revealed in the, unconstrained 
daily atmosphere of the schools. Mr. Long, after being as- 
sociated in this work for many years with Dr. Harris, suc- 
ceeded him as superintendent of the schools, and has not 
failed to follow out the pattern set by his predecessor. He is 
cordially committed to the kindergarten cause, and his an- 
nual report never fails to present the principles of Froebel 
to his constituency. The chapter on the "Universality of 
Kindergarten Principles" has been reprinted in pamphlet 
form from his official report for 1891-92. Together with a 
previous pamphlet on the " Relation of the Kindergarten to 
the Primary School," this document makes a most convinc- 
ing argument in furthering the work. 

The colored public schools of St. Louis bear testimony 


that organized educational effort with the colored people of 
the South may be made substantially fruitful. These results 
have been possible in St. Louis as nowhere else, because of 
geographical and historical precedents. We visited thor- 
oughly two of these schools, entirely attended by colored 
children, from the kindergarten through the upper grades, 
with principals, teachers, and kindergartners all of the same 
race. The cordial dignity of the latter was marked, while 
the orderliness of the children was irreproachable. The 
only married woman retained in the service of the St. Louis 
School Committee is a colored kindergartner, whose innate 
power and grace could not easily be replaced. 

Everyone has heard of the St. Louis Manual Training 
School, and of Professor Woodward, who has stood so many 
years as the enthusiastic pioneer in this direction. A visit 
to the school under his own escort proved highly inter- 
esting and profitable. The informal class work, whereby 
a group of twenty or more boy students gathered about 
their respective instructors, whether in a lesson of scien- 
tific investigation or literature, or in the shop applying the 
principles of the smithy, was a pleasing prophecy of the 
school of the future. The subject studied will then be of 
such all -engrossing personal interest to students, that 
visible rules and regulations, bars and devices, will be rel- 
egated to the attic like other useless and outgrown mat- 

The new high school building on Grand avenue is an at- 
tractive and generously proportioned structure. The inter- 
nal life of the building is even more inspiring, since it is 
composed of the youth, vigor, and faith of fifteen hundred 
young men and women. Mr. Louis Soldan, as principal of 
this center of animation, has an enviable privilege, but one 
which his native culture and scholarship, combined with 
sincerity and warmth of character, will by no means fail to 
fulfill. During a recent visit to this school by a party of 
distinguished guests, the entire family was filed into the 
spacious auditorium to listen to the impromptu eloquence 
of several of the foreign visitors. Their hearty rounds of 


applause were unmistakable signs of spiritual as well as 
physical culture. 

The exhibit of the St. Louis schools at the Columbian 
Exposition called forth much comment, and was granted 
several medals by the committee on awards. The exhibit 
was complete in that it covered the work from the kinder- 
garten to the university, including normal training of teach- 
ers. Several original departures from customary lines were 
noted in this exhibit. The kindergarten department was 
well represented, but the critics who made a comparative 
study of kindergarten exhibits were forced to admit that 
this work from the hands of six-year-olds could not be 
judged from the average standpoint. 

Chroniclers who point to St. Louis public school kinder- 
gartens as arguments in favor of the introduction of similar 
sub-primary departments elsewhere, do not always bear in 
mind that these children are six years old, and therefore 
less formative than the so-called kindergarten children of 
three, four, or five years. In arguing in behalf of public 
school kindergartens, it is always wise to condition the ex- 
istence of the latter to the /w/^r management of the same. 
In St. Louis this requisite is now fulfilled in the freedom 
and scope allowed the supervisor and directors of the kin- 

Miss Mary C. McCulloch, who has been supervisor of 
the kindergartens, subject to the school committee, for ten 
years, is an energetic, earnest woman, whose unstinted and 
intelligent enthusiasm for this work with the children has 
done much to sustain the public interest and support of the 
same. There are now ninety kindergartens under her super- 
vision, as well as a normal training class which enrolls for 
the current year seventy-four cadets. The normal training 
covers a two-years' course of work, the satisfactory comple- 
tion of the first year's work entitling the student to a certifi- 
cate for paid assistantship in the public kindergarten. The 
completion of the second year's work secures a diploma for 

The instructors of the kindergarten normal class at pres- 


ent are as follows: Miss McCulIoch, instructor of gifts, 
"Mutter und Kose-Lieder," songs and games; Miss Mabel 
A. Wilson, program work, Froebel occupations; Mr. Wm. 
M. Bryant, psychology; Mrs. Haydee Campbell, in charge 
of colored assistants and students, in gifts and occupa- 

The St. Louis Froebel Society was organized in 1887, 
and enrolls for the current year sixty-five active members 
and nearly two hundred associate members. This society 
has regular sessions on Saturday morning, for the purposes 
of further culture and closer intercourse. On the morning 
of October 30, it was my great privilege to meet and com- 
mune with this society; nor shall their professional cour- 
tesy and hearty welcome soon be forgotten. The kin- 
dergartners of St. Louis are a recognized factor in all 
educational and intellectual influences of that city. They 
have free access to the city library, with a special room set 
apart for the books of their department. The kindergarten 
library numbers 210 selected volumes, besides two regular 
subscriptions to the Kindergarten Magazine. This is an 
important item in the progress of the society, and one 
which it would be wise for every other kindergarten union 
to duplicate. It is not always practicable for individuals 
to hold a complete set of books, nor are those of specific 
interest to kindergartners always obtainable at public libra- 
ries. A small circulating library can soon be instituted by 
the cooperative effort of a central society. 

Kindergartners of St. Louis, you may well become pro- 
verbial for your perseverance and zeal. You have labored 
vigorously and uninterruptedly for twenty years, and have 
a worthy harvest garnered. Your eternal vigilance has not 
been in vain. You have lifted the educational status of your 
entire community, thereby giving a new standard for the 
schools of the world; you have evolved a new race of 
young womanhood, and have secured, by your uncounted 
effort, to thousands of children the opportunity for expan- 
sion and expression. You have been the faithful " vigi- 
lantes" of our now speedily evolving cause. Such keen and 



whole-hearted effort may never subside into ways of com- 
plaisance or self-satisfaction. 

May I offer a word of advice to travelers? Enter a city 
by way of its homes, its nurseries and kindergartens, its 
schools, rather than its commercial gates, and you will 
never fail to find delight, expansion, and inspiration. 

Nov. 5, 1893. 


The new year, 1894, scores the Kindergarten Literature 
Company a one-year-old. It is as lusty and active as the 
creatures of the same age in other well-known species. 
The self-activity of this child of the kindergarten move- 
ment is eminently working from within outward, and will 
follow such natural channels only as open in the way of all 
true forces. It does not choose its ways or its work, but it 
aims to fulfill every next opportunity which the growing 
necessity of the cause demands. The child has infinite 
resources of activity. Educational progress offers infinite 
scope tor the exercise of the same. 

The world does not expect men and women to put 
themselves into their work. Individuality in business meth- 
ods is an old-fashioned notion. The "policy of the firm " 
has long since come to take its place, and the business man- 
ager has become the mouthpiece of the company in all 
difficult decisions. The corporation of many firms has 
become so great a body, that many heads are necessary to 
decide every point, and thus the mighty decisions of the 
majority are kept properly impersonal. In these days it is 
the exception to find a large firm which reflects the person- 
ality of its members.' Much more exceptional is it to find 
an extensive business enterprise bearing the stamp of the 
head of the firm. One of these exceptional cases is that of 
the Ginn Co., publishers. The undeviating effort of this 
firm has been to provide the highest standard of literature 
to the primary schools, and the classics to the youth of our 

This standard and policy of the publishing company has 
been established by its senior member, Mr. Edwin Ginn, 
who has edited many of the classics with his own pen, and 
in many practical ways worked out the problem. His per- 
sonal conviction that good literature is food which makes 


boys and girls grow in the right direction, has become the 
basis of his work as publisher. His business has thus be- 
come the outgrowth of an earnest effort to benefit human- 
ity. Every department of this business takes men and 
women into account, quite as much as the commercial ends 
which are ever sought to be gained through such means as 
flesh and feeling. 

Mr. Edwin Ginn is well known as a philanthropist of the 
rational school. He writes concerning a late enterprise: 
" I am very much interested now, as I have been all the way 
along, in organizing great combinations for the relief of the 
poor; not in giving them a dollar, but in taking from their 
necks the feet of those people who, in their earnest strug- 
gle for existence, are pressing them to the wall. I want to 
see what can be organized in various cities to help them to 
a comfortable roof over their heads at the same rate of 
interest that we who are more fortunate pay in mone)% and 
that they shall have as good bread to eat as we do, at a 
relatively low price, and that their fuel shall not cost them 
so much as it now does because they cannot buy more at a 
time. These are the three great lines that I am thinking 
about and trying to work in." 

Men and women who not only dream of being bene- 
factors, but who put their dreams into sound, sane, and sub- 
stantial practice, are the great educators of every age. 
While the great work of relieving the adult goes on, the 
equally great work of setting the children's faces toward 
the light is also proceeding. Mr. Edwin Ginn is cordiall}- 
committed to the work and possibilities of the kindergar- 
ten, and has stood as one of the first of the school men to 
say the word and put out his hand in its behalf. 


No. V. 

Tlie Song of the Wind. — As in the study of music, so in 
the study of any serious subject, the practice hour is of the 
greatest importance. The singer may not compass difficul- 
ties merely by listening to his master. He must make 
every effort to surmount them by singing them. Any point 
of knowledge gained is proven in the reproduction or ex- 
pression of the same. In your study of this book of natural 
philosophy, it is well to practice the expressing of .the 
thoughts thereby suggested. A truth is doubly yours when 
shared with another. It is most certainly assimilated when 
you give it out in. your own words, in your own way. 

There are two modes by which this expression may be 
made, — the spoken-word and the written word. The latter 
has come to be a more ready means of expression than the 
former. It is students' custom to write notes and essays on 
all topics of study. This is helpful to yourself; add the 
spoken word, and help some one else. Seek to tell the 
good thought that has come to you, to your next-door 

Take the picture on page 2i of your "Mother-Play 
Book," and read its story in a consecutive and relevant 
manner, so that anyone listening to you may get its mean- 
ing. Tell it so that these may see the whole picture, even 
though the book is not open before them. When you have 
caught the general truth embodied in this simple incident, 
and see its application to everyday life, — to anyone's prac- 
tical experience, — go and tell it to some mother, whose pe- 
culiar right it is to know of these things. Do not keep the 
seed thoughts you find, carefully concealed in your corner 
cupboard; bring them out into the light of everyday living 
and doing. 

Vol. 6-25. 


It is truth withheld and concealed and personalized 
which men have come to call mysticism and subtle philos- 
ophy. The kindergartner, of all students, knows the value 
and nobility of free expression. 

In our study of last month we found that the child's 
kingdom is one of incessant expressing, doing, being. This 
Froebel calls natural activity, {Selbst-thdtigkeit Kraft-duse- 
riing), spontaneous, involuntary expression. The child is 
the center of this kingdom, from which radiate a thousand 
forms of activity. 

What do we find in our lesson of today, which substan- 
tiates the former statement? You who have studied the 
picture, sung the song, and retold the story, — say, what 
added meaning have you found? 

•Yes, you find jnovoncnt everywhere. The children, their 
playthings, the fowl of the barnyard, the trees on the ter- 
race, the weather vane on the far steeple, — all tell the same 
story of animation. On every side there is a flutter and 
chatter and mysterious swaying. We feel the touch of the 
breeze upon our foreheads. We rush out into the soughing 
wind; we toss our arms; our locks free themselves from 
conventional order; and we are lifted into that freedom- 
mood which children know so well and so often. 

Now we have responded to nature's touch, and like the 
children, a hundred questions rush to our thought. What 
is this something which surrounds us, which includes us 
and the swaying trees and birds and steeple vane in one 
mysterious embrace? Whence comes this strange fellow- 
ship with rustling bushes, with moving windmill and sweep- 
ing clouds? What is the power which makes all things 
move? What is the unseen, hidden cause behind all this 
movement and activity? 

Instinctive questioning is a proof of the child's and 
man's search for truth. As you read Froebel 's own expla- 
nation (page 165 " Mother-Play and Nursery Songs") of this 
simple but inspiring incident in every child's life, you again 
learn of his method. This method is to begin in the near, 
and reach out into the far. Your own child at this mo- 


ment may have a crude windmill in his hand. It is your 
opportunity to help him experience the truth that so surely 
as he sees the movement which delights him, so surely is 
there a cause for this movement. Again, you see a group 
of boys, struggling and tinkering all day in their efforts to 
fly a disabled kite. What fond hope holds together their 
patience and perseverance? The lad who holds the reel 
of twine tells you with shining eyes. He has experienced 
the power and force of that invisible thing ordinarily called 
the wind. 

In innumerable similar incidents you see men and 
women and children, even animals, testing the cause by 
ever and again repeating the effect. Froebel would have 
this great instinct recognized and satisfied, that the divine 
demand on the part of little children may never become a 
piteous wail to ''Please let me see the wheels go round." 

Through natural experiences the children of the world 
learn to look behind every effect for the inevitable cause. 
Nature becomes the great effect of the one great Cause. It 
is a lesson the ages have sought to learn, through repeated 
generations of seasons and humanity. 

Is there a different causation behind the various objects 
in our story of the wind? Is each thing moved by a special 
or a common power? Can you tell from the details of the 
picture which way the wind blows? Of what import is it, 
that animate, inanimate, natural, conventional, great and 
small, high and low things,— things far and near,— are all 
moved by the same force? 

What truth do you formulate from this series of sugges- 
tions? How can you apply the same tomorrow morning in 
your kindergarten? Could you take the same lesson into 
your primary Sunday class and benefit the children? What 
songs, stories, games, or industries do you know, through 
which you might help the child to express this instinctive 
search for truth? Do you appreciate the charm ahd mys- 
tery of this familiar song (music as well as words)? 

I saw you toss the kites on high, 
And blow the birds about the sky; 


And all around I heard you pass, 

Like ladies' skirts across the grass. 
O wind, a-blowing all night long! 
O wind, that blows so loud a song! 

I saw the different things you did, 

But always felt yourself you hid; 

I felt you push, I felt you call; 

I could not see yourself at all. 

O you that are so strong and cold, 

O blower, are you young or old? 

Are you a beast of field and tree, 

Or just a big, strong child like me? 
O wind, a-blowing all night long! 
O wind, that blows so loud a song! 
There is another phase to this lesson of the weather 
vane. As you re-read the motto you find a hint of why our 
children imitate the things in movement about them: for 
the same reason that the boy waves the flag or plays at 
steam engine, — that he may experience, test, and estimate 
the force by which things go. The baby on your lap sees 
the weather vane turning hither and thither. He puts up his 
chubby hand to do the same, that he may produce the same 
result, you now know. Every effort to imitate the action 
about him is an effort to answer his own unspoken ques- 
tions, an effort to understand the why and wherefore of 
life. Name as many incidents as you can recall, from the 
experiences of children about, who instinctively seek to 
know by doing. What proof have we that adults follow the 
same law? — Ainalie Hofer. 


Shining through the dusk and dimness, 

Glittering through the film of night, 
Fell a star beam, till it rested 

At my feet its shaft of light. 
When lo! a thousand tiny star folk 

On this wondrous shimmering strand 
Glided down to earth from heaven, 

And chased night's shadows from the land. 

— Lesley Gletidoiver Peabody. 



A veritable Christmas box of dainty creatures from the 
woods arrived among our kindergartners recently, through 
the kindness of Miss Susan Blow. As the birds and lowlier 
creatures and artistic vases were one by one exhumed from 
their cotton wrappings, expressions of undisguised delight 
escaped all who saw them. In an accompanying letter 
Miss Blow writes: 

Avon, N. v., December 2, i8gj. 
I have been feeling for a long time that our kindergartens could 
never approximate to Froebel's ideal until we should carry out his sug- 
gestions with regard to excursions into the country. An interesting ex- 
periment in this direction has been made this fall in connection with 
the Normal School Kindergarten in Boston, now under the charge of 
Miss Mary N. Waterman of St. Louis. Remembering Froebel's insight 
that productive activity stimulates observation, it seemed to me impor- 
tant that the children should be led to make objects out of nuts, burs, 
twigs, etc. This idea was germinating in my mind when Miss Bloecker 
returned to me from her summer vacation. She became at once fired 
with the thought, and has, I think, developed some very interesting 
results. She is very quick to observe analogies of form and very ingen- 
ious in using them. I think she will develop a new and profitable kin- 
dergarten occupation. The following list of the materials she has used 
may be helpful to others who wish to experiment in the same direction: 

1. The maple tray is made by pasting a thoroughly pressed and 
dried leaf upon soft cardboard. A narrow margin of the cardboard is 
left around the leaf. This margin is slashed at regular intervals and 
turned up. The cardboard may either be gilded or left white. 

2. The acorn tea set requires no description. The sugar bowl, tea- 
pot, cream pitcher, and teacups are combinations of the acorns and 
their dainty saucers. The handles and spout are made of broom straw. 

3. The turtle is a raisin, with cloves inserted for head, feet, and tail. 

4. The teasel animal is rather generic than specific. We class him 
among the hedgehogs. The stems of the teasel furnish his legs; his 
head is a small thistle, which is riveted to his body by black pins 
which at the same time make his eyes. 

5. The body of the pig is a butternut; his ears are locust thorns; the 
legs budding twigs; the tail a grape tendril. The ears may be either 
riveted to the head with pins or fastened with fish glue. Small holes 
for inserting the legs and tail may be made in the body with a heated 
hat pin. 

6. The meadow lark is a milkweed pod with a maple seed for its 


7. Thus far no natural object has shown so many possibilities as 
golden-rod galls. Only those who have carefully observed these curi- 
ous growths can realize their varied adaptations. The pitcher sent you 
is a golden-rod gall just as it grew, with the addition of grape-tendril 
handle and decorations. The vase is an unchanged gall, mounted upon 
another gall cut through the middle. The lamp and goblet need no 

8. The body and neck of the ostrich were produced entirely by the 
golden-rod. Miss Bloecker simply added a maple-seed head, a grass 
tail, evergreen twigs for legs, and the little three-pronged stems of the 
grape for feet. The stork or crane was made in the same way, with the 
exception of his legs, which are long thorns. The flying creature, which 
I decline to class specifically, is a combination of the golden-rod gall, 
with maple-seed head, wings, and tail. (The product of this rare com- 
bination is a dainty winged creature which, hung by a thread, sug- 
gests the Japanese conventional ornaments.) 

Miss Bloecker herself suggests that these bird forms may 
well become a successful rival of the ungainly "paper-fold- 
ing chicken" which has delighted children for many gener- 
ations. She says, further: "It really seems as if there was 
no end to the developments which can be made from the 
golden-rod galls. I have made no special effort in looking 
for these curious growths, but found them growing in pro- 
fusion in every clump of golden-rod." 

The profit of such nature developments is inestimable. 
It not only interests children in nature by showing them 
what can be made from natural objects, but it reveals to 
them how fundamental and universal are the laivs of form. 
The body of the bird outlines the same curves and propor- 
tions as does the pod of the seed or fruit of the tree. 
There is a healthy flavor to this ingenious work, which 
recalls those blessed days of early childhood when with 
unstinted fervor we labored to transform every moss-grown 
rock into an easy-chair, and builded our house about it; or 
again, when we saw in every shady inclosure a spaciotis 
drawing-room, or, tracing winding paths in and out among 
the hazel-bushes, we saw mysterious approaches to dream 

Kindergartners need have no fears of being non-peda- 
gogical, when they are tempted to pass on from geometric 


and mathematical conventionalities into nature's own realm 
of "law revealed." In the name of our own favorite "law 
of recognition," let us search out the proofs of law existent 
in the humblest excrescence of the wayside golden-rod. — 


Question. The parents of this community have deter- 
mined to have a kindergarten, but they wish it held in the 
afternoon. Would you advise such a compromise? 

A?iszuer. The reason kindergartens have always been 
held in the forenoon is no doubt due to the fact that little 
children from three to six years old are accustomed to after- 
noon naps, and also because the morning is the golden time 
for learning and doing. In large public school districts it is 
sometimes granted because of necessity, to have afternoon 
sessions, but sufificient proof has been rendered to convince 
us that the morning hours from nine to twelve are better for 
the children than from 1.30 to 4 p. m. If their parents are 
anxious to have the children "out of the way" in the after- 
noon, they do not yet understand the purpose of the kinder- 
garten. Tell them again what is its object, and speak with 
fervor and conviction. The primary consideration is the 
greatest good to the children. 

Q. Can you suggest any good newspaper articles to pub- 
lish in our local press, for the purpose of giving the people 
here more of an idea of what kindergarten means? It is 
not well understood by many, and I think in this way they 
might become more interested. 

A. The best kind of an article for your home people 
would be a brightly written account of a morning in your 
own kindergarten, with such important points of the work 
woven in as you desire to bring home to them. If possible, 
interest your editor and his wife. Send us the address and 
we will mail them copies of our journals, and so increase 
their interest. Other material for this purpose is to be 
culled from journals and periodicals. Keep yourself posted 
as to the growth of the work, and you will be able to ex- 


press your accumulated knowledge in good form when re- 
quired. When you write or speak upon this subject, even 
though conscious of enlightening the public, do not take 
it for granted that the public is in opposition to the work. 
The public may be ignorant, and will be grateful for the 
knowledge you can give. 

Q. What do you consider the best book of songs and 

A. There are now ten or more good song books for kin- 
dergarten and primary use. Many of these are collections 
of the better songs which children have always loved. If 
possible have them all, and select those songs which fit your 
need best. No one of these books does the work of all. 
One gem of a song, which you can use for many seasons, is 
worth the price of the book. 

Q. As there are factions for and against our kindergar- 
ten work in the public schools here, I wish to make up my 
report for the year's work, with as much convincing argu- 
ment and as few quotations from Froebel as possible. Can 
you suggest any aids in the matter? 

A. You are quite right to avoid all cant and irrelevant 
quotations. This work is no longer an experiment, and 
there is sufficient formulated matter for use in such a report. 
Send to Mr. E. H. Long, superintendent of city schools, St. 
Louis, for his pamphlet, "Relation of the Kindergarten to 
the Public School." Also secure the Pratt Institute cata- 
logues, and the last annual reports of the superintendents of 
the city schools of Utica, N. Y., and of Superior, Wis. We 
reprinted the kindergarten section of the latter in our No- 
vember Kindergarten Magazine. Do not fear to make 
strong statements and give your own personal convictions, 
for even a formal report may be made vital and ringing. 

Q. Some members of our board of education still feel 
that the public kindergarten is a luxury, and that for econ- 
omy's sake there should be two sessions a day. Do you 
think a kindergartner could successfully hold two sessions 
a day, and do good work, with either the same or different 
sets of children? 


