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SERIAL 372.218 K513 v. 22 

The Kindergarten-primary 

SERIAL 372.218 K513 v. 22 

The Kindergarten-primary 


National-Ixxiis L'siiw rsifj 



2840 Sheridan Road 

Evanston, Illinois 60201 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 




September, 1909— June, 1910 



Index to Volume XXII 

1909- -1910 

Notes on Kindergarten Theory and Practice 

— E. Lyell Earle 1, 35-'69 

The Educational Value of Music Plays in the 
Kindergarten — J. VanBroekhoven 

The Material of the Kindergarten 

The New York City Syllabus on Nature Study 

Suggestions for the Hudson-Fulton Celebra- 
tion in Kindergartens — Jenny B. Merrill, 
Pd. D 

Alumnae Notes 

Children's Literature — Dr. Angus McVannell 

Instrumental Music in the Kindergarten — - 
Augusti S. Earle 

Ethical Lessons from Froebel's Mother Plays 
— Bertha Johnston 

The Relation of the Kindergarten to the 
Grades, Language, Reading, and Writing — 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D 

The Apple (Lesson One) — Sarah Alice Ballard 

Progression as Illustrated by the Sixth Gift — 
Grace Harrington 

The Kindergarten Beautiful— Jessie T. Ames, . . . 

The Other Land of the Flowers — Viola Shep- 
herd Marsh 

Kindergarten Program for September — Lileon 













The Doh-Doo Fairies — J. Van Broekhoven 

179, 214, 51, 100, 128 

Preview for October Program — Mary F. 

Schaeffer 52 

The March — Augusti S. Earle 
Materials of the Kindergarten 

A View of Sicily Through the Medium of a 
Prescepio . . 

Fall Walks — Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D 

October, a Poem — Dr. E. Lyell Earle 
Nature Study Notes, 


Ethical Lessons from Froebel's Mother Play — 

Bertha Johnston 

56, 90, 111, 154, 181 221, 237, 269, 304 

Supplementary Remarks on Ethical Lessons 
from Froebel's Mother Play 

Suggestions for October — Lillian Claxton. 


Book Notes ... 65 

Rural One-Room Schools; Constructive Work 

in Primary Grades 66 

Suggestions for the School Room 67 

The Mind of the Child — Dr. Dusten Brewer. 74 

Education for Life 78 

A Normal Course in Play — Henry S. Curtis 80 

For Mother and Mothers ' Meetings — Jenny B. 

Merrill, Pd D . 82 

Savannah Kindergarten Club 82 

Echoes from the Indian Stories, Told in Con- 
nection With the Hudson-Fulton Celebra- 
tion . 83 

Stories and How to Use Them 84 

Thanksgiving — An Exercise 84 

Myths as a Source of Story Material — Ezra 

Allen 85 

Fifty Plays and Games 87 

The Castle of Happiness — Mary Callum Wiley 88 

Supplementary Remarks 91 

How Boys Learn to Be Kings 93 

Suggestions for November — Lileon Claxton.. 94 

The Doo-Doo Fairies — J. Van Broekhoven. . 100 

Miscellaneous . 102, 326 

Editorial Comments on Some Notable Books 

of the Year — Dr. E. Lyell Earle 103, 139 

A New Method in Child Education — Jenny B. 

Merrill, Pd D 106 

Mothers' Meetings and Reading Circles .... 108 

Supplementary Remarks 112 

The Mother and the Baby — Wilbur C. Phillips 115 

The Cripple's Christmas Carol — Martha Reed 

Spaulding 123 

December 123 

A Christmas Carol 129 

Suggestions for December — Lileon Claxton.. 130 

Christmas Exercises, Rhymes, etc 135 

Miscellaneous 135, 136 


Index — Continued 

Outside Relations — Alice E. Rose 141 

A New Method in Child Education — Jenny B. 

Merrill, Pd. D 142 

Promotion Day — Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. ... 143 

Story Telling in the Kindergarten — L. T. M. 144 

The Use of Games — Jesse H. Bancroft 145 

Moral Education 151 

January 153 

Modern Fairy Stories — Ivaloo Maxson Everts 158 

Taby and Rover — Evelyn Hudson 159 

Christmas 159 

The Crooked Oak Tree — Margaret Thane. ... 160 

Sounds Which Interest Children — Sibyl Elder 161 

Suggestions for January — Lileon Claxton. . . 162 

The American Public Schools as a Factor in 

International Conciliation — Myra Kelly . 169, 177 

News Notes 170 

Official Notice — I. K. U. . ." 173 

The Kindergarten in Saint Louis — Jenny C. 

Taylor 173 

Notes on Kindergarten Theory and Practice — 

Dr. E. Lyell Earle 175 

The First Day at School — Mary White Slater 180 

Little Men and Women — Penelope Gleason 

Knapp 185 

Valentine Story 186 

The Story of the Flag — J. E. McKean 187 

Uncle John's Story — Susan Holton 188 

Finger Play 191 

In Memoriam — Richard Watson Gilder .... 192 

Lincoln's Kindness to a Little Girl 192 

Snowdrops and Crocuses 193 

The Value of Humor and Nonsense 194 

The Three Grey Owls — Marie E. Hoffman.. 195 

Suggestions for February — Lileon Claxton.. 196 

News Notes 203 

Editorial Readings from Notable Books — Dr. 

E. Lyell Earle 205 

A Word of Caution — Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 211 

A New Method in Infant Education— Jenny B. 

Merrill, Pd. D 211 

The Child and Art— Mrs. J. Winslow Edgerty 212 

Letters from Froebel Land 213 

A Pilgrimage to Frobel's Home — Lucy 

Wheelock 214 

The School Garden Movement and What It 


Means to the Kindergarten — Myrta Mar- 
garet Higgins 215 

The Fairy Horses, A Tale from Bosnia 218 

Suggestions for March — Lileon Claxton .... 225 

Lincoln's Rules for Living 230 

Evolution of the Apple 230 

A Windy Day — Grace May North 231 

News Notes 232 

Editorial Notes of Important New Books — Dr. 

E. Lyell Earle 233 

Editorial Notes on Commissioner Brown's 

Tribute to the Late Dr. Harris 236 

Story Work in New York City Kindergartens 242 

The Narrative Habit 243 

Why Robin Has a Red Breast 248 

An Irreparable Loss ... . 248 

Suggestions for April — Lileon Claxton . . . . 249 

Pricked Designs — N. M. Pairpoint 256 

The Coming of the Robin — Ivaloo Maxson 

Evarts . - 258 

Mothers' Circles Department — Jenny B. Mer- 
rill, Pd. D 259-267 

Birthday Letter to a Boy 260 

International Kindergarten Un ion at St. 

Louis — Advance Program 261 

News Notes 263 

Supplementary Remarks 270-305 

Training Teachers' Session of the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union 274 

The Use of Materials in the Kindergarten — 

Julia Wade Abbot. 274 

The Little Violet Fairy 280 

Grandpa's Ranch 281 

Polly's Queer Ride 282 

The Yellow Pansy 282 

I'll Be a Soldier — Gertrude Allyn Long .... 283 

Suggestions for May — Lileon Claxton 285 

The Moral Equivalent of War— William James 291 

Notes from the St Louis Convention 294 

Editorial Notes ... 294 

News Note 297 

Books Received 297 

The International Congress at Brussels — Dr. 

E. Lyell Earle 265 

A New Method in Infant Education — Jenny 

B. Merrill, Pd. D 297 


Index — Concluded 

A Year's Mothers' Meetings- Emma McDougall 298 June 314 

The Process of Americanization in the Kinder- 
garten and School — Frank Manny 300 

Our Protectors 307 

The Moral Equivalent of War — William James 308 

The Fleur-De-Lis' Story 312 

The Hollyhock — Josephine Williams 313 

The Dream Fairies 314 

Editorial Report of the Convention of the 
National Association of the Study and Edu- 
cation of Exceptional Children ... 

The N. E. A. at Boston 

Department of Kindergarten Education at the 
N. E. A 

Suggestions for June 
Notes • 

-Lileon Claxton 





VOL. XXII—SEVT, 1909— NO. 1 

le Kindergarten-Primary Magazine NOTES ON KINDERGARTEN 

voted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 
Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 
Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 

usiness Office, 276-278-280 River 4 Street, Manistee, Mich. 

Lyell Earle, Ph. D Managing Editor 

unny B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

arriette M. Mills New York Froebel Normal 

ari Ruef Hofer Teachers' College 

and N. Y.F.N. 

ertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Special Articles 

11 communications pertaining to subscriptionsand advertising 
)ther business relating to the magazine should be addressed 
he riichlgan office, J. H. Shults, Business rianager, Manistee, 
hlgan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, Managing 
tor, 59 W. 96th St., ew York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
t of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
eet, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price Is $1.00 per year, payable in advance, 
gle copies, 15c. 

Postage Is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
United States, Hawaiian Islands. Philippine Islands, Guam, 
rto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
d Mexico. For Canada add 20e and for all other countries 
the Postal Union add 40c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a cob- 
luance of the subscription Is desired until notice of discon- 
uance is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
ess, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
oney Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
my. If a local check is sent, it must Include 10c exchange. 


Notwithstanding that we have 
nnounced in every issue during the 
astyear that all matters pertain= 
tig to subscriptions or advertising 
or the Kindergarten-Primary Mag= 
izine should be addressed to Manis= 
ee, many letters are still going to 
<Iew York City. This occasions de- 
ay and extra work in the editorial 
ooms. Kindly note that editorial 
ooms only, not a business office, are 
naintained in New York, and send 
uisiness letters to Manistee, Mich. 

This magazine to Jan,, 
1911, for $1.00. 

Conditions: That you mention 
this special offer when subscribing, 
and remit before Oct. 15, 1909. 


T is the purpose of this series 
of articles, which will run 
monthly throughout the year, 
to discuss briefly the theorv 
and practice of kindergarten 

We do not wish to be understood as 
meaning that there is one set of principles 
applicable to the kindergarten and another 
distinct set that have their validity only in 
the subsequent stages of the child's de- 
velopment. The problem of school theory 
and practice is first a general one, whose 
solution is applicable to all education and. 
in the second place, a particular problem 
with a specific solution when those same 
general principles are to find their fullest 
expression in the daily plan and work of 
the kindergarten. 

The principles of general educational 
theory and practice may be derived from 
several sources. The History of Educa- 
tion furnishes abundant material for guid- 
ance in the selection of principles and prac- 
tices when illumined by the experiences of 
past ages and chastened by the exacting 
contact with real life. The selective pro- 
cess of this well tested practice makes cer- 
tain great truths stand out prominently, 
eliminates the useless, and preserves all 
that is profitable in the record of former 
times. A true study of the History of 
Education coupled with proper philosophi- 
cal insight will save the teacher from re- 
peating useless experiments and enable her 
to build her superstructure of the science 
and art of kindergarten teaching on the 
true foundations of past success. 

These general principles of educational 
theory and practice should always be made 
to find their special application to the kin- 
dergarten in any training school by the 
teacher of those subjects. The habit of 
looking for principles in their inception and 
of noting their growth to success or their 
decadence to ultimate failure will enable 
the young teacher to judge present day 
so-called discoveries in the kindergarten by 
the standards of a vital past. 


We shall not, however, give time to this 
aspect of the subject as that belongs legiti- 
mately to the Training School which is giv- 
ing its courses in the History and Prin- 
ciples of Education with special reference 
to kindergarten application. 

We shall confine our efforts in this series 
of articles to the study of the child on the 
one hand in the entirety of his nature as a 
re-acting organism, noting particularly the 
physical and mental qualities of children 
up to the kindergarten age with emphasis 
on the significance of these characteristics 
in the light of genetic and experimental 

If kindergarten teachers in particular be- 
come familiar with the special character- 
istics, both physical and mental, of the nor- 
mal child of the kindergarten age they will 
be making their first step toward an intel- 
ligent understanding of the material and 
method of caring for that child at this par- 
ticular period of his life. Furthermore, if 
on the other hand they study the actual 
life he leads in his attempt to interpret life 
about him in terms of his own propensities 
and interests, they will have a second 
known quality in the solution of many of 
the problems of kindergarten theory and 

It is possible that we kindergartners are 
not sufficiently cognizant of the actual 
psychic life the child leads in the home and 
on the street, when free from the influence 
of the supervising (sometimes subduing) 
care of the teacher. This is what Froebel 
probably had in mind when he invited all 
teachers in those beautiful words : "Come 
let us live with our children," not as we so 
often do compel them to live with us and 
as we live, thus dwarfing or crushing out 
the best part of their young lives. 

It shall be our purpose to study the child 
and the actual life he leads up to the kin- 
dergarten period, his tendencies, interest 
and needs so that our Kindergarten Theory 
and Practice may be based, not on our 
mere logical organization of what we con- 
ceive to be the child's life and living, but 
on the psychologic fact of his actual up 
and on growth. 

Another aspect of the subject that we 
shall touch later on, somewhat in detail, 
is the influence of this early living of the 
child on his later living. In other words, 
we shall try to determine as far as is known 
vrith any degree of certainty what particu- 

lar physical and mental activities of the 
child from four to eight are most likely to 
persist as the basis for. maturer growth 
and resolve themselves into the fuller life 
of preadolescence. 

It is true that this aspect of child study 
is still in its beginnings. The relative value 
of the mental and physical activities of 
early childhood has not yet been absolutely 
determined although we have much reason 
for believing that certain of these early and 
characteristic processes were of particular 
use in the growth of the race, and will prob- 
ably be of special value in the growth of the 
individual child into the fullness of life. 

Let us begin with the correct conception 
of what the child truly is. Like the adult 
human being he consists essentially of body 
and mind, and Child Study must embrace 
both of these aspects. It must take account 
of children's bodies, of the way they grow 
and act, and at the same time a similar 
account of their mental states and 
processes, and the interdependence and re- 
lation of these two great factors. Prof. 
Thorndike has this to say of children: 

"It is obvious that our ordinary common sense 
acquaintance with people does not provide us with 
correct notions about children. For children are 
not like grown up folks. They are not miniature 
adults, but are in reality different beings. Their 
bodily make-up is different, as truly, though not 
as much different, as is the tadpole's from the 

Says Dr. Oppenheim : 

"We have been in the habit of looking upon a 
child as a man in small, of looking upon a man as 
a child somewhat strengthened, with greater ex- 
perience and knowledge. Outside of these factors 
of experience, knowledge and strength, the child 
and man seem practically the same. So true is 
this observation that society founds its judgments 
accordingly; it prescribes its methods of education, 
of social and domestic care accordingly, it sees al- 
most no differences outside of these adventitious 
ones between them. 

"As a matter of fact, it would be hard to find 
many salient factors, beyond the most fundamental 
laws, in which the infant and adult exactly re- 
semble each other. Multiply the proportions of 
the infant to those of the adult, and you will have 
a being whose large head and dwarfted lower 
face, whose apex-like thorax, whose short arms 
and legs, give a grotesque appearance. The two 
do not breathe alike, their pulse-rates are not 
alike, the composition of their bodies is not alike. 

"On more minute examination, one finds greater 
and greater differences, until one comes to believe 
that we nave been trying to see our children in a 
totally false light." 

Our knowledge, therefore, must be of 
two sorts. It must be derived from the 


imate observation of the child's physical 
i mental makeup and activities, and be 
■rected by comparison with the same 
nervations and conclusions of careful 
rkers in the field of Child Study. 

t is too bad that the kindergarten which 
; had the child so long, and meets him 

intimately has furnished so little real 
terial for experimental psychology and 
entific Child Study. Is it, perhaps, that 
> much importance has been attached 
ditional material and device, and too 
le to training the kindergarten in Child 

nere are great differences in the respec- 
e years of the child's early physical 
Dwth. For the purpose of convenience 

may divide these years into infancy. 
)m birth to two years of age, babyhood, 
m two to four, childhood, . from four to 
;ht, early adolescence from eight to 
elve, and adolescence proper roughly 
m twelve to twenty. These divisions are 
oss and do not hold for any absolute num- 
r of children and overlap each other to a 
ry great degree when it comes to actual 
ild observation. There is, however, a real 
sis for such a division. Infancy cor- 
sponds roughly to the stage of mental 
e in the lower animals, babyhood to 
e stage when general mental functions 
pear, and childhood to the beginning of 
e ability to supply physical wants with 
;s dependence than in the first two stages. 

pre-adolescence the probability is that 
ry great changes occur. This subject is 
sated at full in Stanley Hall's new book 

"Youth" where the emphasis is placed 

the study of the pre-adolescent period, 
oebel himself probably had some such 
vision in mind when he implied a distinc- 
)n between the home kindergarten with 
e mother as sole teacher, the nursery 
ndergarten with the nurse as adjunct 
acher to the mother, and the school kin- 
irgarten where the work of mother and 
Lirse begin to be efficiently organized by 
le trained kindergarten teacher. Are kin- 
jrgartners today giving enough attention 
this threefold possible aspect of the kin- 

It must be noted moreover, that the 
lenomena of the bodily and mental activ- 
ies of children are not constant quantities. 
/e are compelled here to deal with more 
- less probability, although the danger of 
ror may be lessened by taking the great- 

est number of probably related cases, allow- 
ing for individual differences, and by work- 
ing out the individual error to as fine a 
degree of accuracy as possible. Another 
means is to select only truly applicable 
material and use special care in the state- 
ment of the use of this definite material in 
the most accurate terms. If these sugges- 
tions were carried out more carefully in 
observations and reports it is probable we 
would have very much more accurate in- 
formation about the physical and mental 
life of children of the kindergarten age. 

In a later article we shall take up the 
question of the causes of physical condi- 
tions in children from the twofold aspect 
of the inter-action of heredity and environ- 
ment. We refer our readers to Prof. 
Thorndike's Notes on Child Study, section 
20, "Children of the Kindergarten Age." 
The statements he makes there are appli- 
cable to our present purpose. 

We do not need to have a new child's 
psychology. If we apply the principles of 
general psychology, bearing in mind, first 
the predominence of the instinctive ten- 
dencies in the life of very young children, 
the transitory nature of many of these in- 
stincts, their specific educational value as 
basis for permanent mental processes, and 
the lack of actual experience on the part 
of the child with objects, thoughts and feel- 
ings we shall have better insight into the 
genesis of physical and mental behavior of 
children from three to six. 

If we turn to genetic psychology we will 
find there suggestions of value on the 
evolution of brain in the species, and as 
a consequence of the early development 
of the brain in the young child. In all 
these things the kindergartner should know 
the latest conclusions of science. 

Prof. Thorndike gives first, curiosity as 
a factor in child development, second, play, 
and third, animal and savage traits in chil- 
dren. The reader is referred to a careful 
perusal of the Notes on Child Study for 
a fuller insight into Thorndike's point of 

By curiosity is meant here the instinctive 
tendency of children to enjoy action and 
thought for their own sakes regardless of 
consequences. Children like to touch, pick 
up, drop and throw things, jump about to 
use each and all of the special senses, and 
to have ideas and fancies, all probably for 
the mere sake of the enjoyment of the 


action and thought these give in them- 
selves. This instinctive tendency is im- 
portant, because it is a sign of instinctive 
response, a means of arousing such re- 
sponse, and a suggestion of the probable 
limitations of the particular child. The 
problem for the teacher of the very young 
child is, therefore, to measure these ten- 
dencies as a sign of the child's general con- 
dition, and direct and modify them for the 
physical and mental well being of their 

Children's play is closely allied to their 
instmct of curiosity. It differs largely from 
the play of other animals. It extends out 
to a larger held of activity, and is a prob- 
able expression on the part of the child of 
the extent of his heriditary propulsions as 
a further development basis. The first re- 
ward children perceive from their self 
originated play is the pleasure of activity, 
and as a consequence they modify their 
earliest expressions of this activity to mul- 
tiply the possibilities of the consequent 
pleasure. One of the problems of educa- 
tion is to select and invent games which 
will supplement this tendency of the child 
to modify his play activities, and bring 
about the subsequent pleasure as an in- 
centive to further modification toward men- 
tal growth. 

During the first five or six years this love 
of movement, and sense excitement, his in- 
genious explanations and superstitions 
about life, his carelessness of past and 
future suggest his mind as really that of 
primitive man. He is not, however, a sav- 
age in miniature. He has the heriditarv 
deposit of civilized possibilities and civilized 
environment. The extent of this heriditary 
deposit we have no way of measuring. In 
manv of his early traits he does represent 
savage tendencies, but in actual conditions 
of development these are seldom persistent 
and frequently exert no permanent in- 
fluence on his future development. 

The kindergarten is the systematic part 
in our educational system which begins the 
transformation from these instinctive 
actions of curiosity, play, and savage traits 
into intelligent, industrious and moral 

This would suggest a greater recogni- 
tion in our kindergarten system of folk 
lore and myth, and possibly natural 
phenomena as material for games, songs 
and stories to be emphasized as construc- 

tive activities to modify the kindergarten 
child through processes of interest into self 
assertion and self control. The value of 
this material, however, will depend on the 
motive of its use. Much of our myth 
material would make no appeal to primitive 
man, and probably influences children from 
recent acquired interests. The reason is 
the primitive myth can find no possibility 
of functioning in the life about him save in 
play, and its sole purpose is perhaps as we 
give it today to prevent the myth cell from 
dying through sheer starvation. If more of 
the primitive quantities could be injected 
into the myth and folk game and folk story 
the probability is the general power of the 
cell would continue in a mild species of im- 
mortality in the later development of the 
child's individual power. What was real 
to primitive man is play to our presenj day 
kindergarten child. 

A further possible application of these 
primitive traits in early children might be 
a reproduction of primitive life and activ- 
ities in parks and playgrounds, and in 
carrying on summer kindergartens under 
as nearly primitive conditions as possible 
with the direct supervision of trained kin- 
dergartners. While this is impossible in 
the schools it may suggest to kindergarten 
teachers a modification of the frequently 
artificial presentation of the folk song, 
game and story in the actual kindergarten 
of the schools. No plea is being made here 
for the neglect of actual life about us, in 
song, game, story and occupation. On the 
contrary present day life must be the term 
and measure of all school values. 

In our next article we shall take up the 
instincts of children from the standpoint of 
genetic psychology, and show how far 
these may be made to suggest the basis of 
the subject matter of the kindergarten pro- 
gram, and see what principles and practices 
we mav derive therefrom in the child's 
ability to interprete the actual life about 
him. This may furnish us principles of 
theory and practice in reference to the 
child's physical and mental life and indicate 
how the early mental traits and activities 
manifested by him from the periods of 
three to six years of age may be utilized 
in a sane kindergarten theory and practice. 




An attempt has lately been made to sup- 
mt the Froebel songs with new melodies 
apted to his verses. This was dictated 

the consciousness that Froebel's songs, 

well as his nictures, were not only an- 
:juated, but absolutely useless to meet 
e modern needs of the kindergarten. But 

s attempt is not only not an improve- 
ent, but these scraps of melodies, torn 
om their proper association with instru- 
ental and larger vocal compositions of 
ery possible source, besides some very 
ichildlike original songs, are neither a 
oper musical expression of the kinder- 
rten text, nor are they appropriate as 
ildren songs in compass of voice, simplic- 
\, charm and suggestiveness. On the con- 
ary, they present a fragmentary, haphaz- 
rd combination of music and words, in 
hich the text and music are never 
ended as an organic unit of verse, music 
d emotional context. The mistake made 
writers of children verses and music 
nsists in the apparent fact that they start 
it with the conviction that "any jingle 
11 do for children." Of the kindergarten 
rses Sully savs : "Children's verses, so 
r as I have come across them, are poor 
id stilted, showing all the signs of the 
amping effort of models and rules to 
hich the child-mind cannot easily accom- 
odate itself, and wanting all true inspira- 
|on." And as to music Taylor holds 
hat by virtue of its intimate relation to 
e finer sentiments of humanity its ethical 
lue can hardly be over-estimated." Tf 
ese facts are recognized whv will kinder- 
arten authorities permit the use of so 
uch useless, ineffective, and poor material 

the verses and songs to be presented in 
e dailv work of the kindergarten? Surelv 
roebel's ideals, as to the educational value 

verse and music, are not realized by this 

perficial material. Music has been citlti- 

ited too much as an agreeable variety, a 

elcome relaxation in the studies of the 

ild. Tt is not so much as to what music 

stills into the child but as to how much 

will entertain him, and relax him phvsi- 

illy. In this lies the short-coming of the 

^plication of music as an educational 

factor in the child life. The child receives 
no idea of music as a thing, as a corporal 
demonstration of an inherent mystery. 
"The human mind in its first stage of de- 
velopment must have corporal demonstra- 
tion ; ideas must be presented to it in 
visible images," says Miss Wiggiti. Now in 
the association of music with song and 
movements in the ordinary kindergarten 
specie, music as a corporeal thing, or the 
mysterious agent of the emotional and 
ethical force on the child, is lost sight of: 
in fact in this connection — presented as it 
is — it loses its chief and most influential 
educational value. 

In mv article in the June number of the 
Kindergarten-Primary Magazine I have 
given a broad outline of the possibility of 
music as an educational factor in the kin- 
dergarten, and in the present article I call 
the attention of all teachers and all those 
interested in the welfare of child training 
to a series of articles to be published in this 
Magazine during the coming year, touching 
upon the practical side of a greater useful- 
ness of the application of music in children 
plays and games. I intend to demonstrate 
the fact that while music has a direct in- 
fluence, and possesses an inherent charm. 
the child will be immeasurably more inter- 
ested in music if it comes in contact with 
the corporal factor or force which con- 
stitutes the symbol of a hidden element. 
This aspect can be supplied to the child 
just as drawing material and colors are 
supplied. AYith this most valuable distinc- 
tion: that the material from which the child 
obtains a musical tone also contains the 
mvstery of the musical effect. It com- 
bines, therefore, three very interesting 
phases of educational value, namely: it is 
a visible corporeal object: it embodies a 
musical mvsterv : and it serves as a symbol. 
Now if a child is brought in contact with 
objects which are convenient for such pur- 
poses he will be interested, and anxious for 
information. If in this state of curiosity 
svmbolic information is supplied in *"he 
form of a game or play, the educational 
value will be of a far more gratifying and 
useful nature than can be obtained by the 
mere connection of music with words and 
movement^. The child will then conceive 
of music as a thing of far greater signif- 
icance and influence on his mind and feel- 
ings than he receives from words. It will 
impress him with an idea of something he 


feels deeply, and is too spiritual and mys- 
terious to treat lightly. "The pure child 
wonder at what is new and mysterious may 
at moments overpower other feelings, and 
make the whole mental condition one of 
dream-like trance," says Sully. There are 
many objects which would serve as musical 
toys to interest and arouse the child's 
curiosity and from which innumerably 
symbolic teachings, as well as scientific 
facts could be deduced. Among such are 
bells, or a series of them; tubes, or a series 
of them ; metal staves, or a series of them ; 
glasses, metal, panpipes, trumpet, whistles, 
shells, and many other objects. The prac- 
tical educational value of such toys consist 
in their innate capacity to serve as symbols; 
they must allure the imagination of the 
child to a spiritual reality, as Miss Blow 
says: "The toy must stimulate creative 
activity, and satisfy the hunger of the soul 
for the ideal." 

It will be my object to present in the fol- 
lowing articles practical educational matter 
for use in the kindergarten or for the 
home. I shall describe the musical toys 
and their value as educational objects in 
the musical play of the Do-doh Fairies; and 
shall suggest a series of movements and 
games of a practical and entertaining na- 
ture to bring out the various phases of 
educational value contained in each toy. I 
hope that thus I will be able to stimulate a 
greater interest in the study of music in 
childhood, and demonstrate the wonderful 
possibilities of the intelligent application of 
simple fundamental principles of music as 
a source of mental, physical and artistic de- 
velopment of child-life. This plan is in ac- 
cordance with Froebel's ideas of the value 
of music in child education, which Froebel 
'ailed to realize in his song games. The 
Presentation will be in conformity with kin- 
dergarten methods, and will consequently 
appeal to all interested in child-education 


Note — This series of article began in the June num- 
ber and will be concluded in the October number. 

(10) A study of the psychological side 
furnishes us with a basis for educational 
method ; a study of the social side, of civili- 
zation or of our spiritual environment, fur- 
nishes us with a basis for the selection of 
the educational material. The only method 
bv which the child comes to understand 

truly its environment and the social 
methods and values of that environment i?| 
through relieving the fundamental, typical! 
or universal forms of activity which make| 
civilization what it is. 

(n) While the development of thej 
individual is ultimately due to the self- 
active determination of the self, nevei-the^l 
less, education as a human institution aims! 
to direct and control this development! 
toward the attainment of worthy ends. It,f 
therefore, especiallv in the school, demands 
that the individual conform to (a) an in- 
tellectual, and (b) a moral order, which] 
represent the results thus far of humanij 
achievement. In other words, even though 
the movement of the educational process is 
based fundamentally on the principle of] 
self-activity, yet the individual life is guided! 
and reinforced through the institutions; 
which constitute the organism of society — I 
the home, school, vocations, state, church, 
as forms of social control and repositories 
of the methods and values, the social habits; 
and ideals, inherent in human experience. 
Through submission to and participation in] 
the various forms of institutional life, the I 
individual is revealed to himself as well as 
liberated from himself. 


(12) For Frobel education is essential- '< 
ly a process of social interaction — a process 
by which the life of the individual is en- 
riched by the life of others. "Thus enrich- 
ing his own life by the life of others he. 
solves the problem of development." 
(Mother Play, trans., bv Miss Blow, p. 

(13) The three principles fundamental 
to Froebel's educational theory may be 
given as (a) the principle of organic unity, 
(b) the principle of interaction, (c) the: 
principle of development; these are the 
principles fundamental in the educational 
process whether in the child or adult. 

(14) Froebel's object in the establish- 
ment of the kindergarten was (a) the 
elimination of the isolation between the 
home and the school through the union of 
the individual with a wider circle of interest 
and activity than that afforded by the 
home; (b) the self-achieved development of 
the individual through the use of the play 
activities and interests hitherto neglected, 


but which constitute the characteristic 
method of gaining experience and of social 
participation at that age. It may be as- 
sumed, therefore, that the kindergarten is 
not to be conceived wholly as a thing apart 
from the regular educational system, but 
throughout as an integral element in that 

(15) The kindergarten, therefore, may 
be defined as a societv of children, engaged 
in play and its various forms of self-expres- 
sion, through which the child comes to 
learn something of the values and methods 
of social life, without as vet being burdened 
by its intellectual technique. Here, as 
throughout the educational process, the 
starting point is the experiences, the atti- 
tudes, the interests of the child. 

(16) On the other hand, however, these 
experiences, attitudes, interests, and activi- 
ties of the child are organized, made signifi- 
cant and amplified, (in other words, made 
educational) through the reproduction 
within the society of the kindergarten of 
the typical and universal experiences or 
activities of the wider social life. Of course, 
the notion of the wider social life is not to 
be interpreted in anv narrow, static, or 
purely mechanical sense. The kindergarten 
or school must not reflect in a purely 
realistic sense existing social life; it must 
reflect also that ideal of social good toward 
which the wider social life is struggling.) 


The spiritual life of man is everywhere 
guided by habit, by belief, by principles or 
by ideals. Energy, life, spirit, are all forms 
of a vast process of organization — or de- 
velopment, as many would designate it. 
The human life of man requires rules and 
principles — and these rules and principles 
have in the last resort been extracted from 
life itself. Life increasingly takes on form, 
organization ; experience in the long run 
shapes itself to that which is more comely; 
for even an imperfect ideal through its very 
imperfection urges life on to greater per- 
fection, and the production of still higher 
ideals. As life moves on to life, so it is the 
task of art, of teaching, of religion — forces 
which emerge within life — to make life 
ideal and harmonious, not to realize arti- 
ficial ideals imposed from without. Their 
task is not to add to human nature, but to 
glorify it. 

It has been said above that everywhere 
we find life, natural or spiritual, in a process 

of organization : and the rules or principles 
of organization are not found outside of 
life, but within it. It is so with what we 
are accustomed to call more particularly 
our inner life or experience: and the organi- 
zation of human experience we believe to 
be possible in accordance with general 
principles. According to this view, life 
takes on the form, as it did with Plato, of 
a personal work of art, wherein the in- 
dividual capacities and impulses are har- 
monized, and the individual life brought in- 
to harmony with the life of the intelligent 
regulation of life according to general 
principles. The Christian ideal urges a life 
in harmony with the life that organized in 
a living unity the way, the truth, the life, of 
life itself. In history, in philosophy, in 
religion, in education the final principle 
must be found in the principle of personal- 
ity. In the process of development, then, 
from the lower to the higher, there is or- 
ganization: the lower forms move accord- 
ing no law: the highest activities of the 
spiritual life are given through a true reali- 
zation in thought and action of the under- 
lying principle of life itself. 

Human life, the life capable through 
thought of intelligent direction or super- 
vision, may be designated by the word "ex- 
perience ;" and before trying to indicate the 
significance of what precedes, certain fur- 
ther considerations may be noted which, if 
not kept in mind, ma* 7 make some state- 
ments regarding the nature of kindergarten 
princinles appear somewhat abstract or un- 
duly far removed from so-called practice. 
In the kindergarten, in the school, in life, as 
has been urged above, every principle 
possessed of significance and vitality has re- 
vealed itself as a concentrated expression of 
tendencies of life which were moving spon- 
taneously before thev took on the form of 
thought or imagery. Educational experi- 
ence, in whatever form, is part of life-ex- 
perience, and the principles of education are 
simply the formulated truths of educational 
experience. So with kindergarten princi- 
ples, and nroblems. The problems funda- 
mental to the kindergarten — what we shall 
teach and how — the problem of materials 
and method — are the problems fundamental 
to the entire educational process. The con- 
cept of the kindergarten is by no means a 
simple affair, even if it could be studied in 
and bv itself. To study it thus, is impos- 
sible, since the true educational unit is not 



any one part of the educational process, but 
the process in its organic wholeness, con- 
sciously realized and brought home to in- 
telligence. The kindergarten has what may 
be called a structure and function peculiar 
to itself, but both its structure and function 
have their place in the wider educational 

Much has yet to be done before an 
adequate statement of an organic system of 
educational principles is reached: and that 
desirable end will certainly not be advanced 
by an uncritical method of thinking, and by 
an uncritical method is meant one which is 
not trulv interpretative, using terms in un- 
tenable opposition to one another, facts 
without their relations being disclosed, and 
without 'some earnest attempt being made 
to indicate the meaning or significance of 
the materials it attempts to organize. In 
dealing with such materials, there has as 
yet been a sort of mechanical classification 
— gifts, occupations, songs, games, stories, 
etc., rather than organization, in which a 
factor would be given its true proportion, 
emphasis, function. For thinking of the 
higher type is not satisfied with a mere 
aggregation of materials or ideas: it de- 
mands an organization of them. Thinking 
is not a mechanical thing, it is essentiallv an 
organizing activity. It demands the fact, 
but must pass on to the interpretation. 

Whatever changes are in store in educa- 
tional theorv. one thine - is certain, that lack 
of a truly interpretative criticism, which 
means the exercise of intelligence in the or- 
ganization of materials and method, soon 
has its day. and it has its day if for no other 
reason than that it brines no permanent 
satisfaction to those who have a serious in- 
terest in the foundations of their practice. 
In education as a whole at the present time 
we are threatened all along; the line with a 
p-enial. but undiscriminating eclecticism, a 
sort of dove-tailing in the program or 
course of studv. There is a further danger 
in the fact that too often a specious, and 
even a blase tvpe of criticism follows in the 
wake of this easv-going eclecticism — 
oblivious of those verv factors which manv. 
in their best moments, regard as the most 
constructive and insniring in their whole 
educational creed. There need be no deep 
nnxietv. for' these same factors, though torn 
from their context and their true signi- 
ficance impaired for a time, will be restored 
when the slower movement of a truer 

criticism, unhasting, unresting in its move- 
ment, has performed its inevitable and] 
hence irresistible work. Yet it must not be] 
forgotten that one of the functions ofj 
thought is economv of effort and the elimi-j 
nation of waste. 

When we speak of kindergarten princi- 
ples we think of the kindergarten in its 
organic unity with education as a whole 
to lift the principles of kindergarten practice 
into clear consciousness, and to bring these 
principles into organic relation to the prin- 
ciples of education in its entirety would be 
the supreme test of any complete treatment. 
Not by the obliteration of differences, nor 
the isolation or emphasis of one part of the 
process may we see the true inherence of] 
kindergarten, primarv. secondary, or uni- \ 
versity in one moving central principle or 
process. Under this one moving central 
principle all other principles, whether we 
think of the mas constitutive or regulative, 
would be shown to be organically related, 
and mutually explanatory. 

In what has been said, attention has been 
directed to two points: (i) the continuity 
of kindergarten education and education 
throughout its entire course: (2) the neces- 
sity of working in our thinking towards an 
organization rather than a mere classifica- 
tion of principles operative within the ma- 
terials. If we persist in simply making 
classifications of principles in tarn we are 
bound sooner or later to work disaster both 
to originality in thought and spontaneity in 
action. In the first place kindergarten 
principles have their origin in kindergarten 
experience and their destination lies in their 
further reshaping and reconstructing kin- 
dergarten experience. They mediate from 
one level of experience to another. Out of 
experience they issue, into experience thev 
proceed. They are kindergarten experi- 
ence raised to an idea, an idea which in turn 
furnishes not only a standard but a means 
of control for future experience. Kinder- 
garten principles are at first the formulated 
truths of kindergarten experience — thev 
represent in a word kindergarten truths 
formulated, and kindergarten truths ex- 
perimental — vet no mere pro tern truths, 
nor is the duration of their validity uncer- 

The distinction between a rule and a 
principle may, perhaps, be made a little 
clearer. In so far as an individual acts from 
rule or precept his full personal preference 


is not accorded. There is some element 
within him forced, coerced. The rule may 
help him once or many times, but he is not 
perfectly free, 'i he rule is in a sense a 
prescription for his activity : it is command- 
ing, fixed, imperative. A principle, on the 
other hand, is experimental, rather than 
absolutely fixed : it is a method for action, 
rather than a prescription for it. The 
study of kindergarten principles interests 
itself with principles as working forces, 
operative in kindergarten practice, rather 
than as fixed forms which have become 
separated from practice and so hardened 
that their influence tends to mould rather 
than free the worker in the kindergarten. 
The value of a comparative study of forms 
or types should not be denied: but the 
value of the study is limited. The students, 
however, of kindergarten principles as 
working forces operative in kindergarten 
practice are those who, for the most part, 
must make the disinterested and scholarly 
interpretation, in which consists the only 
preparation for advance in kindergarten 
theory and practice. In the kindergarten 
we are liable to find either one of two kinds 
of ignorance: (i) of particular situation, 
materials, etc., (2) of principles. Every re- 
newal of life within the kindergarten must 
proceed, not through a mere formulation 
of precepts of action, but through intelli- 
gent and therefore growing insight into the 
nature of the kindergarten as a whole. A 
kindergarten principle is, as has been said, 
the organization for thought of previous 
kindergarten activities; but, in being this, 
it has already become more — it becomes a 
formative, dynamic energy in the mind of 
the kindergartner, by means of which fur- 
ther organization and interpretation may be 
made, experiments tried that will not mere- 
ly be at random, an increasing control and 
a deepening appreciation secured by her 
who is entrusted with the organization of 
the life in the kindergarten. However im- 
portant for the individual are so-called rules 
or precepts — and they are important — they 
must become organic to that freeing of her 
life which comes through knowledge in the 
form of principles — a knowledge, wide and 
deep, of the real nature, the possibilities, the 
relations of the materials with which she 

So far attention has been directed to 
three things: (1) The dignity of the study 
of kindergarten principles, as part of the 

study of the principles of all worthy human 
activity. A study of kindergarten princi- 
ples, in any degree of completeness, should 
create a just sense of their significance in 
educational principles as a whole. (2) That 
these principles are not imposed upon kin- 
dergarten practice, but are rather normal 
practice raised to consciousness, patiently 
and earnestly thought over, reshaped, re- 
constructed. (3) That the intimate knowl- 
edge which brings delight in action is to be 
gained not through a conformity to rules 
or precepts merely, but rather through its 
capacity to free life, since it is the personal 
realization of the true nature and relations 
of the kindergarten materials and activities. 

It would appear from what has been said, 
or at least suggested, that the kindergarten 
reveals itself as a concentrated expression 
of vital motions and tendencies which are 
moving spontaneously in the life about us 
before they take on the forms of thought, 
or what we designate kindergarten princi- 
ples. In one way it has no peculiar gospel 
of its own, but it serves to illumine, as was 
said above, the vital motions moving spon- 
taneously in the human life about us. It is 
this power of illumination that gives to the 
kindergarten the key-note of permanence. 

The fundamental principles, the organiz- 
ing ideas and ideals of the kindergarten 
(and these were fundamental in Froebel's 
thought) may be designated as these: (a) 
the principle of organic unity, (b) the prin- 
ciple of interaction, (c) the principle of 
growth or development. By organic unity 
is meant briefly, a many in one, or a unity 
that manifests itself in many parts, phases, 
functions, while still retaining its unity, e. 
g., the unity of a school, of a kindergarten, 
of materials, or experience, lhe term in- 
teraction is used in place of the older word 
self-activity, because it seems to describe 
the facts more exactly, for the reason that 
in an organic unity there cannot be any 
arbitrary or external action of one part on 
another: it is rather an interaction of the 
parts of the organic unity. Compare 
teacher and pupil, child and curriculum, ma- 
terials and method. By development is 
meant the growth through the process of 
differentiation and integration of experi- 
ence from one level to another. It will be 
seen that interaction and development are 
phases, in reality, of the comprehensive 
principle of unity. To understand these two 
means ultimately to deduce them from one 



central principle — which corresponds to the 
organic, and organizing principle of intelli- 
gence itself. Take the phrase "develop- 
ment of experience from one level to an- 
other." In place of the word "experience" 
take the word "experiencing." It has two 
aspects: (i) what is experiences, and (2) 
how it is experienced. The question of de- 
velopment has to do with both phases, but 
its emphasis is on the second: How ex- 
perience takes shape and moves on to or- 
ganization ? The contribution of the chil- 
dren to the movement is instinctive or im- 
pulsive activities. Through materials the 
teacher presents a stimulus. The first 
motion is along the line of the characteristic 
feature (or mode of action) suggested by 
the material or stimulus. Among the chil- 
dren (as in every form of life in a group) 
variations take place. The valuable ones 
are consciously selected and made the basis 
of activities moving to higher levels of ex- 
perience. Expression of idea through 
technique, which transformed through com- 
parison, emphasis, selection, criticism and 
reconstruction, is made the basis of a move- 
ment to a higher form, with corresponding- 
ly greater control, deepening appreciation, 
fuller realization of the meaning and signi- 
ficance of the experience to which expres- 
sion is given. 

(To be continued.) 


The aims of nature study are to cultivate 
a sympathetic acquaintance with nature, 
to introduce the child to the forces of na- 
ture and to the sources of material wealth, 
and to develop the power of observation. 
To attain these aims the children should be 
brought into actual contact with the object 
of study whenever possible, either in or out 
of the classroom. The power gained 
through actual observation or by experi- 
ment will enable the pupils afterwards to 
represent to themselves objects presented 
by description. 

In all grades, pupils should be called up- 
on to find resemblances and differences in 
the objects of study. While the teacher 
should indicate the lines of research, he 
should as far as possible refrain from tell- 
ing his pupils what they may find out for 
themselves. Whenever it is practicable 
pupils should be required to sketch the ob- 
ject they are studying. 

Emphasis should be placed at all times 
on plants and animals as living things. The 
phenomena of life in the world about the 
pupils should be made prominent. The 
presence in the schoolroom of birds in 
cages, insects in terraria, fish in aquaria, 
plants in boxes and pots will arouse a deep 
interest on the part of children. School 
gardens, however small, should be main- 
tained, and in all grades the planting of 
seeds and the care of plants should be 
encouraged both in school and at home. 
Attention should be given to the methods 
of window and roof gardening in order to 
interest children in the possibilities of plant 
culture in city homes. 

Cocoons and chrysalides should be 
gathered in the fall and winter, and kept 
until the following spring for the study of 
butterflies and moths. 

Classroom work should be supplemented 
by visits to the parks and museums, and by 
the use of pictures and lantern slides. 

Stories, fables, songs, and other litera- 
ture pertaining to objects studied should be 



HE first thought to be im- 
pressed upon kindergartners 
in connection with any his- 
toric celebration, is that chil- 
dren of kindergarten age have 
absolutely no "historic sense." (See 
Studies in Education, Part 1, Mary Sheldon 
Barnes). Children enter into historic cele- 
brations only through their natural imita- 
tiveness and sympathetic relations with 
what is going on about them in their home, 
school and street. For example, if flags 
are being displayed, children will enjoy 
their colors and the general festive air. 
This is one reason why flags should not be 
displayed all the time, otherwise they lose 
their power to incite for special occasions. 
If, as in connection with the present Hud- 
son-Fulton celebration, the older children 
at home are talking about Indians and 
steamboats, and many pictures and toys 
about town suggest these objects, it will be 
certain that the little brothers and sisters 
of kindergarten age will want to play 
Indian and steamboat ! 

The main point is not to deceive our- 



selves into thinking we are teaching history 
>r that the children are getting any notion 
of the past whatever. They will be simply 
living in the present and will be learning 
that there are Indians and that there are 
steamboats ! The first steamboat can have 
10 significance whatever to a kindergarten 
:hild, without this historic sense. If it did, 
t would be by forcing his mental develop- 
ment. Many of the little ones whom we 
vill teach in our New York kindergartens 
will never have seen a river, or a steam- 
boat and much less have enjoyed a sail. 
The main thing to do then is, if possible, to 
:ake a walk to a dock or pier and see the 
Hudson river and see a steamboat! Make 
in experience. Then talk of it. 

If this cannot be done by a united walk, 
the children may be shown pictures of the 
river, and be incited to ask father or mother 
:o take them to the Hudson river on Satur- 
lay afternoon or Sunday. The writer re- 
nembers many such walks with her father, 
: or she was a city child. A walk on Sun- 
lay afternoon with father was one of the 
oyful experiences of the week and very 
}ften the walk brought us to the river we 
;elebrate. Then to go to the other side 
vvhere the hills are! What joy! 

It is therefore my desire that every little 
indergarten child shall this year see the 
Hudson river, if possible several times and 
it different points, be told its name, be 
aken across it in a ferry boat, and see sail 
:>oats and steam boats upon it. 

While, as I have said, this will be neither 
listory nor geography, such experiences re- 
lated during the kindergarten age will be 
preparing the way for both subjects and for 
nany others. 

The kindergartner may invent a little 
story about a walk if the real walk is abso- 
utely impossible. Some days later she may 
nvent another story, as : Once upon a time 
i little Indian boy went out walking with 
lis father to see the Hudson river. Would 
/on like to see how he was dressed? He 
lid not wear clothes like yours. I have 
nade some clothes like his and I think some 
lay I will let one of you wear them and 
)lay Indian boy. Who would like to play 
hat? This little Indian boy did not see 
i steamboat on the Hudson river, but he 
saw a boat like this one I will show you. 
This Indian boat is a canoe. It is only a 
ittle canoe. Do you know where to go to 
see a real big canoe? If this suggestion is 

at all feasible, tell the children to ask to be 
taken to the Museum of Natural History. 
There they may see many Indian curios a^ 
well as a big canoe. 

Some day we will make the Hudson river 
on our sand table and the little Indian boy 
out walking with his father. We will have 
a canoe, too, and the house the little Indian 
boy lived in. 

This would be sufficient for an introduc- 
tion to Indian life. The kindergarten 
method of development calls for a natural 
introduction of any subject. A new topic 
should be connected with the child's life 
in some way. It must not be rudely thrust 
into his horizon. 

Next day the little Indian suit may be 
donned. It may be wise to play that this 
little Indian boy has come to visit the kin- 
dergarten to play with us. Perhaps he 
will show us how little Indian boys like to 
play. I wonder what we shall call this little 
Indian boy. We must give him an Indian 
name. Once there was a little Indian boy 
named Heet-foot because he could run very 
fast. Let us see if this little boy can run 
fast. Shall we call him Fleet-foot? Per- 
haps he will teach us a running game today. 
The children may all walk "Indian file" and 
then practice running around the ring. A 
few of the older ones may be allowed to 
compete from point to point in the room or 
playground. (Competitive games are not 
strictly for this age.) 

A third day, let another child wear the 
Indian suit and change the name, calling 
him, perhaps, Sharp-eyes, for Indian boys 
must see well. They do not live in the city 
as we do. Where do they live? They live 
in the woods among the trees. Show a 
picture and commence to build a scene in 
the sand tray to which objects, such as the 
wigwam and the canoe may be added from 
day to day. Why do Indians need such 
sharp eyes? 

What will Sharp Eyes teach us to play 
today? I think he will show us how to roll 
this wooden ball straight so that it will 
strike the cube and knock the cylinder off. 
Little Indian boys love to play ball. They 
take good aim so they can hit. They look 
sharp. Now Sharp Eyes may show us how. 
The kindergartner should use any simple 
ball games especially those requiring chil- 
dren to "aim well," as aiming was the main 
feature of Indian boy games. 

Much of the kindergarten material readi- 



ly adapts itself to the representation of the 
life of a primitive race. Froebel felt the 
relation between children and the primitive 
h*e of man. The kindergartner who has 
caught the spirit of this article will be able 
to carry on the thought in several occupa- 
tions. The Indians loved to paint, to weave, 
to model clay vessels. They loved beads 
and chains. 

Each day a different child may wear the 
Indian costume, making it the center of in- 
terest in the kindergarten. This is prefer- 
able to many suits which would be too ex- 
citing. The kindergarten is being criticized 
for over stimulating the child's mind. Let 
us learn from our critics, hostile or friendly. 
The Indian child was taught to be silent. 
Let us not forget this as an off-set to any 
exciting game. 

The running and ball games, the "take 
aim" games should be practised daily. 
Various stories may be introduced as of one 
little Indian boy who did not get his break- 
fast until he had hit the mark which his 
mother set every morning! 

A target may be made for an aiming- 
game, but I do not advise the use of the 
bow and arrow in the school room, al- 
though these objects may be shown, cut 
from paper. They may also be drawn by 
the children. Throwing the worsted balls 
at the target will be satisfactory and 
"Sharp-eyes " must watch to see what color 
each ball strikes. Concentric circles may 
also be drawn on the floor for ring games. 
Balls may be thrown into a box or basket. 
The old-time song of "Ten Little Indians" 
is a simple counting game : 

John Brown had a little Indian (Repeat three 

One little Indian boy! 
One little, two little, three little Indians 
Four little, five little, six little Indians 
Seven little, eight little, nine little Indians 
Ten little Indian boys. (Then backwards.) 
Ten little, nine little, etc. 

(See Children's Old and New Singing 
Games, Hofer). For this game ten very 
simple suits may be prepared, or a few 
feathers worn and bead chains. Counting- 
shells for wampum may be played at the 

Every kindergartner should read careful- 
ly the story of "The Childhood of Hiawa- 
tha." Stories may be told of the animals 
the little Indian boy loved and how he used 
to play with them, calling them "Hiawa- 
tha's Brothers." Pictures should be shown 

and also toy and clay animals placed among 
the trees in the sand scene. Possibly a 
rabbit may be secured as a pet. The Indian 
name of the squirrel will please the children 
too — Adjidamo, or Shadow Tail. 

I suggest that the whole chapter of "Hia-1 
watha's Childhood" be read at a Mothers'] 
Meeting before or after September 29th,! 
and the mothers taught to chant the song: 
of the firefly as a lullaby: 

"Wah-wah-taysee, little fire-fly 
Little, flitting, white-fire insect, 
Little, dancing, white-fire creature, 
Light me with your little candle 
Ere upon my bed I lay me, 
Ere in sleep I close my eyelids." 

NOTE — The following books will be helpful for 
consultation: The Indian's Book, by Navalie- 
Curtis, Harper & Bros.; Eastman's Indian Boy- 
hood. The life of an Indian girl, Sit-Ka-La-Sa- 
See the Atlantic Monthly, January and February, 
19 00. The writings of Miss Alice Fletcher are; 
also valuable. 



(Officers of Alumnae Associations are requested' 
to sena in notes of their meetings and other items] 
01 interest to kindergarten reaaeis throughout the! 

During the past year the alumnae asso-j 
ciation of the New York Froebel Normal 
engaged in several new forms of activity.] 
Its first venture was a Bazaar held for the! 
raising of funds for the Alumnae Free Kin- 
dergarten which it proposed to conduct m 
conjunction with the Bioomingdale Settle-j 
ment House at W. 100th St., New York! 
City, x'hree hundred dollars were realized, 
and the free kindergarten under the direc- 
torship of Miss Anna Weisenburg, a faculty 
graduate of the New York Froebel Normal.; 
The kindergarten continued successfully 
throughout the year. 

It is proposed during the coming year tcl 
extend the kindergarten into the parks and ; 
playgrounds, and a special course will be| 
given to the Alumnae members by Miss 
Marie Ruer Hofer of the Froebel Normal : 
Faculty, and Dr. E. Lyell Earle, President! 
of the School. 

Another feature of importance was the 
affiliation of the New York Froebel Normal 
with the University of the State of New 
York through the Board of Regents, there- 
by placing its graduates, both academic and] 
professional, on the same footing as thej 
graduates of State and City Normal 
Schools, and allowing university credit for, 




o years' under graduate work counting 
ward a bachelor's degree in teaching. 
A third feature of interest was the incor- 
rating of the Connecticut Froebel Nor- 
al, which had been conducted for eight 
ars as the Bridgeport Training School for 
indergartners, in affiliation with the New 
ork Froebel Normal. The officers of the 
nnecticul Froebel Normal are Dr. E. 
ell Earle, President, and Miss Mary C. 
ills, 'i feasurer and Superintendent. The 
culties of the two schools will be inter- 
angeable, and the graduates eligible for 
ty and state licenses in both Connecticut 
d New York. 

This success is a legitimate reward of 

e efforts made by Dr. Earle and Miss 

ary Mills, a graduate of the New York 

oebel Normal, during eight years of de- 

)ted service to the kindergarten cause in 

3nnecticut. We are glad to say that the 

ndergarten has now become an integral 

rt of the Bridgeport Public Schools, due 

no small measure to the success of the 

ork done in Bridgeport. A further reward 

the success of the Bridgeport school is 

e fact that Dr. Earle has called Miss Mary 

Mills, principal of the Connecticut 

oebel Normal, to the New York Froebel 


The coming year promises to be a most 
ccessful one . for both the New York 
roebel Normal and its younger sister 
hool at Bridgeport. Eminent lecturers 
e being invited to address at their month- 
meetings the Alumnae Association of 
ese two schools, which now number over 
ur hundred members. Three Free Kin- 
rgartens are being conducted in New 
ork by the Alumnae Association of the 
ew York Froebel Normal. 



y\ T the I. K. U. convention Dr. 
Mc Vannell called attention 
to certain characteristics of 
literature, chief among which 
i are the following: (i) Liter- 
;ure is an art of expression. (2) Its 
aterials are human experience. (3) 
hrough the imagination these raw, crude 
aterials are given form by man's soul — 
rm, which is also unity. (4) This unity 
the end of art, and the steps to it are 
lection and discrimination, emphasis and 

organization. (5) The experience which 
composes the materials of expression is 
constituted of action, feeling, thought; the 
means of expression is language, and 
language is intelligible because of the com- 
mon nature in men, through which they can 
interpret by their own experience exper- 
iences not their own. (6) The power of 
individuals to realize experiences not their 
own depends on their faculty of imagina- 
tion and of sympathv. Literature is, then, 
the expression in words of truth and beauty 
of man's consciousness of the significant 
and enduring values of experience — per- 
sonal, national, universal. 

It is the understanding that our reading 
and education should serve to keep alive. 
Education is not to be thought of as a sub- 
stitute for our humanity, but the means by 
which our humanity is to be developed. 
The seeds of the truest culture and of the 
best life will never bloom for pedant or self- 
centered dilettante, for they need the fos- 
tering care of love and sincerity and 
modesty. In our study of literature we 
must get beneath the stratum of intelli- 
gence and into the touch with the very life 
of a book. We must get down to the very 
soul and deeps of things. It is such study 
alone as gives to the soul the wisest pas- 
siveness Wordsworth writes about, not in 
one poem but in many. Today more than 
ever before there are needed men of the 
severest scholarship: but this is but a vain 
and empty resourse, unless there breath 
through it all an ardent, radiating faith and 
sanctified desire. In these days, too, it is 
difficult for the so-called educated mind to 
bathe in the "light that never was on sea 
or land;" the composition of the substance 
is demanded. In such discussions as take 
place in many class rooms, teachers of 
literature too often only paralyze the 
spiritual antennae of their pupils. It would 
be too much to say that the sin is alto- 
gether willful; yet how little, after all. is 
the truth appreciated (in our better mo- 
ments we all admit it) that teaching is a 
concrete spiritual function. The true 
teacher is a teacher in the school of the 
inner life, his work the endeavor to induce 
in his pupil a glad receptivity to that which 
is beautiful and good and true, and to give 
them some notion of that better part which 
shall not be taken away, which does not 
waste itself in much serving but in sitting 
attentive at the feet of the living truth. The 



truest type of the growth of the spiritual 
life is that of a child in its intercourse with 
its mother, and its source is in the impact 
on ours of nobler, purer souls. 

In the Republic Plato declares that 
words of truth and beauty are the best 
g-arrisons of the souls whom God loves. In 
the selection of literature for little children 
certain fundamental prinicples may be 
briefly formulated as follows: 

(a) The selection for the child (as for 
the adult) must be primarily in accordance 
with a literary standard ; the story, the 
verse, the piece of literature must be 
recognized as a product of the artistic 
imagination. Dealing with the typical and 
supreme interests of the soul, the story, the 
legend, the piece of literature must be 
clothed in "words of truth and beauty." 

(b) Though dealing with the typical and 
supreme interests of the soul, the story, the 
verse, the piece of literature should be 
selected in order to create an unconscious 
form for selection or rejection in things, 
thoughts, feelings, actions — for. in a word, 
the organization of experience. The child's 
nature, as that of the adult, is ever being 
"subdued to what it works in, like the 
dyer's hand." 

(c) The psychology of literature, more- 
over, has to answer the question, not mere- 
ly what place does literature occupy in 
our spiritual environment, but what is 
literature as a mental process, what is it 
as an attitude of mind, what as a mode of 
personal experience? How, again, the 
question must be asked, does the attitude 
become intensified, the interest deepened? 
In the childhood of the race nature forced 
the questions How? and Why? The 
answer was the literature of the early-time 
mvth and folklore. To the child of the later 
dav nature and life put the same questions. 
There is the same longing to know, the 
same groping for the truth in the child as 
in the race. The child demands the story — 
the story of courage, of wisdom, of kind- 
ness — stories which tell of perseverance, 
of discovery; which tell him of the home 
that protects from the storm, of the varied 
forms of all life, natural and human. This, 
then, briefly is the question in the teaching 
of literature — what is it as a mode of per- 
sonal experience, whether in connection 
with the simple story or the highest form of 
lyric or epic? What is the interest and 
what the motive in the child, the adult? 
How does this interest, this attitude, this 

motive, emerge in the circle of the indi- 
vidual's experience? What will satisfy it? 
To realize through a sympathetic study of 
the individual's mind and heart as they un- 
fold, and through a deep and vital appre- 
ciation of literature, and of the attitude of 
mind and heart which knowledge of liter- 
ature presupposes, is to go a long way to- 
wards an answer of the question whether 
and how literature can be taught. 

Ruskin lighted seven lamps of Archi- 
tecture to guide the steps of the architect 
in the worthy practice of his art. At some] 
future dav there may be lighted seven 
lamps of Literature to guide the steps of 
those who in the worthy practice of theirj 
art would tell to the little children the 
words of truth and beauty — the best gar-j 
risons of the soul whom God loves. 

It was one of Kant's sayings that the 
other world is not so much another place as 
another view. There is at least one better] 
result of education than to attain knowl-j 
edge. It is the quickening of the inner life 
of the soul to a swifter sympathy, a finer in- 
sight, a more living and a more loving re- 
sponsiveness to whatsoever things are true 
and honest and just and lovely and of good 
report, and a disposing of the mind to think 
on these thines. 




E hear a great deal nowadays 
about city and state emphasis 
on Games, Play and Folk 
Dances in the School. The 
three R's— "Reading," "Ritl 
ing" and "Rithmetic" threaten to be in- 
troduced to new examples for models such 
as, — for reading exercises a study of folk 
lore; for "riting," Swedish Spinning Song; 
and "Rithmetic" — If three Dutch boys 
dance the "Sailor's Hornpipe," four Scotch 
the "Highland Fling," four English the 
"Minuet," four Indians the "War Dance," 
and four negroes the "Coon Dance" — how 
many children are dancing? 

But what about the accompaniment to 
those folk and song demonstrations — for I 
think we all grant that we understand the 
folk lore better if we hum, sing or play the 
illustrations, — enjoy the songs better if we 
follow the same method and undeniably 
dance better if done to a melody. What 
then is the place of instrumental music in 



the school and if necessary what instru- 
ment best meets these necessities? 

The Chinese has his Tom Tom ; the 
Scotchman his bagpipe; the Mexican his 
mandolin; the negro his banjo; the soldier 
his drum ; but an ordinary "street piano" 
can unify and resolve all racial prejudices 
into a more joyous outburst than which no 
ther one instrument can ever hope to at- 

If then, the "street piano," a really mod- 
ern innovation with its crude cadenzas, is 
. medium for joyous and unified song, 
;-ame and dance expressions, are we not 
wise to introduce the more refined home 
piano into our schools as embracing the 
.lational noise, jingle and tingle in a har- 
monious series of tones? 

If then instrumental music has a place in 
the school and if this is best illustrated in 
he composite piano, let us see what study 
las been given to it. 

In New York City the past three years 
more teachers have dreaded the Music Test 
for Kindergarten and Primary Licenses 
than "History and Principles" — not because 
music is harder but because the Curriculum 
has required a certain efficiency in Sight 
Reading, Tone Production and actual Play- 
ing, which latter requirement has not been 
taught, while prominent educators cover 
History and Principles in every reputable 
city and state institution. What then is 
the result ? Teachers recognizing then- 
lack of musical training "cram up" on other 
(better taught) subjects hoping to average 
high enough to reach a passing mark with 
music almost a dismal failure. 

It is not only uncommon but a fact to 
go into a primary school to find a corps of 
teachers numbering from five to fifteen, 
and but one perhaps able to "play the 
piano" though all are expected by the city 
to do this duty if called upon. Right here 
let me say that the "piano player" is often 
one of the most popular teachers in the 
schools and lives out the proverb — "Music 
hath charms to sooth the savage breast" 
and furthermore inspires our children into 
a happy chorus which the eminent Frank 
Damrosch said at an address at Albany in 
plea for more music study — "leads 
through its harmony in tone and chorus to 
peace and a great nation." 

It is deplorable to find that many of our 
schools, rich in buildings, maps, pens, etc.. 
are but shabbily provided with an old-fash- 

ioned "square" piano — a small organ, 
"second-hand" upright and oft times no 
musical instrument at all. Perhaps you 
will say — "But the teacher can use the 
tuning fork." True, but the tuning fork 
serves the purpose only of giving the initial 
tone, while the harmonious piano accom- 
paniment finishes the pleasing effect so that 
the result we receive in arithmetical term 
we might call the .Answer. 

It is not my privilege to indicate a course 
of instrumental preparation, — for after all 
"methods" and "courses" count but little — 
the result and application dominating all. 
But if a young kindergartner is called upon 
to digest Psychology, History and Prin- 
ciples of Education, Theory and Practice 
and many more of those unique subjects, 
with two years' arduous and obligatory 
training, does it not seem just to give her 
an adequate training in pure instrumental 
music when a morning's program is nearly 
one-half devoted to Song, Game and Plat 
which requires instrumental support? 

Our kindergartens are flooded with 
young teachers who play "by ear" so that 
"The Merry Widow Waltz" is introduced 
into the child mind for the illustration of 
the graceful "Flying Birds" and Broadway 
light opera ditties heat the tempo for the 
otherwise sweet, healthful games. The 
songs often times are picked out with the 
"right hand" and I have even known a 
kindergarten where the kindergartner 
played the melody with one hand while her 
assistant plaved the "base," — neither one 
capable of doing both. These are no exag- 

The so-called kindergarten trainer of 
some years ago has long since realized that 
this is the age of specialization and that her 
pathetic efforts to play some of the simple 
"Finger Plays" have only thrown her into 
embarrassed confusion just as the more dif- 
ficult "Songs and Games" need a better 
piano technician than that teacher usually 

Sometimes a principal has threatened to 
withhold the desired diploma until a student 
was equiped to play the Songs and Games. 
so vital a factor on the program — but such 
a threat has met with cynical tolerance 
from some of the teachers and open rebel- 
lion from the student ; but a subsequent try 
at the Music Test has convinced all of the 
advisability of careful preparation. 

The conclusion must be reached — if we 



are to have in our schools subjects which 
need for their proper setting- instrumental 
accompaniment of a high order we must 
face the problem of carrying on our facul- 
ties, specialists in that subject just as much 
as any other on the program. 

As a matter of fact, the world is just as 
rich in musical reference as in any other 
prescribed subjects and many a kinder- 
gartner could tell most refreshingly new 
stories if she but came out of her traditional 
story reportoire and studied the genesis of 
some of our great musical compositions. 
An expression of gratitude should be ten- 
dered a writer of the Kindergarten Review, 
who two years ago offered an instrumental 
program which program was both dignified 
and musical. 

In subsequent numbers of the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine, I shall attempt 
to illustrate and compare "types" of instru- 
mental music used in our daily kindergar- 
tens. It shall be my effort to place some 
emphasis on the musical interpretation — 
for climatic, civic, social and artistic condi- 
tions have colored the music world quite as 
much as any other field of activity. 

For my first "type" I shall take the 
"March" suggesting several compositions 
which have merit and history contrasted 
with the popular "Two-step" so commonly 



In blithe, cooing freedom, kicking and tossing 
The baby his plump limbs is straightening and 

And Mother stops work, with her darling to play — ■ 
Perhaps the Great Teacher would teach her this 


In her active child 
Through nurture mild 
Through purposeful, teasing play with her, 
feelings, perceptions, presentments stir: 
Intelligent play with her child 'twill cost her 
The inner life, through the outer to foster. 

Seize the baby's kicking feet 

Oil to press from flowers sweet, 

Oil from seeds and oils from wells — 

What the kind the odor tells. 

Oil gives mother clear bright light, 

Watching through the long, long night 

Oil makes easier run each wheel 

Axle, pulley, spring of steel — 

Oil we now each hinge and screw 

Baby's joints are hinges too. 

Life, O thoughtful, fostering Mother, 
is the center of your feelings, perceptions, 
thoughts; life is the nucleus to which all 

NOTK— A new translation with supplementary remarks. 

your activities, your occupations, your con-, 
duct have reference. This is why your 
feelings, activities, thought and conduct 
are so deeply harmonious; why each and 
every expression of life on the part of your 
dear child stimulates each to a closer union. 
Nothing therefore, gives you more joy than 
the appearance and the contemplation of 
both the quiet and the active manifesta- 
tions of life in your child, if proportioned to; 
his strength and in accordance with the 
laws of nature and of life. 

And this being recognized, unless you 
are withheld by prejudice, habit or wrong 
conceptions, you feel yourself immediately 
called upon to foster, to nurture the stir- 
ring life of your child ; to strengthen, to de- 
velop, to exercise, to cultivate it, so that 
you may bring your child as soon as pos- 
sible to a knowledge of self. 

Your child lies before you on a clean? 
cushion, enjoying an invigorating air-bath 
after his strengthening bath in the clear 
water. In the enjoyment of the perfect 
health of his entire body, lying before you. 
he strikes out with hands and kicking feet. 
You feel that he seeks something against 
which he mav measure his strength in or- 
der to enjoy the sense of increasing power. 
You read in the child's activities both his 
desire and his need and mother-love 
hastens to respond. Your hands or your 
breast, against which he alternately braces 
his legs, against which he kicks or treads 
becomes the test, and also the augmenter 
of his strength. You obey the laws that 
control the exercise of his physical being. 
But you would foster not only the external 
life of the body, but also the inner life, the 
feelings, the sentiments, the life of the soul. 
Not only should he realize his power by 
measuring it with yours, but should feel 
at the same time the love, the spirit, with 
which you do all this, and so to deed and, 
word, you unite melody. 

As his awakening and growing faculties 
are, as it were, the oil to nourish the flame 
of your love, this you should let your child 
feel ; and later recognize it consciously. 
The night-lamp, which stood near you dur- 
ing the long hours when you watched over 
your baby in past time, affords the occasion 
and the symbol thereof. The employment 
of force evolved according to law and ap- 
plied proportionately to the needs of the 
case, pressed from the oil-bearing herbs — I 
from rape-seed, from flax, from poppy or 



thers, by whatever name they are called 
r however applied in different localities — 
ressed out the oil for the night-lamp of 
he watcher. So the child should feel, later, 
hat from the harmonious unfolding, the 
udicious application of, and the use of all 
is powers, proceeds that which nurtures 
our mother love. 
The picture of the oil-mill, to the left, 
ear which, in a secure place, a poppy and 
flaxseed have found room to root them- 
elves, will be a means, right at hand, to 
oint this out, in relation to oil and poppies,' 
s his understanding unfolds, until you find 
pportunity to visit a real mill. This is 
upposed to have occurred. 
The boy and the girl each represents in 
is own way what he has seen. The 
tiother has taken her flock of children to 
tie neighboring mountain-valley, that they 
nav feel, may have an intuition of the 
Dving, everywhere active forces of nature 
ven if not now intelligently conscious 

Above, in the mountain stream, the boy 
las sought a place for his toy mill which 
he water merrily turns. His younger 
>rother sits in wonder near by, shading his 
ves from the blinding sun, that it may not 
inder him from admiring his brother's 
vork. The eldest sister seeks a shorter 
vay to achieve her ends. She wades in 
he clear brook with her strong little feet 
rying to knead the fine sand into a plastic 

Surrounded by her dear ones sits the 

nother, reflecting — how is it that from the 

ame nurture, the same environment, each 

hild-life shapes itself so differently. Mir- 

ored in their childish play she sees the 

uture life of the three children, each now 

ascinated by the water and its powers. 

The eldest, she anticipates, will bend 

fe's forces to his ends, through his intel- 

gence, as he learns to use the means to 

hose ends. The maiden will gain her own 

aims directly, through her own life and 

Seeds, holding them fast in her heart, and 

devoted to them with characteristic energy; 

the younger boy will attain his ends as he 

learns the nature of force and the laws of 

its phenomena. 

As each of the playing children is living 
in the present a life of the spirit that is 
rich and full, so the mother is living, not 
only in the present and the future but also 
in the past. 

For upon asking "Where are you going, 
my good friend?" the passing woman, car- 
rying a basket, and now, already part way 
up the mountain, replied, "Up yonder, to 
the rich miller's to see if I can get some oil 
for what I take to him, for my baby is so 
sick that I must watch over him all night 
long. I need bread, too, for I can now earn 
nothing, and yet the poor child must eat." 
This answer brings back to the mind of the 
mother from the days gone by, the little 
play with the limbs, and looking at her 
children and reflecting on the subject, she 
asks "Will the children's future life repav 
with gratitude the mother's love?" 


Blessed are they who are undertaking something 
greater than they can accomplish. The self-satis- 
fied, the complacent, are not happy; they are peo- 
ple without purpose, without ideas. Great work 
everywhere is being done under pressure. — 

It may seem superfluous to give another 
translation of Froebel's "Mutter Und Kose 
Lieder" with two versions already in the 
field, especially that of Miss Blow with its 
exquisitelv poetical renderings of the 
mottoes by Mrs. Eliot, but thus far the 
grade teacher and the Sunday school 
teacher have not found their way in anv 
great numbers to the treasures hidden in 
the great mother-child book and this ver- 
sion, while keeping close to Froebel's 
thought will be supplemented by observa- 
tions and suggestions which it is hoped 
may lead many others besides kinder- 
gartners to frequent recourse to the book 
both in the original German and in other 

The "Mutter Und Kose Lieder" has this 
in common with other classics : it has a 
message for every era and for each of the 
Seven Ages of Man. Let the teacher study 
the pictures, the mottoes, songs and com- 
mentaries today and discover all that she 
can in them that will stimulate and help 
her in her work with the children : and then 
restudy them next year if not sooner. 

We will give, however, a few practical 
suggestions for extending the thought of 
Froebel that will render the book available 
for use with children older than those of 
kindergarten age and which will also have 
in mind changes in the economic world 
since Froebel's time that make certain ex- 
planations desirable. In each selection 
Froebel has in mind the physical, the men- 



tal and the spiritual nurture of the child 
and we will group our suggestions under 
these three headings, reminding the teach- 
er, however, that this is done merely to 
enable her to realize more deeply the rich 
possibilities in the book and that she is not 
to imagine that body, mind and spirit are 
separate and independent of each other - 
they are mutually dependent and insepar- 

In the song for the child we have in- 
cluded a thought not found in Froebel's 
little play; he speaks of the use of oil for 
illumination only, symbol of the mother's 
love. But many children, in this era of gas 
and electricity know little of this use in the 
home, but they see oil used to lubricate 
sewing-machine, bicycle, motor-car and, as 
even so used, it has a fine symbolism we 
have added this thought. The poppy, rape, 
and flaxseed oil that Froebel had in mind 
is pressed from the seeds of plants. This 
process is not so obvious in obtaining the 
oil now usually used for illumination — 
kerosene, but it is obtained from the earth 
by hydraulic pressure and so the baby play 
still holds good. As the mother recites or 
sings the song in bending the little arms 
and legs in play, she can pretend to oil the 
hinges of this wonderful machine which 
presses the oil from flowers and seeds to 
make perfumery and light and heat for 


Froebel calls attention indirectly, not 
only to the value of the bathing with water, 
but to the air-bath. In mothers' meetings 
urge the necessity of giving the wee one as 
often as possible the freedom of the air and 
sunlight in a room of the right tempera- 
ture. In the schoolroom have the children 
wash out their lungs frequently with air, 
bv deep, slow breathing, filling the bellows 
that blow the fires for machinery run by 

Let children stand in aisle and go 
through various movements, exercising 
different parts of the body as machinery 
that makes the oil. Tread alternately in a 
regular manner with each leg; extend arms 
and move in even rythm like pistons. (A 
pencil may be held vertically in each hand 
to represent piston, the arm being the mov- 
ing bar.) 

Plav carry a lighted lamp across the 
room to mother; can we carry it steadily 

so that it will not explode ; stand in aisle 
and let each child be a lighthouse with in 
termittent light — move the head sharply to 
right and left. With the little child play 
that baby's head is a lamp and when 
mother turns up the light (tweaks the 
nose) the eyes fly open. 

Have a sense game by getting different 
perfumes and oils and seeing if child can 
tell what they are from the odors; the oil 
is pressed from poppy, and various blos- 
soms to make the so-called essential oils 
used in making attar of rose, violet water 
and other sweet smelling odors. Can the 
child tell gasoline from kerosene by its 
odor? (This over-laps a sense game that 
will be given later). 

The ratchet wheels of a machine may be 
illustrated thus, to form a more active 
game engaging a number of children 
form a circle of children one standing be 
hind another, with outside arms extended 
form another such circle with an equal 
number of children. Let them stand near 
enough to each other so that as one circle 
revolves each child may in passing, for a 
moment grasp the hand of a child in the 
other circle. 

Another game may be made of the well- 
known grand right-and-left of the square 
dance ; let the children form a circle, then 
two facing each other grasp hands a mo- 
ment and then move forward clasping alter 
nately the right hand of each child that 
approaches and the left hand of the next 
If a child halts the movement stop all and 
seek for a place that needs oil and go 
through ceremony of oiling. 

Prepare the children to appreciate the. 
pictures by first appreciating them your- 
self. To this end we translate from the 
German preface of Freidrich Seidel to the] 
third edition of 1883. 

"The drawings were the work of Friedrich 
linger, formerly a pupil and later a drawing 
teacher in the Froebel Educational Institute at] 
Keilhau; and then custodian of the German 
Museum at Nuremberg. He caught perfectly the 
spirit of Froebel in his figures and scenes and 
only very seldom did Froebel in the Commentaries 
have to take exception to anything in the draw-/ 
ings. Noble, chaste, pure, throughout, the draw- 
ing is far removed from the merely fashionable 
from distortions, or what we call claptrap. The 
taste shown in looking backward and clothing the 
figures in the costumes of the poetical, beautiful 
period of the Middle Ages will forever preserve 
the Unger pictures from outliving their usefulness. 
The strict avoidance of everything like caricature 



)laces these pictures, from the pedagogical stand- 
loint, far above many of the modern pictures and 
he funny and at first glance quite harmless appear- 
ng caricatures in many "Muenchener Bilderbogen," 
n "Max und Moritz" and other books are alike in 
he extremely dangerous poison they contain which 
uakes the modern youth as complained of every- 
vhere so pert, rebellious and frivolous." 

In introducing the pictures tell the chil- 
Iren that they were drawn by one who 
oved litle children and that the costumes 
■epresent those worn at a romantic period 
n German history; and that in Froebel's 
lay, for awhile, there was a revival of in- 
erest in that particular era and that the 
dovs of his school wore their hair long and 
he style of garment belonging to that 
ime. They had one teacher, Friedrich 
ange who helped the boys in a delightful 
vay to relive it. 

Let them observe the picture of the 
nother and the child, the lamp, which leads 
o a talk about lamps, oil and kindred 
opics. Until very recently the only lamps 
mown were those resembling the one here 
ictured, shaped like a boat, with a hole at 
ne end- through which the wick was 
Irawn, being fed by the oil in body of 
amp. How many conveniences we have 
oday, unknown to our forefathers. Do we 
-nake eood use of the extra hours thus ob- 
ained for night work and play? Looking 
it the mill-picture speak of the different 
inds of oil ; the essential oils pressed from 
owers for perfumes, the oil for illumina- 
mg. It may interest the children to speak 
f the oil used at various times by the 
United States government for use in light- 
louses! The illuminants in order of use 
vere, balls of pitch and tar, tallow candles, 
sh oil, sperm oil, colza (wild cabbage, also 
hown as rapeseed), lard, petroleum. One 
lisplaced another as it proved more econom- 
ical. How many brains have investigated 
md worked to discover new methods of 
illumination? Let them feel that the na- 
tion's light houses are a kind of extension 
of the mother's love shown in the night- 

The poppy and flaxseed or linseed oil 
mentioned by Froebel in his song are not 
used for illumination ; opium is derived 
from the former. Linseed oil is much used 
in the arts, for its drying qualities in mixing 
with paints, etc. Olive oil has been used for 
illuminating as is rapeseed. The oil best 
known to many children will be kerosene, 
pressed upward by hydraulic pressure from 


the depths of the earth. Let the children 
feel the immense power necessary to press 
the oil from the various seeds and speak of 
the various kinds of power as that fur- 
nished by water, steam, electricity. Also 
the power residing in one's own body and 
force of will. Oil is also used to make 
machinery run smoothly. For the delicate 
machinery of watches olive oil was form- 
erly employed ; now oil from the porpoise 
is used. Oil is also used for food as in the 
case of olive-oil and that extracted from 
nuts. Oil thus used becomes fuel for the 
body and the use of oil for fuel mav be 


Oil the wheels, 

Oil the hinge, 

Oil all the levers too, 

Then each part will smoothly work 

As each part ought to do. 

Kindly speak, 

Kindly act, 

Be true in work and play — 

Help Life's wheels to smoothly move 

Each and every day. 

Froebel touches upon several points sug- 
gested by the picture which may serve to 
develop the child's heart and spirit. The 
child is to feel the joy that comes of 
measuring its powers with those of others. 
The tasks of the schoolroom should be 
planned so that the child must needs put 
forth effort commensurate with his powers 
to overcome the difficulties presented: if 
too easy or too hard he does not get the 
development desirable. Let the child feel 
it requires force to press from the seeds 
the oil that is so useful to man and that 
his powers rightly applied will serve to 
press from circumstances what he requires, 
but that to do this he must take good care 
of his machinery; i. e. his body. It must 
have the right kind of fuel, and be kept 
well-oiled. What is the oil that helps make 
the wheels, the machinery of societv. run 
smoothly? Yes. courtesy, consideration, 
truthfulness, helpfulness. cheerfulness, 
obedience to parents. Talk over with the 
children the things against which they may 
measure their strength — hard lessons, 
faults of temper, tardiness, procrastination, 
etc. Perhaps one of the most important 
suggestions is that found in the picture of 
the old woman climbing the hill to obtain 
food and oil for her child while the chil- 
dren play in the foreground, by the reflect- 



ing mother. Let the children feel the de- 
light of the older boy in his mill and the 
admiration of the younger brother ; tell 
them that the latter is shading his eyes 
from the sun, don't ask what they think he 
is doing. With this as a starting point a 
valuable little conversation may be held 
upon the example set by an older brother 
to a younger. What things do we want our 
brothers and sister to admire in us? What 
constitutes true manliness and womanli- 
ness? The main point for the teacher, 
however, is this: It is difficult often for 
a parent to train a child to gratitude 
towards herself. It seems like putting 
things upon a personal or selfish basis. But 
the teacher and the Sunday school teacher 
may very well speak of the love and devo- 
tion shown by the parent as symbolized by 
the night-lamp. Let the child feel that his 
growing powers, rightly used, nourish best 
the parent's love and that he should pay 
this care by love and little services. There 
are too many examples nowadays of chil- 
dren growing up without any sense of obli- 
gation to parents and the problem may well 
come up for mothers' meetings, how best to 
develop this. Does doing things for the 
child, and devoting oneself to it train to 
gratitude — must not the parent train the 
child to do for her; and to do for others; 
to offer his seat to a tired woman in a car ; 
to go on little errands, to get mother's slip- 
pers when she comes in tired and wet; to 
be considerate to grandmother. The child 
who is thoughtful for others will usuallv 
be thoughtful for mother's comfort. On 
the other hand, is it judicious to continuallv 
harp upon all that one is doing for the 
child? He did not ask to come into the 
world, and should not be overwhelmed 
with a sense of what he owes to others. 
Froebel in this Commentary impresses the 
need of proportion in all that is done. 

If one door should be shut God will open 
another; if the peas do not yield well the 
beans mav; if one hen leaves her eggs an- 
other will bring out all her brood. There's 
a bright side to all things, and a good God 
everywhere. Somewhere or other in the 
worst flood of trouble there always is a dry 
spot for contentment to get its foot on, and 
if there were not, it would learn to swim. — 
C. H. Spurgeon. 

Department of Practical Helps, Les- 
son Suggestions, Stories, etc., lor 
Kindergartners and Primary 




Director of Kindergartens, Manhattan, The Bronx 
and Richmond 

While visiting a school in The Bronx 
during Christmas week, the principal called 
my attention to a pleasing exercise which 
he had observed in his kindergarten in 

Reading in the kindergarten? Yes, 
reading, but only an imaginary letter to 
Santa Clans. The children had written the 
letter, too. 

A'Vriting in the kindergarten? Yes, but 
only the well-known nursery scribble which 
has delighted many a fond parent even in 
a three-year-old child. 

This slight bridge between imaginary 
reading and writing is of intrinsic value. 

It establishes a connection between 
speech and written form, and it starts a 
natural interest in both reading and 

So pleased was the principal with the 
spontaneous oral composition of the Santa 
Claus letters that he invited his special 
teacher of composition to visit the kinder- 
garten to see where composition begins. 

He wisely suggested to the kindergarten 
the possibility of finding a few other suit- 
able occasions for play letter-writing and 
reading as an appropriate connecting link 
with primary work. 

The value of his suggestion will be lost if 
such exercises are made at all formal, or 
even very frequent, but the valentine sea- 
son will offer another natural opportunity. 
The children love to make valentines, fold 
an envelope, mount a stamp (canceled or 
or of plain paper), directing it in scribble- 
wr ing to whomsoever they choose. 

Children at home often write quite 
lengthy scribble letters and read their 
thoughts into them as they write. The 
act ; on of writing, the moving hand, attracts 



a young child. It is something he can 

A niece of mine at three years of age 
wrote' a four-page letter made up of m's 
and u's and ee's, turning the sheet sideways 
twice in exact imitation of her mother. 

The regularity of the lines, the slope and 
general resemblance to an adult's letter was 
remarkable ; she must have had an image 
of a letter as a whole. 

The same little girl often essayed to read 
her scribble letters, and after her interest 
in the postman's morning visit was well 
aroused, she became aware that names are 
to be read from envelopes. 

One morning, much to her mother's sur- 
prise, she claimed a letter, saying, "My 
name is on it. It says Miss Me." 

Thus in a very natural way do children 
through their imitative instinct begin their 
own reading and writing lessons in the 
nursery and in the kindergarten. 

We cannot keep reading and writing out 
of the kindergarten. 

It is customary in the kindergarten 
to write the child's name upon the piece of 
work he is making. It is one way to de- 
velop the sense of ownership and posses- 

If this writing be done with care, nearly 
every child can recognize his own name by 
the time he is ready for promotion. That 
important name-word gradually rises from 
a vague impression of scribble to a clear im- 
age. Occasionally we find a child who has 
learred to discriminate several names be- 
sides his ow,n simply by having aided the 
kindergartner in the distribution of the 
work in portfolios. 

When the child recognizes "my name" 
and not "my name" however vaguely, he 
has a hold upon reading, though he may be 
and should be unconscious of the new 

I must urge that no effort be made to 
drill or even to call attention to the written 
work done by the kindergartner. Power in 
the child should arise naturally simply by 
observation and use. 

In similar fashion a kindergarten child 
has carried the general appearance of a 
page in a song book and has offered to find 
the song he wishes to sing. This is also 
true of story books illustrated with 

This gives the idea of turning leaves and 
finding the place. 

The attendance is registered every day 
upon the blackboard as in all grades, and 
some of the children follow the writing of 
these number forms with interest. 

Children in the nursery often uncon- 
sciously acquire the ability to find the 
rhyme or story which they wish mother to 
read. They point often as she reads even 
though incorrectly, and a notion of the 
sequence of words arises. 

The "look of an entire page" is also im- 
pressed because of its peculiar marginal in- 

Miss May Palmer, of the Training De- 
partment of the Normal College, remem- 
bers distinctly holding in her mind at a very 
early age this "gray mass" of the printed 
page with its "ins and outs" of white. 

Who has not in later years passed judg- 
ment upon story books according to the 
general "look" of the page? 

The natural action of the child's mind in 
reading is undoubtedly from mass to word, 
from word to letter, from vague to less 
vague. This fact is being recognized more 
and more and is finding its way slowdy but 
surely in teaching reading. Several new 
series of Readers are built upon it as a sure 

Teachers in this city who have tested 
this natural method are beginning to have 
great faith in the preliminary step of super- 
ficially reading nursery rhymes for a few 
weeks, giving the child's mind a chance to 
follow its own working method until it finds 
clearness growing out of vagueness. Time 
is actually saved. 

"I plead, therefore, for a recognition," 
says Dr. Hall, "of the value of superficiality 
as one of the goods per se in this field; a 
knowledge that is all extent without much 
intensitv. This is the form in which all 
knowledge begins." — School Work. 

THE APPLE (Lesson One.) 


HE apple is the best well- 
known of all fruits. It is be- 
lieved that it was first culti- 
vated by the Romans. The 
fruit is very widely spread 
throughout the Temperate Zone. It is 
found in Europe, especially in Great 
Britain, Asia and in America. New York 
State grows the largest quantities and 



apples of the best quality of any section in 
this country. 

The tree is seldom over thirty or forty 
feet high and the bark is hard, durable and 
fine-grained. The branches of the tree 
spread out, forming a regular semi-circle. 
The leaves are broadly orate, much longer 
than the petioles, woolly underneath and 
contain glands. The flowers grow in clus- 
ters of six or seven together and are large, 
rose-colored externally and very fragrant. 
The fruit is roundish, narrower at the two 
ends with a depression at each end. They 
are of various colors : green, yellow, red, 
and sometimes even black. At one end of 
the apple is the stem, which joins it to the 
branch of the tree. 

There are hundreds of varieties of apples. 
The crab apple seems to have been the 
parent of all the other varieties. There are 
three main classes of this fruit: the sum- 
mer, winter and autumn apples. 

Apples are used in many ways: as food; 
as medicine and then they are made into 
various drinks. 


Let us hold up five fingers. Both the 
apple and the pear have five petals in their 
blossoms and they are of the same family. 
The raspberry, strawberry, peach and 
quince are also of the same family, which is 
called the Rose family. 

When you eat an apple why do you not 
eat the core? Because it sticks in our 
throats. Why did God have it so? To pro- 
tect the little seeds so, as we might have 
more apples. 

"hink of a tree hung with little houses 
and you can eat all of the houses except 
five little rooms in each house. These are 
full of little fairy men dressed each in. a 
brown jacket. Why do you think every 
house has five rooms? Because, they have 
five petals to a blossom. There is not the 
same number of men in each house. Let 
us cut this apple, (have an apple). Let us 
see how many men there are in each room. 
Do these fairy men when in their houses 
stand on their heads or feet? They stand 
on their feet. The pointed end of the 
apple is the upper part while the larger end 
is the lower part, pointing downward. 

The bees love the honey from the apple 
blossoms and if it were not for the bees 
taking the honey we would not have the 
apples. The wind comes and blows down 

the blossoms upon the ground, like a regu- 
lar snow blanket in the summer-time. The 
little calyx cup of the flower stays upon the 
tree, and then in a little while a tiny apple 
begins to grow. The fairy men begin to 
move in their little houses : first they wear 
green jackets, then white and finally they 
put on their little brown coats. The apple 
is ripe then and these little men want to 
get out and travel in the World, so the 
apple is eaten and the little fairies run 
away, so as to make more houses grow for 
more little fairy men. The little men do 
not like one thing in their little houses and 
that is old Mr. Worm for he will chew 
them all up. It so happens that Mr. Bird 
likes Mr. Worm, so he eats him up and by 
so doing helps to protect the little fairy 


What part of the orange is orange color? 
All except the inside white skin which is 
called membrane. 

Are the apple and pear the same all the 
way through? No, they are not the same. 
The inside of the orange, apple and pear is 
called pulp — also called flesh. (Compare 
with the flesh of the body). The outside of 
the body is covered with skin and pores 
within the skin. Under the skin is the flesh. 
It is the same with fruit. We eat just the 
flesh of the fruit. 

When we eat an apple do we eat the 
whole of the fruit? No, we never eat the 
core. Has an orange a core? No, the 
orange has just an eye. Can you eat the 
whole of the orange? Can you eat the skin? 
No, no one ought to eat the skin or the 
seeds. Collect seeds in paper box made by 

If you should close your eyes, holding an 
apple in one hand and an orange in the 
other could you tell where the blossom 
grew? Yes. 



T is recognized in all phases of 
life that stagnation is one 
form of death, that living, 
pulsing life can never be 
stationary. But it is equally 
true that to be successful one must not 



only be pulsing with energy, as the engine 
waiting at the station, but must also be 
moving onward if only at the rate of the 
slow going freight. Thus we may call pro- 
gression the key to success and it leads to 
more permanent results than can possibly 
be achieved in any other way. Good can 
even be educed from evil and good is made 
better yet by infinite progression." 

This truth is more or less fully recog- 
nized in all lines of education and is only 
expressed in another way when we say 
that we should teach from the known to the 
unknown ; from the simple to the complex. 
But there should be more thought given to 
it than this bald statement, especially in 
dealing with beginnings as in the starting 
of little children. We should try to avoid 
the too common error of shutting our 
psychologies when we leave the student 
roll and forgetting to mark them with appli- 
cations when we enter the roll of teachers. 

It should be remembered that our work 
should be in a spiral form if it is truly good, 
each phase widening out and also extend- 
ing upward. While it is true that life as 
a whole must be progressive yet at the 
same time it is not an onward sweep but a 
series of progressive steps. Many have 
thought that in applying this term of pro- 
gression to the gifts we always mean a 
sequence of form within a given lesson, one 
form evolving from the one just preceding 
it. This is truly a phase of progression, 
but there is a larger, broader sense in which 
the term should be used in practice as well 
as in theory, and that is from the simple to 
the complex use of a given material. 

The object of this paper is to show one 
way in which the sixth Gift can be thus 
used. For this work the Gift was arranged 
in layers. The program for the day called 
for the introduction of the Sixth Gift on 
the following morning, and accordingly a 
lesson was planned and the boxes given 


None of the class had ever seen the Gift 
and so it was a total surprise and the first 
exclamation was: "See the candy!" "I 
have some chocolates," meaning the plinths, 
the columns were "sticks of candy." 

One child stood a plinth up and called it 
a house with a chimney, another discovered 
that we could have two chimneys, and a 
third child that we could make a tall one. 
This naturally suggested (with that class) 

a weathervane and then a cross on a 
church, as they had recently heard the 
story of the "Little Weathervane." 

Experiments were then tried of making 
the cross in different ways and when one 
child made a discovery all the others 
imitated and enjoyed it. After several 
changes in crosses, a piano with a stool, 
and a few other minor moves, they played 
freely with the top layer around the mass. 
This furnished quite enough experiences 
and use of new material for the first time. 


The next time the Gift was given out the 
class almost unanimously put up the one 
chimney so that we very quickly reviewed 
the previous moves as a recall sequence, 
and then for the advance work made a 
picture with the top layer of the Gift and 
repeated it with the second layer; next we 
put the two forms together to make one 
object. After that they had free play 
around the remaining mass with the blocks 
of these two layers, always calling the at- 
tention of the class to the work of the 
others. In repeating the object made from 
the top layer with the second layer the class 
discovered the difference between the 
plinths and columns. They found that those 
who made pigeon houses had one taller 
than the other, while those who made 
boxes, wells or bridges could make them 
just alike. Each child named what he had 
made and attention was called to their 
similarity or difference. Some children 
whose objects were not alike voluntarily 
explained why they couldn't be alike and 
put them in relation to each other, as for 
instance one boy said: "I have a pigeon 
house and a house for little birds." Others 
asked permission to change theirs and make 
objects which could be alike. 


In the third lesson each child played that 
he had a cake which he cut front and back 
and right and left ; this led to the discovery 
of a new possibility and they asked to 
divide it thus : 



E3 OC 





Saving that there was a piece for papa, 
one for mama, brother, sister and the 
little one for the baby because he "being 
little didn't need so much." What other 
kind of cake could you have? "A layer 
cake." Yes, put the cube together. Now 
all take one layer and make a picture. You 
remember that last time we made two 
pictures. Were they alike? Here they re- 
called and explained, quite freely, what 
they had done in the previous lesson. Now, 
today we will see if we can make three 
pictures alike. How many layers will you 
use? Nearly the entire class succeeded this 
time in using the layers alike and yet as a 
class having many different objects, as 
wells with covers shut, covers open, boxes, 
bridges, houses and many other things. 
Then they had free play around the re- 
maining blocks. 

In the fourth lesson they reviewed the 
divisions, made three objects alike and then 
repeated it with the other three layers, thus 
making six units which were later — after 
they had been named and enjoyed by the 
class — put together to form one object in 
any way that they wished without destroy- 
ing the units. The class now inspected these 
large objects and helped in selecting one, 
but care was taken by the teacher as a lead- 
ing spirit, that the one selected should be 
the one which best illustrated the use of 
the Gift. This object chosen, the class all 
copied it, being the first definite work of the 
class working as a unit at creating. 

This began with a review of the division 
into six layers, but attention was called to 
the way some had placed the layers on the 
table. After four had been taken off, this 
led to a few minutes of arranging and 

This was followed by free arrangement 
of the six layers and all copied this one 
which was named in various ways. This 
shows the general form, not the position of 
the blocks. The children were asked to lay 

them with the small blocks at the back and 
to have the layers with plinths and those 
with columns alternating. This was the 
beginning of dictated work with this Gift. 

The children now experimented with the 
small blocks in sets, using the general form 
described above, but not moving the others 
Care was taken that all should profit by the 
experiments of the others, either by letting 
them tell what they had made, copying each 
others', or letting half of the class go at a 
time and interview the rest as to what they 
had made. Opportunity was also given to 
draw on the blackboard the top or front 
view of their objects according to its dif- 
ficulty, especially when making the units 
The children were now capable of handling 
the material as a whole and understood 
how to put together without excitement oi 
trouble, which is one advantage of giving 
the first work in layers and gradually in 
creasing the number. They were now 
ready for free work with all the materia 
and after they had had some experimenting 
with the Gift as a whole they would be 
ready for dictated work, with all of it 
.Either before or after having dictated worl 
they would have a symmetry lesson de 
veloped in the previous lesson, (the 5th) 

By this time the class should have th< 
material so well in hand that they can fol 
low any method of giving a lesson and ge 
much profit from the use of the gift. Thi 
is, as may be understood, suggested onl 
as one way in which this Gift can be use< 
progressively. The work described wa 
actually carried out with a class and th 
children did develop not only the abilit; 
to use the material, but also much freedon 
of expression. 



Plate I 


Supervisor Drawing, New York City. 

One desire which we all share is to have 
eautiful surroundings for the little chil- 
ren. This we all know and feel and wish, 
ut how to make a beautiful room is what 
e want to know. In any case, the room 
ill be stamped with the individuality of 
le teacher, for decoration, primarily, is 
ssign, and design, primarily, is a very per- 
)nal thing. Therefore the place is bound 
) show a personal expression of her under- 
anding of what makes for beauty. 

Let lis take an imaginary room and see 

hat its possibilities are. (See Plate I), 
/e will show this corner in which one sees 
long horizontal window — here on the left, 
blackboard, within reach of the children; 
1 the right, a low bookcase in the corner 
id a door near the blackboard. The wains- 
bating runs all the way around the room, 
Dout two feet from the floor. If the room 

high studded the picture rail should be 
»w. If low studded, the rail should be 
igh. In a cold and dark room the color 
•.heme should be warm. A brown made 
t broken tones of orange is often good, 
/here the room is exposed to sunlight 
>nes made up of olive with an admixture 
i white, prove a pleasant choice. This 
)lor itself is made with green and a slight 
nount of red and sucks up the light verv 
Liickly. The tones must run one from an- 
:her. The ceiling white plus a little of the 
3lor, the walls a middle tone and the 
■ound the darkest of all. This hall in 
hich I am now speaking shows most 
easant tonal harmony. The browns of 
ie walls, woodwork, curtains, ceiling, etc., 
1 go to make up a unified scheme of color. 

Now we must look to see what spaces are 

Plate II 

left which we may decorate. The picture 
must primarily fit the space in which it is 
destined to be hung. With this in mind. 
we will choose a long, slender one to be 
placed between the blackboard and the 
door, and a somewhat wider one for the 
other side of the board. Some elbow room 
must always be left around the frames and 
small, scrappy pictures are to be avoided. 
Keep the wire flat and vertical, in harmony 
with the lines of the room. Above the win- 
dow a triple or double or single picture mav 
be hung, following the general shape of the 
window. If you have many places which 
you wish to decorate and your purse is 
limited, begin with the largest and most 
conspicuous space and plan to fill it well. 
To the left of the window we might place 
two or more pictures hung together. Thev 
satisfy the eye, tell as one spot with their 
surroundings, and are in harmonious line. 
Casts may be used in place of pictures, 
hanging them in the same manner, flat 
against the wall by two wires. For instance, 
over the blackboard we will hang one large 
piece flanked by two smaller ones. And 
these three, though broken in space, still 
count as a unit. It is often desirable to use 
a number of small pictures, either singly or 
strung together. These hung in a frieze- 
like way often make a happy color tone 
carried out in a regular border around the 

Plate II shows the end of a room broken 
into five interesting oblongs of varving 
sizes and proportions, by horizontal and 
vertical lines. Pilasters made of flat pieces 
of stained wood may be used to cut this 
space into the panels. In the center hang 
one large c?st. In the narrow frieze above 
place the Baurbini casts, which tone so 
beautifully with the wall. These, though 
small and inconspicuous spots, make good 



space fillers. Three small pictures at the 

en. Is of the two vertical panels might be 


Another question arises as to the kind 
of picture one should select. Posters are 
highly recommended because they are flat 
in tone and harmonious in color. (See 
Plate III). The reason that the poster is 
to be preferred in the class room as a mural 
decoration is that it is a pattern, having a 
flat and mural quality which goes well with 
any wall space. It suggests out-of-doors to 
you but also has the pleasing quality of 
seeming to stay in the same plane as the 
wall. It does not "make a hole" or suggest 
depth, which are not desirable. Also posters 
-how much diverse subject matter and 
those- telling stories of children, boats, 
fishermen, dogs, rabbits, birds, etc., are 
easily obtainable at moderate cost. Land- 
scapes, interiors showing various occupa- 
tions. Dutch. Indian, and Japanese life, the 
Prang pictures of Mother Goose Tales, the 
series showing the five senses by Jessie 
Wilcox Smith, many by Elizabeth Shipper 
Green are' all of great interest. They are 
flat and decorative and if passepartouted 
and hung low where the children can easily 
see them, add much to the attractions of 
the kindergarten. 

We now come to the window (See Plate 
IV) curtains in the school room, for the 
most part, are to be deprecated. Tf they 
are necessary, they may be made of some 
neutral toned thin stuff, and decorated with 
a block print cut in wood, of a flying bird, 
a swimming fish or a growing tree. (See 


Plate V). The design may run in two bof 
ders, at top and bottom, or it may be rl 
peat'ed in an all-over pattern. Use oil paints 
so that the curtains may be laundriefl 
Imitation of stained glass or colored papj 
pasted to the window are less good. 

All is design. Even the arrangement oi 
pots on a window sill is a pattern. It is th< 
relation of one mass or space of light ■ 
dark to another. In this v%ay we are & 
designers, whether we will or no. If th< 
room is very dark and gloomy, a littj 
wooden basket made to hold a pot in whii 
grows a vine or a piece of Japanese i\j 
adds a dash of color. Keep all a bit form! 
with an eve to having the spots of colq 
well arranged. 

In the center of the window sill one coul 
have a vivarium, a cage of wire, contain! 
soil, a wee turtle or two, plants and seed 
cocoons, a saucerful of water with a tadpd 
slopping around in it. This is always" 
great source of delight to the children. Fis 
seek the dark, so do not place them in 
globe in the window. But for plant an 
animal life that thrive in the light a I 
varium is a good thing. 

In regard to the blackboard, the maj 
part must of necessity and choice be le 
free for the teacher and children to dra 
upon. But the higher part may be utili 
in a decorative way bv drawings of thim 
in touch with the season. Even if you ca 
not draw well, remember the decorati 1 
quality of spots. For instance, the mo 
humble minded of kindergartners who ev 
attacked a blackboard could draw birds 
a border, with a suggestion of clouds. (S 
Plate V). Boats, flower forms, tree 
animals, children, all kept very simp 
prove the best motifs. 

Avoid the picture drawn in Septemb 
and erased in May! It takes cleverness 
do this well and is generally weak imitati 
To make formal, conventional bordf 






Plate V 

es much less skill and is more spon- 
leous and better in every way. Keep the 
ihnique flat, so that the form properly 
:es its place on the surface of the board, 
[n the summer time use flowers and 
ds ; in the winter, wreaths, red berries 
J green leaves. Hearts, doves and rib- 
ns speak of St. Valentine's Day, and 
es, tops, bats and balls, of the outdoor 
:. Illustrate a story, if desired, in a flat, 
Mined, mural way, and rub off in a week 

Back of the sand-table which stands in 
: corner of the room, could be placed 
ces of cartridge paper and on these 
iwings made which are in keening: with 

Plate VI. 

the story worked out in the sand. (See 
Plate VI). 

As all children are fanciful and love 
mystery, hang a curtain in front of the 
cabinet, so that the objects kept there may 
only be seen and used on occasions. Take 
an idea for a dav and bring to light such 
toys and bright little vases as will further 
the thought in mind. The German toys are 
often delightful and the children instinctive- 
ly see the fun in them and greatly enjoy 
their bright and gay color. 

Keep examples of children's work in a 
scrapbook made of strong, softly toned 
paper, called, say, ''The Book of Art" or 
"The Book of the Gold Star." Do not 
keep many samples, but fill the book up 
gradually throughout the term. Another 
good way is to make up little screens, a 
piece of work on each page. Or the port- 
folio idea may be preferred. Mount each 
piece of children's work or magazine clip- 
ping on bogus or cover paper and keep all 
filed away in the portfolio. Such a collec- 
tion on which to draw is necessary to each 
kindergartner who is going to live in this 
House Beautiful. 

So, to sum up, I leave a few admonitions. 
Do not crowd the room. Have few pictures, 



few toys, but these of the best, refined and 
good. Do not paste things upon the walls 
or upon the wainscoating, for this is not 
good design. The decorations should be 
kept in their proper places and pictures 
should have respect paid to them. Do 
not keep things up long. Dust covered, 
curled up with the heat, it becomes agony 
to see them. Better nothing, than things 
that are past their prime. Do not have a 
Xmas tree kept weeks after its time, 
its candv gone, its glorv quite departed. 
The spirit of things is to be maintained 
and one wants no bedraggled finery 
Oiu Kindergarten Beautiful must be sim 
pie. showing a gay and childlike spirit and 
to make this oossible we must have the 
Kindergarten Beautiful, with hands and 
heart ever willing and loving. 