A. It is always a serious matter when the kindergarten 
has been put into the public schools before the hearty co- 
operation of the school committee is secured. The first few 
years of organizing and detailing this work are expensive 
ones, and the kindergarten will continue a luxury in the 
public schools, unless a responsible party thoroughly can- 
vasses the materials and supplies. These should be pro- 
vided in bulk quantities and on the most practical business 
basis. Well managed, supplies can be held within moderate 
expense. Hold fast to this point: if the kindergarten is 
put into the public schools, it must not be taken out from 
under the control of professional kindergartners. It is not 
a sub-primary grade. It is nothing unless its natural, home 
freedom is preserved. In regard to the matter of two ses- 
sions per day: if your school age admits children under five, 
these children ought by no means to have more than one 
half day in school. If your kindergarten children are over 
five, they still should have no more than four hours. In 
regard to two sessions per day of different sets of children, 
I have this to say: it is done in Milwaukee and St. Louis, 
evidently to good advantage, the teachers being paid in 
proportion to extra work; but the teachers who take the 
double day's work must be exceptionally stanch and spir- 
ited, else they fall into ruts before the first term is over. 
These situations are all relative to immediate environment. 
However, it is a safe rule in opening a new field of work to 
keep the bars up and compel recognition for the kindergar- 
ten, not as adapted and modified to the existing needs, but 
in its true state. 

Q. What cities in this country have kindergartens as a 
part of their public school systems? 

A. St. Louis, Boston, Philadelphia, Des Moines, Roches- 
ter, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Chicago (in part), Muskegon 
(Mich.), Grand Rapids, Portland (Me.), Hartford, Superior 
(Wis.), and others. Many cities have free and mission 
schools; but these are otherwise supported than by public 





In this article the subject of the last will be continued, — 
that of mental effects through tones. 

We had presented for our consideration in the previous 
article the tones of the tonic or doh chord (D), each of 
which we found may be quickly known by the peculiar 
character it possesses; that of doli being firm; of soh, bright; 
and of me, calm. 

The tones next in order are te and ray, which with soh 
form the dominant or soh chord (S). The character of te 
(the leading tone) is sharp or piercing, and the term ap- 
plied to it is keen; ray (the supertonic) is the prayerful 
tone, and the term applied to it is grave. This tone, as will 
be shown later, is the variable member of the scale, and at 
times it has a rousing effect, the latter depending upon the 
way in which it is approached. 

It will be observed that words of one syllable are used 
to signify the characters of the tones; these words are em- 
ployed in forming a mental-effect modulator, to be used as 
the sol-fa modulator is in singing. 

There still remain two more tones to be studied, — fah 
and lah, which with doh^ form the subdominant or fah 
chord (F). These two tones possess characters which dif- 
fer widely from those of the other five, that of fall (or sub- 
dominant), the desolate, awe-inspiring member of the scale, 
being signified in the term "stern"; that of lah (the sub- 
mediant), the plaintive or weeping member of this musical 
family, being signified in the term "sad." 

The accompanying diagrams will show the order in 
which these three principal chords of the scale are intro- 
duced to the pupil, until the seven primary tones, or the 
scale, of which these fundamental chords are composed, are 
taught and appreciated. 

It may be well to mention here that the octaves of these 
tones, with one exception, are also taught, so that the 


chords shall be maintained in their fundamental position, 
and that all the tones of the principal octave between doh 
and doh^ may be brought in. The exception referred to is 
the octave of me, which is not given, because the range thus 
presented would be too wide in the early stages of the 

[Note: Small letters are used for the names of the tones, 
and capitals for the names of the chords; e. g., d, D.] 

[Note: Tones belonging to higher or lower octaves are 
designated by figures placed respectively above or below, 
at the right of the tone name; e. g., doh^ , soh^, te^, doh~ . In 
the case of the higher octave the number is read first, as 
one-doh; and in that of the lower octave the tone name is 
read first, as soh-o}ie.~\ 

dohi dohi dohi dohi 

te te 

soh soil soh soh soh 


ray ray 

doh doh doh doh 

This subject, from the point here reached, will be con- 
tinued in the next article. A digression will now be made 
to consider the next most important element in music, — 
time, — the physical part of music. Time or rhythm, al- 
though second in importance, is very necessary because it 
gives form to music, and is that which appeals very 
strongly to most people. The importance of time in music 
is very plainly and quickly, shown to the pupil in a few sim- 
ple illustrations. 

From the moment music begins until its close there is a 
constant beating or pulsation occurring. The pidse is the 


unit of time, and the name given to it for practice is taa. 
With the aid of a few simple illustrations the pupil discov- 
ers the most important element of time is regularity; and 
further illustrations prove the second element to be accent, 
or the particular emphasis given to certain pulses, which, 
relieving the monotony resulting from regularity alone, 
gives an added pleasure to our enjoyment of music. These 
distinctions of the pulses as strong and weak produce meas- 
ure or form. The simplest kind of measure is that in which 
the strong and weak pulses alternate, — e. g., strong, weak; 
strong, weak, — the following signs being used to designate 
the pulses, I : | : ] forming two-pulse measure. Another 
arrangement of these two kinds of pulses, in which the 
strong pulse is less frequently heard, is the following: 
stro7ig, weak, weak; strong, weak, weak; making three-pulse 
measure. Mental effect is not restricted to tune; we find 
it also in time. The effect produced by two-pulse measure 
is that of strength, and is brought out in martial music, for 
instance. The effect produced by three-pulse measure is 
one of grace, and is exemplified in the waltz movement, or 
a flowing style of music. In other words, two-pulse meas- 
ure is the straight line in music, and by it we are reminded 
of the mdivch,— left, right, Qtc; three-pulse measure is the 
curve in music, and reminds us of the waltz, the lullaby, etc. 
We have referred to the important truth that words and 
music are closely united, that music is subordinate to the 
words. In this statement the relation of words and time is 
also included; in fact, as we advance in our study of rhythm 
we discover that particular divisions of the pulse or unit of 
time are necessary because of the arrangement of the syl- 
lables in words. The placing of the strong and weak ac- 
cents in words creates different forms of measure, — primary 
form, in which the strong pulse leads, and secondary form, 
in which the weak pulse has the first place; e. g.. 

Modifications of two-pulse and three-pulse measure are 
made by substituting a pulse of medium strength for every 
alternate strong pulse, which process makes four-pulse and 


six-p.ulse measure, respectively: | : j : ;, | : : j : : ||. The 
mental effect produced by these modifications of the sim- 
ple kinds of measure is more delicate than that which they 
possess, and four-pulse and six-pulse measure should be 
used where such an effect is desired. 

The third element of time — lengtli of tone — comes from 
the necessity of prolonging certain syllables in words, 
which will require tones longer than a pulse. In practice 
the vowel of the time name for the pulse taa is prolonged, 
taa-aa, and if the tone name is used the same is observed, 
— e. g., doh-oh, — and the sign used is a horizontal line: d — . 

The fourth and last element of time — speed, or the rate 
at which the pulses move — simply proves that the measure 
remains the same, no matter if the pulses move slowly or 

The subject of rhythm will also be continued in a later 
article. — Emma A. Lord, Brookly^i. 


(continued from last month.) 

Mrs. Bealert, who has charge of the oldest division of 
children in the kindergarten, writes as follows: "After our 
morning talk about the cave dwellers, who lived a long, long 
time ago in the Stone Age, when people had no nice furni- 
ture nor clothes, nor kindergartens for their little children, 
but lived in great holes in the earth and spoke a different 
language from ours, the children went to the sand table. 
By using rocks for the sides and top of the cave, soon 
great cave homes were finished, with paths leading down to 
a stream of water. One little fellow digging a hole said 
that he was making a spring. In a little while they were 
carrying water to the caves, in the clay vessels they had 
modeled a few days before. Then to make it yet more real, 
trees (sticks and fringed paper) were put all about in the 
sand, the hickory-nut tree being among them, where the 
children from the caves could gather the nuts. 

"The kindergartner asked what else they supposed was 


there. Soon some one thought of birds. They went to the 
table and folded birds that flew into the trees and drank 
from the stream. Afterwards one of the little ones said, 'I 
told Mamma about the people who lived in the caves.' 

"The game of the cave dwellers (on the circle) deepened 
the impression made at the sand table. Upon asking the 
children if they would like to play about what they had 
been thinking of before they came to the circle, one little 
fellow, who had taken an active part while working in the 
sand, said: 'Yes, about the caves.' Soon he and others 
were busy getting stones. Selecting two of the teachers as 
large rocks for the mouth of the cave, their clasped hands 
formed the roof. Rows of children behind them running 
back into a corner of the room finished the cavern, and a 
dark covering over the top obscured the light entirely. 

"The man and woman living there had four or five little 
cave children with them. Two or three children lying down 
not far from the cave represented a stream flowing from the 
spring, which was made of several children stooping in a 
half circle. The family, taking the vessels they had made 
of clay to the stream, bring Water to the cave, using chil- 
dren for these water jars, and dipping them into the 

"Other children are trees standing close together; many 
of them, swinging the First-gift balls, are nut trees. After 
the wind blows the nuts down the children run out of the 
cave and gather them to take to the cave, their home. 

"Our gift lesson was a rock quarry. The cave dwellers 
knew nothing of getting the rocks out of the earth, or they 
might have built themselves stone houses. They used only 
such stones as they found, and shaped for their uses by 
sharpening or grinding them against one another. With 
our building gifts how much we can make that the strange 
people in those early times knew nothing about. Ours is 
more the stone age than theirs was, because we can use 
stone so many more ways than they could. But most of all 
ours is the Electric Age. (Children are ever eager to talk 
about electric lights.)" 


It was suggested that we emphasize pottery and brick- 
making through our use of clay in the kindergarten, and 
glass through our use of the sand table, clay and sand 
forming component parts of the rock family. Slate, slate 
pencils, glass, plaster, and chalk are brought by the chil- 
dren, and their relationship to the rock family talked of. 
A brick house in process of building on an adjoining street 
is noticed, and we mention how these kin of the rock fam- 
ily are used. Brick walls are made with the material of 
the Sixth Gift, and the clay brick made by children, and 
the pottery shaped by them, are placed in brick and pottery 
kilns in the sand table, to be baked by slow heat. Clinton 
and his little brother Shelby try their hand at brickmaking 
after going home. Each brings a nicely shaped brick to 
kindergarten, Clinton's about four by two and one-half 
inches, and Shelby's three by two inches. They are thor- 
oughly baked by fire; the clay, after being made into the 
bricks, was carefully dried, and the two little bricklets were 
dropped into Mamma's grate in the midst of the glowing 

The brick kilns in the kindergarten were constructed ac- 
cording to the directions of one of the teachers whose 
father had a brickyard. The form of the brick of the 
Fourth Gift was noticed, and in building brick walls and 
laying brick pavements the different ways in which the 
bricks were placed — long, narrow faces and broad faces — 
were brought out. In modeling pottery forms from the 
sphere and cylinder, their likeness to the pottery of the 
Stone Age was noticed in contrast to the beautiful and per- 
fect forms of our fine china; but nevertheless the children 
are pleased with their own crude attempts, and we as kin- 
dergartners would not want their characteristic work spoiled 
by direct imitation of mechanically perfect forms. 

The children having learned that china and glass belong 
to the rock family, enjoyed their table play with the First 
Gift in this wise: working in groups of two or three, they 
had china stores where cups, vases, tumblers, and other 
ware were for sale, each one naming his goods as he thought 


best and handling the balls as carefully as if they were the 
v^eritable articles themselves. On coming to the circle at 
the hour for games, one of the little storekeepers was asked 
if she would not play a game she had learned about at the 
table. 'Yes,' she said, and soon, with some help, was 
building a china store; she and her assistant were very 
careful to choose good stone for the foundation and good 
brick for the walls, using a proper supply of mortar between 
the bricks. (Children compose the material for the store.) 
They soon get a full stock of goods (other children), and 
are ready for customers. A child in white was a lovely 
marble vase, soon purchased and taken home, where flowers 
were put in it, using the mouth for the opening. Then 
came a pink vase, a little girl in a pink dress. Then came 
cups and saucers and a pair of lamp shades, pitchers, etc., 
the little proprietor being careful to look at the tag before 
stating the price to the customer, in one instance saying the 
article had been reduced from one dollar to fifty cents. 

After several weeks' experience in handling and looking 
at the rocks and learning the names of each, a game was 
proposed testing the children's knowledge of them. The 
children were asked to stand around the circle with closed 
eyes; then when the kindergartner touched one, the child 
was to go to the center and select from a pile of rocks the 
one he would like to be. If he failed he was to go back to 
his place, and another could come forward. The kinder- 
gartners said Mother Nature wanted to make a pudding of 
these rocks, stirring them in as they named themselves; and 
very soon they looked quite like a conglomerate which the 
kindergartner showed them. 

Toward the last of our special subject, "the rock family," 
the children were asked to bring to the kindergarten in a 
paper as much earth, and whatever was in it, as they could 
well carry, asking their mammas for a knife to loosen the 
earth, if they were allowed to dig it up in their back 
yards. "I might find a fishing worm," spoke up Clifford. 
*'Well, you can bring the fishing worm then." Such neatly 
tied up packages as were brought! We compared the dif- 

Vol. 6-27 


ferent loams and found rocks that matched them in color. 
"Do you know what rocks are made of, Mary?" "Yes, 
they're made of dirt," announced Mary. "Men make 
rocks," said James. "Do you think men can make rocks?" 
asked the kindergartner. " It is only God who can do that." 
"I would know that God made the rocks if nobody ever did 
tell me," said Ida confidently. 

Our songs this month have been few. We have tried to 
sing together pure tones, and the children have enjoyed 
the musical steps of eight children graduated in size, each 
sounding his own tone in the octave. Then we have been 
steamboats passing each other on the river, each sending to 
the other its own particular whistle, which means " Go to the 
right." The musical steps were led up to by the children's 
listening intently to the different sounds produced by strik- 
ing the window, a tumbler, the door, etc. All through our 
games and at certain times on the circle, such as when 
hands bid "Good morning," or we remain quiet a few mo- 
ments, soft melody comes from the piano. We are glad to 
have Miss Hill's song book, for we find that children's 
voices are not adapted nor are their emotions fitted for 
much of the music heretofore prepared for them. 

Some of our most spontaneous expressions of joyous yet 
thoughtful activity were called out by our talk about glass, 
— its transparency and the beautiful colors with which it is 
sometimes tinted. We noticed the window glass through 
which the sunbeams came. "How many little children 
would like to have a bright flower growing in a window? 
Each one of us can show it." Children raise arms, clasping 
hands over head as they see kindergartner do. "I see a 
flower in every window, and the glass is so clear the sunlight 
can come right through." Other children go softly to these 
flowers, touching them as sunbeams; for cannot they go 
through glass? Again, certain children form a greenhouse 
by standing some distance apart, and with clasped hands 
framing windows and doors. The roof is also glass. We 
now put away our flowers for the winter from outdoors 
(children in bright-colored dresses for flowers), and again 


the sunbeams dance through the doors and windows, touch- 
ing the flowers to help them keep bright and blooming. 
The prism throws its rainbow radiance upon the wall, and 
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet rays dart about 
the room (children each with a colored ball of the First 
Gift). Another time the sun (child standing with arms en- 
circling head) is surrounded by children, each with right 
arm extending outward for radiating rays. They leave the 
sun, their home, and flit about, finding what they can that 
needs their warmth and brightness. 

Our beautiful rock, encrusted with its crystal facets of 
wonderful size and radiance, flashes in the veritable sun- 
light that floods the room. It makes us think of the other 
precious stones hid in the bosom of Mother Earth, each 
one of which, as it comes to light, can truly say, "I too be- 
long to the great rock, family, for of one substance are we 
made — the earth." — Laura P. Charles, Lexington, Ky. 


Perhaps of all the exercises in the kindergarten, that of 
play causes us the greatest anxiety. To make it what it 
should be to the child, to reach Froebel's own high idea, 
seems impossible. When we stand among the children, and 
see the listlessness of some and the lack of attention and 
enthusiasm among others, we must indeed feel sick at heart 
and realize that something is radically wrong. To some, 
the above picture may seem overdrawn, and I sincerely 
hope that it may to all; but are we satisfied with the results 
of our period for play? What is the object of this period? 
Is it not to give opportunity for physical exercise, for the 
play of the imagination, for the creative powers, and to 
make glad the heart of the child? Must we not remember 
that the whole child comes to the circle, and see that indeed 
the mind and heart and body of the child are employed? 
Is it not possible that instead of playing tvith the children 
we make them play with us? that our personality so over- 
shadows them that we shut them out from their own pure 
atmosphere of spontaneity, originality, and mirth? Do you 


think Johnny will often play with Tom of his own free will 
and accord, if he must always play as Tom wants to? Or 
does Ruth often join in the game, when by common consent 
she is forced to play audience because Jennie or Sue can do 
it so much better, so much more gracefully? 

Let us, for a moment, put ourselves in the children's 
places. We are about to join in a period of recreation, and 
there stands one among us who has asked to play zvith us 
{with us) and yet directs, criticises, or suggests at every 
turn; one who, because she is so much larger than we are, 
it is hard, even at the best, to realize she is really one with 
us; and do you think it would be possible to draw from the 
period the good we might otherwise have had? Yet is not 
this just the position we too often take with our children? 
Must we not, as kindergartners, play with the children? so 
lose ourselves that all that differentiates us from the child 
is absolutely lost to him, and we have in truth become, for 
the time being, little children? 

Who has not seen a child so absorbed in watching a bird 
as to be completely lost to all immediate surroundings? 
He watches him as he flies from tree to tree, or hops about 
in search of crumbs; sees him as he stops to drink and 
bathe at some tiny pool; and tell me if you think that one 
of us could imitate that bird as he would. Impossible. We 
had eyes, but we saw not as the child saw; for so completely 
had he entered into that bird's existence, for the moment, 
so utterly unconscious is he of self, that to be a bird, and 
that bird, would be but a natural outlet to all the pent-up 
feelings in his little soul. 

Therefore if our morning talk and gift work have been 
such as naturally suggest the bird games, not only to our 
minds but to the minds of the children, ask, "Who has 
ever seen a bird fly and can show me how, that I may fly?" 
Immediately the circle is filled with happy, joyous birds, to 
whomx the actual surroundings have disappeared. If, by 
chance, some bird is flying with wings only partially out- 
spread, you have only to express the fear that thai bird will 
fall to earth, to see them at once extended. 


Then what is more natural than that after flight the chil- 
dren light and hop about in search of crumbs? Indeed, 
you need not be surprised to see one and another and an- 
other fly to an imaginary pool, drink and bathe, and then 
fly off to a neighboring tree to plume. 

One has only to try this natural method to see the chil- 
dren's enthusiastic delight in the kindergarten games. So 
imaginative and creative are they, that, when left to them- 
selves in this way, one seldom sees even a very simple game 
played twice in quite the same way. 

In closing I would say, never dictate a motion to rep- 
resent any living object in a world which is so much nearer 
to the child than to us; rather draw it from him; and if this 
be impossible, lead him back to Nature and let him learn of 
her. — Grace A. Wood, Boston. 


The request comes from a troubled Connecticut kinder- 
gartner to have the following homely questions practically 
answered by wiser or more experienced workers. We in- 
vite these answers to be made in the February number of 
this magazine. 

1. What can be done to prevent the children from lean- 
ing upon the tables? what to keep them from tipping the 
chairs back? and how may these habits be permanently 

2. What is the best way to divide the three hours of 
the morning session into proportionate work and play 
time? If a half hour is left over after the regular work, 
how shall it be best filled? 

3. Is it wise to tell a story every day, or does that lead 
to the familiarity that breeds contempt? 

4. Should the games always bear directly on the subject 
of the morning talk, and how shall we regulate this when 
the children are left to free choice? 






( Written for the ''Kindergarten Magazine") 



The goblins had enjoyed 

"•■.. their trip to the moon so much 

"■•.. ■•. that they made up their minds 

to pay a little visit to the dif- 

- ferent planets, and see what 

Sixty ■ • ^ 

■ they were like. As they had 
; heard that it was rather uncom- 
. fortably warm on Mercury, the 
planet which is the next-door 
neighbor to the sun, they de- 
cided to pay a visit to the 
planet Venus, which is just be- 
tween Mercury and our earth. The planet Venus was 
just at that time shining in the western sky early in the 
evenings, and looked very beautiful indeed. She had 
adorned herself with a very bright dress of sunbeams, 
which she had borrowed from the sun, and she shone far 
more brilliantly than any of the stars in the sky. She 
seemed very well satisfied with herself, the goblins said, as 
they looked at her through a big telescope they found on 
the top of a house which people called an observatory. 
The owner of the telescope was taking a peep at Venus, 
himself, when the goblins slipped in; and whilst he was 
making some notes in a book, they all had a good look. 
They had only just crept out of the way in time, when the 
astronomer closed the dome of the observatory with a snap, 
and one little goblin narrowly escaped being snapped in 

However, the goblins were now determined to visit the 
beautiful planet Venus, for they had heard so much about 
it, and that it was very much like our own earth; also that 
it was nearly as large as our earth, and much larger than 
the planet Mercury. They heard that the days were about 


thirty-five minutes shorter than 
ours, but that the year lasted 
only 225 days. As Venus travels 
much nearer to the sun than our 
earth does, the sun not only ap- 
pears twice as large, but was also 
much warmer, as the goblins 
soon found out for themselves 
as they came nearer to Venus. 

They also found that she was ^ ,, 

, , . , CrobUTi5 on. Vtti.u.5 

surrounded with a mantle or 

clouds, which glistened brightly in the sunlight; but as the 
goblins made their way to the planet they made the disagree- 
able discovery that it was raining, and raining hard, too. In 
fact, they were told that it is nearly always raining there; 
and as they could get all the rain they wanted on earth, 
without taking a trip to Venus, they made up their minds 
to return home again as soon as they could. They were 
indeed sadly disappointed in Venus, for they had expected 
to find her covered with bright and sparkling silver; and 
instead of that, she was only made of mud and gravel, just 
as our own earth is; and as it rained continually, there was 
far more mud than gravel. Then the goblins were sur- 
prised to find that she had borrowed all her light from the 
sun, just as our moon does. When the goblins bade fare- 
well to this planet, they could not help thinking that this 
was certainly a case where "distance lent enchantment to 
the view," and that as Venus looked decidedly better wdien 
seen from afar, they preferred to return to their own little 
earth, and watch her from a comfortable distance, where she 
would appear again as beautiful as ever. After deciding to 
take their next trip to the planet Mars, they said good-by, 
and cordially wished each other a bright and happy new 
year. — Mary Proctor. 



Jack Frost looked forth one clear, still night, 
And whispered, "Now is the sun all out of sight. 
So through the valley and over the height 

In silence I'll take my way. 
I will not go on like the blustering train, — 
The wind, the snow, the hail, and the rain. 
Who make so much bustle and noise in vain, 

But just as busy I'll be as they." 

So he flew to the mountain and powdered its crest, 
He lit on the trees, and their boughs he dressed 
In diamond beads, and over the breast 

Of the quivering lake he spread 
A coat of mail, that it need not fear 
The downward point of many a spear 
That he hung on its margin far and near, 

Where a rock could rear its head. 

He flew to the windows of those who slept. 
And over each pane like a fairy crept; 
Wherever he breathed, wherever he stepped, 

By the light of the moon were seen 
Most beautiful things: there were flowers and trees; 
There were bevies of birds and swarms of bees; 
There were cities and temples and towers, and these 

All pictured in silver sheen. 

He went {sLt/irst this seemed hardly fair) — 
He went to the cupboard, and finding there 
That all had forgotten for him to prepare, — 

"Now, just to set them a-thinking, 
I'll touch this basket of fruit," said he; 
"And this plate of bananas here, — one, two, three, — 
And the glass of water they've left for me. 