"Oh Mother, look my lovely golden rods 
are all brown and old !" said little Ruth 
gazing out upon the meadow and garden 
from her small window. 

"Yes dear," said Mother, "thev must be 

A pair of deep blue eyes looked a 
startled denial back into hers, and the 
smallest of mouths answered: "Miss 
Lillian said that the flowers just went to 
sleep, and Miss Lillian is always right," 
adding after a moment, "Will I get brown 
when T die, Mother?" 

"Run away and don't bother Mother 
now." was the answer. 

Still pondering this child problem, Ruth 
walked out into the sunny meadow, hoping 
that her lovelv vellow friends had not heard 
what was said. "I guess I'd better just 
whisper and tell them not to be afraid 
'cause I go to bed every night," thought 

So laving her small hand on one of the 
bronzed clusters, Ruth said softlv : "Dear 
golden rods, I hope that God will send you 
beautiful dreams when the Sandman comes 
'round tonight. Will you tell me what they 
are when the sunshine kisses you and 
makes you all really truly vellow again?" 

The golden rods nodded drowsilv as they 
bent their heads lower and 1-o-w-e-r. 

"What makes mv little girlie look so 
sad," called a gentle voice behind her, and 

turning around Ruth saw Miss Lillian wit! 
her tender smile. 

"Oh Miss Lillian !" cried she broke 
heartedlv. "Mother said that the dea 
golden rods were dying and you told u 
that they just went to sleep." 

Miss Lillian did not talk much, she juj 
understood, and so she answered soothing 
ly, "Perhaps Mother did not notic 
how sleepy they grow when the long winte 
comes. Why, dear golden rods are goinl 
to sleep now, they have their eves nearll 

"When Dream Lady comes to bid yo| 
good night tonight," added she "you mui 
ask her where all your friends go when tl 
long winter comes, for I am sure that tl 
flowers are just as busy then as now." 

"I will. Miss Lillian," answered Ruth joj 
fully, and I will send her to talk wit 

;js ^c >jc $c ^ % >(; 

"Goodnight little one," said the Drea] 
Ladv, standing by Ruth's pillow. 

"Good-night. Oh don't go, dear Lad]| 
Take me with you and show me where 
mv friends go in the winter," said Rut| 
adding anxiouslv, "You do know, dor 
you ?" 

"Yes, indeed," said Lady Dreams. "^1 
can get there in a few minutes, if you wj 
jump on this little shooting star." Hard! 
had she spoken when they were both wh^ 
zing away. 

The star made a little path of light ai 
they could see the blue skv, the silveJ 
moon, and the little sister and brother sta| 
plaving soldiers, and each one carrying 
or her bedroom candle. 

Ouietlv they were swept along, ai 
silently dropped into a soft, moonlit, clone 

"How beautiful. Dreams," said Rul 
"Tell me what are those lovely lights whij 
shine such a beautiful yellow, pointing 
she spoke, to the nearest corner of t] 
garden ?" 

"Come closer, and you will see," said h| 

"Dear golden rods!" exclaimed Rul 
"Mv own, own golden rods !" and s| 
jumned up and down. 

"Yes." said the fairv. "God put each lit] 
flower into the world for some reallv go| 
reason. Perhaps because of its love 
color, or sometimes it may be onlv a bal 
floweret with a lovely perfume, then 



-eat gorgeous blossom, just good to see. 

they do their very best, each one; shine 

it a beautiful color, give a sweet perfume, 

st grow lovely in God's own way, then 

e fairies of the flowerland go down to 

,rth, and pick out all the best ones, and 

it them to sleep." 

"How do you do that?" said Ruth. "I 

ive to go to bed first." 

'We fairies each have a wand," said 

dy Dreams, and when it is dark, and we 

n go down from our cloud homes, we 

sit the fields and the gardens and lifting 

our wands we say : 

eep baby flowerets 'till Springtime again, 
armed by tbe snow flakes, and washed by the 


onger and stronger each floweret will grow, 
ssed by the dew drops, and warmed by the snow.' 

'When they are all fast asleep, we pick 
t the most beautiful, those which have 
ne their very best, and these we carry 
to flower land." 

What a beautiful place for golden rods," 
d Ruth looking about her. 
'Yes indeed," answered the fairy. "You 

what a lovely, golden light they give 
er there by the wall. Why they make a 
le path of brightness for us to walk in." 
Sure enough, as Ruth looked down she 
s walking in her dear golden rods' yellow 
ht. It looked just like Miss Lillian's 
terry Sunshine," she thought. 
Suddenly Ruth caught the passing whiff 
a delicate perfume. "What is that faint 
rfume, Dreams, and from where does it 
ne?" said she. 

'Another friend of yours," came the 
swer." Late last spring we found some 
by flowerets hidden away, and so we 
nted them here where they might teach 
iir sweet lesson of giving, to others." 
'The blue violets, I am sure," said Ruth, 
think their lesson is lovelier than the 
lshine's message." 

'And they are only babies, too, my dear," 
d the fairy. 

Everywhere Ruth met with surprises, 
i the look of denial that had flashed from 

eyes in the afternoon, gradually gave 
ce to one of content and satisfaction, for 
ss Lillian was right. 

Mmost unnoticed, the grey cloudy gar- 
1 had been fading away. Lady Dreams 
pared to go. Far off in the sky the 
liest beams of morning were glowing 
I growing. 

"Let us ride down on the first sunbeam, 
girlie," said Dreams. 

"Wouldn't that be splendid, Dreams!" 
answered Ruth. 

"Make haste then," answered her com- 

Ruth turned to catch the last pale gleam 
of the golden rod clusters, but the sun- 
beam waits for no one, and both were 
caught up in a rosy haze, and swept away. 
The dream fairy and her wand melted away 
slowly until nothing remained to remind 
Ruth of her cloudy journey, but the faint 
delicate perfume, coming from a little vase 
bv the side of her bed. Perhaps Lady 
Dreams had really spoken to Mother after 



In writing a program of work to be read 
by workers in widely differing fields one 
feels how far short of meeting the actual 
problems it must necessarily fall. If a 
teacher follows a set program she will not 
develop individuality in her work. Neither 
will her work be closely related to the daily 
needs arising from the environment in 
which she finds herself. It is not intended 
that the suggestions that are to be made in 
this department this year shall be followed 
in detail. It is rather hoped that a picture 
of each month will be drawn in which the 
reader will see her own conditions in- 
volved. It will be hers to adopt, discard or 
add to as she sees fit. Another thing to 
be borne in mind is that the subjects dis- 
cussed in the kindergarten need not be 
taken up exhaustively. It should be the 
purpose of the kindergartner to clarify the 
hazy ideas that the five year olds have 
acquired instead of making them walking 
encyclopedias. Let us remember there are 
classes above. How many grade teachers 
complain that the freshness of their sub- 
jects have been taken away by too much 
dabbling with them in the kindergarten? 

The development of the idea of social in- 
terdependence is so important a part of the 
kindergarten work that a definite "Helper" 
will be chosen each month to assist in 
achieving this end. One month the police- 
man will be the "Helper" for consideration, 
another month the postman. In September 
we will take the mother as the "Helper." 



Any of the dignified employments that the 
children's environments offer will be un- 
able subjects for "Helpers" the ragman 
hardlv falls under this head. Let us select 
them with care. 

The suggestions in rhythms are not ex- 
pected to indicate a full line of development 
but to show how rhythms may grow out of 
the daily kindergarten employments 
While the story and son lists name several 
for each week it has been thought by many 
experienced workers that one new song 
and story each week meet the children s 
needs better than so many as have often 
been presented in our kindergartens. 

We assume that some of the children in 
the September classes are "Hold-overs 
These children form a connecting link with 
past experiences and are able to express 
themselves with less embarassment than 
the new children. For a time the subject 
matter here introduced is approached 
through these children. The nature of the 
subjects will indicate that they are not 
necessarilv to be used on succeeding days 
but will be interwoven daily into the talks 
and stories. 

Subjects For the Morning Circle 

1. Vacation recalled. 

2. Getting acquainted. 

(a) With playmates. 

(b) Teacher. 

(c) Room. 
K ^, Building. 

3. Home life of children. 

J" Location. 
, . __ ) Rooms, 

(a) Home J FurnitU re. 

I Family. 

( Activities. 


„ . Needs, 

(b) Baby 4 Bath 

I Food. 

4. Helper. 

Prepares food and clothes. 
Washes, irons, etc. 
Loves family. 


A Little Boy's Walk.— Finger Plays.- 



Here a Ball For Baby.— Finger Plays 


Three Bears. _ 

Story of some picture m the kinder 



Dance To Your Daddy.— Mother Goos 

Jack and Jill.— Mother Goose. 

There was an old woman 

Who lived in a shoe. 
She had so many children 

She knew just what to do. 
She gave them some broth 

With plenty of bread. 
She loved them and kissed them 

And put them to bed. 


Good Morning— Baker's Dozen for Cit 
Children. — Valentine and Claxton. 
~ Good Bye.— Book L— Gaynor. 

The Family.— Froebel Mother Play. 

This is the Dolly.— Holiday Songs.- 


Rock the Baby— Small Songs for Sma 
Singers. — Niedlinger. 

We go across the street. 
I went to see my friend one day. 
Hiding ball. 

Can you tell little play-mate. 
(Colored balls in circle.) 

Home Employments— This is the w 
we wash our clothes, iron our clothes, e 
Use music of "Here We Go Round t 
Mulberry Bush." 

I Know a Little Lassie. 
Baby's Horses — Baker's Dozen for C 
Children. — Valentine and Claxton. 
Jack and Jill. 

"Little Boys" walk around the roo 
(Play quieting music.) 

Pushing Swings.— Waltz Music. 
Rocking Baby. — Waltz Music. 

Walks or Visits 
Walk about the corridors and courts t 
the children use in entering and leav 
the building. 

Illustrative Material 

Vacation collections made by the c 

dren, such as pebbles, pails, spades, bo 

Pictures of houses, rooms in homes, \ 

— niture, implements of house work. 

Pictures of father, mother, baby, etc, 



>abies' toys connected with idea of 
thers' work in the home, as dishes, tubs, 
nger, tables, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

,et us remember that the Gift and Occu- 
ion materials ned not be changed every 
A line of work with the same material 
y be continued daily for a week or more 
h advantage to the children, 
'irst Gift — Emphasize the activities of 
1. Illustrate the "Little Boys' Walk." 
iecond Gift — Represent vacation ex- 
iences as 

(a) Trolleys. 

(b) Boats. 

(c) Rolling down hill. 

'hird Gift — Represent 

(a) Kindergarten tables, chairs, piano, etc. 

(b) Furniture in homes. 

ree Cutting. 

(a) Snipping. 

(b) Fringing. 

(c) Baby's toys spoken of in Finger Play. 

(d) Simple household objects. 


(a) Vacation experiences. 

(b) Home. 

(c) Mother. 

(d) Baby. 


(a) Marbles. 

(b) Pies. 

(c) Beads. 

(d) Worms. 

(e) Wheels. 


(a) Free play in wet sand. 

(b) Free play in dry sand. 

isting — Pictures, chains, 
ringing clay beads. 


Subjects For the Morning Circle 


(a) Home. 

(b) Winter flight. 

(c) Birds that go south. 

(d) Birds that remain north. 


(a) Food. 

(b) Habits. 

(c) Color. 

(a) Food. 

(b) Habits. 

(c) Colors. 

(d) Uses. 

4. Cacoons. 

(a) Colors. 

(b) Uses. 


The Crane Express. — Child's World. — 

Good Mother Stork. 

The Caterpillar. — F i n g e r Play s. — 

Some picture in room. 


Once I Saw a Little Bird. 
Sing a Song a Six Pence. — Mother 


Polly. — Baker's Dozen for City Children. 
— Valentine and Claxton. 

Caterpillar. — Mother Play, Froebel. — 
Blow edition. 

Butterflies. — Mother Play, Froebel. — 
Blow edition. 

From the Far Blue Heavens. — Kinder- 
garten Chimes. — K. D. Wiggin. 

The Blue-bird. — Small Songs for Small 
Singers. — Niedlinger. 


The Pigeons. — Holiday Songs. — Pouls- 

Little Ball Pass Along. 

Sense Game. — Feeling and naming ob- 

I Put My Right Hand In. 


Polly. — Baker's Dozen for City Children. 
— Valentine and Claxton. 

Migration of Birds. 

Caterpillar and Butterfly songs. — Mother 
Play, Froebel. — Blow edition. 

Once I saw a Little Bird. — Mother 

The Blue-bird. — Small Songs for Small 
Singers. — Niedlinger. 


Flying Birds. — Waltz music. 
Hopping Birds. — March time, well ac- 

Birds Picking Up Food. — Waltz music. 
Caterpillars Crawling. — Quieting music. 
Butterflies Flying. — Waltz music. 



Walks or Visits 

A pigeon house. 

A bird's nest in the eves of the school 
house or in a shutter of some house in the 
neighborhood, or in a tree. 

Watch birds and butterflies flying. 

Look for sparrows, pigeons, and cater- 

A home where a parrot is kept. 

A held or woods or park to see this 
animal life if possible. 

Robins or other migrating birds. 

The play grounds in the school building. 
Illustrative Material 


Caterpillars — Put in glass bottle to 
watch the spinning of the cocoons. Save 
till Spring awakening. 



Borrow a parrot. 

Pictures of various birds. Some of our 
own climate and some of other climates. 

Pictures of various butterflies and co- 
coon spinners. 

Gifts and Occupations 

First Gift. — Represent bird, butterfly and 
caterpillar activities and colors. 

Second Gift. — Continue thoughts of pre- 
vious week. 

Third Gift. 

(a) Pigeon house. 

(b) Previous week. 

Cutting — 

(a) Pictures with straight edges from 


(b) Strips for chains. 

Coloring with wax crayons. 

(a) Stencil of a bird in flight. 

(b) Stencil of a butterfly. 


Tall grass. 


(a) Pictures cut out. 

(b) All the bird stencils on one large blue 

mounting card. 

(c) Each butterfly on the separate sheet of 

paper on which tall grass was drawn. 


i.a) Represent woods with nests in trees 
and pictures of birds appropriately 

(b) Free play in wet and dry sand. 

A terrarrium in the kindergarten in 
which to keep the caterpillars, etc., will add 
greatly to the interest of the children and 
will help to develop care of helpless 

Subjects For the Morning Circle 

i. Flowers. 

(a) Golden-rod. 

(b) Astors. 

(c) Cosmos. 

(d) Dahlia. 

(e) Sunflower. 

Call attention to flowers that are gom 
Lead to idea of departing flowers. Th 
thought will be carried through Octob< 
and November. 

2. Trees. 

(a) Maple 

(b) Oak 
Color and thickness 
of the foliage. 

3. Fruits. 

(a) Grapes. 

(b) Peaches. 

(c) Bananas. 

(d) Plums. 

4. Seeds. 

(a) Milkweed. 

(b) Seeds of flowers and fruits named abo 

(c) Uses. 


Clytie. — Child's World. — Poulsson 
Golden-rod and Astor. — Nature Myt 
How West Wind Helped. 
Dandelion. — Child's World. — Poulss 
Sleeping Beauty. 
Some picture in kindergarten. 


Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary. — Mot 

Call To the Violets 

Violets, violets, 

Open your eyes. 

Open your eyes, 

Open your eyes, 

Violets, violets, 

Open your eyes, 

And make a pretty surprise. 


The Flower W T agon. — A Baker's DcM 
for City Children. — Valentine and Claxlf 

Summer Flowers are Sleepv. — Patty |ll 

Father, We Thank Thee. 


Flower Wagon. — Baker's Dozen for 
Children. — Valentine and Claxton. 

See-saw. — Small Songs for Small 
ers. — Niedlinger. 

Milk Weed Frolic. 

Bouncing balls rhythmatically. 




Banana Flying Bird 

Hot Potato — Children throw the ball 
lickly from one side of circle to the other 
hile one in center trys to touch child who 
is ball in hand. 
Farmer in the Dell. 

Clay— Marbles 

• •• 
• • • • 


A tree near school. 

Fields to find flowers and seeds talked of. 
Buy plant from a flower wagon. 
Walk through the corridors of the school 
that run near the kindergarten. Possibly 

Clay— Wheel Clay— Ring 

Clay— Beads 

Clay— Worm 


Mary, Mary. 
Sleepy flowers, etc. 
Children gathering seed pods. 
Fruit peddler. 

Flowers swaying. 
Trees bending. 

Walks or Visits 
Skipping to music of songs. 
A garden in neighborhood. 
A florist shop. 

Drawing— Mounted Butterfly 

visit the principal's office. 

Illustrative Material 
September flowers. 
Branch of green leaves. 
Above named fruits. 

Milk weed pods. 



Seeds of flowers and fruits. 
Pictures of Sleeping Beauty, Clytie, 
Mary, Mary's garden, violets, fruits, etc. 
Gifts and Occupations 
First and Second Gifts Combined. 

(a) Fruit dealer. 

(b) Flower wagon. 

Third Gift.— Continue plays of the weeks 

Tablets, slats and half rings— Sunflower. 

Suntioiver— drawing Sunflower of slats and half rings 

Drawing — Milkweeds 


(a) Milk weed. 

(b) Sunflower. 

(c) Free drawings. 

(d) Bananna from stencil. 

(a) Beads. 

(b) Peach. 

(c) Free play. 

Painting. — Clay beads. 

i a | Perforate holes in wet sand with meat 
skewers or pencils. 

(b) Mud pies. 

Peg Boards. — Mary's garden. 




(a) Snips. 

(b) Strips. 

Mounting — Strips torn so as to represent 
fence and trees. 

"Plays and Games for Indoor and Out," by Belle 
Ragnar Parsons is a new publication by Barnes 
and Co. This material appears in several forms 
already, notably the outline programs printed in 
Kindergarten Magazine for 1906-7-8. This was 
first presented as school room exercises in the 
public schools of Rochester — 1901, and again in 
the Horace Mann Schools as an experiment in cor- 
relation the following year. It might be asked by 
what authority Miss Parsons claims the initiative 
in publishing a book, the entire plan and subject 
matter of which originated with Miss Marie Ruef 
Hofer. The book as put forth is the first rough draft 
attempt to organize the material for use in the 
grades. The material is valuable inasmuch as it 
represents ten years' teaching experience previous 
to its organization in the Horace Man School under 
the direction of Miss Hofer. This original book 
appears shortly. 

;-mmir— ~ — — ■■. , 

% Dann's Noiseless } postpaid 
Blackboard Eraser \ 10 f « ts 

and a Pint Pkg. Rowles' Inkessence ) 

The above mentioned arti 
cles possess such exceptional 
nieri tthatthey are used in 
the schools of leading cities. 

Special offer is made to 
acquaint school people with 
the great merit of the goods. 



Cheap and Excellent Book 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $[ 

"PAT'S PICK, 124 pp. All the music to the KNA 

SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest so: 

book made. Cloth, 50c. 
PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putna: 

Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25 

TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-| 

date. 104 pp., 25c. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per do| 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finis 

25c. : 


TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50 

GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Free 

elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 
OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of t 

choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 21 
HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comic. 

hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethics 

hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 5 0c. 


Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feelin 
in school. 


'■ i 



publisher of this Magazine 
recent trip met a consider- 
number of superintendents 
other school officers, and 
ver the subject of Perolin, 
iw dust absorbing sweeping 
und, was mentioned, the ver- 
as that it is a "really good 
' It should be used in every 

house in America. The ad- 
;ment of the Perolin Co. will 
nd in another column. 

Atlas School Supply Co. 
ecently erected a very large 
omplete factory in Chicago 
le manufacture of school 
They make many things 
re interesting to kindergart- 
md primary teachers, and 
)nd their new catalogue free 


Training in the Kinder- 
en and Primary Grades 
of Schools 
/illiam M. Lawrence. 

Price 25 Cents. 

is a series of six little songs 

for the special training of vowel 
iiation in singing — they afford 
-enefit for similar vowel training 

reading voice as well, 
ing of this nature given in the 
f song, not only takes away the 

of vowel practice when exercised 
>ut arouses enthusiasm and eager- 

the part of pupils to do the work, 
the enjoyment realized does away 
ie consciousness of work and the 
onal benefit is all the more 

as well as more easily attained. 
g claim can be made for the 
jf these songs, they are tuneful 
idlike, and are written with musi- 
polish. The verses are written 
ie view of bringing in the par- 
vowel as often as possible. 


Is by Anna B. Badlam 
isic by Carrie Bullard. 

Price 50 Cents. 

i songs, 15 in number, show the 
of unified co-operation between 
and composer. They give every 
e of combined and harmonious ef- 
Che poems are thoroughly child- 
character; are written with the 
ace of one who is in close touch 
iodern child training and contain 
ellence in thought and literary ex- 
l which meet present day require- 
n Kindergartens and Schools. 
melodies are strictly in keeping, 
ng childlike simplicity without 
;ommonplace, and are furnished 
:companiments that show the fin- 
i polish of the capable, talented 

Jided acquisition to the collections 
dren's Songs. 

Published by 

yrton F. Summy Co., 

ibash Avenue, 

Chicago 111. 

Trouble's a ton or trouble's an 
Or trouble is what you make it; 
And it's not the fact that you're 
hurt that counts, 
It's only — how did you take it? 
You're battered to earth, well, 
what of that? 
Come up with a smiling face. 
It's nothing against you to fall 
down flat; 
But to lie there — that's the dis- 

Under the title of "My Country" 
The Tandy Thomas Company of 
New York has issued a most beau- 
tiful edition of "America." Each 
line of the hymn is given a full 
page illustration. In many cases 
these are striking American scenes 
such as Niagara Falls, The Gar- 
den of the Gods, etc. The work is 
of great patriotic and educational 
value as it helps to associate the 
physical greatness of our country 
with the words of the hymn in 
the minds of the pupils. It will 
prove a most valuable and suitable 
gift for all occasions. In fact we 
know of no more attractive work 
than "My Country." 

Somebody did a golden deed; 
Somebody proved a friend in need; 
Somebody sang a beautiful song; 
Somebody smiled the whole day 

Somebody thought, '"Tis sweet to 


Somebody said, "I'm glad to give;" 

Somebody fought a valiant fight; 

Somebody lived to shield the right ; 

Was that "Somebody" you? 

Our readers who contemplate 
purchasing anything in the line 
of heating apparatus, hot air, hot 
water, or steam, with or without 
fittings for same, will do well to 
secure a catalogue from the Peck- 
Hammond Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, 
who are extensive manufacturers 
and send out their furnaces with 
instructions which will enable any 
one to put them up at slight ex- 
pense. Their advertisement will 
be found in another column. 

Many people have desired to 
own an encyclopedia, but have 
not felt able to secure anything 
really desirable. The John C. 
Winston Co., of Philadelphia have 
recently issued an entirely new 
encyclopedia of 8 large volumes, 
printed on good paper, and well 
bound, which they offer to send 
anywhere charges prepaid on re- 
ceipt of only $6.00. A further de- 
scription of this encyclopedia will 
be found in our advertising pages. 

The Bogus Paper Weaving Mats 
advertised in another column by 
Atkinson, Mentzer & Grover, are 
proving very popular among kin- 
dergartners and primary teachers. 
The manufacturers offer to send 
free samples. Their advantages 
are referred to in an advertisement 
to be found elsewhere in this 

Clayton F. Summay Co., 222 
Wabash ave., Chicago, are pub- 
lishers of kindergarten books that 
are really helpful and are proving 
more than usually popular. Vowel 
Songs, by Wm. M. Lawrence; Na- 
ture Songs and Lullabies, words 
by Anna B. Badlam, music by 
Carrie Bullard, are referred to on 
another page in our advertising 
columns. Lits and Lyrics, pub- 
lished by the same company, is 
having an immense sale; every 
song in the book has distinctive 

PEROLIN, a dust absorbing 
sweeping compound, an actual 
ABSORBENT of DUST, not only 
prevents dust from rising and 
scattering while floors are being 
swept but it HOLDS THE DUST. 
It is a powerful germicide, purifies 
the air, and guarantees health in 
the school room. 100 lb. drum 
$3.50, 200 lb. drum $6.00. 


. . . For . . . 

Educational Color Work, 

Stenciling, Arts 

& Crafts 

The colors in this crayon are per- 
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no waiting for colors to dry; no run- 
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Put up in stick form in a variety 
of twenty-four colors. 

Particulars to those interested, or 
send 25c in stamps for a box con- 
taining the 24 colors. 


Dustless Chalk 

Hygienic, Economical, Endorsed 
by teachers everywhere. 

Samples to teachers interested in 
a sanitary schoolroom. 


Hard Drawing Crayon 

For Pastel effects. 

Binney L>> Smith Co. 

81 Fulton St., New York 

School Books to BURN! 

Pardon our use of slang, but if you 
have school books you don't need, don't 
burn theni. You can sell them for cash 
or exchange for others you want. 

Send for list of Books 'Wanted (giving 
prices paid), also, if interested, for Bar- 
gain List of Books for sale at Low Prices. 

C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Co., 

262 Wabash Avenue Chicago, 111. 

You Can Work Wonders 

in Your Class Room, 

Whatever the Age, 

by using 

Harbutt's Plasticine 

"The perled modeling material." 

Always ready for use. No water required. 

If your dealer cannot supply you 

write to us. Ask for Booklet K. 

The Embossing Company, 


CAUTION. — Ask for HARBCTT'S and 

avoid unsatisfactory substitutes. 


We Recommend Our 


Price 75c per gross. 
To every teacher who Introduces either 
of these pens in his or her classes we 
will send a card showing the process of 
manufacture. This card contains a sam- 
ple of the pen after each operation, and 
will be very useful in teaching the chil- 
dren how pens are made. 

C. Howard Hunt Pen Co., 

Seventh, State and Grand Streets, 
Camden, N. J. 


Devoted to Secondary School Problems. 

Thirtieth (30th) year, Sept. 1909. 

A good school paper is a necessity to a 

growing teacher. 

"Exceedingly interesting because of its 
general tone and horizon." — W. H. P. 
Faunce, Pres. of Brown University. 

"It is certainly a fine journal. I have 
a complete edition of the bound volumes 
from the date of its publication. I find 
these volumes an invaluable educational 
encyclopedia." — Assoc. Supt. Andrew W. 
Edison, New York City. 

"I do not wish to miss a single number, 
for I find its discussions of various edu- 
cational questions exceedingly helpful." 
— Josephine P. Yates, Professor of Eng- 
lish Literature and History, Jefferson 
City, Mo. 

From our files WE OFFER FIRST AID 
to any one who is preparing an address 
on any educational theme. Send us your 
subject and we will send you one or 
more back numbers of "Education" con- 
taining articles by experts on the same 
theme. Our charge is 35c for each num- 
ber. Subscription price ?3. CO per year. 

The Palmer Co., 

120 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 

New Geography Helps 

Small lithograph state maps on 
heavy cardboard, price only 23 cents 
per dozen. These are invaluable in 
teaching geography: the maps are con- 
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the geography, and enables the teacher 
to emphasize and specially interest the 
children in the geography of any par- 
ticular state under consideration. 

The following states are n o w 
ready: — New Jersey, Wisconsin, Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Mass., Iowa, 
Rhode Island. Other states in pre- 

McConnell School Supply Co. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


All who joy would win 
Must share it. Happiness was 
born a twin. 

— Byron. 

It ain't no use to grumble and 
It's jest as cheap and easy to 
When God sorts out the weather 
and sends rain, 
Why, rain's my choice. 

— James Whitcomb Riley. 

A remark made by L. A. 
Hawkes, a pen expert, that "a 
pen is only as good as its point" 
is so true that pen manufacturers 
have for a century experimented 
to find the means and method of 
making the points perfect. It re- 
mained for the C. Howard Hunt 
Pen Company of Camden, N. J., to 
solve this problem and bring out 
their famous ROUND POINTED 
pens, which glide smoothly over 
all kinds of paper without scratch- 
ing or sticking. This attribute in 
a pen is so valuable in kindergar- 
ten and primary work, where the 
child's hand is unskilled, that it 
has been recognized by all educa- 
tors. A number are now advo- 
cating the use of a pen like 
74 Manifold for primary use. Its 
point is stiffer, smoother and more 
blunt than the points on pens 
usually used. The pen was 
originally devised for making 
extra impressions through carbon 
paper, which made it necessary 
that the point should not cut the 
paper, no matter what the pres- 
sure was. In order to make this 
pen perfect for that purpose, the 
points are first peaned and then 
rounded, making them perfectly 
smooth and adapting the pen for 
manifold uses. On account of the 
heavy metal and the broad point, 
their lasting quality is much in- 
creased, making them also more 
economical than the pens ordi- 
narily placed in children's hands. 
Their cost is very little greater, if 

Probably nowhere in America 
can better satisfaction be secured 
in the purchase of school or 
church bells than at Northville, 
Mich. The American Bell and 
Foundry Co. have had many years 
of experience in this line and their 
product will be found entirely 

Oliver Ditson Co., of Boston, 
Mass., have given to the kinder- 
gartners of America many books 
which have proven of lasting 
value. Perhaps their new song 
book entitled "Chimes of Child- 
hood," which is advertised in an- 
other column, will rank well 
among their other publications. 
The publishers offer to send it 
with return privileges and we ad- 
vise every kindergartner to get a 



And all kinds of Construct! 
riaterial for Kindergartners ai 
Primary Teachers. Catalog 
Free, Address, 

Garden City Educational 

169 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 

Spool Koittin 

By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting is well suited for use 
constructive work In the primary gra 
and kindergarten. It is so simple 1 
small children can do it well. They 
make articles which are pretty 
which interest them, without the str 
that comes from too exact work. 1 
materials are easily obtained and pie 
ant to work with. The directions 
are clear and easily followed. 

Facing each description there are 
or more photographs showing the arti 
as completed or in course of constructi 

Here are some of the articles wh 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's B 
Doll's Muff, Tarn O'Shanter Cap, Chil 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Hood, Do 
Jacket, Child's Muffler, Mittens, Lit 
Boy's Hat, Little Girl's Hat, Chi? 
Hood, Jumping Kope, Toy Horse Rei 
School Bag, Doll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 ne 




Devised by Miss Seegmiller of Indi- 
anapolis. Endorsed by the leading 
Kindergartners for the following 

riaterial heavy and rough In tex- 

Strips wide enough to be woven 
without a needle. 
The child prepares as well as 
weaves his own mat. 
Size 8x8 inches when completed. 
Cheaper and better than the old 

Twelve cents a dozen or one dol- 
lar a hundred. 

Samples sent free to Kindergar- 
ten teachers. 


Boston, New York, Chicago, 




From $8.00 to $25 


From $25 to $125 

Write for free 




Northville, Mic 

VOL. XXII- OCTOBER, 1909- NO. 2 

The Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Booms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. T. 

Business Office, 276-278- 280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 


5 LYELL EARLE, Ph. D Managing Editor 

ENNY B. MERRILL, Ph. D„ Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

4ARI RUEF HOFER Teachers' College 

and New York Froebel Normal. 

SERTHA JOHNSTON, — — Kindergarten Magazine 

OSS MARY MILLS, . Principal Connecticut Froebel Normal. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
ir other business relating to the flagazine should be addressed 
!o the Michigan office, J, H.Shults. Business nanager, Hanistee, 
Michigan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earie, Hanaglng 
Sdltor, 59 W. ,06th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
ftrat of each month, except July and August, from 27* River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance 
Single copies, 16c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States. Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam. 
Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba. 
Mid Mexico. For Canada add 20« and for all other countries 
In the Postal Union add 40c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but It Is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
tinuance Is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft. Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
pany, If a local check is sent, It must Include 10c exchange. 

Notwithstanding that we have 
announced in every issue during the 
past year that all matters pertain- 
ing to subscriptions or advertising 
far the Kindergarten-Primary Mag= 
azine should be addressed to Manis- 
tee, many letters are still going to 
New York City. This occasions de- 
lay and extra work in the editorial 
rooms. Kindly note that editorial 
rooms only, not a business office, are 
maintained in New York, and send 
business letters to IVlanistee, Mich. 


This magazine to Jan,, 
1911, for $1.00. 

Conditions: That you mention 
this special offer when subscribing, 
and remit before Oct. 15, 1909. 



N the September number of 
the Kindergarten-Primary 

Magazine, our purpose was to 
consider the sources whence 
principals of theory and prac- 
tice could be derived. Our next step was 
to take the child to be educated, with 
special emphasis upon physical and mental 
conditions peculiar to children from four to 
eight years of age. Our notes this month 
shall discuss the native tendencies or in- 
stincts of the child especially as manifested 
in his spontaneous activity in free plav. 

It is not necessary here to give the vari- 
ous theories of play, inasmuch as psychol- 
ogists are not agreed on the matter them- 
selves. In a later issue it will be sufficient 
to suggest the principal views on the nature 
and value of play. We shall now consider 
the native instincts of the child, and their 
value as foundations for educational pro- 

James makes this suggestive statement : 
"(Every educational process is either the 
modification of an instinct, or the engraft- 
ing of a new reaction thereon." 

This truth makes it imperative that everv 
teacher be familiar with the nature and kind 
of instinct, and the means by which the in- 
stinctive tendencies mav be modified into 
educational values. Genetic psychologv 
should be our guide in this studv. 

Instinct, primarily, is a native tendencv 
of the organism to respond to the proper 
stimulus. Self-activitv is the instinct in 
action and may be defined as the spon- 
taneous response of the individual to the 
proDer stimulus. I recall an instance 
which illustrates well the nature of instinct 
and self-activitv. and the individual dif- 
ferences noticed among children in their 

One Sunday afternoon while walking. I 
noticed a young mother with two remark- 
ablv fine children directly in front of me. 
a little girl of about six vears on the inside 
of the mother, and a little boy of less than 
five on the outside. Just as we were cross- 
ing n street, a cat sneaked down along close 



to the houses, and crouched, ready to make 
a spring and get across the street to the 
park opposite. The little girl noticed the 
cat and said to her mother, "Pretty pussy;" 
the little boy leaned over, and by the ten- 
sion of his body, I saw that his tendency 
was to chase the cat. There wasn't much 
time left for doubt. The cat sneaked a lit- 
tle farther along the house, the little girl 
.still calling "pretty pussy," when as it 
darted in front of the mother and her chil- 
dren, the little boy reached out and made 
a kick at it, and broke from his unsuspect- 
ing mother's hand in hot pursuit. The 
mother grabbed him and said, "Harry, 
mother is astonished and grieved; see how 
nice sister said, 'pretty pussy,' and the tears 
came to the chagrined mother's eyes. They 
continued on their walk a little more 
solemnly, and I could occasionally hear the 
words of the disappointed mother lament- 
ing Harry's disgracing them on their Sun- 
day afternoon walk. 

I am sure father heard about the story in 
the evening, and the probability is, that the 
mother relieved her feelings by referring 
to the girl's conduct in saying, "pretty 
pussy," and consoling herself with the 
traditional explanation that Harry never 
got such tendencies from her. 

I felt like talking to the mother, if I had 
dared, because the lesson of the episode 
might have been a fruitful one for her. The 
readv tendencies of the little girl to admire 
form and beauty and grace, and to play ap- 
preciativelv with objects possessing them 
is an unmistakable indication of activities 
of special educational value. The lust of 
the hunt, and the lure of the game, and the 
chase were pulsing in the boy's best cells, 
and it was practically impossible for him 
not to yield to the proper stimulus, in the 
presence of the hunted cat. 

We have in this fact the nature of in- 
stinct illustrated as a native tendency to re- 
spond to the proper situation in the actual 
conduct of the girl and boy, a manifestation 
<>f self-activity, and spontaneous response to 
tlie proper stimulus. The lesson for the 
kindergartner is. that she should bring a 
knowledge of these activities as discovered 
in the conduct and play of the street, and 
the home, into the kindergarten room, and 
make them the basis of educational activ- 

Genetic psvchology. furthermore, fur- 
nishes us with a division of instinct, not 

found in the usual descriptive psychology. 

It tells us that an organism differs from 
an inorganic machine in being self-running, 
self-feeding, self-repairing, self-changing, 
self-regulating, and self-reproducing. No 
machine or inorganic substance is capable 
of doing any of these things to any con- 
siderable extent. These characteristics may 
all be expressed in a sentence by saying 
that an organism possesses and maintains 
unitv. It is this organic unity makes it 
possible for the human organism to store 
up its helpful reactions in the form of use-J 
ful instincts; while the same unity makes 
it possible to modify the whole individual 
by specific exercise of any organ of the] 

From the standpoint of hereditary ten- 
dencies we have first the physical functions, 
such as breathing, sleeping, digesting, etc., 
which have to do with the normal growth 
of the organism in its spontaneous response 
in securing pleasure out of food, and light 
and other agencies of environment. These 
are physiological instincts and are sugges- 
tive to the kindergartner in arranging for 
physical conditions of room. 

Secondly: The so-called reflex functions 
which are found in particular uses of the 
above named physological processes, such 
as sneezing, coughing, sobbing, etc., none 
of which rises really into the domain of 
psychology, properly so-called. 

Third: The individualistic instincts 
which have their end in the actor himself. 
This instinct is remarkably strong in chil- 
dren of the kindergarten age, when the 
securing of pleasure and activity is 
dominant. The individual instincts have, 
as the years go on, their proper develop- 
ment into the racial instinct, which ten- 
dencies are merely rudimentary in children 
of the kindergarten age. They furnish one 
of the strongest motives and material for 
free play about home and family, etc., and 
can be made, perhaps, the most vital of all 
of the instincts of that early period. 

The next class are the social instincts 
which furnish the basis for social life in the 
home and the state in the kindergarten 
period; it manifests itself largely in all the 
social games and values of companionship 
as follows : 

First : As securing stimuli for activity 
and oleasure from the presence and con- 
tact of others. 

Secondly : By arousing sympathy in old- 



people and finally through ambition to 
tract attention from others. All of these 
stincts are common to most re-acting 
ganism. For that reason they are par- 
ularly important in the kindergarten 
riod, as furnishing material for motives 
d control. 

There are, however, other instincts which 
e of even greater value, when we come 
their relation to educational processes. 
Professor Kirkpatrick in his work on 
jnetic Psychology states these points so 
;arlv, that we will quote from him rather 

Adaptive instincts, because their func- 
ms seem to be to adapt the individual 
lile young and plastic to modes of life 
at will secure survival in maturity. They 
e also of help to adult individuals in mak- 
g quick adjustments of behavior to new 

Plav, the first of these, is useful as a mere 
itlet of surplus energy, because its results 
many and varied movements, which not 
nly increase the strength of the organism 
it give opportunity for many movements 
at have favorable results to be selected 
r repetition and development into useful 
ibits. This holds true even if we suppose 
e character of the movement made in 
ay to be entirely a matter of chance, 
lere is, however, good reason for saying 
at the playful movement of young ani- 
als are not wholly a matter of chance, as 
e some of the undifferentiated movements 
the spontaneous tvpe. 

The movements made in play are in gen- 
ii characteristic of the species, and at dif- 
rent ages are snecialized in certain direc- 
8ms in accordance with growth and de- 
ilopmcnt. Being under the protection of 
eir parents the young animals have no 
:ed or onnortunity to stalk prey, flee from 
tnger, or fight enemies; but as the organs 
performing these actions develop, 
lerev flows out in playful movements of 
ese types. The young animal thus de- 
mons powers and forms habits that will be 
>eful in adult life, much more rapidly than 
i would if his movement were of an en- 
rely random character. The higher forms 
playful activity, as we shall see later, may 
developed and specialized in many di- 
ctions and to a greater extent than is de- 
anded by the necessities of physical sur- 
The instinct of imitation is another form 

of the adaptive instinct which helps in ac- 
quiring useful modes of behavior and saves 
much time that would otherwise be spent 
in useless trial movements. Imitation may 
be regarded as a specialization of the social 
instinct that renders an individual sensitive 
to what companions do to such an extent 
that their movements serve as a stimulus 
to make similar movements. An animal 
thus sensitive does not need to wait until 
he receives clearlv and strongly the 
stimulus suggestive of food or danger, but 
may do at once what his companions who 
have received the stimulus are already do- 
ing. All the higher animals that live in 
groups are aided in escaping danger and 
securing food in this way. Young animals 
therefore learn to do what they will need 
to do as adults more readily when sur- 
rounded by companions than when alone. 
Men having the same instincts are stronglv 
affected bv the movements and sounds of 
companions, especially those of emotional 

Imitation in man, however, is not con- 
fined to emotional reactions and the per- 
formance of instinctive acts under the 
stimulus of their performance bv com- 
panions, but new movements are also imi- 
tated and thus learned. Whether animal^ 
thus imitate movements made in their 
presence is as vet a subject of experiment 
and debate: but it is perfectly clear that 
even the highest animals, other than man, 
do not perceive and imitate to anv consider- 
able extent movements other than of the 
instinctive tvne. In children, on the other 
hand, the instinct is so strong as to form a 
marked feature of their playful activities 
and to be one of the most important means 
of learning how to reach desired ends. 

Curiosity, the third form of the adaptive 
instinct, is the result of special sensitiveness 
to new things, and is shown primarily in a 
tendencv to approach and examine anv- 
thine new in the environment. It is social 
onlv in that it is often concerned with what 
companions are doing as well as with 
changes in the material environment. 

In origin it is probablv most closelv asso- 
ciated with the individualistic instinct of 
fear, since fear reactions are most frequent- 
ly called forth bv what is strange and un- 
familiar. An animal governed whollv by 
the fear impulse would avoid all new things 
and could not become adapted to new con- 
ditions. Curiosity, like an antagonistic 



muscle, impels the animal to examine the 
new thing that fear prompts him to run 
away from. The two tendencies are clearly 
shown in the behavior of a young puppy 
who alternately jumps at and runs away 
from a new object. An animal with 
curiosity soon learns not to run away 
from harmless things and often finds ways 
of utilizing them. Even as low an animal 
as the starfish explores new surroundings 
in a way suggestive of the curious survey 
of new surroundings by man. Clearly, the 
curiosity is of great advantage in adapting 
an animal to changes in environment. In 
man this instinct has similar and more ex- 
tensive uses, and it also develops in a 
marked degree in playful forms that are 
of great significance to his mental life. 

The conclusions to be drawn from the 
notes in the present article are first, that it 
is absolutelv essential that every kinder- 
garten teacher be thoroughlv conversant 
with the psvchology of instinct, the kinds of 
instinct from the Genetic standpoint, and 
the relation of each of these instincts to 
the evolution of the higher educational 
processes. Education then will be an or- 
ganic growth, if built upon the native 
cellular ability of the child, each subsequent 
stage bein"- built upon the preceeding 
apperceptive mass. 

Next month we shall take up the mani- 
festation of these specific instincts in free 
play, and discuss its place in Kindergarten 
Theory and Practice. We shall then pass 
on to consider the physical conditions of 
the child and room, best suited to cause 
these native instincts to function through 
nlav into educational processes. After that 
we will take the material suited for this pro- 
cess, and end with the method and pro- 
gram arrangement for a year's work in the 



J N taking up the "March" three 

aspects suggest themselves. 

T. If we are to introduce 

JgHp^j it into kindergarten, play- 

agSJafiaa grounds and primary depart- 

ments — must Ave not clearly define it as a 
"type" — determine its place, and if so, are 
we applying it carefully? 

II. Instrumentally — what are we doing 
with it — if worth introducing to the chil- 

dren — is it our duty to present it as an ex 
ercise in control only or as a real psycho 
logical experience? 

III. What of its ethical value? 

Perhaps it is a little difficult for us to 
know just how we march, as even biologists 
have not determined its exact evolution, 
seems to be one of the things that just come 

Of the different types or kinds of march- 
ing — the most familiar is, of course, the 
military march and naturally so. Even ir 
antiquity, soldiers went to and from battle 
to its swinging rhythms and such a hold did 
it take that eventually ordinary songs anc 
melodies were attuned to its beat and be 
fore long we had the "March Songs." Thi« 
is its first stage of development — the simpl 
melodious accompaniment to and from bat 
tie. Tales are told that generals welcome 
singing soldiers feeling their enthusiasrr 
would reach out to fellow soldiers an( 
many victories were attributed to th 
superiority of the army holding better so 
called musicians. I think we all grant tha 
"Dixie" and "Yankee Doodle" inspire u 
the more when strengthened by voice an( 
instrument. Later — the singing soldier wa 
supported by instruments, which today ar< 
our flute, fife and drum. Still all this wa 
very primitive. It served as a means 
discipline and exercise. Not until the I7tl 
century did the March assume an art ex 
pression. Richeliue, with all his taste fo 
pompousness, and Louis XIV, with his lov 
for personal glorification, neither saw its ar 
possibilities, but Cardinal Mazarin — alway 
a devotee of music and art, encourage 
Lully, the Italian composer, to elaborat 
some ideas he had. War and religion wer 
the only forms of art expression — all musi 
had for illustration, religious motives wit 
battles portrayed in most lugubrious tone: 
Lully affected a change, however — a chang 
which gave to us the ever beautiful "Ballet 
and lighter March. Naturally these ne 
steps must have proper musical accompan 
ment and soon we had instead of the firn 
heavy march, airy staccato melodies fittin 
in so well with frolicsome French life. Bi 
has time confined us to these two type 
only? Let us rehearse our own experience 
in city and town. Perhaps one of tt 
earliest recollections of village and tow 
child is the happily remembered "Circi 
Parade." Who does not recall the joy th 
primitive arrangement afforded from bat 



grand parent? First the band perched 

h on a glaringly red circus wagon, play- 

, but what was it playing — who remem- 

irs — other than that the trombonist was 

big musician with the drum a necessary 

:ond — the "Wild animals," following in 

■hythm all their own and so on with the 

solutely essential "Steam Piano" bring- 

;• up a finale rich in parade dignity if im- 

ssible in harmony. People's instinctive 

p accompaniment was of course notice- 

e. What on the other hand of the city's 

Patrick's Day March — when even New 

>rk's multi-millionaires delight in allow- 

thcir butlers and maids appropriating 

t mansions unto themselves as a review- 

; stand for Erin's proud sons as they 

Ik by? 

What of a nation's welcome to a hero 
t victoriously returned from a great bat- 
? And not least — what place has the 
autiful Fairy Land and its lovely queen 
d Baby Parade? 

Looking over these different types of 
arches (and there are many more) we 
ist come to a very important conclusion, 
I march is more than a calisthenic exer- 
e — it is one of the high social factors in 
t. 1 nis will be so forcibly exemplified in 
e coming Hudson-Fulton celebration 
len Dutch, Irish, German, Italian, Rus- 
.n and Swede will all join voices, hands, 
arts and steps in homage to a historical 
hievement full of remembered battle, 
ist in a kind Father and rich in unified 

Is the so-called March usually considered 
real part of a program or is it used sim- 
f as a calisthenic exercise? Where so 
my adaptations are applied — may not the 
me be done with the March? 
What more charming application of 
)hengrin wedding music than to the 
>wer wreath? What of the Aida March 
amatized with "pretend" trumpets, 
raiding the new season — would the 
cond movement of the Chopin . funeral 
arch gently lull the flowers to their 
arlv sleep? 

Will we not occasionally dramatize the 
ildren's processions into a popular move- 
ent at present holding the attention of 
:urch, state and finance — the ever beauti- 
1 "Baby Parade" with its charming Fairy- 
nd setting? Arthur Pryor has written a 
ost fitting march — simple and adaptable, 
lied the "Babv Parade." Our own 

"March King," John Philip Sousa, has 
given us "Stars and Stripes," most alluring 
for military expression. 

The list could be extended amazingly if 
we but studied our music more. 

If the March is an essential factor in the 
school — is it not our duty to study its his- 
tory — its many aspects and applications 
and not dismiss or accept it simply as a 
March. To an epicure the announcement 
of Dinner would mean but little, perhaps, 
but a well planned, detailed menu would 
soon awaken his interest. But just as there 
is a variety of menus possible — so are there 
varieties of marches — so that a careful 
selective process must be exercised. If our 
decorations are to be chosen with studied 
care, if our personalities must be clothed in 
the clean and wholesome, and if our 
methods are to be the best — is it not obliga- 
tory that the choice of marches also follow 
a standard which will not suffer by com- 

When we come to the second point — the 
actual playing of these marches — there is 
a large subject at issue. To one trained as 
a musician — either in America or abroad, 
it is pathetic to listen to the music that is 
offered in most of our schools. 

Naturally the first point is the position 
of the pianiste. Our social ease is readily 
judged when entering a drawing room, but 
just so is the poise at a piano or for that 
matter any musical instrument determined 
by "one who knows," and a musician faces 
as many musical "I seen it" and "I done 
it," visiting kindergartens as the English 
teacher meets in her class room. 

Perhaps the next stumbling block is the 
unintelligible and incessant use of the 
pedal ; if you try to hear a person speak mid 
a constant undertone of his neighbor — it is 
no more taxing than the strain of listening 
for a melody drowned in the "loud pedal." 

As to the actual playing — perhaps the 
greatest fault is to be laid at the feet of the 

To master a reportoire of over one hun- 
dred melodies including songs, games, and 
etc., — unless the kindergartner, playground 
worker or primary teacher has had a fairly 
thorough musical training — a most doubtful 
musical result must ensue. One class which I 
taught was composed entirely of young 
ladies preparing their so-called kinder- 
garten reportoire for a coming kindergar- 
ten examination — one student who had ex- 



ccllent credentials, was a superior young- 
woman — faced the fact of her early lack of 
training being suddenly exposed now by 
the statement "Oh well, if I can only play 
the right hand I can make up a base" — 
and from subsequent observation, I have 
found this method is quite generally used. 
One's imagination does not need much 
prodding to see and hear a result harrow- 
ing and ennervating. Perhaps just as tastes 
must sometimes be created it would be wise 
for an untrained pianiste to work on the 
left hand alone, at least first. 

The desire for result is strong in us all, 
I grant, but unfortunately the piano cannot 
be mastered over night. Instead of con- 
deming the popular "Two step" which is so 
generally used for "Marching" we may 
even be grateful for its popularity — for its 
primitive lilt — its simple melody and the 
possibility of being within the limits of al- 
most beginners, has, I think, been the 
medium for more piano study than would 
otherwise have shown. Musicians raise the 
objection, "But it spoils the taste for the 
better music" — is this true or is, rather the 
situation that those who limit themselves 
to that style of music could -never aspire to 
the real masters — and still their very ability 
to plav the modern "Two step" has elevated 
them one rung and perhaps even quickened 
at least the appreciation for the higher. 
Therefore it hardly sems wise to insist on 
its elimination, but as it serves but one 
need — is it prudent to have it answer in the 
musical reportoire for the march? This 
would also solve another often met diffi- 
culty. "But the children can't march well 
to that" — is often heard when a standard 
march is sometimes offered in place of the 
simnle "Two step" — true, but has the 
teacher introduced it at the proper time — 
has it a place at the moment — and if so — 
is the pianiste not called upon to put her 
individuality into its interpretation just as 
she is expected to do with her other ma- 
terials? Perhaps then if we will allow the 
march a place in the kindergarten and 
grades — not as a calisthenic exercise or 
medium for control simply — but grant it its 
full function, that of social contribution in 
the dramatization of patriotic, play, child 
life and these interpretations to be pulsated 
by a teacher who is equipped to dignify a 
"piano stool" — we must surely acknowl- 
edge the uplift this will result in — and per- 
haps the hope of that venerable educator, 

Mr. Schaefer, ex-president of the N. E. A 
to have histories and geographies not ful 
of heroes and localities noted for warrior 
and bloodshed, but rich in memories o 
philanthropists and peace will be more thar 
a dream. 

An instance of this is most happily illus 
trated in Public School 165, New Yorl 
City, where the principal, Dr. Gaddis 
grown white in service, has done more fo 
implanting neatness in his "boys" than ha, 
been the reward of few. Mondays, Wed 
nesdays and Fridays are "Assembly Days' 
and early in the year his morning talks ar 
on these essentials to successful life, an< 
almost hopeless boys after iour weeks a 
his school have felt the joy and responsi 
bility of appearing on assembly days a 
least with clean collar, presentable nail 
and polished shoe, and approached with hi 
fellow students with respect and honor th 
Hag — for to quote the trainer of fine men— 
"It is my ambition to have my boys march 
three times a week to the beat of fife an< 
drum, to salute their flag — each on 
shoulders straight, eye honest and bod 
clean ; each recognizing his fellow student! 
place as well as his own." Therefore if th 
march in its many phases is a psychologies 
experience in the life of all humanity — le 
us not rob it of its dignified place in th 
school and home — let us not cheapen it b 
permitting "anv old tune" to sing it on it 
way and let us exert every effort to entrus 
it to piano illustrator who does not need t 
resort to "bluff" in its accompaniment. 

As space is limited I will not give a lis 
of marches here but will gladly mail sue 
a list to anyone desiring it. 


NOTE— This series of articles began in the June numb 
and is concluded in this number, 

i. The Three Factors in Kindergarte 
Education are (a) the spiritual culture 
the race embodied in civilization, (b) th 
little children, (c) the teacher. In the lar| 
est and truest sense these three constitui 
the materials of the kindergarten. Throug 
their interaction the teacher organizing an 
mediating the achieved fund of spiritu 
values and methods which constitute civil 
zation) the kindergarten plays its part 
the educational process, now regarded 1 
fundamental movement in the evolution < 



he life of man. Just as the problem of 
ihilosophy is concerned with the continuity 
i)f the process of intelligence in relation to 
he special and individual forms of experi- 
ence, so the problem of education is con- 
erned with the continuity of the educa- 
tional ''principle" in relation to each and all 
>f its special and individual factors. To 
inderstand the three factors of kindergar- 
ten education means ultimately to deduce 
them from one central, necessary principle. 
The necessity of pre-supposing such a prin- 
ciple lies in "the existence of facts inex- 
plicable without it." The usual method of 
nterpreting the materials of the kindergar- 
ten is perhaps that of abstracting them 
from the system of thought of which they 
form a part, and from the common princi- 
ple immanent in the system, through which 
alone they receive their significance and 
validity. The materials of the kindergarten 
are not so many objective entities. There 
s a positive danger lest they should be re- 
garded as things-in-themselves. 

There is a very obvious difference be- 
tween a classification and an organization 
of materials. No mere cataloguing of these 
generally accepted, but the deduction of 
them from dominating and vital principles 
is greatly to be desired, and the notes here 
offered are put forward as suggestions 
merely. Are the materials organically re- 
lated through community of origin, and 
consequent fundamental identity of nature? 
Is there among them an essential or organic 
unity, and therein functional inter-relation 
and interdependence? Can the organic 
conception be applied to the materials, and 
may they be conceived as functions whose 
nature is determined by their significance in 
the realization of the purpose of the kinder- 
garten? Understanding the kindergarten 
as a medium for the organization and de- 
velopment of the experience of its members 
in what sense are we to recognize in the 
various materials the necessary factors in 
this process of development of the child? 

This perhaps affords a place for the state- 
ment of certain facts which have to be un- 
consciously or consciously borne in mind in 
the consideration of materials. The state- 
ment involves certain repetitions, but these 
are for the present inevitable, (i) A study 
of the kindergarten involves philosophical, 
psychological and ethical considerations. 
The aim of the philosophy of any subject is 
first of all to indicate the relation of the 

subject to some larger whole, to throw light 
on its problem, and to state certain in- 
evitable conditions for its solution. The or- 
ganization of kindergarten principles con- 
stitutes a part of the wider process of or- 
ganization of the principles of education. 
Educational principles constitute an organ- 
ism of which kindergarten, elementary, 
secondary, college and university principles 
are the organs. The kindergarten in theory 
or practice cannot with security remain a 
thing apart. It was maintained above that 
from the standpoint of evolutionary ideal- 
ism as a philosophy of experience there 
emerge three basal principles of education : 

(a) organic unity of aim, materials, method ; 

(b) interaction; (c) development. To bring 
these to consciousness, and to make them 
the dominating and fructifying ideas in the 
theory and practice of kindergarten educa- 
tion is the aim of kindergarten training as 
a part of educational endeavor. (2) Nature 
and human life are not disparate elements, 
but phases of the manifestation of one 
unitary process or life. Man apart from na- 
ture is an unreal abstraction. The world 
without and the world within are not two 
separated worlds, but are necessary coun- 
terparts of each other. Nature is plastic to 
mind. It is the matter of which mind is 
the form. It has ministered to man as a 
means of expression. Civilization, as was 
noted above, is the witness to the corre- 
spondence between the course of nature 
and the mind of man; a witness also to the 
adaptation of nature to the education of 
human intelligence. The definite accept- 
ance of this unity of process would seem to 
free us from the dualism (following in the 
wake of Cartesianism) between (a) indi- 
vidual and environment, (b) child and cur- 
riculum, (c) method and materials. (3) 
Life is important, earnest, and within the 
whole of life there are varying degrees of 
importance, necessity and freedom. (4) 
The central feature of life is activity — a do- 
ing of something, and there is no human 
end which in principle excludes play, art, 
work — for play, art, work, are all within 
life ; moreover, in life there are no floating 
ideas, and no activities at large. (5) In the 
normal, or harmonious life, play, art. work 
are matters of attitude immanent in activi- 
ties : not things forced, or superimposed 
from without. 

The significance of these notes will be in 
part indicated in subsequent sections. A 



fuller elaboration would be quite beyond 
me mints ol the outline. 

2. me Materials 01 the Kindergarten 
Programs must conic to tne cnildren ironi 
the teacher, ihe teacher tnus becomes the 
mediator oi the spiritual culture ol tlie race 
as embodied in civilization, tierein lies the 
bociological or social aspect oi tlie educa- 
tional process, a oriel ahaiysis 01 the con- 
cept oi civilization is fundamental to a 
statement ot education, ana accordingly or 
kindergarten materials, in viewing civili- 
zation as tne progressive articulauon and 
reanzauon oi human nature winch still per- 
sists in tne spiritual experience, the intel- 
lectual interests, the haoits 01 conduct ut 
the present, n is assumed that (lj tne most 
satisiactory psycnology ot race-develop- 
ment is a psyciioiogy oi action: ^see section 
following^ : man s ever-increasing wants 
rising into desires ana ins perpetual eltorts 
to satisiy those wants. Tne history ol man, 
then, tne history ol civilization is the his- 
tory oi human achievement. (2) The con- 
ditions or materials oi activity are nature. 
Civilization is ultimately possible because 
man ana nature, activity and material are 
not isolated entities but rather phases oi 
one spiritual movement or process, i/rom 
i lie beginning man has been in some kind 
ol functional relation to his environment. 
His life has presented itself to him as a 
series of problems to be solved. ^3) Man's 
achievements in civilization are social 
achievements and nave therefore been 
brought about by some form ot social action 
and co-operation. Ihe ultimate social tact, 
the second factor in civilization, is that of 
men acting together for the sake of inter- 
related enas. ^4) Civilization in the largest 
sense represents the methods of the hie 
process, the tools of the mind invented by 
man 111 the course of his experience for the 
registration, organization, control and per- 
petuation ol his experience, it has thus a 
retrospective as well as a prospective 
aspect, in civilization, therefore, as the 
organization of human life thus far attain- 
ed, there are certain fundamental 
"methods'' or norms which are inherent in 
us natural constitution and which repro- 
duce themselves in all its manifold forms. 
(5) in the analysis of these normative 
elements, Science, Language, Art and 
Literature, institutions, and Religion, these 
must be continually viewed as interrelated 
aspects of a common social experience or 

activity: they are the general elements of 
civilization, the type forms of human activ- 
ity and of spiritual culture — elements which 
constitute tne real existence of the concrete 
and organic unity of society. -_ach of these 
elements has its retrospective and pros- 
pective reference : each represents a funda- 
mental habit and accomodation in the life 
ol the race. All together they are func- 
tional elements within the social process, 
mediating agencies in the communication 
or transmission of experience, instrumental 
to the spiritual life of man. (.0) The evolu- 
tion in nature and in civilization has its 
goal in the elevation and expansion of the 
personal life. 

it will thus be recognized how necessary 
to any adequate statement of the kinder- 
garten program or course of study is a 
ciiart oi civilization — a morphological or 
psychological (in its wider esense) presen- 
tation oi the great methods or norms ac- 
cording to which human experience has 
been organized, elevated and expanded. 
Adqeuately to state what science, language, 
literature and art, institutions and religion 
mean in the movement of the individual's 
experience, it is ultimately necessary to 
trace their significance or value in the move- 
ment of the spiritual experience of the race. 
The conception of education as the com- 
munication or transmission of man's 
spiritual experience appears as its funda- 
mental form as a human institution through 
all its stages and through all its changes. 

3. Concerning the Psychological .fhase 
(the Individual bide) of the Matter certain 
Remarks may be made : 

{1) In any analysis of the concept of 
evolution, it is maintained that in every 
process of development there are present 
the two interrelated and co-operating 
factors : (a) the individual existence in 
which the development occurs, and (b) the 
situation or environment which affords the 
stimuli or the conditions through which the 
development takes place. In other words, 
there are present the agent and the situa- 
tion. For an interpretation of individual, 
social or race activities such as will be of 
most value in educational theory, recourse 
must be had to a functional or evolutionary 
psychology, according to which the psychi- 
cal life, (whether in the individual, society 
or the race) is to be interpreted as a func- 
tion of the wider life process. On the basis 
of a functional psychology it is possible to 



Dhow to what extent the principles of social 
Evolution are also the principles of indi- 
vidual development; to what extent, in 
3ther words, the same psychological princi- 
ples, or catagories, obtain in the organiza- 
tion of the knowledge, the conducts and 
deals of the individual as in the organiza- 
ion and evolution of human society. If 
;uch an interpretation of the two processes 
vere possible it would make very consider- 
ibly for a unitary conception of their or- 
ranic connection. 

(2) The general position of a functional 
>sychology is that in determining what con- 
;ciousness is recourse must be had to an 
xamination of what consciousness does, 
t attempts to escape the extreme positions 
)f both (a) Empiricism, according to which 
he mind is conceived as a product rather 
han a principle, and of (b) Rationalism, 
vhich in one form or another conceives of 
he soul as a pre-existing spiritual entity, 
ftdowed with capacities or faculties or 
apacities, existing behind these as a kind 
f (transcendental) substance or sub- 
tratum, and before the objective world has 
s yet disturbed the pure unity of its 
ssence. The view of evolutionary idealism 
s not that the mind is mere product or 
piphenomenon, nor a mere transcendental 
piritual substance which (so far as actual 
xperience is concerned) is a pure abstrac- 
ion but that it is a concrete specific activity 
onstantly directed to the accomplishment 
if something, and not only the bearer of the 
xperience process, but an efficient agent 
n its furtherance. Prom this general con- 
eption it follows : 

(a) That in the mental life, as an or- 
anic unity, consciousness cannot (without 

complete departure from reality) be ab- 
tracted from its relations. Prior to and 
part from the objective experience con- 
ciousness is an illusion. It will thus be ap- 
>arent how necessary it is in the analysis 
if experience to keep in mind its organic 
inity: in other words, the organic relation 
letween consciousness and its obpect, the 

gent and the situation or conditions in 

hich the activity proceeds. 

(b) For a functional psychology the 
undamental and central element of the 
psychical life is not sensation or idea, but an 
.ctivity. Back of this unit of psychical 
ctivitv, namely, in the psycho-physical or- 
ranism of the individual, of societv, or of 
he race, we cannot go. In each of these, 

in the individual, in society, in the race, the 
one universal activity is that of living, or 
tlie life-activity. As a concrete reality, then. 
the individual, the social, or the race life, i- 
revealed to us as a teleological process, a 
system of means and ends, the unity of 
which is found in the general end of control 
over the conditions of life. All minor activi- 
ties within experience are to be interpreted 
as partially or completely unified or har- 
monized activities within the larger process 
of life-activity or realization. 

(c) That just as the life-process is a 
continuous co-ordination or functioning of 
the two elements, organism and environ- 
ment, so the mental life is a continuous co- 
ordination or functioning of two elements, 
self and environment. Herein we see the 
difficulty in the Empirical and Rationalistic 
positions. Just as some biologists would 
identify function with organ alone, making 
environment purely external, or with en- 
vironment alone, making the organ simplv 
a product, so the Empiricist would make 
the self a product and not a principle, while 
the Rationalist would make the soul a prin- 
ciple existing prior to its contact with the 
objective world, and. at most, maintaining 
only incidental relations with the latter. On 
the other hand, the evolutionary view of 
mind maintains that the relation of con- 
sciousness or self to objective experience or 
environment is absolute and intrinsic. An 
isolated consciousness is no consciousness 
at all: it is a self-contradiction. If the gen- 
eral position outlined above be accepted as 
a working hypothesis, we are enabled to 
see how the actual processes of various 
psychical realities, individual, social, racial, 
may all be given a functional interpreta- 
tion. Thus some progress may be made in 
the employment of the same categories of 
interpretation in individual, social and race 
psychology. In such an interpretation the 
individual experience-process is no isolated 
process but has its realitv in the larger 
process of social experience, or ex- 
periencing, and this in turn in. the larger 
process of race life, and thus ultimately 
within the universal or cosmic order. 

(d) From the point of view of a func- 
tional psychology applied to the experience- 
process of the individual all phases of 
psychical activity may be grouped about 
two fundamental types — Habits and Acco- 
modations. Activities once successfully 
performed tend to be selected, to persist, to 



become habits. Just as soon as experience 
becomes problematic, however, i. e., as soon 
as some break occurs in the adjustment 
process (consequent upon the failure of 
some habit in the individual, or of a custom 
or institution in social experience) thought, 
in the form of discrimination, attention and 
association, emerges to secure a new acco- 
modation and thus repair the break in ex- 
perience through the establishment of a 
new habit. So long as habit (individual, 
social, racial) suffices, in other words, so 
long as experience flows smoothly, there is 
no occasion for the exercise of thought, 
since there is no problem to solve, no sense 
of failure, and consequently no search for a 
better method, i. e., a better accommodation 
or adjustment. From this point of view 
the function of thought is mediatory be- 
tween some habit (experience, activity) 
which has failed to satisfy, and some new 
accommodation (which, if successful, will 
be selected and become habit) which will 
restore harmony to experience once more. 
Thought, then, as mediatory has a two- 
fold aspect: (a) retrospective, i. e., inter- 
rogating our present habits, or modes of 
experience, leading to a consciousness of 
failure: (b) prospective, through conscious- 
ness of break in experience, searching for 
the new accommodations and the more har- 
monious and satisfying experience. 

Thought, then, arises within the experi- 
ence process (whether in the individual or 
the race) out of activity and is ultimately 
for the sake of activity. If experience or 
life were uniform, feeling and instinct 
would suffice for its continuance. If. how- 
ever, there is to be progress within experi- 
ence thought must emerge as doubt and 
enquirv. It must bring order and control 
into experience; it must expedite the ex- 
perience process and eliminate the waste 
entailed in mere instinct and feeling. Since 
the mental life is not an outcome of a pre- 
determined self upon an external environ- 
ment, or of the adjustment of the self to a 
predetermined environment, neither the 
self nor the environment are eternally fixed 
in themselves, but both change in the move- 
ment of the life-process. In the functional 
movement of the mental life both the self 
and the environment are modified and de- 
termined. Both are essentially transitional. 
in a continual process of becoming. The 
self is real only in so far as it continues to 
act, to become, to progress. Self-conscious- 

ness is not a subsequent or higher growth 
of consciousness, but in rudimentary form 
at least is a quality of all consciousness. It 
is consciousness with the emphasis on the 
subject rather than the object, the agent 
rather than the situation. 

(c) Turning briefly to the societary 
process, the question is at once presented: 
Are there psychical categories within this 
process which correspond to those noted 
above (e. g., sensation, habit, discrimina- 
tion, adjustment, adaptation, accommoda- 
tion, etc.)? In the societary process (the 
outcome of no mere aggregate but of some 
kind of social unity, dependent upon com- 
mon aims, purposes, interests, etc.,) accord- 
ing to the evolution-concept, the elemen- 
tary social fact is the group as a functional, 
unity-doing something; this social co-ordi- 
nation is the fundamental social fact, just as 
the individual action, or co-ordination, is 
the fundamental element within the indi- 
vidual experience-process. As within the 
individual life, the adjustment or co-ordi- 
nation once successfully performed tends to 
become habitual, so social co-ordination or 
accommodations once successfully made 
tend to persist as social habits. These in 
turn form the basis of new habits. Habits 
persisted in become customs, manners, in- 
stitutions. In time such usages, institu- 
tions, customs, come to be strengthened or 
rendered stable by particular sanctions. 
Habits are broken in upon by new environ- 
mental condition, new ideas, by discussion, 
by the force of personal initiative. In social 
and race psychology may be noted the same 
difficulties in the transition from one habit 
to another as in the individual, only the 
conflict is more extensive and apt to be 
more intensive. 

4. The Conception of Organic Unity so 
frequently used in these outlines to describe 
experience and such kindred topics as the 
relation of body and mind, subject and ob 
ject, method and material, agent and situa- 
tion, mav be more definitely analyzed. First 
of all, however, an illustration may be given 
of the way in which the doctrine may be 
held in theory, while in practice it is not 
strictly adhered to. A persistent concep- 
tion of the relation of materials to methoc 
may be stated thus. On the one hand, the 
materials are arranged as preexisting ob 
jective entities, ready to be imported intc 
the mind. Method, on the other hand, is 
regarded as a purely formal affair, an alto- 



ether psychological matter, as though the 
lind were self-subsisting apart from its re- 
itions (or its environment), and had cer- 
ain powers or modes of acting in and for 
self. Just as for philosophical dualism 
lere was an intrinsic separation between 
lind and matter, so in much of the modern 
iscussion of the programme there is im- 
lied an intrinsic separation between mind 
nd educative material. The relations of 
laterials and method thus becomes as diffi- 
ult of comprehension as the Cartesian 
ualism of matter and mind. If against the 
!artesian view of mind it be maintained 
lat the so-called subject (mind) and the 
a-called object (the world) are equally dif- 
rentiated aspects or results of a unitary 
rocess, we are inevitably forced to the con- 
lusion that materials and method are not 
ompletelv isolable entities, but are funda- 
lentally the terminal or differentiated as- 
ects of the process of development of a 
nitar experience. (Similar dualisms are 
zt up between mind and matter, soul and 
ody, activity and environment, response 
nd stimulus, idealism and realism, rational- 
m and empiricism. If we are to retain the 
onceptions of organic unity and develop- 
lent, we must believe that no distinction of 
lought whatever is absolute, but arises 
irough variation of attitude and opera- 

By an organic unity as used in this paper 
i to be understood a unity in which (a) 
Rch aspect embodies in a specific way the 
r>iritual principle immanent in the unity 
s a whole: (b) each aspect is distinct from 
ie others simplv bv the way in which it 
mbodies this principle; (c) each aspect is 
onnected with the others and so with the 
hole in virtue of its realizing this prin- 
iole with a certain degree of completeness: 
d) the complete unity is a necessarv evolu- 
on of the one spiritual principle through 
arious forms psychologicallv considered as 
lanifesting a single principle from the be- 
irming to the end. This analysis of an 
rganic unity holds good of the concepts 
sed in this paper — civilization, experience, 
laterials, method, programme. 

It follows, therefore, that (i) it is no 
">nger possible to except the study of kin- 
erearten theorv and practice from that 
lethod of enquiry which inevitablv over- 
ikes everv form of experience into which 
ie conception of evolution enters. We can- 
ot hope to understand living things except 

through a study of their growth and de- 
velopment. The materials of the kinder- 
garten, as the ideas of the mind, are in no 
wise an exception to the law of growth and 
change. (2) On the other hand, while there 
must be this recognition of the law of 
growth and change in the treatment of the 
theory of the materials, yet idealism's claim 
is just, namely, there must be interpreta- 
tion and reorganization of the facts brought 
to light in the use of the genetic method. 
Philosophy and psychologv are coming to 
recognize more and more fully that 
Rationalism and empiricism. Idealism and 
Realism instead of forming self-complete 
systems, are limiting, but mutually co- 
operative. Fundamentally they are not ab- 
solute, but only relative opposites. (3) The 
philosophical and psychological methods of 
studying the materials of the kindergarten 
are: (a) complementary phases of a single 
method of study — phases for purposes of 
examination, for emphasis, mode of opera- 
tion, special attitude or interest, separable: 
in reality inseperable. Neither can furnish 
a complete characterization of the ma- 
terials in their reality: (b) agree that the 
meaning and significance of the materials is 
relative to those levels of experience on 
which they exist, and in which they do their 
work. Yet within the experience process 
there is everywhere the actual and the pos- 
sible : (c) in favor, not of that type of 
criticism which aims merely to destroy, but 
which, through discovering the spiritual 
continuity of the principle inherent in the 
manifold forms of material, aims to pre- 
serve it. 

5. In what preceded attention has been 
directed towards four points which appear 
to be of vital importance in a fundamental 
understanding of the kindergarten ma- 
terials: (a) the significance of an organiza- 
tion of materials as against a mere classifi- 
cation, (b) a knowledge of the typical 
human activities, conceived as a system of 
values and methods (civilization), (c) the 
important psychological considerations to 
be borne in mind in the interpretation of 
materials, (d) the nature of organic unity. 
The programme of the kindergarten is the 
organism of which the materials, as inter- 
preted in what precedes, are the organs. 
It is the co-ordination of all the elements 
of the kindergarten activity in their organic 
wholeness. Or to state it in somewhat 
more formal fashion, a programme mav be 



said to be such an interpretation and organ- 
ization of kindergarten materials, based 
upon the knowledge of a standard which is 
found in the true needs of the child and the 
nature of the educational process as a 
whole, that the materials may be recognized 
as capable of co-operative and complemen- 
tary service. Here may, therefore, be the 
place to turn from the retrospective 
(genetic origin) aspect of the matenalsto 
make certain notes concerning prospective 
(functional, validity) aspect as factors m 
the programme. (O The problem of the 
kindergarten programme is fundamentally 
the problem of securing the mental develop- 
ment of the child through supplying such 
materials as stimulate imoulses which are 
in line with right habits and ideals. This 
mental development implies (a) a move- 
ment of the experience, through the self- 
active principle inherent in it, of the child 
(as one element in the interaction-process) 
from one level of experience to another, (b) 
an increasing control of experience, (c) an 
increasing realization of its meaning and 
significance. (2) This movement of experi- 
ence is a process at once of differentiation 
and integration or organization — from 
unity through difference and opposition to 
unity. In the kindergarten the process of 
social interaction in which education con- 
sists is given form and direction bv means 
of the so-called "materials" of the kinder- 
garten which serve as stimuli. Materials 
are thus mediating agencies from one level 
of experience to another. They represent 
values, and methods as well as the unity of 
social experience. In the process of inter- 
action may be noted two phases, (a) of pre- 
sentation of materials by the teacher^ (b) 
of realization of the materials in experience 
by the pupil. (3) The programme (repre- 
senting social life), or the medium through 
which the methods and values inherent in 
social experience are communicated to the 
child, is a unity. The programme of the 
kindergarten, represents the corporate or 
interrelated aspect of the spiritual organism 
of social experience or activity. Method is 
the form of personal realization and pene- 
tration of the intellectual and moral order 
of the kindergarten. The programme in- 
volves, therefore, (a) instincts, interests, 
activities, pointing to social life, (b) norms, 
values, interpretations, conferred by society 
upon the individual. (4) The unity of the 
kindergarten programme is ultimately 

found in the unity of the social life — human 
life — whose various phases the kindergar- 
ten materials represent. The various parts 
of the programme represent differentiated 
aspects of the organic unity of the social life 
which the child is to come gradually to 
understand and appreciate. Herein is found 
the unitv of the programme from the objec- 
tive point of view. On the other hand, the 
subjective principle of unitv is afforded by 
the various interests and activities (in- 
stinctive, impulsive, habitual, or ideational) 
which emerge in the movement of indi- 
vidual experience and which in the process 
of the kindergarten activity should be 
organically united. 

(5) From what precedes it would seem 
to follow that the discussion of the pro- 
gramme of the kindergarten centers about 
two questions: (a) selection of the ma- 
terial of the programme — the question of 
differentiation; (b) arrangement of the 
material of the programme — the question 
of integration or organization. 

It is not to be forgotten, of course, that 
these are rather phases, or terminal aspects 
o fone organic activity, rather than sepa- 
rate or disparate processes. For example, 
it would be meaningless to select such and 
such a form of activity or interest for re- 
production by the child, were there no ex- 
perience in some wise analogous to or the 
counterpart of this activity or interest with 
in the experience of the child. In order to 
be educative, interests, values, ideals, forms 
of activity, must not only be appropriated 
but transformed into the interests, atti- 
tudes, activities of the child, xhis, of course, 
does not mean that education is the product 
of the individual alone. For the materials 
and suggestions of the programme control 
the response of the child, and thus the 
direction of the movement of individual ex- 
perience. In other words, as has been in 
dicated above, in the determination of th< 
programme of the kindergarten not the 
interests, attitudes, and activities of the in 
dividual, but the ideals, the values, the re- 
quirements, the activities of social life as 
was indicated above, constitute the fina' 

(6) In solving the problem of the select 
tion and arrangement, then, there should b< 
kept in mind at least the following factors 

(a) The problem of selection is not ab 
solutely isolable from the problem of ar 
rangement — they are phases (termina 



spects, points of emphasis) of a unitary 
tivity on the part of the teacher. 

(b) The selection of material in the 
inclergarten must be in harmony with the 
ivo principles: (i) Philosophical or sociol- 
gical: aim of kindergarten education — 
lembership in a social whole : the source of 
laterials lies in the objective unity of the 
ocial whole, in society (civilization). (2) 
sychological : while materials selected 
experiences, activities, interests, etc.) 
lust be typical, as valuable and as univer- 
a1 as possible, nevertheless, as noted in a 
receding section, such material cannot be 
j remote as to make it impossible of appre- 
ension and appreciation to some degree by 
leans of analogous experiences in the life 
f the child. 

(c) The fundamental principle of the 
election of educative materials in the kin- 
ergarten will, therefore, be from (1) the 
bjective point of view, social or institu- 
ional life, and from (2) the subjective point 
f view, the child with his various interests, 
ttitudes, and activities conceived of as a 
aernber of the home, which is in turn in 

process of increasing interaction with the 
ther forms of institutional life, which con- 
titute society — the school vocations, the 
tate, the church. It will thus be recognized 
hat by bringing together the child with his 
xperiences, and society with its methods 
nd values, its typical and universal activi- 
ies, and the ideals towards which it is 
truggling, opportunity is provided for a 
rue form of social interaction in which the 
ducational process consists. 

(7) It will be found moreover, that this 
rinciple provides for such regulative ideas 
s those of the seasons, festivals, changing 
ccupations, the possible contacts with 
ature, etc., for the reason that these 
ictors have their place and influence with- 
n the dynamic, ever-changing process of 
xperiencing in which the child participates, 
nd the more typical, universal, and ideal 
hases of which he is to reproduce and in- 

(d) The arrangement of material 
hould be controlled in accordance with the 
ollowing principles : 

(1) Unity — The typical and universal 
ictivities or relationship of social life in a 
rocess of organization. (2) Continuity — 
'he preservation of the continuity (through 
lifferentiation and integration) of experi- 
nce. (3) Adaptation — The adjustment of 

the materials to the capacities of the chil- 
dren — of stimulus to response. (4) Rein- 
forcement — The attempt to have the vari- 
ous activities function together in the pro- 
duction of a unitary effect. 

(8) Fundamentally, then, the kinder- 
garten programme affords (a) a method 
of organization of the materials, an organ- 
ism of stimuli, and (b) an interpretation of 
value, by which the individual learns some- 
thing of the meaning of his activities and 
interests in their functional relation to 
social life. The various materials are so 
many plans of action by means of which the 
child gains control over, and help in the in- 
terpretation of his experience. Through 
the medium of materials the teacher aims 
to (a) interpret (b) organize and (c) 
amplify the experience of the children. It 
is an interaction between the children, the 
materials (gifts, occupations, plays, game:-. 
songs, stories, conversation, etc. — which 
represent in simple form the culture of the 
race), and the teacher. Method, according- 
ly, is ultimately the mode of the mind 's 
activity in the realization and appropriation 
of the methods and values inherent in it. 

(9) Method as the realization of experi- 
ence involves: (a) Activity, in the sense 
of experimentation; (b) Selection among 
and emphasis of such variations as approxi- 
mate to or manifest a general principle or 
standard; (c) Organization through em- 
phasis, selection, imitation, suggestion, and 
the influence of vital personality. The 
movement is through activity (experienc- 
ing), to selection, to higher activity through 
a ceaseless process of organizing and re- 
shaping experience. (See concluding part 
of section II). 

In what precedes many things have been 
taken for granted, many things omitted, 
and perhaps arbitrarily. The kindergarten 
as organized by Froebel w T as a unique and 
unparalleled construction in point of 
spiritual quality for the furtherance of the 
educational process. The kindergarten now 
calls for unique and unparalleled interest in 
its study, for openness to the light and 
fidelity to the truth, for a continual renewal 
of the spiritual quality in life, and the 
spiritual is always the more, never the less. 
It calls, now as never before, for a wider 
and finer scholarship concerning the ma- 
terials of the kindergarten as they are seen 
and known in the great lype forms of 
spiritual culture ; a fuller recognition of the 



method by which one experience moves up- 
ward to another level: the power of ideali- 
zation and thereby of true realization: the 
vision of the spiritual possibilities, the 
latent wealth, of the common things of our 
common life. 


From Chicago comes to us a little paper 
published by the Frances E. Clark Settle- 
ment which contains an article bearing in- 
directly upon the immigration question 
which is of interest to all teachers and edu- 
cators. It is called a "'View of Sicily, the 
Presepio of Signor Antonino Indovino," 
and is written by Evelyn Boylan Espey, one 
of the residents. Signor Indovino came to 
America one August, it seems, from the 
town of I'ermini, Sicily. As a child he 
made small clay images. As a young man 
he studied architecture and holds a Bour- 
bon degree (one conferred by the Bourbon 
dynasty). He became an enthusiastic fol- 
lower of Garibaldi and "'later settled down 
to his life-work, contracted for and built 
works, roads, bridges, houses, palaces, all 
over Sicilv. He became known for his in- 
terest in art and archaeology and was ap- 
pointed a member of the art commission. 
He began to work out his own ideas of rep- 
resenting the traditional customs of his peo- 
ple until it has reached its present elaborate 
form in the presepio." "This presepio is the 
Christmas manger but in this one of Signor 
Indoivino's he shows not only the stable, 
the Infant Christ and Bethlehem as is cus- 
tomary with Continental countries, but he 
represents the country people as well at 
their usual occupations, embodying the 
traditional peasant life of Sicily." For the 
last fourteen years, we are told, "he has 
worked and studied on this particular pre- 
sepio. There are about 300 groups in it 
composed of about 1.000 separate figures 
made of papier mache and plaster-of-Paris. 
The life-like pose of each one, the expres- 
sion of the face, the small matters of dress 
and appurtenance, have been worked out 
with the utmost patience. Here is a woman 
washing at a home-made tub, into which a 
man is pouring water from an earthen jar, 
joking her meanwhile. One can almost hear 
the work-a-dav talk passing between them. 
Nearby, a young girl is milking a goat, and 
women are carrying loads of fruit and 

vegetables on their heads. A farmer is 
plowing with oxen and an ancient wooden 
plow \viiicli is little more tlian a pointed 
stick. Shepherds 111 sheepskin coats and 
leggings are drinking from a roadside foun- 
tain, their antique water-bottles slung at 
their sides. From the same fountain, a man 
is rilling earthen jars with handles which 
have not changed their graceful shape since 
Sicily belonged to the Creeks in the day of 

"At the left of the foreground is the grot- 
to of the Nativity — Joseph and Mary and 
the Child only are in Jewish costume — all 
the rest are in Sicilian. Far back stretches 
the Sicilian landscape, river and valley and 
ruin-crowned height." 

We learn that the entire representation 
covers a space nearly 400 square feet 
Wagon loads of lumber, clay and rough 
cork have been used in building up th< 
landscape. The work has been done with 
no thought of financial return, but in the 
spirit of the true artist who works for love 
of the work and of the patriot who works 
for love of the centuries-old people oi 
whose life and traditions he wishes to con- 
vev some inkling to others. 

This unique work of art should be given 
a permanent place in some Museum where 
it may be seen by innumerable citizens tc 
make them better acquainted with the life 
of a people remote in space, but who arc 
coming to us dailv in numbers and whe 
have much to give us from their rich in- 
heritance of the past. We need to lean 
perhaos, that the Black Hand contingent 
represents but a small proportion of out 
Italian immigrants — that art and culture 
and enthusiasm for the good, the true, anc 
the beautiful are a part of the inheritance 
of this people, and are ours to draw upor 
when we once learn the way. 

Teachers should be interested in showing 
their children through such an interesting 
object lesson something of the daily life o 
a foreign race whose past history is a par 
of the historv of civilization. Art teacher; 
will be able to show the children the artistic 
uses to which cork and plaster-of-paris ma) 
be put. 

At Christmas time the presepio was ex 
hibited in the Settlement under the persona 
direction of the artist. It is to be hoper 
that other opportunities will be given foi 
further exhibits. 




Mr. Ralph L. Johnson, in the current 
number ©t' The Psychological Clinic shows 
that one cause of the backwardness of pub- 
lic school children is poor attendance, 
especially in the lower grades. He examines 
the attendance records of the township 
school svstem of Upper Darby, Pa., of 
which he is supervisor, and finds that in the 
intermediate grades only 51 per cent of the 
pupils attended more than three-fourths of 
the term and in the primary grades only 
4J.5 per cent. About one-quarter of the 
primary pupils missed three-fourths of the 
year. Mr. Johnson believes that promotion 
requires attendance for at least approxi- 
mately three-fourths of the time. His con- 
clusion is that if we would cure retardation, 
we should look to our beginners, and see 
that, children are not only on the enrollment 
record, but attend regularly. 

Sunt. William E. Chancellor of South 
Norwalk, Conn., is able to contribute a 
forceful criticism of the school houses of 
the United States. The criticism is especial- 
ly helpful, because it is in such large meas- 
ure constructive. Supt. Chancellor is well 
fitted to discuss this question, as he was a 
member of a congressional commission to 
adopt a plan of a better type of school 
house for the District of Columbia. He has 
visited school houses in many cities of this 
country. Some of the conditions he thinks 
are indescribably bad, but there are four 
cities whose school houses are admirable, 
and will well repay careful examination and 
study. These cities are Chicago, St. Louis, 
New York, and Boston. Supt. Chancellor 
outlines what are the essential requisites for 
safe and hygienic school house construc- 
tion. He believes that superintendents and 
principals, by insisting upon high stand- 
ards, can do very much to educate their 
communities and boards to a realization of 
architectural requirements. 

An article on "The Effect of School 
Room Temperature on the Work of 
Pupils," by Mr. Linnaeus N. Hines, Supt. 
of Schools, Crawfordsville, Ind., illustrates 
the kind of work which is being done by 
school superintendents who are going more 
in detail into the conditions of the school 
room. The school room temperature should 
occupy an important place in the attention 

of every grade teacher, principal and super- 
intendent. Supt. Hines has done splendid 
service in showing the way in which very 
simple experiments may be employed to 
demonstrate the bad effect of high and low 
temperatures upon school work. He tested 
classes for several school buildings at tem- 
peratures ranging from 60 to 80 degrees. 
He finds that the best work is done in a 
temperature ranging betwen 6; and 70 de- 
grees. If the temperature of a room rises 
above 70 degrees, or falls below 65 degrees, 
poor work will be done. In temperatures 
of 75 degrees and over, which are often 
found in our school rooms, the children be- 
come restless, dull, and incapable of con- 
tinued mental work. 

The writer visited, late in June, the Xew 
York Public School which she attended 
when eight years old, we will not say how 
many years ago. She had a pleasant 
reminiscent talk with teachers who trained 
her young ideas to shoot in the right direc- 
tion at that early date and one of the things 
she noted as she conversed was, that 
although both of these women have been 
teaching in the grades for more than thirty 
years their voices were so sweet and musi- 
cal that it was a pleasure to listen to them 
irrespective of what they were saying. 
Upon inquiry we learned that there has 
always been a conscious effort also to train 
the children to use their voices in such wise 
as to develop a pleasing tone. The aim was 
to cultivate the middle tone avoiding head 
tones. The little ones in the primary caught 
the idea easily, and the use of the chest 
tones became a habit before they reached 
the higher grades to which my friends were 
then teaching. Recitations in the Chapel 
were a common occurrence and the prepa- 
ration for these aided to a great extent. 

City children, especially those who live 
in the congested districts, are inclined to use 
high, sharp, discordant tones thinking to be 
heard above the street noises; but the re- 
sults acquired in No. 50, New York, show 
that sweet, clear tones can be obtained if 

Some men move through life as a band 
of music moves down the street, flinging 
out pleasure on every side through the air. 
to every one far and near that can listen. — 
Henry Ward Beecher. 



Department of Practical Helps, Sug- 
gestions, Etc., lor Kindergart- 
ners and Primar y Teachers 



EING imitative creatures, we 
all learn from each other. 
Especially when a hard task 
is before us, it is valuable to 
have examples as an inspira- 
tion and incentive. 

Many young kindergartners hesitate, and 
even older ones dread to start on a walk or 
trip with the responsibility of twenty-live 
or more little children to care for. 

h\ the April number of this Magazine 
Miss Grace Kibeham outlined the walks 
which her kindergarten had actually taken 
and we refer our new readers to that excel- 
lent article. Two words were accidentally 
omitted in the closing paragraph. We ask 
those who refer to it to add them — "The 
children reached home tired but happy." 
Miss Ketcham hopes that this additional 
word will brighten the prospect for "Fall 

In June a number of the kindergartners 
sent short reports of walks in the city 
streets, parks and suburbs. We subjoin 
several with the hope that they will prove 
the impetus needed by others. October 
and early November are line months for 
kindergarten walks and excursions. 

Give the child an experience, then talk 
about it. Let him tell of it in drawing, 
building, in cutting, in modeling, using any 
means of expressing some phase of the ex- 

i. During the year we have taken a few 
short walks. The Fourth street (Washing- 
ton Square) park is a half hour walk so we 
take that only twice a year. Short walks 
to see weather vanes, venders, stores, other 
kindergartens, around the block, and every 
day now a walk to the back yard where our 
garden bed is. 

Next week we will take our annual trip 
to Bronx Park for the day. This is always 
interesting as the suggestion of riding in 
the subway meets with great appreciation. 
— Anna C. Lee. 

2. We have been out a great deal this 
year for walks, both to the water and to the 

country. When the Stapleton Ferry was 
started we went down to the dock to see 
the preparations and the children; saw the 
"Maunetania" go out. Then we came home 
and cut and pasted ferry boats with hags 
liying. We all went over the yacht club 
house and had a good time there. We had 
a May pole in school and went for a walk 
afterwards into the fields overlooking the 
bay — here we picked daisies and other 
rlowers. Next we had a Beach party which 
was a great success and since then we have 
been out several times. Our garden came 
to grief owing to city improvements, in 
the early spring we went to look at people's 
gardens to notice the spring liowers. These 
we reproduced in color, cutting and pasting. 
— Mabel H. Crofts 

3. We have had weekly walks around 
the block and have bought farm products 
from stands and shops. Inclement weather 
postponed our trip to the Central Park 
There have been almost daily visits to the 
garden, with spading, raking and hoeing 
and planting of flower and vegetable seeds. 
The interest has been keen in the progress 
of seeds planted by other classes besides 
our own. The two young trees in the gar 
den were also great helps in the nature 
work. — helice D. McLaughlin 


Last River Park. Our sand tray farm is 
flourishing. — Sarah L. Doughty 

5. We have taken walks to the park 
near by to observe the changes in tree and 
garden; to see the birds, squirrels, tree 
pruning, grass cutting and had a whoh 
day's outing in Bronx Park, mothers in 
eluded, to see the animals and have a 

Flowers named : Dandelion, violet, tulip, 
pink, rose, lilac, dog wood, daisy, butter 
cup, geranium, nasturtium. — Daisie G. 

6. Took the kindergarten to Central 
Park to the menagerie — 34 children. — -Mar;y 
F. Schell. 

NOTE — How much this simple statement means 
to those 34 children! The distance traveled was 
about five miles going and returning 

7. We have taken several walks to Hud- 
son Park and go up on the roof frequently 
— S. T. Austin. 

8. Once a week the children usually 
have a walk. Sometimes to St. Mary's 
Park to look at the trees, the birds, the 
squirrels, and the foliage. A walk along 

We had several delightful walks to 



the Southern Boulevard, where they can 
see the sound, and also the railroad. — Edith 

9. Seven silk worms were given to us. 
One didn't live, but the others have grown 
beautifully. A teacher brings us mulberry 
leaves. One has spun its cocoon, the others 
are to go to live on the mulberry tree. We 
had our May party this month and went 
to Midland Beach. It was a beautiful day 
and everyone seemed to have a very happy 
time. The children all went in wading and 
had a ride on the merry-go-round. Three 
kindergartners from New York were down, 
too. — L. I. Hulse. 

10. We took several interesting walks 
during the fine weather. While we were 
talking about the farmer we paid some 
visits to a neighboring farm ; the head 
farmer showed the children all the animals, 
and also the farm implements and illus- 
trated the use of each. The following 
week a circus came to Van Nest so we took 
the circus animals as our topic for the week. 
This suggested a walk to the Bronx Zoo. 

We also took walks -to see the leaf and 
flower buds, and later to observe the leaves 
and flowers and to listen to the song birds. 
— Mary B. Browne. 

NOTE — Fall walks will vary from Spring walks 
but still there will be trees and flowers and birds. 
Parks and farms in the suburbs are yet full of 
life and interest to the little ones. Miss Ketcham's 
suggestion to select a special point for observation 
on each walk will give zest to the excursion, be it 
a short or long one. 

Do not press the fall leaves gathered on walks 
but encourage the children to observe and enjoy 
the curious shapes they take as they dry and curl. 
Keep a big box in the kindergarten full of autumn 
leaves and occasionally dump them out all over 
the floor and have a make-believe leaf or nut 
party, a few acorns or nuts having been placed 
under the leaves. This suggestion is, of course, 
for the city kindergartner who cannot reach parks. 
The real should come first if possible and then the 
"make-believe" play will be more fully appreciated. 

Don't forget to enjoy the rustle of the dry leaves 
and use the word rustle and rustling until it be- 
comes part of the child's vocabulary. It is well to 
train the ear as well as the eye. 



Oh, such grave little children 

There on their hands, and knees, 

Launching their make-believe galleons 
Forth upon unknown seas! 

Sails all set for the islands 

Far in the distant blue — 
And oh, how their mother will spank them, 

For each boat is a wooden shoe! 


Suj ies I 

in conformity with the plans outlined in 
the June number ui tne Jxmdergarten- 
rrmiary Magazine, 1 present 111 tub num- 
uer tiie nrst series 01 suggestions and exer- 
cises lor a more practical application of 
music to kindergarten plays. Ineir cmei 
ouject is the educational development of 
tne child tlirough the influence 01 music; 
winch, as John liarrmgton i^dwards beau- 
tnuhy expresses in "*t_iod in iuusic, "is 
spiritual 111 essence and utilizes the senses 
lor the higher education oi the soul." But 
its present application is to be broader and 
more useful. It conhnes itseii not merely 
to the spiritual, intellectual and esthetic 
side of education, but to the practical de- 
velopment of every phase directly con- 
nected with the training of the organ of 
hearing, and the accumulation of ideas ob- 
tained through impressions recorded by an 
acute sense of hearing. The sense of hear- 
ing is only second to the sense of sight in 
the acquisition of ideas, but it does not re- 
ceive the attention in the early days of 
childhood — as a medium in the acquisition 
of ideas — as the eye does. Ear-training as 
an educational element will, therefore, con- 
stitute the object of this series of papers. 
Owing to limitation of space these sugges- 
tions cannot be presented in as full detail 
as a practical application of the same might 
require. It must, therefore, be left to the 
intelligence of the teacher and mother to 
use them with as good result as their talent 
for imparting will permit. 

The true source of music is its wonder- 
ful influence on human beings, as well as 
animals, is as much a mystery as electricity, 
or God himself. There exists no better 
illustration of God's inconceivable power 
than the enapplicable power of music. The 
mystery, charm and influence of music 
should, therefore, be presented to the child 
as a creation of God; as an audible de- 
monstration of His personality. For God 
presents Himself in all created things, and 
all created things have proof of God's 
presence. In some creation he places part 
of His soul; in other part of His goodness, 
His beauty, His kindness, His firmness. 
His love, etc. But of all the created things 
God made man like Himself, and the chil- 



dren like the angels. And every man, wo- 
man and child has some of God s goodness, 
beauty, kindness, rirmness, love, etc. And 
to other things, that have no life, God has 
also given something, which we must find 
out by our five senses : the senses of seeing, 
of feeling, of smelling, of tasting, and of 
hearing. These rive senses God has given 
us to rind out all about Him and His crea- 

After having given the child a prelimi- 
nary talk in this direction, the teacher 
should give the child a practical illustration 
of the impressions obtained through the 
senses. She should impress the child 
strongly with the fact that seeing, feeling, 
smelling, tasting and hearing is not enough 
to know or understand. These functions 
are merely sense impressions, but the mind 
must first learn to see, or conceive, before 
we know a thing. No profound thought, 
nor language are required for this; but 
simple, child-like language and instruction. 
Before any illustration is attempted the 
child's attention and curiosity should be 
aroused. The teacher must have him to 
expect something new. This can be done 
by telling him that you are going to sur- 
prise him. 

Exercise I — Have any child to close his 
eyes, and placing yourself before him, ask 
him — with his eyes closed — to tell you what 
you hold before him. He will not know, nor 
permit anyone of the class to tell him. Then 
surprise him by holding before his eyes to 
see, some funny, unknown or unexpected 
object ; and impress him with the fact that 
his eyes had to see before he could see what 
it was. Then also impress him with the 
fact that, although he sees the object, he 
does not know what it is. Therefore his 
mind must learn to know too, even if his 
eyes see it. If there is a class, hide the 
object from the rest of the children also, 
so that they are as interested, attentive and 
curious as the child undergoing the test. 

Exercise 2 — Perform the same process in 
regard to the sense of feeling, by having 
the child close his eyes and letting him feel 
some object of a distinct quality, impress- 
ing the sense of feeling, such as something 
cold, smooth, sticky, rough, sharp, soft, 
some velvet, silk, etc. 

Exercise 3 — The same test should be em- 
ployed for the sense of smell, by such ob- 
jects, as vinegar, perfumery, onion, spice, 

Exercise 4 — In making the test as to th 
sense of taste such things as salt, pepper 
sometnmg bitter, sour, etc. 

Exercise 5 — The ear-test should com 
last, as in tms case the child will have re 
ceived a good idea 01 the difference be 
tween an object perceived by the sense 
and one conceived by the mind. It is abso 
iutely necessary that the child has this dis 
tinction made clear, for in the demonstra 
tion of music as an element in education i 
is not the thing that produces the soun< 
tiiat is of interest and educational value 
but the mysterious nature of the soun< 
itself that must be conveyed to the child 
and must exercise its influence. 

A — The first object in the presentatio 
of sound should be to acquaint the chil 
with the difference between sound pro 
duced on different material. The teacne 
should personify sound as the voice of Goc 
And that God has given human beings, an 
that He has not given a beautiful voice t 
some birds a beautiful voice to sing; bu 
everything he created. Church bells, fo 
instance, have a beautiful sound, but some 
things only produce noise, but no musk 
Then demonstrate the difference betwee 
sound as noise and musical sound. Soun 
that is sustained, that is, has a certain pitc 
or elevation and maintains it, is a musics 
sound. This sound can be imitated by th 
voice as regards its pitch sound. But soun 
that has no such definite pitch is not mus 
cal sound, but is merely noise. In having 
child to understand the distinction do no 
give him a definition nor explanation of an 
kind, but give him illustration in the forr 
that produces musical sound as well 
mere noise. Objects that produce clea 
musical tones are: bells, glasses, vase 
metal bars, etc. Other objects like woode 
stuffs, blocks, and drum heads, etc., pre 
duce musical tones, but they are dull, an 
not sufficiently clear for the child to catc 
the tone and imitate it. Whereas other ot 
jects of wood, mineral and metal merel 
produce a noise. 

B — After the child has learned to di 
tinguish between noise and musical sounc 
the teacher should exercise the child's sens 
of hearing by sounding all sorts of object; 
The next step should consist in selecting 
number of objects producing a music 
tone of sufficiently high pitch so that th 
child can imitate with his voice the pitch c 
the tone sounded. The teacher can als 



sing a Lone and have the class reproduce it, 
or strike a tone on the piano for the pur- 
pose. .But the tones should lie between the 
nve lines of the treble staves. When the 
child loses interest in this give each child 
an object and have him produce the tone 
himself, and sing it afterwaids. it will be 
of interest to the child to call the tone by 
the child's name, or give the tune some pet 
or fictitious name, and then have each child 
become familiar with his tone, so that when 
the teacher calls for a tone the child will 
sound it, or sing it. In this practice the 
teacher may observe the natural aptitude 
for perceiving, reproducing and memoriz- 
ing musical tone on the part of each pupil. 
A record should be kept of this for all back- 
ward pupils. But it is in the elementary 
practice that ear-training must be de- 
veloped. This exercise should be frequent- 
ly repeated in various interesting ways. 
The child should even be requested to 
bring some object that produces a tone and 
have the other children of the class to 
imitate by the voice. In connection with 
these objects I suggest the following 
music-play, which may be varied as here 

Have the child or class to speak the short 
lines given below in a regular march-like 
rhythm. For this purpose I have shown 
the particular step — R for right, L for left 
step — to keep the time, placed under the 

1. Let us hear, 
R L 

2. (Ting, ting, ting) 

3. Sweet and clear, 

R L 

4. (Ting, ting, ting,) 

5. How it rings, 

R L 

6. (Ting, ting, ting,) 

7. How it sings, 

R L 

8. (Ting, ting, ting.) 

This tone rhyme may be played in dif- 
ferent ways. One child at the time may be 
asked to sound its object in line 2, 4, 6 and 
8, while the whole class speaks the lines 1, 
3, 5 and 7. Or, the object may be sounded 
by the one child three times (in lines 2, 4 
and 6) and the whole class may then imi- 
tate the sound on the eighth line. Or again, 
the teacher may point to a different child 
every time the object is to be sounded in 
the 2, 4, 6 and 8th lines. Or, the object 
may be sounded and the whole class imitate 
it after being sounded. This would necessi- 
tate a change in the arrangement of the 

tone rhyme to 1st line the class speaking. 
2nd line one child striking the object, and 
then instead of the 3rd line being spoken 
let the whole class imitate the sound. 

It but depends on the ingenuity of the 
teacher to make a practical application of 
this simpie but effective exercise in ear- 
training, whether the result obtained will 
be worth the time employed or not. An 
exercise of this nature can be varied great- 
ly. The teacher must aim to make the play 
interesting not only in ear-training but alio 
in mental and psychological directions. 




In their new departure from home to 
school they need early to learn to subject 
their individual whims and desires that 
they become a harmonious, helpful part of 
a new group of individuals of their own age 
as well as part of the entire school. It is 
for the kindergartner to seek work to unify 
this great variety thus presented without 
sacriheing any of the individuality of her 
children. The family idea carried from home 
into the kindergarten results in the least 
break in the child's life. 

By first learning obedience to command 
(which must always be reasonable), the 
children soon feel that their greatest free- 
dom and happiness come to them in this 
new family life. 

The backward, timid children must be 
led to overcome their self-consciousness 
through the enlarged interests of the kin- 
dergarten which should always appeal 
directly to them. 

The forward, precocious children are to 
learn to restrain themselves and consider 
the rights of others. The kindergartner is 
to help each child to unfold his inner 
essence, or true life, in a happy, healthful 
manner through all the varied activities of 
work and play. 

"In good education, in genuine instruction, 
in true training, necessity should call forth 
freedom, law, self-determination, external 
compulsion, inner free-will, external hate, 
inner love." The kindergartner should, at 
every moment, in every demand and regula- 
tion, be simultaneously double-sided — giv- 
ing and taking, active and passive, positive 
yet giving scope, firm and yielding, always 



considering - the eternal interest of her chil- 

Central thought : Mother love, as mani- 
fested in preparation for the winter, in the 
home and in nature. 

Underlying thought: Interdependence of 
each upon all, and all upon each. 

Essentials to physical well being: 

1. Shelter. 

2. Clothing. 

3. Food. 

Nature's indication of approach of win- 
ter as observed (i) in shorter days, (2) cool 
days and nights, (3) falling leaves and ap- 
pearance of trees, (4) migration of birds, 
( ;) frost, (6) wind, (7) rain and clouds. 


Mother's and father's work in prepara- 
tion for winter in the home. 

Birds and squirrel's preparation for win- 

Butterfly babies — What becomes of them 
in winter. 

Nature's preparation for winter as ob- 
served by the children in the parks near by. 


The Thrifty Squirrels. 
Legend of the Oak Leaves. 
The Little Green Worm. 
The Proud Pumpkin. 

Mothers' call for Help from Mother Na- 
ture and Her Children. 


"Come Little Leaves." 

"I am the Wind." 

"The Sun Has Gone From the Shining 

"The Brown Birds Are Flying." 

"Lazy Sheep." 

"This is the Meadow." 

Knitting song. 

"Rock-a-Bye Baby in the Treetop." 