Shall tick! to tell them I'm drinking." 

— /. McA. 



Turn-ing whirl-ing, turn - ing, whirl-iog-, Stitching all the day, 

Whirl-ing turn-ing-, whirl-ing, turn-ing Work is done to stay. Your 

bu - sy 





g fas 

t, An 




how I 



1 For 


\ ] - • 





-J— a 
1 — • 


, J^ 

• ^ 


— ? — F — T— 

J^-^" ^ 

A — * r _j 

:y-fH — i 


— '— 

"* " 







^ : 

they move they say to me. Ma -chine! go fast or slow. 

From "Song Stories for the Kindergarten," by permission. 



When our young philosopher is about three months old 
the awakening of his consciousness begins. It is the con- 
quest of his limitations that makes a man greater than he 
that taketh a city. So the child is to become a soldier in 
the beginning of this mastery, and the wise mother will 
commence the training that will bring about the voluntary 
service in the conquest of this self — which must be mas- 
tered by slow degrees in early life; for if there is not 
voluntary self-mastery in youth, which gives freedom in 
maturity, there will be compelled submission to fate, or 
destiny, whose discipline is stern and inexorable, and eman- 
cipation from its bondage slow and painful. 

The will is the special faculty of the soul that is to 
be developed harmoniously, disciplined and strengthened. 
The great purpose of all true education is the training of 
the individual will into harmony with the universal, the 
divine will. For as soon as the individual determines of 
himself to will only the will of God, his education is com- 
plete. The philosophy underlying the kindergarten system 
aims to lead the mother into such intimate relationship with 
nature, law, and progress that she may with wise intuition 
consciously direct the baby life in play, in the way that will 
develop in the child the greatest amount of well-directed 
self-determining power. In glad play the mother can di- 
rect the action of the little dimpled limbs, and from vague, 
aimless movement she can surely develop clearly defined 
purpose and power. Froebel tells us how we have been 
doing it unconsciously for ages; and it is on this instinctive 
play with the child on the part of the mother that he has 
founded his system of child training through play. His 
great mission to the world was to awaken women to a con- 


sciousness of their power that they might intelligently 
guide the wills of their children toward divine unfoldment. 
The parents should be filled with the idea that life here on 
the earth is a glorious privilege, wherein the human will 
conforms itself consciously with the divine. This thought 
will invest the humblest duty or service with divine sig- 
nificance. The simple play between mother and child is 
of holy import, and should be as joyously spontaneous 
with the mother as with the child. Study the "Play of the 
Limbs" in the "Mother- Play Book," and from its simple 
instruction evolve from your own instinctive mother life 
the conscious intelligence necessary for the right directing 
of the child's growing energy. 

When the child begins to look about vaguely, hang a 
soft red or bright orange-colored ball where he can rest his 
eyes upon it without any strain on the muscles of the eyes. 
Hang it within his reach, so that when the desire comes to 
grasp it he can easily do so. The ball should be soft, that 
it may be agreeable to his touch. He will be interested 
in this ball for many days or weeks, and then he will want 
to use his limbs more freely and vigorously, as every 
mother knows so well. The aimless movements of the 
hands and feet can be so directed as to gradually awaken 
in him a purpose in these movements. Press your hands 
against his hands and place his feet against your breast, and 
encourage him to push with all his strength. His delight 
in thus testing his newly discovered strength should be 
fully equaled by your joy in his awakening intelligence and 
activity. Joyous, glad response on the part of the mother 
cannot be overestimated. If she is glad, the child will be 
also; and motherhood should be supremely joyous, and all 
phases of the babe's unfolding strength and awakening 
intelligence should be greeted with hearty joy from the 
mother. Mother, it is in your power to so direct the will of 
your child in play that all the opposition he meets through 
life may be but a glad testing of strength to him, day by 
day, year by year. Think how much you can do for your 
child if you are able to direct his amusements, even, until 


he has reached maturity! Through play, the child will 
grow strong in body, will learn to move his limbs with a 
definite purpose, and the mind awakens to an intelligent 
consciousness of its bright and happy surroundings. — A/ma 
N. Kendall. 


There are gains for all our losses, 

There are balms for all our pain; 
But when youth, the dream, departs. 
It takes something from our hearts, 
And it never comes again. 

We are stronger, we are better. 

Under manhood's sterner reign; 
But we feel that something sweet 
Followed youth with flying feet. 
And will never come again. 

Something beautiful is vanished. 

And we sigh for it in vain. 
We behold it everywhere, 
On the earth and in the air. 

But it never comes again. 

These lines place plainly before us the usual thought 
that almost everything nice belongs to childhood and 
youth, and that relegates to later life almost nothing but 
burdens, sighs, and regretful feelings. However, the time 
for calmly accepting customary ideas is passing, and we 
are going to think a little before we admit that we must 
passively accept so uninviting a fate. 

The "something sweet" is natural to youth, because 
youth knows not care; but that it "is vanished," while we 
still "behold it everywhere," is not only a fallacy in verse, 
but in reality. It is around us, "on the earth and in the 
air," and it can "come again," if we have been so unwise as 
to allow it to "follow youth with flying feet." In truth, if 
"when youth, the dream, departs, it takes something from 


our hearts," it is our own fault if we allow the "some- 
thing" to go, and the grand mistake of a lifetime if we do 
not seek to recover it as soon as we discover the loss. 

The arrival of the time when we must accept care and 
responsibility does not necessarily imply the departure of 
sweetness, freshness, and buoyancy. The spirit with which 
we accept earnest life makes all the difference. We can 
take up every burden with a growl or a groan, or a frown- 
ing "Oh, how heavy you are!" or we can meet it with a 
cheery laugh, and say "Come on; I'll carry you. You shall 
not get the best of me." 

The spirit of youth stops at nothing; knows no fear; 
has the smile ready before the tear; is optimistic; grasps 
every present good and enjoyment; does not search for 
blots upon the landscape, or for faults in friends, or for 
things to worry about; crosses no bridges before they are 
reached; and when reached, crosses with a happy readiness 
any description of bridge, be it a narrow, shaking piank, a 
slippery log, a treacherous draw, a railroad bridge with 
only ties to walk upon, or a respectable, well-built, stone- 
foundationed, safe structure across a peaceful stream. 

This spirit of youth, which is a perfect armor in the 
battle of life, we must strive to retain, as we must strive for 
all qualities of character, as well as for all material advan- 
tages, when we reach the age of understanding. We see it 
developed in a few choice characters. They are the people 
always in demand. They are the good friends; the ones 
we choose to be with; who uplift us when we are sunken 
deep in despondency, who cheer us and make us believe 
life is worth the living. They are the efficient ones in 
times of emergency. They meet death itself with a smile, 
and with thoughts not of its terrors, but of the friends 
about them. 

Such people, it is noticeable, are always fond of chil- 
dren; and the children, in return, adore them. And why? 
The child recognizes a kin to its own nature. The "some- 
thing sweet" is not missing. The congeniality is perfect. 

Surely, then, there can be no better way to keep or to 


gain this enviable spirit than by holding close intimacy 
with youth! For those of us who have children, this is 
easy to accomplish. We can grow up a second time with 
them. The world is ever moving onward, and between the 
time of our own childhood and the time of our children's 
childhood, new and better methods of doing, saying, and 
thinking are developed. We must not hug too closely our 
more aged ideas, but endeavor to be receptive. 

Not long ago, a father whose daughter was taught in 
school to use the broad sound of the letter "a," informed 
her, upon her endeavor to carry out her instruction in her 
conversation, that she might talk after that fashion in 
school if she were obliged to, but he did not want to hear 
any of it about him. This is the spirit that helps us to 
grow old. If we cling so to the old, we must become old. 
If we grasp the new and fresh thoughts, will we not keep 
youthful and fresh minded ourselves? With our children 
around us full of growing thoughts and blossoming ideas, 
we are so encompassed with chances to keep young that 
we have actually to resist them. We do, and there goes 
the "something sweet." 

"Our day is past," we say. "It is the young folks' turn 
now." Never was a greater mistake. Our day is not past 
until our eyes are closed forever. We can play with our 
children, read with them, learn with them, enjoy with them. 
Do you not know you can enjoy your boy's first baseball 
nine as much as you did your own? But you don't. You 
go off to a corner of the piazza or to your den, and smoke 
your cigar and look solemn, and brood over your young 
days gone. Why don't you go to work and have them over 
again? Take off your coat and your stiff collar, take up 
the bat, and limber out your arms once more. Coach the 
youngsters. You will be surprised at the result in yourself 
and in your son. You will feel young, and he will seek 
your companionship, and be so proud to have "his father" 
as an umpire when his "nine" plays a match game! 

And the mother sits worrying because father made five 
hundred dollars less this year than last; and wondering 


what things are coming to; and troubling about the serv- 
ants, when nine times out of ten she, to say nothing of 
them, would be far better off if left alone even in thoughts. 
Let her turn to her boys and girls, see what they are doing, 
and enter in. Let her have a game of checkers with Tom; 
or let her play "hide and seek" with the smaller ones; or 
let her help Edith dress up a doll house; and let her not 
only go through the form of the play, but let her throw off 
her years, put on youthfulness, as an actress changes her 
appearance in the green room; and let her enter heartily 
into the play, no matter though it be an effort at first. It is 
safe to promise that before she knows it she will be feel- 
ing five years younger, and will have forgotten all about the 
five hundred dollars. 

Don't I know what I am talking about? Didn't I feel 
•myself growing stiff and en?nncd, and didn't I see my boy 
traveling in one direction while I traveled in another — or, 
rather, sat still? And didn't I learn tennis to see if it 
would mend matters any? And don't I find that when I 
am physically tired and mentally worn out, that a brisk 
turn on the courts will make me a juvenile again? And 
doesn't my boy often hunt me up, and don't we have some 
good sets together? And didn't he come to me the other 
day and say, "Why, Mamma, you're the only mother I 
know that plays tennis!" And don't I know he thinks I'm 
jolly and young and nice? And don't I feel so, too? I 
assure you that the exertion the beginning cost me has 
repaid me a dozen times. 

You see I am not claiming that the "something sweet" 
which is natural to youth, is as natural to older years. 
Some natures retain it more easily than others; but I con- 
tend that all natures may attain it by effort. 

Oh, if people only knew how young they might be all 
their lives if they only would! If they only would not 
make themselves grow old! If the time, force, and vitality 
used up in retrospecting, in regretting youth, and in efforts 
to accept what is thought inevitable and grow old — if all 
this power were only turned in another direction and put 


forth in a determination to simply be young, the result 
would be surprising! 

It may be unbelievable that games with children, talks 
with them, walks with them, — in a word, real, intimate com- 
panionship with them as one of them, is enjoyable or even 
possible. We stand upon the summit of our years and gaze 
down upon them. We stretch down a long arm. They 
can just grasp the tip of our longest finger with their small 
hands; and so, with our heads high in air, we travel along, 
side by side, yet far apart. Would we but descend from 
our high and mighty position, to get down among them, 
and, dropping our conventionally gained wisdom, bend our 
heads to heed their lisping words, watch their miniature 
doings, and follow their quaint thoughts, we would find 
ourselves in a world we knew not existed about us. It is a 
sunny world, full of sweetness, for the hearts of its inhab- 
itants are fresh and pure; full of truth, for the souls that 
dwell there reflect, mirror-like, its thoughts; full of logic, 
for the minds that move it are unbiased; full of honesty, 
for the little people are not troubled by considerations. In 
this world exists the fountain of perpetual youth. We may 
drink of it if we will. 

And do you know, it all resolves itself into a saying 
from that wonderful Book in which we find a simple, true 
expression for so many of our thoughts, — "Except ye be- 
come as a little child, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of 
heaven." Those possessed of the spirit of youth are carry- 
ing around in their hearts a perpetual kingdom of heaven; 
and how much wiser to have it here now than to postpone 
it indefinitely! 

Thus would we make our lives to consist of, first, our 
first childhood, when we are naturally happy and joyful; 
then our second childhood, when, though "we are stronger, 
we are better," we still insist upon keeping the "something 
sweet"; and lastly, when our muscles are tired and ready 
to relax, and our life is almost spent, we sit dozing, and 
dreamily and enjoyingly live over, during our third child- 
hood, not only the few first careless years of life, but the 


many more of a youthful, joyous, cheerful existence. — Bar- 
retta Brown. 


One bright October morning the sun was shining across 
the hills, and we Maple leaves, swinging back and forth in 
our Mother Maple's arms, were warming ourselves by his 
big bright fire. Dear Mother Maple was in a broad smile 
as she saw her rosy children in the morning sunshine wear- 
ing dresses of a beautiful red, a real carmine. You have 
seen the exact color in your paint boxes, I know, and the 
children who go out into the woods in the fall know exactly 
how we looked. 

Think what a dear, good mother we had! She wove the 
goods and cut every one of our gowns by the same pattern, 
I believe, only she made some larger and some smaller, just 
to suit the size of every one of us. 

And besides us Maple children there were — oh! ever so 
many other nice children out there on the mountain side. 
There was good Mrs. Sumach, one of our nearest neighbors; 
her children loved red, too, so all the little Sumachs wore 
red frocks; just as red as could be, they were, too, when the 
sun shone on them. Then next door on the other side was 
where Mrs. Sourwood lived. Now don't think her children 
were not nice because they had that kind of name, for they 
were just as well behaved and had on just as nice red fall 
gowns as any of us; not quite so "fixy" as ours, but then 
such a lovely shade of red! I think she borrowed Mrs. Su- 
mach's pattern to cut them by, and changed it ever so little 
to suit her taste. 

But I forgot; I started to tell the story of us Maple chil- 
dren, and here I am telling you about my neighbors. But 
they were so lovely I couldn't help saying something about 

As I was saying, we Maple children were swinging back 
and forth, back and forth, now high, now low, when we 
heard a voice saying, "Please, Papa, do get me some of 

Vol. 6-26 


those beautiful Maple leaves. Oh, they are so lovely!" 
"Yes, Gracie," he said; and just then a strong hand took us 
from our Mother Maple's arms and laid us in a pretty little 
cart drawn by two ponies, and away we went down the road. 
I looked back to catch a last glimpse of our mother, but a 
sudden turn in the road hid her from view. Of course at first 
I wanted to be back with our beautiful mother, Mountain 
Maple, but when I looked up and saw how glad we were 
making the little girl called Gracie, we were soon glad too. 
Then when we saw she could not run along like other chil- 
dren, but had to lean on her papa's arm when she got out 
of the cart and went into the house, we were so glad we had 
pleased her! 

She took us into a pretty room — her room, she called it 
— where there were such dainty curtains at the windows, — 
something like the cobwebs we had seen out on the moun- 
tains, — and all kinds of pretty things on tables and all 
about, and holding us up, said: "Now, Papa, won't I be 
happy when I show these to the little children here in our 
great big city, who never saw such beautiful leaves before?" 

He patted her cheek and smiled; for he loved her, I 
could see. 

Soon she laid us gently away between the leaves of a 
big book, then put a whole lot more on top, to "press" us, 
she said. We wondered what she wanted to do with us, for 
we thought the little children she spoke of couldn't see us 
there, all shut up in the dark between the leaves of a book. 
But in a few days she took us out, saying, "Oh, my darling 
Maple children, you didn't know why Gracie pressed you 
so hard, did you? Well, I wanted to keep you beautiful 
and bright all winter long, after the snow falls, when all 
of your little sister Maples and neighbors, the Sumachs and 
Sourwoods, will be out there on the mountain in the cold, 
under the snows, with their dresses all wet and the color 

Laughing is catching, and her smiling face made us 
smile, too, not thinking she could see us; but she said, "Oh, 
my little ones, I see how bright you are looking! I knew 

mothers' department. 417 

you would be happy, because you are going to make ever 
so many little children happy by and by." 

She took a soft brush and gave every one of us a nice 
shining coat of white varnish, that made us look real pretty, 
we thought; and then, shutting us up in a box, she left us 
there a long time, it seemed to us. But by that time we 
didn't mind it much, for we believed what Gracie told us, 
and knew she would bring us out some day. 

Early one morning when we were dozing so quietly, 
waiting for her to come, she put her hand in and held us 
up. Sure enough, there were ever so many little bright 
eyes gazing at us as if they never saw our like before. 
Then our Gracie said, "See, my little friends, while we are 
enjoying our Christmas dinner, I thought we would want 
something bright and cheery to look at; so I will hang 
these crimson Maple leaves right here on the wall, with the 
ivy and holly; then when we are ready to go home I will 
pin a red, rosy leaf on each little coat, and you may take it 
home with you to keep and remember our joyful Christmas 

Just then ever so many little hands clapped, and ever so 
many little feet danced, and ever so many little tongues 
said, "Oh, I'm so glad — so glad! Our Father sent it, — 
didn't he, — just like he did our good dinner." And all 
thought how they would make mother glad when they 
showed her the beautiful Maple-leaf child. — A. Bealert, Lex- 
iiigtoti, Ky. 


In these days when parents are tempted to purchase the 
service of their own children, it is often a difficult matter to 
secure the proper appreciation for service rendered unless 
paid for. It may be profitable for children to know the 
values of money and trade, and it may be desirable in some 
cases to make ways of earning money open to them. But 
the line should be sharply drawn to duty, and voluntary 
helpfulness and expressions of affection rendered in un- 


counted services. A foreigner visiting our land during the 
past year, has somewhere caught the impress that business is 
the ruling god of our universe. He substantiates his ac- 
cusation by quoting how little children fill their ornamental 
banks with dimes and dollars earned by doing favors for 
their fathers and mothers. 

Every child can understand the duty of helping in the 
home, because he has a constant object lesson before him, — 
mother doing all day long. Every child can understand 
that one good turn deserves another. Every child is anx- 
ious to be useful, and needs only a little encouragement. 
Every child enjoys being a factor in the world's work; he 
needs but be appreciated. All these points of knowledge 
may be brought to children in stories and songs. 

The Christmas story in the Child-Gardoi is named "St. 
Christopher." It tells of an earnest saint who worked long 
and hard and unquestioningly in ordinary ways for many 
years. He always did the duty just at hand. One day it 
came to him to carry the Christ child across the stream, and 
he learned the lesson of what comes to him who waits. Do- 
ing one's duty makes a substantial background of character 
which nothing else may gainsay. 

Mothers, whose years of unstinted, unregretted labor 
bring them the fruits of a glad and joyous household of use- 
ful men and women, know what this reward is. A child 
should never know by word or action that parental duty is 
irksome. All children should know that humble, hard, un- 
rewarded work is still a privilege. That royal German 
motto, '' Ich dien," might be written over every nursery door- 
way with righteous effect. Willing service makes St. Chris- 
tophers, who, because ready for every duty and opportunity, 
never miss the great ones when they come. — A. H. 


It was the day before Christmas. There was a jolly 
bustle and hustle all through the house. Everybody was 
getting everything ready. 


Nannie had just been laying the library fire in the grate, 
and had gone to carry out the ash pan. The fender was 
pushed back and the screen was off at one side, so Noel and 
Mary could step right close and look up the chimney. 

Noel put his hands on his knees and almost put his nose 
in the soot, as he tried to get a good view. "I don't see, 
Sister, how Santa Claus can get down there." 

Little Mary strained her blue eyes to see up the dark 
hole, and shook her blond curls, saying: "I don't know." 

" It's just awful small," said Noel sadly; then he shouted: 
"But oh, goody! I can see the top; truly, I can see right 
through to the sky." 

His nose was in the soot now; but no matter. Sister's 
curls were, too, as she exclaimed: "That makes it all right, 
of course." 

"He'll have to squeeze pretty much; he'll have to 
squeeze like jelly," said Noel. 

"Will he cry?" asked Sister, sympathetically. 

"Oh no! he's a brave man; he won't cry. Besides, if he 
did he would get his face too dirty, crying in that soot. I 
tell you how I guess he does: he's probably like our rubber 
ball; don't you know how it all squeezes up flat, and then 
pops out all right?" 

"That's the way he does, I know," said Sister, clapping 
her hands, "Now we know how he can come." 

"He's bound to come, that's sure; but it's good we can 
see how." 

"Is he sure to come to everybody? How can he have 
enough things?" 

"Well, he doesn't always have enough for poor children. 
I think we ought to help him." 

"I think so too. Let's give him our pennies, so he can 
get something for everybody." 

"All right; then we will." 

The children brought their little purses and laid them in 
the throat of the chimney, where Santa Claus would be sure 
to see them. They were sure he would understand about it, 
for he understands everything. 


Nannie put the grate in order and went on with her 
work, and the children went back to their play. When they 
grew hungry, before lunch, Noel said: "I should think 
Santa Claus would get hungry today too, he has so much to 
do; suppose we fix him a little lunch." 

"Yes, that would please him^ — dear old Santa! We will 
save him some from our lunch." 

Mamma was busy at lunch time, so the children were 
left to themselves. They took some bread and chicken and 
cookies, and wrapped them in a piece of tissue paper as 
they had seen Mamma fix World's Fair lunches, and laid 
the package close in the corner by the fender. There 
Mamma found it when hanging-up-stocking time came. 
Noel told what they wanted to do, and Mamma's eyes were 
very bright, as she said: "I will help Santa Claus too." 

Together with Papa she packed a big basket with good 
things to eat, warm things to wear, and some toys, and an 
envelope with money in it. Then the children said "Sweet 
good night!" and went off to bed and lovely dreams. 

What do you suppose they found in the morning? Full 
stockings, of course; full to overflowing — just perfectly 
splendid. But there were the basket and the purses, with a 
little note, saying: 

"My sweet children, thank you very much for the lunch; 
it was just what I wanted. I want you to know what a won- 
derful, beautiful thing Christmas giving is, so you may help 
me by leaving this basket at the Flinn's and the purses at 
the mission school; then you will understand better than 
ever what a gloriously happy man is 

"Your friend, S. C." 

"Oh, Mamma, may we?" exclaimed the children. 

"Yes; Papa and I will go too." 

So the family started off with a sled load. They almost 
cried when they saw the joy of the poor children; and they 
learned that bright morning the best meaning of Christmas, 
for Noel said: "I am going to help Santa Claus every time; 
Christmas giving is so much better than Christmas getting." 
— Hal Owen. 



Said Mamma to Baby one Christmas night, 

"Now for our bedtime frolic, my dear! 
Let's sit by this window, in the warm light, 

So when Papa comes, he can see us here." 
And thus with their rollicking, romping fun, — 

Babe, with her eyes like a sparkling day. 
And Mamma, glad with her little one, — 

They passed an hour in happy play. 

Outside in the darkness, wandering by, 

A homeless boy, with gathering frown, 
Was muttering, "No use to try! 

It's too hard to be honest, here in town!" 
But a glance at the window turned his thought 

To the mother-love he once had known. 
And he said, "No, I will live as I ought!" 

And he went his way, no more alone. 

" ' Peace and good will,' — 'tis an idle song," 

Said a man, made bitter by one false friend; 
"This life is nothing but sin and wrong, 

A struggle for self, from beginning to end." 
But the words died out on his lips for shame, 

As the window-framed picture caught his eye. 
And the thought of the little Christ child came 

To soften his heart, as he hurried by. 

Another passer looked on the scene, 

And thought of a baby he had lost, 
Till he quite forgot to be hard and mean, 

And warm tears melted his cold heart-frost; 
And the thought of love and its blessings grew 

Till it ripened into a generous deed, 
And he found a gladness strange and new, 

In making a Christmas for those in need. 

Mamma and Baby, tired at last 

With romping play, both fell asleep. 
Not knowing their light such a glow had cast 

Out into the winter darkness deep. 
The boy had found new courage to live; 

The cynic a gleam of clearer day; 
Another had learned to nobly give, — 

And all through the baby's bedtime play. 

— Grace Faye Koo7i. 


Kmdergarten Possibilities. — The following comprehensive statement 
of the purposes and extent of the kindergarten appeared as an editorial 
in a recent number of the Jacksonville (Fla.) Times-Unio7i. We reprint 
it for the benefit of the local press in various communities where there 
is a desire to put before the people a clear and non-technical statement 
of this study of little children. The article is also a fair sample of the 
just appreciation in which every community should hold the work of 
kindergarten associations: "Until very recently the kindergarten sys- 
tem of education was a something practically unknown in Florida, and 
even now the people of the state are not in touch with it outside the 
city of Jacksonville, with perhaps one or two inconsiderable exceptions; 
and it is with a view to awakening the interest of the entire state in its 
methods and the far-reaching and beneficent effects of its work that the 
Times-Union this morning invites the attention of Florida readers 
everywhere to the brief outline of the plans and purposes of the South- 
ern Kindergarten Association, published elsewhere in this issue. With 
all due respect to the average mother, it is doubtful if more than two in 
five of them ever rear their children after any well-defined plan or sys- 
tem, or even make a study of their peculiarities of temperament before 
'training them up in the way they should go.' This is especially true 
of mothers who are blessed with more than one child, or whose circum- 
stances compel close attention to a great variety of daily duties. The 
rich are not excepted from this general statement, for where the means 
are ample for the employment of nurses, governesses, and tutors for 
the care and training and instruction so essential to material education 
and character building, tjiose employed are quite as deficient in system 
as the mothers themselves. So it is sometimes a source of wonder that 
we find so many good men and women in the world, to say nothing of 
the well-bred ones who are encountered. It actually looks more like 
good luck in their rearing than the result of the pursuit of any intelli- 
gent method. While mother love and good intentions are almost uni- 
versal, there are very, very few mothers who will not admit that they 
constantly feel the need in the care of their children of a something 
beyond their motherly instincts and the devices of training and disci- 
pline suggested by their own limited experience. It is this need which 
the kindergarten system supplies, and its helpful methods span the 
whole period from babyhood to middle life. The women composing 
the kindergarten association here, and those whom they have called to 
their aid in inaugurating this great work, have it in their power to so 
build upon the foundations already laid, that their present institution 
may be developed into a great college or university which shall regu- 


larly supply the material for the expansion of the system over the entire 
state of Florida, and perhaps into neighboring commonwealths. But 
they must have popular support at the outset; for with this secured, 
endowment and liberal benefactions will follow sooner or later. Aside 
from the training and education of young children, and the helpful 
direction of mothers in the work of home government and breeding, 
the normal instruction for young women is a most important feature of 
our new Jacksonville institution. The kindergarten is undoubtedly to 
be the principal educational system of the future, and it holds out to 
young women the very highest inducements, both material and other- 
wise, for preparing themselves to become instructors in its institutions. 
Beyond question there will be a general demand for kindergarten 
teachers from all parts of Florida within the next two or three years, 
and those who take an early advantage of the institution which has just 
opened its doors in this city, will be eagerly sought after. One has only 
to make a casual observation of its work to find the system rapidly 
growing upon him. The influence for good of the institution can 
hardly be measured. It must of necessity be immediate and far reach- 

M. Gabriel Compayre has written out his impressions of the Chi- 
cago educational congresses in the October number of the Educational 
Review. We make a few quotations from his happy comments: "The 
educational congresses of Chicago were of the greatest importance, 
because of the diversity of the questions treated and because of the 
number of educators who took part, as speakers or as auditors. Presi- 
dent Angell of the University of Michigan, who played there a brilliant 
role, had reason to say: 'Never before has there been such a revival of 
interest in education in this country.' " Among other appreciative com- 
ments on the part played by women in this congress, he says: "I do not 
wish to wrong the men, but it is certain that the women had a most 
prominent part in the work of the congresses. I desire to mention at least 
the names of some of those whose communications were especially 
interesting in the kindergarten and other sections. Mrs. S. B. Cooper, 
of California, treated the pretty subject — 'Every Mother a Kindergart- 
ner.' Miss Angeline Brooks, of New York, spoke of the relations of 
play and work; Mrs. Kate Tupper Galpin, of Pasadena, Cal., spoke on 
methods of teaching ethics in schools; and Mrs. Thane Miller, of Cin- 
cinnati, discoursed upon the education of girls. But how shall I men- 
tion all the names? At least let me not forget Miss Josephine Locke, 
of Chicago, who, with so much fascination and gentleness, animated, by 
her words and presence, several of the special meetings. This is cer- 
tainly one of the characteristic traits of the educational reunion of the 
universal Exposition of 1893, — the development of the role of women in 
the public meetings. Miss Susan B. Anthony remarked in one of the 
meetings, that she recalled the fact that women teachers were not al- 


lowed to speak in meeting fifty years ago. ' Aujourd'hui,' she added, 
' women are asserting themselves and taking their place in every de- 
partment of the world's work." 

Miss Anna E. Bryan, who until June was superintendent and train- 
ing teacher of the Louisville work, is now in New York city, where she 
is engaged studying art subjects under Professor Stimson. On her res- 
ignation Miss Patty S. Hill was elected to fill her place, being thor- 
oughly competent through several years' experience as principal of 
Holcomb Mission Kindergarten. The entire work is in a flourishing 
condition, the kindergartens all being well attended, while the normal 
classes are full. Several months ago the standard for admission to the 
training class was raised, both as regards age and competency. The 
age was raised from eighteen to twenty years, while besides a thorough 
English course one must have studied, as a groundwork, botany, physi- 
ology, zoology, physics, and ancient, mediaeval, and modern history. It 
was at first feared the classes would be small on account of such a high 
standard; but on the contrary, the numbers are large and the material 
the better on account of such good and thorough preparation. One 
feature recently added to the work is the Kindergarten Club, the object 
of which is to unify the interests of all the graduates. The club meets 
every fourth week, and thus the graduates, though engaged in their 
several branches of kindergarten work, are brought together to find a 
common interest at each meeting. The club is the alumni of the kin- 
dergarten training class, about sixty-seven in number. These are 
divided into committees of ten, each of which is to furnish the enter- 
tainment at one meeting of the club. The influence of the club has 
proved beneficial to the work in every respect. 

The topic of education has come to share the attention of the 
"woman's column" in many periodicals. It must be that the kinder- 
garten is become fashionable, and children are again reckoned a part 
of human society. The following paragraph is taken from a substantial 
report of the Rockford (111.) kindergartens: " If this work has a refining, 
ennobling influence on the child, what is the effect on the teacher? 
Study the face of any kindergartner you meet who has been long in the 
work, and you will not need to be told that the character of one con- 
stantly employed in exercising only the most lovable traits for the 
example and benefit of little children, is enriched and beautified beyond 
estimate. As the system benefits the children it also benefits the young 
women, increases their resources, and makes them better women and 
better mothers. A very pleasant and profitable feature of the work is 
the mothers' meetings, which are attended by members of the board 
and mothers of the pupils, for the purpose of exchanging ideas and dis- 
cussing plans for the benefit of the children. A more thorough under- 
standing and greater sympathy and harmony are thus insured. As a 
rule, the children who enter the schools remain. When it is remem- 


bered that of all the children in the land who have received a thorough 
kindergarten training not one has swelled the criminal list, the benefit 
is so apparent that argument is unnecessary." 

Emma Marivedel. — On Sunday, November ig, 1893, occurred the 
funeral of Miss Marwedel, in the Unitarian church of Oakland, Cal. 
Appropriate music and simple services were followed by a brief address 
from the following personal friends of Miss Marwedel and her work; 
Rev. C. W. Wendte, Professor Albin Putzker, Mr.|Earl Barnes, and 
Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper. Miss Marwedel has long been regarded as the 
mother kindergartner of the state of California, as well as one of the 
pioneers who have set the ball rolling on this continent. The funeral 
services were attended by the most distinguished educators of the 
coast, the state university as well as the Stanford being represented. 
Miss Marwedel was detained from attending the educational congresses 
during the past summer, but hearty greetings were sent her, in the name 
of the kindergartners of the country. She has lived to see fruition in 
her own work, and what is a source of far greater joy, she has seen the 
same work taken up by the succeeding generations and carried on into 
new and unnumbered channels. 

There is a growing inquiry for kindergarten help for the Sunday- 
school workers. These confess the deficiencies among them as to the 
understanding of children, as well as the principles of teaching. Good 
will is a great factor in such work, but does not take the place of insight 
and understanding. The Glen Home of Cincinnati makes a special 
department of . kindergarten training. Their circular states: "While 
many states are waiting to solve this problem, — Shall the kindergarten 
be made a part of the public school system? — churches, ministers, and 
home missionary societies have become deeply impressed with and 
interested in this phase of mission work, and are establishing kinder- 
gartens as powerful adjuncts to Sunday school and mission churches. 
Trained teachers are in demand. We hope young ladies will avail 
themselves of this training; not only those who expect to make it their 
profession, but any young woman of leisure, as there is no better prep- 
aration for home life, Sunday-school teaching, or mission work. 

Mr. AND Mrs. W. N. Hailmann withdrew from the editorship of 
The New Education, on November i, Mr. and Mrs. Hailmann have 
served in the pioneer ranks of the "new education" cause for a quarter 
of a century. Every teacher, every kindergartner, and hosts of chil- 
dren owe them much. When they undertake a task we know that it is 
conscientiously entered upon, and their work as practical pedagogues 
has ever been pursued in this spirit. Their coworkers confess and 
appreciate the quality of warmth which underlies their work, the need 
of which is never lost sight of by them, although both stand strongly 
and zealously for conscientious demonstration. 


The Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus exhibit, which attracted much atten- 
tion at the World's Fair, was honored with a medal of award. The 
greater part of the exhibit will remain in this country, some in Chicago 
and a part in the East. The Grotemeyer drawings and water colors 
which so happily illustrated the life of the institute in its daily opera- 
tion, are owned by the National Gallery of Berlin, with a few excep- 
tions, which are the property of the Empress Frederick. The patrons 
of this remarkable educational home have brought out a most valuable 
portfolio of reprints of these drawings, which could be used with pecul- 
iar advantage in any schoolroom or drawing-room. These sketches, in 
which children are found working, playing, and cooperating with their 
elders after the inimitable fashion of the kindergarten, executed with 
sincere artistic feeling, have a permanent value, for which every stu- 
dent of child nature may be grateful. A limited number of these port- 
folios, as w.e understand, are for sale in Berlin. 

The Philadelphia branch of the I. K. U. has purchased one of the 
decorative panels of the Children's Building, having selected the story 
of the "Three Bears." The woody distance, and the humoresque 
mother bear discoursing with father and baby bear as they approach 
the house where Golden Locks is making" herself at home, are full of 
suggestion and happy feeling for children. The Alcott School, of Lake 
Forest, 111., has selected and purchased another of these panels, repre- 
senting the Teutonic myth of the "Siegfried." The fair but sturdy boy 
sits in the shade of overhanging boughs, for the time suspending his 
own pipe music to listen to the bird calls and voices of the woods. One 
of the children of the school helped the artist by sitting for the boy 
Siegfried. Other panels of the decorative frieze will be placed in free 
schools and college settlements, having been paid for out of the com- 
mon fund of contributions. 

The teachers of the National City (Cal.) schools have formed a maga- 
zine club. That is, each teacher subscribes for some one of the standard 
magazines, and after he or she has read it, the magazine is then passed 
to another teacher, who is allowed the privilege of retaining it five days. 
At the expiration of this time it is passed on to the next teacher, who is 
allowed the same chance to peruse it, and so on around the club until it 
comes back at last to the owner of the magazine, who keeps it. Each 
member thus has the opportunity of reading many of the best maga- 
zines published, and at an expense of the cost of only one magazine. 
The following is a list of the magazines subscribed for: Popular Science 
Monthly, Review of Reviews, Pedagos^ical Seminary, Forian, New York 
J otirnal of Education, The Arena, Kindergarten Magazine, New Eng- 
land fournal of Education, Century, and California Illustrated Maga- 

The kindergarten exhibit was a pleasing feature of the flower show 


held in New York city this week. At last year's exhibition one thou- 
sand seedlings were given to the little gardeners. A number of prizes 
were offered for the plants that showed the best evidence of care and 
attention. Three hundred of the plants were returned and placed on 
exhibition. Some of them were in remarkably fine condition, and would 
be a credit to professional florists. It was part of Froebel's plan that 
the little ones of the kindergarten should learn to love flowers and take 
care of them. Leaving out the prize offering, an annual exhibition of 
plants grown by children would be something worth attempting in kin- 
dergartens and primary schools. — Selected. 

The following report comes from Youngstown, O.: There is here a 
free association, a free kindergarten averaging fifty pupils, a free train- 
ing class of four young ladies who practice in the free kindergarten and 
one who assists in the private kindergarten, and a Froebel circle con- 
sisting of members of the association. This is conducted by the director 
of the private kindergarten and myself. The free association has been 
given one thousand dollars, with which to open a trial creche this year. 
If this proves to be a necessity, the same man who gave the money will 
build a memorial building for creche and kindergarten. Two years ago 
the free kindergarten work was unknown to most of the people. The 
free association is not yet two years old. — A. M. 

Mrs. Anna N. Kendall spent two weeks in. Sedalia, Mo., where she 
organized a mothers' class, giving them a course of enthusiastic lec- 
tures on child training, also several talks on "Art at the World's Fair." 
She stopped over in St. Louis on her way, and was cordially received 
by the kindergartners of that city, Miss Mabel Wilson accompanying 
her to Sedalia. Mrs. Kendall is prepared to do active and personal 
work in interesting mothers in the course and outlining studies in child 
nature for home students. 

The Sunshine Kindergarten of Dubuque, la., is located in a large 
and attractive room, furnished by Mrs. F. Stout. Such personal pat- 
ronage of the women of a community, who are interested in this work 
because of conviction that it is a good and right effort, is always salu- 
tary to the cause. Dubuque is a sufficiently important point to carry on 
enlarged kindergarten work. The kindergartners there at present are 
Miss Turner and Miss Raymond. 

ToPEKA, Kan., has a kindergarten at Tennesseetown, which is the 
first colored kindergarten school west of the Mississippi River, and its 
work last year was successful beyond the expectation of its founders. 
In connection with this school, and in the same room, a library and 
reading room has been established which is open every evening for the 
residents of Tennesseetown. The expense is paid by individual sub- 


Wellsville, N. Y., has a flourishing- kindergarten, in a large room 
granted by the board of education free of charge, in the new school 
building. As this work grows, and as the interest of the community 
enlarges, need will come to organize into an association or receive the 
kindergarten into the public school work. Miss Bertha Hanks, a grad- 
uate of the Chicago Kindergarten College, is in charge of the school. 

A COURSE of ten lectures on the spiritual interpretation of Goethe's 
"Faust" will be given by Denton J. Snider at the Chicago Kindergar- 
ten College, lo Van Buren street, on Tuesdays at 2.30 p. m., beginning 
January g, 1894. These lectures are prefatory to the annual literary 
school, which will be held at the college in Easter week. The leading 
Goethean scholars of the country have been engaged for this school. 

The Memphis Conference Female Institute at Jackson, Tenn., is 
one of the few institutions of learning in that state that support a kin- 
dergarten. Although this is the first year that such work has been con- 
nected with the school, it has been a success from the beginning. The 
children are making fine progress, and they receive the hearty coopera- 
tion of their parents in this, the "new education." 

The following is taken from the annual report of the superintendent 
of public schools of Utica: "Among the matters educational in which 
Utica may justly take pride is the fact that she has formally and defi- 
nitely incorporated free public kindergartens into her educational sys- 
tem. Beginning with one during the year 1891-2, three were sustained 
during 1892-3, and five are started for 1893-4." 

Superintendent A. W. Hussy, of the Warsaw (111.) public schools, 
subscribed, for his entire third grade bevy of boys and girls, for the 
Child-Garden, which, after having been used in the class, are sent 
home with them for the children at home. He hopes to do as much for 
the parents as for the children, by distributing this excellent literature. 

Mr. George L. Schreiber is giving a course of art talks before 
the Chicago Free Kindergarten Association and the students of Armour 
Institute, on art as applied to the child, especially in the line of story 
illustrating. Some of his lectures are promised the readers of the 
Kindergarten Magazine in the coming numbers. 

Professor Denton J. Snider, of the Chicago Kindergarten Col- 
lege, is conducting a course of lectures on the Philosophy of Froebel's 
" Mother-Play and Nursery Book." As a German student and philoso- 
pher, Mr. Snider will no doubt rediscover much of purport to the stu- 
dents of this book. 

Professor Earl Barnes, of Stanford University, who is collect- 
ing data for educational research, has sent out circulars asking parents 
if their children tell lies, and if so, from what motive and how often. 


The kindergarten department of the Buffalo Normal School shows 
evidence of vital, strong work. The supplemental mothers' study class 
is well attended, and expressions are numerous to show that an earnest 
desire exists to know the heights and depths of the work. 

The public schools of Lexington, Ky., were among the gold-med- 
aled ones of the Exposition. Lexington has excellent public school 
kindergartens, which made one of the best composite exhibits in the 
educational department. 

On November 7, a nephew of Friedrich Froebel, John Froebel, died 
in Zurich, Switzerland, aged eighty-eight. He was author of " Seven 
Years' Travel in America," "A System of Crystallography," and "A 
System of Social Politics." 

A KINDERGARTEN association has been recently organized in Savan- 
nah, Ga., the "Forest City of the South," through the help of Mrs. O. A. 

Miss Fredrica Beard, of Chicago, takes charge of the kindergar- 
ten department in the normal school at Norwich, Conn., in January, 1894. 

Miss Anna L. Page, of Boston, visited the Chicago kindergartens 
and training school in November, the guest of Mrs. Alice H. Putnam. 

Beloit, Wis., pays for its kindergartens out of public school funds. 


There is just out a book called "Boston Collection of Kindergarten 
Stories." It consists of fifty-nine stories and fables gathered by several 
Boston kindergartners, and used by them in their daily work. Price 60 

"Song Stories for the Kindergarten," by the Misses Hill, is out in 
board covers, at $1. The highest words of praise are coming to us from 
those who are using the songs, both for their adaptability and their ideal 
qualities in word and music. 

An edition of "Child Stories from the Masters," by Maude Menefee, 
for $1, is in the market. These interpretative tales from the highest 
sources are bound to take their place in the hands of thinking teachers 
as an introduction into broader epic literature for the very youngest 
child. Miss Menefee is making a careful study not only of the masters 
but of the children, and possesses the natural qualities as a writer which 
help her to bring these greatest thoughts to the tiniest thinkers. 

"The Legend of St. Christopher," by Andrea Hofer, comes out in a 
dainty booklet, retelling an old legend with its world-wide truth. The 
unquestioning service of the good old saint, with its ultimate spiritual 
reward, is pictured with suggestive force, showing how the crudest 
labor is holy and bears fruit, though done with the simplest ideal, and 
how serving others is serving God. The story may be used in connect- 
ing the Christ-child lessons with the trade and labor thought used in 
the winter months by many kindergartners. Kindergarten Literature 
Co., price 25 cts. 

Among books received are "String of Amber Beads," by Martha 
Everets Holden, from the press of Chas. H. Kerr & Co.; "Stories from 
Plato and other Classic Writers," by Mary E. Burt, author of " Literary 
Landmarks." "A Brave Baby, and Other Stories," by Sara E. Wiltse, 
is to be ready in January. Perhaps the greatest value of this book lies 
in the stories based upon Norse mythology. Miss Wiltse having ap- 
proached this ancient fountain in the spirit of the myth-loving mod- 
ern child. Over the stories of courage, of moral growth, of scientific 
and historical fact, plays that pure imagination which can be found 
only in children, and those who live with them. 

A VOLUME of essays containing the following papers, and called 
"The Kindergarten," is edited by Kate Douglas Wiggin: "The Rela- 
tion of the Kindergarten to Social Reform," by Mrs. Kate Douglas Wig- 


gin; "The Child and the Race," by Mrs. Mary H. Peabody; "Seed, 
Flower, and Fruit of the Kindergarten," by Alice Wellington Rollins; 
"A Plea for the Pure Kindergarten," by Jennie B, Merrill; "The Philos- 
ophy of the Kindergarten," by Angeline Brooks; "An Explanation of 
the Kindergarten, Intended for Mothers," by Alice A. Chadwick; "The 
Kindergarten in the Mother's Work," by Mrs. Elizabeth Powell Bond; 
and "Outgrowths of Kindergarten Training," by Mrs. A. B. Longstreet. 
Price Si. 

There is a charm about the North land which not only delights 
boys and girls, but charms them. " The Surgeon Stories," as told by 
the Finnish historian Topelius, are full of the romance as well as the 
heroism of the Thirty Years' War. The series of six volumes is a 
library in itself, and will delight and profit boys and girls from twelve 
years up. The volumes cover the history of Charles XII, Linnaeus the 
botanist, Gustav Adolph, and Peter the Great. The price of the entire 
set is $4.50, and we recommend them heartily because of their sound 
historic and literary value. The heroism of strong national characters 
is a tonic for every normal boy and girl. Topelius is the Walter Scott 
of Finland. 


Bound Volumes. — Vols. IV and V, handsomely bound in fine silk 
cloth, giving the full year's work in compact shape, each $3. 

Send for our complete catalogue of choice kindergarten literature; 
also give us lists of teachers and mothers who wish information con- 
cernmg the best reading. 

Always. — Subscriptions are stopped on expiration, the last number 
being marked, "With this number your subscription expires," and a 
return subscription blank inclosed. 

Always. — Our readers who change their addresses should imme- 
diately notify us of same and save the return of their mail to us. State 
both the new and the old location. It saves time and trouble. 

Always — Send your subscription made payable to the Kindergarten 
Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago, 111., either by money order, 
express order, postal note, or draft. (No foreign stamps received.) 

There are only about one hundred copies of Vol. I of Child-Garden 
to be had. They are now bound, and partially exhausted. We desire 
to give our readers the first chance at purchasing them. Price $2. 

^Child-Garden Samples. — Send in lists of mothers with young chil- 
dren who would be glad to receive this magazine for their little ones. 
Remember some child's birthday with a gift of Child-Garden, only $1 
per year. 

Portraits of Froebel. — Fine head of Froebel; also Washington, Lin- 
coln, and Franklin; on fine boards, 6 cents each, or ten for 50 cents. 
Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Woman's Temple, Chicago. 
(Size 6x8 inches.) 

Many training schools are making engagements for next year's 
special lectures through the Kindergarten Literature Co, We are in 
correspondence with many excellent kindergarten specialists in color, 
form, music, primary methods, literature, art, etc. 