"Golden Sunshine." 

"Let Us Be Thankful." 

"Three Cheers for the Red, White and 


Dramatize finger play stories and songs. 
"Lazy Sheep." 
"Come Little Leaves." 
"Rock-a-Bye Baby." 
"I am the Wind." 
"The Brown Birds are Flying." 
Ball Games: 

Rolling in ring. 

Throwing to children — and catching. 
Bouncing and catching to rhythm. 

"Let Your Feet Tramp, Tramp." 
"Did You Ever See a Ladder?" 
"I Put My Right Hand In." 

NOTE— -Impossible to do much with games under 
existing conditions. 

Physical Exercises 

Rhythmic imitation exercise of head, 
arms, legs and body. 

Skipping, flying, hopping, running, gal- 
loping, trotting, creeping, all by suggestion 
of thing in nature which uses the particular 
means of activity. 

Group or Social Work 

Collection flowers, seeds, fruits, nuts, 
vegetables, leaves. If possible classify in 
charts, or arrange for decoration of kinder-; 
garten. emphasize co-operation in all this 
work. Help children feel the value of in- 
dividual effort toward completion of the 
whole. Study form and color and arrange- 
ment in nature. 


First Gift — Flowers, fruit, birds, babies 
with new winter dresses. Emphasize form, 
color, number. 

Second Gift — Study similarity and con- 
trast to First Gift in form and material; 
similarity to nature and life forms. 

Third and Fourth Gifts — Building 
houses, barns and objects familiar to the 
children. Observe carefully finished build- 
ing of each child, always learning what the 
child has built. 

Slats — Outline life form. Emphasize 
position, direction, number, color. 


Clay ( if available) 

Modelling simple objects resembling 

Folding and cutting and pasting window,, 
house, barn, chair, stove, table, pail, bird. 

Endeavor to make the real thing rather 
than the flat representation of the object. 
Encourage the inventive constructive 
faculty in the child. 


With slats and card-board mats, over 
one, under one. 




Fruits, vegetables, flowers. Color with 
Illustrative and conceptional. 
Illustrate finger play song-stories. 


Fruit, ball, flower (Margurite). 

Plain wash. 

Help children to gain rriastry over ma- 
erial bv giving at first very simple direc- 
ions — doing the thing with them so their 
:yes mav help their ears. 

Encourage individual work in order to 
.void dependence upon others. 

Let every object made stand for an idea 

The material is but the medium of ex- 
>ression for the spiritual. 

Help the children to always express their 
houghts or rather ideas in harmony, 
)eauty, symmetry. This implies neatness, 
are and simplicity. 



Drear October, month of sighing, 

Sere October, month of dying. 

Sighing for the fled September, 

Crying 'gainst the dread November, 

Hearsing all September's glory 

In December's bosom hoary, 

Vain would autumn ripeness beard thee. 

Winter's warning breath hath seared thee. 

Fruit and flower and srolden frondage 

Stricken, sunk in death's dull bondage. 

Yet with hope of resurrection 

Unto springtide's new perfection. 

Sere October, month of dying. 

Drear October, month of sighing, 

Sighing for life's fled September. 

Crying 'gainst the dread November; 

Must, we hearse life's summer glory 

Tn chill winter's bosom hoary? 

Vain must fruitful autumn beard thee. 

Winter's blisrhtiner breath hath seared thee. 

Love and joy and hope celestial 

Sunk in void and tomb terrestial? 

Nay! Thence cometh resurrection 

To Life's Hope born new perfection. 


I love to drift and dream 

all day. 
And watch the dashing 

silver spray: 
Sometimes it snlashes high, 

and then. 
Sinks in the silent sea again. 

foam smiles. 
While far away, for miles 
The waves break into sea- 

and miles — 


First Week — Flowers, Animals of October 

Ask children if they know name of new 
month. Ask if they noticed any birds, while 
coming to school. 

Where have birds gone ? 

What do you now see in the parks? In- 
sects and squirrels. 

What are squirrels doing? 

What color is the grass? 

Tell children to notice what the people 
were doing, while coming to school. 

Second Week — Seeds. Use 

What flowers are still with us? 

Who cares for the little seeds that are 
left of the flowers? 

What seeds do we save ? 

What seeds do we eat? (Wheat.) 

The squirrels save some seeds. They are 
called (nuts). 

Who besides squirrels gather seeds? 
Boys and girls. 

Third Week— Trees. Use 

Where do little birds live? (Trees.) 
How do they (trees) help us to live? 

To build houses. 

To give us food. 

To give us wood for fire. 

To give us shade. 

But what is done first to the tree? Cut 

Ask the names of the different parts of 
the trees? Such as roots, branches, trunk, 
bark, leaves, and uses. 

Fourth Week — Birds, Fruits 

Where have mostly all birds gone ? 

Why do they go away ? 

What birds remain with us? 

Why do some go away and some remain. 

What are birds doing now? 

What child has seen any fruit on his way 
to school ? 

What kind have we now? 

Where are fruits kept all winter? 

Life is short. Let us not throw any of 
it away in useless resentment. It is best 
not to be angry. It is next best to be 
quickly reconciled. — Samuel Johnson. 






How may the Baby's soul and brain 
Th' enigma of All Gone explain? 
Sense and meaning therein must be 
Oh. puzzle strange to baby mind! 

What but now he saw 

Is here no more; 
And what was above, below he'll find. 

That which was here 

Doth disappear! 

Where can it be? 

Oh, mystery! 

Past and Present ("contrasting) his mind now can 

hold — * 
In time he will learn they a Future enfold. 

All gone, my child, all gone! 

The supper is all gone. 

Where, O Baby, show to me — 

Wha f , inside the mouth so wee! 

Tes, then tongue the morsel guides 

Till down Baby's throat it slides. 

Down it slips; is churned and churned, 

Then to bones and blood is turned. 

Making Baby plump and sweet 

Almost good enough to eat! 

When his dimpled cheeks and eyes 

Laugh to see our great surprise. 

The movement of the hand turning from 
almost horizontal to almost vertical is 
universally known as a gesture of negation 
or one which signifies that of a certain thing- 
nothing more remains or that a certain per- 
son is no longer present. This little play, 
whose movement, it is true, exercises the 
child's wrist in onlv one arm-position other 
than that of the foregoing (the Weather- 
vane) is with the accompanying illustration 
and reflections, the complete opposite of 
that preceding. In that one there was a 
widelv-diffused Presence: here, is a lack. 
As there was there something that en- 
dured, so here, there is a general end of 
things. As there was there a lively sugges- 
tion of the present, here, there is a general 
reminder of a "had been," the Past; 
throughout, the pointing to something 
earlier, or something gone before, in con- 
trast with Now. Evervwhere is the sug- 
gestion of something that was there, but 
now is gone : the supper is gone — the plate 
is emnty — the candle extinguished — no salt 
is left. 

Even the dog. Watch, who accompanied 
the father to and from the field, has eaten 
his meal. He appears to be hungry vet, 
but — all is gone. The boy is thirsty: 
"please sister, give me some water." "It's 

*Literally, "one is in both (or two). Therefore 
is the child contented. 

all gone," she says, holding the glass upside 
down before him, to convince herself. This 
unexpected and unwelcome news has 
drawn his attention from the bread and 
butter lying behind him ; the cunning cat 
seems to have noticed this, she creeps slow- 
Iv towards it, and snatches the bread away 
to eat it. When the boy turns at last to 
get it, it will be "all gone." 

I am sorry, indeed, for the little girl 
there: she meant so well, intending to feed 
her bird, but she carelessly left the tiny 
door open as she looked down on the 
emptv glass of her sister. "Where is your 
canarv, my child?" "Oh dear! it is gone! 
It flew awav." "Come with me, little sis- 
ter," says her brother, consolingly. "Out- 
side, in an old tree, I know where there is 
a nest with a lot of little birds. I will fetch 
it to you : in place of just one, you will then 
have many. Come, only come !" See ! 
there they stand, so lost in expectation that 
the still hungry dog, following the children, 
eats the bread from the boy's hand, un- 
noticed, so that when he turns round, again 
we hear it is "all gone!" 

The brother is already up the tree. "But 
what do I find? There is nothing here; 
the birds have flown." "But one of the 
nestlings shall be mine," savs the other 
brother. See, I have caught it and hidden 
it here beneath my hat. How glad sister 
will be. bye and bye, when I give it to her. 
As srlad as I am at sight of you, you beau- 
tiful raspberries, that I find here! How 
good you will taste ! Just be patient awhile, 
in your darkness, little bird !" But now the 
wandering wind comes stealing along. 
turns the hat over, sets the bird free, and 
when the boy returns "Alas, the bird is 

"Mother, I don't want to look at the 
picture any more ; everything in it disap- 
pears and no one keeps what he has or 
wants." "Ah. my child, if we would keep 
anything we must be as careful and watch- 
ful as possible and never let oneself be mis- 
led bv covet ousness. If we wish to possess 
something in the future, we must exercise 
foresight in season. In the expectancy, un- 
fulfilled, of quenching his thirst, the boy 
forgot his bread; through carelessness the 
canary escaped from the little girl : the boy 
had no right to take the bird from the 
nest and cage it: it gained its freedom 
through its strength and courage: the dog 
ate the bread from the hand of the boy who 



ad given himself up to expectancy; and, 
nable to resist the tempting raspberries, 
be boy lost the pleasure which he thought 
o eive his sister. 

"Mother, let me look again at the flitt- 
ering, escaping bird!" 

Supplementary Remarks 


All gone! 
All the blossoms fair of Spring — 

Bloom of apple, peach and pear, 
Which to gladden Mother Earth 

Sent sweet fragrance through the air. 

All gone! 
All the dandelions bright 

Fearless 'mid green spears of grass, 
Beckoning with their golden crowns 

Every little lad and lass. 

All gone! 
But the lost may soon be found 

Though in quite another guise; 
Changed by Nature's magic wand 

But discerned by seeing eyes. 

Blossoms turned to luscious fruit, 
Grassy blades to fragrant hay, 

Dandelions flowers wee 

Changed to airships, flew away. 

All the precious hours of Spring 

Passed away to ne'er return, 
But their seeds rich fruit may bear - 

If their lessons we can learn. 

And my girlie's temper lost 

Causing grief to self and friends, 

May. regained and self-controlled, 
Be a power for noble ends. 

This Play is preceded in Froebel's plan 
>y one upon the Weathervane, which fact 
sxplains references otherwise obscure. Tn- 
ismuch as we are publishing this series of 
ranslations with special reference to grade 
vork we will not always take them in the 
;xact order given in the original but will be 
egulated by what the seasons may suggest 
ind '— the requirements of the grades. 

It will be seen that in this case the Com- 
nentarv does not in its thought exactly 
:oincide with the verses for the child. The 

unner disappears indeed, but its elements 
still exist although in a form of much more 

alue — bread and milk have become trans- 
muted into. baby's flesh and muscle which 
ire again transmuted into thought and 
smiles and nretty play. But in the Com- 
mentary, that which disappears seems to 
have gone with no suggestion of retrieving 
the loss — it is gone for good and all. There 

'We give these verses as supplementary to the 
first literal translation. The teacher may find 
them useful in her autumn lessons. 

are thus two points of view suggested and 
the teacher can therefore study and use 
the picture for two distinct purposes as 
will be pointed out below. 


The physical exercise of which the play 
is the basis is a simple wrist movement and 
we would here remind our readers that the 
exercises and plays were planned primarily 
for the little infant just learning to get con- 
trol of his body through play. But the ex- 
ercise is an excellent wrist-movement for 
all ages. Older children may vary it by a 
vigorous waving "good-bye" to the friends 
they have made during the summer vaca- 
tion — a farewell to someone who is "going 
away." They may also vigorously shake 
their hands as if flipping off water. "Where 
does the water go?" 

A little mystery play that children en- 
joy is the old nursery plav "Two Little 
Blackbirds" which we here describe for 
those to whom it may be unfamiliar, it be- 
ing appropriate to this subject. 

Two Little Blackbirds — Upon the nail of 
each forefinger paste a tiny bit of paper. 
Place the two forefingers side by side upon 
table or lap repeating: 

"Two little blackbirds sitting on a hill 
One named Jack, the other named Jill; 

Ply away Jack — 
Fly away Jill — 
Come back Jack — 
Come back Jill. 

At the words "Fly away Jack, Fly away 
Jill" ierk the right and left hands respect- 
ivelv over the shoulders. Then bring each 
back in turn but with the middle finger ex- 
tended, and the forefingers doubled beneath 
the hand, the paper scraps thus being in- 
visible. At the next words, "Come back." 
etc., bring back the forefingers, and the 
"birds" are again to be seen. You will 
probably hear, "Do it again" repeatedly, 
as the mystery of the whence and whither 
puzzles and delights the child. 

"The Brown Birds Are Flying Like 
Leaves Through the Skv," bv Elenor 
Smith: "Fly Little Birdie." (Patty Hill): 
and similar bird songs which picture the 
migration of the birds are appropriate 

"Welcome Little Travelers." a familiar 
kindergarten game, can be plaved thus: 
Send a group of children away, to whom 
the remaining ones wave a good-bye. Up- 



on the return of the absent ones (who have 
been in this case coached by the teacher) 
they are welcomed with the usual question : 

""Welcome little travelers, we come wel- 
come home. 

Tell us. little travelers, from which land 
you come." 

They will reply : 

"We have come from Tadpole Land 

the bread and butter, the birds, the candle 
are completely "gone," or merely gone in 
the sense that the baby's supper is. 

A side question of ethics may come up by 
discussion upon what happens to the bird 
unused to caring for itself, when it gets in 
the open, unable to recognize the right 
kind of food and in danger of being caught 
bv the cat or killed by native birds, as an 

where people all were Tadpoles," etc., but alien. In a later song Froebel points out 
instead of representing tadpoles they will graphically the responsibility of wisely pro- 

now act the part of frogs. Similarly, they 
mav sing: "We have come from cater- 
pillar land." but will net the part now of 
butteries. The teacher may ask. where 
have the tadpoles gone? What became of 
the caterpillars? 

This may be varied by suggestions from 
the vegetable world. The children may 
replv. "We have come from Lily-bulb 
Land, where people once were lily-bulbs." 
Let the children themselves also suggest 
different forms of life that have apparently 
"gone" but have in reality simply under- 
gone a transformation. 

Hide-and-Seek games and others such as 
"Hiding the thimble" may be played also. 

'lidving-up — The teacher may, when it 
seems fitting, playfully suggest that she 
would like to see the scraps of paper or 
other things out of place "all gone." Let 
us see if the dead leaves that dropped from 
the window-plant are "all gone;" also the 
grime from dirty hands. 

Let the teacher have a quiet game in 
which she suggests that she is thinking of 
something one foot tall, green, but in a few 
months it is yellow, is cut down, for awhile 
makes the air fragrant and then is "gone." 
But later it is found in the city where the 
horses eat it. What is it? Hav. Have 
similar guessing orames centering around 
Ihc things that disappear from one place 
and one form only to reanpear in another. 


The thought hinted at in the child's 
verses is closelv akin to that known in the 
world of Force as the "conservation of 
energy." Here we have suggested the con- 
servation or rather the indestructabilitv of 
matter, the transmutation of material 
things. The supper disappears, it is true, 
but it is by no means lost; it reappears in 
a ver" different form — in the baby's bright 
eyes and glowing cheeks. Let the older 
children study the picture and determine if 

tectinp- and caring for the animals that we 
have made dependent upon our thoughtful- 

Older children may be able to tell what 
has become of the nestlings. What of the 
burnt candle? Instead of trying at once to 
gratify childish curiosity regarding this 
mvstery, let the children feel that it is 
mysterious but that when older, through 
experiment or study they will be able to 
find for themselves the different elements 
into which it has been resolved. 

A burnt candle and a burnt house both 
are "all gone." What is the difference to 
man? In one case the consumption has 
been to him a gain, in the other case a lossJ 
A comparison may be made between the 
light-giving candle in this picture and the 
oil-lamp in the one preceding. In thej 
September Philistine. Elbert Hubbard gives- 
a sprightly historic summary of the dif4 
ferent illuminants in order of their succes- 

When the children make soap-bubbles let 
them feel the mystery of the sudden disapl 
pearance of the filmy sphere. 


As said above, the picture lesson may be 
viewed from two aspects. In the one case 
we see the natural consequences, so well 
illustrated by Froebel, that follow careless^ 
ness and unthinking greed or covetousness ; 
we see a future good lost because of present 
want of care, and forethought — a fault com- 
mon to childhood, if not to too many that 
are sunnosedly mature. It is the teacher's 
privilege, as it is that of the parent, to train; 
the child to rightly measure the compara- 
tive importance of things and events and 
the picture is an aid to this end. Let the 
children give examples of home experience 
in finding things "all gone." The boy 
comes late to breakfast and finds things 
cleared away; the girl forgets to fill the 
lamp in the morning and it soon burns out 



the evening. (Wise and Foolish Vir- 
us), ihe boy whose money goes in fool- 
1 evannescent pleasures — the penny slot- 
ichine, and frequent sodas, has nothing 
t for things worth while. The drinking, 
rousing Hessians in the Revolutionary 
ir, lost an important position by foolish 
mention to business, and England's 
ort-sighted King lost the American colo- 
ns by inability to weigh matters wisely. 

st time and lost tempers may also form 
sub-topic of this subject. 
But a larger thought ad one more con- 
•uctive in character, is contained in the 
ild's song, i. e., indestructability of mat- 

I as before suggested. Although appar- 
tly lost, matter is never "all gone;" it 
nply changes its form, sometimes becom- 
£ invisible gas. The baby's supper he- 
mes blood and muscle, bone and sinew, 
le leaves which flutter down from the 
jdiing tree become rich soil for future 
nerations, and in time the tree itself, 
len, disintegrates and Mother Nature 
autihes it with moss and lichen. The lost 
nary may never return but the child may 
,rner a lesson from sad experience that 

II enrich future life. Time once gone, 
ver returns; let us improve each moment 
at for good or ill leaves an impression 
•on the future. 

Closely linked with this thought is that 
the resurrection, the mystery of the ages, 
hen life departs from the body is it "all 
>ne?" ihe wise, thoughtful teacher must 
cide for herself which of the many sug- 
:stions in this Mother play best suit her 
ildren's needs. 



October with its gorgeous coloring is 
:re. The month is so full of interests for 
e children that it is difficult to determine 
st what subjects to present. Still, we 
:ed not be unhappy at not being able to 
11 it all in four short weeks. There will 
other Octobers for the little ones and 
any of them we hope. When we look 
to the program of September it is evident 
at the subjects suggested there carry over 
to October. There are flowers still bloom- 
g, seed pods forming, fruits to gather, 
he teacher will continue to keep these 
loughts before the children by pictures and 
Terences to them during any period of the 

day. But the plan presented here will not 
attempt to carry these subjects along with 
the new work given. Let us also remember 
that there are many more new subjects 
suggested than any one teacher should 
present, it is intended that the subjects 
more closely related to the children's 
environment will be chosen. There is, how- 
ever, one predominating thought for 
October no matter from what point it may 
be approached. Preparations tor winter is 
evident on all sides. Nature conditions in- 
dicate the approach of Jack Frost, in the 
home mother is looking over the winter 
clothes, father is mending the cracks in the 
buildings. All the windows are gone over 
to see that they are ready for cold weather. 
Winter is coming and we must prepare for 

When the flowers show the effect of the 
frost some of them can be shown to the 
children as an introduction to the subject 
of Jack Frost. The "queer little elf" has 
touched them so that they will go to sleep 
before the winter snows catch them. This 
subject will be taken up more definitely 
when the frost pictures can be seen by the 
children. The "Helper" on which the chil- 
dren's thoughts will be centered this month 
is father. His daily employments should be 
spoken of. His care for the comforts of the 
family may be shown. The fact that he 
works daily for his children can be empha- 
sized. Home comforts that the children 
could help to bring about need to be talked 
over. One child might see that father's 
paper is kept in its proper place. Another 
put his slippers by his chair when he is ex- 
pected. His house-coat should always be 
ready for him. The children must remem- 
ber that father is tired when he comes 
home. Let them try to not be too noisy. 
In many such definite ways they should be 
directed to think of father and his relation 
to the home. An animal book made by the 
children is a very interesting treasure to be 
taken home at the end of the year. This is 
easily done. Each month at least one 
animal is considered. A clear-cut stencil 
of this animal should be made and colored. 
A certain paper for mounting all of these 
animals should be decided on so that the 
pages will be uniform. On each page the 
child may draw some fitting back-ground 
such as the tall grass for the butterfly in 
the September work and the branch of a 
tree, as indicated below. Each month the 



stencil may be mounted and carefully 
marked with the child's name. At the 
close of school these can be fastened to- 
gether with paper fasteners or ribbons. 
The cover should have a picture of some 
animal cut from a picture book pasted on 
it, or the teacher might make some simple 
design and print the child's name and the 
date. This book will be a measure of the 
progress made by the child as the first at- 
tempts will be very crude as compared with 
the later ones. 

The time for taking up the different sub- 
jects selected for October depends so large- 
ly on the advance of the season that it has 
been considered better to not name the 
week in which the work shall be given, but 
rather group the subjects together that are 
naturally related. 

Subjects For the Morning Circle. 

i. Helper — Father. Talks on this sub- 
ject were indicated in the introduction. 
2. Fruit. 




(c) Gathering and storing fruits. 

(a) Maple. 

Horse Chestnut. 

I color. 

) form. 

J uses. 

( home. 

In speaking of the uses of leaves besides 
their uses to the tree, the shade and shelter 
to birds can be mentioned. The facts of 
them covering the flowers in winter, making 
earth rich, warm beds for animals, packing 
for bee-hives, hiding nuts for squirrels' use 
in winter storehouses, etc., are interesting. 
The thorns on rose leaves are contrasted to 
the smooth nut leaves. 

of Kindness. 


Little Deeds 
World. — Poulsson. 

The Good Cobbler and the Children. — 
Child's World. — Poulsson. 

How the House Was Built. — Mother's 
Stories. — Lindsay. 

The Sleeping Apple. — Child's World. — 

The Four Apple Trees.— Child's World. 
— Poulsson. 

The Apple Party. — Mother Goose Vil- 
lage. — Bingham. 

The Kind Old Oak.— Child's World.-! 

Maiden Maple Leaf. — Mother Goose Vil- 
lage. — Bingham. 

The Seed Babies' Blanket. — For the 
Children's Hour. — Bailey and Lewis. 

A story of a picture in the kindergarten. 


Blow, Wind, Blow. — Mother Goose. 
Apple Seed John.— Child's World.-! 

Play. — Froebel, 


The Family.— Mother 
Blow edition. 

There Was Once a Little Birdie. 
Echoes. — Jenks and Rust. 

The Conductor. — A Baker's Dozen for 
City Children. — Valentine and Claxton. 

In Autumn. — Holiday Songs. — Poulsson. 

The Orchard. — Holiday Songs. — Pouls- 

Come Little Leaves. — Songs and Game! 
for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 


The Conductor. — Baker's Dozen for City 
Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

Busy Carpenters. — Song Stories. — Hill- 

The Cooper. — Songs and Games for Lit- 
tle Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

The Family. — Mother Play. — Froebel, 
Blow edition. 

Sense Games — Tasting and smelling qf 

Round and Round the Village. — Chil- 
dren's Singing Games. — Hofer. 

My Ball, I Like to Bounce You. 

Swing Game. — Music for Child's Worltf 
— Hofer. 


i. Father's employments as carpenter, 
painter, etc. The children sing "This is the 
way he saws the board, saws the board, etc., 
to the music of the Mulberry Bush. 

2. Falling leaves of different colors 
represented by children with different 
colored clothing. North Wind blows them 
Flowers under the trees, blooming. Finally 
leaves nestle down and cover flowers. Snow 
falls on leaves while flowers sleep. It rests 



iere for some few moments. Warm 
pring comes. Sun shines. Melts snow, 
lowers wake up. Children go out and 
ather flowers. 

3. Gathering apples, putting in barrels, 
riving to store-house, storing them. 


Hammering, sawing, painting, etc. 
Driving horses that walk, trot, gallop. 
Pushing swings. 

Walks or Visits 

1. See men working at different em- 

2. Visit apple and pear trees. 
Visit orchard. 

Fruit dealers and buy apples. 
Farmer's store house. 
Grocer's storage. 
Stock room in school. 
Trees that are loosing leaves. 
Woods, to see leaves covering 


Illustrative Material 

1. Pictures of different trades, including 
>oper, farmer gathering and storing fruits, 

variety of fruits, a few leaves, an apple 
ee, a pear tree. 

2. Have the father of one of the chil- 
ren bring his tools to kindergarten. Secure 

carpenter if possible. 

3. Apples of different colors. 

4. Opened apple showing center. 

5. Pears of different colors. 

6. Opened pear showing center. 

7. Maple, oak, chestnut, horse-chestnut, 
)se leaves. 

Gifts and Occupations 

The children should be able to do co- 
perative work now. Let different objects 
e chosen. When completed they can be 
ombined in a sand tray picture. 

Fourth Gift — 

1. Floor of house. 

2. Door to enter store-house. 

3. Street in front of school. 

4. Fence by school. 

5. Flagpole. 

6. Home of children. 

7. Store houses. 

8. Wagons to carry stores to houses. 
First Gift. — Represent fruits and leaves. 
Second Gift. — Wagon and fruits. In- 
line plane for rolling barrels. 

The names of the different objects in the 
Second Gift should be used freely. 

Wagon made of slats and tablets or rings. 


1. Apples 

2. Pears 

Put a real stem in them to add to effect. 

3. Barrels. 

Painting — Paint clay apples and pears. 

Drawing — 

(a) Free drawing to represent subject in 


(b) Apple. 

(c) Pear. 

(d) Stencil of pear. 

(e) Stencil of maple leaf. 

Folding, Cutting, Pasting — 
(a) Farm wagon. 

Make the conventional kindergarten box. 
Paste a strip in front for shaft. Give chil- 
dren four cardboard circles for wheels. 
Paste on sides of box. Farm wagon is com- 

Tieing, Pasting, Cutting — 
(a) Swing. 

Let each child tie a piece of thread to 
either end of short twig to make the swings. 
Then paste a picture of child on seat of 
swing. Pictures should be cut at another 
time. Then swings can be tied to large 
branches that are used to represent trees 
in orchard sand picture- 
Sand — 

(a) Sifting sand like masons. 

(b) Mud pies. 

(c) Perforating. 

(d) Represent an apple orchard, as pictured 

in the song "The Orchard." 

(e) Change picture of orchard by adding 

barrels, wagons, horses, clay apples 
on ground, in wagons, a store house 
at one end of sand tray. 

(f) Represent woods with twigs that still 

have leaves on them and some that 
are bare. Fallen leaves should be 

Subjects For the Morning Circle. 

1. Nuts — 

(a) Chestnuts. 

(b) Hickory. 

(c) Acorn. 

(d) Horse chestnut. 

(e) Peanut. 

r coverings, 
) uses, 
I home. 

2. Squirrel — 

(a) Appearance. 

(b) Food. 

(c) Habits. 

(d) Home. 


Wait and See.— Child's World.— Pouls- 



The Baby Buds Winter Clothes.— Child's 
World. — Poulsson. 

The Chestnut Boys.— Child's World — 

The Squirrel.— Finger Play.— Poulsson. 

The Thriftv Squirrel.— Child's World.- - 


Mr. Squirrel.— Small Songs for Small 
Singers. — Niedlinger. 

The Squirrel.— Finger Plays.— Poulsson. 


Mr. Squirrel.— Small Songs for Small 
Singers. — Niedlinger. 

Harvest of the Squirrel. — Songs of the 
Child World.— Gaynor. 

Little Hickory Nut.— Nature Songs.— 

A Song of Chestnuts.— Song Echoes — 
Jenks and Rust. 


i. Chasing the Squirrel. — Songs and 
Games for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

2. Nut hunt. 

3. Squirrel-running game. 

4. Peanut-man. Use the Muffin Man 
dance found in the Hofer collection of Folk 
games. Substitute the words Peanut Man 
for Muffin man. The last line should run 
as follows: "Who lives on our street." 

5. In my hand the ball I hold. 

6. Racing game. 

7. Drop the handkerchief. 

8. Sense game — running lightly like 


Children gathering nuts. Squirrels gath- 
ering nuts. Story of Bushy, Frisky, Dick. 
Squirrels sitting on haunches eating nuts. 


Squirrels running. 
Squirrels jumping. 

Walks or Visits 

Woods to see nut trees, etc. 
Park to see squirrels. 
Shop where pet animals are sold to see 

School cabinet of nature materials. 

Hickory nuts. 

Horse chestnuts. 

Coverings of nuts. 
Nuts eaten by the squirrels. 
Pictures — Nut party in the. woods, nut 
trees, squirrels, home of squirrels. 

Gifts and Occupations 

First Gift. — Form and colors of balls 
compared with nuts and their coverings. 

Fourth Gift — (1) Co-operative work. 
Build stone wall by placing bricks on long, 
narrow faces. Connect with work of squir- 

2. Make a grove of nut trees. 


Illustrative Material 


3. Continue buildings of previous 
weeks, bringing them to more realistic 


1. Squirrel. (Keep a large picture of 
squirrel before children.) 

2. Chestnut burr with nuts added. 

Pictures of children from fashion books. 

Squirrel — Mount on a branch of a tree. 

Branch of tree to mount squirrel. 


1. Supports on back of pictures of chil- 
dren cut from fashion plates. 

2. Boats — Make boats from English 
walnut shells, thus: Open shells carefully 
so as to not break edges. Secure one rose 
leaf for each child. Let him place a gener- 
ous drop of glue in the bottom of his shell. 
Stand the leaf upright in the glue and hold 
till glue hardens. This will make a charm- 
ing boat. 


(a) Scene representing woods with 



ts and leaves on trees and ground made 
branches from nut trees. Place squirrels 
>propriately. The clay ones and the 
encils made by the children should be 
;ed. Pictures of children cut out and 
Hies can represent children in the woods 
ithering nuts. A store house for the 
uirrels could be made of small stones. 

(b) Continue plays of previous week. 

(c) Place a large pan of water in sand 
r sailing shell boats. 

I'd) Let children use toys in sand. 

3. Shepherd dog. 

Duties — Assist the shepherd. 


Mollie's Lamb. — Child's World. — Pouls- 

The Little Shepherd.— More Mother's 
Stories. — Lindsav. 

Cleverness of a Dog. — Child's World. — 

The New Red Dress — For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey. 

The Lambs. — Finger Plays. — Poulsson. 

(e) Children use acorns for cups and 
lucers and sand for refreshments at a tea 
irty in sand box or at toy table. 
Subjects for the Morning Talk 


(a) Appearance. 

(b) Food. 

(c) Habits. 

(d) Home 

(e) Wool 
j Shearing. 

! I Uses. 

, Prevent wandering. 

J Find good pasture. 

'Guard against wolves. 

Pattie's New Dress. — More Mother 
Stories. — Lindsay. 

The Boy Who Cried Wolf. — Easop's 

Red Riding Hood. 

Mary Had a Little Lamb. 
The Lambs. — Finger Plays. — Poulsson. 
Baa, Baa, Black Sheep. — Mother Goose. 
Bo Peep. 

Mother Goose song in the opera Wang. 

6 4 


The Barnyard Song 1-4 verses. — Holiday 
Songs. — Poulsson. 

Little Bo-Peep. — N atnre Song s. — 

The Little Lamb. — Small Songs for 
Small Singers. — Niedlinger. 

The Happv Lambkins, 1st verse. — Songs 
of the Child World.— Gaynor. 


Little Boy Bine. — Songs and Games for 
Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

The Farmyard. — Mother Play. — Froebel, 
Blow edition. 

My Ball I Like To Toss You. 
Sense game. Feeling 
( Wool. 
] Silk. 
' Cotton. 

Blind Man's Buff. 



Shepherd and dog cai ing for sheep. 

Barnyard song. 

This is the meadow. 


Baa, Baa, Black Sheep. 

Walks or Visits 

Park or meadow to see sheep and shep- 
herd with his dog. 
Sheep fold. 
Feed store. 
Dve shop. 
Woolen mill. 

Illustrative Materials 

Tov sheep and dogs. 
Hay and cornmeal. 

Woolen materials. 
Small weaving frame. 
Have shepherd dog make a short visit to 

Pictures of sheep, meadow, sheep-fold, 
shearing process, hay rack, shepherd and 
his dog, wolf, Red Riding Hood. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Fourth Gift — 

1. Fence around meadow. 

2. Sheep fold. 

3. Dog house. 

Sticks — Red Riding Hood's home. 
First Gift— Play "This is the Meadow.' 
Second Gift — Add string to sphere anc 

Slats — 
Hay rack : 

Barnyard gates 


^ — ssr izr 


^ — ss 

Hay racks 

Barnyard gate : 

Stencil — Sheep — Mount of green hill. 
Drawing — 

(a) Free illustration of stories an 
rh vines. 

(b) Suggest different characters foun 
in stories. 

Cutting — 

1. Pictures of characters drawn by chil 
dren as suggested under Drawing. Use i 
sand work at free play times. 

2. Coat, trousers, mittens. 

3. Red Riding Hood's, basket. 
Fold, Cut, Paste— 

1. Sheep fold — This is made by foldin 
the 16 squares and lapping the ends so a 
to form a sloping roof. 

Sand — 

(a) Represent a meadow with rollin 
hills and a stream made of tinfoil or blu 
paper. Have a flock of sheep either toys c 
stencils made by children. Add a shepher 
and a dog. A fence can be made by sticl 
ing slats at the edge of the sand. 

(b) Sheep fold — Build with Fourt 
Gift blocks a large building. Use the ha 
rack made of slats. Place hay back of 
and sheep in front as though they were ea 
ing hav. Make fence as for meadow. Us 
barnyard gates made of slats. Place ti 

basin for water trough 
and dog on guard 

(c) Free Play as usual. 

Have a shepher 




Forestry is attracting wide attention 
nong the schools of the United States, 
ot only have many colleges and univer- 
ties introduced courses and even profes- 
onal schools of forestry, but elementary 
lases of the subject have been intro- 
uced into hundreds of the graded and 
gh schools, and teachers give enthusiastic 
ports of the success which is attending 
le new study. Public school teachers say 
at they have found in it a subject interest- 
g to children, and one which furnishes 
uch attractive, tangible material to work 
Don, developing the child's observation, 
id being at once acceptable to the young 
ind, and most practical. 
The public schools of Washington, D. C, 
id of parts of Iowa are in the vanguard 

this movement. Every graded school in 
Washington and a large number of the 
iral schools of Pottawattamie county. 
>wa, are now teaching the elements of 
irestry. In Iowa, the subject is being 
ught as a commercial course in connec- 
on with home geography and agriculture, 
hile in the Washington schools it is used 

the nature study courses. The four 
Dper grades of the Washington schools 
- e studying the forest and this year all are 
llowing practically the same outline ; next 
:ar this outline will be confined to the 
tth grade, while the other grades will fol- 
iw an outline one step advanced, and so 
1 until by the fourth year a four-year 
Durse will have been introduced. As a 

eparation for this work, forestry has been 
ught in the Normal School of the District 
Columbia for several years past, and 
hen the young student teachers take up 
le actual work of teaching they are al- 

adv familiar with the details of elemen- 
iry forest study. Prominent among the 
ther normal schools of the country to take 
p work of this kind are those of Cleveland, 
)hio; Rochester, N. Y. ; and Joliet, 111. 

There is a section in the Forest Service 
f the United States Department of Agri- 
Lilture which works in co-operation with 
:hools in teaching forestry and its related 
objects. This co-operation is not limited 
3 technical schools of forestry; it is equally 
pen to primary and kindergarten grades ; 

is as willing to help teach tree study in 

first year nature-study class as to assist 

in the establishment of a professional forest 

This section of education, as it is called. 
is now working out model courses of study 
for graded and high schools, in co-opera- 
tion with the public schools of Washington, 
D. C, and Philadelphia, Pa. The work in 
Philadelphia is being conducted by W. N. 
Clifford, head of the Commerce Depart- 
ment of the Southern High School where 
he is building up a modern equipment and 
evolving a practical system for the teaching 
of forestry in high schools. 

In Washington, the Section of Education 
is directing a similar work for graded 
schools in four of the public schools of 
that city. Besides special lessons in the 
class room, the pupils collect and mount 
specimens of leaves, twigs, bark, and seeds, 
and, in connection with wood working, 
wood specimens of different commercial 
trees are prepared and placed in cabinets 
Opposite each wood section is placed the 
name of the wood, its qualities, and uses. 
Extensive field work is planned for the 
spring months, and the different classes 
will be brought out into the woods, there 
to study the trees at first hand. As these 
courses are built up and tested they will 
be published from time to time for distribu- 
tion among teachers, and it is expected that 
the practical line along which the courses 
are being evolved will win for them a wide 
application in other schools. 


"Lesson Stories for the Kindergarten Grades of 
the Bible School, "by Lois Sedgwick Palmer (kin- 
dergartner). This is a little volume that Sunday 
School teachers of children from four to five years 
of age will find helpful. Being the work of one 
in the ranks, kindergartners will find much that 
is familiar in plan and in spirit. The general 
subject for the year is "God the Creator Providing 
All Things for All His Creatures." The principal 
topics in the order in which they are taken up and 
to each of which several lessons are given with 
an additional review are: Creating the great round 
ball, and the plants, fishes and other animal life: 
providing food for all; providing drink for all 
(story of clouds and streams); providing clothing 
for all; shelter for all; rest for all, and pleasure 
for all. There are special lessons for Thanksgiving. 
Christmas and Easter. There is a memory verse 
for each lesson, a song, with words, a prayer in 
most cases, suggestions for home work, for illustra- 
tive material, for story material and also for study 
m aterial for the enrichment of the teacher's own 
thought. The lessons are simple in treatment and 
are elastic in plan. The writer's belief is that 
"the basic principles of reverence, trust, love, 
thankfulness, unity and obedience are the ones to 
be first presented to the young child's mind," and 
that this is best done by simple stories from. the 



Bible and Nature. The book would seem to serve 
this purpose admirably in the hands of a sym- 
pathetic and competent teacher. Published by 
The Macmillan Co. 

"Educational Wood Working for Home and 
School," by Joseph C. Park. This is a book which 
any boy who enjoys working with tools will want 
to own and any boy who does not "take to" tools 
should own. It is a text book to be put into the 
hands of pupils in manual training courses as 
printed subject matter with which they are sup- 
posed to make themselves familiar as with other 
text-books. There is an interesting introduction, 
which gives a brief survey of history to show what 
tools have meant to man in the progress of events, 
with some excellent suggestions to students that 
will help them to realize what their work may 
mean in helping their habits and character that 
are worth while. There are many, many pages 
giving illustrations and descriptions as to the 
working of and care of every possible kind of tool 
with occasional pictures of the men who have in- 
vented certain ones. Other pages describe dif- 
ferent kinds of wood, the shrinkage, weight, etc. 
The various fastening devices, such as nails, screws, 
plue, cleats, dowels, etc., are defined and illus- 
trated, while other pages teM of varnishes and 
shellacs. Woodworking machines are pictured, 
there is a brief history of wood turning and its 
tools, and a number of exercises are given for 
knife work for schools without shops. The book 
should prove a very valuable supplement to the 
teacher's work in class. The MacMillan Co. Price 

In the June number of Hygiene and Physical 
Education Dr. Robert W. Lovett of Boston states 
the grounds for the recent consolidation of 
"School Hygiene" with Hygiene and Physical Edu- 
cation. He reviews fully the work and purpose 
of "School Hygiene" as conducted during the past 
year and states that in its continuance as a de- 
partment of Hygiene and Physical Education "it 
will be conducted along the broadest possible 
lines." and bespeaks for it the support of all old 
subscribers to "School Hygiene." 

"Why Study Growth?" is the title of a very 
suggestive paper by Prof. J. M. Tyler of Amherst 
College. "Growth" is even more fundamental than 
Development. It furnishes the material whose de- 
velopment results in the complete organ or indi- 
vidual. The chief business of the child is evidently 
growth, and he needs above all pure air of the 
right temperature, moisture, etc.. proper light, 
proper seating in the school room, and play. 
Growth is promoted mostly by plays and games in 
the open air, or in large, well-ventilated school 

Prof. W. P. Bowen, of the Michigan State Nor- 
mal College, presents a most helpful exposition of 
what constitutes fatigue and what counterfeits it. 
Some people are evidently simply born tired. "There 
is much misinformation as to what fatigue is. It 
is not simply a 'feeling of uneasiness' and dis- 
comfort. There is a motor as well as a sensory 
side which is even more important." Some of the 
counterfeits of fatigue are drowsiness, weakness 
to work, termed ennui by the French, mudigkeit 
by the Germans; lack of suitable food, loss of 
and discomfort from breathing bad air; aversion 
sleep, faulty nutrition, indigestion, adenoids and 
the early stages of many diseases. One of the 
commonest forms of fatigue in children arises from 
the suppression of natural activities by the main- 
tenance of one position for long periods. 

The evolution of St. Paul (Minn.) playground 
presents the typical struggle of a playground to 

create and maintain its proper function in the li 
of a great city. The June number presents son 
interesting features such as "A Complete Horn 
made Playground Equipment for $179.40." 
Playground Benefit Baseball Game by the May 
and prominent business men, netting $500," ai 
"A Fourth of July Play Festival Which Solv 
the Cannon Cracker and Pistol Nuisance." 

Dr. J. H. Kellogg in the continuance of h 
"Suggestions Toward Checking Race Degenera 
Due To the Conditions of School Life." analyzes 
an exhaustive way the effects of the school de 
upon the abdominal circulation of blood. He i 
tributes a large part of the loss of memory, ment 
confusion, inability to concentrate the mind, ei 
to position in school seats. 

National health and vigor can be insured 
the establishment of a national system of physu 
education under government supervision, as th 
have it in Sweden and Germany. This position 
defended by Mrs. Francis W. Leiter and also 
the leading editorial. The subject is a vital o 
and the treatment thoughtful and suggestive. T 
Department of Physical Education of the Natioi 
Education Association has appointed a cornmitl 
to memorialize congress, presenting the urgent < 
mand for the establishment of a department 
physical education under the United States Bure 
of Education or under the new Bureau of Hea! 
which is being advocated by the Committee 
One Hundred. 

One Room Rural School 



Teachers all over the country are awakening 
the necessity of constructive work in all grac 
The beginning in this important line of w( 
should be in the first grade. 

What is constructive work? It is the rxpr^s: 
of thought through the hand by the use of so 
plastic material. 

What are the aims of such constructive woi 
Some of the most important aims are: 

(a) To satisfy the desire to express sel 
dividuality in labor. 

(b) To satisfy the love to create. 

(c) To foster originality, which is in ev 
human soul, and is awaiting a means of expressi 

(d) To correlate the class work with 
manual modifying or so-called busy work. 

(e) To relate more closely the home with 

With the definition and the aims in mind, 
us consider some of the ways we may utilize 1 
line of work in a practical manner in the scl 

My first caution is to be content with cr 
expression in the beginning. For the highest i 
of this work is destroyed if the work is imitat 
Out of crude but original work done in fir~t prim 
grades will come artistic expression in the up 

How many first grade teachers have a doll ho 
in their school rooms? Not an expensive one t 
has been purchased at a toy shop, but one mad< 
a large wooden box, which some child has dona 
After the box has been brought into the scl 
room, have one of the older boys measure and 
the windows in it. Call for suggestions as to 
papering of the walls, curtains, floor covering, x 
decorations and furniture. 

It is necessarv for the children to decide whel 
they wish the house to be inhabited by paper 
china dnlls. Also decide which room this is to 



ether parlor, bed room, or kitchen. If they de- 

e parlor, after it is properly furnished, another 

m may be added. This may be done until you 

e a house of four rooms. 
Teachers who have not tried this plan will be 
onished at the materials brought and made by 
i children, the taste, suggestions for home mak- 
and the ingenuity displayed by them. 

Qach week some little girl may be appointed to 

e for the house, 
[n what way may the furnishing and caring for 
s little home correlate with the formal teaching? 
ese are some of the practical lessons a certain 
it grade teacher has worked out with her pupils, 
t of the variety of wall paper brought in by the 
ldren, came the lessons in color and design. 
A color lesson used as busy work in connection 

h the doll house, was the following: Each 
Id had a sheet of 6x9 drawing paper and a box 

Dixon's colored crayons. The children tinted 
ir papers a light green. Each child was then 
en a small conventional fleur-de-lis, which the 
cher had cut out of cardboard. This was placed 

the tinted paper by the child to make a simple 
11 paper design. From this lesson came addi- 
nal lessons of whether this design was to be 
3d for side wall, ceiling, or border pattern. 
With pegs and sticks children may originate de- 
ns for either wall or floor covering, drawing 
sm on squared paper, and perhaps at another 
le working out these same patterns in color. 
With slats, children may weave shades for the 
;le windows. 
The floor of the doll house gives abundant scope 

lessons in color and design. As the children 
ng in carpet for one room the teacher may direct 
i children's attention to the harmony with the 
II covering, the appropriateness of color to the 
ictical use of the room. The children may decide 
paint the floor, in which case it gives an impetus 
the weaving of a little rug. 

It is not necessary to buy looms for weaving. 
irenious teachers may make them out of cigar 
xes or chalk boxes. Take the bottom from the 


For Educational Color Work, 
Stenciling, Arts and Crafts 

The colors in this crayon 
are permanent and brilli- 
ant, easily applied, no wait- 
ing for colors to dry; no 
running 1 ; no smearing. 

Put up in stick form in a 
variety of 24 colors. 

Particulars to those in- 
terested, or send 25c in 
stamps for a box contain- 
ing the 24 colors. 

Dustlass Chalk 

Hygenic, Economical, En- 
dorsed by teachers every- 

Samples to teachers inter- 
ested in a sanitary school- 

Hard Drawing Crayon 

For Pastel effects. 
81 Fulton St. New York 

box and along two opposite edges about 14 inch 
apart drive tiny tacks. String up your loom with 
twine. Weave with yarn, zephyer, or strips of cot- 
ton cloth. 

Another rug could be made for the bed room or 
kitchen by braiding rags and twisting and sewing 
them in spiral fashion. The girls could bring 
their own material from home and make curtains 
for the windows. 





*|f Within the attractive covers of this book are 
contained thirty songs, such as children can sing 
with ease, and upon subjects which will both in- 
terest and stimulate the child-mind. Musically 
they show fresh and bright melody with a well- 
written but not difficult piano part. 
*|fThe verses are gracefully worded, treating 
largely of familiar things in a vivacious, enter- 
taining, and informing manner. Many of the 
songs may be used as action songs in costume for 
special occasions ; each one of these is equipped with 
explicit directions for costuming, music, jump- 
ing and action, making a very pleasing entertain- 
ment. This feature alone enhances the value of 
the book to many times its price, and a careful 
examination is urged upon all those interested in 
the instruction or pleasure of children. 
Descriptive Circular H contains list of all our books for 
children. Send for it. Free on request. 


CHAS. H. DITSON f^ Co., New York 

J. E. DITSON & CO., Philadelphia 

Order of your home dealer or of the above houses 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 

"PAT'S PICK, 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 
118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing SO of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

Bestjmedicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 

in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 


I told my pupils that we would 
play the schoolroom was the 
United States. I named a different 
state for each child to visit, and 
told them to go to the place in 
the room nearest the direction in 
which it was from their home. 
After all had gone and mistakes 
were corrected, I told them to 
return and tell us what they had 
seen. The one visiting Florida 
saw oranges, the one visiting 
Colorado saw Pike's Peak, and so 
on. After each had told his ex- 
periences I gave them new places 
to visit. We all had a good time. 
— Ivy L Perkins, in Oregon 
Teacher's Monthly. 

When it is as broad as it's long 
it must be the square thing. 


Vocal Training in the Kinder- 
garten and Primary Grades 
of Schools 
William M. Lawrence. 

Price 25 Cents. 

This is a series of six little songs 
written for the special training of vowel 
pronunciation in singing — they afford 
equal benefit for similar vowel training 
for the reading voice as well. 

Training of this nature given in the 
form of song, not only takes away the 
dryness of vowel practice when exercised 
alone, but arouses enthusiasm and eager- 
ness on the part of pupils to do the work. 
in fact the enjoyment realized does away 
with the consciousness of work and the 
educational benefit is all the more 
marked as well as more easily attained. 

Strong claim can be made for the 
merit of these songs, they are tunefut 
and childlike, and are written with musi- 
cianly polish. The verses are written 
with the view of bringing in the par- 
ticular vowel as often as possible. 


Words by Anna B. Badlam 
Music by Carrie Bullard. 

Price 50 Cents. 

These songs, 15 in number, show the 
result of unified co-operation between 
author and composer. They give every 
evidence of combined and harmonious ef- 
fort. The poems are thoroughly child- 
like in character; are written with the 
experience of one who is in close touch 
with modern child training and contain 
the excellence in thought and literary ex- 
pression which meet present day require- 
ments in Kindergartens and Schools. 

The melodies are strictly in keeping, 
possessing childlike simplicity without 
being commonplace, and are furnished 
with accompaniments that show the fin- 
ish and polish of the capable, talented 

A decided acquisition to the collections 
of Children's Songs. 

Published by 

Clayton F. Summy Co., 

220 Wabash Avenue, 

Chicago III. 


There is no prettier feature for 
a program than a pantonine. 
Best of all, it is the most easily 
arranged of all attractive enter- 
tainments. The common way of 
presenting a pantomine is to take 
some pretty and well-known song, 
and while a singer or a chorus 
sings the words at one side of the 
platform, or behind the scenes, 
the actors on the platform carry 
out the sentiment of the words by 
the use of appropriate gestures. 
Only one rehearsal with the sing- 
ing is necessary, and two re- 
hearsals with the director repeat- 
ing the words of the song are 
sufficient. Require all the actors 
to commit the words of the song. 
In rehearsing tell each to watch 
his own gestures and not to per- 
mit his gaze to wander. The song 
will be most effectively rendered 
as a solo and chorus, with piano 
and cornet accompaniment. — 
Oregon Teacher's Monthly. 


1 have found the following 
word game a very interesting and 
instructive one for my first-grade 
children. When they are able to 
recognize as many as sixty words 
I cut little two-inch squares of 
cardboard and place on each card 
one of the words with which they 
are acquainted. I mix with these 
some new words. When we are 
ready for the game I give each 
child an equal number of words 
and divide the school into equal 
sides. I then call for the words 
in this way: "I want the word 
that tells the name of an animal 
that catches mice." The child 
having the word "cat" raises his 
hand and is given credit for one. 
A pupil is appointed collector, 
and as the words are used, he 
collects them. If any one fails 
to recognize his word, when it is 
called, or gives in the wrong 
word, one is taken from his side. 
In this way they learn to 
recognize words rapidly, and also 
learn the meaning of many words. 
— Canadian Teacher. 


This is a plan which I have 
Zou?Jd very effective in teaching 
a review. I have the children 
bring to class a number of ques- 
tions (usually ten) on the review 
which they consider would be 
good for examination. Each one 
is to be prepared with the answers 
to his questions. When thev come 
to class we usually have each one 
in turn ask a question and ask 
some one to answer it. This has 
proved very successful as every- 
one is very much interested in 
bringing questions and they feel 
that they have a part in the "work 
— Ina J. Wilcox. 

The Atlas School Supply Co. 
have recently erected a very large 
and complete factory in Chicago 
for the manufacture of school 
goods. They make many things 
that are interesting to kindergart- 
ners and primary teachers, and 
will send their new catalogue free 
to any address. 

or the Game of Telling Time 

The object of this new and original 
invention is to furnish new and inter- 
esting and amusing entertainment to 
Adults, to excite the interest of child- 
ren and, by taking advantage of this 
interest, help to educate them. Teach- 
ing valuable lessons without the aid of 
older persons. 

It is a game for ANY LANGUAGE, 
so simple that all can play, requiring 
no skill nor science, so amusing that 
both the Parent and the Child are enter- 
tained while playing together. 

Timo-Qraph has merit. It is an Enter- 
tainer and an Educator. 

With TlMO-GRAPH the child learnsto 
read figures, to count and add the Ara- 
bic numerals. He learns the face of the 
clock, that fifteen minutes make one 
quarter of an hour, that thirty minutes 
make one half hour, that sixty minutes 
make one hour and that twenty-four 
hours make a clay. Retail price $i-oo. 




You Can Work Wonders 
in Your Class Room, 

Whatever the Age, 

by using 

Harbutt's Plasticine 

"The periect modeling material." 

Always ready for use. No water required. 

If your dealer cannot supply you 

write to us. Ask for Booklet K. 

The Embossing Company, 


CAUTION.— Ask for HARBCTT'S and 

avoid unsatisfactory substitutes. 



From $8.00 to $05 00. 


From $23 to $t25.0M 

Write for free 




Northvilte, Mich. 

Pardon our use of slang, but if you 
have school books you don't need, don't 
burn them. You can sell them for cash 
or exchange for others you want. 

Send for list of Books Wanted (giving 
prices paid), also, if interested, for Bar- 
gain List of Books for sale at Low Prices. 

C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Co., 

262 Wabash Avenue Chicago, 111. 


Vowel Songs. For vocal train- 
I in the kindergarten and 
mary grades of schools, by Wm. 
wrence. These little pieces are 
)rt enough to allow them to be 

d daily. Will give needed 
ictice in the long voweled tones 

each one. The voweled tone 
>d for special study, is found 
t only at the end of the line 
t frequently elsewhere in the 
se; price 25c. Clayton F. 
mmy Co., Chicago. 

Nature Songs and Lullabies. 
>rds by Anna B. Badlam; music 
Carrie Bullard, a collection of 
ldren's songs relating to na- 
e, all complete with music and 
special interest to the children; 
ce, 50c. Clayton F. Summy 

ilts and Lyrics. By Alice C. D. 
ey, and Jessie L. Gaynor; over 
songs for little children appro- 
ate for the holidays, occupa- 
is, nature study, etc. Many 
ne songs; full cloth; price, 
00. Clayton F. Summy Co., 

aggards in Our School. A 
dy on retardation and illumina- 
in city school systems, by 
inard P. Ayers, A. M., Secre- 
y, Backward Children Investi- 
ion, Russell Sage Foundation. 
) pages, $1.50 postpaid. Chari- 
Publication Committee, New 
•k City. 

ittle Stories About Little Ani- 
ls for Little Children, by Susan 

ton. Ten interesting stories 
h wholesome lessons for little 
Idren. The Children's Publish- 

Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

'he Garden of Eden, by Geo. 
jges, 40 stories from the first 
e books of the bible, illustrated 
Walter S. Everett. Houghton 
flin Co., Boston, Mass. Every 
Id (or parent, for that matter) 

has read the Gospel stories 
Dean Hodges told them in 

hen the World Was Young" 

1 find a similar enjoyment in 
new book. 

?he Bunnikins-Bunnies in 
np, by Edith E. Davidson with 
ull-page illustrations in color 
I over 60 other pictures and 
orations by Clara E. Atwood. 
lare 18mo, 50 cents net. Post- 
i 7 cents. A delightful book 
cribing the adventures of a 
lily of bunnies and squirrels 
ile camping out for the sum- 
r. A story little tots will want 
hear again and again. The 
strations are fascinating, 
ughton Mifflin & Co., Boston. 

£eep your word and your word 
1 keep you. 

t is better to make a few mis- 
38 than to do nothing at all. 


Do you ever notice that your 
music conies principally from one 
corner or one division of pupils, 
i he others being content to listen? 
It may be that the selection is not 
a general favorite, or that they 
are not tuned up just then. They 
soon will be if you call on a 
grade to stand and sing as the 
choir in church, the remainder of 
the school doing congregational 
singing, then reversing the order. 
Each child does his best to sing 
sweetly, not too loud, and we 
often have a solo and chorus. Do 
you ever allow one grade to sing 
softly while another studies some 
difficult word or selection over 
and over again? "Music hath 
charms" and can be made to 
smooth many rough roads. — E. 
Maie Seyfert. 



Was it in school? No. In 
books? No. Has the child of to- 
day any better advantage of ac- 
quiring the knowledge? No. It 
is very common for children to 
know letters and numbers at five 
years of age, but how many can 
tell the time of day, even at the 
age of ten? Perhaps you know 
how long it takes and how difficult 
it is, generally, for the average 
child to learn to tell the time. 

The Monroe Co., Huntsville, 
Ala., have a device for overcom- 
ing this difficulty. Notice their 
advertisement of Timo-Graph. 

If you are acquainted with 
Happiness introduce him to your 

(An Exercise) 

History of the United States 


A Patriotic Exercise for thirteen boys 
of the fourth, fifth and sixth or seventh 
grades, girls may take part if neces- 
sary. Suitable for any time of the year, 
but especially adapted to 
Lincoln, Washington and Decoration Day 

It is also fine for last da}' of school. 
Something entirely new. Nothing like 
it has ever appeared before. An inter- 
esting, instructive, patriotic exercise, 
right along the line of school work. The 
boys become enthusiastic over it. A 
view of United States History from the 
discovery of America down to the pres- 
ent time. Mostly in verse making it 
easily learned. An opportunitj' is fur- 
nished for concert and individual 
speaking. Songs are interspersed but 
may be omitted if necessary. Has 
proved a great success wherever recit- 
ed. Is easily staged. Time for recita- 
tion about 25 minutes. Send for copies 
and make it the basis of your next pro- 

Price, 15c ; two copies, 25c ; $1.00 for 1 en 

Copyrighted and Sold by 

E. A. CROWL, Principal of 
Washington School, Pana, 111. 

k BSann's Noiseless , 
Blackboard Eraser ( < '" 

and a Pint Pkg. Rowles' Inkessence ) lout » 

The above mentioned arti- 

meritthatthey are used in 
the schools of 1 ea/ling cities. 

Special offer ii made to 
acquaint school people with 
the great merit of the good*. 



3BS-2K5 Murket 8t.. CHICAGO. r j 



And all kinds of Construction 

material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teaehers. Catalogue 

Free, Address, 

Garden City Educational Co. 

169 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO. 

Spool Knitting 

By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting Is well suited for use as 
constructive work in the primary grade, 
and kindergarten. It is so simple that 
small children can do it well. They can 
make articles which are pretty and 
which interest them, without the strain 
that comes from too exact work. The 
materials are easily obtained and pleas- 
ant to work with. The directions given 
are clear and easily followed. 

Facing each description there are one 
or more photographs showing the article 
as completed or in course of construction. 

Here are some of the articles which 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's Ball, 
Doll's Muff, Tarn O'Shanter Cap, Child's 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Hood, Doll's 
Jacket, Child's Muffler, Mittens, Lrittle 
Boy's Hat, Little Girl's Hat, Child's 
Hood, Jumping Hope, Toy Horse Reins 
School Bag, Doll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 net. 



New Geography Helps 

Small lithograph state maps on 
heavy cardboard, price only 25 cents 
per dozen. These are invaluable in 
teaching geography: the maps are con- 
siderably larger than those found in 
the geography, and enables the teacher 
to emphasize and specially interest the 
children in the geography of any par- 
ticular srate under consideration. 

The following states are now 
ready: — New Jersey, Wisconsin, Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Mass., Iowa, 
Rhode Island. Other states in pre- 

McConnell School Supply Co. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Teachers Should be Familiar With 

In the Kindergarten 

"Helpful Rhymes and Tuneful Notes 
for Little Hands and Little Throats" 

This new volume, by the composer of "Tunes and Rhymes, For the Play 
Room," so familiar to every teacher, will receive a hearty welcome. "In the 
Kindergarten" contains 16 strictly first grade pieces written in C, F and G, 
so arranged that they may be sung or played separately or both together. 
All within the range of a child's voice. Easy, instructive and entertaining 
compositions. Clever words and bright melodies. Printed on extra heavy 
paper, artistically bound, with an' illustrated cover in three colors. 

Price, 50 cents, postpaid. 

School Time and Play Time 

40 Songs for the Little Ones in 2 volumes, 20 in each 

Words by George Cooper Music by Charles E. Pratt 

A collection of simple, melodious and appropriate songs for primary 
schools, seminaries, kindergartens and home use. r j "Mother Tree," "Pretty 
Robin." "Hurrah for the Flag," "A Hearty Laugh," etc., are some of the many 
good things contained in this book. These'songs are in NO OTHER COL- 
LECTION, and CANNOT be had separately. 

Price 50 cents per volume, postpaid. 


Juvenile Rhymes and Jingles 

Composed and Compiled by Geo L Spaulding. Two volumes with music. 

In announcing this collection of children's familiar playtime songs, we must 
be pardoned if we are enthusiastic, but wefcannot help feeling we are contrib- 
uting something beneficial and educational, at the same time affording enter- 
tainment for the little ones. 

That these jingles have never before been collected and published is sur- 
prising in the extreme, but such is the fact, and that the young folks will wel- 
come these volumes with open arms is a foregone conclusion. 

The piano accompaniments are both easy and effective. 

Price 50 cents per volume, postpaid. 


(With Dances Ad Libitum) in two volumes, 75 cents each 
By Chas. Noel Douglas & Karl Hoschna 


(With Dances Ad Libitum) in two volumes, 75 cents each 
By Chas. Noel Douglas & Karl Hoschna 

Action songs with dialog are now a fixture with schools, therefore these 
four volumes will surely be as"popular as the "Golden Rule." :t >;• - j .- > 

The Crest books are for general purpose and the Holiday collections for 
festival and patriotic occasions. 

These books have been -adopted everywhere by both public and private 
schools, kindergartens, etc. 

We will be pleased to send them on approval upon receipt of request and the customary reference. 
We can supply you with anything in the Music Line. Send for our Catalogs. 



Dept. T. 

59 Witmark Building, 144-146 West 37th Street, New York 


he Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

levoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. T. 

Business Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 


LYEIX EAKLE, Ph. D Managing Editor 

5NNY B. MERRILL, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

IARIRUEF HOFER Teachers' College 

and New York Froebel Normal. 

^EKTHA JOHNSTON, — Kindergarten iraga zin 

IISS MARY MILLS, ...Principal Connecticut Froebel Norma - 

J All communications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
r other business relating to the flagazlne should be addressed 
o the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business flanager, rtanlstee, 
llchigan. All othar communications to B. Lyell Earle, rianaglng 
Idltor. 59 W. ©6th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
Brst of each month, except July and August, from J7I River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price Is $1.00 per year, payable In advance. 
Single copies, lSe. 

Postage Is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Tutulla (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20« and for all other countries 
In the Postal Union add 40o for postage. 

Notice of Expiration Is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription Is desired until notice of discon- 
tinuance Is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addresses must bo given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magastne Com- 
pany. If a local check is sent, it most Include lOe exchange. 


Notwithstanding that we have 
announced in every issue during the 
past year that all matters pertain- 
ing to subscriptions or advertising 
for the Kindergarten-Primary Mag- 
azine should be addressed to Manis- 
tee, many letters are still going to 
Sew York City. This occasions de- 
lay and extra work in the editorial 
rooms. Kindly note that editorial 
rooms only, not a business office, are 
maintained in New York, and send 
business letters to Manistee, Mich. 


Watch for our great 
combination subscription 
offer next month. 



N the September and October 
numbers of the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazines were con- 
sidered, first, the sources 
whence principles of theory 
and practice can be derived. 

Secondly, the physical and mental con- 
ditions peculiar to children from four to 
eight; and thirdly, the individual instincts 
or tendencies of children as manifested in 
spontaneous activity as the basis for higher 
processes of educational control. 

We promised to refer briefly in the 
present article to the various theories of 
play and then the applications of these 
play activities to the education of children 
from four to eight years of age and older. 

i. Theories of play. 

"The literature of this subject is con- 
siderable and easily accessible. Under the 
circumstances, it does not seem necessary 
to outline here in detail what can be so 
easily obtained from the original sources. 
We have, therefore, given only brief sum- 
maries of these theories. The subject, 
however, should be taken up thoroughly 
by the kindergarten teacher. The chapters 
of Schiller and Spencer should be read 
carefully, as should also parts of the "Edu- 
cation of Man," by Froebel, "Adolescence," 
bv Hall, and "Mental Development in the 
Child and the Race," by Baldwin. The 
"Play of Animals" and the "Play of Man," 
by Groos may well be studied entire. 

A. Spencer-Schiller Theory 

"Play is surplus energy. Nerve cells have 
a natural instability tending toward regular 
discharge. If conditions of life become 
easier in the animal world, it expends this 
surplus, not needed in securing a living, in 
plav. Children cannot sit still. A favorable 
condition, but this tKeory cannot account 
for the forms of play. 

B. Gross. 

"Play is an instinct, the purpose of which 
is the education of the individual. It is the 
practice by the young of the pursuits they 
must later pursue. Animals do not play 
because they are young; rather have a 

7 o 


period of infancy in order that they may 

C. Hal!. 

"Plav is the motor habits and spirit of 
the past of the race persisting in the present 
as rudimentary function of and always akin 
to rudimentary organs." (This completes 
and explains Groos' theory). "Thus in 
play we rehearse the activity of our ances- 
tors back we know not how far and repeat 
their life work in summative and adum- 
brated ways." "The pleasure is always in 
direct proportion to the directness and 
force of the current of heredity. The pain 
of toil died with our forbears; its vestiges 
in our play give pure delight." 


"Even if I have brought no new thoughts 
to the subject, as some will maintain, even 
if the goal and aim of this education has 
long been known, I have given something 
new in my childish plays, for they know 
how we must begin to give activity to the 
powers of childhood in order that they 
shall neither rust and be lost for want of 
use nor overstrained by too early study." 

"Child's play strengthens the powers 
both of the soul and the body provided we 
know how to make the first self-occupation 
of a child a freely active, that is, a creative 
or productive one." 

"The play of the child contains the germ 
of the whole life that is to follow; for the 
man develops and manifests himself in play, 
and reveals the noblest aptitudes and the 
deepest elements of his being." 

"Play is the highest phase of child de- 
velopment — of human development at this 
period: for its self-active representation of 
the inner from inner necessity and im- 

"The plavs of childhood are the germinal 
leaves of all later life : for the whole man is 
developed and shown in these, in his ten- 
derest dispositions, in his innermost ten- 

"It is the sense of sure and reliable 
power, the sense of its increase both as an 
individual and as a member of the group, 
that fills the boy with all-prevading jubilant 
joy during the games. It is by no means, 
however, only the physical power that is 
fed and strengthened in these games; in- 
tellectual and moral power, too, is definite- 
ly and steadily gained and brought under 

control. Indeed, a comparison of the rela 
tive gains of the mental and of the physi 
cal phases would scarcely yield the palm ti 
the body. Justice, moderation, self-contm 
truthfulness, loyalty, brotherly love, an* 
again strict impartiality — who when h 
approaches a group of boys engaged i 
such games could fail to catch the frag 
ranee of these delicious blossomings of th 
heart and mind, and of a firm will ; not t< 
mention the beautiful, though perhaps les 
fragrant, blossoms of courage, persever 
ance, resolution, prudence, together wit] 
the severe elimination of indolent indul 

A very important consideration in thj 
matter is application of these theories | 
the organization of play that may b 
pleasurable for the child and profitable fo 
the race. The type activities witnessed i 
the spontaneous and organized plays c 
children are type characteristics of or 
ganizated developments that were one 
necessary or pleasurable for the preserva 
tion of the species. The result was tha 
the individual of the species was so deepl; 
impressed in the cellular structure that th 
ability to perform the action persisted fo 
other necessities, leaving, however, th 
proper attitude toward the stimulus whei 
it again presents itself. The ability at one 
leaps forth into act and the organism is ii 
a state of interested response. If we add t( 
this consideration, that in the use of pla; 
activities the individual is not held respon 
sible for the result against his will, we hav 
the essential difference between play atti 
tude and the work attitude. It is ver; 
necessary for the teacher to understand th 
importance of pleasurable assertions it 
plavs and games as well as social assertion 
and have the spirit of the play so that sh 
may have no trouble with the value of th 
play in general and of different plays ii 
particular. This matter has been treatec 
by a special committee on play grounds it 
American Plays of Children in the norma 
courses in play. 

We quote extensively that report. 

2. Pleasurable elements in games. 

Although the present forms of game 
may be new, the elements of which they ar 
composed and from which the pleasure i 
derived are racially old. These pleasurabl 
elements represent in a general way th 
occupations man has pursued at differen 
stages of his evolution. 



A. Elements, mostly physical, from the 
fferent stages of man's development, 
i. The animal stage. 

A. Imitation. 
People have always called small children 

ittle monkeys." This because children, 
<e monkeys, imitate all that they see. 
nitation is the fundamental characteristic 
f their games. They act out the lives of 
e people around them and the stories 
ey hear. 

B. Swinging, climbing, seasations of 
We feet. 

Some have thought that the pleasure of 
winging is derived from the associations 
ith the swaying tree-top which linger in 
nr nerve cells. The pleasure of climbing 
•ees and hanging by the hands may be 
erived from the same source. There are 
number of pleasures and elementary plays 
erived from the sensations of the bare 
set, once a valuable guide in the pathway 
f life. Children love to go barefooted, to 
lay in the mud with their feet, and to wade 
i shallow water. 
2. The savage man. 
Most of the pleasant elements in games 
ome from this stage. The pleasure is 
robably derived from an association with 
mmediate advantage at the time the 
riginal activities were pursued. These 
ctivities may be pursued now in play, 
hese activities may be grouped into three 
asses, as follows : 

A. Elements derived from the chase. 

Hunting and fishing are still pleasant, 

espite small results and no use for the 

Rame. Boys like to go on tramps, to build 

hacks in the woods, to build fires and go 


i. Chasing and fleeing of which "tag" 
is the most direct descendant, but which 
enters into most games. 

Running is pleasurable in itself to small 
children, but becomes less and less so with 
advancing years. It is more fundamental 
and ancient than any use of the hands and 
arms, and has much greater effect upon 
organic development. Rapid motion under 
primitive conditions always has associa- 
tions of advantage, and is pleasurable in 

2. Hiding away and finding, as in "I 
An interest that develops early, and 

enters into many games of small children, 
and pleasures that are not games, as in 
finding hen's eggs, birds' nests, etc. 

3. Dodging a pursuer and catching in 
the arms. 

Develops later in childhood and has 
fewer uses in the race and the child. 

4. Throwing missiles, and dodging or 
catching them. 

A chief means of defense and offense. Of 
great interest from about five to twenty. 
Of little muscular value, the pleasure great- 
ly enhanced by throwing at a mark, 
especially a live one. Witness the com- 
parative pleasure of throwing at a stone, 
or a squirrel, also a man who sticks his 
head through the screen at fairs. 

5. Striking with a stick and fending or 

This, as well as the previous element, 
are factors in personal combat as well as 
the chase. It is an element in all ball games. 

It may be said of all these elements that 
there is a time for ascending interest, 
reaching- a maximum, and afterward a de- 
cline. The order in which the interest de- 
velops approximates the order of its racial 
acquirements. It may be said in general 
that for small children these elements 
themselves are pleasing and constitute most 
of the game. With advancing years, the 
elements lose in interest, which then be- 
comes fixed on new combinations of the 
elements in which the original purpose mav 
not be evident, as in pitching baseball. 

B. The art of savage man, drawing, 
painting - , picture-writing. 

C. The work of savage woman. 
Women have added almost nothing to 

our repertoire of games. The nearest she 
has come to it is the basketrv, pottery, and 
weaving which" now forms the constructive 
plav of the playground, and are generallv 
enjoyed bv girls at least and oftentimes by 

3. The life of the nomad. 

Children have fear but also an almost 
universal interest in and love for animals, 
which are treated like other companions. 

4. The primitive agriculturist. 
Children love to dig in the sand, make 

mud Dies, and later to raise flowers and 

5. The tribal life. 



Savage man was driven to unite with 
others, and savage families to hang to- 
gether, for protection against similar hos- 
tile combinations. Those who did not de- 
velop this co-operative spirit were de- 
stroyed in internecine wars. Here loyalty 
was developed. Circumstances demanded 
that it be narrow, but most intense, more so 
than at present. All of our team games 
closelv approximate these conditions and 
derive their pleasures alike from the joy 
of battle and the joy of the comradship 
which accompanies it. 

Games in the present state combine these 
original elements in myriad forms, and 
many of them have been handed down un- 
changed for hundreds or even thousands of 

B. Social elements. 

i. Competition. 

Competition is one of the almost uni- 
versally pleasurable elements in games. 
The element that makes them so vigorous. 
The love of competition less strongly de- 
veloped in girls than in bovs. Individual 
competitions characteristic of the period 
from five or six up to twelve. 

2. Comradeship and co-operation. 

A All games are social and derive a 
considerable part of their pleasure from the 
social feeling which prevades them. Games 
are not only not played alone, but for their 
perfection they require that the partici- 
pants shall all be friends. All games tend 
to promote this social feeling, and the 
group tends to cast out such members as 
do not develop group consciousness. 

B. Co-operation is a higher form which 
this feeling takes in team games where it 
constitutes a considerable part of the 
pleasure of the game. In such a game as 
football, this amounts almost to an exten- 
sion of the consciousness to include the 
team. These games have such a strong 
bold on young people, because they com- 
bine in a maximum degree the pleasures of 
competition, co-operation, and the social 
competition in the spectators. 

C. Mental elements. 

i. The joy of being a cause. 

This is one of the first characteristics to 
nnnear in the play of small children. They 
love to build up and tear down, to make a 
noise or to do anything where the effect 
can be seen at once. This is one of the 
main pleasure motives in work, but does 
not play a large part in games proper. 

2. Involuntary attention. , 
From its nature, play requires no effort 

of the attention, and in consequence secures 
a higher degree of concentration and more 
intense and prolonged activitv than is pos- 
sible in the work. The social competitior 
of frames repeats very closely the racia 
experience, through the bitter struggles o 
which the civilized brain was produced. 

3. A feeling of freedom. 
Freedom is characteristic of the lives 1 

birds and animals, and of primitive man 
It is the very life-blood of play. It must L< 
free from outer compulsion or inner neces 
sity. (This would suggest that kinder 
garten and playground directors shouh 
avoid too detailed and rigid daily pro 

D. Moral elements, pleasure. 

Pleasure lies at the basis of conduct ; th 
vividness of its images and its apparen 
nearness is apt to determine the vigor 
our actions. It is said that it is one thinj 
in life which is its own reward. It seem 
to be furnished us as an inner monitor t 
tell us what to do. Its tragedies are wher 
we sacrifice the pleasures of later life t 
the enjoyments of the moment. Enjoy 
ment arouses the mind and emotions an 
tends to put all their power at our disposa 
The trend of pleasure is toward optimist! 

3. Aims and spirit in the conduct 1 

In order that a play mav be a success, 
is necessarv for the director to know ho^ 
to judge of the value of the activities goin 
on there at any time. She should try t 
secure perfect results by creating perfe( 

A. Purposes to be pursued. 

i. Play should promote vigorous healtl 

In order to do this, it should be in tli 
open air; when possible it should be vigo 
ous ; it should use the more fundament; 

2. Play should promote nervot 

In order to do this, it should be in tl 
open air; when possible it should deveh 
and strengthen the vital organs and tl 
fundamental muscles; it should rest tl 
higher and more delicate nervous c 
ordinations, as of the hands and fingei 
bv usinp- the older and simpler ones of tl 
trunk and legel ; it should rest visual are; 
bv allowing the eye axes to becon 
parallel; it should rest the auditory are; 



mgh being reasonably quiet (applies 
ecially to adults and delicate children) ; 
hould throw off the worries and strain 
he day by a complete absorption in the 
le, (especially adults) ; it should relieve 
higher centers by action that is mostly 
inctive and attention that is involun- 
f; it should tone up the entire system by 
;rvading sense of the joy of life. 

Play should develop physical 

•lay as a system of physical training has 
advantage of using old co-ordinations 
fundamental muscles in much the same 
uence in which they were developed in 
al history. But to be effective, it must 
vigorous and reasonably frequent, and 
re must be a variety of games, making 
of different muscles. 

Play should develop vital and func- 
lal strength. 

lay is preeminently social. All team 

les require social co-operation, and even 

ividual competitions are carried on in 

ordance with social standards and for 

sake of social victory — the appreciation 

others. Play can never be maintained 

long or on a high level except under 

ditions of friendliness. Thus, anything 

t tends to promote friendliness tends to 

mote play, and anything that tends to 

mote play tends to promote friendliness. 

>up consciousness is an element in the 

ne. Any expression of dishonesty or 

shness tends to chill the social atmo- 

ere and makes the game flag, as does 

the introduction of a foreign or un- 

ndly element in the shape of a foreigner 

one of different race, class or religion. 

the same reason, play tends to assimi- 

b these foreign elements rapidly for its 

n protection. Different games have dif- 

nt values in this regard. 

Play should promote morality, 
lay is a form of social conduct, and is 
ler moral or immoral, just as life itself 
other social action is. 
There are the same opportunities for 
lg or truthfulness, cheating and stealing 
honesty, cruelty or kindness, justice or 
ustice, and all other virtues and vices 
t there are in life itself. Vigorous play, 
ier normal conditions, tends to be a 
ral force, and, under social direction, it 
y become a very strong one. Play pre- 
lts much mischief and vice by merely 
ing a healthful expression to motor rest- 

lessness and new interest to occupy the 
mind. On the position side, it has strong 
tendencies toward good. 

A. Strengthens the will. 

The muscles have been called the organs 
of the will and anything which tends to 
strengthen the muscles tends also to 
strengthen the will. Play must be instantly 
executed. This tendency to instant execu- 
tion of purposes is likely to prove a good 
moral adjunct. Vigorous play teaches de- 
termination as almost nothing else can. 

B. Its choices are made under condi- 
tions of freedom. 

The child in the home and at school is 
under direction, but the child at play makes 
his own choices. In play he learns to be a 
free and self-reliant member of the com- 

C. Play tends to be pursued with all 
the might and hence to unify the mind. 

D. Promotes loyalty. 

In team games, we have a good measure 
of the value of the play in the loyalty of 
the members of the team and the perma- 
nence of the teams. We have a good meas- 
ure of the value of the playground in the 
proportion of the members of the play- 
ground team age who are on permanent 
teams. This nearly always involves tour- 
naments and contests and the securing of 
real leaders for captains. 

B. Criteria of the value of play. 

i. Play should be vigorous. The list- 
less, half-hearted play which one so often 
sees on the streets and in the playgrounds 
is little better than loafing; it does not 
establish a habit of energetic action and it 
does not secure the results of training. The 
spontaneous interest of play makes it pos- 
sible for the child through it to develop a 
larger amount of activity than he can in 
any other way. It is the key to a vigorous 

2. Play should bring a complete forget- 
fulness of other things and a loss of self- 
consciousness through complete absorption 
in the game. 

3. Play should be its own reward. It 
should not be carried on for ulterior mo- 
tives, as for pay or medals for fame, but 
for the joy of it. 

4. Play should thus always tend toward 
and often become a maximal experience, 
such as will live in memory and give tone 
and color to after life." 




"Adolescence," G. Stanley Hall, pub- 
lished by D. Appleton & Co., 35 W. 32nd 
St., N. Y. C. 

"Play as a School of the Citizen," Joseph 
Lee. Published in the Proceedings of the 
Playground Association of America (Vol. 
1), also in the Kindergarten Review (Vol. 
17, p. 65, October, 1907). 

"Play and Democracy," Luther Halsey 
Gulick. Published in the Proceedings of 
the Playground Association of America 
(Vol. 1) also in Charities and the Com- 
mons (Aug. 3, 1907). 

"Psychological, Pedagogical and Re- 
ligious Aspects of Group Games," Luther 
Halsey Gulick. Published in the Pedagogi- 
cal Seminary (Vol. 6, p. 13S, 1899). 

"Some Relations of Physical Training 
Education to the Present Problems of 
Moral Education in America," Chapter V. 
of "Race Questions and Other American 
Problems," Josiah Boyce. Published by 
the Macmillan Co., 64 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C." 

We will conclude by a quotation from 
Dr. Gulick on play. In an interesting 
paper Dr. Gulick divides play into three 
childish periods, separated by the ages 
three and seven, and attempts to character- 
ize the plays of early adolescence from 
twelve to seventeen and of later adoles- 
cence from seventeen to twenty-three. Of 
the first two periods he says children be- 
fore seven rarely play games spontaneous- 
ly, but often do so under stimulus of older 
persons. From seven to twelve, games are 
almost exclusively individualistic and com- 
petitive, but in the early adolescence "two 
elements predominate — first, team games, 
in which the individual is more or less sacri- 
ficed for the whole, in which there is 
obedience to a captain, in which there is 
cooperation among a number for a given 
end, in which play has a program and an 
end. The second characteristic of the 
period is with reference to its plays, and 
these seem to be all of savage out-of-door 
life, hunting, fishing, stealing, swimming, 
rowing, sailing, fighting, heroworship, ad- 
venture, love of animals, etc. This char- 
acteristic obtains more with boys than with 
girls." "The plays of adolescence are 
socialistic, demanding the heathen virtues 
of courage, endurance, self-control, 
bravery, loyaltv, enthusiasm." 

In our next article we shall draw actual 
material for early education from the fore- 
going notes on play. 


BY DUSTAN BREWER, School Medical Officer. 

The study of the development of th 
human mind is the most complex and mos 
interesting of all sciences. Psychology wa 
studied in the most remote ages of whicl 
we have knowledge; all the races that hav 
left us any written records leave traces 
having tried to elucidate its problems. An 
from the dawn of history to the presen 
day, men have tried and are still tryin 
have failed and are still failing, to unrav 
the intricate processes of mind. The old 
scholars left us works which are gems 
literature, marvels of reasoning, but the 
do not further the subject. In the sixteentl 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries aj 
peared many learned works on the subje( 
— works teeming with knowledge, with ol 
servation, and with brilliance, but the 
leave us still completely in the dark as r 
gards the human mind. It is not until w 
come to the middle of the nineteenth ce 
tury, when psychology was first studied < 
a concrete science, that we get anything a] 
proaching what can be called a fact. Dunn 
the last fifty years we have gathered t 
gether a small handful of facts regardir 
the mind, but few and incomplete as tht 
are, their value is immense and is ever i 
creasing. Some of these facts I am goir 
to speak about now — they are facts th 
should be known to everyone who has ai 
dealings with children. 

To the educationist, above all, the actu 
known facts about the mind, especial 
those concerning the development of t 
mind, should be of profound importanc 
Yet as a class, educationists have ignor 
the results of modern research, they stu 
Aristotle but are ignorant of CloustOn aj 
Ferrier, they study abstruce fancy but th 
neglect to learn facts that are proved a 
being proved as absolute. It is true thai 
strong reaction against the old theories r 
set in and a tendency to eddcate the youi 
ful mind in accordance with what we kn( 
of its processes is spreading widely, but s 
it is desirable that more should be kno^ 
and known by a greater number. 

To trace the development of the huu 
mind from birth would be an undertaki 
which even most hastily sketched woi 
far exceed the limit of my space, so I p 
pose to confine my remarks mainly to ( 

(*The editor invites discussion on the points 
this paper.) 




e period, merely glancing here and there 
; the ages that come before and after. 
The age period i have chosen is that be- 
veen the ages of eighteen months and 
iree years, and I have chosen it for this 
ason, that in mental development it is the 
ost important of all ages, and it is gen- 
ally neglected as regards mental educa- 
on. It is the age during which the faculty 
speech is developed. This faculty is 
:rved by a definite part of the brain known 
i the speech center, and from the point of 
ew of mental education is of more import- 
ice than the whole of the rest of the brain 
ut together. It is true that the speech 
inter starts its development before the age 
f eighteen months, and that it does not 
iach its full perfection until maturity — but 
makes its most rapid strides during the 
ge I have chosen. Let us consider for a 
linute what is the faculty of speech. It is 
le faculty which enables us to understand 
nguage — to speak in language, to read in 
nguage, to express our ideas to others and 
► understand the ideas of others when ex- 
ressed to us in words. You will therefore 
iderstand that speaking is not synonymous 
th talking — a parrot can talk but it can- 
ot speak — a dumb person may possess the 
ower of speech but he cannot talk. If you 
ike the syllabus of a school, you will find 
lat every subject taught except music and 
rawing, modelling, etc., appeals to the 
lind either directly or indirectly through 
le speech center. You will therefore 
nderstand why I look upon the age when 
his center is getting into working order, as 
he most important epoch in the life of the 

At birth the mind is potential only — but 
he brain is there — there in an immature 
tate at present, almost functionless. But 
he full potentiality of the brain is there 
omplete. Every mental action is served by 
ome cell or small body in the brain. Every 
ingle one of these cells which will ever be 
n the brain is present in the brain at birth, 
hough in an undeveloped state; the cells 
vill grow; they can be educated, but they 
yill never increase in number. They may 
>e blighted by disease; they may remain 
lormant from lack of education but their 
lumber will never increase. The mind of 
great man is potentially as great at birth 
s at maturity and no amount of education, 
f cramming or teaching, or any process 
vhatever, will make it greater or less great. 

Education may teach us short roads to 
knowledge, it may acquaint us with facts, 
it may teach us to express our ideas to 
others, but it will not enlarge our minds. 
Shakespeare would have been Shakespeare 
had he lived on a desert island and never 
seen another human being — we should not 
have his plavs because he would not have 
known how to write. The recognition of 
this fact is of vital importance in education. 
Although to me it appears self-evident, I 
will adduce two proofs to support it. First, 
if a man owed his mind to his teachers, it is 
obvious that he could never surpass them. 
Who taught Homer? Who taught Dante? 
Who taught Napoleon? Their names may 
be known to curious historians, but to the 
man in the street they are unknown, be- 
cause their pupils so far exceeded them and 
owed but an infinitesimal debt to them. 
Second, if education formed the mind, the 
higher the education, the greater should be 
the power of the mind. Take music, for 
instance, surely our doctors of music must 
be better educated in music than any other 
beings. Yet have they produced the best music? 
Have all the men who have been able to write Mus. 
Doc. after their names — all of them put together 
left to the world a hundredth part of the legacy of 
a single sonata of Beethoven? 

Therefore at birth the potential power of the 
brain is absolute, but its functions are in obeyance. 
Soon, however, the beginning of mental processes 
can be detected. I have not got space to describe 
the gradual opening of the mind in infancy, but 
must pass at once to the state of the child's mind 
at the age of eighteen months. 

At eighteen months old, the child weighs about 
28 lbs., or nearly four times its birth weight; it 
possesses 16 teeth; its food is approaching that of 
the adult, and it is able to walk without support. 
Its mind has developed quite as rapidly as its body. 
The power of imitation is extremely marked; the 
elements of simple reasoning by observation from 
causes to result are just discernable. The powers 
of imagination are just becoming evident; a very 
vague idea of authority and of a moral sense are 
to be detected; inquisitiveness is marked. More- 
over the child can usually say a few words and 
understand simple commands. The power of con- 
trol has barely dawned and the child is therefore 
"wilful" or obstinate. Let it be clearly under- 
stood that "wilfulness" is "willessness," at all 
events in childhood. Roughly, the will serves two 
functions — it starts "voluntary" actions — it con- 
trols or stops "reflex" actions. The actions of a 
child of eighteen months are almost entirely reflex, 
therefore, the first function of the will is in obey- 
ance; it has little power of control over actions 
once started, so that the second power of the will 
is also very slightly in evidence. Let us take an 
example. If you stick a pin into the finger of an 
adult when he is unaware — he will draw his hand 
away (reflex action) immediately afterwards he will 
recollect himself and stop further reflex action (sec- 
ond power of the will). If he is at first aware that 
you are going to hurt him (i. e., open a boil) he will 

7 6 


keep his hand steady and control the reflex 
(first power of the will). 

If vou stick a pin into a child of eighteen 
months old, the child will cry whether it 
sees the pin or not (reflex action, no first 
power of the will), and it will go on crying 
until one of two things happens — either it 
will become exhausted or else the reflex to 
cry will be overcome by a stronger reflex to 
a pleasant stimulus. Thus the child will 
stop crying either by going to sleep or else 
by being coaxed out of it — but it will not 
stop of itself (absence of second power of 
the will). 

This is roughly the state of mind of the 
child of eighteen months — the beginning of 
thj period I have chosen. Let us see what 
is its mind at three years old, the end of 
my period. 

At three years old the power of imitation 
is still great but it is lessening; the child 
beginning to perceive, though somewhat 
vaguely, that by mimicking it may make 
itself ridiculous. The powers of reasoning 
have advanced so that tb', child reasons out 
the majority of its actions. The imagina- 
tion is now the greatest power of the mind 
— the child peoples the world with good 
and bad spirits and with its fancy endows 
all things with a halo of poetry. It has not 
yet reached the age when it has to "make 
believe." As in the history of races, it is 
when a race is just emerging from barbar- 
ism that the greatest poetry arises, so in 
the history of the mind it is at that age 
when babyhood is passing into childhood 
that the fancy has its greatest powers. The 
jaded imagination of the adult requires all 
the illusions of the stage to lift the mind out 
of the matter-of-fact. To imagine a ship- 
wreck we must have a wonderful stage 
mechanism, artificial water and mechanical 
thunder. Not so the child of three — give 
him a piece of wood or paper and a bowl of 
water and his fancv will supply him with 
everything to reproduce all phenomena 
connected with boats or the sea that he has 
ever seen or experienced or can perceive 
with its mind's eye. 

The idea of authority should now be ab- 
solute and, if he has been properly trained, 
obedience to his superiors should be a mat- 
ter of course. He should obey without 
stoooing to question the reason why, he 
should obey his superiors and not fear 
them. But the true moral sense should not 
yet have dawned, and the child of three has, 

or should have, no abstract idea of right 
and wrong — he knows only the concrete 
right of obedience, the concrete wrong of 
disobedience, and as I hope to prove to you, 
he knows disobedience is wrong because he 
connects it with discomfort. The will is 
now becoming manifest — the child can con- 
trol reflexes which are not too imperative, 
he can start actions without an immediate 
stimulus. The faculty of speech has now 
reached a high level so that now the child 
can express all his wants and many of his 
fancies in spoken words and he can under 
stand what is said to him, on condition that 
what is said is of such a character that it 
can appeal to the present state of his mind 
And what is it that causes this profound 
development of the mind within eighteen 
months? First, and a long way first, is the 
inherent power of the brain cells to develop 
— given proper feeding and proper sleep the 
mind will develop of itself. That proper 
feeding is as essential to mental develop- 
ment as it is to bodily development, has 
long been recognized. But sleep is still 
more important. The cells of the brain are, 
during the waking hours, in a constant state 
of extreme excitability — they react to 
everything that occurs both within and 
without the body and during waking hour 
they neither feed nor grow. It is only when 
sleep has dulled their sensibility that they 
can find time to feed or to grow. The adult 
requires sleep in order that his brain cells 
may feed and refresh themselves, the grow 
ing child requires sleep so that his brain 
cells may not only feed but also develop 
So the child requires much more sleep than 
the adult. The growing mind — and this 
applies in an ever decreasing proportion up 
to full maturity — should be encouraged to 
sleep on every occasion, and on no pretext 
whatever should anyone, who is not ma- 
ture, be awakened from healthy sleep. Chil- 
dren should be allowed to come down to 
breakfast whenever they like, the upsetting 
of a household or of a school is of little con 
sequence compared to the damage done to 
the growing mind by awakening a chile 
from sleep. Sleep of the first importance 
everything else of secondary importance 
Don't encourage children to get up early 
don't encourage children to get up punctual- 
ly. From what I have said, you might be 
inclined to think that I considered tin 
teaching and education of the child as o 
no importance, that the schoolmaster was 



useless person. .But this is not so — the 
:hoolmaster is to the mind somewhat as 
ie doctor is to health. The human mind 
, no more due to the master than human 
ealth is due to the physician, but the 
ealth of man is better because there are 
octors, and the human mind is better be- 
ause there are teachers. 

i'he mental training that is applicable to 
ie age we are considering, resolves itself 
no the inculcation of obedience. During 
ns period the child must be taught to obey 

lo obey and not to fear — to obey his su- 
eriors without being afraid of them. In 
raining we have two means at our disposal 
d help towards the desired ,_ esult — reward 
nd punishment. Reward is unquestionably 
d be condemned — to promise a child a 
weetmeat if he behaves himself is to make 
he child consider good behavior as the ab- 
ormal and something deserving of reward. 
?o Dtmish a child for bad behavior is to 
nforce upon his mind that bad behavior is 
bnormal, and leads to unpleasant conse- 

As regards the punishment during early 
hildhood — keeping the period from eigh- 

en months to three years particularly in 
lew — it must — (i) immediately follow the 
ffence — for a child's memory is very short 
nd to punish an action ten minutes after it 
completed carries no meaning to the 
hild's mind. (2) It must be inflicted with- 
ut temper. This is obvious — but not 
lways easy to carry out. (3) It must serve 
s purpose, i. e., the child must look upon 
ie punishment as the direct corollary of 
ie bad action. (4) It must be quickly over 
nd leave no sting and no resentment, 
There is only one form of punishment 
vhich fulfills these conditions and that is 
orporal punishment. And I maintain this 
—and am prepared to maintain and prove 
that corporal punishment is the only 
orm of punishment for the young child 
vhich is not torture and which the child 
lever resents, and the only punishment 
vhich will make a child obey and not fear 


When you are beginning to train a child 
o obedience, begin slowly; start by for- 
)idding one action and when it has mas- 
ered its first lesson add another and so on. 
?or example — a frequent trouble in child- 
lood is the habit that children have of puli- 
ng things off the table. If you rap his 
cnuckles every time he does do so, he will 

gradually begin to perceive that the habit 
of putting his fists on the table produces an 
unpleasant sensation and the lesson is 
learnt, iiut don't give tne child a severe 
cuii because he smashes an expensive cup 
and spills the tea over your new dress, and 
overlook his pulling oft a worthless cup and 
doing no damage — that is spite, not punish- 
ment, and cannot be too severely con- 

A child should be supplied with things to 
play with, but don't give him expensive 
toys. The child's fancy will supply every- 
thing required — the old dutch dolls and 
wooden horses at a few pence each are far 
better for the child's mind and far better 
loved than the elaborate mechanical and 
other toys that are now so much in vogue. 
Mechanical toys appeal to the adults — to 
the child their wonders are of no moment 
and are simply ignored. 

And now with one or two points for you 
to think upon, I must cease. 

(1) Remember the child's mind is not a 
small edition of an adult mind, it is as dif- 
ferent in kind and in proportion from the 
adult mind as the child's body is also dif- 
ferent in proportion from the body of the 
adult. The strongest powers of the mind of 
the infant are the powers of imitation, and 
of imagination, the weakest are those of at- 
tention and memory (these are identical) 
and will. 

(2) Its powers of imitation are great and 
the child can be educated by them. Take 
care that its examples are fit to copy, and 
above all never let a child see any of its 
superiors in a temper or quarrelling. 

(3) Give the child's imagination full play 
and never laugh at it. 

(4) Never frighten a child under any cir- 
cumstances whatever. Fear is the most de- 
grading of human vices. 

(5) Never dress up a child to show off. 
Never send a child to a children's party 
where adults are going to look on. Chil- 
dren are not puppets. Let children play 
amongst themselves and the adults retire 
where they can watch without being seen. 
If the party becomes a pandemonium it 
does not matter — a little crying and fighting 
won't injure a healthy child. 

(6) Remember that unless you love chil- 
dren vou can never train children and had 
better have nothing to do with them, and 
lastly, remember that your children's duty 
to you is nothing, your duty to your chil- 
dren is everything. 




T should be the duty of par- 
ents to endeavor to discover 
in their child at an early age 
what talents it may possess or 
into what channels of work it 
shows a predisposition to enter and this 
accomplished do all within their power to 
help it in that respect. Children usually 
show early in life what they incline toward 
and they should be encouraged to learn 
whatever they can upon the subject and 
otherwise assisted in the premises. Ignor- 
ance or indifference upon the part of parent 
often works a great wrong to the child, 
who is not infrequently allowed to grow up 
with no effort made to develop that in it 
which might if pursued have resulted in 
success in life. Every child inclines toward 
some especial thing in life and it is pre- 
sumed by this that it is the thing for which 
it is by nature ordained and often a parent's 
blindness to the fact, or what is worse total 
indifference, has proven disastrous to the 
young one's entire life to follow. It has 
not been given the opportunity required to 
assure it some measure of success in the 
work for which it seemed best cut out and 
the golden hours of its youth that might 
have been spent in training and tutoring 
are wasted. Often, too, parents with total 
disregard for the child's desires or inclina- 
tions for a certain kind of work, work in 
which it is reasonable to suppose it might 
have succeeded since it showed it leaned 
toward it, place it to learning or preparing 
for something entirely different. They de- 
termine for the child with apparently no 
thought of its inclinations or especial adap- 
tation for a work what it shall take up in 
life and if in after years it attains no degree 
of success in the work they attribute the 
cause to the young man or woman him- 
self or herself and not to the indisputable 
truth that he or she had been compelled to 
pursue that for which there was neither 
fondness nor liking upon his or her part. 
The cause of failure in the case of eight 
out of ten men or women is the fact that 
they have not been able to follow the kind 
of work for which they were best adapted 
and were denied an opportunity in earlier 
years to prepare themselves. The universal 
belief among our forefathers of a century 
ago that every child had his especial calling 
in life and that it was the parents' duty 
once they had discovered what it was to be 

to encourage and assist it in fitting itse, 
for it even if they must seek state aid i 
order to enable them to do so was certaii 
ly a most admirable one. Assuredly 
parents today observed the same precept 
an inestimable amount of good would b 
done the man or woman himself or herse 
and the community as well. The chil 
would begin early in life the preparation fc 
what it might be said it was by nature ir 
tended or ordained and we should not fin 
so many drones, mere toilers with no lov 
for their work, no interest in it, in th 
world. It is true every child is not endowe 
with a great head for mathematics, a wor 
derful eye for perspective and colors, a 
astonishing ear for music or a lurid an 
marvelous imagination that we might e: 
pect to se it develop some day into a Di 
Lesseps, a Rubens, a Mozart or a Dicken 
but every child has something in it wort 
bringing out, shows some inclinatio 
toward a certain work it should be ei 
couraged and assisted to learn somethin 
about, prepare itself in certain measure t 
follow up. 

Parents are often too ready to smil 
at the child's expressing its desire t 
become a certain thing in life, and if 
shows what we are frequently pleased t 
call "a bending" toward some line of worl 
it too is smiled at. The subject is treate 
too lightly and the result is that the youn 
one abandons its desires to do what 
hoped to do and believed itself able to d 
and wastes its time in other channels c 
labor. Probablv, too, it is made to study c 
work for that for which it cares absolutel 
nothing, has no inclination whatever an 
hence either simply plods along through 
or what is more frequently the case, utterl 

The study of the child is manifested 
ly the study of the man that is to be and th 
father or mother that overlooks this in 
portant fact grieviously wrongs the chih 
There is no period in life when the mind 
so susceptible of grasping a subject as th< 
from the ages of ten to nineteen years. ] 
is then that it is in what some scientist 
style the absorbing stage and can bett 
apply itself to the acquiring of knowledg 
and in the gathering and retaining of whic 
it is easier for it to do. It is the harve; 
time, and should not be allowed to pass ur 
imbraced, and if experience has failed t 
teach the parents this, surely observatio 



ias not neglected to do so. There is no 
ienying it, every man has his especial call- 
ng in life and into no more serious error 
an one fall therefore than to say that any 
>erson can succeed at anything if he will 
»ut apply himself. Of course a person of 
verage intelligence can attain some 
neasure of success in most lines of work 
ut that is all, unless there is in him a 
atural turn for the certain kind of work he 
ndertakes he can never reasonably hope 
o make a name for himself. Napoleon said 
hen asked to what he attributed many of 
s triumphs, "having born diplomats, born 
tatesmen and born soldiers." Training of 
ourse counts for much, but a man's failure 
i life can more readily be traced to his 
aving engaged in life in that for which he 
ras never by nature intended than to any 
ther cause." What would a Canova have 
mounted to in life if his father, when he 
scovered in his boy that wonderful talent 
jr sculpture, had failed to apprentice him 

a marble cutter at the child's own re- 
uest and from whose humble shop he 
ent to work for a sculptor. He might 
ave been forced to follow some other 
ork for which he was never intended, had 
o talent, no desires and today his name 
ould be unknown. Would DeLesseps' 
arvelous work of cutting a great canal 
lat was to shorten the distance from 
urope to India by many weeks of travel 
ave ever been possible if his mother, hav- 
g discovered in her child a splendid head 
>r mathematics and a wonderful skill in 
ie building of miniature bridges, trestles 

d acqueducts, had neglected to do all 
ithin her power to encourage him to 
udy and fit himself for the work the suc- 
:ss of a splendid career showed he was by 
iture intended. 

Failure upon a parent's part to dis- 
>ver in its child whatever talents it 
ay possess is sometimes pardonable, 
it once the discovery made the fail- 
e to encourage and heln the young one 

worse than unpardonable, it is a sin, a 
ime. Washington wrote a volume of 
isdom within a few words when he 
mned off the lines, "We do that best we 
ve to do best and we succeed in life only 

that for which we were intended." There 

little luck in the world and success is sel- 
)m reached through any road of chance. 

is inclination, love for the work, fitness 
id preparation that carries a man on to 

success. What today in the child may 
appear to be but a fondness for a certain 
kind of toy or plaything, possibly a small 
steam engine or clockwork locomotive, 
may tomorrow develop into the young one 
a desire to know what causes it to run, why 
one wheel turning this way causes another 
wheel to turn in an opposite direction or 
why a little flame burning under a little 
cylindrical shaped tin filled with water 
forces a piston rod to pump up and fall 
back again and result in another year or 
two in his showing a wonderful turn for 
mechanics and machinery in general. It may 
be the means, if encouraged, of that child 
becoming some day a noted engineer and 
the discoverer or inventor of something for 
which the world shall forever after owe 
him a debt of gratitude. 

Many men to whom success has come in 
life will tell you that it is due to two things 
— a natural turn for the work and an oppor- 
tunity to engage in it. They will, however, 
go a little further possibly and say "and 
to my parents having done all they could 
to help me fit myself for the work." 
Parents often hold the entire destiny of 
their child in the palm of their hand, so to 
speak, and they are frequently sadly un- 
conscious of the fact and not until it is 
sometimes too late do they awaken to their 
responsibility. They see their son or 
daughter's failure in life and know only too 
well the part they themselves have played 
in bringing it about. They sought not to 
discover in the child its possibilities, or if 
they discovered them they neglected to 
encourage and assist them to pursue them. 
They allowed the moments that might 
have been golden ones to the boy or girl 
to pass away unimproved and wasted. 
They sought not to bring forth from the 
mine its wealth of golden ore or turned the 
course of the stream that flowed on to suc- 
cess into a different channel, one that led 
to a shallow pool without outlet and where 
stagnation was sure to be met. 

Success in life after all is but fitness for 
the work, love for the work and prepara- 
tion. The round peg will never stop up the 
square hole nor the square peg the round 
hole. Man should follow in life that for 
which he was intended, inclines, possesses 
a decided turn or he will never rise above 
mediocrity and since it is in his childhood 
days that he usually shows what it is, it is 
then he should be encouraged and aided 



in every way possible in the persuing of it. 
The drones in life are not ail who toil at 
a certain thing- because they have neither 
mind nor fitness for anything else. They 
are simpl) not working in the held of labor 
fur which they have a natural turn, a love 
or an especial fitness. Their talents have 
i » en allowed to remain undeveloped, dor- 
mant and have rotted away. 

Not every genius becomes known to the 
world, nor every great talent to bring its 
possessor lame and fortune. Thousands 
iaii simply because they labor not in the 
rields in which they can make their talents 
bring forth rich harvests. They are as 
sculptors to whom the chisel and block of 
marole are withheld, painters to whom can- 
vas and color box are denied. There is in 
them the spark but no breeze to fan it into 
a flame. We meet men every day of 
superior minds, men that have talents ^and 
yet they are in the lower walks of life. They 
belong to that great army, the army of men 
following in lite that for which they have 
no love, no especial fitness — turn or talent 
if you prefer to term it by either of these 
words. Thev are drones, hopeless drones 
and why? Because they have been forced 
to pursue in life what they were never in- 
tended to pursue. Parents determined for 
them what was to be their life work, their 
natural inclinations were not considered. 
It is a case too often encountered where 
nature seemed to propose and parents to 
dispose. A tree is planted in a soil in 
which it does not thrive and surprise is 
expressed that it bears no fruit. 


Secretary of the Normal Course Committee. 

i HIS is the title under which 
the committee of the Play- 
ground Association of Amer- 
ica, which has been working 
on this subject for the last 
two years, makes its report. The report 
covers some two hundred pages of the 
August proceedings of the association and 
embraces seven syllabi. These syllabi 
treat of "Child Nature," "The Nature and 
Function of Play," "Social Conditions of 
the Neighborhood," "Hygiene and First 
Aid," "The Playground Movement," "The 
Practical Conduct of Playgrounds," and 

"The Organization and Administration of 

i ms is probably the most ambitious a§ 
tempt at the organization of play material 
since Froebel. The courses are built on 
essentially Froebelhan lines, in this much 
at least: What is olterea is a real system oi 
education. It is training for the whole in- 
dividual, physical, social, industrial, and 
moral. It can scarcely be said that one 
side of the complex nature of the child is 
emphasized more than another, but if there 
is any bias of emphasis it is undoubtedly 
toward the social and moral side. 

The playground movement has been 
waiting tor the last twenty-five years for 
some organization of its material that 
would make its aims more apparent and its 
methods more scientific. It is too early to 
say that this has been done by this new re 
port, but at any rate a beginning has been 
made out of which a standard course 
which will meet with general approval 
should ultimately grow. 

Why did Froebel drop his work when h< 
had organized the play of little children 
Is there any reason why he should not hav 
gone on with the same sort of traininj 
through the elementary and high school 
I certainly see no reason why the sma 
children should be set off by themselves, a 
though the children below six needed train 
ing in physical exercises, in constructive it 
dustry, in social amenities, etc., but th 
children who are more than six need onl 
the training of the intellect. Why did nc 
Froebel make the kindergarten include th 
high school ? Is there not every reason fc 
thinking that in failing to do this he left h 
work incomplete, and that it behooves tl 1 
disciples upon whom his mantle has falle 
to take up his work and carry it on to i 
natural completion ? 

It is altogether too much to say that tl 
new Normal Course has done this. Tl 
play movement is waiting on tiptoes for i 
new Froebel with the breadth of view ai 
constructive imagination who shall be at 
to accomplish this great task. Perhaps t 
Germans in the curriculum of games th 
they have introduced into their elementa 
schools have come nearer to carrying 
the. torch of the great master than has t 
American committee. But whatever m 
be said in praise or criticism of the wc 
done, it cannot be denied that the comrr 
tee has accumulated a great body of n 



ial. which can not well be disregarded 

eafter in any system of education ; by 

dergartners, least of all. 

'here is great need that the kindergart- 

s keep in closer touch with the play- 

und movement than they have in the 

;t. bo'h for the sake of the movement 

! for the sake of their own training. 

rre are a very large number who are al- 

dy employed in the various playgrounds 

our cities, and this number is likely to 

rease in the near future. The number of 

es in this country maintaining play- 

)unds doubled last year. The increase 

cities maintaining kindergartens was 

ely not nearly so great as this. If the 

sent rate of growth keeps on for a year 

two longer, the number of positions for 

tdergartners in the playgrounds may be 

ater than the number of positions in the 

dergartens themselves. 

Some Philistines or better radicals may 

so bold as to say that just as the original 

dergarten was a garden, and just as the 

ldren wandered about the fields and 

yed in the open air, so in the circle of 

Dgress the kindergarten is to return to 

open air, and its future home is to be 

playground. Practically all the kinder- 

i-ten work is already being done in many 

our city playgrounds. It may not be 

sy to do the brush work and the drawing, 

t it is certainly eas)r to do nearly all the 

st of it there. 

I in distant times it should become the 

ic)?' of cities to have the kindergartens in 

e playgrounds, what is likely to be the 

suit? Undoubtedly the kindergarten 

3rk will tend to become less formal. It 

11 be impossible to limit games and 

tivities to children under five or six. It 

11 be less intense and more active. What 

likely to be the effect on the popular at- 

ude toward it? Are there not some who 

ill feel that the kindergarten conduces to 

straint and consequent nervousness; that 

e small children should be out in the open 

r as much of the day as possible, and that 

ley should have every incentive to a free 

H acn e life? Are there not far more be- 

rvi'rs in play in this country than there 

'e believers in kindergarten play? Would 

li the putting the kindergarten into the 

ayground for all pleasant weather greatly 

crease its popularity with parents and 

"omote its rapid spread to cities and 

hools not now furnished with kindergar- 

tens? It is a question of course, but I am 
inclined to this belief. 

Our present theory of hygiene has fresh 
air for its cornerstone. The tendency now 
is to sleep out of doors, live out of doors, 
and work and play out of doors as much as 
possible. There is going to be strong 
pressure from our medical friends to move 
everything into the open air that can be 
carried on there satisfactorilv. The kin- 
dergarten is likely to be one of the first de- 
partments of school work to feel this pres- 

There are two facts about our present 
system of education that are getting prettv 
well impressed upon our consciousness: 
one is, that there is far too much sickness 
and physical weakness of the children, and 
the second is, that our system of education 
is preparing neither for a life of effective 
industry, for good fellowship in society, nor 
for good citizenship in the state. It is ap- 
parently trying to make us all scholars, yet 
very few of us ever become or ever ought 
to be scholars. 

The number of schools where the experi- 
ment of having half a day in school and 
half a day for play or work has been tried 
is now large. So far as I know, it has been 
found in all of them that the children made 
as great and often greater progress in their 
studies on half a day than they did on a 
whole day, provided the teachers did not 
have to do double service. Whatever this 
may signify in a causal way, it certainly 
means that where a w T hole day of schooling 
is given to the elementary children, that 
half of the time is thrown away in the first 
place, but more important than this, it 
means that the child has been trained in 
habits of inefficiency by being set to do a 
task in two hours that under better condi- 
tions he might have done in one. It means 
we are making the school irksome to the 
children by its long hours of enforced quiet, 
where it might have been a real pleasure 
for a shorter time. It means also that we 
have robbed them of the joy and strength 
and health that they might have gained in 
vigorous play during these hours. 

In tests that were made in England last 
A^ear. it was found that at the age of twelve 
the children who had entered the schools 
at four were, on an average, behind the 
children who had entered at five, that the 
children who had entered at five were be- 
hind the children who had entered at six. 



and of all the children tested, the greatest 
progress had been made by the children 
who had entered the school at seven years 
of age. In Scotland it was carried still one 
step farther and the very best records were 
obtained from the children who had en- 
tered the school at eight years of age. 

If these facts come to be generally ac- 
cepted and appreciated, they should 
naturally result in dropping at least one- 
half of the school day for the primary 
pupils. The parents are going to insist still 
that the school take care of the children in 
all probability, and hence we should expect 
to see in the near future a great increase in 
demand for the playground kindergartner, 
for this certainly seems the logical place for 
these children to go. 

Unless all of my reasoning and facts have 
been much mistaken, the playgrounds are 
iToing to make larger and larger demands 
upon the kindergartners, and the training 
schools should endeavor to keep in closer 
touch with the movement than they have 
thus far. They ought to make immediate 
use of parts of the new Normal Course in 


A young mother recently wrote me 
asking how to begin kindergarten work 
at home. Perhaps the personal reply may 
aopeal to other mothers. 

Dear Young Mother: 

You have asked me a harder question 
than vou think, but I will see what I can 
do to answer it. 

First and foremost a food friend of mine, 
an able mother and kindergartner too, in 
Chicago, has conducted a correspondence 
class with mothers for several years. It 
is an extension course connected with Chi- 
cago Universitv, so if you or your friend 
are in dead earnest for the best, I believe 
vou could do no better than to join it. 
Address Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, 5515 
Woodlawn Ave.. Chicago. 

The first book I recommend to a young 
mother of intelligence is "Biography of a 
Babv," bv ATiHicent Shinn. published bv 
Houghton. Mifflin Co. It enables one to 
realize what wonderful things have to be 
accomplished and how gradually it all 
comes about in the brain of a one year old 

The mechanical side of the kindergarten 

has been over exploited. There is no 
special virtue in the balls and blocks, al- 
though they are good playthings. The im- 
portant point is the attitude of mind of the 
parent toward the child. It should be a 
playful one, and yet always with a little 
point in mind. This idea is best presented 
by Froebel in his book entitled "The Edu- 
cation of Man."( Second chapter). I ad- 
vise you to read the second and third chap- 
ters, especially the paragraphs on play. The 
first chapter is beyond most folk, so avoid 
it at first. 

Froebel's Mother Play is very good in 
parts, especially the commentaries on The 
Weather Vane, Grass Mowing, Beckon to 
the Pigeons, The Bird's Nest, The Carpen- 
ter, The Barnyard, The Little Gardener. 
You see these almost all deal with simple 
natural objects that attract a child. Also 
read "The Little Artist" and draw for your 
child as soon as he will watch you. 

The mother should repeat many little 
rhymes. In some respects Mother Goose 
Rhymes are best. Froebel's are a little too 
serious and yet both are good. 

"Finger-plays," by Emilie Poulsson and 
"Father-plays" by the same author, both 
published by Milton Bradley Co., are more 
modern and very suggestive. They are 
used in kindergartens but they are really 
better for the nome or should be begun 

A very great deal of the let alone policy 
is good through the first year, but baby is 
a social being and must hear a great deal 
of the human voice. Rhymes and simple 
songs are a good beginning of literature. 
Here endeth the first lesson. 

Your friend. J. B. M. 

The Savannah Kindergarten Club have 
issued a very interesting program of their 
sixth year's work, 1909-1910. 

The general topic is "Children's Litera- 
ture." The calendar with subjects may 
prove suggestive to those who are follow- 
ing up this important topic which was so 
ably oresented at the Buffalo meeting of 
the I. K. U. by Mr. Percival Chubb and 
Dr. Tohn Angus MacVannel. 

Oct. 13 — Stories and poems. Poetry. 

Nov. 10 — Myths, Folk-lore, Legends, Fables. 

Dec. 8 — Fairy tales. 

Jan. 12 — Humor and Nonsense. 

Feb. 9 — Nature Stories and Allied Literature. 

Mar. 9 — Hero Stories. 

Apr. 13 — Bible Stories. 

May 11 — Realistic Stories and Tales of Adventure. 



Miss Hortense M. Orcutt, supervisor of 

a Kate Baldwin Kindergarten Asso- 

tion, presents the paper on "Humor and 

)nsense." We hope to find its echo in 

;se columns. Will some Savannah kin- 

rgartner report it for us? 

The circular quotes Edward Howard 

ig-g-s on humor as follows : 

One Is tempted to say that it is impossible to 

a moral life without a sense of humor! 
Except wide experience, I know no channel 
ough which ethical good taste, the sense of 
ral proportion, can be so well cultivated as 
ough wide and appreciative contact with all 
ses of human life, as these are portrayed in the 
Id's great literature." 

"The time has come, the walrus said, 
To talk of many things: 

Of shoes and ships and sealing-wax 
And cabbages and kings." 

— Lewis Carroll. 

jnder the subject "Nature Stories and 

ied Literature," the following choice 

stations are given : 

"Now these are the laws of the jungle, 

And many and mighty are they; 
But the head and the hoof of the law, 

And the haunch and the hump is — -Obey!" 

— Kipling. 

Life is sweet, brother. There's day and night, 
ther, both sweet things; sun, moon and stars, 
sweet things; there's likewise a wind on the 
th." — Lavengre. 

We congratulate the Savannah Kinder- 
"ten Club, and especially its program 
nmittee: Clara B. Vaughn, Carrie Belle 
son, Theresa Gehg. President, Martha 
Waring - . 

see the birds far up in the trees, but Quick 
Ear was the one to find them by their 


Vliss Elsie Clark presented recently at 

; of the group meetings in Manhattan, a 

Tiber of valuable suggestions on sense 

ining based upon stories of Indian boys 

1 girls. 

ndian boys learned to imitate the sounds 

animals so that they could call animals 

t as animals call to each other. What 

mals can we imitate? 

Nt do not live in the woods but we can 

r many sounds in our street. Let us 

en now and tell what we can hear. 

tfiss Clark planned a simple tapping 

ne based upon the story of the Indian 

r who knew the wood-pecker. 

Children tapped here and there while 

ers with closed eyes tried to locate the 

ind in the room. 

Sharp Eye was an Indian boy who could 

Once a little Indian girl, whose name 
was Sit-ka-la, saw her shadow running 
after her. She said, "I will run faster and 
get away from that little girl who is chasing 
me." She ran, and she ran but her shadow 
kept right up with her. 

Another day Sit-ka-la saw her shadow in 
front of her and she said, "I will catch you," 
but she could not, for the little girl on the 
ground ran just as fast as she did. Then 
Sit-ka-la grew angry and stamped her foot 
on her shadow. Then she thought that was 
foolish. Once she asked another little In- 
dian girl if she ever tried to catch her 
shadow but the little girl said "No." Then 
Sit-ka-la gave it up and soon forgot even to 
watch her shadow running along with her. 

NOTE — This little story is adapted from "The 
Biography of an Indian Girl," Atlantic Monthly, 
January. February, March, 1900. This biography 
is a very valuable child study. — J. B. M. 

My Dear Miss M: 

We had our first trip to the Hudson on 
Wednesday. I am positive you want to 
read about it. I selected some very shy 
children this time. We went at one o'clock. 
There are many advantages when the en- 
tire class go together, but I like our "group 
method;" the children become acquainted 
with each other; it gives me a splendid 
opportunity to get very close to their 
thoughts, and it is really individual 

We passed many interesting places 
which will serve as material during the 
year — an engine house, blacksmith shop, 
church with a bell in the steeple, se\ r eral 
old-fashioned gardens where we stopped to 
look for ailanthus caterpillars (like those 
which have already spun in our terrarium), 
a small farm where tomatoes and corn 
were growing and a peach tree. We saw 
boards, meat and hay being unloaded from 
the freight trains, and bricks and coal from 
the boats. But that which made the deep- 
est impression was the "Coney Island 
Boat" which we watched as it approached 
and docked at the pier. 

Our next trip will be to the museum, and 
I think we will enjoy it as much as we did 
this one. Two of the children on this trip 
were in kindergarten last term and rarely 
ever spoke or joined in the play unless 

8 4 


coaxed to do so, but on Wednesday they 
voluntarily told me all about their vaca- 
tions. I feel that a great gain, even if noth- 
ing more had been accomplished. 

The meeting yesterday was just full of 

Cordially yours, H. H. 


(An Exercise for the Whole School.) 
Leader:— Have you cut the wheat in the glowing 

The barley, the oats and the rye, 
The golden corn and the pearly rice? 
For the winter days are nigh. 
School:— We have reaped them all from shore to 
shore, - 
And the grain is safe on the threshing 
Leader:— Have you gathered the berries from the 
And the fruit from the orchard trees? 
The dew and the scent from the roses 

and thyme, 
In the hives of the honey-bees? 
School: — The peach and the plum and the apple 
are ours, 
And the honey-comb from the scented 
Leader: — The wealth of the snowy cotton-field, 
And the gift of the sugar cane. 
The savory herb and the nourishing 

root — 
There has nothing been given in vain. 
School: — We have gathered the harvest from 
shore to shore, 
And the measure is full and brimming 
All: — Then lift up the head with a song! 

And lift up the hand with a gift! 

To the ancient Giver of all 

The spirit in gratitude lift! 

For the joy and the promise of spring, 

For the hay and the clover sweet, 

The barley, the rye and the oats, 

The rice and the corn and the wheat, 

The cotton and sugar and fruit, 

The flowers and the fine honey-comb, 

Our country, so fair and so free, 

The blessings and glory of home. 

— School Education. 


Tune: "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" 
Thanksgiving Day is here once more, Hurrah! 

Of fruits and grains we have a store, Hurrah! 

We come from the north, we come so gay; 
We come from the south, on this bright day, 
For we all will greet Thanksgiving Day again. 


bring you pumpkins big and fair. Hurrah! 

And turkeys good and chickens rare, Hurrah! 

And pies and cakes, all crisp and sweet, 
And apples red, so good to eat, 
For we all will greet Thanksgiving Day again. 

All good gifts around us 

Are sent from heaven above. 

Then thank our Father, 
Thank our Father, 
For His love. 




President, National Story Tellers' League 

Article Number Two 

When our forefathers grappled with 
theological problems and made dogmatic 
statements as to their faith, such as we find 
in some of our catechisms, they had in mind 
the church and theological controversies, 
and not the child and his needs. The truth 
that they had suffered and died for was con- 
tained in t! e catechisms, their articles of 
faith, therefore he who committed to mem- 
ory the catechism had the truth. But in 
that reasoning they made a fatal mistake. 
To make children memorize these dogmatic 
statements expecting them to grow re- 
ligiously or morally thereby, would be like 
feeding them on bone meal, expecting 
therefrom an increase in the bony tissue of 
the body. The lime that the body needs is 
there, but not in an assimilative form. Nor 
is there truth for the child in dry-bone state- 
ments of religion. If the child asks for 
bread will you give him a stone? That is 
what we do when we make him memorize 
theological statements, the language and 
thought both of which are beyond him. 

The writer recalls two teachers and two 

methods of religious instruction in his 

childhood. One who taught him the 

catechism and one who told him Bible 

stories. The catechism bored and weariec 

him, and so far as he can see today wa 

time wasted, while the stories charmed anc 

uplifted, and remain even today a pleasan 

memory. This is not arguing that the chile 

should not memorize some things. Then 

are many selections from Scripture anc 

other sources that he can memorize botl 

with great pleasure and profit to himself. 

"The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want, 
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures, 
He leadeth me beside the still waters," 

is full of beautiful imagery that appeals t 
the child. But theological definitions of sir 
justification and the like, have neither fee 
ing nor imagery and make no appeal to th 
child. The child is interested in the deec 
of man and not in his doctrines. Tell hit 
connectedly the life-story of. Moses, Buc 
dha, Jesus. St. Augustine, Luther or We 
lev, and von have given him the spirit an 
life of the great religious leaders and tr 
institutions which grew out of their wor' 
No catechism could do that. Gladly 1 
would hear the life story of a great religiot 



ro and teacher, but his doctrines do not 
erest him now. Give him the life story 
w, and when he has reached later the 
ilosophic period he will himself raise the 
eological and philosophical questions, and 
owing the lives of the great religious 
iders he will have the historical back- 
ound whereon to build his faith. Any- 
le can take a catechism and have a class 
emorize and repeat the answers, but it 
kes a teacher to so read the Bible that 
1 can tell in a creative way the story of 
5 great heroes. That is what we must do 
we base our methods on true psychology, 
nd the story should be studied connected- 
to the close and not by piecemeal, be- 
nning as some do with one character and 
:fore the life-story is done dropping him 
id skipping to another, in order to con- 
rm to a certain doctrinal theme which 
ay interest the adult but not the child, 
hat method may account for the fact that 
ible heroes have not always been as popu- 
r with children as some others. If the 
ory of Ulysses and Hiawatha were taught 
1 a similar wav they would lose much of 
eir charm and interest for the child. 
The day school in its literature courses is 
icidentally giving the child a comparative 
ourse in religion, greatly to the advantage 
f the Sunday School worker. In Hiawatha 
re have an Indian Messiah who worship- 
ed the Great Spirit, and prayed and fasted 
or his people. In the Norse we have the 
worship of Odin, and Balder, the God of 
ight, Gladsheim and the Life Beyond the 
rave. In the Greek we have the gods in 
heir relations to man, the upper and lower 
yorld, immortality, rewards and punish- 
nents. Saint George was a protector of 
he faith, while King Arthur had heaped 
iDon him the attributes of a divinity, until 
his life-storv reminds one of the Christ 

The heroism and prowess in these stones 
is the main noint of interest to the child, 
but none the less .does the religious life of 
the race come out: and to have religion as- 
sociated with physical strength as well as 
moral heroism is an advantage. And none 
the less are we giving him the great truths 
that are common to all religions, making 
him tolerant and charitable, and teaching 
him that religion is as broad as life itself 
and that it is natural for every human heart 
to go in quest of the Eternal. With this 
broad outlook we can then better help our 

young people interpret the old truths in 
terms of modern thought and contribute 
much toward that larger religious life and 
thought which must inevitably come. 

The work of storv-telling covers a much 
larger field than the school. It does not 
matter whether we are kindergartners, 
teachers or preachers, every adult owes to 
the rising generation of children something 
of the culture that has been given to him. 
The "Tell me a story" on the part of the 
child is his cry for spiritual food, and to 
hear stories from the great story-books of 
the world is, as Dr. G. Stanley Hall says, 
"one of the most inalienable rights of chil- 
dren." There is no better place in all the 
world for telling a story than in the home, 
that institution which is greater and more 
important than all other institutions com- 

It is in the home that we come into the 
sweetest and divinest relations with chil- 
dren and with one another. It is here that 
Ave find the best conditions for a plav of 
those subtle and delicate psychic influence^ 
which enter into the story, making it both 
a perfect art and an inspiration to a noble 
and beautiful character. There are manv 
homes that cannot afford libraries and the 
rich adornments of art, but no home is so 
humble that parents cannot gather the chil- 
dren around the fireside on a winter's even- 
ing or about the doorsteps in the twilight 
of a summer's day and tell them stories. A 
simple fireside is a greater stimulant to the 
creative imagination than the wealth of a 

To enter thus into the child's world and 
into the iovous companionship of children 
is one of the highest privileges of parent 
and teacher. He who fails in this does not 
form the deepest and most lasting ties with 
the child, and he also robs himself of one 
of the greatest sources of perennial youth. 


School of Pedagogy. Philadelphia. Pa. 

The love of stories and the faculty of 
storv-telling are two of the soul's oldest in- 
heritances. Before the time of written 
language all peoples had their professional 
storv-tellers, who gathered the children 
about them and recited the lore of their 

♦From the Story Hour. 



tribes, and this custom is still maintained 
by primitive races. The name myth is given 
to the most representative of these tales. 
To a certain extent they embody the primi- 
tive ideas of all natural phenomena: the 
seasonal changes; the daily motion of the 
sun; the formation of the earth; the source 
of winds; the origin of certain food ma- 
terials, such as the Monnomin story in 
Hiawatha and How Flax was Given to 
Man ; the tales of mighty hunters and racial 
heroes such as the Greek Ulysses, the Ro- 
man Romulus and Remus, and Balder, the 
Good ; the origin of plants and animals, the 
last group containing the so-called pourquoi 
mvths, which explain how the robin got his 
red breast, why the peacock's tail has a 
hundred eyes, how the water lily came to 
dwell among men, with many more of 
kindred character. This is the sort of men- 
tal pabulum upon which the primitive child 
fed, thrived and came to full development, 
earlv feeling reverence for the common 
things about him and drinking in a deep 
longing to do heroic deeds. 

The child of civilization finds in these 
stories a source of never-ending interest, 
listening with the greatest sympathy and 
keenest appreciation to their recital. For 
the child-mind is ever the same, full of ques- 
tioning about its surroundings and only 
half satisfied with the plain, mater-of-fact 
scientific explanations of our wise times. 
Children are themselves myth-makers, 
building up from stray suggestions of poeti- 
cal interpretations of nature, as well as un- 
doubtedly from their own fancyings in the 
presence of these phenomena, explanations 
which have a striking resemblance to the 
ancient ideas embodied in mvths. For the 
imaginative is the real world of the child. 
Things are to him what they seem, and he 
is fancy-free to watch the swift loom of 
imagination weave beautiful, grotesque or 
fearsome patterns. Some very interesting 
material along this line has been gathered 
by genetic psychologists. 

Among reasons why children should thus 
enjoy and even prefer this type of storv 
may be suggested the following: It is 
usually full of action ; it moves rapidly and 
in a simple fashion — Mercury has wings 
that he mav go unhindered. The element 
of adventure predominates, while the ob- 
jects dealt with are more or less familiar to 
the child and often personified, thereby 
fitting into his own habit of thought — that 

the squirrel told its secrets to Hiawatha in 
words is no offense. Furthermore there is 
a charming lack of detail; so much is taken 
for granted — the dragons and the Gorgon 
lived a long way off — no matter where — 
"a long way off" is sufficient. There is no 
anachronism in Hercules' getting out of his 
cradle alone and driving away the cows. 

The question arises as to when we may* 
make use of the myth in the child's develop- 
ment. The writer has made an introduc- 
torv study into this problem, the full results 
of which are recorded in the Pedagogical 
Seminary, Vol. VIII, No. 2. A brief resume 
is suggestive. The interest in myth is very 
strong in the third grade, gradually lessen- 
ing as we pass on upward, with a possible 
slight return in the eighth. The children 
furnishing these results had used myths as 
part of their work in English, and when 
asked to name the stories that they liked 
best, gave answers which, when tabulated, 
furnish the interest curve noted above. The 
kindergarten and primary teachers were 
unanimous in the opinion that this type of 
storv found a ready hearing with their 
pupils also. 

It is noticeable that the Germans are 
recognizing this taste in children, their best 
reading books devoting large space to 
myth. One series (Hopf und Paulsiek) 
prints 575 of mythic character in a total of 
1489 selections. It would seem that we 
might make use of some of this material, 
letting it replace some of the matter in our 
reading books that is either trash or not 
adapted to the development of the mind at 
the period when it is used. These stories 
have stood the test of generations of telling. 
Nor can we fail to approve of their content, 
for myth is the mother of religion, philos- 
ophy, science, nature-study, morals, art. 
historv. geography, poetry: she is also 
laden with high ideals, filial love and 
patriotic sentiment, worship and love for 
the beautiful in nature and the heroic in 
conduct. Myth also reveals a new meaning 
for many of our holidavs and customs. 
Christmas is a Christian adoption of the old 
Teutonic feast celebrating the sun's turn- 
ing northward. The giving of presents ac- 
companied the same feast. The Christmas 
tree comes from the ancient belief that cer- 
tain trees bloom and bear fruit on the holy 
night. The Easter eg? is probably a relic 
of an old Aryan creation mvth. May-day 
comes from the old feast solomenizing the 



coming summer. Harvest-home marks the 
me when the first frost began to appear in 
le highland pastures, and the witches were 
noosed to kill the grass. Furthermore no 
etter material can be found for cultivating 
ie imagination and aesthetic judgment, 
nless awakened and fed upon assimilable 
>od, the imagination (always working 
nder the same laws, whether employing 
ude early fancies or the finest of mature 
oetic subtleties) will remain wholly dor- 
ant or assume only infantile proportions. 

is capable of early activity and nothing 

arouses and vivifies it as the story. A 
rime requisite is, of course, that the story 
aterial must be in line with the child's 
pperception. This requisite is found in 
lyth. With the mythopoetic faculty 
wakened, natural objects have a new 
leaning, and the child weaves his own 
mcies about the clouds, sun, moon, winds, 
owers, etc. They become objects of active 
lought. producing a mental life in which 
e can dwell and bv which he enlarges his 

The following books will be heloful to 
;achers and parents alike : Gayley, Classics 
fvths in English Literature : Guerber. 
fyths of Northern Lands; Ellen Russell 
Emerson. Indian Myths; Hawthorne's 
Vonder Book; Hiawatha; Cooke's Nature 
fyths and Stories ; Florence Holbrook's 
Jattire Myths and other works. 

The last two authors have adapted the 
tories to children. The above list does not 
xhaust the list of excellent books bv anv 
■leans. Apnended to the article on Mvth 
The Pedagogical Seminarv, to which 
eference has alreadv been made, is a cuite 
xtensive bibliography, including D'Ooge's 

lassification of Classic Mvths and Emilv 
. "Rice's selections for the different grades. 



tor First and Second Grades With a Discussion of 

Their Uses 

I A/""" "" E know that the period of 
JL X childhood is one of great 

motor activity. Of the many 
nstincts of the child probably the most im- 
)ortant is that of motor activity. This in- 
itinct seeks to express itself in manv ways. 
5ome of these ways are shown in the 
hild's restlessness, his desire for play or 
or some kind of activity, both mental and 

The instinct for play has manifested itself 
through all past generations, even reaching 
back to our prehuman ancestors. So when 
we fnve the child opportunity to develop 
this instinct, we are providing for the de- 
velopment of a natural inheritance. We 
know some instincts are transient and will 
disappear if not developed. The play in- 
stinct is one of these, but if proper attention 
is given to the best development it will give 
rise to permanent habits and actions, some- 
thing that will make the child better. Since 
it is our duty to give the child the best pos- 
sible means for his betterment, we should 
make his environment such as would give 
him the best chance for the intelligent de- 
velopment and control of the child's power 
through this instinct. 

In giving games to the child we not only 
give him something to utilize this surplus 
motor activity, but we give him joy; for 
it is in the game that the child is natural 
and can exercise his freedom. Besides 
these we are giving him training in atten- 
tion, sense perception and rhythm. In the 
singinp* and dancing games he is develop- 
ing an ease and lightness of movement that 
gives grace and poise. 

In addition to these points, we should 
look for the little acts of courtesy which 
may seem trivial at times, but which are 
alwavs noticeable, especially in young chil- 
dren. Through the games the child has 
opportunitv continually for performing 
some little act of courtesy or showing some 
respect for others. 

While free or spontaneous plav does 
much in develooing manv tendencies, 
capacities, and habits of action, under one 
highly artificial system of life, many are al- 
so neglected. This neglect can only be over- 
come bv directed plays and games, where 
thev are undirected. This, of course, may 
be through mere accident or thoughtless- 
ness on the part of the children, or, it may 
be through childish selfishness, that some 
are overlooked and made to feel that thev 
were really not in the game and the iov of 
playing is ?one for them. In the directed 
games it should be the object of the teacher 
or director to see that even' child partici- 
pates and that no selfishness or neglect is 

The directed game tends to make^ the 
plavers attentive because they must listen 
carefullv to the directors, for without fullv 
understanding the game it cannot be played 



well. On the other side, the directed play 
should not be such that the children have 
no opportunity to work out their own ideas 
as to the manner of plaving, for if there is 
too much direction, the game becomes 
something mechanical rather than pleasur- 
able and the interest diminishes. 

The child loves to play in the game be- 
cause of his interest in the play, and be- 
cause he is coming in direct contact with 
other children and is free and uncon- 
strained. He looks forward to the games 
in the school room because they give him 
rest from his work. When the children be- 
gin to be restless in school, caused from 
sitting too long with their work, the wise 
teacher will take a few moments for rest. 
Nothing is better to revive the children and 
put them in an agreeable frame of mind to 
go with their work than a good, fair game, 
and it takes only a few minutes. In select- 
ing the games following. T have been gov- 
erned largely by two controlling factors : 
Games have been chosen in which all chil- 
dren actively participate : those which re- 
quire but little time and brief direction. The 
games are classified under five headings : 

t. Singing and Dancing Games. 

2. Number Games. 

3. Soontaneous Activity, Skill, Memory 
and Self Control. 

4. Games for Observation and Sense 

s\ Games for Imagination. Attention, 
and Memory. 

Tn giving the children singing and danc- 
'ug games, we develop rhvthmic expres- 
sion, grace, courtesy, and lightness of 

The games for number are given to fix 
the ntimber facts and relationship and to 
develop rapiditv. and accuracy in their use. 
\t the same time the child is given some 
form of pleasurable activity, both mental 
and physical. 

The games which call forth spontaneous 
activity, skill, memory and self control arc 
those which all children enjoy, for here is 
excitement and enough" competition to in- 
terest all. Although self control is listed 
nnder this classification, it is really mani- 
fested through all the games. 

The games for observation and sense 
nerception keef> the children alert, train 
the sensorA T organs and involve a very plav- 
ful use of the mental powers. Games for 
imagination. attention and memory are 

classified under a special heading.althougl 
some points overlap. Attention and 
memory are called forth in all of the games 
in some measures. The games for imagina- 
tion are given in order that the imagina- 
tion, which is highly plastic at this age, 
may have opportunity for wise develop 
ment and direction. 

In summarizing the foregoing-, it will be 
seen that the value of plays and games has 
been thought of from two standpoints, th 
Psychological and Sociological. 

Psychologically, their value lies in thei 
development of the spirit of fairness, ap 
preciation of leadership, the needs of sub 
ordination, the co-operative work among 
the children and due respect for the rights 
and privileges of others. 

Such a study as this necessarily require 
the co-operation of many. I here take th« 
opportunity to thank those primary teach 
ers of physical culture 'in nearly one hun 
dred of the city schools of this country wh( 
so generously aided me in the collection o 
several hundred games from which a larg< 
list of selections was made. 



It was early one summer day when 
little boy started out for the Castle of Hap 
piness. He left the city with its noise an< 
throngs and went into the woods where th 
birds were singing, and the flowers wer 
growing bv the wayside and the littl 
brooks were dancing and gurgling in th 

"Surely," said the boy, "this is the roa 
to the Castle of Happiness," and he wen 
on his way whistling a merry tune. 

By and by he met an old man, wrinkle 
and gray, and he stopped to have a wor 
with him. 

"Old man," he said, "can you tell me th 
road that leads to the Castle of Happ 

"That I can," said the old man, and h 
gave the boy a keen look out of his brig! 
eyes, "you just follow me and I'll lead yo 
straight to the Castle you are seeking." 

"Oh. thank you," said the boy. He didn 
know it was the Giant Selfishness he ha 
met. "How nice it will be to have a con 
panion all the long way." 

Just then he spied a little bird flutterin 



11 the ground, lie quickly stooped and 
kicked it up. 

"Poor birdie," he said, and he stroked 
t with gentle hand while he looked around 
or the nest. But the old man was impa- 
iently calling him. 

'Come, boy," he said, "you've no time to 
waste on the way." 

"But the bird is hurt," said the boy, "and 
s crying for the mother bird in the nest." 

"Vvhat is that to you?" said the old man. 
'If you wish me to lead you to the Castle 
of Happiness you must follow as I say." 

The boy slowly followed the old man. 
Somehow the way was not as pleasant as 
it had promised to be in the early morning. 

The sun was now beating with its mid- 
day heat, and the boy saw that the Mowers 
were drooping and dying by the wayside. 

'Poor bowers," he said, "I must shield 
you from the hot sun," and he began break- 
ing boughs from the green trees and spread- 
ing them over the plants. But old Selfish- 
ness interfered. 

"If you stop to shield all the flowers on 
the roadside," he said, "you'll never reach 
your journey's end." 

"But the bowers are dying," said the boy. 

"That's nothing to you," said old Self- 

A little dog lay panting on the burning- 
sands. The boy would have turned aside 
to fetch it a drink from the cooling spring, 
but Selfishness forbade. 

A little child wandered out on the hill- 
side. The boy ran to care for it, but Self- 
ishness called him back. 

"Come," said old Selfishness, "you've got 
enough to do to take care of yourself." 

"That's true," said the boy, and he left 
the little wanderer behind. 

Old Selfishness smiled to himself. He 
saw that he was getting a hold on the boy. 
But he was too smart to let the boy even 
suspect it. 

"I have found," he said smoothly, "that 
the people who get along best are the ones 
who look out for themselves. Those who 
are always stopping to help others on the 
Road to Happiness never get there them- 

"Oh !" said the boy, and he drew closer 
to Giant Selfishness and for the rest of the 
journey he kept right beside him. 

At length, the Giant brought him to a 
Mighty Castle. 

"Behold," he said, "the Castle you are 

seeking," and he opened a door and gently 
pushed his companion within. 

"Nay, nay," he said, when the boy would 
have had him enter, too. "I've no time to 
loiter in Happiness. I must keep on the 
road that I may lead others to it, as I have 
led you." Then he turned the great key, 
and alas too late, the boy found it was to no 
Castle of Happiness he had been brought, 
but to a prison, the Prison of Selfishness. 

"The longer one stays here," whispered 
a friendly voice to him one day, "the harder 
it is for him to get away, for the bond* 
which Selfishness put on harden as time 
goes by." 

"Then I'll strike off these bonds while I 
may," said the boy, and he rose up in his 
might and tore them from him. Then he 
quickly fled to the Highway and when once 
more upon the broad, white path of Free- 
dom he resolved that never again would he 
be led astray. 

But no sooner did he meet with the 
Maiden Mirth, and her sister Pleasure than 
he followed hard after them. Far from the 
Path of Duty, he wandered with them, on 
into pleasant by-paths; but when at length 
they brought him to a Castle, he found it 
was not the true Castle of Happiness. 

Then again he fled to Freedom's way. 
But the long summer days were now over, 
and the winds were blowing, and the roads 
were rugged and lone, and only pale Sor- 
row glided silently before him. 

"Alas! Alas!" he said. "Is there no one 
to show me the true road to Happiness?" 
and in misery and despair he sank down. 

Then Loving-Kindness came swiftly to 
his aid. 

"Follow me," she said, "and I will lead 
you straight to the Castle of Happiness." 

The boy looked up into her face, bright 
with the light from Heaven. 

"I will follow you," he said simply and 
he crept close to her side. Then it was, his 
eyes were opened, and he saw out in the 
bleak woods, an old woman gathering 

"Let me help you," he cried and he ran 
and piled up the brushwood in her cabin. 

A lamb was bleating on the hillside. He 
folded it sung and warm beneath his jacket 
and carried it safely back to the shepherd. 

Hungry birds came pecking in the snow. 
He crumbled his last biscuit and fed it to 

The night was now coming on. It was 



bitter and cold and the boy was anxious to 
reach his journey's end. 

He was hastening on his way when the 
light suddenly streamed from a cottage 
Uoor and a Mother rushed out crying: 

"My child! My little one! Have you 
seen him. ? " 

"No," said the boy. "But I will find him 
for you," and forgetting his hunger and 
cold, he turned aside to search for tne little 

Far and wide he searched. But at last he 
found him. 

"God bless you," cried the Mother as she 
folded her babe safe on her bosom. She 
looked into the boy's face — A light sudden- 
ly burst upon him — 

"Mother! Mother!" he cried, and he 
sprang to her arms. "Your boy has come 
back irom his wanderings — Home, after all, 
is the true Castle of Happiness." 



In lieu of the quaint pictures which 
should accompany this series of com- 
mentaries upon Froebel's Mother Plays, we 
will give a brief description of each, sug- 
gesting that the teachers purchase the en- 
larged pictures from kindergarten supply 

The plate of the "grass mowing" play 
comprises several distinct scenes. At the 
bottom we see Peter wielding the scythe 
(an unfamiliar implement to many chil- 
dren). Nearby stands a little boy imitating 
his motions with an improvised scythe 
made of a branch of a tree. In the distance 
is seen a load of hay followed by a little 
girl. At the left sits a little boy beneath a 
scraggly tree; at the right a demure little 
girl rests beneath a tree from whose 
top grow leafy branches. The boy and girl 
are making dandelion chains that form the 
rude framing in the entire plate. 

Above this meadow picture are two 
smaller divisions, each of which is again 
sub-divided. That on the left depicts a 
child standing on a table; the mother's 
ringers grasp his as she swings his arms 
with the movement of mowing. Above 
this we see the pitcher and bowl of milk. 

The picture on the right shows Nellie 
milking the cow, and above this we see her 

At the middle of the upper part of th« 
plate are shown the baby's fingers grasping 
mother's in imitation of the handles of tht 
scythe as described below. The transla 
tion follows: 

(An Arm Exercise.) 

O Mother, with thy little one, still living day bj 

Conscious of life's deep unity mays' t thou abid« 

alway — 
For knowing how close related are every life an< 

Thou then cans't use all work and play for sowtn 

of this seed. 
The grass-mowing picture will help you to see 
How each baby-play educative may be. 

Peter, to the meadow go, 
Quick, the sweet fresh grass to mow — 
Bring it uome, the horse so strong 
Pulls the wagon-load along — 
'luen tne cow the hay will eat 
Thanking us with milk so sweet. 
Nell, please milk the cow and churn 
Tnat some milk to butter turn: 
Milk and butter, rolls and bread — 
Oh, how well our baby's fed. 

Peter, to the meaaow go, 
Quick, the sweet fresh grass to mow — 
Thanks for mowing, swift and sure, 
Thanks, good cow, for milk so pure, 
Thanks to Nell, who milked and churned, 
Baker, too, our thanks has earned. 
Mother, too, the food who cooks, 
Baby thanks with loving looks. 

Both arms of your child rest in a hori 
zontal position, parallel to each other, witi 
the forearm stretched forward a little. Th 
tiny hands rest so, that the back being up- 
permost, the fingers are bent down intc 
your hands which are held in a correspond 
ing position, but with the back of the hands 
facing downward and the fingers curving 
up. This position lends itself to a move 
ment resembling that of grass-mowing 
one which develops especially the upper 
arm and the erect carriage of the child. 

O mother ! you who are so concerned foi 
the weal, the highest welfare of your child 
many objects often seem to stand sepa 
rated and apart and to have fixed limits 
but nothing is more detrimental, more in- 
jurious to the education of the heart anc 
the nurture of the mind and soul that to 
regard such as intrinsically unrelated anc 
cut off from the perfect circle of life. 

O, may you, in your solicitude, early 
guard your child against that mistake. May 
you be instructed through childish plays 
such as these. 

Although we must often say to the chile 
who complains: "Mother, I am hungry,' 
"Go to the cook and ask her for some 



read," or "You have a penny, go buy 
ourseli a roll,'' yet we should not connne 
urseives to tms Dut snouid as early in hie 
nd as olten as possiDle make tne child 
ware ol tne succession oi processes which 
uust De passed tnrough and tne conditions 
vnicn must De tuiniieu beiore one may say 
nelly "Go to so and so and get some 
read " or what not. 

A judicious selection, arrangement and 
ompanson ol beautnul pictures represent- 
ng tne hie of larm ana garden, ol trade 
nd industry connected wnn snort, simpie, 
lescnpuve stories irom real hie will enect 
his, as, no doubt, you nave already proved, 
nd wnicn we will together carry out by 
unning tnrough a selection ol pictures, it 
Mil now be easy for you, with pictures at 
and and guided by song, to so lead your 
mid (who asks you the meaning ol the 
ncture) that he will want to thank not 
nly his mother, Peter, the cow, Melhe and 
he baker for his bread and milk, but above 
ll, the Giver and Preserver of all life, the 
ather of all being through Whose com- 
land, the earth, under the influence of dew 
nd rain, sunshine and shadow, winter and 
ummer, brings forth grass and herb for 
he sustenance of the cattle and through 
hem (and often through them alone) tor 

Your child will readily understand you 
nd will understand so much the better, if 
ou allow him, even if only imitatively, 
ike the boy in the picture, to participate in 
he activities which his elders pursue in 
rder to provide for the maintenance of 
ife; particularly if you have him tend his 
wn garden, and harvest for himself the 
ruits of his toil, and thus perceive for him- 
elf the influence of sun, dew and rain and 
he eternal laws established by God in 

Though it is now as little possible for 
im to follow and fill out completely the 
nks in the chain of life, as it has been thus 
ar for the two children sitting below in the 
orners to join their milk-yielding dande- 
ion-chains, it will be just as little possible 
or him to doubt his future success as for 
he industrious boy and the thoughtful 
ittle maiden to doubt that through quiet, 
•rogressive development, the links of life's 
hain will be united in beauty to their satis- 
action. "But," says the tree on the left to 
he boy seated beneath, speaking to him 
nd to all educators through its external 

appearance — "take care that you graft 
noining ignoble, low, talse, or erroneous 
upon siock originally good, or from it will 
grow a shrunken, scraggy shoot which will 
bring forth only bitter, sour truit, unht for 
use or pleasure. 

"Take care," says the tree upon the 
right, to the maiden seated upon its base, 
through its external aspect, to her and to 
all educators. "Take care that you do not 
injure the summit, the apex, the impulse^ 
ol life, or break, through ignorance or im- 
prudence, that which is the crown of your 
children, growing irom the Tree of Lite — 
else wood and leaves only will reward you 
— no blossoms, and still less, any fruit." 

Now, mother, you can understand why 
both the children sit so absorbed beneath 
the trees. May the important truths which 
they express to them never be repeated in 
their hearts as personal experience. May 
you never have to fear anything of that 
kind for your children. Happy boy that 
mows so lustily, and sturdy little girl who 
follows so gaily the haywagon, that is cer- 
tainly not the case with you! 

We plow and plant and weed, 

Then the sun and the dew, 

With raindrops a few, 
Helps one little seed 

To grow into two. 

Some chop the trees with might and main, 

Then others will saw them and smoothly plane, 

The wagoner makes them into a wain 

To help the farmer store hay and grain 

Hoisted aloft with pitchfork and crane 

And carried to town on the long freight train. 

The physical exercise suggested de- 
scribed by Froebel is one available in the 
class room and it may be supplemented by 
others suggested by farm life and which 
have been handed down in the traditional 
games like "Would you know how does the 
farmer?" This particular game may be 
further extended by pitching hay on the 
load and imitating other haying activities. 
The motions of churning and of stirring 
or kneading the dough which is to be made 
into baby's rolls may be utilized. The old 
ring game of "Oats, peas, beans" may be 
used with a few verbal changes as follows: 

"How oats, peas, beans and barley growa 
'Tis you nor I nor nobody knows (Rep«at) 
Thus the farmer sows his seed 
Thus he stands and takes his ease 
Stamps his foot and claps his hands 
And turns around to view his lands. 
A-waiting for a partner, 



A-waiting for a partner. 

Open the ring and choose one in 

Shake hands, and then the work begin. 

Ask why the farmer has a right to turn 
in "ride and view nis lands - -Because he 
has worked hard and faithfully with 
nature's laws to have it produce abundant- 
ly. His ground has been well fertilized and 
prepared; the crop well tended, and the 
harvest is a good one. But can he reap a 
good harvest unaided? No, he needs the 
help, directly or indirectly of many people. 
Even if he cuts his own hay or ploughs his 
own fields he is indebted to the men who 
have improved upon the old plow and other 
farm implements so that the labor is much 
lighter than that of his forefathers. (See 
a recent number of Elbert Hubbard's Little 
Journey s in which he describes the inven- 
tion of the Oliver plow and what it means 
to the farmer.) And the farmer needs also 
the help of the "hired man." Does he pay 
this partner well? 

In these games see that the children hold 
themselves in correct positions that make 
for a good carriage and all-round develop- 

Play "Did You Ever See a Lassie" and 
have the children imitate the motions of 
farm activities, hoeing, raking, mowing, 
etc. Also motions of churning and let them 
think of other processes in other depart- 
ments of life which they can imitate. See 



Let the children study the picture and 
follow the various steps as far as possible 
necessary to the preparation of baby's sup- 
per, as suggested therein. Let them also 
observe the haywagon (wain), tell of what 
it is made and follow some of the steps in 
its making. With older children do the 
same with the bowl and pitcher. 

Tell what we have had for breakfast and 
then follow the different links in the chain 
which brought to us our fruit from Italy 
or California; our cereal from some western 
state; our coffee from Brazil; our milk 
from New Jersey; eggs from the farm; fish 
from the sea, etc. How many men and 
women in each case have labored that we 
might sit down to a hot breakfast on a cold 
winter's day. 

Spend a few moments some day in speak- 
ing of the plow and how scientifically it is 
now made; for how many centuries men 
used only a bent stick for stirring up the 

soil, then first one man and then another 
improved upon it. 

Speak of the recent pageants in New 
York. Each one depicted some important 
event which was one link in a great chain 
If one man had failed in duty how different 
our life might be. 

Thus the child's knowledge concerning 
geography, products of the soil, processes 
of mechanics may be increased by a stuch 
of this picture. 

Attention mav also be drawn to the twc 
trees and questions raised about grafting 
the relative importance of stock and scion 


All are needed by each one; 
Nothing is fair or good alone! 

— Emersoi 

The spiritual significance of this Mothe 
Play leads us naturally into the spirit o 
Thanksgiving Day. Think of the man 
people who have worked and experimente 
through many ages to develop our moder 
fruits, our breakfast cereals, the mills tha 
grind them, the men who tend them, th 
brakemen and trainmen who are respon 
sible for their safe carriage to us. We ai 
indeed grateful. And, as Froebel himse 
wisely suggests, there is no better way fc 
the child to learn his dependence upon 
Power outside himself which works in an 
through himself and all nature, than $ 
tending" his own little garden. He learn 
thus to appreciate also all the care an 
faithful labor which has gone into thos 
things which he eats and wears and when 
with he is sheltered; all those less materi; 
things as well which add to the joy of lif< 
the music, art and literature — How can w 
express our sense of obligation and grat 
tucle? Perhaps Edwin Markham has state 
this as well as anyone "Come, let us li\ 
the poetry we sing!" We are so interd 
pendent that now, united as the nations ai 
by steamboat, train and telegraph if 
revolution takes place in Morocco or 
famine in China we are affected thereb 
Hence, let us prove responsible in fulfillir 
our duties that no one, even in the r 
motest parts of the world may suff 
through our negligence or inefficiency 
a bov is inaccurate or slipshod in his woi 
it has its effect upon others. The though 
ful foreigners who visited our country 
observe our ways will often acquire 
prejudice in our favor or against us becau 



the courtesy or discourtesy of our chil- 
li. As an illustration ol tins innuence oi 
rcis and acts we reprint below, a story 
in "The Children's Magazine." 
Ihe picture ol the cniiuren with the 
tins recalls the old adage "No chain is 

nger tuan its weakest link." Impress 
s upon the children. This may be fur- 
r emphasized by relating an incident in 

lite of the arctic explorer Fiaia. He 
s how one day he was walking on a 
cier when he fell down, down, down till 
caught in a crevice where he hung sus- 
ldecl, over thousands of feet of empty 
ice, his legs dangling and he held tight 

the body and one arm. Friends let 
ivn a rope ; he managed to catch it and 
h the one free arm to make a knot and 
be hauled up. Then a companion who 
i fallen in a vain attempt to rescue Fiala, 
s also hauled up. 

Ln his horrible predicament the explorer 
ailed that he had noticed that morning 
vorn place in the long, narrow rope and 
shiver passed through him as he won- 
:ed if it had been repaired. Later, he 
estioned one of his party about it. "Yes," 
d the man, "I noticed that bad place and 
very carefully strengthened it, though 
;le thinking that it might play such an 
portant part in saving the lives of two 
ople. So with the men who tend fires 
buildings, those who carefully inspect 
i machinery of trains every day, and the 
ys and girls who perform faithfully the 
;le home duties. Each one counts for or 
ainst one. And so also with the forma- 
n of habits. Little by little the links are 
ned which may bind one all but hopeless- 
in slavish habits. 

Could Cook or Peary have reached the 

Drth Pole if other men had not preceded 

m and learned how to make sledges, to 

in dogs, to prepare canned food, etc. ? 

Children will be interested in looking at 

I grafted tree and learning that the fruit 
such a tree partakes of the nature of the 

oot or scion, as it is called. So with peo- 
e, whatever the home or environment or 
e natural stock, bad or good, the fruit 

II be largely the result of what is grafted 
ereon. This should help discouraged chil- 
en to feel that they may by persistence 
ercome many faults or bad habits. 
Mothers should be helped to feel the im- 
)rtance of inculcating a spirit of gratitude 

their children towards all who serve 

them; the helpers in the household, the 
teaeners in the scnool; tins leads to a spirit 
ul loyalty much to be desired. It the parent 
ever lias reason to enticise the teacher it 
should not be done beiore the child. 

The lesson suggested by the two tree.-, 
is especially of value to parents, it is for 
them to see that nothing evil or ialse is 
gralted upon the stock that is naturally 
good, it is lor the parents to study the 
nature of their children and see to it that 
the naturallv good impulses are developed 
and trained and not dwarfed or stunted or 
killed by cold, unsympathetic, unreasoning 
treatment. How many unthinking mothers 
have paved the way for sorrow and dis- 
appointment for themselves, and great loss 
to the world, by inculcating in their chil- 
dren false, superficial ambitions, to shine in 
society, to have a good time, with no re- 
gard tor the claims of the higher life. 

For parent and teacher alike this 
multiple picture is rich in suggestion. 


Little boys who expect to be kings and 
emperors when they grow up have a hard 
time of it. Many other children who think 
that they have to study hard would deem 
their lot an easy one if they knew what 
little princes have to go through in order 
to be prepared to take their places in the 
world when they grow up. 

First of all, they have to learn many 
languages, at lea'st four or five, and this be- 
fore they are six years old ; for they must 
be able to converse in the tongue of the 
guests who come to their court, not only 
with kings and princes, but also with am- 
bassadors and foreign ministers and com- 
manders of foreign vessels. 

Besides they must learn a lot of history 
— the history of their own land and that of 
foreign lands. And they must know why 
wars are fought, and how they can be 
avoided; and, as they may be going to 
make history themselves, they must surely 
know as perfectly as possible how it is 
made. Thev must, of course, know what 
laws are for, and whether these laws are 
good or bad. 

But studying is not the hardest thing for 
a little prince. He is not allowed to be 
naughty like other children, because what- 
ever he does is of so much importance ; and 
sometimes this is pretty hard. 

The present King of Italy found this out 



when he was still very little— then they 
used to call him the Prince of Naples. The 
queen used to let other little boys come and 
play with him, and of course he liked to 
nave ins own way just as does any little 
boy. ilis mother did not like this at all. 
^he wanted him to be more polite than any 
oi the other children, and to give up readi- 
ly, and she never, never wanted the other 
boys to yield to him merely because he was 
the Prince Royal. And this meant that 
he could never insist upon having his own 
way at all, unless the other boys let him 
have it of their own accord. 

One day the Prince of Naples got into a 
real quarrel with one of his little playmates. 
The other boy said he did not think it was 
fair for him to insist upon having his way, 
and it made no difference who he was, be- 
cause the queen wanted them to play fair. 

Then the Prince of Naples got just as 
angry as a little American boy might get 
when playing with the boys in his "crowd," 
and he said: 

"1 don't care! You can have your own 
way now, but when I'm grown up and get 
to be king I'll have your head cut off." 

Of course there was always some grown 
up person around when the children played, 
to see that they kept out of harm, for if 
anything had happened to the Prince Royal 
it would have been a terrible thing. The 
prince's governor was present; he over- 
heard this remark, and repeated it to King 
Humbert and Queen Margaret. 

Then the king and the queen sent for the 
Prince of Naples, and they talked to him 
very seriously. They told him that he 
should never, never, never dare to say such 
a thing again, and that he should not 
imagine that when he was grown he could 
cut people's heads off if they did not do as 
he liked. But this was not enough. They 
kept him three days on bread and water in 
a dark room, and told him to think it over, 
and also to make up his mind firmly that 
he would never, never, never think or say 
such a thing again. 

Now this is the story as they used to tell 
it to me when I was a child in Italy, and I 
used to think that the poor little prince had 
a very hard time ; and I suppose when 
American children hear about it they will 
think so, too. Of course the reason royal 
children have to be so careful in their be- 
havior is that every one knows what they 
do, and if they are naughty and impolite it 

reflects upon the whole nation. All chil- 
dren should remember that it reflects upon 
their nation, too, if they are rude and 
ignorant, even if every one does not know 
about it. For all of us, little and big, can 
contribute to the building up of the reputa- 
tion of a nation. — L,isi Cipriani, in Chil- 
dren's Magazine. 



With November come thoughts of the 
harvest and thankfulness for God's bounty 
The children have been thinking of the 
growth of vegetables, fruits and nuts for 
winter stores and preparation for the cold 
days that are soon to come has been con- 
sidered. These subjects have been so 
handled that now the idea of thankfulness 
is natural and not forced. The children 
have definite things for which to be grate 
ful and they can give thanks with loving 
hearts. There are so many good things 
for this month that there is danger of over 
crowding. But the teacher's judgment 
must direct her in selecting the subject 
matter for her own little group of children 
There was a time in kindergarten work 
when we talked of the baker and never 
thought of actually mixing and baking 
some simple thing in the presence of the 
children. At present we endeavor to give 
the children the actual experience of mix- 
ing and stirring and "Tossing in the oven.' 
This can be done in many cases in the 
kitchen of the Domestic Science depart- 
ment or a "Mother good and dear" may be 
induced to allow the children to come to 
her kitchen or some simple cooking lik< 
boiling cranberries can be done on a smal 
gas stove in the kindergarten. Enougl 
should be prepared that each may have £ 
portion to eat. In October we gave specia 
attention to the father. His love and can 
were emphasized. Now the children car 
more readily pass to the idea of a Heavenl) 
Father. They can better understand hi: 
love and care. They can be truly thankfu 
in their childish way. 

So much of this month relates to th 
activities of the farmer that we will choos< 
him for the "Helper" of the month. Ever 
if we consider the miller or the baker the] 
are so dependent on the farmer that w< 
must have him at all events. The vege 
tables and grains that he has worked s( 



thfully over should be brought into the 
ss rooms so that the children will be- 
ne familiar with them. Where the actual 
ect can not be secured good pictures 
>uld be. We must not think that be- 
ise these vegetables are so common that 
y are familiar to the children and pass 
:m by. We want to broaden the knovvl- 
re of the simple, familiar things. Then 
many things that may seem common 
us may not appear in the children's 
mes and those who do see them there 
,y not be able to name them. No his- 
ic work is presented in these suggestions 
:ause the historic sense in little children 
so undeveloped. There are years later 
that work. The animal life chosen for 
s month is such as is prominent around 
; barnyard, especially the turkey, duck, 
d goose. The detailed study of these is 
t taken up now but rather in the Spring. 

Subjects for Morning Talks. 

"Helper" — Farmer. 

(a) Harvesting. 

(b) Care of farm animals. 

(c) Shipping food to city. 


(a) Main parts. 

(b) Uses 
J passengers, 

(c) Conductor. 

(d) Engineer. 


Psyche's Task.— In the Child's World — 


A Barnyard Talk.— In the Child's World. 


How the Corn Grew. — Finger Plays. — 

Poulsson . 

The Little Field Mice.— for the Chil- 

en's Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 


Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater. — Mother 


Little Boy Blue. — Song Echoes from 
hild Land. — Jenks-Rust. 

The Farmer, verses 3 to 8. — Songs and 
ames for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

Hasten to the Meadow, Peter. — Merry 
ongs and Games. — Hubbard. 

The Train. — A Baker's Dozen for City 
hildren. — Valentine-Claxton. 


Farmer in the Dell. 

Mow, Mow the Oats. — Children's Sing- 
ing Games. — Hofer. 

A Little Game for Little Folks. — Songs 
and Games for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

The Train. — A Baker's Dozen for City 
Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

Let Your Feet Go Tramp. — Merry Songs 
and Games. — Hubbard. 


Farmer's activities in caring for the farm 
, Farmer's activities in harvesting. 

Farmer's activities in shipping products 
to market. 




Walks and Visits 

Farm to see cornfields. 

Farm to see fields from which the veg- 
etables have been taken. 

Store houses on farm to see vegetables 
in bins and barrels. 

Railroad to see both freight and pas- 
senger trains, conductor and engineer. 

Illustrative Materials 

Pictures of farm life, vegetables grow- 
ing, individual vegetables, trains, conduc- 
tors, engineers. 

Toy trains, conductors, engineers. 

A variety of vegetables. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Fourth Gift: 

Bins for vegetables. 

Store house. 

Train — add cylinders for smoke stack 
and wheels. 
Fifth Gift: 

1. Each child has 1-3 of gift. Build the 
farmer's house. 

2. Use half cubes for incline planes. 
Roll cylinders for barrels. 

3. A railroad station. 
Second Gift: 

Add string to cylinder. 
Sticks and Circular Tablets: 

A train. 

A barrel. Take a piece of manilla paper. 
Cut an oblong. Paste in form of barrel. 
Give each child a circular card board to 



push in for bottom of barrel after his 

pasting has dried. 


Make a man. Let child decide if his is to 
be a conductor or farmer. Paint with either 
blue or brown clothes accordingly. 

i. Paint a red wash over a whole sheet 
of paper to use as a store house. This will 
be cut later. 

2. Clay man. 

Illustrate story work. 


Picture of store house. 
Drawing and Cutting: 

i. Conductor. Draw first, then cut. 

2. A store house from paper already 
painted. Draw windows. Cut large doors. 

An engine. Make engine with three 
spools, an oblong card-board and a string. 
Use glue to fasten together. 


i. Represent a cornfield with stalks, etc. 
Green and orange balls may be used for 

2. Store house built of Fourth Gift. Use 
paper barrels made by children. Fill with 
the small cylinders and spheres for veg- 
etables. Farmer, wagons, horses, farm 
animals scattered about the field. 

3. Farmer's house built of Fifth 
His wife and children, 


dog, cat, etc., can be 

A flower garden 

Trees, fences, gate, 

represented by toys, 
should be arranged, 
etc., made with slats. 

4. A railroad picture should be made. 
If no real track can be secured, slats will 
do. The engines made by the children can 
be placed on the tracks or a toy train of 
cars. Let the sand represent hills and val- 
leys. Have a stream of water and a bridge 
built of Fourth Gift blocks. Blue paper or 
tin foil represent the water nicely. A few 
trees, some people and a railroad station of 
Fifth Gift blocks finish the picture. 
Subjects For the Morning Circles 
(a) Corn 

! Chicken. 

(b) Pumpkin. 

(c) \viieat. 

(d) Carrot. 

1. Vegetables. 
The children should be able to recognize 

and name the above. They should also 
know some thing of the growth and uses of 

2. Miller. 

(a) Duties. 

(b) Mill pond. 

(c) Mill wheel. 

(d) Flour mill. 

3. Baker. 

(a) Mixing. 

(b) Baking. 

(c) Store. 

(d) Delivery of bread early in morning. 



A Great Surprise. — For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

The Mill. — Finger Plays. — Poulsson. 

The China Rabbitt Family. — In the 
Child's World. — Poulsson. 

Nero at the Bakery. — In the Child's 
World. — Poulsson. 

Tommy Tucker's Bun. — Mother Goose 
Village. — Bingham. 

Making Bread. — Finger Plays. — Pouls- 


Pat-a-Cake. — Mother Goose. 
Mix a Pan-cake. — Poems for Children. — 

The Mill. — Finger Plays.— Poulsson. 


The Green Grocer. — A Baker's Dozen 
for City Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

Thanksgiving Song. — Songs for Little 
Children. — Smith. 

The Mill Wheel. — Song Echoes. — Jenks 

The Mill. — Song Echoes. — Jenks-Rust. 

The Stream. — Merry Songs and Games 
— Hubbard. 


Oats, Peas, Beans. — Children's Singing 
Games. — Hofer. 

Jolly Is the Miller. — Children's Singing 
Games. — Hofer. 

The Green Grocer. — A Baker's Dozer 
for City Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

Grandmother's Dance. — Small Songs foi 
Small Singers. — Niedlinger. 




Litt'e Ball Pass Along-. — Songs and 
imes for Little Folks. — Walker-Jenks. 
Tasting. — Merry Songs and Games. — 

The Stream. — Merry Songs and Games, 


Buying vegetables from wagon with 
iver calling out wares. 
The Mill Wheel. 

Farmers bringing bags of wheat, etc., 
miller and taking home flour. 

Bread making. Sing, "Did You Ever 
e a Lassie." 


Mill wheel, represent with each hand 
Darately. Then with both hands. 

Walks and Visits 

A farm to see fields in which vegetables 


A green grocer's. 

Storage cellar in a home. 

A. stream of water. 

A flour mill. 

A baker's kitchen. 

A kitchen in some home. 

A baker's store. 

Illustrative Materials 

Vegetables and grains of all sorts. 
Pictures of vegetables growing, streams 

water, flour mill, mill wheel, baker, 
)ther preparing food at home. 

orn meal, wheat flour, oatmeal. 
A little party with bread and apple jelly 
lows up the thoughts already presented 
I makes a very pleasant affair. 

Gifts and Occupations 

. Combine the Fourth and Fifth Gifts 
I build a baker's store with doorway to 

2. With same material make the green 
Deer's with vegetable stands in front. 

With same material make flour mill, 
d the wheel made by children described 
er, or cylinder of Second Gift. 
Phis is all cooperative work. One child 
5 the Fourth Gift, the next one has the 
th Gift, 
incil : 
inging: _ 

Cranberries and straws, 
awing and Cutting: 



(a) Pumpkin. 

(b) Carrot. 

(a) Clay vegetables. 

(b) Pumpkin (on paper). 

2. Represent a city street with houses 
on either side. One store can be the 
baker's shop, another the green grocer's. 
In front of the green grocer's, boxes with 
vegetables may be placed. Over the door 
of the baker's shop a sign could be hung. 

Subjects For the Morning Circles 

i. Turkey. 

(a) Appearance. 

(b) Habits. 

(c) Home. 

(d) Use. 

2. Duck. 

(a) Appearance. 

(b) Habits. 

(c) Home. 

(d) Use. 

3. Goose. 

(a) Appearance. 

(b) Habits. 

(c) Home. 

(d) Use. 


The Turkey's Nest. — More Mother 
Stories. — Lindsay. 

Billie Bob-Tail. — A Kindergarten Story 
Book. — Hoxey. 

Fox Lox. — A Kindergarten Story Book. 
— Hoxey. 

The Ugly Duckling. — For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

The Rich " Goose.— For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs. 

The Open Gate.— Mother Stories.— 


Mr. Duck and Mr. Turkey. — Small Songs 
for Small Singers. — Niedlinger. 




The Farmyard.— Mother Play.— Froebel, 
Blow Edition. 

Barnvard Song.— H o 1 i d a y Songs.— 

Duck Game.— Song Echoes from Child 
Land. — Jenks-Rust. 

My Ball Comes Up To Meet Me.— Songs 
and Games for Little Ones.— Walker- 


i. Walking and flapping of wings like 
turkev. duck, goose. Give calls of same. 

2. Song, Mr. Duck and Mr. Turkey. 

3. Billie Bob-Tail. 


Waddling ducks. 

Strutting turkeys. 

Goose flapping its wings and running. 

Walks and Visits 
Poultry yard. 

Living poultry in shop windows. 
Park to see poultry. 

Illustrative Materials 

Pictures of ducks, geese, turkeys. 
Pictures of ooultry in natural environ- 

Gifts and Occupations 

Fourth and Fifth Gifts combined: 

Build poultry houses. This is cooperative 

work as before. 

Fifth Gift : 

Each child has whole gift. Let him 

represent a barnyard with dog kennel, little 

chicken coops, sheep fold and poultry 


Rings, quarter rings, sticks, lentils: 
Make turkev eating from pan. 


Make goose the same way only pi? 
fewer sticks for tail and let them stand 
straight at the back. Use short sticks 

Illustrate storv work. 


A goose. 
Stencil : 






Use short sticks for legs or no legs 
all. They can be sitting down. 
Sand : 

Represent poultry yard with houses, ( 
from Fourth and Fifth Gifts made by 
children. Use clay poultry, stencils 

Subjects for Morning Talks. 

1. Thanksgiving Day. 

(a) Purpose. 

(b) Customs in olden times. 


A Boston Thanksgiving Story. — In 
Child's World. — Poulsson. 

To Whom Shall We Give Thanks. ( 
this in prose.) — In the Child's Worl 

Making the Best of It. — For the ( il 
dren's Hour. — Bailey and Lewis. 

Little Wee Pumpkin's Thartksgivir 
Mother Goose Village. — Bingham. 

Can a Little Child Like Me.-: 
Echoes. — Jenks-Rust. 




Song of Thanks. — Song Echoes. — Jenks- 

Mowing Grass. — Mother Play. — Froebel, 
ow Edition. 

Thanksgiving for Harvest. — Holiday 
ngs. — Poulsson. 

A Song of Thanks. — Holiday Songs. — 

Thanksgiving Song. — Songs and Games 
Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 


'hanksgiving Song.— Songs and Games 
Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 
lind Man's Buff, 
lop the Candle, 
tiding the Handkerchief. 


Ir. Duck and Mr. Turkey. 

Wer the River. 

ustoms in olden times. 

>ld fashioned dance step, lifting foot 
h in air . Touchfinger tips of partner, 
sic, waltz time. 

Walks and Visits 
he furnace room if furnace has fire in 
Speak of janitor's part in looking after 
comfort of the children. 

Illustrative Materials 

Pictures of ye olden times, thanksgiving 
parties, families greeting each other, grand- 
mother's house, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 
Fifth Gift: 

Grandmother's home. 
Fourth Gift: 

Furnishings of grandmother's home. 

Cranberries and straws. 

Cranberries to eat at Thanksgiving party. 

Illustrate storv work. 

Napkins from tissue paper preparatorv 
to the party. 

Make real jack-o-lanterns for the partv. 

Have decorations around the room to 
suggest the harvest. Tell a story about, 
"When teacher was a little girl.""^ Play a 
series of folk games. Blow bubbles. Plav 
in the sand with tin forms and make mud 
pies. Have the cranberries with crackers, 
animal crackers if possible. Close with a 
hymn of thanks. 
Stencils : 




NCE upon a time an Indi 
went hunting in a forest. ] 
lost two arrow heads, a 
while looking for them he 1 
the trail and was overtak 
by the darkness. At first he was at a 1 
to know in which direction to turn, t 
coming to an open place of rocks, he so 
found his direction by the guidance of t 
North Star. 

Here are the two lost arrow heads, 
if you can so place them that the) 
form a five-pointed star. 

The form of greeting in one trit 
"Boo-in." We are going to adopt that 
porarily, in addition to "Good afternc 
—From P. S. 119, Manhattan. B. Kenc 

K© Mi Ft SoL 1% T\ r 

(Scale of B Major see following page.) 




Series II 
FTER the child has had the 
preliminary training- of the 
t ' i ear, described in the last issue 
of this Magazine, the child or 
I "'' ;: ^g3 class should he made familiar 
ith the Doh-Doo Fairies. The child has 
arned to distinguish between a thing that 
oduces a sound, and the sound obtained 
om an object. The teacher will now tell 
le class the story of the musical fairies, 
ho were formerly angels singing in the 
;avenly choir, and knew all the songs sung 

heaven. These angels wanted to be near 

human beings, particularly children, so 
at they could teach the little children the 
jautiful music that was heard in heaven. 
d they asked God to let them go down to 
te earth and play and sing with the chil- 
en, whom they loved and wanted to make 
tie angels of. But God said: "You can- 
Dt be angels and human children at the 
me time. If you like the children so much 
)U can go down to them, but you can no 
nger be angels. You can be fairies if you 
ce, and be with the children and teach 
em the beautiful things you have learned 

heaven. So these angels agreed to be- 
ime fairies. And God made some that live 

the woods in holes in trees, and some 
at live in flowers and in caves, and others 
at are very musical live in things that 
oduce a sweet, clear and pleasing sound 
ce bells. And when the bells sound it is 
le fairy in the bell that sings. These 
nging fairies are called the Doh-Doo 
airies. There are eight of them; a whole 
mily counting father, mother and six chil- 
en. They are always happy, and joy- 
1, and love each other very dearly. You 
n tell that when you hear them sing, be- 
use they always sing in harmony and are 
ways together. 
After a description of the musical fairies 

this manner the teacher informs the class 
at she will now introduce the Doh-Doo 
airy family. The fairies are represented 

musical bells tuned to the pitch of the 
ale of D major, viz : 

5 (See illustration of Scale on preceding scale) 
As perfectly tuned bells are very hard to 
)tain, a substitute may be had in tuned 
ass tubes. Such brass tubes are for sale 

in music stores dealing in musical instru- 
ments, and cost about $1.50 for the set. But 
as these manufactured tubes are usually 
tuned in the Key of C major, a whole tone 
lower than D major, it will be necessary to 
have the tubes sounding F and C filed or 
reduced in length, so that they are raised in 
pitch from F to F sharp, and from C to C 
sharp. The Kev of D major is best suited 
for the compass of the child voice, hence 
this key is preferable to that of C major. If 
these brass tubes can not be bought con- 
veniently they can be made by any 
mechanic in metals, by cutting a brass pipe 
of about 6-8 of an inch in diameter to 
the various lengths required. Some musi- 
cian must necessarily superintend the cut- 
ting process, or the tuning part obtained by 
filing the end of the piece of tubing. 

When the teacher is supplied with the 
bells or tubes perfectly tuned she should 
make the introduction as mysterious as pos- 
sible. The tubes should be hung by a thin 
string fastened in two opposite holes in one 
end of the tube, so that they hang evenlv 
and steadily. The tubes should not be 
struck by a hard substance, but by what is 
called a "tympany stick," which can be 
made by placing a number of hard felt cir- 
cular layers, with a hole in the center, at 
the end of a wooden handle or stick, and 
making them rather solid by pressing them 
as close as possible. This felt mallet pro- 
duces a soft tone, when the tubes are 
struck. These tubes should be placed be- 
hind a screen, so that the children cannot 
see them, and after the teacher has aroused 
the children's curiosity she should introduce 
the lowest tone D as the fairy father Doh. 
by striking the tube softly with the mallet 
behind the screen. The children must not 
only imitate this tone with their voices, but 
thev should learn to distinguish it, first, of 
course, bv its pitch, then by its fairy name 
Doh. It is advisable not to introduce more 
than the first three tones at first — Doh. Re. 
Mi, and have the class become familiar with 
the pitch and the fairy names. So that the 
class, or separate pupils, can reproduce the 
pitch of the various tubes after they are 
struck, as also to be able to reproduce any 
one of the tones when the teacher calls for 
Doh, Re, or Mi. It depends on the teacher's 
inventive talent to make as much as pos- 
sible out of this simple exercise. The main 
object is to have the child distinguish the 
tone by his auditory faculty, so that he 



perceives it clearly and is able to sing it, or 
reproduce it in his memory. But the 
teacher should not neglect to impress on the 
class the charm, beauty, clearness, softness, 
gentleness or other qualities of the tone 
produced, and make this a lesson in moral, 
social and religious teachings. At the very 
first acquaintance with the Doh-Doo Fairies 
the child must be impressed with every pos- 
sible feature characteristic of the musical 
tone nroduced in this way. And the child 
should not be allowed to handle the musical 
bell or tube, nor see it, so that the sound 
heard becomes the mysterious and elevat- 
ing element upon which the many phases 
of instruction — moral, mental and physical 
may be based. 



Dull November brings the blast, 
Then the leaves are whirling fast. 
"The warm sun is failing, the bleak wind is wail- 
The bare boughs are sighing, the pale flowers are 

And the year 
On the earth her death-bed, on a shroud of leaves 
Is lying." — Shelley. 

"No sun — no moon — 
No morn — no noon — 

No dawn — no dusk — no proper time of day — 
No sky — no earthly view — 
No distance looking blue — 
No road — no street — no t'other side the way. 
* * * * * * * 

No warmth — no cheerfulness — no healthful ease — 

No comfortable feel in any member — 

No shade — no shine — no butterflies — no bees — 

No fruits^ — no flowers — no leaves — no birds — 

No — vember." T. Hood. 

"The year's on the wane, 
There is nothing adorning; 
The night has no eve 
And the day has no morning: — 
Cold winter gives warning." 


T. Hood. 


This song, begun last month, should be 
completed in November, for which month 
the last verse was written. 

The nature study for the three months of 
autumn, viz., September, October, and No- 
vember, is all so woven together by the 
idea of harvest time that it is rather diffi- 
cult to break it up satisfactorily into three 
parts. The following division seems best 
for practical purposes: 

September — the corn harvest. 

-the seed 
—the seed 

October — the fruit 
harvest (plants). 

November — the root harvest 
harvest (trees). 

In connection with the root harvest, and 
the wav plants store up food, the following 
vegetables mav be studied : the potato, 
turnip, carrot, beetroot. Reference should 
also be made to bulbs (e. g. hyacinths), 
conns, (e. g. crocus), and the underground 
stems (iris). During the latter part of No- 
vember and leading on from the squirrels 
harvest, we get the idea of preparation for 
winter, and can devote our attention to 
animals that sleep in winter, e. g. dormouse, 
snail, tortoise, and many others. 

Any stories suggested for the two former 
months may be taken now if they have 
been used before. The following additional 
ones are specially appropriate: "The Biter 
Bit" (In Nature's Storyland), "Little 
Tiny" (Anderson), "Daily Bread" (Par- 
ables from Nature) and the fable of "The 
Hare and the Tortoise." 

There are a few songs that have not pre- 
viously been mentioned, which are very 
suitable for this time of year: "Thanks- 
giving Song," "Harvest Song" and "The 
Brown Birds Are Flying" (Songs for Little 
Children). Froebel's game, "The Snail" 
(Kindergarten Songs and Games), may be 
used in connection with the study of ani- 
mals that sleep in winter. 

Verv good modelling exercises are pro 
vided this month by the study of potato, 
carrot, turnip, beet, etc. The snail makes 
an excellent model too, as well as a special- 
lv valuable exercise in free-arm drawing 
The seeds of the sycamore, elm, ash, etc. 
are suitable exercises in brushwork for the 
older children, while the younger ones will 
delight in copying the brilliant colors of 
carrots and beet in either paint or crayon. 
Any or all of these vegetables may be 
drawn and cut out of colored paper, or 
used as mass painting in brushwork. A 
saucepan and soup-ladle should be drawn 
from the object on boards in connection 
with this series of lessons. 

As illustrations of food stores, potatoe 
should be kept in the dark to sprout, and 
the toos of carrots should be cut and put 
into a saucer with a little water. They will 
then send up young leaves. Wheat, maize 
and beans may be put to germinate as 
further illustrations of this. 


"Oh, isn't it a doleful day?" 
That's what you hear the people say 
When cold November comes this way, 
And winds are bleak and skies are grey. 
I don't think that's the thing to say, 
Do you? 

The birds that worked with such a zest, 
To make a snug and cosy nest, 
The flowers that tried to look their best, 
I'm sure they ought to have a rest, 
Aren't you? 

The leaves that once were gay and bright 
And fluttered in the golden light, 
And danced about from morn 'till night, 
I'm sure they're glad to say, "Good night! 
Aren't you? 

There's time for work, and time for play, 
Time to be sad, and time to be gay; 
We should not like it always May, 
And Winter's just a resting day, 
I think that's what we ought to say, 
Don't you? 


'The total yearly drain upon our forests, not 
inting losses from fires, storms, and insects, is 
ne twenty billion cubic feet," says R. S. Kellogg, 
istant forester in charge of the office of forest 
itistics, in a publication just issued by the 
rest Service on "The Timber Supply of the 
ited States." 

'Our present forest area of 550 million acres 
y be roughly estimated to consist of 200 million 
es of mature forests, in which the annual 
»wth is balanced by death and decay, of 250 
llion acres partially cut or burned over, on 
ich, with reasonable care, there is sufficient 
mg growth to produce in the course of time a 
srchantable, but not a full crop of timber, and 
| million acres of more severely cut and burned 
sr forests, on which there is not sufficient young 
iwth to produce another crop of much value. 
'Taken as a whole, the annual growth of our 
ests under these conditions does not exceed 
elve cubic feet per acre, a total of less than 
ren billion cubic feet. That is, we are cutting 
r forests three times as fast as they are grow- 
There is menace in the continuance of such 
iditions. While we might never reach absolute 
aber exhaustion, the unrestricted exploitation of 
r forests in the past has already had serious 
ects, and it will have much worse if it is allowed 
continue unchecked. 

'White pin, for instance, which was once con- 

lered inexhaustible, has fallen off 70 per cent 

cut since 1890, and more than 45 per cent 

ice 1900. The cut of oak, our most valuable 

rdwood lumber, has decreased 16 per cent since 

00, and the of yellow poplar 22 per cent. The 

me story w ilebl told of other woods if they are 

>t conserved. 

'The fact that timber has been cheap and abun- 

nt has made us careless of its producton and 

ckless in its use. We take 250 cubic feet of 

3od per capita annually from our forests, while 

rmany uses only 37 cubic feet, and France but 

On the other hand, Germany, who has learned 

r lesson, makes her state forests produce an 

r erage of 48 cubic feet of wood per acre. We 

ve as fast-growing species as Germany, or faster, 

id as good or better forest soil if we protect it. 

'The necessity for more farm land may eventual- 

reduce our total forest area to one hundred mil- 

on acres less than it is at present. It is entirely 

possible, however, to produce on 450 million acres 
as much wood as a population much greater than 
we have now will really need if all the forest land 
is brought to its highest producing capacity and 
if the product is economically and completely 
utilized. But to reach the necessary condition of 
equilibrium between timber production and con- 
sumption will take many years of vigorous effort 
by individual forest owners, by the states, and 
by the national government. None of them can 
solve the problem alone; all must work together." 

They know the time to go! 
The fairy clocks strike the inaudible hour 
In field and woodland, and each punctual flower 
Bows at the signal an obedient head 
And hastes to bed. 


I wonder if you're thinking, 

How much we owe the trees? 
With green leaves lightly dancing, 

And whispering to the breeze? 

They've fruits, so ripe and mellow, 

Brown nuts for every one; 
And shelter from the winter's cold, 

And summer's burning sun. 

— Unknown. 


"Does your mother allow you to have two pieces 
of pie when you are at home, Willie?" asked his 

"No, ma'am." 

"Well, uo you think she would like you to have 
two pieces here?" 

"On, she wouiun't care," said Willie confiden- 
tially; "this isn't her pie." — Christian Work. 





^f Within the attractive covers of this book are 
contained thirty songs, such as children can sing 
with ease, and upon subjects which will both in- 
terest and stimulate the child-mind. Musically 
they show fresh and bright melody with a well- 
written but sot difficult piano part. 
{J The verses are gracefully worded, treating 
largely of familiar things in a vivacious, enter- 
taining, and informing manner. Many of the 
sotigs may be used as action songs in costume for 
special occasions; each one of these is equipped with 
explicit directions for costuming, music, jump- 
ing and action, making a very pleasing entertain- 
ment. This feature alone enhances the value of 
the book to many times its price, and a careful 
examination is urged upon all those interested in 
the instruction or pleasure of children. 
Descriptive Circular H contains list of all our books for 
children. Send for it. Free on request. 


CHAS. H. DITSON t*> Co., New York 
J. E. DITSON & CO., Philadelphia 

Order of rour home dealer or of the above houses 

(Recitation with Motion.) 
There was a little Pilgrim maid 

Who used to sit up so; 
1 wonder if she ever laughed 
Two hundred years ago. 

She wore such funny little mitts, 
And dainty cap of silk. 

She had a little porringer 

For her brown bread and milk. 

She was so good; so very good; 

Ah me, I most despair. 
She never tore her Sabbath dress 

A-sliding down the stair. 

But then, I really try and try 

To do the best I can; 
P'r'aps I can be almost as good 

As little Puritan. 

And if, when next Thanksgiving 

I try to sit up so, 
Maybe I'll seem from Pilgrim land 

Two hundred years ago. 

School Floors 

Should be 5\vept 



The German 
Invented Dust 

Sweeping Com- 
pound. PERO- 
LIN is an actu- 
al absorbent of 
dust. It not only 
prevents dust 
from rising and 
scattering while 
floors are being 
swept, it holds 
the dust. 

It is a powerful germicide; purifies the air 
and leaves the sweet clean odor of pine 

The use of PEROLIN guarantees health 
in the schoolroom. No schoolroom 
should be without it. 

100-lb. drum, $3.50, ^00-lb. drum, $6.00 
Manufactured Solely by 

Chicago, III. 


The National Anthem 

FRANCIS SMITH. An illuminated 
and illustrated edition of the AMERI- 
and executed by WALTER TITTLE. 

The most beautiful gift-book ever is- 
Bued at moderate price. Each line is 
given an appropriate full-page illus- 
tration set within an illuminated bor- 
der, after the style of the ancient mis- 
sals. Printed in color and gold through- 
out. The words and music are given 
on the fly leaf and each verse is repro. 
duced in fac-similes ofithe author's 
handwriting. 34 plates in colors, 8x11 
inches, French Vellum Boards. $3.00 

The Tandy-Thomas Co. 

31-33 East 27th St. New York 


1 thank Thee, Father, for the care 
Which fills my life and makes it 

The sunshine and the pleasant 

The seed which grows to golden 

The tender love surrounding me; 
For all these gifts so sent to me, 
I thank Thee. 

Can a little child like me 
Thank the Father fittingly? 
Yes, oh, yes, be good and true, 
Patient, kind, in all you do; 
Love the Lord and do your part, 
Learn to say with all your heart, 
Father, we thank Thee, 
Father, we thank Thee. 
Father in heaven, we thank Thee. 

For the fruit upon the tree, 
For the birds that sing of Thee, 
For the earth in beauty dressed, 
Father, mother, and the rest, 
For Thy precious, loving care, 
For Thy bounty everywhere, 
Father, we thank Thee, 
Father, we thank Thee, 
Father in heaven, we thank Thee. 
— "Song Echoes from Child Land," 
Oliver Ditson, Publisher. 


Air: "America" 

The God of harvest praise; 
In loud thanksgiving raise 

Hand, heart, and voice. 
The valleys laugh and sing, 
Forests and mountains ring, 
The plains their tribute bring, 

The streams rejoice. 

Yea, bless his holy name, 
And joyous thanks proclaim 

Through all the earth, 
To glory in your lot 
Is comely; but be not 
God's benefit forgot 

Amid your mirth. 

The God of harvest praise, 
Hands, heart, and voices raise 

With sweet accord. 
From field to garner (hrong, 
Rearing your sheaves along, 
And in your harvest song 

Bless ye the Lord. 

"Astronomy From a Dipper," 
By Eliot C. Clarke. It is a clear 
and convenient manual, and will 
be welcomed by the many people 
who want to know how to find 
the principal stars without wish- 
ing to study astronomy; for no 
special technical knowledge is 
necessary to a clear understand- 
ing of Mr. Clarke's method. The 
author is the son of the late Rev. 
James Freeman Clarke, of Boston. 
In cloth. Oblong pocket size, 60 
cents net. Postage 5 cents. 
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 


It takes one little girl or boy, 
Two hands to work and play, 

And just one loving little heart 
To make Thanksgiving Day. 

If happiness has not her seat 
And center in the breast; 

We may be wise, or rich, or great, 
But never can be blest. 


Dann's Noiseless) 


Blackboard Eraser > 1( j2r. 

and a Pint Pkg. Rowles' Inkessence J *»«•*■ 

The above mentioned arti- 
cles possess such exceptional 
meri tthat they are used in 
the schools of leading cities. 

Special otter is made to 
acquaintschool people with 
the great meri tot the goods. 



988.285 Market St.. CHICAGO. ' I 

Spool Knitting 

By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting Is well suited for use as 
constructive work In the primary grades 
and kindergarten. It Is so simple that 
small children can do It well. They can 
make articles which are pretty and 
which Interest them, without the strain 
that comes from too exact work. The 
materials are easily obtained and pleas- 
ant to work with. The directions given 
are clear and easily followed. 

Pacing each description there are one 
or more photographs showing the article 
as completed or in course of construction. 

Plere are some of the articles which 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's Ball, 
l>oli's MutT, Tarn O'Shanter Cap, Child's 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Hood, Doll's 
Jacket, Child's Muttler, Mittens, Little 
Boy's Hat, Utile Girl's Hat, Child's 
Hood, Jumping Hope, Toy Horse Reins 
School Bag, Boll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 net. 



New Geography Helps 

Small lithograph state maps on 
heavy cardboard, price only 25 cents 
per dozen. These are invaluable in 
teaching geography: the maps are con- 
siderably larger than those found in 
the geography, and enables the teacher 
to emphasize and specially interest the 
children in the geography of any par- 
ticular state under consideration. 

The following states are now 
ready: — New Jersey, Wisconsin, Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Mass., Iowa, 
Rhode Island. Other states in pre- 

McConnell School Supply Co- 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

I)e Iftin&ergar Un- Jprimar? ^tfcagcuine 


Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

:ed to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 
rheory and Practice from the Kindergarten 
Through the University. 

ltorlal Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 

ness Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 


XL EARLE, Ph. D Managing Bditor 

B. MERRIIX, Ph. c, Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

iUEF HOFER Teachers' college 

and New York Froebel Normal. 

[A JOHNSTON, — — Kindergarten Magazine 

ARY MILLS,-. Principal Connecticut Froebel Norma l 

mmunlcations pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
r business relating to the riagazlne should be addressed 
llchlgan office, J. H. Shults, Business flanager, rianistee, 
in. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, rianaging 
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Kindergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
each month, except July aud August, from 27X River 
Manlstoe, Mich. 

Subscription price Is $1.0* per year, payable In advance, 
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Notwithstanding that we have 
tunced in every issue during the 
year that all matters pertain- 
o subscriptions or advertising 
le Kindergarten-Primary Mag- 
j should be addressed to Manis- 
nany letters are still going to 
York City. This occasions de- 
nd extra work in the editorial 
s. Kindly note that editorial 
s only, not a business office, are 
tained in New York, and send 
less letters to Manistee, Mich. 

ase note our great combina- 

subscription offers on page 

and save on your magazine 

ey. We have many others. 

for complete list. 


The coming of the Christmas season sug- 
gests the idea of commenting on some 
notable books of the year, inasmuch as 
many of them can well be made profitable 
and acceptable Christmas gifts. The books 
chosen are by no means the only notable 
books of the year but a selection out of the 
many that have come to our desk since 
January, 1909. 


"Motives, Ideals and Values in Educa- 
tion," by William E. Chancellor, Superin- 
tendent of Schools, of South Norwalk, 
Conn., is from the press of Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston. The book is an in- 
dex of present tendencies toward emphasiz- 
ing the importance of the philosophy of 
education, rather than defining the method 
and daily material, or device for the class 
room. The author shows a spiritual insight 
into life itself in the large, and into its 
specific needs in our own time and country. 
In his preface he presents five significant 
features as a suggestion and justification of 
the appearance and scope of the book. 
PAGE vn 

"1. The assertion of the universal rather than 
the mediate place and value of education, as an 
integral social institution. 

2. The presentation in a hierarchical form of 
the evidences of education as its successively 
higher ideals. 

3. The discovery of the true relations of 
motives, values, and ideals by arranging these 
terms logically. 

4. The emphasis of the philosophic spirit 
underlying and establishing the modern course of 
study and mode of administration. 

5. The development of a system based upon 
the proposition of the necessity of the complete 
education of each and of all." 

We need more spiritual insight, and Dr. 
Chancellor's book well deserves the careful 
reading of every student of education. 

"School Reports and School Efficiency," 
by Professor Snedden, of Teachers' College, 
and Dr. Allen, of the Municipal Research 
Society of New York," published by The 
Macmillan Company, illustrates another 
significant feature of present day educa- 
tional study. Its purpose is to place on a 
scientific basis school reports in American 
cities, so that the layman, as well as the 



trained pedagogue, may derive from their 
perusal intelligent information concerning 
the work being done in the schools of the 
country. While it seems to be directed 
primarily at the Superintendents of Schools, 
city and state, it has a definite applica- 
tion to every teacher, whose duty it is to 
cooperate intelligently with city and state 
superintendent in making school reports 
scientific. Many of the so-called school re- 
ports come out several years after the time 
they are supposed to report on. If they are 
to be of any value for immediate legislation 
they should appear within a month, at the 
latest, after the close of the current year. 
They should deal psychologically with the 
current problems, and be based on princi- 
ples of economic accuracy. The book should 
serve to arouse a healthy interest in mak- 
ing reports of real profit to the student of 
education and to the citizen interested in 
the upbuilding of the educational system of 
his locality and of the country at large. 

"How to Study," by Professor F. M. Mc- 
Murry, of Teachers' College, Houghton, 
Mifflin Co., publishers, holds a middle 
place between the two books just referred 
to. It takes up a practically new aspect of 
educational literature, and is fruitful in 
suggestions for future work in this line. 
The book itself illustrates its title, inasmuch 
as throughout its pages you are studying 
personally with Dr. McMurry and learning 
the process in the doing. The book has 
both a philosophical seriousness and a prac- 
tical accuracy that is unusual in a new field. 
It stands for the importance of clear, well 
defined, organized knowledge, and decries 
the large amount of wear and tear in so- 
called school study, and laments the ab- 
sence of definite working knowledge as the 
result of the many years of school attend- 
ance. Dr. McMurry furthermore avoids a 
good deal of the educational cant, which 
has grown to unpleasant proportions in 
many of the recent books on education. To 
those of us who know him intimately in the 
class room, the book is a revelation of his 
inner self and is a real personal contribution 
to a most neglected aspect of education to- 
day. No teacher can afford to be without 
this excellent work. 

Professor Stuart H. Rowe has given us 
another book showing the tendency toward 
intensive study in the science of teaching, 
applied particularly to individual gain, 

through the study and recitation peri 
"Habit Formation and the Science 
Teaching," Longmans, Green & Co., pi 
lishers, will be welcomed by the teacher 
an amplification of the psychology of ha 
as distinct from the getting of the idea 
the process of acquiring the habit. 1 
book is noteworthy particularly for its cs 
ful amplification of school experiences, 
illustrating idea getting and habit fori 
tions as a basis for intellectual charac 
that should result from the proper acqt 
tion of truths through study. The si 
maries at the end of each chapter are cl 
acteristic of the man and illustrative 
what the author means by the distincl 
between idea getting and habit form 
The summary at the end of the book g: 
the author's main point of view and is 
ficiently explicit for the student of edi 
tion to suggest the value of the book 
every teacher. 

PAGES 283 AND 284 

"6. SUMMARY — It has been found practii 
to include applications with each point an 
treat the special difficulties in special char. 
Four topics remain: 

(a) It is seldom possible to establish a I 
in a single lesson. One or more lesson period 
any phase or complex of phases. 

(b) A criterion for experience is needed, 
experiences of successful teachers are always 
ful, but their procedure is so often conflicting 
some systematic and theoretically sound sc 
of teaching must be consulted, if judgment 
be made between them. It is not denied, how 
that there may be more than one correct me 
nor is it asserted that every good teacher i 
tionally follows any such scheme. It is ass 
that the requirements of habit-forming mu 
fufilled consciously or unconsciously, or elsi 
results are only apparent. 

(c) Over-habituation, more properly 
habituation or under-accommodation, is the 
of ability to make new adjustments. Lai 
variety in one's occupations or his avocations 
to bring about this misfortune, which is 
escaped in old age. The exceptions, however, 
to indicate the possibility of escape. On a si 
scale many in the most favored surroundings 
demn themselves to ignorance or inaction o $ 
sort or another, until a daily routine seci 
firm hold upon them. 

(d) There is need of the scientific study 
dividual school habits with due reference to tl 
portant considerations in the methodology of 
No such study has been made. Here is afcW 
both for experimental pedagogy and for e fl 
mental psychology. But neither can profitat 
vestigate in these directions and ignore the & 
divisions of the habit-forming process." 







"Youth, Its Education, Regimen, 
Hygiene," by G. Stanley Hall, comes 
the D. Appleton & Company press, 
York. It is a briefer presentation c 
author's larger work, with many nev 


J 05 

teresting additions. The opening chap- 
on Pre-adolescence is stimulating, even 
ough we must await a scientific adminis- 

tion of many of the conclusions therein 
ited. The chapter on Muscles and Motor 

vvers in General, fits in with the spirit of 
e times and leads up naturally to the dis- 
ssion of industrial education, which in 
is work takes on a new aspect. For the 
indergarten-Primary teacher the chapter 
i Play, Sports, and Games is full of splen- 
il material. A number of biographies of 
>uth furnish original material for child 
Lidy, and may be made the basis of a 
odel system for teachers to collect and 
ganize valuable experimental material 
r education. We shall make a few 
cerpts of practical sayings to give some 
ea of the author's special style in this 


"The years from about eight to twelve constitute 
inique period of human lite. The acute stage of 
ithing is passing, the brain has acquired nearly- 
adult size and weight, health is almost at its 
3t, activity is greater and more varied than it 
er was before or ever will be again, and there 
peculiar endurance, vitality, and resistance to 
igue. The child develops a life of its own out- 
le the home circle, and its natural interests are 
ver so independent of adult influence. Percep- 
m is very acute, and there is great immunity to 
posure, danger, accident, as well as to tempta- 
>n. Reason, true morality, religion, sympathy, 
re and esthetic enjoyment are but very slightly 
ve loped. 

"Everything, in short, suggests that this period 
ly represent in the individual what was once for 
very protracted and relatively stationary period 
age of maturity in the remote ancestors of our 
ce, when the young of our species, who were 
rhaps pygmoid, shifted for themselves independ- 
tly of further parental aid. The qualities de- 
loped during pre-adolescence are, in the evolu- 
mary history of the race, far older than heredi- 
ty traits of body and mind which develop later 
d which may be compared to a new and higher 
>ry built upon our primal nature. Heredity is 
far both more stable and more secure. The 
aments of personality are few, but are well 
ganized on a simple, effective plan. The 
mientum of these traits inherited from our in- 
finitely remote ancestors is great, and they are 
;en clearly distinguishable from those to be add- 
later. Thus the boy is father of the man in 
new sense, in that his qualities are indefinitely 
ier and existed, well compacted, untold ages he- 
re the more distinctly human attributes were 
veloped. Indeed there are a few faint indica- 
>ns of an earlier age node, at about the age of 
, as if amid the instabilities of health we could 
tect signs that this may have been the age of 
berty in remote ages of the past. I have also 
ven reasons that lead me to the conclusion that, 
spite its dominance, the function of sexual 
iturity and procreative power is peculiarly mobile 
and down the age-line independently of many 
the qualities usually so closely associated with 
so that much that sex created in the phylum 
iw precedes it in the individual." 

"Muscles are in a most intimate and peculiar 
sense the organs of the will." 

"For the young, motor education is cardinal, and 
is now coming to due recognition; and, for all, 
education is incomplete without a motor side." 

"In a sense, a child or a man is the sum total 
of his movements or tendencies to move; and 
nature and instinct chiefly determine the basal, 
and education the accessory parts of our activities." 

"Abundance and vigor or automatic movements 
are desirable, and even a considerable degree of 
restlessness is a good sign in young children." 

"Industry has determined the nature and trend 
of muscular development; and youth, who have 
pets, till the soil, build, manufacture, use tools, and 
master elementary processes and skills, are most 
truly repeating the history of the race." 

"The pain of toil died with our forebearers; its 
vestiges in our play give pure delight. Its variety 
prompts to diversity and enlarges our life." 

"Each age of the race plays with the activities 
that the preceding age worked with." 

A. S. Barnes & Company, New York, are 
to be complimented on their recent efforts 
in making good books on Plays and Games, 
Folk Songs and Dance. One of those 
Plays and Games for Indoors and Out," 
by Belle Ragnar Parsons, is a store- 
house of suggestive material, much of it 
usable in the kindergarten and primary 
grades. The instructions are definite and 
the illustrations ample to direct the intelli- 
gent teacher. 

"Riverside Educational Monographs." 
This series of books from the press of 
Houghton Mifflin Company, under the 
editorship of Professor Suzzallo, of Colum- 
bia, is one of the most important that has 
apneared in years. 

Of especial value to the students of 
education are "The Meaning of Infancy," 
by Fiske; "Education for Efficiency," by 
ex-President Eliot; Dr. Dewey's "Moral 
Principles in Education;" "Teaching Chil- 
dren to Study," by Lida B. Earhart, Ph. 
D.; and Professor Palmer's two books on 
"Self-Cultivation in English" and "Ethical 
and Moral Instruction in Schools." 

The series should be extended to em- 
brace many other aspects of education, 
particularly the industrial activities, kinder- 
garten education as extended beyond the 
public school into the play ground, the set- 
tlement and the home, and educational 
activities after school hours in continuation 
schools and free lectures for the people. 

It is hardly necessary to mention in de- 
tail any one of the aforenamed books. 
Almost every one of the authors has al- 
ready a near world-wide reputation. Ex- 



President Eliot's "Education for 
Efficiency," coming after so many years of 
efficient service, is the message of a man 
who has touched life in its manifold aspects 
and gotten strength from the contact suf- 
ficient to improve others in its transmis- 

Special attention, however, should be 
called to Miss Earhart's book, inasmuch as 
she is not so well known as most of the 
other authors. Her book shows freshness 
and sanity and the maturity of judgment 
and skill in selection of material rare in a 
voting writer. 

We look forward with interested antici- 
pation to Dr. Brown's book on "Our 
National Ideals in Education," to Profes- 
sor Farrington's "Types of Teaching," and 
to the editor's own work on "The School 
as a Social Institution." 

The price of the books is within the reach 
of even a poor student, while the mechani- 
cal make-up is attractive and serviceable. 
The analytic outlines in each volume will 
i>e of service in summing up for one's self 
the main points of interest and are of last- 
ing gain. The series should be a profitable 
one to both readers and publishers. 

Among the Christmas books that deserve 
recommendation as presents, particularly 
for kindergarten and primary teachers, we 
mention the "Historical Stories of the 
Ancient World and the Middle Ages, re- 
told from St. Nicholas Magazine in six 
volumes. The stories are arranged as 
follows : 

"Stories of the Ancient World" 
"Stories of Classic Myths" 
"Stories of Greece and Rome" 
"Stories of the Middle Ages" 
"Stories of Chivalry" and 
"Stories of Royal Children," 

the Century Company, publishers. The six 
books will be a real addition to any teach- 
er's library, while any single one of the 
series will serve as a very profitable 
present. There is a large amount of 
material that can be arranged for kinder- 
garten and primary story work. 

Let us be of good cheer, remembering 
that the misfortunes hardest to bear are 
those which never come. — Lowell. 



HE London Journal of Educa 
tion for September describes ; 
new method in infant educa 
tion which is now in use in 

The writings of the Italian author 
Rosmini, have been compared favorably 
with those of Froebel. Although these two 
educators did not know of each other' 
labors, they present many similar ideas 
Madam du Portugall introduced Froebelian 
kindergartens into Italy. Our own Madame 
Kraus at one time thought of Italy as her 
possible field. 

Recently an able woman physician, Dr. 
Med. Maria Montessori, Docente all' Uni- 
versita di Roma, has modified the kinder 
garten methods to such an extent as to 
warrant the title of this article. 

These methods were described to me re- 
cently by the Baroness Franchetti to whom 
the book setting forth the new method is 
dedicated. The Baroness is hopeful that 
an English translation will soon be made 

The Baroness, who is personally deeply 
interested in the education of the children 
upon her own estate in Italy, has found the 
results of the method remarkable. She con- 
siders the method more exactly scientific 
than kindergarten methods as the exercises 
are modifications of those suggested by Dr, 
Seguin of this country for the development 
of defective children. 

Dr. Montessori found the Seguin exer 
cises so valuable in the training of defective 
children, changing some of them into nor- 
mal children, that she was led to believe 
that the exercises could be modified for use 
with normal children. 

"Stated boldly," says the Journal of 
Education, "the general fundamental prin- 
ciples of the "Metodo Montessori," will 
not perhaps sound very novel. For the 
ground idea of the new pedagogy, as Dr. 
Montessori conceives it is liberty, the free 
development of the spontaneous individual 
manifestations of the child, an idea which 
Froebel enunciated long ago and which we 
all hold in theory. 

But Dr. Montessori is perhaps justified in 
pointing out that, in spite of theory, educa- 
tion in fact is still infused by the spirit 
of slavery. So far, she says, education may 
be typified by the school desk which has 



en carefully perfected to permit "of the 
eatest possible immobility" of the child. 
id, as his free bodily activity is hindered, 
, too, his spirit is forced and con- 
rained — * * * 

\s for the teacher, she, under the new 
dagogy, must be content to play a much 
ore passive, if at the same time a much 
ore scientific role than has hitherto been 
signed her. She is to be primarily a 
lined scientific observer of the phenom- 
a exhibited by the child, and her office 
rather to direct than to instruct. Her 
tive intervention is to be reduced to a 
inimum, and her art lies in knowing just 
lien her help is necessary to spur on the 
veloping intelligence of a child and when 
t may be safely left to himself." 
In 1906, Dr. Montessori was given an 
iportunity to test her theories practically 
a kindergarten day nursery in Rome for 
ildren between three and seven years of 
e. Two similar institutions have been 
•ened in Rome since 1906, and one in 

In Italian Switzerland the new method 
beginning to take the place of the Froebel 
stem in the Asili d' Infangia. 
The results as far as they have gone are 
id to be surprising. 

The various occupations appear to be in- 
;ated by the practical needs in the life of 
e little child and to be closely related to 
5 environment. To cpiote again from the 
tide in the Journal, "The keynote of the 
ontessori method is simplicity. The 
uipment is similar to an ordinary kin- 
rgarten. The rooms are furnished with 
mil tables seating two or three children, 
id little chairs; there are pictures and 
ackboards on the walls, and there is a 
mo. There is also a room with a bath 
id low washhand basins, and, if possible, 
e accommodation includes a garden with 
>wer beds and homes for pet animals. 
The education begins naturally with 
xercises of the practical life." The chil- 
en are led first of all to make themselves 
dependent and masters of their surround- 

s. They learn to dress and undress and 
ash themselves; to move among objects 
ithout noise and disturbance; to see that 
e cupboards are tidy and the furniture 
istecl. To facilitate these exercises Dr. 
ontessori has invented certain occupa- 
ms, consisting of wooden frames con- 
ining each two pieces of cloth or leather. 

which can be hooked or buttoned or laced 
or tied together, as the case may be. The 
children enjoy fastening and unfastening 

these, and the skill they thus attain comes 
in to practice on their own clothes or each 

The garden work, the cure of pet-, and 
simple gymnastic exercises, marching and 
singing games are similar to those already 
familiar to us. 

'1 he sense of touch is specially trained by 
the use of wooden boards covered with 
paper of different qualities from very rough 
to smooth as well as collections of velvet, 
satin, cotton cloth, etc. The child is taught 
to finger lightly to recognize the distinctive 
quality and to name it blindfolded. 

There are blocks for developing the sense 
of weight. Quick perception of dimension 
{s taught by means of boards which contain 
wooden pegs of graduated sizes fitting into 
corresponding holes. 

Bulk is taught in a similar way by blocks 
of the same length but varying thicknesses : 
length by fiat sticks of different lengths. 
( The sticks of the kindergarten are well 
adapted for similar exercises, especially the 
enlarged sticks but they are not used 
thoroughly for this purpose as a rule. Let 
us hear of such exercises with them next 
month. ) 

The varying color shades are arranged 
on movable spools and matching exercises 
are the rule. 