Wanted.— The following back numbers of Kindergarten Maga- 
zine in exchange for any other number you want in Vols. II, III, I\^^, or 
V, or for books: Vol. I, Nos. 1,3, 4, and 9; Vol. II, Nos. g, 10, and 13; Vol. 
Ill, Nos. I, 5, 6, and 8. Address Kindergarten Literature Co., Chicago. 

Foreign Subscriptions, — On all subscriptions outside of the States, 
British Columbia, Canada, and Mexico, add forty cents (40 cents) for 
postage, save in case of South Africa, outside of the postal union, which 



Vol. VI.— FEBRUARY, 1894.— No. 6. 





(Translated from the German.) 

TO my mind it is a vital mistake to consider the 
kindergarten, as is too frequently done, chiefly 
as a preliminary step toward the school, ahd to 
see its plan of work, its methods of occupation 
and development merely as a preparation for primary in- 

Too great importance has been put upon school training 
in our time, which has been given a prominence far out of 
proportion to that accredited to home training and to family 
influence in public education, and this in spite of the unsat- 
isfactory results so far attained. Indeed, generally speaking, 
the whole character and modern development which the 
kindergarten has taken in the present day seem to me to be 
at variance with Froebel's fundamental conceptions of the 
early training of children. However important Froebel 
considered the school in the totality of its influence upon 
the child, and striking as his utterances on the subject of 
school organization and methods are, in his work entitled 
"The Education of Man," he still gives the foremost place 
in his educational theory and practice to the family thought, 
as expressed in his book " Mutter und Kose-Lieder." 

Here he enters the sacred realm of the family, and bends 
every effort to the reinstating of home training, to the ele- 
vating of womankind, upon which latter rests the possibility 


of the former. Read his " call," of 1840, urging all women, 
and young women of Germany, to establish the kindergar- 
ten, with all the branches which this includes. 

In this matter of offering true culture to woman, thus 
lifting her up into spiritual motherhood, of renewing family 
life, and recognizing this as the only atmosphere for true 
education, Froebel coincides fully with his great prede- 
cessor, Pestalozzi, who has given us such treasures of 
thought in this direction in his various writings. 

Even before the appearance of " Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder " and " Menschen Erziehung " we find Froebel utter- 
ing strong statements, all pointing to family life and to the 
importance of transferring this home atmosphere to public 
education as the true goal of education. 

In a short address to our German people in 1820 appears 
the statement: " Education should not be sundered from 
the home, and education as an art should draw ever nearer 
and nearer to the family as a point from which to radiate." 
Again in 1823 we read in his report of the Universal Edu- 
cational Institute at Keilhau: 

"The supreme model of all educational conditions should 
be the perfected family. Our institute shall not crowd out 
the home spirit. On the contrary, we are ever striving that 
our pupils may become the nucleus of a true family in the 
future, in which they may fulfill their highest obligations. 
Therefore we are working to establish this true educational 
institution; and when we succeed, we shall have destroyed 
and dissolved the necessity for such a one." 

To be sure, Froebel makes lofty demands upon true 
family life, out of which alone he pledges to bring great 
educational influences to the children. In 1826 he wrote 
in his " Menschen Erziehung" that parents must consider 
themselves as the guardians, protectors, and cultivators of 
their God-given children. They must teach themselves to 
answer some part of the great question of man's destiny 
and chief purpose upon earth, and come to some conclu- 
sions as to the best ways and means of approaching this 


Another passage we read in this book just mentioned: 

"The natural mother does much, prompted by her in- 
stinct; but she now needs to bring her conscious influence 
to bear upon another being just coming into consciousness." 
Further on we read: "The members of a family must know 
and understand what are the aims of true education and the 
means to attain the same, and each must help to develop 
the other's strength necessary to fulfill this end." 

The ever-increasing experience of Froebel as he came in 
contact with many families taught him that parents are far 
from fulfilling these obligations; and in his deeply signifi- 
cant paper dated 1836, called the " Renewing of Life," he 
calls out, full of enthusiasm: "In the family environment 
alone man's soul is perfected! and even then only in as far 
as the family recognizes itself as a medium of love, light, 
and spiritual life. The keynote for a higher plane of human 
development can only be sounded when man is seen as one 
member of an organized whole, a unity made up of many 

Once more Froebel deliberated, looking back over his 
accumulated experience, and asking himself seriously this 
question: "Can family life, the home environment, as it 
now is, satisfy the high demands made upon it by our pres- 
ent degree of culture, for the regeneration of human life, so 
that humanity may reach a yet nobler plane of existence?" 

Answering himself earnestly and conclusively, he said, 
" No." He turned aside in 1836 from his previous efforts 
in connection with schools and the training of boys; he was 
intent upon discovering new ways in order to reach a more 
certain and rational education. And then he came upon 
his kindergarten idea. In a public call sent out in 1840 we 
find that he by no means considered this merely as a scho- 
lastic institution; but for the person who was to be the 
motherly educator of young children he demanded a com- 
plete equipment, fitting her for a many-sided, all-round 
kind of life. 

He demanded, for the true development of the child, a 
union of practical skill with scientific knowledge. He 


looked to the womanhood of Germany to found his ideal 
institute, but they did not yet understand him. The essen- 
tial means with which to establish a training school for the 
guardians of children were not forthcoming, and he must 
needs be satisfied to open the work along its several lines 
rather than produce it at once as a complete organization. 
One of these lines was the kindergarten and the training of 
worthy kindergartners to be worthy assistants to the mother 
as well as to be*prepareci to be the future mothers of their 
own children; and in this way he determined little by little 
to raise family life. 

Out of the midst of this struggle, and with this ideal 
conception in his mind, he produced " Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder." Froebel says: "The family that would rise to the 
requirements of modern social culture in the best sense, 
must recognize itself to be a social unit inextricably inter- 
woven by visible and invisible threads with the larger social 
environment in the midst of which it is embedded {Glied- 
Ga>i3cs)y This utterance of his has a peculiar significance 
for us today, and his " Mutter und Kose-Lieder" is a con- 
tinual enlargement upon and illustration of this theme. 
The very labor which provides physical comforts for the 
various members of the family, and which falls chiefly to 
the hand of woman, is constantly bringing about right rela- 
tionships. Even though the family circle be a limited one, 
it is brought into contact with an ever-increasing, larger 
circle, by force of natural and mutual needs. Although an 
advancing material civilization has lessened the necessity 
for the prosecution of these primitive industries that once 
gave work to a large number of people in and around each 
household, yet the modern family group is really more 
dependent upon a wider circle of people who minister to its 
needs and with whom it consequently stands in definite 

Family production as well as consumption weaves many 
threads in and out between the various members and the 
head of the house, and again between the house mother and 
the great outer world. Formerly it was customary to think 


of these relationships only from the standpoint of securing 
advantage to the family, cheap labor for the home; close 
marketing, even though this involved sacrifice or suffering 
of others, was still recognized as a mark of good house- 
wifery. In the case of the man's choice of occupation, the 
important consideration was whether it would bring safe 
provision; high wages were desirable, even though others 
struggled and suffered because of his good fortune. In the 
training of children the most conspicuous principle was to 
preserve them from gross mistakes and trials, and it was 
said: " Let them be cared for as far as their external needs 
are concerned." 

As a consequence, the ego of the individuals reached no 
further than the ego of the family; and the latter entered 
into no living, conscious interchange of give-and-take with 
the other factors of society. The bias of social opinion 
supported until lately this selfish isolation of family life 
from the larger social environment, and there are many 
families who remain untouched by outer social or political 
relationships. A change has come, however, and Froebel 
clearly foresaw the coming change. He recognized that 
the ever-increasing conflicts between different classes of 
society struggling on one side and the other could not be 
remedied through external law; he saw that the inequalities 
between man and man could only be lessened through spon- 
taneous deeds of loving fellowship. Family education must 
contribute to bring about this more social view of family 
life, and this can only be done if parents recognize their 
obligations and consciously strengthen those ties which link 
each family to its social environment. It is a well-estab- 
lished fact in nature that every organic structure, however 
complex in its latest stage, has started from the smallest 
organic beginning, the cell. This natural law of growth has 
its counterpart in the social and ethical sphere. The family 
contains in embryo within itself all the various after-ramifi- 
cations of social and ethical activities on a larger scale. 
The highest aim to which humanity aspires is no doubt of 
an ethical nature; but as there is unity stamped upon man's 


being, he never can realize his highest aspirations unless 
they are supported by other faculties of his being, — by a 
finely responsive gamut of feeling, by keen intelligence, 
trained practical skill, and a disciplined will. 

The training of the power of the will rests upon a grad- 
ual exercise of the same, beginning with the youngest child 
onward. It is this daily exercise of the moral will which 
modern education has neglected. It is for this reason that 
efforts along intellectual and industrial lines, however pro- 
gressive, have failed to bring the joy and satisfaction which 
they should, which they do bring when knowledge and abil- 
ity to execute are joined hand in hand with man's ethical 

This harmony in man's being can only be begun when a 
small community of individuals comes in touch with the still 
larger outer world, thus establishing the relationship of man 
to man truly and rationally. We will suppose the individ- 
uals within this smaller community to be ever striving to 
adjust their relations to one another according to a high 
standard of human intercourse, so that within this small 
circle the characteristics of each individuality are cherished 
and given scope, without overstepping the bounds which 
limit his freedom by the rights of other individualities. 

Self-development ought always to be coordinated with 
an activity the result of which is consecrated to others. 
Only in this way can we preserve in the young any room 
for the interest of others. Even a little child may begin 
early to harmonize such warring factors as self-assertion 
and self-yielding; but this art must be first practiced in a 
pure home circle or else in an educational environment in 
which the family spirit prevails. 

( To be continued.) 


THE following excerpts from an article written by 
Wm. L. Tomlins, upon his work with the children 
of the "World's Fair Chorus," will be of great in- 
terest to many of our readers who have intelli- 
gently watched the progress of this work. Twelve hundred 
children were taken from the public schools of Chicago, 
and, given one lesson a week, attained in less than two years 
such wonderful results as were heard by thousands of 
World's Fair visitors. 

In this resume we are happy to place before our readers 
something of the ideals and conditions, also a touch of the 
philosophy, of this great work, the broad humanitarianism 
and undoubted educational influence of which is arousing 
enthusiastic comment on both sides of the water. 

The peculiar art flavor of Mr. Tomlins' plan appeals par- 
ticularly to those who are working with children. Ap- 
proaching the subject of child development from the ideal 
or art side, he touches directly upon the deep things of life, 
and stands side by side with Froebel in foreshadowing the 
wonders of intuitional education. 

As an immediate result of the demonstrations made dur- 
ing the World's Fair season, a demand has arisen for teach- 
ers and workers in this special field, and after the same 
rational and progressive pattern. Teachers' study classes 
are being arranged to meet this demand, and lectures and 
organizing talks can be provided every community awak- 
ened to the practical and potent influence of this work. We 
quote from Mr. Tomlins: 

"What a boy does, his actions, are manifested at his cir- 
cumference. Inside this outer circle is an inner circle which 
stands for his mentality, — what he reasons, calculates, con- 


trives, perhaps schemes. Inside this inner circle, at the 
very center, is what he is. What he is, his affections are; 
for what he longs for, that already he is at heart. How to 
reach these inner tendencies, direct them outward, and har- 
monize them with his environment, is the object of all true 

"The public school education is directed chiefly at the 
boy's mentality. It reaches his center (what he is) only 
incidentally; and it reaches his outer circle (what he does) 
only incidentally. The manual training schools do much 
good, in that they take the boy's thoughts and channel 
them outward to the light. What he has learned to know 
he is taught to utilize in useful occupation. 

"The step yet to be taken is to get at the boy himself, 
the boy's heart; and this, whether he be good or bad, will 
not be done by recalling his attention to himself, — by mak- 
ing him self-conscious. And on Sunday to tell him to be 
good is at most to weaken him to goody-goodiness, with 
quite a chance of making him a little hypocrite. To be 
good he must do good; must be useful, contributing service 
that makes for the happiness and welfare of others. And 
this makes for his own well-being also; as for example: our 
daily food is in turn changed into blood, muscle, sweat, out 
of which is born natural appetite, rightfully claiming more 
food; a healthful process, and 'with holiness of use' that 
which is true of the body and the mind is equally true of 
the spirit. 

"Deep down, beyond the far-reaching influences of the 
schools, deeper than what he does or thinks, at the very 
heart and soul of the boy, are latent tendencies for good or 
evil, of which even he himself is ignorant. There music 
alone will reach, — music, the voice of love; heaven-born, 
God-given. It searches out the flower germs of the soul, 
awakening them to response, stimulating them to a large- 
ness of growth which leaves no place for weeds. But the 
song must go deep down to the singer's nature, until the 
throbbing beats of the music awaken corresponding heart 
impulses; and these must be equalized, strengthened, and at 


last freighted with the spirit of good-will, helpfulness, and 
every noble aspiration. In this way music appeals to the 
singer, as his singing appeals to others. And with greater 
power there comes a heavier responsibility, — to carry the 
melody forward in harmonious living, a life lived for others. 

" A thing incomplete, broken, is concerned about itself. 
In the case of a sick man we find that one part of his phys- 
ical system will not work. Some of the other parts try to 
supply the deficiency, the result being disorder and friction. 
Meanwhile self-consciousness in the form of pain comes to 
him. This thought extends to inanimate nature. We can 
imagine a broken wheel concerned only about its own 
mending; and a whole wheel impatient to revolve. 

" Strike a bell into complete vibration, and immediately 
it voices itself in bell tones to the world. Similarly the 
gong says, ' I am a gong.' But fracture the bell and muffle 
the outer rim of the gong; in other words, reduce their cir- 
cles of vibration to incompleteness, and immediately the 
tone of each is degraded to the dull click of a piece of old 
iron. The voice of individuality instantly degenerates into 
that of commonalty. The completeness of individuality 
makes for power; to its possessor power, in a sense of 
grasp; and to others, to whom it goes as a personal pres- 
ence, that intangible something which apart from action 
and speech impresses those about one. 

"A lover of nature taken to a mountain summit and 
there shown a magnificent landscape at sunrise, is moved 
from center to circumference. In his response to the beauty 
before his eyes he is awakened perhaps to some of the 
greatness of his own nature. The circle of individuality 
complete, he feels within him the promise of a still higher 
circle, which makes for nobility; and he is ready to put 
cheap ambitions from him and go out into action to win the 
spurs of knighthood. But to do what? To do for self? to 
take care of 'number one'? Why, it is this that brings us 
down to 'commonplace.' No; to do, certainly, but to do 
for others. Thus it appears that manhood leads to brother- 


hood, and that by working for my brother, and more than 
that, by sacrificing myself for him, I can broaden and 
strengthen my own nature. 

"In the earlier stages of vocal training, the machinery of 
the voice is unruly and unmanageable. The child tries to 
sing with expression, but only gets its outward form; he 
attempts emotional singing, but the emotion is confused; 
they will not associate with crippled machinery. Later on, 
when all his physical parts unite in harmonious action, the 
tones become vital. Soon this vital utterance is shaped by 
the emotions which are waiting to express themselves. The 
voice goes out in command; it entreats; it joys; it sorrows. 
Thus an emotion becomes a governing center of the outer 
circle of physical voice. The center expresses itself at the 

"We are told that no two blades of grass are alike; we 
may be certain that no two boys are alike. No one boy is 
exactly duplicated in this world. Reduced to a vulgar 
fraction of himself (like the fractured bell or the muffled 
gong) he can hardly be distinguished from other boys in 
the same condition. Hence the term 'commonplace.' But 
in reality the boy is unique. He stands alone. If singing 
brings the boy to realize his own personality and he re- 
sponds in earnest endeavor, at every step he is helped from 
the next step above; for hidden within him are all the 
possibilities of his nature. The first thing is to get him to 
realize this fact; the next, inspire him to demonstrate it. 
The first is something which in a very short while singing 
may do for him. The latter he must do for himself; the 
path is that of use, service, sacrifice, the Christ spirit. At 
best it is a lifelong task. It is, however, wisely and lov- 
ingly ordered that at every step in the path of progress 
there are compensations, wider influences without, content- 
ment within, the 'blessedness' of giving. 

"It matters little whether the voice attains great ailistic 
excellence. We may not all be Pattis or Nilssons; but we 
may be ourselves. And this is the most important of all, 


for thereby we become individual, noble, spiritual; on and 
on, godly. 

"Three years ago I organized a children's chorus for the 
World's Fair, charging a small tuition fee to cover expenses. 
About six hundred joined, not half the required number. 
For the remainder I applied to Mr. Higginbotham, who 
persuaded some other gentlemen to unite with him in sus- 
taining the expenses. This enabled me to offer seven hun- 
dred and fifty free scholarships. With the consent of the 
board of education I went to school teachers, and we formed 
three classes of two hundred pupils each, selecting those to 
whom the lessons were the greatest kindness. In more 
than one respect, indeed, most of these children were needy. 
They represented not only flowers, but weeds — a tangled 
mass. This was emphasized by the conditions; they 
thought that something connected with the World's Fair 
was being given away, for which they were eager to 

"The chief characteristic of these children, which im- 
pressed my teachers and myself, in our earlier association 
with them, was their mistrust. This was hard for us to 
believe. They were respectful, responsive, obedient; but 
there was always something held back. At first they were 
not sure of their teachers; and they, as it were, held on to 
themselves, remaining watchful, a little on the defensive. 
But very soon they were not so sure of themselves, the 
exercises beginning to affect them. These exercises, in 
which they seemingly indulged in a playful manner, loos- 
ened their hold on themselves, and, like a boy learning to 
swim in deep water, they were only too glad to hold on to 
their teachers. Even the larger boys, many of whom came 
to the class to an extent willful and stubborn, affecting the 
assertion of manhood, and scorning softening emotions as 
girlish, found the ground taken from under them by their 
indulgence in the earlier class work, laughingly given in 
what they thought pure fun and fooling; namely, — 

"Softening the lips; 


"Concentrating the eyes; 

"Relaxing the jaws; 

"Wringing the hands and arms; 

"Deep breathing through the nostrils; 

"Standing well forward, instead of on the heels; 

"In other words, weeding away physical effects of stub- 
bornness, over-assertion, indifference, stolidity, fussiness, 
flightiness, etc. These are but various forms of self-con- 
sciousness, and the expert teacher knows where to look for 
them and how to correct them. Now the boy is ready to 
begin to make music for himself. Previous to this, the 
jingle has done the work, — tunes which a banjo or hand 
organ could adequately produce, those which appeal to the 
boy's heels. By degrees this jingle is taken away from him, 
till at last he has only one note to sing, and not even a 
word, not even a syllable, perhaps only one vowel. The 
rest he must supply himself, and at last he does so. Then 
the music becomes his making. His voice freed from its 
weed imperfections, so small that it will hardly stand alone, 
yet has a blending quality, and it unites with the other 
voices, and they with it, and with each other. Every child 
feels the thrill of his own voice. Nay, more; instead of 
being lost in the general class voice, each singer claims the 
general class as his own, 

"The power of his own voice comes as a revelation to 
the child. Like the man on the summit of the mountain, he 
feels some of the greatness of his own nature, and like the 
complete bell, he has to ring out to voice himself to the 
world. With his teacher he is at once in fellowship, and 
eager for progress, growth: he looks only for guidance. 
His ideals, too, are enlarged. He can better understand a 
Being who is all love and all power, who gives to all, who 
helps everyone. Already the child has been obedient to 
the instructions of his teachers, as to cleanliness, tidiness, 
and punctuality; but now come laws from within, making 
for self-restraint; then soon is developed self-reliance, self- 
respect, and a kind of self-responsibility. All this makes 
for growth, widening his sphere of usefulness, strengthening 


him to new duties in his school, his home, and in all his 
associations in the outside world. 

"During this time a new world is opening out to him, 
— the world of art, where live forever Handel, Bach, Beetho- 
ven, Mendelssohn, and all the great composers who have 
voiced themselves in imperishable song. These are our 
common heritage. Many of them are suited to the child 
voice, and we sing them over and over again, never tiring 
of them. 

"This, then, is the object of our work: to purify the 
child nature, so that his voice is as sweet as he is sweet; 
to ennoble him by contact with the highest in thought and 
feeling that brain and thought can produce; to have him 
know that his fellow is his brother, and that God is his 
Father, and then to send him a missionary to his own home. 
This is the use to which we put music, and measurably we 
accomplish our purpose." 



RUSKIN propounds the question as to the cause of 
the low moral plane of those nations of the East 
which produced the best art, as the East Indians; 
and he replies that it is because these people 
have forsaken their nature-model, and have undertaken to 
invent beauty for themselves. They succeed, but they are 
debased by their success. Take an Indian rug, for example. 
There is upon it the most wonderful combination of subtle 
hues and graceful lines, but not a picture nor a hint in it of 
any living thing. It is beautiful, for the laws of color and 
form have been perfectly apprehended and perfectly ap- 
plied. But its maker — what of him? He has learned this 
lesson and stopped. There is no more of growth in him. 
He is applying his knowledge of these two things over 
and over, in varying combinations, learning nothing new, 
not studying the way the Artist of the World has applied 
them, but content with his own skill. 

We are in a somewhat similar predicament. We have 
discovered many laws of the vast system of symbolism 
called language, and we delight ourselves in applying them 
in ever new combinations. We have turned our faces too 
much away from the speaking face of the earth. The 
earth! that book wherein are writ the secrets of the Most 
High; that book full of beauty, full of health, full of de- 
lights, wherein the Father rejoiceth to write, — and we, 
like petulant children, choose not to read. 

No, not like children! When we were children we loved 
to read therein; and oh, how we grew! To which of us 
comes now, in maturity's hour, the rush of blinding light 
and joy that used to burst at times upon our dreaming and 
watching childhood? We find truths now in our books. 


and thrill, but not as we thrilled then. We study botany in 
our books, and go out and analyze, that we may remember 
better, and be able to recite or to quote; but how many of 
us know how to lose ourselves, like Whitcomb Riley, "Knee- 
deep in June"? We listen to the bird notes, — sometimes, 
when we have no book, — and those of us who are scientific 
analyze them, and portion them off to their appropriate 
owners; but who of us lies still and lets them sing to his 
soul, — lets them tell their message? We seem to take it 
for granted, practically, that different birds sing different 
songs in order to aid us in our classification; but when we 
have classified, when we know the colors of their primaries, 
and secondaries, and tertiaries, what then? What is the 
bird to us still, but a chance to be pedantic, a piece of goods 
on which we embroider, like the East Indian rug maker, our 
bits of knowledge, and worship, not the Lord who made 
the bird, but our own knowledge? There is a way of ana- 
lyzing, which is in a sense worshipful. That is the spirit of 
the true scientist — and we are not many of us that — who 
says he worships the Maker in worshiping his works. This 
is often true, and to such a humble and truth-seeking spirit 
all right minds must accord honor. But the curse of our 
civilization today, or one of its curses, is the acquiring of 
knowledge for the sake of culture, — that is, to be honest, for 
the sake of show. 

There is a way of looking at nature which is higher than 
the scientist's way, in some respects: that is the way of the 
philosopher. His is the same truth-seeking spirit dealing 
with generals instead of particulars. He does not worship, 
except as worship is contained in the asking of why. The 
answer to the why continually leads him to sublime reason- 
ing, which dazzles him into the belief that they are all 
there is of the world. He is so enamored of his telescope 
that he often ignores the scientist's microscope. "What!" 
says he, in effect, "shall I look at crawling worms and 
cholera germs, when I can view the eternal principles of 
being in their order and relation?" 