As has been claimed for the kindergarten. 
its various occupations need to be seen in 
operation to be fully appreciated. Miss 
Peabodv, we all know, went to Germany 
before she really apprehended the value of 
the kindergarten. So the Baroness 
Franchetti savs the Montessori occupa- 
tions need to be seen to be fully appre- 

(To he continued) 

I have already got to the point of con- 
sidering that there is no more respectable 

character on this earth than an unmarried 
woman who makes her own way through 
life, quietly, perseveringly. without support 
of husband or brother, and who. having at- 
tained the age of forty or upward, retains 
a well-regulated mind, a disposition to 
enjov simple pleasures, and fortitude to 
support inevitable pains, sympathy with the 
suffering of others, and willingness to re- 
lieve want as far as means allow. — Char- 
lotte Bronte 




An Address to Mothers by a Mother 

NOTE The following address is contributed to 

the Mothers' Circle department of the Kindergar- 
ten-Primary Magazine by Mrs. Evelyn Barry, km- 
dergartner in P. S. 43, The Bronx. Mrs Barry 
tells me that the address was so inspiring to the 
mothers of the Circle that she induced Mrs. 
lOdgerlv !o permit her to pass it on. It may be 
■ ead at organization meetings to give 
intelligent mothers some idea of the pleasures of 
:Q-operation with the kindergarten and later the 
school. J - B - M - 

( ) those of you who come with 
us today for the first time a 
word of explanation as to the 
aims and purposes of the 
Mothers' Circle may not be 

A few days ago we brought one child to 
i In- school, thus launching our baby upon 
i course that means his first contact with 
other than home life — for the first time in 
his career leaving him to the sole care of 
•mother. This other, the kindergartner, 
from now on must share with the mother 
her work in the development of the child's 
character. For upon the mother and the 
teacher rests the responsibility of the un- 
U tiding of a human life. 

Since the teacher, then, stands next to 
the mother, is it not important that these 
two fully understand the aims and purposes 
each of the other? And it is to bring the 
noiher. teacher, and pupil into intelligent 
and sympathetic relationship that the 
Mothers' Circle has been formed. 

( >ne of the tirst impressions made upon 
•/our child at school was that he was sit- 
ing, along with others, in a ring, or circle. 
So we mothers are to be linked with our 
children's teachers in a Circle which shall 
know no beginning or t-m] in its possibilities 
for good to each member. 

As the benefit to the pupil comes not 
done from the teacher's instruction, but 
l-o from the contact with Ids associates, 
o do we mothers profit by our acquaint- 
ance with each other; hence the social hour, 
when ovei a simple bit of refreshment we 
are forming ties of friendship that may be 
potqnt in the enriching of all the experi- 
ences of life. 

Nominal membership dues, of ten cents 
each month, are customary, the funds 

garten ; for instance, our Mothers' Circ' 
last year paid for the new curtains in tb 
kindergarten room. From these dues at 
also purchased the very simple refresl 
ments which the committee provides fc 
us at each meeting. Mothers are privilege 
to bring their children, who wall be eiite 
tained in another room during the progre; 
of the meetings. 

If the teacher is to be our chief co-work( 
in bringing our child into the fulness of lii 
that we expect him to attain, how essenti; 
it is that we know her personally. Perhar. 
at some time she may need us to assist ht 
when one of the failings of our childre 
comes prominently to the surface ; assure 
of her friendship in advance, how easy wi 
then become the adjustment of any littl 
difficulty ! Under such circumstances vv 
should be all the readier to put ourselve 
in her place, at the same time recognizin 
that the faults in our children that we ma 
have struggled with in vain, cannot 
overcome by the teacher at once. 

The kindergarten affords more tha 
usual opportunities to become acquainte 
with the teacher, in the generous numbt 
of kindergarten parties to which th 
mothers are invited. Then, too, evei 
mother is urged to come at some time t 
observe the regular work throughout 
session. That in itself will open to yot 
eyes the necessary resourcefulness of tl 
teacher, who must regulate the buoyanc 
of thirty or forty little ones, while we thii 
it a task sometimes to control the energ 
of our own little band at home. 

Our work this year is'to make a gener; 
and particular study of the child in conne< 
tion with the school and home in the ver 
first years of his school life. And as w 
together study the child and learn froi 
observation what the teachers are doin 
towards his development, our first thougl 
will be — Is there any special way in whic 
I myself can help the kindergartner in h( 
work for my child in the school; that i 
how can I help to bring school and horn 
into mutuallp helpful relations ? 

First of all, by taking a real and vit 
interest in every matter pertaining to th 
school life. Our presence here today ind 
cates that we possess that interest, but 
is necessary that we express it to the chile 
we must let him feel that every happenin 

'bus collected being expended sometimes ,|at school means just as much to us as 
for a simple gift for our children's kinder- i^does to him; so that when he brings hon 



me of his work from the kindergarten 

I shall admire it, possibly try to assist 
n in making' a duplicate of it. Keep a 

§w articles at least in some treasure box 
be shown on certain occasions to admir- 
• friends Above all, we must not regard 
e children's work as litter, to be thrust 
to the waste basket. If lie has made a 
y, let him play with it. Regard it as his, 
t yours. The work means much to him; 
also will mean much to us if we will 
t put into it the glorifying bit of imagina- 
>n which rightfully belongs to it. 
While many who are not acquainted with 
idergarten work think of it merely as 
ly, we who are members of the Mothers' 
rcle know it to be in truth the presenta- 
m to the child-mind of the whole uni- 
rse ; behind each activity there is some 
iverning principle, and all for the awaken- 
g of latent powers of observation in the 
ild. Our boy will ask more questions, 

II be more "bother" if so we regard his 

ivering niquisitiveness into the whole 

aim of nature, but in so doing he is not 

ly acquiring definite knowledge of the 

rth and its fulness, but is cultivating that 

vifving spark of imagination withoul 


"A primrose by the river's brim, 
A yellow primrose was to him. 
And it was nothing more." 

Another way of showing the child that 
e regard the school of first importance is 

insisting upon punctual and regular at- 
ndance. We must not let our child stay 
r ay for any but the most urgent reason, 
his may press hard at certain times; for 
cample, at the Christmas season, when it 
ight be so much more convenient for us 

take him to the shops on a Wednesday 
an a Saturday. We must sacrifice our 
vn convenience in all such cases for our 
lild's good. 

Another means, which must seem so 
)vious as to be unnecessary to mention, 
to insist upon careful attention to every 
;tail of cleanliness. To be plain, let us 
e that our children have spotlessly clean 
mds when they start for school. No one 
ore than the mother realizes how readily 
boy's hands attract dirt, but at least we 
m see to it that his hands and nails are 
imaculate when he leaves us. 
Another item that would seem unneces- 
iry to mention here were it not for the 
ct that it is sometimes overlooked is the 

matter of providing the child each morning 
with a pocket handkerchief. If it is the 
usual case for the child to lose this before 
getting home, let us give him a clean piece 
of white muslin each morning or fasten the 
handkerchief with a safety pin- 
Besides these observances of details 
which in truth belong to the home training 
of the child, we can connect the kindergar- 
ten and home by incorporating some of the 
kindergarten methods in the home. All of 
this implies that we shall first visit the 
kindergarten, in order to familiarize our- 
selves with these methods. Perhaps our 
first observation will be that even under 
the most trying circumstances corporal 
punishment is never resorted to. How often 
on the streets or in the hallways of our 
houses do we see annoyed mothers cuffing 
a child's ears, thus outraging all of the 
child's sensibilities, besides inflicting per- 
manent physical injuries? She who has 
once observed the effective results of the 
methods of correction employed by the 
kindergartner must recognize the barbarity 
of the general methods of corporal punish- 
ment. We must take a whole meeting to 
discuss wise methods of punishment. 

There are few of the home occupations 
of the child in which the kindergarten prac- 
tices may not be introduced. Should the 
mother adopt even the phraseology of the 
kindergarten it will impress upon the 
child's mind its importance. To be specific: 
encourage the child to put his toys away in 
the same orderly manner that he uses here. 
A little child was fond of helping to set the 
table and used to ask if he might not "give 
out" the knives, plates, etc.. as he "gave 
out" the blocks here in the kindergarten. 

When they are singing their verses at 
home, we can join with them, and we shall 
soon find that our children have a song to 
fit every occasion. 

No time of the day is more precious to 
the mother than the hour she spends pre- 
paring her little ones for slumber. As this 
is the time for the sweetest conferences, so 
there will also be an opportunity for a story 
and a song; and the child will enjoy none 
so much as the storv lie has heard earlier 
from his teacher's lips and the song he 
learned today in the kindergarten. Perhaps 
he has noticed the moon : then he will 
choose his moon song, or if the wind be 
blowing or the rain beating against the 
pane, a half dozen songs will have to be 



sung, and as the little lids begin to droop, 
the Sandman son-- will send him off to 
pleasant dreams of Jack Frost and his 
magic touch. 

The mother must keep in constant touch 
with the kindergarten. We should aim to 
supplement, never to anticipate the work 
there. It gives us a thrill of pleasure at the 
delight on our child's face because mother 
knows the st,.r\ told by the teacher, and 
/ho -hail say that our mentality does not 
suffer in the child's estimation if we do not 
know the same stories and songs that the 
kindergartners relate so charmingly to their 
little charges? 

In all the play of the home — the hoy \i ith 
his Mocks, the little girl with her doll, and 
both with their own portion of dough 
which the) delight to mold in the fashion of 
the clay modeling, the children may be 
encouraged to introduce the work of the 
kindergarten, and thereby the mother will 
be learning as much from the child as he 
from her. A pair of blunt scissors, too, 
and permission to cut up all the papers in 
the trash basket is another good plan. 

hi every way the mother should strive 
to kindle enthusiasm for the school. A 
little boy in this neighborhood was taken 
past this school building every day from 
the time the foundation was laid and was 
told that this was his school. With a per- 
sonal interest he watched the progress of 
the work, and it was a joyous day to him 
when he was allowed to be enrolled as a 
pupil here. Numberless are the ways, 
trilling in themselves, for fostering enthu- 
siasm in all school matters. The work of 
the teachers must fall short of its possible 
results if not reinforced by the exuberance 
and sympathy of the parent. 

In this effort to do the part of kindergar- 
ten work which can be done only by the 
mother, we must expect to devote a con- 
siderable part of our time to it. None of 
us possibly ever attended a kindergarten; 
consequently every experience here is as 
novel to us as to our children. Tn the 
multiplicity of cares and duties that com- 
prise our hurried life it seems almost im- 
possible to accomplish this new task. But 
since I he mother cannot escape, if she 
would, her responsibility, how necessarv 
that she eliminate some of the non-essen- 
tials from her life ! 

T was talking this summer with a mother 
from a distant state. She has one child, a 

boy of six, who is unmanageable to such a 
extent that he must be kept out of schoo 
this year; his father is principal of a schoo 
and his mother was once a teacher. As sh 
was asking me for ways and means of in 
teresting and controlling her boy, I i 
quired if she herself ever played with th< 
little fellow. She replied: "No, but I ge 
a nice high school girl to play with him. 
don't like to give up the pleasure of goinj 
out." This mother is taking magazine 
treating of child life, is consulting special 
ists on child study, but is not interesting 
herself in the every day, vital concerns o 
her own child because she is not willing t 
forego the delights of social life. Do no 
misunderstand me. She should not giv 
tii) all of these pleasures. 

While to some of us society life may no 
be alluring, unquestionably there will b 
some one thing which we must give up tc 
insure for our child our sympathetic co 
operation. Just as this entering the kin 
dergarten is a new experience to our chil 
dren, so may it be to us the opening of i 
broader, fuller life, in the entering into al 
of the experiences of our children, to enricl 
and unfold their young lives symmetricall) 
and gloriously. 

"Come, let us live with our children, 

Earnestly, holily live, 
Hearing ourselves the swee! lessons 

That to the children we give." 


"Unto us a Child is born. 

Unto us a Son is given, 

And the government shall be upon His shoulder 

And His name shall be called 

Wonderful, Counsellor, 

The mighty God, the everlasting Father, 

The Prince of Peace." — Isaiah ix. ( 

Good Christians all, 
Both great and small, 
Join with th' angelic throng; 
Your voices raise 
In chant and praise 
And sing the Christmas song. 

Sing Hey! Ho! for the holly and the mistletoe 
Hey! for the ivy and Hey! for the yew. 
Sing Hey! Ho! the bells ring out across thi 

The message clear, and ever dear 
Through Christ the King. 

Sing and rejoice 
With heart and voice, 
To greet the Holy Child, 
In a manger laid 
By the Mother-Maid, 
By Mary, meek and mild. 

Sing Hey! Ho! for the holly and the mistletoe 

Hey! for the ivy and Hey! for the yew, 

Sing Hey! Ho! the bells ring out across th< 


Through Christ the King. 




(A new translation by BERTHA JOHNSTON) 

The eager child, so earnest in play 
Finds joy in the toyman's treasures gay, 
And the mother a rarer joy and pride 
May find in the darling at her side. 


:other, dear mother, O, please come, do! 
d let mo visit the shops with you. 
lis, doll-houses, and beds we'll see — 
rriages, washtubs: and kitchens wee! 
Chrktmas the shops are all so gay 
ust cannot wait another day — 
arkling tinsel and Christmas green 
d lovely toys are in all shops seen." 

es indeed, you may go with me 
e shopkeeper's wonderful toys to see, 
t, let me, dear, in confidence say, 
[ of the toy.: so bright and gay 
■m ever to say 'O, please buy me ' 
len a good, obedient child they see, 
t each one to mother says 'please don't buy' 
len a teasing or sulky child they spy. 
d should mother decide no gift to choose 
Nick might also all toys refuse." 

Mother, O mother dear, plea:e come, do, 

be so industrious, good and true." 
ell me, good merchant, honest and kind, 
lat sort of toys I here may find, 
uething I want for a good little girl." 
h, here is a dollie with hair all a-curl, 
re is a puzzle and this is a book — 
rhaps at this game 'twould please you to look, 
d here is a kitchen with stove all complete, 
rcepans, and brush to keep it all neat, 

shining and bright, a wee housewife's pride, 
te the trim little housewife who stands at your 

hanks, toyman, should Santa Claus happen this 


iase tell him Amelia has been here today; 
ickly obeying each word or sign 
the darkest of days she's our ray of sunshine, 
d he'll make no mistake should he leave her 

mething that she in her stocking may find." 

The fingers, dexterious, the toyshop show, 
To please the child in a pretty play. 

And these fingers, easily, ruled by love, 
May attract the child along Virtue's way. 


'ather, dear, here are your cane and hat 
rely you know what I mean by that; 
Won't you come to the shops with me 
All of the beautiful toys to see? 
Noah's Arks, tool chests, trains and boats, 
(Even the littlest wee one floats) — 
ther, dear father, please come, do! 
Let me visit the shops with you." 

"Yes, indeed, you may go with me 
All of the wonderful toys to see, 
it let me, dear, in confidence say 
All of the things so bright and gay 

Glance at the father with look so sad 
When the boy who is with him is mean or bad. 
But if he's industrious, happy all day, 
And tries to be good and always obey, 
Why then, if the father a gift should choose 
St. Nick would not likely a fine toy refuse." 

'Father, dear father, O please come, do, 
I'll be so industrious, brave and true." 
"Good merchant, I hear you have for boys 
Most useful and beautiful Christmas toys. 
Show me some of your very best 
That I may choose at his request." 
"Here is a wagon, bicycle and sled, 
Or a fiery horse he may like instead. 
On which he can prove his mettle and fame; 
Here is a trumpet and here a game. 
Fire engines, singing tops and blocks, 
Villages, shepherds, with their flocks — 
All of my wares how can I tell? 
Look for yourselves and I will sell." 

"Thank you, should Santa Claus happen this way. 
Please tell him that Adolph was here today. 
Quickly obedient to word or sign 
On the darkest of days he's our bright sunshine. 
So he'll make no mistake should he leave behind 
Something for him in his stocking to find." 


The position of the hands in this little 
play is not really difficult ; it is generally 
known and in several different forms. The 
drawing, moreover, shows it with tolerable 
exactness. Three fingers of each hand are 
so placed that the tips touch each other — 
this forms the toyshop, or booth. The 
little finger of one (say the left hand) re- 
mains free, representing the shopkeeper 
standing in his shop; the pointing finger of 
the other (here the right hand) forms the 
counter, being placed so as to lie close upon 
the index finger of the left hand. The two 
thumbs form the two shoppers, standing 
in front of the booth or counter ; in one 
case representing the mother and daugh- 
ter and in the other, the father and the 
boy. Although in the picture both index 
fingers form the counter this is not neces- 
sary — one finger is enough. 

The outward life, the mart of life, have 
their claims. When the child and when 
mankind clearlv understand and have pos- 
session of themselves, then can they with 
joy enter life, the mart of life. Hundreds 
and hundreds of things they can then place 
not only in external, but in intrinsic rela- 
tionship, and not only in regard to them- 
selves but especially as relates to the affairs 
and the needs of mankind. Thus, in the 
different productions , as in the needs of 
mankind, he may find, may intuitively per- 
ceive ( in order to choose and appropriate 
according to opportunity) not only what is 



outwardly useful but what gives inner joy 
— -not only what promises material, but 
what will give him ever-increasing spiritual 
pleasure. And this inner and truly spiritual 
gladness is really, however little it may 
seem so to he. however seldom and in how- 
ever small degree it may usually he at- 
tained) this inner gladness is the dimly 
Foreshadowed purpose of the visit to the 
mart of life is the inner obscure reason for 
the joy, the pleasure of the child in the mul- 
titudious gay things in the shops. 

The buyer in the market may then select 
things both beautiful and useful as life, sex 
or calling may dictate. For the fostering 
..t the family, the domestic life, the girl, the 
maiden, the mother, the housewife will 
judiciously choose those things that are 
dainty, delicate, useful; and for the protec- 
tion of the same the boy, youth, man and 
father those things suggesting power, 
strength. To the useful and the beautiful 
is linked the good — budding, blossoming 
and developing from them — the stern and 
the tender, the weak and the strong unite 
in the most beautiful harmony; from that 
which is separated (though lying side by 
side) but which even in externals, comple- 
ment and correlate with each other, blooms 
in mutual recognition a spiritual unity. 

The reason for this inner, unconscious at- 
traction, this urge to visit the shops, is 
found in the anticipation of finding the in- 
ner in the outer, agreement in division, har- 
mony in discord, unity in manifoldness, the 
universal in the particular — seeing life as in 
a picture or mirror, and t litis to learn to 
know the outward life and to hud means to 
express his own individual inner life. That 
is why very little satisfies your child, if it 
is truly a child, when returning from the 
shops, his heart's anticipations fulfilled (be 
it with a doll or a wagon, a whistle or a 
lambkin) if in it and by means of it he may 
find himself and his world and may repre- 
sent it through deeds. 

i herefore, the visit to the shops deeply 

influences the unfolding life of your child. 


Forth from his home as the little child fares 
To view all the toyshop's manifold wares, 
Let mother-love wise attend him and guide. 
To enrich his young life with intelligence wide. 


There are two pictures which give the 
text for the commentary of the visit to 
the shops ; one of these shows the mother 

and the little girl approaching the wonder 
ful booths with all their wares and the 
other represents the father and the boy. I 
will be well for the child of today with his 
knowledge of the crowded departmen 
stores of the modern city to study fo 
awhile these pictures which depict the 
simple life — but which, however simple 
mirror the great life of the world and th< 
life of the individual with all his multiplicit) 
of needs and of tastes. These little out 
door booths form a marked contrast to the 
great shops which under one roof house 
many small shops, but the very difference 
will emphasize to the child the fact of the 
increasing needs of mankind and that wher 
he grows up he may share in fulfilling these 
needs. And in its toys even one tiny bootl 
may represent a world. Here we see the 
tov soldier, the sailor, the wagoner, tin 
tinv storekeeper, the little housekeeper, tin 
shepherd, etc., etc. The quaint costume 
and the booths of the Christmas Fair givi 
the American child a glimpse into the pic 
turesque life of other lands and periods. 
The pictures show also the position oi 
the hands as described in the translation 
when representing the toyshop, salesmar 
and the buyers. Another little but well- 
known finger play is appropriate here. The 
rhyme runs thus : 

Here are my mother's knives and forks 

Here's my father's table, 
Here's my sister's looking glass 

And here's the baby's cradle. 

The positions of the hands and finger; 
are as follows: Place the hands back tc 
back so that the fingers of the tw r o hand 
cross and slip between each other — this 
forms the knives and forks which we may 
give mother for her Christmas gift. Squeeze 
the fingers together (still interlocked) 
turn the hands so that the backs are upper- 
most and we have the table for father's 
Christmas gift. Retaining the hands i'r 
this position, raise the index fingers so that 
the tips touch and this gives the mirror fot 
sister's new bureau. Raise the little fingers 
so that the tips touch and we have th 
baby's cradle. 

Among the more active plays which chil- 
dren in the kindergartens heartily enjoy i.5 
the representation imitatively of some o 
the various toys, while other children guess 
what is intended ; thus : one child jumps 
with an imaginary rope ; another drama 



es the movement of a jumping- jack or a 

;k-in-the-l)ox ; still another skates around 
> room on imaginary skates; another rep- 
;ents a spinning top, or one blows on a 
listle or trumpet. 

Another kindergarten play is that which 

Is for several children to stand together 
d raise their arms in imitation of the 

ristmas tree while others trim the limbs 
th colored balls, and other school-room 

Play going to the store in the crowded 
r, arranging the kindergarten chairs for 
its. Are we going to be thoughtful of 
tired conductor and be ready to offer 
r seat to the weary mother with the many 
ndles? Dramatize the translated verses 

en above. 


It will be observed that Froebel would 
ve the mother and father who accompany 
sir children to the shops fully aware of 
i rich opportunities therein offered for 
culture of mind and heart ; these grown 
ks should know something of the rela- 
nships between the many objects of the 
irt, the market-place, and their relation- 
ip to himself but it will also be observed 
it in the little verses for the child nothing 
this sort is said directly — there is nothing 
lactic about Froebel in his work with the 
ild — he would have the child absorb life 
d nurture from the atmosphere with 
lich the parents surround him. The only 
ggestion of a lesson is that in which he 
its that the toys may look with unfriend- 
eyes upon the child that is naughty and 
:e versa but even this moral is conveyed 
a spirit of play. 

In the shopping or business street one 
ly see many trades and occupations rep- 
sented but the toyshop presents this 
culiarity — that under one roof we see 
presented in miniature an innumerable 
riety of trades ; here we see toy engines, 
ats, grocery store, doll house, coal 
igon, dishes, building blocks, etc., each 
King at some need of man and some 
oduct of his skill. By a timely word free 
)iu didacticism the mother may draw at- 
ition to some of the obvious relationships 
tween the same ; the engine needs coal, 
e coal man needs the engine, the mother 
>o needs the coal ; the engineer is needed 
i' the boat and a large boat brings many 
ys from over seas to expectant children, 
-t the older children follow up some of 

these relationships and the oldest children 
might trace many of the occupations in- 
volved in making the toys, the wooden 
ones, the metal toys, etc., and the fact 
brought (jut that a large percentage of 
American imports are toys largely from 
Germany and France. A German book 
published about two years ago presents an 
exhaustive study of the metal-toymaking 
industry of Nuremburg and vicinity, viewed 
both from the historic and from the in- 
dustrial standpoints, it has its tragic side, 
the recompense of those who make the toys 
has been so small for these man}' years and 
child-labor has been employed to an un- 
happy extent, in the homes. 

As the child sees the many occupations 
represented in the man}' toys and play- 
things he realizes to some degree the many 
needs of man and in the mechanical toys, 
the steam engines, fire engines, the electric 
toys, he can begin to realize the increasing 
needs of man and perhaps in the future he 
may help to satisfy these needs. Seeing 
such toys may stimulate the child's own in- 
ventive powers. If he cannot buy a cup 
and ball himself perhaps he can make one 
for sister of a rubber ball and a funnel, or 
he can make the ball of worsted. The 
older children, as they see the mechanical 
top can be led to trace back to the origin 
of some of the simpler principles, the 
pulley, wheel, inclined plane, and so realize 
how little by little different minds have 
each added something to man's knowledge 
and that many minds have been necessary 
to produce the complete machines of today, 
the printing presses, the typewriters, the 
trolley cars. 

In studying and selecting his toys the 
child's taste and judgment are cultivated. 
He sees almost side by side examples of 
good and bad workmanship, the cheap, 
flimsy breakable toy, and that which is 
well made, the cheaply-colored picture and 
the finer reproduction. Shall he choose that 
which is in good taste and will last or that 
which will soon fall to pieces? Does he 
prefer the mechanical toy whose possibili- 
ties are soon exhausted or the blocks of 
which he can build many things and the 
wagon which he can convert at will 
through his imagination into an express 
cart, or a fire engine or a fine car- 
riage ? We saw a boy of twelve interest 
himself for more than an hour in experi- 
menting with a simple, fascinating top. The 

ii 4 


most attractive and valuable toys do not 
cost the most money. 

Body, mind and spirit— the three are one 
and cannot be separated in any cut and 
dried fashion and in training and develop- 
ing the child the nurture of the one side of 
his nature necessarily overlaps and effects 
the other, and it will be observed that in 
suggesting means of nurturing the child's 
mind and' body what has been said in a 
measure repeats what may be said regard- 
ing the development of his heart and soul. 
[t is possible however and we see instances 
on every side in which intellect has been 
developed at the expense of heart, and mind 
cultivated at the cost of bodily health — in 
normal, wholesome training the three 
should grow and expand together. 

What are some of the opportunities 
afforded by the visit to the toyshops for 
cultivating the heart of the child? 

As said before, the child sees life reflected 
in the wares of the shop — he learns to know 
his own wants better. He has the oppor- 
tunity of choice and as some psychologist 
has said, life is but a succession of choices. 
Me sees something that he wants, oh, so 
much — the next moment some other won- 
derful thing attracts his attention — and 
mother helps him to discriminate, to recog- 
nize true values, to think ahead and be will- 
ing to forego present fleeting pleasures for 
future ones that will be more lasting, to 
refrain from patronizing the penny slot- 
machine for the joy of buying later, a 
Christmas gift for sister. 

In selecting therefore, he ma}' be trained 
to choose the permanent rather than the 
ephemeral, and to recognize and choose 

g 1 workmanship rather than the cheap 

and flimsy. Does he want to be a good 
workman himself some day? 

Me exercises choice also in regard to the 
ta^te^ of tho^e for whom he buys. Some- 
thing inexpensive may give far more pleas- 
ure than the costly gift, if it is just what the 
friend wants. In selecting a book for sister 
has he sister's tastes in mind rather than 
his own? Me will not buy for her that in- 
teresting looking volume on football. We 
all know the story of the woman who 
bought for her husband a silk dress! 

When we go shopping will we decide to 
go to those stores that pay their emploves 
well even if prices are a bit higher? In 
other words are we willing to pay a fair 

price for our purchases? Froebel has a 
Mother play (the Target) in which fair 
pay for fair work is the central theme. 

We will increase the general Christmas 
joy by buying our gifts early in the season 
and as early in the day as possible so as tc 
relieve the pressure upon the salespeople 
Will we tram the child at Christmas time 
to take home himself as many of the small 
er parcels as possible so that the drivers 
may not be kept out later at night than is 
absolutely necessary ? Many of the large 
department stores now 7 place large signs re- 
questing customers to in this way make life 
more livable for the weary seller behind the 
counter, and many of the shops close far 
more early at night than they did formerly 

It is a good deal of a strain to take a 
young child to the Christmas shops in a 
large city. It is a strain upon both mother 
and child. When she is actually shopping 
it is best to do so without the child if pos- 
sible, and to make a point of taking the 
child some day for the sake of the indirect 
educational advantages. For this purpose 
the smaller local shops offer excellent 
opportunities and are less bewildering to 
the little one. It is moreover good to 
patronize home trade, i. e., buy at the littl 
local shops as much as possible and so 
encourage and add to the Christmas cheei 
of the small storekeeper. How man} 
fathers may be induced to follow Froebel'; 
hint and take the child on an education! 
tour through the shops? As he gaze: 
longingly at many delightful toys, lead th< 
child to think of the children who ma) 
otherwise be overlooked at this happy sea 
son. Shall we spend a few of our Lincoh 
pennies for less fortunate children thai 
ourselves? Shall we mend some of our last 
year's toys and books to give to others? 

In Froebel's plan it will be noticed th 
parents do not buy at the time that the} 
visit the shops — they merely look and hell 
the child to find a pleasure in looking anc 
admiring even if he cannot own. And this 
is a very important life lesson. We mtts 
train the eyes, the ears, the mind to enjoy 
to perceive and to get the benefit at even 
opportunity, of many things which we ma} 
never actually possess as far as legal papers 
are concerned. But from the observatior 
of such we may win treasures of heart anc 
mind that neither thieves nor moths car 
take from us — and one of the choicest pos- 

(Continued on page 123) 


IJ 5 


Secretary New York Milk Committee 

HE problem of the poor 
mother and her infant is by 
no means new. For years it 
has been the object of serious 
concern to governments and 
nunicipalities, and has won the attention 
f physicians, philanthropists, milk dealers, 
anitarian and social workers, not only in 
his country, but in France, Germany, Eng- 
and, and other nations of Europe. It is 
>nly within recent years, however, that the 
;reat mass of people has awakened to the 
act that hundreds of thousands of infants 
tre dying needlessly each year, and has be- 
jun to take active steps to save their lives. 
Numerically to picture the problem of 
nfant mortality is, at the best, unsatis- 
actory. To the expert, as well as layman, 
statistics convey little real impression of 
he suffering and pathos involved in these 
teedless deaths. Reduced to comparative 
erms, however, the situation changes, 
iven figures now cause one to shudder ; for 
)ther dread diseases shrink into insigni- 
icance when the resulting loss of life for 
my given year is contrasted with deaths 
imong babies from the first to the twelfth 
nonth of their existence. 

Last year, it is estimated, 150,000 deaths 
"esulted from tuberculosis in the United 
states. These deaths covered the whole 
ipan of life from infancy to old age, and oc- 
curred in spite of long efforts and the ex- 
)enditure of large sums of money. 

Although we have no accurate figures as 
o the number of babies born annually in 

*The Survey. 

the United States, a conservative estimate 
would be 2,500,000, of which certainly fifteen 
per cent or 375,000 perish during their first 
year. In 1908, in New York city, 16,230 
infants died during the first year. The ex- 
cess of these deaths, which, as will be 
shown later, are largely preventable, over 
deaths from all other causes at any other 
ecpial period of life, is shocking. 

From birth, down to the tenth year, the 
mortality rate declines constantly. It is 
highest during the first week, falls some- 
what during the second week, is fairly con- 
stant the third week, and then falls more or 
less steadily to the twelfth month of life. 
The enormous death rate among infants 

during the first three months is due almost 
entirely to congenital debility, malforma- 
tion, atrophy and other results of immoral- 
ity, unwholesome social conditions and 
physical degeneration. One-third, approxi- 
mately, of the remaining deaths are caused 
by bad milk, improper feeding, etc., and the 



other two-thirds by casualties and those 
ordinary ills of infancy which may almost 
wholly ' be prevented by the exercise of 
reasonable intelligence and care. 

The importance of pure milk in reducing 
infant mortality, although worthy of grave 
consideration, lias, up to the present time, 
been over emphasized ; in fact, it has with- 
drawn attention from other factors equally 
important, probably on account of the grim 
manner in which the hand of death flays 
down the children of the tenements in the 
congested portions of all American cities 
during the hot months. 

The tragedy is well pictured in the 
French chart! familiar to every child 
specialist, called the Eifel Tower. Here we 
have a contrast in morbidity between chil- 
dren suckled and those fed upon artificial 
food. Among the former the ratio of 
deaths remains comparatively constant 
until we approach July and August when 
it rises to a considerable but not startling 
degree, falling shortly aftei wards and re- 
maining, as at first, until the closing of the 
year. With the artificially fed infant, how- 
ever, it is always subject to leaps and 
bounds. When July is reached, the leap is 
frightful, spouting up like a geyser of 
human blood. Fifteen bottle-fed babies die 

on an average in Paris to one breast-fed in- 
fant, while in Berlin recent reports show 

the percentage to be even as high as twenty 
to one. Recently Dr. Joseph L. Winters of 
New York, pictured the situation truthfully 
when he said : "No matter how dark the 
tenement, how foulsome the street, how 
unsanitary the home or how sickening the 
conditions in which the child is raised, an 
infant, fed at the breast of a healthy wo 
man, runs little risk of death. No medicine, 
no care or treatment, no proprietary food, 
will guarantee the life of a sick infant in 
the summer time. There is one remedy 
and one alone. That is, that the infant 
should be fed as God intended it to be." 

But although many of us realize, and 
others are coming to realize, that the 
breast-fed baby is comparatively immune 
from death, the fact nevertheless remains 
that thousands upon thousands of infants 
all over the world, are unable to obtain 
maternal nourishment. 

The New York Milk Committee in Man- 
hattan Island, is feeding in the neighbor- 
hood of 750 infants. A careful statistical 
estimate, based upon the ratio of infants 
fed in its depots to the total number of in- 
fants in the areas included by them, extend- 
ed to all the varyingly congested districts 
of the island, shows that in Manhattan, 12,- 
500 mothers of the poorer classes (and no 
one knows how many of the middle classes) 
are forced to rely upon artificial feeding 
for their infants. The two main reasons 
for this maternal impotency, are physical 
disability, due to improper nourishment and 
disease, and industrial employment, due 
principally to abject poverty. Added 
knowledge and intelligence, not only on 
the part of the corporation and the man at 
its head and the careless spendthrift; but 
also for the tenement house mother, for 
whom much is being done, but who, 
through sheer ignorance, nullifies the 
efficacy of material relief and kindly effort 
— added knowledge and intelligence, I say, 
must be created before the problem of in- 
fant mortality can be satisfactorily solved. 

The beginning of this work already has 
been made. Seventeen years ago, Nathan 
Straus, in New York city, began his mem- 
orable campaign against impure milk. 
Splendid have been the results achieved, 
but, as concerns the decrease of infant mor- 
tality, Mr. Straus attacks only one phase of 
the problem. Pure milk is only one factor. 
More important than to supply a substitute 




for breast milk is to encourage breast feed- 
ing and render it possible — to remove the 
conditions of undernourishment and em- 
ployment, which prevent women from 
nursing, and to educate mothers to realize, 
not only the importance of maternal nurs- 
ing, but also the value of sanitation, infant 
feeding, infant hygiene, and the proper care 
of their infants and of themselves. 

It was with this idea in mind that the 
Xew York Milk Committee in June, 1908, 
opened seven milk depots in New York 
city from which is sold certified milk from 
what nrobably is one of the best dairy herds 
in the United States — the Tully Farms 

Each depot is in the charge of a group 
of volunteer physicians under a senior 
physician elected by them. These physi- 
cians examine the babies at weekly classes, 
weigh them, prescribe their exact feedings 
and educate the mothers by talks on infant 
feeding and infant hygiene patterned after 
the well known consultations of nourish- 
ment of France. Trained nurses, employed 
by the committee, supervise the distribu- 
tion of milk, assist the doctors at the 
classes, and, by visiting the homes see that 
the mothers actually carry out wdiat they 
are told to do. At the close of each day, 

these nurses telephone their exact milk 
orders for the day following co the central 
laboratory, which is generously provided 
by the Sheffield Farms — Slawson Decker 
Milk Company — and the next morning be- 
fore eight o'clock, the milk, properly pre- 
pared and refrigerated, is delivered at each 

The results have been wonderful. Sickly, 
emaciated children, hardly human in ap- 
pearance, have become in a few months fat 
and rosy. Overworked mothers, who 
scarcely had had a night's sleep since the 
birth of the child, have become rested and 
refreshed. In the Henry Street Depot alone 
more than one-third of the babies who are 
now alive and in healthful condition were 
on the point of death, when they were first 
brought in. In Cannon street, the commit- 
tee is feeding nearly 200 babies, most of 
whom were in bad condition when found. 
At the last consultation only one with a 
severe cold was failing to improve. 

In one of the consultations at Blooming- 
dale Guild thirty-two babies are enrolled. 
The average age at which they were 
brought was twenty-five weeks and two 
days. The average weight was thirteen 
pounds six and four-tenths ounces, whereas 
the regularly accepted estimate for a nor- 



{ child of that age is fifteen pounds eight 
ices. Thus the average weight of these 
tv-two babies was two pounds two 
ices below the normal. At the end of 
;en weeks and three days, their average 
ght was eighteen pounds one and nine- 
ths ounces, whereas the normal weight 
infants at this age is seventeen pounds 
lit ounces. Thus the thirty-two babies 
at this one consultation at the Bloom- 
dale Guild Depot, were nine and nine- 
ths ounces over weight. 
a St. Cyprian's Chapel, Mrs. J. W. John- 
wife of the rector of the church, told 
that before the committee's work be- 
in that neighborhood, her husband had 
ied, on an average, one colored baby 
ry other day throughout the year. Since 
e i^, 1908, she said, he had buried only 


iven a whole year in which the 750 in- 
ts now being fed at the committee's 
ots would have been exposed without 
m to the dangers of ignorance, impure 
k and the other concomitants of pov- 
y, I think it is safe to say that the saving 
ives among them amounted to fifty per 
. Extending this estimate to the 12,- 
babies needing similar care and assist- 


ance in New York city, and considering 
that last year the deaths under one year in 
Manhattan was 9,000, it can readily be seen 
that a saving of life equal to fifty per cent 
of the 12,500 would be an enormous reduc- 
tion of infant mortality for the island as a 

What is true for New York city, is of 
course true for the entire country. The 
saving of lives, important as that is, is only 
one of the many results accomplished. 
Equally important are the prevention of 
suffering and misery, the raising of the 
standard of intelligence of whole families 
and communities and the starting of young 
lives on a sound physical basis. 

Reviewing the situation as it is naturally 
one is led to inquire, "How shall we face 
this problem?" To such an inquiry there 
is a definite answer. In the first place clean 
milk must be provided. This preventive of 
infant mortality is the most easily supplied, 
and therefore must be considered first. 
Where money is not obtainable for certified 
milk, the milk must be pasteurized. Similar- 
ly where money is lacking to prepare indi- 
vidual prescriptions, suited to the exact 
needs of each baby, wholesale modifica- 
tions, prepared on a commercial basis, must 
be secured. Under all circumstances the 
most urgent problems must be undertaken 
first, 'this, of course, means continually 
compromising with ideals. But ideals need 
not be lost sight of, even when temporary 
expedients seem extreme. 

Together with the distribution of milk, 
instruction is imperative. No mother 
should be allowed to get the milk until it 
is definitely determined that she is unable 
to suckle the child herself. Many and many 
a mother could nurse her baby if she re- 
ceived an extra quart of milk daily, or even 
if an extra cum of cocoa were given her with 
each meal. 

The case of Barry O'Shea suggests itself 
in this connection. At the age of three 
months Barry came to the committee's 
depot in Bloomingdale Guild weighing six 
pounds and fourteen ounces as opposed to 
eleven and three-quarters pounds, the nor- 
mal weight of an infant at that age. Three 
physicians had given the little fellow up to 
die and the mother, who had tried every- 
thing on the calendar except her own milk, 
brought him to the depot as a last resort. 
The doctor in charge, realizing that breast 
milk alone could save him, insisted that 

1 4o 


Mrs. O'Shea should nourish herself more 
properly, and that she should make an 
effort to nurse her infant. At first she re- 
fused to do so and stayed away from the 
depot. One of her reasons for doing this 
was that she was ashamed to show her 
child — dry, leathery and quite like a little 
old mummy — to the other mothers. Neces- 
sity, however, got the better of her at last 
and she not only came, but in sheer des- 
peration followed the doctor's instructions 
carefully. The result was that in fifteen 
weeks Barry's condition, as shown by the 
record chart, leaped up from bad to per- 
fect, where it rests today. In this way the 
milk depot lost a modified milk customer, 
but saved the life of Barry O'Shea. 

What was done for Barry has been done 
in the case of many other mothers. When 
breast feeding has been found to be impos- 
sible, as it often is, they have been taught 
the value of many other things ; of keeping 
the milk cold; of feeding the babies regular- 
ly; of throwing the deadly "pacifier" away; 
of peeling off the long red bands of flannel 
which swathe and infest the little bodies 
with prickly heat; of realizing that when a 
baby cries something is usually the mat- 
ter with it ; and of trying intelligently to 
discover what the matter is. 

Twenty-nine doctors, in addition to the 
nurses, tell the mothers about these things 

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at the weekly classes held in connectio 
with the committee's depots. So great ha 
been the interest, that sisters, aunts, granc 
mothers, "little mothers," rich women an 
poor, have attended the consultations an 
now in many quarters are demanding siriaj 
lar instruction themselves. 

But while all mothers (anfi many father 
too) no matter what their station in lif 
must be educated properly before infan 




A back yard consultation at the union settlement 

>rtality can be reduced, the need and 
;ire for this education increases in direct 
io as we descend from the extreme rich 

the extreme poor. For the wealthy 
ther there is always the expert special- 
For the middle class mother paid in- 
action must be provided, either by insti- 
ions or by itinerant teachers, of whom 
:re is a great dearth at the present time. 
r the mother, handicapped by ignorance 
i all the evils of poverty, instruction, at 
st until times change, must be provided 

[n this campaign, the milk depot is of 
idamental importance, as it attracts and 
[ds women whom no individual or other 
;ncy can reach. Poorly organized depots 
1 not meet the problem. Co-operative 
30ts must be the rule — co-ordinating the 
rk of doctors, nurses, milk dealers, re- 
societies, and all individuals and 
sncies interested in saving the lives of 

The economics of the situation thus be- 
ne apparent. Many depots, supported 

present by philanthropy, dabble with 
dicine, relief, statistics, and milk distribu- 
n, wasting much time, effort and money 
:ause of ignorance and inexperience, 
ke for instance the matter of selling- milk 

below cost. If Mrs. A. contributes $100 to 
a milk depot and discovers that her neigh- 
bor Mrs. B., a well-to-do woman, is obtain- 
ing for five cents a quart, a milk which is 
costing the milk depot fifteen cents a quart 
and, to obtain the loss of ten cents a quart 
on which, the milk depot is compelled to 
ask assistance from her and other con- 
tributors, naturally she is displeased. 
Obviously, the only right thing to do is to 
sell milk to Mrs. B. at a fair price. If, how- 
ever, Mrs. B. can obtain milk from the 
depot at a fair price, every other woman 
in the neighborhood able similarly to pay 
for it, should be allowed to do so. This 
forces the depot to commercialize its busi- 
ness. Now a milk depot which keeps open 
onlv from 9 a. m. until one o'clock, as is the 
case with most philanthropic depots, and 
which is run below its maximum capacity, 
cannot long stay in business. In order to 
be self-maintaining, the depots must keep 
open at all times ; in order to attain perfec- 
tion they must have capital behind them. 
To maintain infants' milk depots therefore, 
is not a problem for philanthropists having 
no knowledge of milk matters, but for milk 
dealers co-operating with philanthropists. 
In every community there are progressive 
milk men anxious to take up new lines of 



business, to accommodate the public, and 
to remedy conditions so far as they are 
able. these milk dealers must have co- 
operation and encouragement. Keliet 
societies must say to them, "Here, produce 
this milk, modify it, sell it either m your 
own stores or in space which we will let 
you have in our settlements, hospitals, etc., 
and if any mother comes to you who can- 
not pav all or part of the price, send her to 
us; we will investigate the case, and if she 
is worthy, we will honor your bills for her 
supplv." Contributors who support the 
milk Philanthropy, will then know that 
each cent they give is going to people who 
need it; that pauperism is being discour- 
aged; that where need exists, it is being 
met: and that in all cases justice is being 


fust as relief societies should co-operate 
with milk dealers so should milk dealers 
and relief societies co-operate with doctors 
and health authorities, in providing the 
medical, instructional and "follow-up" 
work for those mothers who patronize the 
stores. Connected with the distribution of 
milk, nurses and physicians constitute a big 
commercial asset, as they attract to milk 
depots mothers who, under other circum- 
stances, would either fail to purchase milk 
or would obtain milk of an inferior grade. 
Almost any milk dealer could afford for the 
sake of this advertisement, to provide space 
in his store or a separate room connected 
with it, where doctors and nurses could 
carry on instructional work. Or if he did 
not feel that he could afford to do this, rent, 

chargeable to philanthropy, could be plac 
upon the space or room used. Many si 
tlements, hospitals and other institutio 
on the other hand, could well afford to gi 
quarters in their buildings where m 
dealers could dispense milk, thus rekevi; 
the institution of the task and placing 
supplv within easy reach of those whom 
is wished to reach. For this co-operati 
arrangement there are many precedents. 

In all this work, the imporiant thing 
to distinguish clearly between business ai 
philanthropy, for only then will the mon 
of contributors be conserved and the gres 
est amount of good possible be done. 

Ultimately, in many cities, nurses w 
probablv be nrovided by the health depai 
ment. Physicians, keenly interested as thi 
are in problems of dietetics, particularly i 
fant feeding, will probably be willing 
give their services free. Some day it is 
be hoped that doctors be paid for this wor 
for many believe the time will come wh< 
physicians will be paid to keep people w< 
rather than to cure them when they are i 

In different cities the plan will work o 
differently. But the fundamental princij 
of co-operation, of furnishing instructio 
medical supervision and material assistant 
will remain the same. No one agency, r 
one set of men, no one department, organ 
zation. or society, can of itself or himse 
solve the problem of infant mortality, 
must work together, each doing his ow 
task expertly and relying upon others f( 
the rest. In this way only is the solutic 
of the problem possible. 




0-1 yr (?7437) 








4-5 r (SOS) 


Chart 1— Mortality in New York City, in 1907, of children under 5 years of age The total number of deaths in 1907 was 72,205 ; of those under 
3 years, 25.794 ; over * years 46.411. The square at the right represents the average deaths per year of age of all persons over 5 years of age. 

Chart 2.— Average deaths per age for persons of different age groups. The figures in the upper line denote the average deaths per year for 
t»ch group : those in the lower line denote the total deaths in each group. 



Ethical Lessons From FroebeFs Mother Play 

(Continued from paye 114) 

sions of the human soul is the sense of 
idarity, of human relationship, of the 
eness in diversity of all life — a visit to 
: shops is one means to this end. One 
re or one department will awaken the 
nd to one need and help to satisfy it and 
Dther counter will stir other thoughts. 
The best of all gifts is symbolized in the 
irt gift of the Christ child, the love of 
d manifested in human love. Lead the 
Id to feel the universality of this con- 
ation by acquaintance with the many 
ths and stories common to all countries, 
an aid to this end we recommend 
hristmas in Many Lands and in Many 
lies," by Evelyn H. Walker, (fifty cents) 
blished by Welch & Co., Chicago. It is 
apted to presentation as a school enter- 
ument, gives music and suggests cos- 
ines. In connection with this Mother 
ay of the toyshop we recommend Eliza- 
th Harrison's "Some Silent Teachers." 
has a verv suggestive chapter upon the 
it to the shops. 

The Santa Clans question has been fre- 
ently discussed in the Kindergarten- 
imary Magazine. Bv letting the child 
ay that he is a little Santa Clans to his 
others, sisters and friends, the idea of the 
iversal Santa Clans spirit — the spirit of 
ve and good-will, will become familiar to 
11 and the belief in one personal Santa 
aus will take on firm hold. 


From Children's Calendar 


Chill December brings the sleet, 
Blazing fire and Christmas treat. 

ome, bring wi;h a noite, 
y merry, merry boys, 
le Christmas log to the firing, 
hile my good dame she 
ds ye all be free 
id drink to your heart's desiring." 


Vithin the hall are song and laughter, 
re cheeks of Christmas grow red and jolly, 
ad sprouting is every corbel and rafter 
ith lightsome green of ivy and holly, 
irough the deep gulf of the chimney wide 
r allows the Yule log's roaring tide." 

— Lowell 

Full knee deep lies the winter snow 
nd the winter winds are wearily sighing, 
oil ye the Church bell sad and slow, 
nd tread softly and speak low, 
or the old year lies a-dying." 

— Tennyson 



HE Lady of the Settlement 
House raised herself on her 
elbow and listened. Was that 
a child's sob she wondered, 
that low moaning of despair. 
It was certainly not a cry of physical pain 
or fear. Perhaps it had only been part of 
a troubled dream. She waited in a tense 
silence. It was past midnight. All seemed 
quiet on the street. The noise of the sur- 
face cars had ceased. The heavy rumble 
of the wagons filled with country vege- 
tables and fruits had not begun, and the 
milk carts were still miles away on their 
route to the city's thoroughfares. It was 
the brief hour of respite from work, from 
traffic, from revelry even. 

"Granny, granny, just let me in; let me 
in!" Again came that suppressed pitiful 

This was no dream. The Lady of the 
Settlement House leaned from the window, 
her eyes searching for the speaker. It was 
a child, almost beneath her, pressing her 
small body against Granny Stepuiak's door, 
next to the settlement house. The mo- 
ments of waiting for further development 
seemed hours, then the door was stealthily 
opened, the child was pulled in, and all was 
quiet without. 

Sarah was an abandoned child, of Polish 
parentage. The family, returning to Russia 
the previous summer, had decided with 
little consultation, that the hunchback child 
was out of the question, a nuisance. Granny 
Stepniak must house the little one and 
feed her. 

At the age of ten, Sarah knew all that 
the street could reveal. All the awful 
mvsteries of the dark alleys had been un- 
earthed to feed this child's mind. There 
was no saloon or dance hall for blocks that 
did not open its doors to her for the ask- 
ing. Everyone recognized her shrewd, 
black eyes, her quaint manner, older than 
her years, her childish speech, her oaths 
and unclean words. With it all there was 
the voice of a young nightingale singing, 
not of the country and bird and flower, but 
every street song that could blacken and 

Everybody treated Sarah well, in a 
rough way. She was shielded many times 
from physical danger. Not a home in the 



block would refuse to share ever so scant 
a meal with her. She was buffetted along 
in a kindly way by the big policemen, but 
there the arm of the law ceased to guide. 
The public school did not encircle her. 

( >ne morning the Lady of the Settlement 
House met the child in the street, and 
paused to question her. Sarah proved more 
than willing to respond to her overtures 
of friendship and answered her questions 

•"Know how to read? You bet yer life 
I don't. The)'," pointing with her bony 
linger at the big institution near by, "don't 
like me up there. I use bad words, and 
don't behave myself, and they put me out. 
Besides, I'm a hunchback, and ache awful 
had sometimes, and want to lie down some- 
where. Xo, you can't make me go to 
school. 'Taint no use to talk." 

At this point she deftly steered the con- 
versation away from dangerous topics. 
"Can I come in an' see yer tenement?" 
Permission accorded, she was up the steps 
in a moment despite her deformity. Once 
in the house her questions came in rapid 
succession. "You won't be mad if I look 
at them Mowers, an' take one?'' Then she 
caught sight of the canary. "Where'd yer 
git that yeller chicken in the cage?" All 
was novelty and delight to her. 

Up and down the stairs of the settle- 
ment house, in and out of every room she 
wandered at will, darting her keen eyes 
into every corner, opening desk drawers, 
gloating with glee over long pencils, fresh 
pads of paper and her special delight, rub- 
ber bands, as she expressed it, "to snap at 
people." Soon her small feet, encased in 
shoes much too large for them, stopped 
their clatter. 

"I guess I'll lie down a jiff." 

Down she went on the hard floor, one 
arm curled under the close cropped head. 
The Lady of the Settlement House lifted 
her on to the couch, and pushed a pillow 
under her. Up she darted, suspiciously 
scanned the pillow with its fresh, white 
cover, and then turning her sharpened 
child-face. Hashed : 

"Will you be mad at me if I put my head 
on that? Cranny won't give me no pillow." 

Thus began an acquaintance destined to 
last as long as the child lived. During the 
next few days the Lady of the Settlement 
House made some discreet inquiries among 
the neighbors regarding her little guest. 

"Don't bother with the brat. Let hei 
alone, she runs the gang, she's a tough 'un.' 

The words rang in her ears. Yet the 
verdict though harsh was true. Everyone 
dreaded the cripple's torrent of abuse; the 
chiMren, young and old, shrank from her 
fearful outbursts of temper; for she could 
scratch and defend herself like a young 

The child soon repeated her visit and 
found a hearty welcome. Wearied with a 
hunt r 11 over the house for hitherto unex- 
plored recesses she at length fell asleep 
again on the couch. The Lady of the Set- 
tlement House looked anxiously at her as 
she lay breathing quietly, the distorted 
form relaxed in the kindly disguise of sleep 
Here was something to appeal to, even 
though it was hard to see anything beyond 
a craving for morbid excitement, the dash 
of the patrol wagon, and all that went in 
its train. 

But the aching back brought restless 
sleep, and soon Sarah's alert brain was 
again eager with questions. 

"My, how clean you keep yer tenement. 
Granny's rooms ain't like this. Is the rent 
awful high here? Is it all yourn?" 

On and on the questions rained. The 
puzzled look on her face deepened. She 
tried to put all together and make the 
whole a part of the small world of her own 
warped life. 

"Say, I clean forgot then ; you said I 
wasn't to use them words in your house. 
P'r'aps if yer hit me every time I'll get used 
ter actin' diff'rent in here — no, don't hit 
me, just look at me the way yer did the first 
time — yer kinder smiled." 

"That's a queer school you've got here, 
yer sing pretty near all the time an' dance 
up an' down. Them pies yer make out o' 
sand an' that wet dough is more fun than 
a box o' monkeys. Would yer be mad if 
I ome some more? The children in the 

hool w r on't like me, will they, "cause I'm 
a hunchyback?" 

"Yes, I'll eat that banana. Gwe it to 
me an' I'll take it out on the step, w'ere I 
can watch the crowd." 

Another moment and the child was gone. 
The street swallowed her to add to its ex- 
citement, perhaps to furnish amusement to 
a group of corner loiterers. 

he crowded, unsightly tenements were 
pouring their weary occupants into the hot 
streets. There was one outlet from the 



ly and nightly prison ! A few minutes' 
Ik. and the narrow streets and alleys 
re left. Fresh, sweet breezes, green 
:ltering shrubbery, comfortable benches 
1 shaded walks — these made the city's 
blic Playground. Here were tired 
thers, a child in arms, three or four more 
ling at their skirts, dragging their way 
a quiet seat ; weary fathers, their pipes 
hand, smoking with comrades; sweet- 
irts, rinding their trysting place. The 
se of the great city was muffled at the 
lk of the river, and the ever refreshing 
ids were felt, if anywhere, here; and 
3U all the moon shone down as free as 
311 the Four Hundred in the favored part 
the city. 

finely Sarah would be safe here, away 
m the foul odors and the evil saloons a 
v blocks distant. The Lady of the Set- 
ment House peered into each child's face, 
t the little "hunchyback" was not among 
mil It was useless to look for her. She 
s lost, as one can only be lost in the 
art of a great city. 

Suddenly a crowd gathered, pushing and 
stling. A child's voice rang out clear as 
3ell, "My Gal's a Highborn Lady," — and 
sn on. and on, in song after song, of the 
1 dance hall order. Coarse laughter fol- 
ded quick on each, applause and cheers 
urring on the child to do her best at her 

After an instant's hesitation over the use- 
>sness of such interference, the Lady of 
e Settlement House walked into the 
owd and said a few words to Sarah. The 
ild wrinkled her brow and with a ques- 
ming look said, "Oh, it's you ! 'Come 
er to your house?' " 

A derisive laugh from some lounger 
unded its note of opposition. 
"Don't yer go, Sarah ; don't yer go back 
i us," and pennies rained into the child's 
md from the crowd. 

In an instant the child of ten was a 
own woman. The love of power was in 
ir, as in any belle of the ballroom. The 
:enness of her insight was startling. She 
as perplexed, but she must assert her- 
lf. Immediate action was necessary. 
3mething troubled her. That "kinder- 
irtin" lady was in the way. She didn't 
ilong on the street corner; that throne of 
3wer Sarah claimed as her own. She cast 
quick glance each way from her black 
t^es, then, wheeling on the intruder, she 

shook her small linger and said, with an 
air of command tinged with unconscious 
courtesy: "You go home. I'll be over in 
a minute." 

1 1 axing thrown this anchor to windward 
she turned back for a last fling with her 

Another popular dance song swung its 
measures on the cool evening air, the 
motion of many feet keeping time to the 
coarse words. 

The Lady of the Settlement House 
turned away saddened. For the moment the 
futility of her work overpowered her. 
Would the child come? Had the clean 
tenement, the new neighbor across the 
street anything to offer in place of such 
boldfaced admiration and excitement? 

As she entered the settlement house the 
cozy living room seemed more attractive 
than ever before to her, with its simple fur- 
nishings, harmonious in tone, good pictures 
on the walls and growing plants. The 
white, glistening keys of the open piano 
were tempting. In an instant the street 
was forgotten and the sound of revelry 
were drowned in the wordless songs of 

Presently she was aware of some one 
near her and then came the touch of a small 

"Hold on a bit; what's that yer givin' 
us — dumb singin' ? I watched yer lips all 
the time, but yer never said nothin'. Go 
on, it makes my back feel better — it aches 
awful bad tonight." 

The child's face had changed ; the excite- 
ment of the street had disappeared. Her 
flushed cheeks were now pale, the light in 
her dark eyes had gone out, and in its place 
was a dumb pleading, a hunger which none 
but a mother's love could fully satisfy. 

A few days later the Lady of the Settle- 
ment blouse interviewed Granny Stepniak 
with a view to taking over the charge of 
the child and providing her with proper 
medical treatment, but found the old dame 
obdurate and intractable. She stood in the 
midst of her disordered washtubs and 
shook her fist, thus emphasizing her Rus- 
sian dialect. The interpreter, a good 
natured neighbor, softened many of the 
curses before they were made plain to the 
visitor. It was no love for Sarah that kept 
the woman from granting permission to 
take her to the hospital. She knew the 
money's worth of the hunchback, and 



recognized that a cure would lessen her 
market value, and place the child beyond 
her power and use. 

However, the law was on the side of the 
proposed change, and, best of all, so was 
Sarah. She stood in the midst of the 
curious by-standers, each of whom volun- 
teered an opinion. 

"Hospital !"— "Bad place !"— "N ever 
come back!" — "Cut up!" — "Killed!" 

Nothing seemed to startle Sarah, or 
daunt her courage. She whirled and faced 
them all. and. shaking her linger at them, 

"Go home, the whole o' yer. Granny, 
I've told yer before I wouldn't stan' yer, 
and I won't now." Then with a sudden 
transition from despair to submission she 
answered. "I'll be ready at noon to go to 
the hospital," and out of the house she 
thing, to make sure that force should not 
detain her. 

At the hour appointed Sarah was in a 
kind neighbor's care. She had housed the 
fleeing child many times before, fed her, 
and even clothed her. The neat gingham 
dress, clean underclothes and simple hat — 
the first time she had ever been seen in a 
hat — transformed the little waif and made 
her look more childlike. 

The ride to the children's hospital was a 
long one. Nothing escaped Sarah's atten- 
tion, from the kind trolley conductor, who 
lifted her gently out of the crowd, to the 
passing show, which held her speechless, 
as street after street of stately houses, 
flowering windows and hue ecptipages met 
her wondering eyes. The only time she 
spoke was when the fares were collected 
and then she looked anxiously at the 
strange pocketbook and said: 

"Will there be enough?" 

It was free day for the crippled little 
ones. The door of the out-patient depart- 
ment of the great hospital swung wide 
open as the children came ottt, some with 
parents, others with brothers, sisters or 

Sarah took it all in as she wandered at 
will through tlie large waiting room, gaz- 
ing curiously at the different children, and 
talking most familiarly with the white- 
capped nurses. 

After a two hours' wait the dressing 
room was free. The nurse took off the 
little clothes, and Sarah was ready for the 
surgeon. The broken back lay exposed like 

a gnarled and twisted tree trunk. The 
child was on familiar terms at once, as the 
strong, kind face of the doctor bent over 

"Look me all over, Doc. an' do the best 
yer kin." 

The decision of the doctor was brief, and 
his words were final. 

"Crippled for life," was the verdict, but 
it never reached Sarah's ears. She was 
sleeping sweetly in the nurse's arms, tired 
out from the long wait for her turn. 

A year later, as the steerage passengers 
of one of the great ocean liners were pour- 
ing into the enclosures of Castle Garden 
a Polish Jew pushed and huddled his way 
through the throng. Israel Stepniak had 
come back from Russia. The wife, Leah 
had died in the far away home town, and 
Israel and little Boab were returning once 
more to the great country where money 
flowed so freely. 

"Vat we do, fadder?" little Boab ques 
tioned. "Go find Sarah?" 

What was the child saying? "Find 
Sarah?" What for? Was she not a useless 
cripple ? 

"Sarah sing for Boab, fadder?" The 
child had struck it. Sing she could, and 
like a bird set free on a spring morning, i 

Why not have her sing for money? 
Israel Stepniak fell into a day dream, while 
little Boab trudged on beside him. 

Not many days passed before father and 
son were knocking at a low door in one of 
the blind alleys of Leverett street. A sharp 
faced woman opened it and peered out. 

"No," she snapped in response to the re- 
quest if Granny Stepniak were at home. 
"She's a deader — laid off last spring. The 
little hunchback's bundled off to some of 
your new fangled hospitals." 

Israel and little Boab turned away. Only 
the recording angel knows whether one 
thought or feeling of kinship stirred their 
hearts. They themselves were homeless, 
sick at heart and hungry. 

As for Sarah — she did not need them. 
She had never known what care, protection 
ami love meant in a child's life until the 
cozy Cottage Hospital among the hills took 
her into its shelter. 

Winter, with its mantle of glistening 
snow, and Christmas eve, with all its mys- 
tery, had come to Sarah. The house 
mother had gathered her small group of 
children around the open fire in the home 


i 27 

m. The story was told of the star in 
East, the cradle in Bethlehem, the 
oding love of motherhood, the wise men 
h their rich gifts, and the meaning of the 
;hday of the Savior of all mankind. The 
ilren's eyes glowed as the niarvelons 
: was unfolded to them. Sarah stood 
rt from the others, looking out into the 
I night and watching the bright stars 
rkling in the sky, thinking hard, all the 
ile of the wonderful story she had 
rd. "The Star of Bethlehem," she 
rmnred, "is my star." 

Yhen Christmas morning dawned 
ah's turn had come most surely. Was it 
■yland, she thought, as the big doors 
led back and the children gazed upon a 
lit which fairly took their speech away. 
e living room had been transformed in 

night by the many nurses into a forest 
pine boughs, roped with evergreen, and 

glistening leaves and bright red berries 

the holly completely screened all the 
lis and windows. In the center of the 
>m stood a spreading tree, stately, and 
I, reaching to the very ceiling. Hun- 
ds of little lights shown out from every 
ig, glistening snow drops seemed to 
irkle on the pine needles, and the child 
>ndered what were those shining baubles 
;1 hearts and fruits and flowers that were 
Rrt of each branch, and who were those 
irvelous beings, tucked away so snugly 

the green boughs, dolls dressed like 

ries and live babies, and real grown up 

lies. Books filled with gay pictures 

)ked out at her. Dolls' cribs, chairs, 

inks, everything that belonged to happy 

ildhood that wonderful tree seemed to 

Id within its great sheltering arms. 

When it dawned on the little invalids 

at the tree was actually shedding its 

ecious belongings into their own small 

)s, a shout of joy went up that was sel- 

m heard in the hospital ward. 

Suddenly a child's voice was heard sing- 

y, above the hubbub. Sarah had spied 

e golden star on the pinnacle of the tree. 

er voice had grown in strength and 

ellowed in sweetness, and her happy soul 

me out in the words of the Christmas 


Shine out, oh, blessed Star, 

Promise of the dawn. 
Glad tidings send afar, 

Christ the Lord is born. 

Yes," she cried. "It is my star, the 
tar of Bethlehem !" 

The Christmas tree had apparently been 
stripped of all gifts and the nurses and 
children had wandered into the corridors, 
the latter to play with their newly acquired 
treasures and the former for a quiet chat 
before the last stroke of the gong should 
sound the children's bedtime. 

Sarah lingered behind the rest, intent on 
watching the final flicker of her star high 
up on the topmost branch of the tree. 
"Oh," she murmured to herself, "if the star 
would only come down to me. I wonder if 
I shake the tree softly it might not drop, 
drop way off, down into my lap and I could 
hold it and perhaps keep it for my own. In 
the carol it says, 'Blessed Star, promise of 
the dawn !' What does dawn mean ?" 

Sarah was lost in thought and her active 
brain was at work over the problem of 
steadying herself with her crippled back in 
order to dislodge the shining star from its 
high perch with one of the long poles near 
at hand. Suddenly a warm bod" pressed 
against her and turning from the tree she 
looked into the flushed and eager face of 
the baby of the hospital, little Francis, the 
three year old pet of all the nurses. 

"See the dolly by the star high awav. 
can't w 7 each it," said the baby. "Francis 
loves dollies," and throwing his strong well 
knit little body with all his force against 
the tree he strove to shake the overlooked 
doll from its branch. The stately tree did 
not move but a bright light like the flash 
of a meteor seemed to spring out of the 
dark green branches and quickly enveloped 
the child. Sarah took it all in at a single 
glance. Little Francis was on fire, his thin 
white frock having come in contact with 
some unnoticed smouldering candle. Xot 
a sound escaped from Sarah's lips, nor did 
she hesitate a moment. Lifting her woolen 
skirts she literally enveloped the baby and 
throwing her long thin arms around him 
she covered him completely — as an eagle 
might cover her young, and fell with her 
precious burden to the floor, senseless. It 
had all happened in an instant and no one 
had taken in the tragedy, but the sound of 
the fall brought the nurses to the scene. 

Babv Francis was creeping out from 
under the huddled form of Sarah, more 
frightened than hurt and cried out. "Me 
wa^nt dolly on tree. Sarah not get dolly for 

The nurses' comprehension was quick. 
for Sarah did not move, and closer examina- 



tion showed the injury done the crippled 
hack by her effort to save the burning 
child. As the nurse bent over to listen to 
the weakened heart, Sarah opened her 
large, questioning eyes and turning feebly 
toward her hummed the next few lines of 
the favorite carol, 

•Far through the shining sky 
Angle voices call — " 

"Tell me the last verse," she almost 
whispered as her tones grew weaker. "You 
know it begins, 

"Hail to the Holy Child.' " 
The whisper ceased. Sister Agatha bent 
close to Sarah's ear and sang softly the 
closing lines. 

"Hail our Lord and King, 

Wise men and shepherds mild 
Eager tribute bring." 

As she lingered on the last words the 
small head fell back, the speaking eyes 
opened in a look of happy surprise and the 
little body grew limp and lifeless in her 

Sarah had rendered her tribute of the 
greater love. 

g^ip A FTER the class has become 
ralSft "^ familiar to a certain extent 
tfl L» Jgj with the three tones of the 
p 1 g|| scale Dob, Re, Mi, so that the 

-SHI children will be able to 

imitate the pitch of these three lower tones 
of the scale of I) major, when the tones are 
sounded on the tubes, bells or piano, the 
other tones of the scale should be intro 
duced, as being the voice of the different 
members of the Doh-Doo fairy family — 
Doh, Re, Mi, Pa, So, La, Ti, and ending 
with the higher tone, representing fairy 
mother Doo. If the class is large enough 
each child can be asked to take one of the 
fairy names, and the teacher may represent 
father Doh, and mother Doo, or any of the 
other fairies not assigned to a child. 

There are many ways in which a useful 
musical play can be invented by the appli- 
cation of these eight tones to an interesting 
exercise. in which ear-training, tone- 
memory, and various psychological in- 
fluences can be dcweloped. A child's 
auditory perception is most keen at this 

early stage of its existence. It learns to 
know perfectly the sound of its mother's 
voice, and continually exercises its hearing 
faculty in every sound it utters, even at the 
age of three months. In fact the child* 
hearing is far more acute in its early life 
than at a later period, when it begins to 
perceive things with the eye and other 
senses. But the ear ever remains very 
sensitive to impressions, and if this fact is 
well understood and the proper exercise 
employed to cultivate more judiciously and 
properly the sense of hearing at this earl 
stage, the child's auditory nerve will be 
stimulated to greater attention and activity 
by a training combining two functions : the 
physical and mental. This is obtained by 
these simple musical plays. But their 
practical value depends on the proper and 
progressive application having in view the 
greater cultivation of the ear to a finer 
phase of discrimination. 

After the class can reproduce a tone 
sounded on the tubes, a piano, or by the 
voice of the teacher, each child should be 
given a tone and its fairy name to mem- 
orize. So that when the teacher sounds a 
particular tone the child having this par- 
ticular tone should answer by singing the 
fairy name and its pitch. To do this the 
child must be made familiar with its own 
tone, and be able to recognize it or its own 
fairy tone when the tone is sounded. This 
requires some practice, but the proper kind 
of a teacher who understands the subject, 
and is able to interest the children in a play 
of this sort, will have no difficulty in 
achieving excellent results. It is a more 
difficult matter to call a particular musical 
fairy without sounding the tone and have 
the child who represents this fairy answer 
by singing its fairy name in the exact pitch 
of the tone located in the scale. And yet 
this can also be achieved. If a child can 
recall the sound of a voice, or recognize 
an object by its sound, it acn also acquire 
the line distinction of being able to con- 
ceive the sound, recall its name, and pro- 
duce its pitch. I would advise any one who 
is inclined to apply the suggestions here 
presented, to continue the exercise just 
described until the child or class has 
acquired a sufficient ear training to be able 
to produce the name and pitch of the tone 
called for by the teacher. It must be 
emphasized that in an exercise of this 
nature the greatest attention of the class 



emanded. The teacher should therefore 
)loy every possible device to get the 
d's attention by arousing his curiosity 
to which tone will be sounded. If a 
:her can hx the children's attention 
ards the anxious expectation of the 
e to be sounded, the child's whole 
ital state is in a state of receptivity, and 

psychological effect of the tone heard 
. be enormously increased in educational 
le. The child is not only expecting its 
1 tone — of which it is trying to be con- 
)us, but it also gives its attention to 
es which are not its own tone. The 
ole mental attitude is thus one of wide- 
ike discrimination. And such an atti- 
e is hardly to be aroused by any other 
se perception than that of delicate hear- 
Furthermore, this playful exercise 
ves as a training in will power, ambition, 
centration, and keenness of perception ; 
associated with class work in which the 
ividual child has an opportunity of exer- 
ng its powers without coming in sensa- 
| comparisons with other children. The 
lable phases here oointed out are but a 

of the many that a good kindergartner, 
ing but a nominal musical training, 
dd employ with most excellent and 
tifving results. 


n an Infant's School, it is advisable to 
e the month of December up to the idea 
Christmas and all its associations. Many 
the children in Council Schools are very 
ft, and have little chance to catch the 
.1 Christmas spirit at home, or share in 
: Christmas joy. We therefore provide 
or them as fully as we can in school. 
Mature study is amply provided for by 
i subject of evergreen trees, shrubs, and 
fits. The fir, pine and yew trees; the 
lly with its prickly leaves and shining 
irlet berries, which provide the birds 
th a Christmas feast; the climbing ivy; 
; historic mistletoe with all its old asso- 
tions — all these will be brought under 
nsideration. Such subjects as these pro- 
le excellent material for brushwork, 
iwing and clay-modelling. It is a good 
m to let the children make Christmas 
:ds for their parents, by painting or color- 
I (according to their age and ability) 
me simple subject on cardboard or stout 
Hans Andersen's storv of "The Fir Tree" 

is a very good one for the last week of the 
term. Previous to this the older children 
might take "Baldur the Beautiful" as a con- 
tinuous story. The teacher should not con- 
tent herself with reading it in a shortened 
prose form, but should also read Matthew 
Arnold's poetic version. The shortened 
form as found in In Nature's Storyland and 
Nature Myths and Stories (see p. \j) will 
be found useful as an epitone of the sub- 
ject. "The Porcelain Stove" and "Piccola" 
(The Story Hour) will be much appreciated 
by younger children as well as by the older 

There are many suitable recitations in 
Little English Poems and Rooks for the 
Bairns, Nos. 84 and 104. Books Nos. 10, 
22, 70, 106 and 118 also provide good 
stories for Christmas time. The well- 
known "ang up the Baby's Stocking" is a 
very favorite poem. 

All the children will enjoy playing a 
Santa Clans game, of which there are manv 
versions in various books; I may mention 
especially the one in Miss E. Poulsson's 
Finger Plays. Christmas hymns and carols 
should be taught; the rooms should be 
decorated with evergreens, flags, paper 
chains, etc. If possible, Christmas puddings 
should be made. In the writer's own school 
last year, twelve large puddings were made, 
the children providing the whole of the in- 
gredients. Almost every child in the school 
brought something, even if only a scrap of 
sugar in a twist of paper, or a few bread- 
crumbs. An egg was a great gift, as eggs 
are so scarce at this time of rear, but we 
had plenty brought by individual children. 
Thev were so proud to make their own 
puddings, in their own classrooms, with 
their own materials ; and, speaking from 
personal experience, T can say that if the 
proof of the pudding is in the eating, they 
were verv good and creditable productions 
for novices in the art of cookery. 

A Christmas tree is also provided for the 
children by the staff, who give an annual 
dance to raise the necessary funds. This 
is the day of the year to the little ones, and 
an orange, a stocking" filled with sweets, 
and a simple toy is provided for each one. 
I cannot prescribe a better tonic for one's 
own Christmas than providing such a treat 
for the children who are under our care. 
A full account of how Christmas is kept 
here will be found in Child Life in Our 
Schools, published by George Philip & Son. 





"Merry Christmas to you. 
Mei ly Christinas to you, 
Merry Christmas, dear teacher, 
Merry Christmas to you." 

From our November thought of grati- 
tude the children can naturally be led to a 
,1 sire to serve. The thought ot December 
then will be Service. What can the children 
do to help? .Mother has worked. Father 
has labored. The fanner has been faithful. 
Now the children can do something. They 
will be the "Helper" of the month. They 
can be led to see by the stories how they 
can serve. They will make real gifts for 
i heir friends. Giving rather than receiving 
should be the view point. A special effort 
should be made by the teacher to abate the 
Santa Clans excitement. Santa is certainly 
the symbol about winch the joy of the holi- 
day centers for the children but they get 
that everywhere they turn. It is for us to 
present the more beautiful idea in the kin- 
dergarten. We do not banish Santa. We 
laugh .about him. We talk about him. We 
enjoy him but we do not devote our entire 
thought to him. We try to lessen the over- 
stimulation of the month for the real good 
of the children. 

Teachers are apt to attempt to make too 
many gifts and to have them too elaborate. 
Pew and simple should be the watch words. 
The real joy of giving and receiving is the 
love expressed by the gift. Let us keep the 
thought of loving gifts clearly before the 
children. Something for father, mother, 
grand-mother and the baby. A remem- 
brance that all help to make for the janitor 
of the school. A piece of co-operation work 
for the principal. These are all that should 
be attempted. The work should be such 
that the week and the few days preceding 
Christmas will be all the time that is neces- 
sary for the making of the gifts. The tree 
decorations will be done at any time dur- 
ing the month. 

( )ur books are full of stories and songs 
of the season. Still, let us remember that 
it is thought by many experienced workers 
that one new story a week is as much as 
should be presented. That the children 
cannot learn more than one song a week is 
certain. The teacher may sing to the chil- 
dren the glad tidings in as many carols as 
she wishes. Thev are beautiful and will be 

inspiring to the little souls. But let I 
be careful that the children too can sing 
one or two of these correctly for this wil 
be one sure way to spread the Christma: 
joy. Can you see the baby in the center o 
a group of loving relatives as she sings tin 
angels' message? 

While the subjects chosen for the montl 
have songs relating to them, still th 
Christmas carols could be sung throughou 
the month as this is an opportunity tc 
present some of the most beautiful music 
that we have in the kindergarten. 

Some teachers have the Christmas tre 
in the kindergarten several days before th 
festival. The children dance around it, tall 
about it, enjoy its natural beauty and finally 
help to trim it ! Other teachers prefer th< 
burst of excitement when the children be 
hold the tree in all its glory laden witl 
stars and lanterns, chains and gifts! M 
any case we will save our trees after th 
celebration for future enjoyment. \\ he 
we return after the holidays the pin 
needles can be picked from the twdgs. The 
twigs saved — but that is another storj 
During December it is almost certain tha 
we will have snow. The first day of th 
snow should be devoted to it but no de 
tailed study of it should be attempted unt 
January. If for any reason the direct sul 
ject of Christmas is not taken up in Decern 
ber the outline will be found to hav< 
enough suggestions for the month asid 
from it. The thought of Service is goo 
for any month of the year but follow 
naturally the work of November. Insteac 
of placing the hand work connected witl 
Christmas in any one week, a list 
presents and tree decorations will be given 
These will be made at any convenient timf 
during the month. If they relate naturall 
to the subject in hand very well. If they d 
not the uppermost thought is Christma 
and they can be appropriately done at an} 
time. Because of these special lines o 
work requiring so much time there ar 
fewer suggestions along the regular lines. 


Star — Made by pasting together tw 
gold, silver or yellow squares of foldim 

Icicles — Use a silver folding paper. Rol 
from one corner very tightly. 

Cornucopias Paste a scrap picture 01 
a square folding paper. Roll and paste 


with popcorn or candy. 


antern — Use a red or green, gold or 
rer folding paper. Cut off a strip for 
idle. Fold one diameter. Slash from 
s diameter to within a half inch of the 
*es. Open and paste on edges not folded 

diameter. Add handle and a short 
Der chain. 

Chains — Make chains of gold, silver, red 
green strips. Children should be able to 

strips from folding paper. 
String — 

1. Pop corn.. 

2. Straws and cranberries. 

3. Straws and parquetry. 

Bells — Take a circular folding paper. Cut 
the center. Cut again to the center near 
! first cut. Remove the piece. Paste two 
aight edges together. Hang on a string. 


tfeedle Case — Take two circular sewing 
rds. Let children paste a madonna or a 
*ap picture on each. Fringe a square of 
tton flannel or woolen goods for needles. 
:acher fasten together with ribbons or 
Blotter — 

1. Teacher cut cardboard the shape of 
Dtter and fasten to the blotter with rib- 
n. Children paste a picture on the card- 

2. A combination blotter and calendar 
n be made by letting the children paste 
e calendar on a bell cut from green blot- 
ig paper. If the children are advanced 
ough they could make the bells from 
jncils of a Christmas bell. However, if 
ey can not do it well enough the teacher 
ay do it at this special season as the work 

to be more permanent than at other 

Pin Tray — Paint or draw with crayons 
border on either side of a large square 

sewing card. Cut in about one inch on 
each diagonal. Fold edges from cut to cut. 
Turn card over. Fold back each corner, 
making two small triangles at each corner. 
When the teacher has fastened the corners 
together they will look somewhat like but- 
terflies. Add handle if desired for a basket. 
More decorations can be placed on the 
sewing card if the children are equal to it. 
For instance, holly berries could be scat- 
tered all over both sides, drawn, of course, 
and a few holly leaves. In that case a red 
border on one side of the card and a green 
one on the other would be effective. 

Match Scratcher — Let the children cut 
large stencils of Teddy Bears standing 
erect. Color bear brown. Teacher cut 
aprons of sand paper. Children paste 
aprons on Teddy Bears. Can be hung on 
a brown string or nailed to the wall. If 
the children are saving the animal stencils 
for the animal book two of these bears 
could be made and one mounted on a page 
of the book. Let the children draw a solid 
brown mass for the floor and draw a stick 
in the extended paws. No apron would be 
necessary. The children might draw the 
man guiding the bear by the chain, as often 
seen in the streets. 

Shaving Paper — Select a cardboard the 
size of a sheet of shaving paper. Paste a 
picture on it or a star such as was described 
above, or a parquetry design done in red 
and green, or green bells cut from folding 
paper, or scatter the little gold stars used 
to indicate records in card games. Fringe 
a dozen or so of various colored squares of 
tissue paper. Teachers fasten papers to the 
back of card with ribbon, etc. 



Calendar — Mount a large mat on a card- 
board if your children can weave. Paste 
calendar in one corner. If no mats are 
made a picture can be pasted on the card- 
board and the calendar placed in the cor- 
ner. Teacher add ribbon for hanging. 

Picture Book — Let all the children help 
to make a picture book for some institution 
for children well known to them. 

Dolls — Dress clothes pins for the baby's 
present. They can be Red Riding Hoods. 
Take a circular piece of red crepe paper 
large enough to extend from top to toe, 
when folded. Fold one diameter. Tie this 
over the head of the clothes pin. Teacher 
draw the face and help to ruffle the edge 
of the cape. 

Toy Rocking Horse — Make two stencils 
of a horse on a rocker. Color the horse 
black and the rocker red. Make a small, 
square box for seat. Color box red before 
pasting the corners. When box is finished 
turn upside down and paste between the 
two horses for a seat. The box is firmer 
than a piece of paper folded for the seat. 
Add reins for the driver. 

Subjects For Morning Circles 
i. Evergreens. 

(a) Pine and cones. 

(b) Hemlock and cones. 

(c) Holly. 

(d) Mistletoe. 

2. Securing the Christmas tree. 

Why the Evergreen Trees Keep Their 
Leaves. — How to Tell Stories to Children. 
— Bryant. 

The Gourd and the Pine Tree. — For the 
Children's Hour. — Bailey. 

The Legend of the Christmas Tree. — For 
the Children's Hour. — Bailey. 

The Pine Tree.— For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey. 

Story of securing the tree in the woods, 
sending to the city, going to the store keep- 
er to get the tree. 


The Drum. — Eugene Field Reader. 

A Wonderful Tree. — Songs and Games 
for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

The Trees.— Mother Play.— Froebel, 
Blow edition. 

Sleighing. — Jingle Bells. — College Songs. 

Skating. — Merry Songs and Games.-— 

Musical Ball. — Hide ball when one child 
is out of the room. Let the music direct 
the child in rinding the ball. "Hot and 
cold" as used in parlor games is indicated 
by loud and soft music. 


Securing the tree. 

Direction of branches of different trees 
with arms extending upward for the elm 
tree, stretching outward for the maple tree, 
drooping for the pines. 


' Chopping trees. 
Hauling the trees. 
Unloading the trees from the train 

Walks or Visits 

To the parks or woods or private resi- 
dences to see evergreen trees and hedges. 
Visit a holly tree if possible. To the florists 
to see holly branches and mistletoe. If 
these are not in the market the trees can 
be the subjects of the talks and the holly, 
etc., will be seen later. 

Illustrative Material 

Pine and cones. 

Hemlock and cones. 



Pictures of evergreen branches, 
forests in summer and winter, and 
ture of a logging camp. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Sticks — Represent evergreens witd 
branches in different positions. 

^ Second Gift— Wagon for hauling trees. 
The uprights can represent logs, etc 

Fourth and Fifth Gifts— Represent 
buildings of previous weeks. 

Drawing — 

Pine tree. 

Pine trees on snowy hill side. 

Illustrate story work. 

Cutting — Pine tree. 

Peg Boards — A forest of evergreens 

Sand. — Represent a forest of evergreens 
with cones under the trees, deer running 
about, a pool of water with fish in it sur- 
rounded by mossy banks and rocks scat- 
tered here and there. Sprinkle cotton on 
the trees to represent snow. This will 
emphasize the idea of green trees in winter. 

a pic 



Subjects For Morning Circles 

i. Toyman. 

(a) His shop. 

(b) His wares. 

2. Toys. 

(a) Toys in the kindergarten. 

(b) Toys from the homes. 


Mary Contrary's Doll Bed. — Mother 
joose Village. — Bingham. 

Little Cosette, from Les Miserables. — 
For the Children's Hour. — Bailey. 

The Brave Tin Soldier. — For the Chil- 
iren's Hour. — Bailey. 

Jack and Jill's Birthday Dolls. — Mother 
Goose Village. — Bingham. 


With Trumpet and Drum. — Eugene 
Field's Reader. 

Toyman. — Mother Goose. 


The Toyman. — Holiday Songs. — Pouls- 

Baby's Horses, second verse. — A Baker's 
Dozen for City Children. — Valentine-Clax- 

Honk ! Honk. — Song Primer. — Bentley. 

See Saw. — Songs for the Child's World. 
— Gaynor. 


The Toyman. — Holiday Songs. — Pouls- 

Baby's Horses. — A Baker's Dozen for 
City Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

The Toy Shop — Play the game called 
"Little Travelers." Children visit the toy 
shop. Buy a toy, all buying the same toy. 
Return to show the children on the ring 
what they have by acting its activity. Chil- 
dren guess the name of toy and all play 
with same toy. The children in the ring 
remain there while the others go around 
on the ring, all acting out the thought as 
the piano indicates the rhythm. 

See Saw. — Small Songs for Small Sing- 
ers. — Niedlinger. 

Dancing Dollies. — Play a jig or waltz or 
two-step while the children dance freely 
about the room in groups, pairs or singly. 
Change the music occasionally to see effect 
on the dance. 

Tin Soldiers. — Have a leader or captain 
and his soldiers, all very stiff jointed. 

March, salute, bow, etc., in doll fashion. 

Sense Game. — Hearing. Blindfold one 
child. Have another call his name. The 
first must guess who called. He has three 
chances. If he guesses correctly the others 


Toys such as Teddy Bears, barnyard 
animals, sleeping dollies, talking dollies, 

Toyman selling his wares to the children. 


Dancing bear. 
Dancing doll. 
Rocking horse. 

Walks or Visits 

Toyman's shop. Each child should spend 
a penny if possible. 

Cabinet of mechanical toys in the school. 

Possibly a mother will invite the children 
to play in her home with her child's toys. 

Illustrative Material 

i. Toys of all sorts. Keep the simpler 

ones before the children. 

2. Pictures of toys, children playing 

with toys, toy shop, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Explain to the children that kindergarten 
gifts are toys that the children can make 
something with. Have free play most of 
the time, but let the children tell what they 
make. L,et them reproduce toys with the 
gifts as a doll's bed or table with the 
Fourth Gift. A house with the Fifth Gift. 
A wagon with sticks and tablets. The 
teacher could put together a very simple 
picture puzzle some morning in the circle 
to help to show how parts make the whole 
in the toys the children have at home. 

Drawing, Pasting, Cutting. — The rock- 
ing horse described before. 

Dolls. — Clothes pin dolls described be- 

Drawing — 

Simple toys. 

Toy shop. 

Toy man. 

Clay — 




Sand. — Toy shop. 



Subjects For Morning Circles 

i. Santa Clans. 
2. Reindeer. 

(a) Appearance. 

(b) Fleet of foot. 

(c) Adapted to cold climate. 


Santa Clans and the Mouse. — In the 
Child's World. — Poulsson. 

Mrs. Santa Clans. — For the Children's 
Hour. — Bailey. 


Tuas the Night Before Christmas. 

Santa Clans. — Song Primer. — Bentley. 

Santa Clans. — Finger Play. — Poulsson. 

A Letter To Santa Claus. — Songs of the 
Child World. — Gaynor. 

Santa Claus. — Song E c h o e s. — Jenks- 



Echoes. — Jenks- 
h Bells. — Song 


Hurrah For the Slei_ 
Echoes. — Jenks-Rust. 

Like the Ball, We Move Around. — Songs 
and Games for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

Sense Game. — Feeling. Use toys. Second 
verse of Game for the Senses. — Song 
Echoes. — Jenks-Rust. 


Ringing chimes. 
Santa Claus. 


Running like reindeer. 
Ringing chimes. 

Walks or Visits 

To the shops to see Santa Claus. 
To the park to see reindeer. 
To other class rooms to see preparations 
for Christmas. 

Illustrative Material 

Toy Santa Claus, reindeer and sleigh. 
Pictures of Santa, Christmas eve, 
Christmas morning, reindeer. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Third and Fourth Gifts- 
Santa's sleigh. 

Fifth Gift. — Santa's home. 

Sand. — Represent Santa in sleigh o 
stretches of snowy hills. 

The things which have not yet beei 
made for Christmas will be made durin 
the remaining days of the month. 

Subjects For Morning Circles 

i. Loving Gifts. 
2. Christmas. 


Ludwig and Marleen. — A Kindergarten 
Story Book. — Hoxie. 

The Lost Comb. — A Kindergarten Story 
Book. — Hoxie. 

The Brownies. — A Kindergarten Story 
Book. — Hoxie. 

Little Servants. — In the Child's World.— 

Nancy Etticote's Ring. — Mother Goose 
Village. — Bingham. 

The Old Woman's Christmas Tree. — 
Mother Goose Village. — Bingham. 

Christmas in the Barn. — In the Child's 
World. — Poulsson. 

Piccola. — In the Child's World. — Pouls- 

The Star Dollars. — How to Tell Stories 
to Children. — Bryant. 

The Christmas Story. — Bible, St. Luke. 

The Legend of St. Christopher. — For the 
Children's Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

Tiny Tim. — For the Children's Hour. — 


"Little Gifts Are Precious." — In the 
Child's World, page 107. — Poulsson. 

Wee Willie Winkie.— How to Tell 
Stories to Children. — Bryant. 


Merry Christmas Has Come. — Kinder- 
garten Chimes. — Wiggin. 

Christmas Carol. — Kindergarten Chimes. 

The Chimes. — Song Primer. — Bentley. 

Shine Out, Oh Blessed Star. — Songs and 
Games for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

The Air is Filled. — Songs and Games for 
Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

Little Jack Horner. — School Songs. — 

Christmas Lullaby. — Song Stories. — Hill. 

Christmas Carol. — Songs of the Child 
World. — Gaynor. 




Christmas Tree Dance. — Have a dance 
ound the tree similar to the May pole 

Hide and seek. 
London Bridge. 
Bean Bag. 

Game of the Senses. — Seeing. Use toys. 
Merry Song's and Games. — Hubbard. 

Christmas eve and morning. 

Walks or Visits 
The shop to buy Christmas tree and 

To the train to see trees being un- 

Illustrative Material 

Pictures of Christmas eve and morning, 
stories illustrating family gatherings, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

The gift work will be a summary of all 
that has gone before. Let the children 
choose material and name the things they 
wish to construct. 

Occupation work will be the completion 
of preparations for the festival. 



Five little children of various sizes, one the 
sry smallest child in the room, each carrying a 
ocking, holding it before them. 

A fire place and mantle could oe suggested by 
te use of dark red cardboard. The cardboard on 
hich a fire place is drawn could stand in front 
the children reaching just to their chins and 
ie stockings held just over the edge by one hand, 
lildren recite together: 

Before the children went to bed 
They hung us stockings up and said, 
"We've hung you up all in a row 
For Santa comes tonight, you know." 

irst Stocking: 

"The thing I'd like the most," said Ned. 
"Would be a double runner sled." 

Second Stocking: 

"And I would like in mine," lisped Beth. 
"A very pretty brand-new dreth." 

Third Stocking: 

And Jack said, when he hung me here 
"Bring me a drum, please, Santa dear." 

Fourth Stocking speaks as softly as can well be 

And Amy whispered, "When I look 
I hope to find a story book." 

Fifth Stocking: 

Said Ruth, "Just anything at all 
I'm still so very, very small." 

Recite together: 

And then we stockings laughed and said, 
"Amy and Beth, Ruth, Jack and Ned 
What Santa brings we'll safely keep 
Now hurry off and go to sleep." 



Prepared by 


Part I Roman 

(Adestes Fidelis) 
(Solo or Chorus behind scene) 
In all ancient peoples, 
From the world's beginning. 
Rejoicing came with worship 

At Christmas time: 
Worshipped they the Sun God, 
Worshipped Mother Nature, 
In joy of coming sunshine, 
In joy of hoped for harvest 
In joy of promised fortune, 
For all mankind. 
Here am I — Father Time — stopped in my flight, 
Staying to show you some pictures tonight — 
Pictures quite foreign and pictures of home — 
Of Christmas Past — Present — and Christmas to 

Not Dickens' Christmas, nor Biblical solely, 
Not too Saturnalian. Druidic nor Holy; 
But look for yourself — we begin, as you see 
With a Festival Pagan — the Sun God — that's he! 
(Curtain rises, shows Sun God, priests, etc.) 
Enter procession 


(Onward Christian Soldiers) 

See us marching! Singing! 
Father of the light! 
See us bowing, bringing 
Tribute rich and bright. 
We bow, we bow to the Golden Sun — 
(slow) In the hope of the years unfolding, 

His heat and light make the harvest bright 
And wealth for the hearth and holding! 
We dance, we sing for the shining King — ■ 
Our hopes and desires we are voicing, 
(faster) 'Tis a day to be gay and frisk and fling — ■ 
(repeat) For the Sun God gives rejoicing 

Boys and girls (13-14 years). Number 8 to 20. 
Color, yellow and gold. 

Sun worship, tableau and dance. 
Music — Exotische Minor music — India, part 1, 
page 3. 

(1) Movement — processional. 

(2) Movement — Salaam with gifts. 

(3) Movement — Slow turning dance, increas- 
ing speed to wild saturnalia. 

(Altar of table draped with white cheese-cloth 
and green garlands. Sun God seated above, and 
behind incense burning on altar.) 

Part II Scandanavian 


In all ancient peoples, 

From the world's beginning. 

Rejoicing came with worship 

At Christmas time; 
Worshipped they the Sun God, 
Worshipped Mother Nature, 
In joy of coming sunshine 
In joy of hoped-for harvest, 
In joy of promised fortune, 
For all mankind. 

That was the way we used to do, 

And we are at it yet, 
We bring some presents, it is true, 
But rejoice in what we get! 
Tribute, sacrifice and gift 
Have one old sin besetting — 
Offerings we meekly lift — 
But we think of what we're getting! 
Now we leave that golden scene 
For the forest cool and green — 
Father Sun and all he's worth 
Now give place to Mother Earth; 
Mother fertile, Mother kind, 
Mother that we have to mind! 
People of the Ancient Wood 
Worshipped fruitful Motherhood! 
Tableau and dance. 

Processional of Druid (Boys 14-16. No. 4 to 12)j| 
Mendelsshon march of the Priests — trio. 
Earth Goddess 
Enter Druids — Tableau, etc. 
These old men, all beards and bones, 
Are the Druids of the Stones, 
Many mystic rites they know — ■ 
With holly, fir and mistletoe. 
Their old customs still are seen 
In our wreaths of evergreen. 
Enter Earth Spirits 
Gnomes (boys in brown — 8 to 10 years — No. 4 
to 12). 

Music — Reinhold Gnomes. 

(1) Entrance stealthy crouching. 

(2) Forming ring and turning tumblesaultB 
towards center. 

(3) Springing up and dancing wildly. 

(4) Crouching and forming huddle ring |n 
center of stage. 

Enter Gnomes (with vegetables) 


All these little folks embrowned 

Are the gnomes beneath the ground 

Pleasant Earth fruits they are seen 

Bringing to the Mother Queen. 

(Gnomes march in and stand massed on one side.) 

Enter Wood Spirits 

Elves — (girls in green with flickers — 10 to 1- 

years — No. 4 to 12.) 

Music — Greigs Elves. 

(1) Flit freely about stage and form rings 
dancing about Gnomes. 

(Flickers out) 

(2) Gnomes forming inner ring and dance in 
opposite direction. 

(3) Forming double ring by Gnomes — passing 
heads under arms of Elves, viz. 

Enter Elves (with branches, flowers and flickers.) 
Little green ones! What are these? 
Elves that live in forest trees — 
Leaves and flowers to deck the hair 
Of the great Earth Mother fair! 

Part III Christian 

But we with new knowledge, 
Strong in truth and wisdom, 
Can see deeper beauty 

In Christmas time; 
See heaven around us, 
See our human glory, 

In love that gives and asks not, 
In love that covers all men, 
In love that lasts the year long, 
For all mankind. 

Mother Earth and Father Sun 
Promised joy to everyone. 



Ancient warships always banked 
On the things for which they thanked. 
But in time (that is in me!) 
Came another theory — 
Love disinterested — mild — 
Such as we must give a child, 
This we show in picture fit — 
As old masters painted it. 
Musical accompaniment from well-known 
iristian selections — "Holy Night," etc. 
Tableaux from famous paintings or stereopticon 


Chanson De Nol by Beamont with picture. 
Weihnacht Album for Piano forte. 

art IV Modern (domestic, etc.) 

The day that is coming, 
Day of worldwide wonder 
Shall make every season 

Like Christmas time; 
World one green garden, 
Worship one with labor, 

With peace and power and freedom, 
With love and joy and service. 

With life's supreme fulfillment, 
For all mankind. 

Now we come to modern days, 
To our own familiar ways, 

Affection's yearly proofs — 
Mantlepieces, chimneys, stockings, 
Santa Claus's reindeer knockings 

On our midnight roofs. 

Here are presents whose arranging 
Indicates a mere exchanging — 

Parsimonious plan! 
Careful planning — tiresome shopping — 
Family affection stopping — 

Just where it began! 

But the world is moving daily — 
Hearts are growing — growing gaily — 

Now we know the past, 
Ancient worship in new reading, 
Father, Mother, Child, all leading 

To the best and last. 

Priest and Druid, elf and gnome — 
Happiness of earth and home — 

Christmas widens fast — 
Time is tired of your fighting — 
Time is glad to see uniting — 
All the world at last! 
SCENE — Fireplace with stockings — father's 
short (holey) ; with woman's gifts — hand bag, 
vork bag, etc. Mother's lean and long — box of 
obacco, razor, necktie. Child's — Huge, bulging. 
}bild gloats selfishly over each article, father and 
nother take theirs out suspiciously. 

Enter — Sun God, Mother Earth and child 
'dressed in white with cross) in midst unobserved, 
ind watch mournfully the proceedings. 

Enter at their bidding all the children of the 
^arth — black, yellow, white of all nationalities, 
vith emblems. 
They dance and exchange greetings. 
Father, mother and child forget their selfishness 
md join in the dance, bestowing gifts. 
'Wish you Merry Christmas, Merry Christmas to- 
iVill you dance in the circle, I will show you the 

The Kraus Alumni Kindergarten Association will 
;ive a reception to Mrs. Maria Kraus-Boelte in 
;ommemoration of her completion of fifty years of 
work for the kindergarten cause, on Thursday 

evening, the second of December at the Hotel 
San Remo, Central Park West and 75th street, 
New York City. 

The committee has made every effort to reach 
all graduates and friends and will appreciate a 
notification from anyone who has failed to receive 
an invitation. HARRIET B. LETTIG, 

Chairman of Reception Committee. 

527 W. 111 Street, New York City. 


On Thursday, Dec. 2nd, the Kraus Alumni Kin- 
dergarten Association, New York, will give a re- 
ception in honor of Mrs. Maria Kraus-Boelte at the 
Hotel San Remo. This reception is given to 
mark the completion of Mme. Kraus' (50th) 
fiftieth year of work for the kindergarten cause. 
The event is one of widespread educational in- 
terest and many of the most prominent men and 
women in New York and vicinity will be present. 

The senior class of the Symonds Kindergarten 
Training School gave a delightful entertainment at 
the Elizabeth Peabody House. S7 & 89 Poplar 
street, on Friday evening the 12th of November, 
which was much enjoyed by the mothers of chil- 
dren belonging to the kindergarten and clubs. 

The annual fair in aid of Elizabeth Peabody House, 
Boston, will be held at Hotel Vendome Dec. 4. Mr. F. 
Hopkinson Smith will give a reading at Jordan Hall in 
the evening. 

Prof. Earl Barnes has been giving at Gertrude 
House, Chicago Kindergarten Institute, a most inter- 
esting and helpful course of lectures on Educational 
Sociology on Wednesday and Thursday of each week 
for the first term. 

At the annual Thanksgiving exercises at the same 
place Miss Mary McDowell, of University of Chicago 
Settlement, spoke with her usual enthusiasm and in- 
spiration, and Miss Johnson added to the musical num- 
bers with her 'cello. 

The Institute is rejoicing in the largest classes in 
its history. Gertrude House is full and a large num- 
ber of day students pass in and out every week. Miss 
Frances E. Newton has returned to her post on the 
teaching staff. 

The November meeting of the Kindergarten 
Union of the Oranges was held on Thursday, Nov. 
18, and Miss Hofer of Teacher's College, New York, 
gave an interesting talk on "Christmas Songs and 
Games." The meeting was unusually well attended 
and a social hour followed the lectures. 


Magazines will be sent to different addresses 
if desired. Send all orders to J. H. Shults, 
Manistee, Mich. 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine— 

With Success-Designer-Housekeeper 2.40 

With Designer-Ladies' World 1.85 

"With Success-Designer American 2.70 

With Designer-Cosmopolitan 2.20 

Or American. 

With Housekeeper-American 2.10 

Or Good Housekeeping. 
With Housewife-Ladies' World 1.60 

Or New Idea. 

W r ith Paris Modes-Housewife 1.60 

With Housekeeper-Housewife 1.65 

With Woman's Home Companion 1.90 

With Harper's Bazar 1.70 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine — ■ 

With Mother's Magazine-Designer $1.85 

With Mother's Magazine-New Idea 1.70 

With Mother's Magazine-Housewife 1.60 

With Housekeeper-Mother's Magazine 1.75 

With Ainslee's Magazine 2.00 

With World To-Day 2.00 

With Hampton's Magazine 2.00 

With Metropolitan 2.00 

With McClure's 2.00 

With American 1.70 

With Good Housekeeping 1.70 



If I could fly up in the air, 

I'd look all 'round for Saint 
'Till I really, truly found out 
Old Santa stays when Christmas 

Then I'd have presents all the 

And Christmas all the time, 
With dear old Santa ever near, 

Oh! wouldn't that be fine! 

March Brothers, Lebanon, Ohio, 
have an announcement in this issue 
that should interest every kindergart- 
ner and primary teacher. They are 
well known publishers and dealers in 
school aids, and are sending free a 
suggestive program for celebrating 
all holidays. 

The UMPIRE Fountain Pd 

Pens made to suit any hand, all sizes and styles. 

Better than all the Christmas gifts 
Any of us can ever know 

Is the gift of Jesus to the world 
Nineteen hundred years ago. 

This Gift brings peace where once 
was strife 

And turns hate into love. 
He keeps us from the sins of earth 

And fits us for above. 

Hall & McCreary have a holiday an- 
nouncement elsewhere in this issue. 

I'd rather find where Santa Claus 
Stays all through the year 

Than any north pole ever was — 
Or south — he's such a good old 

A really reliable fountain pen is a 
great convenience. B. Grieshaber & 
Co., 84 to 90 State street, Chicago, 
manufacture and repair gold pens and 
fountain pens, and guarantee all their 
work. Note their advertisement else- 

1. Every up-to-date kinder- 
gartner and primary teacher uses 
dyes of some kind to decorate 
construction work, etc. The "Easy 
Dyes" advertised in another 
column possess the advantage of 
working quickly and satisfactorily 
on almost any surface. They are 
sold at only 15 cents a tube and 
come in many different colors. 
Send to the American Color Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind. 

J. L. Hammett Company, 250 De- 
vonshire St., Boston, Mass., well 
known dealers in kindergarten and 
manual training supplies, have a new 
catalogue which will be sent free to 
any person interested. See adv. 

Kindergartners and primary teach- 
ers will be interested in the adv. of 
the Esterbrook Steel Pen Mfg. Co. of 
Camden, N . J., relative to pens made 
especially for children of the kinder- 
garten and primary grades. 

We* repair all makes of Gold Pens and Fountain Pens. 

B. GRIESHABER & CO., Manufacture! 


84 to 90 State Street, 

If your Dealer cannot supply you, call on us 




Christmas cheer lasts all the year where books are given. Our low prices 
on books suitable for gifts will enable you to remember all your friends with 
books next Christmas. 

Our "Instructor Series of Five-Cent Classics'* offers the teacher 
a splendid selection of appropriate books for pupils — hundreds of titles in 
this series — just what children like to read. 

Our "Popular Copyright Fiction" for adults — handsomely bound 
in cloth— regular $1.50 books for 45c and 1 2c for postage, includes such 
popular titles as "The Shepherd of the Hills" and a long list of just 
as interesting stories. 

Our Entertainment Books embrace some of the best things 

ever puplished for Holiday Celebrations, including books 

of Drills, Plays, Dialogues, Recitations, Tableaux, 

Scenic Readings, etc., etc. — just what you have 

been wishing for. 

Because we are headquarters for Books 
for Christmas it will pay you to get our 

Catalog No. 33 before you buy a single book for 
that occasion. A postal card request will bring 
the catalog to you by return mail — write the card 
today— address It to 



323 Wabash Avenne, 

Chicago, IllonoSet 

■m i mmt »MBwiHw»iMakwmHBiww »«wwi tw w' u >i •mm rjwm/jm/M asa^TSiv^sismrvr^rsrssr 


For Stencil Work 

And other textile coloring, for staining 
tilo, raphia, etc., the only practical ma- 
terial is 


Washable — N<iu-F;iding 

They come in tubes in all the latest 
pastel shades. Cleanly and convenient 
in handling. One tube makes as much 
as you buy for a dollar of prepared col 
ors. No boiling; no muss. Urush or dip. 
on.' Aye for all fabrics. 

Unequalled for home dyeing of laces, 
ribbons and all kinds of cloth. Most 
economical dye made. 

15 Cents tne Tube 

Used and endorsed by the public for all 
textile art work. 
Especially Go< d for Kindergarten Uses. 


Indianapolis, Ind. 


By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting Is well suited for use 
constructive work In the primary grew 
and kindergarten. It is so simple 
small children can do it well. They 
make articles which are pretty 
which interest them, without the strj 
that comes from too exact work. 
materials are easily obtained and plei 
ant to work with. The directions glv 
are clear and easily followed. 

Facing each description there are 
or more photographs showing the artii 
as completed or in course of constructs 

Here are some of the articles whl 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's Ba 
Doll's Muff, Tain O'Shanter Cap, Chile 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Bood, Dol 
Jacket, Child's Muffler, Mittens, Iiitl 
Boy's Hat, Little Girl's Hat, Chile 
Hood, Jumping Rope, Toy Horse Reii 
School Bag, Doll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 net, 

H. »3. 






"Tales of Wonder," by Kate 
mglas Wiggin and Nora A., 
lith, well known and popular 
idergarten writeis. The pre- 
ling books, entitled "The Posy 
ng," "Pinafore Palace," etc., 
ve been much sought after. The 
es are from the Persian, Welsh, 
ssian, Chinese, Indian, Scandi- 
vian, and other sources. Cloth, 
ice $1.50. Doubleday, Page & 
, New York City. 

'The Songs of Father Goose." 
r the kindergarten, the nur- 
y and the home. Verse by L. 
ink Bavm, pictures by W. W. 
oslow. A large beautiful 
ume, illuminated boards, con- 
aing about thirty beautiful 
ldren songs with music and 
rds that appeal to the little 
!S. Suitable for Christmas, 
er holidays and at any time, 
ny illustrations. Price $1.2 5. 
ibs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis. 

Favorite Song Pantomimes," 
Marie Irish. A collection of 
nty-six old and favorite songs 
tomimed and arranged to be 
duced by one or more persons, 
s words to the songs are in- 
led, full and complete instruc- 
ts for successful pantomiming 
lg given after each line or 
s of the songs requiring a pose 
sxpression. 112 pages. Paper, 
e 30 cents. A. Flanagan Co., 

John of the Woods," by Abbie 
well Brown. Illustrated by 
Boyd Smith. The story of a 
e boy who lives in the forest 
i a good hermit and learns 
a him the secret power over 

wild creatures of the woods, 
ch leads to many curious ad- 
:uies and to the saving of the 

's son. Price $1.25. Hough- 

Mifflin <& Co., Boston. 

Thirty New Christmas Di- 
ues and Plays," by Clara J. 
ton, Marie Irish, Laura R. 
th and others. A book of 
ty new, original, bright and 
3r Christmas dialogues and 
s for children of all ages. The 
;er is divided into three parts: 
lary, Intermediate, and High- 
there being about an equal 
ber of plays under each divi- 
Four or five of the dialogues 
n verse and a few of the plays 
interspersed with music. 160 
s. Paper. Price 30 cents. A. 
agan Co., Chicago. 
?he Alexandrian Novels," 
;led "Alexander the Prince," 
xander the King," "Alex- 
r and Roxana." Three novels 
Marshall Monroe Kirkman. 
books are attractive in make- 
nd of high literary excellence 
absorbing interest. Mr. Kirk- 
author of the "Romance of 

Gilbert Holmes," has, from his 
youth, made the ancients a study, 
and these romances are the result. 
They are woven around the 
world's greate t men and women 
■ — Philip of Macedon, Alexander 
the Great, Aris:otle, Demosthenes, 
the Cynic Diogenes and others of 
that period; men and women who, 
though they played preeminent 
parts in shaping the destinies of 
the world, have (because of the 
remoteness of the period and the 
research involved) been neglected 
by writers of fiction up to the 
present time. Cropley, Phillips 
Co., Chicago. 

"Central Topics in Geography," 
by C. A. McMurry. A series of 
fifty-page pamphlets, descriptive 
of central topics in the study of 
geography, the Rhine, the Alps, 
etc., 10 cents each. A. Flanagan 
Co., Chicago. 

"Quasi." Fancies for the little 
ones. By Marta Strubler. A little 
booklet of wholesome, interesting 
and educative storie.; for little 
children. Harmegnies & Howell, 

"Tell Me a True Story." Bible 
stories for the children's hour by 
Mary Stewart. Introduction by 
A. F. Schauffler. A beautiful 
book written for children by one 
who understands and loves them. 
It brings the spirit and meaning 
of Christianity down, or I should 
rather say, up, to their level. It 
it not only plain in its language, 
but clear and natural in its 
thought and feeling. 251 pages. 
Illustrated. Cloth. Price $1.25. 
Fleming H. Revell Company, New 
York City, and Chicago. 

"An Elegy in a Country Church 
Yard, and Other Poems," by 
Thomas Gray. Edited with in- 
troduction and notes. This is one 
of a series of Merrill's English 
Text which has proved so popular, 
especially in school and college 
work. Durably bound in cloth. 
Price 30 cents. Chas. E. Merrill 
& Co.. New York City. 

"Boy Life." Stories and read- 
ings from the works of Howells, 
arranged for supplementary read- 
ing in the elementary schools by 
Percival Chubb, director of Eng- 
lish in the Ethical Culture School, 
New York; author of "The 
Teaching of English." For sup- 
plementary reading in the class- 
room, or for general reading, 
these graphic chapters written by 
a master of English are assured 
of wide popularity. The volume 
offers a series of pictures and 
episodes like "The Town," "Home 
Life," "The River." Price 50 
cents. Harper & Brothers, New 

"The Complete Mother Goose," 
by Ethel Franklin Betts. Illus- 
trated by the author. In this 
volume are over two hundred 

Including all the real 

.Mot i,.-i (; Inch have 

be< i, .•( ad to children through 

aerations, and a: 
manj or the later jingles a 
worthy of ;> place beside them. 
The compli . the col] 

is an important feature. The 
eleven pictures in colors by Miss 
are imaginative and chai ru- 
ing, and will delight not only the 
children, but older readei 
well. Cloth. Price $1.50, 
erick A. Stokes Company, 

"The Land of Really True." 
Being the everyday life of Great- 
A, Little-A and Bouncing-B. Text 
by Millicent Olmsted. Pictured 
by Elenore Plaisted Abbott and 
Helen Alden Knipe. A beautiful 
volume of wholesome s'ories for 
the little ones. Illustrated with 
beautiful colored plates. Among 
the stories are the following: 
"Miggie's Ghost," "Ragged Muf- 
fins," "Christmas Joy," "Patient 
Mumps," "Valentining." "The 
Family News," "Dear Little April 
Fools," "Unpleasantries," and 
"Miss Felicity." Price $1.00. 
Geo. W. Jacobs ■& Company, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

(Continued on following page) 

Xote the advertisement of holi- 
day books by Chicago Kindergarten 

College in this issue. 

Don't leave comfort, convenience ana 
order at home when you travel. Take 
them along by packing your clothes in a 

Stallman Dresser Trunk 

Euilt like a dresser. Everytnii 
wan:, when and where you want it. 
Keeps garments in perfect condition. 
Simplifies packing and unpacking, elim- 
inates re-packing. Strongest, roomiest, 
most convenient trunk made, and costs 
no more than the ordinary style. Sent 
C. O. D. privilege examination. 

Many kindergartners and primary 
teachers say they "live in a trunk." Why 
not live in a good one when it costs no 

Send two-cent stamp for booklet. 
90 East Spring St. Columbus, O. 

Books Received— continued 

"Anne of Avon lea," by L.. M. Montgomery. Bliss 
Carman says of this book: "Henceforth Anne must 
always remain one of the immortal children of 
fiction, those characters who are as real as our 
flesh and blood friends, whom we cherish in the 
quiet places of our hearts reserved for the dearest 
mortals we know." Illustrated, $1.50. L. C. Page 
&' Company, Boston, Mass. 

"Stories and Rhymes For a Child," by Carolyn 
Sherwin Bailey. Several full page illustrations by 
Christine Wright. It is divided into three depart- 
ments: "The Child Abroad," contains 34 stories 
and rhymes. "The Child at Home," 24, and "By 
the Fireside," 11. The book is beautifully bound 
in doth and contains 194 pages. Milton Bradley 
Company, Springfield, Mass. 

"Primer of Sanitation," being a simple work on 
disease germs and how to fight them. By John W. 
Ritchie, Professor of Biology, College of William 
and .Mary, Virginia. Illustrated by Karl Hass- 
niann. The public press state that this is the 
only book of its kind, and there should be demand 
for a text book relating to this subject. World 
Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York. 

"Wood Turning." Prepared for the use of 
students in manual training high schools, technical 
schools, and colleges. By George Alexander Ross, 
instructor in woodwork and pattern making, Lewis 
Institute, Chicago. This volume is intended for 
class work for the first course. Each successive 
lesson contains a new principal closely related to 
those in previous exercises. Cloth. Ginn <& 
Company, New York and Chicago. , 

"Heroines of a Schoolroom." Sequel to the 
"Thistles of Mount Cedar." By Ursula Tannen- 
forst. A wholesome and interesting story that 
should be read by every student. 494 pages. 
Beautifully bound in cloth. $1.25. John C. Win- 
ston Co., Philadelphia. 

'Finger Play Readers." Part 1 and 2. John W. 
Davis, district superintendent of schools, New York 
City, and Fanny Julien, first-year teacher, public 
school No. S, the Bronx, New York City. Every 
kindergartner and primary teacher will be in- 
terested in this series of readers. D. C. Heath & 
Co., Boston, Mass. 

"The Canterbury Classics." A series of sup- 
plementary readers edited under the general super- 
vision of Katherine Lee Bates. We have received 
the story of Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims retold 
tor children. It is the story of the immortal 
pilgrimage told through selected portions, cast into 
modern English with a few interpolated lines, duly 
bracketed. Price 40 cents. Rand McNally Co., 

A. Flanagan •&' Company, Chicago, well known 
publisher of practical books for teachers, have re- 
cently issued the following which should interest 
every teacher: "The Seventeen Little Bears," by 
Laura Rountree Smith. Large type. 128 pages 
Cloth. Price 30 cents. 

"Practical Drawing." Nos. 1 and 2. Arts and 
Crafts Course. Careful instructions for drawing 
in the primary grades with many designs both 
plain and colored with space for copy. 

"Sixteen Stories." A supplementary reader for 
primary grades. Samuel B. Allison, Principal 
Walsh School, Chicago. These stories are, for the 
most part adapted from the German of the Grimm 
brothers. Andersen's "Fir Tree," and "Hans and 
the Four Big Giants," by Elizabeth Harrison, have 
been added. 98 pages. Cloth. 25 cents. A 
Flanagan Co., Chicago. 

"How to Manage Busy Work," by Amos M. 
Kellogg. An illustrated pamphlet of 59 pages. 
Suggestions for deskwork in language, number, 
earth, people, things, self, morals, writing, draw- 
ing, etc. Price 25 cents. A. Flanagan Company, 

"Construction Work in Rural and Elementary 

Schools," by Virginia McGaw, Teacher, in the 
Elementary School of Baltimore. The work is 
divided into five parts: "Cord Construction, 
"Paper Construction," "Wood Construction," 
"Basketry," and "The School Garden." 125 pages. 
Cloth. 60 cents. A. Flanagan Co., Chicago. 

"Work That is Play." A dramatic reader based 
on Aesop's Fables. By Mary Gardner, Duluth 
Public Schools. 160 pages. Cloth. 35 cents. A. 
Flanagan Co. 

"The Second School Year." A course of study 
with detailed selection of lesson material. Arranged 
by months and correlated. By Henrietta M. Lilley, 
training teacher for second grade, Southwestern 
State Normal School, California, Pa., 240 pages. 
Cloth. 60 cents. A. Flanagan Co. 



Construction Paper 

For Christmas 

Kindergartners and Primary Teachers are using- con- 
struction paper perhaps more than ever before. Some- 
times they feel like using the cheaper material to save 
expense. We have secured about 100 reams of really 
high grade papers whieh we can offer while it lasts at the 
cost of the cheap grades. There are twelve beautiful 
colors, and three beautiful patterns — bark, bamboo and 
basket. It is extra heavy, very strong, and can be used 
for making boxes, Santa's sleigh, reindeers^ almost 
anything. The size is 20x25 and the price is only 40c, 
per quire (postage 24c), $7.50 per ream. The mill whole- 
sale price was $9.00 but we bought the entire lot, ark 
can offer it at a Bargain, but we do not want to disap 
point any of our customers and would like all to under 
stand that when the stock is exhausted no more can be 
obtained at any price. There should be enough to lasl 
our trade for some time but some of the colors may rui 
out quickly and we advise you to order at once. Samples 
free. If desired we will cut this paper 10x25 or 10x12^ 
without extra charge, and to any size desired at a very 
slight additional charge. 


Manistee, Michigan, 
Mottoes, large colored letters, heavy paper, 4c. each, postpaid. 






Large colored letters, on heavy paper, alpha- 
bet complete, 6 cents: figures, complete, 3c. 
Letters or figures separately on paper, lc. 

each, 9c. per doz. ; on cardboard, 2c, 20c. per 

All postpaid. Any lettering can be done with these 


Christmas Blackboard Stencils. 

Peace on Earth, pretty 
letters wi th mistletoe 
and laurel 10c 

Good Will Toward Men, 
pretty letters with mist- 
letoe and laurel 10c. 

Merry Christmas 10c. 

Happy New Year 

Writing to Santa 

Santa and Reindeer 

Christmas Tree 

Telephoning to Santa . . . 

Christmas Stocking 

f®"Any three for 25c. 

Christmas Pictures. 

Following, mounted on heavy 
Photomount, 10x13, 10c. prepaid. 

12 p Christ and the Doctors, 

17 p St. Anthony and Christ 

Child, (detail) Murillo 

38 p The Good Shepherd 

39 p Holy Family, Murillo 

41 p Head of Christ, and the 

Rich Young Man, Hofman 

42 p Infant Jesus, Munier 
45 p Christ, the Consoler, 

45 pThe Divine Shepherd, 

Pastols in colors, 16x20 inche 

Following are enameled an 
mounted on heavy cardboar 
requiringnoglass in framing 
and sent postpaid for 20c, 

Frame and mat, 40c. byexi 

No. 178. Christmas Night. 

No. 152. Home from Churcl 

No. 140. After the Day. 

No. 166. Old New Hampshir 

No. 136. The Village Churct 


Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

I to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 
eory and Practice from the Kindergarten 
Through the University. 

rial Rooms, 59 West 9Gth Street, New York, N. T. 

3arle, Ph. D., Editor, 59 West 96th St., New York City. 

ss Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. 5HULTS, Business Manager. 

munications pertaining to subscription* and advertising 
business relating to the riagazine should be addressed 
chigan office, J. H.Shults, Business Hanager, Hanistee, 
All other communications to B. Lyell Barle, flanaging 
9 W. .96th St., New York City. 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
ach month, except July and August, from 278 River 
laniatee, Mich. 

ibscrlptlon price is $!.©• per year, payable in advance, 
pies, 15c. 

Is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
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Ico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
ico. For Canada add 20c and fer all other countries 
ostal Union add 4#c for postage. 

•f Expiration Is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
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tances should be sent bj draft, Express Order or 
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f a local check Is sent. It must Include 18c exchange. 


otwithstanding the fact that 
lave requested that all sub- 
tions and advertising commu- 
ions be sent to the business 
:e at Manistee, Mich., we are 
uently delayed by the sending 
tusiness details to the editor- 

} lease send all editorial mat- 
except late news items, to the 
York office, and all business 
:rs to the Manistee office. 




(Continued from December number.) 

I HE American Book Company 
has sent us a unique book on 
"Good Citizenship," by Rich- 
man & Wallach. It is of par- 
ticular interest to young chil- 
dren, and takes up the departments of city 
government in a fascinating manner. Par- 
ticular emphasis is placed on the Fire 
Department, Police Department, Depart- 
ment of Street Cleaning, and Department 
of Health. The stories are vital, full of 
human interest, and leave a picture on the 
mind of the child that is very likely to 
persist throughout life. The price is ex- 
tremely low and within the reach of every 

"Auxiliary Education," by Dr. Maennel, 
is a translation by Emma Sylvester on the 
care and training of backward children. 
Dr. Maennel's work was carried on in the 
Auxiliary School at Halle, and is of a prac- 
tical character. Some chapters of par- 
ticular interest are The Program and 
Course of Study, Special Methods of 
Teaching, Discipline, and The Relation of 
the State Toward the Auxiliary School. 
There is a special treatment of the peda- 
gogical value of the Auxiliary school, and 
a brief reference to the education of ex- 
ceptional children in the United States. 
The book is from the press of Doubleday, 
Page. Price $1.50. 

Nothing of greater importance has come 
to our editorial table during the past year 
than the "Reports of Director John Barrett 
of the Bureau of American Republics." 
These reports give the best first-hand in- 
formation of the conditions of American 
Republics, and should be a serious book in 
every training school and university 
throughout the country. They can be had 
by writing directly to Director Barrett, 
who is a man of infinite patience and equal 
learning and diligence. We hope to quote 
from some of these reports in the near 

Hinds & Noble have sent us "Writing 
the Short Story," by J. Berg Asenwein, 
Ph. D., editor of Lippincott's. Every kin- 



dergartner and primary teacher should 
study the book carefully from the first to 
the last page. It is the only book on the 
subject m popular form adequately treat- 
ing of a topic so essential to every teacher. 
Brander Mathews is probably the only 
other author who has touched upon the 
subject with anything like a certain pen. 
The chapters on Kind of Short Story, 
Gathering Materials, Building the Story, 
and Place of the Short Story in Literature, 
will give every teacher a large insight into 
this much neglected held. The child's 
literary training should begin immediately 
with his entrance into the kindergarten, 
and this is impossible unless the teacher 
herself has a correct knowledge of the 
principles underlying story structure and 
story selection. We recommend the book 
in its entirety. 

A. Flanagan Company, Chicago, have 
sent us "Stories and Exercises for Morning 
Circle and Assembly." The book is in 
paper and costs only 30c. It is suggested 
for opening exercises, festivals, etc. 

Houghton, Mifflin Company have sent us 
during the past year a number of excellent 
books for the kindergarten and primary 
teachers' library. The "Book of the Little 
Past," by Peabody; "Children's Long- 
fellow," "The Tortoise and the Geese," by 
Button; "Moons of Balbanca," by Davis, 
and the "Queen Flower," by Burnham, all 
furnish excellent material- for the story 
hour. Of special interest, however, are 
"Letters from Colonial Children," edited 
by Miss Tappan. While in diction and style 
they are beyond the kindergarten and 
primary age as readers, they furnish excel- 
lent reading and story material for the 
teacher that contain a great deal of up- 
lifting matter. 

The World Book Company, Yonkers-on- 
Hudson, New York, have given us during 
the past year several unique books. Their 
policy seems to be the avoidance of the 
stereotyped in school book-making. The 
New-World Science Series, including the 
"Primer of Hygiene," "Human Physiol- 
ogy," and the "Primer of Sanitation," all 
by John W. Ritchie, are easily three of the 
best books on elementary science that have 
appeared recently. We desire to call at- 
tention specially to the "Primer of Sanita- 
tion." The list price is 60c, and it is worth 
several times that amount to any teacher, 
as well as of still greater value to parents 

and readers in general. The chapters 
Disease Germs and How They Get 
the Body, on Influenza, Whooping Co 
and Colds, on The Importance of Sar 
tion, on Hygienic Habits are unique in 
book literature. Each chapter is folio 
by the summary of Points To Be Reir 
bered, and the summary is really a di 
of the entire section. We are quotir 
few of these summaries : 
The one on disease germs 

"1. Disease germs kill more than half 
human race. 

2. Disease germs are very small plants 

3. A disease germ can spring only from an 
germ of the same kind. 

4. Nearly all the germs that attack us 
from the bodies of sick persons. 

5. The first great rule for the preventk 
germ diseases is: DESTROY THE GERMS 1 

6. Germs enter the body through wo 
through the nose, and through the mouth 

7. The second great rule for the prevent! 
germ diseases is: TAKE CARE OF WOU 

Another on bacteria: 

"1. Bacteria are the smallest of all living tl 

2. They multiply with astonishing rapidil 
simply pinching in two. 

3. A bacterium is called a bacillus, a c< 
or a spirillum, according to its shape. 

4. Some bacteria are useful, and many of 
are harmless, but a few kinds produce diseas 

5. Some bacteria produce spores that are 
harder to kill than are the bacteria themselv* 

On influenza, etc. : 

"1. Influenza is caused by a small bacillus 
is passed from one person to another in way; 
do not allow it to dry. 

2. Influenza is a serious disease, and the 
should be avoided as much as possible. 

3. Whooping cough is a serious disease 
should be quarantined. 

4. Colds, catarrh, and bronchitis are caus 
germs growing in the air passages and thrc 

5. These diseases are infectious, and 
should be taken to prevent the spread 

And the summary of the chapte 
Disease Germs in Food 


"1. Infected foods are particularly dan* 
because disease germs can multiply in food 

2. Germs can get into foods from flies, 
impure water, and from the hands of person 
are carrying germs. 

3. Spoiled foods are unfit for use. 

4. Foods that have been handled by the 
lie, or exposed to flies or dust, should not b( 

5. Cleanliness and cold are the points 
emphasized in caring for foods. 

6. Milk is the most dangerous of all 
tuberculosis, typhoid, scarlet fever, 'and 
theria may be contracted from it. 

7. Cholera infantum is usually caused b 
clean or cold milk. 




Milk vessels should be carefully scalded and 
ould be rinsed only in pure water. 

9. Milk should be collected in as cleanly a 
inner as possible and cooled quickly to prevent 
e multiplication of germs in it. 

10. When milk contains many bacteria, it is 
metimes advisable to Pasteurize it before giving 

to a little child." 

ill give a suggestion of the excellence of 
le subject matter treated, and the clear- 
ess and force of the presentation. 

"Home Life in All Lands," by Charles 
[orris, J. B. Lippincott, publishers, is an 

cellent book for supplementary reading 
)r both kindergarten and primary 
sachers. It deals with customs and prac- 
;es in the various lands throughout the 
orld and has much interesting and novel 
laterial. The chapters on Primitive Arts 
nd Manufacture, and How the World 
unuses Itself, and The Two Ends of Life, 
re perhaps the most profitable for the 
lementary school teacher. 



URING our trip abroad this 
summer, I tried as much as 
possible, to get an insight of 
foreign education, particular- 
1 3-H1S ly in regard to kindergartens. 
On the whole, in Germany, education is 
nore compulsory, more strictly empha- 
sized, more thorough, broader and more 
extensive for boys than for girls. Unless 
girl wishes to become a teacher, she 
.isually leaves school when she is sixteen 
ifter which she becomes more proficient 
n domestic arts and marries very early. 
A.t school she has had a little English, a 
little French, a thorough study of German, 
German history and religion. Girls seldom 
take more than an introduction to Latin 
and have little or no higher mathematics. 
The boys are burdened mercilessly with 
work. Saturday is a half-holiday, other 
than which they have little spare time. 

While traveling through the Austrian 
Tyrol, I was astonished to find that even 
the poorest districts — and the country is 
notably poor — the homes — co-operative 
family houses, tumble-down and dilapi- 
dated, where the cattle live on the ground 
floor, the family, hay and cattle-feed on the 
floor above — even these boasted a school 
house and a church. 

Later, in Geneva, I watched a kinder- 
garten in session but was unable to visit 

the rooms or speak to the teachers. Visit- 
ors are not made very welcome unless they 
come properly introduced — and a "kinder- 
gartner from New York" is evidently not 
sufficient recommendation. This class was 
conducted in the garden. I saw about 
twenty-five children playing in groups, 
each under the direction of a teacher — 
large, motherly, capable-looking women 
they were. One group — older children — 
were ranged on a bench under the wall, 
sewing; another group was gathered under 
a huge spreading chestnut tree listening to 
a story; others again played in a large sand 
pile, and the last group were playing ring 

When we reached Germany I was able 
to make a closer study of conditions and 
customs. Hannover is a large town, 
well known as an educational center. 
Here, through a friend, I was taken to a 
kindergarten, a branch of. the Froebel 
Union. Kindergartens attached to public 
schools are practically unknown — in fact 
there is no equivalent to our public school 
in Germany. Their "Volk" or public 
school is a paying institution, the fee is 
moderate, but it is not a free school. Class 
distinction is sharply drawn and it is only 
the lowest class that attends the free 

Their free kindergarten is a sort of day 
nursery or settlement and the instructors 
are usually young girls of the wealthier 
classes who do this as philanthropic work, 
the upper classes, especially those residing 
on their estates, do not send their children 
to school but for the first years they are 
instructed by a governess, generally one 
with kindergarten training. When this had 
been explained to me I understood the at- 
titude of the foreigner toward a kinder- 
gartner, an attitude that had puzzled me 

To return to my visit — when we had sent 
in our names to the director of the kinder- 
garten in B — , we were asked to step into 
the garden to wait till the close of the 
"lesson." The children were being told a 
story and the unaccustomed advent of 
visitors would prove too great a disturb- 
ance. After fifteen minutes waiting, the 
children were "turned loose" for the inter- 

After each period the children play in 
the tremendous, beautifully kept garden. 
It is here they run, hide behind the trees,- 



play in the large sand pile and here each 
child has his own little plot for planting, 
and, too, here they partake of their bread 
and milk luncheon. 

Recess over, we entered the house with 
the children. It is a private dwelling, the 
second and third floor being occupied by 
the director and those of her pupils, the 
normal students who board with her; the 
lower floor is devoted to the kindergarten. 
The first room shown me was the work 
room, a large, bright room, containing in 
place of our chairs and tables, long benches. 
Small gifts were used, brightly colored 
glazed mats and narrow strips for weaving, 
paper tablets, etc. When I spoke of our 
enlarged gifts and material the director 
said: "Oh, American children use real 
pearls for stringing, I suppose." "No, 
wooden, I answered, and spoke of the Hail- 
man beads. (The German "perlen" means 
both pearls and beads). For free play and 
musical training drums, trumpets and other 
musical instruments were used and the toys 
were simple and suitable — dolls, doll- 
houses, kitchen, horses, etc. 

We were then taken into the next room 
for games. In the class were about twenty- 
five children, and, besides the director, 
there were four or five young girls assist- 
ing. These were the training students, 
girls of poor but respectable "burger" 
families, between fifteen and sixteen years 
of age, who had had a common school 
education, and after a one year's course 
were fitting themselves not as teachers in 
a school but as nursery governesses. After 
teaching in a family several years — if a girl 
can find anyone to exert influence for her, 
she may find work in a kindergarten. 

Some games and songs were the 
originals of our American adaptations, 
others were remarkable for the fact that 
the killing element was so pronounced. 
One animal pounced upon another, true to 
the nature of the animal, but I questioned 
the advisability of the games. 

In Hamburg I again visited a branch of 
the Froebel Verein and found conditions 
practically the same as in the previous kin- 

This garden was most attractive and ex- 
cept in bad weather, the tables and chairs 
were used for work in the open air. 

One group was working with clay, mak- 
ing leaf impressions, the children picked a 
leaf when they needed one — learning the 

name and tree at the same time; another 
group was hunting caterpillars, another 
working at the plots, another playing in 
the sand pile, a pile large enough to accom- 
modate six or seven children. 

Their games were practically the same 
as those of the other kindergarten but 
progress had been made with the material 
for hand work. The mats and strips were 
wider, the paper in simpler shades, the 
tablets more substantial and much of the 
work was done in clay and in construction 
— using the third dimension. 

They adhere to a rather quaint custom of 
calling the director and assistants, "Taute." 
At first it seemed somewhat absurd, but 
it did instil a "family spirit." 

In both kindergartens I found the chil- 
dren healthy, neat and clean; eager and 
happy, enjoying "freedom under the law." 
A truly Froebelian atmosphere of "living 
with the children" pervaded the classes 
with plenty of exercise and free play. 



The kindergartners in the public kinder- 
gartens of New York City have been re- 
quested, if possible, to make a preparatory 
visit to a first year class accompanied by 
the children to be promoted, a week before 

Going into a strange room to remain 
with an unknown teacher is quite an ordeal 
for a timid child, but going with a familiar 
teacher and with the prospect of returning 
to the kindergarten room is a happy ex- 
perience for all, and paves the way for an 
ideal promotion. 

The principle of continuity demands an 
inner connection with the primary grades 
which is brought about in part by these 

In the syllabus of the kindergarten 
adopted by the Board of Superintendents 
of New York City schools, the connection 
is stated as follows: 


In order to co-ordinate the kindergarten 
and the primary grades, the kindergarten 
exercises should be modified toward the 
close of the term in preparation for promo- 
tion. There should be periods of silent 
work and a greater proportion of inde- 
pendent work in the advanced group. The 
(Continued on page 168) 




(Continued from last issue.) 

NE of the distinctive features 
of the new method of infant 
education as planned by Dr. 
Montessori in Italy is the re- 
turn to old fashioned methods 
f learning to read by starting with letters, 
/ven up to the present date in our own land 
lphabet blocks and alphabet books are 
nany and beautiful, and one almost has to 
lo battle to keep them out of the nursery. 
)uring the past few years, however, a 
leeper interest than ever has arisen in "The 
Natural Method of Learning to Read" by 
tarting with the actual reading of rhyme 
Dr story, thus going beyond the long 
ime popular word method. 

Our kindergartens have succeeded in ex- 
luding reading and writing and have 
:mphasized the principle so well enounced 
>y Froebel, "The A B C of things should 
recede the A B C of words." It did seem 
hat we had succeeded in cutting out the 
hree R's, but Dr. Montessori has put them 
>ack in the infant school in Rome and we 
mist convince our Italian friend of the 
;rror or let them convince us. 

Altogether it behooves us to be liberal, 
lot dogmatic, and to listen to the tale with 

In the Montessori method writing comes 
irst. There appear to be muscular exer- 
;ises similar to those now so familiar in the 
Palmer method which our little ones spon- 
:aneously imitate if they have older 
mothers and sisters. 

One little fellow was drawing away 
vigorously one day last year in a public 
indergarten. The kindergartner in her 
:our from one child to another asking wise- 
y "What are you making," was surprised 
to hear the little fellow to whom we refer 
reply, "Muscular movement !" 

Children will imitate the ordinary up and 
down strokes as they have been imaged 
in their minds as they sit and watch mother 
or father write letters. One little three 
year old girl wrote a whole letter of i's 
and u's and e's, even turning the letter 
paper sidewise in imitation of mother. 

In the Montessori Method drawing pre- 
cedes writing as with us, but it would seem 
that the exercises are given to practice 
work rather than free expression. 

The children learn the letters through 
touch as well as sight. The letters are cut 
out of emery paper and gummed on to 
cardboard. The child feels the letters as 
he does other objects. The child learns the 
names and phonetic sounds as he handles 
the letter forms. 

Games are played blindfold with the 
letters when the names are known. 

In the third stage, the child is given 
letters cut out and tries to make a printed 
word which corresponds to the spoken 
sounds of a spoken word. 

After this it is said that the children try 
to write spontaneously — "No child is forced 
to learn to write — writing is taught only to 
children who desire it." It is said that under 
this method, without compulsion, that a 
child of four takes on an average one and a 
half months to learn to write! That a child 
of five will learn in a month ! and that all 
the children write well and in a flowing 

(The daily program as given below 
shows long hours.) 

The method as it proceeds to reading re- 
minds us of the well-known Word Method, 
now giving way to "the Natural Method" 
in many schools. 

There are reading games similar to those 
used in our "busy work." The reading is 
mental, not vocal at first. The child reads 
the name of a toy, then finds the toy and 
shows it. He must have read the word or 
he could not know what to find. 

The reading game may finally take the 
form of "a paper on which quite a long 
sentence is written describing some action 
which the child forthwith performs." 

It is claimed that while no child is forced 
to learn to read, many learn in fifteen days! 
We do not fully understand just how much 
this signifies but it must be remembered 
that the institution in which these methods 
are being introduced has an all day pro- 
gram. It is a sort of day nursery. The 
children are left free to play or sleep or 

It is said that thev leave toys for letters. 
Is this desirable in four year olds? 

The daily schedule of exercises has been 
translated for me from the original by Miss 
Mary P. Schell of P. S. 125, Manhattan, 
and reads as follows: 

9:00 — 10:00 Health — Visits for cleanliness. 
Exercises of practical life, to 
visit the room, to put it in order 



and to clean the objects. 
Language— Talk of what was done 
the previous day. Moral exhor- 
Prayer together. 
10-00 11-00 Intellectual exercises. Object les- 
sons with brief intermission for 
Exercise of senses. 
11-00—11:30 Simple gymnastics. Movements for 
exercise and grace. Normal 
position of the body, walking in 
order, salutes, motions for at- 
tention. Moving objects with 
11:30 — 12:00 Recess — short prayer. 
12:00 — 1:00 Free play. 

1-00 2:00 Directed play, if possible in the 

fresh air. Exercises of practical 
life as cleaning a room, dusting, 
putting objects in order. Con- 
2:00 — 3:00 Hand work — drawing, etc. 

3:00 4:00 Gymnastics, collectively with song, 

in open air if possible. 
Visit plants and animals. 

We hope to comment upon this order of 
exercises next month. Meanwhile we ask 
kindergartners to study it for it contains 
admirable suggestions. Comparison of 
methods is valuable. 


L. T. M. 
HIS branch of kindergarten 
work holds a very important 
place in the kindergartner's 

The nature of the kinder- 
garten story claims for simplicity of man- 
ners in the story-teller, good voice, facility 
of speech, sense of humor, sympathy 
towards children and a good deal of com- 
mon sense. 

"A good story, (says Froebel) is a re- 
freshing bath to the child's mind: he sees 
his own image reflected in the story, con 
templates it at a distance and the very re- 
moteness of the comparison with his own 
vague hopes expands heart and soul, 
strengthens the mind, and unfolds life in 
freedom and power." 

As the kindergarten is the place where 
the child's needs and vague aspirations are 
met with the proper means for satisfying 
them, the place of stories in the kinder- 
garten program corresponds to a very dis- 
tinct desire of children "for knowing more, 
for seeing through other people's ex- 
periences, real or imaginary." 

The children possess an unestimated 
sensibility to whatever is deep or high, in 
imagination or feeling, so long as it is 
simple, too. 

Children of all races have always craveia 
for stories. No matter about what, noB 
about the possibilities of its being true or 
not: they simply love them and if they are 
well told, if they concern other men, othea 
circumstances, times and places, if they im-1 
part a language to the silent objects in naj 
ture, the charm has a decided influence upon 
the mental and spiritual growth of our kin- 
dergarten children. 

"The rise of an appetite for any kind of 
knowledge implies that the unfolding mind 
has become fit to assimilate it, and needs it 
for the purposes of growth." — H. Spencer. 

"The function of the story is no longer 
considered solely in the light of its place in 
the kindergarten ; it is being sought in the 
first and second and indeed in every grade 
where the children are still children. — S. C. 


I. Fairy Story: 

It has a supreme power of presenting 
truth through the guise of images. For the 
present, only the image stands before the 
child's mind to amuse, impress and delight 
him ; but the truth remains there too, in- 
visible, and makes its appearance a little 

In the fairy story the imagination has the 
amplest field in which to extend its wings. 
There is no boundary for possibilities in this 
form of story. 

II. Fable: 

This is a very short form of literary 
composition, either in prose or verse, in 
which a story is made the vehicle for con- 
veying a universal truth. One of its 
peculiarities consists in the transference of 
the qualities of rational beings to animals 
and inanimated objects. 

III. Nature Story: 

It is principally used to illustrate the 
habits of animals and the laws of plant 

In order to give interesting true scientific 
facts "wrapped up in the garment of the 
story (as somebody said) the teacher must 
know a good deal about nature, but I be- 
lieve that, even with just a little knowledge, 
she may succeed in bringing her children 
to an atmosphere of cultured sympathy 



the world of nature and towards 
ial world too. 
atriotic or Historic Story: 
r ood story of this kind vitalizes the 
tion of past events and brings their 
ers into relation with the present." — 

y people object to patriotic stories in 
dergarten, giving as a reason the im- 
lity of the children to understand the 
s of certain deeds; the element of 

involved in war, (which always is a 
>f wondre for the little children), etc. 

personally I am in favor of the 
ic stories, provided they are carefully 
d and told in a simple way, without 
ring or making up the facts. Children 
asp very well the big things. The 
ation of them must be left to the 

growth of the mind. 
Legend : 

a form of story transmitted by tradi- 
In most cases, it is based on a real 
»f long, long ago, more or less dis- 
1 by time. Sometimes it is only a 
;t of the fertile imagination of our 
ors. But anyway, there is an element 
try in the legend that makes it very 
le everywhere, and useful in the kin- 
ten for the purpose of instilling and 


er the children's love for their 

surroundings, as the legend is a local 
itory. Legends about rivers, flowers, 
etc., certainly add a great charm and 
:t for those objects. 


Fairy Stories 
ther Holle. 
j Star Dollars. 


] Wind and the Sun. 

l Lion and the Mouse. 

i Dove and the Ant. 

I Town Mouse and the County Mouse. 

Nature Stories 

* Lark and the Daisy. 
t Ugly Duckling, 
e Peas in a Pod. 

Historical Stories 

s Knights of the Silver Shield. 
e Red Thread of Courage. 

(And all those belonging to the country 
in which we live.) 


The Golden Cobwebs. 

The Pied Piper of Hamelin. 

Christmas Eve. 

And those belonging to the country. 

There are some other types of stories 
suitable for kindergarten. 

The Bible Stories. 

The Nonsense Stories. 

The Every-day Experience. 

The Myth. 

Each one of these should be brought at 
the proper time; sometimes to change the 
class mood; other times to respond to cer- 
tain demands of the children. 

In all cases, the age of children should be 
considered. The principle which guides us 
in education is "go from simple to com- 

It is doubtless true that at the end of 
their second year in kindergarten children 
are able to appreciate details and events 
that were too big for them at first. This is 
due to two causes: the individual develop- 
ment, and the influence of education. 



In Games For Playground, etc., McMillan, 

The use of games for both children and 
adults has a deep significance for the in- 
dividual and the community through the 
conservation of physical, mental and moral 

Games have a positive educational in- 
fluence that no one can appreciate who has 
not observed their effects. Children who 
are slow, dull, and lethargic; who observe 
but little of what goes on around them; 
who react slowly to external stimuli; who 
are, in short, slow to see, to hear, to ob- 
serve, to think, and to do, may be com- 
pletely transformed in these ways by the 
playing of games. 


The sense perceptions are quickened: a 
player comes to see more quickly that the 
ball is coming toward him; that he is in 
danger of being tagged; that it is his turn; 
he hears the footstep behind him, or his 
name or number called; he feels the touch 
on the shoulder; or in innumerable other 



ways is aroused to quick and direct recogni- 
tion of, and response to things that go on 
around him. The clumsy, awkward body 
becomes agile and expert; the child who 
tumbles down today will not tumble down 
next week; he runs more fleetly, dodges 
with more agility, plays more expertly in 
every way, showing thereby a neuro- 
muscular development. 

The social development through games 
is fully as important and as pronounced. 
Many children, whether because of lonely 
conditions at home, or through some per- 
sonal peculiarity, do not possess the power 
readily and pleasantly to co-operate with 
others. Many of their elders lack this 
facility also, and there is scarcely anything 
that can place one at a greater disad- 
vantage in business or society, or in any of 
the relations of life. The author has known 
case after case of peculiar, unsocial, even 
disliked children, who have come into a 
new power of co-operation and have be- 
come popular with their playmates 
through the influence of games. The 
timid, shrinking child learns to take his 
turn with others ; the bold, selfish child 
learns that he may not monopolize oppor- 
tunities ; the unappreciated child gains 
self-respect and the respect of others 
through some particular skill that makes 
him a desired partner of a respected 
opponent. He learns to take defeat with- 
out discouragement and to win without 
undue elation. In these and in many other 
ways are the dormant powers for social co- 
operation developed, reaching the highest 
point at last in the team games where self 
is subordinated to the interests of the team, 
and cooperation is the very life of the 


Most important of all, however, in the 
training that comes through games, is the 
development of will. The volitional aspect 
of the will and its power of endurance are 
plainly seen to grow in power of initiative; 
in courage to give "dares" and to take 
risks; in determination to capture an 
opponent, to make a goal, or to win the 
game. But probably the most valuable 
training- of all is that of inhibition — that 
power for restraint and self-control which 
is the highest aspect of the will and the 
latest to develop. The little child entering 

the primary school has very little dl 
power of inhibition. To see a thing hew( 
like is to try to get it; to want t § 
thing is to do it; he acts impulsively; 
does not possess the power to rest 
movement and to deliberate. A large ] 
of the difficulty of the training of chile 
at home and at school lies in the fact 
this power of the will for restraint an| 
control is undeveloped. So-called I 
fulness" is a will in which the volitu 
power has not yet been balanced with 
inhibitive power. One realizes in this 
the force of Matthew Arnold's definitio 
character as "a completely fashioned w 
There is no agency that can so effecj 
ly and naturally develop power of in 
tion as games. In those of very 
children there are very few, if any, res 
tions; but as players grow older, more 
more rules and regulations appear, rec 
ing greater and greater self-control 
as not playing out of one's turn; not si 
ing over the line in a race until the pn 
signal ; aiming deliberately with the 
instead of throwing wildly or at haphaz 
until again, at the adolescent age, the h 
ly organized team games and contests 
reached, with their prescribed modes 
play and elaborate restrictions and fc 
There could not be in the experienc< 
either boy or girl a more live opportu 
than in these advanced games for acqui 
the power of inhibitory control, or a n 
real experience in which to exercise it 
be able, in the emotional excitement o 
intense game or a close contest, to obs< 
rules and regulations; to choose ui 
such circumstances between fair or ur 
means and to act on the choice, is to \ 
more than a mere knowledge of right 
wrong. It is to have the trained po 
and habit of acting on such knowled 
a power and habit that mean immeasur 
for character. It is for the need of 
balanced power that contests in the t 
ness world reach the point of winnin 
any cost, by fair means or foul. It is 
the need of such trained and balai 
power of will that our highways of fine 
are strewn with the wrecks of able r 
If the love of fair play, a sense of 
moral values, and above all, the power 
habit of will to act on these can be 
veloped in our boys and girls, it will n 
immeasurably for the uplift of the 



r 47 



e natural interests of a normal child 
him to care for different types of 
s at different periods of his develop- 
In other words, his own powers, in 
natural evolution, seek instinctively 
lements in play that will contribute 
eir own growth. When games are 
|led from this viewpoint of the child's 
ests, they are found to fall into groups 
lg pronounced characteristics at dif- 
it age periods. 


ms, the little child of six years enjoys 
cularly games in which there is much 
tition, as in most of the singing games; 
es involving impersonation, appealing 
s imagination and dramatic sense, as 
e he becomes a mouse, a fox, a sheep- 
a farmer, etc. ; or games of simple 
e (one chaser for each runner) as dis- 
jished from the group-chasing of a few 
s later. His games are of short dura- 
reaching their climax quickly and 
ing but slight demand on powers of 
ition and physical endurance; they re- 
e but little skill and have very few, if 
rules, besides the mere question of 
ing turns." In short, they are the 
es suited to undeveloped powers in 
ost every particular but that of imagina- 

wo or three years later these games are 

to seem "babyish" to a child and to 

interest for him. His games then work 

>ugh a longer evolution before reaching 

r climax, as where an entire group of 

ers instead of one has to be caught 

)re the game is won, as in Red Lion, 

n Pom Pull-away, etc. He can watch 

re points of interest at once than for- 

rly, and choose between several dif- 

:nt possible modes of play, as in 

soners' Base. He gives "dares," runs 

cs of being caught, and exercises his 

irage in many ways. He uses individual 

:iative instead of merely playing in his 

n. This is the age of "nominies," in 

ich the individual player hurls defiance 

his opponents with set formulas, usually 

rhyme. Players at this time band to- 

:her in many of their games in opposing 

)ups, "choosing sides" — the first simple 

ginning of team play. Neuro-muscular 

11 increases, as shown in ball play and in 

agile dodging. Endurance for running is 

When a child is about eleven or twelve 
years of age, some of these characteristics 
decline and others equally pronounced take 
their place. "Nominies" disappear and 
games of simple chase (tag games) decline 
in interest. Races and other competitive 
forms of running become more strenuous, 
indicating a laudable instinct to increase 
thereby the muscular power of the heart, 
at a time when its growth is much greater 
proportionately than that of the arteries, 
and the blood pressure is consequently 
greater. A very marked feature from now 
on is the closer organization of groups into 
what is called team play. Team play bears 
to the simpler group play which precedes 
it an analogous relation in some respects 
to that between modern and primitive war- 
fare. In primitive warfare the action of 
the participants was homogeneous; that is, 
each combatant performed the same kind 
of service as did every other combatant 
and largely on individual initiative. The 
"clash of battle and the clang of arms" 
meant an individual contest for every man 
engaged. In contrast to this there is, in 
modern warfare, a distribution of func- 
tions, some combatants performing one 
kind of duty and others another, all work- 
ing together to the common end. In the 
higher team organizations of basket ball, 
baseball, football, there is such a distribu- 
tion of functions, some players being for- 
wards, some throwers, some guards, etc., 
though these parts are often taken in rota- 
tion by the different players. The strongest 
characteristic of team play is the coopera- 
tion whereby, for instance, a ball is passed 
to the best thrower, or the player having 
the most advantageous position for making 
a goal. A player who would gain glory 
for himself by making a sensational play 
at the risk of losing for his team does not 
possess the team spirit. The traits of 
character required and cultivated by good 
team work are invaluable in business and 
social life. They are among the best pos- 
sible traits of character. This class of games 
makes maximal demands upon perceptive 
powers and ability to react quickly and 
accurately upon rapidly shifting conditions, 
requiring quick reasoning and judgment. 
Organization play of this sort begins to 
acquire a decided interest at about eleven 
or twelve years of age, reaches a strong 



development in the high schools, and con- 
tinues through college and adult life. 


Such are the main characteristics of the 
games which interest a child and aid his 
development at different periods. They are 
all based upon a natural evolution of phy- 
sical and psychological powers that can be 
only hinted at in so brief a sketch. Any- 
one charged with the education or training 
of a child should know the results of 
modern study in these particulars. 

The fullest and most practical correla- 
tion of our knowledge of the child's evolu- 
tion to the particular subject of play that 
has yet been presented is that of Mr. 
George E. Johnson, Superintendent of 
Playgrounds in Pittsburgh, and formerly 
Superintendent of Schools in Andover, 
Mass., in Education by Plays and Games. 
The wonderful studies in the psychology of 
play by Karl Groos (The Play of Animals 
and The Play of Man), and the chapter 
by Professor William James on Instinct, 
show how play activities are expressions 
of great basic instincts that are among the 
strongest threads in the warp and woof of 
character — instincts that should have op- 
portunity to grow and strengthen b}^ exer- 
cise, as in play and games. We have come 
to realize that play, in games and other 
forms, is nature's own way of developing 
and training power. As Groos impressive- 
ly says, "We do not play because we are 
young; we have a period of youth so that 
we may play." 

The entire psychology of play bears di- 
rectly on the subject of games. Indeed, 
although the study of games in their vari- 
ous aspects is of comparatively recent date, 
the bibliography bearing on the subject, 
historic, scientific, psychologic, and educa- 
tional, is enormous and demands a distinct 
scholarship of its own. 


It is highly desirable that a teacher 
should know the significance of certain 
manifestations in a child's play interests. 
If they should not appear in due time, they 
should be encouraged, just as attention is 
given to the hygiene of a child who is under 
weight for his age. But it should not be 
inferred that any hard and fast age limits 
may be set for the use of different plays and 
games. To assign such limits would be a 

wholly artificial procedure, and yet is c 
toward which there is sometimes 
strong a tendency. A certain game cam 
be prescribed for a certain age as c 
would diagnose and prescribe for a mala 
Nothing in the life of either child or ad 
is more elastic than his play interests. P 
would not be play were this otherwise. 1 
caprice of mood and circumstance is of t 
very soul of play in any of its forms. 

The experience of the writer has b( 
chiefly away from dogmatic limitations 
the use of games. Very young players a 
adults alike may find the greatest pleasi 
and interest in the same game. Previa 
training or experience, conditions 
fatigue, the circumstances of the mome 
and many other considerations determ 
the suitableness of games. To illustra 
the author has known the game of Thi 
Deep, which is one of the best gymnasii 
games for men, to be played with great 
terest and ability by a class of six-year- 
boys ; arid the same game stupidly and 1 
interestedly bungled over by a class 
much older boys who had not had previa 
training in games and were not alert a 
resourceful. Similarly, the comparative 
simple game of Bombardment may be 
teresting and refreshing for a class of til 
business men, while high-school pup 
coming - to care largely for team play m 
prefer Battle Ball, a more closely organiz 
game of the same type. In general, bo 
and girls dislike the mode of play they ha 
just outgrown, but the adult often com 
again to find the greatest pleasure in t 
simpler forms, and this without reachi 
second childhood. 


The index of games for elementary a 
high schools contained in this volume cc 
stitutes a graded course based on expe 
mental graded course study of childrei 
interests. This grading of the games f 
schools is made, not with the slightest t 
lief or intention that the use of a gar 
should be confined to any particular gra 
or age of pupils, but largely, among oth 
considerations, because it has been foil 
advantageous in a school course to ha 
new material in reserve as pupils progre 
The games have usually been listed for t 
earliest grade in which they have be 
found, on the average, of sufficient inten 
to be well played, with the intention th 



i be used thereafter in any grade where 
y prove interesting. This school index 

grades, which include most of the 
les, will be found a general guide for 

age at which a given game is suitable 
[er any circumstances. 


A he relation of games to a school pro- 

m is many-sided. To sit for a day in 

lass room observing indications of phy- 

1 and mental strain and fatigue is to be 

vnnced beyond question that the school- 

ni work and conditions induce a tre- 

ndous nervous strain, not only through 

longed concentration on academic sub- 

ts, but through the abnormal repression 

movement and social intercourse that 

omes necessary for the maintenance of 

cipline and proper conditions of study. 

a session advances, there is needed a 

ady increase in the admonitions that re- 

ain neuro-muscular activity as shown in 

: unnecessary handling of books and 

icils and general restlessness; also re- 

aint of a desire to use the voice and com- 

micate in a natural outlet of the social 

tinct. One is equally impressed with 

: prolonged continuance of bad postures, 

which the chest is narrowed and de- 

essed, the back and shoulders rounded 

'ward, and the lungs, heart, and digestive 

gans crowded upon one another in a way 

at impedes their proper functioning and 

iuces passive congestion. In short, the 

rvous strain for both pupil and teacher, 

need for vigorous stimulation of 

spiration and circulation, for an outlet for 

e repressed social and emotional nature, 

r the correction of posture, and for a 

ange from abstract academic interests, 

e all largely indicated. Nothing can cor- 

ct the posture but formal gymnastic work 

:lected and taught for that purpose; but 

te other conditions may be largely and 

.lickly relieved through the use of games. 

ven five minutes in the class room will do 

lis — five minutes of lively competition, 

laughter, and of absorbing involuntary 

terest. The more physical activity there 

in this the better, and fifteen minutes of 

ren freer activity in the fresh air of the 

ayground is more than fifteen times 


The typical school recess is a sad apology 
>r such complete refreshment of body and 
ind. A few pupils take the center of the 

field of play, while the large majority, most 
of whom are in greater need of the exer- 
cise, stand or walk slowly around the edges 
talking over the teacher and the lesson' 
An organized recess, by which is meant a 
program whereby only enough classes go 
to the playground at one time to give op- 
portunity for all of the pupils to run and 
play at once, does away with these objec- 
tions, if some little guidance or leadership 
be eiven the children for lively games. The 
best discipline the writer has ever seen, in 
either class room or playground, has been 
where games are used, the privilege of play 
being the strongest possible incentive to 
instant obedience before and after. Besides, 
with such a natural outlet for repressed 
instincts, their ebullition at the wrong time 
is not so apt to occur. Many principals 
object to recesses because of the moral con- 
tamination for which those periods are 
often responsible. The author has had re- 
peated and convincing testimony of the 
efficacy of games to do away with this ob- 
jection. The game becomes the one 
absorbing interest of recess, and everything 
else gives way before it. Dr. Kratz, super- 
intendent of schools in Sioux City, Iowa, 
was one of the first school superintendents 
in the country to go on record for this 
benefit from games, and much fuller experi- 
ence has accumulated since. 

The growth of large cities has been so 
comparatively recent that we are only be- 
ginning to realize the limitations they put 
upon normal life in many ways and the 
need for special effort to counterbalance 
these limitations. The lack of opportunity 
for natural play for children and voung 
people is one of the saddest and most harm- 
ful in its effects upon growth of body and 
character. The number of children who 
have only the crowded city streets to plav 
in is enormous, and any one visiting the 
public schools in the early fall days mav 
readily detect by the white faces those who 
have had no other opportunity to benefit 
by the summer's fresh air and sunshine. 
The movement to provide public play 
grounds for children and more park space 
for all classes in our cities is one connected 
vitally with the health, strength, and en- 
durance of the population. The crusade 
asrainst tuberculosis has no stronger allv. 



Indeed, vital resistance to disease in any 
form must be increased by such oppor- 
tunities for fresh air, sunshine, and exer- 
cise. This whole question of the budding 
up of a strong physique is an economic one, 
bearing directly on the industrial power of 
the individual." and upon community ex- 
penditures for hospitals and other institu- 
tions for the care of the dependent and dis- 
abled classes. 

The crippling of moral power is found to 
be fully as much involved with these condi- 
tions as is the weakening of physical 
power. Police departments have repeated- 
iv reported that the opening of playgrounds 
lias resulted in decrease of the number of 
arrests and cases of juvenile crime in their 
vicinity; also decrease of adult disturbances 
resulting from misdeeds of the children. 
They afford a natural and normal outlet for 
energies that otherwise go astray in de- 
struction of property, altercations, and 
depredations of many sorts, so that the 
cost of a playground is largely offset by the 
decreased cost for detection and prosecu- 
tion of crime, reformatories, and related 


It would be a mistake to think that the 
children of the poor are the only ones who 
need the physical and moral benefit of nor- 
mal childish play. One is forced to the 
conclusion that many children of the rich 
are even more to be pitied, for the shackles 
of conventionality enslave them from the 
outset. Many, are blase with opera and 
picture exhibits — typical forms of pleasure 
for the adult of advanced culture — without 
ever having had the free laughter and frolic 
of childhood. That part of the growing-up 
process more essential for character is 
literally expunged from life for them. One 
need spend but an hour in a city park to 
see that many children are restrained from 
the slightest running or frolic because it 
would soil their clothes or be otherwise 
"undesirable." The author recalls a private 
school for girls in which laughter was 
checked at recess because it was "unlady- 


In contrast to this barbarous repression 
are some delightful instances of provision 
for normal childish play and exercise for 
such children. In one of our large Eastern 
cities a teacher was employed for several 
seasons to play games with a group of chil- 

dren on a suburban lawn to which all r< 
paired twice a week. This was genuin 
play, full of exercise and sport and laugl; 
ter. In another Eastern city a teacher wa 
similarly employed for many seasons J 
coach a basket ball team in the small re|j 
area of the typical city residence. Teacher 
of physical training and others are doin 
much to organize this sort of exercise, ir 
eluding tramping clubs and teams fo 
cross-country runs, and the encourag,emen 
of tether ball and other games suited t< 
limited conditions. 


As a nation we are slow to learn th 
value of recreation. We go to the ex 
tremes of using it either not at all or s 
excessively as to exhaust nervous energ 
to the point where "the day we most nee< 
a holiday is the day after a holiday." Thi 
may be different when we learn more fulb 
that the recuperative power of short inter 
vals of complete relaxation has a genuine 
investment value. The increased output o 
energy afterward, the happier spirits, pro 
longed endurance, clearer thinking, anc 
the greater ease and pleasure with whicr 
work is done, more than compensate foi 
the time required. It has been stated thai 
one large manufacturing concern has founc 
it greatly to its advantage to give a dail) 
recess period to its employes at its owr 
expense, the loss of working time being 
compensated in the quality of the output 
following, which shows, for instance, in the 
fewer mistakes that have to be rectified 
The welfare work of our large stores and 
factories should provide opportunity 
facilities, and leadership for recreative 
periods of this character. 


Eor the brain worker such benefit from 
periods of relaxation is even more 
apparent. Our strenuous and complicated 
civilization makes more and more neces 
sary the fostering of means for complete 
change of thought. When this can be 
coupled with invigorating physical exercise, 
as in active games, it is doubly beneficial; 
but whether games be active or quiet, the 
type of recreation found in them for both 
child and adult is of especial value. It 
affords an emotional stimulus and outlet, 
an opportunity for social co-operation, an 
involuntary absorption of attention, and 
generally an occasion for hearty laughter, 



tat few other forms of recreation supply. 
The list in this volume of games for 
Duse parties and country clubs is given 
ith the hope of making games more avail- 
)le for adults, though with the knowledge 
lat guests on such occasions take in a wide 
inge of ages, and many games for young 
eople are included. These are equally 
ppropriate for the home circle. In addi- 
on, the so-called gymnasium games offer 
)ine of the finest recreative exercise. 


The author would like to make a special 
lea for the playing together of adults and 
hildren. The pleasure to the child on 
Lich occasions is small compared to the 
leasure and benefit that may be derived 
y the grown-up. To hold, in this way, to 
iat youth of spirit which appreciates and 
liters into the clear-eyed sport and frolic 
f the child, is to have a means of renewal 
)r the physical, mental, and moral nature, 
i a large city in the middle west there is 

club formed for the express purpose of 
iving the parents who are members an 
pportunity to enjoy their children in this 

ay. i he club meets one evening a week. 
t is composed of a few professional and 
usiness men and their wives and children. 

meets at the various homes, the hostess 
eing responsible for the program, which 
onsists of musical or other numbers 
rendered partly by the children and partly 
y the adults), of occasional dancing, and 
f games, some of which must always call 
or the mutual participation of the children 
nd their elders. A more beautiful idea for 
. club could scarcely be devised. It is also 
. tragic fact that, lacking such an occasion, 
nany parents have little opportunity to 
njoy their children, or, alas ! even to know 


Another illustration may indicate even 
nore strongly the benefits from such social 
gatherings of adults and children. In a 
small town where the young boys and girls 
spent more evenings than seemed wise in 
)laces of public amusement, a teacher of 
)hysical training not long ago opened a 
:lass for them expressly to meet this situa- 
:ion. The program included games, danc- 
ng, and formal exercise, and a special 
effort was made to teach things of this 
sort that might be used for gatherings at 
!iome. The class fulfilled its object so well 

that the parents themselves became in- 
terested, began to attend the sessions and 
participate in the games, until they were an 
integral part of all that went on — a whole- 
some and delightful association for all con- 
cerned, and one that practically ended the 
tendencies it was designed to overcome. 

Mr. Myron T. Scudder, in his practical 
and stimulating pamphlet on games for 
country children (Country Play; a Field 
Day and Play Picnic for Country Children. 
Published by Charities, New York.), points 
out a very real factor in the failure of 
American country life to hold its young 
people when he cites the lack of stimula- 
tion, organization, and guidance for the 
play activities of the young. It is a mis- 
taken idea that country children and youths 
have through the spaciousness of environ- 
ment alone all that they need of play. Or- 
ganization and guidance are often needed 
more than for the city children whose in- 
stincts for social combination are more 


T should be the aim of 
teachers and principals to 
make the life of the school, in 
every activity and relation 
count for moral education. 
This aim should vitally affect not only the 
teaching of every subject and the treatment 
of every problem of discipline and training, 
but also the general atmosphere and spirit 
of the classroom and of the school. In 
working toward this aim, the following 
suggestions will be found helpful : 

i. The personality of the teacher is at 
the root of all moral education in the 
school. The teacher's voice, speech, bear- 
ing, and dress ; the teacher's poise, self- 
control, courtesy, kindness ; the teacher's 
sincerity, ideals, and attitude toward life, 
are inevitably reflected in the character of 
his pupils. 

2. Reverence is vital to morality. What- 
ever quickens in children the feeling of 
dependence on a Higher Power ; whatever 
leads them devoutly to wonder at the order, 
beautv, or mystery of the universe : what- 
ever arouses in them the sentiment of wor- 
ship or fills them with admiration of true 
greatness, promotes reverence. There is 
no subject studied in school which, 



reverently taught, may not yield its contri- 
bution to this sentiment. 

3. Self-respect, which is also funda- 
ment? 1 to moral development, is engen- 
dered in a child when he does his best at 
tasks that are worth while and within his 
power to do well, with proper recognition 
by teacher and school-fellows of work well 

4. The cornerstone of a self respecting 
character is principle — the will to be true 
to the right because it is right, whatever 
the consequences, to act "with firmness in 
the right as God gives us to see the right." 
The essential difference between principle 
and mere self-interest should be vividly 
brought home to each child. 

5. The spirit of the class room and of 
the school — the spirit that makes children 
say with pride "my class" and "our school" 
— is one of the strongest of moral forces. 
Where there exists a proper esprit de corps, 
the problem of discipline is largely solved. 
Public opinion as a moral force should be 
moulded and utilized in every school. 

6. The child should early gain the idea 
of social membership. The truth that co- 
operation and unselfishness are essential to 
true social living should be made real and 
vital. This truth is brought home through 
"group work" where the work of each is 
necessary to the work of all; and through 
the feeling in a school or class that the 
honor of all is in the keeping of each. 

The child should also learn that he is a 
member, not only of the school, but of the 
family, of the neighborhood, of the city, 
and of the state and nation. What it means 
to be a loyal member of these social institu- 
tions should be made clear. The natural- 
ness and the necessity of obedience and of 
helpfulness should be shown. The moral 
aspect of home tasks, and of working with 
the departments of health, parks, street 
cleaning, police, and education, and not 
against them, should be enforced by con- 
crete applications. In general, the truth 
should be impressed that without loyal and 
effective social membership no individual 
can lead a complete life. 

7. No person has a fully developed 
moral character until there has been a 
transfer of the seat of authority from with- 
out to within himself; a moral man obeys 
himself. Each child in every grade should 
be steadily helped towards' self direction 
and self government. Effective means to 

this end are: appeals to initiative and n 
sourcefulness; the development of such 
sense of honor as will preserve order witl 
out surveillance; and some form of organ 
zation designed to quicken and exercis 
the sense of responsibility. To trust 
child tends to make him trustworthy. 1 
system of pupil self government, if wise! 
applied and not encumbered with unnece 
sary machinery, may be found effectivt 
The form, however, of the organization i 
immaterial. The essential point is that th 
teacher, himself a member of the commun 
ity, should make his pupils sharers to 
certain extent in the problems arising ou 
of their community life ; and that he shoul 
entrust to them as members in their owi 
right of the social body the performanci 
of certain functions. Such training h 
social activity is effective training fo 
citizenship. Under such conditions "goo< 
order" will mean not so much the refrain 
ing from disorder as the condition o 
effective co-operation. 

8. Each school study has a specif! 
moral value. Literature and history em 
body in concrete form moral facts anc 
principles, showing to the child his owi 
self "writ large," furnishing him with ideals 
and incentives, and moulding his mora 
judgment; and they will accomplish these 
results the more surely as the teacher is 
himself moved by that which is presented 
Every subject involving observation anc 
expression is essentially moral. Ever) 
subject, therefore, should be so taught as 
to make for truth telling in word and act 
and for training in self expression. 

9. In connection with the regular 
studies of the school, such aspects of con 
temporary civilization as are of value for 
developing the social spirit should receive 
attention. Hospitals, societies for the pre- 
vention of cruelty to children and to 
animals, homes for orphans and for the 
aged and infirm, fresh air funds, and similar 
agencies for social service should be 
brought within the child's comprehension 
as opportunity offers. Deeds of heroism 
and self sacrifice done by firemen, police- 
men, soldiers, and other persons, should be 
presented and commended. The truth that 
success in life means more than mere 
money getting can thus be brought home 
again and again. The contemplation of 
dee Is of cruelty, dishonor, and shame has 


J 53 

ecessary, though subordinate, place in 

tiding moral taste. 

or further elucidation of this topic the 

:her should refer to the syllabus in 


D. The following list of topics affords 

jects for many practical lessons in 

•als and manners : 

a) Duties to parents, brothers, sisters, 
playmates ; to servants and other 

loyes ; to employers and all in author- 
to the aged, the poor, and the unfortu- 

b) Conduct at home, at the table, at 
ool, on the street, in public assemblies, 

in public conveyances. 

c) The common virtues, such as 
parity, punctuality, self control, cheer- 
less, neatness, purity, temperance, 
iestry, truthfulness, obedience, industry, 

In all such moral instruction and 
dance the following principles should be 
;erved: (a) The course of moral train- 
is a development, in which the child is 
t led to act rightly and afterward to 
rk from principle ; he proceeds from 
idience on faith to obedience on prin- 
le ; from regularity to faithfulness. The 
Id also develops from egoism to 
ruism. His impulse toward self interest 
rmally develops earlier than his impulse 
put himself in another's place. Upon the 
1 development of the former stage de- 
ids the full development of the latter. 

(b) The culture of the imagination is 
powerful aid in moral instruction; first, 

the power vividly to picture conse- 
ences — to put yourself in your own 
ice later on (foresight) ; secondly, as the 
wer to "put yourself in his place" (social 
agination, sympathy). 

(c) In using literature and similar 
iterial for purposes of moral education, 
i teacher should not violate the law of 
f activity. The child may resent having 
noral drawn for him which he can draw 
• himself. He is the more likely to follow 
i principle which he himself discovers or 
■mulates because it is his own. 

(d) The more effective method in 
)ral education is positive rather than 
gative. A mind filled with worthy in- 
vest, high ideals, and helpful activities, 
s no room for evil. Approbation more 
an censure leads to well-doing. Love is 
stronger and a better motive than fear. 

(e) At every stage of school life pupils 
should be taught that they live under in- 
exorable laws which they cannot violate 
with impunity, both physical laws and 
moral laws. Obedience is not optional; it 
is compulsory. Penalty follows law break- 
ing as surely as night follows day, though 
the penalty is not always immediate. 


The class library is designed to supple- 
ment school work and to furnish the 
teacher with such material as will attract 
the children to books, create a love for good 
literature, and encourage the habit of read- 
ing outside of school hours. A good rule 
to be followed in the selection of books is 
the one laid down by Dr. Hill in "The True 
Order of Studies;" "The most instructive 
reading for a person of any age, old or 
young, is that in which the author's tone of 
thought is above the average tone of the 
reader's thought, and yet not beyond his 

The pupils should have convenient access 
to the library for reference work and gen- 
eral reading. They should be encouraged 
to draw books and take them home. Books 
should be kept not longer than two weeks 
without renewal; and such books as are 
in great demand should not be retained by 
a pupil more than one week. 


(Old Rhyme) 

January brings the snow, 
Makes our feet and fingers glow. 

"The downy flakes 
Descending and with never-ending lapse, 
Softly alighting upon all below, 
Assimilate all objects." Cowper. 

"Blow, blow, thou winter wind, 

Thou are not so unkind 

As man's ingratitude." Shakespeare. 

"There was never a leaf on bush or tree, 
The bare boughs rattled shudderingly; 
The river was numb, and could not speak, 
For the weaver Winter its shroud had spun; 
A single crow on the tree-top bleak 
From his shining feathers shed off the cold sun. 


"All Nature feels the renovating force 
Of Winter, only to the thoughtless eye 
In ruin seen." Thomson. 

"Ah! bitter chill it was. 

The owl for all his feathers was a-cold." 





(A New Translation by BERTHA JOHNSTON.) 

Order, the "first law of Heaven," and one 

Essential to Heaven in the life of each son 

Of the Father: The planets, the seasons, the tide, 

Teach order and time in God's universe wide — 

And he who would truly succeed in life here, 

Keeps Order and Time in his own little sphere. 

The infant's wee heart beats in rhythm and time 

As the stars move by law in their orbits sublime, 

Environed by order he learns to delight 

In law that will help him to lead life aright. 

* » * * * * * * 

"Rise, rise, Br-r-r-r-r" the clock cries, 
"Promptness gives mother a happy surprise." 

"Eat, eat, punctual and neat, 

That is the way to grow sturdy and sweet." 

"School, school, promptness the rule 
Knowledge is always a valuable tool." 

"Work, work, never a shirk, 

Power and joy in true labor e'er lurk." 

"Play, play, part of each day, 
This admonition is sweet to obey." 

"Sleep, sleep, slumbering deep, 

Sleep shepherd all of Time's weary wee sheep." 

NOTE — In his verses for the child Froebel indi- 
cates the various activities which the clock helps 
us to do in an orderly way. These have been 
literally translated in the Hubbard kindergarten 
song book and we have not attempted a similar 
word-for-word translation. The lines above how- 
ever, carry the child through his busy day and may 
be recited with the arm or leg swinging in regular 


(A motion play that develops the arm.) 

This is easy in practice. Your child, O 
nurturing mother, either stands upon a 
table, as shown in the picture, or may just 
as well sit upon your lap, in such a way that 
one of his arms is free, so that you can 
move it like a pendulum. It is scarcely 
necessary to mention that the exercise is 
not confined exclusively to either the right 
or the left arm. It may be said, however, 
that for the all-sided development of your 
child, this play may alternate with the right 
and the left legs also, thus contributing 
much towards improvement in his health, 
beauty, grace and activity. 

Shall we, reflective mother, talk together 
familiarly about the picture? Yet you know 
all this better than I do. I learned it first 
through observing your thoughtful, mother- 
ly activities. 

You are quite right, dear mother. It is 
certainly noteworthy, that all that comes 
under the name of time-piece is alluring to 

children. (Here, as in many other thin 
the Swiss say, very significantly, Zitt 
Zeit, "Time"). I cannot free myself frc 
the conviction (certainly as regards t 
welfare of the children) that this, like ma 
others, may be referred to something hig 
er and more spiritual — that it may be e 
plained by reference to a certain presen 
ment, an affinity to the spirit. It is certa 
that the law of motion (rhythm) as e 
pressed in the ever-regular oscillation 
the pendulum, is very alluring, and you i 
remember, O well-instructed mother, thin 
ing of your schooldays, that the nature, tl 
velocity of the oscillation of the pendulu 
has taught us many important things co: 
cerning higher mathematics and the top 
graphy of the earth, so that it would appe; 
that the presentiment of a higher signi 
icance in the allurement of the clock woul 
be found here. But admitting this; tl 
movement, the wheelwork, the apparent lii 
in the clock, the mechanism, especially th 
concealment, with the mystery of the sami 
are what you say attracts your child. ' 

It may be so in part, I will admit, but nc 
entirely so. Or why do children construe 
as I have often noticed, sundials in whic 
there is no movement to be seen other tha 
that of the almost imperceptible advanc 
of the shadow? Allow me, then, th 
opinion, the belief, the conviction, whateve 
you may call it, that the child's pleasure ii 
the play and representation of the clock ha 
its ground in his dormant premonition o 
the importance of time. My view injure 
neither the child nor anyone else, but maj 
be profitably applied for the benefit of th 
child and every one else. For who does nol 
know the importance of the right use o 
time under all circumstances' of life? 
know of scarcely anything that is more im 
portant to man from his earliest appearance 
on the earth than the comprehension of and 
observance of accurate time. Does not the 
very life of the infant in the first moment 
depend upon this? It is therefore in the 
highest degree essential that the liking of 
the child, this instinct, his intense attraction 
towards the clock, should be so utilized as 
to train him to a right comprehension of, a 
punctual observance of the right use of 

Attentive mother, we will use our little 
play with the limbs to develop in the dear 
child the heed of time so that later he may 



understand you, when if pleading, "show 
me the picture," you say 

"Pussy likes to make herself so very neat and clean 
Pleasure she gives to every one by whom she may 
be seen." 

"Surely it must know that it is nearly 
time for some dear guests to arrive. Come 
too, my dear child," says mother to him, 
"that you may be made clean and bright" 
for soon a couple of dear visitors are coming 
to see my child. The father's dear eyes; 
they are so clear and bright, they must find 
my child pure also. Then, too, the beautiful 
flowers and the clean doves are coming. My 
child must be clean and sweet throughout 
to receive such dear visitors. 

"But my dear child is always having 
visitors ; soon the bright sunbeams, the 
shining stars and the luminous moon will 
come. All want to see and caress my child. 
All want to see my child because they have 
heard how pure he is ; otherwise the pure 
would avoid my child who would only pain 
them and himself. Therefore, wherever 
you may be always keep yourself clean and 

Five children are playing "clock". These 
five children are five little fingers which 
want to learn how to tell the right time 
perfectly that they may do everything in 
just the right time. "Come here, yon five 
little fingers of my child and learn some- 
thing from the five little children.* 

NOTE — It is a peculiarity of child life to asso- 
ciate an activity so closely with its object that 
they often form the object (united with the sign 
jf the activity) directly from the active verb. Not 
interfering with this, one can later readily under- 
stand the peculiarities of other dialects. Thus, in 
Dne part of Switzerland they say, shortly, "what 
blocks it" instead of "what o'clock is it?" And a 
child says "I will road it" instead of "I will play 
in the road." 


The quaint picture called "Tick, Tack" 
iepicts a mother standing by a table upon 
which stands the little child. The mother 
swings her arm in imitation of the pendulum 
}f the clock upon the wall, showing the 
:hild how to move his arm. The babe has 
evidently just had his bath as indicated by 
the broad, shallow tub and the ewer upon 
the floor, and the basin and cloth upon the 
table. The pendulum of the carved clock 
upon the wall swings vigorously — below it 
is the high narrow box into which sink the 
weights. The cat sits upon the floor clean- 
ing herself. Apparently the time for baby's 
bath is the time for hers. The heavily cur- 

tained bed recalls the days of old when life 
was not so hygienic as now. In the upper 
left-hand corner is a window beneath which 
is a clock. Three children lean from this 
window and on each side of the clock stands 
a child, making five in all, all intensely in- 
terested in the timepiece. 


Froebel gives the suggestion for exercis- 
ing the arms and legs by rhythmic singing. 
The muscles of the neck may also receive 
exercise by having the child play cuckoo 
clock, bending his head and calling 
"cuckoo" a given number of times accord- 
ing to the hour. Let other children count 
and tell what time it is. Let one child stand 
in center of circle and represent a certain 
time of day dramatically, the other children 
guessing the time meant. Thus, one child 
stretches and rubs his eyes. That means 
time to get up ? Another plays eat or drink, 
which means breakfast time. Another folds 
hands and rests his head upon them, with 
closed eyes — bed-time. Another looks 
hastily at the clock and suddenly runs — 

Hour- Glass 

Arrange kindergarten chairs, or perhaps 
two lines of children in form of cross, like 
hour-glass with a space at center. Have 
other children fill up space formed by one 
angle, and at given word, one by one quick- 
ly hurry through opening into the remain- 
ing angle. Train them to do this quickly 
but without crowding or puslrng. It will 
be a good exercise to help them in a crowd 
when boarding a train, or going through 
any other narrow passage-way —to do it 
without elbowing other people or being 
rude or thoughtless. 


Let the children represent different kinds 
of clocks as their ingenuity may suggest. 
For instance, the cuckoo clock is easily 
shown ; the hall-clock may be represented 
by standing straight and tall and ticking 
slowly and sonorously; the pendulum 
swinging slowly. The alarm-clock is known 
by its sudden harsh rattle, and a musical 
child may represent a chiming clock. We 
have written some lines that may accom- 
pany sale of clocks when people come to 
buv, for instances school repreesntative, 
business men and others. 



When in the morning off goes the alarm, 

Up we jump bravely, in city or farm— 

Tho 1 we are sorry from warm beds to leap 

\NVre glad that it saves us from long over-sleep. # 


Here is a clock for the kitchen wall 

This kind you need the most of all; 

Telling the cook when 'tis time to prepare 

All the good things for our daily fare 

Wholesome and tasty, cooked to a turn 

Nothing is underdone, never a burn 

Cheer and good courage, for work and for play 

We owe to the clock that goes never astray. 

In all of the schoolrooms the strict clock is seen; 
[t looks at the children, its face bright and clean. 
The hour it points out when each lesson is due — 
Geography, history, arithmetic too, 
It alwavs keeps time and it never seems slow 
When all of the children their lessons well know. 


A study of the clock upon the wall may 
lead to a discussion of the cuckoo-clock and 
similar ones made in the famous Black 
Forest each part made by a different family 
and then brought together to make the en- 
tire timepiece. Do we observe that the 
weights are usually made in the shape of 
pine-cones? The Black Forest is so-called 
because of the splendid pines that give it 
such deep shadows. 

From this as a point of departure refer- 
ence may be made to the evolution of time- 
piece. How do primitive peoples measure 
time? By means of the moon (moons of 
the Indians) stars and sun. The regular 
movement of these heavenly bodies brings 
the day and night, summer and winter, 
seedtime and harvest. Speak of Halley's 
comet which is already visible to the 
astronomers and will be plain to the average 
eye in March or April next. It was so called 
because Halley first identified it as one that 
had appeared in ages past at regular inter- 
vals of about seventy-five years. The won- 
der of it all! And yet little insignificant 
man can measure and keep account of these 
beautiful and awesome bodies. The regular 
rise and ebb of the tide is another great 
mystery coincident with certain phases of 
the moon. 

Speak of the sundial and make a simple 
one on the floor of the school room or in 
the school yard. Just a stick placed in 
one spot so it casts a shadow daily will do 
if the children notice it at the same time 
each day. Tell of the sundials in old gar- 
dens and on ancient buildings all through 
Europe. Why not useful on a rainy day? 
Describe the candles of King Alfred that 
measured time as they burned and an hour- 

glass for egg-boiling can be procured at a 
hardware store. 

Speak of the pendulum and show move- 
ment with a cord and small weight attached. 
Whether the string be short or long it will 
take just as long a time for the pendulum to 
swing between the same given points. 

'ihe first watch was made in Nuremberg 
and was called the "Nuremberg tgg" be- 
cause egg-shaped. 

In Chicago, one of the railway stations 
was in charge of a woman who loved plants 
and she planted shrubs of such varieties 
that all the time, at least one shrub would 
be in blossom; one in spring, one in fall, 
etc., during the blossoming season. 

The complex clocks that tell the hourly 
time and the season, moon-phases, etc., 
must be wound with great regularity, the 
same day every year. 

Some of the famous historic clocks should 
be described, as that of Strasburg, and that 
of Prague with the moving figures. Col- 
gate's Perfumery Company of New York 
have erected a clock on the Jersey shore of 
the Hudson with a face so broad (30 feet 
in diameter) that it can be seen across the 
river from the metropolis. 

Speak of the clocks that have chimes. In- 
deed the word "clock" comes from a Ger- 
man word meaning "bell." 

Switzerland is famous for handmade 
watches and fine ones, by machinery are 
well made in Elgin, 111. 

Read the Battle of Waterloo with its dis- 
astrous results for Napoleon; also Thomas 
K. Beecher's beautiful story "The People 
That Dwell in My Watch" in his volume 
"In Time With the Stars," published by 
Billings, Elmira, N. Y. Those who read 
German would be interested in "Som- 
mertage Im Schwarzwald," by A. Rutari, 
which in one chapter describes the people 
of the Black Forest who make the clocks. 

Tell the story of Galileo and the inven- 
tion of the pendulum. 

Discuss the other parts of a clock, 
weights, wheels, face, hands. Of what is 
each part made? In a historic old house in 
Connecticut is a large clock where every 
part is made of wood. 

Speak of the sections into which the 
United States is divided for uniformity 
of time for railroads. Why does New York 
time differ from Chicago time if reckoned 
by the sun? Which devises the most exact 



imepieces, an agricultural country like old 
'alestine, or a commercial and manufactur- 
lg country? How is time marked on ship- 
oard? By bells. 


It will probably be noticed that, in the 
Commentary, Froebel omits saying very 
luch about what constitutes the main 
liought of the verses for the child; i. e. 
iat there is a time for doing everything, 
ating, playing, sleeping, working. He 
wells principally upon the side issue, the 
esults of the bath in making the child sweet 
nd pure and clean. He appears to have 
rifted away from his main argument of the 
nportance of time — at least he does not 
mphasize it, in his speech with the child 
lthough he does in the first paragraphs. 
Vhether we agree with him or not in the 
sasons he assigns for the child's interest 
1 the clock, we must all acknowledge that 
e who is mindful of time and order, who is 
unctual in affairs, in keeping his engage- 
lents, in attendance upon meetings, etc., is 
kely to be responsible in other matters and 
ertainly helps the wheels of commercial 
nd of personal intercourse to move smooth- 
And history tells us that momentous 
vents have hung upon "-being on time." 
'erhaps the best known instance of this is 
le defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo because 
xpected reinforcements did not appear at 
le time appointed. 

As Froebel points out, the very life of the 
ew-born infant may depend upon knowing 
diat to do at the right time, and regularity 
f function with the child as with the adult, 
leans good health. Regularity in eating 
nd sleeping brings regularity of function. 
Regularity at meals, at school, at play, 
rhen not carried to extremes, simplifies 
ving in these strenuous days and helps the 
hild to self-control and serenity of spirit, 
'unctuality at meals should be impressed 
pon children as the meal hour is so often 
:ie only time when the entire family can 
et together to become acquainted with 
ach other. 

Value to business of punctuality! If one 
erson is late to a committee meeting or 
usiness meeting it means waste of time to 
liose who arrive on time. Explanation of 
time and tide wait- for no man." Result 
pon business if trains did not start at regu- 
ir times but at beck and call of individual 
eople. In which community is business 
lost alive, those in which trains do not 

come and go on schedule time or those in 
which there is precise punctuality. In times 
past ships had to come and go according to 
high tide but now in these days of steam- 
ships and with harbors that have been deep- 
ened and widened, ocean liners begin to 
travel with the regularity of ferryboats. 

What about punctuality in school attend- 
ance? Does tardiness affect the general 
standard of the class? Have we any right 
to bring down the record because of our 
delinquency? What about cultivating 
punctuality when young that we may be 
punctual in business later? 

If we are employes are we going to be 
late to the shop or factory? What about 
the ethics of docking employes for tardi- 
ness? If all employes were conscientious 
would this be necessary? Are we going to 
leave work the minute "Time is up," leav- 
ing the letter unfinished, the sentence in- 
complete, the bit of carpenter work to be 
finished next day? With older children the 
rights and wrongs of the labor unions in 
regard to shortening hours may be dis- 
cussed. Sometimes employers have made 
the work days so long that it has affected 
the health of the employes and on the other 
hand the unions have to some degree weak- 
ened the conscience and moral responsibility 
of the employes so that they do not take 
the joy in good workmanship that they 
should and are all too ready to leave the 
minute the clock strikes, even though work 
could be finished in a few minutes. It is 
dishonest for the employe to waste his 
employer's time and it is dishonest for the 
employer to insist on hours that are too 
long, using up strength that he can never 
pav for. Are some of our children going in 
time to help solve in equity some of these 
momentous problems? Are we going in 
business to "do to others as we would that 
they should to us?" 


Do the little angel children, 

Living up so very high, 
Take the sparkling, golden jewels 

From the blue pin-cushion sky? 

Do they wear them in the day time 
And when evening shadows fall. 

Stick them back in the blue cushion 
For the dear delight of all? 

No pennies, nickles and dimes go to Alaska. 
Nothing can be bought in the Klondike for less 
than twenty-five cents. 

i 5 8 





HE drowsy summer afternoon 

1 was fast sinking into twilight 

when Mr. Bumblebee, the 

proprietor of the Morning 

Glory Inn, was suddenly 

oused from his 'quiet nap by the tinkle- 
tinkle of a bell in his office. 

"Well, i declare," he exclaimed, "I must 
have just lost myself, and there goes the 
telephone. Hello! Who's this? Little 
keep Sweet Fairy? Oh, yes, indeed; this 
season of the year we always have bed 
rooms whose doors open at the first peep 
of the sun. Oh, yes, we'll see that you get 
started early. \ou will arrive when the 
first heaven candle is lighted? All right, 
I'll tell Miss Butterfly to be ready to escort 
you to your room at once. Good-bye." 

Stepping out to the door of his office, 
which was a big morning glory blossom, 
he signaled to Miss Butterfly, the chamber- 
maid"", telling her that little Keep Sweet 
Fairy was to spend the night in bud-room 
number six, and she must keep watch for 
she would soon arrive. 

Having lighted the first star-candle, Miss 
Butterfly seated herself on a big leaf near 
the door of the inn to await the arrival of 
the guest. She noted that the star was 
burning brightly and was just thinking 
that Dorothy Bumblebee had taken good 
care of it when she heard a slight noise 
and Little Keep Sweet appeared. Miss 
Butterfly thought she never had seen a 
more dainty little creature. Her long 
golden hair hung in two great braids to the 
bottom of her dainty white spider-web 
dress ; her innocent big blue eyes looked 
out from the sweetest little face imaginable. 
Just a wee pale and tired now from the 
long dav's work. She looked just like a 
stately little lily as she stood there all in 
gauzy white with her tiny fairy wand held 
lightly in her hand. As soon as she saw 
Miss Butterfly her face brightened up and 
gliding swiftly to the big leaf she said with 
a charming smile: 

"Good-evening, Miss Butterfly. I hope 
1 have not kept you waiting long. I think 
[ will go to my room right away, please, 
for I am very tired and have much to do on 
the morrow." 

Miss Butterfly at once touched a bell and 

the Morning Glory elevator came swiftly 
down. As soon as they had stepped inside 
Tommy Ant, the elevator boy, pulled on 
the tendrils of the vine and they swiftly 
rose to bud number six. Little Keep Sweet, 
pushing open the petals, slipped into the 
cozy room, and, having prepared for the 
night, was soon sound asleep. 

Meanwhile Miss Butterfly flew to the 
garden and picking two tiny lily cups filled 
one with nectar for the guest's breakfast 
and another larger one with dew-drops for 
her morning bath. Having placed these 
outside the door of bud number six, she 
flew to make ready for other guests. 

To Little Keep Sweet it seemed only a 
moment before she was awakened by a 
sunbeam dancing on her pillow but up she 
jumped, eager for the day's work, and 
dressed in such a hurry that she tore a rent 
in her blue morning coat. Such a terrible 
rent that she could not wear it that day. 

"Oh, well, never mind," she said. "I'll 
hurry a little faster and so have time to 
take it to Miss Spider; she is such a dear, 
good, obliging soul, I am sure she will 
mend it so I can have it tonight." 

Throwing it lightly over her arm, she 
picked up her queenly scepter and spread- 
ing her gauzy blue wings was soon out in 
the sunlight. Having left the coat with 
Miss Spider, she went hastily to her store- 
house where she kept all kinds of flower 
perfume. Gathering a day's sweetness 
from each flower she darted forth on her' 
daily rounds, stopping a moment with 
every blossom in the woods, fields, and 
gardens to drop a day's fragrance on the 
delicate petals. Just before leaving each 
place she stood for a moment on the tallest 
flower and reminded them all that they 
were her little helpers in keeping the 
world bright and sweet, and were to do 
their best every chance they had all day. 

By this time the sun was well up and 
the fairy began her real work for the day. 
All the morning she went fluttering about 
from one home to another touching every 
one with her wand. At this magic touch 
the words, "Keep sweet," flashed into 
every one's mind and it made no difference 
how^ they felt before, now they were 
pleasant and kind and happiness reigned 

When afternoon came, Keep Sweet went 
to school and soon every one there felt the 
influence of the beautiful little spirit. As 


J 59 

teacher was closing school she an- 
inced that she was going to the woods 

asked if anyone would like to go with 
Every hand Hew up like a Jack-in- 
-box and a joyous party soon went 
3ping out of the school house door. As 
n as they reached the woods each one 
it skipping away in search of his 
3rite flower and for almost an hour they 
e themselves up to the delights of 
ng time and the flowery treasures 
tied close together in the shade of the 
trees. But no one enjoyed it more than 
Fairy who was happy indeed when she 
how well her flower friends were 
ping their morning promise. 
.s soon as the children were gone. Keep 
let hastened to her room in Morning 
ry Inn, arriving just as friendly Sun 
< to rest behind the hills. 










ENNIE was a little boy who 

lived in the country. He had 

many pets, Nanny, the big 

white sheep; Blacky, the little 

pig with the curly tail ; Cock, 

rooster; and Bob, the old gray horse. 

the one he played with most was 

by, the cat. Tabby and Bennie had 

1 good frolics together. 

ne day Bennie's papa went to town, and 

n he returned home he brought a very 

e basket. What do you suppose was in 

basket? It was a little puppy. "I 

ight Tabby needed a companion," said 

1, "so I brought a little dog home." 

nie quickly named him Rover. Then 

bv was called; but Rover and Tabby 

stood and looked at each other, for 

er had never seen a cat before. How- 

they soon became acquainted. Every 

Tabby and Rover had frolics together 

he yard, and sometimes Bennie joined 

n. Rover grew to be a large dog and 

allowed to go after the cows every day. 

ne morning after Bennie had been to 

barn to say "good morning" to Nanny, 

:ky, Cock, and Bob, he looked for 

bv ; but she was no where to be found. 

n Bennie called, "T-a-b-b-y, T-a-b-b-y," 

she did not answer. Bennie climbed the 

rs and ran to Tabby's home in the cor- 

of the hay-loft. Here he found her with 

:e baby kittens. He took one, but quick- 

ly put it down, for Mamma Tabby had put 
a long scratch on his hand. I Jennie ran to 
the house and told his mamma that Tabby 
had three baby kittens and when he tried 
to touch one, this is what she did. 

"I know why she scratched you," said 
mamma. "She was afraid you would hurt 
her babies, they were so little. When they 
grow older she will let you take them." 

Every day Bennie went to see Tabby and 
the kittens, but one day they were gone 
and when he went to hunt for them he saw 
Tabby carrying one in her mouth, just the 
way mamma cats do, you know. He called 
Rover and they watched Tabby bring her 
kittens down, one at a time, and let them 
play in the yard. Mamma Tabby thought 
they were old enough now to play alone, 
so every day she would leave them, while 
she went to hunt nrce in the barn. One 
day when she called them, only two 
answered her call. Where was the other 
kitten? Rover and Bennie helped Tabby 
hunt, but they could not find her. That 
evening as Rover was driving home the 
cows, he heard a faint little "me-ow, 
me-ow." Over on the other side of the 
brook, which ran through the pasture near 
the barn, was the kitten. Rover jumped 
into the water, swam to the opposite bank, 
picked up the kitten in his mouth just as he 
had seen Tabby do, and swam back again. 
When Tabby saw Rover coming with her 
kitten, she ran to meet him, crying, "me-ow. 
me-ow." That was the way she thanked 




Once upon a time there was two little 
children. One was a little girl and the 
other was a little boy. The little girl's 
name was Irene, and the little boy's name 
was Albert. It was getting near Christmas, 
and they were writing their letter to Santa 
Claus. The little girl asked for a doll and 
doll-house and some books. The little boy 
asked for a rocking horse and a ball, and 
many other toys. Christmas eve came at 
last, and they both hung up their stockings 
and went to bed. The next morning they 
were up at the break of day. The little girl 
looked in her stocking; there was a doll, 
a sled and in the very toe there was a beau- 

tiful ring. 


Then the little boy looked in his 

blew harder, harder; till the little acorn at 
stocking and he had a ball, a horse, a sled last fell on the ground. 

and in the toe of his stocking was a box of "Well, well," said the Lttle acorn, "here 

candy. Then when they had both emptied 

their stockings they went down stairs and 
to their great delight there was a beautiful 
Christmas tree, with little candles and 
candies and everything good. Then the little 
gir! said to her father: "Since I have so 
many nice things, why not give some to 
those who have not so many things?" Then 
her father said: "Well, after breakfast you 
and Albert and I will take some of your 
toys to the poor." So after breakfast the 
three started on their way. Pretty soon 
thev saw some poor little children and the 
little girl said to her father: "Papa, may I 
give some of my toys to those children?" 
'A es, if you like, my dear," said her father. 
So she gave them each a beautiful doll, then 
they went to the hospital and gave the 
children there lots of pretty things. When 
they got home it was dark and they had 
their supper and went to bed. 



f~\ NCE upon a time an oak tree 
grew, alone, in a field. It was 

very straight and had wide- 
spreading branches. In sum- 
mer the birds built their nests 
there; buttercups and daisies grew around 
it in the green grass; the sun shone warm- 
ly, and the wind blew gently, whispering so 
softly to the little acorns, hiding among the 
green leaves of the oak tree. 

What did the wind say to the little 
acorns? It said, "Little acorns, something 
wonderful is going to happen to you some 

And. children, something wonderful did 
happen. By and by the green grass turned 
brown and the buttercups and daisies lost 
their petals. Then the sun hid behind a 
dark cloud: the birds flew away, because 
it was so cold; and the wind laughed and 
talked very loud indeed. It shook the 
branches of the oak tree and the little 
acorns fell on the ground — all but one little 
acorn growing away out at the end of a big 
branch of the big oak tree. 

"No, no." said the little acorn, "I want 
to stay here. I can see all the world from 
this branch." 

"Ho, ho — ho. ho," laughed the wind and 

I am. I wonder what is going to happen to 
me. Perhaps I shall grow into an oak tree. 
If I do I am not going to be as straight as 
mother tree. It will be too hard to stand 
so straight." 

Just then the wind shook the branches 
of the oak tree and some leaves fell on the 
ground and covered the little acorn. Then, 
of course, it went to sleep. 

It slept a long, long time and when it 
awoke the sun was shining, the grass was 
green, and the birds were singing. The 
roots from the acorn were growing down 
in the ground and a little green shoot from 
the acorn was growing up out of the 
ground. Around it other little green shoots 
were growing from other little acorns, and: 
beside grew the big mother oak tree, stand- 
in" - so straight, with its wide-spreading 
branches. The sun shone warmly on the 
little green shoot, the wind kissed it, but 
it did not stand straight. 

"Dear, dear," said the mother oak tree, 
"this will never do. You must stand 
straight like the other little green shoots." 

"No, no," said the little green shoot, "I 
do not want to stand straight. It is too 
hard to stand straight. Anyway, I do not 
want to look like other trees and I am sure 
I am much prettier now than any of the 
other little green shoots. I know, too, I 
can stand straight when I wish, but I do 
not want to stand straight and I know I 
never shall want to stand straight." 

"No, no," said the mother oak tree, 
"little green shoot, you must grow straight 
now or you will not be straight when you 
are old. And you will not be a beautiful 
tree if you are not straight." 

"I know better," said the little green 
shoot. So it grew just as it pleased and 
that was very crooked. It grew and grew 
into a little oak tree, a very crooked little 
oak tree. 

The other little green shoots grew and 
grew, but they tried their best to grow 
straight like the mother oak tree. They 
grew and grew into little oak trees, very 
straight little oak trees. 

By and by the young oak trees were 
almost as big as the old mother oak tree. 
Why. they were so big that the birds built 
nests in their branches. They were all very 
beautiful straight trees, too — that is, all 



;ept the crooked tree and that, you 
ow, was very, very crooked, indeed. But, 
course, the crooked tree thought itself 
ire beautiful than any of the other trees, 
it was proud and happy. 
Dne day some people walked under the 
es. "O !", they said, "what beautiful 
aight trees. This crooked tree makes 
: others look straighter. It is too bad 
is so crooked. It would be a beautiful 
e if it were only straight like the rest." 
When the crooked tree heard the people 
phis it said to itself, "Well I guess I had 
:ter stand straight." So it tried to, for 
.1 see it really thought it could; but, of 
irse, it could not stand straight. It had 
m growing crooked for so many years 
it it had to keep on growing crooked, 
fhe young trees grew bigger and bigger, 
ir after year. The straight trees grew 
aighter and straighter, but the crooked 
e grew more and more crooked. It was 
crooked that one side of the tree touched 
ground, while the other side pointed 
aight up in the air. The tree looked so 
nv that people laughed at it and they 
not like to sit under it because it gave 
much shade on one side and no shade 
all on the other. Of course the crooked 
e was very unhappy, now, and, O, how 
vished that it had tried to stand straight 
en it was just a little green shoot. 
)ne day the wind blew strongly ana 
ghed loudly, "Ho, ho— ho, ho:" The 
lisrht trees bent this way and that way 
the wind blew, but the crooked tree bent 
y one way. The wind blew harder, 
der, and the crooked tree bent more and 
re to the ground. 

O, please don't blow so hard, Mr. 
nd," begged the crooked tree. 
Ho, ho — ho, ho," laughed the wind and 
\v harder yet. 

ust then three men walked under the 
les. "Dear me," said the first man. 
at crooked tree will fall in this wind." 
Yes," said the second man, "we must 
d it with heavv beams." 
'Yes, yes," said the third man, "we must 
n it with heavy beams." 
^hen they hurried away, but soon re- 
ned, each man carrying a heavy beam. 
We must prop this branch," said the 
t man. So the second man and the third 
n helped the first man place the heavy 
m, that he carried, under one of the big 
nches of the crooked oak tree. 

"We must prop this branch, too," said 
the second man. So the first man and the 
third man helped the second man place the 
heavy beam, that he carried, under one of 
the big branches of the crooked oak tree. 

"We must prop this branch, too," said 
the third man. So the first man and the 
second man helped the third man place the 
heavy beam that he carried; under one of 
the hip - branches of the crooked oak tree. 

"Now," said the three men together, "it 
can not fall, and the other trees do not need 
to be proped. They have grown so straight 
that they will never need to be proped with 
heavy beams." 



ist In Nature. 

2nd The Human Voice. 

3rd Animals. 

4th In the Home. 

5th On the Street. 


Winds : whistle around doors, windows 
and dumb-waiters — makes clothes and 
awnings flap and signs creak — sighs in 

Rain, hail and thunder. 

Brooks, surf and falls. 


Talking, shouting, crying, whispering. 

Singing, laughing, whistling. 

Barking and mewing. 

Mooing and bleating. 

Crowing, clucking, hissing, quacking. 

Roaring and growling. 

Singing of birds. 


Clatter of dishes, running of water, wash- 
ing of clothes. 

Rattle of coal, slamming of doors, creak- 
ing of dumb-waiters, roar of a blazing fire. 

Singing of teakettle, thump of flatirons, 
squeak of pulley line. 

Ticking of clock, whirl of sewing machine. 

Sounds of wagons, carts, carriages, auto- 
mobiles, fire engines. 

Patter of feet, clatter of horses' hoofs. 

Bells, whistles, gongs. 

Drilling, blasting, hammering. 

NOTE — Children are very fond of listening to 
various sounds. They should be permitted to 
imitate them as a preparation for later phonic work 
as well as for the pleasure it affords. 





Time and its divisions are little under- 
stood by the children. "A long time ago' 5 
is about a month. "Last Christmas" is 
ages ago. "One hundred years" means 
nothing tangible. Still during the first few 
days of the new year the thought of the 
passing of time is more naturally ap- 
proached than at any other time during the 
year except possibly on some one's birth- 
day. So we will speak of the old year and 
what it brought us. We will extend the new 
year greetings, tell the name of the new 
year, wonder what it has in store for us. 
The clock will be the center of this work. 
It is time to play games, time to sing, time 
to go home. Promptness can be suggested 
in connection with the commands of the 
clock. A calendar may be shown and talked 
of in a simple way. There must be no 
effort to force this idea but it can be so 
presented as to clarify the hazy ideas the 
children already have. 

During the winter months there are many 
more fire alarms than at any other time dur- 
ing the year. For this reason we choose 
the fireman as our "Helper" for the month 
of January. If the activities of the fireman 
and the fire horse do not enter into the 
child's experience actively, the lamplighter 
drawn by horses. Here too the lamplighter 
would be a good "Helper." This would be 
true in small towns where there is no fire 
department and where the engine is not 
drawn by horses. Here too the lamplighter 
is more noticeable than in a large citv. 
Stories of daring rescue from the flames 
would be too exciting to the imagination of 
the children but deeds of bravery in general 
would be appropriate for the story work 
at the time the fireman is the subject of 

This month will in many cases be the last 
one spent in kindergarten by many of the 
children. References to the approaching 
promotion should be made. Some idea as 
to which ones are to go ahead should be 
given so that those remaining will not be 
disappointed at staying. The character of 
the work with the advanced children should 
be effected by the prospect of promotion. 
Short periods of playing primary class may 
be given when the children are very quiet. 
Dictation of simple forms may be intro- 
duced. Straighter lines insisted on during 
these practice periods. Finally if it can be 

so arranged the kindergarten children 
should be taken to the class to- which they 
will be promioted to become acquainted with 
the teacher, to see the room, to hear the 
other children read, etc. Those who are not 
to be promoted will go too, for they will 
want to know where their playmates have 
gone and what they are doing. In short 
the visit is to take away that feeling of 
strangeness so trying to many children. 

Again the teacher must be certain that 
the children understand who are the "Pro- 
motion" children and who are not. Those 
who are to remain may make "Promotion" 
badges for the others and pin them on them 
before they go to visit the new room. All 
of these things are done playfully. Still 
they will tide over much of that vagueness 
felt at the time of the first promotion. 


Subjects for Morning Circles 

i. New Year. 

(a) Name of year. 

(b) Things the old year brought. 

2. Memories of Christmas. 

(a) Tree. 

(b) Gifts. 

3. Time or the clock. 


"All-the-Year-Round Story." — In the 
Child's World. — Poulsson. 

"The Old Woman's New Year's Basket." 
— Mother Goose Village. 

"Lazy Bettie." 

"Hickory, Dickory, Dock. — M other 

"Little Jack Horner." — Mother Goose. 


"The Little" New Year." — Songs and 
Games for Little Ones. — Walker-Jenks. 

"New Year's Day." — Songs of the Child's 
World. — Gay nor. 

"Happy New Year to You," etc. 

"The Clock." — Song Primer — Bentley. 

"Tick, Tock." — Small Songs for Small 
Singers. — Neidlinger. 


"The Little New Year:" — Songs and 
Games for Little Ones — Walker-Jenks. 

"Sleighing" — Big Sleigh, Little Cutters. 
— Sing Jingle Bells. 

Christmas Tree Dance. 

"Hickory, Dickory, Dock." 




Bouncing Ball — One child in center 
bounce to a child on the ring. 

Sense Game — Feeling — Use toys. 

"Winding the Clock." — Songs for the 
Child's World.— Gaynor. 


Represent the toys the children bring in 
after Christmas. 

Different clocks and time pieces. . 


Winding the clock. 

Swinging" arms in time of the different 
time pieces. 

Activities of toys. 

Walks or Visits 

Clocks in the school. 

Public clocks. 

Town clock. 

Watch maker. 

First Grade class room. 

Illustrative Material 

Watch and clocks. 

Large face of clock with hands for the 
children to move. 
Christmas toys. 
Pictures of clocks, toys, etc. 
Old Father Time, the Baby New Year. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Sticks and Rings — The Christmas tree 
with ornaments. 
Sticks — Stars. 
Sticks, Rings and Half Rings. — Clowns. 

Sixth Gift — One third for each child. 
Free play. A clock. Add circular folding 
paper for face of clock and a pendulum 
made by hanging a First Gift ball in front 
of clock if you have enlarged gifts, or a 
bead and string if the small gifts are used. 

Plan gift periods that will enable the 
children to use their Christmas toys that 
they bring to kindergarten in their best 
relationships. For instance if fire horses 
are brought the Fourth Gift blocks will 
make a good stall for them. If a doll is 
the toy her house can be built with Fifth 
Gift blocks. 
Cutting — 

1. Christmas tree. Fold the paper and 
cut double. 

2. Drum and drum sticks. Draw 
ropes on drum. 

3. Simple toys. 

Made of sticks, rings and half rings. 


1. Illustrative story work. 

2. Branch of pine tree. 

3. Doll. Cut out later. | 


Doll clothes. 

Have children saw the lower branches 
from the Christmas tree. Use these for 
fairy wands in a dance. Pick the needles 
from the branches and sew them in pillows 
for the kindergarten dollies or one large 
pillow for a sick child who is well known to 
the children. 
Folding, Cutting, Pasting — 

A Clock — Make oblong box. Paste cir- 
cular folding paper near top for face. 
Hands and marks to indicate figures should 
be drawn on face before pasting. Tie 
wooden bead on a string for pendulum and 
fasten at the bottom of the face of the 
clock for the pendulum. 

1 64 




Sand — Use one large branch of the 
Christmas tree for a Christmas tree in the 
sand. Trim with regular decorations. 
Place the children's toys under it. 

Clay — Simple toys. 


Subjects for Morning Circles 

i. Snow. 

(a) Color. 

(b) Cold. 

(c) Soft. 

(d) Turns to water. 

2. Snow flakes. 

(a) Form. 

(b) Frailty. 

3. Ice. 

(a) Color. 

(b) Cold. 

(c) Hard. 

(d) Turns to water. 


In the 

"Cleverness of a Sheep Dog" 
Child's World — Poulsson. 

"Jack Frost and His Work — In 
Child's World — Poulsson. 

"Lost in the Snow" — Sheldon Reader. 

"Jack's Ice Cream Picnic" — Mother 
Goose Village — Bingham. 


"Sleighing Song" — Songs of the Child's 
World. — Gaynor. 

"Tracks in the Snow." — Songs of the 
Child's World. — Gaynor. 

"Frost Pictures" — Song Echoes — Jenks- 


"Tiny Little Snow Flakes." — Songs and 
Games for Little Ones — Walker-Jenks. 


Balls." — Sonj 

Echoes — Jenks- 


"Skating."— Merry Songs and Games— 


Ball Game — Aiming at target. 

Sense Game — Taste. Contrast cold and 
hot. — Game of Senses, Song Echoes — • 

Folk Game, "On the Bridge" — Singing 
Games for Children. — Hofer. 


Falling snow flakes. 
Making snow man. 
Snow balling. 

Dancing snow flakes. 
Snow balling. 

Walks or Visits 

Notice trees covered with ice — snow. 

Make snowman in the playground or on 
the hillside. 

Dig a cave in the snow. 

Let children lie down and make impres-! 
sions in the snow. 

Have a short sleigh ride in a big sleigh if 

Slide on a short pond. 