But there is a third way of looking at the world, — the 


way of the poet and the artist. They see both the worm 
and the star. To them little and big are alike of use, for to 
them the world is meanijig-fidl. It is not only perfectly 
planned, and lawful, as to the scientist; it is not only rea- 
sonable, and transparent to thought, as to the philosopher; 
but it is alive! It appeals to every faculty. There is food 
in it for investigation, for reflection, for delight, for unend- 
ing and varied growth. And it is this by virtue of its sym- 
bolism, using that word in its highest sense. It is not in 
the sense of that which was made to contain a meaning, as 
blue was always painted for the Virgin's robe as a symbol 
of truth, as red always meant life, and so on; but as that 
which does, by its very nature, contain a meaning which 
exists by virtue of it. This is philosophy; but its meaning 
is more than philosophic, for it appeals to more than the 
reason; it sublimates the very senses, quickens the very 
heart of him who perceives it. It flows naturally into his 
life and culminates inevitably in worship. 

For there is this parallelism between this world and the 
world of spirit, which parallelism is called symbolism. It 
lies plain to the eyes of our childhood, and plainer to the 
eyes of our maturity, than we are willing to acknowledge. 
Who knows the meaning of height? not the reason of it, 
but the meaningf Sublime, exalted, uplifted, lofty, high- 
minded; these words all convey a definite meaning to us; 
and for what better reason than that they carry us in imag- 
ination to the mountains that have whispered their meaning 
to our souls? "He dwells upon the heights," we continu- 
ally say of a great soul. Take that word I have just used, 
— "great"; is its meaning simply bigness, — physical, lumpy, 
heavy bigness? "Great-hearted!" What a rush of heaven's 
meaning through the words! We do know, though we fail 
to acknowledge it, of what the size of all things is the sym- 
bol. Heat and cold, too, how we use them, — a warm color, 
a heated argument, hot temper, warm good-will, warm- 
hearted, cold-blooded, freezing manner, chilling reserve; 
we all know very well what degrees of heat and cold mean. 
Light, too, — brilliant speech, scintillating wit, eyes spark- 


ling with the light of earnestness, to throw light on an ob- 
scured question; or its opposite, darkness, — the blackness 
of despair, the gloom of grief, the shadow of death; we all 
know v^ery well what light means, though we fail to own it. 

Let us own it! Let us open our eyes and our hearts to 
the world about us. Let it speak to us. That is all; let \t. 
We are a study-destroyed generation. We have looked at 
books till our eyes know no color but black and white. We 
have used w^ords till we know not the universal language of 
creation, — that language which alone is eternal, and which 
alone can give us eternal truths and eternal delights. 

Think of it! We have come to ignore delights in our 
scheme of education, — all except Friedrich Froebel, God 
bless him! — and we take it as a matter of course that knowl- 
edge-seeking should be dull work, and knowledge when 
gotten should be productive of little joy beyond the igno- 
ble joy of possession. 

We have today a greed of the intellect, which will bring 
upon us some day our sure Circe. Knowledge was meant 
to be to the mind the same satisfactory thing that food is to 
the body. When the body is indifferent to food we know 
that it has somehow been badly fed; w^hen it has an abnor- 
mal appetite, we diagnose the same trouble. The parallel 
holds good. The intellectually indifferent man and the 
man who despises all things not intellectual, have alike 
been badly fed, and both have mental dyspepsia. 

The trouble is, the food has been all of one kind. Vari- 
ety of food, say our best dietitians, is necessary to proper 
development. It certainly is necessary for enjoyment. 
Would we know how to give to ourselves, to those whom 
we teach, this needful and delightful variety? Let us fol- 
low our natural bent toward symbolism. Let us not think 
and study all the time, but listen and dream! 

Swedenborg, in order to illustrate the relation of God to 
this world, to His creation, continually uses the sun as His 
symbol. If we think of the sun, with this meaning behind 
it, it will lead our spirit, as it does our bodies, straight from 
darkness into light. No, not straight, but through the gray 


dawn of thought, and the rose-tints and purples of poetic 
imagery, to the clear daylight of perfect truth. It is the 
appointed way. Symbols are the outward recognition and 
use of the inner content of things, the means by which we 
make the physical world minister, not alone to our physical 
needs, but also to our spiritual. 

To him who studies the sun as a scientist, come hours of 
peering through lenses, of calculating on paper, of memo- 
rizing, and headaches, and sleepless nights; and as a fruit 
of it all, a burdensome sense of incomprehensible sun-spots, 
and the infinite reach of unknown territory. 

To him who reasons on the sun — the philosopher — 
comes a lofty vision of the power of the Creator; but to 
him who takes the sun into his heart, who lives in its rays 
and considers its meaning, come life and strength and 
spiritual knowledge. He knows it as the scientist knows it, 
only every fact has for him a double meaning: that upon its 
face, unsatisfactory; that hidden, an unending delight. He 
may know as the scientist knows, may reason as the philos- 
opher reasons, and live as the poet, — in God's own life. 

For this language of symbolism is a universal language. 
It comes straight from the heart of God to the heart of the 
human race. It needs no interpreter. According to our 
measure of understanding do we receive it; but all that we 
receive is live knowledge, working, as live knowledge al- 
ways will, to enlarge the boundaries of that which contains 
it, to create a thirst for more, to give new insight. When 
the world has once begun to speak to us face to face, when 
mountain peaks and boundless prairie, when sky and cloud 
take us into their confidence, we will care to lean less upon 
books, although real books will mean more to us. It is 
only as a book appeals to our own experience that it has 
any vital power whatever. When we have gone partly 
along the same path as our author, he can perhaps take us 
by the hand and lead us a few steps further on. But if we 
are not on the same road with him, and only dimly discern 
him through the trees from our different paths, and have 
his name and title whispered to us, let us beware how we 


claim acquaintance with him. He will repudiate us and 
show us not one word of truth. 

This is just the danger to which we expose our children 
when we put books in their hands too early, when we teach 
them to read before they have learned to look, to listen, 
and to feel. There is the greatest danger that the letter 
will destroy the spirit and render it utterly dead. 

And what is the letter that we should exchange for it 
the living, throbbing spirit, whose servant it should be? It 
is indeed selling our birthright for a mess of pottage! 

The child is the heir of eternity. The atmosphere which 
he breathes into his lungs, to be health-giving must be 
mixed of air from the poles to the tropics. If he breathes 
the stagnant air of one room, by and by he dies. So, too, 
his knowing faculties must be fed with universal truths, 
mixed of the far and the near, the lofty and the immediate. 
Today we are too apt to feed him upon the immediate only, 
and by and by his power of knowing — truly, vitally know- 
ing — shrivels and dies. How rare is the man today whose 
thinking is alive, is in intimate connection with his life and 
ours, and in no less intimate connection with the life of the 
Most High! 

When we were born into the world this heritage of vital 
thinking was ours. Our fresh minds saw all things in rela- 
tionship, full of meaning, ready for use; and if our teaching 
had been broad enough, deep enough, and high enough to 
supply all our capacities, we should still see things truly^ 
understand their significance, and be able rightly to employ 

As it is, our minds have been so forced into routine 
work, so compelled to memorize without reasoning, to ac- 
cept facts presented arbitrarily and without explanation, 
that we have lost much of our early sympathy with the 
poetry, the spiritual life of the world of nature, and the 
faculties which performed this high function for us have 
shrunk and atrophied from disuse, and threaten mischief. 

What shall we do to avoid this danger for our little 
ones? Give them nothing less than the world for a play- 


room, for a school! Speak to them, not in the cramped and 
artificial tongue to which our limited thoughts have become 
accustomed, but in that universal language — the language 
of symbolism — which is so supremely flexible, satisfying, 
and enticing. Let them live close to nature, and feel her 
and question her. Let us not interfere too much, lest we 
mar her work. Let them go to the art galleries, and live 
with good pictures and good statuary. Let them hear good 
music — not take m.usic lessons, but listen, little bits at a 
time, as long as pleasure lasts; and, finally, tell them over 
and over the good old meaning-full fairy tales and legends, 
and the myths which express the childish reach after great 
truths. For the universal mind of the child, his threefold 
being, created in the image of Him who chose this world of 
form and color and sound as His mouthpiece, can be satis- 
fied with nothing short of universal truths couched in uni- 
versal language. Having given him this sure center, all 
other knowledge will group and arrange itself as it is ac- 
quired, and the world will never be to him anything less 
than a living witness to the majesty and tenderness of its 

"?r^ "^Y^"^^ y^ ^^ '7r^ /r^ A^ /fy^ 



IN one of the most desirable portions of Toledo, on a 
slight elevation or knoll, stands the High School and 
Manual Training School. It is an imposing structure, 
and a source of pride to its citizens; not so much for 
its outward aspect, which is plain and substantial, but be- 
cause it represents the practical realization of the most ad- 
vanced ideas of modern education. 

The high school proper was erected in 1853, and its first 
graduating class sent many of its brightest members to the 
battle field. It has always maintained a high standard of 

The manual training school, under the joint control of a 
board of trustees and the board of education, was made 
possible through the generous bequest of Jessup W. Scott, 
an early resident of Toledo, a man of culture and of broad 
views of life, who wished to elevate labor and give to the 
young people of his city a more symmetrical development 
than was possible under the old ideas which dominated 
education. His aim was to endow a university of arts and 
trades, and he bequeathed, by will, a large tract of land ad- 
jacent to Toledo for that purpose. 

Owing to adverse circumstances, it was found that the 
original plan could not be carried out, and in 1884 the trus- 
tees — his sons, Messrs. Frank and Wm. Scott — proposed 
to the city council of Toledo that the fund, which had been 
increased by liberal amounts from his heirs and Wm. P. 
Raymond, be used to establish a manual training school 
in connection with the high school, thus broadening the 
scope of the benevolence and carrying out the real desire 
of the founder. 

The manual training school thus became an integral part 
of our public school system, and in its completeness and 


peculiar relation to the high school is a model of its kind. 

Every pupil of the manual training school must take the 
regular high school course, but the manual training is an 
elective course to the high school pupils. The large num- 
ber who take both courses indicates its popularity. 

The course requires a four years' attendance, which en- 
titles pupils to a diploma, and prepares them for teaching 
in similar institutions. 

On the first floor, upon entering, to the left is the forg- 
ing room, where young bo}'s learn all the mysteries of 
blacksmithing, forging, welding, etc. To the right is the 
molding shop. The intelligent young boys, with their 
leather aprons and smutty faces, are an interesting sight. 

On the next floor, to the left, is the light carpentry 
room, where you may find both boys and girls learning to 
use the hammer and saw, and construct plain boxes, tables, 
etc. To the right is the machine shop, and more than one 
class of boys have constructed a steam engine as a chef 

On the next floor, to the left, is the wood-carving room, 
where both boys and girls express their artistic instinct 
in carving wooden panels and other articles of furniture. 
They prepared for the World's Fair a handsome hall rack, 
writing desk, music rack, etc. To the right is the drawing- 
room, where a most comprehensive system of drawing is 
carried on under the supervision of Professor Percy Howe. 
It comprises a four years' course, embracing free-hand, me- 
chanical, architectural, pen and ink sketches, water colors, 

On the upper floor are the two most attractive depart- 
ments in the whole building, — the dressmaking and cook- 
ing schools. The domestic economy course, for girls, com- 
prises one year wood carving and carpentry, one year plain 
sewing, one for dressmaking, and one for cooking. 

The cooking school occupies a beautiful, well-lighted 
room containing six tables accommodating four girls each. 
Each girl has a set of drawers containing her cooking uten- 
sils, which must be kept in perfect order. Each table is 


furnished with two small gas stoves. There are in addition 
a large range and two large gas stoves for cooking and 
boiling on a large scale. Each girl spends an hour and a 
half each day in this department, which is under the super- 
vision of Miss Matilda Campbell, a graduate of the school. 
The course embraces five main divisions, — boiling, baking, 
broiling, frying, mixing; or, soups, vegetables, meats, bread 
and pastry, desserts, etc. Young women are taught to pre- 
pare and serve breakfast, dinner, and tea. Two classes in 
the ward schools take cooking lessons. 

The dressmaking department, under the supervision of 
Miss Nellie Fickens, is a most interesting department. 
The plain sewing, which occupies the first year's course, 
consists of preliminary work in basting, seaming, hemming, 
felling, buttonholes, darning, and patching. The finished 
work consists of one hand-made suit of ladies' underwear, 
and is simple and neat in construction. A more elaborate 
suit is one stitched by machine, and is of the daintiest 
description, being fashioned of the finest cambric, with 
decoration of fine tucks and Valenciennes insertion and 

A morning jacket of blue and white eider down, lined 
with blue silk and finished with blue silk frills, is a thing 
of beauty. A white mull dress trimmed with ruffles and 
lace is exquisitely made. A handsome walking suit of a 
beautiful shade of green cloth, trimmed with velvet bands 
and double shoulder capes of the same, was most artistically 
conceived and executed. 

But what young ladies would call a "perfect dream," is 
the evening dress of pink crystal silk, designed by Miss Lulu 
Heston, and finished in the most exquisite manner by Miss 
Olive Parmelee. It is an Empire gown, decollete, with 
short puffed sleeves, a Watteau plait in the back, and an 
arrangement of pink velvet bridles from front to back 
under the arms. It has two flounces of white lace on the 
skirt, headed by bands of pink velvet, and the same garni- 
ture on neck and sleeves. It is daintily lined with pink 
silk throughout, and no seams are to be seen. Other young 


ladies make or design mulls, silks, ginghams, or challies, as 
fancy may dictate. 

There is no tuition fee in any of the courses, but a small 
fee for material is charged, which includes the expenses of 
linings, thread, etc., a complete suit of underwear, and one 
dress. Nine special teachers give sewing lessons once a 
week in the ward schools, after the regular school hours, and 
twenty-two hundred young girls are in the classes at the 
present time. Miss Olive Parmelee is the superintendent of 
this department, assisted by ten graduates of the manual 
training school. 

Evening classes in cooking, drawing, chemistry, and 
physics add greatly to the popularity of the institution. 
Mr. Geo. S. Mills is the general superintendent. 

The only thing necessary to place Toledo in the front 
rank of cities as regards educational matters is the incor- 
poration of the kindergarten into the public school system, 
which is a possibility of the near future. 

/fv /ps /fs /|V /^ /|s; /^ ■^jy\ /f^ 
V^ V^ V^ V^ W- W^ V^ ^ V^ 


Portentous changes are going on in the various depart- 
ments of society, economics, and ethics. One may hear a 
rustle and murmur among the leaves and sheaves of the 
season that is passing. A clearing breeze is already arising, 
preparing the atmosphere for new policies, for higher ener- 
gies and nobler aspirations. Every transitory stage from 
an outgrown to a better condition is clothed in the mystery 
of the untried. Whether in the history which has been 
made, or in that which is being made, we find premonitions 
of progress in which the waiting men and women have faith. 
It is their own unspoken, half-conscious aspirations which 
conjure every new achievement into life and reality. 

The noble movement of the social, educational, and in- 
dustrial settlements, which is unfolding the dignity and 
beauty of human contact in every locality, is one of the 
tangible signs of the latter day. The more fortunate no 
longer go to the less fortunate that they may give of their 
bounty or culture or talent; but the former go in that larger 
spirit of comradeship which profits all concerned. The de- 
mand on all sides is for more rational living and being, and 
less for theories or fine dissertations on how men should 
live. The church, the school, the state are falling in line 
and responding to this demand. No small witness to this 
is the fact that the American Bar Association is seriously 
considering ways and methods by which the standard of 
law study and learning may be raised to a scientific life basis. 

A POWERFUL chemicalization is going on in the public 
school systems of several of our largest cities. It is advis- 
able for teachers to keep themselves posted on these im- 
portant discussions, for the same reasons that a lawyer 
watches the precedents and decisions fixed by every great 
law case. The Brooklyn city schools, under Superintendent 
Maxwell, are brought face to face with an important issue. 


— viz., Shall there be complete coordination of studies, or 
shall individual freedom be granted teachers in the selec- 
tion of what is most profitable and advantageous to stu- 
dents? Chicago has had her "fad" fight, which, once diag- 
nosed as the action of political virus, has opened the eyes 
of citizens to the relation of school boards to schools. But 
by far the most important of these struggles for the survival 
of the fittest and best for our schools, is that which is this 
moment agitating Boston school men and women. The 
pride of her schools, which twenty years ago were the pride 
of the land, has rather blinded the colonial city by the sea. 
Year by year, while she has looked out over what she had 
already accomplished, other cities, other wheres, were meet- 
ing and solving the current problems. It is not enough that 
a public school system provide good shelter, retain reliable 
teachers, and place eminent men and women upon the 
school committee; but this system must also take into ac- 
count the unceasing shift and growth of human thought, as 
one generation merges into the next. 

The publication of certain reports made by the special 
committee on drawing in the Boston public schools, re- 
vealed conditions which surprised both the public and the 
school committee responsible for the same. Among the 
unwarranted points which have called forth public and press 
discussion are the following: 

Disagreement among the members of the committee as 
to the importance of drawing in the schools; 

Unprogressive methods employed and tolerated; 

Indifference and ignorance on the part of the special 
drawing committee, to both standards of other cities and 
the actual needs of the children; 

Blind acceptance by the committee, of the scheme of 
work submitted by the director of drawing, and regulated 
by the system of text-books and charts provided by the 
American Book Company; 

That there was no vital connection between the kinder- 
garten and primary or grade work, in spite of the fact that 
the former have been considered an integral part of the 


Boston school system for twenty years; also that while 
manual training is so successfully maintained, there is no 
intermingling of this work with the drawing or art of the 

The minority report presented by Dr. James McDonald 
of the school committee was based upon a thorough investi- 
gation of the work of other cities and the principles which 
underlie the success of the same. This minority report not 
only recommended but insisted that the kindergarten should 
be made the basis of sound art work in the schools, since it 
had been proven worthy and fruitful in so many cases. 

The discussion has brought out evidence and testimony 
of the most vital nature from such praictical educational 
leaders as the following: Virgil Curtis, superintendent of 
schools of New Haven; Walter L. Hervey, president Teach- 
ers' College, New York; Dr. Edward E. Hale; Mr. Louis 
Prang; Professor Walter S. Perry, of Pratt Institute; Dr. 
McAllister, of Drexel, and a score more of equal authority. 
In our next issue we will reprint a group of these letters, 
which bear with direct force upon art in the kindergarten 
and in primary education. 


No. VI. 

The Cliild and his Environmerit. — " Grass Moivmg,'' "■Beck- 
oning to the Chickens'' ''The Fishes!' — The naturalist is not 
content with the random information that a certain rare 
form of plant life was once found on a certain heath. He 
searches out the facts; himself goes to the spot indicated, 
that he may behold the choice creature as it grows and 
blows in its native place. He takes account of rains, dews, 
suns, and winds; whether it stands in free meadow or 'neath 
a tall tree's shade. In studying a bird, he follows it to its 
haunts; he watches its flight far and near, its nestings high 
or low; he records the varied plumage, listens to its song, 
both morning and evening. 

In like careful and unintruding manner, the student of 
the child beholds him in his natural setting. He too be- 
longs to an environment peculiar to himself. This environ- 
ment includes his daily surroundings, habits, selections, ac- 
tivities, and endless questionings. His unconscious plays 
and unnumbered experiments, his renewed efforts and striv- 
ings and wishings, must all be taken into account by the 
naturalist who would know his nature. 

The choice plant newly discovered by the botanist may 
have budded, blown, and seeded in the remote forest for 
half a century before his eye chanced upon it. It has its 
history. It might tell of forest floods which submerged it, 
or mighty winds which have swept it, or night frosts which 
chill it; another denizen of the woods once trod it under 
foot; one holy spring season birds were busy hiding a nest 
near its roots, and the balminess of evening breezes taught 
it to move its tender branches in inexpressible joy. But the 
botanist cares not for these varied chapters in its life's his- 
tory. He knows what he sees, — namely, a perfect flower, 


with transparent but well-ordered petals, stamens, and or- 
gans. He sees that it has laws of color and organic form 
peculiar to itself, and that these laws are destined to fulfill- 
ment as often as the season repeats itself; for he finds here 
what he has found again and again, — the seed within itself. 

The mother or kindergartner has a group of varying 
children about her. She has a family of five or fifty speci- 
mens of humanity, which it is her duty and privilege to 
study carefully. She must know them in their environment, 
immediate and remote; she must come near to them without 
intrusion or interference. The children represent many 
stages of so-called development. She must learn to dis- 
tinguish between temporary and permanent qualities. She 
must reach behind every abnormal or artificial condition, 
and find the child true to his laws of growth and in his na- 
tive elefnent. Hereditary conditions must not blind, not dis- 
courage her faith in the inevitable laws of individuality. 
The strange histories, stories often too sad to bear repeat- 
ing, must all be left behind as she seizes upon the fact that 
here is a child with a law peculiar to himself, which will 
come to fulfillment as it does in every other plant, because 
its seed is within itself. 

The naturalist who studies the child is more than a 
physiologist or an anatomist. He must weigh and estimate 
such immeasurable quantities as intuition, genius, and soul. 
Kindergartners have been ridiculed for a score of years for 
their free and oft but half-understood use of the phrase 
"threefold relationship." They have been seeking to ex- 
press Froebel's inclusive principle of unity. 

As I understand Froebel's " Mother-Play Book," this is 
its purpose: to present to us the child in his native, normal 
condition, that we may study him relative to all the phe- 
nomena of his existence. The purpose of this book is to 
teach us to look behind the immediate and temporal condi- 
tions, and find those fundamental facts from which we may 
formulate laws common to all humanity. The purpose of 
this book is to teach us to interpret children on whatever 
plane of growth, that we may truly estimate their individu- 


alities. The purpose of this book is to teach us to see all 
conditions of growth subject to a common law, which re- 
peats itself in nature, humanity, and divinity. This book 
is therefore a practical text-book of psychology, since it 
teaches us how to study the child as he is, wherever he is. 
When we have thoroughly studied the specimen characters, 
including environment, as presented in the chapters of "Die 
Mutter und Kose-Lieder," we may then turn, like the natu- 
ralist, to any heath or highway and read the meaning of the 
"humblest flower that blows." 

Let us group a few of the songs wherein Froebel seeks 
to show us the child in his nature environment,— "The Grass 
Mowing," "Beckoning to the Chickens," "The Fishes." 