Watch the men cutting and storing ice. 

Look for icicles. 

Illustrative Material 

Snow brought into room. 

Let it melt. 

Snow flakes, if possible, the day of the 
snow frolic. 

Pictures of stretches of snow, sleighing 
parties, skaters, snow flakes, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Third, Fourth and Sixth Gifts — "Beauty 
forms." The children should not be con- 
fined to these forms during the free play 
with the gifts. 

Sixth Gift— Free Play. 
Cutting — 

1. "Beauty forms." Take either square 
or circular folding paper. Fold both 
diameters. Keep the paper folded." Cut 

Circular paper 


Square pape 



I by retaining the center of the 
and cutting away outer portions. 
le of these outer portions are also 
y forms. Save such for mounting. 

Outer portion Open 

Snow flakes. Use white papers as 
mty forms. 

Mittens. Color them. 

Skating Cap. Color it. 

ting — Mount "Beauty forms" on dif- 
: colored papers. Those open in the 
r are very effective on transparent 


ldren sleighing. 

ldren skating. 

ildren snow balling. 

t some of these pictures out for sand 

Winter scene. A hill with children 
ling. A pond with children skating. 
•ge sleigh drawn by horses. A group 
ildren in the sleigh. Small cutter with 
r and one child riding. 

Let the children make impressions 
ft blocks in the wet sand, 
ly— Make a- "Beauty form" on a 
le of clay by pressing the Third and 
th Gift blocks into the soft clay. 

Subjects for Morning Circles 


(a) Color. 

(b) Phases. 

(c) Uses 

j Light. 


(a) Color. 

(b) Uses 

I Light. 
"j Beauty. 

Light Bird., 

(a) Color. 

(b) Always fleeting. 


(a) Employments. 

(b) Tools. 


"Linda and the Lights"— In the Child's 
World. — Poulsson. 

"The Star Dollars"— How to Tell 
Stories to Children. — Bryant. 

"The Little Girl With the Light"-- 
Mother Stories — Lindsay. 

"Dust Under the Rug" — Mother Stories. 
— Lindsay. 

"The Broken Window Pane."— More 
Mother Stories. — Lindsay. 


Star Light, Star Bright. 
Jack Be Nimble. 
Hey, Diddle, Diddle. 


"Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star." 

"Stars of the Summer Night. — Hiawatha 

"Stars and Daisies — Mother Play. — ■ 
Froebel, Blow Edition. 

"The Baby and the Moon." — Mother 
Play. — Froebel, Blow Edition. 

"Baby's Boat."— Gaynor. 

"The Light Bird."— Song Echoes.— 

"My Shadow." Songs of the Child 

World. — Gaynor. 

"Cradle Song." — Song Echoes — Jenks- 

"The Moon Boat."— Songs of the Child 
World. — Gaynor. 



of the 

1. "The Moon Boat."- 
Child World.— Gaynor. 

2. "The Rainbow Fairies."— Child's 
Garden of Song. — Tomlins. 

3. Aiming and Color. Place the six 
First Gift balls in a row in the center of 
the ring. Let the child choose a ball from 
a basket to match the one he is to aim at. 
Stand on a line a proper distance and roll 
ball toward the desired color. All clap if 
child is successful. 

4. Potato Race. Instead of potatoes 
use First Gift balls. Allow the children to 
pick the balls up with the hands. Have 
four or five rows of children playing at 
once. \ 

5. Sense Game. Seeing. Place First 
Gift balls, skeins of yarn or large colored 
papers before the class. Sing "Can you tell 
who has gone," etc. 

1 66 



Children sleeping while stars twinkle 
and moon shines. 

Walks or Visits 

Tell children to look for the moon and 
stars at night. 

Notice the clouds passing by. 

Possibly you can see the moon in the 
da"- light. 

Have play with the light bird in the play- 

Illustrative Material 

Sky, Stars, Moon, Shadows, Light Bird. 
Pictures of night scenes, children playing 
with the light bird. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Sticks — "Beauty forms." 

Rings — Designs. 

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Gifts — Represent 
Linda's home by the sea. 

Linda's city home. 

Sticks and circular and square tablets — 
A street lamp. 



Drawing, Cutting, Pasting — A night 
scene. Use blue mounting paper. Draw 
the outline of houses and chimneys, etc., in 
black with here and there a yellow light 

shining through a window. Draw 
moon and stars in the sky or paste a p 
quetry circle for the moon and little g 
stars. If the children are able to cu 
black mass representing roofs, chimne 
etc., it is very effective to paste this to 
blue back ground instead of drawing it. 
Drawing — 

Moon in different phases. 

Lamplighter's torch. 

Lamplighter at work. 

Illustrate story work. 
Pasting — 

A rainbow. 

(a) Use parquetry squares of the pro 


(b) Simple designs with parquetry pa; 

Cutting — 

Moon in different phases. 
Sand — 

(a) Make impressions of stars in \ 
sand with face of cube. 

(b) Make design the same way. 

(c) Make impressions of circles w 
end of cylinder. 

(d) Make designs the same way. 
Cut oblong plaques and make bon 

design in soft clay with face of cube a 
round face of cylinder. 

Subjects for Morning Circles 

i. The Fireman. 

(a) Duties. 

(b) Bravery. 

2. The Horse. 

Duties as firehorse. 


"The Leak in the Dyke." 

"The Story of Thesens."— For the I 
dren's Hour. — Bailey Lewis. 

"How Cedric Became a Knight." — I 
the Children's Hour — Bailey-Lewis. 

"Pegasus.'— In the Child's World 

"The Giant Energy and the Fairy Skil 
— Mother Stories. — Lindsay. 

"Ride a Cock Horse." 

"The Fireman."— A Baker's Dozen I 
City Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

"My Old Dan."— The Song Primer. 




t Fireman." — A Baker's Dozen For 

!hildren. — Valentine-Claxton. 

)y's Horses." — A Baker's Dozen For 

'hildren. — Valentine-Claxton. 

I Little Pony." — Song Echoes. — 


Game — Hearing — Have blind- 
child count strokes of a bell. 
Game — Tossing ball in a basket 
in center of ring. 



activities connected with a fire. 
;es dashing to the fire. 
?es returning from the fire, 
of horses after fire. 


5es dashing to fire, 
d horses returning. 

Walks or Visits 

ine house. 


iances for fire protection in school. 

Illustrative Material 
ch fire engines, horses, etc. 
ires of firemen, horses, engines, 
g building, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Gift — Engine house. 
Gift — One-third for each child. — 
and Rings — 
k and ladder. 
* cart. 

s — 

£, Pasting — 

engine as described in the Novem- 


man's hat, coat, trousers, ladder, 


ling house. 


ines, etc., going to fire. 

g, Drawing — 

e fireman's coat, etc., on a mounting 

sheet. Draw head, hands, ax, ladder. 
Paste on a hat or draw it. 
Sand — 

Represent a city street with engine, hose 
cart, etc., on the street. Place engine house 
built with Fifth Gift blocks in the tray. 
Use stencil horses and toy horses, stencil 
firemen and toy people. Have burning 
house of cardboard or a picture drawn by 
the children or one built with gift blocks. 
Fireman — Paint. 

Snow flakes 

Clay Plaque 

Lamp lighter's torch 


Border design on clay. 

1 68 


Stencils of horse, fireman — side view 


(Continued from page 142) 
close connection between the kindergarten 
and the first year of school work is indicated 
bv the topics under which the kindergarten 
occuoations are classified in this syllabus. 
NOTE — The topics are: 1. Nature interests. 
2. Language, including stories. 3. Songs. 4. 
Games. 5. Handwork. 

The following reports written by kinder- 
gartners after taking the little ones to visit 
before promotion are full of suggestion 
and, I am sure, will inspire others to at- 
tempt to carry out this plan if they have 
not in the past. There are kindergartners 
who do not wait until the last week for 
these visits to the grades as will be noted in 
several reports. 


Our children have visited the 1 A class, listened 
to the children recite, sing and tell stories, and 
they in turn, sang and told stories for them. When 
they came back they told the other children what 
they had seen, heard and done. 

A couple of days before promotion we visited 
a "1 A class," heard them read and also heard 
them sing. Some of the kindergarten children sat 
in the seats just to see "how nice it will be to be 
grown up children' and have a desk of our own. 
My children saw some cutting which the other 
children had done like some we had also done and 
they seemed so pleased to be able to say "Oh we 
have done that." Then we visited the Principal's 
office and looked at all the different pictures and 
ornaments. When we returned everyone said, 
"When are we going again?" 

Thirteen children were promoted to 1 A. A few 
days before we visited the class rooms and future 
teachers. The children were very enthusiastic, and 
showed a lively interest, especially in the con- 
struction of the desks. Their teachers tell me they 
are well pleased with their work. 

We visited the 1 A class before and after promo- 

tion. The children sat in the desks to try t 
and looked at the books they would use. ' 
were delighted to see paper-cutting around 
room. They are reported to be doing very ni 

My children who were promoted were espec 
interested in the fact that they were to lear 
read and write — which fact they ail informec 
of — having probably learned it from the t 
children. They liked it when we folded 
envelope and I let them scribble a letter to pu 
side with pencils and paper. 

6. • 

The kindergarten children are quite accusti 
to the rest of the school, for we often visit diff< 
parts of it. One day this fall we visited one o 
rooms and later when we were making borde 
maple leaves the children asked to make one 
that room. 


A bond of sympathy exists between ths 
grade and the kindergarten. We have invited 
of the first grade classes to the kindergarte 
share the nature material from the country, 
contributed toys to establish a play time for 
classes on Friday afternoons. During Janua 
have tried to prepare the children for promotic 
establishing more rigid discipline. 

One afternoon we all went over to visit the 
classes and on several different occasions the 
children have come down to read to us, c 
show us some of their work. The old ki 
garten boys in 1 A have been very much inter 
in knotting the cord for curtains for our 
house, and have presented us with five curtai 

We have had two walks to Washington 
We have planted two window boxes, some 
pots and a small one for each child. The chi 
who were promoted in February have also 
back after school to plant seeds. 


We visited the class of 1 A and heard a i 
lesson given. The children were very quiet a 
seemed to me greatly impressed. The teacher 
giving little exercises in tone work very like 
that we had given in the kindergarten and 
children recognized it. The thing that was del 
ful was to see the children recognize their 
playmates of last term. 


The children who were to be promoted went 
1 A for a visit. They were much pleased 
the visit. Enjoyed setting in the seats. Told 
the children there did. They feel quite grow: 
I wrote the names of those same children oi 
blackboard and with one accord each knew 
own name and in some cases knew others. 


A few days before promotion, the childrc 
be promoted visited the 1 A. They were intere 
in the reading of Henny Penny as they kne\> 


The reports from the first grade teacher 
encouraging, and the children seem to be t 
hold of the grade work with great interest. 




In International Conciliation 

Among the influences which, in America, 
n'omote harmony between alien races the 
Dublic school plays a most important part. 
The children, the teachers, the parents — 
whether of emigrant or native origin — the 
elatives and friends in distant countries, 
ire all brought more or less under its 
imalgamating influences. In the school- 
•00m the child finds friends and playmates 
belonging to races widely different from his 
)wn; there Greek meets not only Greek, 
)ut Turk, American, Irish, German, 
French, English, Italian and Hungarian, 
ind representatives of every other nation 
mder the sun. The lion lying down with 
he lamb was nothing to it, because the 
amb, though its feelings are not enlarged 
upon, must have been distinctly uncom- 
ortable. But in the schoolroom Jew and 
Gentile work and play together; and black 
md white learn love and knowledge side 
>v side. 

And long after more formal instruction 
has faded with the passing of the years, a 
man of, perhaps, German origin, will think 
cindly of the whole irresponsible Irish race 
when he remembers little Bridget O'Con- 
nor, who sat across the aisle in the old 
Cherry Street School, her quick temper and 
her swift remorse. 

Of course, all these nationalities are 
rarely encountered in one district, but a 
teacher often finds herself responsible for 
fifty children representing five or six of 
them. In the lower grades eight or ten 
may be so lately arrived as to speak no 
English. The teacher presiding over this 
polyglot community is often herself of 
foreign birth, yet they get on very well to- 
gether, are very fond of one another, and 
very happy. The little foreigners, assisted 
bv their more well-informed comrades, 
learn the language of the land (I regret to 
say that it is often tinctured with the 
language of the Bowery) in from six to 
twelve weeks, six weeks for the Jews, and 
twelve for the" slower among the Germans. 
And again it will be difficult to stir Otto 
Schmidt, at any stage of his career, into 
antagonism against the Jewish race when 
he remembers the patience and loving kind- 

ness with which Maxie Fishandler labored 
with him and guided his first steps through 
the wilderness of the English tongue. 

These indirect but constant influences 
are undeniably the strongest, but at school 
the child is taught in history of the heroism 
and the strength of men and nations other 
than his own; he learns with some degree 
of consternation that Christopher Colum- 
bus was a "Dago," George Washington an 
officer in the English army, and Christ our 
Lord, a Jew. Geography, as it is now 
taught with copious illustrations and de- 
scriptions, shows undreamed-of beauties in 
countries hitherto despised. And gradual- 
ly as the pupils move on from class to class 
they learn true democracy and man's 
brotherhood to man. 

But the work of the American public 
school does not stop with the children who 
come directly under its control. The board 
of education reaches, as no other organiza- 
tion does, the great mass of the population. 
All the other boards and departments 
established for the help and guidance of 
these people only succeed in badgering and 
frightening them. They are met, even at 
Ellis Island, by the board of health, and 
they are subjected to all kinds of disagree- 
able and humiliating experiences, culminat- 
ing sometimes in quarantine and sometimes 
in deportation. Even after they have passed 
the barrier of the immigration office the 
monster still pursues them. It disinfects 
their houses, it confiscates the rotten fish 
and vegetables which they hopefully dis- 
play on their push-carts, it objects to their 
wrenching off and selling the plumbing 
appliances in their apartments, it interferes 
with them in twenty ways a day, and 
hedges them round about with a hundred 
laws which they can only learn, as Parnell 
advised a follower to learn the rules of the 
House of Commons, by breaking them. 

Then comes the department of street 
cleaning", with its extraordinary ideas of 
the use of a thoroughfare. The new comer 
is taught that the street is not the place for 
dead cats and cabbage stalks, and other 
trifles for which he has no further use. 
Neither may it be used, except with re- 
strictions, as a bedroom or a nursery. The 
immigrant, puzzled but obliging, picks his 
progeny out of the gutter and lays it on the 
fire escape. He then makes acquaintance 
of the fire department, and listens to its 
heated arguments. So perhaps he, 'Still 



willing to please, reclaims the dead cat and 
the cabbage stalk, and proceeds to cremate 
them in the privacy of the back yard. Again 
the fire department — this time in snorting 
and horrible form — descends upon him. 
And all these manifestations of freedom 
are attended by the blue-coated police, who 
interdict the few relaxations unprovided for 
by the other powers. These human 
monsters confiscate stilettos and razors, 
discourage pocket picking, brick throwing, 
the gathering of crowds and the general 
enjoyment of life. Their name is legion: 
their appetite for figs, dates, oranges and 
bananas and graft is insatiable; they are 
omnipresent, they are argus-eyed: and 
their speech is always "Keep movin' there. 
Keep movin'." And all these baneful in- 
fluences may be summoned and set in 
action by another — but worse than all of 
them— known as the Gerry Society. This 
tyrant denies the parent's right in his own 
child, forbids him to allow a minor to work 
in a sweat-shop, store, or even on the stage, 
and enforces these commands, even to the 
extreme of removing the child altogether 
and putting it in an institution. 

In sharp contrast to all these ogres, the 
board of education shines benignant and 
bland. Here is power making itself mani- 
fest in the form of young ladies, kindly of 
eye and speech, who take a sweet and 
friendly interest in the children and all that 
concerns them. Woman meets woman and 
no policeman interferes. The little ones 
are cared for, instructed, kept out of mis- 
chief for five hours a day; taught the lan- 
guage and customs of the country in which 
they are to make their living or their for- 
tunes; and generally, though the board of 
education does not insist upon it, they are 
cherished and watched over. Doctors at- 
tend them, nurses wait upon them, dentists 
torture them, oculists test them. 
(Continued in next issue.) 

Manchurian larks will be liberated in Oregon 
next spring. The birds are little known in 
America, being about the size of native larks but 
in color like the wren. 


Would you like to see my dolly? 

Her dress is just washed clean, 
And I know you'll think her 

Is the sweetest ever seen! 

It was Santa Claus that brought 
When I was fast asleep, 
He wrote it in a letter 

That she's all my own to keep. 
— Lora Josephine Albright. 


New York — Over one thousand kindergartners 
gathered to congratulate Mme. Maria Kraus- 
Boelte on the completion of fifty years of work 
for the kindergarten cause, at a reception given 
in her honor by the Kraus Alumni Association, 
held at the San Remo, New York, on Dec. 2nd. 
The ball room was decorated with palms and the 
Kraus colors in yellow and white chrysanthemums, 
while the many floral tributes were massed at one 
end of the room, turning it into a veritable garden. 
It was an occasion of wide-spread interest in the 
educational world, and many prominent in various 
lines of work were present. Miss Maude Morgan 
rendered several selections on the harp and letters 
were read from Hamilton Mabie and Nicholas 
Murray Butters. Miss Anna Harvey, on behalf 
of the Association, announced that a permanent 
fund has been started which would be used later 
on as Mme. Kraus should direct. C. W. P. 

Savannah — Kate Baldwin School — An event of 
community interest was the Thanksgiving Party 
enjoyed by the children of six kindergartens — ■ 
four free and two private. The. large hall used 
for the purpose spoke of bountiful harvesting with 
its stacks of corn and sugar cane set off by mounds 
of pumpkins, apples and oranges, and its hang- 
ings of red peppers, and red corn against a back- 
ground of leaves, scarlet and green. Before the 
feasting time an hour was spent in songs and 
games of the season, and Thanksgiving offerings 
for the less fortunate placed in an imposing heap. 
Part of the preparation was made by the Mothers' 
clubs. In the afternoon the hall was turned over 
to the Boys' and Girls' clubs of the free kinder- 
gartens for a frolic. 

Atlanta — Kindergarten Normal — The Atlanta 
Kindergarten Alumnae club holds its meetings the 
first Friday of each month. An interesting talk 
on "Applied Art" was given at the December 
meeting by Mr. Mark Sheridan, Designer and 
Decorator. Officers of the Alumnae Club are Miss 
Ruby Richards, president; Miss Virginia Scott, 
secretary; Miss Mary Barnwell, treasurer; Miss 
Eva Richardson, press correspondent; Miss Willette 
Allen, Miss Mary Dickinson, Miss Daisy Laudauer, pro- 
gram committee. 

Miss Willette Allen, president kindergarten de- 
partment and Miss Mary Barnwell, principal. 
Sheltering Arms Kindergarten will attend the 
meeting of the Southern Educational Association 
at Charlotte, N. C, during holidays. 

Georgia — Miss Hortense M. Orcutt, Supervisor, 
recently spoke before the Georgia Congress of 
Mothers on the subject of "Playgrounds." Plans 
for playground extension were discussed. 

Charlotte, N. C. — The kindergarten department 
of the Southern Educational Association will hold 
two interesting meetings in connection with the 
association here Dec. 29 and 30. 

Toledo — Miss Edith Haughton, formerly of this 
city, has accepted a position as instructor in Miss 
Hart's Training School, Philadelphia. 

Pittsburg — Miss Sarah Norris, formerly of Miss 
Hart's Training School, Philadelphia, is now. 
associated with the training school here. 

East Orange, N. J. — Vernon L. Davey, superin- 
tendent of schools in a report on the cost of 
educating children in different municipalities of 
the state says he has discovered that in East 
Orange the cost of education is lower than in 
many other places. 

On the basis of total enrollment, Mr. Davey 
asserts, education costs East Orange $29.01 a 
pupil, and on attendance $37.57. 

iladelphia — Miss Hart's Training School — 

Edward Coates addressed students of this 

Dec. 16th, reading and interpreting a 

ning poem. A unique Hallowe'en party given 

niors, first social affair for the new students 

ors) was strictly up-to-date, as witches in 

costumes entered the room, (which looked 

forest scene) in an automobile, brought with 

the strange concoction for the cauldron — as 

bbled and was stirred over the fire fed by 

pitches chanting incantations, the festivities 

and all the old Hallowe'en games and 

il new ones were played. There were pump- 

ies, apples and cider, 

hington's Birthday — Junior's give a recep- 
to the seniors. Commencement day juniors 
a tea to the seniors. Tea every Thursday 

ss Edith Haughton, assistant director and 

visor of practice kindergartens to succeed 

Sarah F. Norris; Miss Marion Monroe, hand 

to succeed Miss Anna Williams. Miss 

Louise Robertson, History of Education. 

Lcago — Chicago Kindergarten College- — Dec. 
was the last day for the kindergarten games 

vacation. Over one hundred students took 
n the exercises and it did one good to see 
foung women can forget their self-conscious- 
md become children for the time being. There 

sleighing, skating, snowball encounters, 
ng snow men and for the time being, it was 
o imagine you were in the midst of a terrific 

storm. The freshmen, juniors and seniors 
vith each other in introducing novel features, 
eal Christmas celebration was held Dec. 21. 

was a grand procession, preceded by sacred 
mas music, then the bible narrative, other 
mas music and finally the "Story of the 

Child." These exercises grow more and more 
iful as our students learn to enter into the 
hristmas thought each year. 

Caroline Frechtling, Sr., nee Gercke, re- 
visited Chicago for the purpose of donating 
lplete Froebel system of kindergarten work 
permanent exhibit at the Chicago kinder- 
l college. This exhibit is one that cannot be 
ated. and consists of work from Froebel's 
hrough the various stages to the present day. 
frechtling gathered her wonderful selections 
rmany, and many of the articles are of rare 
The exhibit is free to all students who wish 
dy the development of the kindergarten work 
its inception, and visitors are welcome. — - 

igeport, Conn. — Conn. Froebel Normal — 
aura Cezres, graduate of this school in 1907, 
tructor in Academic Department, having as 
ibjects history, English, algebra and French. 
MacNair has art for both kindergarten and 
ng classes. The school is now located at 
Vest Ann street, and are having the parlors 
s house thrown into one large room for the 
en's kindergarten room, which will be ideal 
3ry way. The children at the day nursery 
presented with a Christmas tree by the chil 
Df the private kindergarten. A new nursery 
■garten has been instituted at the Hull 
Both of these were equipped and are 
ained so far as material and young ladies in 
i of them are concerned through the efforts 
ry C. Mill. 

inta, Ga. — There is prospect of opening 
indergarten No. 9 in this city in January. 

aroused by the discussion of ihe topics, "How and 
Vvny to Abolish the Colored Supplement" and 
"'wnat tohail Be a Substitute in Its fiace." 

At - the close of the meeting the council 
unanimously adopted the following resolutions: 
•".believing that the colored supplement to the 
Sunday newspapeis has a debasing influence upon 
cdiiaien, the tendency of which is to breed 
irreverence lor old age and disrespect for parental 
authority; that it suggests cruel pranks and dis- 
orderly conduct; that it creates a taste tor hideous 
pictures and humor of an inferior order, we hereby 
express our strong disapproval of its circulation 
and lesolve that we will do all in our power to 
have its use and publication discontinued." 


The fifth annual convention of the Southern 
Kindergarten Association was held in Knoxville at 
the summer school of the South, July the 9th and 
10th. The business meeting was held on the 9th 
of July at 5 o'clock; about one hundred teachers 
present representing fourteen states. 

The president reported the issuing of the report 
last November 8, which gave a brief history of 
the kindergarten movement in the South, the 
present condition, as well as the number of kin- 
dergartens, kindergartners, training schools 
and how supported. It was voted that this report 
be made an annual report. A fine exhibit was 
shown at this meeting of children art work from 
the kindergarten of Lincoln Center Settlement, 
The Commons Settlement, Chicago. 

The open meeting of the Southern Kindergarten 
Association took place on the 10th of July at Knox- 
ville, Tenn. Mr. Claxton opfened the meeting with 
encouraging words of welcome and praise of the 
people who were working for the kindergarten. 

The President, Miss Marion S. Hankel, then gave 
her report of the kindergarten work of the South 
and its needs for further development. Then 
came the speaker of the day, Prof. B. C. Gregory, 
Ph. D., Supt. of Schools of Chelsea, Mass. His 
plea was for a greater (or better) continuity be- 
tween the kindergarten and the primary — with 
high praise of the kindergarten trained teacher in 
any grade in the school. 

Miss Amelie Hofer then told of the plan of a four 
years' course for kindergartens to be continued at 
the summer school of the South from year to year. 
This course would help but would not complete 
the work necessary for a student to become a 
trained kindergartner. The first of the series 
having been given in 1908. 

Nomination of officers for the coming year read 
and voted — carried. 

President — Miss Marion S. Hanckel, Charleston, 
South Carolina. 

Vice President — Miss Willette Allen, Atlanta, 

Recording Secretary — Mrs. Delia Cawood, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 

Corresponding Secretary — Miss Margaret K. 
Somerville, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Treasurer — Miss Ruby Willingham, Columbus, 

A great deal of interest was shown this year in 
kindergarten work. A very good audience at- 
tended the open meeting. 

a meeting of the Helena Kindergarten Coun- 
ld November 9, 1909, much enthusiasm was 


Twenty years ago, says the Educational Review, 
the number of private schools was small; ten years 
ago there was noted a decided increase, and today 
America is supporting something like S.000 per- 
manently established educational institutions ex- 
clusive of the public schools. 


Seat work tests knowledge and skill. You pre- 
sent a leSon; you think he understands. He says 
he understands' Put him down to actual doing; 
that will Drove itself. , , . 

He makes application of new thought, in vari- 
ous ways, along lines of expression. 

Selt work must be enjoyable if attention and 
interest are to be held. Seat work is enjoyable 
it systematically planned with regard to Purpose, 
method of handling, and results, and if the in- 
terest and ability of the child have been taken 
into consideration. 

And now you ask, What is enjoyable seat work? 

Enjoyable seat work: 

(a) Makes children think. Children like to 

think — if allowed. .-*-,+ fn „ 

(b) Is neither too easy nor too intricate tor 
them to grasp. 

(c) Has to the child some definite purpose, 
some definite result. 

(d) Is closely associated with other work and 
interests of the school. 

(e) Is varied. 

(f) Gives time for freedom of thought and 
action on part of children — it mean? initiative. 

The Atlantic Educational Journal in a very in- 
teresting article to primary teachers gives a long 
list of material which primary teachers can collect 
with little expense and use advantageously in 
their school work. Among the list being empty 
spools, spool boxes, colored wrapping paper, egg 
boxes, seeds of various kinds, twine, cord, yarn 
of different colors, and also gives the following 
list of supplies which can be procured cheaply and 
used advantageously:. 

Pegs for counters. 

100 sticks, assorted lengths (1 inch to 5 

100 slats (10 inches long). 

100 lentils (colors). 

100 enlarged sticks (1 inch long). 

1000 colored squares, assorted colors. 

Paper squares for folding (4x4). 

100 paper strips for lacing. 

25 mats for weaving. 

100 assorted sewing cards. 

Word sentence builders. 

Picture and sentence builders. 

Phonetic sentence builders. 

Word-making tablets (letters). 



Dushane's figure cards. 

Language cards. \ 

Fitch number cards (36 cards) 

Toy money. 

Sectional animals and birds. 

Combination stencils (18 cards). 

Geography stencil maps. 

Johnston poster patterns (5x6). 

Animal set. 

Bird set. 

Flower and fruit set. 

Clock dials. 

•Drawing cards. 

Primary colored stencils. 

Waxed crayons. 

Latshaw rulers. 

Tagboard (for making seat-work). 

Cover paper (mounting pictures). 

Perry pictures. 

Brown pictures. 

Little Classics, Ed. Publishing Co. 

Little Journeys, Flanagan Co. 

Books of animals and birds. 

Instructive postcards. 

Children's books of stories. 

Dutch Dittiei 




Words and Music 



Pictures by Albertine Randall Wheelei 

$1.25 net 






i. Story of Ulysses. 

2. Story of King Arthur. 

3. Story of Siegfried. 

4. Story of Beowulf. 

5. Story of Hiawatha. 

6. Bible Stories. Story of Paul, Jo 

7. Fairy and Folk Tales. The 1 
Bears, Beauty and the Beast, Little I 
Visit to Santa Claus. 

8. Polk Lore of the South. I 
Remus. The Written and Unwritten 
Tales of the Negro. Literary Mea 
Works of Joel Chandler Harris. 

How to Tell a Story: Psycholo 
Principles and Spiritual Equipment. 

A course of lectures unique in materia 
scope, as compared with the traditional "ta 
teachers" with which all are familiar, is tl 
five lectures begun by Mr. Richard T. Wych( 
to be continued through January to the Bait 
teachers. It is distinctly a course in story-t< 
and with lecture and conference will include 
and folk tales, and develop the stories of Sieg 
King Arthur, Ulysses, Beowulf, and selected 
stories. The telling of stories — stories that 
an historical and race significance — is an 
which every teacher should be possessed, an 
elementary grade teachers alone, but those 
high school as well. The dramatic sense is s 
in children, and particularly at the beginni 
the adolescent period. In all historical st 
and those in which the evolution of civilizing 
and conditions are prominent, there is coi 
need that teachers, particularly of the high sc 
be able to give the human perspective, the 
setting, the genetic view. The teacher of hi 
of literature, of art, or invention, who has 
power of graphic presentation and dramatic 
ting, is equipped as most teachers unfortui 
are not. Baltimore is to be congratulated. 



The Wooster 
Juvenile Speaker 

Recitations, Speeches, 
Songs, Dialogues and 
Exercises for children. 
Suitable for all occasions. 
For day-school, Sunday- 
school and general use. 
Humorous, patriotic and 
instructive pieces in both 
prose and verse. Ill pp. 
Decorative paper cover. 
)loth, special cover design, 50c. 

us BABY GOOSE book, by Fannie 
inder, now issued in a series of \ ol» 
ach book independent of the others 

)oose Goes to Town 

oose on his trip to see the world. 
>age pictures in many colors with 
iate verses. Will delight every child, 
ive cover and title page in colors, 50c 


age colored pictures, with the story 
losling's trip in verse. Full of life, 
ind fun. Many old familiar child- 
ivorites play a part in this story, 
ive cover, in colors, 50c. 

and the Kittens 

mishaps of a funny little pig depic- 
52 pages of quaint colored illustra- 
tory told in verse. Decorative cover, 
S, 50c. 

ttle Masqueraders 

>ly popular. Something new for the 
12 pages of American history in 
1 pictures in black and colors, with 
iate verses. 8^x10!^ inches. Heavy 
Beautiful paper covers, 30c. 

id to any address on receipt of price by 

LEE, 263 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 

►sling's Trip gSSWg 

r the Boy 


•e is a great happiness 
ch you can easily bestow, 
the Fairy Fields of Hap- 
jss lie open to every boy 
girl in the pages of 


Nicholas is the greatest 
magazines for boys and 
3 of all ages from three to 
een. It has the best 
ies, the most interesting 
3les, the most helpful and 
attaining departments, 
jolliest rhymes, and the 
t beautiful pictures. 

he Great Treasure House 
Happiness for Children 

Single copies, 25 cents 
Yearly subscriptions, $3.00 


Square New York 


"Psychology and the Teacher," 
by Hugo Munsterberg. All 
teachers will be interested in a 
book which speaks clearly and 
simply of their work. The teacher 
must understand the material 
with which he works, must know 
the mind and body of the pupil 
and the social conditions under 
which he lives, must go through 
child-study and the study of 
adolescence; in short, must study 
as thoroughly as possible the 
mental and physical facts, their 
working and their laws." This 
book will assist greatly along 
these lines. 12 mo., cloth, $1.50 
net. D. Appleton & Company, 
New York. 

"The Orphant Annie Book," by 
James Whitcomb Riley. A very 
large and beautiful volume by 
this great writer for little chil- 
dren. Strikingly illustrated with 
many full page colored plates. 
Price $1.50 net. Bobbs-Merrill 
Co., Indianapolis. 

"Legends From Fairy Land," 
by Holme Lee. Illustrations by 
Reginald L. Knowles and Horace 
J. Knowles. Introduction by 
Effie H. Freemantle. A beautiful 
volume of fairy tales for children. 
Elegantly bound in cloth with 
gilt top and many illustrations. 
It is announced as narrating "the 
history of Prince Glee and 
Princess Trill. The cruel per- 
secutions and condign punishment 
of Aunt Spite; the adventures of 
the Great Tuflogbo and the story 
of the Blackcap in the Giant's 
well. Price $1.50. J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co., Philadelphia. 

"Changing Conceptions of Edu- 
cation," by Ellwood P. Cubberley, 
professor of education, Leland 
Standford Junior University. 
This constitutes one number of 
the Riverside Educational Mono- 
graphs, edited by Henry Suzzallo, 
and referred to in the last issue 
of this magazine. The book should 
be studied by every teacher in 
America. Price 35 cents net. 
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 
New York and Chicago. 

"The Brownie Song Book." A 
book of Brownie songs for chil- 
dren. Words and music written, 
composed and adapted by S. G. 
Pratt. Nine songs that every 
child will love to sing. Boards 
20 cents. Laird & Lee, Chicago. 

"Hand-Book of Industrial 
Drawing. For teachers in common 
schools. By Ida A. Tew, super- 
visor of drawing in public schools, 
Beatrice, Nebraska. We have re- 
ceived this volume from Ains- 
worth & Company, Chicago. It 
is well illustrated and the in- 
structions are plain and easily 
understood. It contains also 
chapter of paper folding, clay 
modeling, stick laying, etc. Price 
50 cents. 



For Teacher?, School Officials, Parents, 
and all others Interested In Education. 


Professor of Philosophy of Education, 

Teachers College, Columbia University. 

New York. 

Price, 35 cents each, net. 

Except "Teaching Children to Study," 

60 cents. 

Volumes now Ready 

Others are in Preparation. 


Education. An essay, and other selec- 
tions. By Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

The Meaning of Infancy and The Part 

Played by Infancy in the Evolution of 
Man. By John Fiske. 

Education For Efficiency and The New 

Definition of the Cultivated Man. By 
Charles W. Eliot, President of Harvard 
University (Emeritus). 

Moral Principles in Education. By John 
Dewey, Professor of Philosophy, Co- 
lumbia University. 


Changing Conceptions of Education. By 
E. P. Cubberley, Professor of Education, 
Leland Stanford, Jr., University. 


Self-Cultivation in English. By George 
Herbert Palmer, Professor of Philoso- 
phy, Harvard University. 

Ethical and Moral Instruction in Schools. 
By George Herbert Palmer. 

Teaching Children To Study. By Lida B. 
Earhart, Instructor in Elementary Edu- 
cation, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity (Double Number). Price 60 





To Kindergartners 

— AND — 

Primary Teachers. 

To secure the best results in teaching 
Writing to the Little Children, you must 
have the BEST PENS. These are made 
especially for this puipose by 
95 John St., Camden, N. J. 
Ask for Nos. 702, 778, 774 or 794. 

Valuable for the 

Vowel Songs 

By Win. M. Law*ence. Price 25*. 

Six little nong.s for «peo:nl train- 
ing In \o»vcl pronunciation. These 
■re meeting with Mpleuilid success. 

Nature Songs and Lulla- 

By Anna Bndlam nnd Carrie Bui- 
lard", both experienced Kindergnrt 
■em, antl their book is "one of un 
■anal merit." Priee 50c. 

Lilts and Lyrics 

By Aliee C. D. Blley and Jessie 
I.. Gaynor. l'rice $1.00. 

The Second season for this book 
slums a decidedly increasing de- 

Published by 

Clayton F. Summy Co. 


Send for our catalogue of "Works 
Pertaining to the Education of the 
Child in Music." 


A monthly magazine con- 
taining the BEST literature, 
the BEST pictures, the BEST 
articles of travel, exploration, 
science, etc. It has been for 
forty years The Leading 
American Magazine. 

IN 1910 

Clt will have a fine serial \ 
novel by the popular author 
of "The Divine Fire," while 
Edith Wharton and scores 
of the greatest short-story 
writers will contribute. 
Clt will have a series of ar- 
ticles on The Holy Land 
by Robert Hichens, superbly 
illustrated in color by Jules 
Guerin. And it will have 
other color pictures by the 
leading artists of the world. 
Ck will have the Memoirs 
of Madame Modjeska, and 
articles on tramping around 
the world. 

Clt will have articles on 
American sport by Walter 
Camp, the famous Yale 

Clt will have,— but space 
will not permit a full enu- 
meration. Try it in igw 
end you will be satisfied. 

*4.00 A YEAR 
The Century Co., 

Union Square, New York 

Books Received— Continued] g 

"Rum and Ruin." The story 
of Dr. Caldwell. By Edward R. 
Roe. A powerful plea for tern- 
perance. A thrilling romance. 
"I tell you, in God's holy name, I 
That THIS is the scourge of the 
Rs burden, its sorrow, its shame, 
Burnt deep on the brow like a 
Striking hard at its honor and 
And crumbling its strength in- 
to sand." 

Rev. Canon Bell. — 
Price $1.00. Laird & Lee, Chi- 

"The Wooster Juvenile 
Speaker." Recitations, songs, 
dialogs for schools and general 
use. Compiled by Lizzie E. 
Wooster. Just the thing for 
primary and rural teachers. 112 
pages. Boards 25 cents. Cloth 
50 cents. Leird & Lee, Chicago. 

"Black Bruin." The Biography 
of a Bear. By Clarence Hawkes, 
author of "Shaggycoat, the 
Biography of a Beaver," "The 
Trail To the Woods," "Tenants of 
the Trees," "The Little Foresters," 
etc. Illustrated by Charles Cope- 
land. An unusually interesting 
story for children. 288 pages. 
Cloth, Price $1.50. Geo. W. 
Jacobs & Co., Phialdelphia. 

"In Peanut Land," verses and 
pictures by Eva Dean. A beau- 
tiful volume in verse for the little 
folks. Somewhat along the order 
of the Browny Books. The exact 
location of Peanut Land is 
shrouded in mystery: 
"Just where it is, is not quite 

It may be very far from here, 
And still it may be very near." 
Price $1.25, boards. $1.75 

cloth binding. R. F. Fenno & 
Co., New York. 

"Games For the Playground, 
Home, School and Gymnasium," 
by Jessie H. Bancroft. This is 
undobutedly one of the most com- 
plete book of games published in 
America. It contains complete 
instructions with diagrams where 
necessary for playing games suit- 
able for children of every grade 
in the school room. It contains 
about twenty-five games for both 
the first and second half year for 
pupils of every grade from the 
first to the eighth, also a large 
number of games for high school. 
It also contains games for play- 
grounds, gymnasiums, and where 
there are a large number of peo- 
ple, also games for boys' and girls' 
summer camps for house paries 
and country clubs, seashore games 
and games for children's parties. 
456 pages. Beautifully bound in 
cloth. Price $1.50. MacMillan 
Company, New York. 

Spool Knittin 

By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting is well suited fop us< 
constructive work in the primary grs 
and kindergarten. It is so simple 1 
small children can do it well. They 
make articles which are pretty 
which interest them, without the sti 
that comes from too exact work. ' 
materials are easily obtained and pl< 
ant to work with. The directions gi 
are clear and easily followed. 

Facing each description there are 
or more photographs showing the art 
as completed, or in course of construct 

Here are some of the articles wk 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's B 
Doll's Muff, Tarn O'Shanter Cap, Chi 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Hood, D< 
Jacket, Child's Muffler, Mittens, LI 
Boy's Hat, Little Girl's Hat, Chi 
Hood, Jumping Rope, Toy Horse Re 
School Bag, Doll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 ne 




We can supply Entertainment 
Books for every occasion schools 

That wonderful set of books, 
"The Year's Entertainments" con- 
tains material for every month in 
the year— for every event. It is 
graded and is the most complete 
compilation of its kind ever pub- 

A valuable assistant to the teacher or supi 
intendent. Ask us about it. 

Then we have books prepared exclusivi 
for such days as Washington's Birthday, Li 
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In addition we are headquarters for Sch< 
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our Catalog No. 33 before you buy any books 
tell us your needs and see how quickly we c 
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burgh and Allegheny 
kindergarten College 

N. PARKER Superintendent. 

Course, two years. Special ad- 
jes for Post-Graduate work. 

eerith yea begins Oct. 1, 1909. 
atalogue, address 
William McCracken, Secretary, 
th Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA 

dergarten Training 

tlonal advantages — dally practice, 
from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
prlvilege of Elective Courses In 

Uege at special rates. Charges 
Graduates readily find posl- 

■"Jatalogue address Secretary 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Jersey Training Schools 

iss Cora Webb Peet 


Two Tears' Course. 

circulars, address 


shlngton St.. Kant Orange. N. J 

» Adams School 
ndergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 
nonths' practice teaching dur- 
urse. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 

OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 



Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



In Affiliation with the 


2134 East 77th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years In Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
In the Chicago Kindergarten College. 


MRS. W. R. WARNER. Manager. 

Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

OPENED Sept. 30th, 1909. at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Junior, 
Senior, Graduate and Normal Train- 
era' Courses. Five Practice Kinder- 
gartens. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 

The Pines, utledge.Pa. 



From $8.00 to $25 00. 


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School Books to BURN! 

Pardon our use of slang, 'but if you 
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burn them. You can sell them for cash 
or exchange for others you want. 

Send for list of Books Wanted (giving 
prices paid), also, if interested, for Bar- 
gain List of Books for sale at Low Prices. 

C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Co., 

262 Wabash Avenue Chicago. 111. 

You Can Work Wonders 

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Whatever the Age, 

by using 

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Always ready for use. No water requlred. 

If your dealer cannot supply you 

write to as. Ask for Booklet K. 

The Embossing Company, 


CAUTION. — Ask for HABBUTT'S and 

avoid unsatisfactory substitutes. 



And. all kinds of Construction 

Material for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers. Catalogue 

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By Dean Russell and Professors Thorndike and 

MacVanned of Teachers College, Columbia 


A special number (76 pages, paper cover) of the 
above articles on some fundamental problems of 
kindergarten education will be sold for a limited 
time at half-price, 15 cents postpaid.. This offer 
is made in order to reduce a great overstock caused 
by error in contracts with printers. 

Several other issues of the TEACHERS COIr 
LEGE RECORD are also offered at half price for 
a short time only. Write for a list of titles anr 1 

The two latest issues of THE RECORD deal with 
Teaching History and Arithmetic in Elementary 
Schools.. Price 30 cents each. 

Address all letters to 


Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, 

New York City. 


OTWITHSTANDING the fact that we have requested that all subscriptions and 
advertising communications be sent to the business office at Manistee, Mich., we 
frequently delayed by the sending of business details to the editorial office, 
lease send all editorial matter, except late news items, to the New York office, and 
msiness letters to the Manistee office. kindergarten magazine CO. 

Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

ted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 
Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 
Through the University. 

litorlal Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. T. 
sll Earle, Ph. D., Editor, 59 West 96th St., New York City 
iness Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich, 

J. H. SHULTS, Business Manager. 

ommunlcations pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
sr business relating to the flagazlne should be addressed 
Michigan office, J, H.Shults, Business rianager, Hanlstee, 
;an. All other communications to B. Lyell Earle, flanaging 
•, 59 W. p6th St., New York City. 

1 Kindergarten- I'rlmary Magazine is published on the 
if each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
, Manistee, Mich. 

Subscription price is $1.0# per year, payable in advance. 
1 copies, 16c. 

tag* Is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
nited States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
texlco. For Canada add 26* and for all other countries 
1 Postal Union add 4©c for postage. 

ice ef Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a eon- 
ice of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
tce is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
both the eld and new addresses must be given. 

alttances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 

r Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 

If a local check is sent, it must include 16c exchange. 


he meeting of the International Kinder- 
:en Union will be held in St. Louis 
ng the last week in April. Those who 
t to the last meeting of the Union in 
Louis will remember the royal enter- 
ment given, and those who are going 
for the first time have a most interest- 
and delightful experience before them, 
nember the time. The last week in 
il. A beautiful time of year in St. 


or many years Saint Louis has rightly 
ited the name "Convention City" but 
icially since opening her gates in 1904 
eceive the world as her guest has she 
1 proud to extend her hospitality to 

many gatherings of many kinds. Her latch- 
string is always on the outside and it will 
give her a peculiar pleasure to have it 
"pulled" by that body of people of whom 
it may be said "A little child (is leading) 

Place where the I. K. U. meetings will be held. 

them." It becomes her privilege a second 
time to welcome the International Kinder- 
garten Union and a welcome warm and 
true it shall be. 

St Louis is justly proud of many things 
and not the least of these is the recognition 
that has come to her for having been "fore- 
most in organizing a system of kinder- 
gartens whose influence has extended to 
every section of the country." Quoting 
from Mr. Francis E. Cook in The History 
of St. Louis, "It was a Supreme moment in 
the history of American education when 



Miss Blow and Dr. William T. Harris, for 
eleven years superintendent of schools, first 
met to consider the feasibility of the estab- 
lishment of the kindergarten as a part of 
the public school system — she with her 
splendid enthusiasm, intelligent earnest- 
ness and practical good sense, fresh from 
the study of the workings of the kinder- 
garten in its purest form; he recognizing 
in this institution the most perfect realiza- 
tion and embodiment ot his most advanced 
pedagogical theories." August 26, 1873, 
the board of president and directors of the 
St Louis public schools, upon the recom- 
mendation of Superintendent ■ Harris, 
accepted the offer of Miss Blow to 
gratuitously conduct a kindergarten and 
instruct one paid assistant. An industrial 
district was chosen for this beginning. A 
room in the Des Peres school was appro- 
priately furnished and Miss Mary A. Tim- 
berlake, an experienced primary teacher, 
appointed by the board as paid assistant. 

Though from the first the experiment 
was eminently successful, it is probable that 
the clearest and most far reaching vision 
failed to catch even a glimpse of the full 
meaning of its success. Even we, who 
stand "upon the shoulders of the past" re- 
viewing the history of its triumphs, can not 
measure its value — the countless lives it 
has touched and regenerated, the leavening 
influence of these lives in the world. 

More children came than could be cared 
for and many young women of culture 
voluntarily gave assistance. In 1874 two 
more kindergartens were opened in the 
Everett and Divoll schools. In 1875, after- 
noon sessions were opened, accommodating 
two separate sets of children in the same 
room. That year the number of kindergar- 
tens was increased to twelve and in 1876-7, 
eighteen more were added. In this year 
the United States Centennial Commission 
(Philadelphia), in recognition of the merit 
of the exhibit prepared by Miss Blow, made 
an award to St. Louis for "excellence of 
work and for the establishment of the kin- 
dergarten as a part of the public school sys- 
tem." And so the stream ever widened 
until today St. Louis has 140 kindergartens 
located in 91 schools. In 49 schools there 
are two sessions attended by separate 
groups of children. In 1908-09 there were 
enrolled 11,000 children and 255 paid 
teachers cared for them. For the most part 
the kindergartens have beautiful homes 

with all modern furnishings and eqr 
ment, and for this are largely indebted 
the Commissioner of School Buildings, ] 
William B. Ittner, who considers the ne 
of the little child, as well as of those 
larger growth, in making his plans. 

After the kindergarten had been v 
established in the schools for white c 
dren, a demand for the same advantages 
colored children resulted in the opening 
the first kindergarten for colored child 
in 1882. There are now kindergartens 
eight of the schools for colored childi 
These are conducted by colored women ; 
one of their number, Mrs. Haydee Cai 
bell, has charge of the training class 
colored students. 

The training of the one assistant in 
first kindergarten by Miss Blow was 
beginning of a public kindergarten train 
school which expanded with the dem 
for trained workers. "Women came fi 
all parts of the United States and Can 
to study with Miss Blow, and many suj 
intendents of schools came to observe 
kindergartens of St. Louis and to 
teachers from there to introduct the 
tern in other cities." 

Miss Blow withdrew from active w 
in St. Louis in 1884. She had laid a i 
foundation and the work was commi 
to the hands of those disciples who, ur 
her training, had caught the inspiration 
the insight to carry it forward in a 
worthy of its founder. Miss Cynthia 
Dozier, Mrs. Ella Hildreth, Miss U 
Fisher and Miss Mary C. McCulloch v 
these disciples. 

For twenty-five years Miss McCul 
has shepherded this flock. Natural end 
ment and special equipment with an 
swerving fidelity to the principles of 1 
who pointed the way to nurture the 1 
child according to the natural laws 
growth, have combined to make he 
leader true to the interests of the child 
a safe guide and helper to the hundred 
young women who have gone out 
minister to childhood. 


In the autumn of 1892 it entered into 
mind of Mrs. Cornelia Maury, a membf 
the educational section of the Wedne 
club, the great need for a work to be ( 
among the little children in the poor 






cts of the city who were too young to 

admitted to the public school kinder- 
rtens. Mrs. Maury made a visit to the 

ldren of the river bank and with the in- 
ht of a mother and a kindergartner saw 
:ir great need. This insight resulted in 

ion toward the opening of a kindergar- 
1 by the educational section of the Wed- 
sday club. A room in Bethel Mission, 
rner of Main and Olive streets, was 
ected and here, at a nominal salary, on 
ster Monday, 1893, Mrs. Maury opened 
; Riverside Kindergarten. L,ater the 
:ality was changed to South Seventh 
eet and the name changed to the Isabel 
ow Kindergarten. In 1894 the kinder- 
rten committee, with the approval of 
; educational section, decided to with- 
iw from the Wednesday club and in- 
rporated as the Isabel Crow Association. 

training school was established, Miss 
r nthia P. Dozier lending the use of her 
100I room at 3104 Morgan street for the 
rpose. Miss Mary Waterman was in 
arge of the school assisted by a corps of 
mpetent teachers. A second kindergarten 
is opened in 1895 and a third in 1896. 
In the spring of 1896, Miss Waterman, 
iss Runyan and Miss Dozier of the 
ecutive committee were called respective- 

to the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn; 
:achers College, New York; and the 
pervision of the New York Kindergarten 
ssociation. Miss Fredrica Smith was 
iced at the head of the training school 
d made supervisor of the three kinder- 
rtens. Miss Eunice Jaynes later rilled 
e same position. 

In January, 1902, the name of the asso- 
ition was changed to the Under-Age Free 
indergarten Association (Under-Age 
eaning under public school age), and this 
sociation at present conducts kindergar- 
ns in five mission houses in the poorest 
stricts of the city. Mrs. Kohn B. Shap- 
gh is president of the association and 
rs. G. A. Finkelnburg, first vice presi- 
nt. Miss Clara McCluney has charge of 
e program classes for the teachers. It is 
»n-sectarian in character and these five 
ndergartens are so many centers of in- 
tence touching the lives of 400 children 
id reaching out to the mothers and the 
>mes, for in each kindergarten two 
others' Meetings are held every month 
id the training of the mother goes hand 
hand with the development of the child. 


Continued froni the November i&bue oi the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine. 


Our notes on Kindergarten Theory and 
Practice in the last three issues of the 
Magazine have dehned the problem of 
Program and Method in the Kindergarten, 
and emphasized the chief aspects 01 Child 
Study that every successful kindergartner 
should know. Particular emphasises were 
placed on instinct, self-activity and 011 plaz- 
as the native capital of the child's nature 
when he comes into the kindergarten room. 
To these are added his experiences from 
birth to the time he enters school. 

If W3 were to proceed logically, we might 
take up here the physical conditions of tne 
kindergarten room itself and the hygiene 
of the educative process at that period of 
the child's development. \\ e refer the 
readers of the Magazine, however, to the 
two articles that appeared last year — one 
on the Hygiene of Children of the Kinder- 
garten Age, and the other on the Kinder- 
garten Beautiful, which expressed the 
editorial views of the Magazine. \\ e shall 
return to these points in later issues. Fur 
the present, we will assume a kindergarten 
beautiful and hygienic conditions suited to 
the normal development of normal children. 
The present notes will be concerned with 
the - oblem of Organization, both of a time 
division and of subject matter and method 
in the actual carrying on of the morning 

W T e would suggest the following time 
schedule for a morning kindergarten. We 
shall take up the all-day kindergarten later. 






9:00 Children help in preparing room for 
the day, water plants, look at 
picture books, draw on black 
board, build, play in the sand, 
etc. Call them to the circle by 
the piano. 

— 9:25 Morning Circle — Quiet them with 
music and then have prayer or 
talk with the group, have the 
greeting songs and lead up to 
the prayer. Have greetings, 
prayer, finger plays, songs, ob- 
servation of the weather, roll 
call when necessary. Plenty of 
conversation, sometimes a story. 
Twice during this circle the chil- 
dren should stand. 

5 — 9:35 Marching and rhythms. 

5 — 10:00 Gift period. 

— 10:25 Play circle. 



10:25 — 10:40 Luncheon. 

10:40 — 11:05 Free play and rest. 

11:05 — 11:35 Occupation. 

11-35 — 12:00 Closing circle — Inspection of work, 

going over a new song, good-bye 

Morning circle, good-bye circle and play 
circle are the most important things in 

The morning circle is the most important 
exercise of the kindergarten. The piano 
should be played for four or five minutes to 
bring children into a unified whole. Then 
the prayer may be said but not unless the 
atmosphere and attitude are present. Songs 
should not occupy the whole time but 
teaches should encourage pupils to tell her 
their experiences. The morning circle is 
th * place for social intercourse and for 
unifying the group. Children should not 
be kept sitting during the whole time. Each 
morning the essential elements should be 
present in the circle but introduced dif- 


Provision should be made of blocks, 
picture books. Have children bring 
pictures and paste them on paper or paper 
muslin, balls, horse reins, etc., before kin- 

Let children do things for themselves as 
this free play is a golden time for observa- 

At beginning of circle the children must 
be brought into a unified condition. Do not 
have just a song rehearsal of the morning- 
circle but talk about the songs. Do not 
pray until the atmosphere and attitude of 
prayer are present. The teacher should 
close her eyes and pray herself. Do not 
watch children during prayer, 

Morning circle is for greetings, for social 
intercourse, for bringing children into a 
unified atmosphere. Never tell a story 
until circle is unified. Have picture study. 
Presentation of objects. Dramatize ex- 
periences, finger plays. 

In the conduct of the morning circle the 
teacher has one of the best opportunities 
for showing her insight into life and her 
power for forming its best habits. In these 
days of small, or one child, family the 
morning circle in the kindergarten truly 
takes the place of the family circle in the 
home, and where the kindergarten is large 
enough to have four sections there is a 

pretty close imitation of the family gra 
tion found only where three or four cl 
dren gather around the same morni 

fust as the teacher has the best opp 
tunity in her morning circle, so its cond 
is the best test of her efficiency. I h; 
attended morning circles in the kind 
garten that were a delight and the clos 
possible reproduction of the family and 
life with the suggestions of the larger soc 
value that can be gotten out of such a ga 
ering. And, on the other hand, I h 
listened to the most inane, meaningl 
questions that elicited correspondi 
answers from the children that I have e 
listened to in a class room. Every quest] 
was a leading question, with the answ 
suggested, and bore no definite relation 
the value that should be gotten from st 
an important part of the morning work 

I would like to remark here that very f 
kindergartners that I have visited j 
proper attention to the use of the voice 
their speaking to the children, and sh 
frequently the most lamentable neglect 
correct English in the forming of th 
questions and in making the connectk 
between question and answer, and amo 
the various questions and answers of 1 
morning talk. While the material a 
method from the child's standpoint and 
perience, should be psychological and 
dicate his need and growth, the teache 
method and questioning should be of 1 
finest logical order, so that somethi 
definite would come out of the morni 

To me the supreme start of the morn 
circle is to sum up and recall and focal 
the experiences of the preceding days a 
to lift into consciousness knowledge a 
vivify the needs of the children as a ba 
for the new matter to be presented on tl 
particular day, and as an integral part of 1 
unitary program being worked out in a 
given period of time or season. 

The morning circle in the kindergarl 
holds to the kindergarten children a 
teachers the same place as the assembly 
the grade work, and should be as vital 
any gathering of good workers associai 
for a length of time in a definite pursi 
We need more earnestness, more ord 
more purpose, more tone and more culti 
on the part of our kindergarten teach 
themselves in the conduct of the morni 



le ; to win from it for the children any- 
g like its adequate values. 
: is the introduction to the school day 
is a true index of the tone that will 
-acterize the rest of the morning work, 
en the other circles of play and of de- 
;ing occur they will serve to unify the 
rities that have intervened between 
n and the child should depart from his 
ning kindergarten really grown into a 
iy and deeper life. 

American Public School as, a Factor 
in International Conciliation 

In International Conciliation. 

(Continued from last iesue) 

riendships frequently spring up between 
nt and teacher, and it often lies in the 
er of the latter to be of service by 
rig either advice or more substantial 

At Mothers' Meetings the cultivation 
)lerance still goes on. There women of 
ily different class and nationality meet 
he common ground of their children's 
are. Then there are roof gardens, 
eation piers and parks, barges and ex- 
ions, all designed to help the poorer 

of the city's population — without re- 

to creed or nationality — to bear and 
idp their children to bear the killing 

of the summer. So Jew and Gentile, 
k. and white, commingle; and gradually 
hostilities are forgotten or corrected. 

board of education provides night 
ols for adults and free lectures upon 
y conceivable interesting topic, includ- 
the history and geography and natural 
)ry of distant lands. Travelers always 
7 large audiences to their lectures, 
he children soon learn to read well 
igh to translate the American papers, 
there are always newspapers in the dif- 
it vernaculars, so that the immigrant 
1 becomes interested not only in the 
5 of his own country, but in the multi- 
ious topics which go to make up Amer- 
life. He soon grasps at least the out- 

of politics, national and international, 
before he can speak English he will 
ess an audience of his fellow-country- 

on "Our Glorious American Institu- 

is not only the immigrant parent who 
ts by the work of the public school. 

The American parent also finds himself, or 
generally herself, brought into friendly con- 
tact with the foreign teachers and the 
foreign friends of her children. The New 
York public school system culminates in 
the Normal college, which trains women as 
teachers, and the College of the City of 
New York, which offers courses to young 
men in the profession of law, engineering, 
teaching, and, besides, a course in business 
training. The commencement at these in- 
stitutions brings strangely contrasted 
parents together in a common interest and 
a common pride. The students seem much 
like one another, but the parents are so 
widely dissimilar as to make the similarity 
of their offspring an amazing fact for con- 
templation. Mothers with shawls over their 
heads and work-distorted hands sit beside 
mothers in Parisian costumes, and the silk- 
clad woman is generally clever enough to 
appreciate and to admire the spirit which 
strengthened her weary neighbor through 
all the years of self-denial, labor, poverty 
and often hunger which were necessary to 
pay for the leisure and the education of 
son or daughter. The feeling of inferiority, 
of uselessness, which this realization entails 
may humiliate the idle woman but it is 
bound to do her good. It will certainly de- 
prive her conversation of sweeping critic- 
isms on lives and conditions unknown to 
her. It will also utterly do away with many 
of her prejudices against the foreigner and 
it will make the "Let them eat cake" atti- 
tude impossible. 

And so the child, the parent, the teacher 
and the home-staying relative are brought 
to feel their kinship with all the world 
through the agency of the public school, 
but the teacher learns the lesson most fully, 
most consciously. The value to the cause 
of peace and good-will in the community 
of an army of thousands of educated men 
and women holding views such as these 
cannot easily be over-estimated. The 
teachers, too, are often aliens and nearly 
always of a race different from their pupils, 
yet vou will rarely meet a teacher who is 
not delighted with her charges. "Do come," 
they always say, "and see my little Italians 
or Irish, or German, or picaninnies, they are 
the sweetest little things ;" or, if they be 
teachers of a higher grade. "They are the 
cleverest and the most charming children." 
They are all clever in their different ways, 
and they are all charming to those who 




know them, and the work of the public 
school is to make this charm and cleverness 
appreciated, so that race misunderstandings 
in the adult population may grow fewer 
and fewer. 

The only dissatisfied teacher I ever 
encountered was a girl of old Knicker- 
bocker blood, who was considered by her 
relatives to be too fragile and refined to 
teach any children except the darlings of the 
upper West Side, where some of the rich 
are democratic enough to patronize the 
public school. From what we heard of her 
experiences, "patronize" is quite the proper 
word to use in this connection. A group of 
us, classmates, had been comparing notes 
and asked her from what country her 
charges came. "Oh, they are just kids," 
she answered, dejectedly, "ordinary every- 
day kids, with Dutch cut hair, Russian 
blouses, belts at the knee line, sandals, and 
nurses to convoy them to and from school. 
You never saw anything so tiresome." 

It grew finally so tiresome that she ap- 
plied for a transfer, and took the Knicker- 
bocker spirit down to the Jewish quarter, 
where it gladdened the young Jacobs, 
Rachels, Isadors and Rebeccas entrusted to 
her care. Her place among the nursery 
pets was taken by a dark-eyed Russian girl, 
who found the uptown babies, the despised 
"just kids," as entertaining, as lovable, and 
as instructive as the Knickerbocker girl 
found the Jews. Well, and so they are all 
of them, lovable, entertaining and instruc- 
tive, and the man or woman who goes 
among them with an open heart and eye 
will find much material for thought and 
humility. And one function of the public 
school is to promote this understanding and 
appreciation. It has done wonders in the 
past and every year finds it better equipped 
for its work of amalgamation. The making 
of an American citizen is its stated function, 
but its graduates will be citizens not only of 
America. In sympathy, at least, they will 
be citizens of the world. 


Paper Cutting Story. 

Tell the children the story of George 
Washington and the cherry tree. Use 
engine colored paper for the different 
objects. Cut the tree from green paper, 
a bunch of cherries anddeaves from red and 
green paper, the little boy from brown 
paper, his father from black and the hatchet 
from gray. 



HE chapter on "Nature i 
Education" in Dr. Monte 
sori's "II Metodo deela Ped 
gogia Scientifica," is mo 
reassuring. Genuine work 
gardens such as Froebel urged and sue 
as all kindergartners believe in ar 
encourage, is given place in this Italic 
Infant school. 

We understand that the Italian Infa: 
school is intended to be placed in the houi 
in which the children live, not only for tl 
comfort of the younger children who a 
permitted to enter at even two and thr 
years of age, but also that the mothers mi 
be at ease, and that they too may obser 
and learn gradually how to deal with the 
little ones. 

We hope that some model teneme 
houses will soon be constructed in o 
city with a model infant play room openii 
on a garden or at least on a playgroun 
Our settlement houses in which kinde 
gartens formed the nucleus, seem best 
correspond with this Italian plan said 
be already in existence in Rome and Mila 

Miss Lucy Latter, who visited o 
schools upon the Mosely invitation, ce 
tered her success in England around t 
school garden. Her excellent book* up> 
the subject seems to have guided to sor 
extent the work in Italy. 

It is delightful to realize these hap 
interchanges between the kindergartens 
different speaking people and to know tl 
nature that "makes all the world akin," 
the best connecting link. 

In the first garden thus planned for t 
children in the heart of Rome, the si 
rounding neighbors, as they have here 
New York, despoiled it with refuse thro 
from the windows. Soon, however, lit 
by little, the children themselves so int 
ested their parents in their garden tl 
"without any expostulation" but seeminj 
out of "respect for the work of the cl 
dren," this annoyance ceased. 

"Go make thy garden fair as thou canst, 

Thou workest never alone; 
Perchance he whose plot is next to thine 

May see it and mend his own." 

There are heart gardens as well as flov 
gardens and they lie as neighbors next 



1 this "Case dei Bambini," the garden 
a center path, one side being planted 
1 trees for the children to play under, 
bably the sand pile is on this side, 
he other side is divided into individual 
s for each child, so that we find 
ntially the Froebelian garden recog- 
ng both individuality and the commun- 

y conversation with the Baroness 

nchetti, who called my attention to this 

resting work in Italy, I learned that in 

le of the later work in the elementary 

des each child keeps a record book of 

or her observations upon one individual 

i which he or she plants. First the 

i itself is observed and a drawing of it 

ie. On the opposite page of the record 

k the little seed is named and described 

vords. The date and manner of planting 

tated. If the seed is planted in a flower 

the pot is drawn and on the opposite 

e it is described and a statement made 

reference possibly to its manufacture. 

haps the child himself has molded it. 

hen from time to time drawings are 

ie showing the first blade, and each step 

marked development with the cor- 

Donding descriptive composition oppo- 

: until fruitage is won. 

t may be that through lack of care or 

er cause the little plant dies. This is 

Drded and a new trial made. 

iimilar work is being done all over our 

ntry in many of our elementary schools, 

I have never personally seen it carried 

more fully and faithfully than in the 

e book shown me by the Baroness. 

V second year each child may follow 

life of a tad-pole and write correspond- 

descriptions. xAnother year the develop- 

lt of the caterpillar is the study and so 

until the lesson of unfolding life and its 

stant need of lurfure is established in 

child's mind aid heart. The Baroness 

ke most feelir.gly to a class of little 

s in P. S. 68, Manhattan, about this work 

:he children in Italy who live upon her 

ite. t She said, "We want them to see 

wonders in the life right about them," 

to learn "to love all developing life." 

liss Latter speaks of the patience and 

h cultivated in garden work which she 

iks helps in the philosophy of life. 

n an article published in the Kinder- 

ten-Primary Magazine in March, 1908, 

re is recorded a most fascinating record 

of the possibilities of nature interests in a 
crowded city street. It is worth re-reading. 
Look it up. - 

"The little sparrows on the shed; 

The scrap of soft sky overhead; 

The cat upon the sunny wall; 

There's so much meant among them all. 

The dandelion in the cleft 

A broken pavement may have left, 

Is like the star that, still and sweet, 

Shines where the house-tops almost meet." 

(To be continued.) 



Series IV. 

When the class is fairly able to imitate a 
tone sounded on the tubes, piano or by the 
voice of the teacher, the following series of 
scale plays may be introduced. The teacher 
sounds the lowest tone — father Doh, by 
striking the tube Do, and the class sings it 
after it is struck; then the teacher strikes 
the tube Re, and the class imitate it like- 
wise; then the tube Mi is struck, and 
imitated, and in succession the tube Fa, 
Soh, La, Ti and Doo. The class then sings 
each tune of the scale, up and down, until 
they are familiar with the fairy family, or 
scale play. 

The teacher should see to it, however, 
that some regularity in time is observed in 
striking and imitating the scale play, so 
that the children become familiar with the 
divisions of time in singing. It may be 
practical to have the class stand up and 
mark the time like soldiers standing, by 
moving the body from the right foot to the 
left foot, which regulates the time equally 
into two parts easily repeated by the action 
of the body. Some child-like association 
may be employed to make this more attrac- 

The exercise begins by the teacher strik- 
in~ the tone on one step while the class 
imitates the tone on the other step; that is: 
the tone is struck on the R step, while the 
class imitates on the L step, or the order 
may be reversed. By the exercise the child 
learns to watch the emphasis or stress of 
the R and L step, or different sides of his 
bodv. For some children have a tendency 
to do everything with the right hand or 
arm in preference to the left. An additional 
practice consists in having the child make 

1 8o 


motion with the right and left arm, alter- 
nately, in comparison with the marking of 
the time by the R and L step during the 
singing of the scale play. This double 
motion of step and arm movement may be 
varied as the teacher sees fit. For in them 
lies the elementary training in rhythm, and 
are consequently of sufficient importance 
to nay some attention to them in the Kin- 
dergarten play. 

After the class can thus produce the 
sound of the tubes by the voice combined 
with bodily movements the introduction of 
short melodies is apropos. These melodies 
thould be short, and consist of short 
motion, with rests between them. The 
following are some examples, which may be 
multiplied by any teacher having the 
elements of music at command. The 
upper line presents the tones struck on the 
tubes, and the second line the tone names 
sung by the class, after the tone is struck 
bv the teacher. The lower line indicates 
the R and L step which mark the time 
rhythmically, and should be kept up also 
during the rests. 

Melody I. 

Tones fPoh - Re - Mi - Mi - Re - Doh 
Class -i Doh -Re - Mi . Mi - Re - Doh - 

Steps [rlrlrlrlrlrlrlrl 
Melody 2. 

Tones fMi - Fa - Soh - Soh - 'Fa - Mi - - 
Class J - Mi - Fa - Soh - Soh - Fa - Mi - 

Melody 3. 

Tones fDoh - Re - Mi - Fa - Soh - Fa - Mi - Re - Do - 
Class A - Doh - Re - Mi - Fa - Soh - Fa - Mi - Re - Do 

These scale plays combining imitation of 
tones with rhythmical bodily movements 
should be continued until the class can per- 
form taem with ease. The attention of the 
child is then centered, not only on the pro- 
duction of pitch, but also on his bodily 
movements. Hence his attention is divided, 
and ye 4 : the regularity and rhythmical 
repetitions of the body must be maintained. 
This requires a nice and delicate mental 
operation. Quite a task for some children. 
And when the sense of sight is also com- 
bined with these scale plays, the mental 
function is increased and also made more 
difficult. And yet the simple exercise here 
suggested can be useful in this mental 
train'ng'. To employ the sense of sight in 
conjunction with the foregoing scale play 

the teachers should familiarize the childre 
with the numbers of the scale tones — i, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and also with the syllable 
Doh, Re, Mi, Fa, Soh, La, Ti, Doo, fc 
placing them on the blackboard one abov 
the other, thus: 

Doh Re Mi Fa Soh La Ti Dc 
1 234567]? 

This can be done without singing at firs 
and when the class understands and is ab 
to recognize the numbers of the eight fail 
names the short melodic exercise may 1 
written on the blackboard, with the nun 
bers for the tones, and the fairy nam 
below them, thus: 





Doh - Re - Mi - Mi - Re - Doh 

When this has been practically achieve 
the teacher should divide the melody int 
groups of two steps (R L) by placing 
vertical line between each two R L step 



- Re - Mi 

3 - I 

- Mi 

2 - I 1 -] 

- Re Doh 

While this scale play may seem compl 
cated at first view, it is by no means beyor 
the grasp of the child and practical valt 
in -the kindergarten training — if proper' 
conceived and practically applied. Th 
importance of this elementary trainin 
employing so many subtle functions of tr 
child's mental forces can not be questione 
The practical point lies in the judicious an 
practical application to kindergarte 

You must not only be cheerful, but sta 
cheerful, too. Don't be like the revolvin 
light, flashing out one minute and sul 
merged in darkness the next. Send a stead 
ray of cheer throughout the year. — C. B. 



Ma, 'taint no use for me to go — 
She don't teach nothin' that I know. 
She talks about the birds an' trees 
An' never mentions A-B-C's. 
Sings 'bout fishes in the brooks 
An' says we needn't bring no books. 
An' when I told my name was Ted 
What d'you think she went an' said? 
"Your really name is Theodore 
An' we won't call you Ted no more." 
So when she marched us out to play 
I 'cided I'd come home to stay 
For 'tain't no use for me to go — 
She don't teach nothin' that I know. 

Reprinted from Cosmopolitan Magazin 




A new translation by BERTHA JOHNSTON.) 

ilent premonition in the child lies hidden 
"hat in life's current he stands not alone; 
outside judgment now he lists unbidden 
nfluenced for good or ill by act and tone. 

>ther plane in life the growing child's ascending, 
call of true renown while he an ear is lending. 
Now the wise mother takes tender heed 
That false appearances do not mislead 
it in external show he doth not quiet rest, 
; inner worth makes ever his soul's earnest 


e gallant knights come galloping gay 
3 the castle courtyard gray, 
hat would you have, O riders fine?" 
) see you dear little child we pine — 
hear he is good as a child could be, 
e a lambkin frolicking, joyous, free. 
i seldom a knight a baby sees; 
m give us a glimpse of your darling, please." 

deed you may see my cooing dove 

is worthy even a brave knight's love." 

;ar little babe we're glad to greet 

! who makes mother's cares so sweet; 

e for good children will never cease, 

y you have ever joy and peace. 

ewell, and as we gallop along 

'11 sing of good children a happy song." 

JOTti — The grade teacher may here tell the 
•y of western miners who rejoice so when 
grants appeared with small children. A bright 
m describes the excitement in a circus given in 
Vestern mining camp when the baby carried by 
horseback rider began to laugh and the rough 
lience learned that it was a real baby. All 
ated a glimpse of the little one and the hat 
5 passed around to collect money for the baby, 
urning filled to the brim. In playing the 
ght game with older children we suggest the 
owing lines in place of four above: 

e hear he is loyal, obedient, free, 
rie day perhaps he a knight may be," 

deed you may see my page so true 
is worthy the love of e'en knights like you." 


A.s your child sits upon your lap, your 
t arm gently embracing him, the fingers 

your right hand move forward (always 
vancing from the little finger toward the 
imb), representing the galloping or 
.mping of horses and their riders, as if 
lining towards the child ; alternately, dur- 
£ the continuance of the little song, 
proaching and then again retreating. 
With this and the succeeding little play 
: reach that plane in which the formation 

the soul, the character, the will, of the 
ild is predominant ; all that was done thus 
', towards this end, was done incidentally 

by chance; what is now done with this 

in view, is done with fixed purpose and 
clear intention. 

Knights and horsemen are the expression 
of free self-determination and volition, and 
represent control of strange, absolute, if rude 
nature forces that are all but intractable. 
Knights and riders, therefore, early enchain 
the attention of boys and girls and stand to 
them as models of enchanting, we might 
almost say, ideal beauty. Their judgment 
and opinion therefore, is by no means a 
matter of indifference to the child, but has 
a value and an important value to him. 
Play and song therefore, join their word 
as a means to this end which through song 
and play we would so gladly reach with 
the children. 

But the motto warns us to be careful 
here, O mother. The differentiation has 
taken place in the child's consciousness be- 
tween himself and a second. He measures, 
compares, weighs. On this plane, the child 
confuses only too easily that which he is 
yet to be with that which he is now; and 
believes or would at least like to believe, 
that he already is that which he is yet to 
become and should become. Yes, we our- 
selves, and others (in the belief that the 
child does not yet understand such things), 
bring him to believe that he is already, in 
reality, that which we love in him but which 
is only in process of becoming. We bring 
him to this belief, in that we also, in our 
love for him do not distinguish that which 
we already love in him (as a weak begin- 
ning, as simply budding and nascent), from 
what he really is at present. And because 
of this insufficient distinction, both for the 
child and ourselves, between the already 
existing and the just becoming, we do our- 
selves and him great injury. May we, in 
behalf of both, be able to make this clear 
to ourselves through the liking, love and 
respect of others, through the regard of 
others for him (because of the good already 
awakened), this (goodness) should be 
strengthened and developed. But this 
should so take place, both on the part of 
others, and on your part, O parents, and 
especiallv on your part, loving mother, in 
such wav and manner, that he feels that 
this liking, this love, are his, only in so far 
as he himself is really good, for the sake of 
the actual good already existing; that he 
feels that onlv in so far as he himself is 
good, will he be loved by others also. The 
child must early learn to feel through your 

1 82 


conduct towards him, that your kind, loving 
behavior is induced not so much on account 
of his small external person, but only for 
the sake of his mind, his soul, emphatically, 
because of the fond hopes you entertain of 
him; when, therefore, mind and spirit be- 
come clouded, when the hope lessens, the 
love also withdraws. For this reason, when 
in your child, regard for outside opinion 
awakens, when it takes notice of and sets 
the judgment of others over against itself, 
then, parents, and then, all you who have 
influence over children, you have essential- 
ly a twofold thing to consider: first, as 
already claimed, you must plainly dis- 
tinguish, in your judgment of the child and 
in your conduct toward him, between that 
which your child already is, from what he 
should and what he may become. Secondly, 
vou riust in your attitude toward your 
child, in relation to that which he already 
is, distinguish clearly between outside 
appearances, that which is evident in his 
personality, from inner motives and springs 
of conduct ; from the inclinations and aims, 
in order that he may not acquire a wrong 
opinion regarding his small person and be- 
come strengthened therein. In the right 
comprehension or non-comprehension of 
what is here laid down and in judicious liv- 
ing in accordance therewith lies the turning 
point for the child, between his aspirations 
for the inner reality or outside appearances. 
And thus, dear mother, you at least, have 
in your power the cherishing, the nurture 
of these aspirations, even in your first 
prattling plays with the nursling. For then 
the river of life is at its spring, which the 
gentlest pressure of the hand may guide 
here or there at pleasure; but later it be- 
comes a torrent whose current no power 
may determine. 

But there is yet one other thing which 
may awaken in your child early reverence 
for the good, and the aspiration to emulate 
it. to attain it, in a word, to be good him- 
self, and this is not alone the respect and 
reverence which vou show for the good in 
him (the child), but far more, the respect, 
the recognition which you manifest towards 
the good in outsiders because of what is 
good in him. Everv distinction conferred 
unon an outsider which seems to the child 
deserved and just, which seems to him at- 
tainable, even if only through great labor. 
awakens the desire to emulate it and spurs 
him on. ti 

Froebel concludes his commentary wi 
the following dialogue in verse: 

"The song of the good child I'd like to hear 
Which the knights will sing to their children deai 


"Come, and hear us happily tell 

Of what on our journey us befell — 

A song of a good little child we bring, 

So hasten dear children and hear us sing: 

"In her lap, all cuddled up, 

Like the rose in mossy cup, 

Found we Mother's darling child 

Happy, active, gentle, mild; 

And the child, so vigorous, clever, 

(Hand and body busy ever,) 

With his blocks, to build, oft tried, 

On his own wee strength relied. 

If one fell he did not cry, 
But again, again, would try 
Ne'er discouraged — ah! thought we, 
Angels must his playmates be. 
Mother's love the angels meek, 
As she kissed each rosy cheek, 
Blessing, kissed the baby brow — 
Ah! new thoughts are stirring now, 
Mother now his toys must take, 
Loving gifts to her he'll make, 
Mother, dear, they're all for you 
For I love 3 r ou, yes, I do. 
Now he laughs and runs and springs, 
From afar his treasures brings — 
But again toward her he yearns, 
To her lap again he turns, 
Quiet sinks upon her breast 
Happy both, as he finds rest. 
Safe from sorrow, safe from harm, 
Clasping Mother with his arm. 
Weary is the little one 
Now in peace he sltfmbers on. 
And, as closes each bright eye 
Mother sings a lullaby. 
Then within the crib she lays 
Baby, tired of his plays, 
Clasping still the little toy 
Which had been his chiefest joy. 
O'er him, Mother bends in prayer, 
Covers him with tender care 
Now she sees the infant smile 
Angels speak with him the while." 

"Mother, dear Mother, I'm tired too." 
"Sleep, my darling, I'll sing to you." 


Three of the Mother Plays center roun 
the Knight motif. One picture shows tt 
Knights and the good child ; a second, tr 
Knights and the bad child, and the thir 
the mother concealing her child from tt 
friendly Knights. , 

In the first illustration we see five < 
these gallant horsemen approaching tl 
castle upon their spirited steeds. Tl 
mother stands upon a balcony holding tin 
little one whom the Knights wish to hono 
A drawing of the hand is shown at the to 
of the picture to illustrate the movemet 
of the galloping riders. The high cast 



vail, the tower and the stone pavement 
ive an idea of the stern severity of castle- 


The study of the various trades and their 
tnportant place in the social body leads up 
o the Knight, the ideal hero as a fitting 
limax. And since the Knight or soldier 
s the ideal of most boys and girls the sub- 
ect affords a fine opportunity for the 
eacher to impress upon the children im- 
>ortant truths concerning the health and 
are of the body. In order to do a Knight's 
vork in the world his body must be strong 
nd under his absolute control. He must* 
:eep it clean and vigorous by the daily 
ponge with cool water. He must be self- 
ontrolled and not over-eat, or eat things 
hat may not agree with his particular 
treanization. Speak of football players 
nd racers and other athletes when they are 
n training. What do you think about a 
nan who is abstemious only when in traili- 
ng, and then overeats or over-smokes or 
>ver-drinks the rest of the time? Is he an 
xample of a good Knight? 

If we are born with feeble bodies we 
nay often strengthen them so that we may 
lo good work in the world. Tell of Roose- 
elt who made a strong body of a frail one 
>y his years of life among the cowboys, 
shall we all learn how to swim and ride 
f possible so as to be ready for knightly 
service when occasion requires? Speak of 
langer of over exercising one set of 
nuscles. The man who devotes all his en- 
ergies to rowing is not an all-round man 
md is often a short-lived one. Speak of 
lecessity of good air and right breathing 
n order that our bodies may be always 
'eaHy for service. What is the right way 
o breathe? Speak of importance of keep- 
ng teeth in good condition. The health 
mthorities are laying great stress upon the 
mportant relation between good teeth and 
he general health. 

What about tobacco and drinking? If 
ve know that we have a weakness for such 
stimulants and know that there is the 
slightest danger of learning to like them 
00 much have we any right to run the risk. 
Does a true Knight go heedless into 

In addition to the little finger-play of the 
galloping Knights, in the kindergarten it 
s customary to dramatize the little play, 
'ome children forming the straight strong 

castle wall, while others represent the 
mother and the good child and still others 
the gallant Knights who gallop around to 
the tune of merry stirring music. In addi- 
tion to this exercise, let the children play 
with aiming games (the preparation for 
knighthood). They may throw balls into 
a eiven space or into an open box. Grace- 
hoops may be introduced to give practice in 
the attainment of grace, for the Knights 
were graceful and easy in deportment, as 
well as strong. Let the children dramatize 
the lives of some modern Knights. The 
girls may be told of Florence Nightingale 
and of heroic women and represent scenes 
in the hospital; dramatize the fireman at 
the fire, the life-saver, the man who sticks 
to his engine even at risk of death. Tell 
the stories of Binns and the wireless mes- 
sage that saved so many lives. Was he a 
modern Knight? Speak of the heroism in 
less conspicuous lives: in the lives of in- 
ventors, the heroes of industry, the invalids, 
like Stevenson, who radiate good cheer, 
despite pain and weakness. Tell of the 
fine discipline in the Japanese army — the 
soldiers were obedient not only in making 
gallant charges or brave defence, but also 
in the perhaps more trying exercise of in- 
hibition and self-control. When told to 
abstain from drinking water unless it was 
boiled or otherwise made free from disease 
germs, they obeyed and because of this and 
obedience to other hygenic measures, the 
death rate was minimized. 


The children of all ages will be interested 
in learning something of the history of 
knighthood and chivalry and the part 
played by them in the development of 
civilization. This would include for the 
little children, the reading or telling of Miss 
Harrison's fine little story "How Cedric 
Became a Knight." The more advanced 
grades could be told something of the 
Crusades and how all the traveling back and 
forth and the intercourse that resulted be- 
tween the Eastern and Western worlds, 
helped pave the way for the Renaissance. 
What great epic centers around the 
Crusades (Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered.") 
Call attention to the Truce of God which 
forbade under excommunication, warfare 
between the barons between sunset Wed- 
nesday, and sunset of the following Mon- 
day, and forbade also the molesting of the 


1 84 

laborer in the field or taking away of imple- 
ments of agriculture. How did these rules 
of the church prepare mankind for the vir- 
tues of civilization? When Frenchmen, 
Englishmen, Germans and other national- 
ities met each other in all the journeying to 
and from the Holy Land could they fail 
to get to know and understand each other 
better? How mucti they would learn of 
each other's modes of life! How much the 
Orient taught them of past civilizations, 
opening up the lore of Greece and Rome. 
It may interest the children to learn that 
the air of "He Is a Jolly Good Fellow" 
(Malbrouck s'en va-t-en guerre) dates 
back to the crusade period, being learned 
from the Arabs as were many scientific 
facts. Speak of the famous Damascus 
blades and of the Damascus linen. Boys 
will be particularly interested in studying 
something about armor, the names of the 
different parts; what an important industry 
must have been that of making of the 
armor. Suppose the maker failed to weld 
the sword or lance truly what would hap- 
pen at a critical moment? Tell of the vows 
taken by the Knight and the night spent in 
vigil and prayer before he took the final 
oath. Rehearse the stories of some of the 
brave Knights of old, the great Roman 
heroes who were brave and true; the 
Knights of the Round Table, Arthur, the 
"bravest and noblest," Sir Kay. "the most 
faithful," Sir Galahad, "the most virtuous?" 
Tell of the training in physical control and 
prowess which the Knights must have, in 
order to ride well, and to wield the lance 
witli skill, and speak of the required cour- 
tesv to ladies. 

There were many cruel things that char- 
acterized the "davs of old," but we have 
ndvanced in civilization as our ideals of 
knighthood advanced. 


This for us, perhaps, the most important 
of the Mother Plays. What a change it 
would bring in American life and character 
if from babyhood up, the mother trained 
the child to aspire for inner worth rather 
than to seek the plaudits of the world for 
the fine clothes he wore, the society in 
which he moved, the money he could spend. 
The two tvpes of character are portraved 
with rare skill in Zangwill's great play "the 
ATelting Pot." Here we see depicted the 
man who measures values in terms of dol- 
lars only. Everything for which he aspires, 

the things- of which he boasts, are those 
which have the stamp of money. On the 
other hand, we are shown in contrast, the 
idealist who sees in vision the real America, 
the ereat crucible of the nations, in which 
are being amalgamated all race hatreds and 
misunderstandings. It is the thing which 
is at once most real and most ideal for 
which he is willing to strive and toil and 
suffer. What insight Froebel shows as he 
points out the several points to be con- 
sidered ! The teacher as well as the mother 
must distinguish and help the child to dis- 
tinguish between what he is at present and 
what he should and may be in the future. 
Between what he really is and what he 
seems to be. The true teacher learns to 
penetrate beneath the mere surface and to 
see motives. A lie is a lie but the lie told 
by a generous-hearted child to protect an- 
other is different from that told to save 
oneself from well-merited punishment or to 
get another into trouble and requires dif- 
ferent handling. 

Why are the fraternities and sororities 
wielding such harmful influence in the high 
schools? Because, with the immature mind, 
they place the wrong emphasis on ex- 
ternals, on position, money, outside show, 
instead of upon those things that make for 
truth, goodness and true beauty. Because, 
instead of developing a large loyalty to the 
common good, they promote a lesser 
loyalty to a small clique. 

How many opportunities the teacher has 
for heloing the child to a clearer knowledge 
of self and of others ! Does the wise 
teacher call attention to the pretty curls of 
one child and the handsome clothes of an- 
other? Does she praise the child who 
learns without effort and discourage the 
one who tries hard but learns with diffi- 
cultv? Again recurs the question to be 
discussed in Mother's clubs, Should the 
child be paid for learning his lessons? The 
state or the father's pocketbook offers a 
great opportunity for the child to enrich 
his own life. Should he expect to be paid 
for seizing an opportunity that is indis- 
pensable to his life's success ? Train him to 
strive for the riches of mind rather than 
the money reward. What are some of the 
kmVhtlv virtues that a child may cultivate? 
Daily courtesy to playmates and parents, 
teachers and others, whom he may meet. 
Always must he show fair play, help the 
weak, tell the truth and help sustain the 



honor of the school. The hymn found in 
the Moody and Sankey collection "Only an£ 
Armor Bearer" is a good one for the chil-J 
dren to learn. The air is a stirring one and 
the words show that even if one may not 
be a Knight, one may be faithful as an 
armor bearer and so help win the fight 
against evil! Read of Sir Galahad "whose 
strength was as the strength of ten, because 
his heart was pure." There are so many 
problems awaiting mature men and women 
hat we must each make each day count in 
gaining health, power of mind and spiritual 
insight that we may play our part in manly, 
efficient fashion in the battle of life. If we 
are the makers of armor, of shoes or cloth- 
ing or other garments we will make them 
well; if we write or paint pictures we will 
do it with the ideal ever before us. 

Another point made by Froebel is that of 
the importance of recognizing in others the 
essentials of real merit. This is done prac- 
tically by every school lesson. We educate 
the children to honor the heroes who have 
accomplished or who have struggled to ac- 
complish things that make for the better- 
ment of humanity; the inventors, the states- 
men, the men who have risked life and for- 
tune for their country are the ones our chil- 
drer are taught to honor. But the home 
must here learn to second the efforts of 
the teacher. The children who tell glibly 
the history of the women who went without 
tea for principle's sake, and then go home 
to talk of nothing but dress and fashion 
and this bridge party and that dance and 
this fraternity entertainment, with no 
thought of higher ideals or of their re- 
sponsibilities are little likely to help the 
nation in maintaining those things for 
which the fathers fought and the mothers 
suffered. Fun and frolic and light-hearted 
joy are the right and the need of youth but 
they are not all, and that child is dwarfed 
in nature, deprived of his noblest heritage, 
his birthright, his crown-jewel, who is not 
helped to recognize and to aspire for the 
only true riches, the only true character. 

It is a hopeful sign that so many young 
women in the colleges are taking a practical 
interest in the problems of the day. 

Have the children tell how orderliness, 
neatness, punctuality, obedience to orders, 
are essential today to true knightliness of 
character. Speak of smoking and drinking 
and why likely to interfere with true 
knightliness. A man otherwise considerate 

will leave ashes around for his mother to 
dispose of; will often smoke when it is a' 
cause of great distress to others and will 
show himself otherwise selfish. The habit 
of drinking — if we begin can we ever be 
sure that we will not become slaves to the 
habit: Suppose we may drink without in- 
jury, what are we to do if we know that 
our weaker brother is near and may be 
tempted. "If meat cause my brother to 
offend then I will not eat meat." Suppose 
we can spend money for gum and thus are 
likely to tempt our poorer companions to 
spend what they ought not to- can we help 
set a standard of self-restraint and of tem- 
perance ? 

If we fall or get hurt are we going to be 
brave? If our schoolmates misunderstand 
us are we going to weep and wail or to 
keep our own self-respect trusting in the 
future to make matters clear? 



Children are little men and women and 
should be treated as such. Their wishes 
.hould be consulted and their ideas and 
opinions countenanced whenever and 
wherever it is possible to do so. They 
should never be told that they are unattrac- 
tive or stupid or mean. Remarks of such a 
nature produce a depressing effect upon 
miniature minds. Neither should they be 
made to feel themselves in the way. Chil- 
dren who are constantly fretted at and 
ordered hither and yonder grow either 
morose and hard, or bashful and cringing, 
according to their temperament. Conse- 
quently they soon come to undervalue 
themselves. Little folk should be taught 
that they have a right in the home and in 
the world, and that their every act, thought 
and word is of importance. 

Children are interesting. Even ordinary 
children possess that mystical charm of un- 
expectedness. For this reason they create 
wonder, and wonder is always conductive 
to growing interest. Children seldom, if 
ever, do the things we expect them to do. 
They are full of surprises and outbursts of 
originality. They are constantly on the 
alert for knowledge. They ask questions 
not out of idle curiosity, but because their 
intellect is expanding, and they desire to 
know and understand the whys and where- 
fores of what is taking place around them. 
It should never be a cross for parents to 



answer, so far as they are able, the ques- 
tions of their little ones. They should not 
look upon it simply as a duty, but as a 
pleasure. Pray, how can a child grow in 
wisdom save by asking questions and re- 
ceiving intelligent answers? 

Children are exceedingly sensitive and 
their little hearts often ache painfully 
through the unguarded remark or act of a 
careless parent or friend. Their troubles 
are as real to them as ours are to us, and 
oftentimes far more so, because they have 
not learned by experience that troubles like 
bubbles break and vanish. "Grown ups" 
are either stepping stones or stumbling 
blocks for little folk, because the latter in 
their innocence and ignorance of life as it 
really exists, are prone to idealization and 
it rests within the power of the idealized 
"Grown up" to bring either happiness or 
misery to the child who has thus honored 
I hem. 

I once knew a boy whose joy bubble was 
suddenly burst by the coming of a baby 
brother. His mother, whom he loved 
almost madly, made the fatal mistake of 
telling the little fellow that his "nose was 
out of joint." Instead of instilling a new 
interest in her young son's life and teaching 
him the lesson of united and harmonious 
love, she made him feel himself to be an 
outcast, and taught him to look upon the 
new baby as a usurper. That boy was 
never the same again, even when years had 
passed and he became a college graduate 
and subsequently a practical business man, 
he always maintained that his mother never 
loved him as much after his brother's birth. 
It was but a passing remark, but it cast a 
shadow which ever after dimmed a life. 

Once when traveling I heard a mother 
tell her little girl that if she did not keep 
still and stop asking questions she, the 
mother, would throw her out of the car 
window and let the wheels grind her up. 
'"'hat woman possessed absolutely no right 
to the sacred name of mother. I shall never 
forget the far away, wistful expression 
which swept the little girl's face as she 
lapsed into silence, a silence so prolonged 
as to be most pitifully impressive, and yet 
that mother went calmly on reading a 
trashy novel, all unmindful of the little suf- 
fering soul beside her whom she had so 
cruelly wounded. I have often wondered 
of what that child was thinking while she 
remained so still with her big blue eyes 

fixe", upon space. I can but believe that she 
was wishing that she would hurry and grow 
up, and get away from her mother. All 
"gro *n-ups" ought to be most considerate 
of children — they are little men and women, 
and their young hearts are as sensitive to 
any thrust of cruelty or inattention as their 
bodies are to the cut of a knife. 

We should all strive to stand well with 
children, and that can be done only by gain- 
ing their respect and confidence. 


HERE was once a little girl 
who loved very much to plan 
gifts for her mother and 
father and little friends — and 
usually she made them all 
very happy indeed, for she tried to get just 
the things she thought they would like best. 

One cold Valentine's day she awoke very 
early and dressed so fast that when mother 
came in to wake her, she was all ready for 
breakfast. And this was the reason — the 
day before she had bought some lovely 
valentines to slip under mother's and 
father's plates for a surprise, but, for the 
first time, she had forgotten to get any for 
her three friends, the little boy next door, 
the little girl across the way and the baby 
around the corner — and when she remem- 
bered, she felt so troubled that she had 
gone to bed determined to get up very early 
in the morning and go down to the shop 
before time for kindergarten. 

So, very soon after breakfast the little 
girl was on her way to town. She skipped 
so fast to keep warm that it did not take 
very long to reach some shops where 
valentines were kept, but she went right 
on for she knew a place at the end of the 
main street where the shopkeeper had 
valentines with pictures of the loveliest 
fairies she had ever seen. 

Suddenly she stopped thinking of the 
fairies, for right in front of her was a win- 
dow full of such strange valentines ! There 
were pictures of ganders with very 'big 
heads, and queer little women with long, 
long noses, and big grey cats with their 
backs bowed up. The little girl laughed 
aloud as she thought how surprised her 
friends would be if they were to receive a 
valent'ne like those. The next minute she 
was in the shop counting out her pennies, 
and the shopkeeper was putting the valen- 
tines in envelopes — one for the little boy 



»ct door, one for the little girl across the 

y, and one for the baby around the 


'I must hurry," she said, "or I will be 

e, but here I am on my own street at 

t." Then the little girl left one valen- 

e with the little boy next door and one 

th the little girl across the way and one 

th the baby at the house around the 

-ner. , 

A.11 the way to the kindergarten the little 

1 thought she could hear a soft "pitter 
tter — pitter patter" as though there were 
sr S3 many tiny feet running on tiptoe 
hind her, but at first she did not even stop 

look around — "Perhaps I won't hear 
;m any more after I turn the corner," 

2 said. "Pitter patter — pitter patter," 
me the footsteps around the corner, and 
in the little girl could not stand it any 
lger, but turned right about and what do 
u suppose she saw. There, standing all 

a line behind her, was an old white 
nder with a very large head, and a queer 
:le woman with a long, long nose, and a 

grey cat with his back bowed up — and 
y looked just exactly like the pictures on 
r valentines. 

'O please go away," said the little girl. 
i is!" said the old grey gander waddling 

big head. "I am going to stay with 
u!" "No," said the queer little woman 
th a long, long nose, "I am going to stay 
th you." "Spi it," said the big grey cat, 
wing his back higher than ever, "I am 
ing to stay with you." Then the little 
1 went on her way. 

'Oh dear," said the little girl, as she went 
o the kindergarten, "What will the chil- 
en say when they see these queer 
matures?" But the children only waved 
smiled and did not seem to see the 
ange procession behind her at all. 
All the morning long, wherever the little 
•1 went those strange creatures went also; 
d even when she skipped, the old grey 
nder, the queer little woman, and the big 

y cat all skipped too. That afternoon as 
e sat in her room she kept thinking to 
rself, "I was ever so much happier last 
dentine's day. I wonder if it wouldn't be 
st to go down and get those valentines I 
:ended to give at first?" So she emptied 
me more pennies out of her little bank 
d started down town again. 
This time she did not stop until she came 

ht to the shop where they kept the fairy 

valentines, and when she had chosen three 
of the most beautiful ones, the clerk put 
them into three square white envelopes — 
one for the little boy next door, one for the 
little girl across the way, and one for the 
baby around the corner. 

"Pitter patter!, pitter patter! went the 
strange light footsteps all the way back, 
but although she would not look behind 
her, the little girl did not sem to mind them 

The little boy looked very glad when the 
little girl came up the steps and brought 
him the new valentine, and the friend across 
the way ran to show hers to everyone in 
the house. "Now there is just the one for 
the baby," said the little girl, "and he will 
be the gladdest of all," — and all the time 
she kept wondering why it was that the 
strange footsteps sounded pleasant to her 

How the baby clapped and waved at her 
as she left — and when he called her so 
gaily, she forgot and looked behind. No 
wonder she was surprised! — for the old 
grey gander, the queer little woman, and 
the big grey cat were all gone and in their 
places stood three of the most beautiful 
fairies she had ever seen — and they looked 
just exactly like those that were on her 

"No wonder I liked to hear your foot- 
steps," said the little girl, happily. "I wish 
you would stay with me always !" 



Iyong ago three fairies, who loved chil- 
dren, lived in a cave high up on a moun- 
tain. In their wanderings through the 
world they saw many sad, unhappy children 
and they grieved over it. Finally they de- 
ciled to seek through the world, each go- 
ing a different route, until he found the 
best thing. Then they would meet in the 
cave and prepare their gifts for the children 
that should make them happy and keep 
them happy always. 

They started one bright morning on their 
journey. The first fairy went through 
woods, fields, over hills and valleys, rivers 
and lakes, but did not find what she sought 
until one summer afternoon she found her- 
self in the lower part of a great city amid 
the tenement houses — where poor people 

*The Story Hour. 

1 88 


dwelt, great high houses ten and twelve 
stones high, children and women looked 
out 01 the windows or over the railings 
around balconies. Suddenly there came the 
cry ol "Fire! Fire! Fire!" — the sparks flew, 
the smoke rolled, the flames leaped, the 
children and women shrieked in terror — 
the firebells clanged; finally the firemen 
came and up through the smoke and fire 
the firemen went and rescued the women 
and children, and in a very short time noth- 
ing remained of the great building but ashes 
and smoking ruins. The fairy sought the 
firemm and found two of them stark and 
dead upon the sidewalk. They had given 
their lives to save the children. As the 
fairy looked into their brave faces and 
thought of their brave deed, she said: "I 
have found the best thing — it is Bravery. 
The children, in order to be happy must be 
brave." So she returned to the cave, and 
on Lor way she plucked the beautiful red 
Mowers that grew by the wayside and wove 
them into garlands. When she arrived at 
the cave she laid them in seven long strips 
of equal length, with spaces between, and 
said: "These shall stand for Bravery." 

The second fairy hunted long, and did 
not find anything quite good enough, until 
one summer evening she came to a cottage 
on the edge of a forest. On the porch sat 
a mother nursing her new-born babe. The 
fairy stole up and looked down into the 
sweet face of the innocent child, and she 
said : "I have found the best thing — it is 
Purity." On her way back to the cave she 
plucked all the beautiful white flowers that 
grew by the wayside and wove them into 
p-arlands. When she returned to the cave 
she spread them in six long strips between 
the rowo of red, and said: "These shall 
. rand for Purity." 

The third fairy went to a great city and 
hunted along, until one day, just at noon 
he found himself in a great bank. All were 
gone but a boy. On all sides were stacks 
of money, and a great temptation came to 
the boy to steal, but he remembered what 
his mother said — "Never steal, always be 
honest and true." A tear stole down the 
boy's <:h ek as he thought how proud his 
mother would be when he told her of his 
resistance to temptation. The fairy saw 
the tear, and she said: "I have found the 
best thing— it is Truth." On her way back 
to the cave she plucked all the beautiful 
blue flowers that she saw and wove them 
into garlands, and when she reached home 

she put them in the corner on the rows o 
red and white, and said: "These shall stan< 
for T.uth." 

The little fairies were very busy and ver 
happy- so busy and happy that they di 
not notice a tall angel who entered the cav< 
He \v; s happy, too, and wanted to hel 
with the gift to the children. He said, "Ma 
i he fairies said, "You may." He pu 
fortv-six stars down on the blue, and said 
"These shall mean Forever." They fastene 
flowers and stars, red, white and blue int 
one emblem and swung it high. It floatec 
and oh ! it was beautiful. The childre 
lookinp- up saw it and shouted — "It's th 
Flag! It's the Flag!" and it was so. Th 
Red said to them, "Be Brave." The Whit 
said, "Be Pure." The Blue said, "Be True 
The Stars said, "Forever, always, forevei 
children, be brave, be pure, be true, and yo 
will be happy." 

The children loved the flag and wer 
happy, for thev lived in America, and th 
flag floats over their school-building. 



Judy and Jane were having the happies 
kind of afternoon, all because Miss Hath 
away had a headache and there was n 
school. They had raced home with |h 
good news, hitched Gypsy into the pon) 
cart, and driven out to father's farm. Ther 
they had jumped in the hay, fed th 
chickens, patted the ponies, and done everj 
thing that two little girls could think of dc 
ing on a sunshiny holiday. 

Now they were home again, drinkin 
"cambric tea" in the nursery, and talkin 
it over. Judy said she was having such 
"beautiful time" she was half afraid sh 
wasn't sorry Miss Hathaway was sick. Jan 
told her she ought to be ashamed "to eve 
think" such a thing; and then they bega 
a "discussion," as Judy called it. At las 
thev concluded they were sorry poor Mi 
Hathaway was sick, but very, very glad t 
have Gypsy and the pony-cart and father 
big farm. They were glad, too, the da 
was warm and sunshiny, and not cold an 
damp and dreary. 

"Now," said Judy, "that's settled! Let 
get Uncle John to tell a story!" Off the 
scampered to the library, where they foun 
Uncle John sitting in a comfortable chai: 
before the fire-place, reading from a bii 

* Story Hour. 



"Excuse us for interrupting you, Uncle 
ohn," ventured Judy, "but we want ' a 
tory, please." 

Uncle John put down his book, looked at 
udy cross-like over his spectacles, and said 
ternly. "How many times, young lady, 
ave I told you not to use big words that 
ttle boys like Uncle John can't understand. 
Jow what on earth do you mean by 'inter- 
upting' me?" 

"Why you know, Uncle John," replied 
udy, not a bit afraid, "it means to make 
ou stop doing something and not do any- 
hing, or to do something you weren't do- 
lg before. Mother says we're always in- 
errupting you." 

"Well, well, bless you, I guess you are," 
aughed Uncle John, "but I guess, too, I 
ouldn't get along if you didn't." 

Then he laid his big book on the table, 
nd put his spectacles in his pocket, and 
aid, "I think this chair will hold an uncle 
nd two nieces." It wasn't ten seconds be- 
ore it did. 

When Judy and Jane were snug and set- 
led, and Uncle John was snug and settled, 
le asked, "What kind of story?" 

"About giants, please," said Judy, "with 
p-eat long sentences that keep going and 
£oing and never get tired." 

For almost a minute, there wasn't any 
jound in the room except the fire sputter- 
ng in the fire-place. Then the story began. 

"Once upon a time," said Uncle John, 
'there were some people called the Norse 
who used to believe such curious fairy-tales, 
rhey thought there were big giants who 
ived in a place called Jotunheim, and who 
were very wicked, and so big that, I sup- 
pose, if one of them held this house on his 
land, it would seem no larger to him than 
i dried pea seems to us. Then the Norse 
people thought there were some good 
giants, not quite so big, who lived in a 
aeautiful place called Asgard. These they 
:alled the gods. But best of all were the 
little dwarfs who live in the mines of the 
aarth, delving for silver and gold and 
precious stones. They were the funniest 
little people you ever heard of ! for they had 
short legs, big heads, and small green eyes; 
and they were the best little people to play 
'Hide and go Seek' you ever heard of; for 
they had red caps and when they put them 
on their heads, presto change ! you couldn't 
see them at all." 

"I should love to see them though," said 

"Well, continued Uncle John, "the Norse 
people thought there was a big ash-tree 
called vargdrasil (that's most as hard as 
Popocatapetl or MemphremagogJ. But 
yggdrasil was its name; and its roots were 
down in Jotunheim, and its branches up in 
Asgard. And in this tree lived a queer 
family of creatures. At the top, there was 
a great eagle and a hawk and four antlered 
deer; and at the foot coiled a serpent, with 
a whole colony of little snakes besides; and 
up and down the tree, making trouble be- 
tween the eagle and the serpent, who were 
enemies, skipped a little gossipy, tale-bear- 
ing squirrel. 

"But something more wonderful still was 
a magic fountain at the roots of yggdrasil, 
the water of which was so magical that if 
any person drank it, he became wiser than 
anyone in the world. He didn't have to go 
to school as you chicks do!" 

"I wish we didn't!" exclaimed Judy and 
Jane together. 

"But, alas," said Uncle John, "the water 
was hard to get; for the giant Mimer 
guarded the fountain day and night. Every 
morning, Mimer dipped his glittering horn 
into the fountain and drank the wonderful 
water, and every day Mimer grew wiser 
and wiser, until he actually knew more than 
Miss Hathaway, or anyone you ever heard 
about. Now up in Asgard was Odin, king 
of the gods; and he, too, knew a great deal. 
He knew all that happened in the heaven 
and all that happened in the earth, but he 
didn't know what was happening under the 
water of the earth; and King Odin thought, 
'If only I could get a drink from that foun- 
tain, then I should know everything!' ' 

So, one night at sunset, he put on his 
broad hat and long cloak, and, taking his 
staff, started on his way to the magic foun- 
sometimes, you must know, it's hard work 
to guard a fountain day and night. 

"Good day, Mimer," said Odin, "I've 
come for a drink of your wondrous waters." 

Mimer started up with a frown. "No one 
drinks from my fountain," he growled. 
"No one drinks from my fountain, I say." 

"But let me," urged Odin, "and I'll pay 
you well." 

"O you will, will you?" growled Mimer. 
"Pray what will you pay, and why do you 
want this drink so much?" He looked at 



Odin sharply; for he felt he was no common 

"I know all that's happening in the 
heavens and all that's happening on the 
earth, but I don't know what's happening 
under the waters of the earth," said Odin. 
"And pay! Why, I'll pay anything!" 

Then Mimer cried, "I know you! You 
are Odin, king of the gods, and if I let you 
have a drink from my fountain, the gods 
will be wiser than the giants, and you know 
the gods and giants are everlasting enemies. 
O, it will be a goodly price that I shall ask 
for a drink from my fountain!" 

Odin was growing tired of old Mimer's 
bargaining. "Ask your price," he said, "I 
promise to pay it." 

Then Mimer thought and thought and 
pulled his beard, and finally he said, "What 
say you th^n, King Odin, to leaving one of 
your bright eyes at the bottom of my foun- 
tain? That's the only payment I'll take." 
Mimer, you see, hoped Odin would refuse 
the bargain. 

Indeed Odin wasn't quite so eager now, 
but he saw the water of the fountain bub- 
bling mysteriously. It seemed to say, 
"Drink and be wise, drink and be wise;" 
and he knew he must have a drink. So he 
threw down his staff and cried, "Fill the 
glittering horn, I'll pay the price!" 

Then Mimer very reluctantly filled the 
horn and Odin drank. After that he was 
the wisest person in the wide, wide world. 
He knew what was happening in the 
heaven, what was happening on the earth, 
and what was happening under the waters 
of the earth. 

But King Odin had to pay his price. 
When he went away, he left one of his far- 
seeing eyes in the bottom of the fountain. 
There it was, twinkling and twinkling in 
the water like a shining star. Thus Odin 
lost his eye, and after this, whenever he 
wished to visit the earth, and didn't want 
people to know him, he would pull his 
broad hat down over the place where the 
eye had been. But people knew him just 
the same. "There goes King Odin!" they 
would cry. "Can't you tell him ? Can't you 
see his hat pulled clown to cover his blind 
eye?" O, King Odin couldn't play 'Hide 
and go Seek' so well as those little people 
called the dwarfs. 

Uncle John stopped talking, and the fire 
began its sputtering once more. 

At last Judy took a long breath. "My," 

she said, I'd rather go to school than lose 
mv eye!" 

"So would I, too," echoed Jane, who al- 
ways felt exactly as Judy felt. 

"You'd better be making use of your two 
eyes then," said Uncle John, or you'll never 
grow to be wise Hike Odin and know every- 
thing that's happening in the heaven, on 
the earth, and under the waters of the 

"But you don't know all that, Uncle 
John," ventured Jane. 

"No, I don't, that's a fact," replied Uncle 

"Then I don't want to !" exclaimed Judy, 
"for vou know quite, quite enough. You 
are the very wisest uncle in the whole 
world !" 

"Well," laughed Uncle John, "I can't 
agree to that, but there's one thing I do 
know, and that is, if two little girls don't 
run away and leave me, I'll never know 
what's in this book." 

So Judy and Jane gave Uncle John giant 
hugs for the giant story, and off they ran 
to play in the garden. Uncle John took out 
his spectacles and opened the big book 
again, and the fire sputtered, and the clock 
ticked, and there was no other sound. 

[ED. NOTE — This letter is a real inspiration and 
shows the influence of the Magazine even in 

"Bhuvana," Noble St., Mosman, Sydney, 
N. S. W., Australia, April 13, 1909. 
Miss E. K. Warner. 

Dear Madam : I have read your article 
in the February number of the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine on Reading. 

I was much interested in it because it is 
on much the same lines that I am at present 
teaching reading. 

I am mistress of a large Infants' school 
in this state, having about 280 children in 
attendance. My teaching staff consists of 
six (6) trained and partially trained 
teachers, and myself. We are all civil ser- 
vants — i. e., under contract to the Educa- 
tion Department of the state. 

I will outline my plan of teaching read- 
ing. Whatever the topic chosen we en- 
deavor to base the reading lessons on that 
topic. In the kindergarten room we begin 
with "sounds" e. g. humming of bees, "m," 
noise of trains and engines "ch., ch," etc. 
The children only play these sounds and do 
not connect them with any written or 



ted symbol. Next step in what we call 
class, the children begin the recognition 
he written word; and this script work is 
jn for twelve months, through two (2) 
ses, viz., 1st and 2nd. 
hen we take the transition from script 
>rint and after 12 months — i. e. through 
and 4th classes, we promote to the 
nary school, when children can read, 
te and spell, "do composition, etc." 
ly well. 

hiring all this time the children have 
ked at phonics — without any diacritic 
kings — and so work out their new 
ds phonetically. So far I have found 
system work out well, but from reading 
r article it seems to me that I have been 
ng time some where and would much 
to have your book on the "Natural 

A ou will doubtless have noted ere this 
t my method is based partly on "Parker" 
[ partly on some of your American 
thods. This is so. I have taken a two 
rs' course of kindergarten training 
ler the American ladies, Misses Arnold 
I Jenkins, and it is to the former that I 
much indebted for my present method, 
loping to hear from you and being de- 
)us of finding out the best ways of 
icating our little ones — in the truest 
se of the word — I would humbly 
nscribe myself a fellow-worker, 


?. S. — My one ambition is to save 
)ugh money to come over to America 
I see for myself. We hear such con- 
ting versions out here. I suppose if I 
.d on to the thought long enough I shall 
: it. I never thought I should be able to 
: kindergarten training, but after waiting 
1 (10) years the "dream" became an 
uality. So I am continuing in hope. 

H. B. 


s is the store where mother will buy 
le ripe, red apples and spice by and by. 
s is the soft, white flour she will take, 
i soon a good, apple pie she will make. 

s is the spoon in which as you know, 
neasured all spice and salt for the dough. 
)se are the cutters all sharp and all bright, 
mark out in scallops the pie-crust so light. 

s is the straw that will surely tell true 
ether our pie is baked well through and through. 
r ou are here when our pie is complete, 
: mother to give you a piece for a treat. 

Story telling as a factor in educational 
work is receiving the earnest attention of 
teachers, not only in kindergartens and 
primary schools, but also, with suitable 
adaptations, is found invaluable in the 
grammar and even high schools. Many 
normal schools and some of the leading 
colleges and universities are introducing 
special courses in story-telling in their 
pedagogical departments. 

The National Story Tellers' League, of 
which Hamilton Wright Mabie is honorary 
•president ; Richard T. Wyche, of New 
York City, active president, and Dr. 
Richard M. Hodge, of Columbia Univer- 
sity, secretary, represents a movement that 
is reaching all sections of this country and 
m to Canada. 

At Washington, D. C, is published a 
little magazine called The Story Hour, in 
the interest of the work. The sub-title 
states that it is "A Magazine of Methods 
and Materials for Story Tellers." Each 
number contains some stories adapted to 
different grades, besides articles on story 
telling and notes on league work. Lists of 
stories and books for story tellers appear 

The magazine is in convenient form 
(5^x8 inches), well printed on good paper, 
with an attractive cover, and the contents 
are of a high order. William C. Ruediger, 
Ph. D., of the Division of Education, The 
George Washington University, is editor; 
Richard T. Wyche, president of the 
National Story Tellers' League, is associate 
editor and regular contributor; Musene 
E. Sloane, of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor, Washington, is the founder and 
publisher and a special contributor. 

This magazine is to be commended to 
every teacher as a substantial help in cul- 
tivating and practicing the art of story 
telling. The subscription price is $1.00 a 
year in advance. Sample copies are 
fifteen cents. Communications should be 
addressed to the publisher, 406 Fifth street, 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

To be alive in every part of our being, to 
realize the possibilities that are in us, to do 
all that we can, to become all that we are 
capable of becoming, this is the aim of life, 

Charles Tf'agner 

Work for some good, be it ever so slowly; 

Cherish some flower, be it ever so low r ly; 
Labor, all labor, is noble and holy. 

Frances S.Osgoob 






In the child-garden buds and blows 
A blossom lovlier than the rose. 

If all the flowers of the earth 
In one garden broke to birth, 

Not the fairest of the fair 

Could with this sweet bloom compare, 

Nor would all their shining be 
Peer to its lone bravery. 

Fairer than the rose, I say? 
Fairer than the sun-bright day 

In whose rays all grolies show, 
All beauty is, all blossoms blow. 

While beside it deeply shine 
Blooms that take its light divine: 

The perilous sweet flower of Hope 
Here its hiding eyes doth ope, 

And Gentleness doth near uphold 
Its healing leaves and heart of gold; 

Her tender fingers push the seed 

Of knowledge; pluck the poisonous weed; 

Here blossoms Joy one singing hour, 
And here of Love the immortal flower. 

What this blossom, fragrant, tender, 
That outbeams the rose's splendor; 

Purer is, more tinct with light 
Than the lily's flame of white? 

Of beauty hath this flower the whole, 
And its name — the human Soul- 


From Richard Watson Gilder's Complete Poems. 
(Courtesy Houghton, MifQin Co.) 

None have greater cause to mourn the 
loss of Richard Watson Gilder than the 
children for whom he wrought with tongue 
and pen better than anyone now living can 
know. Those who worked with him and 
gladly followed when he led, catching the 
inspiration of his high enthusiasm, speak 
for the children in bringing a sorrowful 
tribute to their champion. 

The playground cause, to which he gave 
his great and loving heart and which, he 
showed, is the cause of childhood's happi- 
ness and manhood's rights and promise, 
has lost its best and wisest friend. Count- 
less children are happier for his life. The 
outlook of this land he loved and to which 
he p-ave his manhood's devoted years is 
brighter and better for his far-seeing labors. 


*™ .x. .. SETH T. STEWART. 

*From the Playground. 

Grief over her mother's death and fidelity 
her own duties are given as the cause of the de 
of Evangeline E. Whitney, in the Seney Hospi 
Brooklyn, Jan. 3. As one of New York's tl 
women District Superintendents of Schools, 
more especially as the directress of the city's ve 
tion schools, playgrounds and recreation cent 
Miss Whitney was well known to thousands 
New York's children. 

She had had full charge of the city's Sumi 
school activities for years, and has developed tl 
into an admirable system. She was much 
down last summer, but refused to rest. Then 
mother died and, what with worry and overwc 
she developed a dangerous ailment during 
autumn. She was operated on and never fully 
covered. She has been connected with the cii 
schools for thirty years. She was appoin 
Borough Superintendent of Schools in Brooklyn 
1898. In 1904 she was re-elected as Disti 

Miss Whitney was 57 years old. She was ta- 
in New England, and following her education 
Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, her family mo 
to Brooklyn, where she became a teacher in I 
mary School 6, at Fifteenth street, near Fou 
avenue, which later became Public School 40. i 
became principal of this school, and was la 
placed in charge of Public School 79, on Kosciu 
street, near Sumner avenue. 


In the autumn of 18 60 a little girl by 
name of Grace Bedell, in Westfield, N. Y., wn 
a letter to President-elect Lincoln at Springfie 
Illinois, telling him how old she was, where 
lived, and that she thought he would make a g( 
president, but that he would be better looking 
he would let his whiskers grow. She also suggesi 
that he might have his little girl answer her let 
if he did not have time to do it himself. In 
few days she received this reply: 

Springfield, Illinois, Oct. 19, 1860 
Miss Grace Bedell. 

My dear little Miss: Your very agreeable let 
of the 15th is received. I regret the necessity 
saying I have no daughter. I have three sons, o 
seventeen, one nine, and one seven years of aj 
They, with their mother, constitute my wh 
family. As to the whiskers, having never wo 
any, do you not think people would call it a si 
piece of affectation if I were to begin it now? 
Your very sincere wellwisher, 


In February, 1861, when Lincoln was on his w 
to Washington to be inaugurated, he stopped at t 
principal cities along the way, in order that 
might speak upon the questions uppermost in t 
minds of the people. When the train left Cle^ 
land, Ohio, Mr. Patterson, of Westfield, N. Y., w 
invited into Lincoln's car, and Lincoln asked him 
he knew any one living at Westfield by the nai 
of Bedell, and then told of his correspondence wi 
Grace. When the train reached Westfield, Linco 
spoke a few words from the platform and th 
said he would like to see Grace Bedell if she we 
there. The little girl came forward and Linco 
stepped down from the car and kissed her ai 
said: "You see, Grace, I have let my whiske 
grow for you." 

Pittsburg — The Central Board of Education h 
increased the appropriation for kindergarten woi 
from $50,000 to $60,000. 


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Have you seen the snow-drops in the gar-den beds, Lift-ihg from the mould their shy and dain-ty heads ? 
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Have you seen the cro-cus - es so bold and gay, Blue and gold and pur-ple in their bright ar-ray ? 





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Snow • drops and cro - cus • es, 

Her • aids of Spring, 

Snow - drops and 






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cro • cus • es, 

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When all the earth is bare, 
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Spring • ing up here and there, Blos-soms of beau - ty rare, Sweet flowers of Spring. 







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Verse 2 

Snowdrop hangs her modest head 

And looks so shy; 
Crocus holds her glowing cup 

Towards the sky; 
Which of them we love the best 

Tis hard to say, 
Each of them is charming in 

Her own sweet way. 

Snowdrops and crocuses! 

Heralds of Spring! 
Snowdrops and crocuses! 

Good news you bring! 
Telling that Winter's past, 
Bright days returning fast, 
And we shall greet at last, 

Fair flowers of Spring. 

This song on the preceding page may be used 
in various ways: as a song pure and simple, as a 
game or as a song and dance. The refrain is writ- 
ten in mazurka time, and lends itself well to a 
simple dancing step. When played as a game, the 
smallest children will be naturally chosen to be 
the snowdrops. The tallest ones will form the 
palings round the garden, while the others will 
represent the crocuses. Concentric rings of snow- 
drops and crocuses may be formed. Their con- 
trasting attitudes are suggested in the words of 
the song. The flower cups themselves may either 
be formed by the children's hands, or artificial 
flowers may be made and used. The making of 
these will form an interesting occupation for the 
older children. 

Even in February there is little material usually 
available for nature study. The most appropriate 
subjects are those suggested in the song for the 
month buds, which should now be gathered and 
kept in school, and the brave little coltsfoot plant, 
also the celandine, if the season is early. The bulbs 
usually make great advance during this month, and 
show some new features every week. 

Earth's Many Voices contains interesting stories 
on early springtime, especially "The Awakening," 
and "Looking Upwards." Hans Andersen's "Story 
of the Year" is eminently suitable for the older 
children, while the little ones will enjoy "The 
White Prince" (In Nature's Storyland). (See 
also Book for Bairns, No. 47.) 

Some of the poems recommended for March and 
April may be taken now, and Wordsworth's poems 
to the celandine should be introduced into the 
work. "Fair Mains of February" (Poems for 
Junior Schools, I) should be learned. 

There are many good songs for early Spring in 
Songs for Little Children, by Eleanor Smith. These 
may be begun now and continued through the next 
two months. "Awake! said the Sunshine," "All 
the Birds Have Come Again," "Daffy Down Dilly." 
"When the Earth Wakes Up in Gladness," may be 
specially mentioned. Children love to play the 
"waking-up" game, and are particularly interested 
in introducing the flowers with which they are 
familiar as they arrive in the wake of "Pretty 
Mistress Spring." The game which bears this title 
and is given for the month of March should be 
begun now. The first part really belongs to late 
Winter or early Spring. 

The kindergarten occupations will connect them- 
selves with the development of the bulbs and buds 
of trees, — snowdrops', crocuses, celandines and the 
coltsfoot. Paintings from nature should be made 
of the flowers and also of the buds; the latter, at 
all events, should be dated, so that a perfect record 

of growth may be kept. It is a good plan to da 
all such work for reference. 

These flowers are very effective in coloured flij, 
cutting. The snowdrops provide rather fine woi 
and should only be attempted by the most a 
vanced class in the school. They should be mount 
on a grey background. Crocuses are not nearly 
difficult; care should be taken to cut very fine gre 
strips for leaves. These flowers can also be ma 
in tissue paper for use in the game. The whc 
crocus plant, including the bulb, makes an excelle 
modelling exercise for the older children. Oth 
modelling exercises may be taken from the stori 
which also will provide for any other occupatio 
taken; e. g., stick-laying, building, drawing, etc. 
—From the Children's Caleadi 

When the movement for pensions for worn 
teachers began, it was regarded as a pure 
philanthropic scheme. Now it is considered as 
fair business proposition. How this change of at 
tude has come about and what different Americ 
cities are doing for the faithful veterans of th 
schools, is discussed in detail in the Februa 
Century by Miss Lillian C. Flint, a teacher of € 


Humor and nonsense as delightful aids to livi 
as well as of ethical importance in forwarding t 
evolution of high and balanced character form 
the subject of one of the most profitable and ent 
taining afternoons the Kindergarten Club of Savanns 
Ga., has enjoyed this year in the programme on chi 
ren's literature. 

Miss Orcutt and Miss Vaughan were joint cha 
men and divided the subject in admirable fashic 
Miss Orcutt dealing with its theoretical side in 
informal talk that was full of suggestive mater 
and touched throughout with a subtle and pleasE 
humor that was its own best illustration of t 
ideas presented, and Miss Vaughan giving th 
ideas further force by telling in charming sty 
with whimsical appreciation of its fun and a fi 
sense of its literary quality, Kipling's "ArmadilL 
from the "Just-So Stories." 

Miss Orcut introduced the subject with the t 
quotations in the year book, one from Mr. Edwa 
Howard Griggs to the effect that it is impossi 
to live a moral life without a sense of humor, a 
the other the familiar passage from "The Wall 
and the Carpenter," which begins, 

"The time has come, the walrus said, 
To talk of many things." 

The inclination to regard Mr. Griggs' expressi 
as too strong, Miss Orcutt suggested, could i 
hold against the consideration of the malice 
kindness, even wickedness of the world, that woi 
never have been if the people who set out on th 
evil pursuits had had a sense of humor, and she 
called Mr. Gerald Stanley Lee's observation % 
the Puritans had "wasted the Salem witches 
cause they took seriously faults that should hi 
been smiled at." 

Some passages from Mr. Lee's essay on "Ke 
ing One's Sense of Humor" were read. Tl 
emphasized the quotation from Mr. Griggs, mak 
the point that "the true lover of the perfect 
obliged to have a sense of humor." 

The two quotations in the year book had b( 
selected, Miss Orcutt said, for the contrast tl 
offered; that from Mr. Griggs giving the ad 
point of view with regard to humor, and the n< 
sense verses from Lewis Carroll the point of view 
the child's pleasure in humorous literature. T 
it is at the same time a pleasure shared by 
adult, although with different appreciation, t 



idicated and attention was called to the fact that 
lere are only these two people to whom humor and 
onsense really appeal — the unspoiled child and 
ie highly evolved adult. 
Some selected passages from Dr. Crothers' essay 
ti "The Mission of Humor" in "The Gentle 
eader," were read by Miss Orcutt and gave a 
elightful introduction to the more informal part 
[ her talk, which was based on the question, "How 
lucate a child so that when he grows up his 
ighest embodiment of fun shall not be found in 
ie pages of the comic papers, in the tipsy man 
1 a play, or the end man in a minstrel show? 
bw shall we give him the humor that blesses life, 
lat is the saving grace in hard situations, that 
akes a human being above all companionable and 

Admitting that the little child has apparently no 
snse of humor and that the task of developing it 
1 him is a hard one, Miss Orcutt analyzed the 
laracteristics of humor, showing the joke to have 
fen in its simplest form the element of surprise, 
: the incalculable, the unexpected. This surprise, 
ie baby demands, shall be wholly of a pleasant 
ature, and the physical sensation through which 

is presented to him must be an agreeable one, 
iss Orcutt pointed out, or it ceases at once to be 

joke. She showed something of this demand to 
revail even among much more highly evolved per- 
malities than that of a baby, the higher the plane 
! individual development, the greater being the 
derance of the personally disagreeable and painful 
l the joke or humorous situation. 

The element of surprise which is persistent in 
ie joke through all its stages of evolution to the 
ighest plane of humor must depend at first, it 
as shown, on the physical sensation communicated 
► the individual or the physical manifestation 
-esented to his eye or ear. This physical basis, 
iss Orcutt pointed out, is long continued, is the 
>undation of all practical jokes, and by a very 
rge portion of society is never outgrown. To 
iminate it as a source of humor and to raise the 
lild as quickly as possible to a higher plane of 
)preciation was shown to be an important aspect 

education in the home and in the school, and 
;tainable through the presentation of the proper 
nmorous and nonsense literature. Such Mother 
oose rhymes as "Hey Diddle Diddle" were men- 
oned as giving this desirable nonsense in its 
irliest form and as leading admirably to the later 
slights of Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear. 

An interesting distinction was drawn between 
te child's interpretation of these nursery rhymes 
id the adult's, some that appear the purest non- 
nse to the child having profound suggestiveness 
r the grown person, such as that of the little old 
oman who doubted her own identity when her 
stticoats had been clipped; and some that appear 
itty to the adult, such as "I'll tell you a story, 
out Jack o' Minory," having no humor in them 
r the child who feels himself cheated. 

The phase through which all children pass of 
ljoying puns and which is found so trying by 
leir parents and family was shown to be a dawn- 
g of wit, and it was suggested that it could best 
i met by supplying them with puns and jokes of 
ie best class and by gradually leading them to 
ie enjoyment of humor of a more subtle kind, 
gain the use of good Immorous literature was 
nphasized as of incalculable value in feeding these 
vakening impulses and tastes. 
Miss Orcutt recalled Dr. Barnes' query, presented 

adults as well as to children in many parts of 
ngland and America, as to what was the fun- 
est things they had ever experienced or heard, 
id his conclusion, after classifying their replies, 
iat whatever might be their age in actual years 

most Americans were just about twelve years old 
in point of humor. 

In conclusion, Miss Orcutt referred to the books 
of humor and nonsense for children appearing in 
the bibliography prepared for the Kindergarten 
Club this year as having in them that abiding 
quality of real literature that would make them 
the best sort of preparation for the humor of Lamb, 
Cervantes, Montaigne, Holmes, Lowell and Shake- 

The informal discussion that followed the tell- 
ing of the story by Miss Vaughan was delightful 
and several favorite nonsense verses were recited 
by different members. 

The meeting next month will be in charge of 
Mrs. Skeele, whose subject will be Nature Stories. 


Three grey owls in the barn's dim light, 

Two wise ones, and one other — 
Were sleepily awaiting the shadows of night; 

When the sun's bright beams would be over. 

They ruffled their feathers, they muttered, and 

As they put their heads together; 
And blinked their eyes as the darkness fell, 

And stretched their wings, and wondered if — 
well — 
'Twould be safe to allow the other one. 

That heedless, venturesome, younger one, 
To journey abroad unprotected, alone: 

In quest of achievements many. 

"I will go!" cried the eager, younger one. 

"I'm big enough! I can see! can hear, my beak 
is sharp! 
While as for my claws" — 

And he strutted and swelled in his pride — 
"Just let anything dare to steal unaware 

Upon me! I'm equal to all!" declared he. 
And spread his talons wide. 

But the wise old mother-owl shook her head; 

"I am filled with misgiving! Woe's me! 
You're too bold, too self-sufficient," she said; 

"You should much more modest be. 

Should you go forth so boastful, I feel 

You will surely be rent to the bone. 
Evil's easy to find; 'tis only too real; 

So attend strictly to matters your own. 
Be warned! 'Pride before destruction goes, 

A haughty spirit before a fall.' 
For out in the night there may lurk such foes, 

As will turn your proud spirit to gall. 

Yet go if you must! but fix this in mind. 

The rules to be followed are three; 
'See nothing, hear nothing, say nothing unkind.' 

From the affairs of your neighbors, keep free." 

The early hours of the morning grey, 

Found the two old wise ones in sorrowful way. 

As they helplessly gazed on the terrible plight 
Of that heedless, venturesome, other one, 

That boastful, meddlesome, younger one; 
Who had come to such grief in the night. 

He was tattered and torn; his ruff was gone; 

The top of his head was bare. 
His wines hung drooping, his legs were stiff; 

And there weren't any tail-feathers there. 

With vanitv filled, and boasting withal. 

He had drawn down on himself, tooth and claw. 
Pride can't be endured; it precedeth a fall. 

And he'd proven the truth of this law. 





Promotions have taken place. The most 
reliable children are gone. The cloak of 
responsibility has fallen upon the younger 
group. These children who remain can not 
do such advanced work as those who have 
gone on. Still the character of the work 
will not be so much the beginnings of things 
as in September because there is more 
organization now. In this connection it is 
well to repeat former work. Tell the old 
>t<>ries. do the old hand work. Make the 
work of such a character that there will be 
n, i struggle on the part of the children to 
accomplish it. In many kindergartens the, 
hand work is too varied. The children do 
not have sufficient opportunity to repeat 
i he same processes. It is one continual 
effort to do something new. Let the chil- 
dren have the joy of doing something that 
they can do with ease. This does not mean 
peg' boards every day! Neither does it 
imply that we give work that does not call 
for honest effort. We must carry on the 
line of work that has been developing 
throughout the year but select our mediums 
with consideration of the less developed 
condition of our class. 

Every experienced teacher knows the 
greater possibilities of individual help that 
comes with the smaller class. To younger 
teachers let me point out how the few days 
in February and March when the attend- 
ance is less because of the smaller enroll- 
ment and the bad weather may be made 
most valuable for the remainder of the 
term. This more than any other time in the 
year is the opportunity for knowing the 
children as individuals and presenting work 
on that basis. We have been getting 
acquainted during all these months but be- 
cause of numbers could not give work as 
well adapted to each child's needs as we 
might wish. Now we may do much more 
of this. Such adaptation will lead to power, 
control, ease. It should form a basis of 
superior work during the latter part of the 
term. '^^ 

Remembering the conditions that exist in 
the class room let us see what February 
has for us. It is the month for waving of 
flags and beating of drums. Who can't do 
these! The youngest and oldest are equally 
inspired. We talk of the obedient soldier, 
of the kindly Lincoln, of Washington the 
truthful, amid the hurrahs of little voices 

and the thrilling bugle call! What a month! 
Then 'midst all this the sweet voice of love 
whispers to us through St. Valentine and 
faithfulness to duty is pictured by the post- 
man. Who shall be our "Helper?" Shall 
it be the soldier or the postman ? Probably 
the postman as he is known to all and is 
such a living example of rain or shine faith- 
fulness. The soldiers shoot and "stick with 
sharps" and "die on the ground." Of 
course not. They beat drums, march up 
straight and strong, wear helmets and do 
as they are told the first time. 

We do not go into the historic connec- 
tions of Washington and Lincoln. We tell 
simple stories of their lives such as impress 
their characteristics of gentleness, truthful- 
ness, love of animals, etc. 

We can not very well arrange our sub- 
jects in weeks this month as fixed dates 
determine the time that the lines of work 
should be given. However, the soldier may 
usher in the month as he is a subject dear 
to the hearts of the least developed and is 
the basis of the month's work. The other 
subjects follow naturally in their own 
allotted time. When considering the work 
of the farmer and the fireman we necessarily 
talked of the horse and his duties in those 
connections. This month we will introduce 
him with the soldiers and Washington. We 
hope to have him shod in March. 

The reasons for introducing the "White 
House" into our program may not be 
apparent to all and may be over done by 
others. There are several good reasons for 
touching this subject. Taft, Roosevelt 
Washington, Lincoln, President are al 
common enough words to our little folks 
But they have names and no habitation, nc 
human setting. The White House is the; 
home of the Presidents. Then, too, it i 
such a beautiful building that after this in 
terest in it is created it is most desirable 
to have the children reproduce this "Beaut} 
form." We made "Beauty form" snow 
flakes in January. Why not "Beauty form' 
colonial mansions in February? 

Subject for Morning Circles 


(a) Uniforms. 

(b) Home. 

(c) Flags. 

(d) Music. 

(e) Horse. 

( f ) Obedience. 




v he Little Tin Soldier."— For the Chil- 

s Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

[ahum Prince."— In the Child's World. 



lie King of France." — Mother Goose. 
'weedle-dum and Tweedle-dee." — 
ler Goose. 


l hree Little Sisters." — Child's Garden 

mg. — Tomlins. 

'enting Tonight." — Chorus. 

)ur Flag." — Small Songs for Small 

ers. — Niedlinger. 

oldiers True." — Holiday Songs. — 



[ave You Seen the Soldiers?" — Singing 

es for Little Children. — Hofer. 

lie Tin Soldier." — Small Songs for 

1 Singers. — Niedlinger. 

[ere Comes a Soldier." — Singing Games 

fettle Children. — Hofer. 

ldier Boy. 

liree Little Sisters." — Child's Garden 

>ng. — Tomlins. 

[ing of France." — Singing Games for 

e Children. — Hofer. 

nse Game — Aiming. Make a target by 

ng a three or four inch circular paper 

large circular paper. Aim from a given 

nee with a ball. 

liough Your Eyes Are Blinded." — ■ 

fs for Little Children. — Smith. 

.rade. — A real parade. Each child has 

rn, a flag, a drum, or is riding horse- 

or in a carriage, 
le soldier games will be taught through- 
:he month when Lincoln and Washing- 
ire the subjects of discussion as well as 
ig the first few days. 

ory work, 
ildier life. 




3uble quick. 

ark time. 

Ve're a Band of Happy Children." — 

lergarten Chimes. — Kate Douglas Wig- 

Walks or Visits 

1. Visit the flags in the class rooms. 

2. Watch the drummer who drums for 
marching in the school if you have one. 

3. Notice flag on school building. 

4. Notice flags on public buildings. 

5. Toy shops to see toy uniforms and 

6. Have a Veteran in uniform visit class 
room if possible. 

7. Visit a soldiers monument. 

Illustrative Material 

Flags, toy soldiers, tents, and uniforms. 

Pictures of soldiers marching, riding 
horse-back, etc. 

No pictures of battles or hardships of 

Gifts and Occupations 

Sticks — 

Soldier hat. 

Fifth Gift- 

Fourth Gift — 

Fort — Co-operative. 

Stencil — 

Drawing — 

Illustrate story work. 

Color stencil. 

Tents and flags. 

Soldiers marching and riding. 


Cutting — 


Cutting and Pasting — 

Supports for stencil soldiers' tents. Take 
a circular folding paper. Cut as for Christ- 
mas bells. Paste. Cut door at one side 



and fold both flaps open. Paste small flag 
at top. 

Soldier's Tent 


Soldier hat. 

Sand — 

Indicate a stretch with rows of tents on 
either side of streets. Have soldiers stand- 
ing near tents. A company of soldiers 


march up the street. Use the soldiers and 
tents made by the children. 

At this time a few more of the lower 
branches of the Christmas tree may be 
sawed off. These are to be used as flag 
sticks. Tack on the flags that the children 

Subjects for Morning Circles 


(a) Kind. 

(b) Honest. 

(c) Good to his mother. 

(d) Very poor. 

(e) Liked to read books. 

(f) Kind to animals? 

(g) Lincoln's son is still living and is a 

friend of Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Taft. 


"A Little Lad of Long Ago." — For the 
Children's Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 
The Pig in the Mud. 
Bennie, or Asleep at His Post. 

Subjects for Morning Circles 

(a) True. 

(b) Brave. 

(c) Kind to mother. 

(d) He was the first President. 

(e) Mr. Taft is our President now. 

The White House. 

(a) Home of the Presidents. 

(b) Lincoln lived here. 

(c) Roosevelt lived here. 

(d) Taft lives here. 


The suggestions in regard to Washin 
ton found in "The Child's World" are vei 
helpful on this subject. Added to tl 
stories there indicated the story of Was 
ington's boyish play of soldier in the scho 
playground and his conquering of the hor 
and the garden his father made him th 
spelled his own name might be added. 


"A Song of Washington — Chorus."- 
Holiday Songs. — Poulsson. 

"Three Cheers for the Red, White ar 
Blue"— Chorus. 

"Star Spangled Banner" — Chorus. 
Merry Songs and Games. — Hubbard. 

"Washington's' Birthday" — Beginning 
"Oh, Washington ! We love thy name." 
Merry Songs and Games. — Hubbard. 

"We March Like Soldiers."— Songs f< 
the Child's World. — Gaynor. 

"Follow Our Leader." — A Dozen ai 
Two. — Warner. 

"Song for Washington's Birthday." 
Holiday Songs — Poulsson. 

Games, Dramatizations, Rhythms 

The soldier games, etc., indicated earli 
in the paper will be used during this woi 
as well. The story work under the Was 
ington and Lincoln subjects will be dram 
tized so far as it lends itself to dramatiz 

Walks or Visits 

i. Visit a monument of Lincoln < 

2. Go to a picture store to see Linco 
and Washington pictures displayed. 

3. Visit pictures in the class room 
office, corridors. 

4. Visit any historic place in the neig 

S- A colonial house or building. If 
beautiful library is available it would be 



time to visit it. The children would 
lite apt to see the subject in hand re- 
d to in all sorts of ways. 

A museum with special reference to 

A soldier monument. 

Illustrative Material 
Uns with Washington and Lincoln 

sts of Lincoln — Washington. 
:tures of Washington, Lincoln, their 
s, families, statues of each, Washing- 
horse, their soldiers, the White 
e, President Taft. 

Gifts and Occupations 

th Gift — Co-operative. 

ake Lincoln's cabin. Let the narrow 
of the bricks face out. 

1 Gift- 
Washington's home at Mt. Vernon. 
The White House. 
Any colonial building known to the 





ffl ffl 

l Colonial Mansion 

Iren. Possibly a library, 
spresent a monument that the children 
ir visited or have seen in a picture, 
the building material best adapted to 

icks — The front of a colonial mansion, 
ings — Continue designs started in 

ling, Cutting, Pasting — 

knapsack. Make the conventional 
ergarten square box. Take paper the 

to one side of box. Tie cords so that the 
knapsack may be fastened to child's 
Cutting, Pasting — 

A soldier hat with plume. Take a large 
square of white paper. Fold one diagonal. 

Soldier's Hat with Plum 

Cut on diagonal. We have two equal 
triangles now. Fringe red, white and blue 
tissue paper for a plume. Paste plume first 
to top of one side of hat. Then paste both 
sides of hat together. 
Cutting — 

Pictures drawn. 

Soldier hat. 

Flag and stick. 
Pasting — 

1. Mount a Lincoln and a Washington 
picture on cardboard. Frame it with frame 
as indicated below. 

2. Badges. Use red, white and blue 
strips. Paste together. At top place a 
parquetry circle or square or a small picture 
of Washington or Lincoln. 

3. A flag. Take a white oblong of 
paper. Paste red strips across it. Place a 



e length as finished box. Roll till it 
is a cylinder for top of knapsack. Paste 


blue squa e in upper left-hand corner. 
Paste one d i.wo stars on blue field. Paste 
flag on a slat. 
Drawing — 

A drummer. 

A color bearer. 

A captain. 

A cavalry soldier. 
Sewing Without Needle — 

A square or round picture frame for 
Washington's or Lincoln's picture. 
Sand — 

Washington's home at Mt. Vernon. Use 



evergreen branches and holly branches for 
trees. Make garden bed spelling George. 
Represent the river at foot of hill. 

Subjects for Morning Circles 

Valentine's Day. 

(a) St. Valentine. 

(b) Valentines of today. 

(c) Carrier pigeons. 


St. Valentine. 

"Stuart's Valentine." — For the Chil- 
dren's Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

"Big Brother's Valentine."— For the 
Children's Hour. — Bailey-Lewis. 

"The Crooked Man's Story." — Mother 
Goose Village. — Bingham. 

"Little Miss Muffett's Valentine."— 
Mother Goose Village. — Bingham. 

"The Little Brown Valentine." — Mother 
Goose Village. — Bingham. 


"Recipe for a Valentine." — Songs of the 
Child World. — Gaynor. 

"When You Send a Valentine."— Holi- 
day Songs. — Poulsson. 

"See the Pretty Valentines."— Holiday 
Songs. — Poulsson. 


"Little Dove You Are Welcome." — 
Songs and Games for Little Ones. — Wal- 


Postman bringing valentines. 
Carrier pigeons. 


Carrier pigeon flying, descending. 

Walks and Visits 

Visit stores where pretty valentines a 
shown. Avoid those would-be funny on 
so commonly exhibited. 

Mail a valentine to a sick child w 
known to children or to some one not wi 

Hi I 

1 1 

c— 1 1 


1! 1 ! 


1 's I 




therri every day but well known by then 
Of course every kindergartner sends 

valentine to her class. Ask the postman t 

bring this valentine directly to the kinde 


Let a child tip-toe to the office with 

valentine for the principal, one the childre 

have made co-operatively. 

Illustrative Material 

Statue of Cupid. 
Valentines of former years. 
Up-to-date valentines. 
Pictures of children mailing valentines c 
children receiving valentines, of Cupid. 


i. Take a square of red paper. Fol 
one diameter. Cut heart. Open paper an 

paste scrap picture in center. 

2. Make a heart as indicated abovt 
Use it for stencil for a second heart. 
one heart paste a scrap picture. In th 
center of the other cut shutters. Paste thi 
over the first one so that the shutters ma; 
be opened and shut. 


20 1 

On a red, oblong card paste a scrap 
ire. To the left edge of this paste a 
paper saved from the top of a, candy 

This makes a book form. 

On either edge of a cardboard paste 
ace strips saved from candy boxes. In 
renter fasten a scrap picture to one of 
1 tiny mounts that makes the picture 
g up and down. 

Subject for Morning Circles 


(a) His duties. 

(b) Faithfulness. 


lie Postman." — A Baker's Dozen for 
Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 
'he Postman." — Kindergarten Chimes, 
ite Douglas Wiggin. 
lie Postman." — Holiday Songs. — 


'he Postman." — A Baker's Doden for 
Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 
t several children represent street 
s with mail boxes attached. Have them 
1 either in corners or in rows at proper 
nces. Have as many postmen as 
s. Have a postmaster who remains in 
)ostoffice and stamps the letters. Let 
remaining children write letters. All 
t a given time to mail letters in the 
ist box. Postmen collect mail and take 
Postmaster. Then as teacher sings 
Postmen distribute mail. Letters are 
During the whole game the piano 
> the music softly. Occasionally some 
iming might be indulged in but 
larily whistles are sufficient, 
ill Game — "Wandering game" — Kin- 
arten Chimes. — Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
nse Game — "Feeling" — Tie things in 
r and have children feel and name. 
Ak Game. — "Hansel and Graetel." — 
ing Games for Little Children. — Hofer. 


lie Postman." — A Baker's Dozen for 
Children. — Valentine-Claxton. 

Walks or Visits 

le mail box to mail a letter. 

le Postoffice to buy stamps and postal 

le school mail box. 

ave the postman deliver a letter written 

to the kindergarten children by some one 
whom they know. 

Watch the postman collect the mail. 

See a mail wagon if possible. Speak of 
horses in this connection. 

Illustrative Material 


Mail box. 

Mail wagon. 

Letters, postals, stamps. 

Speak of Washington and Lincoln 
stamps. Show a Hudson-Fulton stamp if 
that subject came up for discussion early in 
the fall. 

Pictures of postmen, letter boxes, etc. 

Gifts and Occupations 

Stick and Tablets — 

1. A lamp post with mail box. 

2. Mail waeon. 

Fourth Gift — Co-operative. 

Mail wagon. 
Fifth Gift— 

Folding and Pasting — 

Writing paper and envelopes. Paste an 
old stamp on envelope or use a parquetry 
square for a stamp and a circle for a seal. 
Let children write letters on the writing 
Cutting and Pasting and Drawing — 

Postman's uniform cut. Mount on a 
paper. Draw head, hands, feet, mail bag, 
street lamp, and mail box. 
Cutting, Pasting — 

Mail bag. 

Mail Bag 



Drawing, Cutting, Pasting— 


Child with letter. 

Paste supports on back of these pictures 
when cut out. 

Sand — 

Citv street with post boxes and post- 
ofhce. People passing on the street. Post- 
man standing by office. Child mailing let- 
ter. A mail wagon in street built in gift 


After the class has learned several wor 
write them in large letters on cards. H: 
these about the room. Choose a place 
a goal. Write the word you wish the cl 
dren to find upon the board and let the cl 
dren hunt for it. When one finds it 
runs to the goal and taps "one, two, th 
for ball" or whatever the word may h; 
been. They keep this up until all the wo 
have been found. Each child keeps accoi 
of the number of words he finds. — Cora 



Place words on board and for each child 
who names it correctly place a colored 
square on the board, joining them quilt 
fashion. The words may be written in the 
squares if desired. All words not named 
correctly are left on the board for the next 
lesson and a few new ones are added. Little 
girls enjoy this plan very much and are 
anxious to have the largest quilt. If the 
words are not written in the blocks let 
them decorate them with colored chalk, 
taking calico pieces as models. This scheme 
is excellent for reviewing the multiplication 
tables. — May Bennett in Oregon Teachers' 


An excellent device for giving variety 
written language is to read part of a st 
to the class, breaking off at some inten 
ing point and directing the pupils to dr 
on their imagination to complete the t; 
Each finishes the story according to 
fancy, then the teacher reads the rest 
the story. Sometimes a chapter or t 
may be read from an interesting book, 
pupils to write the conclusion. This p 
seldom fails to create a desire to read 
book to see how it really does end. — W< 
ern Teacher. 




b — All Kindergartners are cordially invited to 
is items of interest for this column. 

xandria, Egypt — A new kindergarten and 
ng school is being opened here by Miss 
iifine Graham, formerly of the Pittsburg- 
lany Free Kindergarten Association Training 
1 of Pittsburg, in charge. This school is in 
ction with the American Mission. 

it Orange, N. J. — The Normal students to- 
r with the children connected with Miss Cora 
Peet's Kindergarten Training School pro- 
the Christmas tree and gifts for the children 
3 Day Nursery. 

i New York University, Summer Kindergarten 
ing School at University Height will be in 
e of Miss Harriette Melissa Mills, Principal of 
raining School affiliated with New York Uni- 
y, assisted by Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Director of 
c School Kindergartens of the Boroughs of 
attan, The Bronx, and Richmond, Miss Elsie 
erriman, Head of Department of Music in 
Harriette Melissa Mills Training School, and 
instructors and lecturers to be announced. 

lisville — "A Story Tellers' League" has been 
ized by Miss A. Tachert, librarian of chil- 
3 department of public library of Louisville, 
aunched with success in three monthly meet- 
It is hoped to interest teachers of upper and 
grades, primary teachers, Sunday School 
ers, playground and settlement workers and 
3d nurses. A council meeting of the Federa- 
>f Mothers' Clubs was held in November when 
were made for general and special lectures 
gh the year. An Eastern branch of the 
ers Federation is holding large and successful 
hly meetings. 

tsburg — Pittsburg-Alleghany Free Kindergar- 
.ssociation — The training school here has 105 
nts enrolled with a post-graduate class of 29. 
rewell tea was given, by the Pittsburg and 
hany Free Kindergarten Association and 
ge Alumnae to Miss Azzie Mullen on the occa- 
of her leaving for Mexico to take the position 
ndergartner in Girls' Normal Institute under 
ces of Methodist Episcopal church. 

uisville — Louisville Free Kindergarten Asso- 
>n — A new member of faculty, is Mr. James 
1, a well known student of nature in 
ucky, who besides conducting the nature 
with our classes is doing like work with 
Lers institutes through the state. The classes 
e Normal School were entertained in October, 
, by Mrs. S. S. Bush at her country home, also 
)llowe'en party was given by Senior class to 
[>r class at kindergarten headquarters. 

e Grand Rapids Kindergarten Training School had 
y narrow escape from total destruction on the oc- 
n of the recent disastrous fire in that city, but es- 
I with water damage only which^did not prevent 
chool from continuing without serious interruption. 

vannah — Kate Baldwin Free Kindergarten 
iation — We clip the following from the 
nnah Morning News relative to Christmas 

tie children of the kindergarten with Miss 
h West, the director, stood in a ring around 
tree while the songs were being sung and con- 
lted one Christmas song to the programme. 
r had previously had their own tree in their 
ty room upstairs. The morning hymn was 
; and the morning greetings given, and they 
then sung some merry little Christmas carols 

before the tree was lighted. Instead of candles, it 
was hung with Japanese fireworks, and when these 
were lighted they sparkled and shone like bright 
stars, calling forth shouts of joy from the children. 
They had made for their fathers calendars, 
decorated with a photographic impression of a fern 
leaf, and for their mothers each child had planted 
a bulb. These they distributed when they were 
taken off the tree by Miss West, with the greatest 
pride and joy. Their own gifts came later, buckets 
and shovels for the boys, and tubs and wash 
boards for the girls. Their songs were sung very 
sweetly, and their spontaniety and simple pleasuie 
in the tree and the Christmas exercises were de- 
lightful to see. 


Annual Convention at Indianapolis, Ind., March 



One and one,, half fare on the certificate plan for 
round trip from any point fifty miles or^more from In- 
dianapolis in all territory East of the Mississippi River, 
St. Louis, Peoria and Chicago and possibly a like rate 
will be secured later applying to all territory in 

How to secure these rates. These instructions 
must be followed carefully: Tickets can be purchased 
after February 25th, up to any date ;thatfwill2enable 
holder to reach the meeting before March 2nd. 

These certificates^must be signed by the^Secretary 
of the Convention, and validated by the Special 
Railway Agent, who will be in?attendance at the Secre- 
tary's office in the parlor of the Claypool Hotel, during 
March 2, 3, 4, and until six o'clock p. m. of the last 
date. A validation fee of 25 cents will be charged by 
the railway agent. These certificates must be presented 
for the purchase of return tickets on or before Monday, 
March 8. 

Certificates and tickets not transferable, and lim- 
ited to continuous passage by first train leaving after 
purchase. Certificates notgood for^ passage but must 
be exchanged for tickets. If certificates cannot be ob- 
tained of local ticket agent^at point of starting.on go- 
ing trip, purchase local tick"et to station where certifi- 
cates and thru tickets to Chicago may be obtained. Ap- 
lication for certificates and tickets should be made 
thirty minutes before departure of trains. 

IMPORTANT— If you live 50 miles or more from 
Indianapolis do not fail to use the certificate plan, even 
if you have other means of transportation, and pre- 
sent your certificate immediately upon arrivaLat> k the 
Claypool Hotel, as no tickets can be validated until 
1,000 have been deposited there. 

Kindly urge everyone going to Indianapolis to use 
the certificate plan, for should there be less than 1,000 
certificates, none can secure the reduced rate for the 
return trip. 

Ives' Illustrated Phonics (Longmans) provides a 
method, based on scientific principles, which will 
teach children the proper use of the organs of 
speech by forming in early life habits of correct 
enunciation, articulation, and pronunciation. 
School authorities are agreed as to the vital and 
growing importance of work of this kind. The 
Ives system is simple. Five minutes a day is as 
much time as is needed to show remarkable re- 
sults. A special feature of the method — the value 
of which has been proved by long and successful 
experience — is the use of appropriate motion exer- 
cises to accompany the utterance of various sounds. 
The text-book is for grades III to VI inclusive. Any 
teacher can conduct these exercises without special 
training and those teachers who find their school 
work to be exhausting are promised a saving of 
much of their strength by joining in these exer- 
cises, sympathetically, with their pupils, 

i»arten use. ■ 
the "Ele- 
coin') in e 3 

hesr features of such a pencil. Etxra large calibre; Natural Cedar Polish; Extra thick lead of the ng©st grade. Free samples tc 
dergartens on request. EBERHARD.FABER, NEW YORK. 

Dutch Ditties 





Words and Music 


Pictures by Albertine Randall Wheelen 

$1.25 net 






Story of Ulysses. 

Story of King Arthur. 

Story of Siegfried. 

Story of Beowulf. 

Story of Hiawatha. 

Bible Stories. Story of Paul, Joseph, 







7. Fairy and Folk Tales. The Three 
Bears, Beauty and the Beast, Little Boy's 
Visit to Santa Claus. 

8. Lolk Lore of the South. Uncle 
Remus. The Written and Unwritten Folk 
Tales of the Negro. Literary Meaning. 
Works of Joel Chandler Harris. 

How to Tell a Story: Psychological 
Principles and Spiritual Equipment. 

RUARY, 1906. 

A course of lectures unique in material and scope, as 
compared with the traditional "talks to teachers" with 
which all are familiar, is that of five lectures begun by Mr, 
Kicriard T.VVyche, and to be continued through January 
to the Baltimore teachers. It is distinctly a course in sto- 
ry-telling, and with lecture and conference will include 
tairy and folk tales, and develop the stories of Siegfried, 
'r.' ni : A , r . thur . Ulysses, Beowulf, and selected Bible stories. 
me telling of stories— stories that have an historical and 
race significance— is an art of which every teacher should 
De possessed, and not elementary grade teachers alone, but 
those of the high school as well. The dramatic sense is 
fi f , ln children, and particularly at the beginning; of 
the adolescent period. In all historical studies, and those 
«« ~ i. • e ?\olution of civilizing forces and conditions 
fi,-,,?!?! 11110 ! 1 ^' there is a constant need that teachers, par- 
nrr^nl\,?J}u e hlgh 9 c hools - be able to give the human 
Perspective, the race setting, the genetic view. The teach- 
?hi«L hlSt °T' of ^erature, of art, of invention, who has 
il ,t? • ? e ra P mc presentation and dramatic setting, 
tfmn?i?F+ d k S mo8t tea chers unfortunately are not. Bal- 
timore is to be congratulated. 


Books Received 

"A Certain Rich Man," by William Allen \ 
author of "Stratagems and Spoils," "The Coi 
Boyville," etc. This remarkable volume has 
placed by critics with "Les Miserables," of 1 
Hugo and "Gil Bias" of Cervantes, with ""V 
Fair" of Thackery and "On the Heights" of 
bach, as a part of the world's literature. 
Wm. E. Chancelor has written an open letter 
tive to this book, from which we make a 

In college and in school, one of our needs 
a literature of fiction that clearly and adeq 
symbolizes the facts of real life. For educat 
uses, such fiction must be ethically whole 
broadly interesting, close to life, and both s 
and artistic in style. But few of our Ame 
works of fiction display these characteristics 
recent development is rather away from 
toward the standards of pure and universal 1: 
ture for all time and all civilizations. Such -v 
as display both living truth and literary art 
fittingly be used as general class reading m 
and by individuals in university, college 
school, in public libraries and private homes, 
whose profession is education, should encoi 
the production of this high grade literatur 
encouraging in all reasonable ways the use of 
books when they appear. * * * * 

Fortunately, it happened that, in the year 
an American author produced a novel of ^ 
we may say with confidence that it is wortl 
serious consideration by educators. Many be 
that it will be ranked, years hence, as one oi 
great standard works of American fiction. 

"A Certain Rich Man" is worth reading 
thinking about, if for no other reason than 
its literary exposition of the economic and 
movements of the half century since 1860. 
this is well in the background. We are mac 
think of many matters because they are esse 
to the action; there is no preachment for its 
sake. Inevitably, while we are learning e 
stage of the process by which John Barclay, th 
ing that he rose, actually fell, we learn the his 
of the establishment of a new social order, and 
beginnings of its recent breakdown. * * 

The Mac Millan CO., Publishers, New York 
Chicago. Price f i. 50. 


A new series of Geographical Readers 
based on. Child Life. 

Kathleen in Ireland! (Fourth year) 
Manuel in Mexico (Fifth year) 
Ume San in Japan (Sixth year) 
Rafael in Italy (Seventh year) 

Picture cover; colored frontispieces. 

Illustrations from photographs 

Each^Volume, 60c; 


34 Beacon Street jS 379 Wabash Ave. 

luable for the 

Vowel Songs 

Win. M. Lnwrencc. Price 25c. 
little nongH for special traiu- 
: tvnel pronunciation. 
eeting uilli splendid mu'ccmh. 

ire Songs and Lulla- 

Anna Badlam and Carrie llnl- 
both experienced Kindergart- 
nnd tbelr book is "one of un- 
merlt." I'rlce 50c. 

Lilts and Lyrics 

Alice C. D. Riley and Jessie 
rnor. Price $1.00. 
second season for this book 
a decidedly increasing de- 
Published by 

rton F. Summy Co. 


I for our catalogue of ""Works 
ining to the Education of the 
In Music." 

A monthly magazine con- 
lining the BEST literature, 
he best pictures, the BEST 
rticles of travel, exploration, 
:ience, etc. It has been for 
trty years The Leading 
lmerican Magazine. 


lit will have a fine serial 
ovel by the popular author 
f "The Divine Fire," while 
)dith Wharton and scores 
f the greatest short-story 
writers will contribute, 
lit will have a series of ar- 
cles on The Holy Land 
y Robert Hichens, superbly 
lustrated in color by Jules 
luerin. And it will have 
ther color pictures by the 
:ading artists of the world, 
lit will have the Memoirs 
f Madame Modjeska, and 
rticles on tramping around 
)e world. 

lit will have articles on 
Lmerican sport by Walter 
amp, the famous Yale 

lit will have, — but space 
'ill not permit a full enu- 
leration. Try it in igio 
nd you will be satisfied. 

$4.00 A YEAR 

The Century Co., 
Union Square, New York 

It is a sad fact, but neverthe- 
less true, that a certain percentage 
of kindergartners are making 
practically no progress in their 
work. They are simply hanging 
on, and unconsciously falling be- 
hind. Some day they will be sur- 
prised to find that they aie not 
"invited back." They will doubt- 
less surmise a dozen different 
reasons not in any way related to 
the real cause. While it may be 
true that want of ambition or a 
purpose in life are fundamental 
causes, yet the fact that they have 
neglected to attend kindergarten 
meetings when possib'e; do 
not read current kindergaiten 
literature; nor provide themselves 
with kindergarten books for per- 
sonal study, has led many kinder- 
gartners to failure who otherwise 
might have succeeded. It is 
necessary not only to understand 
kindergarten principles, but to 
keep in touch with present day 
practices, and to comprehend 
changing conceptions. In the 
advertising columns of this Maga- 
zine will be found the addresses 
of many publishers of books that 
•should interest kindergartners. 
They will doubtless be pleased to 
send their catalogs on request, and 
no kindergartner can begin too 
early to gather a library — to pro- 
vide the really necessary tools for 
her work. 

One constant element of luck 

Is genuine solid old Teutonic pluck, 

Stick to your aims— the mongrel's 

hold will slip, 
But only crowbars loose the bulldog's 

grip. Oliver Wendel Holmes 

Eberhard Faber, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., the well known pencil manu- 
facturer, has a special pencil for 
kindergarten use, which should 
interest every kindergartner. To 
secure the best results in the kin- 
dergarten work, the best tools are 
always necessary. This firm will 
send a sample free to any kinder- 
gartner who writes for same. 
Notice their advertisement else- 
where. ___ 

What then— your little candle-flame 
blown out 
And all the world in darkness for a 
Why, even so? The stars still shine 
no doubt, 
Enough to strike a match by — and 
God's in it. 

The difference betwixt the optimist 

And pessimist is droll: 
The optimist sees the doughnut, 

The pessimist the hole. 

Little, Brown & Company are 
noted publishers of really helpful 
and up-to-date books. Their 
"Little People Everywhere" series 
advertised elsewhere in these 
columns is a series of geographical 
readers based on child- life. Kin- 
dergartners will do well to see 
samples of these books. 

Spool Knitting 

By Mary A. McCormack. 

Spool knitting Is well (tilted for use as 
constructive work In the primary grades 
and kindergarten. It la bo simple that 
small children can do It well. They can 
make articles which are pretty and 
which Interest them, without the strain 
thit comes from too exact work. The 
materials are easily obtained and pleas- 
ant to work with. The directions given 
are clear and easily followed. 

Facing each description there are one 
or more photographs showing the article 
as completed or in course of construction. 

Here are some of the articles which 
may be made. Circular Mat, Baby's Ball, 
Doll's .Muff, Tarn O'Shanter Cap, Child's 
Bedroom Slippers, Doll's Hood, Doll's 
Jacket, Child's Muffler, Mittens, Little 
Boy's Hat, Little Girl's Hat, Child's 
Hood, Jumping Rope, Toy Horse Reins 
School Bag, Doll's Hammock. 

There are also many others. 

12mo. Cloth. Illustrated. $1.00 net. 



patriotic fpC 


We can supply Entertainment 
Bocks for every occasion schools 

That wonderful set of books, 
"The Year's Entertainments" con- 
tains material for every month in 
the year— for every event. It is 
graded and is the most complete 
compilation of its kind ever pub- 

A valuable assistant to the teacher or super- 
intendent. Ask us about it. 

Then we have bcoks prepared exclusively 
for such days as Washington's Birthday, Lin- 
coln's Birthday, Holidays, etc., including Reci- 
tation Books, Plays, Drills, Dialogues, Tableaux, 
Songs and Scenic Readings. 

In addition we are headquarters for School 
Books and Supplies at money-saving prices. Get 
our Catalog No. 33 before you buy any books — 
tell us your needs and see how quickly we can 
supply you. Write today. 


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Chicago, Illinois 

3 Silk Stockings 

Y Every woman can now 
enjov the luxury and dls. 
Unction of Silk Stock- 
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od of manufacture and 
plan of selling: direct, 
puts the price within 
reach of all. 

"Double Wear" 
Silk Stockings. 
are guaranteed pure silk. 
Thev outwear other hose 
because thev are seam- 
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and garter tops are dur- 
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knit into the stockings.' 
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if Hot Satisfied. 
2561 Cedar St., 



size and 
color in 



Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 

The Crystal Palace and other Le- 
gends—a book of the most beautiful 
of the Rhine legends, retold and 
adapted for young children. Beau- 
titullv illustrated. Library edition 
$ .60." Preventative edition, blue and 
Kold,$ .75. 

Golden Treasury Readers -entirely 
hew and interesting. Subject matter 
consists of complete stories. Beauti- 
fully illustrated in color. 

Primer $.3 2 

First Reader 32 

Second Reader 4 a 

Child Lore, a Monthly Magazine 
for Children— Contains only real 
child literature. 
Fairy Tales 

Robin-Hood Stories 
Kind Arthur Stories 
Child Verse 

Everything newly written. Nothing 
could furnish the Kindergarten teach- 
ers with a better supply of beautiful 
and Interesting stories. 


1437 Union St. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



The Wooster 
Juvenile Speaker 

Recitations, Speeches, 
Songs, Dialogues and 
Exercises for children. 
Suitable for all occasions. 
For day-school, Sunday- 
school and general use. 
Humorous, patriotic and 
instructive pieces in both 
prose and verse. Ill pp. 
Decorative paper cover. 
23c. Cloth, special cover design, 50c. 

The famous BABY GOOSE book, by Fannie 
E. Ostrander, now issued in a series of vol= 
umes, each book independent of the others 

Baby Goose Goes to Town 

Baby Goose on his trip to see the world. 

32 full page pictures in many colors with 
appropriate verses Will delight every child. 
Decorative cover and title page in colors, 50c 

The Gosling's Trip £?»"«&* 

33 full-page colored pictures, with the story 
of the Gosling's trip in verse. Full of life, 
action and fun. Many old familiar child- 
hood favorites play a part in this story. 
Decorative cover, in colors, 50c. 

Piggy and the Kittens 

The sad mishaps of a funny little pig depic- 
ted in 3:2 pages of quaint colored illustra- 
tions. Storv told in verse. Decorative cover, 
in colors, 50c. 

The Little Masqueraders 

Extremely popular. Something new for the 
young. 12 pages of American history in 
beautiful pictures in black and colors, with 
appropriate verses. 8'4xlO}4 inches Heavy 
paper. B-autiful paper covers, 20c. 

Sent postpaid to any address on receipt of price by 

LAIRD & LEE, 263 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO 

Books Received 

"Language Games." A method 
of using play for establishing 
correct habits ot opech, in primary 
grades. By Myra King, Los 
Angeles, Cal. These games are 
for use in the First, Second and 
Third Grades chiefly. They are 
not intended to take the place of 
regular language work but rather 
to supplement that work with 
much pleasant and practical 
repetition. The games are so 
planned that every child in the 
room may have an active interest 
in every part of the game. Educa- 
tional Publishing Company, Bos- 
ton; New York; Chicago; San 

"Blackboard Reading," by 
Maud Moore, Supervisor of Pri- 
mary Education, Canton, Ohio. 
In teaching beginners to read, it 
is imperative that much time be 
spent in preparatory exercises 
upon the blackboard. These 
blackboard lessons are especially 
adapted to the needs of beginners, 
and should precede the work of a 
regular Primer or First Reader. 
Price not given. Educational 
Publishing Company, Boston; Chi- 
cago; New York; San Francisco. 

The Horace Mann Primer 
(Longman's) which is the first 
book of a basal series, is based 
upon the fundamental idea that 
what children read, even in the 
Primer, should be worth while; 
that the child's first reading book 
should contain lessons which are 
of intrinsic and permanent inter- 
est and value, as well from an 
ethical as from a literary point of 
view. The Horace Mann Primer 
affords to teachers every possible 
suggestion and convenience in re- 
spect to method. It is arranged 
so that it lends itself readily to 
the sentence method, the word 
method, or the phonic method 
or these methods in conjunction, 
as the teacher may prefer. The 
lessons are for the most part new 
and have great variety both in 
form and subject matter. The 
book is full of action: the lessons 
describe it in manifold ways; the 
pictures all portray or suggest it. 
The pictures have been employed 
not for the purpose of mere em- 
bellishment, but as essential to 
the business of the Primer — 
which is to teach children to 
read. Without exception they 
have been made expressly for the 
Primer according to the author's 
specifications. Horace Mann 

Primer. By Walter L. Hervey, 
Ph. D., member of Board of Ex- 
aminers, New York City; and 
Melvin Hix, B. S., Principal of 
Public School No. 9, Astoria, New 
York City, 30c. 



For Teachers, School Officials, Pa 
and all others interested in Educa 


Professor of Philosophy of Edu< 
Teachers College, Columbia Unive 
New York. 

Price, 35 cents each, net. 
Except "Teaching Children to St 
60 cents. 

Volumes now Reac 

Others are in Preparation. 


Education. An essay, and other 
tions. By Ralph Waldo Emerson. 

The Meaning of Infancy and Th 

Played 'by Infancy in the Evolu 
Man. By John Fiske. 

Education For Efficiency and Th 

Definition of the Cultivated Ma 
Charles VV. Eliot, President of H 
University (Emeritus). 

Moral Principles in Education. B 
Dewey, Professor of Phllosoph 

lumbia University. 


Changing: Conceptions of Educatit 
E. P. Cubberley, Professor of Edi 
Leland Stanford, Jr., University. 


Self-Cultivation in English. By 
Herbert Palmer, Professor of 
phy, Harvard University. 

Ethical and Moral Instruction in 
By George Herbert Palmer. 

Teaching Children To Study. By 
Earhart, Instructor in Elemental 
cation, Teachers College, Columl: 
versify (Double Number), 




To Kindergartner 

— AND — 

Primary Teacher! 

To secure the best results in 
Writing to the Little Children, y 
have the BEST PENS. These a 
especially for this purpose by 
»5 John St., Camden, N. 

Ask for Nos. 702, 7713, 774 or 


E>urgh and Allegheny 
indergarten College 

N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Course, two years. Special ad- 
es for Post-Graduate work, 
teenth year begins Oct. 1, 1909. 

talogue, address 
William McCracken, Secretary, 
th Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

lergarten Training 

loual advantages — dally practice, 
from Professors of Oberlln Col- 
prlvllege of Elective Courses In 

ege at special rates. Charges 
Graduates readily find posi- 

talogue address Secretary 
)rawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 

OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 



Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



In Affiliation with the 


2134 East 77th Street 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded In 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
In the Chicago Kindergarten College. 


MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 

Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

OPENED Sept. 30th, 1909. at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Junior, 
Senior, Graduate and Normal Train- 
ers' Courses, Five Practice Kinder- 
gartens. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 

The Pines, utledge, Fa. 

Jersey Training Schools 
,s Cora Webb Peet 


Two Years' Course. 

rculars, address 


Ington St., East Orange, N. J. 

Adams School 
ergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 
mths' practice teaching dur- 
se. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

linton St., East Orange, N. J. 



From $8.00 to $25 00. 


From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 




Northville, Mich. 

School Books to BURN! 

Pardon our use of slang, but If you 
have school books you don't need, don't 
burn them. You can sell them for cash 
or exchange for others you want. 

Send for list of Books Wanted (giving 
prices paid), also, if interested, for Bar- 
grain List of Books for sale at Low Prices. 

C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Co., 

262 Wabash Avenue 

Chicago, 111. 

You Can Work Wonders 

in Your Class Room, 

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by using 

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Always ready for use. No water required. 

If your dealer cannot supply you 

write to us. Ask for Booklet K. 

The Embossing Company, 


CAUTION.— Ask for HARBUTT*S and 

avoid unsatisfactory substitutes. 



And all kinds of Construction 

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ade in Cakes, Half Pans and Tubes. 
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By Bean Russell and Professors Thorndike and 

MacVannel of Teachers College, Columbia 


A special number (76 pages, paper cover) of the 


above articles on some fundamental problems of 

kindergarten education will be sold for a limited 

time at half-price, 15 cents postpaid. This offer 

is made in order to reduce a great overstock caused 

by error in contracts with printers. 

Several other issues of the TEACHERS COL- 
LEGE RECORB are also offered at half price for 
a short time only. Write for a list of titles an* 1 

The two latest issues of THE RECORB deal with 
Teaching History and Arithmetic in Elementary 
Schools. . Price 30 cents each. 
Address all letters to 


Teachers College, 525 West 120th Street, 

New York City. 


3 u 





























>e IftindersarUtt- jprlmar? ^llagazlne 

VOZ. XXIII— MARCH, 1910— NO. 7 


"WITHSTANDING the fact that we have requested that all subscriptions and 
dvertising communications be sent to the business office at Manistee, Mich., we 
quently delayed by the sending of business details to the editorial office, 
ise send all editorial matter, except late news items, to the New York office, and 
;iness letters to the Manistee office. KINDERGARTEN MAGAZINE CO. 

kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

I to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 
eory and Practice from the Kindergarten 
Through the University. 

rial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. T. 

Jarle, Ph. D., Editor, 59 West o6th St., New York City 

ss Office, 276-278-280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHULTS, Business Manager. 

munications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
business relating to the nagazine should be addressed 
chigan office, J. H.Shults, Business Hanager, Jlanistee, 
All other communications to B. Lyell Earle, -managing 
) W. o6th St., New York City. 

indergarten-Primary Magazine Is published on the 
iach month, except July and August, from 278 River 
ianlstee, Mich. 

lbscrlptlon price is fl.fft per year, payable in advance. 
>ples, 15c. 

:e is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
ed States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
ico. Tutulla (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zona, Cuba, 
lco. For Canada add 2Se and fer all other countries 
ostal Union add 4Cc for postage. 

ol Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
of the subscription is desired until notice ef diseon- 
is received. When sending notice ef change ef ad- 
ith the old and new addresses must be given. 

tances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
Jrder, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
I a local check is sent, it must include 19c exchange. 



had planned an early review of Miss 
walker's book on the Kindergarten 
aerican Education, but rush of ma- 
prevented it. 

s Vandewalker has done a splendid 
of work, and all subsequent history 
American Kindergarten will build on 
fe foundation she has thus honestly 
The book is a model of research, of 
1 selection, and is a monument to the 
sional modesty of the author. No 
pal or superintendent of schools can 
to be without the book, and no one 
ny longer plead ignorance of kinder- 
history in America. Every training 
1 should use Miss Vandewalker's text 

as one integral part of the course in the 
History of Education. 

It should be the pride of every kinder- 
garten teacher to exploit the book, and 
secure a large propogation of its contents, 
as it will do much to diffuse true knowledge 
of Froebel's best spirit among teachers. 

As a class kindergartners are poor book 
makers, and when a good book does appear 
it is our duty to make the most of it. Miss 
Vandewalker is such a book. 

The following summary will suggest 


The kindergarten idea was originally 
brought to America by certain cultured 
Germans who came here after the Euro- 
pean revolution of 1848. Among these was 
Mrs. Carl Schurz, formerly first kinder-; 
gartner in America. She opened a kinder- 
garten in 1855 at ner home in Watertown, 
Wis., in order that her children and those 
of her friends might enjoy the same kin- 
dergarten advantages as they would have 
had in their native land. Several more kin- 
dergartens were later opened by Germans 
in various cities, and until i860 they were 
the only ones in America. 

The first American exponents of the kin- 
dergarten, however, were Dr. Barnard and 
Miss Elizabeth Peabody. In 1854 Dr. 
Barnard visited England as delegate to an 
exposition of educational systems and 
materials. Returning to America in 1856 
he described the exhibit of kindergarten 
materials, particularly, in an article in the 
American Journal of Education. This re- 
port aroused the interest of Miss Peabody, 
who thereupon undertook the study of 
Froebel. In 1859 she met Mrs. Schurz, 
and getting from her an insight into the 
practical details of conducting a kindergar- 
ten, opened the first American institution 



of this kind at Boston in i860. Miss Pea- 
body was a very earnest woman and she 
devoted her life to the advancement of the 
kindergarten cause by teaching, writing 
and lecturing. One of the things that 
chiefly helped to advance the kindergarten 
cause at this time, however, was the open- 
ing of training schools for kindergartners. 
Miss Peabody induced Madame Kriege and 
her daughter, pupils of the Baroness von 
Marenholy Beulow, to open a training 
school in Boston in 1868. That was the 
first of that large number of training 
schools that have since become so general 
in America, and so vital a part of the sys- 
tem of normal schools. In 1872 Miss Marie 
Boelte, a pupil of Madame Louise Froebel, 
was invited to open a kindergarten in a 
large private school in New York. Her 
work here was very successful. In the same 
vear she married Prof. Kraus, who was 
also an exponent of the kindergarten, and 
together they opened a training school 
which is still in existence under Madam 
Kraus-Boelte. From this time on kinder- 
gartens multiplied as fast as trained kin- 
de.gartners could be gotten. These were 
all p-'vate undertakings, however, for they 
were not adopted by the public school sys- 
tem until much later. 

The kindergarten, like all new institu- 
tions, had to struggle hard to get a firm 
foothold in America. It is due to a few 
demoted persons, who often sacrificed them- 
selves in their enthusiasm for the move- 
ment that the kindergarten gained such 
headway as it did during the first twenty- 
five years. Mrs. Susan Pollock's efforts 
gained a place for it in Washington, D. C, 
1870; Prof. W. N. Hailman firmly estab- 
lished it at Milwaukee 1874, a °d later at 
LaPorte, Indiana. In 1873, the kinder- 
garten movement was begun in St. Louis, 
under the leadership of Miss Susan Blow; 
and the next year in Chicago by Mrs. Put- 
nam. In 1875, Dr. Felix Adler made a lec- 
turing tour through the western states and 
as a result, kindergartens were opened, dur- 
ing that year, and the next at Los Angeles 
and San Francisco, Cal., and at Denver, 
Col. The San Francisco kindergarten pro- 
duced such women as Kate Douglas Wig- 
gin, Nora A. Smith, and Mrs. Sarah 
Cooper, who did, perhaps, more than any 
other women in the United States to ad- 
vance the kindergarten cause. In 1876, an 
exposition at Philadelphia gave the kinder- 

garten leaders an opportunity to demc 
trate to the country the value of 
kindergarten. A room was, accordinj 
arranged as a kindergarten, and 
ing the entire time of the exposit 
it was continually crowded with visit 
to whom its purposes and princi] 
were explained by the teacher. A 
the exposition, Miss Ruth Burrit, the 1 
dergartner, remained in Philadelphia, 
invitation, and opened several kinderj 
tens and a training class. 

The Philadelphia Exposition marks 
epoch in the kindergarten movement, 
after it kindergartens began to mult 
rapidly. This was not because the value 
its principles had been realized, but 
cause it seemed to offer a solution t 
problem that was forcing itself upon 
large cities, that is : "the slum." Churc 
and philanthropic societies took up the 1 
dergarten as the remedy for the slum 
its attendant evils. The fact that the 1 
dergarten kept the little children off 
streets, made them clean and happy and 
abled the mothers to go freely about tl 
work, appealed to the American people 
they gave large sums of money for its 
ganization and support. Churches and 
dividuals established kindergartens 
associations were formed for spreading 
supporting kindergartens in nearly ev 
large city. During the decade betw 
1880 and 1890 these associations 
churches had organized kindergartens 
almost four hundred cities. These a 
ciations were not content with the train 
of the child alone ; but realizing that c 
dren are greatly influenced bv their 
vironment, the home especially, t 
arranged mothers' meetings and fori 
mothers' societies for the purpose of st 
in the problems of motherhood from 
Froebelian viewpoint. 

Besides these organizations, there v\ 
two more which helped greatly to 
seminate kindergarten principles. Tl 
were the Women's Christian Temoera 
Union, and the Settlement. The Temj 
ance Union seeking to reclaim fathers 
mothers from the evils of drink, early 
that its reforms could be made 
through education. It, therefore, or£ 
ized many kindergartens and moth 
circles in which it helped the discoura 
mothers to that knowledge which wc 
purify their homes and keep them safe 



future. The Settlement is quite modern 
has been called into existence by 
sent conditions in the slums of the large 
es. Its aim is, to supply for the poverty 
cken of its neighborhood a place of gen- 
l interest which should be an inspiration 
all ages : from the smallest child to the 

man. It, therefore, opened mothers' 
les, cooking and gymnastic classes, 
ding rooms, and kindergartens. These 
sses helped to keep the people from the 
1 of the streets, and led the mothers to 
iy the interests of their children, and to 
reciate and aim for beauty and hygienic 
ditions in the home. 

)ne of the great aids in awakening both 
ihers and teachers to the true principles 
he kindergarten was the large literature 
ch grew up on the subject. Until 1880, 
; true, there were but few books on the 
fergarten in English. Froebel had not 

been translated into English and the 
•kers in America were too busy doing 
igs to have time for writing. Miss Pea- 
y and several others wrote short articles 

different magazines and journals and 

was the only literature on the kinder- 
ten until 1870, excepting four books: 
dam Range's "Guide to the English 
dergarten," Miss Peabody's "Kinder- 
ten Guide," Mrs. Pollock's translations 
l German Manual, and Wiebe's "Para- 
: of Childhood." Between 1870 and 1880, 
sral important books were written, 
)ng them Madam Kriege's translation 
'The Child" in 1872, Prof. W. N. Hail- 
i's "Kindergarten Culture," 1873, the 
oness von Beulow's "Lectures" and 
niniscences of Froebel," 1876-7, Madam 
lus' "Kindergarten Guide," and finally, 
1879 Miss Josephine Jarvis and Miss 
ight translated Froebel's "Mother 
ys" and "Nursery Songs." It is only 
ing the last quarter century from 1880 
:he present, that the large school litera- 
t. we have has grown up. Most im- 
tant, of course, has been the translation 
ill of Froebel's Philosophy; but besides 
we now have many books : on the 
iergarten, on Froebel, his principles, 
:hods, etc. One of the books that most 
3ed to acquaint educators with Froebel's 
losophy was Prof. Hughes' "Froebel's 

Laws for all Teachers." In this book 

Hughes "emphasized the universal 

racter of Froebel's principles, and the 

ct of their application to grade work." 

As I have before shown, kindergartens 
were organized by different societies and 
individuals long before they were taken 
into the schools. Under the then existing 
methods of education this was but natural. 
Before the kindergarten could be incor- 
porated into the public school system, it 
would have been necessary to change al- 
most the entire curriculum of the grades 
in order that they might connect with the 
work done in the former. If we would see 
what this change meant we must take a 
look at the primary as it then existed. 
First of all, the primary, as such, was prac- 
tically a new institution : it had not been 
generally adopted until after the Civil war. 
Its aim was to teach the three "R's," so- 
called: reading, writing and arithmetic. 
The child was regarded as being born with 
evil nature which had to be repressed in 
order to make him good. The child's mind 
was regarded a "Tabula Rasa," on which 
the teacher was to inscribe new knowledge, 
as it were, the child having nothing to do 
but to passively take all that was poured 

Now, it can well be seen that the kinder- 
garten coming with the new theories of the 
spiritual nature of the child, and of develop- 
ment by selfactivity would not be readily 
understood by the people who had so long 
been accustomed to disciplinarian methods. 
And such, indeed, was the case. Even 
those who first became interested in the 
kindergarten regarded the plays merely as 
a means of keeping the child busy, and not 
at all as an educational medium. It was 
not until much later, with the influx of new 
currents of thought, that the principles of 
Froebel were really understood and their 
value for education as a whole appreciated. 

The first effort to demonstrate that kin- 
dergartens could be carried on successfully 
under public school conditions was made 
in St. Louis by Supt. W. T. Harris and Miss 
Blow. Mr. Harris, who was an advocate 
of the kindergarten recommended, in 1870, 
that the school board of St. Louis adopt the 
kindergarten as part of the school system : 
but nothing was done in the matter until 
in 1873, Miss Blow offered to superintend 
a kindergarten and instruct a teacher 
gratuitously if the school board would pro- 
vide the teacher, room and materials. This 
offer was accepted and carried out so suc- 
cessfully that additional kindergartens 
were soon called for. And today, the kin- 



dergarten has been legally adopted in aL 
the states of the Union but eleven. These, 
no doubt, have failed to do so only owing 
to the difficulty of legislation in the matter. 

When the kindergarten was adopted into 
the public schools, the primary teachers, 
and even higher educators, came to visit it 
and to study its methods. As they realized 
the truth of its principles, teaching, in the 
higher classes was gradually modified and 
adapted to them, until now the school cur- 
riculum has been so amended that the kin- 
dergarten is but the preliminary^ step to 
grade work. But we cannot claim these 
changes as the effect of kindergarten in- 
fluence only. There had been a gradual 
change in the trend of educational thought 
brought about by the art, manual training 
and nature studies of the early years: 1870- 
1880, and the new psychology, child study 
and Herbartianism which are still being 

When the kindergarten was first organ- 
ized in America it had no message to the 
educational world; but when educators be- 
gan to feel the need of studying its prin- 
ciples and methods they invited the kinder- 
gartners of the country to participate in 
the yearly meetings of the National Educa- 
tional Association, and through papers to 
acquaint people with the principles of the 
kindergarten. For many years, therefore, 
the kindergartners held their meetings dur- 
ing the conventions of the N. E. A. But 
a growing feeling that the kindergarten 
interests needed a greater consolidation 
than the N. E. A. could offer, led, in 1892, 
to the forming of the International Kin- 
dergarten Union. This organization was 
to work in harmony with the kindergarten 
department of the N. E. A., but was to 
extend its field of operations, and intensify 
and systematize the work of the kindergar- 
ten. These were as follows: 

t. To gather and disseminate knowledge 
of the kindergarten movement throughout 
the world. * 

2. To bring into active co-operation all 
the kindergarten interests of the world. 

3. To promote the establishment of kin- 

4. To elevate the standard of profes- 
sional training of kindergartners. 

The I. K. U. held its first meeting, as a 
separate body, at Teachers College, New 
York, in 1896. It filled a great need in the 
kindergarten world. Hitherto, experiments 

had been made in different sections of th 
country by independent workers, unde 
conditions totally different, and there ha< 
been no way of utilizing these experiment 
The V. K. U. has helped the advancemen 
of the kindergarten by enabling these dif 
ferent sections of the country to compar 
their work, and become acquainted wit! 
what others were doing. And from th 
comparison of these experiments the kin 
dergarten of the future is being slowl 



An acquaintance of mine has a curiou 
way of getting material for the bes 
articles she writes. 

She keeps paper and pencil in her bed 
room, and even while she dresses in th 
morning she stops abruptly at almost an 
point and writes as fast as she can for ; 
few minutes, then goes on with her dress 
ing. She says she can do this becaus< 
everything from exercise and bath to nai 
cleaning and necktie, goes along so mucl 
as a matter of habit, so entirely in its usua 
order, that she pays no attention to wha 
she is doing, and that her mind is thus re 
leased for thoughts about her writing. 

A child, whom I also know, carries ou 
an opposite plan, which wastes nervou 
energv every morning. Nothing goes b 
routine in her life. She makes decisions a 
every point. "Is it really time to get up? 
she wonders. "Surely five minutes longe 
won't matter." "Isn't the water too col< 
for a bath?" "And finger nails — can't the; 
wait too?" 

Each question has to be settled on it 
own behalf, and thinking neurons use uj 
energy and force in directions where the} 
should be released from all responsibility— 
where one act should follow another almos 

Routine work during each day of ou 
lives is, in point of fact, the salvation of th< 
nervous system. Moreover, habit is th< 
friend that makes routine possible. 

A child who has formed the habit o 
quick obedience saves himself wear anc 
tear by always obeying promptly. A bo 
who has learned how to focus attentiot 
when he studies saves himself hours 


f practice ever made it easier to walk wherever we go. I give a few of these con- 
run, to ride or to swim, to lace a shoe, trasting habits in columns which face each 
ie a knot, or braid the hair; that is, if other. 

irons were unable through practice to Habits of truth Habits of decit 

rn lessons or form habits, neither we as Habits of courage Habits of fear 

• •11 ,, , , , Habits of persistence Habits of neglect 

ividuals nor the human race as a whole H abits o£ attention Habits of inattention 

uld ever be free enough from small Habits of kindness Habits of cruelty 

IgS to make progress in large affairs Habits of appreciation of others. .Habits of scorn 

° , ,, F V , ° . ' Habits of thriftiness Habits of shiftlessnes.s 

Freedom, as 1 use the word, means Habits of order Habits of disorder 

ity to do things without giving each Habits of cleanliness Habits of uncleanliness 

arate one of them a conscious thought. Habits o£ diligence Habits oi idleness 

2 opposite condition, slavery, means the The list might be made almost endless, 

:onscious doing of that which we dis- for it should cover each separate habit of 

rove. In other words, habits of which mind and character that a human being 

approve make us free, while habits of ma y own. We should bear these character 

ch we disapprove hold us in bondage, habits in mind, for each lies within our 

Vhether for slavery or for freedom, all grasp; each is placed by our own hands in 

its are formed in one or the other of the column which we are piling up for 

following two ways : ourselves — the column which shows what 

. By frequent repetition. we a re. Look over the printed list, locate 

. By some sudden, unexpected, strong your own habits, decide whether they are 

iression. m ^he column which pleases you or in the 

he former is the usual way, as was seen ot her column, and make up your mind as to 

the last chapter. But there are many whether or not, in your own case, you think 

:s where a permanent habit is formed i t worth while to make any changes from 

lin the flash of an instant. one column to the other, 

s my brother started to run up a low For the sake of helping those who pro- 

ar stairway, he knocked his head with a pose to do some transferring, I give three 

g against a projecting beam. Quick- i aws which Professor William James lays 

ted neurons learned their lesson without down for the guidance of college students, 

ty; the habit was formed, and thence- These laws seem to me quite as important 

vard, for years, although the beam itself f or children as for those who are older, and 

been taken away, he found that his 1 g i ve them as nearly as I can in the words 

d always dodged when he started to w hich Professor James himself uses. 

up that particular stairway. I# j n starting a new habit, or in leaving 

. friend tells me that although his Q ff an old one, launch yourself with as 

:her saw to it that he brushed his teeth muc h vigor as possible. Do everything 

ry morning of his life until he was ten that w ju ma k e r jght motives seem more 

rs old, still he himself was ready to for- convincing; surround yourself with condi- 

his task any day until he learned about t ions that will encourage the new way. 

robes and knew why teeth should be Make a public pledge, if this can be done; 

hed. His own choice then stepped in j n ot h e r words, surround your new resolu- 

1 habit-forming help, and now he says t ion with every help you know anything 

: the habit of teeth washing is firmly aDout< All this will give you a good start. 

Wished. He does it as a matter of T t w ill help you prevent a breakdown, and 

rse, never stopping to discuss the ques- every day w hich postpones a breakdown 

and never forgetting. increases the chance that you will carry out 

oth knowledge and choice are seen to your purpose. 

lelps in forming habits of various kinds. 2 . Never make an exception to your rule 

what about other habits? What about unt il the habit is well rooted. Each excep- 

e that mold character itself? tion, each lapse, is like dropping a ball of 

am thinking now of those internal string that you are trying to wind up; a 

ts which mold us so completely that single fall undoes more than a great many 

1 the expression of our faces is altered turns will wind up again. Persistent train- 

them — habits which finally become so ing is the one surest way to get the nervous 

y a part of us that they are the truest system to do as you wish. Never lose a 

the self which is quickly recognized battle. Every gain on the wrong side un- 



does the good of many conquests on the 
rio-ht The great point is to secure such a 
senes of success that old habits become 
weakened, while new habits gam strength 
through constant victory. 

3 Seize the very first possible chance 
you have to act on every resolution you 
make. No matter how good your resolu- 
tions are, if you do not avail yourself of 


every chance to act, your new habits will 
not be formed ; your character will remain 
entirely unaffected for the better. 

These three points put in a nutshell are 
as follows: 

i. Start with vigor; strengthen yourself 
by every possible aid. 

2. Never make an exception. Never lose 
a battle. 

3. Seize every chance to act out your 
new resolutions. 

Professor James also writes these other 
solemn words for his college students to 
remember, and I give them precisely as 
they are printed in his great book. 

We are spinning our own fates, good or 
evil, and never to be undone. Every small- 
est stroke of virtue or vice leaves its never 
so little scar. The drunken Rip Van Winkle 
in Jefferson's play excuses himself for every 
fresh dereliction by saying, "I won't count 

this time!" Well, he may not count 
and a kind heaven may not count it, but 
is being counted none the less. Dow 
among the necve cells and fibers the mol 
cules are counting it, registering ar 
storing it up to be used against him wh 
the next temptation comes. 

Nothing we ever do is, in strict scienti 
literalness, wiped out. This has its goc 
side as well as its bad one. As we becon 
permanent drunkards by so many separa 
drinks, so we become saints in the moi 
and authorities and experts in the practic 
and scientific spheres by so many separa 
acts and hours of work. Let no youth ha 
any anxiety about the upshot of his ednc 


tion, whatever the line of it may be. If 
keep faithfully busy, he may leave the fir 
result to itself. He can, with perfect c( 
tainty, count on waking up some fine moi 
ing to find himself one of the compete 
ones of his generation, in whatever pursi 
he may have singled out. Silently, betwe 
all the details of his business, the power 
judgment in all that class of matter a 
have built itself up with him as a possessi 
that will never pass away. Young peo{ 
should know this truth in advance. T 
ignorance of it has probably engender 
more discouragement and faint-heartm 
in youths embarking on arduous caret 
than all other causes put together. 

EDITORIAL NOTE — These excerpts are from 1 
Gulick Hygiene Series. The books are a new 
parture in hygeine, and are rich in good mater 
for the kindergartner. 




T, V ISITORS in the St. Louis kin- 
dergartens must not fail to 
bear in mind the ages of the 

The entrance age (six) is 
ige at which most of the kindergarten 
ren of the country begin reading. 
e is a tendency to forget this fact in 
lining these admirable kindergartens 
. Louis. 

is most interesting to see how children 
six to seven years of age enjoy kin- 
arten work but their age reacts upon 

le stories told are more advanced as 
should be. The games are'ftiore 
jetic, proceed more systematically, 
ire started often by the children them- 
s, one child taking the center as soon 
game is ended without being called, 
le vigor of the able supervisor, Miss 
ullach, seems impressed everywhere 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 
a very interesting chapter upon 
tery and Construction," Dr. Montes- 
recognizes clay modeling as "the most 
nal" of all the hand work planned by 

we understand her point of view, it 

to recognize the value of the simple 

sling of the kindergarten and moves 

oo soon to "the production of useful 

:ts" as vases. 

e says "In giving clay to model at 
ice, the children are not directed to 
uce useful work." She says, "Work 
ee modeling serves in the study of the 
hie individuality of the child in his 
taneous manifestations but not to 
ate him. 

ith this point of view we do not agree, 
claim that it is of educational value, of 
t educational value to the child to use 
as a means of expression, 
is certainly true, however, that the 
ren will soon love to make some 
le objects of use such as little dishes, 
ets, flower pots, standards, 
lese we always prefer to balls, cubes 
ylinders. Geographic forms are ab- 

stractions and should come later just as the 
plain figures should be made to appear at 
hrst in doors, windows, houses, wheels, etc. 

Dr. Montessori writes that she thought 
to experiment in the "Case dei Barnibini" 
with some work in clay suggested by an 
artist in "The School of iNioble Youth." 
This school and also the society connected 
with it "aim to educate the youth to an 
appreciation of the beauty of their sur- 
roundings, especially objects, edifices, 

The Case dei Bambini, it should be re- 
membered is held in close touch with the 
home life of the children and one of its 
aims is to develop a regard of the house 
and its surroundings. 

This Dr. Montessori wisely recognizes 
as the best beginning of a civic education. 

Professor Random, the artist to whom 
she refers, objects to "dry moral treatises 
upon civic life" but proceeds by means of 
an artistic education "to lead the children 
to prize and love the objects about him, 
especially the monuments." 

His school aims to reproduce these city 
monuments and to study their history. 

We understand that it is situated in one 
of the most beautiful parts of Rome. The 
school has endeavored also "to revise a 
form of art which the Italians, especially 
the Florentines excelled in, namely: 

Taking her clue from this school for 
older children, Dr. Montessori seems to us 
to be making the same mistake that our 
elementary schools are now discovering 
they have been making of late years, name- 
ly, too close a following of the work of 
primitive man. 

She speaks of the great historic and 
artistic importance of the vase, of the fact 
that it was man's first cooking vessel. She 
recommends that the little children model 
vases of various sizes and shapes, with one 
or two beaks, with handles, etc. 

She comes nearer the play spirit of the 
kindergarten when she says, "The small 
pupils love to make the vases and preserve 
their own work of which they are very 
proud. With the clay, afterwards, they 
model small objects, such as eggs or fruit 
with which they fill the vessels." 

But if it is true that children of five or 
six "commence work with the wheel," we 
fear she is getting too near child labor. It 
would be sad, indeed, if the kindergarten 



or any system of early training should be 
the means of showing parents that their 
babies can work. 

In "The School of Noble Youth," the 
pupils construct small houses, making 
their own bricks. This too has suggested 
constructive exercises to Dr. Montessori 
and she speaks of the pleasure the little 
ones have in making walls of small bricks. 
This we can approve in measure for we 
have often seen a group of kindergarten 
children unite in utilizing the waste pieces 
of clay in making a fence or well.. 

.We agree fully with Dr. Montessori in 
the importance of the occupation of clay 

We would have the children model any 
objects of interest about them, including 
vases but we believe the historic sense is 
entirely lacking at this early age, and there- 
fore, we would not confine ourselves to 
any object because of its historic meaning. 
We would leave that for later grade work. 

In regard to other Froebelian occupa- 
tions Dr. Montessori is less orthodox. She 
excludes weaving and sewing on cardboard 
as they are "not adapted to the physiologic 
state of the infantile organ of sight when 
the power of accommodation of the eye has 
not yet reached its complete development." 

.We agree with her view in regard to 
these occupations. 

(To be continued.) 



lecture worthy of a place in 
the "Uplift Series" was de- 
livered by Mrs. Edward Gay 
of Mount Vernon on Jan. 20, 
HI 1910, before the Mothers' Cir- 

cles of The Bronx, assembled in Public 
School 43, Louis Marks principal. 

Mrs. Gay was fittingly introduced by Dr. 
Jenny B. Merrill as one admirably qualified 
to speak to mothers on the subject "Child 
and Art," both from an enviable position as 
an artist and also from a wide experience 
with children. 

As the talk was for mothers and to 
mothers, the teacher's part in the art in- 
struction of the child was lightly passed 
over. Just as the mother is the first person 
to interpret the child — is the first to see in 
him the replica of her own or another's 
characteristics, so it becomes her first duty 
so to direct the forces within and without 

her child that he shall become master 
circumstance. If the mother's life app 
circumscribed, the wisdom of the ye 
must have shown her that she alone is 
sponsible for that narrowness, and 
young life must be taught that the vis 
of the sublime need not be dimmed 
untoward environment. 

At birth, each normal, healthy child 
endowed with sight and touch — the 
sistent grip of the baby fist foreshadow 
its eager grasp of crayon or pencil wl 
the later endowment of desire impels 
child to express the glowing pictures phc 
graphed on the teeming mini 

A set of drawings executed by kinc 
garten children after a recent snow 
illustrated many of the features relative 
drawing which the mother must contini 
ly bear in mind. However crude the rej 
sentations might appear, they in truth 
hibit an element of the marvelous in be 
the first attempt of a child to represent 
jects of three dimensions on a hat surf; 
That an approach to artistic effect could 
produced on brown paper with wl 
crayon, Mrs. Gay used to emphasize 
fact that while children exult over co 
it should be dealt to them sparingly, t 
colors at the most to be given at a ti] 
Just as a feast ceases to give delight if 
child is sated constantly, so some of 
choicest dainties in color are to be d< 
out in the guise of granting a spe< 

In school, the most careful art instr 
tion should be given from the fifth gr 
onward. The reason your little child 
draw better than you can, said Mrs. G 
is because you have not continued to pi 
tise what you learned in early years. 

We are prone to think of art as app 
to great things; in truth, it is but 
glorifying interpretation of the ordin 
Perugino used the Crom clays of 
Umbrian surroundings; Giotto, while te 
ing his father's sheep as a shepherd b 
first sketched them roughly on the groi 
with a pointed stone. Art may be app 
today to the most ordinary occurrence 
everyday life — the child may arrange 
room in an orderly manner,, thereby giv 
it the "home" atmosphere, which is tr 
a work of art. 

Teach your child to observe well, 
things I can best do, said Mrs. Gay, 
those I learned to do when very young 



father asks you to give us further de- 
I as to the participants in your trip and 
id recollection is of the time when 
ther sent us all off on the half-day tramp 
Saturday, and father's insistent question- 
on our return — What did you see ? 
vty own children, continued Mrs. Gay, 
re urged in addition to bring home some 
asure found on their excursion. Noth- 
■ in Nature is commonplace, and if to us 
at the child brings appears trifling, it is 
us to search out its wonders, for they 
indeed inherent in everything, 
n the valley of the Ohio has been found 
one of an extinct animal, the mammoth, 
ich lived on the earth in the pre-glacial 
■iod, thousands and thousands of years 
). On this bone is drawn the picture of 
nammoth, executed by a being possess- 


a mind. Thus far can be traced the 
tence of art. 
Ve go to Rome and to Florence to view 

great masterpieces; we journey to 
fpt; we delve among the ruins of Pom- 

to see even a fragment from a master 
1. And to what end? To catch a reflex 
:he vision that was in the soul of the 
ius who created what the world recog- 
:s as a masterpiece — to gain for our- 
es what may be a new interpretation of 

o the mother is given a power even 
•e wonderful than the magic of Luther 
bank, by whose skill we are continually 
living new varieties of fruits and vege- 
es. For to the mother is entrusted the 
:ure and upbringing, yes the transform- 
power that is to prepare the plastic be- 
for every experience in a kaleidoscopic 


Dear Miss Wheelock: 

Through Miss Herwarth, Eisenach, and 
Mr. Councillor Winstebury, Berlin, we 
learned that you intend to come to Ger- 
many next year with 500 teachers. 

We shall be happy to receive you in our 
house, would, however, request you to ar- 
range your visit so as to take place in June 
or in the second half of August. 

From July 1st, until August 12th or 15th 
we hold our summer vacations throughout 
the whole of North Germany. During that 
time you would find nobody present, all 
institutes and schools being closed. 

We may perhaps learn something more 
about it in June. 

Yours respectfully, 


Director of the Pestalozzi Froebel Institute. 
Translated for the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

Nov. 7 ,1909. 
Dear Miss Wheelock : 

The joy to receive a letter from you was 
further increased by the news that you in- 
tend to come to Germany next spring. I 
am most happy to think even now of it. 
Immediately upon receipt of your letter I 
went to Mrs. Richter, director of the 
Pestalozzi Froebel Institute. She was 
however just then preparing her departure 
for Maydebury to attend there the Froebel 
reunion and also desired to ask the advice 
of other competent persons and await their 
decision. She tells me that in several cities 
to which your American institution will 
come reception committees are forming — 
in Cologne, Frankfort-of-Main, Eisenach. 
The Pestalozzi Froebel House in this city, 
would arrange for an exhibition for you. 
have you deliver a lecture in its hall and 
altogether think of giving you a becoming 
reception. The only necessary thing would 
be that you come here before the 1st of 
July or after August 12th. For the time 
intervening between the two dates is taken 
up by the vacations our only ones here in 
Berlin during which the House is closed 
and everyone is away from Berlin. As you 
intend to start not until the end of June, 
I suppose that the month of August would 
suit you for your visit in Berlin. As to a 
reception by our public personalties here, 



as to those whom we might possibly in- 
terest in your behalf. 

So many congresses of different kinds 
take place here, that this affords a certain 
difficulty. As soon as I learn more from 
you, I shall write to you again. Meanwhile 
I remain with cordial greetings, 
Your sincere friend, 


sible for many kindergartners to join 
pilgrimage. Committees will be forme 
and plans perfected at the St. Louis mee 
ing, after which further announcemen 
will be made. 



Boston, Jan. 10, 1910. 
Dr. E. Lyell Earle, Editor Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine. 

Dear Sir: Plans for a pilgrimage to the 
"Land of Froebel" in 191 1 are now de- 
veloping, and I have been asked to make 
in the magazines a preliminary announce- 
ment, in order that kindergartners and 
others interested in the Froebel pilgrimage 
may be preparing to join in this tribute to 
the work and influence of the great apostle 
of childhood. The arrangements^ will be 
definitely made, we hope, at the St. Louis 
meeting of the I. K. U., but the general 
outlines of the plans may now be an- 

We hope to be able to charter a steamer 
or part of a steamer, sailing the last of 
June in 191 1 and returning the last of 
August. A congress in connection with the 
leaders of the Play Ground movement will 
probably be held in London, and a pil- 
grimage made to the scenes of Froebel's 
life and work, with Eisenach as our central 
point. We hope to hold a session of the 
1. K. U. in connection with the German 
Verein, and to visit Oberweissbach, 
Blankenburg and Liebenstein in Thuringia, 
with visits to other German cities, where 
committees for reception are already form- 
ing. There is considerable interest among 
the German kindergartners in the develop- 
ment of this plan, its realization will mean 
a great impetus to the work in Germany 
as well as in our own country. It will be 
a significant demonstration of the vitality 
of the Froebellian idea. We hope to obtain 
the sympathy and co-operation of many 
kindergartners as well as school-men and 
women, who represent the new education 
in this country. Time and opportunity will 
be allowed in our journey to visit other 
points of interest in Europe, and we hope 
that the reasonable rates may make it pos- 




Series V. 

T-J AVING given an outline in t 
last number, of short meloc 
and rhythmical scale plays 
will touch in this article 
the requirements of kind* 
rten songs. It is not necessary to c 
attention to the shortcomings of 
Froebel songs as ideal compositions for t 
kindergarten. Nor is it desirable to po 
out the inconstancies in the great bulk 
songs published for children, or to 1 
appropriateness of the music, the rhytfc 
text and character of such songs. The 1 
perienced teacher knows of them. I si: 
confine my remarks to the presentation 
some details which are essential in kind 
garten songs, thereby placing before 
teacher writers and composers some u 
ful and practical suggestions which may 
of value in their attempts to improve t 
side of the 'kindergarten training. 

While it is generally understood that 
child's hearing in the vrst years is very 
pressionable, and that nothing but the b 
models should be given for imitation, 
it is a fact that there are very few child 
songs which can be called perfect child 
songs in their entirety of music, woi 
rhythm and context. The great point 
keep in mind is: that the child's voice 
this period should never be strained 
pitch, loudness nor length of times, 
child should sing lightly and quickly, w 
out any effort in execution and understa 
ing of the text. Such songs as the foil 
ing, which is given as a child's song, 
nonappropriate for several reasons: 

"Children of spring, 
We tidings bring: 
Birds soon will sing 
That winter's over; 
And on the lea 
You soon will see 
The belted bee 
Amidst the clover. 



While the meter is appropriate by its 
>rtness and the rhyme produces a 
asant gratification by its recurrence, yet 

context of the text is so absolutely in- 
>ropriate for children that it is to be 
ndered at that teachers can believe such 
ong suitable for kindergarten. To ex- 
in the meaning of "the belted bee" and 
ie lea" would be a task for grownup 
rtals. Besides, the third line "Birds soon 
1 sing" is very doubtful as to the rhythm, 
meterical accent. 

\. kindergarten song to become useful 

the easy execution and mental compre- 

lsion of the child should be concise in 

:ry respect. The words should be of one 

two syllables ; and the line should con- 

1 no more than five, or seven syllables, 

I end with an accented syllable, allowing 

a pause, or rest between two lines. 

Phe measure should be 2-4 or 3-4. And 

h syllable should be sung to one note of 

value of one quarter, rarely a half note. 

that the child has no difficulty in its 

ath management. The melody should 

pleasing, with few skips and one skip 

larger intervals. Successive scale tunes 

best, with an occasional skip of a third 
fourth, or possibly a fifth. The text 
mid be a story, or depict a living thing 
h a certain amount of dramatic action; 
that the child become interested in the 
ion. The text should express a decided 
timent, easily calling forth the child's 
ling. The feelings expressed should be 
sympathy, love, affection, friendship, joy, 
nor, a mild sermon, charity, etc. The 
as to be expressed should be suggested 
the child's surroundings, flowers, play- 
rig, animals, friends, household objects, 
>arel, food, the weather, the seasons, etc. 
t those must be made to act like living 
ngs, with human impulses and dramatic 
or, to please the child. For the senses 

the first educators. Nature and the 
Id's surroundings fix the direction of the 
t educational influences. 
Che rhythm must be simple, as well as 
: meterical arrangement, which must be 
>rt. The rhyme is an important element 
1 must not be omitted, nor should un- 
lal words be employed to rhyme. The 
ier of comprehension and the easier of 
icution a song is the more influential will 
)e in its educational value. 





The school-garden idea, like the play- 
ground movement, and the kindergarten, 
came to us through Germany by the way ol 
Boston. Although both the school-garden 
and play-ground have been of later de- 
velopment than the kindergarten, here in 
America, in Europe they preceded it, and 
the kindergarten as Froebel meant it to be 
is a play-house in a garden, having a 
method by which children may be educated 
while happy at play. 

Unlike the kindergarten, the school-gar- 
den and play-ground are not the result of 
the efforts of one man, nor are they carried 
on by a universally recognized method as 
distinct as that of the kindergarten. Per- 
haps this accounts for their differences of 

As Elizabeth Peabody found the kinder- 
garten and brought it to the attention of 
Boston people, so Mary, her sister, who be- 
came Mrs. Horace Mann, found the school- 
garden idea, and in 1879 published a trans- 
lation with notes of Prof. Schwab's pamph- 
let on the school-garden. Although writ- 
ten for Germany and other European coun- 
tries, this pamphlet is of value to the work- 
ers in America. Mrs. Mann did not estab- 
lish the school-garden, however, as her 
sister Elizabeth has established the kinder- 
garten. Perhaps she was too much ab- 
sorbed in the education of her own children 
to find time to do any more for it. How- 
ever that may have been, the school-garden 
work has grown in America, and first be- 
came well known when established about 
ten years later in connection with the 
George Putnam School at Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts. That was about twenty years 
ago, and the work has since developed 

Although our kindergartens have felt the 
influence of this movement, they have as 
yet done little in comparison with what 
Froebel meant they should do in this direc- 
tion. Would it not seem strange to Froebel 
if he were still living, and should come to 
our kindergartens today to find most of 
them not children's gardens at all, but only 
play-rooms; without the real garden, for 
you do not call a few flower-beds a garden ! 

The kindergarten children can do so little 
of themselves that much should be done for 



them at this age, because the influx ~e and 
the association of a garden means .ore to 
them than we can tell. Each chili must 
take an active part in the garden process, 
however little it may be that he can do. He 
must also be taught to observe all that is 
done in which he cannot take a part. But 
at this age the great lesson of tiie garden 
is a very subtle one of influence from meet- 
ing face to face the great truths of Nature 
as they teach the lessons of life. So we 
must give the garden to the child, but not 
force it on him. 

it may be impossible for the average 
kindergarten today to surround it with a 
garden such as we are going to talk about, 
but it is one of the possibilities of the 
future, and in order to win it we must begin 
now by forming the ideal in our minds. 
Although few, it any, kindergartners have 
a thorough scientific training from the