Grass-mozvvng Song. — Mother, have a purpose in all you 
say or do. Your activity is the type, to the child, of life's 
great purpose. Unity or logic in your life teaches him the 
law of unity in all life. This sense of unity is his environ- 
ment. He must never lose faith in life's unity, if he is to 
keep his environment complete. This hint to the mother is 
the keynote to the song, and its sermon. As before, study 
the picture and story carefully, and formulate in your own 
way the various illustrations of the central thought. By 
what means is a child made conscious of the unity of na- 
ture? May a knowledge of unity become clear to the child 
as an abstraction? Does the child see, hear, feel, or know 
in fragments or in wholes? Is he conscious of incomplete- 
nesses? Is the adult more, or less, responsive to nature than 
is the child? Should inharmonious experiences, thoughts, 
or words be presented to the child that he may know life 
from the common standpoint of the adult? Is industry an 
essential quality or adjunct to life? Does the omnipresent 
law of activity impel industry? Could the child develop 
into normal maturity without being industrious? Does 
man's dependence upon his fellow man necessitate indus- 
try? Could humanity stand as an organic unit without in- 
terchange of labor? Is gratitude a natural result of this in- 
terdependence? When the child traces the processes by 
which his bowl of bread and milk are made possible, is his 


thought turned in upon himself, or out into the universe and 
its laws? Does he appreciate or underestimate his fellow 
man in consequence? Will he honor his immediate family 
and parents more, or less, through a knowledge of the great 
services rendered by them? Will he be impelled to serve 
in return? Will life be a nobler reality to him when he sees 
himself a part of the interlaced and intertwined humanity? 
How can this lesson of a world-wide environment be made 
clear to a child of five years? Is it clear to you, mother, 
kindergartner? What story or song can you use in place of 
this one presented by Froebel, which will embody the same 
principle? What historical instances could you cite to older 
boys and girls which would emphasize the interdependence 
of mankind? What books do you know which would take 
men and women beyond their immediate problems into uni- 
versal processes? 

The song of "Calling the Chickens " is provided with one 
of the most choice illustrations in the entire "Mother-Play 
Book." Look at the picture, and interpret the story with- 
out referring to the text. The stately mother carries the 
child out into the open air, beckoning and calling the 
chickens to come to them. Other children, larger and 
smaller, go out toward the fowl cautiously, encouraging 
them to come near. Man is not separated from the nature 
life about him. All creatures are bound by invisible law in 
one fellowship. There are no higher or lower animal king- 
doms. The chickens need not hesitate to become the com- 
panions of little children. Little children need not pass 
through the heartless traditions that man is an enemy to 
other animals by the law of the survival of the fittest. The 
child is growing older, and custom may teach him lessons 
of antagonism and cruelty. The wise mother takes him out 
into the sunlight and counteracts these unconscious breaches 
between man and his fellow nature. The environment is 
again sustained, is preserved unbroken. Siegfried,* of the 
old myth, understood the language of the birds because 
there was no hate or fear in his heart. Read now Froebel's 

* See " Child Stories from the Masters," $1 . 


interpretation of the picture. A sincerity and warmth lie 
back of the simple word-picture, which cannot fail to bring 
every reader nearer to the heart of nature. "The sturdy 
tree 'neath whose kindly shade little children loiter that 
they may drink in the being of nature," becomes a friend, a 
personality, which may well typify man's aspiration. 

The song of the Fishes is found on page 43 of the Lee 
& Shepard edition. The following version of the motto we 
believe fully expresses the author's intent: 

Wherever activity is seen, 

Baby's eye is thither drawn. 

When 'tis found in liquid deeps, 
Baby's heart with joy o'erleaps. 

By intuition strong and sure, 
He knows again the sweet, the pure. 
This gives the reason why all children are fascinated by 
swimming fishes, running brooks, or flying birds. It should 
also make clear to us why it is of profit to play the games 
of birds and fishes, or to tell stories about their active lives, 
and best of all, to set the children free to watch and play 
among them. Is any creature free or beautiful apart from 
his natural environment? Are there varying conditions 
and surroundings, each fitting the needs of certain creatures? 
By what authority does education exclude natural and pro- 
vide artificial environments? Describe your own ideal of 
the proper environment for little children? Is your kinder- 
garten or your family life an embodiment of this ideal? In 
what respects are kindergartners given to seize the body of 
the fish, — the letter of the law, — and by so doing lose their 
grasp of the spirit which animates it? When asked by 
strangers to define the kindergarten, would you first men- 
tion the gifts and materials? Is the kindergarten in any 
sense a system? See the third article of this series, for 
Froebel's estimate of the meaning of the word "kindergar- 
ten" (page 201 of November Kindergarten Magazine). 
Are you, as the mother, a minor quantity in this environ- 
ment? Read the story, "Fish and Butterfly,"* by Maude 

*See " Child Stories fi'om the Masters,"" $i. 


Menefee, and find the contrast between environments, and 
the moral that true growth of individuality depends upon 
the creature fulfilling the law of his own, and not of an- 
other's, being. 

We shall be pleased to answer in this department any 
questions called forth by these articles. — Amalic Hofcr. 





In a previous article another distinguishing feature of 
the Tonic Sol-fa method was referred to: i. e., the grouping 
of the tones of the scale in chords, which, as will now be 
perceived, is but another application of the theory of men- 
tal effect. 

In presenting the tones in chords, the ear is led to asso- 
ciate those tones which are most frequently combined. 
This arrangement of the seven tones of the scale will be 
more quickly appreciated when we consider that adjacent 
tones are dissonant, and that the mind and ear will be 
trained more accurately if the tones presented are conso- 
nant and not dissonant. 

The proper blending of the tones necessary to form a 
chord is very pleasing to the ear, and makes a strong im- 
pression on the mind, which will linger in the memory so 
that when the chord tone is heard again its two companions 
are readily recalled. 

After the presentation of each of these three principal 
chords (D, S, F) in their order, practice is given with adja- 
cent tones as well as with the chord tones. The ability to 
sing extended leaps, even with limited practice, is in many 
cases remarkable, and decidedly encouraging. With the 
teaching of these three chords, the diatonic scale has been 
learned. As shown in the diagrams, a certain place is as- 
signed to each of these chords, the reason for which will be 
discussed later. The same manner of writing is observed 

Vol. 6-29 


until the pupil has become more familiar with the tones; 
then, with his assistance the notes, or signs of the tones, are 
written one above the other in stepwise or scale order, and 
he has presented for his consideration the regular or com- 
mon scale. 

Although the teacher may have been careful to maintain 
the proper space between the notes, albeit they were not 
written directly one under another, as shown in the third 
diagram (see January No.), when they are arranged in scale 
form the following (No. IV) would probably be accepted 
by the pupil as correct: 







doh doh 

A second writing, as illustrated, will show the pupil that 
the spaces between the notes are not equal; in short, that 
the scale is composed of three kinds of steps, which are 
designated as greater, smaller, and little, in the order shown 
in diagram V. The application of mental effect in this in- 
stance will enable the pupil to appreciate the different kinds 
of steps. By singing the tones from doh to doh^, slowly 
and carefully, the difference in the steps w^ill be felt and 
more truly appreciated. 

It may be asked what constitutes the difference between 
the steps. According to Sir John Herschel there are i,000 
degrees in the octave. Each greater step contains 170 de- 
grees; each smaller step 152 degrees, and each little step 
93 degrees. The number of degrees in each step is divided 















into kommas, each of which contains i8 degrees. A greater 
step, therefore, with a little calculation will be found to con- 
tain 9 kommas and a fraction; the smaller, 8 and a fraction; 
and the little, 5 and a fraction. The fractions are, for ordi- 
nary illustration, omitted, so that the numbers stand 9, 8, 5, 
respectivel3\ From doh to doh\ therefore, according to 
the preceding numbers, will be 53 kommas. 

After the second chord has been introduced and practice 
given, the characters of the two new tones t and r having 
been developed and emphasized by the manual signs, a 
phrase containing all the tones is sung, and a pause made oh 
/. The pupil is requested to finish the phrase. Invariably 
he will sing the proper tone (^1 ) to produce the desired 
effect, which is that of rest or satisfaction. The impulse to 
sing <^i after t has been sung is very strong and gives a 
sense of relief to the mind in contrast to the suspense cre- 
ated by the preceding tone. So also with the tone r; the 
pupil will respond with the tone d after hearing a phrase 
where the pause was made on r. If asked to end the phrase 
on some other tone not far removed from r, he is led to sing 
m, which makes a good ending, but one not so satisfactor)' 
as if </ is used. The teacher in these cases asks a question; 
the pupil gives the answer. So also when the third chord 
has been taught. After / we require to hear s; and the 
strong tendency of /to m is very marked and quickly appre- 
ciated by the pupil. 

Particular importance is given to the little steps of the 
scale {m f, t d"^), occurring between the third and fourth 
and seventh and eighth intervals respectively. This will be 
referred to again and more fully explained in another 
branch of the subject. 

It is proper at this point in the course to use a printed 
Tonic Sol-fa modulator, which the pupil has been prepared 
to understand by the foregoing instruction. Had it been in 
use previous to this stage many questions would have been 
asked of the teacher which now the pupil is able to answer 
for himself. Everything it contains will seem quite easy to 
him, and his delight at being able to apply the knowledge 


he possesses will give a new zest to the work and cause him 
much satisfaction. The following is a copy of the printed 






After the foregoing preparation it seems hardly neces- 
sary to explain the diagram; but to make the illustration 
more complete, attention is directed to the following points: 
A careful observation of the modulator shows the difference 
between the tones of the foundation chord (D) and the 
other tones of the scale. The strong tones are indicated by 
upright letters and the leaning tones by slanting letters. 
The former are printed in heavy type and the latter in light 
type. It will be noticed that capitals are used for the 
names of the tones in the principal octave. This is done 
only on the modulator. The degrees before mentioned are 
not indicated on this, the Third Step modulator, but will be 
given when the extended modulator is presented. It is bet- 
ter that the pupil should not have more given him at any 
stage than he readily understands. It is sufficient for him 
to digest what is placed before him in the last diagram. — 
Emma A. Lord. 


To the Editors of the Kindergarten Magazine: — Having 
a good deal of sympathy for the perplexed kindergartner 
from Connecticut, I beg leave to answer her questions, not 


from a wiser, but probably more experienced standpoint. 
[See January number.] 

1. Keep the children interested and busy, and they will 
forget to indulge in these habits. Tell them you want to 
help them overcome these ungentle little ways, and you will 
find the children very responsive; and each day there will 
be some improvement, so that by the end of the term the 
habits will be permanently overcome. 

2. The division of time which I have found to be most 
advantageous is the following: 9 to 9.30, good -morning 
songs, new song, morning talk or story; 9.30 to 9.40, sea- 
sonable songs, with gesture, physical exercise, march with 
chairs to tables; 9.40 to 10, gift work; 10 to 10.30, short 
recess and games; 10.30 to 10.50, luncheon; 10.50 to ii, 
march or exercise songs; ii to 1 1.30, occupation; 11.30 to 
11.45, the children's quarter of an hour, when they recite a 
poem, tell a story, sing a song (we call this our concert, 
and it is enjoyed by teachers and children alike); 11.45 ^^ 
12, preparations for dismissal (sing a good-by song, shake 
hands, and say good-by). 

3. No, it is not wise to tell a story every day, as that 
would be too great a tax on the children's memory, and 
also exhausting to the teacher, I should think. We want 
the story to be the connecting link between the morning 
talk of one day and the new song of another, giving the 
child time to digest and give it back in his own words. 

4. The games should always be connected with the 
morning talk, as with everything else that is done in the 
kindergarten. The children may not always see the con- 
nection at first, but a suggestion from the kindergartner will 
lead them to see it, and through this to imbibe the truth of 
the interdependence of all things. — A. H. Wardle. 


True criticism is impersonal. With an eye for inward 
meaning and for outward form it sees the ideals of things, 
and, looking from the inner to the outer, longs ever to greet 
the inner life and law through the medium of the outward 


form, the use of form being to clothe and bring into view 
the fire of life within. In the kindergarten the question 
always is, How nearly is it expressing its ideal? This ideal 
is in no way vague or dreamy. It is the use of forms as a 
means of expression for the life force of the children, the 
form being chosen from elementary forms in nature, used in 
creation to express the divine, used on earth to express the 
human; the human thought and action being, in expression, 
in accordance with the divine. This ideal the students of 
Froebel seek to follow in all they say and do. All criticism, 
then, has relation to our ideals. It is suggestive of princi- 
ple only, and of desire for perfect growth. 

It was the close of a morning in the kindergarten. The 
children rose, and with the assistant teachers came from the 
different tables, each division taking its place on the floor 
until all were gathered there. But the circle was not closed. 
On one side the children stood close together, on the other 
they were scattered along, and finally, for a space of several 
feet, the ring was left open. The kindergartner stood in 
the center. Having something to say to certain children, 
she called them to her from various parts of the ring. After 
she had spoken these children remained standing irregularly 
about her, and without regard to the broken ring the good-by 
was sung, and all were dismissed. Why was so slight a 
thing of consequence, and why was this broken ring con- 
trary to kindergarten principle and ideal? The broken ring 
was a broken kindergarten form; and in the kindergarten 
all forms are significant of the living movements and right 
progress of the human spirit. For illustration of this we 
follow Froebel, and turn to nature to study the relation be- 
tween form and force, to find the origin and value of the 
ring in nature and society, and to see why, as the last ex- 
pression of the morning, the kindergarten ring should be 
perfectly formed. 

The sphere is the beginning of things in nature, and con- 
sequently it is the beginning of the kindergarten. With its 
single face, and with all its points of boundary at even dis- 
tances from its center, the sphere is absolute, unbroken 


form. It is the first form in nature; it is the form of the 
universe, the sun, and the earth. It is the first sign of the 
power of God, of his unity and force. It represents person- 
ality, an entire sphere of life. It stands for and typifies 
both the divine Life above and lesser lives below, — the 
spheres of individual human souls. Because of this original 
character as the first form taken by force in its movement 
outward from God, the ball is the First Gift in the kinder- 
garten, the first thing seen and handled by the child. It is 
given for its unity; and the circle, as we say (strictly speak- 
ing, the ring), the circumference, is shown to be an outer 
boundary of the sphere, complete, perfect, without begin- 
ning and without end. Unity is thus the character of the 
First Gift. As a whole the sphere is representative of the 
Infinite. It is heavenly and spiritual in character. The 
child receives it as a whole. As the sun and the earth are 
connected by the sun's physical light, and God and human- 
ity by His spiritual light, so correspondingly the child re- 
ceives his ball by lines of color, the separated rays of sun- 
light, which still do not break the ball's unity of form, but 
rather help to reveal it. 

The sphere having given color, next, from its own cen- 
ter, produces the second concrete form, — the cube. It is 
the opposite of unity. It represents the earth and the work 
of man. It brings division, dispersion, the parts in place of 
the whole, and with it the child begins that life movement 
by which the world grows, — the use of material, the pro- 
duction of diversity. But in order to preserve that standard 
of unity, which, once given, must be retained as the heav- 
enly guide to earthly action, the cube itself is given as a 
whole. Each cube is in its box and each box is alike, and 
no matter what the divisions within or the expansion with- 
out, after all construction, as we know, the child rebuilds 
his material into its original unity and sees it go from him 
as it came, a perfect solid. The kindergarten gifts are pre- 
cise, and however used they remain as types, as units of 
form. On the other hand, in the occupations, materials de- 
rived from the gifts are to be made up by industry and sent 


out in any shape; but even here the law for each child is 
transformation of material without loss, and no loose ends 
or unfinished places are allowed. Froebel says, "The in- 
ward is made known by means of the outward;" and each 
form must be complete outwardly, as a sign of the complete 
idea within. Thus we have the teaching of nature, the ex- 
pansion of life into form, the perfecting of form for the sake 
of the life within. The beginning of life is unity. The chil- 
dren stand near that beginning, and following nature, their 
life, in its elementary greatness, takes simple expression. 
In producing, when left to themselves they work with a few 
large lines, and in the production of this, the circle of life 
upon the floor, it is notable that they take an interest in its 
perfection, which to the thoughtful mind is highly signifi- 
cant of the growth of their mental idea of precision, which 
is geometry, and their instinctive joy in union, which is 
spiritual sensibility. It is, then, in the great harmony of 
life, for principle's sake, for the sake of unity, presented first 
in the sphere and repeated by the children on the floor, that 
their ring of life should, by their own action, be made per- 

As a form it is related to unity in nature, to unity in the 
Creator, and to the unity of society. Therefore should not 
the circle be, in that closing moment, a harmony of form, a 
harmony of voice, a unity of life? Harmony is the result 
of right relationship of parts in a whole. In the ring the 
center is "the abiding point"; the children are the living 
circumference, and perfection comes through each child's 
sense of relationship to the center. 

.AH great movements of nature are spheric or spheroidal, 
with a common center for their point of control. In the 
ages of history men have caught inspiration from these 
great lines of horizon and vortex, from the sweeping circular 
motions by which time has been measured, by which moons 
have risen and stars have set; and under their influence the 
deepest thoughts of mankind have been signified by the 
symbols of the circle and the sphere. The darkened, 
winged globe of Egypt, the winged ring of Persia, the circle 


of India, the circle filled with circles, one within another, 
until the center was but a shadow still pointing inward to 
Divinity, — all this great thought and love of humanity is 
linked to the thought and action of the kindergarten when 
it sets its children together in a ring upon the floor. It is a 
meaningful action. It is science and history, poetry and 
promise, of what yet shall be. 

It is the teaching of nature that life, coming from the 
Infinite in unity, as to the flower seed, lives through its earth 
life, expanding its parts to blossoming, and returning again 
to unity in the seed. Following this law of nature the chil- 
dren begin each morning by marking the circumference of 
the kindergarten sphere as a whole. From that unity they 
disperse to take up their several tasks; but when these are 
over they are again drawn together to complete the morn- 
ing's life, as, taking part in the outer boundary, each faces 
the common center. Nature in her great spiral movements 
works toward perfection and rest. Surely it is a principle 
taken from nature that the closing moments in the ring 
should be gentle and altogether happy! Struggles with 
material or with temper, personalities, comparisons, and 
efforts of earth should be dropped, and the ring should for 
a moment again represent the heavenly, which is a sphere 
of peace. This is the ideal of the kindergarten ring, which 
by its single line indicates the whole of its unseen sphere. 
It is the ideal toward which we labor, seeking to bring the 
living vision outward into social, human form. — Mary H. 

(Story illustrated by tablet and stick laying.) 

How many children have storybooks at home? Who 
has a storybook with pictures? 

Let us play make a book today. You will be the artists, 
and I'll be — what? Who knows what a person who writes 
a book is called? An author; yes. 

Now listen very closely, because, you know, your pic- 



tures must help tell the story. The name of this story is 
to be 


One dark morning, when the clouds were making believe 
they were going to send rain down to the early spring 




flowers, Ted asked his mamma what he could do to pass 
away the time. 

He was to go with his papa for a drive along the pleas- 
ant river road that afternoon, and it seemed to him that the 
time from breakfast till two o'clock was, as he said to 
mamma, " Most a week long." 

Mamma told him he might help her to set out the ferns 
they had gathered in the woods not long before. Ted 
could not see any fun in that, and he sat down on the front 







steps to think about it. Soon a fat robin flew down from 
the cherry tree and came hopping toward him, seeming to 
say with each hop, and flirt of his gay little head, " Better 
do it, better do it." "Well," thought Ted after awhile, 
"perhaps I had;" and he ran to tell mamma to set him at 

His papa that morning had turned over the sod between 
the lilac bushes, and made a long and narrow flower bed. 

Now Ted took his little spade and wagon, and taking 



some rich black earth from behind the barn, he covered the 
flower bed over with it. Then he raked the top of the bed 
very smooth and even. After this his mamma came out 
with a basket, and taking the ferns out gently, put them 
down in their new home. 

Then Ted took the watering can, and, filling it many 
times at the pump, sprinkled each plant well. 

His mamma feared the sun might come out, as the clouds 
had begun to drift aw^ay, so she told Teddie to go into the 



house and get an umbrella, which she opened and placed 
over the plants. When this was all done, Ted found that 
lunch was ready, and he told the fat robin who sang in the 
cherry tree — "It wasn't such a long morning after all." 

Whom was the story about? What did Teddie ask his 
mamma? Why did the morning seem long? etc. — M. Helen 
Jennings. Illustrated by Wilhelmina Seegmiller. 



This is the method by which we discovered the cylinder, 
the connecting form between the solids, sphere and cube: 
Give each child a cube and direct him to place it seven 
inches from the edge of the table. Lead children to talk 
of trips they have taken by the cars. Suggest that cubes 
would do for railway stations. Let all blow vigorously and 
see if they would stand a high wind. Draw from children 
that the ball would make a good train. Let children be 
conductors and call out "All aboard!" as train rolls from 
station to station. "What makes engines move, and where 
do they obtain water to transform into steam?" Send a 
child to find something in the Second-gift box which would 
do for the water tank. Roll the cylinders across the table 
and set them up between the stations. Now let all blow 
again to see if they stand steady. The engine may now 
travel from tank to tank as it requires water. — C. S. N. 


' Let us send to the flowers a valentine," 
Cried the gay North Wind to the Mountain Pine; 
So he shook its branches, and from them threw 
The crystals of frost and the snowflakes, too. 
Whirling them down like a fine cloud of lace. 
And spreading them gently over the place 
Where the summer wild flowers grew. 

And the flowers, hid in their bed so deep, 
Smiled as the babies of earth in their sleep. 

Warm sheltered by Love the long winter through. 
They wait till the spring for their life made new; 
Waiting and sleeping down under the snow. 
As the Wind and the Pine, in whisper low, 
Sang, "Love to you; oh, love to you!" 

— Cornelia Fulton Crary. 


(See general outline in the October Kindergarten Magazine. 
These articles are records of our program as actually carried out; 
hence they appear after the actual months in which they were pre- 
sented to the children.) 

For our October work we naturally come to the consid- 
eration of "trees," from our having lived with the "rock 
family" in September. The substance of earth formation 
being observed, we were led to the discussion of various 
kinds of soil. The tree is typical of all vegetation. We 
considered the tree, first, in relation to the earth; second, 
the life and structure of the tree; third, fruit bearing, and 
fruit-bearing plant life, as relative to man and animals. 

In the morning the children were shown a "buckeye." 
Many of them in their rough coats were noticed by children 
and teachers. "If we plant this nut, what will grow?" "A 
buckeye tree," said Mary. " How will it grow?" The chil- 
dren stand to represent trees, and move their toes, saying. 
Yes, they are the roots of the trees, while arms show the 
branches, body the trunk, hands and fingers the leaves, 
blossom, and fruit, which in this case is the nut. 

Another day a picture of a palm tree is drawn on the 
blackboard with the three pyramids, which we call stone 
mountains with steps, that the people may find foothold in 
climbing them. The long river flowing through the long 
and narrow strip of land is drawn. Children show river 
narrow (arms extended forward), then wider, when arms 
are slowly moved away from each other. Children are 
much interested in this. 

Though it rains so little, the roots of the trees get water 
by the overflow of the Nile River. Clinton and Eddie say 
"Men made these stone and brick mountains," and James 
says "God makes the real mountains." 

"Is this palm tree like our trees?" "No." "But is it 
a tree?" "Yes." "Why?" "It has roots, trunk, branches, 
leaves, and fruit." Clinton says the palm-leaf fans come 
from this tree. "Yes, but there are different kinds of palm 


trees. The kind that has the dates is not the kind that has 
the broad leaves which make the fans." The children stand 
and try to represent the palm trees, with arms brought well 
up against head and hands drooped outward. Some show 
date fruit. 

At the tables the outline cards of trees are sewed, and 
fruit is shown with gummed dots put on after trees are en- 
tirely finished. In the sand table, rows of trees are planted. 
With the pillars of the Sixth Gift tree boxes are made to 
protect tender saplings. With sticks flat upon the table, 
we have rows of trees, in groups of ten each, and show one 
tree complete with its fruit (lentils). The children con- 
tinue to bring stones of various kinds, and also now bring 
quite a variety of fruit, and we talk of the kinds of trees 
from which it comes. 

The picture of the palm tree and pyramids, also the 
drawing of the sphinx on the blackboard, delighted the 
children so much that from this they talked of the camels 
and donkeys from Egypt, and even those children who had 
not been to the World's Fair found the Street of Cairo very 
real. After the drawing of the sphinx's head we became 
sculptors ourselves, carving out heads and features, until 
upon the circle two complete figures were chiseled out. A 
large white apron was thrown over one child, and the form 
began to take shape. First the cloth was lowered and the 
head was blocked out; then eyes, nose, mouth, ears, hair 
in waving lines (finger for chisel), noticing shape and pro- 
portion of features. Then the cloth lowered still more re- 
vealed the torso, and lastly the whole figure stood in pure 
white marble. Children were eager to be sculptors as well 
as blocks of marble. 

Nearly all the children express their thoughts freely 
through the medium of drawing, and the processes of the 
child's mind are better interpreted by the use of slate, 
blackboard, paper, pencil, paint, and clay, than by any 
other occupation material by those who can discern the 
meaning of their crude representations. The children are 
asked to draw the apple and buckeye tree. They bring so 



many apples and buckeyes, they are interested in drawing 
the kind of trees they grow upon. A peculiarity noticed 
among the children is, that in stick laying and drawing 
many will reverse the picture, making roots up and tree 
down, or show the tree as lying sideways. When these 
children's attention is called to this, they say: "Oh, yes; I 
know the way the tree grows;" or, "Oh, I know the way it 
ought to be." Again, in drawing on the blackboard, a child 
will be quite satisfied with his apple tree this way, or an- 

o e 

o e 

• e 

e o 

other child draws his tree like this. The characteristics of 

form in a typical tree do not appear to our children of four 
years of age and under, while our older children, in indi- 
cating the form of a tree with its structural peculiarities of 
curved and angular branches, do not distinguish between 
the low, broad growth of the apple tree and the aspiring 
limbs of the horse chestnut. Instead of insisting that the 
children should represent the true form of the tree, it seems 
better merely to keep the correct pictures before them, 
especially such pictures as indicate the characteristics of 
tree growth. In this way the child gradually acquires a 
better conception of tree structure in general, while the 
imaginative impress he holds which leads him to represent 
the tree as he thinks of it, is not weakened or violently dis- 


The children soon learn that nuts are a kind of fruit. 
Acorns, walnuts, pignuts, buckeyes, hickory nuts, date 
seeds, peach stones, cherry stones, and other varieties of 
nuts and fruit are brought by the children with great delight 
and interest on their part. We must make room for what we 
are collecting this month, so we take away the stones and 
fragments of rock there are so many of, leaving only one 
or two good specimens of different related members of the 
rock family. 

Children now bring beautiful leaves to the kindergarten 
in their rich autumn dresses. We sing, "Come, little leaves," 
and at playtime we have "the trees all in a row, gently 
swaying to and fro" (" Kindergarten Chimes" ); but the chil- 
dren feel closer to tree life when all on the circle are taking 
some part in the nature play that continues from day to 
day. The following instance illustrates this interest: Lillie, 
Cherry, Willie, Clinton, and Sunshine put their heads to- 
gether and decide they will plant an orchard. The little 
trees are set out. Every child on the circle watches to see 
what part he is to play in " Nature's Serial .Story." They 
wait patiently until they hear the words, "See the sun- 
beams gently touch the young trees," and while they are 
growing the rain cloud sends the falling raindrops to help 
them (these the older children represent). The trees have 
now their full growth and are putting forth blossoms (fin- 
gers opening). Soon they will bear fruit, and at the chil- 
dren's suggestion the bright balls are hung upon the trees. 
Birds now fly about, for their homes are in the trees, and 
sometimes they peck at the bright fruit. Mr. Wind begins 
to blow, and down fall the apples; children run to gather 
them. "What shall we do with our fruit?" A child wishes 
to sell it to the others (or give it). The balls are all put 
in their basket, and one of the children carrying it on her 
arm goes to the others on the circle, with the words, " I am 
a little gardener" (" Kindergarten Chimes"). The children 
also have a fruit store. 

Another day we dramatize a nutting party with squirrels 
scampering out from the rocks to gather the nuts. Again 



the bright-colored autumn leaves that Jack Frost has 
painted, flutter down and cover the sleeping seeds (baby 
children cuddled on floor), while we sing: 

To the great brown house where the seed children sleep 
Came the leaves in the wind and stcrm, 

And whispered, "Seed children, drowsy with sleep, 

We'll cover you over and safely keep 

You all the winter long — yes, all the winter long," 
Said the leaves, covering warm, warm, warm. 

In the sand table we had an orchard one day that told 
an effective story. The farmer's house was built of Second- 
gift cubes and cylinders, thus: 

The trees were planted in orderly rows (fringed paper for 
foliage), and under each tree were the beautiful ripe apples 
(red, green, and yellow Second-gift beads). But alas! at 
one end of the orchard was a blighted tree with crippled 
trunk, scant foliage, and upon the ground lay the dwarfed 
and stunted fruit (for this the wood-colored lentils were 

Under fruit-bearing plant life we entered a rich field. 
For our especial subject we chose the pumpkin vine. The 
children mentioned the currant, blackberry, raspberry, 
grape, tomato, potato, pea, and bean. 

"What are ripe now in the farmers' gardens, lying large, 
ripe, and golden on the ground?" " Pumpkins and cishaws." 
At playtime children represented pumpkin vines by lying 
upon the floor, with arms entwined, while the orange-col- 
ored balls were the pumpkin blossoms. Children after- 

Vol. 6-30 


wards are a pumpkin pie. With us the pumpkin, cishaw, 
sweet potato, and squash are favorite vegetables. 

One day a friend from the country brought us an opos- 
sum. The little fellow looked bristley, with sharp eyes, 
teeth, and claws. The only thing to do was to keep tight 
hold of his tail (there was no box or house for him), while 
the children eagerly crowded around him. In our predica- 
ment, Harrison, a colored supernumerary about the place, 
came to our relief, saying: " Heah, Miss, gib him to me, an' 
I'll tame him up for you so's he'll make a nice pet." This 
was some days ago, and the old negro says nothing as to 
his possumship. It is feared that the gustatory delights 
of possum cooked with sweet potato have proved too strong 
a temptation for old Harrison, and that he has sacrificed 
our future pet to his appetite for this most savory of dishes 
to the negro palate. The morning the opossum arrived 
at the kindergarten he was the subject of our talk during 
the morning circle. The way the mother possum carries 
her young upon her back, "laughing like a possum," "play- 
ing possum," are familiar characteristics to many of our 
children. The intense pleasure our children take in de- 
scriptions, stories, and anecdotes of animals, especially 
where the animals themselves talk in propria persona, in- 
clines one to believe that a revised version of "Uncle Re- 
mus" should be prepared for our Kentucky children in the 
kindergarten. — Laura P. Charles. 





The purpose of all true education is to harmoniously un- 
fold the inner or divine life. "Character building," Eliza- 
beth Harrison calls it. The teaching and training of the 
babe is simply encouraging the life within to manifest itself 
in deeds which are the result of the voluntary action of the 
divinely directed will. For each and every child is under 
divine guidance from birth, and if not interfered with grows 
in grace and beauty until the outer world comes face to face 
with the soul. Then the struggle begins which tests the 
will and the quality of the character. 

The first indication of conscious life is activity; and to 
bring forth clear, definite consciousness this activity must 
be specialized, must be made definite. Begin by being 
gently definite in a few things with the laughing, cooing 
baby. When it becomes conscious of one thing take up 
another, making sure to maintain the logical relation be- 
tween the two; one thing should be the natural, logical out- 
growth of another. There should be orderly or logical 
movements of the limbs from the first; thus the babe comes 
to look for things to come in logical order, and this leads 
to connected, logical thinking and acting later; and thus 
the consequences of the act, the deed, will dawn slowly but 
clearly upon the young mind. Experience is the best 
teacher, and it should be a happy, helpful teacher in youth 
instead of a bitter one in maturity. So let the creeping and 
toddling babe learn largely from experience, while the 
mother love stands guard. 

Create an atmosphere of joy throughout the whole 
house, that the young child may not know sorrow. All 
young things are happy. Notice how much the animal 


mothers play with their young; how the body is strength- 
ened and the intelligence quickened in play. The whole 
interior nature of the little child can be revealed to the 
mother in play. The play of the child should be more to 
the mother than the theater or the opera. Joy in the 
mother will awaken joy in the child. In play the noblest 
ideals can be strongly held in the minds of the parents, and 
they will be thrown in upon the young mind; and under the 
law of correspondences they will quicken that in the child 
that corresponds to their ideal. 

A few weeks ago two little girls asked me to tell them a 
story. As the Christmas time was coming, I asked if they 
wanted a Christmas story. Both spoke at once, in the 
dreariest tone: "Oh, don't tell us any old Bible stories! we 
are just sick of them." "Would you like to hear a story of 
a baby?" "Yes." "Well, once there was a baby born who 
was just like all other babies except in one thing. You 
know that when we were babies we loved our parents, our 
brothers and sisters, our friends and neighbors, and they all 
loved us; and as we grow older we love the people who are 
agreeable to us, the people who love us. But this baby 
was born to love all children and all people. He loved all 
the little children in his village and in his country. When 
he was old enough to go to the large city, he loved all the 
people in that city and in other cities. He loved all the 
people of Asia, of Africa, of Europe; all the people on the 
islands far out in the sea; the people who lived away up be- 
yond the Arctic Circle, w^here it is always cold — oh, so 
cold! all the people down under the equator, where it is so, 
so hot; he loved the poor people whom no one had ever 
thought of before; the slaves, the laborers, and the foolish 
ones. He loved everybody and everything; not only the 
people and things that lived then, but all the people that 
live now; all the people in the United States — our country, 
which was then not even discovered — and all the people in 
the whole of North America and in South America; the 
people who are in prisons, all the bad people as well as the 
good, all the people who are down deep in the earth dig- 

mothers' department. 487 

ging out the coal to keep us warm, and all the people who 
work in factories making cloths for our clothes; and the 
people who work at the hot furnaces where the iron ore is 
melted and worked in shape for us to use in stoves and 
plows, and in the engines that pull the long trains of cars. 
We love the people who love us, but he loved the people 
who hated him. We love the people we know; he loved 
the people he never saw nor heard of. Was he not a won- 
derful baby?" 

Both children were perfectly still and were gazing off 
into space as if expecting the babe to appear any moment; 
looking, too, as if they longed to see Him, the Wonderful 
One. "Tell us some more about that baby! What did he 
do when he grew to be a man?" "That would be a Bible 
story." "Oh, tell us some Bible stories!" 

The ideal I had in mind for the Christmas time was love, 
a great universal, all-pervading love, as deep as the center 
of the earth and as high as the stars. In the souls of these 
two little girls was that same love, but it had never been 
awakened. They had intense family love and great love 
for friends; but of the love that saw in imagination all the 
children of the earth, of all colors, and of all sorts and con- 
ditions, they were not yet conscious. I touched the love 
center in each little heart; it awakened into activity and 
vibrated to the keynote. I also wanted to give them a new 
and a fresh idea of the Bible; and see how quickly they re- 
sponded to my thought! — Anna N. Kendall. 


Regarding the creative faculties of your children — who 
is taking care of these? The age is putting the receptive 
faculties of the child to their utmost tension, while the cre- 
ative ones are starved. It is not right; it is not just. What 
are you doing to develop and preserve the dignity of man- 
ual labor? Have you set aside on your playground a site for 
a carpenter's shop, or a blacksmith's forge, or a chemical 
laboratory, or a machine shop? Many of our children have 


a contempt for manual labor, and it is our fault that it is so. 
The greatest moral teacher in the world was not ashamed 
to be a carpenter; and Elihu Burritt planned the good of 
mankind as he stood by his glowing forge. A man never 
falls so low but that he may be dignified by some kind of 
manual labor. All this discernment must come, not alone 
through mathematics, but through a harmonious drawing 
out of those faculties which bring the child, and later the 
man, into relationship with his environment. Emerson 
may well say that "Things are in the saddle, and ride man- 
kind"; but are we not alive today to grapple with these ob- 
stinate "things," and to turn them into their own proper 

It is a part of the whole wrong thinking about education 
that study alone will make a boy great or develop his higher 
nature. Phillips Brooks once stopped the writer in the 
street, and said a man might study until he became a gray- 
head and not be great. It was not in the grammar school 
at Stratford that Shakespeare learned the lessons which 
were to make him the articulate voice of England. The 
little Latin and Greek he got there would have made him 
at best but a sorry pedagogue. Still, no man was ever wise 
by chance. The whole country round about was his school- 
house. Some fine spirit led his mind out of the narrow 
grooves of mere book knowledge into the way of looking 
upon the world- as his workshop; whether by the dreamy 
Avon side, in misty vales, by winding hedge roads, or in 
the stately churchyard, — no matter where, — the boy learned 
to bring himself into relationship with every living thing, 
and to him everything was alive. It was a world of spirit. 
If the Stratford school did not furnish this order of educa- 
tion, it was not the child Shakespeare's fault. 

Let us learn to look upon every child face that comes 
before us as a possible Shakespeare or Michael Angelo or 
Beethoven; believe me, every child that comes up before 
you has hidden somewhere in its being this precious capac- 
ity for something creative. We must change our attitude 
toward the common children. When we look upon each as 

mothers' department. 489 

a possible genius, then shall we add new dignity to human 
life. Wordsworth well said, 

Not in entire forgetfulness, 

And not in utter nakedness, 

But trailing clouds of glory do we come. 

Why do we neglect the words of our poet seers? The artis- 
tic world is rejoicing over the discovery in Greece of some 
beautiful fragments of sculpture, hidden far beneath the 
debris of centuries; shall we not rejoice more richly when 
we are able to dig down beneath the uncouth surface of the 
commonest child that comes to us from our great cities, and 
discover and develop that faculty in him which is to make 
him fit to live in sobriety and usefulness with his fellow 
men? Seeking for these qualities in the child, we shall 
best conserve, as is done in physical nature, the highest 
type, until we have raised all human life to a higher level. 
Then shall we have heaven in our midst. This is the more 
possible because of the quick, expansive material with 
which we have to deal in our country. We start even in 
the race of life; we recognize no hampering bonds of 
priestcraft or tradition. The men who have filled the high- 
est position in our state have come, often, from the lowest 
grades in society. The lowliest child has in it something 
to command our respect. Let us have no more polishing 
of pebbles and dimming of diamonds. There are no peb- 
bles; we but think so, not having the wit to discern the 
diamond in the rough. 

Let us, then, unfold the whole nature of the child and 
not a little corner of it. Let no ridicule deter us from our 
desire to consider education in its true light. We are to 
teach these children, or rather to show them, the ways by 
which they are to make this world spiritually, as well as 
materially, their own; we are to be practical, but greatly, 
not meagerly, so. We are to teach them that before doing 
great things they must dream them; that the wonderful 
bridge that connects the throbbing heart of New York with 
its sister city, Brooklyn, was first a dream of that eminently 
practical engineer, Roebling. We must bring into chil- 


dren's lives every poetic influence, to quicken their minds 
and develop their aesthetic nature. We speak much of the 
beauty of holiness, not enough of the holiness of beauty. 
Sappho sang, "Who is beautiful is good." — William Ordway 
Partridge, i?i January Arena, iSg^. 


In this age of general education very many parents in 
moderate circumstances are ambitious to give their chil- 
dren the best advantages in acquiring a first-class educa- 
tion; yet such often err in the selection of schools. 

Unfortunately there are many teachers who are in no 
way qualified to hold their positions; for even if they pos- 
sess the requisite knowledge, they have no power of impart- 
ing it; and what is yet more to be deplored, they have no 
love for young people, and are not in sympathy with them. 

Sentiment should have nothing to do with the selection 
of a school; proof should be obtained that the school is 
a good one, and in every way suitable to the particular 
needs of the child or children sent to it. 

With the generality of children, so far as study is con- 
cerned, a good general education is the best preparation 
for every calling in life. Practical knowledge, with the 
culture which comes from reading, will do more to fit a boy 
or girl for a profession, than a special course which con- 
fines itself to the technique of any particular line. As a 
rule, success is secured by those people whose acquaintance 
with human nature enables them to adapt their professions 
to the wants of their fellow beings. Useful information of 
all kinds cannot be given children too early, and wise par- 
ents will always endeavor to give them the benefit of their 

In the choice of schools, the character of the teachers 
under whose instruction children are placed, is of immense 
importance. That the people holding these positions 
should have taken high degrees at first-class universities 
is by no means the only essential; they should possess the 


gift of teaching, and be in sympathy with their pupils, thus 
having the power of influencing them. 

Personal influence is one of the highest factors in edu- 
cation, and this should be remembered in selecting teach- 
ers for very young children, as well as those of a more ad- 
vanced age. Early impressions have a lasting effect, and 
according as a boy or girl is brought under good or bad 
influence in childhood, so the character is formed. — Home 

An octogenarian of Chicago has found a unique employ- 
ment, which not only gives pleasure to hundreds of chil- 
dren, but must also provide an opportunity for old age to 
share the joys of childhood. It is the work of making 
dolls' furniture, and the following statement will be of in- 
terest to all workers with children: 

" Memorandum of the charitable institutions in Chicago 
to which I have donated my dolly furniture: Chicago 
Home for the Friendless, Chicago Orphan Asylum, Chi- 
cago Half-orphan Asylum, Chicago Hospital for Women 
and Children, Cook County Hospital (Children's Ward), 
Maurice Porter Memorial Hospital for Children, Chicago 
Home for Dependent Crippled Children, Chicago Waifs' 
Mission, Chicago Sanitarium for Sick Children at Lincoln 
Park, Bethesda Day Nursery, Margaret Etter Creche (Day 
Nursery), Margaret Etter Creche (Day Nursery) branch, 
Hull House Mission, Sanitarium at Hinsdale, 111., for poor 
sick children and working girls. I have given one hundred 
pieces — chairs, bedsteads, cribs, cradles, tables, rocking- 
chairs, etc. — to the Home for Dependent Crippled Chil- 
dren, for the benefit of their building fund, and in addition 
to supplying their playroom. I have given one hundred 
pieces to the Waifs' Mission, for the benefit of their build- 
ing fund, and in addition to supplying their playroom. All 
of my work is made by my own hands. I am now in my 
eightieth year, and I took up the work three years ago last 
January. I had never had any experience in it before, but 


I hadj to have some occupation; I could not live idle. I 
have made to date 2,375 pieces. I never sell anything; my 
aim is to reach the poor dependent children in our city, 
and to^ make them happy with my little furniture. Re- 
spectfully, — Fieman Baldzvi?i, J21'/ Grov eland Ave., CJiicago!' 

doll's CRADLE-SONG. 
(From the German of Carl Reinecke.) 

Sleep, Dolly, sleep; 

Softly repose; 
Sleep, Dolly, sleep; 

Your little eyelids close. 

Whilst in school I am trying. 
You in bed are lying, 
And have all the day 
Time enough for play. 

Sleep, Dolly, sleep; 

Softly repose; 
Sleep, Dolly, sleep; 

Your little eyelids close. 

Hush, my pretty; go to sleep, 

While I sing you of the sheep 

And the lambs that went to wander 

With the goose and widdling, waddling gander. 

Sleep, my Dolly, sleep. 

[The music for this lullaby is found in Carl Reinecke's "Children's 
Songs." A circle of kindergarten children recently sang it at the close 
of their doll party, putting the babies to sleep with rare tenderness and 


If there is one sin of omission by which mothers in par- 
ticular, and mankind in general, suffer most, it is the failing 
to express their highest and best feelings. Our home club 
determined to open our doors and cease to quench the 
spirit, by letting it have free scope for one choice hour. 


We had sat in state for several years, listening to the theo- 
ries and philosophies of education, art, history, etc. We 
were full and ready to overflow. We needed a vent which 
should be unrestricted by any conventionalities. It was 
Washington's Birthday week, and our children were bub- 
bling and beaming with the patriotism infused by their 
wide-awake kindergartner and teachers. Why could we 
not join in the fun, and let our patriotic wings spread once 
more, as when we were children? An evening meeting was 
called, and the invitation said in parenthesis, "Every mem- 
ber is requested to bring her husband and a flag." 

On arrival at the club room we found it a canopy of 
flags, and the committee in charge in the highest of spirits. 
The members arrived with their flags and some husbands. 
A spirited march was at once struck on the piano, and two 
by two the line was formed. The leaders of the march took 
us through various evolutions, in a vigorous and hearty 
manner. Now in twos, again in fours, one by one, alter- 
nates, right and left, and other simple orders succeeded in 
limbering us and loosening the faces and features of our 
battalion, which was in many cases more accustomed to 
bearing burdens in silence than fighting battles outright. 

I do not remember how it happened, but we suddenly 
found ourselves in a large circle, hand in hand like children 
on a playground. Can you picture the sight? A flag drill 
was ordered, and in spite of our long drill in more harden- 
ing directions, arms flew up and down, back and forth, car- 
rying the inspiring flag hither and thither at the captain's 
command. A voice from the circle called during the pause, 
"Now for the 'Star-spangled Banner'!" Some of us had 
never sung under the fire of such enthusiasm before. The 
gentlemen surprised us with their profound basses and in- 
spiring tenors, and the piano was forced to hold its own, as 
"bombs burst in air." At this climax each grown-up child 
of the company brought the right foot down upon the floor 
with violent precision. We cared no more for plaster on 
the walls, nor for appearances, nor short breaths. The proof 
"that our flag was still there," and that our hearts had not 


been entirely overgrown by the underbrush of social cus- 
toms, brought an indescribable joy to us all. 

And now war stories were in order. Did we sit on 
chairs as at a lecture or literary society? No, we all sat on 
the floor, with all the grace of the fabled owners of the 
magic carpet. Some of us who have never dreamed of be- 
ing entertaining told wondrous stories, often interrupting 
each other in our eagerness to tell how "that reminds me." 
Songs interspersed our chat, and when we all rose to sing 
"America," we gave out such pure music as can only come 
from the heart afire. x\t the last verse the flags were furled, 
and the reverence which ever follows genuine joy and glad- 
ness came like a benediction upon us all. Do you think we 
will soon forget that memorable 22d of February? — L. W. T. 


I live for those who love me. 

For those who know me true, 
For the heaven that smiles above me. 

And waits my coming, too; 
For the right that lacks assistance. 
For the wrong that needs resistance, 
For the future in the distance, 
For the good that I can do." 


A copy of your excellent Kindergarten Magazine came 
to my table today, for which please accept thanks. I am in 
hearty sympathy with your teachings and with the kinder- 
garten movement, which I hope will sweep the country. 
We have recently organized our first kindergarten school in 
this city, and I hope this will be followed up by more of 
them in the near future. There is a great work for the kin- 
dergarten, which the graded schools cannot hope to do so 
long as we do not receive the children until they are six 


years old. As the public schools are now organized, the 
kindergarten is to the public school what physical culture is 
to the gymnasium, or cadet drill to the actual duty in the 

One important point that is frequently overlooked is the 
fact that the children come to us in the public schools after 
their characte